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Sample records for malayi infective larvae

  1. In vitro silencing of Brugia malayi trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase impairs embryogenesis and in vivo development of infective larvae in jirds.

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    Susheela Kushwaha

    Full Text Available The trehalose metabolic enzymes have been considered as potential targets for drug or vaccine in several organisms such as Mycobacterium, plant nematodes, insects and fungi due to crucial role of sugar trehalose in embryogenesis, glucose uptake and protection from stress. Trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase (TPP is one of the enzymes of trehalose biosynthesis that has not been reported in mammals. Silencing of tpp gene in Caenorhabditis elegans revealed an indispensable functional role of TPP in nematodes.In the present study, functional role of B. malayi tpp gene was investigated by siRNA mediated silencing which further validated this enzyme to be a putative antifilarial drug target. The silencing of tpp gene in adult female B. malayi brought about severe phenotypic deformities in the intrauterine stages such as distortion and embryonic development arrest. The motility of the parasites was significantly reduced and the microfilarial production as well as their in vitro release from the female worms was also drastically abridged. A majority of the microfilariae released in to the culture medium were found dead. B. malayi infective larvae which underwent tpp gene silencing showed 84.9% reduced adult worm establishment after inoculation into the peritoneal cavity of naïve jirds.The present findings suggest that B. malayi TPP plays an important role in the female worm embryogenesis, infectivity of the larvae and parasite viability. TPP enzyme of B. malayi therefore has the potential to be exploited as an antifilarial drug target.

  2. Attempts at immunization against Malayan filariasis using X-irradiated infective larvae

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    Ramachandran, C.P.

    1975-01-01

    Recent studies on immunity to helminthic infections have shown that some degree of protective immunity may be stimulated by inoculations of attenuated living worms or their metabolites. Although much on these lines has been done with several helminths, little if any has been done with filarial infections in general. Experiments were designed to observe the effects of attempted immunization in the rhesus monkey as well as the domestic cat by the use of attenuated infective larvae of Brugia malayi. The sub-periodic strain of Brugia malayi, the major filarial parasite of man in Malaysia, maintained in the laboratory on experimentally infected cats and rhesus monkeys were used for the preparation of X-irradiated vaccines as well as for challenge inoculations. Third-stage infective larvae of Brugia malayi were obtained from experimentally fed Aedes togoi mosquitoes. Infective larvae were irradiated by X-rays, using a Dermopan X-ray unit at exposures between 10 - 40 kR. Rhesus monkeys and cats were inoculated twice with 100 - 400 attenuated larvae per inoculation at 2 week intervals and challenged about a month later by inoculation of 100 normal larvae. Control animals for each vaccination dose as well as for challenge doses were maintained. In rhesus monkeys persistent immunity to challenge infections (expressed as failure to cause microfilaraemia) were obtained in animals vaccinated with 200 infective larvae attenuated by X-irradiation at 20000 R. Encouraged with the results obtained on rhesus monkeys, similar experiments on an enlarged scale using varying strengths of the vaccines were carried out on the domestic cat, which is a more receptive animal host for Brugia malayi. However, all cats vaccinated when challenged came down with patent infection indicating lack of any definite immunity. In all these experiments, results of vaccine control animals showed that inoculation of irradiated larvae was not followed by the infection of microfilaria in the blood, indicating

  3. Maternal influence on susceptibility of offspring to Brugia malayi infection in a murine model of filariasis.

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    Rajan, T V; Bailis, J M; Yates, J A; Shultz, L D; Greiner, D L; Nelson, F K

    1994-12-01

    We have used the severe combined immunodeficient C.B-17-scid/scid mouse to investigate the influences of maternal immune status and parasite burden on the susceptibility (or resistance) of offspring to infection with the human filarial parasite, Brugia malayi. C.B-17-scid/scid mice are permissive for infection while immunocompetent C.B-17(-)+/+ mice are uniformly resistant. Reciprocal matings of C.B-17-scid/scid and C.B-17(-)+/+ mice were performed. The C.B-17-scid/scid females were either naive or infected with Brugia malayi. The resulting immunocompetent C.B-17-scid/+ and C.B-17(-)+/scid progeny were challenged at weaning with an intraperitoneal injection of Brugia malayi third stage larvae known to produce patent infection in > 95% of C.B-17-scid/scid mice. We observed that 40.0%l (34/85) of the immunocompetent offspring of C.B-17-scid/scid females x C.B-17(-)+/+ males were permissive for the growth and development of Brugia malayi larvae to adults. No difference was observed in susceptibility to infection between the progeny of infected or uninfected C.B-17-scid/scid mothers mated with C.B-17(-)+/+ fathers, arguing against acquired immunological tolerance to the parasite in the former. In marked contrast, only 4.8% (2/42) of the heterozygous progeny of wild type C.B-17(-)+/+ females mated with C.B-17-scid/scid males were permissive. These observations document conversion of a 'resistant' phenotype to a 'susceptible' phenotype by manipulation of maternal immune status and provide clear evidence of maternal influence on offspring susceptibility to infection with Brugia malayi.

  4. Infective Larvae of Brugia malayi Induce Polarization of Host Macrophages that Helps in Immune Evasion

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    Aditi Sharma

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Filarial parasites suppress, divert, or polarize the host immune response to aid their survival. However, mechanisms that govern the polarization of host MΦs during early filarial infection are not completely understood. In this study, we infected BALB/c mice with infective larvae stage-3 of Brugia malayi (Bm-L3 and studied their effect on the polarization of splenic MΦs. Results showed that MΦs displayed M2-phenotype by day 3 p.i. characterized by upregulated IL-4, but reduced IL-12 and Prostaglandin-D2 secretion. Increased arginase activity, higher arginase-1 but reduced NOS2 expression and poor phagocytic and antigen processing capacity was also observed. M2 MΦs supported T-cell proliferation and characteristically upregulated p-ERK but downregulated NF-κB-p65 and NF-κB-p50/105. Notably, Bm-L3 synergized with host regulatory T-cells (Tregs and polarized M2 MΦs to regulatory MΦs (Mregs by day 7 p.i., which secreted copious amounts of IL-10 and prostaglandin-E2. Mregs also showed upregulated expression levels of MHC-II, CD80, and CD86 and exhibited increased antigen-processing capacity but displayed impaired activation of NF-κB-p65 and NF-κB-p50/105. Neutralization of Tregs by anti-GITR + anti-CD25 antibodies checked the polarization of M2 MΦs to Mregs, decreased accumulation of regulatory B cells and inflammatory monocytes, and reduced secretion of IL-10, but enhanced IL-4 production and percentages of eosinophils, which led to Bm-L3 killing. In summary, we report hitherto undocumented effects of early Bm-L3 infection on the polarization of splenic MΦs and show how infective larvae deftly utilize the functional plasticity of host MΦs to establish themselves inside the host.

  5. A reverse transcriptase-PCR assay for detecting filarial infective larvae in mosquitoes.

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    Sandra J Laney

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Existing molecular assays for filarial parasite DNA in mosquitoes cannot distinguish between infected mosquitoes that contain any stage of the parasite and infective mosquitoes that harbor third stage larvae (L3 capable of establishing new infections in humans. We now report development of a molecular L3-detection assay for Brugia malayi in vectors based on RT-PCR detection of an L3-activated gene transcript.Candidate genes identified by bioinformatics analysis of EST datasets across the B. malayi life cycle were initially screened by PCR using cDNA libraries as templates. Stage-specificity was confirmed using RNA isolated from infected mosquitoes. Mosquitoes were collected daily for 14 days after feeding on microfilaremic cat blood. RT-PCR was performed with primer sets that were specific for individual candidate genes. Many promising candidates with strong expression in the L3 stage were excluded because of low-level transcription in less mature larvae. One transcript (TC8100, which encodes a particular form of collagen was only detected in mosquitoes that contained L3 larvae. This assay detects a single L3 in a pool of 25 mosquitoes.This L3-activated gene transcript, combined with a control transcript (tph-1, accession # U80971 that is constitutively expressed by all vector-stage filarial larvae, can be used to detect filarial infectivity in pools of mosquito vectors. This general approach (detection of stage-specific gene transcripts from eukaryotic pathogens may also be useful for detecting infective stages of other vector-borne parasites.

  6. Suppression of Brugia malayi (sub-periodic larval development in Aedes aegypti (Liverpool strain fed on blood of animals immunized with microfilariae

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    K Athisaya Mary

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary studies were carried out to investigate the role of filarial specific antibodies, raised in an animal model against the filarial parasite, Brugia malayi (sub-periodic, in blocking their early development in an experimental mosquito host, Aedes aegypti (Liverpool strain. In order to generate filarial specific antibodies, Mongolian gerbils, Meriones unguiculatus, were immunized either with live microfilariae (mf of B. malayi or their homogenate. Mf were harvested from the peritoneal cavity of Mongolian gerbils with patent infection of B. malayi and fed to A. aegypti along with the blood from immunized animals. Development of the parasite in infected mosquitoes was monitored until they reached infective stage larvae (L3. Fewer number of parasites developed to first stage (L1 and subsequently to L2 and L3 in mosquitoes fed with blood of immunized animals, when compared to those fed with blood of control animals. The results thus indicated that filarial parasite specific antibodies present in the blood of the immunized animals resulted in the reduction of number of larvae of B. malayi developing in the mosquito host.

  7. Immunization with Brugia malayi Myosin as Heterologous DNA Prime Protein Boost Induces Protective Immunity against B. malayi Infection in Mastomys coucha.

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    Jyoti Gupta

    Full Text Available The current control strategies employing chemotherapy with diethylcarbamazine, ivermectin and albendazole have reduced transmission in some filaria-endemic areas, there is growing interest for complementary approaches, such as vaccines especially in light of threat of parasite developing resistance to mainstay drugs. We earlier demonstrated recombinant heavy chain myosin of B. malayi (Bm-Myo as a potent vaccine candidate whose efficacy was enhanced by heterologous DNA prime/protein boost (Myo-pcD+Bm-Myo vaccination in BALB/c mice. BALB/c mouse though does not support the full developmental cycle of B. malayi, however, the degree of protection may be studied in terms of transformation of challenged infective larvae (L3 to next stage (L4 with an ease of delineating the generated immunological response of host. In the current investigation, DNA vaccination with Bm-Myo was therefore undertaken in susceptible rodent host, Mastomys coucha (M. coucha which sustains the challenged L3 and facilitates their further development to sexually mature adult parasites with patent microfilaraemia. Immunization schedule consisted of Myo-pcD and Myo-pcD+Bm-Myo followed by B. malayi L3 challenge and the degree of protection was evaluated by observing microfilaraemia as well as adult worm establishment. Myo-pcD+Bm-Myo immunized animals not only developed 78.5% reduced blood microfilarial density but also decreased adult worm establishment by 75.3%. In addition, 75.4% of the recovered live females revealed sterilization over those of respective control animals. Myo-pcD+Bm-Myo triggered higher production of specific IgG and its isotypes which induced marked cellular adhesion and cytotoxicity (ADCC to microfilariae (mf and L3 in vitro. Both Th1 and Th2 cytokines were significantly up-regulated displaying a mixed immune response conferring considerable protection against B. malayi establishment by engendering a long-lasting effective immune response and therefore emerges

  8. Deteksi Brugia malayi pada Armigeres subalbatus dan Culex quinquefasciatusyang diinfeksikan darah penderita filariasis dengan metode PCR

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    Yahya Yahya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Pemayungdistricts, Batanghari regency of Jambi province classified as filariasis endemic areas in Jambi province since the Mf rate reached 1.5% in 2011. A study was conducted to identify Brugia malayi on experimentally infected Ar. subalbatus and Cx. quinquefasciatus. An experimental study was performed with completely randomized design and six repetitions. Standard of treatment in this study was time (hours that selected for mosquitoes to bite the patients with filariasis (experimental infection. Selected time is at 9.00 a.m, 5.00 p.m, 9.00 p.m, and at 1.00 a.m. The results showed that filarial L3 larvae did not found on Ar. subalbatus and Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes during surgery at day 11th to 13th after infection. Density of microfilariae in the blood of humans as a source of infection was 17 microfilariae per 20 micro liter blood. Otherwise, after detection by PCR, our study found positive B.malayi on Cx. quinquefasciatus thorax and proboscis. It indicates that Cx. quinquefasciatusas potential vector of B.malayi filariasis compared to Ar. subalbatus. Keywords: PCR, filariasis, Armigeres subalbatus, Culex quinquefasciatus, Brugia malayi   Abstrak. Kecamatan Pemayung Kabupaten Batanghari Provinsi Jambi merupakan wilayah endemis filariasis di Provinsi Jambi Karena angka Mf rate mencapai 1,5% pada tahun 2011. Penelitian ini untuk mengetahui tingkat kerentanan nyamuk Ar. subalbatus dan Cx. quinquefasciatus terhadap infeksi B. malayi subperiodik nokturna yang dilakukan pada tahun 2013, sehingga dapat dianalisis potensi nyamuk tersebut sebagai vektor filariasis di lokasi penelitian. Desain penelitian adalah eksperimental dengan rancangan acak lengkap dan enam kali pengulangan. Variabel perlakuan dalam penelitian ini adalah waktu (jam yang dipilih untuk menggigitkan nyamuk pada penderita filariasis (infeksi percobaan. Waktu yang dipilih adalah pukul 09.00 WIB, pukul 17.00 WIB, pukul 21.00 WIB dan pukul 01.00 WIB. Hasil penelitian

  9. Detection of a new focus of Brugia malayi infection in Orissa.

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    Rath, R N; Mohapatra, B N; Das, B

    1989-03-01

    526 people were surveyed in a village called Chudamani, in Balasore district of Orissa, for detection of asymptomatic microfilaria (mf) carriers. Of these 36 (6.8 per cent) were cases found to harbour mf; 19 cases had Brugia malayi, 4 Wuchereria bancrofti and 5 cases had mixed infection. In 8 cases, species could not be ascertained. For the first time after 1955, a focus of B. malayi has been detected in Orissa.

  10. Distribution of Brugia malayi larvae and DNA in vector and non-vector mosquitoes: implications for molecular diagnostics

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    Christensen Bruce M

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to extend prior studies of molecular detection of Brugia malayi DNA in vector (Aedes aegypti- Liverpool and non-vector (Culex pipiens mosquitoes at different times after ingestion of infected blood. Results Parasite DNA was detected over a two week time course in 96% of pooled thoraces of vector mosquitoes. In contrast, parasite DNA was detected in only 24% of thorax pools from non-vectors; parasite DNA was detected in 56% of midgut pools and 47% of abdomen pools from non-vectors. Parasite DNA was detected in vectors in the head immediately after the blood meal and after 14 days. Parasite DNA was also detected in feces and excreta of the vector and non-vector mosquitoes which could potentially confound results obtained with field samples. However, co-housing experiments failed to demonstrate transfer of parasite DNA from infected to non-infected mosquitoes. Parasites were also visualized in mosquito tissues by immunohistololgy using an antibody to the recombinant filarial antigen Bm14. Parasite larvae were detected consistently after mf ingestion in Ae. aegypti- Liverpool. Infectious L3s were seen in the head, thorax and abdomen of vector mosquitoes 14 days after Mf ingestion. In contrast, parasites were only detected by histology shortly after the blood meal in Cx. pipiens, and these were not labeled by the antibody. Conclusion This study provides new information on the distribution of filarial parasites and parasite DNA in vector and non-vector mosquitoes. This information should be useful for those involved in designing and interpreting molecular xenomonitoring studies.

  11. Transcriptomes and pathways associated with infectivity, survival and immunogenicity in Brugia malayi L3

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    Spiro David

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Filarial nematode parasites cause serious diseases such as elephantiasis and river blindness in humans, and heartworm infections in dogs. Third stage filarial larvae (L3 are a critical stage in the life cycle of filarial parasites, because this is the stage that is transmitted by arthropod vectors to initiate infections in mammals. Improved understanding of molecular mechanisms associated with this transition may provide important leads for development of new therapies and vaccines to prevent filarial infections. This study explores changes in gene expression associated with the transition of Brugia malayi third stage larvae (BmL3 from mosquitoes into mammalian hosts and how these changes are affected by radiation. Radiation effects are especially interesting because irradiated L3 induce partial immunity to filarial infections. The underlying molecular mechanisms responsible for the efficacy of such vaccines are unkown. Results Expression profiles were obtained using a new filarial microarray with 18, 104 64-mer elements. 771 genes were identified as differentially expressed in two-way comparative analyses of the three L3 types. 353 genes were up-regulated in mosquito L3 (L3i relative to cultured L3 (L3c. These genes are important for establishment of filarial infections in mammalian hosts. Other genes were up-regulated in L3c relative to L3i (234 or irradiated L3 (L3ir (22. These culture-induced transcripts include key molecules required for growth and development. 165 genes were up-regulated in L3ir relative to L3c; these genes encode highly immunogenic proteins and proteins involved in radiation repair. L3ir and L3i have similar transcription profiles for genes that encode highly immunogenic proteins, antioxidants and cuticle components. Conclusion Changes in gene expression that normally occur during culture under conditions that support L3 development and molting are prevented or delayed by radiation. This may explain

  12. Defining Brugia malayi and Wolbachia symbiosis by stage-specific dual RNA-seq.

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    Alexandra Grote

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Filarial nematodes currently infect up to 54 million people worldwide, with millions more at risk for infection, representing the leading cause of disability in the developing world. Brugia malayi is one of the causative agents of lymphatic filariasis and remains the only human filarial parasite that can be maintained in small laboratory animals. Many filarial nematode species, including B. malayi, carry an obligate endosymbiont, the alpha-proteobacteria Wolbachia, which can be eliminated through antibiotic treatment. Elimination of the endosymbiont interferes with development, reproduction, and survival of the worms within the mamalian host, a clear indicator that the Wolbachia are crucial for survival of the parasite. Little is understood about the mechanism underlying this symbiosis.To better understand the molecular interplay between these two organisms we profiled the transcriptomes of B. malayi and Wolbachia by dual RNA-seq across the life cycle of the parasite. This helped identify functional pathways involved in this essential symbiotic relationship provided by the co-expression of nematode and bacterial genes. We have identified significant stage-specific and gender-specific differential expression in Wolbachia during the nematode's development. For example, during female worm development we find that Wolbachia upregulate genes involved in ATP production and purine biosynthesis, as well as genes involved in the oxidative stress response.This global transcriptional analysis has highlighted specific pathways to which both Wolbachia and B. malayi contribute concurrently over the life cycle of the parasite, paving the way for the development of novel intervention strategies.

  13. Cofactor Independent Phosphoglycerate Mutase of Brugia malayi Induces a Mixed Th1/Th2 Type Immune Response and Inhibits Larval Development in the Host

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    Prashant K. Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymphatic filariasis is a major debilitating disease, endemic in 72 countries putting more than 1.39 billion people at risk and 120 million are already infected. Despite the significant progress in chemotherapeutic advancements, there is still need for other measures like development of an effective vaccine or discovery of novel drug targets. In this study, structural and immunological characterization of independent phosphoglycerate mutase of filarial parasite Brugia malayi was carried out. Protein was found to be expressed in all major parasite life stages and as an excretory secretory product of adult parasites. Bm-iPGM also reacted to all the categories of human bancroftian patient’s sera including endemic normals. In vivo immunological behaviour of protein was determined in immunized BALB/c mice followed by prophylactic analysis in BALB/c mice and Mastomys coucha. Immunization with Bm-iPGM led to generation of a mixed Th1/Th2 type immune response offering 58.2% protection against larval challenge in BALB/c and 65–68% protection in M. coucha. In vitro studies confirmed participation of anti-Bm-iPGM antibodies in killing of B. malayi infective larvae and microfilariae through ADCC mechanism. The present findings reveal potential immunoprotective nature of Bm-iPGM advocating its worth as an antifilarial vaccine candidate.

  14. Tissue and stage-specific distribution of Wolbachia in Brugia malayi.

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    Kerstin Fischer

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most filarial parasite species contain Wolbachia, obligatory bacterial endosymbionts that are crucial for filarial development and reproduction. They are targets for alternative chemotherapy, but their role in the biology of filarial nematodes is not well understood. Light microscopy provides important information on morphology, localization and potential function of these bacteria. Surprisingly, immunohistology and in situ hybridization techniques have not been widely used to monitor Wolbachia distribution during the filarial life cycle. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A monoclonal antibody directed against Wolbachia surface protein and in situ hybridization targeting Wolbachia 16S rRNA were used to monitor Wolbachia during the life cycle of B. malayi. In microfilariae and vector stage larvae only a few cells contain Wolbachia. In contrast, large numbers of Wolbachia were detected in the lateral chords of L4 larvae, but no endobacteria were detected in the genital primordium. In young adult worms (5 weeks p.i., a massive expansion of Wolbachia was observed in the lateral chords adjacent to ovaries or testis, but no endobacteria were detected in the growth zone of the ovaries, uterus, the growth zone of the testis or the vas deferens. Confocal laser scanning and transmission electron microscopy showed that numerous Wolbachia are aligned towards the developing ovaries and single endobacteria were detected in the germline. In inseminated females (8 weeks p.i. Wolbachia were observed in the ovaries, embryos and in decreasing numbers in the lateral chords. In young males Wolbachia were found in distinct zones of the testis and in large numbers in the lateral chords in the vicinity of testicular tissue but never in mature spermatids or spermatozoa. CONCLUSIONS: Immunohistology and in situ hybridization show distinct tissue and stage specific distribution patterns for Wolbachia in B. malayi. Extensive multiplication of Wolbachia occurs in the

  15. Detection of human filarial parasite Brugia malayi in dogs by histochemical staining and molecular techniques.

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    Ambily, V R; Pillai, Usha Narayana; Arun, R; Pramod, S; Jayakumar, K M

    2011-09-27

    Human filariasis caused by Brugia malayi is still a public health problem in many countries of Asia including India, Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand. The World Health Organization (WHO) has targeted to eliminate filariasis by the year 2020 by Mass annual single dose Diethylcarbamazine Administration (MDA). Results of the MDA programme after the first phase was less satisfactory than expected. Malayan filariasis caused by B. malayi is endemic in the south of Thailand where domestic cat serves as the major reservoir host. There is no report about the occurrence of B. malayi in dogs. The present work was carried out to find out the incidence of microfilariasis in dogs and also to detect the presence of human filarial infection in dogs, if any. One hundred dogs above 6 months of age presented to the veterinary college Hospital, Mannuthy, Kerala, with clinical signs suggestive of microfilariasis - fever, anorexia, conjunctivitis, limb and scrotal oedema - were screened for microfilariae by wet film examination. Positive cases were subjected to Giemsa staining, histochemical staining and molecular techniques. Results of the study showed that 80% of dogs had microfilariasis; out of which 20% had sheathed microfilaria. Giemsa and histochemical staining character, PCR and sequencing confirmed it as B. malayi. High prevalence of B. malayi in dogs in this study emphasized the possible role of dogs in transmission of human filariasis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of Doxycycline on gene expression in Wolbachia and Brugia malayi adult female worms in vivo

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    Rao Ramakrishna U

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most filarial nematodes contain Wolbachia symbionts. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of doxycycline on gene expression in Wolbachia and adult female Brugia malayi. Methods Brugia malayi infected gerbils were treated with doxycycline for 6-weeks. This treatment largely cleared Wolbachia and arrested worm reproduction. RNA recovered from treated and control female worms was labeled by random priming and hybridized to the Version 2- filarial microarray to obtain expression profiles. Results and discussion Results showed significant changes in expression for 200 Wolbachia (29% of Wolbachia genes with expression signals in untreated worms and 546 B. malayi array elements after treatment. These elements correspond to known genes and also to novel genes with unknown biological functions. Most differentially expressed Wolbachia genes were down-regulated after treatment (98.5%. In contrast, doxycycline had a mixed effect on B. malayi gene expression with many more genes being significantly up-regulated after treatment (85% of differentially expressed genes. Genes and processes involved in reproduction (gender-regulated genes, collagen, amino acid metabolism, ribosomal processes, and cytoskeleton were down-regulated after doxycycline while up-regulated genes and pathways suggest adaptations for survival in response to stress (energy metabolism, electron transport, anti-oxidants, nutrient transport, bacterial signaling pathways, and immune evasion. Conclusions Doxycycline reduced Wolbachia and significantly decreased bacterial gene expression. Wolbachia ribosomes are believed to be the primary biological target for doxycycline in filarial worms. B. malayi genes essential for reproduction, growth and development were also down-regulated; these changes are consistent with doxycycline effects on embryo development and reproduction. On the other hand, many B. malayi genes involved in energy production, electron

  17. Lethal infection thresholds of Paenibacillus larvae for honeybee drone and worker larvae (Apis mellifera).

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    Behrens, Dieter; Forsgren, Eva; Fries, Ingemar; Moritz, Robin F A

    2010-10-01

    We compared the mortality of honeybee (Apis mellifera) drone and worker larvae from a single queen under controlled in vitro conditions following infection with Paenibacillus larvae, a bacterium causing the brood disease American Foulbrood (AFB). We also determined absolute P. larvae cell numbers and lethal titres in deceased individuals of both sexes up to 8 days post infection using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Our results show that in drones the onset of infection induced mortality is delayed by 1 day, the cumulative mortality is reduced by 10% and P. larvae cell numbers are higher than in worker larvae. Since differences in bacterial cell titres between sexes can be explained by differences in body size, larval size appears to be a key parameter for a lethal threshold in AFB tolerance. Both means and variances for lethal thresholds are similar for drone and worker larvae suggesting that drone resistance phenotypes resemble those of related workers. © 2010 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Mining predicted essential genes of Brugia malayi for nematode drug targets.

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    Sanjay Kumar

    Full Text Available We report results from the first genome-wide application of a rational drug target selection methodology to a metazoan pathogen genome, the completed draft sequence of Brugia malayi, a parasitic nematode responsible for human lymphatic filariasis. More than 1.5 billion people worldwide are at risk of contracting lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis, a related filarial disease. Drug treatments for filariasis have not changed significantly in over 20 years, and with the risk of resistance rising, there is an urgent need for the development of new anti-filarial drug therapies. The recent publication of the draft genomic sequence for B. malayi enables a genome-wide search for new drug targets. However, there is no functional genomics data in B. malayi to guide the selection of potential drug targets. To circumvent this problem, we have utilized the free-living model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as a surrogate for B. malayi. Sequence comparisons between the two genomes allow us to map C. elegans orthologs to B. malayi genes. Using these orthology mappings and by incorporating the extensive genomic and functional genomic data, including genome-wide RNAi screens, that already exist for C. elegans, we identify potentially essential genes in B. malayi. Further incorporation of human host genome sequence data and a custom algorithm for prioritization enables us to collect and rank nearly 600 drug target candidates. Previously identified potential drug targets cluster near the top of our prioritized list, lending credibility to our methodology. Over-represented Gene Ontology terms, predicted InterPro domains, and RNAi phenotypes of C. elegans orthologs associated with the potential target pool are identified. By virtue of the selection procedure, the potential B. malayi drug targets highlight components of key processes in nematode biology such as central metabolism, molting and regulation of gene expression.

  19. Transcriptional response of honey bee larvae infected with the bacterial pathogen Paenibacillus larvae.

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    Cornman, Robert Scott; Lopez, Dawn; Evans, Jay D

    2013-01-01

    American foulbrood disease of honey bees is caused by the bacterium Paenibacillus larvae. Infection occurs per os in larvae and systemic infection requires a breaching of the host peritrophic matrix and midgut epithelium. Genetic variation exists for both bacterial virulence and host resistance, and a general immunity is achieved by larvae as they age, the basis of which has not been identified. To quickly identify a pool of candidate genes responsive to P. larvae infection, we sequenced transcripts from larvae inoculated with P. larvae at 12 hours post-emergence and incubated for 72 hours, and compared expression levels to a control cohort. We identified 75 genes with significantly higher expression and six genes with significantly lower expression. In addition to several antimicrobial peptides, two genes encoding peritrophic-matrix domains were also up-regulated. Extracellular matrix proteins, proteases/protease inhibitors, and members of the Osiris gene family were prevalent among differentially regulated genes. However, analysis of Drosophila homologs of differentially expressed genes revealed spatial and temporal patterns consistent with developmental asynchrony as a likely confounder of our results. We therefore used qPCR to measure the consistency of gene expression changes for a subset of differentially expressed genes. A replicate experiment sampled at both 48 and 72 hours post infection allowed further discrimination of genes likely to be involved in host response. The consistently responsive genes in our test set included a hymenopteran-specific protein tyrosine kinase, a hymenopteran specific serine endopeptidase, a cytochrome P450 (CYP9Q1), and a homolog of trynity, a zona pellucida domain protein. Of the known honey bee antimicrobial peptides, apidaecin was responsive at both time-points studied whereas hymenoptaecin was more consistent in its level of change between biological replicates and had the greatest increase in expression by RNA-seq analysis.

  20. Immunization of Mastomys coucha with Brugia malayi recombinant trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase results in significant protection against homologous challenge infection.

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    Susheela Kushwaha

    Full Text Available Development of a vaccine to prevent or reduce parasite development in lymphatic filariasis would be a complementary approach to existing chemotherapeutic tools. Trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase of Brugia malayi (Bm-TPP represents an attractive vaccine target due to its absence in mammals, prevalence in the major life stages of the parasite and immunoreactivity with human bancroftian antibodies, especially from endemic normal subjects. We have recently reported on the cloning, expression, purification and biochemical characterization of this vital enzyme of B. malayi. In the present study, immunoprophylactic evaluation of Bm-TPP was carried out against B. malayi larval challenge in a susceptible host Mastomys coucha and the protective ability of the recombinant protein was evaluated by observing the adverse effects on microfilarial density and adult worm establishment. Immunization caused 78.4% decrease in microfilaremia and 71.04% reduction in the adult worm establishment along with sterilization of 70.06% of the recovered live females. The recombinant protein elicited a mixed Th1/Th2 type of protective immune response as evidenced by the generation of both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-2, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-4 and an increased production of antibody isotypes IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b and IgA. Thus immunization with Bm-TPP conferred considerable protection against B. malayi establishment by engendering a long-lasting effective immune response and therefore emerges as a potential vaccine candidate against lymphatic filariasis (LF.

  1. Infectivity of Trichinella spiralis larvae in pork buried in the ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovic S.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Time of survival and infectivity of Trichinella spiralis larvae in pig muscle tissue, buried at various depths in the ground were assessed. In the pork pieces the number of infective larvae was 250 ML/g. Meat originated from pig halves was divided in 39 equal pieces, 0.7 kg each, disposed in three groups of 1 3, and buried in depths of 30, 50, and 100 centimeters respectively. The pork was dug up at 13 intervals, approximately every week, until 91st day of the experiment. After each time interval, infectivity of larvae was assessed by bioassay on rats. The artificially infected rats were sacrificed on 42nd day after the infection and meat was examined by the following methods - artificial digestion and trichinoscopy. It was found that the larvae during all 90 days preserved infectivity in each depth.

  2. Live Brugia malayi microfilariae inhibit transendothelial migration of neutrophils and monocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Hendrik Schroeder

    an infection with B. malayi.

  3. Morphogenesis of Strongyloides stercoralis infective larvae requires the DAF-16 ortholog FKTF-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle L Castelletto

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on metabolic and morphological similarities between infective third-stage larvae of parasitic nematodes and dauer larvae of Caenorhabditis elegans, it is hypothesized that similar genetic mechanisms control the development of these forms. In the parasite Strongyloides stercoralis, FKTF-1 is an ortholog of DAF-16, a forkhead transcription factor that regulates dauer larval development in C. elegans. Using transgenesis, we investigated the role of FKTF-1 in S. stercoralis' infective larval development. In first-stage larvae, GFP-tagged recombinant FKTF-1b localizes to the pharynx and hypodermis, tissues remodeled in infective larvae. Activating and inactivating mutations at predicted AKT phosphorylation sites on FKTF-1b give constitutive cytoplasmic and nuclear localization of the protein, respectively, indicating that its post-translational regulation is similar to other FOXO-class transcription factors. Mutant constructs designed to interfere with endogenous FKTF-1b function altered the intestinal and pharyngeal development of the larvae and resulted in some transgenic larvae failing to arrest in the infective stage. Our findings indicate that FKTF-1b is required for proper morphogenesis of S. stercoralis infective larvae and support the overall hypothesis of similar regulation of dauer development in C. elegans and the formation of infective larvae in parasitic nematodes.

  4. Infective larvae of five Onchocerca species from experimentally infected Simulium species in an area of zoonotic onchocerciasis in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukuda M.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Microfilariae of five Onchocerca species, O. dewittei japonica (the causative agent of zoonotic onchocerciasis in Oita, Kyushu, Japan from wild boar (Sus scrofa, O. skrjabini and O. eberhardi from sika deer (Cervus nippon, O. lienalis from cattle, and an as yet unnamed Onchocerca sp. from wild boar, were injected intrathoracically into newly-emerged black flies of several species from Oita to search the potential vector(s of these parasites and identify their infective larvae. Development of O. dewittei japonica microfilariae to the infective larvae occurred in Simulium aokii, S. arakawae, S. bidentatum, S. japonicum, S. quinquestriatum, and S. rufibasis while development of infective larvae of O. skrjabini, O. eberhardi, and the unnamed Onchocerca sp. was observed in S. aokii, S. arakawae, and S. bidentatum. Development of O. lienalis microfilaria to infective larvae occurred in S. arakawae. Based on the morphology of infective larvae obtained, we proposed a key of identification of Onchocerca infective larvae found in Oita. We also reconsider the identification of three types of infective larvae previously recovered from Simulium species captured at cattle sheds: the large type I larvae that may be an undescribed species; the small type III identified as O. lienalis may include O. skrjabini too; the intermediary type II that may be O. gutturosa, or O. dewittei japonica, or the unnamed Onchocerca sp. of wild boar.

  5. PREVALENCE OF ANISAKID NEMATODE LARVAE INFECTING SOME MARINE FISHES FROM THE LIBYAN COAST.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Hamed H; Bowashi, Salem Mohamed

    2015-12-01

    This study examined eight hundred ninety six marine fishes belonging to nine different fish species; Synodus saurus; Merluccius merluccius; Trachurus mediterraneus; Serranus cabrilla; Mullus surmuletus; Diplodus annularis; Spicara maena; Siganus rirulatus and Liza ramada. The fishes were bought from fish markets at five different sites on Libyan coast, from January to December 2013, for study the anisakids larvae among them. The results showed that 344/896 fishes (38.4%) were infected with Anisakids larvae. S. saurus was the highly infected (80.9%), followed by T mediterraneus (77.5%) but, S. cabrilla, S. maena, M merluccius, M surmuletus, and D. annularis were least anisakid infected showed rates of 58.2%, 53.8%, 43.7%, 36.7% & 3.6%, respectively. No parasites were in S. rirulatus and L, ramada. Ten species of Anisakids larvae was detected during the present study. Two Pseudoterranova sp. Larvae, two types of Anisakis larvae, Anisakis simplex larva and Anisakis sp. Larva, two types of Contracaecum sp. Larvae and four Hysterothylacium larvae. Females showed higher prevalence than males. The number of anisakid larvae varied according to body length and weight of infected fish, without significant difference between prevalence and seasons, but, a significant difference was between prevalence and regions.

  6. Hemocyte quantitative changes in Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae larvae infected by AgMNPV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Goulart de Andrade

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The initial effects of the infection by AgMNPV in the total and differential counts of the hemocytes in Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae larvae were studied. The total number of the hemocytes did not decrease in infected larvae, as it occurred in non infected larvae. In infected larvae, the hemocyte types showed the following frequencies: plasmatocytes - 47.8%, esferulocytes - 25.9%, granulocytes - 15.8%, oenocytoids - 7.2%, prohemocytes - 2.8%, vermicytes - 0,5%. Only the percentage of the granulocytes was different among infected and non infected larvae, indicating that these cells responded quickly to the initial viral infection. These results showed the effective role of the hemocytes in the response of the A. gemmatalis to the infection by AgMNPV. The comprehension of the immunological mechanisms of this insect is an important tool to understand its biological control.Os efeitos iniciais da infecção por AgMNPV nas contagens total e diferencial dos hemócitos em Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae foram estudados. O número total de hemócitos não diminuiu nas larvas infectadas, como ocorreu nas larvas não infectadas. Nas larvas infectadas, os tipos de hemócitos apresentaram as seguintes freqüências: plasmatócitos - 47,8%, esferulócitos - 25,9%, granulócitos - 15,8%, oenocitóides - 7,2%, prohemócitos - 2,8%, vermiformes - 0,5%. Apenas a porcentagem de granulócitos foi diferente entre larvas infectadas e não infectadas, indicando que estas células responderam rapidamente à infecção viral inicial. Estes resultados mostraram o papel efetivo que dos hemócitos na resposta de A. gemmatalis à infecção por AgMNPV. A compreensão dos mecanismos imunológicos deste inseto é uma ferramenta importante para compreender seu controle biológico.

  7. Immunogenicity and Protective Efficacy of Brugia malayi Heavy Chain Myosin as Homologous DNA, Protein and Heterologous DNA/Protein Prime Boost Vaccine in Rodent Model.

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    Jyoti Gupta

    Full Text Available We earlier demonstrated the immunoprophylactic efficacy of recombinant heavy chain myosin (Bm-Myo of Brugia malayi (B. malayi in rodent models. In the current study, further attempts have been made to improve this efficacy by employing alternate approaches such as homologous DNA (pcD-Myo and heterologous DNA/protein prime boost (pcD-Myo+Bm-Myo in BALB/c mouse model. The gene bm-myo was cloned in a mammalian expression vector pcDNA 3.1(+ and protein expression was confirmed in mammalian Vero cell line. A significant degree of protection (79.2%±2.32 against L3 challenge in pcD-Myo+Bm-Myo immunized group was observed which was much higher than that exerted by Bm-Myo (66.6%±2.23 and pcD-Myo (41.6%±2.45. In the heterologous immunized group, the percentage of peritoneal leukocytes such as macrophages, neutrophils, B cells and T cells marginally increased and their population augmented further significantly following L3 challenge. pcD-Myo+Bm-Myo immunization elicited robust cellular and humoral immune responses as compared to pcD-Myo and Bm-Myo groups as evidenced by an increased accumulation of CD4+, CD8+ T cells and CD19+ B cells in the mouse spleen and activation of peritoneal macrophages. Though immunized animals produced antigen-specific IgG antibodies and isotypes, sera of mice receiving pcD-Myo+Bm-Myo or Bm-Myo developed much higher antibody levels than other groups and there was profound antibody-dependent cellular adhesion and cytotoxicity (ADCC to B. malayi infective larvae (L3. pcD-Myo+Bm-Myo as well as Bm-Myo mice generated a mixed T helper cell phenotype as evidenced by the production of both pro-inflammatory (IL-2, IFN-γ and anti-inflammatory (IL-4, IL-10 cytokines. Mice receiving pcD-Myo on contrary displayed a polarized pro-inflammatory immune response. The findings suggest that the priming of animals with DNA followed by protein booster generates heightened and mixed pro- and anti-inflammatory immune responses that are capable of

  8. Identification of anti-filarial leads against aspartate semialdehyde dehydrogenase of Wolbachia endosymbiont of Brugia malayi: combined molecular docking and molecular dynamics approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amala, Mathimaran; Rajamanikandan, Sundaraj; Prabhu, Dhamodharan; Surekha, Kanagarajan; Jeyakanthan, Jeyaraman

    2018-02-06

    Lymphatic filariasis is a debilitating vector borne parasitic disease that infects human lymphatic system by nematode Brugia malayi. Currently available anti-filarial drugs are effective only on the larval stages of parasite. So far, no effective drugs are available for humans to treat filarial infections. In this regard, aspartate semialdehyde dehydrogenase (ASDase) in lysine biosynthetic pathway from Wolbachia endosymbiont Brugia malayi represents an attractive therapeutic target for the development of novel anti-filarial agents. In this present study, molecular modeling combined with molecular dynamics simulations and structure-based virtual screening were performed to identify potent lead molecules against ASDase. Based on Glide score, toxicity profile, binding affinity and mode of interactions with the ASDase, five potent lead molecules were selected. The molecular docking and dynamics results revealed that the amino acid residues Arg103, Asn133, Cys134, Gln161, Ser164, Lys218, Arg239, His246, and Asn321 plays a crucial role in effective binding of Top leads into the active site of ASDase. The stability of the ASDase-lead complexes was confirmed by running the 30 ns molecular dynamics simulations. The pharmacokinetic properties of the identified lead molecules are in the acceptable range. Furthermore, density functional theory and binding free energy calculations were performed to rank the lead molecules. Thus, the identified lead molecules can be used for the development of anti-filarial agents to combat the pathogenecity of Brugia malayi.

  9. Distribution patterns and predilection muscles of Trichinella zimbabwensis larvae in experimentally infected Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus Laurenti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis J. La Grange

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available No controlled studies have been conducted to determine the predilection muscles of Trichinella zimbabwensis larvae in Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus or the influence of infection intensity on the distribution of the larvae in crocodiles. The distribution of larvae in muscles of naturally infected Nile crocodiles and experimentally infected caimans (Caiman crocodilus and varans (Varanus exanthematicus have been reported in literature. To determine the distribution patterns of T. zimbabwensis larvae and predilection muscles, 15 crocodiles were randomly divided into three cohorts of five animals each, representing high infection (642 larvae/kg of bodyweight average, medium infection (414 larvae/kg of bodyweight average and low infection (134 larvae/kg of bodyweight average cohorts. In the high infection cohort, high percentages of larvae were observed in the triceps muscles (26% and hind limb muscles (13%. In the medium infection cohort, high percentages of larvae were found in the triceps muscles (50%, sternomastoid (18% and hind limb muscles (13%. In the low infection cohort, larvae were mainly found in the intercostal muscles (36%, longissimus complex (27%, forelimb muscles (20% and hind limb muscles (10%. Predilection muscles in the high and medium infection cohorts were similar to those reported in naturally infected crocodiles despite changes in infection intensity. The high infection cohort had significantly higher numbers of larvae in the sternomastoid, triceps, intercostal, longissimus complex, external tibial flexor, longissimus caudalis and caudal femoral muscles (p < 0.05 compared with the medium infection cohort. In comparison with the low infection cohort, the high infection cohort harboured significantly higher numbers of larvae in all muscles (p < 0.05 except for the tongue. The high infection cohort harboured significantly higher numbers of larvae (p < 0.05 in the sternomastoid, triceps, intercostal, longissimus complex

  10. Radiolabeling of infective third-stage larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis by feeding [75Se]selenomethionine-labeled Escherichia coli to first- and second-stage larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aikens, L.M.; Schad, G.A.

    1989-01-01

    A technique is described for radiolabeling Strongyloides stercoralis larvae with [ 75 Se]selenomethionine. Cultures of an auxotrophic methionine-dependent stain of Escherichia coli were grown in a medium containing Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium supplemented with 5% nutrient broth, amino acids, and [ 75 Se]selenomethionine. When the 75 Se-labeled bacterial populations were in the stationary phase of growth, cultures were harvested and the bacteria dispersed on agar plates to serve as food for S. stercoralis larvae. Use of nondividing bacteria is important for successful labeling because the isotope is not diluted by cell division and death of larvae attributable to overgrowth by bacteria is prevented. First-stage S. stercoralis larvae were recovered from feces of infected dogs and reared in humid air at 30 C on agar plates seeded with bacteria. After 7 days, infective third-stage larvae were harvested. The mean specific activity of 6 different batches of larvae ranged from 75 to 330 counts per min/larva with 91.8 +/- 9.5% of the population labeled sufficiently to produce an autoradiographic focus during a practicable, 6-wk period of exposure. Labeled infective larvae penetrated the skin of 10-day-old puppies and migrated to the small intestine, where the developed to adulthood

  11. Physicochemical properties of the modeled structure of astacin metalloprotease moulting enzyme NAS-36 and mapping the druggable allosteric space of Heamonchus contortus, Brugia malayi and Ceanorhabditis elegans via molecular dynamics simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Om Prakash; Agrawal, Sonali; Kumar, M Suresh

    2013-12-01

    Nematodes represent the second largest phylum in the animal kingdom. It is the most abundant species (500,000) in the planet. It causes chronic, debilitating infections worldwide such as ascariasis, trichuriasis, hookworm, enterobiasis, strongyloidiasis, filariasis and trichinosis, among others. Molecular modeling tools can play an important role in the identification and structural investigation of molecular targets that can act as a vital candidate against filariasis. In this study, sequence analysis of NAS-36 from H. contortus (Heamonchus contortus), B. malayi (Brugia malayi) and C. elegans (Ceanorhabditis elegans) has been performed, in order to identify the conserved residues. Tertiary structure was developed for an insight into the molecular structure of the enzyme. Molecular Dynamics Simulation (MDS) studies have been carried out to analyze the stability and the physical properties of the proposed enzyme models in the H. contortus, B. malayi and C. elegans. Moreover, the drug binding sites have been mapped for inhibiting the function of NAS-36 enzyme. The molecular identity of this protease could eventually demonstrate how ex-sheathment is regulated, as well as provide a potential target of anthelmintics for the prevention of nematode infections.

  12. Effect of gut bacterial isolates from Apis mellifera jemenitica on Paenibacillus larvae infected bee larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghamdi, Ahmad; Ali Khan, Khalid; Javed Ansari, Mohammad; Almasaudi, Saad B; Al-Kahtani, Saad

    2018-02-01

    The probiotic effects of seven newly isolated gut bacteria, from the indegenous honey bees of Saudi Arabia were investigated. In vivo bioassays were used to investigate the effects of each gut bacterium namely, Fructobacillus fructosus (T1), Proteus mirabilis (T2), Bacillus licheniformis (T3), Lactobacillus kunkeei (T4), Bacillus subtilis (T5), Enterobacter kobei (T6), and Morganella morganii (T7) on mortality percentage of honey bee larvae infected with P. larvae spores along with negative control (normal diet) and positive control (normal diet spiked with P. larvae spores). Addition of gut bacteria to the normal diet significantly reduced the mortality percentage of the treated groups. Mortality percentage in all treated groups ranged from 56.67% up to 86.67%. T6 treated group exhibited the highest mortality (86.67%), whereas T4 group showed the lowest mortality (56.67%). Among the seven gut bacterial treatments, T4 and T3 decreased the mortality 56.67% and 66.67%, respectively, whereas, for T2, T6, and T7 the mortality percentage was equal to that of the positive control (86.67%). Mortality percentages in infected larval groups treated with T1, and T5 were 78.33% and 73.33% respectively. Most of the mortality occurred in the treated larvae during days 2 and 3. Treatments T3 and T4 treatments showed positive effects and reduced mortality.

  13. The solution structure of the forkhead box-O DNA binding domain of Brugia malayi DAF-16a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casper, Sarah K; Schoeller, Scott J; Zgoba, Danielle M; Phillips, Andrew J; Morien, Thomas J; Chaffee, Gary R; Sackett, Peter C; Peterson, Francis C; Crossgrove, Kirsten; Veldkamp, Christopher T

    2014-12-01

    Brugia malayi is a parasitic nematode that causes lymphatic filariasis in humans. Here the solution structure of the forkhead DNA binding domain of Brugia malayi DAF-16a, a putative ortholog of Caenorhabditis elegans DAF-16, is reported. It is believed to be the first structure of a forkhead or winged helix domain from an invertebrate. C. elegans DAF-16 is involved in the insulin/IGF-I signaling pathway and helps control metabolism, longevity, and development. Conservation of sequence and structure with human FOXO proteins suggests that B. malayi DAF-16a is a member of the FOXO family of forkhead proteins. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Effects of irradiation on the biology of the infective larvae of Toxocara canis in the mouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barriga, O.O.; Myser, W.C.

    1987-02-01

    Mice were infected with either 2000 normal or irradiated embryonated eggs of Toxocara canis and the number of larvae in their livers, lungs, brains, and carcasses investigated at 5, 20, and 33 days of infection. Mortality of mice infected with normal eggs was 33% between day 4 and 8 postinfection but there was no mortality among mice infected with irradiated eggs. Irradiation with 60, 90, or 150 kr of X-rays inhibited the migration of larvae from the livers and lungs and their accumulation in brain and carcass in proportion to the irradiation dose. By day 33 of infection, the ratio of larvae in liver and lungs to larvae in brain and carcass was 0.16 in normal mice, 0.42 in 60-kr mice, 0.98 in 90-kr mice, and 23.3 in 150-kr mice. Irradiated larvae, particularly those migrating through the peritoneal cavity, died faster than normal larvae until day 20. Irradiation favored survival after day 20. By days 20 and 33 postinfection the total parasite load was 29% and 8%, respectively, of the administered dose in control mice, 18% and 12% in 60-kr mice, 8% and 4% in 90-kr mice, and 0.9% and 0.3% in 150-kr mice. Irradiation of infective T. canis larvae, then, reduces their pathogenicity, inhibits their migration from liver and lungs, kills some of the parasites during the first 3 weeks of infection, but favors their late survival in the host.

  15. Effect of gut bacterial isolates from Apis mellifera jemenitica on Paenibacillus larvae infected bee larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Al-Ghamdi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The probiotic effects of seven newly isolated gut bacteria, from the indegenous honey bees of Saudi Arabia were investigated. In vivo bioassays were used to investigate the effects of each gut bacterium namely, Fructobacillus fructosus (T1, Proteus mirabilis (T2, Bacillus licheniformis (T3, Lactobacillus kunkeei (T4, Bacillus subtilis (T5, Enterobacter kobei (T6, and Morganella morganii (T7 on mortality percentage of honey bee larvae infected with P. larvae spores along with negative control (normal diet and positive control (normal diet spiked with P. larvae spores. Addition of gut bacteria to the normal diet significantly reduced the mortality percentage of the treated groups. Mortality percentage in all treated groups ranged from 56.67% up to 86.67%. T6 treated group exhibited the highest mortality (86.67%, whereas T4 group showed the lowest mortality (56.67%. Among the seven gut bacterial treatments, T4 and T3 decreased the mortality 56.67% and 66.67%, respectively, whereas, for T2, T6, and T7 the mortality percentage was equal to that of the positive control (86.67%. Mortality percentages in infected larval groups treated with T1, and T5 were 78.33% and 73.33% respectively. Most of the mortality occurred in the treated larvae during days 2 and 3. Treatments T3 and T4 treatments showed positive effects and reduced mortality.

  16. Novel fungal proteins in the chalkbrood infection of honey bee larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roth, Doris; Jensen, Annette Bruun; Grell, Morten Nedergaard

    2009-01-01

    . Here we investigate the interaction between the honey bee and its fungal pathogen Ascosphaera apis, the causative agent of chalkbrood, by identifying enzymes secreted by bee and fungus during different timepoints of infection. Upon testing A. apis-infected larvae for enzyme activity, the larvae...... the trappants are sequenced and annotated, selected genes are further described. As a result, we will deepen the understanding of chalkbrood, one of the main honey bee pests with relevant impact on the economy, among others due to the essential role of bees in pollination....

  17. Freeze-tolerance of Trichinella muscle larvae in experimentally infected wild boars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lacour, Sandrine A.; Heckmann, Aurelie; Mace, Pauline

    2013-01-01

    served as negative controls. All wild boars were sacrificed 24 wpi. Muscle samples of 70 g were stored at -21 degrees C for 19,30 and 56h, and for 1-8 weeks. Larvae were recovered by artificial digestion. Their mobilities were recorded using Saisam (R) image analysis software and their infectivities were......Freeze-tolerance of encapsulated Trichinella muscle larvae (ML) is mainly determined by Trichinella species, but is also influenced by host species, the age of the infection and the storage time and temperature of the infected meat. Moreover, the freeze-tolerance of the encapsulated species appears...... to be correlated to the development of thick capsule walls which increases with age. An extended infection period and the muscle composition in some hosts (e.g. herbivores) may provide freeze-avoiding matrices due to high carbohydrate contents. The present experiment compares freeze-tolerance of Trichinella...

  18. Brugia malayi excreted/secreted proteins at the host/parasite interface: stage- and gender-specific proteomic profiling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasisekhar Bennuru

    Full Text Available Relatively little is known about the filarial proteins that interact with the human host. Although the filarial genome has recently been completed, protein profiles have been limited to only a few recombinants or purified proteins of interest. Here, we describe a large-scale proteomic analysis using microcapillary reverse-phase liquid chromatography-tandem-mass spectrometry to identify the excretory-secretory (ES products of the L3, L3 to L4 molting ES, adult male, adult female, and microfilarial stages of the filarial parasite Brugia malayi. The analysis of the ES products from adult male, adult female, microfilariae (Mf, L3, and molting L3 larvae identified 852 proteins. Annotation suggests that the functional and component distribution was very similar across each of the stages studied; however, the Mf contributed a higher proportion to the total number of identified proteins than the other stages. Of the 852 proteins identified in the ES, only 229 had previous confirmatory expressed sequence tags (ESTs in the available databases. Moreover, this analysis was able to confirm the presence of 274 "hypothetical" proteins inferred from gene prediction algorithms applied to the B. malayi (Bm genome. Not surprisingly, the majority (160/274 of these "hypothetical" proteins were predicted to be secreted by Signal IP and/or SecretomeP 2.0 analysis. Of major interest is the abundance of previously characterized immunomodulatory proteins such as ES-62 (leucyl aminopeptidase, MIF-1, SERPIN, glutathione peroxidase, and galectin in the ES of microfilariae (and Mf-containing adult females compared to the adult males. In addition, searching the ES protein spectra against the Wolbachia database resulted in the identification of 90 Wolbachia-specific proteins, most of which were metabolic enzymes that have not been shown to be immunogenic. This proteomic analysis extends our knowledge of the ES and provides insight into the host-parasite interaction.

  19. Inventory and analysis of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) systems in Brugia malayi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardelli, B F; Stitt, L E; Tompkins, J B

    2010-07-01

    ABC systems are one of the largest described protein superfamilies. These systems have a domain organization that may contain 1 or more transmembrane domains (ABC_TM1F) and 1 or 2 ATP-binding domains (ABC_2). The functions (e.g., import, export and DNA repair) of these proteins distinguish the 3 classes of ABC systems. Mining and PCR-based cloning were used to identify 33 putative ABC systems from the Brugia malayi genome. There were 31 class 2 genes, commonly called ABC transporters, and 2 class 3 genes. The ABC transporters were divided into subfamilies. Three belonged to subfamily A, 16 to subfamily B, 5 to subfamily C, 1 to subfamily E and 3 to subfamilies F and G, respectively. None were placed in subfamilies D and H. Similar to other ABC systems, the ABC_2 domain of B. malayi genes was conserved and contained the Walker A and B motifs, the signature sequence/linker region and the switch region with the conserved histidine. The ABC_TM1F domain was less conserved. The relative abundance of ABC systems was quantified using real-time reverse transcription PCR and was significantly higher in female adults of B. malayi than in males and microfilaria, particularly those in subfamilies B and C, which are associated with drug resistance.

  20. Insecticidal activity of two proteases against Spodoptera frugiperda larvae infected with recombinant baculoviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Baculovirus comprise the largest group of insect viruses most studied worldwide, mainly because they efficiently kill agricutural insect pests. In this study, two recombinant baculoviruses containing the ScathL gene from Sarcophaga peregrina (vSynScathL), and the Keratinase gene from the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus (vSynKerat), were constructed. and their insecticidal properties analysed against Spodoptera frugiperda larvae. Results Bioassays of third-instar and neonate S. frugiperda larvae with vSynScathL and vSynKerat showed a decrease in the time needed to kill the infected insects when compared to the wild type virus. We have also shown that both recombinants were able to increase phenoloxidase activity in the hemolymph of S. frugiperda larvae. The expression of proteases in infected larvae resulted in destruction of internal tissues late in infection, which could be the reason for the increased viral speed of kill. Conclusions Baculoviruses and their recombinant forms constitute viable alternatives to chemical insecticides. Recombinant baculoviruses containing protease genes can be added to the list of engineered baculoviruses with great potential to be used in integrated pest management programs. PMID:20587066

  1. Effect of infection by irradiated Trichinella Spirals larvae on mice and assessment the role of Al bendazole in treating them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moawad, M.A.F.; Amin, M.M.

    2005-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of infection with irradiated Trichinella Spiralis larvae on mice and to asses the role of albendazole in treating them. This study included parasitological and histopathological studies on mice infected with irradiated Trichinella Spiralis larvae in comparison with mice infected with non-irradiated Trichinella Spiralis only or with mice treated after infection by albendazole. The obtained data revealed that, in mice infected with irradiated Trichinella Spiralis larvae (50 Krad or 80 Krad), the number and length of worms in the small intestine, as well as, the number of encysted larvae in muscles of mice, especially diaphragm and tongue, were significantly decreased. Also, using al bendazole 24 hours after infection with irradiated larvae lead to high significant decrease in all the previously mentioned parameters

  2. Localization of Ascaridia galli larvae in the jejunum of chickens 3 days post infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luna Olivares, Luz Adilia; Ferdushy, Tania; Kyvsgaard, Niels Christian

    2012-01-01

    The normal habitat of the parasitic stages of Ascaridia galli is in the small intestine of poultry but the exact localization is poorly understood. Therefore, a histological study was conducted in order to localize the larvae during the early phase of infection. Six layer pullets seven-week old...... were infected orally with 20,000 embryonated A. galli eggs each, whereas four chickens were left as un-infected controls. At necropsy 3 days after infection the first half of jejunum/ileum was divided into two equally sized sections (J1 and J2). After taking samples for histology from the middle of J1...... and J2 and the junction between these determined JX, the two sections were subjected to parasitological examination. A higher number of A. galli larvae were recovered from section J2 than J1 and the majority of larvae were recovered from the most profound layers. Based on histology 144 larvae were...

  3. Transcriptional responses in honey bee larvae infected with chalkbrood fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronstein, Katherine A; Murray, Keith D; Saldivar, Eduardo

    2010-06-21

    Diseases and other stress factors working synergistically weaken honey bee health and may play a major role in the losses of bee populations in recent years. Among a large number of bee diseases, chalkbrood has been on the rise. We present here the experimental identification of honey bee genes that are differentially expressed in response to infection of honey bee larvae with the chalkbrood fungus, Ascosphaera apis. We used cDNA-AFLP Technology to profile transcripts in infected and uninfected bee larvae. From 64 primer combinations, over 7,400 transcriptionally-derived fragments were obtained A total of 98 reproducible polymorphic cDNA-AFLP fragments were excised and sequenced, followed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis of these and additional samples.We have identified a number of differentially-regulated transcripts that are implicated in general mechanisms of stress adaptation, including energy metabolism and protein transport. One of the most interesting differentially-regulated transcripts is for a chitinase-like enzyme that may be linked to anti-fungal activities in the honey bee larvae, similarly to gut and fat-body specific chitinases found in mosquitoes and the red flour beetle. Surprisingly, we did not find many components of the well-characterized NF-kappaB intracellular signaling pathways to be differentially-regulated using the cDNA-AFLP approach. Therefore, utilizing qRT-PCR, we probed some of the immune related genes to determine whether the lack of up-regulation of their transcripts in our analysis can be attributed to lack of immune activation or to limitations of the cDNA-AFLP approach. Using a combination of cDNA-AFLP and qRT-PCR analyses, we were able to determine several key transcriptional events that constitute the overall effort in the honey bee larvae to fight natural fungal infection. Honey bee transcripts identified in this study are involved in critical functions related to transcriptional regulation, apoptotic

  4. Infective larvae of Rhabdiasidae (Nematoda): comparative morphology of seven European species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmin, Yuriy; Junker, Kerstin; Bain, Odile

    2014-03-01

    The morphology of infective third-stage larvae of Rhabdias bufonis, R. rubrovenosa, R. sphaerocephala, R. fuscovenosa, R. elaphe, Entomelas entomelas and E. dujardini is described. The sheath structure in the studied larvae appeared to be similar to that described in other species of the family Rhabdiasidae, its chequered aspect being caused by a combination of outer longitudinal striations and inner longitudinal as well as transverse ridges. The larvae were similar in general morphology but differed in the presence/absence of anterior apical protuberances (pseudolabia), the shape and ornamentation of the tail tip, and the structure of lateral alae in the caudal region of the body. No relationship between the morphological characters of the larvae of the studied species and their taxonomic position or specificity of adult parasites to a particular host group was observed. Regardless, the larvae of each species can be identified by a combination of morphological peculiarities in the anterior and caudal regions of the body.

  5. Infection of silkworm larvae by the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucineia de Fátima Chasko Ribeiro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The isolate E9 of Metarhizium anisopliae was used in commercial hybrids of Bombyx mori larvae to evaluate its biological effect. Symptomatological analyses showed typical signs of fungal infection. Histopathology revealed the presence of large numbers of hemocytes in the hemocoel, and on the sixth dpi the bodies of the insects appeared to be colonised by the fungus. The isolate E9 is pathogenic to larvae B. mori and; therefore, death of the insects was caused by the colonization of fungus in the epidermal and mesodermal tissues.

  6. Identification and characterization of nematode specific protective epitopes of Brugia malayi TRX towards development of synthetic vaccine construct for lymphatic filariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhumathi, Jayaprakasam; Prince, Prabhu Rajaiah; Anugraha, Gandhirajan; Kiran, Pote; Rao, Donthamsetty Nageswara; Reddy, Maryada Venkata Rami; Kaliraj, Perumal

    2010-07-12

    Although multi-epitope vaccines have been evaluated for various diseases, they have not yet been investigated for lymphatic filariasis. Here, we report for the first time identification of two immunodominant B epitopes (TRXP1 and TRXP2) from the antioxidant Brugia malayi thioredoxin by studying their immune responses in mice model and human subjects. TRXP1 was also found to harbor a T epitope recognized by human PBMCs and mice splenocytes. Further, the epitopic peptides were synthesized as a single peptide conjugate (PC1) and their prophylactic efficacy was tested in a murine model of filariasis with L3 larvae. PC1 conferred a significantly high protection (75.14%) (P TRX (63.03%) (P < 0.018) in experimental filariasis. Our results suggest that multi-epitope vaccines could be a promising strategy in the control of lymphatic filariasis.

  7. Density, Viability Conidia And Symptoms of Metarhizium anisopliae infection on Oryctes rhinoceros larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indriyanti, D. R.; Putri, R. I. P.; Widiyaningrum, P.; Herlina, L.

    2017-04-01

    M. anisopliae is parasitic fungus on insect pests; it is used as a biocontrol agent. M. anisopliae can be propagated on maize or rice substrate. M. anisopliae is currently sold in the form of kaolin powder formulations. Before it is used to check the density, viability and pathogenicity of M. anisopliae. However the problem is the kaolin powder very soft, so it difficult to distinguish between kaolin and conidia. This article gives information on how to calculate conidia density, viability and symptoms of M. anisopliae infection on Oryctes rhinoceros larvae. The study was conducted in the laboratory to determine the density and viability. The pathogenicity testing was done using pots. The Pot is containing soil substrate mixed with M. Anispoliae and ten tails O. Rhinoceros larvae per pot. The results showed that the density of M. anisopliae conidia was 1.81 x 108 conidia mL-1 and the viability was 94% within 24 hours. The larval mortality began to emerge in the 1st week, and all larvae died at the sixth week. The symptom of M. anisopliae infection on Oryctes rhinoceros larvae, there was a black spot on the larval integument. The larvae movements become slow and poor appetite; it will die within 3-7 days. The larvae die hard, and the white hyphae grow on the body surface that turns green.

  8. The heme biosynthetic pathway of the obligate Wolbachia endosymbiont of Brugia malayi as a potential anti-filarial drug target.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Wu

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Filarial parasites (e.g., Brugia malayi, Onchocerca volvulus, and Wuchereria bancrofti are causative agents of lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis, which are among the most disabling of neglected tropical diseases. There is an urgent need to develop macro-filaricidal drugs, as current anti-filarial chemotherapy (e.g., diethylcarbamazine [DEC], ivermectin and albendazole can interrupt transmission predominantly by killing microfilariae (mf larvae, but is less effective on adult worms, which can live for decades in the human host. All medically relevant human filarial parasites appear to contain an obligate endosymbiotic bacterium, Wolbachia. This alpha-proteobacterial mutualist has been recognized as a potential target for filarial nematode life cycle intervention, as antibiotic treatments of filarial worms harboring Wolbachia result in the loss of worm fertility and viability upon antibiotic treatments both in vitro and in vivo. Human trials have confirmed this approach, although the length of treatments, high doses required and medical counter-indications for young children and pregnant women warrant the identification of additional anti-Wolbachia drugs.Genome sequence analysis indicated that enzymes involved in heme biosynthesis might constitute a potential anti-Wolbachia target set. We tested different heme biosynthetic pathway inhibitors in ex vivo B. malayi viability assays and report a specific effect of N-methyl mesoporphyrin (NMMP, which targets ferrochelatase (FC, the last step. Our phylogenetic analysis indicates evolutionarily significant divergence between Wolbachia heme genes and their human homologues. We therefore undertook the cloning, overexpression and analysis of several enzymes of this pathway alongside their human homologues, and prepared proteins for drug targeting. In vitro enzyme assays revealed a approximately 600-fold difference in drug sensitivities to succinyl acetone (SA between Wolbachia and human 5

  9. Infectivity and development of X-irradiated third-stage larvae of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiu, Yoshinori

    1989-01-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis third-stage larvae were exposed to less than 10Krad of X-radiation and then given orally to white rats to examine the effects of X-radiation on infectivity and development of the irradiated third-stage larvae and on fecundity of adults developing from the irradiated third-stage larvae. The deleterious effects of X-radiation were observed at relatively lower dosage in the above three parameters. A degree in susceptibility on X-radiation was shown to be radiation-dose-dependent. Comparing to the irradiation of larvae in vitro, the irradiation of larvae in snails caused less deleterious effects at the same dose of X-irradiation. Application of X-radiation to food hygiene was also discussed. (author)

  10. Sublethal pesticide doses negatively affect survival and the cellular responses in American foulbrood-infected honeybee larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Javier Hernández; Krainer, Sophie; Engert, Antonia; Schuehly, Wolfgang; Riessberger-Gallé, Ulrike; Crailsheim, Karl

    2017-02-01

    Disclosing interactions between pesticides and bee infections is of most interest to understand challenges that pollinators are facing and to which extent bee health is compromised. Here, we address the individual and combined effect that three different pesticides (dimethoate, clothianidin and fluvalinate) and an American foulbrood (AFB) infection have on mortality and the cellular immune response of honeybee larvae. We demonstrate for the first time a synergistic interaction when larvae are exposed to sublethal doses of dimethoate or clothianidin in combination with Paenibacillus larvae, the causative agent of AFB. A significantly higher mortality than the expected sum of the effects of each individual stressor was observed in co-exposed larvae, which was in parallel with a drastic reduction of the total and differential hemocyte counts. Our results underline that characterizing the cellular response of larvae to individual and combined stressors allows unmasking previously undetected sublethal effects of pesticides in colony health.

  11. Freeze-tolerance of Trichinella muscle larvae in experimentally infected wild boars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacour, Sandrine A; Heckmann, Aurélie; Macé, Pauline; Grasset-Chevillot, Aurélie; Zanella, Gina; Vallée, Isabelle; Kapel, Christian M O; Boireau, Pascal

    2013-05-20

    Freeze-tolerance of encapsulated Trichinella muscle larvae (ML) is mainly determined by Trichinella species, but is also influenced by host species, the age of the infection and the storage time and temperature of the infected meat. Moreover, the freeze-tolerance of the encapsulated species appears to be correlated to the development of thick capsule walls which increases with age. An extended infection period and the muscle composition in some hosts (e.g. herbivores) may provide freeze-avoiding matrices due to high carbohydrate contents. The present experiment compares freeze-tolerance of Trichinella spiralis and Trichinella britovi ML in wild boar meat 24 weeks post inoculation (wpi). Three groups of four wild boars were infected with 200, 2000 or 20,000 ML of T. britovi (ISS 1575), respectively. Additionally, three wild boars were inoculated with 20,000 ML of T. spiralis (ISS 004) and two animals served as negative controls. All wild boars were sacrificed 24 wpi. Muscle samples of 70 g were stored at -21°C for 19, 30 and 56 h, and for 1-8 weeks. Larvae were recovered by artificial digestion. Their mobilities were recorded using Saisam(®) image analysis software and their infectivities were evaluated using mouse bioassays. Samples frozen for 19, 30 and 56 h allowed recovery of mobile ML, but samples frozen for 1 or 2 weeks did not. Correspondingly, only T. spiralis and T. britovi larvae isolated from wild boar meat frozen for 19, 30 and 56 h established in mice. This study showed that freezing at -21°C for 1 week inactivated T. spiralis and T. britovi ML encapsulated in wild boar meat for 24 weeks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Radiation inactivation of Paenibacillus larvae and sterilization of American Foul Brood (AFB) infected hives using Co-60 gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Guzman, Zenaida M.; Cervancia, Cleofas R.; Dimasuay, Kris Genelyn B.; Tolentino, Mitos M.; Abrera, Gina B.; Cobar, Ma. Lucia C.; Fajardo, Alejandro C.; Sabino, Noel G.; Manila-Fajardo, Analinda C.; Feliciano, Chitho P.

    2011-01-01

    The effectiveness of gamma radiation in inactivating the Philippine isolate of Paenibacillus larvae was investigated. Spores of P. larvae were irradiated at incremental doses (0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6 kGy) of gamma radiation emitted by a 60 Co source. Surviving spores were counted and used to estimate the decimal reduction (D 10 ) value. A dose of 0.2 kGy was sufficient to inactivate 90% of the total recoverable spores from an initial count of 10 5 -9x10 3 spores per glass plate. The sterilizing effect of high doses of gamma radiation on the spores of P. larvae in infected hives was determined. In this study, a minimum dose (D min ) of 15 kGy was tested. Beehives with sub-clinical infections of AFB were irradiated and examined for sterility. All the materials were found to be free of P. larvae indicating its susceptibility to γ-rays. After irradiation, there were no visible changes in the physical appearance of the hives' body, wax and frames. Thus, a dose of 15 kGy is effective enough for sterilization of AFB-infected materials. - Highlights: → We characterized Paenibacillus larvae and determined its radiation sensitivity. → We investigated the effectiveness of gamma rays in inactivating P. larvae. → Gamma radiation inactivates P. larvae. → 15 kGy is effective for the sterilization of P. larvae-infected hives. → Irradiation produces no visible changes in the hives' body, waxes and frames.

  13. Effectivity of Musa paradisiaca extract to control Saprolegnia sp. infection on giant gourami larvae

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    Sri Nuryati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Larval stage of giant gourami is a critical period due to fungal infection, such as Saprolegnia sp. infection. There are some plants which have antiseptic compound like banana Musa paradisiaca. This research was aimed to examine the effectiveness of the banana stem extract M. paradisiaca to control Saprolegnia sp. infection on giant gurami larvae through immersion. Eight-day old gorami larvae (at the initial of 0.5±0.03 cm was reared in an aquarium sized 25×25×25 cm3 at the density of 8 fry/L. Culture media were added banana stem extract at the dose of 0; 0.08; 0.12; and 0.16 g/L during 21 days of rearing period. Challenge test was performed for 14 days by giving Saprolegnia sp. spores at the density of 104 cells/mL and banana stem extract. The treatment dose of 0.16 g/L has showen survival 100% than positive control  after the challenge test. Keywords: giant gourami, Musa paradisiaca, Saprolegnia sp., fry  ABSTRAK Fase larva ikan gurami merupakan masa kritis terhadap infeksi cendawan, seperti jenis Saprolegnia sp. Beberapa tanaman memiliki daya antiseptik seperti tanaman pisang ambon Musa paradisiaca. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji efektivitas ekstrak batang pisang ambon M. paradisiaca dalam mengurangi infeksi Saprolegnia sp. pada larva ikan gurami melalui media pemeliharaan. Larva gurami umur delapan hari (panjang larva 0,5+0,03 cm dipelihara pada akuarium berukuran 25×25×25 cm3 dengan padat tebar 8 ekor/L. Media pemeliharaan diberi ekstrak batang pisang ambon dosis 0; 0,08; 0,12; dan 0,16 g/L selama 21 hari. Uji tantang dilakukan selama 14 hari dengan pemberian spora Saprolegnia sp. kepadatan 104 sel/mL dan ekstrak batang pisang ambon. Perlakuan dosis 0,16 g/L memberikan kelangsungan hidup sebesar 100% yang lebih tinggi dibandingkan perlakuan kontrol positif setelah uji tantang. Kata kunci: giant gourami, Musa paradisiaca, Saprolegnia sp., larva

  14. Comparison of artificial digestion and Baermann's methods for detection of Trichinella spiralis pre-encapsulated larvae in muscles with low-level infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Peng; Wang, Zhong-Quan; Cui, Jing; Zhang, Xi

    2012-01-01

    Artificial digestion method is widely used for the detection of Trichinella larvae (mainly the mature larvae, e.g., encapsulated larvae in encapsulated Trichinella) in meat. The previous studies demonstrated that Trichinella spiralis pre-encapsulated larvae (PEL) at 14-18 days postinfection (dpi) had the infectivity to new hosts. However, to our knowledge, there is no report on the detection methods of PEL in meat. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficiency of artificial digestion and Baermann's methods for detection of T. spiralis PEL in meat, and to test the factors affecting the sensitivity of the two methods. Forty-five male Kunming mice were randomly divided into 3 groups (15 mice per group), and each group of mice was orally inoculated with 20, 10, or 5 muscle larvae of T. spiralis, respectively. All infected mice were slaughtered at 18 dpi, and the muscles were minced. The digestion method that was recommended by International Commission on Trichinellosis and Baermann's method were used to detect the PEL in the infected mice. The detection rate of PEL in both mice infected with 20 muscle larvae by digestion and Baermann's method was 100% (15/15); the detection rates of PEL in mice infected with 10 larvae by the two methods just mentioned were 93.33% (14/15) and 100% (15/15), respectively; when the mice infected with 5 larvae were tested, the different detection rate of PEL was achieved by using digestion method (63.33%) and Baermann's method (100%). Additionally, the number of PEL collected from the mice infected with 20, 10, or 5 larvae by Baermann's method was greater than that by digestion methods. The mortality of PEL increased along with the prolongation of digestion duration, because the PEL were not resistant to enzymatic digestion. The results revealed that the Baermann's method is superior to the digestion methods for detection of T. spiralis PEL in muscle samples with low-level infections.

  15. Evaluation of the myoelectrical activity of the equine ileum infected with Strongylus vulgaris larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, C R; Merritt, A M; Burrows, C F; Campbell, M; Drudge, J H

    1986-01-01

    Five weanling ponies were subjected to an intensive 6-week deworming program after which 4 Ag-AgCl bipolar electrodes were implanted surgically on the distal ileum. For 3 hours each day for 5 consecutive days, ileal myoelectrical activity was recorded from fed ponies under 3 sequential conditions: preinoculation, after oral administration of 1,000 killed Strongylus vulgaris infective larvae (3 ponies), and after oral administration of 1,000 live S vulgaris infective larvae. Recordings were analyzed for slow wave frequency, percentage duration of phases I, II, and III of the migrating myoelectrical complex (MMC), and the frequency of distinct, rapidly migrating action-potential complexes within phase 2 of the MMC. After administration of live and killed infected 3rd-stage larvae, there was a marked increase in the number of disrupted phase III complexes, and a significant (P less than 0.001) increase in the number of migrating action-potential complexes. In addition, after inoculation of live 3rd-stage larvae, there was a significant increase (P less than 0.001) in the percentage of time that the MMC was occupied by prolonged periods devoid of spike activity (phase I). The results indicate that S vulgaris larval mucosal penetration and submucosal migration can cause changes in ileal myoelectrical activity that could cause colic, and that larval antigen alone within the lumen may disrupt ileal motility.

  16. Efficiency immunization peritoneally with different antigens of Toxocara canis، Toxascaris leonina aganist infection with Toxacara cati and Toxascaris leonina larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Hosin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study includes effect of Immunizaton by intrapertoneal inoculation of unembryonated eggs, embryonated eggs , died larvae , live larvae and excretory / secretory products of larvae (L2 of T.canis and T.leonina to protect white mice (Balb/c from the experimental infection by T.cati and T.leonina the results showed that the highest rate of protection is 69. 56% then , 68.77%, 65.83% , 65.20% and 55.70% when the mice immunized by excretory/ secretory products, Live Larvae, died Larvae, embryonated eggs and unembryonated eggs of T.canis antigens against the challenge dose of T.cati the highest protection rate against the experimental infection with T.leonina was obtained by inoculation of live larvae of T.leonina (58.63% by using a challenge dose same to the immunization dose. while the highest protection rate obtained by T.canis against the experimental infection with T.leonina was obtained by immunization with live larvae(54. 74%.

  17. Radiation inactivation of Paenibacillus larvae and sterilization of American Foul Brood (AFB) infected hives using Co-60 gamma rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Guzman, Zenaida M. [Microbiological Research and Service Laboratory, Atomic Research Division, Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines); Cervancia, Cleofas R. [Institute of Biological Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, University of the Philippines, Los Banos, Laguna (Philippines); Dimasuay, Kris Genelyn B.; Tolentino, Mitos M.; Abrera, Gina B.; Cobar, Ma. Lucia C. [Microbiological Research and Service Laboratory, Atomic Research Division, Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines); Fajardo, Alejandro C.; Sabino, Noel G.; Manila-Fajardo, Analinda C. [Institute of Biological Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, University of the Philippines, Los Banos, Laguna (Philippines); Feliciano, Chitho P., E-mail: cpfeliciano@pnri.dost.gov.ph [Microbiological Research and Service Laboratory, Atomic Research Division, Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines); Institute of Biology, College of Science, University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines)

    2011-10-15

    The effectiveness of gamma radiation in inactivating the Philippine isolate of Paenibacillus larvae was investigated. Spores of P. larvae were irradiated at incremental doses (0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6 kGy) of gamma radiation emitted by a {sup 60}Co source. Surviving spores were counted and used to estimate the decimal reduction (D{sub 10}) value. A dose of 0.2 kGy was sufficient to inactivate 90% of the total recoverable spores from an initial count of 10{sup 5}-9x10{sup 3} spores per glass plate. The sterilizing effect of high doses of gamma radiation on the spores of P. larvae in infected hives was determined. In this study, a minimum dose (D{sub min}) of 15 kGy was tested. Beehives with sub-clinical infections of AFB were irradiated and examined for sterility. All the materials were found to be free of P. larvae indicating its susceptibility to {gamma}-rays. After irradiation, there were no visible changes in the physical appearance of the hives' body, wax and frames. Thus, a dose of 15 kGy is effective enough for sterilization of AFB-infected materials. - Highlights: > We characterized Paenibacillus larvae and determined its radiation sensitivity. > We investigated the effectiveness of gamma rays in inactivating P. larvae. > Gamma radiation inactivates P. larvae. > 15 kGy is effective for the sterilization of P. larvae-infected hives. > Irradiation produces no visible changes in the hives' body, waxes and frames.

  18. Baylisascaris Larva Migrans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazacos, Kevin R.; Abbott, Rachel C.; van Riper, Charles

    2016-05-26

    SummaryBaylisascaris procyonis, the common raccoon roundworm, is the most commonly recognized cause of clinical larva migrans (LM) in animals, a condition in which an immature parasitic worm or larva migrates in a host animal’s tissues, causing obvious disease. Infection with B. procyonis is best known as a cause of fatal or severe neurologic disease that results when the larvae invade the brain, the spinal cord, or both; this condition is known as neural larva migrans (NLM). Baylisascariasis is a zoonotic disease, that is, one that is transmissible from animals to humans. In humans, B. procyonis can cause damaging visceral (VLM), ocular (OLM), and neural larva migrans. Due to the ubiquity of infected raccoons around humans, there is considerable human exposure and risk of infection with this parasite. The remarkable disease-producing capability of B. procyonis in animals and humans is one of the most significant aspects of the biology of ascarids (large roundworms) to come to light in recent years. Infection with B. procyonis has important health implications for a wide variety of free-ranging and captive wildlife, zoo animals, domestic animals, as well as human beings, on both an individual and population level. This report, eighth in the series of U.S. Geological Survey Circulars on zoonotic diseases, will help us to better understand the routes of Baylisascaris procyonis infections and how best to adequately monitor this zoonotic disease.

  19. Establishment of infection models in zebrafish larvae (Danio rerio to study the pathogenesis of Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Roberto Saraceni

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas hydrophila is a Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen of fish and terrestrial animals. In humans, A. hydrophila mainly causes gastroenteritis, septicaemia and tissue infections. The mechanisms of infection, the main virulence factors and the host immune response triggered by A. hydrophila have been studied in detail using murine models and adult fish. However, the great limitation of studying adult animals is that the animal must be sacrificed and its tissues/organs extracted, which prevents the study of the infectious processes in the whole living animal.Zebrafish larvae are being used for the analysis of several infectious diseases, but their use for studying the pathogenesis of A. hydrophila has never been explored. The great advantage of zebrafish larvae is their transparency during the first week after fertilization, which allows detailed descriptions of the infectious processes using in vivo imaging techniques such as differential interferential contrast (DIC and fluorescence microscopy. Moreover, the availability of fluorescent pathogens and transgenic reporter zebrafish lines expressing fluorescent immune cells, immune marker genes or cytokines/chemokines allows the host-pathogen interactions to be characterized.The present study explores the suitability of zebrafish larvae to study the pathogenesis of A. hydrophila and the interaction mechanisms between the bacterium and the innate immune responses through an infection model using different routes for infection. We used an early-embryo infection model at 3 days post-fertilization (dpf through the microinjection of A. hydrophila into the duct of Cuvier, caudal vein, notochord or muscle and two bath infection models using 4 dpf healthy and injured larvae. The latter resembled the natural conditions under which A. hydrophila produces infectious diseases in animals. We compared the cellular processes after infection in each anatomical site by confocal fluorescence imaging and

  20. Blood biochemical changes in lambs infected with normal and gamma irradiated third stage larvae of Dictyocaulus filaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, T.K.; Dhar, D.N.; Bansal, G.C.; Sharma, R.L. (Indian Veterinary Research Inst., Srinagar (India). Regional Centre)

    1984-09-01

    Primary infections with normal third stage larvae of Dictyocaulus filaria at a dose of 150 1/kg caused significant decrease in the levels of haemoglobin, blood glucose, serum total proteins, serum albumin, albumin/globulin ratio and increase in levels of total globulins and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in lambs. Almost similar changes in the above blood constituents excepting for haemoglobin, blood glucose and LDH activity were noticed in lambs immunised with two doses of gamma irradiation larvae and subsequently challenged with normal larvae of D. filaria at a dose of 150 1/kg. In both the infected groups, serum calcium, inorganic phosphorus, malate dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase activities were, however, not affected.

  1. Brugia malayi Antigen (BmA Inhibits HIV-1 Trans-Infection but Neither BmA nor ES-62 Alter HIV-1 Infectivity of DC Induced CD4+ Th-Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily E I M Mouser

    Full Text Available One of the hallmarks of HIV-1 disease is the association of heightened CD4+ T-cell activation with HIV-1 replication. Parasitic helminths including filarial nematodes have evolved numerous and complex mechanisms to skew, dampen and evade human immune responses suggesting that HIV-1 infection may be modulated in co-infected individuals. Here we studied the effects of two filarial nematode products, adult worm antigen from Brugia malayi (BmA and excretory-secretory product 62 (ES-62 from Acanthocheilonema viteae on HIV-1 infection in vitro. Neither BmA nor ES-62 influenced HIV-1 replication in CD4+ enriched T-cells, with either a CCR5- or CXCR4-using virus. BmA, but not ES-62, had the capacity to bind the C-type lectin dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN thereby inhibiting HIV-1 trans-infection of CD4+ enriched T-cells. As for their effect on DCs, neither BmA nor ES-62 could enhance or inhibit DC maturation as determined by CD83, CD86 and HLA-DR expression, or the production of IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 and TNF-α. As expected, due to the unaltered DC phenotype, no differences were found in CD4+ T helper (Th cell phenotypes induced by DCs treated with either BmA or ES-62. Moreover, the HIV-1 susceptibility of the Th-cell populations induced by BmA or ES-62 exposed DCs was unaffected for both CCR5- and CXCR4-using HIV-1 viruses. In conclusion, although BmA has the potential capacity to interfere with HIV-1 transmission or initial viral dissemination through preventing the virus from interacting with DCs, no differences in the Th-cell polarizing capacity of DCs exposed to BmA or ES-62 were observed. Neither antigenic source demonstrated beneficial or detrimental effects on the HIV-1 susceptibility of CD4+ Th-cells induced by exposed DCs.

  2. Scanning electron microscopy and histopathological observations of Beauveria bassiana infection of Colorado potato beetle larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yulin; Wu, Hui; Ma, Zhiyan; Yang, Liu; Ma, Deying

    2017-10-01

    Beauveria bassiana is a potential candidate for use as an environmentally friendly bio-pesticide. We studied the infection process and histopathology of B. bassiana strain NDBJJ-BFG infection of the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) using scanning electron microscopy and hematoxylin-eosin staining of tissue sections. The results show that the fungus penetrated the insect epidermis through germ tubes and appressoria after spraying the larvae with conidial suspensions. The conidia began to germinate after 24 h and invade the epidermis. After 48 h, the conidia invaded the larvae with germ tubes and began to enter the haemocoel. By 72 h, hyphae had covered the host surface and had colonized the body cavity. The dermal layer was dissolved, muscle tissues were ruptured and adipose tissue was removed. The mycelium had damaged the intestinal wall muscles, and invaded into intestinal wall and midfield cells resulting in cell separation and tracheal deformation. After 96 h of inoculation, the internal structure of the larvae was destroyed. The research shows that B. bassiana NDBJJ-BFG surface inoculation resulted in a series of histopathological changes to the potato beetle larvae that proved lethal within 72 h. This indicated that this fungus has a high pathogenicity to Colorado potato beetle larvae. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Black flies (Diptera : Simuliidae attracted to humans and water buffalos and natural infections with filarial larvae, probably Onchocerca sp., in northern Thailand

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    Takaoka H.

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Several Simulium species were investigated as to their biting habits and natural infections with filarial larvae at Ban Pan Fan, Chiang Mai Province, in northern Thailand. Female adults flies landing on or flighting around a human and a water buffalo were collected during the daytime from 06.00 to 19.00 hours on 22 June 2001. As a result, 217 S. nodosum, 86 S. asakoae and two S. nigrogilvum were obtained from a human attractant, and 416 S. nodosum, 25 S. nakhonense, 16 S. asakoae, four 5. fenestratum and two S. nigrogilvum, from a water buffalo. The blood-feeding was confirmed only for S. nodosum and S. nigrogilvum on humans, and for S. nodosum and S. nakhonense on water buffalos. Dissections of these simuliids showed that S. nodosum was naturally infected with developing filarial larvae. Two types of microfilariae were distinguished but only one type of infective larvae. These larvae resembled Onchocerca suzukii, a parasite from a wild Japanese bovid, suggesting that an unknown Onchocerca species from ruminants was transmitted in Thailand. Infection rates with all stages of larvae and third-stage larvae were 2.3 % (14/608 and 1 .0 % (6/608, respectively. This is the first report of natural infections of black flies with Onchocerca larvae in Southeast Asia, and the involved black fly species is shown to be not only anthropophilic but also zoophilic in this region.

  4. Efficacy of albendazole against Taenia multiceps larvae in experimentally infected goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, Sónia M S; Neves, Luis; Pondja, Alberto; Macuamule, Cristiano; Mukaratirwa, Samson; Arboix, Margarita; Cristòfol, Carles; Capece, Bettencourt P S

    2014-12-15

    A controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of three therapeutics regimes of albendazole (ABZ) against Taenia multiceps larvae in experimental infected goats. Forty-nine goats experimentally infected with 3000 T. multiceps eggs were selected and randomly divided into treatment or control groups. Treatment with 10mg/kg for 3 days for group 1 (G1), 10mg/kg for group 2 (G2) and 20mg/kg/day for group 3 (G3) was applied 2 months after infection; group 4 (G4) served as a control group. A treatment with doses of 10mg/kg/day for 3 days on group 5 (G5) and group 6 (G6) was used as control, 5 months after the infection. The efficacy of ABZ was assessed as percentage of non-viable cysts which were determined by morphologic characteristics, movement and methyl blue staining technique. The efficacy of ABZ against 2 months old cysts was significantly different from the control and were 90.3% (28/31), 72.7% (8/11) and 73.9% (14/19) for G1, G2 and G3, respectively. No differences were observed in cyst viability between treated and control groups for 5-month old cysts. The results in this study indicate that ABZ is effective in goats against 2-month-old cysts of T. multiceps larva located in tissues outside the brain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The Histopathology of the Infection of Tilapia rendalli and Hypostomus regani (Osteichthyes by Lasidium Larvae of Anodontites trapesialis (Mollusca, Bivalvia

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    Ângela Teresa Silva-Souza

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available It is described the histopathology of the infection of Tilapia rendalli (Osteichthyes, Perciformes, Cichlidae and Hypostomus regani (Osteichthyes, Siluriformes, Loricariidae by lasidium larvae of Anodontites trapesialis (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Mycetopodidae. The larvae were encysted within the epidermis of the host, being surrounded by a thin hyaline membrane, 3-6 µm thick, of parasite origin. A proliferative host cell reaction did not occur. The histopathology of the infection shows that the lesions induced by the parasites are minimal. However, the numerous small lesions produced by the release of the larvae may provide optimal conditions for the infection by opportunistic pathogens, namely fungus, which may eventually cause the death of the host.

  6. Monitoring of Vibrio harveyi quorum sensing activity in real time during infection of brine shrimp larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defoirdt, Tom; Sorgeloos, Patrick

    2012-12-01

    Quorum sensing, bacterial cell-to-cell communication, has been linked to the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Indeed, in vitro experiments have shown that many bacterial pathogens regulate the expression of virulence genes by this cell-to-cell communication process. Moreover, signal molecules have been detected in samples retrieved from infected hosts and quorum sensing disruption has been reported to result in reduced virulence in different host-pathogen systems. However, data on in vivo quorum sensing activity of pathogens during infection of a host are currently lacking. We previously reported that quorum sensing regulates the virulence of Vibrio harveyi in a standardised model system with gnotobiotic brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) larvae. Here, we monitored quorum sensing activity in Vibrio harveyi during infection of the shrimp, using bioluminescence as a read-out. We found that wild-type Vibrio harveyi shows a strong increase in quorum sensing activity early during infection. In this respect, the bacteria behave remarkably similar in different larvae, despite the fact that only half of them survive the infection. Interestingly, when expressed per bacterial cell, Vibrio harveyi showed around 200-fold higher maximal quorum sensing-regulated bioluminescence when associated with larvae than in the culture water. Finally, the in vivo quorum sensing activity of mutants defective in the production of one of the three signal molecules is consistent with their virulence, with no detectable in vivo quorum sensing activity in AI-2- and CAI-1-deficient mutants. These results indicate that AI-2 and CAI-1 are the dominant signals during infection of brine shrimp.

  7. Experimental infection in Notodiaptomus sp. (Crustacea: Calanoida with larvae of Camallanus sp. (Nematoda: Camallanidae Infecção experimental em Notodiaptomus sp. (Crustacea: Calanoida com larvas de Camallanus sp. (Nematoda: Camallanidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Martins

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This trial registered the experimental infection viability with nematode larvae Camallanus sp. in Notodiaptomus sp., a crustacean, which can be an intermediate host. Adult females of nematode were dissected from the intestines of Xiphophorus maculatus (Osteichthyes: Poeciliidae, at a fish farm in the State of São Paulo. Females were slightly compressed for larvae release, collected with Pasteur pipette and separated on Petri dishes with 9ml filtered water at 28.1ºC, from zooplankton culture. Treatments consisted of Petri dishes with 60 and 105 copepods, in which 120, 150 and 210 larvae of nematode were added in four replications. Twenty-four and 36h after exposition to the larvae, the copepods were fixed in 70% alcohol to record the amount of fixed larvae. Twenty four hours after exposition, 60 copepods group with 120 larvae showed significantly higher prevalence (46.5% when compared to 105 copepods and 120 larvae (33.2%. Thus, these answers suggested that 120 larvae were enough for a successful infectivity. Experimental infection was available and so, it was used as a pattern to life cycle studies of camallanid nematodes and hosts susceptibility tests.A viabilidade da infecção experimental com larvas do nematóide Camallanus sp. em Notodiaptomus sp., crustáceo com potencial para hospedeiro intermediário foi avaliada. Fêmeas adultas do nematóide foram extraídas de Xiphophorus maculatus (Osteichthyes: Poeciliidae, provenientes de piscicultura de peixes ornamentais no estado de São Paulo. As fêmeas foram ligeiramente pressionadas para liberar as larvas, coletadas com pipeta Pasteur e separadas em placas de Petri contendo 9ml de água filtrada a 28,1ºC do próprio cultivo de zooplâncton. Os tratamentos consistiram de placas contendo 60 e 105 copépodes onde se adicionou 120, 150 e 210 larvas de nematóides em quatro repetições. Nos tempos de 24 e 36h após a exposição às larvas, os copépodes foram fixados em álcool 70% para

  8. Filarial worms reduce Plasmodium infectivity in mosquitoes.

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    Matthew T Aliota

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Co-occurrence of malaria and filarial worm parasites has been reported, but little is known about the interaction between filarial worm and malaria parasites with the same Anopheles vector. Herein, we present data evaluating the interaction between Wuchereria bancrofti and Anopheles punctulatus in Papua New Guinea (PNG. Our field studies in PNG demonstrated that An. punctulatus utilizes the melanization immune response as a natural mechanism of filarial worm resistance against invading W. bancrofti microfilariae. We then conducted laboratory studies utilizing the mosquitoes Armigeres subalbatus and Aedes aegypti and the parasites Brugia malayi, Brugia pahangi, Dirofilaria immitis, and Plasmodium gallinaceum to evaluate the hypothesis that immune activation and/or development by filarial worms negatively impact Plasmodium development in co-infected mosquitoes. Ar. subalbatus used in this study are natural vectors of P. gallinaceum and B. pahangi and they are naturally refractory to B. malayi (melanization-based refractoriness.Mosquitoes were dissected and Plasmodium development was analyzed six days after blood feeding on either P. gallinaceum alone or after taking a bloodmeal containing both P. gallinaceum and B. malayi or a bloodmeal containing both P. gallinaceum and B. pahangi. There was a significant reduction in the prevalence and mean intensity of Plasmodium infections in two species of mosquito that had dual infections as compared to those mosquitoes that were infected with Plasmodium alone, and was independent of whether the mosquito had a melanization immune response to the filarial worm or not. However, there was no reduction in Plasmodium development when filarial worms were present in the bloodmeal (D. immitis but midgut penetration was absent, suggesting that factors associated with penetration of the midgut by filarial worms likely are responsible for the observed reduction in malaria parasite infections.These results could have an

  9. Luminous vibriosis in rock lobster Jasus verreauxi (Decapoda: Palinuridae) phyllosoma larvae associated with infection by Vibrio harveyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diggles, B K; Moss, G A; Carson, J; Anderson, C D

    2000-11-14

    Studies were conducted to determine the cause of outbreaks of luminous vibriosis in phyllosoma larvae of the packhorse rock lobster Jasus verreauxi reared in an experimental culture facility. On 2 separate occasions mortalities of up to 75% over a period of 4 wk were observed in 4th to 5th and 8th to 10th instar phyllosomas at water temperatures of 20 and 23 degrees C, respectively. Affected larvae became opaque, exhibited small red spots throughout the body and pereiopods, and were faintly luminous when viewed in the dark. Histopathology showed that the gut and hepatopancreas tubules of moribund phyllosomas contained massive bacterial plaques. The hepatopancreas tubules of moribund larvae were atrophic and some contained necrotic cells sloughed into the lumen. Dense, pure cultures of a bacterium identified as Vibrio harveyi were isolated from moribund larvae. The disease syndrome was reproduced by in vivo challenge and V. harveyi was successfully reisolated from diseased larvae after apparently healthy larvae were exposed by immersion to baths of more than 10(4) V. harveyi ml(-1) at 24 degrees C. Injured larvae were more susceptible to infection than were healthy larvae. Survival of larvae experimentally and naturally exposed to V. harveyi was improved when antibiotics were administered via bath exposures.

  10. The role of polymorphisms in the spliced leader addition domain in determining promoter activity in Brugia malayi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Michelle; Chauhan, Chitra; Liu, Canhui; Unnasch, Thomas R

    2011-03-01

    Previous studies of Brugia malayi promoters have suggested that they are unusual in that they lack the CAAT or TATAA boxes that are often emblematic of eucaryotic core promoter domains. Instead, the region surrounding the spliced leader (SL) addition site appears to function as the core promoter domain in B. malayi. To test the hypothesis that polymorphisms in this SL addition domain are important determinants of promoter activity, a series of domain swap mutants were prepared replacing the SL addition domain of the B. malayi 13kDa large subunit ribosomal protein (BmRPL13) with those of other ribosomal protein (RP) promoters exhibiting a wide range of activities. These constructs were then tested for promoter activity in a homologous transient transfection system. On average, polymorphisms in the SL addition domain were found to be responsible for 80% of the variation in promoter activity exhibited by the RP promoters tested. Essentially all of this effect could be attributable to polymorphisms in the 10nt located directly upstream of the SL addition site. A comparison of the sequence of this domain to the promoter activity exhibited by the domain swap mutants suggested that promoter activity was related to the number of T residues present in the coding strand of the upstream domain. Confirming this, mutation of the upstream domain of the promoter of the BmRPS4 gene to a homogeneous stretch of 10 T residues resulted in a significant increase in promoter activity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Predatory activity of Butlerius nematodes and nematophagous fungi against Haemonchus contortus infective larvae

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    Manoel Eduardo da Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this study was to evaluate the predatory activity of the nematode Butlerius spp. and fungal isolates of Duddingtonia flagrans, Clonostachys rosea, Arthrobotrys musiformis and Trichoderma esau against H. contortus infective larvae (L3 in grass pots. Forty-eight plastic gardening pots containing 140 g of sterile soil were used. Panicum spp. grass seeds (200 mg were sown into each pot and individually watered with 10 mL of tap water. Twelve days after seeding, the pots were randomly divided into 6 groups (n=8. Two thousand H. contortus infective larvae (L3 were added to each group. Additionally, the following treatments were established: Group 1 – 2000 Butlerius spp. larvae; group 2 – A. musiformis (1x107 conidia; group 3 – T. esau (1x107 conidia; group 4 – C. rosea (1x107 conidia, group 5 – D. flagrans (1x107conidia and Group 6 – no biological controller (control group. The larval population of H. contortus exposed to Butlerius spp. was reduced by 61.9%. Population reductions of 90.4, 66.7, 61.9 and 85.7% were recorded in the pots containing A. musiformis, T. esau, C. rosea and D. flagrans, respectively. The results of this study indicate that the predatory nematode Butlerius spp. and the assessed fungi display an important predatory activity can be considered suitable potential biological control agents.

  12. Food consumption by Chilo partellus (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae infected with Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae and effects of feeding natural versus artificial diets on mortality and mycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tefera, Tadele; Pringle, K L

    2003-11-01

    Second and third instar Chilo partellus larvae were infected with Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae (both at 1x10(8)conidia/ml) and daily consumption of maize leaves was measured. Infection by the fungi was associated with reduced mean daily food consumption. Reduction in food consumption became evident 3-4 days after treatment with the fungi for second instar larvae and 4-5 days for third instar larvae. Four conidial concentrations, 1x10(5), 1x10(6), 1x10(7), and 1x10(8)conidia/ml, were tested against second instar larvae. Food consumption dropped by 70-85% when the second instar larvae were treated with the fungi at 1x10(8)conidia/ml. Reduction in food consumption by C. partellus larvae infected with B. bassiana and M. anisopliae may offset the slow speed of kill of the fungi. The effect of artificial versus natural diets on mortality and mycoses of second instar larvae treated with the fungi at 1x10(8)conidia/ml was determined. Larvae provided with artificial diet suffered little mortality and mycoses than larvae provided with maize leaves. The LT(50) was longer for larvae provided with artificial diet.

  13. Survival and infectivity studies of in-vitro cultivated larvae of Haemonchus contortus in Sheep and Goats in Nigeria

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    A O Sonibare

    Full Text Available The survival and infectivity of indigenous isolates of Haemonchus contortus and in vitro cultivated infective larvae (L3 were studied. Active motile gravid females, adult and immature parasites were morphologically and morphometrically characterized and isolated from Haemonchus infected goats. These were subsequently inoculated into the abomasum of parasite free lambs through left sided laparatomy for production of fertile eggs to be used for coproculture. Harvested faeces from these lambs were cultured in a nutritive medium and kept in the incubator at 320C and room temperature 24-280C to obtain in vitro cultivated L of H. contortus. The infectivity and survival of in vitro cultivated L3 stored in refrigerator at 4-80C and under room temperature 24-280C were evaluated. Incubation period of 3 coproculture was observed to be shorter in medium at 320C than under room temperature 24-280C. The storage of in vitro cultivated L under different temperature range showed that the quantity of active larvae in a given volume 3 decreased at p<0.05 from the 5th day under 24-280C while at 4-80C became significantly lower from 20th day. Infectivity of isolate kept at 4-80C was sustained for 18-20 days while at 24-280C it was maintained for 10-12 days. Laboratory invitro cultivated L of H. contortus had limited infectivity and larvae mortality increase with time under different 3 temperatures. [Vet. World 2011; 4(12.000: 533-536

  14. Exome and Transcriptome Sequencing of Aedes aegypti Identifies a Locus That Confers Resistance to Brugia malayi and Alters the Immune Response

    KAUST Repository

    Juneja, Punita

    2015-03-27

    Many mosquito species are naturally polymorphic for their abilities to transmit parasites, a feature which is of great interest for controlling vector-borne disease. Aedes aegypti, the primary vector of dengue and yellow fever and a laboratory model for studying lymphatic filariasis, is genetically variable for its capacity to harbor the filarial nematode Brugia malayi. The genome of Ae. aegypti is large and repetitive, making genome resequencing difficult and expensive. We designed exome captures to target protein-coding regions of the genome, and used association mapping in a wild Kenyan population to identify a single, dominant, sex-linked locus underlying resistance. This falls in a region of the genome where a resistance locus was previously mapped in a line established in 1936, suggesting that this polymorphism has been maintained in the wild for the at least 80 years. We then crossed resistant and susceptible mosquitoes to place both alleles of the gene into a common genetic background, and used RNA-seq to measure the effect of this locus on gene expression. We found evidence for Toll, IMD, and JAK-STAT pathway activity in response to early stages of B. malayi infection when the parasites are beginning to die in the resistant genotype. We also found that resistant mosquitoes express anti-microbial peptides at the time of parasite-killing, and that this expression is suppressed in susceptible mosquitoes. Together, we have found that a single resistance locus leads to a higher immune response in resistant mosquitoes, and we identify genes in this region that may be responsible for this trait.

  15. Larva migrans visceral: relato de caso Visceral larva migrans: case report

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    Alexandre Bortoli Machado

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Larva migrans visceral é doença infecciosa, adquirida por ingestão de ovos provenientes dos vermes Toxocara canis e/ou Toxocara cati que infestam cães e gatos; as larvas penetram a parede intestinal e migram através dos tecidos levando a alterações diversas, conseqüentes a uma resposta inflamatória imune.¹ Os autores descrevem um caso clínico de larva migrans visceral com apresentação clínica atípica.Visceral larva migrans is an infectious human disease that occurs following ingestion of eggs from the environment originating from roundworms which commonly infect dogs and cats, Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati. The larvae penetrate the gut wall and migrate through the tissues causing disorders consequent to an inflammatory immune response¹. The authors describe a clinical case of visceral larva migrans with an unusual clinical presentation and also its clinical aspects, diagnosis and treatment are reviewed.

  16. Development of lymphatic filarial parasite Wuchereria bancrofti (Spirurida: Onchocercidae) in mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) fed artificially on microfilaremic blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paily, K P; Hoti, S L; Balaraman, K

    2006-11-01

    The efficiency of laboratory colonies of mosquitoes such as Anopheles stephensi Liston, Aedes aegypti (L.) Liverpool strain, Ae. aegypti wild type, Aedes albopictus (Skuse), Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles, Culex sitiens Wiedemann, and Armigeres subalbatus Coquillett in supporting the development of Wuchereria bancrofti (Cobbold) (Spirurida: Onchocercidae) microfilariae to infective larvae was investigated. The mosquitoes were fed on heparinized microfilaremic human blood by using a membrane-feeding unit with Parafilm as membrane. The rate of infection, parasite development, and parasite burden were compared with that in the known vector mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus Say. Cx. quinquefasciatus showed the highest percentage of infection, followed by Ae. aegypti Liverpool strain and An. stephensi. The rate of development of the parasite was more or less similar in all the three species, and infective larvae were found on day 13. When the larvae were harvested on day 17, Cx. quinquefasciatus yielded the highest numbers, followed by Ae. aegypti Liverpool strain and An. stephensi. The percentage of infection was low, and the development was slow in Cx. tritaeniorhynchus compared with the other susceptible species. The parasite developed to second-stage larvae only by day 22 and to infective larvae by day 28. When 2-wk-old Cx. tritaeniorhynchus were fed on microfilaremic blood, they could develop the parasite to infective larvae by day 13 postfeeding. All other species of mosquitoes tested were found to be refractory to parasite development. It is shown that Cx. quinquefasciatus is the most suitable mosquito host for the production of infective larvae. However, Ae. aegypti Liverpool strain, which is commonly used for Brugia malayi filarial parasite, also can be used for generation of W. bancrofti infective larvae to circumvent the problem of maintaining two mosquito species.

  17. Microarray-based analysis of differential gene expression between infective and noninfective larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis.

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    Roshan Ramanathan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Differences between noninfective first-stage (L1 and infective third-stage (L3i larvae of parasitic nematode Strongyloides stercoralis at the molecular level are relatively uncharacterized. DNA microarrays were developed and utilized for this purpose.Oligonucleotide hybridization probes for the array were designed to bind 3,571 putative mRNA transcripts predicted by analysis of 11,335 expressed sequence tags (ESTs obtained as part of the Nematode EST project. RNA obtained from S. stercoralis L3i and L1 was co-hybridized to each array after labeling the individual samples with different fluorescent tags. Bioinformatic predictions of gene function were developed using a novel cDNA Annotation System software. We identified 935 differentially expressed genes (469 L3i-biased; 466 L1-biased having two-fold expression differences or greater and microarray signals with a p value<0.01. Based on a functional analysis, L1 larvae have a larger number of genes putatively involved in transcription (p = 0.004, and L3i larvae have biased expression of putative heat shock proteins (such as hsp-90. Genes with products known to be immunoreactive in S. stercoralis-infected humans (such as SsIR and NIE had L3i biased expression. Abundantly expressed L3i contigs of interest included S. stercoralis orthologs of cytochrome oxidase ucr 2.1 and hsp-90, which may be potential chemotherapeutic targets. The S. stercoralis ortholog of fatty acid and retinol binding protein-1, successfully used in a vaccine against Ancylostoma ceylanicum, was identified among the 25 most highly expressed L3i genes. The sperm-containing glycoprotein domain, utilized in a vaccine against the nematode Cooperia punctata, was exclusively found in L3i biased genes and may be a valuable S. stercoralis target of interest.A new DNA microarray tool for the examination of S. stercoralis biology has been developed and provides new and valuable insights regarding differences between infective and

  18. New Paenibacillus larvae bacterial isolates from honey bee colonies infected with American foulbrood disease in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masry, Saad Hamdy Daif; Kabeil, Sanaa Soliman; Hafez, Elsayed Elsayed

    2014-03-04

    The American foulbrood disease is widely distributed all over the world and causes a serious problem for the honeybee industry. Different infected larvae were collected from different apiaries, ground in phosphate saline buffer (PSB) and bacterial isolation was carried out on nutrient agar medium. Different colonies were observed and were characterized biologically. Two bacterial isolates (SH11 and SH33) were subjected to molecular identification using 16S rRNA gene and the sequence analysis revealed that the two isolates are Paenibacillus larvae with identity not exceeding 83%. The DNA sequence alignment between the other P. larvae bacterial strains and the two identified bacterial isolates showed that all the examined bacterial strains have the same ancestor, i.e. they have the same origin. The SH33 isolate was closely related to the P. larvae isolated from Germany, whereas the isolate SH11 was close to the P. larvae isolated from India. The phylogenetic tree constructed for 20 different Bacillus sp. and the two isolates SH11 and SH33 demonstrated that the two isolates are Bacillus sp. and they are new isolates. The bacterial isolates will be subjected to more tests for more confirmations.

  19. Oesophagostomum columbianum : immunization of young lambs using gamma ray attenuated inefective larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, R.L.; Dhar, D.N.

    1987-01-01

    Infective Oesophagostomum columbianum larvae were successfully attenuated by exposing them to a gamma radiation dose levels of either 40 or 50 Krad. Lambs receiving a single vaccination dose of 2000 infective larvae attenuated at 40 Krad developed partial protection, whereas those vaccinated with similar dose of infection with 50 Krad irradiated larvae failed to develop any protection. A double vaccination schedule comprising of 500 and 2000 gamma attenuated (40 Krad) infective larvae induced a significantly higher level of protection against the challenge dose. The possible use of radiation attenuated larvae as vaccine for immunoprophylaxis against ovine Oesophagostomiasis has been discussed. (author). 11 refs., 2 tables

  20. Histological study of SlNPV infection on body weight and peritrophic membrane damage of Spodoptera litura larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NANIN DIAH KURNIAWATI

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Sanjaya, Machmudin D, Kurniawati ND. 2010. Histological study of SlNPV infection on body weight and peritrophic membrane damage of Spodoptera litura larvae. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 135-140. The effect of SlNPV infection on body weight and peritrophic membrane damage of Spodoptera litura Fab. larvae has been carried out. The method was used Probit analysis, and based on LD 50 the virus was infected to know body weight and post infection damage.The damage of histological structure caused by SlNPV (0, 315, 390, 465, 540 dan 615 PIB/mL was investigated after 0, 12, 24, 72 and 96 hours post infection. The histological material was prepared by using parafin method after fixation with Bouin Solution, then slice into 7 um and colored with Hematoxilin-Eosin. The result showed that the exposure SlNPV cause decreasing food consumption especially on 540 PIB/mL give average rate as amount of 0.1675 mg. The descriptive obsevation on structural intact of peritrophic membrane histology caused by SlNPV infection shows a tendency to decrease, while in control, there was no damage at all. The longer the exposition of virion in the midgut lumen the more damage on peritrophic membrane occurred. The severest damage occurred 96 hour after infection. The result prove that haNPV virion can destroy hystological structure of midgut.

  1. Eventos externos e internos da infecção de larvas e ninfas de Rhipicephalus sanguineus por Metarhizium anisopliae External and internal events of Rhipicephalus sanguineus larvae and nymphs infection by Metarhizium anisopliae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V. Garcia

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Examinaram-se a adesão, a germinação, a penetração e a colonização de larvas e ninfas de Rhipicephalus sanguineus por Metarhizium anisopliae, assim como as lesões infringidas pelo fungo nas respectivas fases do ciclo de vida do ácaro. Realizaram-se infecções experimentais em 11 grupos contendo 250 larvas e 11 grupos contendo 75 ninfas de R. sanguineus, por meio de banho, durante três minutos sob agitação manual, em suspensão contendo 10(8 conídios/ml do fungo. Nos grupos-controles, o banho foi realizado usando o veículo da suspensão. Larvas e ninfas foram processadas para um estudo histopatológico e de microscopia eletrônica de varredura nos seguintes tempos após a infecção: uma e 18 horas, e um, dois, três, quatro, cinco, seis, sete, nove e 11 dias. A germinação dos conídios ocorreu em até 18 horas pós-inoculação, e o fungo penetrou nas larvas e ninfas através do tegumento, dois e três dias após a infecção, respectivamente. Após penetração, o fungo invadiu o corpo das larvas e ninfas, promovendo uma colonização difusa, sem preferência aparente por tecidos específicos. Lesões significativas não foram observadas. A morte das larvas e ninfas ocorreu no terceiro e quarto dias pós-infecção, e a esporulação do patógeno sobre o cadáver foi iniciada no sexto dia pós-infecção.The adhesion, germination and colonization of Rhipicephalus sanguineus larvae and nymphs by Metarhizium anisopliae as well as the lesions caused by the fungus were studied. For this purpose, 11 groups of 250 larvae each and 11 groups of 75 nymphs each were bathed during 3 minutes under manual shaking in a 10(8 conidia/ml suspension. Corresponding control groups were bathed only in the suspension vehicle. Ticks were also submitted to both conventional microscopy and scanning eletronmicrocopy analyses at several post-infection periods (1 and 18 hours and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, and 11 days. Conidial germination occurred in less

  2. Molecular identification of infective larvae of three species of Onchocerca found in wild-caught females of Simulium bidentatum in Japan

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    Fukuda M.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Wild female black flies attracted to a man or an idling automobile were collected at Oita, Japan where five cases of zoonotic onchocerciasis had occurred. Among the five Simulium species captured, 2% of Simulium bidentatum, the predominant species, were infected with filarial larvae. There were at least two types of infective larvae, types A and B, based on morphometric observation. Moreover, molecular analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1 gene revealed that types A and B were represented by a single unknown species of Onchocerca and two species, i.e., Onchocerca dewittei japonica from wild boar, the causative agent of zoonotic onchocerciasis in Japan, and an undescribed Onchocerca sp. from wild boar, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis based on the sequences of the mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA (12S rRNA gene also showed that type A is likely to be an unknown species of Onchocerca. Natural infection of black flies with infective larvae of O. dewittei japonica and O. sp. was demonstrated for the first time. The present study strongly suggests that S. bidentatum plays a role as a vector in the transmission of zoonotic onchocerciasis due to O. dewittei japonica in Japan.

  3. Brugia malayi microfilariae adhere to human vascular endothelial cells in a C3-dependent manner.

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    Jan-Hendrik Schroeder

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Brugia malayi causes the human tropical disease, lymphatic filariasis. Microfilariae (Mf of this nematode live in the bloodstream and are ingested by a feeding mosquito vector. Interestingly, in a remarkable co-evolutionary adaptation, Mf appearance in the peripheral blood follows a circadian periodicity and reaches a peak when the mosquito is most likely to feed. For the remaining hours, the majority of Mf sequester in the lung capillaries. This circadian phenomenon has been widely reported and is likely to maximise parasite fitness and optimise transmission potential. However, the mechanism of Mf sequestration in the lungs remains largely unresolved. In this study, we demonstrate that B. malayi Mf can, directly adhere to vascular endothelial cells under static conditions and under flow conditions, they can bind at high (but not low flow rates. High flow rates are more likely to be experienced diurnally. Furthermore, a non-periodic nematode adheres less efficiently to endothelial cells. Strikingly C3, the central component of complement, plays a crucial role in the adherence interaction. These novel results show that microfilariae have the ability to bind to endothelial cells, which may explain their sequestration in the lungs, and this binding is increased in the presence of inflammatory mediators.

  4. A Madurella mycetomatis Grain Model in Galleria mellonella Larvae.

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    Wendy Kloezen

    Full Text Available Eumycetoma is a chronic granulomatous subcutaneous infectious disease, endemic in tropical and subtropical regions and most commonly caused by the fungus Madurella mycetomatis. Interestingly, although grain formation is key in mycetoma, its formation process and its susceptibility towards antifungal agents are not well understood. This is because grain formation cannot be induced in vitro; a mammalian host is necessary to induce its formation. Until now, invertebrate hosts were never used to study grain formation in M. mycetomatis. In this study we determined if larvae of the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella could be used to induce grain formation when infected with M. mycetomatis. Three different M. mycetomatis strains were selected and three different inocula for each strain were used to infect G. mellonella larvae, ranging from 0.04 mg/larvae to 4 mg/larvae. Larvae were monitored for 10 days. It appeared that most larvae survived the lowest inoculum, but at the highest inoculum all larvae died within the 10 day observation period. At all inocula tested, grains were formed within 4 hours after infection. The grains produced in the larvae resembled those formed in human and in mammalian hosts. In conclusion, the M. mycetomatis grain model in G. mellonella larvae described here could serve as a useful model to study the grain formation and therapeutic responses towards antifungal agents in the future.

  5. Activity changes of antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes in Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) larvae infected by the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis beicherriana (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingyue; Liu, Qizhi; Lewis, Edwin E; Tarasco, Eustachio

    2016-12-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) of the genera Steinernema and Heterorhabditis are lethal parasites of many insect species. To investigate defensive mechanisms towards EPNs in relation to antioxidative and detoxifying enzymes, we chose Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) as experimental insect. We studied the activity changes of superoxide dismutases (SODs), peroxidases (PODs), and catalases (CATs), as well as tyrosinase (TYR), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), carboxylesterase (CarE), and glutathione S-transferase (GSTs) for 40 h in T. molitor larvae infected with Heterorhabditis beicherriana infective juveniles (IJs) at 5 rates (0, 20, 40, 80, and 160 IJs/larva). We found that when T. molitor larvae infected with H. beicherriana at higher rates (80 and 160 IJs/larva), SOD activity quickly increased to more than 70 % higher than that control levels. The activities of POD and CAT increased after 24 h. TYR activity increased slowly at lower rates of infection for 16 h, followed by a slight decrease, and then increasing from 32 to 40 h. The other detoxifying enzymes (GST, CarE, and AChE) were enhanced at lower infection rates, but were inhibited at higher rates. Our results suggested that host antioxidative response and detoxification reactions played a central role in the defensive reaction to EPNs, and that this stress which was reflected by the higher level enzymes activity contributed to the death of hosts. Further study should explore the exact function of these enzymes using different species of EPNs and investigate the links between enzyme activity and host susceptibility to EPNs.

  6. Characterization and experimental infection of Flexibacter maritimus (Wakabayashi et al. 1986 in hatcheries of post-larvae of Litopenaeus vannamei Boone, 1931

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    JLP. Mouriño

    Full Text Available A preliminary study to characterize filamentous bacteria, whose presence is related to high mortality of Litopenaeus vannamei larvae cultured in Santa Catarina State, Brazil, is reported. The extract of infected larvae was diluted in different concentrations, cultured in marine agar (DifcoTM, Marine Agar 2216 and incubated at 30 °C for 48 hours. The biochemical characterization included hydrolytic reactions of starch, gelatin and tyrosine, growth in TCBS agar, growth in 0 and 37‰ salinity, pigment production in tyrosine agar, production of H2S, nitrate reduction, congo red reaction, oxidase and catalase. The isolated bacteria belong to the species Flexibacter maritimus, Gram-negative bacilli of 0.4-0.5 µm width and 15 µm length. Experiments were carried out on pathogenicity of F. maritimus in post-larvae of L. vannamei. Survival and symptoms in L. vannamei post-larvae 24 hours after inoculation with F. maritimus and its growth in marine agar were evaluated. Mortality was detected around 92,5% as well as symptoms like melanized lesions in several parts of body, discolouration of gills, bad formation of appendages and of the last abdominal segment, low motility and feeding reduction. The experimental infection results suggested that isolated bacteria of the genus Flexibacter are pathogenic to the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei post-larvae.

  7. Experimental infection with different bacterial strains in larvae and juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei reared in Santa Catarina State, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i3.5471 Experimental infection with different bacterial strains in larvae and juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei reared in Santa Catarina State, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i3.5471

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    Adolfo Jatoba

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the pathogenic characteristics of bacteria isolated from Litopenaeus vannamei during an outbreak at the Laboratory of Marine Shrimp, UFSC, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Their virulence potential in larvae and juvenile shrimp and the effects on the total haemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity and serum agglutinate titre were examined after experimental infection. Bacterial strains were isolated from larvae and adult shrimps, identified by the AP120E biochemical system as: two strains of Vibrio alginolyticus, three of Aeromonas salmonicida and one of Pasteurella multocida sp. and Pasteurella sp. All the bacterial strains isolated in this study caused mortality in shrimp. One strain of V. alginolyticus was responsible for 97.3 and 88.7% mortality in larvae and juvenil shrimps, respectively. The shrimp immunological system was influenced by experimental infection with V. alginolyticus. Decrease in the total haemocyte count and increase in the phenoloxidase activity and the serum agglutinate titre (p V. alginolyticus isolated from larvae and juvenile reared marine shrimp.This study evaluated the pathogenic characteristics of bacteria isolated from Litopenaeus vannamei during an outbreak at the Laboratory of Marine Shrimp, UFSC, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Their virulence potential in larvae and juvenile shrimp and the effects on the total haemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity and serum agglutinate titre were examined after experimental infection. Bacterial strains were isolated from larvae and adult shrimps, identified by the AP120E biochemical system as: two strains of Vibrio alginolyticus, three of Aeromonas salmonicida and one of Pasteurella multocida sp. and Pasteurella sp. All the bacterial strains isolated in this study caused mortality in shrimp. One strain of V. alginolyticus was responsible for 97.3 and 88.7% mortality in larvae and juvenil shrimps, respectively. The shrimp immunological system was influenced by

  8. The infective larva of Litomosoides yutajensis Guerrero et al., 2003 (Nematoda: Onchocercidae, a Wolbachia-free filaria from bat

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    Guerrero R.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The infective larva of Litomosoides yutajensis Guerrero et al., 2003, a parasite of the bat Pteronotus parnellii, is described; it is distinct from congeneric infective larvae by the absence of caudal lappets. The life cycles of five other species of Litomosoides are known; three are parasites of rodents, one of a marsupial and one of a bat. As with these species, the experimental vector of L. yutajensis used was the macronyssid mite Ornithonyssus bacoti. In nature, the main vectors are probably other macronyssids but transmission by O. bacoti, with its large host-range, could account for the characteristic host-switchings in the evolution of Litomosoides. Unlike the murine model L. sigmodontis Chandler, 1931, L. yutajensis is devoid of the endosymbiontic bacteria Wolbachia and may be of great interest.

  9. Wolbachia lipoproteins: abundance, localisation and serology of Wolbachia peptidoglycan associated lipoprotein and the Type IV Secretion System component, VirB6 from Brugia malayi and Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronin, Denis; Guimarães, Ana F; Molyneux, Gemma R; Johnston, Kelly L; Ford, Louise; Taylor, Mark J

    2014-10-06

    Lipoproteins are the major agonists of Wolbachia-dependent inflammatory pathogenesis in filariasis and a validated target for drug discovery. Here we characterise the abundance, localisation and serology of the Wolbachia lipoproteins: Wolbachia peptidoglycan associated lipoprotein and the Type IV Secretion System component, VirB6. We used proteomics to confirm lipoprotein presence and relative abundance; fractionation, immunoblotting and confocal and electron immuno-microscopy for localisation and ELISA for serological analysis. Proteomic analysis of Brugia malayi adult female protein extracts confirmed the presence of two lipoproteins, previously predicted through bioinformatics: Wolbachia peptidoglycan associated lipoprotein (wBmPAL) and the Type IV Secretion System component, VirB6 (wBmVirB6). wBmPAL was among the most abundant Wolbachia proteins present in an extract of adult female worms with wBmVirB6 only detected at a much lower abundance. This differential abundance was reflected in the immunogold-labelling, which showed wBmPAL localised at numerous sites within the bacterial membranes, whereas wBmVirB6 was present as a single cluster on each bacterial cell and also located within the bacterial membranes. Immunoblotting of fractionated extracts confirmed the localisation of wBmPAL to membranes and its absence from cytosolic fractions of C6/36 mosquito cells infected with wAlbB. In whole worm mounts, antibody labelling of both lipoproteins were associated with Wolbachia. Serological analysis showed that both proteins were immunogenic and raised antibody responses in the majority of individuals infected with Wuchereria bancrofti. Two Wolbachia lipoproteins, wBmPAL and wBmVirB6, are present in extracts of Brugia malayi with wBmPAL among the most abundant of Wolbachia proteins. Both lipoproteins localised to bacterial membranes with wBmVirB6 present as a single cluster suggesting a single Type IV Secretory System on each Wolbachia cell.

  10. Infection Dynamics Vary between Symbiodinium Types and Cell Surface Treatments during Establishment of Endosymbiosis with Coral Larvae

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    Bette Lynn Willis

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Symbioses between microbes and higher organisms underpin high diversity in many ecosystems, including coral reefs, however mechanisms underlying the early establishment of symbioses remain unclear. Here we examine the roles of Symbiodinium type and cell surface recognition in the establishment of algal endosymbiosis in the reef-building coral, Acropora tenuis. We found 20–70% higher infection success (proportion of larvae infected and five-fold higher Symbiodinium abundance in larvae exposed to ITS-1 type C1 compared to ITS-1 type D in the first 96 h following exposure. The highest abundance of Symbiodinium within larvae occurred when C1-type cells were treated with enzymes that modified the 40–100 kD glycome, including glycoproteins and long chain starch residues. Our finding of declining densities of Symbiodinium C1 through time in the presence of intact cell surface molecules supports a role for cell surface recognition molecules in controlling post-phagocytosis processes, leading to rejection of some Symbiodinium types in early ontogeny. Reductions in the densities of unmodified C1 symbionts after 96 h, in contrast to increases in D symbionts may suggest the early initiation of a winnowing process contributing to the establishment of Symbiodinium D as the dominant type in one-month old juveniles of A. tenuis.

  11. Studies on immunization with irradiated larvae against dictyocaulus filaria in guinea-pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akyol, F.; Cerci, H.; Duzgun, A.

    1986-01-01

    In this study, 32 guinea-pigs were immunized orally with two doses of infective D. filaria attenuated by exposure to 40 krad (group I) and 50 krad (group II) of Cs-137 source at 15 days interval. The first dose was administrated as 1000 larvae and the second was 2000 larvae. After 15 days of the second infection they were challenged with 5000 non-irradiated infective larvae. Eight guinea-pigs were used as control (group III). The control group received the challenge only. The controls developed signs of lungworm disease and 3 animals died after 10 days of challenge. The vaccinated animals showed no clinical signs. All of the surviving animals were killed 12 days after challenge and their lungs were carefully examined for detailed parasitological and pathomorphological examinations. At autopsy, an average of 91 worms was recovered from the lungs of control groups. Four worms recovered from animals given larvae irradiated at 40 krad and the pathological changes were the lightest in this group. It was established that gamma rays at 50 krad attenuated infective larvae of D. filaria to such a degree that their administration did not cause any serious pathomorphological effect in the lungs of the animals. A higher degree of protection against challenge with infective D. filaria larvae was confered on the guinea-pigs by double dose of irradiated larvae. (auhtor)

  12. Production of Brugia malayi BmSXP Recombinant Protein Expressed in Escherichia coli

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    Khoo, T. K.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A rapid antibody detection test is very useful for detection of lymphatic filariasis, especially for certification and surveillance of post-mass drug administration. One such kit, panLF RapidTM (commercialized by Malaysian BioDiagnostic Research Sdn. Bhd. had been developed in our laboratory for the detection of all species of filarial infections. It is based on the detection of anti-filarial IgG4 antibodies that react with recombinant Brugia malayi antigens, BmR1 and BmSXP. In this study, the growth of recombinant bacteria that produce BmSXP was optimized under shake flask fermentation for high yield of the recombinant antigen. The optimizations involved selection of suitable growth medium, IPTG concentration and induction time. The medium that yielded the highest biomass as well as total protein was Terrific Broth (TB medium, which is an undefined medium. Initiation of induction of protein expression was found to be best at mid-log phase (OD600 = 1.5, with IPTG concentration of 1.0 mM, and harvest time at 9 h post-induction. This study showed that under the optimized conditions, the shake flask culture produced 4 g/L biomass (dry cell weight of recombinant Escherichia coli BmSXP/pPROEXHTa/TOP10F’, which yielded 2.42 mg/L of purified BmSXP recombinant antigen. The purified antigen was analyzed by SDS-PAGE and the antigenicity of protein was confirmed by Western blot.

  13. PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF THE PROBIOTIC Saccharomyces boulardii IN Toxocara canis INFECTION IS NOT DUE TO DIRECT ACTION ON THE LARVAE

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    Luciana Farias da Costa de Avila

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY In a previous study our group found that the probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii was capable of reducing the intensity of infection in mice with toxocariasis. In order to assess whether the mechanism involved would be a direct action of the probiotic on Toxocara canis larvae, this study was designed. Both probiotics were singly cultivated in plates containing RPMI 1640 medium and T. canis larvae. S. boulardii and B. cereus var. toyoi cultures presented 97.6% and 95.7% of larvae with positive motility, respectively, and absence of color by the dye trypan blue, not representing significant difference to the control group (p > 0.05. We conclude that none of the probiotics showed in vitro effects on T. canis larvae and that the interaction with the intestinal mucosa is necessary for the development of the protective effect of S. boulardii.

  14. Protective effect of the probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii in Toxocara canis infection is not due to direct action on the larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Luciana Farias da Costa de; Telmo, Paula de Lima; Martins, Lourdes Helena Rodrigues; Glaeser, Thaís Aimeé; Conceição, Fabricio Rochedo; Leite, Fábio Pereira Leivas; Scaini, Carlos James

    2013-01-01

    In a previous study our group found that the probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii was capable of reducing the intensity of infection in mice with toxocariasis. In order to assess whether the mechanism involved would be a direct action of the probiotic on Toxocara canis larvae, this study was designed. Both probiotics were singly cultivated in plates containing RPMI 1640 medium and T. canis larvae. S. boulardii and B. cereus var. toyoi cultures presented 97.6% and 95.7% of larvae with positive motility, respectively, and absence of color by the dye trypan blue, not representing significant difference to the control group (p > 0.05). We conclude that none of the probiotics showed in vitro effects on T. canis larvae and that the interaction with the intestinal mucosa is necessary for the development of the protective effect of S. boulardii.

  15. Description, microhabitat selection and infection patterns of sealworm larvae (Pseudoterranova decipiens species complex, nematoda: ascaridoidea) in fishes from Patagonia, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Third-stage larvae of the Pseudoterranova decipiens species complex (also known as sealworms) have been reported in at least 40 marine fish species belonging to 21 families and 10 orders along the South American coast. Sealworms are a cause for concern because they can infect humans who consume raw or undercooked fish. However, despite their economic and zoonotic importance, morphological and molecular characterization of species of Pseudoterranova in South America is still scarce. Methods A total of 542 individual fish from 20 species from the Patagonian coast of Argentina were examined for sealworms. The body cavity, the muscles, internal organs, and the mesenteries were examined to detect nematodes. Sealworm larvae were removed from their capsules and fixed in 70% ethanol. For molecular identification, partial fragments of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1) were amplified for 10 isolates from 4 fish species. Morphological and morphometric data of sealworms were also obtained. Results A total of 635 larvae were collected from 12 fish species. The most infected fish was Prionotus nudigula, followed by Percophis brasiliensis, Acanthistius patachonicus, Paralichthys isosceles, and Pseudopercis semifasciata. Sequences obtained for the cox1 of sealworms from A. patachonicus, P. isosceles, P. brasiliensis and P. nudigula formed a reciprocally monophyletic lineage with published sequences of adult specimens of Pseudoterranova cattani from the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens, and distinct from the remaining 5 species of Pseudoterranova. A morphological description, including drawings and scanning electron microscopy photomicrographs of these larvae is provided. Sealworms collected from Argentinean fishes did not differ in their diagnostic traits from the previously described larvae of P. cattani. However a discriminant analysis suggests that specimens from P. nudigula were significantly larger than those from other fishes

  16. Description, microhabitat selection and infection patterns of sealworm larvae (Pseudoterranova decipiens species complex, nematoda: ascaridoidea) in fishes from Patagonia, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Orts, Jesús S; Aznar, Francisco J; Blasco-Costa, Isabel; García, Néstor A; Víllora-Montero, María; Crespo, Enrique A; Raga, Juan A; Montero, Francisco E

    2013-08-29

    Third-stage larvae of the Pseudoterranova decipiens species complex (also known as sealworms) have been reported in at least 40 marine fish species belonging to 21 families and 10 orders along the South American coast. Sealworms are a cause for concern because they can infect humans who consume raw or undercooked fish. However, despite their economic and zoonotic importance, morphological and molecular characterization of species of Pseudoterranova in South America is still scarce. A total of 542 individual fish from 20 species from the Patagonian coast of Argentina were examined for sealworms. The body cavity, the muscles, internal organs, and the mesenteries were examined to detect nematodes. Sealworm larvae were removed from their capsules and fixed in 70% ethanol. For molecular identification, partial fragments of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1) were amplified for 10 isolates from 4 fish species. Morphological and morphometric data of sealworms were also obtained. A total of 635 larvae were collected from 12 fish species. The most infected fish was Prionotus nudigula, followed by Percophis brasiliensis, Acanthistius patachonicus, Paralichthys isosceles, and Pseudopercis semifasciata. Sequences obtained for the cox1 of sealworms from A. patachonicus, P. isosceles, P. brasiliensis and P. nudigula formed a reciprocally monophyletic lineage with published sequences of adult specimens of Pseudoterranova cattani from the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens, and distinct from the remaining 5 species of Pseudoterranova. A morphological description, including drawings and scanning electron microscopy photomicrographs of these larvae is provided. Sealworms collected from Argentinean fishes did not differ in their diagnostic traits from the previously described larvae of P. cattani. However a discriminant analysis suggests that specimens from P. nudigula were significantly larger than those from other fishes. Most of the sealworms were

  17. Vaccination of lambs with irradiated larvae of Bunostomum trigonocephalum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, V.K.; Singh, K.S.; Subramanian, G.

    1987-01-01

    Vaccination with a single dose of 2,000 infective larvae of Bunostomum trigonocephalum, irradiated at 40 kR, caused 80 per cent reduction in worm establishment and such lambs withstood a challenge infection which was otherwise fatal to non-vaccinated lambs. The female worms, which developed from irradiated larvae, were irregular in shape, had cuticular thickening at the genital opening and in many male worms the copulatory bursa was rudimentary. The sex ratio was adversely affected in worms developing from irradiated larvae. The population had preponderant sterile females and a very few male worms. (author)

  18. Brugia malayi gene expression in response to the targeting of the Wolbachia endosymbiont by tetracycline treatment.

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    Elodie Ghedin

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Brugia malayi, like most human filarial parasite species, harbors an endosymbiotic bacterium of the genus Wolbachia. Elimination of the endosymbiont leads to sterilization of the adult female. Previous biochemical and genetic studies have established that communication with its endobacterium is essential for survival of the worm.We used electron microscopy to examine the effects of antibiotic treatment on Wolbachia cell structure. We have also used microarray and quantitative RT-PCR analyses to examine the regulation of the B. malayi transcripts altered in response to the anti-Wolbachia treatment. Microscopy of worms taken from animals treated with tetracycline for 14 and 21 days (14 d and 21 d demonstrated substantial morphologic effects on the Wolbachia endobacterium by 14 d and complete degeneration of the endobacterial structures by 21 d. We observed upregulation of transcripts primarily encoding proteins involved in amino acid synthesis and protein translation, and downregulation of transcripts involved in cuticle biosynthesis after both 7 d and 14 d of treatment. In worms exposed to tetracycline in culture, substantial effects on endobacteria morphology were evident by day 3, and extensive death of the endobacteria was observed by day 5. In a detailed examination of the expression kinetics of selected signaling genes carried out on such cultured worms, a bimodal pattern of regulation was observed. The selected genes were upregulated during the early phase of antibiotic treatment and quickly downregulated in the following days. These same genes were upregulated once more at 6 days post-treatment.Upregulation of protein translation and amino acid synthesis may indicate a generalized stress response induced in B. malayi due to a shortage of essential nutrients/factors that are otherwise supplied by Wolbachia. Downregulation of transcripts involved in cuticle biosynthesis perhaps reflects a disruption in the normal embryogenic program. This is

  19. Complete Genome Sequence of Paenibacillus larvae MEX14, Isolated from Honey Bee Larvae from the Xochimilco Quarter in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peréz de la Rosa, D; Pérez de la Rosa, J J; Cossio-Bayugar, R; Miranda-Miranda, E; Lozano, L; Bravo-Díaz, M A; Rocha-Martínez, M K; Sachman-Ruiz, B

    2015-08-27

    Paenibacillus larvae strain MEX14 is a facultative anaerobic endospore-forming bacterium that infects Apis mellifera larvae. Strain MEX14 was isolated from domestic bee larvae collected in a backyard in Mexico City. The estimated genome size was determined to be 4.18 Mb, and it harbors 4,806 protein coding genes (CDSs). Copyright © 2015 Peréz de la Rosa et al.

  20. Profiling extracellular vesicle release by the filarial nematode Brugia malayi reveals sex-specific differences in cargo and a sensitivity to ivermectin.

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    Hiruni Harischandra

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The filarial nematode Brugia malayi is an etiological agent of Lymphatic Filariasis. The capability of B. malayi and other parasitic nematodes to modulate host biology is recognized but the mechanisms by which such manipulation occurs are obscure. An emerging paradigm is the release of parasite-derived extracellular vesicles (EV containing bioactive proteins and small RNA species that allow secretion of parasite effector molecules and their potential trafficking to host tissues. We have previously described EV release from the infectious L3 stage B. malayi and here we profile vesicle release across all intra-mammalian life cycle stages (microfilariae, L3, L4, adult male and female worms. Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis was used to quantify and size EVs revealing discrete vesicle populations and indicating a secretory process that is conserved across the life cycle. Brugia EVs are internalized by murine macrophages with no preference for life stage suggesting a uniform mechanism for effector molecule trafficking. Further, the use of chemical uptake inhibitors suggests all life stage EVs are internalized by phagocytosis. Proteomic profiling of adult male and female EVs using nano-scale LC-MS/MS described quantitative and qualitative differences in the adult EV proteome, helping define the biogenesis of Brugia EVs and revealing sexual dimorphic characteristics in immunomodulatory cargo. Finally, ivermectin was found to rapidly inhibit EV release by all Brugia life stages. Further this drug effect was also observed in the related filarial nematode, the canine heartworm Dirofilaria immitis but not in an ivermectin-unresponsive field isolate of that parasite, highlighting a potential mechanism of action for this drug and suggesting new screening platforms for anti-filarial drug development.

  1. Comparison of an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a radioallergosorbent test (RAST) for detection of IgE antibodies to Brugia malayi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wahyuni, Sitti; van Ree, Ronald; Mangali, Andarias; Supali, Taniawati; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; Sartono, Erliyani

    2003-01-01

    The enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for specific IgE antibodies to Brugia malayi was compared with the radioallergosorbent test (RAST) for use in immunoepidemiological studies of lymphatic filariasis. Sera used were from individuals (aged 5-82 years) living in an area endemic for lymphatic

  2. Clash of kingdoms or why Drosophila larvae positively respond to fungal competitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohlfs Marko

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Competition with filamentous fungi has been demonstrated to be an important cause of mortality for the vast group of insects that depend on ephemeral resources (e.g. fruit, dung, carrion. Recent data suggest that the well-known aggregation of Drosophila larvae across decaying fruit yields a competitive advantage over mould, by which the larvae achieve a higher survival probability in larger groups compared with smaller ones. Feeding and locomotor behaviour of larger larval groups is assumed to cause disruption of fungal hyphae, leading to suppression of fungal growth, which in turn improves the chances of larval survival to the adult stage. Given the relationship between larval density, mould suppression and larval survival, the present study has tested whether fungal-infected food patches elicit communal foraging behaviour on mould-infected sites by which larvae might hamper mould growth more efficiently. Results Based on laboratory experiments in which Drosophila larvae were offered the choice between fungal-infected and uninfected food patches, larvae significantly aggregated on patches containing young fungal colonies. Grouping behaviour was also visible when larvae were offered only fungal-infected or only uninfected patches; however, larval aggregation was less strong under these conditions than in a heterogeneous environment (infected and uninfected patches. Conclusion Because filamentous fungi can be deadly competitors for insect larvae on ephemeral resources, social attraction of Drosophila larvae to fungal-infected sites leading to suppression of mould growth may reflect an adaptive behavioural response that increases insect larval fitness and can thus be discussed as an anti-competitor behaviour. These observations support the hypothesis that adverse environmental conditions operate in favour of social behaviour. In a search for the underlying mechanisms of communal behaviour in Drosophila, this study highlights

  3. The n-hexane and chloroform fractions of Piper betle L. trigger different arms of immune responses in BALB/c mice and exhibit antifilarial activity against human lymphatic filarid Brugia malayi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Meghna; Shakya, Shilpy; Soni, Vishal Kumar; Dangi, Anil; Kumar, Nikhil; Bhattacharya, Shailja-Misra

    2009-06-01

    Modulation of immune functions by using herbal plants and their products has become fundamental regime of therapeutic approach. Piper betle Linn. (Piperaceae) is a widely distributed plant in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world and has been attributed as traditional herbal remedy for many diseases. We have recently reported the antifilarial and antileishmanial efficacy in the leaf extract of Bangla Mahoba landrace of P. betle which is a female plant. The present report describes the in vivo immunomodulatory efficacy of the crude methanolic extract and its n-hexane, chloroform, n-butanol fractions of the female plant at various dose levels ranging between 0.3 and 500 mg/kg in BALB/c. Attempts were also made to observe antifilarial activity of the active extracts and correlate it with the antigen specific immune responses in another rodent Mastomys coucha infected with human lymphatic filarial parasite Brugia malayi. The crude methanol extract and n-hexane fraction were found to potentiate significant (p<0.001) enhancement of both humoral (plaque forming cells, hemagglutination titre) as well as cell-mediated (lymphoproliferation, macrophage activation, delayed type hypersensitivity) immune responses in mice. The flow cytometric analysis of splenocytes of treated mice indicated enhanced population of T-cells (CD4(+), CD8(+)) and B-cells (CD19(+)). The n-hexane fraction (3 mg/kg) was found to induce biased type 2 cytokine response as revealed by increased IL-4(+) and decreased IFN-gamma(+) T-cell population while the chloroform fraction (10 mg/kg) produced a predominant type 1 cytokines. Crude methanolic extract (100 mg/kg) demonstrated a mixed type 1 and type 2 cytokine responses thus suggesting a remarkable immunomodulatory property in this plant. The induction of differential T-helper cell immune response appears ideal to overcome immunosuppression as observed in case of lymphatic, filarial Brugia malayi infection which may also be extended to other

  4. How the position of mussels at the intertidal lagoon affects their infection with the larvae of parasitic flatworms (Trematoda: Digenea): A combined laboratory and field experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, Kirill E.; Prokofiev, Vladimir V.; Levakin, Ivan A.; Galaktionov, Kirill V.

    2017-10-01

    In the complex trematode life cycle, cercariae transmit infection from the first to the second intermediate host. These short-lived lecithotrophic larvae possess a complex of behavioural responses for finding and infecting the host. We studied strategies used by cercariae of Himasthla elongata and Cercaria parvicaudata (Renicola sp.) infecting mussels Mytilus edulis at the White Sea intertidal. Laboratory and field experiments were conducted in parallel. Geotactic response of cercariae was tested in an experimental chamber. Their distribution in nature was studied by counting larvae infecting mussels in cages installed in pairs (a ground and a suspended cage) in an intertidal lagoon. In the chamber H. elongata cercariae concentrated at the bottom, C. parvicaudata cercariae aged 1 h mostly concentrated near the surface and those aged 6 h sank to the bottom. A few larvae of both species ("evaders") showed behavioural patterns antithetic to the prevalent ones. Infection was the highest in mussels in ground cages. In suspended cages mussel infection with H. elongata cercariae was much lower than with C. parvicaudata cercariae. Our study confirmed that results of experiments on cercarial behaviour could be extrapolated to natural conditions. Cercariae of two species using the same intermediate hosts and co-occurring in a biotope implemented dramatically different strategies. This might be associated with differences in cercarial output by parthenitae groups. The presence of "evaders" might be useful for successful transmission. Our results indicate that mussels cultivated in suspended cultures are at the least risk of infection with trematode larvae.

  5. Stage- and gender-specific proteomic analysis of Brugia malayi excretory-secretory products.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yovany Moreno

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: While we lack a complete understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which parasites establish and achieve protection from host immune responses, it is accepted that many of these processes are mediated by products, primarily proteins, released from the parasite. Parasitic nematodes occur in different life stages and anatomical compartments within the host. Little is known about the composition and variability of products released at different developmental stages and their contribution to parasite survival and progression of the infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To gain a deeper understanding on these aspects, we collected and analyzed through 1D-SDS PAGE and LC-MS/MS the Excretory-Secretory Products (ESP of adult female, adult male and microfilariae of the filarial nematode Brugia malayi, one of the etiological agents of human lymphatic filariasis. This proteomic analysis led to the identification of 228 proteins. The list includes 76 proteins with unknown function as well as also proteins with potential immunoregulatory properties, such as protease inhibitors, cytokine homologues and carbohydrate-binding proteins. Larval and adult ESP differed in composition. Only 32 proteins were shared between all three stages/genders. Consistent with this observation, different gene ontology profiles were associated with the different ESP. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A comparative analysis of the proteins released in vitro by different forms of a parasitic nematode dwelling in the same host is presented. The catalog of secreted proteins reflects different stage- and gender-specific related processes and different strategies of immune evasion, providing valuable insights on the contribution of each form of the parasite for establishing the host-parasite interaction.

  6. Evaluation of the contamination of infecting larvae of nematodes on pasture of Cynodon sp. in a milk producing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Augusto Perazza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the contamination of infecting larvae of parasitic nematodes in cattle on Cynodon sp. pasture. The research was conducted in a milkproduction system situated in the town of Boa Esperança, in the southern region of Minas Gerais state, during the fall-winter seasons 2008. The samples of the grass were collected in ten points inserted into an outline in “W”, previously designed, in the period of morning between at 7:30 and 8:30, observing the presence of dew in all the collections performed. The samples were CUT close to the soil and separated in half, which constituted an upper and lower sample of each collecting point, their being afterwards placed into plastic bag, identified and carried to a plastic foam box . The samples were processed singly. The infecting larvae (L3 were identified and the amount per kilogram of dry matter in forage was estimated (L3/kg DM. The climatic conditions such as temperature, air relative humidity and rainfall enabled the development of the free life stages throughout the period. Even at low rainfall rates during the months of May to August, the counts of the amount of larvae in the pastures were high. Under the conditions of the dry period (Fall/Winter, the L3 forms of Cooperia sp. presented an expressive predominance in relation to the other genera throughout the period. The greatest amount of infecting larvae of this species was found in the months of July and August in the upper pasture, while for the samples of the lower part were found peaks in the months of June and August. The large number of genera of pathogenic helminths to animals in this study along the drier seasons of the year, especially in the upper pasture, demonstrates the importance of these agents as cause of losses in milk production in Minas Gerais state.

  7. Occurrence of viral pathogens in Penaeus monodon post-larvae from aquaculture hatcheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toms C. Joseph

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Viral pathogens appear to exert the most significant constraints on the growth and survival of crustaceans under culture conditions. The prevalence of viral pathogens White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV, Hepatopancreatic Parvo Virus (HPV, Monodon Baculo Virus (MBV and Infectious Hypodermal and Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus (IHHNV in Penaeus monodon post-larvae was studied. Samples collected from different hatcheries and also samples submitted by farmers from Kerala were analyzed. Out of 104 samples collected, WSSV was detected in 12.5% of the post-larvae samples. Prevalence of concurrent infections by HPV, MBV and WSSV (either dual or triple infection was present in 60.6% of the total post-larvae tested. Out of the 51 double positives, 98% showed either HPV or IHHNV infection. HPV or IHHNV was detected in 11 post-larval samples showing triple viral infection. This is the first report of IHHNV from India. Result of this study reveals the lack of efficient screening strategies to eradicate viruses in hatchery reared post-larvae.

  8. Annual Survey of Horsehair Worm Cysts in Northern Taiwan, with Notes on a Single Seasonal Infection Peak in Chironomid Larvae (Diptera: Chironomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Ming-Chung; Huang, Chin-Gi; Wu, Wen-Jer; Shiao, Shiuh-Feng

    2016-06-01

    The life cycle of the freshwater horsehair worm typically includes a free-living phase (adult, egg, larva) and a multiple-host parasitic phase (aquatic paratenic host, terrestrial definitive host). Such a life cycle involving water and land can improve energy flow in riparian ecosystems; however, its temporal dynamics in nature have rarely been investigated. This study examined seasonal infection with cysts in larval Chironominae (Diptera: Chironomidae) in northern Taiwan. In the larval chironomids, cysts of 3 horsehair worm species were identified. The cysts of the dominant species were morphologically similar to those of Chordodes formosanus. Infection with these cysts increased suddenly and peaked 2 mo after the reproductive season of the adult horsehair worms. Although adult C. formosanus emerged several times in a year, only 1 distinct infection peak was detected in September in the chironomid larvae. Compared with the subfamily Chironominae, samples from the subfamilies Tanypodinae and Orthocladiinae were less parasitized. This indicates that the feeding behavior of the chironomid host likely affects horsehair worm cyst infections; however, bioconcentration in predatory chironomids was not detected.

  9. Biological Role of Paenilarvins, Iturin-Like Lipopeptide Secondary Metabolites Produced by the Honey Bee Pathogen Paenibacillus larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertlein, Gillian; Seiffert, Marlene; Gensel, Sebastian; Garcia-Gonzalez, Eva; Ebeling, Julia; Skobalj, Ranko; Kuthning, Anja; Süssmuth, Roderich D; Genersch, Elke

    2016-01-01

    The Gram-positive bacterium Paenibacillus larvae (P. larvae) is the causative agent of a deadly honey bee brood disease called American Foulbrood (AFB). AFB is a notifiable epizootic in most countries and, hence, P. larvae is of considerable relevance for veterinarians and apiculturists alike. Over the last decade, much progress has been made in the understanding of the (patho)biology of P. larvae. Recently, several non-ribosomally produced peptides (NRP) and peptide/polyketide (NRP/PK) hybrids produced by P. larvae were identified. Among these NRPs were iturin-like lipopeptides, the paenilarvins A-C. Iturins are known to exhibit strong anti-fungal activity; for some iturins, cytotoxic activity towards mammalian erythrocytes and human cancer cell lines are described. We here present our results on the analysis of the natural function of the paenilarvins during pathogenesis of P. larvae infections. We demonstrated production of paenilarvins in infected larvae. However, we could neither demonstrate cytotoxicity of paenilarvins towards cultured insect cells nor towards larvae in feeding assays. Accordingly, exposure bioassays performed with larvae infected by wild-type P. larvae and a knockout mutant of P. larvae lacking production of paenilarvins did not substantiate a role for the paenilarvins as virulence factor. Further experiments are necessary to analyze the relevance of the paenilarvins' anti-fungal activity for P. larvae infections in the presence of fungal competitors in the larval midgut or cadaver.

  10. Toxocara cati larva migrans in domestic pigs--detected at slaughterhouse control in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Rebecca K; Mermer, Anna; Øines, Øivind

    2012-11-21

    Routine Trichinella meat inspection at the slaughterhouse detected one larva in a pooled batch of 100 pig samples. The larva was sent to the Norwegian Veterinary Institute (NVI) for species identification.Morphological examination revealed that the larva was not Trichinella spp. Molecular analysis was performed. PCR and sequencing of 5S/ITS identified the larva as Toxocara cati. A second round of digests was carried out at the meat inspection laboratory, in smaller batches to try to identify the infected animal. No further larvae were detected and it was not possible to identify which of the 100 animals the larva had come from. This is the first time that Toxocara cati has been reported in slaughterhouse pigs in Norway.Although the infected individual could not be identified, the meat originated from one of six potential farms. A small survey regarding rodent control and cats was sent to each of these farms. Cats had restricted access to food storage areas (two farms reported that cats had access) whilst none of the farms allowed cats into the production housing. Cats were, however, present on all the farms (mostly stray cats of unknown health status). Half of the farms also reported seeing rodents in the pig housing during the previous six months and half reported finding rodents in the feed and straw storage areas. We were unable to narrow down the source of infection - however contamination of food or bedding material, with cat faeces or infected rodents, in addition to the presence of infected rodents in pig housing remain potential routes of infection.

  11. Age of Haemonchus contortus third stage infective larvae is a factor influencing the in vitro assessment of anthelmintic properties of tannin containing plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda-Ramírez, G S; Mathieu, C; Vilarem, G; Hoste, H; Mendoza-de-Gives, P; González-Pech, P G; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Sandoval-Castro, C A

    2017-08-30

    The larval exsheathment inhibition assay (LEIA) of infective larvae (L 3 ) is an in vitro method used to evaluate the anthelmintic (AH) activity of tannin-containing plant extracts against different species of gastrointestinal nematodes, including Haemonchus contortus. Some conditions remain to be defined in order to standardize the LEIA, i.e. the optimal age of larvae produced from donor animals to use in the assays. Therefore, this study aimed at identifying the effect of age and age-related vitality of H. contortus infective larvae produced under tropical conditions, on the in vitro AH activity measured with the LEIA. The same acetone:water (70:30) extract from Acacia pennatula leaves was used to perform respective LEIA tests with H. contortus L 3 of different ages (1-7 weeks). Each week, the L 3 were tested against different concentrations of extract (1200, 600, 400, 200, 100, 40μg/mL of extract) plus a PBS control. Bioassays were performed with a benzimidazole (Bz) resistant H. contortus (Paraíso) strain. In order to identify changes in L 3 vitality on different weeks (1-7), two assays testing larval motility were included only with PBS: the larval migration assay (LMA) and the larval motility observation assay (LMOA). Mean effective concentrations causing 50% and 90% exsheathment inhibition (EC 50 , EC 90 ) were obtained for every week using respective Probit analyses. On the first week, the larvae had lowest EC 50 and EC 90 (39.4 and 65.6μg/mL) compared to older larvae (P0.05), while older larvae tended to show higher EC 50 and EC 90 (Page of larvae (r≥-0.83; P age. More stable efficacy results were found between two to five weeks of age. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Functional analysis of the cathepsin-like cysteine protease genes in adult Brugia malayi using RNA interference.

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    Louise Ford

    Full Text Available Cathepsin-like enzymes have been identified as potential targets for drug or vaccine development in many parasites, as their functions appear to be essential in a variety of important biological processes within the host, such as molting, cuticle remodeling, embryogenesis, feeding and immune evasion. Functional analysis of Caenorhabditis elegans cathepsin L (Ce-cpl-1 and cathepsin Z (Ce-cpz-1 has established that both genes are required for early embryogenesis, with Ce-cpl-1 having a role in regulating in part the processing of yolk proteins. Ce-cpz-1 also has an important role during molting.RNA interference assays have allowed us to verify whether the functions of the orthologous filarial genes in Brugia malayi adult female worms are similar. Treatment of B. malayi adult female worms with Bm-cpl-1, Bm-cpl-5, which belong to group Ia of the filarial cpl gene family, or Bm-cpz-1 dsRNA resulted in decreased numbers of secreted microfilariae in vitro. In addition, analysis of the intrauterine progeny of the Bm-cpl-5 or Bm-cpl Pro dsRNA- and siRNA-treated worms revealed a clear disruption in the process of embryogenesis resulting in structural abnormalities in embryos and a varied differential development of embryonic stages.Our studies suggest that these filarial cathepsin-like cysteine proteases are likely to be functional orthologs of the C. elegans genes. This functional conservation may thus allow for a more thorough investigation of their distinct functions and their development as potential drug targets.

  13. The innate immune and systemic response in honey bees to a bacterial pathogen, Paenibacillus larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foster Leonard J

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a major paradox in our understanding of honey bee immunity: the high population density in a bee colony implies a high rate of disease transmission among individuals, yet bees are predicted to express only two-thirds as many immunity genes as solitary insects, e.g., mosquito or fruit fly. This suggests that the immune response in bees is subdued in favor of social immunity, yet some specific immune factors are up-regulated in response to infection. To explore the response to infection more broadly, we employ mass spectrometry-based proteomics in a quantitative analysis of honey bee larvae infected with the bacterium Paenibacillus larvae. Newly-eclosed bee larvae, in the second stage of their life cycle, are susceptible to this infection, but become progressively more resistant with age. We used this host-pathogen system to probe not only the role of the immune system in responding to a highly evolved infection, but also what other mechanisms might be employed in response to infection. Results Using quantitative proteomics, we compared the hemolymph (insect blood of five-day old healthy and infected honey bee larvae and found a strong up-regulation of some metabolic enzymes and chaperones, while royal jelly (food and energy storage proteins were down-regulated. We also observed increased levels of the immune factors prophenoloxidase (proPO, lysozyme and the antimicrobial peptide hymenoptaecin. Furthermore, mass spectrometry evidence suggests that healthy larvae have significant levels of catalytically inactive proPO in the hemolymph that is proteolytically activated upon infection. Phenoloxidase (PO enzyme activity was undetectable in one or two-day-old larvae and increased dramatically thereafter, paralleling very closely the age-related ability of larvae to resist infection. Conclusion We propose a model for the host response to infection where energy stores and metabolic enzymes are regulated in concert with direct

  14. Toxocara cati larva migrans in domestic pigs - detected at slaughterhouse control in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davidson Rebecca K

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Routine Trichinella meat inspection at the slaughterhouse detected one larva in a pooled batch of 100 pig samples. The larva was sent to the Norwegian Veterinary Institute (NVI for species identification. Morphological examination revealed that the larva was not Trichinella spp. Molecular analysis was performed. PCR and sequencing of 5S/ITS identified the larva as Toxocara cati. A second round of digests was carried out at the meat inspection laboratory, in smaller batches to try to identify the infected animal. No further larvae were detected and it was not possible to identify which of the 100 animals the larva had come from. This is the first time that Toxocara cati has been reported in slaughterhouse pigs in Norway. Although the infected individual could not be identified, the meat originated from one of six potential farms. A small survey regarding rodent control and cats was sent to each of these farms. Cats had restricted access to food storage areas (two farms reported that cats had access whilst none of the farms allowed cats into the production housing. Cats were, however, present on all the farms (mostly stray cats of unknown health status. Half of the farms also reported seeing rodents in the pig housing during the previous six months and half reported finding rodents in the feed and straw storage areas. We were unable to narrow down the source of infection – however contamination of food or bedding material, with cat faeces or infected rodents, in addition to the presence of infected rodents in pig housing remain potential routes of infection.

  15. Studies with normal and gamma irradiated third stage larvae of Oesophagostomum columbianum in lambs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, R.L.; Dhar, D.N.

    1979-01-01

    Results of work on the host-parasite relationship of Oesophagostomum columbianum in sheep, carried out at the Regional Centre, Srinagar, are presented. Primary infections with small numbers of O. columbianum third larvae in lambs caused establishment of more adult worms in the intestine. As the number of larvae administered to lambs in primary infections was increased, a significant decrease in the establishment of adult worms in the intestine was observed. Higher levels of primary infections in lambs resulted in stunting of both male and female adult worms in intestine but this did not affect the resultant egg production by the worms. The severity of the disease in lambs was directly related to the number of larvae administered in primary infections. Attenuation of the third stage larvae of O.columbianum was obtained when they were irradiated at 40 and 50 Krad doses from a gamma source. Whereas it was possible to stimulate only a partial protection in young lambs to O. columbianum with a single dose of 2000, 40 Krad irradiated larvae. Vaccination with the same numbers of larvae, but irradiated at 50 Krad failed to protect the animals. The presence of adult worms of O.columbianum in sites outside the intestine in lambs has been reported for the first time. (auth.)

  16. Precipitin response of the mitogen produced by Strongylus vulgaris arterial larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyefa, C A

    1992-07-01

    The precipitin response of the mitogen produced by Strongylus vulgaris arterial larvae was investigated. IgG (T) from the sera of horses naturally infected with S. vulgaris adults and arterial larvae recognised the presence of two antigenic components of the mitogenic fractions. The results obtained seem to confirm that these antigens are immunogenic in stimulating the production of increased levels of IgG(T) in infected animals, and showed that the procedures could be used as immunological tools in the diagnosis of S. vulgaris infection.

  17. Isolation and purification of a granulosis virus from infected larvae of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tweeten, K A; Bulla, L A; Consigli, R A

    1977-09-01

    A procedure was developed for purification of a granulosis virus inclusion body produced in vivo in the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner). Purification was accomplished by differential centrifugation, treatment with sodium deoxycholate, and velocity sedimentation in sucrose gradients. The adequacy of the procedure was confirmed by mixing experiments in which uninfected, radioactively labeled larvae were mixed with infected, unlabeled larvae. After purification, the virus was shown to be free of host tissue, to retain its physical integrity, and to be highly infectious per os. Preparations of purified virus consisted of homogeneous populations of intact inclusion bodies (210 by 380 nm) whose buoyant density was 1.271 g/cm3 when centrifuged to equilibrium in sucrose gradients. Electron microscopy of thin-sectioned virus or of virus sequentially disrupted on electron microscope grids demonstrated three components: protein matrix, envelope, and nucleocapsid.

  18. IMPORTANT NEMATODE INFECTIONS IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Oemijati

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available At least 13 species of intestinal nematodes and 4 species of blood and tissue nematodes have been reported infecting man in Indonesia. Five species of intestinal nematodes are very common and highly prevalent, especially in the rural areas and slums of the big cities. Those species are Ascaris lumbricoides, Necator americanus, Ancylostoma duodenale, Trichuris trichiura and Oxyuris vermicularis, while Strongyloides stercoralis is disappearing. The prevalence of the soil transmitted helminths differs from place to place, depending on many factors such as the type of soil, human behaviour etc. Three species of lymph dwelling filarial worms are known to be endemic, the urban Wuchereria bancrofti is low endemic in Jakarta and a few other cities along the north coast of Java, with Culex incriminated as vector, high endemicity is found in Irian Jaya, where Anopheline mosquitoes act as vectors. Brugia malayi is widely distributed and is still highly endemic in many areas. The zoonotic type is mainly endemic in swampy areas, and has many species of Mansonia mosquitoes as vectors. B.timori so far has been found only in the south eastern part of the archipelago and has Anopheles barbirostris as vector. Human infections with animal parasites have been diagnosed properly only when adult stages were found either in autopsies or removed tissues. Cases of infections with A. caninum, A.braziliense, A.ceylanicum, Trichostrongylus colubriformis, T.axei and Oesophagostomum apiostomum have been desribed from autopsies, while infections with Gnathostoma spiningerum have been reported from removed tissues. Infections with the larval stages such as VLM, eosinophylic meningitis, occult filanasis and other could only be suspected, since the diagnosis was extremely difficult and based on the finding and identification of the parasite. Many cases of creeping eruption which might be caused by the larval stages of A.caninum and A.braziliense and Strongyloides stercoralis

  19. Evaluation of follow-up of therapy with fenbendazole incorporated into stabilized liposomes and immunomodulator glucan in mice infected with Toxocara canis larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrckova, G; Velebný, S; Obwaller, A; Auer, H; Kogan, G

    2007-01-01

    Anthelmintic activity of benzimidazole carbamate anthelmintics is low against dormant Toxocara canis larvae during late infections in paratenic hosts. The present study was conducted to examine the efficacy of pure fenbendazole, or drug incorporated into sterically stabilized liposomes (SL-FBZ) administered to T. canis-infected mice alone and after its co-administration with the immunomodulator (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan against larvae localized in muscles and brains. Therapy with either drug forms (in total 250 mg/kg in 10 doses) commenced on day 28 post-infection (p.i.) and the efficacy of treatment, examined on day 30 after the last dose of drug, was the highest in groups of mice treated with SL-FBZ in combination with glucan (89.5+/-5.8% in the muscles, 66.1+/-8.1% in brains). During 56 days of follow-up after termination of therapy, serum levels of anti-TES IgG antibodies, circulating IgG-TES immune complexes (CIC) as well as IgG antibodies to the most immunogenic part of recombinant myosin antigen of T. canis larvae were investigated. In contrast to anti-TES IgG antibodies, levels of CIC and anti-myosin antibodies were in the linear correlation with the efficacy of treatments beginning from day 38 post-therapy. We also showed that the serum levels of CIC as well as anti-myosin IgG antibodies seem to be the suitable serological markers for the monitoring of progress in larval destruction and TES resorption from the tissues.

  20. Galactolipids from Bauhinia racemosa as a new class of antifilarial agents against human lymphatic filarial parasite, Brugia malayi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sashidhara, Koneni V; Singh, Suriya P; Misra, Sweta; Gupta, Jyoti; Misra-Bhattacharya, Shailja

    2012-04-01

    Bioassay guided fractionation of ethanolic extract of the leaves of Bauhinia racemosa led to the isolation of galactolipid and catechin class of the compounds (1-7) from the most active n-butanol fraction (F4). Among the active galactolipids, 1 emerged as the lead molecule which was active on both forms of lymphatic filarial parasite, Brugia malayi. It was found to be better than the standard drug ivermectin and diethylcarbamazine (DEC) in terms of dose and efficacy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Exploring the Effect of Phage Therapy in Preventing Vibrio anguillarum Infections in Cod and Turbot Larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørbo, Nanna; Rønneseth, Anita; Kalatzis, Panos G.

    2018-01-01

    The aquaculture industry is suffering from losses associated with bacterial infections by opportunistic pathogens. Vibrio anguillarum is one of the most important pathogens, causing vibriosis in fish and shellfish cultures leading to high mortalities and economic losses. Bacterial resistance to a...... KVP40, demonstrating that the phage could also reduce mortality imposed by the background population of pathogens. Overall, phage-mediated reduction in mortality of cod and turbot larvae in experimental challenge assays with V. anguillarum pathogens suggested that application of broad...

  2. Tyramine functions as a toxin in honey bee larvae during Varroa-transmitted infection by Melissococcus pluton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanbar, G; Engels, W; Nicholson, G J; Hertle, R; Winkelmann, G

    2004-05-01

    From wounds of honey bee pupae, caused by the mite Varroa destructor, coccoid bacteria were isolated and identified as Melissococcus pluton. The bacterial isolate was grown anaerobically in sorbitol medium to produce a toxic compound that was purified on XAD columns, gelfiltration and preparative HPLC. The toxic agent was identified by GC-MS and FTICR-MS as tyramine. The toxicity of the isolated tyramine was tested by a novel mobility test using the protozoon Stylonychia lemnae. A concentration of 0.2 mg/ml led to immediate inhibition of mobility. In addition the toxicity was studied on honey bee larvae by feeding tyramine/water mixtures added to the larval jelly. The lethal dosis of tyramine on 4-5 days old bee larvae was determined as 0.3 mg/larvae when added as a volume of 20 microl to the larval food in brood cells. Several other biogenic amines, such as phenylethylamine, histamine, spermine, cadaverine, putrescine and trimethylamine, were tested as their hydrochloric salts for comparison and were found to be inhibitory in the Stylonychia mobility test at similar concentrations. A quantitative hemolysis test with human red blood cells revealed that tyramine and histamine showed the highest membranolytic activity, followed by the phenylethylamine, trimethylamine and spermine, while the linear diamines, cadaverine and putrescine, showed a significantly lower hemolysis when calculated on a molar amine basis. The results indicate that tyramine which is a characteristic amine produced by M. pluton in culture, is the causative agent of the observed toxic symptoms in bee larvae. Thus this disease, known as European foulbrood, is possibly an infection transmitted by the Varroa destructor mite.

  3. Characterization of a 14,000 dalton antigen of Dirofilaria immitis infective third stage larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, S.A.; Cachia, P.J.; Wong, M.M.; Hurrell, J.G.R.

    1986-01-01

    Immunogenic proteins of Dirofilaria immitis (canine heartworm) were identified by probing extracts of adult worms or their excretory-secretory proteins (ESP) blotted to nitrocellulose following SDS-PAGE with control or infected dog sera. A 14,000 dalton antigen (a prominent component of ESP by protein staining) was consistently recognized both in extracts and ESP by dog sera as early as three months post infection. This indicates a larval origin for the antigen since no adult worms are present until approximately five months post infection. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) prepared against the 14,000 dalton antigen confirmed by immunoblotting that this antigen is expressed by infective third stage larvae, adults and microfilariae and is present intact in the sera of infected dogs. Surface-labelling of whole adult D. immitis with Na 125 I produced radiolabelled antigens closely corresponding to those of ESP. An anti-14,000 dalton MAb was able to immunoprecipitate radiolabelled antigen which strongly suggest a surface or membrane location in the intact organism. Gel filtration data suggests that the protein is a native monomer. A MAb-affinity column has been used to purify the 14,000 dalton antigen to at least 98% homogeneity in one step from crude worm extracts. Further fractionation by HPLC yields a homogeneous preparation. Amino acid analysis and the N-terminal amino acid sequence data will be presented

  4. Expression of five acetylcholine receptor subunit genes in Brugia malayi adult worms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben-Wen Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Acetylcholine receptors (AChRs are required for body movement in parasitic nematodes and are targets of “classical” anthelmintic drugs such as levamisole and pyrantel and of newer drugs such as tribendimidine and derquantel. While neurotransmission explains the effects of these drugs on nematode movement, their effects on parasite reproduction are unexplained. The levamisole AChR type (L-AChRs in Caenorhabditis elegans is comprised of five subunits: Cel-UNC-29, Cel-UNC-38, Cel-UNC-63, Cel-LEV-1 and Cel-LEV-8. The genome of the filarial parasite Brugia malayi contains nine AChRs subunits including orthologues of Cel-unc-29, Cel-unc-38, and Cel-unc-63. We performed in situ hybridization with RNA probes to localize the expression of five AChR genes (Bm1_35890-Bma-unc-29, Bm1_20330-Bma-unc-38, Bm1_38195-Bma-unc-63, Bm1_48815-Bma-acr-26 and Bm1_40515-Bma-acr-12 in B. malayi adult worms. Four of these genes had similar expression patterns with signals in body muscle, developing embryos, spermatogonia, uterine wall adjacent to stretched microfilariae, wall of Vas deferens, and lateral cord. Three L-AChR subunit genes (Bma-unc-29, Bma-unc-38 and Bma-unc-63 were expressed in body muscle, which is a known target of levamisole. Bma-acr-12 was co-expressed with these levamisole subunit genes in muscle, and this suggests that its protein product may form receptors with other alpha subunits. Bma-acr-26 was expressed in male muscle but not in female muscle. Strong expression signals of these genes in early embryos and gametes in uterus and testis suggest that AChRs may have a role in nervous system development of embryogenesis and spermatogenesis. This would be consistent with embryotoxic effects of drugs that target these receptors in filarial worms. Our data show that the expression of these receptor genes is tightly regulated with regard to localization in adult worms and developmental stage in embryos and gametes. These results may help to explain the

  5. c-orfi and Tnpnin crnssiceps Larvae I Department of Pharmaceutical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    satisfactorily. The putative first intermediate host is a ground-dwelling coprophagous arthropod that ingests oncospheres and accommodates the development of larvae. It is presumed that vertebrates become hosts for the larvae after ingestion of infected arthropods. This is followed by penetration of the small intestine by a.

  6. EVALUATION OF THE THERAPEUTIC EFFICACY OF LEVAMISOLE HYDROCHLORIDE ON THIRD-STAGE LARVAE OF Lagochilascaris minor IN EXPERIMENTALLY INFECTED MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulcinéa Maria Barbosa CAMPOS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lagochilascariosis, a disease caused by Lagochilascaris minor, affects the neck, sinuses, tonsils, lungs, the sacral region, dental alveoli, eyeballs and the central nervous system of humans. A cycle of autoinfection may occur in human host tissues characterized by the presence of eggs, larvae and adult worms. This peculiarity of the cycle hinders therapy, since there are no drugs that exhibit ovicidal, larvicidal and vermicidal activity. Given these facts, we studied the action of levamisole hydrochloride on third-stage larvae in the migration phase (G1 and on encysted larvae (G3 of L. minor. To this end, 87 inbred mice of the C57BL/6 strain were divided into test groups comprising 67 animals (G1-37; G3-30 and a control group (G2-10; G4-10 with 20 animals. Each animal was inoculated orally with 2,000 infective eggs of the parasite. The animals of the test groups were treated individually with a single oral dose of levamisole hydrochloride at a concentration of 0.075 mg. The drug was administered either 30 minutes prior to the parasite inoculation (G1 animals or 120 days after the inoculation (G3 animals. The mice in the control groups were not treated with the drug. After the time required for the migration and the encysting of L. minor larvae, all the animals were euthanized and their tissues examined. The data were analyzed using the Student's unpaired t-test and the Levene test. The groups showed no statistically significant difference. Levamisole hydrochloride was ineffective on third-stage larvae of L. minor. These findings explain the massive expulsion of live adult worms, as well as the use of long treatment schemes, owing to the persistence of larvae and eggs in human parasitic lesions.

  7. Vectorial competence of larvae and adults of Alphitobius diaperinus in the transmission of Salmonella enteritidis in poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leffer, Andreia M; Kuttel, Javier; Martins, Lidiane M; Pedroso, Antonio Carlos; Astolfi-Ferreira, Claudete S; Ferreira, Fernando; Ferreira, Antonio J Piantino

    2010-06-01

    The ingestion of food products originating from poultry infected with Salmonella spp. is one of the major causes of food poisoning in humans. The control of poultry salmonellosis is particularly difficult since birds are asymptomatic and numerous factors may expedite the maintenance of bacteria in poultry production facilities. The aim of the study was to determine the vectorial capacity of adults and larvae of Alphitobius diaperinus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) in the experimental transmission of Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 4 to 1-day-old specific pathogen-free White Leghorn chicks. Adult insects and larvae were starved for 1 day, fed for 24 h or 7 days on sterile ration that had been treated with Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 4, and the levels of bacterial infection were determined. Infected adult insects and larvae were fed to groups of day-old chicks, after which bacteria were recovered from cecum, liver, and spleen samples over a 7-day period. Infected larvae were more efficient than adult insects in transmitting Salmonella Enteritidis to chicks. Higher concentrations of bacteria could be reisolated from the cecum, liver, and spleen of chicks that had ingested infected larvae compared with those that had ingested infected adults. The control of A. diaperinus, and particularly of the larvae, represents a critical factor in the reduction of Salmonella spp. in poultry farms.

  8. First Insights into the Genome of Fructobacillus sp. EFB-N1, Isolated from Honey Bee Larva Infected with European Foulbrood

    OpenAIRE

    Djukic, Marvin; Daniel, Rolf; Poehlein, Anja

    2015-01-01

    European foulbrood is a worldwide disease affecting the honey bee brood. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Fructobacillus sp. EFB-N1, which was isolated from an infected honey bee larva derived from a Swiss European foulbrood outbreak. The genome consists of 68 contigs and harbors 1,629 predicted protein-encoding genes.

  9. A PRELIMINARY STUDY OF MALAYAN FILARIASIS IN PUDING VILLAGE, JAMBI PROVINCE (SUMATERA, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudomo M.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Beberapa daerah di Propinsi Jambi akan dikembangkan menjadi daerah transmigrasi, satu di antara­nya adalah daerah Kumpeh yang terletak berdekatan dengan daerah endemik filariasis malayi. Desa yang paling dekat dengan lokasi transmigrasi tersebut adalah desa Puding. Penelitian pendahuluan tentang penyakit filariasis telah dikerjakan di desa Puding untuk mengetahui tingkat endemisitas, periodisitas B. malayi, fauna nyamuk, jenis nyamuk yang potensial menjadi vektor filariasis, hospes reservoir dan keadaan sosial-ekonomi-budaya penduduk setempat. Mf rate pada penduduk desa Puding adalah 18,7% dan dari B. malayi jenis subperiodiknokturna. Nyamuk yang tertangkap terdiri dari enam genera yaitu genus Anopheles, Aedes, Culex, Coquilletidia, Mansonia dan Tripteroides. Dari enam genera tersebut yang potensial untuk menjadi vektor filariasis adalah genus Mansonia dan ini didukung dengan diketemukannyd larva stadium L3 (infektif Brugia sp di tubuh nyamuk tersebut. Keadaan sosial-ekonomi-budaya, khususnya menyangkut adat istiadat dan kebiasaan penduduk setempat, telah dipelajari.

  10. Passive vectoring of entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana among the wax moth Galleria mellonella larvae by the ectoparasitoid Habrobracon hebetor females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryukov, Vadim Yu; Kryukova, Natalia A; Tyurin, Maksim V; Yaroslavtseva, Olga N; Glupov, Viktor V

    2017-03-15

    Females of the ectoparasitoid Habrobracon hebetor attack and envenomate numerous host individuals during oviposition. The vectoring of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana during the adhesion stage by ectoparasitoid females among the wax moth larvae Galleria mellonella was explored under laboratory conditions. Vectoring occurred both from infected parasitoids to wax moth larvae and from infected to healthy wax moth larvae by parasitoids. The efficacy of vectoring in both cases was dose dependent. Parasitoid females were unable to recognize infected larvae in a labyrinth test. In addition, the presence of H. hebetor females significantly (1.5-13 fold) increased the mycoses level in clusters of G. mellonella, with 40% of the larvae infected with fungal conidia. Envenomation by H. hebetor increased conidia germination on the cuticles of the wax moth larvae by 4.4 fold. An enhanced germination rate (2 fold) was registered in the n-hexane epicuticular extract of envenomated larvae compared to that of healthy larvae. Both envenomation and mycoses enhanced the phenoloxidase (PO) activity in the integument of G. mellonella and, in contrast, decreased the encapsulation rate in hemolymphs. We hypothesize that changes in the integument property and inhibition of cellular immunity provide the highest infection efficacy of entomopathogenic fungi with H. hebetor. © 2017 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  11. Occurrence of digenean larvae in freshwater snails in the Ruvu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Occurrence of digenean larvae in freshwater snails in the Ruvu basin, Tanzania. G Nkwengulila, ESP Kigadye. Abstract. A survey was carried out on digenean larvae infecting freshwater snails in five habitats in Dar es Salaam, Ruvu and Morogoro. 9424 snails belonging to 12 species from five families were examined for ...

  12. First Record of Anisakis simplex Third-Stage Larvae (Nematoda, Anisakidae in European Hake Merluccius merluccius lessepsianus in Egyptian Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmin Abou-Rahma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of infection and the identification of anisakid larvae in European hake Merluccius merluccius lessepsianus from Hurghada City, Red Sea Governorate, Egypt, were investigated. Fish samples were collected during the period of February and November 2014. Twenty-two (36.66% out of sixty examined fish specimens were found to be naturally infected with Anisakis type I larvae mostly found as encapsulated larvae in visceral organs. There was a positive relationship between host length/weight and prevalence of infection. Based on morphological, morphometric, and molecular analyses, these nematodes were identified as third-stage larvae of Anisakis simplex. The present study was considered as the first report of anisakid larvae from European hake in the Egyptian water.

  13. First Record of Anisakis simplex Third-Stage Larvae (Nematoda, Anisakidae) in European Hake Merluccius merluccius lessepsianus in Egyptian Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Rahma, Yasmin; Abdel-Gaber, Rewaida; Kamal Ahmed, Amira

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of infection and the identification of anisakid larvae in European hake Merluccius merluccius lessepsianus from Hurghada City, Red Sea Governorate, Egypt, were investigated. Fish samples were collected during the period of February and November 2014. Twenty-two (36.66%) out of sixty examined fish specimens were found to be naturally infected with Anisakis type I larvae mostly found as encapsulated larvae in visceral organs. There was a positive relationship between host length/weight and prevalence of infection. Based on morphological, morphometric, and molecular analyses, these nematodes were identified as third-stage larvae of Anisakis simplex. The present study was considered as the first report of anisakid larvae from European hake in the Egyptian water. PMID:26925257

  14. Infectivity of Oryctes Nudivirus Produced on Cell Culture Dsir Ha-1179 Against Larvae and Its Effects on Feeding of Neonates of Rhinoceros Beetle, Oryctes Rhinoceros

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur Ain Farhah Ros Saidon Khudri; Wahizatul Afzan Azmi; Ramle Moslim; Norman Kamarudin; Siti Ramlah Ahmad Ali

    2016-01-01

    The Oryctes nudivirus (OrNV) is a classical biocontrol agent for a major oil palm insect pest the rhinoceros beetle, Oryctes rhinoceros. The infectivity of three Malaysian indigenous types of OrNV types A, B and C were tested on larvae and neonates. On larvae, the peroral inoculation test technique indicated that the highest mortality of 100 % was achieved using type A produced from cell culture DSIR-HA-1179, while the highest infectivity of 41.7 % was recorded for type A prepared from infected guts. No differences in infectivity were observed on other treatments, which ranged from 13.1 % to 41.7 %. In the substrate contamination inoculation test technique, results showed that the level of infectivity was even lower in all OrNV treatments, ranging as low as 6.7 % to only 15.0 %. Low infectivity was mainly due to inactivation of virus inocula in the larval food substrates. Based on the results for both inoculation methods, the OrNV type C prepared from cell culture DSIR-HA-1179 was found more effective in controlling the L3 larvae than the other types of OrNV. The impact of OrNV infection on food consumption by the neonates was studied. The feeding of inoculated neonates with OrNV reduced rapidly, especially at the early stage of the experiment between eight days after treatment (DAT) to 16 DAT. At this period, the food consumption by all tested OrNV was rapidly reduced and maintained low until the experiment ended at 60 DAT. The highest feeding reduction rate was on neonates treated by type A (-0.074x) followed by neonates treated by type C (-0.053x) and type B (-0.035x). Therefore, it was suggested that besides on highly virulent, the selection of OrNV for field release should also based on high reduction rate on food consumption by the infected insects on plant hosts. (author)

  15. Experimental infection with different bacterial strains in larvae and juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei reared in Santa Catarina State, Brazil = Infecção experimental em larvas e juvenis de Litopaenaeus vannamei cultivados no Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Carlos Buglione

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the pathogenic characteristics of bacteria isolated from Litopenaeus vannamei during an outbreak at the Laboratory of Marine Shrimp, UFSC, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Their virulence potential in larvae and juvenile shrimp and theeffects on the total haemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity and serum agglutinate titre were examined after experimental infection. Bacterial strains were isolated from larvae and adult shrimps, identified by the AP120E biochemical system as: two strains of Vibrioalginolyticus, three of Aeromonas salmonicida and one of Pasteurella multocida sp. and Pasteurella sp. All the bacterial strains isolated in this study caused mortality in shrimp. One strain of V. alginolyticus was responsible for 97.3 and 88.7% mortality in larvae and juvenil shrimps, respectively. The shrimp immunological system was influenced by experimental infection with V. alginolyticus. Decrease in the total haemocyte count and increase in the phenoloxidase activity and the serum agglutinate titre (p Este estudo avaliou as características patogênicas de cepas de bactérias isoladas de Litopenaeus vannamei durante surto de mortalidade no Laboratório de Camarões Marinhos, UFSC, Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil. Seu potencial de virulência em larvas e juvenis de camarão marinho e os efeitos sobre a contagem total de hemócito, atividade de fenoloxidase e título aglutinante do soro foramavaliados após infecção experimental. As cepas bacterianas foram isoladas de larvas e de camarões adultos e identificadas bioquimicamente pelo sistema API20E como: duas cepas de Vibrio alginolyticus, três de Aeromonas salmonicida e uma de Pasteurella sp. e P. multocida. Todas as cepas isoladas provocaram mortalidade em L. vannamei, e uma de V. alginolyticus resultou em mortalidade de 97,3 e 88,7% para larvas e juvenis de camarões, respectivamente. O sistema imunológico dos camarões juvenis sofreu influência da infecção experimental

  16. Infectivity of Trichinella papuae for experimentally infected red foxes (Vulpes vulpes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Webster, P.; Malakauskas, A.; Kapel, C. M O

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate infectivity for carnivores as well as other biological characteristics of the newly described Trichinella papuae, eight red foxes were experimentally infected with the parasite. Five weeks after inoculation, T. papuae larvae were recovered from nine different muscle types. The larvae...

  17. Dose titration of moxidectin oral gel against migrating Strongylus vulgaris and Parascaris equorum larvae in pony foals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, C M; Chapman, M R; Taylor, H W; French, D D; Klei, T R

    1995-11-01

    Moxidectin was tested for efficacy in ponies against experimental infections of 56 day Strongylus vulgaris larvae and 11 day Parascaris equorum larvae. Three dosages of moxidectin were tested: 300 micrograms per kg live body weight, 400 micrograms per kg, and 500 micrograms per kg, and the vehicle served as control. Ponies were first infected with 600 S. vulgaris third-stage larvae (L3) on Experiment Day 0 and then with 3000 embryonated P. equorum eggs on Day 45. Moxidectin treatments were administered on Day 56 and necropsy examinations were performed on Day 91. Strongylus vulgaris fourth-stage (L4) and fifth-stage (L5) larvae were recovered at necropsy from the control ponies, in dissections of the cranial mesenteric artery and its branches (L4 and L5), and recovered from nodules in the wall of the cecum and ventral colon (L5). Parascaris equorum larvae were recovered from the small intestine of control ponies. Moxidectin was highly efficacious against S. vulgaris L4 and L5 at all three doses tested (99.6-100%), and appeared to be equally efficacious against P. equorum larvae (100%); however, control ponies had low levels of P. equorum infections compared to previous experimental infections performed using identical methods. This suggests that the prior S. vulgaris infection on Day 0 may have influenced the subsequent experimental P. equorum infection on Day 45 and contributed to the lower recovery.

  18. A Phosphorylcholine-Containing Glycolipid-like Antigen Present on the Surface of Infective Stage Larvae of Ascaris spp. Is a Major Antibody Target in Infected Pigs and Humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnny Vlaminck

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The pig parasite Ascaris suum plays and important role in veterinary medicine and represents a suitable model for A. lumbricoides, which infects over 800 million people. In pigs, continued exposure to Ascaris induces immunity at the level of the gut, protecting the host against migrating larvae. The objective of this study was to identify and characterize parasite antigens targeted by this local immune response that may be crucial for parasite invasion and establishment and to evaluate their protective and diagnostic potential.Pigs were immunized by trickle infection for 30 weeks, challenged with 2,000 eggs at week 32 and euthanized two weeks after challenge. At necropsy, there was a 100% reduction in worms recovered from the intestine and a 97.2% reduction in liver white spots in comparison with challenged non-immune control animals. Antibodies purified from the intestinal mucus or from the supernatant of cultured antibody secreting cells from mesenteric lymph nodes of immune pigs were used to probe L3 extracts to identify antibody targets. This resulted in the recognition of a 12kDa antigen (As12 that is actively shed from infective Ascaris L3. As12 was characterized as a phosphorylcholine-containing glycolipid-like antigen that is highly resistant to different enzymatic and chemical treatments. Vaccinating pigs with an As12 fraction did not induce protective immunity to challenge infection. However, serological analysis using sera or plasma from experimentally infected pigs or naturally infected humans demonstrated that the As12 ELISA was able to detect long-term exposure to Ascaris with a high diagnostic sensitivity (98.4% and 92%, respectively and specificity (95.5% and 90.0% in pigs and humans, respectively.These findings show the presence of a highly stage specific, glycolipid-like component (As12 that is actively secreted by infectious Ascaris larvae and which acts as a major antibody target in infected humans and pigs.

  19. Effect of Musa spp. extract on eggs and larvae of gastrointestinal nematodes from infected sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Neuwirt

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Helminthes are listed as one of the main problems facing the development of goat and sheep production. Haemonchus contortus is the specie that causes greatest negative impact in ranching. Resistance to anti-parasitic drugs and demand for residue-free animal-derived food products has elevated the importance of herbal treatments. The aim of this study was to develop an extract of Musa spp. and assess by in vitro testing, the anthelmintic effect on eggs and larvae in the gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep. Stool samples from sheep naturally infected were used to obtain eggs and larvae and was then followed by a test of hatchability and a larval migration inhibition test. In vitro tests on the inhibition of larval hatchability at concentrations of 160 and 180 mg mL-1 of larval extracts and inhibition of migration at concentrations of 800 and 1000 mg mL-1 were observed. The results indicate that the use of banana leaf has an anthelmintic effect and that in vivo studies on the applicability of this technology to the field should be made to further understanding and bring more information to what has already been revealed in this study.

  20. Experimental infection with different bacterial strains in larvae and juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei reared in Santa Catarina State, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i3.5471

    OpenAIRE

    Buglione, Celso Carlos; UFSC; Vieira, Felipe do Nascimento; UFSC; Mouriño, José Luiz Pedreira; UFSC; Pedrotti, Fabiola Santiago; UFSC; Jatoba, Adolfo; UFSC; Martins, Maurício Laterça; UFSC

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the pathogenic characteristics of bacteria isolated from Litopenaeus vannamei during an outbreak at the Laboratory of Marine Shrimp, UFSC, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Their virulence potential in larvae and juvenile shrimp and the effects on the total haemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity and serum agglutinate titre were examined after experimental infection. Bacterial strains were isolated from larvae and adult shrimps, identified by the AP120E biochemical system as:...

  1. Infectivity and temperature tolerance of non-encapsulating Trichinella zimbabwensis in experimentally infected red foxes (Vulpes vulpes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurníková, Z.; Dubinský, P.; Mukaratirwa, S.

    2004-01-01

    The non-encapsulating Trichinella zimbabwensis was evaluated for infectivity in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), the larval distribution and cold tolerance in fox muscle tissue. Six red foxes were experimentally infected with T. zimbabwensis larvae. Five weeks after inoculation, muscle larvae were...... recovered from 9 different muscle types using artificial digestion method. The establishment of infection in all infected red foxes demonstrated the ability of T. zimbabwensis to complete its life cycle in a carnivore mammal host. The larvae recovered from fox muscle tissue were infective to mice, they have...

  2. Analysis of Babesia bovis infection-induced gene expression changes in larvae from the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heekin Andrew M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cattle babesiosis is a tick-borne disease of cattle that has severe economic impact on cattle producers throughout the world’s tropical and subtropical countries. The most severe form of the disease is caused by the apicomplexan, Babesia bovis, and transmitted to cattle through the bite of infected cattle ticks of the genus Rhipicephalus, with the most prevalent species being Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. We studied the reaction of the R. microplus larval transcriptome in response to infection by B. bovis. Methods Total RNA was isolated for both uninfected and Babesia bovis-infected larval samples. Subtracted libraries were prepared by subtracting the B. bovis-infected material with the uninfected material, thus enriching for expressed genes in the B. bovis-infected sample. Expressed sequence tags from the subtracted library were generated, assembled, and sequenced. To complement the subtracted library method, differential transcript expression between samples was also measured using custom high-density microarrays. The microarray probes were fabricated using oligonucleotides derived from the Bmi Gene Index database (Version 2. Array results were verified for three target genes by real-time PCR. Results Ticks were allowed to feed on a B. bovis-infected splenectomized calf and on an uninfected control calf. RNA was purified in duplicate from whole larvae and subtracted cDNA libraries were synthesized from Babesia-infected larval RNA, subtracting with the corresponding uninfected larval RNA. One thousand ESTs were sequenced from the larval library and the transcripts were annotated. We used a R. microplus microarray designed from a R. microplus gene index, BmiGI Version 2, to look for changes in gene expression that were associated with infection of R. microplus larvae. We found 24 transcripts were expressed at a statistically significant higher level in ticks feeding upon a B. bovis-infected calf contrasted to ticks

  3. The immunogenic effect of irradiated Hemonchus contortus larvae in goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de la Cruz, B.; Perfuse, W.

    1980-01-01

    The development of radiation-attenuated vaccines against parasitic disease has been reported in literature. The use of irradiated larvae as vaccines enables one to take advantage of the special immunological properties of living parasites; the radiation treatment can largely suppress the pathogenic effects of the vaccines and the reproductive capacity of the parasites involved. This report deals with our attempts to produce a radiation-attenuated vaccine against Hemonchus contortus infection in adult goats. Hemonchus contortus infection in ruminants is prevalent in the Philippines, especially among cattle and goats. The results presented indicate that a certain degree of resistance against Hemonchus contortus infection can be induced in adult goats immunized with irradiated larvae. The shelf-life of the vaccine was also determined. (author)

  4. Ultrastructural characteristics of nurse cell-larva complex of four species of Trichinella in several hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacchi L.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The nurse cell-larva complex of nematodes of the genus Trichinella plays an Important role in the survival of the larva in decaying muscles, frequently favouring the transmission of the parasite in extreme environmental conditions. The ultrastructure of the nurse cell-larva complex in muscles from different hosts infected with T. nativa (a walrus and a polar bear, T. spiralis (horses and humans, T. pseudospiralis (a laboratory mouse and T. papuae (a laboratory mouse were examined. Analysis with transmission electron microscope showed that the typical nurse cell structure was present in all examined samples, irrespective of the species of larva, of the presence of a collagen capsule, of the age of infection and of the host species, suggesting that there exists a molecular mechanism that in the first stage of larva invasion is similar for encapsulated and non-encapsulated species.

  5. Investigating the Effect of Different Treatments with Lactic Acid Bacteria on the Fate of Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus Infection in Galleria mellonella Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grounta, Athena; Harizanis, Paschalis; Mylonakis, Eleftherios; Nychas, George-John E; Panagou, Efstathios Z

    2016-01-01

    The use of Galleria mellonella as a model host to elucidate microbial pathogenesis and search for novel drugs and therapies has been well appreciated over the past years. However, the effect of microorganisms with functional appeal in the specific host remains scarce. The present study investigates the effect of treatment with selected lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with probiotic potential, as potential protective agents by using live or heat-killed cells at 6 and 24 h prior to infection with Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus or as potential therapeutic agents by using cell-free supernatants (CFS) after infection with the same pathogens. The employed LAB strains were Lactobacillus pentosus B281 and Lactobacillus plantarum B282 (isolated from table olive fermentations) along with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (inhabitant of human intestinal tract). Kaplan-Meier survival curves were plotted while the pathogen's persistence in the larval hemolymph was determined by microbiological analysis. It was observed that the time (6 or 24 h) and type (live or heat-killed cells) of challenge period with LAB prior to infection greatly affected the survival of infected larvae. The highest decrease of L. monocytogenes population in the hemolymph was observed in groups challenged for 6 h with heat-killed cells by an average of 1.8 log units compared to non challenged larvae for strains B281 (p 0.0322), B282 (p 0.0325), and LGG (p 0.0356). In the case of S. aureus infection, the population of the pathogen decreased in the hemolymph by 1 log units at 8 h post infection in the groups challenged for 6 h with heat-killed cells of strains B281 (p 0.0161) and B282 (p 0.0096) and by 1.8 log units in groups challenged with heat-killed cells of LGG strain (p 0.0175). Further use of CFS of each LAB strain did not result in any significant prolonged survival but interestingly it resulted in pronounced decrease of L. monocytogenes in the hemolymph at 24 h and 48 h after infection by

  6. Studies on the use ofEchinostoma revolutum larvae as an agent for biological control of Fasciola gigantica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarwitri Endah Estuningsih

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of Echinostoma revolutum larvae as an agent for biological control of Fasciola gigantica has been studied in the laboratory of Parasitology, Balitvet. Infection of Lymnaea rubiginosa with Echinostoma revolutum increased the growth and mortality rates of the snails and completely suppressed their egg production . These effects were attributed to a destruction of gonads and other organs of the snails by echinostome rediae, production of which commenced during the second week after the infection. From laboratory studies with L. rubiginosa, there was an evidence of strong antagonism between larvae of E. revolutum and larvae of F. gigantica. Concurrent infection of L. rubiginosa with miracidia of F. gigantica and E. Revolutum resulted in that all snails were infected with E. revolutum only, when they were dissected 30 days later. In contrast, 94% of the snails which were exposed to miracidia of F. gigantica only, were infected with larvae of this species after 30 days . When L. rubiginosa were infected with F. gigantica 20 days previously were exposed to infection with E. revolutum and examined 30 days later, it was found that 77% of the snails had a single infection with E. revolutum, 16 % were infected with F. Gigantica only, and the remaining 7% had common infection. It was concluded that the dominant antagonism of E. revolutum over F. gigantica in L. rubiginosa and the reduction of fecundity and longevity ofsnails infected with E. revolutum could be useful for biological control of F. gigantica.

  7. The Effect of Water Content of Medium Containing Oryctes rhinoceros Larvae on Metarhizium anisopliae Pathogenicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Rini Indriyanti

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff Sorokin (Ascomycota: Hypocrealeswould effectively infect the target host on the appropriate medium water content. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of water content of medium on the effectiveness of M. anisopliae fungus infection on O. rhinoceros larvae in the laboratory. Fifty healthy third instar larvae of O. rhinoceros were  obtained from field. The M. anisopliae obtained from Estate Crop Protection Board in Salatiga. The conidia density and viability of M. anisopliae were examined before used. The medium for maintaining the larva was the sawdust that had been sterilized. A total of 50 plastic cups were prepared to place 50 larvae (1 larva/cup. Each cup was filled with 100 g medium  of sawdust plus 2 g of M. anisopliae which was then stirred until mixed, with different water content: P1 (20%, P2 (40%, P3 (60%, P4 (80% and P5 (98%. The result indicated that  the water content of the medium affected the effectiveness of M. anisopliae fungus infection on O. rhinoceros larvae. The water content influenced the duration of larval mortality at each treatment. An important finding in this study is that controlling O. rhineceros larvae  with M. anisopliae can be done by manipulating the water content of medium. The benefit of this study may be used for the recommendation of O. rhinoceros pest control using M. anisopliae  with an effective water media content.

  8. Cryopreservation of third-stage larvae of Strongylus vulgaris (large strongyle of horses).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titoy, G A; Van Rensburg, L J

    1997-06-01

    A technique for the cryopreservation of third-stage larvae of Strongylus vulgaris is described. Infective larvae of S. vulgaris were exsheathed in a 0.16% sodium hypochlorite solution and then transferred into cryotubes containing 0.09% saline. The samples were stored in the gas phase of liquid nitrogen.

  9. Annual and spatial variability in endo- and ectoparasite infections of North Sea cod (Gadus morhua Linnaeus, 1758) larvae, post-larvae and juveniles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehrdana, Foojan; Bahlool, Qusay Z. M.; Skovgaard, Alf

    2014-01-01

    A parasitological investigation was performed on a total of 5380 Atlantic cod larvae, post-larvae and small juveniles sampled from the North Sea during a period of five years. The copepod Caligus elongatus (Von Nordmann, 1832) and the nematode Hysterothylacium aduncum (Rudolphi, 1802) were found ...

  10. Production of the catechol type siderophore bacillibactin by the honey bee pathogen Paenibacillus larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertlein, Gillian; Müller, Sebastian; Garcia-Gonzalez, Eva; Poppinga, Lena; Süssmuth, Roderich D; Genersch, Elke

    2014-01-01

    The Gram-positive bacterium Paenibacillus larvae is the etiological agent of American Foulbrood. This bacterial infection of honey bee brood is a notifiable epizootic posing a serious threat to global honey bee health because not only individual larvae but also entire colonies succumb to the disease. In the recent past considerable progress has been made in elucidating molecular aspects of host pathogen interactions during pathogenesis of P. larvae infections. Especially the sequencing and annotation of the complete genome of P. larvae was a major step forward and revealed the existence of several giant gene clusters coding for non-ribosomal peptide synthetases which might act as putative virulence factors. We here present the detailed analysis of one of these clusters which we demonstrated to be responsible for the biosynthesis of bacillibactin, a P. larvae siderophore. We first established culture conditions allowing the growth of P. larvae under iron-limited conditions and triggering siderophore production by P. larvae. Using a gene disruption strategy we linked siderophore production to the expression of an uninterrupted bacillibactin gene cluster. In silico analysis predicted the structure of a trimeric trithreonyl lactone (DHB-Gly-Thr)3 similar to the structure of bacillibactin produced by several Bacillus species. Mass spectrometric analysis unambiguously confirmed that the siderophore produced by P. larvae is identical to bacillibactin. Exposure bioassays demonstrated that P. larvae bacillibactin is not required for full virulence of P. larvae in laboratory exposure bioassays. This observation is consistent with results obtained for bacillibactin in other pathogenic bacteria.

  11. Transstadial transmission of Hepatozoon canis from larvae to nymphs of Rhipicephalus sanguineus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannelli, Alessio; Ramos, Rafael Antonio Nascimento; Di Paola, Giancarlo; Mencke, Norbert; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Baneth, Gad; Otranto, Domenico

    2013-09-01

    Hepatozoon canis is an apicomplexan parasite of dogs, which is known to become infected by ingesting Rhipicephalus sanguineus adult ticks. To investigate the possibility of H. canis transovarial and transstadial transmission from larvae to nymphs, engorged adult female ticks were collected from a private animal shelter in southern Italy, where H. canis infection is highly prevalent. Female ticks (n=35) and egg batches were tested by PCR for H. canis. All eggs examined were PCR-negative whereas 88.6% of females from the environment tested positive. Additionally, fed larvae (n=120) from a dog naturally infected by H. canis were dissected at different time points post collection (i.e. 0, 10, 20 and 30 days). Molted nymphs dissected at 20 days post collection revealed immature oocysts displaying an amorphous central structure in 50% of the specimens, and oocysts containing sporocysts with sporozoites were found in 53.3% of the nymphs dissected at 30 days post collection. This study demonstrates that H. canis is not transmitted transovarially, but it is transmitted transstadially from larvae to nymphs of R. sanguineus and develops sporozoites in oocysts that may infect dogs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Recombinant Brugia malayi pepsin inhibitor (rBm33) exploits host signaling events to regulate inflammatory responses associated with lymphatic filarial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivas, Kirthika; Kalyanaraman, Haripriya; Babu, Subash; Narayanan, Rangarajan Badri

    2017-11-01

    Prolonged existence of filarial parasites and their molecules within the host modulate the host immune system to instigate their survival and induce inflammatory responses that contribute to disease progression. Recombinant Brugia malayi pepsin inhibitor (rBm33) modulates the host immune responses by skewing towards Th1 responses characterized by secretion of inflammatory molecules such as TNF-α, IL-6, nitric oxide (NO). Here we also specified the molecular signaling events triggered by rBm33 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of filarial endemic normals (EN). rBm33 predominantly enhanced the levels of nitric oxide in cultured PBMCs but did not result in oxidative stress to the host cells. Further, rBm33 treatment of human PBMCs resulted in higher GSH/GSSG levels. MYD88 dependent activation was found to be associated with rBm33 specific inflammatory cytokine production. rBm33 triggered intracellular signaling events also involved JNK activation in host PBMCs. In addition, c-Fos and not NF-κB was identified as the transcription factor regulating the expression of inflammatory cytokines in rBm33 stimulated PBMCs. rBm33 marked its role in filarial pathology by altered levels of growth factors but did not have a significant impact on matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs) activity of host PBMCs. Thus, the study outlines the signaling network of rBm33 induced inflammatory responses within the host immune cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Identification of tissue-embedded ascarid larvae by ribosomal DNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiwata, Kenji; Shinohara, Akio; Yagi, Kinpei; Horii, Yoichiro; Tsuchiya, Kimiyuki; Nawa, Yukifumi

    2004-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was applied to identify tissue-embedded ascarid nematode larvae. Two sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of ribosomal DNA (rDNA), ITS1 and ITS2, of the ascarid parasites were amplified and compared with those of ascarid-nematodes registered in a DNA database (GenBank). The ITS sequences of the PCR products obtained from the ascarid parasite specimen in our laboratory were compatible with those of registered adult Ascaris and Toxocara parasites. PCR amplification of the ITS regions was sensitive enough to detect a single larva of Ascaris suum mixed with porcine liver tissue. Using this method, ascarid larvae embedded in the liver of a naturally infected turkey were identified as Toxocara canis. These results suggest that even a single larva embedded in tissues from patients with larva migrans could be identified by sequencing the ITS regions.

  14. Differential immune response of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) at early developmental stages (larvae and fry) against the bacterial pathogen Yersinia ruckeri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chettri, Jiwan Kumar; Raida, Martin Kristian; Kania, Per Walter

    2012-01-01

    . We exposed 17 and 87 days post hatch larvae and fry (152 and 1118 degree days post hatch; avg. wt. 70 and 770 mg, respectively) to the bacterial pathogen, Yersinia ruckeri for 4 h by bath challenge. Samples were taken at 4, 24, 72 and 96 h post exposure for qPCR and immunohistochemical analyses...... to elucidate the immune response mounted by these young fish. Larvae showed no mortality although infected larvae at 48 h post exposure showed hyperaemia in the mouth region and inflammation on the dorsal side of the body. Gene expression studies showed an up-regulation of iNOS and IL-22 in infected larvae 24...... h post exposure but most of the investigated genes did not show any difference between infected and uninfected larvae. Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated a high expression of IgT molecules in gills and CD8 positive cells in thymus of both infected and uninfected larvae. Infection of rainbow...

  15. Efeito do clima sobre a infecção parasitária em bezerros e presença de larvas em manejo rotativo de pasto em Santa Maria, RS, Brasil Climatological effects on parasitic infection in calves and the presence of larvae in a pasture rotation management in Santa Maria, RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Heck

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi correlacionar os dados climáticos e parasitários através de exames laboratoriais e da pastagem. O experimento foi realizado no período de março a junho de 2004, utilizando 110 bezerros com idade média de cinco meses, em pastos com diferentes relevos. Foi avaliado o número de ovos por grama de fezes (OPG, a coprocultura e o número de larvas na pastagem em intervalos de 15 dias, e dados climáticos deciduais. A coprocultura revelou a presença de 60% de parasitas do gênero Trichostrongylus spp. e 40% de Cooperia spp. assim como Moniezia spp. e oocistos de Eimeria spp. A temperatura permitiu a sobrevivência e o desenvolvimento das larvas infectantes na pastagem durante o experimento. O aumento do número de larvas na pastagem está associado ao acréscimo da precipitação após um período de seca. O relevo com maior número de larvas apresentou maior concentração de massa seca de capim arroz (Echinochloa spp.. Pode-se comprovar que em condições climáticas ideais ocorreu uma rápida contaminação da pastagem com larvas infectantes quando animais naturalmente infectados foram transferidos para a área após colheita de milho.The objective of this work was to correlate climatic and parasitological data from laboratory and field samples. The experiment was executed from March to June of 2004, using 110 naturally infected five months old calves. The counting of eggs per gram of feces (EPG, fecal culture and the number of larva on pasture was evaluated every 15 days in relation to decidual climatic data. The EPG increased during the study. The same observation occurred with the pluviometric level. Coproculture revealed the presence of 60% of Trichostrongylus spp. and 40% of Cooperia spp. as well as Moniezia spp. and Eimeria spp. oocists. The temperature during all the experimental periods was favorable to infecting larvae survival and development on pasture. The area with higher larvae count had the higher

  16. Acute intestinal anisakiasis in Spain: a fourth-stage Anisakis simplex larva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª José Rosales

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available A case of acute intestinal anisakiasis has been reported; a nematode larva being found in the submucosa of the ileum of a woman in Jaén (Spain. The source of infection was the ingestion of raw Engraulis encrasicholus. On the basis of its morphology, the worm has been identified as a fourth-stage larva of Anisakis simplex. In Spain, this is the ninth report of human anisakiasis and also probably the first case of anisakiasis caused by a fourth-stage larva of A. simplex.

  17. Liver histopathology in the cane toad, Rhinella marina (Amphibia: Bufonidae), induced by Ortleppascaris sp. larvae (Nematoda: Ascarididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Jefferson P E; da Silva, Djane C B; Melo, Francisco T V; Giese, Elane G; Furtado, Adriano P; Santos, Jeannie N

    2013-04-01

    Exposure to parasites is considered to be an important factor in the development of many diseases and histopathologies which are the result of the parasite-host interaction. The present study evaluated the impact of natural infection by larvae of Ortleppascaris sp. (Nematoda: Ascaridida) in the liver of the cane toad Rhinella marina (Linnaeus, 1758). Larvae were encysted in nodules delimited by collagenous fibers and fibroblasts or freely within the hepatic parenchyma, provoking a clear response from the host. The histological examination of the liver revealed viable larvae in a number of different developmental stages, as well as cysts filled with amorphous material and cell residues and surrounded by dense fibrotic tissue. The infection of the liver by these larvae induces a significant increase in the area occupied by melanomacrophages and a reduction or deficit in the vascularization of the liver, hypertrophy of the hepatocytes, vacuolar bodies, and cytoplasmatic granules. Focal concentrations of inflammatory infiltrates were observed enclosing the unencapsulated early-stage larvae. These results indicate that infection by Ortleppascaris sp. induces severe physiological problems and histopathological lesions in the liver of R. marina .

  18. Cutaneous larva migrans – a threat to divers in the tropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olszański Romuald

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a dermatosis that occurs in tropical and subtropical countries. Though the definitive hosts of the cutaneous larva migrans parasite are animals, humans can become accidental hosts and they are infected when their skin comes into contact with damp soil, most frequently sand. The disease is only present in the epidermis where an itch is brought about by the mining activity of the larva. Sunbathers and divers who put on their gear on a beach, on account of the epidermis maceration caused by a prolonged exposure to water, are particularly susceptible to the penetrative activities of the larva. In Poland the cutaneous larva migrans is in most cases mistaken for nettle rash or eczema.

  19. Genetic and Biochemical Diversity of Paenibacillus larvae Isolated from Tunisian Infected Honey Bee Broods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chadlia Hamdi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Paenibacillus larvae is the causative agent of American foulbrood (AFB, a virulent disease of honeybee (Apis mellifera larvae. In Tunisia, AFB has been detected in many beekeeping areas, where it causes important economic losses, but nothing is known about the diversity of the causing agent. Seventy-five isolates of P. larvae, identified by biochemical tests and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, were obtained from fifteen contaminated broods showing typical AFB symptoms, collected in different locations in the northern part of the country. Using BOX-PCR, a distinct profile of P. larvae with respect to related Paenibacillus species was detected which may be useful for its identification. Some P. larvae-specific bands represented novel potential molecular markers for the species. BOX-PCR fingerprints indicated a relatively high intraspecific diversity among the isolates not described previously with several molecular polymorphisms identifying six genotypes on polyacrylamide gel. Polymorphisms were also detected in several biochemical characters (indol production, nitrate reduction, and methyl red and oxidase tests. Contrary to the relatively high intraspecies molecular and phenotypic diversity, the in vivo virulence of three selected P. larvae genotypes did not differ significantly, suggesting that the genotypic/phenotypic differences are neutral or related to ecological aspects other than virulence.

  20. Migration Of Ancylostoma caninum Larvae Into Lungs Of Mice Fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two randomly selected groups of Swiss Albino Wistar mice were therefore infected with 1000 infective larvae of Ancylostoma caninum/mouse. Test mice received 250mg Allium sativum/kg body weight daily ... KEY WORDS: Allium sativum, lungs, Ancylostoma caninum. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences Vol.11(2) ...

  1. Investigating the Effect of Different Treatments with Lactic Acid Bacteria on the Fate of Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus Infection in Galleria mellonella Larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athena Grounta

    Full Text Available The use of Galleria mellonella as a model host to elucidate microbial pathogenesis and search for novel drugs and therapies has been well appreciated over the past years. However, the effect of microorganisms with functional appeal in the specific host remains scarce. The present study investigates the effect of treatment with selected lactic acid bacteria (LAB with probiotic potential, as potential protective agents by using live or heat-killed cells at 6 and 24 h prior to infection with Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus or as potential therapeutic agents by using cell-free supernatants (CFS after infection with the same pathogens. The employed LAB strains were Lactobacillus pentosus B281 and Lactobacillus plantarum B282 (isolated from table olive fermentations along with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (inhabitant of human intestinal tract. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were plotted while the pathogen's persistence in the larval hemolymph was determined by microbiological analysis. It was observed that the time (6 or 24 h and type (live or heat-killed cells of challenge period with LAB prior to infection greatly affected the survival of infected larvae. The highest decrease of L. monocytogenes population in the hemolymph was observed in groups challenged for 6 h with heat-killed cells by an average of 1.8 log units compared to non challenged larvae for strains B281 (p 0.0322, B282 (p 0.0325, and LGG (p 0.0356. In the case of S. aureus infection, the population of the pathogen decreased in the hemolymph by 1 log units at 8 h post infection in the groups challenged for 6 h with heat-killed cells of strains B281 (p 0.0161 and B282 (p 0.0096 and by 1.8 log units in groups challenged with heat-killed cells of LGG strain (p 0.0175. Further use of CFS of each LAB strain did not result in any significant prolonged survival but interestingly it resulted in pronounced decrease of L. monocytogenes in the hemolymph at 24 h and 48 h after

  2. Biological control of infective larvae of Ancylostoma spp. in beach sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Mello, Ingrid Ney Kramer; Braga, Fabio R; Monteiro, Thalita S Avelar; Freitas, Leandro G; Araujo, Juliana M; Soares, Filippe E Freitas; Araújo, Jackson V

    2014-01-01

    Geohelminths are parasites that stand out for their prevalence and wide distribution, depending on the soil for their transmission. The aim of this work was to evaluate the predatory capacity of the fungal isolate of the genus Duddingtonia (CG768) on third stage larvae (L3) of Ancylostoma spp. in beach sand under laboratory conditions. In the assay A five treatment groups and 1 control group were formed. The treatment groups contained 5000, 10,000, 15,000, 20,000 or 25,000 chlamydospores of the fungal isolate and 1000 Ancylostoma spp. L3 in pots containing 30g of sand. The control group (without fungus) contained only 1000 Ancylostoma spp. L3 and distilled water in pots with 30g of sand. Evidence of predatory activity was observed at the end of 15 days, where we observed the following percentages of reduction of L3: Group 1 (4.5%); Group 2 (24.5%); Group 3 (59.2%); Group 4 (58.8%); Group 5 (63%). However, difference was noted (p<0.01) only at concentrations 15,000, 20,000 and 25,000 in relation to control group. In the assay B two groups were formed in Petri dishes of 9cm in diameter containing agar water 2% medium. In the treated group, each Petri dish contained 500 Ancylostoma spp. L3 and 5g of sand containing the isolate CG 768 at a concentration of 25,000 chlamydospores/g of sand, and the control group (without fungus) contained only 500 L3. At the end of 7 days the non-predation L3 of Petri dishes using the method of Baermann were recovered. Difference (p<0.01) between groups on reducing the average number of Ancylostoma spp. L3 (percent reduction of 84%) was observed. The results of this study confirm earlier work on the efficiency of the Duddingtonia genus in the control of Ancylostoma spp. infective larvae. Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Helminths Parasite Larvae collected from Arabian Gulf Fish. 4. Description of four Larvae including two Metacercarae, one Didymozoid and one Acanthocephalan from Emirati Coasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kardousha, M.M.

    2005-01-01

    Four helminth larvae from different fish hosts caught from Emirate coasts are described. Two are metacercariae related to genus Southampton's, type (I) and (II). Type (I) was found encysted in body cavities of the Indian halibut Psettodes erumei and the areolate grouper Epinephelus areolatusu and type (II) in the golden stripped goatfish Mulloides flavolineatus. The third larva is related to Acanthocephala and identified as Serrasentis sagittifer. It was collected from the body cavity of the spotted lizard fish Saurida undosquamius. The fourth larva belongs to the didymozoid trematodes, and was found infecting the kidneys of different hosts, such as Saurida undosquamis, the Jack pomfret Parastromateus niger and mackerel tuna Euthynnus affins. The larva related to Stephanostomum type (I) and type (II) and the dydimozoid type are described for the first time in the Arabian Gulf. (author)

  4. Extrusion of Contracaecum osculatum nematode larvae from the liver of cod (Gadus morhua).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, S; Barlaup, L; Mohammadkarami, A; Al-Jubury, A; Chen, D; Kania, P W; Buchmann, K

    2017-10-01

    Baltic cod livers have during recent years been found increasingly and heavily infected with third-stage larvae of Contracaecum osculatum. The infections are associated with an increasing population of grey seals which are final hosts for the parasite. Heavy worm burdens challenge utilization and safety of the fish liver products, and technological solutions for removal of worms are highly needed. We investigated the attachment of the worm larvae in liver tissue by use of histochemical techniques and found that the cod host encapsulates the worm larvae in layers of host cells (macrophages, fibroblasts) supported by enclosures of collagen and calcium. A series of incubation techniques, applying compounds targeting molecules in the capsule, were then tested for their effect to induce worm escape/release reactions. Full digestion solutions comprising pepsin, NaCl, HCl and water induced a fast escape of more than 60% of the worm larvae within 20 min and gave full release within 65 min but the liver tissue became highly dispersed. HCl alone, in concentrations of 48 and 72 mM, triggered a corresponding release of worm larvae with minor effect on liver integrity. A lower HCl concentration of 24 mM resulted in 80% release within 35 min. Water and physiological saline had no effect on worm release, and 1% pepsin in water elicited merely a weak escape reaction. In addition to the direct effect of acid on worm behaviour it is hypothesised that the acid effect on calcium carbonate in the encapsulation, with subsequent release of reaction products, may contribute to activation of C. osculatum larvae and induce escape reactions. Short-term pretreatment of infected cod liver and possibly other infected fish products, using low acid concentrations is suggested as part of a technological solution for worm clearance as low acid concentrations had limited macroscopic effect on liver integrity within 35 min.

  5. A PCR detection method for rapid identification of Melissococcus pluton in honeybee larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govan, V A; Brözel, V; Allsopp, M H; Davison, S

    1998-05-01

    Melissococcus pluton is the causative agent of European foulbrood, a disease of honeybee larvae. This bacterium is particularly difficult to isolate because of its stringent growth requirements and competition from other bacteria. PCR was used selectively to amplify specific rRNA gene sequences of M. pluton from pure culture, from crude cell lysates, and directly from infected bee larvae. The PCR primers were designed from M. pluton 16S rRNA sequence data. The PCR products were visualized by agarose gel electrophoresis and confirmed as originating from M. pluton by sequencing in both directions. Detection was highly specific, and the probes did not hybridize with DNA from other bacterial species tested. This method enabled the rapid and specific detection and identification of M. pluton from pure cultures and infected bee larvae.

  6. Souvenir from the Hamptons - a case of cutaneous larva migrans of six months' duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser, A C; Kantor, I; Sapadin, A N

    1999-01-01

    Cutaneous larva migrans is a distinctive serpiginous eruption caused by a reaction to burrowing hookworms. The infection is usually self-limited, normally lasting 2-8 weeks, but may persist for more than a year if misdiagnosed. Biopsies of the creeping eruption rarely reveal an organism. Thus, it is important for the infection to be recognized clinically, so that effective treatment may begin. We found topical thiabendazole to be fast and effective in treating this case of cutaneous larva migrans of six months' duration.

  7. Nueva especie de Parathelohania (Microsporidia en larvas de Anopheles aquasalis (Diptera: Culicidae en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances Osborn

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describen los síntomas en larvas de A. aquasalis infectadas naturalmente con un microsporidio parasítico, y la ultraestructura de las esporas del mismo. Las larvas fueron criadas bajo condiciones de laboratorio en concentraciones de salinidad de 10 g/l y 20 g/l, registrándose diariamente la mortalidad y la fecha del cambio de estadío de las mismas. Las larvas infectadas fueron procesadas por rnicroscopía electrónica de transmisión usando métodos convencionales con pH 7.2 y 260 mOsm/I. El incremento de la infección por los microsporidios estuvo correlacionado positivamente con un aumento en la duración promedio del cuarto estadío de 2.88 a 6.33 días en 10 g/l de sal y de 2.47 a 6.14 días en 20 g/l. La mortalidad de las larvas también aumentó en aproximadamente 50% durante este estadío a ambas concentraciones de salinidad. No se observaron estas alteraciones en los otros estadíos. Las esporas maduras de los microsporidios fueron encontradas en el intestino de las larvas. Estas esporas mostraron forma de barril y dimensiones de 2.6 x 2.4 µm aproximadamente. La reducción en la supervivencia de las larvas de A. aquasalis infectadas con los microsporidios, y el aumento del tiempo de su desarrollo sugiere que este parásito podría ser un posible controlador biológico de esta plaga. El microsporidio descrito presenta características similares a las del género Parathelohania. Se sugiere que el microsporidio encontrado en las larvas de A. aquasalis es una especie nueva y se propone nombrarla Parathelohania aquasalensis. Este trabajo representa el primer reporte de un microsporidio encontrado en un díptero en Venezuela.The symptoms of Anopheles aquasalis larvae naturally infected by a microsporidium, and the ultrastructure of the infecting spores is describes. The larvae were maintained under laboratory conditions in salt concentrations of 10 g/l and 20 g/l of water. Daily recordings of the mortality of the larvae were made and

  8. [Evaluation of artificial digestion method on inspection of meat for Trichinella spiralis contamination and influence of the method on muscle larvae recovery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guo-Ying; Du, Jing-Fang; Dun, Guo-Qing; Sun, Wei-Li; Wang, Jin-Xi

    2011-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of artificial digestion method on inspection of meat for Trichinella spiralis contamination and its influence on activity and infectivity of muscle larvae. The mice were inoculated orally with 100 muscle larvae of T. spiralis and sacrificed on the 30th day following the infection. The muscle larvae of T. spiralis were recovered by three different test protocols employing variations of the artificial digestion method, i.e. the first test protocol evaluating digestion for 2 hours (magnetic stirrer method), the second test protocol evaluating digestion for 12 hours, and the third test protocol evaluating digestion for 20 hours. Each test group included ten samples, and each of which included 300 encapsulated larvae. Meanwhile, the activity of the recovered muscle larvae was also assessed. Forty mice were randomly divided into a control group and three digestion groups, so 4 groups (with 10 mice per group) in total. In the control group, each mouse was orally inoculated with 100 encapsulated larvae of T. spiralis. In all of the digestion test groups, each mouse was orally inoculated with 100 muscle larvae of T. spiralis. The larvae were then recovered from the different three test groups by the artificial digestion protocol variations. All the infected mice were sacrificed on the 30th day following the infection, and the muscle larvae of T. spiralis were examined respectively by the diaphragm compression method and the magnetic stirrer method. The muscle larvae detection rates were 78.47%, 76.73%, and 68.63%, the death rates were 0.59%, 4.60%, and 7.43%, and the reduction rates were 60.56%, 61.94%, and 73.07%, in the Test Group One (2-hour digestion), Test Group Two (12-hour digestion) and Test Group Three (20-hour digestion), respectively. The magnetic stirrer method (2-hour digestion method) is superior to both 12-hour digestion and 20-hour digestion methods when assessed by the detection rate, activity and infectivity of muscle larvae.

  9. Mortality in hibernating turnip moth larvae, Agrotis segetum, caused by Tolypocladium cylindrosporum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenberg, Tove; Øgaard, Leif

    2000-01-01

    -induced mortality. The experiment was started in mid-October and buckets were collected four times from January until May. The fungus had caused high mortality by January, when almost 70% of the treated larvae were infected and by March more than 94% of the larvae had been killed. For larvae from the naturally...... infested site the prevalence was 21% in mid-October and by March it had reached 93%. The ability of the fungus to infect insects at low temperatures may be related to a relatively low optimum temperature for growth of 21 °C, which is lower than for the majority of entomopathogenic hyphomycetes. Host range...

  10. Immune-physiological aspects of synergy between avermectins and the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium robertsii in Colorado potato beetle larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomilova, Oksana G; Kryukov, Vadim Yu; Duisembekov, Bahytzhan A; Yaroslavtseva, Olga N; Tyurin, Maksim V; Kryukova, Natalia A; Skorokhod, Valery; Dubovskiy, Ivan M; Glupov, Viktor V

    2016-10-01

    The interaction between the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium robertsii and natural avermectin metabolites of the actinomycete Streptomyces avermitilis were investigated on Colorado potato beetle larvae. A synergy in the mortality of larvae was detected after simultaneous treatment with half-lethal doses of avermectins (commercial name actarophit) 0.005% and fungus (5×10 5 conidia/ml). The treatment with avermectins led to rapid fungal colonization of the hemolymph. The defense strategies of insects infected by fungus and treated with avermectins and untreated insects were compared to investigate the mechanisms of this synergy. We have shown an increase in hemocytes, especially immunocompetent cells - plasmatocytes and granular cells in the initial stages of mycosis (third day post inoculation). In contrast, avermectins suppressed cellular immunity in hemolymph. Specifically, avermectins dramatically decreased the count of granular cells in larvae infected and uninfected with fungus. Apoptosis inducement and hemocyte necrosis under the influence of avermectins has been shown in vitro as one of the possible reasons for hemocyte mortality. In addition, avermectins enhanced the activity of phenoloxidases in integuments and hemolymph and increased the activity of glutathione-S-transferases activity in the fat body and hemolymph of infected and uninfected larvae, thereby intensifying the development of fungal infection by M. robertsii in Colorado potato beetle larvae. The combination of fungal infection and avermectins constitutes a new perspective for developing multicomponent bioinsecticides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Paenibacillus larvae chitin-degrading protein PlCBP49 is a key virulence factor in American Foulbrood of honey bees.

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    Eva Garcia-Gonzalez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Paenibacillus larvae, the etiological agent of the globally occurring epizootic American Foulbrood (AFB of honey bees, causes intestinal infections in honey bee larvae which develop into systemic infections inevitably leading to larval death. Massive brood mortality might eventually lead to collapse of the entire colony. Molecular mechanisms of host-microbe interactions in this system and of differences in virulence between P. larvae genotypes are poorly understood. Recently, it was demonstrated that the degradation of the peritrophic matrix lining the midgut epithelium is a key step in pathogenesis of P. larvae infections. Here, we present the isolation and identification of PlCBP49, a modular, chitin-degrading protein of P. larvae and demonstrate that this enzyme is crucial for the degradation of the larval peritrophic matrix during infection. PlCBP49 contains a module belonging to the auxiliary activity 10 (AA10, formerly CBM33 family of lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs which are able to degrade recalcitrant polysaccharides. Using chitin-affinity purified PlCBP49, we provide evidence that PlCBP49 degrades chitin via a metal ion-dependent, oxidative mechanism, as already described for members of the AA10 family. Using P. larvae mutants lacking PlCBP49 expression, we analyzed in vivo biological functions of PlCBP49. In the absence of PlCBP49 expression, peritrophic matrix degradation was markedly reduced and P. larvae virulence was nearly abolished. This indicated that PlCBP49 is a key virulence factor for the species P. larvae. The identification of the functional role of PlCBP49 in AFB pathogenesis broadens our understanding of this important family of chitin-binding and -degrading proteins, especially in those bacteria that can also act as entomopathogens.

  12. Larvas output and influence of human factor in reliability of meat inspection by the method of artificial digestion

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    Đorđević Vesna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the performed analyses of the factors that contributed the infected meat reach food chain, we have found out that the infection occurred after consuming the meat inspected by the method of collective samples artificial digestion by using a magnetic stirrer (MM. In this work there are presented assay results which show how modifications of the method, on the level of final sedimentation, influence the reliability of Trichinella larvas detection in the infected meat samples. It has been shown that use of inadequate laboratory containers for larva collecting in final sedimentation and change of volume of digestive liquid that outflow during colouring preparations, can significantly influence inspection results. Larva detection errors ranged from 4 to 80% in presented the experimental groups in regard to the control group of samples inspected by using MM method, which had been carried out completely according to Europe Commission procedure No 2075/2005, where no errors in larva number per sample was found. We consider that the results of this work will contribute to the improvement of control of the method performance and especially of the critical point during inspection of meat samples to Trichinella larvas in Serbia.

  13. Biology of Paenibacillus larvae, a deadly pathogen of honey bee larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebeling, Julia; Knispel, Henriette; Hertlein, Gillian; Fünfhaus, Anne; Genersch, Elke

    2016-09-01

    The gram-positive bacterium Paenibacillus larvae is the etiological agent of American Foulbrood of honey bees, a notifiable disease in many countries. Hence, P. larvae can be considered as an entomopathogen of considerable relevance in veterinary medicine. P. larvae is a highly specialized pathogen with only one established host, the honey bee larva. No other natural environment supporting germination and proliferation of P. larvae is known. Over the last decade, tremendous progress in the understanding of P. larvae and its interactions with honey bee larvae at a molecular level has been made. In this review, we will present the recent highlights and developments in P. larvae research and discuss the impact of some of the findings in a broader context to demonstrate what we can learn from studying "exotic" pathogens.

  14. Ovos de Toxocara sp. e larvas de Ancylostoma sp. em praça pública de Lavras, MG Toxocara sp. eggs and Ancylostoma sp. larva in public parks, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Marcos Guimarães

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Larva migrans visceral e cutânea são zoonoses parasitárias causadas pela infecção da larva de Toxocara sp. e Ancylostoma sp., respectivamente. O objetivo do estudo foi verificar a contaminação por ovos de Toxocara sp. e ovos e larvas de Ancylostoma sp. em amostras de solos coletadas de praças públicas e de áreas de recreação infantil de Lavras, Estado de Minas Gerais, por meio da técnica de centrífugo-flutuação e do método de Baermann. A ocorrência de ovos de Toxocara sp. e, ovos e larvas de Ancylostoma sp. foi observada em 69,6% (16/23 das amostras de solo coletadas de praças públicas. A contaminação somente por ovos de Ancylostoma sp. em amostras de solo coletadas em escolas/creches foi de 22,2% (4/18. A percentagem de amostras de areia coletadas de escolas/creches contaminadas somente com larvas de Ancylostoma sp. foi de 11,1% (2/18. Praças públicas são as áreas com maior risco potencial de infecção por Toxocara sp. e Ancylostoma sp. Exame coproparasitológico realizado em 174 amostras de fezes de cães observou 58% e 23%, respectivamente, com ovos de Ancylostoma sp. e Toxocara sp.Visceral and cutaneous larva migrans are parasitic zoonoses caused by the infection of larval nematodes Toxocara sp. and Ancylostoma sp. respectively. The objective of this study was to investigate the contamination by Toxocara sp. eggs and Ancylostoma sp. eggs and larva of soil samples collected from public parks and children's playground areas in state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, using both Baermann's method and centrifugal flotation technique. Toxocara sp. and Ancylostoma sp. eggs were observed in soil samples collected from public squares in 17.4% (4/23 and 69.6 (16/23 respectively. In schools and child day care settings the contamination by Ancylostoma sp. larva in sand samples was 11.1% (2/18. Public parks are settings of more potential risk of Toxocara sp. eggs and Ancylostoma sp. infection. Stool parasitology testing of 174 stool

  15. Endosymbiont-based immunity in Drosophila melanogaster against parasitic nematode infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Shruti; Frazer, Joanna; Banga, Ashima; Pruitt, Katherine; Harsh, Sneh; Jaenike, John; Eleftherianos, Ioannis

    2018-01-01

    Associations between endosymbiotic bacteria and their hosts represent a complex ecosystem within organisms ranging from humans to protozoa. Drosophila species are known to naturally harbor Wolbachia and Spiroplasma endosymbionts, which play a protective role against certain microbial infections. Here, we investigated whether the presence or absence of endosymbionts affects the immune response of Drosophila melanogaster larvae to infection by Steinernema carpocapsae nematodes carrying or lacking their mutualistic Gram-negative bacteria Xenorhabdus nematophila (symbiotic or axenic nematodes, respectively). We find that the presence of Wolbachia alone or together with Spiroplasma promotes the survival of larvae in response to infection with S. carpocapsae symbiotic nematodes, but not against axenic nematodes. We also find that Wolbachia numbers are reduced in Spiroplasma-free larvae infected with axenic compared to symbiotic nematodes, and they are also reduced in Spiroplasma-containing compared to Spiroplasma-free larvae infected with axenic nematodes. We further show that S. carpocapsae axenic nematode infection induces the Toll pathway in the absence of Wolbachia, and that symbiotic nematode infection leads to increased phenoloxidase activity in D. melanogaster larvae devoid of endosymbionts. Finally, infection with either type of nematode alters the metabolic status and the fat body lipid droplet size in D. melanogaster larvae containing only Wolbachia or both endosymbionts. Our results suggest an interaction between Wolbachia endosymbionts with the immune response of D. melanogaster against infection with the entomopathogenic nematodes S. carpocapsae. Results from this study indicate a complex interplay between insect hosts, endosymbiotic microbes and pathogenic organisms.

  16. Extrusion of Contracaecum osculatum nematode larvae from the liver of cod (Gadus morhua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zuo, S.; Barlaup, L.; Mohammadkarami, A.

    2017-01-01

    Baltic cod livers have during recent years been found increasingly and heavily infected with third-stage larvae of Contracaecum osculatum. The infections are associated with an increasing population of grey seals which are final hosts for the parasite. Heavy worm burdens challenge utilization...

  17. Efficacy of maslinic acid and fenbendazole on muscle larvae of Trichinella zimbabwensis in laboratory rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukaratirwa, S; Gcanga, L; Kamau, J

    2016-01-01

    Trichinellosis is a zoonotic disease caused by nematode species of the genus Trichinella. Anthelmintics targeting the intestinal adults and muscle-dwelling larvae of Trichinella spp. have been tested, with limited success. This study was aimed at determining the efficacy of maslinic acid and fenbendazole on muscle larvae of Trichinella zimbabwensis in laboratory rats. Forty-two Sprague-Dawley rats, with an average weight of 270 g and 180 g for males and females respectively, were infected with T. zimbabwensis larvae. Infected rats were randomly assigned to three groups which were subjected to single treatments with each of maslinic acid, fenbendazole and a combination of both on day 25 post-infection (pi), and three groups which were subjected to double treatments with each of these drugs and a combination on days 25 and 32 pi. The untreated control group received a placebo. In single-treatment groups, the efficacy of each treatment, measured by rate of reduction in muscle larvae, was significant (P0.05). We conclude that the efficacy of maslinic acid against larval stages of T. zimbabwensis in rats was comparable to that of fenbendazole, with no side-effects observed, making maslinic acid a promising anthelmintic against larval stages of Trichinella species.

  18. Toxocara cati larvae in the eye of a child: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Zibaei

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Toxocariasis is a consequence of human infection by Toxocara larvae. There are symptomatic (visceral, ocular and asymptomatic course of toxocariasis. The ocular form is very rare. We present a 6-year-old patient who developed an ocular form of toxocariasis caused by Toxocara cati. He demonstrated lesions in the peripheral retina of the right eye. White granuloma was present in the superior peripheral retina. A positive immunological assay for toxocariasis essentially completed the outcomes. On the basis of clinical manifestations and conducted examinations, a diagnosis of ocular form of toxocariasis was established. Albendazole and corticosteroids were applied in treatment. Current results clearly highlight the usefulness of excretory-secretory antigens derived from larvae of Toxocara cati for the fine diagnosis ocular larva migrans caused by Toxocara larvae.

  19. Feeding for larvae of catfish Pangasionodon sp. larvae in different ages

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    Muhammad Agus Suprayudi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Sludge worm (Tubifex sp. as natural feed on catfish (Pangasionodon sp. larvae rearing is available in limited amount especially during rainy season. It becomes a constraint factor for larvae rearing sector. This research was conducted to evaluate the appropriate initial age of catfish larvae to get artificial feed as sludge worm replacement. Evaluation was conducted on the growth and survival of catfish larvae in 14 days of culture. There were four treatments of feeding in triplicates i.e. larvae were given natural feed without artificial feed, given artificial feed started from d3, d6, and d9 with three replications. The results showed that larvae fed on artificial feed on d3 had the lowest growth compared to the other treatments, whereas the survival was not significantly different (P>0.05 among the treatments. As a conclusion, artificial feed could be used to replace natural feed for catfish larvae started at the age of nine days. Keywords: sludge worm, catfish larvae, artificial feed  ABSTRAK Cacing sutra (Tubifex sp. tersedia dalam jumlah terbatas terutama pada musim penghujan sebagai pakan alami dalam usaha pembenihan ikan patin (Pangasionodon sp.. Ini menjadi kendala dalam usaha pembenihan. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengevaluasi umur larva ikan patin yang tepat untuk mulai diberi pakan buatan menggantikan cacing sutra. Evaluasi dilakukan pada pertumbuhan dan kelangsungan hidup larva ikan patin umur 14 hari. Selama pemeliharaan, larva diberi pakan dengan empat perlakuan; pemberian pakan alami tanpa pakan buatan, pemberian pakan buatan mulai d3, d6, dan d9 dengan tiga ulangan untuk masing-masing perlakuan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan pemberian pakan buatan mulai d3 memiliki pertumbuhan panjang yang terkecil dibandingkan perlakuan lain, sedangkan tingkat kelangsungan hidup larva tidak berbeda nyata (P>0,05 antarperlakuan. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, dapat disimpulkan bahwa pakan buatan dapat digunakan

  20. Control of Vibrio harveyi Infection in Blue Swimming Crab, Portunus pelagicus Larvae by the Gut Isolated Lactic Acid Bacteria under Challenge Bioassay

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    Allah Dad Talpur*§, Abdul Jabbar Memon§, Muhammad Iqbal Khan§, Muhammad Ikhwanuddin, Muhammad Mhd Danish Daniel2 and Ambok Bolong Abol-Munafi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Five isolates of lactic acid bacteria (LAB isolated from the gut of female Portunus pelagicus with inhibitory activity against shellfish pathogens and validation as probiotics via small scale in vivo model were tested for hatchery trials pathogen probiotic assay. Vibrio harveyi previously isolated from the gut of P. pelagicus, was added at 104 cfu mL-1 to test larvae for 10h. Test (LAB isolates were inoculated at a concentration of 106 cfu mL-1 to pathogen addition aquaria once and until day four during the experiment. 20 larvae/liter were stocked and larval survival was determined over five days. Lactobacillus plantarum did produce highest survival 28.33% to 48.33% in one day and daily inoculations respectively and in probiotic control it produced 58.33% survival followed by L. rhamnosus 55% and L. salivarius 53.33% respectively over non inoculated control 43.33% and 0% survival in V. harveyi inoculated control. However, Weissella confusa and W. cibaria did show less probiotic activity compared to rests of three LAB isolates. In the present study, it was determined that three LAB probiotics were effective in hatchery trials challenge assays which may significantly control the infection and increased the survival of larvae.

  1. Inhibitory effect of indole analogs against Paenibacillus larvae, the causal agent of American foulbrood disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Israel; Margotta, Joseph W; Aoki, Mai M; Flores, Fernando; Agudelo, Fresia; Michel, Guillermo; Elekonich, Michelle M; Abel-Santos, Ernesto

    2017-09-01

    Paenibacillus larvae, a Gram-positive bacterium, causes American foulbrood (AFB) in honey bee larvae (Apis mellifera Linnaeus [Hymenoptera: Apidae]). P. larvae spores exit dormancy in the gut of bee larvae, the germinated cells proliferate, and ultimately bacteremia kills the host. Hence, spore germination is a required step for establishing AFB disease. We previously found that P. larvae spores germinate in response to l-tyrosine plus uric acid in vitro. Additionally, we determined that indole and phenol blocked spore germination. In this work, we evaluated the antagonistic effect of 35 indole and phenol analogs and identified strong inhibitors of P. larvae spore germination in vitro. We further tested the most promising candidate, 5-chloroindole, and found that it significantly reduced bacterial proliferation. Finally, feeding artificial worker jelly containing anti-germination compounds to AFB-exposed larvae significantly decreased AFB infection in laboratory-reared honey bee larvae. Together, these results suggest that inhibitors of P. larvae spore germination could provide another method to control AFB. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  2. Antibody responses in pregnancy-induced transmammary transmission of Ancylostoma caninum hookworm larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arasu, P; Heller, A

    1999-09-20

    Third stage larvae of the Ancylostoma caninum hookworm nematode have the capacity to infect a dog, abort the normal maturation pathway to become blood-feeding intestinal worms, and instead distribute throughout the body in a developmentally arrested state that is relatively resilient to most chemotherapeutic agents. During pregnancy, a percentage of the arrested larvae reactivate and transmit via the mammary glands to infect the nursing puppies with resulting iron-deficiency anemia and potential mortality. To determine if the suppression of parasite-specific antibody responses during pregnancy facilitates the reactivation and transmammary transfer of hookworm larvae, a murine model of A. caninum infection was used to compare the infected versus uninfected animals that were either bred or not bred. Initial comparisons of genetically divergent BALB/c versus C57BL/6 mice showed that both the strains mounted strong Th2 biased IgG1 and IgE antibody responses to A. caninum infection. Using the BALB/c strain for the breeding analyses, it was confirmed that larval transfer to the mouse pups only occurred during the post-partum lactational period. In the dams, levels of total and antigen-specific IgG1 and total IgE were highly correlated with parasite burden. During most phases of pregnancy and lactation, infected dams had lower total IgG1, IgG2a and IgE levels as compared to unbred mice at comparable times post-infection; this downward modulation of antibody responses supports the established dogma of a generalized immunosuppression associated with pregnancy. However, at parturition and post-partum lactation, antigen-specific IgG1 levels measured at 1:5000 serum dilutions were comparable between bred and unbred mice, and antigen-specific IgG2a levels at 1:100 serum dilutions were also not significantly different except for a marginal reduction in the bred mice at the lactational timepoint. The comparable anti-A. caninum IgG1 levels between bred and unbred mice, and low

  3. Persistence of specific antibody response in different experimental infections of mice with Toxocara canis larvae Persistência da resposta humoral em camundongos experimentalmente infectados com larvas de Toxocara canis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Paulo Chieffi

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Anti-Toxocara antibody production and persistence were studied in experimental infections of BALB/c mice, according to three different schedules: Group I (GI - 25 mice infected with 200 T. canis eggs in a single dose; Group II (GII 25 mice infected with 150 T. canis eggs given in three occasions, 50 in the 1st, 50 in the 5th and 50 in the 8th days; Group III (GIII - 25 mice also infected with 150 T. canis eggs, in three 50 eggs portions given in the 1st, 14th and 28th days. A 15 mice control group (GIV was maintained without infection. In the 30th, 50th, 60th, 75th, 105th and 180th post-infection days three mice of the GI, GII and GIII groups and two mice of the control group had been sacrificed and exsanguinated for sera obtention. In the 360th day the remainder mice of the four groups were, in the same way, killed and processed. The obtained sera were searched for the presence of anti-Toxocara antibodies by an ELISA technique, using T. canis larvae excretion-secretion antigen. In the GI and GII, but not in the GIII, anti-Toxocara antibodies had been found, at least, up to the 180th post-infection day. The GIII only showed anti-Toxocara antibodies, at significant level, in the 30th post-infection day.Estudou-se a cinética de anticorpos anti-Toxocara em camundongos BALB/c infectados experimentalmente segundo três esquemas: Grupo I (GI: 25 camundongos infectados com dose única de 200 ovos embrionados de T. canis; grupo II (GII: 25 camundongos infectados com 150 ovos embrionados de T. canis, divididos em três doses de 50 ovos, administrados no 1º, 5º e 8º dias; Grupo III (GIII: 25 camundongos infectados com 150 ovos embrionados de T. canis, administrados em três doses de 50 ovos no 1º, 14º e 28º dias. Um grupo de 15 camundongos foi mantido nas mesmas condições, porém sem infecção, constituindo o grupo controle (GIV. No 30º, 50º, 60º, 75º, 105º e 180º dias pós-infecção três camundongos dos grupos GI, GII e GIII e dois do

  4. A new procedure for marinating fresh anchovies and ensuring the rapid destruction of Anisakis larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Monsalvez, I; de Armas-Serra, C; Martínez, J; Dorado, M; Sánchez, A; Rodríguez-Caabeiro, F

    2005-05-01

    The consumption of marinated anchovies is the main route of transmission of anisakiasis in Spain. Because this country is one of the world's major tourist destinations, this traditional food also poses a potential health risk to millions of foreign visitors. Anisakis larvae are not destroyed by the traditional marinating procedure, and alternative methods, such as long-term storage in brine, freezing, or hydrostatic pressure treatment, all present major difficulties. In this study, we used high food-grade acetic acid concentrations (10, 20, 30, and 40% [vol/vol] in line with the quantum satis rule) to destroy these larvae rapidly, and we report data on the survival of Anisakis larvae exposed directly to different marinades and when the larvae are placed under the fish musculature. The percentage of salt and acetic acid in the fish tissue water phase was also determined. A marinating procedure is proposed that ensures the rapid death of Anisakis through the use of strong acetic acid concentrations. Posttreatment washes with water reduce these to levels acceptable to consumers. The sensory characteristics of the product were shown to be satisfactory. The actual selection of an acetic acid concentration for marinating depends on costs and the processing time available. The physiological stress of the larvae exposed to the different marinades was determined by measuring the levels of their stress proteins. The latter are good indicators of injury and might reflect the infectivity of larvae. In addition, we also used a rat model to determine the infectivity of larvae considered microscopically dead.

  5. Antibodies trap tissue migrating helminth larvae and prevent tissue damage by driving IL-4Rα-independent alternative differentiation of macrophages.

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    Julia Esser-von Bieren

    Full Text Available Approximately one-third of the world's population suffers from chronic helminth infections with no effective vaccines currently available. Antibodies and alternatively activated macrophages (AAM form crucial components of protective immunity against challenge infections with intestinal helminths. However, the mechanisms by which antibodies target these large multi-cellular parasites remain obscure. Alternative activation of macrophages during helminth infection has been linked to signaling through the IL-4 receptor alpha chain (IL-4Rα, but the potential effects of antibodies on macrophage differentiation have not been explored. We demonstrate that helminth-specific antibodies induce the rapid trapping of tissue migrating helminth larvae and prevent tissue necrosis following challenge infection with the natural murine parasite Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri (Hp. Mice lacking antibodies (JH (-/- or activating Fc receptors (FcRγ(-/- harbored highly motile larvae, developed extensive tissue damage and accumulated less Arginase-1 expressing macrophages around the larvae. Moreover, Hp-specific antibodies induced FcRγ- and complement-dependent adherence of macrophages to larvae in vitro, resulting in complete larval immobilization. Antibodies together with helminth larvae reprogrammed macrophages to express wound-healing associated genes, including Arginase-1, and the Arginase-1 product L-ornithine directly impaired larval motility. Antibody-induced expression of Arginase-1 in vitro and in vivo occurred independently of IL-4Rα signaling. In summary, we present a novel IL-4Rα-independent mechanism of alternative macrophage activation that is antibody-dependent and which both mediates anti-helminth immunity and prevents tissue disruption caused by migrating larvae.

  6. Mortality Caused by Bath Exposure of Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Larvae to Nervous Necrosis Virus Is Limited to the Fourth Day Postfertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morick, Danny; Faigenbaum, Or; Smirnov, Margarita; Fellig, Yakov; Inbal, Adi; Kotler, Moshe

    2015-05-15

    Nervous necrosis virus (NNV) is a member of the Betanodavirus genus that causes fatal diseases in over 40 species of fish worldwide. Mortality among NNV-infected fish larvae is almost 100%. In order to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for the susceptibility of fish larvae to NNV, we exposed zebrafish larvae to NNV by bath immersion at 2, 4, 6, and 8 days postfertilization (dpf). Here, we demonstrate that developing zebrafish embryos are resistant to NNV at 2 dpf due to the protection afforded by the egg chorion and, to a lesser extent, by the perivitelline fluid. The zebrafish larvae succumbed to NNV infection during a narrow time window around the 4th dpf, while 6- and 8-day-old larvae were much less sensitive, with mortalities of 24% and 28%, respectively. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Tolerance to low temperatures of Toxocara cati larvae in chicken muscle tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taira, Kensuke; Saitoh, Yasuhide; Okada, Natsuki

    2012-01-01

    Infectivity of Toxocara cati larvae in muscle tissue of chickens after storage at 4 degrees C and -25 degrees C was assessed in a mouse bioassay to provide information on the risk of meat-borne toxocarosis. Muscle tissue samples of 30-day old T. cati infections were stored at 4 degrees C for 14...

  8. Peculiarities of Embryonic and Post-Embryonic Development of Оesophagostomum dentatum (Nematoda, Strongylidae Larvae Cultured in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevstafieva V. А.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Morphometric peculiarities of the development of Оesophagostomum dentatum Rudolphi, 1803 from egg to infective larva were studied under laboratory conditions at various temperatures. The determined optimum temperature for embryonic and post-embryonic development of О. dentatum larvae from domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus Linnaeus, 1758 is 22 °С. At this temperature, 81 % of larvae develop to the third stage (L3 on the 10th day. Temperatures of 24 °С and 20 °С are less favorable for the development of the nematode, at those temperatures only 67 and 63 % of larvae, respectively, reached infective stage by the 10th day of cultivation. Embryonic development of О. dentatum eggs is characterized by their lengthening (by 8.87-9.50 %, р < 0.01 and widening (by 6.77-9.35 %, р < 0.05-0.01, and post-embryonic larval development is associated with lengthening (by 4.59-17.33 %, р < 0.01-0.001.

  9. Key to marine arthropod larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Fornshell

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this key is restricted to the larvae of marine arthropods. The key is based solely on their morphology, patterns of body segmentation, numbers of appendages, and mode of locomotion. An effort has been made to treat all traditionally named larval forms, both planktonic and benthic. It is intended that this key be useful for a researcher working with archived museum specimens and therefore, does not include habitat information as a identifying trait, even though this information is usually available in the archived records. Within the phylum Arthropoda there are two sub-phyla and eleven classes having larval stages in the marineenvironment. Where feasible the original names of the various larval types have been used. Because this nomenclature is less commonly used today compared to the past, the more recent taxonomic affinities are included in parentheses after the original larval name. The key includes the following thirty-four larvae: Branchhiopoda nauplii; Cephalocarida nauplii; Mystacocarida nauplii; trilobite larva; protonymphon; hexapod larvae; Remipedia nauplii; nauplius - Y larvae; Cirripedia nauplii; Ascothoracida nauplii; Ostracoda nauplii; Euphausiacea nauplii; Penaeidea nauplii; Cyclopoida nauplii; Calanoida nauplii; Harpacticoida nauplii;Polyarthra nauplii; cypris larva; eryonecius larva; cypris-Y larva; elapthocaris larvae; mysis larvae; lucifer zoea; acetes zoea; acanthosoma larva; phyllosoma; antizoea larva; anomuran zoea; brachyuran zoea; calyptopis larvae; furcilia larva; crytopia larva; puerulus larva; alima larva.

  10. Release of lungworm larvae from snails in the environment: potential for alternative transmission pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Giannelli

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Gastropod-borne parasites may cause debilitating clinical conditions in animals and humans following the consumption of infected intermediate or paratenic hosts. However, the ingestion of fresh vegetables contaminated by snail mucus and/or water has also been proposed as a source of the infection for some zoonotic metastrongyloids (e.g., Angiostrongylus cantonensis. In the meantime, the feline lungworms Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and Troglostrongylus brevior are increasingly spreading among cat populations, along with their gastropod intermediate hosts. The aim of this study was to assess the potential of alternative transmission pathways for A. abstrusus and T. brevior L3 via the mucus of infected Helix aspersa snails and the water where gastropods died. In addition, the histological examination of snail specimens provided information on the larval localization and inflammatory reactions in the intermediate host.Twenty-four specimens of H. aspersa received ~500 L1 of A. abstrusus and T. brevior, and were assigned to six study groups. Snails were subjected to different mechanical and chemical stimuli throughout 20 days in order to elicit the production of mucus. At the end of the study, gastropods were submerged in tap water and the sediment was observed for lungworm larvae for three consecutive days. Finally, snails were artificially digested and recovered larvae were counted and morphologically and molecularly identified. The anatomical localization of A. abstrusus and T. brevior larvae within snail tissues was investigated by histology. L3 were detected in the snail mucus (i.e., 37 A. abstrusus and 19 T. brevior and in the sediment of submerged specimens (172 A. abstrusus and 39 T. brevior. Following the artificial digestion of H. aspersa snails, a mean number of 127.8 A. abstrusus and 60.3 T. brevior larvae were recovered. The number of snail sections positive for A. abstrusus was higher than those for T. brevior.Results of this study

  11. Visceral larva migrans associated with earthworm and gecko ingestion: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Tao

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Visceral larva migrans is a syndrome caused by an infection with larval helminths, which may result in partial or general pathological changes in host tissues. Due to the difficulty in finding the causative parasites, the diagnosis of visceral larva migrans is generally based on compatible clinical signs, epidemic history, marked eosinophilia and pathological examination, especially positive serological test results and the disappearance of symptoms after specific treatment. Case presentation We report here the case of a 21-year-old Chinese man who, having ingested living earthworms and geckos at a witch’s suggestion, presented with fatigue and wordlessness lasting for one year along with elevated transaminase levels for one month. Clinical examination showed eosinophilia, elevated transaminase levels, nodular lesions in his liver and typical pathological characteristics of hepatic visceral larva migrans. After four courses of anthelmintic therapy, our patient presented with sustaining improvement of clinical manifestations and normalization of laboratory data. Conclusions Because of the difficulty in making a definite diagnosis, anthelmintic therapy should be performed in patients with a suspected diagnosis of visceral larva migrans based on their epidemic history and presence of typical manifestations, especially when the serological test results are negative. Furthermore, patients with severe parasite infection may require multiple anthelmintic therapies in order to eliminate the parasites.

  12. Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) as an alternative host to study fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Patrícia Canteri; Morey, Alexandre Tadachi; Castanheira, Gabriel Marcondes; Bocate, Karla Paiva; Panagio, Luciano Aparecido; Ito, Fabio Augusto; Furlaneto, Márcia Cristina; Yamada-Ogatta, Sueli Fumie; Costa, Idessânia Nazareth; Mora-Montes, Hector Manuel; Almeida, Ricardo Sergio

    2015-11-01

    Models of host–pathogen interactions are crucial for the analysis of microbial pathogenesis. In this context, invertebrate hosts, including Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly), Caenorhabditis elegans (nematode) and Galleria mellonella (moth), have been used to study the pathogenesis of fungi and bacteria. Each of these organisms offers distinct benefits in elucidating host–pathogen interactions. In this study,we present a newinvertebrate infection model to study fungal infections: the Tenebrio molitor (beetle) larvae. Here we performed T. molitor larvae infection with one of two important fungal human pathogens, Candida albicans or Cryptococcus neoformans, and analyzed survival curves and larva infected tissues.We showed that increasing concentrations of inoculum of both fungi resulted in increased mortality rates, demonstrating the efficiency of the method to evaluate the virulence of pathogenic yeasts. Additionally, following 12 h post-infection, C. albicans formsmycelia, spreading its hyphae through the larva tissue,whilst GMS stain enabled the visualization of C. neoformans yeast and theirmelanin capsule. These larvae are easier to cultivate in the laboratory than G. mellonella larvae, and offer the same benefits. Therefore, this insect model could be a useful alternative tool to screen clinical pathogenic yeast strainswith distinct virulence traits or different mutant strains.

  13. Eosinophils mediate protective immunity against secondary nematode infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lu; Gebreselassie, Nebiat G; Gagliardo, Lucille F; Ruyechan, Maura C; Luber, Kierstin L; Lee, Nancy A; Lee, James J; Appleton, Judith A

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophils are versatile cells that regulate innate and adaptive immunity, influence metabolism and tissue repair, and contribute to allergic lung disease. Within the context of immunity to parasitic worm infections, eosinophils are prominent yet highly varied in function. We have shown previously that when mice undergo primary infection with the parasitic nematode Trichinella spiralis, eosinophils play an important immune regulatory role that promotes larval growth and survival in skeletal muscle. In this study, we aimed to address the function of eosinophils in secondary infection with T. spiralis. By infecting eosinophil-ablated mice, we found that eosinophils are dispensable for immunity that clears adult worms or controls fecundity in secondary infection. In contrast, eosinophil ablation had a pronounced effect on secondary infection of skeletal muscle by migratory newborn larvae. Restoring eosinophils to previously infected, ablated mice caused them to limit muscle larvae burdens. Passive immunization of naive, ablated mice with sera or Ig from infected donors, together with transfer of eosinophils, served to limit the number of newborn larvae that migrated in tissue and colonized skeletal muscle. Results from these in vivo studies are consistent with earlier findings that eosinophils bind to larvae in the presence of Abs in vitro. Although our previous findings showed that eosinophils protect the parasite in primary infection, these new data show that eosinophils protect the host in secondary infection. Copyright © 2014 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  14. Desenvolvimento e migração de larvas infectantes de ciatostomíneos (Nematoda: Cyathostominae em gramínea coast cross (Cynodon dactylon em clima tropical, na Baixada Fluminense, RJ, Brasil Development and migration of cyathostome infective larvae (Nematoda: Cyathostominae in bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon in tropical climate, in Baixada Fluminense, RJ, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa C. M. do Couto

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Esse estudo foi realizado no período de julho de 2003 a novembro de 2004, para avaliar o desenvolvimento, a sobrevivência, a migração das larvas infectantes em gramínea "coast cross" (Cynodon dactylon e o horário de maior disponibilidade, em condições de clima tropical, na Baixada Fluminense, RJ, Brasil. De julho de 2003 a setembro de 2004, massas fecais de equinos naturalmente infectados foram depositadas mensalmente sobre a gramínea. Sete dias após, amostras de fezes e gramínea foram coletadas semanalmente em diferentes horários (8, 13 e 17 horas, pesadas e processadas pela técnica de Baermann. O desenvolvimento, a sobrevivência e a migração das larvas infectantes nas fezes e na gramínea foram observados durante todo o período. A sobrevivência das L3 foi de até 15 semanas nas fezes e 12 semanas na gramínea no período seco e de nove e oito semanas, respectivamente, para o período chuvoso. No período chuvoso, maior número de L3 foi recuperado nas fezes e, no período seco, na gramínea. Condições climáticas influenciaram diretamente o número larvas infectantes. Pela análise multivariada, ficou demonstrado uma forte relação entre o tempo e o número de L3 nas fezes, sendo esta relação menos acentuada para a gramínea. Não se observou diferença significativa entre os horários de coleta.A study following the development and migration of Cyathostominae infective larvae was conducted from July 2003 to November 2004 in tropical climate, Baixada Fluminense, RJ, Brazil. Samples of naturally infected feces were placed on 12 m² plot each month on a cyathostomin-free "Bermuda grass" pasture (Cynodon dactylon. After Seven days, samples of feces and grass were collected every week at 8 a.m, 1 and 5 p.m., weighed and processed by Baermann technique. Higher survival of L3 was found at dry season, 15 and 12 weeks on feces and sward respectively, at rainy season the survival was smaller. The multivariable analysis of main

  15. Larvae for layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Lotte; Fischer, Christian Holst; Nordentoft, Steen

    2013-01-01

    Companies and researchers are in close collaboration developing a container- based system for cultivating fly larvae at organic poultry farms. In a one week process, manure will be converted to compost and the live larvae will be harvested and used for feeding laying hens. The larvae are expected...

  16. Uncommon Human Urinary Tract Myiasis Due to Psychoda Sp. Larvae, Kashan, Iran: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasti, Sima; Dehghani, Rouhullah; Khaledi, Hassan Naeimi; Takhtfiroozeh, Sayed Mahdi; Chimehi, Elahe

    2016-01-01

    Contamination of human and animal body tissues with flies' larvae and diptera cause myiasis. A 26 yr old female patient refers to Kashan Shahid Beheshti Hospital, central Iran because of urogenital infection, pain in the right part of stomach, smelly and reddish vaginal discharge and frequent urination. In the first checking, urine sample was taken. In the sample, active and alive larvae were seen. The live samples were taken to the Environmental Health Department Lab of Kashan University of Medical Sciences in clean glass jars. In the morphological survey, Psychoda sp larvae were identified. In Iran, this study is the first report of this species of larva that causes urinary myiasis. This fly larva is not carnivore or bloodsucker and feeds on bacterial agents. Observance of personal hygiene especially during defecation and urination is essential to prevent contamination of this type of myiasis.

  17. RNA-sequencing analysis of fungi-induced transcripts from the bamboo wireworm Melanotus cribricollis (Coleoptera: Elateridae larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bi-Huan Ye

    Full Text Available Larvae of Melanotus cribricollis, feed on bamboo shoots and roots, causing serious damage to bamboo in Southern China. However, there is currently no effective control measure to limit the population of this underground pest. Previously, a new entomopathogenic fungal strain isolated from M. cribricollis larvae cadavers named Metarhizium pingshaense WP08 showed high pathogenic efficacy indoors, indicated that the fungus could be used as a bio-control measure. So far, the genetic backgrounds of both M. cribricollis and M. pingshaense WP08 were blank. Here, we analyzed the whole transcriptome of M. cribricollis larvae, infected with M. pingshaense WP08 or not, using high-throughput next generation sequencing technology. In addition, the transcriptome sequencing of M. pingshaense WP08 was also performed for data separation of those two non-model species. The reliability of the RNA-Seq data was also validated through qRT-PCR experiment. The de novo assembly, functional annotation, sequence comparison of four insect species, and analysis of DEGs, enriched pathways, GO terms and immune related candidate genes were operated. The results indicated that, multiple defense mechanisms of M. cribricollis larvae are initiated to protect against the more serious negative effects caused by fungal infection. To our knowledge, this was the first report of transcriptome analysis of Melanotus spp. infected with a fungus, and it could provide insights to further explore insect-fungi interaction mechanisms.

  18. Ascaris and hookworm transmission in preschool children from rural Panama: role of yard environment, soil eggs/larvae and hygiene and play behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Rachel J; Koski, Kristine G; Pons, Emérita; Sandoval, Nidia; Sinisterra, Odalis; Scott, Marilyn E

    2015-10-01

    This study explored whether the yard environment and child hygiene and play behaviours were associated with presence and intensity of Ascaris and hookworm in preschool children and with eggs and larvae in soil. Data were collected using questionnaires, a visual survey of the yard, soil samples and fecal samples collected at baseline and following re-infection. The presence of eggs/larvae in soil was associated negatively with water storage (eggs) but positively with dogs (eggs) and distance from home to latrine (larvae). Baseline and re-infection prevalences were: hookworm (28.0%, 3.4%); Ascaris (16.9%, 9.5%); Trichuris (0.9%, 0.7%). Zero-inflated negative binomial regression models revealed a higher baseline hookworm infection if yards had eggs or larvae, more vegetation or garbage, and if the child played with soil. Baseline Ascaris was associated with dirt floor, dogs, exposed soil in yard, open defecation and with less time playing outdoors, whereas Ascaris re-infection was associated with water storage, vegetation cover and garbage near the home and not playing with animals. Our results show complex interactions between infection, the yard environment and child behaviours, and indicate that transmission would be reduced if latrines were closer to the home, and if open defecation and water spillage were reduced.

  19. Tracking radioactive larvae of Strongyloides ratti in the host

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, P.A.G.

    1979-01-01

    Infective larvae of homogonic Strongyloides ratti grown in faecal culture with 32 P or 75 Se acquired a significant amount of radioactivity which was firmly attached to them. Heating removed most of the 32 P but left 75 Se in place. Subcutaneous injection of virgin and nursing mother rats with living and heat-killed ratioactive larvae resulted in a pattern of labelling in the small intestine of injected animals and, in the case of 75 Se, those of suckling pups, which can only be explained if labelled worms follow the natural migratory routes. The use of this tool in migratory studies is discussed, with precautions to allow for flaws in the technique. (author)

  20. Trichinella infection and clinical disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, M R; Meyer, C N; Krantz, T

    1996-01-01

    Trichinellosis is caused by ingestion of insufficiently cooked meat contaminated with infective larvae of Trichinella species. The clinical course is highly variable, ranging from no apparent infection to severe and even fatal disease. We report two illustrative cases of trichinellosis. Returning....... Life-threatening cardiopulmonary, renal and central nervous system complications developed. The patient recovered after several months. Her husband, who also ate the pork, did not have clinical symptoms, but an increased eosinophil count and a single larva in a muscle biopsy confirmed infection....... The epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of trichinellosis are reviewed....

  1. ASPEK ZOONOTIK PARASIT NEMATODA PADA KERA DAN BINATANG MENGERAT DI BENGKULU, SUMATERA. INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Untung S.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Twentyfive monkeys and 481 rats were examined for parasitic nematodes in Bengkulu, nine species of nematode were found infecting these animals. Five of filarían nematodes, i.e. Brugia malayi, Brugia pahangi, Dirofilaria magnilarvatum and Edesonfilaria malayensis were infecting monkeys and one speciesTBreinlia booliati, was found infecting rats. Three species of gastrointestinal helminths, i.e. Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis and Oestophagomomum spp were found in monkeys; a lung worm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis, was found in rats. The most important nematode species is B. malayi, which was found in Presbytis cristatus (36.8 % and in Macaca fascicularis (20.0 %. T. trichiura was found in R. cristatus (47.9 % and A. cantonensis in Rattus argentiventer (4.0 % and Rattus tiomanicus (2.9%.

  2. Comparison of two techniques used for the recovery of third-stage strongylid nematode larvae from herbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krecek, R C; Maingi, N

    2004-07-14

    A laboratory trial to determine the efficacy of two methods in recovering known numbers of third-stage (L3) strongylid nematode larvae from herbage was carried out. Herbage samples consisting almost entirely of star grass (Cynodon aethiopicus) that had no L3 nematode parasitic larvae were collected at Onderstepoort, South Africa. Two hundred grams samples were placed in fibreglass fly gauze bags and seeded with third-stage strongylid nematode larvae at 11 different levels of herbage infectivity ranging from 50 to 8000 L3/kg. Eight replicates were prepared for each of the 11 levels of herbage infectivity. Four of these were processed using a modified automatic Speed Queen heavy-duty washing machine at a regular normal cycle, followed by isolation of larvae through centrifugation-flotation in saturated sugar solution. Larvae in the other four samples were recovered after soaking the herbage in water overnight and the larvae isolated with the Baermann technique of the washing. There was a strong correlation between the number of larvae recovered using both methods and the number of larvae in the seeded samples, indicating that the two methods give a good indication of changes in the numbers of larvae on pasture if applied in epidemiological studies. The washing machine method recovered higher numbers of larvae than the soaking and Baermann method at all levels of pasture seeding, probably because the machine washed the samples more thoroughly and a sugar centrifugation-flotation step was used. Larval suspensions obtained using the washing machine method were therefore cleaner and thus easier to examine under the microscope. In contrast, the soaking and Baermann method may be more suitable in field-work, especially in places where resources and equipment are scarce, as it is less costly in equipment and less labour intensive. Neither method recovered all the larvae from the seeded samples. The recovery rates for the washing machine method ranged from 18 to 41% while

  3. Uncommon Human Urinary Tract Myiasis Due to Psychoda Sp. Larvae, Kashan, Iran: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima RASTI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of human and animal body tissues with flies’ larvae and diptera cause myiasis. A 26 yr old female patient refers to Kashan Shahid Beheshti Hospital, central Iran because of urogenital infection, pain in the right part of stomach, smelly and reddish vaginal discharge and frequent urination. In the first checking, urine sample was taken. In the sample, active and alive larvae were seen. The live samples were taken to the Environmental Health Department Lab of Kashan University of Medical Sciences in clean glass jars. In the morphological survey, Psychoda sp larvae were identified. In Iran, this study is the first report of this species of larva that causes urinary myiasis. This fly larva is not carnivore or bloodsucker and feeds on bacterial agents. Observance of personal hygiene especially during defecation and urination is essential to prevent contamination of this type of myiasis.

  4. Visceral larvae as a predictive index of the overall level of fish batch infection in European anchovies (Engraulis encrasicolus): A rapid procedure for Food Business Operators to assess marketability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardone, L; Nucera, D; Pergola, V; Costanzo, F; Costa, E; Tinacci, L; Guidi, A; Armani, A

    2017-06-05

    The European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus), one of the most important pelagic fish resources in the Mediterranean Sea, is frequently infected by anisakid larvae. Food Business Operators (FBOs) should use appropriate sampling plans and analytical methods to avoid commercialization of massively infected batches and reduce the risk of transmission of viable zoonotic larvae. In this study, performed at FishLab (Department of Veterinary Sciences of the University of Pisa) during 2016, an official sampling plan was associated with a digestion protocol for the inspection of anchovies. Considering that anisakid larvae are usually located in the fish visceral cavity and in the adjacent muscles (VM), this part was analyzed. In particular, we assessed the reliability of the digestion of a subsample of 150g (±30g) of VM, randomly collected from 29 specimens, in estimating the marketability of the anchovies' batch. Fifty-seven samples of 29 anchovies were collected. Each anchovy was sectioned to separate VM. All the subsamples were digested, and visible larvae counted. A high correlation between the number of larvae in VM regions and in the total batch was observed, indicating a very significant contribution of the VM region on total number of parasites. The Mean Abundance (MA) was used to assess the batch marketability according to a threshold calculated on the basis of the maximum number of nematodes tolerated per sample. Considering that the MA can be calculated only when the number of examined specimens is known, the number of visible Larvae per gram of tissue (LpG) was calculated on 150g (±30g) of VM subsamples. A LpG marketability threshold was calculated dividing the maximum number of tolerated nematodes by the average weight of a sample of 29 anchovies calculated considering data available in literature. To evaluate the diagnostic performance of the LpG threshold, the marketability of 57 batches assessed on the basis of the MA threshold was assumed as the gold

  5. The Galleria mellonella larvae as an in vivo model for evaluation of Shigella virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnoy, Shoshana; Gancz, Hanan; Zhu, Yuewei; Honnold, Cary L; Zurawski, Daniel V; Venkatesan, Malabi M

    2017-07-04

    Shigella spp. causing bacterial diarrhea and dysentery are human enteroinvasive bacterial pathogens that are orally transmitted through contaminated food and water and cause bacillary dysentery. Although natural Shigella infections are restricted to humans and primates, several smaller animal models are used to analyze individual steps in pathogenesis. No animal model fully duplicates the human response and sustaining the models requires expensive animals, costly maintenance of animal facilities, veterinary services and approved animal protocols. This study proposes the development of the caterpillar larvae of Galleria mellonella as a simple, inexpensive, informative, and rapid in-vivo model for evaluating virulence and the interaction of Shigella with cells of the insect innate immunity. Virulent Shigella injected through the forelegs causes larvae death. The mortality rates were dependent on the Shigella strain, the infectious dose, and the presence of the virulence plasmid. Wild-type S. flexneri 2a, persisted and replicated within the larvae, resulting in haemocyte cell death, whereas plasmid-cured mutants were rapidly cleared. Histology of the infected larvae in conjunction with fluorescence, immunofluorescence, and transmission electron microscopy indicate that S. flexneri reside within a vacuole of the insect haemocytes that ultrastructurally resembles vacuoles described in studies with mouse and human macrophage cell lines. Some of these bacteria-laden vacuoles had double-membranes characteristic of autophagosomes. These results suggest that G. mellonella larvae can be used as an easy-to-use animal model to understand Shigella pathogenesis that requires none of the time and labor-consuming procedures typical of other systems.

  6. A strain of Serratia marcescens pathogenic for larvae of Lymantria dispar: Infectivity and mechanisms of pathogenicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.D. Podgwaite; B.J. Cosenza

    1976-01-01

    The ED50 of a strain of Serratia marcescens for microinjected instar III and IV gypsy moth larvae was 7.5 and 14.5 viable cells, respectively. Percentage and rate of mortality were found to be highly variable among replicates of the same instar and between instars in free-feeding bioassays. Mortality in second instar larvae...

  7. Behavioural response of Heterorhabditis megidis towards plant roots and insect larvae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boff, M.I.C.; Tol, van R.W.H.M.; Smits, P.H.

    2002-01-01

    The behavioural response of infective juveniles (IJs) of Heterorhabditis megidis (strain NLH-E87.3) to cues from roots of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.), thuja (Thuja occidentalis L.) and to larvae of the black vine weevil, Otiorhynchus sulcatus, was studied. Choice assays were conducted in

  8. In vivo Host-Pathogen Interaction as Revealed by Global Proteomic Profiling of Zebrafish Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Díaz-Pascual

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The outcome of a host-pathogen interaction is determined by the conditions of the host, the pathogen, and the environment. Although numerous proteomic studies of in vitro-grown microbial pathogens have been performed, in vivo proteomic approaches are still rare. In addition, increasing evidence supports that in vitro studies inadequately reflect in vivo conditions. Choosing the proper host is essential to detect the expression of proteins from the pathogen in vivo. Numerous studies have demonstrated the suitability of zebrafish (Danio rerio embryos as a model to in vivo studies of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. In most zebrafish-pathogen studies, infection is achieved by microinjection of bacteria into the larvae. However, few reports using static immersion of bacterial pathogens have been published. In this study we infected 3 days post-fertilization (DPF zebrafish larvae with P. aeruginosa PAO1 by immersion and injection and tracked the in vivo immune response by the zebrafish. Additionally, by using non-isotopic (Q-exactive metaproteomics we simultaneously evaluated the proteomic response of the pathogen (P. aeruginosa PAO1 and the host (zebrafish. We found some zebrafish metabolic pathways, such as hypoxia response via HIF activation pathway, were exclusively enriched in the larvae exposed by static immersion. In contrast, we found that inflammation mediated by chemokine and cytokine signaling pathways was exclusively enriched in the larvae exposed by injection, while the integrin signaling pathway and angiogenesis were solely enriched in the larvae exposed by immersion. We also found important virulence factors from P. aeruginosa that were enriched only after exposure by injection, such as the Type-III secretion system and flagella-associated proteins. On the other hand, P. aeruginosa proteins involved in processes like biofilm formation, and cellular responses to antibiotic and starvation were enriched exclusively after exposure by

  9. Strongyloides stercoralis Infection in Alcoholic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia C. A. Teixeira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The course of Strongyloides stercoralis infection is usually asymptomatic with a low discharge of rhabditoid larva in feces. However, the deleterious effects of alcohol consumption seem to enhance the susceptibility to infection, as shown by a fivefold higher strongyloidiasis frequency in alcoholics than in nonalcoholics. Moreover, the association between S. stercoralis infection and alcoholism presents a risk for hyperinfection and severe strongyloidiasis. There are several possible mechanisms for the disruption of the host-parasite equilibrium in ethanol-addicted patients with chronic strongyloidiasis. One explanation is that chronic ethanol intake stimulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis to produce excessive levels of endogenous cortisol, which in turn can lead to a deficiency in type 2 T helper cells (Th2 protective response, and also to mimic the parasite hormone ecdysone, which promotes the transformation of rhabditiform larvae to filariform larvae, leading to autoinfection. Therefore, when untreated, alcoholic patients are continuously infected by this autoinfection mechanism. Thus, the early diagnosis of strongyloidiasis and treatment can prevent serious forms of hyperinfection in ethanol abusers.

  10. The effect of Strongylus vulgaris larvae on equine intestinal myoelectrical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, G D; Bolton, J R; Cambridge, H; Thurgate, S

    1989-06-01

    The myoelectrical activity of the ileum, caecum and large colon was monitored from Ag-AgCl bipolar recording electrodes in four conscious 'parasite-naive' weanling foals. All foals were inoculated with 1000 infective 3rd-stage Strongylus vulgaris larvae and alterations to the myoelectrical activity observed. The frequencies of caecal and colonic spike bursts increased significantly in all post infection periods coinciding with assumed larval penetration into the intestinal mucosa and migration through the vasculature. Peaks in caecal and colonic activity occurred at Days 1 to 5 post infection. In the caecum, peaks occurred again at Days 15 and 31 post infection, preceding similar rises in colonic spike burst frequency at Days 19 and 35. Longer term changes indicated a return towards pre-infection levels of activity suggesting smooth muscle adaptation to decreased blood flow. The analysis of caecal and colonic spike burst propagation indicated that the increases in burst frequency were not attributable to an increase in the propagation of spike bursts in any particular direction, but rather to proportional increases in all directions of activity. There was a slight decrease in the simple ileal spike burst frequency immediately post-infection. None of the experimental animals exhibited signs of abdominal pain during the trial, and there was no evidence of bowel infarction at post mortem examination despite the presence of severe parasite-induced arterial lesions. The results suggest that increased caecal and colonic motility is an important host response in susceptible foals exposed to S. vulgaris larvae.

  11. Nematode cysts and larvae found in Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Acuña, D O; Pinheiro, J; Torres, E J L; Lanfredi, R M; Brandolini, S V P B

    2009-02-01

    This study describes the morphology of the nematode cysts and larvae found in Achatina fulica (giant African snail) in Brazil. Sixty snails were collected in Mesquita, Rio de Janeiro State. Fourteen of the snails were naturally infected. The cysts were spherical, pink colored and measured 0.97 to 1.57 mm in diameter. In the majority of cases they had a single larvae involved in amorphous material. A total of 222 encysted larvae were recovered. Of these, 30 were utilized in the morphological study. The length of the larvae varied from 2.57 to 5.8 mm and they were classified as small--up to 3.5 mm; medium--from 3.53 to 4.5 mm; and large--greater than 4.52 mm. The average length of the larvae in the three groups was 2.85, 3.87 and 5.23 mm, respectively. The larval cuticle was white, shiny and transversally striated until the posterior end of the body. At the anterior end there is a mouth with three lips, with amphids and papillae, followed by a muscular esophagus with average length of 0.61 mm, terminating in an esophageal bulb and having a nerve ring in the middle third of the esophagus, and an intestine with an opening near the posterior end. The tail begins from this opening and has two types of ends: short and abrupt or long and gradually tapering. The difference in the tail end can suggest sexual dimorphism, although no primordial reproductive structures were observed. These characteristics were not sufficient to identify the larvae, so there is a need for further study.

  12. Creeping eruption of the hand in an Iranian patient: Cutaneous larva migrans

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    Zabihollah Shahmoradi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous larva migrans (CLM, a serpiginous cutaneous eruption is the most commonly acquired tropical dermatosis. It is caused by infection with hookworm larvae in tropical and sub-tropical areas, and people who have a history of travel in these countries. The most frequent location of CLM is the distal lower extremities or buttocks. We describe a case of 57-year-old Iranian female patient with CLM of hand (unusual site without traveling to endemic countries that was successfully treated with oral albendazole. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of CLM in Iran.

  13. Gasterophilus spp. infections in horses from northern and central Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrayev, Baltabek; Lider, Lyudmila; Bauer, Christian

    2015-01-15

    A cross-sectional survey was performed to obtain current data on the gastrointestinal myiasis of horses in the provinces of Kostanay, Akmola and Karagandy, northern and central Kazakhstan. The stomach, small intestine and rectum of 148 slaughter horses were examined for Gasterophilus spp. larvae during a 26-month study period. All horses were infected with 2nd and 3rd stage larvae (mean intensity: 803±350), and 22% of them harboured >1000 Gasterophilus spp. larvae each. Four species were identified: G. intestinalis (prevalence: 100%; mean intensity: 361±240 larvae), G. haemorrhoidalis (100%; 353±191), G. nasalis (100%; 73±36) and G. pecorum (91.2%; 18±10). Horses aged<2 years were higher infected with Gasterophilus larvae than 2-4 years old animals. Both the prevalence and extremely high intensity of Gasterophilus infections of horses in these Kazakh regions suggest respective control measurements to improve the health and performance of the animals and to increase the economic income of horse owners. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Isolamento de esporos de Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae no Brasil Detectionof Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae spores in Brazil

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    Dulce Maria Tocchetto Schuch

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou detectar presença de esporos de Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae em produtos de um entreposto do interior do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, a identificação de possíveis fontes de contaminação e a avaliação da possibilidade da transferência de esporos para colméias de apiários adjacentes a partir de produtos importados contaminados. Foram analisados mel e pólen importados disponíveis no entreposto, favo do ninho (crias, pólen e mel colhido de uma colméia sadia, mel estocado em um dos apiários e abelhas adultas. Os resultados foram positivosem relação ao mel e pólen importados, a três grupos de abelhas adultas e ao mel do favo.The objective of this work was to detect the presence of Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae spores in products from a warehouse located in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, the identification of possible contamination sources, and the assessment of spores transference possibility from contaminated imported products from the warehouse to apiaries located in the surrounding area. Samples of imported pollen and bulk honey stocked in the warehouse, and honeycomb (brood, honey and pollen from a healthy hive, honey from one apiary and adult bees were analyzed. Imported honey and pollen, and three groups of adult bees and the honey collected from the honeycomb resulted positive.

  15. Larval migration in PERL chambers as an in vitro model for percutaneous infection stimulates feeding in the canine hookworm Ancylostoma caninum

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    Welz Claudia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ancylostoma caninum third-stage larvae are the non-feeding infective stage of this parasite and are able to infect potential hosts via different infection routes. Since percutaneous infection is one of the most important routes and skin penetration is the first step into parasitic life, an existing in vitro model for percutaneous migration was modified and evaluated. The main parameter used to evaluate migration was the migration ratio (migrated larvae as a percentage of total number of larvae recovered. Additionally, the skin lag was calculated, expressing the percentage of larvae remaining in the skin and therefore not being recovered. Since initiation of feeding is proposed to be an important step in the transition from free-living to parasitic A. caninum larvae, feeding assays were performed with in vitro percutaneously migrated larvae. Additionally, infective larvae of A. caninum were activated via serum-stimulation and feeding behaviour was analysed and compared between percutaneously migrated and serum-stimulated larvae. Results Maximum skin migration levels of infective larvae were observed at temperatures above 32°C when larvae were placed on the epidermal side of skin for more than 12 hours. The medium beneath the skin had no effect on migration ratio, and no significant difference between the migration ratios through fresh and frozen/thawed skin was observed. Maximum feeding levels of 93.2% were observed for percutaneously migrated larvae after 48 h incubation, whereas serum-stimulated larvae reached the maximum of 91.0% feeding larvae after 24 h. Conclusions The PERL chamber system was optimised and standardised as an in vitro model for percutaneous migration. The larvae recovered after percutaneous migration showed characteristic signs of activation similar to that of serum-stimulated larvae. The observed difference in time course of resumption of feeding indicates that percutaneously migrated larvae are not

  16. Molecular genotyping of anisakis larvae in Middle Eastern Japan and endoscopic evidence for preferential penetration of normal over atrophic mucosa.

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    Toshio Arai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anisakiasis is a parasitic disease caused primarily by Anisakis spp. larvae in Asia and in Western countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the genotype of Anisakis larvae endoscopically removed from Middle Eastern Japanese patients and to determine whether mucosal atrophy affects the risk of penetration in gastric anisakiasis. METHODS: In this study, 57 larvae collected from 44 patients with anisakiasis (42 gastric and 2 colonic anisakiasis were analyzed retrospectively. Genotyping was confirmed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP analysis of ITS regions and by sequencing the mitochondrial small subunit (SSU region. In the cases of gastric anisakiasis, correlation analyses were conducted between the frequency of larval penetration in normal/atrophic area and the manifestation of clinical symptoms. RESULTS: Nearly all larvae were A. simplex seusu stricto (s.s. (99%, and one larva displayed a hybrid genotype. The A. simplex larvae penetrated normal mucosa more frequently than atrophic area (p = 0.005. Finally, patients with normal mucosa infection were more likely to exhibit clinical symptoms than those with atrophic mucosa infection (odds ratio, 6.96; 95% confidence interval, 1.52-31.8. CONCLUSIONS: In Japan, A. simplex s.s. is the main etiological agent of human anisakiasis and tends to penetrate normal gastric mucosa. Careful endoscopic examination of normal gastric mucosa, particularly in the greater curvature of the stomach will improve the detection of Anisakis larvae.

  17. Molecular Genotyping of Anisakis Larvae in Middle Eastern Japan and Endoscopic Evidence for Preferential Penetration of Normal over Atrophic Mucosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Toshio; Akao, Nobuaki; Seki, Takenori; Kumagai, Takashi; Ishikawa, Hirofumi; Ohta, Nobuo; Hirata, Nobuto; Nakaji, So; Yamauchi, Kenji; Hirai, Mitsuru; Shiratori, Toshiyasu; Kobayashi, Masayoshi; Fujii, Hiroyuki; Ishii, Eiji; Naito, Mikio; Saitoh, Shin-ichi; Yamaguchi, Toshikazu; Shibata, Nobumitsu; Shimo, Masamune; Tokiwa, Toshihiro

    2014-01-01

    Background Anisakiasis is a parasitic disease caused primarily by Anisakis spp. larvae in Asia and in Western countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the genotype of Anisakis larvae endoscopically removed from Middle Eastern Japanese patients and to determine whether mucosal atrophy affects the risk of penetration in gastric anisakiasis. Methods In this study, 57 larvae collected from 44 patients with anisakiasis (42 gastric and 2 colonic anisakiasis) were analyzed retrospectively. Genotyping was confirmed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of ITS regions and by sequencing the mitochondrial small subunit (SSU) region. In the cases of gastric anisakiasis, correlation analyses were conducted between the frequency of larval penetration in normal/atrophic area and the manifestation of clinical symptoms. Results Nearly all larvae were A. simplex seusu stricto (s.s.) (99%), and one larva displayed a hybrid genotype. The A. simplex larvae penetrated normal mucosa more frequently than atrophic area (p = 0.005). Finally, patients with normal mucosa infection were more likely to exhibit clinical symptoms than those with atrophic mucosa infection (odds ratio, 6.96; 95% confidence interval, 1.52–31.8). Conclusions In Japan, A. simplex s.s. is the main etiological agent of human anisakiasis and tends to penetrate normal gastric mucosa. Careful endoscopic examination of normal gastric mucosa, particularly in the greater curvature of the stomach will improve the detection of Anisakis larvae. PMID:24586583

  18. Immunization with irradiated larvae against Dictyocaulus filaria in young lambs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhar, D.N.; Sharma, R.L.

    1981-12-01

    In the lungworm-endemic areas of Kashmir, 6-10 week old lambs of Karnah and Kashmir Merino breeds were vaccinated with two doses of 50 kR gamma-irradiated larvae of Dictyocaulus filaria, given a month apart. Assessed on the basis of reduced prevalence and significantly lower faecal larval output over an eight-month observation period, vaccinated lambs showed a high degree of resistance to naturally acquired D. filaria infection. The results also show that vaccination against D. filaria provided some degree of protection against infection with other lungworm species.

  19. Immunization with irradiated larvae against Dictyocaulus filaria in young lambs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhar, D.N.; Sharma, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    In the lungworm-endemic areas of Kashmir, 6-10 week old lambs of Karnah and Kashmir Merino breeds were vaccinated with two doses of 50 kR gamma-irradiated larvae of Dictyocaulus filaria, given a month apart. Assessed on the basis of reduced prevalence and significantly lower faecal larval output over an eight-month observation period, vaccinated lambs showed a high degree of resistance to naturally acquired D. filaria infection. The results also show that vaccination against D. filaria provided some degree of protection against infection with other lungworm species. (Auth.)

  20. Patogenicidade de isolados de Beauveria bassiana para ovos, larvas e ninfas ingurgitadas de Rhipicephalus sanguineus Pathogenicity of Beauveria bassiana isolates towards eggs, larvae and engorged nymphs of Rhipicephalus sanguineus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Prette

    2005-08-01

    suspensions. For the eggs infection 0.1g (about 270 eggs were placed at 1ml of suspension at different concentrations, each engorged larvae group (n=250 and engorged nymphs (n=50 received 2ml of one conidial suspension. Thereafter, eggs, larvae and nymphs were placed in on incubator at 27 ± 1°C and at a humidity above 80%. The fungal isolates applied at different spore concentrations caused a reduction in percent hatching of larvae derived from infected eggs (0.7 to 12.1% of hatching and in percent ecdysis of larvae (4.7 to 33.7% of ecdysis and nymphs (0 to 16.7% of ecdysis. No difference in the infection of eggs was observed between isolates (P>0.05, but the application of 109 conidia/ml of JAB 07 and AM 9 significantly reduced the hatching of larvae compared to the concentrations of 10(7 conidia mL-1. The isolate CB 7 was more efficient in reducing the number of larval ecdysis. The isolates and concentrations tested didn’t differ (P>0.05 in their ability to reduce percent ecdysis of nymphs, but an intense pathogenic activity of the fungus was observed.

  1. Screening of the ‘Open Scaffolds’ collection from Compounds Australia identifies a new chemical entity with anthelmintic activities against different developmental stages of the barber's pole worm and other parasitic nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Preston

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The discovery and development of novel anthelmintic classes is essential to sustain the control of socioeconomically important parasitic worms of humans and animals. With the aim of offering novel, lead-like scaffolds for drug discovery, Compounds Australia released the ‘Open Scaffolds’ collection containing 33,999 compounds, with extensive information available on the physicochemical properties of these chemicals. In the present study, we screened 14,464 prioritised compounds from the ‘Open Scaffolds’ collection against the exsheathed third-stage larvae (xL3s of Haemonchus contortus using recently developed whole-organism screening assays. We identified a hit compound, called SN00797439, which was shown to reproducibly reduce xL3 motility by ≥ 70%; this compound induced a characteristic, “coiled” xL3 phenotype (IC50 = 3.46–5.93 μM, inhibited motility of fourth-stage larvae (L4s; IC50 = 0.31–12.5 μM and caused considerable cuticular damage to L4s in vitro. When tested on other parasitic nematodes in vitro, SN00797439 was shown to inhibit (IC50 = 3–50 μM adults of Ancylostoma ceylanicum (hookworm and first-stage larvae of Trichuris muris (whipworm and eventually kill (>90% these stages. Furthermore, this compound completely inhibited the motility of female and male adults of Brugia malayi (50–100 μM as well as microfilariae of both B. malayi and Dirofilaria immitis (heartworm. Overall, these results show that SN00797439 acts against genetically (evolutionarily distant parasitic nematodes i.e. H. contortus and A. ceylanicum [strongyloids] vs. B. malayi and D. immitis [filarioids] vs. T. muris [enoplid], and, thus, might offer a novel, lead-like scaffold for the development of a relatively broad-spectrum anthelmintic. Our future work will focus on assessing the activity of SN00797439 against other pathogens that cause neglected tropical diseases, optimising analogs with improved biological activities and

  2. Anorexia in rats infected with the nematode, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis: experimental manipulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, J G; Mitchell, P I; Moar, K M; Bissett, A; Geissler, S; Bruce, K; Chappell, L H

    2000-06-01

    Nippostrongylus brasiliensis induces a biphasic anorexia in laboratory rats, the first phase coincident with lung invasion (ca day 2) and the second when the worms mature in the intestine (ca day 8). Using the anthelminthic, mebendazole (MBZ), N. brasiliensis infections of the rat were eliminated between the first and second anorexic episodes. This intervention prevented the expression of the second phase of anorexia. Rats exposed to a second infection with N. brasiliensis, 3 weeks after the primary infection, exhibited only a first phase anorexic response which was not influenced by MBZ termination of the primary infection. The lower cumulative food intake and weight gain of all infected rats after 8 days of infection were accompanied by elevated plasma insulin and, in some individuals, by elevated plasma leptin, compared with uninfected controls and previously-infected MBZ-treated rats. Messenger RNA levels for neuropeptide Y were higher in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus of 8-day infected rats than in recovering MBZ-treated animals. Inoculation of rats with heat-killed N. brasiliensis larvae failed to induce anorexia and did not alter the severity of biphasic anorexia on subsequent injection of viable larvae. The first anorexic episode is therefore dependent upon viable migrating larvae. The second phase of anorexia clearly requires the continuing presence of the parasite beyond the lung phase. Viable migrating larvae are also required to confer 'resistance' to reinfection.

  3. Magnetic Stirrer Method for the Detection of Trichinella Larvae in Muscle Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer-Scholl, Anne; Pozio, Edoardo; Gayda, Jennifer; Thaben, Nora; Bahn, Peter; Nöckler, Karsten

    2017-03-03

    Trichinellosis is a debilitating disease in humans and is caused by the consumption of raw or undercooked meat of animals infected with the nematode larvae of the genus Trichinella. The most important sources of human infections worldwide are game meat and pork or pork products. In many countries, the prevention of human trichinellosis is based on the identification of infected animals by means of the artificial digestion of muscle samples from susceptible animal carcasses. There are several methods based on the digestion of meat but the magnetic stirrer method is considered the gold standard. This method allows the detection of Trichinella larvae by microscopy after the enzymatic digestion of muscle samples and subsequent filtration and sedimentation steps. Although this method does not require special and expensive equipment, internal controls cannot be used. Therefore, stringent quality management should be applied throughout the test. The aim of the present work is to provide detailed handling instructions and critical control points of the method to analysts, based on the experience of the European Union Reference Laboratory for Parasites and the National Reference Laboratory of Germany for Trichinella.

  4. ELEVATED TRANS-MAMMARY TRANSMISSION OF Toxocara canis LARVAE IN BALB/c MICE

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    Paula de Lima Telmo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Toxocariasis is a widespread zoonosis and is considered an important worldwide public health problem. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of trans-mammary Toxocara canis infection in newborn BALB/c mice nursed by females experimentally infected with 1,200 eggs after delivery. After 50 days of age, the presence of larvae in different organs of the offspring was investigated. Trans-mammary infection was confirmed in 73.9% of the mice that had been nursed by infected females. These data show a high trans-mammary transmission of T. canis and confirm the significance of this transmission route in paratenic hosts.

  5. Presence of parasitic ova, cysts and larva on common fresh fruits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several parasitic infections are associated with poor hygiene and environmental sanitation resulting in food and water containing ova, cysts or larva of these parasites. Therefore, a survey of fruits and vegetables sold at some major markets in Ibadan was carried out between January and June, 2011 to identify the ova, cyst ...

  6. Cyathostomin larvae: presence on Brachiaria humidicola grass during the rainy and dry seasons of Brazil Larvas de ciatostomíneos: disponibilidade em gramínea Brachiaria humidicola nas estações chuvosa e seca do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Navarro dos Santos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The presence of cyathostomin larvae is directly associated to climatic conditions of each region. This study aimed to evaluate the ecology of infective larvae on Brachiaria humidicola during the dry and rainy seasons from October 2007 to September 2008 in a tropical region, Rio de Janeiro state, southeastern Brazil. Stools were collected from the rectum of horses naturally infected with cyathostomins at the beginning of the rainy season (October to March and dry season (April to September. They were divided into four samples of 500 g and deposited on a grass patch of B. humidicola. Seven days later and every 15 days thereafter samples of feces and grass were collected and processed by the Baermann technique. The mean number of larvae recovered from the grass varied according to the season, with greater recovery of larvae during the peak of the dry season (14,700 L3.kg-¹ DM. There was a statistically significant difference between L3 recovered from feces and grass, but not between L3 recovered from the grass base and apex. These results show that the region’s climate favors the development and survival of infective cyathostomin larvae throughout the year, with a greater number of larvae during the dry season.A disponibilidade de larvas de ciatostomíneos está diretamente relacionada com as condições climáticas de cada região. Para avaliar o comportamento das larvas infectantes nos períodos seco e chuvoso em gramínea Brachiaria humidicola, realizou-se um estudo, no período de outubro/2007 a setembro/2008, na região da Baixada Fluminense, RJ, de clima tropical. Amostras de fezes foram coletadas diretamente do reto de equinos naturalmente infectados por ciatostomíneos, no início do período chuvoso (outubro a março e seco (abril a setembro, divididas em quatro amostras de 500 g e depositadas em um canteiro formado por gramínea B. humidicola. Sete dias após o depósito e, posteriormente, a cada 15 dias, amostras de fezes e gram

  7. ISOLASI BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS DARI LARVA DAN PENGUJIAN PATOGENISITASNYA TERHADAP LARVA NYAMUK VEKTOR

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    Blondine Ch. P.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A study to evaluate pathogenic organisms as cause of mosquito larvae death was conducted at Wonokerto and Pabelan villages, Salatiga Luar Kota subdistrict, Semarang regency in Central Java from May 1991 through December 1991. Bacterial isolation from dead larvae showed that 31 B. thuringicnsis isolates were obtained from 31 larvae samples collected from 2 location e.g Wonokerto village (3 samples, Pabelan village (28 samples. Nineteen isolates (61,3% showed a pathogenicity of more than 50% to third toward instar larvae of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus respectively 24 hours after exposure. This study shows the possible use of B. thuringiensis for biologic control of mosquitoes which can act as vectors for human diseases.

  8. A novel mode of induction of the humoral innate immune response in Drosophila larvae

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    Hiroyuki Kenmoku

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila adults have been utilized as a genetically tractable model organism to decipher the molecular mechanisms of humoral innate immune responses. In an effort to promote the utility of Drosophila larvae as an additional model system, in this study, we describe a novel aspect of an induction mechanism for innate immunity in these larvae. By using a fine tungsten needle created for manipulating semi-conductor devices, larvae were subjected to septic injury. However, although Toll pathway mutants were susceptible to infection with Gram-positive bacteria as had been shown for Drosophila adults, microbe clearance was not affected in the mutants. In addition, Drosophila larvae were found to be sensitive to mechanical stimuli with respect to the activation of a sterile humoral response. In particular, pinching with forceps to a degree that might cause minor damage to larval tissues could induce the expression of the antifungal peptide gene Drosomycin; notably, this induction was partially independent of the Toll and immune deficiency pathways. We therefore propose that Drosophila larvae might serve as a useful model to analyze the infectious and non-infectious inflammation that underlies various inflammatory diseases such as ischemia, atherosclerosis and cancer.

  9. Insect Larvae: A New Platform to Produce Commercial Recombinant Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Targovnik, Alexandra M; Arregui, Mariana B; Bracco, Lautaro F; Urtasun, Nicolas; Baieli, Maria F; Segura, Maria M; Simonella, Maria A; Fogar, Mariela; Wolman, Federico J; Cascone, Osvaldo; Miranda, Maria V

    2016-01-01

    In Biotechnology, the expression of recombinant proteins is a constantly growing field and different hosts are used for this purpose. Some valuable proteins cannot be produced using traditional systems. Insects from the order Lepidoptera infected with recombinant baculovirus have appeared as a good choice to express high levels of proteins, especially those with post-translational modifications. Lepidopteran insects, which are extensively distributed in the world, can be used as small protein factories, the new biofactories. Species like Bombyx mori (silkworm) have been analyzed in Asian countries to produce a great number of recombinant proteins for use in basic and applied science and industry. Many proteins expressed in this larva have been commercialized. Several recombinant proteins produced in silkworms have already been commercialized. On the other hand, species like Spodoptera frugiperda, Heliothis virescens, Rachiplusia nu, Helicoverpa zea and Trichoplusia ni are widely distributed in both the occidental world and Europe. The expression of recombinant proteins in larvae has the advantage of its low cost in comparison with insect cell cultures. A wide variety of recombinant proteins, including enzymes, hormones and vaccines, have been efficiently expressed with intact biological activity. The expression of pharmaceutically proteins, using insect larvae or cocoons, has become very attractive. This review describes the use of insect larvae as an alternative to produce commercial recombinant proteins.

  10. Detrimental effects of geldanamycin on adults and larvae of Trichinella spiralis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othman A. A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Trichinellosis is a zoonotic disease affecting mainly the temperate regions. The treatment is a challenge for the physician, and the available therapy is far from ideal. Therefore, this work aimed to evaluate the effect of heat shock protein 90 inhibitor, geldanamycin, on the adult worms and larvae of Trichinella spiralis. This research comprised an in vivo study in which T. spiralis-infected mice were treated by two different doses of geldanamycin, thereafter larval count and pathological changes were determined in the muscles. Meanwhile, the in vitro study investigated the effect of two different concentrations of geldanamycin on adult worms and larvae of T. spiralis via transmission electron microscopy. The in vivo study showed significant reduction of muscle larval counts under the effect of geldanamycin. Moreover, characteristic changes were noted as regards the parasite and the inflammatory response. The in vitro study revealed degenerative changes in the body wall of larvae and adults of T. spiralis under the influence of geldanamycin. In conclusion, heat shock protein 90 inhibitor, geldanamycin, seems to have detrimental effects on the adults and larvae of T. spiralis. It, or one of its derivatives, could be an adjuvant to anthelmintic therapy of trichinellosis, but more studies are warranted to establish its usefulness.

  11. Pathogenicity Assay of Vibrio harveyi in Tiger Shrimp Larvae Employing Rifampicin-Resistant as A Molecular Marker

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    . Widanarni

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Rifampicin-resistant marker was employed as a reporter to assay pathogenicity of Vibrio harveyi  in shrimp larvae.  V. harveyi M. G3 and G7 that difference not schizotyping as shown by Pulsed-Filed Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE used in this study. Spontaneous mutation was conducted to generate V. harveyi resistant to rifampicin. Two groups of shrimp post-larvae (PL5 were immersed for 30 min in 106 CFU/ml of mutants and wild type of V. harveyi, respectively; and then placed in a 2 liter shrimp rearing tank for five days. A control group was immersed in sterile seawater. Growth curve analysis and pathogenicity assay of V. harveyi  showed that each of the V. harveyi mutant exhibited almost identical profiles to that of the wild type parental strain and did not show alteration in their pathogenicity. Sample from dead shrimp larvae showed that the dead shrimp larvae were infected by V. harveyi RfR, indicated that rifampicin-resistant marker effective as a reporter to assay pathogenicity of Vibrio harveyi in shrimp larvae. Key words: shrimp larvae, Vibrio harveyi, rifampicin-resistant, molecular marker

  12. Immune response of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) larvae to Yersinia ruckeri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chettri, Jiwan Kumar; Kania, Per Walter; Raida, Martin Kristian

    exposed 17 days post hatch (dph) larvae (avg. wt. 70 mg) to the bacterial pathogen, Yersinia ruckeri at the concentration of 1.0 X 108 cfu/ml for 4 h. Samples were taken at 1, 4, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h post infection for qPCR and immunohistochemical studies. In the same experimental trial, another group...

  13. Prevalence and intensity of third stage Gnathostoma spinigerum larvae in swamp eels sold in three large markets in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saksirisampant, Wilai; Nuchprayoon, Surang; Wiwanitkit, Viroj; Kraivichian, Kanyarat; Suwansaksri, Jamsai

    2002-01-01

    Gnathostoma spinigerum is a common human tissue parasite in Thailand. The swamp eel is the major intermediate or paratenic host for this parasite. The high prevalence of the infective third stage larvae (L3) of this parasite in the rainy season has been noted in previous studies. During June 1999 (rainy season), we performed a cross-sectional survey of the prevalence and the intensity of G. spinigerum L3s in the livers of swamp eels that were obtained from three large Bangkok markets (Klong Toey, Pran Nok, and Tevej). Of a total of 785 livers, G. spinigerum L3s were found in 97: an infection rate of 12%. The prevalence rates in Klong Toey, Pran Nok, and Tevej markets were 13%, 10% and 14% respectively. There was no significant difference in the proportion of infected eels between the markets (p > 0.05). The intensity of L3 burden in the livers ranged from 1-17 larvae, with an average of 2.60 +/- 0.24 larvae (mean +/- SE). In this study a high prevalence of G. spinigerum L3s was found; there was no significant difference in the intensity of larvae in swamp eels between markets. These findings emphasize the importance of public health education: people need to be aware of the dangers of consuming raw or undercooked food.

  14. Amostragem por larva-única na vigilância de Aedes aegypti Single-larva sampling for Aedes aegypti surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo Bracco

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Com a finalidade de testar a metodologia de amostragem por larva-única na vigilância entomológica do Aedes aegypti, foram pesquisados domicílios do Município de Araraquara, SP (Brasil. Nos criadouros que continham larvas de Aedes uma delas foi coletada. Como controle, após a coleta da larva-única, todas as larvas foram coletadas para identificação posterior. Esse processo foi repetido no laboratório. Dos 447 domicílios visitados, apenas 12 foram considerados positivos e 20 criadouros foram identificados; destes, 13 continham larvas de Aedes; 5, larvas de Aedes e Culex e 2, larvas de Culex. Os resultados mostram o reconhecimento correto, no campo, de todos os criadouros, evidenciando que o método poderia ser utilizado na vigilância entomológica de municípios sem infestação domiciliar ou infestados apenas com uma única espécie de Aedes.Buildings in Araraquara city, Southeastern Brazil, were searched during a year for the presence of Aedes larvae using single larva sampling in order to check the single-larva methodology. In those breeding places in wich Aedes larvae were found, one of them was collected. As a control, after the single larva had been collected, all the larvae from the breeding place were collected for later identification. This process was repeated in the laboratory. Of the 447 domiciles searched, 12 were considered positive and 20 breeding places were found. Of the breeding places, 13 contained Aedes larvae, 5 both Aedes and Culex larvae and 2 Culex larvae only. The results show that all the breeding places in the field were properly recognited showing the method may be used for Aedes surveillance in cities infested with one species only or without any domiciliary infestation.

  15. Strongyloides stercoralis-infected dogs as a model for human disseminated strongyloidiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aikens, L.M.

    1989-01-01

    The route of migration of Strongyloides stercoralis third-stage infective larvae was explored in primary and autogenous infections in the dog. Larvae was radiolabeled by one of two means: (1) by culture of the free-living L3 stage in a nutrient medium, deficient in methionine, supplemented with [ 75 Se]Selenomethionine, and (2) by feeding of [ 75 Se]Selenomethionine-labeled bacteria to microbiverous L1 and L2 stages. Third-stage labeled larvae were then injected into 10-day-old pups either subcutaneously, to study primary migration, or into the distal ileum, to study autogenous migration. At intervals after infection pups were killed and whole body compressed organ autoradiography done on individual tissues to determine organ-specific larval transit sites. Autoradiographic recoveries were analyzed in the context of a series of mathematical models designed to test migratory route hypotheses. Postulated routes of migration for primary infections included (1) the Null Hypothesis or Scramble Route in which larvae migrate to the intestines by any available route, (2) the Classical Pulmonary Route in which larvae migrate sequentially from skin, to blood, to lungs, to the trachea, esophagus and intestines, and (3) the Head Migration Route in which larvae move from caudal to cranial sites within the skin and muscle before entering the intestines. Postulated routes for autoinfective migration reiterated 1 and 2 above. Least squares comparisons, of calculated models to observed autoradiographic distributions, led us to conclude that there was no reason to reject the simplest assumption that larvae move by any available route to the definitive site in both forms of migration. Sampling through tracheostomy sites in 14 pups for larval migrants confirmed this conclusion

  16. Hookworm infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... intestinal wall and suck blood, which results in iron deficiency anemia and protein loss. Adult worms and larvae are ... problems that may result from hookworm infection include: Iron deficiency anemia , caused by loss of blood Nutritional deficiencies Severe ...

  17. Poly(d,l)-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA) microspheres as immunoadjuvant for Brugia malayi antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Vinay; Verma, Shiv Kumar; Murthy, P Kalpana; Kohli, Dharmveer

    2013-08-28

    Recently we identified in Brugia malayi adult worm extract (BmA) a pro-inflammatory 54-68kDa SDS-PAGE resolved fraction F6 that protects the host from the parasite via Th1/Th2 type responses. We are currently investigating F6 as a potential source of vaccine candidate(s) and the present study is aimed at investigating the suitability of poly(d,l)-lactide-co-glycolide microspheres (PLGA-Ms) as immunoadjuvant for the antigen administration in a single dose. PLGA-Ms were prepared aseptically by a modified double emulsion (w/o/w) solvent evaporation technique and their size, shape, antigen adsorption efficiency, in-process stability, and antigen release were characterized. Swiss mice were immunized by a single subcutaneous administration of BmA and F6 adsorbed on PLGA-Ms (lactide:glycolide ratios 50:50 and 75:25) and the immune responses were compared with administration of 1 or 2 doses of plain BmA and F6. Specific IgG, IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b, IgE levels in serum, cellular-proliferative response and release of IFN-γ, TNF-α and nitric oxide from the cells of immunized host in response to the antigens/LPS/Con A challenge and antibody-dependant cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) to parasite life stages were determined. The average size of PLGA-Ms 50:50 was smaller than the size of PLGA-Ms 75:25 and the % antigen adsorption efficiency of PLGA-Ms 50:50 was greater than PLGA-Ms 75:25. Single shot injection of PLGA-Ms 50:50/75:25-BmA/F6 produced better and stronger IgG, IgG1/IgG2a and cell-mediated immune responses than even two injections of plain BmA or F6. Further, PLGA-Ms 50:50-F6 produced stronger responses than PLGA-Ms 50:50-BmA. Anti-PLGA-Ms 50:50-F6 antibodies elicited higher ADCC response to infective larval and microfilarial stages of the parasite than anti-PLGA-Ms 75:25-F6 antibodies. The findings demonstrate that PLGA-Ms 50:50 is an excellent adjuvant for use with F6 in a single administration. This is the first ever report on PLGA as immunoadjuvant for filarial antigens

  18. Different extracts of Zingiber officinale decrease Enterococcus faecalis infection in Galleria mellonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, Lilian Eiko; Rossoni, Rodnei Dennis; Barbosa, Júnia Oliveira; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso; Junqueira, Juliana Campos; Valera, Marcia Carneiro

    2015-01-01

    Dried, fresh and glycolic extracts of Zingiber officinale were obtained to evaluate the action against G. mellonella survival assay against Enterococcus faecalis infection. Eighty larvae were divided into: 1) E. faecalis suspension (control); 2) E. faecalis + fresh extract of Z. officinale (FEO); 3) E. faecalis + dried extract of Z. officinale (DEO); 4) E. faecalis + glycolic extract of Z. officinale (GEO); 5) Phosphate buffered saline (PBS). For control group, a 5 μL inoculum of standardized suspension (107 cells/mL) of E. faecalis (ATCC 29212) was injected into the last left proleg of each larva. For the treatment groups, after E. faecalis inoculation, the extracts were also injected, but into the last right proleg. The larvae were stored at 37 °C and the number of dead larvae was recorded daily for 168 h (7 days) to analyze the survival curve. The larvae were considered dead when they did not show any movement after touching. E. faecalis infection led to the death of 85% of the larvae after 168 h. Notwithstanding, in treatment groups with association of extracts, there was an increase in the survival rates of 50% (GEO), 61% (FEO) and 66% (DEO) of the larvae. In all treatment groups, the larvae exhibited a survival increase with statistically significant difference in relation to control group (p=0.0029). There were no statistically significant differences among treatment groups with different extracts (p=0.3859). It may be concluded that the tested extracts showed antimicrobial activity against E. faecalis infection by increasing the survival of Galleria mellonella larvae.

  19. [An experimental study of the susceptibility of the snakehead Ophiocephalus argus to infestation by larvae of the tapeworm Diphyllobothrium latum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodakova, V I; Zholdasova, I M; Allaniiazova, T; Frolova, A A; Artamoshin, A S; Guseva, L N; Arystanov, E; Gitsu, G A

    1998-01-01

    Experiments were made to infect young Ophiocephalus argus, the fish of prey delivered from eastern Asia in the Amu-Dar'ya River basin, outside the area of the broad tapeworm Diphyllobothrium latum. The dalags were infected mainly by ingesting the local copepods Arctodiaptomus salinus, the experimentally invaded larvae of the broad tapeworm. The latter larvae were obtained from the development of eggs of the helminth isolated from strobilae from the patients treated in Perm Province. D. latum plerocercoids lived in the dalags nearly 3 weeks, then they died and lysed. Thus, the dalag cannot be a supplementary host of D. latum.

  20. Fascioliasis Control: In Vivo and In Vitro Phytotherapy of Vector Snail to Kill Fasciola Larva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumari Sunita

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Snail is one of the important components of an aquatic ecosystem, it acts as intermediate host of Fasciola species. Control of snail population below a certain threshold level is one of the important methods in the campaign to reduce the incidence of fascioliasis. Life cycle of the parasite can be interrupted by killing the snail or Fasciola larva redia and cercaria in the snail body. In vivo and in vitro toxicity of the plant products and their active component such as citral, ferulic acid, umbelliferone, azadirachtin, and allicin against larva of Fasciola in infected snail Lymnaea acuminata were tested. Mortality of larvae were observed at 2 h, 4 h, 6 h, and 8 h, of treatment. In in vivo treatment, azadirachtin caused highest mortality in redia and cercaria larva (8 h, LC50 0.11, and 0.05 mg/L whereas in in vitro condition allicin was highly toxic against redia and cercaria (8 h, LC50 0.01, and 0.009 mg/L. Toxicity of citral was lowest against redia and cercaria larva.

  1. Effects of BmCPV Infection on Silkworm Bombyx mori Intestinal Bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenli Sun

    Full Text Available The gut microbiota has a crucial role in the growth, development and environmental adaptation in the host insect. The objective of our work was to investigate the microbiota of the healthy silkworm Bombyx mori gut and changes after the infection of B. mori cypovirus (BmCPV. Intestinal contents of the infected and healthy larvae of B. mori of fifth instar were collected at 24, 72 and 144 h post infection with BmCPV. The gut bacteria were analyzed by pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. 147(135 and 113(103 genera were found in the gut content of the healthy control female (male larvae and BmCPV-infected female (male larvae, respectively. In general, the microbial communities in the gut content of healthy larvae were dominated by Enterococcus, Delftia, Pelomonas, Ralstonia and Staphylococcus, however the abundance change of each genus was depended on the developmental stage and gender. Microbial diversity reached minimum at 144 h of fifth instar larvae. The abundance of Enterococcus in the females was substantially lower and the abundance of Delftia, Aurantimonas and Staphylococcus was substantially higher compared to the males. Bacterial diversity in the intestinal contents decreased after post infection with BmCPV, whereas the abundance of both Enterococcus and Staphylococcus which belongs to Gram-positive were increased. Therefore, our findings suggested that observed changes in relative abundance was related to the immune response of silkworm to BmCPV infection. Relevance analysis of plenty of the predominant genera showed the abundance of the Enterococcus genus was in negative correlation with the abundance of the most predominant genera. These results provided insight into the relationship between the gut microbiota and development of the BmCPV-infected silkworm.

  2. Nematode infections: soil-transmitted helminths and trichinella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopp, Stefanie; Steinmann, Peter; Keiser, Jennifer; Utzinger, Jürg

    2012-06-01

    Infection with soil-transmitted helminths occurs via ingestion of nematode eggs with contaminated food and water, via hands, or inhalation of dust, or by penetration of larvae through the skin. Trichinella infections are caused by the ingestion of larvae contained in undercooked meat. In highly endemic areas, preventive chemotherapy (ie, regular administration of anthelmintic drugs to at-risk populations) is the key strategy against soil-transmitted helminthiasis. Integrated control approaches, including improved hygiene, sanitation, and water, are required for lasting effects. Because of growing tourism, travel, and migration, clinicians and specialized travel clinics must remain aware of the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of soil-transmitted helminth and Trichinella infections. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Role of lipids in the transmission of the infective stage (L3) of Strongylus vulgaris (Nematoda: Strongylida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medica, D L; Sukhdeo, M V

    1997-10-01

    Infective larvae (L3) of Strongylus vulgaris have limited energy stores for host finding and for infection. For transmission to occur, the larvae must have sufficient energy to (a) migrate onto grass, where they are ingested by their equine host (host finding), and (b) penetrate into the host gut. This study is designed to test the hypothesis that L3 larvae of S. vulgaris partition their energy stores between locomotory activity (used in host finding) and infection activity (penetration). Chronic locomotory activity was stimulated by incubating S. vulgaris L3 larvae at a constant temperature (38 C). After 8 days of treatment, locomotory activity ceased (exhaustion). Exhausted L3 larvae had significantly decreased total lipid when compared to controls (P vulgaris L3 larvae are comprised of 9 fatty acids, some of which are depleted in exhausted worms (14:0, 14:1, 16:0, 16:1, 18:1, 18:2), whereas others (18:0, 20:4, 24:0) remain unchanged. These data suggest that specific fatty acids provide the energy source for locomotory activity in S. vulgaris. Exhausted L3 larvae were also less able to penetrate host cecal tissue in in vitro penetration assays when compared to controls (P vulgaris L3 larvae partition their energy stores between host-finding and infection activities. A comparison of lipid storage profiles in the L3 larvae of 4 nematode species with similar transmission strategies (S. vulgaris, Strongylus edentatus, Strongylus equinus, and Haemonchus contortus) revealed similarities in the fatty acid composition of these species. These data suggest a relationship between transmission patterns and energy storage strategies in the L3 larvae of nematode parasites of vertebrates.

  4. Association between nematode Hysterothylacium aduncum invasion of cod larvae and growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehrdana, Foojan; Bahlool, Qusay Z. M.; Kuhn, Jesper

    , lapillus otoliths were removed, polished and the number of growth zones in each otolith counted by light microscopy. Each growth zone indicates one day of the fish life span. Covariance analysis demonstrated highly significant differences (p≤ 0.001) between the growth rate of infected and uninfected cod...... invertebrates and fish species and for some species also higher vertebrate hosts. We have recently demonstrated that fry of North Sea cod has a high prevalence of infection with regard to the nematode Hysterothylacium aduncum and it was indicated that these infections could affect survival of cod and thereby...... affect the cod stock in the North Sea. The objective of the present study was to elucidate if infections are associated with a decrease or an increase of fish size when examining fish of the same age. We investigated effects of H. aduncum infections on the growth rate of cod larvae by using the otolith...

  5. Visceral larva migrans: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, Alexandre Bortoli; El Achkar, Marice Emanuela

    2003-01-01

    Larva migrans visceral é doença infecciosa, adquirida por ingestão de ovos provenientes dos vermes Toxocara canis e/ou Toxocara cati que infestam cães e gatos; as larvas penetram a parede intestinal e migram através dos tecidos levando a alterações diversas, conseqüentes a uma resposta inflamatória imune.¹ Os autores descrevem um caso clínico de larva migrans visceral com apresentação clínica atípica.Visceral larva migrans is an infectious human disease that occurs following ingestion of eggs...

  6. A histological procedure to study fungal infection in the wax moth Galleria mellonella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Perdoni

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The invertebrate model Galleria mellonella is a widely used factitious host to study the microbial pathogenesis in vivo. However, a specific procedure for the recovery and the processing of the infected tissues, important for a better understanding of the host-pathogen interactions, has not been reported to our knowledge. In the present study we describe a new procedure of fixation and processing of larval tissue that allows studying the larval topographic anatomy and assessing the morphological changes due to the fungal infection. Lepidopteran larvae were infected with Candida albicans strains displaying various biofilm-forming abilities. The whole larvae were then examined for tissue changes by histological techniques. We show that comparing cutting planes, serial transversal sections of paraffin-embedded larva result in better accuracy and information recovering. Using this technique, it was possible to preserve the integrity of G. mellonella internal structures allowing the detailed analysis of morphological differences in different experimental groups (i.e., healthy vs infected larvae. We were also able to study strain-related differences in the pathogenesis of C. albicans by observing the immune response elicited and the invasiveness of two isolates within the larval tissues. In general, by processing the whole larva and optimizing routinely histochemical stainings, it is possible to visualize and analyse infected tissues. Various degrees of pathogenicity (strain- or inoculum-related, and the infection time course can be described in details. Moreover, the host immune response events can be followed throughout the infectious process leading to a comprehensive picture of the studied phenomenon.

  7. Evaluation of Baermann apparatus sedimentation time on recovery of Strongylus vulgaris and S. edentatus third stage larvae from equine coprocultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellaw, Jennifer L; Nielsen, Martin K

    2015-06-30

    Traditional methods of diagnosing equine Strongylinae infections require culturing feces, sedimenting the culture media in Baermann apparatuses, collecting the sediment, and morphologically identifying recovered third stage larvae. However, this method is plagued by low negative predictive values. This study evaluated sedimentation time within the Baermann apparatus by comparing larval recovery from the traditionally collected sediment, "sediment 1", and from the usually discarded remaining fluid contents, "sediment 2", of the Baermann apparatus after 12, 24, and 48 h. A grand total of 147,482 larvae were recovered and examined. Sedimentation time did not significantly influence total larval recovery. At all three durations, significantly more Cyathostominae and Strongylus vulgaris larvae were covered from sediment 1 than from sediment 2. However, less than 60% of all recovered Strongylus edentatus were recovered from sediment 1. As 95% of S. vulgaris larvae were always recovered from sediment 1, the need for collection and examination of the remaining fluid contents of the Baermann apparatus is obviated when performing coprocultures for diagnosis of S. vulgaris infections, and sedimentation for 12h is adequate. Approximately 70% of Cyathostominae were recovered in sediment 1 at all durations, suggesting that 12h of sedimentation is adequate, although there is a need for future research to evaluate the risk of selection bias at differing sedimentation times among individual cyathostomin species. In contrast to S. vulgaris, collecting and examining the entire contents of the Baermann apparatus may be necessary when an increased diagnostic sensitivity and negative predictive value is desired in diagnosing S. edentatus infections as only 38-61% of larvae were recovered from sediment 1 portion of the Baermann apparatus. This information will allow researchers and practitioners to make more informed decisions in choosing appropriate larval recovery techniques, balancing

  8. Reduced spatial learning in mice infected with the nematode, Heligmosomoides polygyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavaliers, M; Colwell, D D

    1995-06-01

    Parasite modification of host behaviour influences a number of critical responses, but little is known about the effects on host spatial abilities. This study examined the effects of infection with the intestinal trichostrongylid nematode, Heligmosomoides polygyrus, on spatial water maze learning by male laboratory mice, Mus musculus. In this task individual mice had to learn the spatial location of a submerged hidden platform using extramaze visual cues. Determinations of spatial performance were made on day 19 post-infection with mice that had been administered either 50 or 200 infective larvae of H. polygyrus. The infected mice displayed over 1 day of testing (6 blocks of 4 trials) significantly poorer acquisition and retention of the water maze task than either sham-infected or control mice, with mice that had received 200 infective larvae displaying significantly poorer spatial performance than individuals receiving 50 larvae. The decrease in spatial learning occurred in the absence of either any symptoms of illness and malaise, or any evident motor, visual and motivational impairments. It is suggested that in this single host system the parasitic infection-induced decrease in spatial learning arises as a side-effect of the host's immunological and neuromodulatory responses and represents a fitness cost of response to infection.

  9. Parasitological and immunological effects induced by immunization of Mandrillus sphinx against the human filarial Loa loa using infective stage larvae irradiated at 40 krad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akue J.P

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Six mandrills were immunized with 150 Loa loa infective stage larvae (L3 irradiated with 40 Krad, and challenged with 100 L3, 60 days after initial vaccination. The parasitological outcome of this immunization was compared to results from six mandrills infected with normal L3. No clear association was seen between vaccination and microfilaremia until day 245 when a significant drop in the level of microfilaria occured in vaccinated compared to infected animals (5 vs 10 mf/ml; p = 0.012. A one-year follow-up of the humoral immune response showed a strong adult, microfilariae (Mf and L3 specific IgG response, with distinct profiles for each extract. In immunized animal a significant decrease in antibody level was systematically observed between days 90-145 for the anti-L3 and anti-adult IgG. However, in the same group anti-Mf antibody levels that peaked around 160-175 days post-challenge, were inversely correlated with the decrease in Mf density between day 200 and day 386. These results suggest that immunization with irradiated L3 using these specific conditions may affect the appearance of Mf.

  10. Experimental immunization of ponies with Strongylus vulgaris radiation-attenuated larvae or crude soluble somatic extracts from larval or adult stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, C M; Taylor, H W; Chapman, M R; Klei, T R

    1994-12-01

    Protection from Strongylus vulgaris infection through immunization with radiation-attenuated third-stage larvae (L3) or crude soluble homogenates from larval or adult stages was examined. Yearling ponies raised parasite-free were divided into 3 immunization groups: radiation-attenuated L3; soluble adult somatic extracts; larval somatic extracts with excretory/secretory products (E/S) from in vitro culture; and 1 medium control group. Ponies were immunized twice; attenuated larvae were administered orally and somatic extracts or controls injected intramuscularly with adjuvant. Approximately 6 wk following the second immunization, all ponies were challenged. Necrospy examinations were performed 6 wk following challenge. Irradiated larvae recipients had the fewest postchallenge clinical signs and lesions and were 91% protected from infection determined by larval recoveries from arterial dissections. Soluble antigen recipients and controls had similar larval recoveries and thus equal susceptibility to challenge. Soluble antigen recipients had more severe clinical signs and lesions than controls, suggesting that parenteral immunization exacerbated postchallenge inflammatory responses. Protection by immunization with irradiated larvae was associated with an anamnestic eosinophilia and postimmunization antibody recognition of S. vulgaris L3 surface antigens. Histologic staining of eosinophils within tissues of this group suggested that this immunization induced a cytophilic antibody response that facilitated degranulation.

  11. General aspects concerning strictly meat and fish transmitted parasitic infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Crotti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available All helminths parasitosis transmitted to humans trough ingestion of infested fleshes, where man is definitive host too, are represented by four groups of helminths: the cestodes Dyphyllobothrium spp and Spirometra spp. (Sparganum proliferum is the name of the immature plerocercoid larva, the trematodes Opisthorchis Clonorchis “group” (many could be the genera and species involved, and the nematode Capillaria philippinensis. So, for fishes humans foods (fresh or salted water the control and prevention in veterinary health must be directed to investigation regarding intermediate stages of these parasites in fishes for human alimentation; if present, they must be eliminated. The helminths parasitosis transmitted to humans trough ingestion of infected mammals meats, are represented by taeniasis (Taenia saginata, T. solium and T. saginata asiatica, where man id definitive host and the infection is caused by ingestion of bovine or swine meat, containing larvae of these cestodes, and by trichinellosis, where humans represent a intermediate stage, and the eventual pathology is caused as by adult (acute infection as by larvae (chronic infection of this nematode: usually the meats responsible are infected pork, wild pork or horse (Trichinella spp. Is inside the meats of these animals. So the veterinary control and prophylaxis are necessary to avoid this disease and preventing the infection that could be severe.

  12. Extreme morphologies of mantis shrimp larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin Haug

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Larvae of stomatopods (mantis shrimps are generally categorized into four larval types: antizoea, pseudozoea (both representing early larval stages, alima and erichthus (the latter two representing later larval stages. These categories, however, do not reflect the existing morphological diversity of stomatopod larvae, which is largely unstudied. We describe here four previously unknown larval types with extreme morphologies. All specimens were found in the collections of the Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen and were collected during the Danish Dana Expedition round the world 1928-30. These new larval types all represent erichthus-type larvae, especially differing in their shield morphologies. The shield morphology ranges from almost spherical to rather disc-like, with sometimes extremely elongated spines, but only a general systematic assignment of the larvae was possible. Further investigations of these larvae are crucial to understand their life habits and ecological impact, especially as stomatopod and other crustacean larvae might have a much more important position in the marine ecosystems than their corresponding adults.

  13. Efficacy of albendazole:β-cyclodextrin citrate in the parenteral stage of Trichinella spiralis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codina, Ana V; García, Agustina; Leonardi, Darío; Vasconi, María D; Di Masso, Ricardo J; Lamas, María C; Hinrichsen, Lucila I

    2015-01-01

    Albendazole-β-cyclodextrin citrate (ABZ:C-β-CD) inclusion complex in vivo antiparasitic activity was evaluated in the parenteral phase of Trichinella spiralis infection in mice. An equimolar complex of ABZ:C-β-CD was prepared by spray-drying and tested in CBi-IGE male mice orally infected with L1 infective larvae. Infected animals were treated with 50 or 30mg/kg albendazole, (ABZ) equivalent amounts of the ABZ:C-β-CD complex and non treated (controls). Mice received a daily dose on days 28, 29 and 30 post-infection. A week later, larval burden and percentage of encysted dead larvae were assessed in the host by counting viable and non-viable larvae in the tongue. Complexation of ABZ with C-β-CD increased the drug dissolution efficiency nearly eightfold. At 37 days p-i, the reduction percentage in muscle larval load was 35% in mice treated with 50mg/kg/day ABZ and 68% in those given the complex. Treatment with the lower dose showed a similar decrease in parasite burden. Treated animals showed a high percentage of nonviable larvae, the proportion being significantly higher in mice receiving the complex than in control animals (72-88% vs. 11%, P=0.0032). These data indicate that ABZ:C-β-CD increases bioavailability and effectiveness of ABZ against encapsulated Trichinella larvae, thus allowing the use of small doses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Short-term heat shock affects the course of immune response in Galleria mellonella naturally infected with the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertyporokh, Lidiia; Taszłow, Paulina; Samorek-Pieróg, Małgorzata; Wojda, Iwona

    2015-09-01

    We aimed to investigate how exposition of infected insects to short-term heat shock affects the biochemical and molecular aspects of their immune response. Galleria mellonella larvae were exposed to 43°C for 15min, at the seventy second hour after natural infection with entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana. As a result, both qualitative and quantitative changes in hemolymph protein profiles, and among them infection-induced changes in the amount of apolipophorin III (apoLp-III), were observed. Heat shock differently affects the expression of the tested immune-related genes. It transiently inhibits expression of antifungal peptides gallerimycin and galiomicin in both the fat body and hemocytes of infected larvae. The same, although to a lesser extent, concerned apoLp-III gene expression and was observed directly after heat shock. Nevertheless, in larvae that had recovered from heat shock, apoLp-III expression was higher in comparison to unshocked larvae in the fat body but not in hemocytes, which was consistent with the higher amount of this protein detected in the hemolymph of the infected, shocked larvae. Furthermore, lysozyme-type activity was higher directly after heat shock, while antifungal activity was significantly higher also in larvae that had recovered from heat shock, in comparison to the respective values in their non-shocked, infected counterparts. These results show how changes in the external temperature modulate the immune response of G. mellonella suffering from infection with its natural pathogen B. bassiana. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Targeting the Wolbachia cell division protein FtsZ as a new approach for antifilarial therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiru Li

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of antibiotics targeting the obligate bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia of filarial parasites has been validated as an approach for controlling filarial infection in animals and humans. Availability of genomic sequences for the Wolbachia (wBm present in the human filarial parasite Brugia malayi has enabled genome-wide searching for new potential drug targets. In the present study, we investigated the cell division machinery of wBm and determined that it possesses the essential cell division gene ftsZ which was expressed in all developmental stages of B. malayi examined. FtsZ is a GTPase thereby making the protein an attractive Wolbachia drug target. We described the molecular characterization and catalytic properties of Wolbachia FtsZ. We also demonstrated that the GTPase activity was inhibited by the natural product, berberine, and small molecule inhibitors identified from a high-throughput screen. Furthermore, berberine was also effective in reducing motility and reproduction in B. malayi parasites in vitro. Our results should facilitate the discovery of selective inhibitors of FtsZ as a novel anti-symbiotic approach for controlling filarial infection. NOTE: The nucleotide sequences reported in this paper are available in GenBank™ Data Bank under the accession number wAlB-FtsZ (JN616286.

  16. Self mixing of fly larvae during feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishkov, Olga; Johnson, Christopher; Hu, David

    How do we sustainably feed a growing world population? One solution of increasing interest is the use of black solider fly larvae, pea-sized grubs envisioned to transform hundreds of tons of food waste into a sustainable protein source. Although startups across the world are raising these larvae, a physical understanding of how they should be raised and fed remains missing. In this study, we present experiments measuring their feeding rate as a function of number of larvae. We show that larger groups of larvae have greater mixing which entrains hungry larvae around the food, increasing feeding rate. Feeding of larvae thus differs from feeding of cattle or other livestock which exhibit less self-mixing.

  17. The role of thresholds in the response of lambs to vaccination with irradiated Trichostrongylus colubriformis larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Windon, R.G.; Dineen, J.K.; Gregg, P.; Donald, A.D.; Griffiths, D.A.

    1984-01-01

    A piecewise logarithmic model fitted to worm counts of ewe lambs vaccinated and challenged in pens with a range of doses of irradiated and normal Trichostrongylus colubriformis larvae respectively, indicated that the threshold for response to both vaccine (V 0 =4400) and challenge dose is exceeded by 5000 larvae. Whereas response was vaccine dose dependent, it was independent of challenge dose. Ram lambs vaccinated at low dose levels were as resistant against challenge as ewe lambs, but by contrast, failed to show increased protection after vaccination with high doses of irradiated larvae. Serum titre of antiworm complement-fixing antibodies at the time of challenge also indicated that ram lambs were less responsive immunologically than ewe lambs following vaccination at the higher dose levels. A field study showed that response to vaccination was only apparent after transfer of the sheep to heavily contaminated pastures, suggesting that previous exposure of the vaccinated animals to the low dose of infective larvae available on a lightly contaminated pasture constituted a challenge which was below the threshold. (author)

  18. Identification of Nanopillars on the Cuticle of the Aquatic Larvae of the Drone Fly (Diptera: Syrphidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Matthew J; Levine, Timothy P; Wilson, Roger H

    2016-01-01

    Here, we describe a nano-scale surface structure on the rat-tailed maggot, the aquatic larva of the Drone fly Eristalis tenax(L.). Larvae of this syrphid hover fly live in stagnant, anaerobic water-courses that are rich in organic matter. The larvae burrow into fetid slurry and feed on microorganisms which they filter out from the organic material. This environment is rich in bacteria, fungi and algae with the capacity to form biofilms that might develop on the larval surface and harm them. Using transmission and scanning electron microscopy we have identified an array of slender (typically < 100 nm in diameter) nanopillars that cover the surface of the larvae. The high density and dimensions of these spine-like projections appear to make it difficult for bacteria to colonize the surface of the animal. This may interfere with the formation of biofilms and potentially act as a defence against bacterial infection. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  19. Evaluation of the PrioCHECK™ Trichinella AAD Kit for the digestion and recovery of larvae in pork, horse meat and wild meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konecsni, Kelly; Scheller, Cheryl; Scandrett, Brad; Buholzer, Patrik; Gajadhar, Alvin

    2017-08-30

    The artificial digestion magnetic stirrer method using pepsin protease and hydrochloric acid is the standard assay for the detection of Trichinella larvae in muscle of infected animals. Recently, an alternative enzyme, serine protease, was employed in the development of a commercially available digestion kit (PrioCHECK™ Trichinella AAD Kit). This assay requires a higher digestion temperature of 60°C which kills the larvae during the digestion process, mitigating the risk of environmental contamination from the parasite. The present study was conducted to determine the performance of the PrioCHECK™ Trichinella AAD Kit compared to the conventional pepsin/HCl digestion. Replicate paired 115g samples of Trichinella-negative pork diaphragm and masseter, and of horse tongue and masseter, were used to compare the two methods for tissue digestibility. Similarly, paired 100g samples of pork diaphragm and horse tongue were spiked with proficiency samples containing known numbers of Trichinella spiralis first stage larvae to compare larval recoveries for the two methods. Masseter samples from wild bears and wolves naturally infected with Trichinella nativa or T6 were also used to compare the performance of the methods. The results of the study showed that the PrioCHECK™ Trichinella AAD Kit, when used according to the manufacturer's instructions, was effective in detecting Trichinella infection in all samples that contained 0.05 or more larvae per gram of tissue. Although there was no significant difference between the Kit method and the standard pepsin/HCl digestion procedure in the average number of larvae recovered from spiked pork diaphragm, 38% fewer larvae were recovered from similarly spiked samples of horse tongue by digestion using serine protease (one way ANOVA, P value horse meat and pork when using the Kit compared to the pepsin/HCl method. The results of testing wildlife samples were similar for the two methods. Overall, the performance of the Kit method

  20. [Investigation on snails Achatina fulica and Pomacea canaliculata infected with Angiostrongylus cantonensis in Panyu region of Guangzhou City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chu-Xuan; He, Hui-Fang; Yin, Zhu; Zhou, Jin-Huan; Li, Shi-Qun; Li, Fang-Hui; Chen, Jiong-Min; Zhu, Wei-Jin; Zhong, Xiu-Ming; Yang, Kai-Ying; Liu, Gui-Ping; Jia, Xun; Chen, Wan-Tong; Li, Xiao-Mei; Chen, Yu-Chang; Luo, Xiao-Dong; Chen, Dai-Xiong; Shen, Hao-Xian

    2012-06-01

    To understand the natural infection status of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in snails Achatina fulica and Pomacea canaliculata from Panyu region of Guangzhou City. The snails Achatina fulica and Pomacea canaliculata captured from the field were digested with the artificial stomach fluid. The third-stage larvae of A. cantonensis were examined and counted under a microscope. The collected third-stage larvae were used to infect SD rats. A total of 367 Achatina fulica and 357 Pomacea canaliculata were examined. The infection rate of A. cantonensis in Achatina fulica was 22.62%, with a mean intensity of 57.00 larvae per positive snail. The infection rate of A. cantonensis in Pomacea canaliculata was 3.08%, with a mean intensity of 1.64 larvae per positive snail. The infection rates of A. cantonensis in Achatina fulica from Dagang, Shiqi, Hualong, and Lanhe towns and Nansha District, were 13.33%, 15.00%, 20.93%, 73.68% and 8.41%, respectively. Those in Pomacea canaliculata were 5.88%, 2.88%, 1.89%, 0% and 3.96%, respectively. A. cantonensis infection exists in Achatina fulica and Pomacea canaliculata from Panyu region of Guangzhou City, and the infection in Achatina fulica is more serious than that in Pomacea canaliculata. The infection rates of the snails among five sites are different.

  1. Epidemiology of Strongylus vulgaris infection of the horse in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, V S

    1981-05-01

    Between August 1978 and July 1979 the anterior mesenteric artery and its branches were collected regularly from adult horses and examined for Strongylus vulgaris larvae. The incidence of infection varied from 55 to 100% (annual mean 80%). The mean monthly number of larvae ranged form 3 to 22 with an annual overall mean of 13. The arterial infection was at its minimum in December to January, rose gradually to attain the peak in June and declined thereafter. These observations indicated that S. vulgaris is an annual species in Morocco, infection occurring during the rainy season (November-April), the heavy arterial population in spring and adult population during autumn and winter.

  2. Acute toxicity of sodium metabisulphite in larvae and post-larvae of the land crab, Cardisoma guanhumi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Orlando B S; Fujimoto, Rodrigo Y; Abrunhosa, Fernando A

    2012-08-01

    Sodium metabisulphite (SMB) is used in marine shrimp aquaculture to prevent the occurrence of black spot. The release SMB into the estuarine environment from shrimp farm pond effluents has been reported. This study evaluated the susceptibility of larvae and post-larvae of land crab, Cardisoma guanhumi to this salt. A decrease in dissolved oxygen and pH occurred with increasing concentration of SMB and exposure time. LC(50) values after 48 h of exposure were 34 ± 1.1 mg/L, 31.1 ± 1.9 mg/L, and 30.6 ± 0.5 mg/L for I zoea larvae, megalopa larvae and stage I juveniles, respectively.

  3. Laboratory evolution of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana against Anopheles stephensi larvae (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahele Veys-Behbahani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine Beauveria bassiana (B. bassiana fungus bioassay against the larval stages of Anopheles stephensi in Iran. Methods: The fungal suspension by the concentrations of 1伊1 09, 5伊1 08, 1 08, 5伊1 07 and 1伊 107 conidia per milliliter have been prepared in different volumes (2, 4 and 6 mL and each concentration were added to containers containing 25 Anopheles larva instars 1 and 2. The mortality of the dead larvae with abnormal symptoms was recorded as a result of the fungal infection after 24, 48 and 72 h. Results: Comparison between the mean mortality rate of Anopheles stephensi larva at different concentrations of B. bassiana strain Iran 429C at 2, 4 and 6 mL showed that there was no significant relation of the mean mortality rate of larvae at concentrations of 1伊109 and 5伊108, and after 48 h resulted in 100% mortality rate of the larvae populations. In addition, there is no significant differences in the amounts of lethal times (LT (LT50 and LT90 as LT90 values calculated at a concentration of 5伊108 and in volumes 2, 4 and 6 mL were 1.46, 1.36 and 1.08 d, respectively. Conclusions: B. bassiana strain Iran 429C in 2 mL of 5伊108 concentration or the concentration of a 1伊109 mL per 100 mL of water is recommended as the optimal concentration for the control of Anopheles larvae. The development of suitable formulations of entomopathogenic fungi may be a promising prospect in the mosquito control programs.

  4. The effect of laser and X-rays on the invasive capability of the larvae of Fasciola hepatica L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bielecki, A.

    1986-01-01

    The material comprised eggs and larvae of F. hepatica and its hosts: intermediate - Galba truncatula (L.) and final (Mus. sp.). The eggs and larvae of F. hepatica were exposed to X-rays hard, 240 KV 20 R/s intensity and L-rays of a laser HE-Ne of low power 0.82 mW, light wave length 632.8 mm. The eggs were exposed at the first day of culture while the miracidia at the first hour of their life, using the doses of 1, 100, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1200 R in the case of X-rays and 5, 10, 15 and 30 min in the case of L-rays. In order to express the effect of irradiation on the invasive capability of the miracidia developing inside egg capsules those hatching of the eggs and of the adolescariae, the invasion index was calculated. In the case of miracidia all the doses of X-rays used in the experiment limit the number of adolescariae and adult flukes. The X-rays used at low doses in the case of adolescariae (1 R) increase the intensity of mouse infection with adult flukes, while higher doses (e.g. 1200 R) decrease the infection. The L-rays applied to miracidia cause an inrease in the number of cercariae developing per snail and the intensity of mouse infection also grows. In the case of adolescariae they decrease the intensity of mouse infection. In the flukes developing from larvae (miracidia, adolescariae) exposed to X- and L-rays the lack of eggs in the uterus was observed as well as the decrease of size. 43 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs. (author)

  5. The occurrence of Toxocara species in naturally infected broiler chickens revealed by molecular approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zibaei, M; Sadjjadi, S M; Maraghi, S

    2017-09-01

    Consuming raw and undercooked meat is known to enhance the risk of human toxocariasis because Toxocara species have a wide range of paratenic hosts, including chickens. The aim of this study was to identify species of Toxocara in naturally infected broiler chickens using molecular approaches. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was used for the differentiation of Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati larvae recovered from tissues and organs, and identified by microscopic observations. Thirty-three 35- to 47-day-old broiler chickens were used for examination of Toxocara larvae. The duodenum, liver, lungs, heart, kidneys, skeletal muscles and brain of each chicken were examined using the pepsin method, and DNA from each tissue was extracted as the template for PCR assay. The findings revealed that 5 of 33 (15.2%) broiler chickens were infected with Toxocara larvae. Larvae were recovered from the liver (n = 19), duodenum (n = 8), skeletal muscles (n = 8) and brain (n = 2) of broiler chickens naturally infected with Toxocara spp. The results showed that the frequencies of the species in the chickens were T. canis larvae (n = 5, 83.3%) and T. cati larvae (n = 1, 16.7%). Our data from the present study demonstrated the importance of broiler chickens as a paratenic host for the parasite's life cycle in the environment. The implementation of DNA amplification as a routine diagnostic technique is a specific and alternative method for identification of Toxocara larvae, and allowed the observation of specific species under field conditions within the locations where broiler chickens are typically raised and exposed to Toxocara spp. eggs or larvae.

  6. Ivermectin: activity against larval Strongylus vulgaris and adult Trichostrongylus axei in experimental infections in ponies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, E T; Drudge, J H; Tolliver, S C

    1982-08-01

    Activity of ivermectin, administered IM at the dosage rate of 200 micrograms/kg of body weight, was evaluated in controlled tests against migrating larvae of Strongylus vulgaris and adult Trichostrongylus axei in experimental infections in 6 ponies raised worm-free. Ponies were given 2,190 or 2,400 infective 3rd-stage larvae of S vulgaris at 7 days before treatment and 22,000 or 22,750 infective 3rd-stage larvae of T axei at 42 or 45 days before treatment. Three ponies were given ivermectin plus vehicle, and 3 ponies were given the vehicle only; the ponies were euthanatized 7 or 9 days after treatment. At necropsy, 4th-stage S vulgaris larvae were not recovered from visceral arteries of the 3 ivermectin plus vehicle-treated ponies, but 21 to 40 larvae were recovered from each of the 3 vehicle-treated ponies. Also at necropsy, adult T axei (140 specimens) were recovered from only 1 ot the 3 ivermectin plus vehicle-treated ponies, but 4,610 to 6,410 specimens were found in each of the 3 vehicle-treated ponies. Toxicosis was not observed after treatment.

  7. Phaeobacter gallaeciensis Reduces Vibrio anguillarum in Cultures of Microalgae and Rotifers, and Prevents Vibriosis in Cod Larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Alvise, Paul W.; Lillebø, Siril; Prol-Garcia, Maria J.; Wergeland, Heidrun I.; Nielsen, Kristian F.; Bergh, Øivind; Gram, Lone

    2012-01-01

    Phaeobacter gallaeciensis can antagonize fish-pathogenic bacteria in vitro, and the purpose of this study was to evaluate the organism as a probiont for marine fish larvae and their feed cultures. An in vivo mechanism of action of the antagonistic probiotic bacterium is suggested using a non-antagonistic mutant. P. gallaeciensis was readily established in axenic cultures of the two microalgae Tetraselmis suecica and Nannochloropsis oculata, and of the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis. P. gallaeciensis reached densities of 107 cfu/ml and did not adversely affect growth of algae or rotifers. Vibrio anguillarum was significantly reduced by wild-type P. gallaeciensis, when introduced into these cultures. A P. gallaeciensis mutant that did not produce the antibacterial compound tropodithietic acid (TDA) did not reduce V. anguillarum numbers, suggesting that production of the antibacterial compound is important for the antagonistic properties of P. gallaeciensis. The ability of P. gallaeciensis to protect fish larvae from vibriosis was determined in a bath challenge experiment using a multidish system with 1 larva per well. Unchallenged larvae reached 40% accumulated mortality which increased to 100% when infected with V. anguillarum. P. gallaeciensis reduced the mortality of challenged cod larvae (Gadus morhua) to 10%, significantly below the levels of both the challenged and the unchallenged larvae. The TDA mutant reduced mortality of the cod larvae in some of the replicates, although to a much lesser extent than the wild type. It is concluded that P. gallaeciensis is a promising probiont in marine larviculture and that TDA production likely contributes to its probiotic effect. PMID:22928051

  8. Phaeobacter gallaeciensis reduces Vibrio anguillarum in cultures of microalgae and rotifers, and prevents vibriosis in cod larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul W D'Alvise

    Full Text Available Phaeobacter gallaeciensis can antagonize fish-pathogenic bacteria in vitro, and the purpose of this study was to evaluate the organism as a probiont for marine fish larvae and their feed cultures. An in vivo mechanism of action of the antagonistic probiotic bacterium is suggested using a non-antagonistic mutant. P. gallaeciensis was readily established in axenic cultures of the two microalgae Tetraselmis suecica and Nannochloropsis oculata, and of the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis. P. gallaeciensis reached densities of 10(7 cfu/ml and did not adversely affect growth of algae or rotifers. Vibrio anguillarum was significantly reduced by wild-type P. gallaeciensis, when introduced into these cultures. A P. gallaeciensis mutant that did not produce the antibacterial compound tropodithietic acid (TDA did not reduce V. anguillarum numbers, suggesting that production of the antibacterial compound is important for the antagonistic properties of P. gallaeciensis. The ability of P. gallaeciensis to protect fish larvae from vibriosis was determined in a bath challenge experiment using a multidish system with 1 larva per well. Unchallenged larvae reached 40% accumulated mortality which increased to 100% when infected with V. anguillarum. P. gallaeciensis reduced the mortality of challenged cod larvae (Gadus morhua to 10%, significantly below the levels of both the challenged and the unchallenged larvae. The TDA mutant reduced mortality of the cod larvae in some of the replicates, although to a much lesser extent than the wild type. It is concluded that P. gallaeciensis is a promising probiont in marine larviculture and that TDA production likely contributes to its probiotic effect.

  9. [The effect of ivermectin on reactivated somatic larva of Ancylostoma caninum Ercolani 1859 (Ancylostomidae) in the pregnant dog].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoye, M; Meyer, O; Schnieder, T

    1989-06-01

    It was evaluated by means of a controlled test to what extent reactivated larvae of Ancylostoma caninum were influenced by single or double treatment with ivermectin. The investigations were done with a total of ten experimentally infected bitches. The single treatment of dams two to ten days ante partum with 0.5 mg or 1 mg ivermectin per kg bodyweight reduced the wormburden of their puppies on an average by 96.6% and 98.5%, respectively. The double treatment with 0.5 mg/kg bodyweight ante and post partum each with an interval of ten days completely prevented lactogenic infections with Ancylostoma caninum. Following a single application of 0.5 mg ivermectin per kg bodyweight the excretion of larvae was markedly delayed and remained on a low level. In addition the infections of the puppies of single treated dams became patent on an average 9.5 and 14.5 days later than the controls. In the bitches no side-effects, neither local nor general, were seen after the treatment with ivermectin. All forty puppies of the treated bitches were born without visible damages.

  10. PERKEMBANGAN ENZIM PENCERNAAN LARVA IKAN PATIN, Pangasius hypophthalmus sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irzal Effendi

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Development of digestive enzymes; protease, lipase and amylase were observed in patin catfish, Pangasius hypophthalmus, larvae.  The 1 day old larvae (day after hatching, with 3,37-3,97 mm length and 0,62-0,79 mg weight, were reared in aquarium 60x50x40 cm with stocking  density of 20 fish/l.  Larvae were fed  Artemia dan tubificid worms 2-8 dan 7-15 days after hatching (dAH,  respectively (schedule I;  2-6 and  5-15 dAH (schedule II; and 2-4 and 5-15 dAH (schedule III.  Chlorella was ready to eat by larvae at the entirely rearing.  For enzyme assay, larvae were sampled from each aquarium at stages of 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10 and 15 dAH.    Protease and lipase activity were detected in digestive tract of  1 dAH larvae.   Digestive enzymes development have a similar pattern in larvae for all feeding schedules.  Protease activity  decreased with the increasing of age until 3 dAH, then increased  until the larvae reached 7 dAH, and sharply decreased until 10 dAH and then slowly decreased thereafter. Lipase activity tended to increase slowly with age up to 3 dAH, and increased sharply until 5 dAH, and then decreased sharply until 7 dAH  before decreased again up to the end of rearing.  Amylase activity in larvae increased slowly with the increasing of age up to 5 dAH, then increased sharply until 7 dAH, and decreased thereafter.  In dimly lighted larvae, amylase activity decreased before increased up to 12 d AH, then decreased thereafter.  The amount of food organisms in larval gut, body weight and length, and survival rate of larvae were also measured and discussed.Key Words:  Digestive enzymes, development, larvae, patin catfish, Pangasius hypophthalmus ABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui perkembangan enzim protease, lipase dan amilase saluran pencernaan larva ikan patin akibat perubahan skedul pemberian pakan.  Larva ikan patin (panjang 3,77–3,97 mm dan bobot 0,62-0,79 mg berumur 1 hari dipelihara di akuarium 60x

  11. First record of larvae of Chironomidae (Insecta, Diptera as prey of Temnocephala sp. (Platyhelminthes, Temnocephalidae, an ectosymbiont on larvae of Corydalidae (Megaloptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Trivinho-Strixino

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available First record of larvae of Chironomidae (Insecta, Diptera as prey of Temnocephala sp. (Platyhelminthes, Temnocephalidae, an ectosymbiont on larvae of Corydalidae (Megaloptera. This study constitutes the first record of Temnocephala Blanchard, an ectosymbiont on Corydalidae, as a possible predator of chironomid larvae. Twenty-eight Corydalidae larvae (Corydalus and Protochauliodes were examined under stereomicroscopic in search for Temnocephala and Chironomidae larvae, of which five megalopteran larvae had 24 Temnocephala sp. associated. Furthermore, eight of these Temnocephala worms had chironomid larvae in their gut contents, an interaction previously unknown. Gut content analyses revealed Corynoneura as the commonest chironomid, but larvae of Larsia, Rheotanytarsus and Tanytarsus were recorded as well. This study included Corydalus and Protochauliodes as hosts for Temnocephala, which might be important for this worm dispersion and population dynamics.

  12. Profiling the macrofilaricidal effects of flubendazole on adult female Brugia malayi using RNAseq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maeghan O'Neill

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of microfilaricidal drugs for the control of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis (LF necessitates prolonged yearly dosing. Prospects for elimination or eradication of these diseases would be enhanced by the availability of a macrofilaricidal drug. Flubendazole (FLBZ, a benzimidazole anthelmintic, is an appealing candidate. FLBZ has demonstrated potent macrofilaricidal effects in a number of experimental rodent models and in one human trial. Unfortunately, FLBZ was deemed unsatisfactory for use in mass drug administration campaigns due to its limited oral bioavailability. A new formulation that enables sufficient bioavailability following oral administration could render FLBZ an effective treatment for onchocerciasis and LF. Identification of drug-derived effects is important in ascertaining a dosage regimen which is predicted to be lethal to the parasite in situ. In previous histological studies, exposure to FLBZ induced damage to tissues required for reproduction and survival at pharmacologically relevant concentrations. However, more precise and quantitative indices of drug effects are needed. This study assessed drug effects using a transcriptomic approach to confirm effects observed histologically and to identify genes which were differentially expressed in treated adult female Brugia malayi. Comparative analysis across different concentrations (1 μM and 5 μM and durations (48 and 120 h provided an overview of the processes which are affected by FLBZ exposure. Genes with dysregulated expression were consistent with the reproductive effects observed via histology in our previous studies. This study revealed transcriptional changes in genes involved in embryo development. Additionally, significant downregulation was observed in genes encoding cuticle components, which may reflect changes in developing embryos, the adult worm cuticle or both. These data support the hypothesis that FLBZ acts predominantly on rapidly dividing

  13. Spodoptera exigua nucleopolyhedrovirus is not infectious for Agrotis segetum larvae per os, but only after intrahemocoelic injection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakubowska, A.K.; Ince, I.A.; Herrero, S.; Vlak, J.M.; Oers, van M.M.

    2009-01-01

    Spodoptera exigua multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV) and Agrotis segetum NPV are close relatives, but distinct baculovirus species. Their genomic organization is remarkably similar. The cross infectivity of these two viruses for S. exigua and A. segetum larvae has been analyzed. AgseNPV was able

  14. Molecular Identification of Zoonotic Tissue-Invasive Tapeworm Larvae Other than Taenia solium in Suspected Human Cysticercosis Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappe, Dennis; Berkholz, Jörg; Mahlke, Uwe; Lobeck, Hartmut; Nagel, Thomas; Haeupler, Alexandra; Muntau, Birgit; Racz, Paul; Poppert, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Rarely, zoonotic Taenia species other than Taenia solium cause human cysticercosis. The larval stages are morphologically often indistinguishable. We therefore investigated 12 samples of suspected human cysticercosis cases at the molecular level and surprisingly identified one Taenia crassiceps and one Taenia serialis (coenurosis) infection, which were caused by tapeworm larvae normally infecting rodents and sheep via eggs released from foxes and dogs. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Effects of oxamyl on the citrus nematode, Tylenchulus semipenetrans, and on infection of sweet orange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baines, R C; Small, R H

    1976-04-01

    Foliar sprays of 4 microg/ml oxamyl on sweet orange trees in a greenhouse slightly depressed the number of Tylenchulus semipenetrans larvae obtained from roots and soil, but similar treatments were not effective in two orchards. Soil drench treatments decreased the number of citrus nematode larvae obtained from roots or soil of citrus plants grown itt a greenhouse and in orchards. Exposure to 5-10 microg/ml of oxamyl in water was lethal to only a few second-stage larvae treated 10 days, and many second-stage larvae in 2.0 microg/ml oxamyl recovered motility when transferred to fresh water. Aqueous solutions of 50 and 100 microg/ml of oxamyl were toxic to citrus nematode larvae. Additional observations indicate that oxamyl interfered with hatch of citrus nematode larvae and was nematistatic and/or protected sweet orange roots from infection. Oxamyl degraded at different rates in two soils. The number of citrus nematode larvae that infected and developed on sweet orange roots was increased by an undetermined product of the degradation of oxamyl in soil, water, and possibly within plants. This product apparently was translocated in roots.

  16. Immunologic and hematologic responses in ponies with experimentally induced Strongylus vulgaris infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, M; Martin, S C; Lloyd, S

    1989-08-01

    Immunologic and hematologic responses were examined in 4 ponies with experimentally induced Strongylus vulgaris infection and in 5 helminth-free ponies. Two ponies were inoculated with 200 larvae and 2 were inoculated with 700 larvae of S vulgaris and then were reinoculated with the same numbers of larvae 34 weeks later. Initial response of the ponies inoculated with S vulgaris was S vulgaris antigen-induced lymphocyte response that developed 1.5 to 3 weeks after inoculation and did not persist. Development of antigen-reactive lymphocytes was followed sequentially by a biphasic complement-fixing antibody response, then biphasic eosinophilia. Antibody titer to S vulgaris antigen was higher in ponies inoculated with 700 larvae, compared with that in ponies given 200 larvae of S vulgaris. Also, the second peak in antibody titer and in absolute number of eosinophils was observed earlier in ponies inoculated with 700 larvae, compared with ponies inoculated with 200 S vulgaris larvae, and subsided before or from about 24 weeks after inoculation. The prepatent period for S vulgaris infection was 24 to 25 weeks. After reinoculation with S vulgaris, a degree of increased lymphocyte responsiveness was apparent but, by 17 weeks after reinoculation, only the primary peak in the absolute number of eosinophils indicated an anamnestic response. Essentially, antibody was not detectable after reinoculation.

  17. Occurrence and Intensity of Anisakid Nematode Larvae in Some Commercially Important Fish Species in Persian Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam DADAR

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anisakid nematodes are common parasites of fish, mammals, fish-eating birds, and reptiles with a worldwide distribution, causing diseases in human, fish and important economic losses.Methods: A preliminary epidemiological study was carried out on Anisakid nematodes larvae in some commercially important fish species to evaluate the anisakid nematode larvae from greater lizardfish, (Saurida tumbil, Japanese thread fin bream (Nemipterus japonicus, crocodile longtom (Tylosurus crocodilus crocodiles and longfin trevally (Carangoides armatus from the Persian Gulf of Iran.Result: The collected larvae were identified mainly as the third larval stage (L3 of Hysterothylacium larval type A, B and C, Anisakis sp., Raphidascaris sp., Pseudoterranova sp. and Philometra sp. (Nematoda: Philometridae. The prevalence of Anisakid larvae infection of examined fishes was 97.2% in N. japonicus, 90.3% in S. tumbil, 20.5% in crocodile longtom and 5.5% in longfin trevally. Anisakis type III for the first time was different from Anisakis type I and Anisakis type II.Discussion: Zoonotic anisakids by high prevalence in edible fish could be a health hazard for people. So health practices should be considered in these areas.

  18. Long-wavelength photosensitivity in coral planula larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Benjamin M; Cohen, Jonathan H

    2012-04-01

    Light influences the swimming behavior and settlement of the planktonic planula larvae of coral, but little is known regarding the photosensory biology of coral at this or any life-history stage. Here we used changes in the electrical activity of coral planula tissue upon light flashes to investigate the photosensitivity of the larvae. Recordings were made from five species: two whose larvae are brooded and contain algal symbionts (Porites astreoides and Agaricia agaricites), and three whose larvae are spawned and lack algal symbionts (Acropora cervicornis, Acropora palmata,and Montastrea faveolata). Photosensitivity originated from the coral larva rather than from, or in addition to, its algal symbionts as species with and without symbionts displayed similar tissue-level electrical responses to light. All species exhibited as much (or more) sensitivity to red stimuli as to blue/green stimuli, which is consistent with a role for long-wavelength visible light in the preference for substrata observed during settlement and in facilitating vertical positioning of larvae in the water column.

  19. Evaluating Vaccine Candidates for Filariasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    causative agents of lymphatic filariasis, W. bancrofti, B. malayi, or B. timori, and that the worldwide prevalence of genital disease or lymphedema...St. Louis, Missouri: Saundeers Elsevier 71. Johnson MH, Orihel TC, Beaver PC. 1974. Dipetalonema viteae in the experimentally infected jird

  20. MBV infection in various stages of black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supamattaya, K.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available MBV infection in various stages of Penaeus monodon were studied. In hatcheries, MBV infection was detected early in nauplii stage using PCR technique, whereas rates of infection of 11.15-49.50% were observed in PL1 using histological technique, rising up to 15.26-100% in PL 10. In earthen ponds, the infection in PL15 was initially in the range of 68.68-96.00%. The infection was decreased toward the end of the first, second and third month of rearing period ranging between 13.63-54.83%. The laboratory trial showed that types of feed might affect the rate of MBV infection of larvae. Postlarva fed with artemia showed lowest infection rate at 29.41±7.98%, whereas the infection rates of shrimp fed with minced cockle flesh and commercial feed were 39.09±12.08% and 52.81±11.91, respectively. In stress test trial, a significant MBV infection was detected in the group of larvae that were raised with 25ºC and 34ºC and the salinity at 6 ppt and 18 ppt for 12 hours then rearing in normal condition for 3 days. In the 24 hour-stress trial, and transferred to normal condition for 7 day, the groups that were exposed to stress conditions had significantly higher rates of infection than the control group (p<0.05. The 24 hour - transportationcondition resulted in highest MBV infection rate (73.61±1.25%. From the present study, it was concluded that MBV infection in larvae from hatcheries increases with period of rearing and stress exposure, but the infection tended to decreased with rearing period in earthen pond condition. Proper feeding management and prevention of stress conditions could reduce of MBV infection in black tiger shrimp.

  1. First report of Coelomomyces santabrancae sp. nov. (Blastocladiomycetes: Blastocladiales) infecting mosquito larvae (Diptera: Culicidae) in central Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda-Páramo, M E; Montalva, C; Arruda, W; Fernandes, É K K; Luz, C; Humber, R A

    2017-10-01

    A project from 2013 to 2017 sought to discover pathogenic fungi and oomycetes from dipteran species that are vectors of major diseases of humans and animals in central Brazil and to begin evaluating the potential of these pathogens as potential biological control agents concentrated on mosquito larvae. Some collecting sites proved to be especially productive for pathogens of naturally occurring mosquito species and for placements of healthy sentinel larvae of Aedes aegypti in various sorts of containers in a gallery forest in the Santa Branca Ecoturismo Private Reserve of Natural Patrimony (RPPN) near Terezópolis de Goiás (GO). Collections during May-April of 2016 and February 2017 yielded a few dead mosquito larvae of an undetermined Onirion sp. (Culicidae: Sabethini) whose hemocoels contained many ovoid, thick-walled, yellow-golden to golden-brown, ovoid thick-walled resistant sporangia, 38.3±4×22.8±2.3µm, decorated by numerous, closely and randomly spaced punctations of variable size and shape. These were the first indisputable collections from Brazil of any Coelomomyces species. Comparisons of the morphology of these sporangia with those of other species of Coelomomyces, confirmed that this Brazilian fungus represented a new species that is described here as Coelomomyces santabrancae. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Effects of volatiles from Maruca vitrata larvae and caterpillar-infested flowers of their host plant Vigna unguiculata on the foraging behavior of the parasitoid Apanteles taragamae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannon, Elie A; Tamò, Manuele; Van Huis, Arnold; Dicke, Marcel

    2010-10-01

    The parasitoid wasp Apanteles taragamae is a promising candidate for the biological control of the legume pod borer Maruca vitrata, which recently has been introduced into Benin. The effects of volatiles from cowpea and peabush flowers and Maruca vitrata larvae on host selection behavior of the parasitoid Apanteles taragamae were investigated under laboratory conditions by using a Y-tube olfactometer. Naïve and oviposition-experienced female wasps were given a choice between several odor sources that included (1) uninfested, (2) Maruca vitrata-infested, and (3) mechanically damaged cowpea flowers, as well as (4) stem portions of peabush plants carrying leaves and flowers, (5) healthy M. vitrata larvae, and moribund (6), and live (7) virus-infected M. vitrata larvae. Responses of naïve and oviposition-experienced female wasps did not differ for any of the odor source combinations. Wasps were significantly attracted to floral volatiles produced by cowpea flowers that had been infested with M. vitrata larvae and from which the larvae had been removed. Apanteles taragamae females also were attracted to Maruca vitrata-infested flowers after removal of both the larvae and their feces. Female wasps discriminated between volatiles from previously infested flowers and mechanically damaged flowers. Uninfested cowpea flowers attracted only oviposition-experienced wasps that had received a rewarding experience (i.e. the parasitization of two M. vitrata larvae feeding on cowpea flowers) before the olfactometer test. Wasps also were attracted to uninfested leaves and flowers of peabush. Moreover, they were also attracted to healthy and live virus-infected M. vitrata larvae, but not when the latter were moribund. Our data show that, similarly to what has been extensively been reported for foliar volatiles, flowers of plants also emit parasitoid-attracting volatiles in response to being infested with an herbivore.

  3. ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF LAPACHOL, β-LAPACHONE AND ITS DERIVATIVES AGAINST Toxocara canis LARVAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taís MATA-SANTOS

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Anthelmintics used for intestinal helminthiasis treatment are generally effective; however, their effectiveness in tissue parasitosis (i.e. visceral toxocariasis is moderate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of lapachol, β-lapachone and phenazines in relation to the viability of Toxocara canis larvae. A concentration of 2 mg/mL (in duplicate of the compounds was tested using microculture plates containing Toxocara canis larvae in an RPMI-1640 environment, incubated at 37 °C in 5% CO2 tension for 48 hours. In the 2 mg/mL concentration, four phenazines, lapachol and three of its derivatives presented a larvicide/larvistatic activity of 100%. Then, the minimum larvicide/larvistatic concentration (MLC test was conducted. The compounds that presented the best results were nor-lapachol (MLC, 1 mg/mL, lapachol (MLC 0.5 mg/mL, β-lapachone, and β-C-allyl-lawsone (MLC, 0.25 mg/mL. The larvae exposed to the compounds, at best MLC with 100% in vitro activity larvicide, were inoculated into healthy BALB/c mice and were not capable of causing infection, confirming the larvicide potential in vitro of these compounds.

  4. Larval diet affects mosquito development and permissiveness to Plasmodium infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linenberg, Inbar; Christophides, George K; Gendrin, Mathilde

    2016-12-02

    The larval stages of malaria vector mosquitoes develop in water pools, feeding mostly on microorganisms and environmental detritus. Richness in the nutrient supply to larvae influences the development and metabolism of larvae and adults. Here, we investigated the effects of larval diet on the development, microbiota content and permissiveness to Plasmodium of Anopheles coluzzii. We tested three fish diets often used to rear mosquitoes in the laboratory, including two pelleted diets, Dr. Clarke's Pool Pellets and Nishikoi Fish Pellets, and one flaked diet, Tetramin Fish-Flakes. Larvae grow and develop faster and produce bigger adults when feeding on both types of pellets compared with flakes. This correlates with a higher microbiota load in pellet-fed larvae, in agreement with the known positive effect of the microbiota on mosquito development. Larval diet also significantly influences the prevalence and intensity of Plasmodium berghei infection in adults, whereby Nishikoi Fish Pellets-fed larvae develop into adults that are highly permissive to parasites and survive longer after infection. This correlates with a lower amount of Enterobacteriaceae in the midgut microbiota. Together, our results shed light on the influence of larval feeding on mosquito development, microbiota and vector competence; they also provide useful data for mosquito rearing.

  5. Philornis sp. bot fly larvae in free living scarlet macaw nestlings and a new technique for their extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olah, George; Vigo, Gabriela; Ortiz, Lizzie; Rozsa, Lajos; Brightsmith, Donald J

    2013-09-01

    Bot fly larvae (Philornis genus) are obligate subcutaneous blood-feeding parasites of Neotropical birds including psittacines. We analyze twelve years of data on scarlet macaw (Ara macao) nestlings in natural and artificial nests in the lowland forests of southeastern Peru and report prevalence and intensity of Philornis parasitism. Bot fly prevalence was 28.9% while mean intensity was 5.0 larvae per infected chick. Prevalence in natural nests (11%, N=90 nestlings) was lower than in wooden nest-boxes (39%, N=57) and PVC boxes (39%, N=109). We describe a new technique of removing Philornis larvae using a reverse syringe design snake bite extractor. We compare this new technique to two other methods for removing bots from macaw chicks and find the new method the most suitable. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Repressed Beauveria bassiana Infections in Delia antiqua due to Associated Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Fangyuan; Wu, Xiaoqing; Xu, Letian; Guo, Shuhai; Chen, Guanhong; Zhang, Xinjian

    2018-05-23

    Insects form both mutualistic and antagonistic relationships with microbes, and some antagonistic microbes have been used as biocontrol agents (BCAs) in pest management. Contextually, BCAs may be inhibited by beneficial insect symbionts, which can become potential barriers for entomopathogen-dependent pest biocontrol. Thus, by using the symbioses formed by one devastating dipteran pest, Delia antiqua, and its associated microbes as a model system, we sought to determine whether the antagonistic interaction between BCAs and microbial symbionts could affect the outcome of entomopathogen-dependent pest biocontrol. The result showed that in contrast to non-axenic D. antiqua larvae, i.e., onion maggots, axenic larvae lost resistance to the entomopathogenic Beauveria bassiana, and the re-inoculation of microbiota increased the resistance of axenic larvae to B. bassiana. Furthermore, bacteria, including Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter ludwigii, Pseudomonas protegens, Serratia plymuthica, Sphingobacterium faecium, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, frequently isolated from larvae suppressed B. bassiana conidia germination and hyphal growth, and the re-inoculation of specific individual bacteria enhanced the resistance of axenic larvae to B. bassiana. Bacteria associated with larvae, including C. freundii, E. ludwigii, P. protegens, S. plymuthica, S. faecium, and S. maltophilia, can inhibit B. bassiana infection. Removing the microbiota can suppress larval resistance to fungal infection. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Microsporidia parásitos de larvas de mosquito de la Costa Pacífica del Chocó

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuluaga Juan S.

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Two genera of Microsporidia were found infecting mosquito larvae in three localities on the Pacific coast of Choco. Vavraia sp. (Microsporida: Pleistophoridae was found in larvae of Wyeomyia circumcincta, W. simmsi and Anopheles albimanus collected from plants of the Bromeliacea family in Arusí y Joví. Amblyospora sp. (Microsporida: Amblyosporidae was found parasitizingAedes angustivittatuslarvae COllectedfrom a terrestrial breeding pond in the locality of Nuqur. Morphology of the spores of the two parasites under light microscopy is described, as well as preliminary data on host range when exposed to laboratory rearad Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles albimanus. Their rola in mosquito control is discussed.Se reportan dos géneros de microsporidia que parasitan larvas de mosquitos en criaderos naturales de tres localidades en la costa Pacffica Chocoana. Vavraia sp. (Microsporida: Pleistophoridae parásita larvas de Wyeomyia circumcincta, de Wyeomya simmsi y de Anopheles neivai, recolectadas en las rosetas de especies de la familia Bromeliaceae en las localidades de Arusí y Joví. Amblyospora sp. (Microsporida: Amblyosporidae parásita larvas deAedes angustivittatusde criaderos terrestres semipermanentes en la localidad de Nuquí. Se describe la morfología de estos dos microsporidia al microscopio óptico. Estudios preliminares de infección en larvas de Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus yAnopheles albimanus, criadas en laboratorio, indican que Vavraia sp. infecta las tres especies, con preferencia a Culex quinquefasciatus. Las larvas expuestas a esporas de Amblyospora sp. no presentaron infección. Se discute el posible papel de estos dos géneros en el control de las poblaciones de mosquitos.

  8. Larvas output and influence of human factor in reliability of meat inspection by the method of artificial digestion

    OpenAIRE

    Đorđević Vesna; Savić Marko; Vasilev Saša; Đorđević Milovan

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of the performed analyses of the factors that contributed the infected meat reach food chain, we have found out that the infection occurred after consuming the meat inspected by the method of collective samples artificial digestion by using a magnetic stirrer (MM). In this work there are presented assay results which show how modifications of the method, on the level of final sedimentation, influence the reliability of Trichinella larvas detect...

  9. Descrição da larva de Erythemis mithroides (Brauer e notas sobre outras larvas conhecidas do gênero (Odonata, Libellulidae Description of the larva of Erythemis mithroides (Brauer and notes on other known larvae of the genus (Odonata, Libellulidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Costa

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The last instar larva of Erythemis mithroides (Brauer, 1900 is described and figured based on exuviae of reared specimens. A comparative analysis of this immature stage and the known larvae of the genus are furnished according to the data available in the literature and of specimens of E credula (Hagen, 1861 and E. vesiculosa (Fab., 1775 permiting a diagnose for the larvae of the genus Erylhemis Hagen, 1861.

  10. Fate of pharmaceuticals and pesticides in fly larvae composting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalander, C., E-mail: cecilia.lalander@slu.se [Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (Sweden); Senecal, J.; Gros Calvo, M. [Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (Sweden); Ahrens, L.; Josefsson, S.; Wiberg, K. [Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (Sweden); Vinnerås, B. [Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (Sweden)

    2016-09-15

    A novel and efficient organic waste management strategy currently gaining great attention is fly larvae composting. High resource recovery efficiency can be achieved in this closed-looped system, but pharmaceuticals and pesticides in waste could potentially accumulate in every loop of the treatment system and spread to the environment. This study evaluated the fate of three pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine, roxithromycin, trimethoprim) and two pesticides (azoxystrobin, propiconazole) in a fly larvae composting system and in a control treatment with no larvae. It was found that the half-life of all five substances was shorter in the fly larvae compost (< 10% of control) and no bioaccumulation was detected in the larvae. Fly larvae composting could thus impede the spread of pharmaceuticals and pesticides into the environment. - Highlights: • Degradation of pharmaceuticals and pesticides in fly larvae composting (FLC). • Half-life considerably shorter in FLC than in control with no larvae. • Half-life of carbamazepine was less than two days in FLC. • No bioaccumulation in larvae detected. • FLC could impede the spreading of pharmaceuticals and pesticide in the environment.

  11. Fate of pharmaceuticals and pesticides in fly larvae composting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalander, C.; Senecal, J.; Gros Calvo, M.; Ahrens, L.; Josefsson, S.; Wiberg, K.; Vinnerås, B.

    2016-01-01

    A novel and efficient organic waste management strategy currently gaining great attention is fly larvae composting. High resource recovery efficiency can be achieved in this closed-looped system, but pharmaceuticals and pesticides in waste could potentially accumulate in every loop of the treatment system and spread to the environment. This study evaluated the fate of three pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine, roxithromycin, trimethoprim) and two pesticides (azoxystrobin, propiconazole) in a fly larvae composting system and in a control treatment with no larvae. It was found that the half-life of all five substances was shorter in the fly larvae compost (< 10% of control) and no bioaccumulation was detected in the larvae. Fly larvae composting could thus impede the spread of pharmaceuticals and pesticides into the environment. - Highlights: • Degradation of pharmaceuticals and pesticides in fly larvae composting (FLC). • Half-life considerably shorter in FLC than in control with no larvae. • Half-life of carbamazepine was less than two days in FLC. • No bioaccumulation in larvae detected. • FLC could impede the spreading of pharmaceuticals and pesticide in the environment.

  12. Effects of various diets on the calcium and phosphorus composition of mealworms (Tenebrio molitor larvae) and superworms (Zophobas morio larvae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latney, La'Toya V; Toddes, Barbara D; Wyre, Nicole R; Brown, Dorothy C; Michel, Kathryn E; Briscoe, Johanna A

    2017-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether the nutritive quality of Tenebrio molitor larvae and Zophobas morio larvae, which are commonly cultured as live food sources, is influenced by 4 commercially available diets used as nutritional substrates; identify which diet best improved calcium content of larvae; and identify the feeding time interval that assured the highest calcium intake by larvae. ANIMALS 2,000 Zophobas morio larvae (ie, superworms) and 7,500 Tenebrio molitor larvae (ie, mealworms). PROCEDURES Larvae were placed in control and diet treatment groups for 2-, 7-, and 10-day intervals. Treatment diets were as follows: wheat millings, avian hand feeding formula, organic avian mash diet, and a high-calcium cricket feed. Control groups received water only. After treatment, larvae were flash-frozen live with liquid nitrogen in preparation for complete proximate and mineral analyses. Analyses for the 2-day treatment group were performed in triplicate. RESULTS The nutrient composition of the high-calcium cricket feed groups had significant changes in calcium content, phosphorus content, and metabolizable energy at the 2-day interval, compared with other treatment groups, for both mealworms and superworms. Calcium content and calcium-to-phosphorus ratios for larvae in the high-calcium cricket feed group were the highest among the diet treatments for all treatment intervals and for both larval species. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE A 2-day interval with the high-calcium cricket feed achieved a larval nutrient composition sufficient to meet National Research Council dietary calcium recommendations for nonlactating rats. Mealworm calcium composition reached 2,420 g/1,000 kcal at 48 hours, and superworm calcium composition reached 2,070g/1,000 kcal at 48 hours. These findings may enable pet owners, veterinarians, insect breeders, and zoo curators to optimize nutritive content of larvae fed to insectivorous animals.

  13. Lymphatic filarial species differentiation using evolutionarily modified tandem repeats: generation of new genetic markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakthidevi, Moorthy; Murugan, Vadivel; Hoti, Sugeerappa Laxmanappa; Kaliraj, Perumal

    2010-05-01

    Polymerase chain reaction based methods are promising tools for the monitoring and evaluation of the Global Program for the Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis. The currently available PCR methods do not differentiate the DNA of Wuchereria bancrofti or Brugia malayi by a single PCR and hence are cumbersome. Therefore, we designed a single step PCR strategy for differentiating Bancroftian infection from Brugian infection based on a newly identified gene from the W. bancrofti genome, abundant larval transcript-2 (alt-2), which is abundantly expressed. The difference in PCR product sizes generated from the presence or absence of evolutionarily altered tandem repeats in alt-2 intron-3 differentiated W. bancrofti from B. malayi. The analysis was performed on the genomic DNA of microfilariae from a number of patient blood samples or microfilariae positive slides from different Indian geographical regions. The assay gave consistent results, differentiating the two filarial parasite species accurately. This alt-2 intron-3 based PCR assay can be a potential tool for the diagnosis and differentiation of co-infections by lymphatic filarial parasites. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Image-based automatic recognition of larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Ru; Yu, Guiying; Fan, Weijun; Guo, Tiantai

    2010-08-01

    As the main objects, imagoes have been researched in quarantine pest recognition in these days. However, pests in their larval stage are latent, and the larvae spread abroad much easily with the circulation of agricultural and forest products. It is presented in this paper that, as the new research objects, larvae are recognized by means of machine vision, image processing and pattern recognition. More visional information is reserved and the recognition rate is improved as color image segmentation is applied to images of larvae. Along with the characteristics of affine invariance, perspective invariance and brightness invariance, scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) is adopted for the feature extraction. The neural network algorithm is utilized for pattern recognition, and the automatic identification of larvae images is successfully achieved with satisfactory results.

  15. Feeding behavior of giant gourami, Osphronemus gouramy (Lacepede larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thumronk Amornsakun

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Feeding experiments were carried out in 15-liter glass aquaria with 10 liters of water containing 1000 larvae aged 1.5 days post-hatching (before mouth opening in three replicates. It was found that the feeding scheme of larval giant gourami aged 5-17 days (TL 8.36-13.40 mm consumed Moina. The larvae aged 14-17 days (TL 12.40-13.40 mm consumed both Moina and artificial pellet. Larvae aged more than 18-days (TL 13.60 mm consumed only artificial pellet. Daily food uptake by the larvae and juvenile were determined in a 15-liter aquaria (water volume 10 liters containing 500 larvae. The larvae were fed with Moina at density of 10 ind/ml. Aquaria without larvae were also set for a control of natural fluctuation in food density. The amount of food intake was calculated based on changes of food density in the aquarium with and without fish larvae. It was found the average uptake of Moina in digestive tract per day of larvae aged 5, 8, 11, 14 and 17 days old were 38, 52, 182, 205 and 266 individual/larva, respectively at density of 1.27, 1.73, 6.07, 6.83, and 8.87 individual/ml, respectively.

  16. Identification of nucleopolyhedrovirus that infect Nymphalid butterflies Agraulis vanillae and Dione juno.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Vanina Andrea; Belaich, Mariano Nicolás; Gómez, Diego Luis Mengual; Sciocco-Cap, Alicia; Ghiringhelli, Pablo Daniel

    2011-02-01

    Dione juno and Agraulis vanillae are very common butterflies in natural gardens in South America, and also bred worldwide. In addition, larvae of these butterflies are considered as pests in crops of Passiflora spp. For these reasons, it is important to identify and describe pathogens of these species, both for preservation purposes and for use in pest control. Baculoviridae is a family of insect viruses that predominantly infect species of Lepidoptera and are used as bioinsecticides. Larvae of D. juno and A. vanillae exhibiting symptoms of baculovirus infection were examined for the presence of baculoviruses by PCR and transmission electron microscopy. Degenerate primers were designed and used to amplify partial sequences from the baculovirus p74, cathepsin, and chitinase genes, along with previously designed primers for amplification of lef-8, lef-9, and polh. Sequence data from these six loci, along with ultrastructural observations on occlusion bodies isolated from the larvae, confirmed that the larvae were infected with nucleopolyhedroviruses from genus Alphabaculovirus. The NPVs from the two different larval hosts appear to be variants of the same, previously undescribed baculovirus species. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequence data placed these NPVs in Alphabaculovirus group I/clade 1b. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Ivermectin resistant and susceptible third-stage larvae of Haemonchus contortus: cholinesterase and phosphatase activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo Giménez-Pardo

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Cholinesterase and acid phosphatase (AP, but not alkaline phosphatase activities, were detected in cytosolic and membrane-bound fractions of ivermectin resistant and susceptible Haemonchus contortus infective-stage larvae. Some differences in acetylcholinesterase activity of cytosolic fractions and in the AP activity of these fractions as well as in the response to AP inhibitors by membrane-bound fractions were detected. Data are discussed.

  18. The Identification of Congeners and Aliens by Drosophila Larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Del Pino

    Full Text Available We investigated the role of Drosophila larva olfactory system in identification of congeners and aliens. We discuss the importance of these activities in larva navigation across substrates, and the implications for allocation of space and food among species of similar ecologies. Wild type larvae of cosmopolitan D. melanogaster and endemic D. pavani, which cohabit the same breeding sites, used species-specific volatiles to identify conspecifics and aliens moving toward larvae of their species. D. gaucha larvae, a sibling species of D. pavani that is ecologically isolated from D. melanogaster, did not respond to melanogaster odor cues. Similar to D. pavani larvae, the navigation of pavani female x gaucha male hybrids was influenced by conspecific and alien odors, whereas gaucha female x pavani male hybrid larvae exhibited behavior similar to the D. gaucha parent. The two sibling species exhibited substantial evolutionary divergence in processing the odor inputs necessary to identify conspecifics. Orco (Or83b mutant larvae of D. melanogaster, which exhibit a loss of sense of smell, did not distinguish conspecific from alien larvae, instead moving across the substrate. Syn97CS and rut larvae of D. melanogaster, which are unable to learn but can smell, moved across the substrate as well. The Orco (Or83b, Syn97CS and rut loci are necessary to orient navigation by D. melanogaster larvae. Individuals of the Trana strain of D. melanogaster did not respond to conspecific and alien larval volatiles and therefore navigated randomly across the substrate. By contrast, larvae of the Til-Til strain used larval volatiles to orient their movement. Natural populations of D. melanogaster may exhibit differences in identification of conspecific and alien larvae. Larval locomotion was not affected by the volatiles.

  19. Morphological and molecular identification of Gnathostoma binucleatum (Nematoda: Gnathostomatidae) advanced third stage larvae (AdvL3) in the state of Colima, Mexico Determinación morfológica y molecular de larvas del tercer estadio larvario (L3A) de Gnathostoma binucleatum (Nematoda: Gnathostomatidae) del estado de Colima, México

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Jorge García-Márquez; Rafael Lamothe-Argumedo; David Osorio-Sarabia; Luis García-Prieto; Virginia León-Règagnon

    2009-01-01

    As a part of an ongoing project to understand the current distribution of Gnathostoma species in Mexico, 22 species of vertebrates were examined for this nematode in the state of Colima. The fish species Dormitator latifrons ("chococo") and Sciades guatemalensis ("cuatete") from Cuyutlán Lagoon and the reptile Crocodylus acutus from the Amela Lagoon were positive for infection. Morphometric characteristics of the larvae collected in Colima were similar to those of G. binucleatum larvae collec...

  20. Parasitic anemone infects the invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi in the North East Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selander, Erik; Møller, Lene Friis; Sundberg, Per

    2010-01-01

    We report of the first finding of parasitic sea anemone larvae infecting the invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi in the North East Atlantic. Parasitic anemone larvae are common in the native habitat of Mnemiopsis, but have not previously been reported from any of the locations where Mnemiopsis ...

  1. Larva migrans visceral: relato de caso

    OpenAIRE

    Machado Alexandre Bortoli; El Achkar Marice Emanuela

    2003-01-01

    Larva migrans visceral é doença infecciosa, adquirida por ingestão de ovos provenientes dos vermes Toxocara canis e/ou Toxocara cati que infestam cães e gatos; as larvas penetram a parede intestinal e migram através dos tecidos levando a alterações diversas, conseqüentes a uma resposta inflamatória imune.¹ Os autores descrevem um caso clínico de larva migrans visceral com apresentação clínica atípica.

  2. Capacity of the terrestrial entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema rarum (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae to parasite Culex apicinus larvae (Diptera: Culicidae Capacidad del nemátodo terrestre entomopatógeno Steinernema rarum (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae de parasitar larvas de Culex apicinus (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana R. Cagnolo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Entomopathogenic nematodes can be considered effective agents for biocontrol, resulting innocuous for humans. Larvaeof Culex apicinus Philippi were exposed to infective juveniles of Steinernema rarum (OLI strain under laboratory conditions, testing six doses (1:1, 5:1, 10:1, 15:1, 100:1, 400:1. An increasing percentage of mosquito larvae mortality was recorded with an increased dose. The highest percentage of mosquito larvae mortality (75% was obtained with the dose 400:1. This is the first report of parasitism of an isolated of S. rarum from Córdoba against larvae of C. apicinus, with promising results. Therefore, further studies must be carried out to determine if these nematodes would be effective as autochthonous agents for the control of Culex Linnaeus and other mosquitoes of sanitary interest in the country.Los nemátodos entomopatógenos son considerados eficientes agentes de control de insectos plaga e inocuos para los humanos. Larvas de Culex apicinus Philippi fueron expuestas a seis dosis (1:1, 5:1, 10:1, 15:1, 100:1, 400:1 de juveniles infectivos de Steinernema rarum (aislado OLI. Se registró un incremento en la mortalidad de las larvas del mosquito con el aumento de la dosis del nematodo. El mayor porcentaje de mortalidad de larvas del mosquito (75% se obtuvo con la dosis 400:1. Este es el primer reporte de parasitismo de un aislado de S. rarum de Córdoba, en larvas de C. apicinus con resultados promisorios. Por lo tanto, se debería profundizar su estudio para determinar si pueden resultar efectivos como agentes autóctonos para el control biológico de mosquitos Culex Linnaeus, y otros de interés sanitario en el país.

  3. Efektivitas Bacillus thuringiensis dalam Pengendalian Larva Nyamuk Anopheles sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Citra Inneke Wibowo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Nyamuk Anopheles sp adalah vektor penyakit malaria. Pengendalian vektor penyakit malaria dapat dilakukan secara biologis yaitu dengan menggunakan Bacillus thuringiensis. Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk mengetahui efektivitas konsentrasi Bacillus thuringiensis dalam pengendalian larva nyamuk Anopheles sp.Penelitian ini dilakukan secara eksperimental menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap Faktorial (RAL Faktorial yang terdiri atas dua faktor yaitu konsentrasi Bacillus thuringiensis dan stadia larva Anopheles dengan pengulangan tiga kali.Perlakuan yang dicobakan adalahkonsentrasi Bacillus thuringiensis (A yang terdiri atas 5 taraf:A0: konsentrasi B.thuringiensis 0 CFU.mL-1, A1: konsentrasi B.thuringiensis 102 CFU.mL-1, A2: konsentrasi B.thuringiensis 104 CFU.mL-1, A3: konsentrasi B.thuringiensis 106CFU.mL-1, A4: konsentrasi B.thuringiensis 108CFU.mL-1. Perlakuan tahapan instar larva Anopheles sp. (B adalah sebagai berikut:B1: stadia larva instar I, B2: stadia larva instar II, B3: stadia larva instar III, B4: stadia larva instar IVsehingga terdapat 60 satuan percobaan. Hasil penelitian  menunjukkan konsentrasi B. thuringiensis isolat CK dan IPB CC yang paling berpengaruh dalam pengendalian larva Anopheles sp adalah 108 CFU.mL-1 . Instar larva yang paling peka terhadap B. thuringiensis isolat IPB CC adalah instar I dan II sedangkan instar yang peka terhadap isolat CK adalah instar II, Perlakuan konsentrasi isolat B. thuringiensis dan tingkat instar larva yang paling baik dalam pengendalian larva Anopheles sp. adalah 108 CFU.mL-1, dan instar I dan II.

  4. Complete validation of a unique digestion assay to detect Trichinella larvae in horse meat demonstrates the reliability of this assay for meeting food safety and trade requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, L B; Hill, D E; Parker, S; Tessaro, S V; Gamble, H R; Gajadhar, A A

    2008-03-01

    A tissue digestion assay using a double separatory funnel procedure for the detection of Trichinella larvae in horse meat was validated for application in food safety programs and trade. The assay consisted of a pepsin-HCl digestion step to release larvae from muscle tissue and two sequential sedimentation steps in separatory funnels to recover and concentrate larvae for detection with a stereomicroscope. With defined critical control points, the assay was conducted within a quality assurance system compliant with International Organization for Standardization-International Electrotechnical Commission (ISO/IEC) 17025 guidelines. Samples used in the validation were obtained from horses experimentally infected with Trichinella spiralis to obtain a range of muscle larvae densities. One-, 5-, and 10-g samples of infected tissue were combined with 99, 95, and 90 g, respectively, of known negative horse tissue to create a 100-g sample for testing. Samples of 5 and 10 g were more likely to be positive than were 1-g samples when larval densities were less than three larvae per gram (lpg). This difference is important because ingested meat with 1 lpg is considered the threshold for clinical disease in humans. Using a 5-g sample size, all samples containing 1.3 to 2 lpg were detected, and 60 to 100% of samples with infected horse meat containing 0.1 to 0.7 lpg were detected. In this study, the double separatory funnel digestion assay was efficient and reliable for its intended use in food safety and trade. This procedure is the only digestion assay for Trichinella in horse meat that has been validated as consistent and effective at critical levels of sensitivity.

  5. Enhancing the efficacy of entomopathogenic nematodes by gamma radiation in controlling Spodoptera littoralis larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Sayed

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, finding a safe control program is the aim of all researchers. The goal of this work is to investigate the effect of gamma radiation on the Entomopathogenic nematodes, Steinernema scapterisci and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar (HP88 efficacy were tested against larvae of cotton leaf worm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd. under laboratory conditions. Results showed that 2 Gy irradiated S. scapterisci and H. bacteriophora were substantially effective in controlling S. littoralis larvae, while H. bacteriophora was more potent in controlling insect larvae. The results revealed that total protein concentration was significantly decreased (P < 0.05 after treatment with normal or irradiated H. bacteriophora or S. scapterisci. In addition, larvae infected with normal S. scapterisci or H. bacteriophora showed a significant elevation in phenoloxidase activity and represented significant reduce after treatment with 2 Gy irradiated S. scapterisci or H. bacteriophora as compared to control group. Also, lysozyme activity was significantly decreased after treatment with irradiated H. bacteriophora, but there was no significance with irradiated S. scapterisci, when compared with control. LDH activity was significantly high (p<0.05 in the haemolymph of larvae treated with normal or irradiated H. bacteriophora or S. scapterisci, as compared to control group. Furthermore among all treatments, 2 Gy irradiated H. bacteriophora was the most potent and efficient in the biomarkers changes. Therefore, it could be concluded that 2 Gy irradiated S. scapterisci and H. bacteriophora can serve within an integrated pest management (IPM program in an agroecosystem.

  6. Biofilms and Marine Invertebrate Larvae: What Bacteria Produce That Larvae Use to Choose Settlement Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadfield, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    Communities of microorganisms form thin coats across solid surfaces in the sea. Larvae of many marine invertebrates use biofilm components as cues to appropriate settlement sites. Research on the tube-dwelling polychaete worm Hydroides elegans, a globally common member of biofouling communities, is described to exemplify approaches to understanding biofilm bacteria as a source of settlement cues and larvae as bearers of receptors for bacterial cues. The association of species of the bacterial genus Pseudoalteromonas with larval settlement in many phyla is described, and the question of whether cues are soluble or surface-bound is reviewed, concluding that most evidence points to surface-bound cues. Seemingly contradictory data for stimulation of barnacle settlement are discussed; possibly both explanations are true. Paleontological evidence reveals a relationship between metazoans and biofilms very early in metazoan evolution, and thus the receptors for bacterial cues of invertebrate larvae are very old and possibly unique. Finally, despite more than 60 years of intense investigation, we still know very little about either the bacterial ligands that stimulate larval settlement or the cellular basis of their detection by larvae.

  7. Determination of Immunogenic Relevant Antigens in the Excretory-Secretory (ES Products and the Lysates of Ascaridia galli Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Saffi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ascaridia galli, the largest nematode of small intestine of birds, especially the native poultry, may give rise to serious illness, pathological defects and economical losses even in modern poultry production systems. Although various measures have been undertaken to vaccinate poultry against A.galli, no satisfactory results were obtained so far. However, there is no report on the efficacy of excretory-secretory (ES proteins of A.galli larvae in immunization of poultry. Thus, the aim of the present research project was based on the use of the ES products of the larvae, in order to find the protective anti­gens.Methods: Five hundred native poultry were autopsied and adult A.galli was removed form their intestines. The eggs were harvested form the uterus of female worms and cultured at 25 ˚C in water containing 0.1 N sulphuric acid for almost a fort­night. The larvae were then freed mechanically and kept in Earl's salt solution for a few days. The supernatant solution of alive larvae containing the ES products of the larvae, as well as the sonicated alive and dead larvae, was analyzed by SDS-PAGE.Result: Many protein fractions of 15 kDa up to 200 kDa were demonstrated in lysate of these larvae. Using the serum of a hen, infected with a high numbers of A.galli, an immunogenic antigen was identified between 55 kDa to 72 kDa by Western blotting procedure.Conclusion: Finding the protein band between 55 and 72 kDa can be promising for preparation of vaccine, though more investigations are needed to prove the protective ability of this antigen.

  8. UJI EFIKASI LARVASIDA BERBAHAN AKTIF DICHLORVOS TERHADAP LARVA LALAT RUMAH Musca domestica DI LABORATORIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Suwasono

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The house fly, Musca domestica have been implicated in the mechanical transmission of pathogens causing diseases. Important diseases that may be transmitted under certain conditions include infection of virus, bacterial, protozoan, fungal and helminthic. Therefore control measures should be carried out only when the presence of the house fly is intolerable to humans due to their being a health hazard or nuisance. The larvicide with active ingredient of dichlorvos 250 g/l was applied to the house fly larvae which conducted in the laboratory. There were jive concentrations of larvicides to be tested i.e. 6; 12; 24; 48 and 96 ml by product/ 3 l of water/m2. A dried powder of chicken dung was utilized as larvae medium. The medium was inoculated with the third instar larvae then it sprayed with the larvicide suspension. All larvicidal assays were carried out at 26 - 30°C temperature and 60-80% RH in the laboratory. The results revealed that all of the five tested concentrations yielded between 0 and 5.2 percent larval mortalities.   Keywords: house fly, Musca domestica, larvicide, dichlorvos

  9. Survival of mayfly larvae under mine acid conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, S. Jr.; Hummon, W.D.

    1976-01-01

    Mayfly larvae were abundant and diverse in riffle zones of three control streams in southeastern Ohio. But none were found in such zones of three streams having current or past histories of mine acid pollution, despite vegetative recovery of reclaimed land bordering two of the streams. Laboratory studies showed stepwise increases in non-predatory mortality of mayfly larvae with increased mine acidity. Dragonfly larvae predation on mayfly larvae was constant at pH 8.1 to 4.1, but decreased at pH 3.1 despite tolerance of dragonfly larvae to low pH conditions. Extensive acid mine pollution thus may threaten aquatic biota through removal of food sources or reduced feeding rates as well as through direct mortality.

  10. Freshly squeezed: anaphylaxis caused by drone larvae juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoevesandt, J; Trautmann, A

    2017-11-30

    Drone larvae are mostly considered a by-product of beekeeping, but have recently been advo-cated as a high-protein source of food. There are as yet no data concerning their allergenic po-tential. We report on a 29-year old bee keeper who experienced an anaphylactic reaction following the consumption of a freshly prepared beverage from raw drone larvae. Larvae-specific sensitization was confirmed by prick-to-prick and basophil activation testing. Bee stings and classical bee products including honey and royal jelly were tolerated. This is the hitherto first report on IgE-mediated allergy to drone larvae. We suggest that a certain awareness towards the allergenicity of bee larvae is required.

  11. Biological effects of paenilamicin, a secondary metabolite antibiotic produced by the honey bee pathogenic bacterium Paenibacillus larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Gonzalez, Eva; Müller, Sebastian; Hertlein, Gillian; Heid, Nina; Süssmuth, Roderich D; Genersch, Elke

    2014-10-01

    Paenibacillus larvae is the etiological agent of American Foulbrood (AFB) a world-wide distributed devastating disease of the honey bee brood. Previous comparative genome analysis and more recently, the elucidation of the bacterial genome, provided evidence that this bacterium harbors putative functional nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) and polyketide synthases (PKSs) and therefore, might produce nonribosomal peptides (NRPs) and polyketides (PKs). Such biosynthesis products have been shown to display a wide-range of biological activities such as antibacterial, antifungal or cytotoxic activity. Herein we present an in silico analysis of the first NRPS/PKS hybrid of P. larvae and we show the involvement of this cluster in the production of a compound named paenilamicin (Pam). For the characterization of its in vitro and in vivo bioactivity, a knock-out mutant strain lacking the production of Pam was constructed and subsequently compared to wild-type species. This led to the identification of Pam by mass spectrometry. Purified Pam-fractions showed not only antibacterial but also antifungal and cytotoxic activities. The latter suggested a direct effect of Pam on honey bee larval death which could, however, not be corroborated in laboratory infection assays. Bee larvae infected with the non-producing Pam strain showed no decrease in larval mortality, but a delay in the onset of larval death. We propose that Pam, although not essential for larval mortality, is a virulence factor of P. larvae influencing the time course of disease. These findings are not only of significance in elucidating and understanding host-pathogen interactions but also within the context of the quest for new compounds with antibiotic activity for drug development. © 2014 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Metabolic and adaptive immune responses induced in mice infected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated metabolic and immuno-inflammatory responses of mice infected with tissue-dwelling larvae of Trichinella zimbabwensis and explored the relationship between infection, metabolic parameters and Th1/Th17 immune responses. Sixty (60) female BALB/c mice aged between 6 to 8 weeks old were ...

  13. [Biotechnological aspects in "loco" larvae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inestrosa, N C; Labarca, R; Perelman, A; Campos, E O; Araneda, R; González, M; Brandan, E; Sánchez, J P; González-Plaza, R

    1990-10-01

    The biology of planktotrophic larvae of Concholepas concholepas is the main bottleneck towards developing biotechnologies to rear this muricid. Data concerning planktonic larvae development, diets and environmental signals triggering larval settlement and recruitment is scarce. We have begun the study of the molecular and cell biology of embryos, larvae and recruits having as a final goal, the development of appropriate biotechnologies to rear this gastropod. First, an inverse ratio between BuChE and AChE enzyme activities was established. This ratio may be a precise developmental marker for this species. Second, for the first time a phosphoinositide related regulatory pathway is reported in a muricid, opening a new approach to the biotechnological management of larvae. Third, the relation between sulfate in sea water and larval motility was studied. Concentrations below 125 microM sulfate decreases larval motility. The sulfate is incorporated in proteoglycans which participate in different developmental phenomena. Lastly, a genomic Concholepas concholepas DNA sequence, similar to that of a human growth hormone probe was detected. This is very interesting since growth factors are key molecules during development, growth and are involved in food conversion rates in fish and also, in a variety of marine invertebrates.

  14. Respon Imun Spesifik Larva Ikan Mas (Cyprinus carpio melalui Imunitas Maternal yang Diberi Vaksin Inaktif Whole Cell Aeromonas salmonicida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syohibahttul Islamiyah BAHAR

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas salmonicida are specific bacteria that can cause infections and death to the cultivation of carp (Cyprinus carpio during larval stage. Death in carp can be prevented by a vaccine, but the vaccine can only be given on the seed over the age of 3 weeks. Maternal vaccination needs to be done to improve the immune system of the larvae by means of inactivated whole cell vaccine A. salmonicida on broodstock ready to spawn. Aims to determine the effectiveness of vaccines on breeders carp to the parent antibody titer test and larvae, as well Survival Rate (SR and the Relative Percent Survival (RPS larvae. This research was conducted with a completely randomized design, 4 treatments A (control; B (0.3 ml/kg; C (0.4 ml/kg; D (0.5 ml/kg and 3 repetitions. The results show that the antibody titer of 0.3 ml dose capable of providing agglutination reaction to pitting 7th (64x dilution in broodstock, and vaccine doses 0,4ml on broodstock able to give agglutination reaction to the larvae until all 6 wells (32x dilution. A dose of 0.4 ml/kg resulted the highest SR and RPS with 96.11% and 81.25% respectively. Clinical symptoms of redness in control larvae was spread throughout the body whereas on the vaccine treatment was only in certain body parts. Keywords: A. salmonicida, vaccines, maternal immunity, larva, specific immune respon

  15. SEBARAN LARVA IKAN DAN KAITANNYA DENGAN KONDISI OSEANOGRAFI LAUT SULAWESI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairul Amri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Laut Sulawesi diketahui sebagai daerah penangkapan ikan yang potensial sekaligus diduga sebagai lokasi pemijahan. Berbagai jenis larva ikan pelagis maupun demersal ditemukan di perairan ini. Kelimpahan dan sebaran larva ikan di suatu perairan sangat dipengaruhi oleh kondisi oseanografi seperti temperatur, salinitas dan sejumlah parameter lainnya termasuk ketersediaan pakan. Untuk mengetahui pengaruh parameter oseanografi terhadap kelimpahan dan sebaran spasial larva ikan di Laut Sulawesi, telah dilakukan penelitian menggunakan kapal riset KR Baruna Jaya VII pada Oktober 2012. Parameter oseanografi yaitu temperatur dan salinitas diukur menggunakan iCTD dan sampling larva menggunakan bonggo net pada 18 stasiun pengukuran. Analisa hubungan kondisi oseanografi dengan sebaran larva dilakukan secara deskriptif dan pemetaan sebarannya dilakukan secara spasial. Hasil menunjukan keterkaitan sejumlah parameter oseanografi dengan kelimpahan dan sebaran spasial larva ikan. Sebaran larva famili Scombroidae dominan berada pada perairan bersalinitas tinggi karena merupakan jenis ikan oseanik. Larva ikan demersal banyak ditemukan di perairan sekitar Kep.Sangihe Talaud. Kelimpahan larva tertinggi ditemukan di perairan bagian utara dan barat lokasi penelitian dimana kelimpahan plankton tinggi ditemukan.   Celebes Sea is known as a potential fishing and spawning grounds for several pelagic fish species. Abundance and distribution of fish larvae are allegedly linked to oceanographic conditions such as temperature, salinity and others oceanographic parameters including food availablity. To see the effect of oceanographic on the abundance and spatial distribution of fish larvae in the Celebes Sea, has conducted a research in October 2012using the research vessel KR Baruna Jaya VII. The measurement of oceanographic parameters including temperature and salinity and larval sampling were done respectively by using iCTD and Bonggo net at 18 measuring stations. The

  16. Survey of Trichinella infection from domestic pigs in the historical endemic areas of Henan province, central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Peng; Zhang, Xi; Wang, Li Ang; Han, Lu Hong; Yang, Mei; Duan, Jiang Yang; Sun, Ge Ge; Qi, Xin; Liu, Ruo Dan; Wang, Zhong Quan; Cui, Jing

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the current situation of Trichinella infection from domestic pigs in the historical endemic areas of Henan province, central China. A total of 823 diaphragm samples from the indoor-raised pigs were collected in five cities of Henan during 2014-2015 and examined by artificial digestion method. The overall prevalence of Trichinella infection in pigs was 0.61 % (5/823). Trichinella larvae were detected in 0.91 % (5/550) of pigs from Nanyang city of Henan. The larval burden in infected animals was 0.03 larvae per gram (lpg) of muscles with a range from 0.02 to 0.05 lpg. The larvae were identified as Trichinella spiralis by multiple PCR. Our study confirms the existence of swine trichinellosis in Henan, but the infection level was under the minimum level for defining infectious sources for humans. However, the prevalence of swine Trichinella infection in Henan need to be further evaluated with a large scale of pork samples for ensuring meat food safety.

  17. Tools for automating the imaging of zebrafish larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulak, Rock

    2016-03-01

    The VAST BioImager system is a set of tools developed for zebrafish researchers who require the collection of images from a large number of 2-7 dpf zebrafish larvae. The VAST BioImager automates larval handling, positioning and orientation tasks. Color images at about 10 μm resolution are collected from the on-board camera of the system. If images of greater resolution and detail are required, this system is mounted on an upright microscope, such as a confocal or fluorescence microscope, to utilize their capabilities. The system loads a larvae, positions it in view of the camera, determines orientation using pattern recognition analysis, and then more precisely positions to user-defined orientation for optimal imaging of any desired tissue or organ system. Multiple images of the same larva can be collected. The specific part of each larva and the desired orientation and position is identified by the researcher and an experiment defining the settings and a series of steps can be saved and repeated for imaging of subsequent larvae. The system captures images, then ejects and loads another larva from either a bulk reservoir, a well of a 96 well plate using the LP Sampler, or individually targeted larvae from a Petri dish or other container using the VAST Pipettor. Alternative manual protocols for handling larvae for image collection are tedious and time consuming. The VAST BioImager automates these steps to allow for greater throughput of assays and screens requiring high-content image collection of zebrafish larvae such as might be used in drug discovery and toxicology studies. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Regional distribution of Paenibacillus larvae subspecies larvae, the causative organism of American foulbrood, in honey bee colonies of the Western United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eischen, Frank A; Graham, R Henry; Cox, Robert

    2005-08-01

    We examined honey bee, Apis mellifera L., colonies pollinating almonds in California during February 2003 for Paenibacillus larvae subsp. Larvae, the causative organism of the virulent brood disease American foulbrood. Colonies originating from the Rocky Mountain area and California had significantly higher numbers (P bees, respectively) than colonies from the upper Midwest (1.28). Colonies from the northwestern, central, and southwestern United States had intermediate CFU or bacterial colony levels. Operations positive for P. larvae larvae were relatively uniform at approximately 70-80%, and no regional significant differences were found. Percentages of colonies with high CFUs (> or = 400 per 30 bees) differed significantly, with those from the Rocky Mountain region having 8.73% compared with those of the upper Midwest with 0%. The significance of CFU levels was evaluated by inoculating healthy colonies with diseased immatures and sampling adult bees. The number of CFUs detected per diseased immature was conservatively estimated to be approximately 399 CFUs per 30 adult bees. We defined this spore level as 1 disease equivalent. Based on this, 3.86% colonies in our survey had 1 or more disease equivalent number of P. larvae larvae CFUs. Operations with high P. larvae larvae spore levels in their colonies will likely observe American foulbrood if prophylaxis is not practiced diligently.

  19. Effect of gamma rays on the larvae of Rhipicephalus bursa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gecheva, G.

    1979-01-01

    Rhipicephalus bursa larvae were exposed to a single acute gamma-irradiation from cobalt 60 source in doses from 0.5 to 40 kiloroentgen (kr). Doses higher than 20 kr rilled the larvae, lower than 10 kr produced disturbances in tick development, dependent on radiation; larvae irradiated with 2 to 3 kr started sucking blood as larvae ordinarily do, but could not undergo metamorphosis; larvae irradiated with lower doses (0.5 and 1 kr) had a prolonged metamorphosis, the onset of oviposition was delayed and the percentage of hatched second generation larvae was reduced. (A.B.)

  20. Galleria mellonella larvae are capable of sensing the extent of priming agent and mounting proportionatal cellular and humoral immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Gongqing; Xu, Li; Yi, Yunhong

    2016-06-01

    Larvae of Galleria mellonella are useful models for studying the innate immunity of invertebrates or for evaluating the virulence of microbial pathogens. In this work, we demonstrated that prior exposure of G. mellonella larvae to high doses (1×10(4), 1×10(5) or 1×10(6) cells/larva) of heat-killed Photorhabdus luminescens TT01 increases the resistance of larvae to a lethal dose (50 cells/larva) of viable P. luminescens TT01 infection administered 48h later. We also found that the changes in immune protection level were highly correlated to the changes in levels of cellular and humoral immune parameters when priming the larvae with different doses of heat-killed P. luminescens TT01. Priming the larvae with high doses of heat-killed P. luminescens TT01 resulted in significant increases in the hemocytes activities of phagocytosis and encapsulation. High doses of heat-killed P. luminescens TT01 also induced an increase in total hemocyte count and a reduction in bacterial density within the larval hemocoel. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that genes coding for cecropin and gallerimycin and galiomycin increased in expression after priming G. mellonella with heat-killed P. luminescens TT01. All the immune parameters changed in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicate that the insect immune system is capable of sensing the extent of priming agent and mounting a proportionate immune response. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. In vitro anthelmintic activity of five tropical legumes on the exsheathment and motility of Haemonchus contortus infective larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Son-de Fernex, Elke; Alonso-Díaz, Miguel Angel; Valles-de la Mora, Braulio; Capetillo-Leal, Concepción M

    2012-08-01

    This study investigated the in vitro anthelmintic (AH) activity of five tropical legume plants [Arachis pintoi CIAT 22160 (A.p. 22160), Gliricidia sepium, Cratylia argentea (C.a. Yacapani), C. argentea CIAT 22386 (C.a. 22386), C. argentea Veranera (C.a. Veranera)] against Haemonchus contortus infective larvae and the role of tannins/polyphenolic compounds in the AH effect. Lyophilized leaf extracts of each plant were evaluated using the Larval Exsheathment Inhibition Assay (LEIA) and the larval migration inhibition assay (LMIA). The role of tannins/polyphenolic compounds in the AH effect was evaluated in both assays using polyethylene glycol (PEG) to remove tannins from the solutions. At the highest concentration (1200μg of extract/ml), A. pintoi 22160, C.a. Yacapani, C.a. Veranera and C.a. 22386 completely inhibited the exsheathment process of H. contortus (P<0.01). At the same concentration (1200μg of extract/ml), the inhibition of larval migration for C.a. 22386, C.a. Veranera and G. sepium was 66.0%, 35.9% and 39.2% (relative to the PBS control), respectively. In both bioassays (LEIA and LMIA), the AH effect shown by each plant was blocked after the addition of polyethylene glycol (PEG), corroborating the role of tannins/polyphenolic compounds. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Coral larvae move toward reef sounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeij, M.J.A.; Marhaver, K.L.; Huijbers, C.M.; Nagelkerken, I.; Simpson, S.D.

    2010-01-01

    Free-swimming larvae of tropical corals go through a critical life-phase when they return from the open ocean to select a suitable settlement substrate. During the planktonic phase of their life cycle, the behaviours of small coral larvae (<1 mm) that influence settlement success are difficult to

  3. Susceptibility of nutria (Myocastor coypus to Trichinella infection: biological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moretti A.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Experimental infections with three different species of Trichinella in nutria in order to evaluate the susceptibility and the role of these rodents in the spreading of parasitosis in nature were carried out. The nutria is present in many italian wet areas and its distribution is expanding. The nutria meat is utilized as food in different countries and is retained responsible for trichinellosis in man. Two groups of ten animals were infected per os with 500 and 5,000 (n. 10 infective larvae of T. britovi; an additional study was arranged with two groups of animals infected with 5,000 larvae of T. spiralis and T. pseudospiralis, respectively. After 45 days, all animals were slaughtered and samples of different muscles were processed by standard artificial digestion and by routine histological methods. Serological investigations (specific IgG have been carried out on sera samples by employing a monoclonal blocking ELISA. The animals showed a significant susceptibility to the infection with all species of tested Trichinella and immunological reactivity. Data obtained are discussed.

  4. Identification of Enterococcus mundtii as a pathogenic agent involved in the "flacherie" disease in Bombyx mori L. larvae reared on artificial diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappellozza, Silvia; Saviane, Alessio; Tettamanti, Gianluca; Squadrin, Marta; Vendramin, Elena; Paolucci, Paolo; Franzetti, Eleonora; Squartini, Andrea

    2011-03-01

    Enterococcus mundtii was shown to be directly correlated with flacherie disease of the silkworm larvae reared on artificial diet supplemented with chloramphenicol. Its identification was carried out by means of light and electron microscopy and nucleotide sequencing of 16S gene. The bacterium is capable of rapidly multiplying in the silkworm gut and of invading other body tissues, as demonstrated by deliberate infection of germfree larvae and by subsequent TEM observations. E. mundtii can endure alkaline pH of the silkworm gut and it has been proved to adapt in vitro to commonly applied doses of chloramphenicol, whose use can further contribute to reduce competition by other bacteria in Bombyx mori alimentary canal. The modality of transmission of the infection to the larvae was among the objectives of the present research. Since contamination of the progeny by mother moths can be avoided through routine egg shell disinfection, a trans-ovarian vertical transmission can be ruled out. On the other hand the bacterium was for the first time identified on mulberry leaves, and therefore artificial diet based on leaf powder could be a source of infection. We showed that while microwaved diet could contain live E. mundtii cells, the autoclaved diet is safe in this respect. Being E. mundtii also part of the human-associated microbiota, and since B. mori is totally domestic species, a possible role of man in its epidemiology can be postulated. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Sun-Compass Orientation in Mediterranean Fish Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faillettaz, Robin; Blandin, Agathe; Paris, Claire B; Koubbi, Philippe; Irisson, Jean-Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Mortality is very high during the pelagic larval phase of fishes but the factors that determine recruitment success remain unclear and hard to predict. Because of their bipartite life history, larvae of coastal species have to head back to the shore at the end of their pelagic episode, to settle. These settlement-stage larvae are known to display strong sensory and motile abilities, but most work has been focused on tropical, insular environments and on the influence of coast-related cues on orientation. In this study we quantified the in situ orientation behavior of settlement-stage larvae in a temperate region, with a continuous coast and a dominant along-shore current, and inspected both coast-dependent and independent cues. We tested six species: one Pomacentridae, Chromis chromis, and five Sparidae, Boops boops, Diplodus annularis, Oblada melanura, Spicara smaris and Spondyliosoma cantharus. Over 85% of larvae were highly capable of keeping a bearing, which is comparable to the orientation abilities of tropical species. Sun-related cues influenced the precision of bearing-keeping at individual level. Three species, out of the four tested in sufficient numbers, oriented significantly relative to the sun position. These are the first in situ observations demonstrating the use of a sun compass for orientation by wild-caught settlement-stage larvae. This mechanism has potential for large-scale orientation of fish larvae globally.

  6. Sun-Compass Orientation in Mediterranean Fish Larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Faillettaz

    Full Text Available Mortality is very high during the pelagic larval phase of fishes but the factors that determine recruitment success remain unclear and hard to predict. Because of their bipartite life history, larvae of coastal species have to head back to the shore at the end of their pelagic episode, to settle. These settlement-stage larvae are known to display strong sensory and motile abilities, but most work has been focused on tropical, insular environments and on the influence of coast-related cues on orientation. In this study we quantified the in situ orientation behavior of settlement-stage larvae in a temperate region, with a continuous coast and a dominant along-shore current, and inspected both coast-dependent and independent cues. We tested six species: one Pomacentridae, Chromis chromis, and five Sparidae, Boops boops, Diplodus annularis, Oblada melanura, Spicara smaris and Spondyliosoma cantharus. Over 85% of larvae were highly capable of keeping a bearing, which is comparable to the orientation abilities of tropical species. Sun-related cues influenced the precision of bearing-keeping at individual level. Three species, out of the four tested in sufficient numbers, oriented significantly relative to the sun position. These are the first in situ observations demonstrating the use of a sun compass for orientation by wild-caught settlement-stage larvae. This mechanism has potential for large-scale orientation of fish larvae globally.

  7. Cranial Mesenteric Arterial Obstruction Due To Strongylus vulgaris Larvae in a Donkey (Equus asinus).

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan Borji; Zahra Moosavi; Fatemeh Ahmadi

    2014-01-01

    Arteritis due to Strongylus vulgaris is a well-known cause of colic in horses and donkeys. The current report describes a fatal incidence of arterial obstruction in cranial mesenteric artery caused by S. vulgaris infection in an adult donkey in which anthelmintic treatment was not regularly administered. Necropsy findings of the abdominal cavity revealed a complete cranial mesenteric arterial obstruction due to larvae of S. vulgaris, causing severe colic. To the authors? knowledge, a complete...

  8. Trichinella infections in arctic foxes from Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapel, C. M O; Henriksen, S. A.; Berg, T. B.

    1995-01-01

    Studies were carried out to determine the predilection sites of Trichinella nativa muscle larvae in arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) caught in Greenland. The highest number of larvae per gram of tissue was found in the muscles of the eyes and the legs. With regard to predilection sites no significant...... differences were demonstrated either between age groups or between foxes with high and low total parasite burdens. Predilection sites were comparable with those recorded earlier in experimentally infected caged foxes and in other carnivorous species. Hypotheses on predilection sites of Trichinella muscle...

  9. Coccidial and helminth infections in goats kept indoors in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Dercksen, D.P.

    1996-01-01

    An investigation was carried out on coccidial and helminth infections in goats kept indoors on five farms in the Netherlands. The goats were individually sampled. Coccidial oocysts were identified and nematode eggs counted. Larval cultures were made and infective larvae identified to the generic or

  10. Rearing Water Treatment Induces Microbial Selection Influencing the Microbiota and Pathogen Associated Transcripts of Cod (Gadus morhua Larvae

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    Ragnhild I. Vestrum

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that K-selection and microbial stability in the rearing water increases survival and growth of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua larvae, and that recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS are compatible with this. Here, we have assessed how water treatment influenced the larval microbiota and host responses at the gene expression level. Cod larvae were reared with two different rearing water systems: a RAS and a flow-through system (FTS. The water microbiota was examined using a 16S rDNA PCR/DGGE strategy. RNA extracted from larvae at 8, 13, and 17 days post hatching was used for microbiota and microarray gene expression analysis. Bacterial cDNA was synthesized and used for 16S rRNA amplicon 454 pyrosequencing of larval microbiota. Both water and larval microbiota differed significantly between the systems, and the larval microbiota appeared to become more dissimilar between systems with time. In total 4 phyla were identified for all larvae: Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria. The most profound difference in larval microbiota was a high abundance of Arcobacter (Epsilonproteobacteria in FTS larvae (34 ± 9% of total reads. Arcobacter includes several species that are known pathogens for humans and animals. Cod larval transcriptome responses were investigated using an oligonucleotide gene expression microarray covering approximately 24,000 genes. Interestingly, FTS larvae transcriptional profiles revealed an overrepresentation of upregulated transcripts associated with responses to pathogens and infections, such as c1ql3-like, pglyrp-2-like and zg16, compared to RAS larvae. In conclusion, distinct water treatment systems induced differences in the larval microbiota. FTS larvae showed up-regulation of transcripts associated with responses to microbial stress. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that RAS promotes K-selection and microbial stability by maintaining a microbial load close to the

  11. PERKEMBANGAN AWAL LARVA KERAPU KERTANG (Epinephelus lanceolatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Teguh Imanto

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Observasi pada larva kerapu kertang (E. lanceolatus dilaksanakan di Balai Besar Riset Perikanan Budidaya Laut (BBRPBL, Gondol-Bali, untuk mengumpulkan informasi dasar tentang perkembangan awal morfologi larva yang penting untuk menunjang keberhasilan pembenihannya. Larva berasal dari telur hasil pemijahan yang dirangsang dengan hormon (di Taiwan dan ditransportasikan segera setelah menetas (D-0 melalui transportasi udara ke laboratotium pembenihan BBRPBL, Gondol. Pengamatan dilakukan dengan memanfaatkan fasilitas tangki 500 L dengan sistem air resirkulasi. Dari data yang dihimpun diketahui bahwa rata-rata panjang total larva (D-1 2,48 mm; D-8 3,17 mm; dan tumbuh dengan cepat mencapai 10,79 mm pada D-19. Kuning telur larva yang berumur sehari (D-1 rata-rata bervolume 150,3 x 10-4 mm3 dan pada hari ketiga terserap 42,61% dan habis pada hari keempat (D-4. Butir minyak larva D-1 sebesar 41,9 x 10-4 mm3 dan masih tersisa sebesar 0,34 x 10-4 mm3 sampai dengan D-6. Mulut larva diperhitungkan sudah mencapai lebar sebesar 200 μm pada D-2. dan mampu untuk memangsa rotifer sejalan dengan pigmentasi mata yang mulai terjadi pada D-2 dan sempurna pada D-3. Dari analisis pertumbuhan terjadi titik belok (flexion point pada D-8 dan setelah itu terjadi kurva pertumbuhan yang cepat y= 0,6747x-2,5508. Berdasarkan hasil observasi tersebut maka pemberian pakan awal untuk larva kerapu kertang sudah bisa diberikan pada D-2 akhir (sore, pada D-8 komposisi pakan alami sudah harus diubah dengan memberikan pakan yang lebih besar dan bernutrisi tinggi. Observation on early development of E. lanceolatus larvae have been conducted in laboratory condition at Gondol Research Institute for Mariculture (GRIM Bali; the purpose was to gain basic data mainly on the larval development stage to support both larval rearing and aquaculture technique of this species. The larvae from egg were produced by induced spawning technique and transported on D-0 to GRIM. Observation have been

  12. Radiosensitivity of spores of Paenibacillus larvae ssp. larvae in honey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Wanderley Mendes de [Ministerio da Agricultura, Pecuaria e Abastecimento, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Inspecao de Produtos de Origem Animal]. E-mail: sipa-rj@agricultura.gov.br; Vital, Helio de Carvalho [Centro Tecnologico do Exercito CTEx, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Defesa Quimica, Biologica e Nuclear]. E-mail: vital@ctex.eb.br; Schuch, Dulce Maria Tocchetto [Ministerio da Agricultura, Pecuaria e Abastecimento, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)]. E-mail: micro-lara-rs@agricultura.gov.br

    2007-07-01

    Irradiation, usually used in combination with other conventional methods of conservation, has been proven to be an efficient tool to ensure the safety of many types of foods by destroying pathogenic microorganisms and extending their shelf-lives. This work has investigated the efficacy of gamma irradiation to inactivate spores of the bacterium Paenibacillus larvae that causes the 'American foulbrood', a highly contagious disease still exotic in Brazil that kills bees and contaminates honey, preventing its commercialization and causing great economical losses. In this study, 60 g samples of two types of honey inoculated with 3.5x10{sup 3} spores/mL of that bacterium were irradiated with doses of 0, 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5 and 15 kGy and counted. The analyses indicated a mean reduction of 97.5{+-}0.7% in the number of viable spores exposed to 5 kGy. The application of doses of 7.5 kGy or higher yielded no viable spores above the detection threshold (10/mL). In addition the value of D{sub 10} (3.1{+-}0.3 kGy) was estimated and the logarithm of the population of viable spores of Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae was determined as linear and quadratic polynomial functions of the radiation dose. The results indicated that the dose of 10 kGy could be insufficient to assure complete sterilization of honey in some cases while suggesting that 25 kGy would perform such task adequately. (author)

  13. Alimentação e comportamento de larvas de pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887 Feeding and behavior of pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887 larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Lopes Beerli

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se este trabalho com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da utilização de dietas naturais e artificiais sobre o desempenho e comportamento de larvas de pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus, entre o 2º e o 10º dia de vida. Foram utilizadas 30 caixas plásticas, cada uma com 30 litros de água e renovação contínua, onde as larvas foram mantidas durante o período experimental. Cada caixa recebeu 10 larvas por litro, totalizando 300 larvas/caixa. Foram testados 6 tratamentos, cada qual com 5 repetições. Os tratamentos foram: T1-ração, T2-plâncton, T3-artêmia, T4-plâncton + ração, T5-artêmia + ração e T6-artêmia + plâncton. As larvas foram alimentadas 6 vezes ao dia, nos horários de 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 e 24 horas. A temperatura da água foi mantida constante a 27ºC, o oxigênio dissolvido permaneceu na faixa de 6,16 ± 0,34 e o pH, entre 7,16 ± 0,22. Aos 2, 4, 6, 8 e 10 dias de vida, foram coletadas amostras de 30 larvas para determinação do comprimento total e peso. No final do experimento (10º dia, as larvas que receberam artêmia + plâncton (T6 alcançaram os maiores valores de comprimento total (8,35 mm e peso corporal (3518 µg, em relação a todas as outras dietas testadas. As larvas devem permanecer em laboratório por um período de 6 dias após a eclosão, recebendo alimento do terceiro ao sexto dia. A partir do sexto dia, as larvas estão com a vesícula gasosa completamente inflada e apresentam nado contínuo.The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of natural and artificial diets on the development and behavior of pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus larvae, between the 2nd and 10th day post hatch. The larvaes were kept in 30L - plastic boxes (n = 30 boxes, in constant flow-through. The larvae density was 10 post-larvae/L (300 larvae/box. Six diets with 4 sampling days (4, 6, 8 and 10 days post-hatch, n = 30 larvae using 5 repetitions were tested. The diets were: T1- commercial feed, T2- plancton, T3

  14. Effect of gamma radiation on the Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia Kuehniella, mature larvae and acceptability of irradiated larvae by Bracon hebetor females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, M.

    2011-06-01

    Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella, mature 5 t h instar larvae were exposed to gamma radiation dosages ranging from 50-350 Gy at 50 Gy increment and the effects of gamma radiation on pupation, adult emergence and sex ratio were investigated. In addition, effects of irradiation on the rate of development to pupae and adults and the acceptance of irradiated larvae by B. hebetor females were examined. Results showed that the radio-sensitivity of E. kuehniella larvae increased with increasing dose. Pupation was significantly affected at 100 Gy dose, and completely prevented at 350 Gy dose. Adult emergence was only slightly different from pupation; emergence was significantly affected at 100 Gy dose and completely prevented at 300 Gy dose. Irradiation also negatively affected the rate of development of larvae to pupae and adults. While more than 98% of control larvae pupated within 10 days of treatment, this ratio decreased to about 79% in larvae exposed to 50 Gy and less than 4% in larvae exposed to 100 Gy dose. The rate of development to the adult stage was also similarly affected. While 97% of control insects emerged as adults in the 1st 20 days of treatment, this ratio decreased to about 53, 2 and zero percent in larvae exposed to 50, 100 and 150 Gy dose respectively. In addition, irradiation significantly affected male: female ratio; sex ratio was skewed in favor of males, and at 250 Gy dose all emerged moths were males. Furthermore, irradiation had no adverse effect on the degree of acceptance of mature larvae to parasitization; irradiated insects were as acceptable to B. hebetor females as unirradiated ones. (author)

  15. Effect of gamma radiation on the Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia Kuehniella, mature larvae and acceptability of irradiated larvae by Bracon hebetor female

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, M.

    2012-01-01

    Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella, mature 5 t h instar larvae were exposed to gamma radiation dosages ranging from 50-350 Gy at 50 Gy increment and the effects of gamma radiation on pupation, adult emergence and sex ratio were investigated. In addition, effects of irradiation on the rate of development to pupae and adults and the acceptance of irradiated larvae by B. hebetor females were examined. Results showed that the radio-sensitivity of E. kuehniella larvae increased with increasing dose. Pupation was significantly affected at 100 Gy dose, and completely prevented at 350 Gy dose. Adult emergence was only slightly different from pupation; emergence was significantly affected at 100 Gy dose and completely prevented at 300 Gy dose. Irradiation also negatively affected the rate of development of larvae to pupae and adults. While more than 98% of control larvae pupated within 10 days of treatment, this ratio decreased to about 79% in larvae exposed to 50 Gy and less than 4% in larvae exposed to 100 Gy dose. The rate of development to the adult stage was also similarly affected. While 97% of control insects emerged as adults in the 1st 20 days of treatment, this ratio decreased to about 53, 2 and zero percent in larvae exposed to 50, 100 and 150 Gy dose respectively. In addition, irradiation significantly affected male: female ratio; sex ratio was skewed in favor of males, and at 250 Gy dose all emerged moths were males. Furthermore, irradiation had no adverse effect on the degree of acceptance of mature larvae to parasitization; irradiated insects were as acceptable to B. hebetor females as unirradiated ones. (author)

  16. Rachiplusia nu larva as a biofactory to achieve high level expression of horseradish peroxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Lucía Virginia; Targovnik, Alexandra Marisa; Wolman, Federico Javier; Cascone, Osvaldo; Miranda, María Victoria

    2011-05-01

    A process based on orally-infected Rachiplusia nu larvae as biological factories for expression and one-step purification of horseradish peroxidase isozyme C (HRP-C) is described. The process allows obtaining high levels of pure HRP-C by membrane chromatography purification. The introduction of the partial polyhedrin homology sequence element in the target gene increased HRP-C expression level by 2.8-fold whereas it increased 1.8-fold when the larvae were reared at 27 °C instead of at 24 °C, summing up a 4.6-fold overall increase in the expression level. Additionally, HRP-C purification by membrane chromatography at a high flow rate greatly increase D the productivity without affecting the resolution. The V(max) and K(m) values of the recombinant HRP-C were similar to those of the HRP from Armoracia rusticana roots. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

  17. Haematological and biochemical values in horses naturally infected with Strongylus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, M; Kent, J; Martin, S C; Lloyd, S; Soulsby, E J

    1984-08-18

    The concentrations of serum proteins (beta 1, beta 2, gamma, alpha 1, alpha 2 globulins and albumin) and absolute numbers of eosinophils, neutrophils and lymphocytes were examined in 64 naturally infected horses and ponies in which the number of larvae of Strongylus vulgaris in the cranial mesenteric artery and the severity of the lesion of verminous arteritis could be determined. The horses were grouped according to the number of larvae found and the severity of the arteritis. The results demonstrated that, although some significant deviation from a random distribution occurred in certain of the values (chi 2 test), there was considerable individual variation in the values obtained for individual animals within groups and overlap of the range of values between groups. Also the number of larvae present in the artery did not necessarily accurately reflect the severity of the arterial lesion. Thus, the parameters examined could not be used reliably to estimate the intensity of infection with S vulgaris in an individual animal.

  18. Transcriptome analysis of Gossypium hirsutum flower buds infested by cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artico, Sinara; Ribeiro-Alves, Marcelo; Oliveira-Neto, Osmundo Brilhante; de Macedo, Leonardo Lima Pepino; Silveira, Sylvia; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fátima; Martinelli, Adriana Pinheiro; Alves-Ferreira, Marcio

    2014-10-04

    Cotton is a major fibre crop grown worldwide that suffers extensive damage from chewing insects, including the cotton boll weevil larvae (Anthonomus grandis). Transcriptome analysis was performed to understand the molecular interactions between Gossypium hirsutum L. and cotton boll weevil larvae. The Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform was used to sequence the transcriptome of cotton flower buds infested with boll weevil larvae. The analysis generated a total of 327,489,418 sequence reads that were aligned to the G. hirsutum reference transcriptome. The total number of expressed genes was over 21,697 per sample with an average length of 1,063 bp. The DEGseq analysis identified 443 differentially expressed genes (DEG) in cotton flower buds infected with boll weevil larvae. Among them, 402 (90.7%) were up-regulated, 41 (9.3%) were down-regulated and 432 (97.5%) were identified as orthologues of A. thaliana genes using Blastx. Mapman analysis of DEG indicated that many genes were involved in the biotic stress response spanning a range of functions, from a gene encoding a receptor-like kinase to genes involved in triggering defensive responses such as MAPK, transcription factors (WRKY and ERF) and signalling by ethylene (ET) and jasmonic acid (JA) hormones. Furthermore, the spatial expression pattern of 32 of the genes responsive to boll weevil larvae feeding was determined by "in situ" qPCR analysis from RNA isolated from two flower structures, the stamen and the carpel, by laser microdissection (LMD). A large number of cotton transcripts were significantly altered upon infestation by larvae. Among the changes in gene expression, we highlighted the transcription of receptors/sensors that recognise chitin or insect oral secretions; the altered regulation of transcripts encoding enzymes related to kinase cascades, transcription factors, Ca2+ influxes, and reactive oxygen species; and the modulation of transcripts encoding enzymes from phytohormone signalling pathways. These

  19. EFEITOS DOS EXTRATOS AQUOSO E METANÓLICO DE ALGAROBA SOBRE CULTURAS DE LARVAS DE NEMATÓDEOS GASTRINTESTINAIS DE CAPRINOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA JOSÉ MOREIRA BATATINHA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the in vitro effects of the aqueous and methanol extracts of the leaves and fruits of Prosopis juliflora (Sw D.C., respectively, on larvae cultures of gastrointestinal nematodes of goats. Six different concentrations of the methanol extract (724.5; 557.3; 428.7; 329.8; 253.7; 195.1mg/mL and one of the aqueous extracts (110.0mg/mL were used for thetreatment of larvae cultures, in triple assays. Destilled water and doramectin were used to treat cultures considered to be negative and positive control, respectively. The results revealed a reduction of more than 90% of the infective larvae between the concentrations of724.5 up to 253.7 mg/mL for the methanol extract and a low percentage of reduction (59.87% for the aqueous extract. Only the methanol extract of Prosopis juliflora (Sw D.C. was effective in the in vitro treatment of gastrointestinal nematodes of goat.

  20. Seasonal and diurnal biting activities and zoonotic filarial infections of two Simulium species (Diptera: Simuliidae in northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishii Y.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal and daily biting activity patterns, and natural filarial infections of adult black flies attracted to human bait were investigated at Ban Pang Faen, a rural area in Chiang Mai Province in northern Thailand. Collections were carried out twice a month from 06-00 to 18-00 hours from January 2005 to February 2006. Among ten Simulium species collected, S. nodosum and S. asakoae were predominant occupying 57.3% and 37.2% of the total 16, 553 females, respectively. These two predominant species showed different patterns in seasonal abundance: majority of S. nodosum (86.7% were collected in hot season (from mid February to mid May, while most of S. asakoae (74.5% were collected in rainy season (from mid May to mid October. For the daily biting activity, S. nodosum had two patterns: the main one was unimodal with a peak from 17-00 to 18-00, and the other was bimodal and had the major peak from 16-00 to 18-00 and the minor one from 07-00 to 09-00. The pattern of S. asakoae was mostly unimodal with a peak from 06-00 to 10-00. The filarial larvae found in S. nodosum and S. asakoae were morphologically different from each other. The short and thick infective larvae found in S. asakoae differed from all known filarial larvae; it is suggested that they might be a bird parasite, Splendidofilariinae or Lemdaninae. The infection of the mammophilic S. nodosum with large Onchocerca type infective larvae was confirmed in this area. Natural filarial infections were found in each month (except December in either S. nodosum or S. asakoae or in both. Monthly infection rates with all stages of larvae were 0.6-5.0% for S. nodosum, and 1.0-4.0% for S. asakoae. It is suggested that people in this village are exposed to the risk of infection with zoonotic filariae throughout the year.

  1. Self-heating by large insect larvae?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Nikita L; Emlen, Douglas J; Woods, H Arthur

    2016-12-01

    Do insect larvae ever self-heat significantly from their own metabolic activity and, if so, under what sets of environmental temperatures and across what ranges of body size? We examine these questions using larvae of the Japanese rhinoceros beetle (Trypoxylus dichotomus), chosen for their large size (>20g), simple body plan, and underground lifestyle. Using CO 2 respirometry, we measured larval metabolic rates then converted measured rates of gas exchange into rates of heat production and developed a mathematical model to predict how much steady state body temperatures of underground insects would increase above ambient depending on body size. Collectively, our results suggest that large, extant larvae (20-30g body mass) can self-heat by at most 2°C, and under many common conditions (shallow depths, moister soils) would self-heat by less than 1°C. By extending the model to even larger (hypothetical) body sizes, we show that underground insects with masses >1kg could heat, in warm, dry soils, by 1.5-6°C or more. Additional experiments showed that larval critical thermal maxima (CT max ) were in excess of 43.5°C and that larvae could behaviorally thermoregulate on a thermal gradient bar. Together, these results suggest that large larvae living underground likely regulate their temperatures primarily using behavior; self-heating by metabolism likely contributes little to their heat budgets, at least in most common soil conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Efecto de la temperatura sobre la viabilidad de larvas de Trichinella spiralis Effect of temperature on the viability of Trichinella spiralis larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana R Randazzo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el efecto de diferentes temperaturas sobre la viabilidad de larvas libres y enquistadas de Trichinella spiralis aisladas en el sudoeste de la provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Se trataron larvas libres y enquistadas a diferentes temperaturas (-30 °C, -20 °C, 4 °C, 20 °C, calentamiento gradual entre 0-100 °C. Se determinó el tiempo necesario para matar el 100 % de las larvas. Durante los primeros días, la mortalidad larvaria en todos los tratamientos con frío aumentó signifcativamente en función del tiempo. En todos los casos, las larvas libres sobrevivieron menor cantidad de días que las enquistadas. A -30 °C, -20 °C y 20 °C no se observaron diferencias signifcativas entre las curvas de mortalidad de cada estadio larvario, pero a 4 °C la mortalidad fue menos intensa entre las larvas enquistadas. El calentamiento disminuyó la viabilidad, sin observarse diferencias entre estadios larvarios. La totalidad de las larvas libres y enquistadas había muerto a los 61 y 95 días (-30 °C, a los 160 y 180 días (-20 °C, a los 280 y 330 días (4° C, y a los 460 y 590 días (20 °C, respectivamente. Fue necesaria una cocción durante 15 minutos a 90 °C para matar al 100 % de las larvas libres y a 100 °C para lograr igual mortalidad de las enquistadas. Nuestros resultados indican que la temperatura y los tiempos tradicionalmente utilizados para tratar productos cárnicos con potencial de transmisión de T. spiralis no serían los más efectivos para lograr la inactivación de la totalidad de larvas vivas de este parásito.The aim of this work was to study the effect of temperature on the viability of free and encysted larvae of Trichinella spiralis from southwest Buenos Aires province, Argentina. Larvae were treated at variable temperatures (-30 °C, -20 °C, 4 °C, 20 °C, gradual heating between 0-100 °C. The time necessary to kill 100 % of larvae was calculated. During the frst days of

  3. Single multivalent vaccination boosted by trickle larval infection confers protection against experimental lymphatic filariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, S K; Ramaswamy, K

    2013-07-18

    The multivalent vaccine BmHAT, consisting of the Brugia malayi infective larval (L3) antigens heat shock protein12.6 (HSP12.6), abundant larval transcript-2 (ALT-2) and tetraspanin large extra cellular loop (TSP-LEL), was shown to be protective in rodent models from our laboratory. We hypothesize that since these antigens were identified using protective antibodies from immune endemic normal individuals, the multivalent vaccine can be augmented by natural L3 infections providing protection to the vaccinated host. This hypothesis was tested using single dose of DNA and protein or protein alone of the BmHAT vaccination in gerbils followed by live trickle L3 infection as booster dose. Vaccine-induced protection in gerbils was determined by worm establishment, micropore chamber assay and by antibody dependant cell cytotoxicity (ADCC) assay. Results were compared with the traditional prime-boost vaccination regimen. Gerbils vaccinated with BmHAT and boosted with L3 trickle infection were protected 51% (BmHAT DNA-protein) and 48% (BmHAT protein) respectively. BmHAT vaccination plus L3 trickle booster generated significant titer of antigen-specific IgG antibodies comparable to the traditional prime boost vaccination approach. BmHAT vaccination plus L3 trickle booster also generated antigen-specific cells in the spleen of vaccinated animals and these cells secreted predominantly IFN-γ and IL-4 in response to the vaccine antigens. These studies thus show that single dose of BmHAT multivalent vaccination followed by L3 trickle booster infection can confer significant protection against lymphatic filariasis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Single multivalent vaccination boosted by trickle larval infection confers protection against experimental lymphatic filariasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, SK; Ramaswamy, K

    2013-01-01

    The multivalent vaccine BmHAT, consisting of the Brugia malayi infective larval (L3) antigens heat shock protein12.6 (HSP12.6), abundant larval transcript-2 (ALT-2) and tetraspanin large extra cellular loop (TSP-LEL), was shown to be protective in rodent models from our laboratory. We hypothesize that since these antigens were identified using protective antibodies from immune endemic normal individuals, the multivalent vaccine can be augmented by natural L3 infections providing protection to the vaccinated host. This hypothesis was tested using single dose of DNA and Protein or Protein alone of the BmHAT vaccination in gerbils followed by live trickle L3 infection as booster dose. Vaccine-induced protection in gerbils was determined by worm establishment, micropore chamber assay and by antibody dependant cell cytotoxicity (ADCC) assay. Results were compared with the traditional prime-boost vaccination regimen. Gerbils vaccinated with BmHAT and boosted with L3 trickle infection were protected 51% (BmHAT DNA-Protein) and 48% (BmHAT Protein) respectively. BmHAT vaccination plus L3 trickle booster generated significant titer of antigen-specific IgG antibodies comparable to the traditional prime boost vaccination approach. BmHAT vaccination plus L3 trickle booster also generated antigen-specific cells in the spleen of vaccinated animals and these cells secreted predominantly IFN-γ and IL-4 in response to the vaccine antigens. These studies thus show that single dose of BmHAT multivalent vaccination followed by L3 trickle booster infection can confer significant protection against lymphatic filariasis. PMID:23735679

  5. SELEKSI BAKTERI PROBIOTIK UNTUK BIOKONTROL VIBRIOSIS PADA LARVA UDANG WINDU, Penaeus monodon MENGGUNAKAN CARA KULTUR BERSAMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widanarni Widanarni

    2009-04-01

    in Lampung. After in vitro selection of the total isolates using co-culture method, three most potential probiotic bacteria candidates in inhibiting or suppressing growth of V. harveyi MR 5399 RfR bacteria were chosen. The three isolates were then used in pathogenicity and challenge test in tiger shrimp larva. Results of pathogenicity test at the concentration of 106 CFU/mL bacteria showed that the three isolates were not pathogen to tiger shrimp larvae. Challenge test results in shrimp larvae also showed that the three isolates could increase survival rates of tiger shrimp larva. Larva survival rate value of treatment using V. harveyi MR5399 RfR with 1Ub, P20Bf, dan 10a probiotic were 90.0%, 86.7% dan 78.3%, respectively; whereas infection treatment merely using V. harveyi MR5399 RfR without probiotic only gave 73.3% survival rate. V. harveyi population in treatment with addition of probiotic bacteria were lower than that of without probiotic. This suggested the existence of possible competition between V. harveyi and 1Ub bacteria.

  6. Bacteria Present in Comadia redtenbacheri Larvae (Lepidoptera: Cossidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Flores, L; Llanderal-Cázares, C; Guzmán-Franco, A W; Aranda-Ocampo, S

    2015-09-01

    The external and internal culturable bacterial community present in the larvae of Comadia redtenbacheri Hammerschmidt, an edible insect, was studied. Characterization of the isolates determined the existence of 18 morphotypes and phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene revealed the existence of Paenibacillus sp., Bacillus safensis, Pseudomonas sp., Bacillus pseudomycoides, Corynebacterium variabile, Enterococcus sp., Gordonia sp., Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Arthrobacter sp., Micrococcus sp., and Bacillus cereus. Greater diversity of bacteria was found in those larvae obtained from vendors than in those directly taken from Agave plants in nature. Many of the larvae obtained from vendors presented signs of potential disease, and after the analysis, results showed a greater bacterial community compared with the larvae with a healthy appearance. This indicates that bacterial flora can vary in accordance with how the larvae are handled during extraction, collection, and transport. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Immune responses of B. malayi thioredoxin (TRX) and venom allergen homologue (VAH) chimeric multiple antigen for lymphatic filariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anugraha, Gandhirajan; Jeyaprita, Parasurama Jawaharlal; Madhumathi, Jayaprakasam; Sheeba, Tamilvanan; Kaliraj, Perumal

    2013-12-01

    Although multiple vaccine strategy for lymphatic filariasis has provided tremendous hope, the choice of antigens used in combination has determined its success in the previous studies. Multiple antigens comprising key vaccine candidates from different life cycle stages would provide a promising strategy if the antigenic combination is chosen by careful screening. In order to analyze one such combination, we have used a chimeric construct carrying the well studied B. malayi antigens thioredoxin (BmTRX) and venom allergen homologue (BmVAH) as a fusion protein (TV) and evaluated its immune responses in mice model. The efficacy of fusion protein vaccine was explored in comparison with the single antigen vaccines and their cocktail. In mice, TV induced significantly high antibody titer of 1,28,000 compared to cocktail vaccine TRX+VAH (50,000) and single antigen vaccine TRX (16,000) or VAH (50,000). Furthermore, TV elicited higher level of cellular proliferative response together with elevated levels of IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-5 indicating a Th1/Th2 balanced response. The isotype antibody profile showed significantly high level of IgG1 and IgG2b confirming the balanced response elicited by TV. Immunization with TV antigen induced high levels of both humoral and cellular immune responses compared to either cocktail or antigen given alone. The result suggests that TV is highly immunogenic in mice and hence the combination needs to be evaluated for its prophylactic potential.

  8. Antibacterial properties of grapefruit seed extract against Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semprini, P; Langella, V; Pasini, B; Falda, M T; Calvarese, S

    2004-01-01

    Twenty-one samples of grapefruit seed extract (GSE) either from marketed products or provided by an apiculturist were analysed to verify their inhibition activity, in particular against Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae, responsible for American foulbrood. The bactericide capacity of GSE has been measured in Bacillus subtilis BGA, Bacillus cereus 11778, Bacillus cereus K250 and Micrococcus luteus 9341a; these bacteria are normally used in the laboratory to study inhibitors. The results showed that not all GSE have the same inhibitory activity and two of those analysed do not inhibit the five bacteria used. Considering that 19 samples inhibited American foulbrood bacillus, the authors conclude that the use of a natural product (such as GSE) to control this important disease of bees, can be used as a substitute for chemotherapeutic products, after appropriate expedients.

  9. First record of molluscs naturally infected with Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Chen, 1935 (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Lima Caldeira

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Seeking the identification of Angiostrongylus cantonensis as a potential etiological agent of three clinical cases of eosinophilic meningitis, mollusc specimens were collected in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. The snails were identified as Sarasinula marginata (45 specimens, Subulina octona (157, Achatina fulica (45 and Bradybaena similaris (23. Larvae obtained were submitted to polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism diagnosis. Their genetic profile were corresponded to A. cantonensis. Rattus norvegicus experimentally infected with third-stage larvae, developed menigoencephalitis, and parasites became sexually mature in the lungs. Additionally, larvae obtained from A. fulica snails, from São Vicente, state of São Paulo, also showed genetic profiles of this nematode. This is the first record of Brazilian molluscs infected with this nematode species.

  10. Feeding frequency and caste differentiation in Bombus terrestris larvae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribeiro, M.F.; Velthuis, H.H.W.; Duchateau, Marie José; Tweel, I. van der

    1998-01-01

    The frequency with which bumble bee larvae are fed during their development was studied using video-recordings. The behaviour of the workers while feeding worker, male and queen larvae of Bombus terrestris was recorded. At the beginning of development, female larvae of both castes were fed at a

  11. Fish larvae from the Canary region in autumn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Rodríguez

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the taxonomic composition of the fish larvae community in the Canary region in autumn 1991 is presented. In total, 8699 larvae belonging to 58 fish families were studied. 176 taxonomic groups were identified, 149 at species level and the rest were identified at a higher level. The most numerous family and the one that presented the greatest number of species was Myctophidae. The most frequently caught species was Cyclothone braueri. The taxonomic composition (at family level of the fish larvae community, dominated by four mesopelagic families, was typical of oceanic regions of warm waters. The most remarkable feature of the fish larvae community was its high specific diversity.

  12. Analysis of feeding behavior of Drosophila larvae on liquid food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ping

    2012-05-01

    The food responses of Drosophila larvae offer an excellent opportunity to study the genetic and neural regulation of feeding behavior. Compared with fed larvae, hungry larvae are more likely to display aggressive foraging, rapid food intake, compensatory feeding, and stress-resistant food procurement. Behavioral assays have been developed to quantitatively assess particular aspects of the hunger-driven food response. In combination, these assays help define the specific role of signaling molecules or neurons in the regulation of feeding behavior in foraging larvae. This protocol describes the analysis of larvae feeding on liquid food. The test is designed for quantitative assessment of the food ingestion rate of individual larvae under different energy states. It provides a simple and reliable way to measure the graded modification of the baseline feeding rate of larvae as food deprivation is prolonged. The test is applicable to routine functional testing and larger-scale screening of genetic mutations and biologics that might affect food consumption.

  13. Angiostrongilose abdominal: profilaxia pela destruição das larvas infectantes em alimentos tratados com sal, vinagre ou hipoclorito de sódio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziela Maria Zaniní

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available A infecção acidental humana pelo Angiostrongylus costaricensis ocorre com elevada prevalência em certas áreas do Brasil meridional, eventualmente se manifestando como doença abdominal severa. Profilaxia é importante, pois não hã tratamento medicamentoso. Um dos modos de transmissão é a ingestão de frutas e vegetais contaminados com a mucosidade de moluscos infectados, os hospedeiros intermediários deste parasita. Larvas de terceiro estágio obtidas do ciclo mantido em laboratório foram incubadas a 5°C por 12 horas, em vinagre, solução saturada de cloreto de sódio e hipocloríto de sódio a 1,5%. A viabilidade das lamas tratadas foi testada através da inoculação em camundongos albinos. Os percentuais de larvas que estabeleceram infecção foram: 0% com hipocloríto de sódio, 1,8% com salmora e 2,4% com vinagre. Em conclusão, todas as substâncias - de baixo custo e disponíveis nas áreas endêmicas - reduziram à população de lamas viáveis e podem ser úteis na descontaminação de alimentos para profilaxia da angiostrongilose abdominal.There is a high prevalence of accidental human infection with Angiostrongylus costaricensis in some areas in southern Brazil and sometimes it presents as severe intestinal disease. Prophylaxis is important since there is no medical treatment for the disease. The ingestion of fruits and vegetables contaminated with the mucous secretion of infected molluscs (the intermediate hosts is one of the proposed modes of transmission. Third stage lamae were incubated at 5°C for 12 hours, in solutions of saturated sodium chloride, vinegar and sodium hypochlorite 1.5%. The larvae had their viability tested through inoculation into albino mice. The percentage of larvae that established infection were 0% in the group treated with sodium hypochloride, 1.8% with NaCl and 2.4% with vinegar. In conclusion, all substances tested reduced the population of viable larvae and may be useful in food

  14. Preliminary study on the inactivation of anisakid larvae in baccalà prepared according to traditional methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Smaldone

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The European Food Safety Authority stated that many traditional marinating and cold smoking methods are not sufficient to kill A. simplex and asked to evaluate alternative treatments for killing viable parasites in fishery. Baccalà is a well-liked traditional product. The aim of study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the salting process on the inactivation of nematodes of the genus Anisakis in naturally infected Baccalà fillets. N. 19 fillets, subjected to a dual salting process (brine and dry salting were analyzed. Visual inspection and chloropeptic digestion were performed. Larvae viability was evaluated, and parameters such as NaCl (%, moisture (%, WPS and aw were determined. In n. 17 samples parasites were found 123 parasites with a mean intensity of 7.23±4.78 and an mean abundance of 6.47±5.05. Visual examination has revealed 109 parasites. 61.8% of larvae were found in the ventral portions. The results show that salting process with a salt concentration of 18.6%, aw values of 0.7514 and 24.15% WPS in all parts of baccalà fillets, devitalise Anisakidae larvae in a 15-day period.

  15. Preliminary study on the inactivation of anisakid larvae in baccalà prepared according to traditional methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaldone, Giorgio; Marrone, Raffaele; Palma, Giuseppe; Sarnelli, Paolo; Anastasio, Aniello

    2017-10-20

    The European Food Safety Authority stated that many traditional marinating and cold smoking methods are not sufficient to kill A. simplex and asked to evaluate alternative treatments for killing viable parasites in fishery . Baccalà is a well-liked traditional product. The aim of study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the salting process on the inactivation of nematodes of the genus Anisakis in naturally infected Baccalà fillets. N. 19 fillets, subjected to a dual salting process (brine and dry salting) were analyzed. Visual inspection and chloropeptic digestion were performed. Larvae viability was evaluated, and parameters such as NaCl (%), moisture (%), WPS and a w were determined. In n. 17 samples parasites were found 123 parasites with a mean intensity of 7.23±4.78 and an mean abundance of 6.47±5.05. Visual examination has revealed 109 parasites. 61.8% of larvae were found in the ventral portions. The results show that salting process with a salt concentration of 18.6%, a w values of 0.7514 and 24.15% WPS in all parts of baccalà fillets, devitalise Anisakidae larvae in a 15-day period.

  16. Abscisic acid enhances cold tolerance in honeybee larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Leonor; Negri, Pedro; Sturla, Laura; Guida, Lucrezia; Vigliarolo, Tiziana; Maggi, Matías; Eguaras, Martín; Zocchi, Elena; Lamattina, Lorenzo

    2017-04-12

    The natural composition of nutrients present in food is a key factor determining the immune function and stress responses in the honeybee ( Apis mellifera ). We previously demonstrated that a supplement of abscisic acid (ABA), a natural component of nectar, pollen, and honey, increases honeybee colony survival overwinter. Here we further explored the role of ABA in in vitro -reared larvae exposed to low temperatures. Four-day-old larvae (L4) exposed to 25°C for 3 days showed lower survival rates and delayed development compared to individuals growing at a standard temperature (34°C). Cold-stressed larvae maintained higher levels of ABA for longer than do larvae reared at 34°C, suggesting a biological significance for ABA. Larvae fed with an ABA-supplemented diet completely prevent the low survival rate due to cold stress and accelerate adult emergence. ABA modulates the expression of genes involved in metabolic adjustments and stress responses: Hexamerin 70b, Insulin Receptor Substrate, Vitellogenin , and Heat Shock Proteins 70. AmLANCL2, the honeybee ABA receptor, is also regulated by cold stress and ABA. These results support a role for ABA increasing the tolerance of honeybee larvae to low temperatures through priming effects. © 2017 The Author(s).

  17. Abscisic acid enhances cold tolerance in honeybee larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturla, Laura; Guida, Lucrezia; Vigliarolo, Tiziana; Maggi, Matías; Eguaras, Martín; Zocchi, Elena; Lamattina, Lorenzo

    2017-01-01

    The natural composition of nutrients present in food is a key factor determining the immune function and stress responses in the honeybee (Apis mellifera). We previously demonstrated that a supplement of abscisic acid (ABA), a natural component of nectar, pollen, and honey, increases honeybee colony survival overwinter. Here we further explored the role of ABA in in vitro-reared larvae exposed to low temperatures. Four-day-old larvae (L4) exposed to 25°C for 3 days showed lower survival rates and delayed development compared to individuals growing at a standard temperature (34°C). Cold-stressed larvae maintained higher levels of ABA for longer than do larvae reared at 34°C, suggesting a biological significance for ABA. Larvae fed with an ABA-supplemented diet completely prevent the low survival rate due to cold stress and accelerate adult emergence. ABA modulates the expression of genes involved in metabolic adjustments and stress responses: Hexamerin 70b, Insulin Receptor Substrate, Vitellogenin, and Heat Shock Proteins 70. AmLANCL2, the honeybee ABA receptor, is also regulated by cold stress and ABA. These results support a role for ABA increasing the tolerance of honeybee larvae to low temperatures through priming effects. PMID:28381619

  18. Population dynamics of Toxocara canis in pigs receiving a single or multiple infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taira, K.; Saeed, I.; Lind, Peter

    2003-01-01

    of the experiment (day 49 p.i.). A few larvae were found in the muscles and brain until day 42 p.i., and 2 larvae were found in the eyes of 2 pigs on day 35 p.i. There was little evidence of protective immurory to a challenge infection in this experiment. The eosinophil levels tended not to increase in pigs...

  19. Effects of estradiol on worm burden and peripheral leukocytes in Parastrongylus malaysiensis-infected rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamis, A B; Ahmad, R A; Badrul-Munir, M Z

    1994-01-01

    Gonadectomized male laboratory rats were given 0.06 mg/kg estradiol benzoate daily for 14 days before being inoculated with 50 third-stage larvae of Parastrongylus malaysiensis. Hormone treatment was continued until the rats were killed. The numbers of larvae in the brain and of adult worms in the pulmonary area of the rats were determined every 7 days after the inoculation. It was found that the rats treated daily with estradiol benzoate had significantly and consistently higher numbers of larvae and adult worms as compared with the controls. The number of total leukocytes increased significantly after the rats were infected. The results show that estradiol-treated rats become susceptible to P. malaysiensis infection, which may indicate that the immunosuppressive effects of testosterone observed in earlier studies may partly be caused by estradiol that was peripherally aromatized from testosterone.

  20. Workbook on Identification of Aedes Aegypti Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Harry D.; And Others

    This self-instructional booklet is designed to enable yellow fever control workers to identify the larvae of "Aedes aegypti." The morphological features of mosquito larvae are illustrated in this partially programed text, and the distinguishing features of "A. aegypti" indicated. A glossary is included. (AL)

  1. Distinct innate immune phagocyte responses to Aspergillus fumigatus conidia and hyphae in zebrafish larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Benjamin P; Deng, Qing; Rood, Mary; Eickhoff, Jens C; Keller, Nancy P; Huttenlocher, Anna

    2014-10-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is the most common filamentous fungal pathogen of immunocompromised hosts, resulting in invasive aspergillosis (IA) and high mortality rates. Innate immunity is known to be the predominant host defense against A. fumigatus; however, innate phagocyte responses to A. fumigatus in an intact host and their contributions to host survival remain unclear. Here, we describe a larval zebrafish A. fumigatus infection model amenable to real-time imaging of host-fungal interactions in live animals. Following infection with A. fumigatus, innate phagocyte populations exhibit clear preferences for different fungal morphologies: macrophages rapidly phagocytose conidia and form aggregates around hyphae, while the neutrophil response is dependent upon the presence of hyphae. Depletion of macrophages rendered host larvae susceptible to invasive disease. Moreover, a zebrafish model of human leukocyte adhesion deficiency with impaired neutrophil function also resulted in invasive disease and impaired host survival. In contrast, macrophage-deficient but not neutrophil-deficient larvae exhibited attenuated disease following challenge with a less virulent (ΔlaeA) strain of A. fumigatus, which has defects in secondary metabolite production. Taking these results together, we have established a new vertebrate model for studying innate immune responses to A. fumigatus that reveals distinct roles for neutrophils and macrophages in mediating host defense against IA. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Larvas migrans ganglionar: Presentación de un caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Carmen Luis Álvarez

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Las larvas migrans visceral cuya causa radica en la infestación con larvas de toxocara canis o cati, ocurre más frecuentemente en niños menores de 10 años. Se presenta el caso de un niño de 8 años de edad en el cual se diagnosticó larvas migrans ganglionar. Se comentan aspectos etioepidemiológicos de la enfermedad, su cuadro clínico y evolución. Se hace énfasis en las medidas higiénicas sanitarias de control y manipulación de excretas de animales domésticos, en este caso de perros y gatos.Visceral larvae migrans caused by the infestation with larvae of toxocara canis or cati are more frequent among children under 10. The case of an 8-year-old boy who was diagnosed ganglionar larva migrans is presented. Comments are made on some etioepidemiological aspects of the disease, as well as on his clinical picture and evolution. Emphasis is made on the hygienic and sanitary measures of control and manipulation of stools from pegs as dogs and cats. Las larvas migrans visceral cuya causa radica en la infestación con larvas de toxocara canis o cati, ocurre más frecuentemente en niños menores de 10 años. Se presenta el caso de un niño de 8 años de edad en el cual se diagnosticó larvas migrans ganglionar. Se comentan aspectos etioepidemiológicos de la enfermedad, su cuadro clínico y evolución. se hace énfasis en las medidas higiénicas sanitarias de control y manipulación de excretas de animales domésticos, en este caso de perros y gatos.

  3. Effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus on the response of Galleria mellonella against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorjão, Adeline Lacerda; de Oliveira, Felipe Eduardo; Leão, Mariella Vieira Pereira; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso; de Oliveira, Luciane Dias

    2018-04-01

    This study evaluated the prophylactic effects of the live or heat-killed probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469 in Galleria mellonella, inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus or Escherichia coli. L. rhamnosus suspension was prepared and a part of it was autoclaved to obtain heat-killed lactobacilli. The larvae were inoculated of these suspensions and pathogenic. The survival of the larvae was observed during 7 days and after 24 h of inoculation haemocytes counted, melanization and nitric oxide production were analyzed. Larvae survival rate increased in the group inoculated with heat-killed L. rhamnosus, however, with no statistical difference. There was a significant increase in total haemocyte counts in all test groups. Haemolymph melanization and nitric oxide production were higher in the group inoculated with L. rhamnosus and infected with S. aureus. It was concluded that, in this model of infection, heat-killed L. rhamnosus ATCC 7469 promoted greater protection in Galleria mellonella infected with S. aureus or E. coli.

  4. Fish larvae at fronts: Horizontal and vertical distributions of gadoid fish larvae across a frontal zone at the Norwegian Trench

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The reproduction and early life history of many fish species are linked to the physical and biological characteristics of fronts. In order to ascertain linkages between frontal physics and fish larvae, we investigated distributional differences among gadoid fish larvae comparing these to both...... the vertical and horizontal distributions of each species. However, the three-dimensional pattern of distribution differed significantly among species of larvae and species of copepods. The study underlines the complexity of bio-physical interrelationships in the frontal zone, and indicates that the zone...

  5. Effects of the Liquids Used to Kill Larvae on the Length of Forensically Important Blow Fly Lucilia sericata Meigen (Diptera: Calliphoridae Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halide Nihal Açıkgöz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Forensic entomological practices rely upon accurate larval identification and measurement of larval length, for the estimation of post-mortem intervals. The methods used for killing larvae may affect the length of larvae. In the autopsy hall, corpses which are contain entomological remains have been washed with grape vinegar. Besides, while collecting and killing the larvae on corpses, crime scene teams use alcohol 70% because it is practical. The aim of this study was to determine which of hot water (90°C, cold vinegar and cold alcohol 96 % method, preserved the best the length of larvae. To achieve this aim, third instar larvae which are reared on 200 g of veal meat were killed using hot water, cold vinegar and cold alcohol. Before killing and after killing the maggots, their length was measured. To determine the difference between the groups to be compared ANOVA test, to reliability and validity analyses Kruskal-Wallis and whether there was any difference between the groups were made with Tukey’s Honestly Significant Difference (Tukey’s HSD Hot water was found to preserve the length of the larvae more accurately than cold vinegar and alcohol.

  6. Larvicidal Activity of Nerium oleander against Larvae West Nile Vector Mosquito Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouad El-Akhal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Outbreaks of the West Nile virus infection were reported in Morocco in 1996, 2003, and 2010. Culex pipiens was strongly suspected as the vector responsible for transmission. In the North center of Morocco, this species has developed resistance to synthetic insecticides. There is an urgent need to find alternatives to the insecticides as natural biocides. Objective. In this work, the insecticidal activity of the extract of the local plant Nerium oleander, which has never been tested before in the North center of Morocco, was studied on larval stages 3 and 4 of Culex pipiens. Methods. Biological tests were realized according to a methodology inspired from standard World Health Organization protocol. The mortality values were determined after 24 h of exposure and LC50 and LC90 values were calculated. Results. The extract had toxic effects on the larvae of culicid mosquitoes. The ethanolic extract of Nerium oleander applied against the larvae of Culex pipiens has given the lethal concentrations LC50 and LC90 in the order of 57.57 mg/mL and 166.35 mg/mL, respectively. Conclusion. This investigation indicates that N. oleander could serve as a potential larvicidal, effective natural biocide against mosquito larvae, particularly Culex pipiens.

  7. Intraguild predation and cannibalism among larvae of detritivorous caddisflies in subalpine wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissinger, S.A.; Sparks, G.B.; Rouse, G.L.; Brown, W.S.; Steltzer, Heidi

    1996-01-01

    Comparative data from subalpine wetlands in Colorado indicate that larvae of the limnephilid caddisflies, Asynarchus nigriculus and Limnephilus externus, are reciprocally abundant among habitats - Limnephilus larvae dominate in permanent waters, whereas Asynarchus larvae dominate in temporary basins. The purpose of this paper is to report on field and laboratory experiments that link this pattern of abundance to biotic interactions among larvae. In the first field experiment, growth and survival were compared in single and mixed species treatments in littoral enclosures. Larvae, which eat mainly vascular plant detritus, grew at similar rates among treatments in both temporary and permanent habitats suggesting that exploitative competition is not important under natural food levels and caddisfly densities. However, the survival of Limnephilus larvae was reduced in the presence of Asynarchus larvae. Subsequent behavioral studies in laboratory arenas revealed that Asynarchus larvae are extremely aggressive predators on Limnephilus larvae. In a second field experiment we manipulated the relative sizes of larvae and found that Limnephilus larvae were preyed on only when Asynarchus larvae had the same size advantage observed in natural populations. Our data suggest that the dominance of Asynarchus larvae in temporary habitats is due to asymmetric intraguild predation (IGP) facilitated by a phenological head start in development. These data do not explain the dominance of Limnephilus larvae in permanent basins, which we show elsewhere to be an indirect effect of salamander predation. Behavioral observations also revealed that Asynarchus larvae are cannibalistic. In contrast to the IGP on Limnephilus larvae, Asynarchus cannibalism occurs among same-sized larvae and often involves the mobbing of one victim by several conspecifics. In a third field experiment, we found that Asynarchus cannibalism was not density-dependent and occurred even at low larval densities. We

  8. Vibrio harveyi effect under survival of Litopenaeus vannamei larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Aguirre-Guzmán

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The culture of aquatic organisms show a high relevance in the human feeding and the culture activities can create artificial conditions that increase the growth and selection of specific bacteria. Vibrio species are normal bacteria’s from microflora of penaeid shrimp, those are opportunistic pathogens that can take advantage of the ecological changes generated for the culture of aquatic organisms and which may cause diseases, low survival and economic losses in the shrimp production. The aim of this research was to determine the variation in the survival of different larval substages (nauplius, zoea I-III, mysis I-III and postlarvae 1, of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei exposed at three doses [103 , 105 , and 107 colony-forming unit (CFU ml-1 [ of V. harveyi, by immersion (30 min as infection method. This species generated a significant low survival in larvae (p < 0.05 only in high doses (105 and 107 CFU ml-1 , where higher doses show the lowest values of survival. Larval substages and postlarvae 1 of shrimp showed sensitivity associate to the increase of Vibrio doses and this sensitivity decreased with the growth of larval substages and postlarvae 1. This information has high significance for the fisheries and aquaculture industry, which help to generate strategies to reduce the effects of V. harveyi with positive effect in growth and survival of the shrimp larvae and postlarvae 1.

  9. Interactions between the solitary endoparasitoid, Meteorus gyrator (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and its host, Lacanobia oleracea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), infected with the entomopathogenic microsporidium, Vairimorpha necatrix (Microspora: Microsporidia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Down, R E; Smethurst, F; Bell, H A; Edwards, J P

    2005-04-01

    Infection of Lacanobia oleracea (Linnaeus) larvae with the microsporidium Vairimorpha necatrix (Kramer) resulted in significant effects on the survival and development of the braconid parasitoid, Meteorus gyrator (Thunberg). Female M. gyrator did not show any avoidance of V. necatrix-infected hosts when they were selecting hosts for oviposition. When parasitism occurred at the same time as infection by the pathogen, or up to four days later, no significant detrimental effects on the parasitoid were observed. However, when parasitism occurred six to eight days after infection, a greater proportion (12.5-14%) of hosts died before parasitoid larvae egressed. Successful eclosion of adult wasps was also reduced. When parasitism and infection were concurrent, parasitoid larval development was significantly faster in infected hosts, and cocoons were significantly heavier. However, as the time interval between infection and parasitism increased, parasitoid larval development was significantly extended by up to two days, and the cocoons formed were significantly (c. 20%) smaller. Vairimorpha necatrix spores were ingested by the developing parasitoid larvae, accumulated in the occluded midgut, and were excreted in the meconium upon pupation.

  10. Dynamics of Social Behavior in Fruit Fly Larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durisko, Zachary; Kemp, Rebecca; Mubasher, Rameeshay; Dukas, Reuven

    2014-01-01

    We quantified the extent and dynamics of social interactions among fruit fly larvae over time. Both a wild-type laboratory population and a recently-caught strain of larvae spontaneously formed social foraging groups. Levels of aggregation initially increased during larval development and then declined with the wandering stage before pupation. We show that larvae aggregated more on hard than soft food, and more at sites where we had previously broken the surface of the food. Groups of larvae initiated burrowing sooner than solitary individuals, indicating that one potential benefit of larval aggregations is an improved ability to dig and burrow into the food substrate. We also show that two closely related species, D. melanogaster and D. simulans, differ in their tendency to aggregate, which may reflect different evolutionary histories. Our protocol for quantifying social behavior in larvae uncovered robust social aggregations in this simple model, which is highly amenable to neurogenetic analyses, and can serve for future research into the mechanisms and evolution of social behavior. PMID:24740198

  11. Paenilarvins: Iturin family lipopeptides from the honey bee pathogen Paenibacillus larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Sakshi; Steinmetz, Heinrich; Beims, Hannes; Mohr, Kathrin I; Stadler, Marc; Djukic, Marvin; von der Ohe, Werner; Steinert, Michael; Daniel, Rolf; Müller, Rolf

    2014-09-05

    The bacterium Paenibacillus larvae has been extensively studied as it is an appalling honey bee pathogen. In the present work, we screened crude extracts derived from fermentations of P. larvae genotypes ERIC I and II for antimicrobial activity, following the detection of four putative secondary metabolite gene clusters that show high sequence homology to known biosynthetic gene clusters for the biosynthesis of antibiotics. Low molecular weight metabolites produced by P. larvae have recently been shown to have toxic effects on honey bee larvae. Moreover, a novel tripeptide, sevadicin, was recently characterized from laboratory cultures of P. larvae. In this study, paenilarvins, which are iturinic lipopeptides exhibiting strong antifungal activities, were obtained by bioassay-guided fractionation from cultures of P. larvae, genotype ERIC II. Their molecular structures were determined by extensive 2D NMR spectroscopy, high resolution mass spectrometry, and other methods. Paenilarvins are the first antifungal secondary metabolites to be identified from P. larvae. In preliminary experiments, these lipopeptides also affected honey bee larvae and might thus play a role in P. larvae survival and pathogenesis. However, further studies are needed to investigate their function. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Nutritional condition and vertical distribution of Baltic cod larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønkjær, P.; Clemmesen, C.; St. John, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Newly hatched Baltic cod Gadus morhua larvae are typically found at depths >60 m. This is a region of low light and prey availability, hence generating the hypothesis that larvae have to migrate from hatching depth to the surface layer to avoid starvation and improve their nutritional condition...... aged 2-25 days (median 10 days) ranged from 0.4 to 6.2, corresponding to levels exhibited by starving and fast growing larvae in laboratory calibration studies (starvation, protein growth rate, G(pi)=-12.2% day(-1); fast-growing larvae, G(pi)=14.1% day(-1)) respectively. Seventy per cent of the field...

  13. Nematode Infections Are Risk Factors for Staphylococcal Infection in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra F Moreira-Silva

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Nematode infection may be a risk factor for pyogenic liver abscess in children and we hypothesized that the immunomodulation induced by those parasites would be a risk factor for any staphylococcal infection in children. The present study was designed to compare, within the same hospital, the frequency of intestinal nematodes and Toxocara infection in children with and without staphylococcal infections. From October 1997 to February 1998, 80 children with staphylococcal infection and 110 children with other diseases were submitted to fecal examination, serology for Toxocara sp., evaluation of plasma immunoglobulin levels, and eosinophil counts. Mean age, gender distribution, birthplace, and socioeconomic conditions did not differ significantly between the two groups. Frequency of intestinal nematodes and positive serology for Toxocara, were remarkably higher in children with staphylococcal infections than in the non-staphylococcal group. There was a significant correlation between intestinal nematodes or Toxocara infection and staphylococcal infection in children, reinforced by higher eosinophil counts and higher IgE levels in these children than in the control group. One possible explanation for this association would be the enhancement of bacterial infection by the immunomodulation induced by helminth infections, due to strong activation of the Th2 subset of lymphocytes by antigens from larvae and adult worms.

  14. A note on the occurrence of praniza larvae of Gnathiidae (Crustacea, Isopoda on fishes from Northeast of Pará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel G. Diniz

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The infection of the estuarine teleost fishes Mugil gaimardianus Desmarest, 1831 (Mugilidae, Arius phrygiatus Valenciennes, 1839 (Ariidae, Conodon nobilis Linnaeus, 1759 (Haemulidae, Cetengraulis edentulus Cuvier, 1829 (Engraulidae, and Anableps anableps Linnaeus, 1758 (Anablepidae by praniza larvae of Gnathiidae (Crustacea, Isopoda was studied in specimens fished off the Atlantic Ocean in Northeast of Pará State, near Bragança, Brazil. The highest infection prevalence value was found in Anableps anableps (42.3% and the lowest in Conodon nobilis (9.1%. The mean intensity varied from 1 parasitein Conodon nobilis to 19.5 in Arius phrygiatus. A description of the larvae is provided. The morphology of the mouthparts is related to the blood sucking activity, and is compared with the characteristics of other gnathiidae species.Foi estudada a parasitose dos peixes estuarinos Mugil gaimardianus Desmarest, 1831 (Mugilidae, Arius phrygiatus Valenciennes, 1839 (Ariidae, Conodon nobilis Linnaeus, 1759 (Haemulidae, Cetengraulis edentulus Cuvier, 1829 (Engraulidae, e Anableps anableps Linnaeus, 1758 (Anablepidae por larvas praniza de Gnathiidae (Crustacea, Isopoda em exemplares pescados no Oceano Atlântico, no Nordeste do Pará, próximo a Bragança, Brasil. O valor mais elevado da prevalência da infecção foi observado em A. anableps (42,3% e o menor em C. nobilis (9,1%. A intensidade média da parasitose variou entre 1 parasita em C. nobilis até 19,5 em A. phrygiatus. Efetua-se a descrição da larva, verificando-se que a morfologia da armadura bucal está relacionada com a atividade sugadora de sangue, e faz-se a comparação com as características de outras espécies.

  15. Cranial Mesenteric Arterial Obstruction Due To Strongylus vulgaris Larvae in a Donkey (Equus asinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borji, Hassan; Moosavi, Zahra; Ahmadi, Fatemeh

    2014-09-01

    Arteritis due to Strongylus vulgaris is a well-known cause of colic in horses and donkeys. The current report describes a fatal incidence of arterial obstruction in cranial mesenteric artery caused by S. vulgaris infection in an adult donkey in which anthelmintic treatment was not regularly administered. Necropsy findings of the abdominal cavity revealed a complete cranial mesenteric arterial obstruction due to larvae of S. vulgaris, causing severe colic. To the authors' knowledge, a complete cranial mesenteric arterial obstruction due to verminous arteritis has rarely been described in horses and donkeys. Based on recent reports of fatal arterial obstruction due to S. vulgaris infection in donkeys, it may be evident to consider acute colic caused by this pathogenic parasite a re-emerging disease in donkeys and horses.

  16. Evaluating the Effect of Sarconesiopsis magellanica (Diptera: Calliphoridae Larvae-Derived Haemolymph and Fat Body Extracts on Chronic Wounds in Diabetic Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifher Góngora

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated extracts taken from S. magellanica third instar larvae fat body and haemolymph using a diabetic rabbit model and compared this to the effect obtained with the same substances taken from Lucilia sericata larvae. Alloxan (a toxic glucose analogue was used to induce experimental diabetes in twelve rabbits. Dorsal wounds were made in each animal and they were infected with Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. They were then treated with haemolymph and lyophilized extracts taken from the selected blowflies’ larvae fat bodies. Each wound was then evaluated by using rating scales and histological analysis. More favourable scores were recorded on the PUSH and WBS scales for the wounds treated with fat body derived from the larvae of both species compared to that obtained with haemolymph; however, wounds treated with the substances taken from S. magellanica had better evolution. Histological analysis revealed that treatment led to tissue proliferation and more effective neovascularisation in less time with both species’ fat body extracts compared to treatment with just haemolymph. The results suggest the effectiveness of the substances evaluated and validate them in the animal model being used here as topical agents in treating chronic wounds.

  17. Evaluating the Effect of Sarconesiopsis magellanica (Diptera: Calliphoridae) Larvae-Derived Haemolymph and Fat Body Extracts on Chronic Wounds in Diabetic Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góngora, Jennifher; Díaz-Roa, Andrea; Ramírez-Hernández, Alejandro; Cortés-Vecino, Jesús A.; Gaona, María A.; Patarroyo, Manuel A.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated extracts taken from S. magellanica third instar larvae fat body and haemolymph using a diabetic rabbit model and compared this to the effect obtained with the same substances taken from Lucilia sericata larvae. Alloxan (a toxic glucose analogue) was used to induce experimental diabetes in twelve rabbits. Dorsal wounds were made in each animal and they were infected with Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. They were then treated with haemolymph and lyophilized extracts taken from the selected blowflies' larvae fat bodies. Each wound was then evaluated by using rating scales and histological analysis. More favourable scores were recorded on the PUSH and WBS scales for the wounds treated with fat body derived from the larvae of both species compared to that obtained with haemolymph; however, wounds treated with the substances taken from S. magellanica had better evolution. Histological analysis revealed that treatment led to tissue proliferation and more effective neovascularisation in less time with both species' fat body extracts compared to treatment with just haemolymph. The results suggest the effectiveness of the substances evaluated and validate them in the animal model being used here as topical agents in treating chronic wounds. PMID:25866825

  18. Extreme morphologies of mantis shrimp larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Haug, Carolin; Ahyong, Shane T.; Wiethase, Joris H.; Olesen, Jørgen; Haug, Joachim T.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Larvae of stomatopods (mantis shrimps) are generally categorized into four larval types: antizoea, pseudozoea (both representing early larval stages), alima and erichthus (the latter two representing later larval stages). These categories, however, do not reflect the existing morphological diversity of stomatopod larvae, which is largely unstudied. We describe here four previously unknown larval types with extreme morphologies. All specimens were found in the collections of the Zoolo...

  19. Adaptive immunity and histopathology in frog virus 3-infected Xenopus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robert, Jacques; Morales, Heidi; Buck, Wayne; Cohen, Nicholas; Marr, Shauna; Gantress, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    Xenopus has been used as an experimental model to evaluate the contribution of adaptive cellular immunity in amphibian host susceptibility to the emerging ranavirus FV3. Conventional histology and immunohistochemistry reveal that FV3 has a strong tropism for the proximal tubular epithelium of the kidney and is rarely disseminated elsewhere in Xenopus hosts unless their immune defenses are impaired or developmentally immature as in larvae. In such cases, virus is found widespread in most tissues. Adults, immunocompromised by depletion of CD8 + T cells or by sub-lethal γ-irradiation, show increased susceptibility to FV3 infection. Larvae and irradiated (but not normal) adults can be cross-infected through water by infected adult conspecifics (irradiated or not). The natural MHC class I deficiency and the absence of effect of anti-CD8 treatment on both larval CD8 + T cells and larval susceptibility to FV3 are consistent with an inefficient CD8 + T cell effector function during this developmental period

  20. Galleria mellonella infection model demonstrates high lethality of ST69 and ST127 uropathogenic E. coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majed F Alghoribi

    Full Text Available Galleria mellonella larvae are an alternative in vivo model for investigating bacterial pathogenicity. Here, we examined the pathogenicity of 71 isolates from five leading uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC lineages using G. mellonella larvae. Larvae were challenged with a range of inoculum doses to determine the 50% lethal dose (LD50 and for analysis of survival outcome using Kaplan-Meier plots. Virulence was correlated with carriage of a panel of 29 virulence factors (VF. Larvae inoculated with ST69 and ST127 isolates (10(4 colony-forming units/larvae showed significantly higher mortality rates than those infected with ST73, ST95 and ST131 isolates, killing 50% of the larvae within 24 hours. Interestingly, ST131 isolates were the least virulent. We observed that ST127 isolates are significantly associated with a higher VF-score than isolates of all other STs tested (P≤0.0001, including ST69 (P<0.02, but one ST127 isolate (strain EC18 was avirulent. Comparative genomic analyses with virulent ST127 strains revealed an IS1 mediated deletion in the O-antigen cluster in strain EC18, which is likely to explain the lack of virulence in the larvae infection model. Virulence in the larvae was not correlated with serotype or phylogenetic group. This study illustrates that G. mellonella are an excellent tool for investigation of the virulence of UPEC strains. The findings also support our suggestion that the incidence of ST127 strains should be monitored, as these isolates have not yet been widely reported, but they clearly have a pathogenic potential greater than that of more widely recognised clones, including ST73, ST95 or ST131.

  1. Development of Digestive Enzyme of Patin Pangasius hypohthalmus Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Effendi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Culture of patin Pangasius hypophthalmus especially larval rearing  very depends on the supply of natural food as energy source.  Artemia is the main natural food for fish larvae as a starter food, but its price is high.  To reduce production cost, farmers tend to reduce the feeding frequency and shorten  the Artemia feeding period.  Altering feeding regime however may reduce fry quality. This relate to the availability of digestive enzymes.  The objective of this study was  to examine digestive enzymes activity in patin larvae fed with  different feeding regime.  By shorten feeding period with Artemia to 2-4 days and Tubifex,substitution, the enzymes activity of protease, lipase and amylase were revealed similar pattern   The enzymes activity tends to increase and reach the peak at day 7 , and decrease later on until day 15 after hatching.  Survival rate of fish were varied for each treatment, and the highest survival rate was obtained when larvae were fed by Artemia for 8 days.  Blood worm were not fully digested by patin larvae at early stage. Keywords: enzyme, digestion, patin, Pangasius hypophthalmus   ABSTRAK Proses budidaya ikan patin, Pangasius hypophthalmus terutama pembenihan sangat tergantung oleh ketersediaan pakan alami sebagai sumber energinya. Artemia merupakan pakan alami yang banyak diberikan pada saat larva ikan mulai makan, namun harganya relatif tinggi. Untuk menekan biaya produksi, petani ikan patin cenderung mengurangi frekuensi pemberian Artemia dan mempersingkat waktu pemberiannya. Penggeseran jadwal ini diduga mengakibatkan penurunan kualitas benih ikan patin yang dihasilkan yang berhubungan dengan kesiapan enzim pencernaannya. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui aktivitas enzim pada larva ikan patin dengan jadwal pemberian pakan yang berbeda. Dengan memotong waktu pemberian Artemia 2 - 4 hari dan disubstitusi dengan Tubifex, aktifitas enzim protease, lipase dan amilase pada larva ikan patin, memiliki

  2. Nonsensical choices? Fall armyworm moths choose seemingly best or worst hosts for their larvae, but neonate larvae make their own choices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio C Rojas

    Full Text Available Selecting optimal host plants is critical for herbivorous insects, such as fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda, an important maize pest in the Americas and Africa. Fall armyworm larvae are presumed to have limited mobility, hence female moths are presumed to be largely responsible for selecting hosts. We addressed host selection by fall armyworm moths and neonate and older (3rd-instar larvae, as mediated by resistance and herbivory in maize plants. Thus, we compared discrimination among three maize cultivars with varying degrees of resistance to fall armyworm, and between plants subjected or not to two types of herbivory. The cultivars were: (i susceptible, and deficient in jasmonic acid (JA production and green leaf volatiles (GLV emissions (inbred line B73-lox10; (ii modestly resistant (B73, and; (iii highly resistant (Mp708. The herbivory types were: (i ongoing (= fall armyworm larvae present, and; (ii future (= fall armyworm eggs present. In choice tests, moths laid more eggs on the highly resistant cultivar, and least on the susceptible cultivar, though on those cultivars larvae performed poorest and best, respectively. In the context of herbivory, moths laid more eggs: (i on plants subject to versus free of future herbivory, regardless of whether plants were deficient or not in JA and GLV production; (ii on plants subject versus free of ongoing herbivory, and; (iii on plants not deficient in compared to deficient in JA and GLV production. Neonate larvae dispersed aerially from host plants (i.e. ballooned, and most larvae colonized the modestly resistant cultivar, and fewest the highly resistant cultivar, suggesting quasi-directional, directed aerial descent. Finally, dispersing older larvae did not discriminate among the three maize cultivars, nor between maize plants and (plastic model maize plants, suggesting random, visually-oriented dispersal. Our results were used to assemble a model of host selection by fall armyworm moths and

  3. Epidemiological survey of Trichinella infection in some areas of Henan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianli X.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available During 1996-1998 epidemiological survey of domestic Trichinella spiralis infection and serological survey on human beings were carried out in Yanling, Xuchang counties and Luohe city. By the artificial digestion method, the positive rates of pork in market and mutton were 1.6 % and 0.6 % respectively. Meat samples of pigs from pig-farms, cats and dogs were all negative for Trichinella larvae. Trichinellosis infection levels in rats captured in peasant households and places around abattoirs were 0.5 % and 4.1 % respectively (P < 0.05. By ELISA (double-antibody with excretion-secretion (ES antigens of Trichinella larvae, the positive rates of antibodies against Trichinella in sera of peasants and professional drivers were 2.2 % and 7.8 % (P < 0.05. The positive rates of antibodies in pigs from pig-farms and from peasant households were 1 % and 7 % respectively (P < 0.05. The levels of anti- Trichinella antibodies in rats captured in peasant households and places close to abattoirs were 0 % and 11.1 % respectively. Trichinella spiralis larvae were found in the washing meat slop in abattoirs.

  4. Suppressing bullfrog larvae with carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Jackson A.; Ray, Andrew; Sepulveda, Adam J.; Watten, Barnaby J.; Densmore, Christine L.; Layhee, Megan J.; Mark Abbey-Lambert,; ,

    2014-01-01

    Current management strategies for the control and suppression of the American Bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus = Rana catesbeiana Shaw) and other invasive amphibians have had minimal effect on their abundance and distribution. This study evaluates the effects of carbon dioxide (CO2) on pre- and prometamorphic Bullfrog larvae. Bullfrogs are a model organism for evaluating potential suppression agents because they are a successful invader worldwide. From experimental trials we estimated that the 24-h 50% and 99% lethal concentration (LC50 and LC99) values for Bullfrog larvae were 371 and 549 mg CO2/L, respectively. Overall, larvae that succumbed to experimental conditions had a lower body condition index than those that survived. We also documented sublethal changes in blood chemistry during prolonged exposure to elevated CO2. Specifically, blood pH decreased by more than 0.5 pH units after 9 h of exposure and both blood partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) and blood glucose increased. These findings suggest that CO2 treatments can be lethal to Bullfrog larvae under controlled laboratory conditions. We believe this work represents the necessary foundation for further consideration of CO2 as a potential suppression agent for one of the most harmful invaders to freshwater ecosystems.

  5. [Toxicity and influencing factors of liquid chlorine on chironomid larvae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xing-Bin; Cui, Fu-Yi; Zhang, Jin-Song; Guo, Zhao-Hai; Xu, Feng; Liu, Li-Jun

    2005-09-01

    The excessive propagation of Chironomid larvae (red worm) in the sedimentation tanks is a difficult problem for the normal function of waterworks. The toxic effect of liquid chlorine on the different instar larvae of Chironomid was studied using distilled water as test sample. Furthermore, the effect of pH value, organic matter content, ammonia nitrogen, and algae content on toxicity of liquid chlorine was observed. The results show that the tolerance of Chironomid larvae to liquid chlorine is strengthened with the increase in instar. The 24h semi-lethal concentration (LC50) of liquid chlorine to the 4th instar larvae of Chironomid is 3.39 mg/L. Low pH value and high algae content are helpful to improve the toxic effect of liquid chlorine to Chironomid larvae. In neutral water body, the increase in organic matter content results in the decrease in the death rate of Chironomid larvae. The toxicity of liquid chlorine differs greatly in different concentrations of ammonia nitrogen. The death rate of the 4th instar larvae of Chironomid in raw water is higher by contrast with that in sedimentation tanks water for 24h disposal with various amount of liquid chlorine.

  6. Protective immune responses with trickle infections of third-stage filarial larvae of Wuchereria bancrofti in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekariah, G R; Monteiro, Y M; Netto, A; Deshpande, L; Subrahmanyam, D

    1989-01-01

    Groups of inbred BALB/c mice were immunized with trickle doses of 20 live third-stage larvae (L3) of Wuchereria bancrofti each subcutaneously or with 150 microg of sonicated microfilarial antigens emulsified in Freund's adjuvant intramuscularly. An antibody response was distinctly seen after seven trickle doses of L3 and following with the sonicated microfilarial immunization. Due to the non-permissive nature of inbred mice to W. bancrofti infections, a novel immunization approach was adopted using appropriate age- and sex-matched controls. The anti-L3 response in terms of antibody-dependent cell-mediated adhesion and killing was assessed in the immunized animals by implanting live L3 in micropore chambers subcutaneously. About 75% L3 W. bancrofti were affected in animals sensitized with seven trickle doses of L3. When sensitizations were continued, as high as 92% of L3 were seen affected with ten trickle doses compared with 27% in age-matched controls. Immunization with sonicated microfilarial antigen affected about 70% of L3 as opposed to only 12% in controls. A positive correlation was observed in the antibody response with protectivity. This method of induction and assessment of the anti-L3 response involving a small set of animals has not only allowed quantification of affected L3 but has also enabled us to visualize larval conditions in immunologically activated animals. The micropore chamber system, would be useful in monitoring the induction of protective immune response against W. bancrofti in inbred mice. Experimentation on large numbers of animals is required to elucidate further the response of mice towards L3 and also to pinpoint the putative protective antigens. PMID:12412764

  7. Bothid larvae (Pleuronectiformes-Pisces) of the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Devi, C.B.L.

    the Indian Ocean, their regional, seasonal as well as diurnal variations. Engyprosopon grandisquamis dominated contributing to 23.2% of the total larvae. Numerically the incidence of bothid larvae suggested a uniform pattern of distribution during the two...

  8. A faunistic survey of digenean larvae infecting freshwater snails ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biomphalaria and Bulinus spp have been reported in Tanzania as vectors of Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium respectively. Thus most schistosomiasis control efforts have focussed on elimination of these molluscs in freshwater systems or deworming infected persons. In addition almost there is limited ...

  9. Development Of Biosteres sp Parasitation On Larvae Of Bactrocera carambolae (Drew and Hancock) As Complementary Of Sterile Insect Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikumbang, Darmawi; Nasution, Indah A.; Indarwatmi, M.; Kuswadi, Achmad N.

    2002-01-01

    Sterile insect technique was compatible with biological control after parasitoid releasing. In order to find out suitable life stage of B. carambolae to use as host in the mass rearing of Biosteres sp. parasitoid, an efectivity of the parasitoid infestation on different age of B. carambolae egg by putting fruits in cage containing 200 pairs of B. carambolae flies for the 1 hour. The fruit of infected fruit fly larvae with the different age i.e. 1,2,3, and 4 days were offered to 80 pairs of adult pamsitoid age 1,2, and 3 weeks for old for two hours i.e. 7.00-9.00; 9.00- 11.00; 11.00-13.00; 13.00-15.00; and 15.00-17.00. Numbers of parasitoid emerge from each fruit were observed. Results of the parasitation effectiveness assays show that 1-2 days old larvae were the most severely infested larvae infestation by the done at 7-15 of the day by the day parasitoid. Infestation mostly done by parasitoid of 7-14 days old

  10. Analysis of feeding behavior of Drosophila larvae on solid food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ping

    2012-05-01

    The food responses of Drosophila larvae offer an excellent opportunity to study the genetic and neural regulation of feeding behavior. Compared with fed larvae, hungry larvae are more likely to display aggressive foraging, rapid food intake, compensatory feeding, and stress-resistant food procurement. Behavioral assays have been developed to quantitatively assess particular aspects of the hunger-driven food response. In combination, these assays help define the specific role of signaling molecules or neurons in the regulation of feeding behavior in foraging larvae. This protocol is designed for quantitative assessment of the willingness of individual larvae to procure solid food under different energy states. It provides a simple and reliable way to measure the graded modification of the baseline feeding rate of larvae as the period of food deprivation is increased. The test is applicable to routine functional testing and larger-scale screening of genetic mutations and biologics that might affect food consumption.

  11. Proteinases in excretory-secretory products of Toxocara canis second-stage larvae: zymography and modeling insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Páez, Gonzalo Ernesto; Alba-Hurtado, Fernando; García-Tovar, Carlos Gerardo; Argüello-García, Raúl

    2014-01-01

    Components released in excretory-secretory products of Toxocara canis larvae (TES) include phosphatidylethanolamine-binding proteins (TES26), mucins (TES120, MUC2-5), and C-type lectins (TES32, TES70) and their biochemical, immunological, and diagnostic properties have been extensively studied albeit proteinase activities towards physiological substrates are almost unknown. Proteolytic activities in TES samples were first analyzed by gel electrophoresis with gelatin as substrate. Major activities of ~400, 120, and 32 kDa in TES were relatively similar over a broad pH range (5.5-9.0) and all these were of the serine-type as leupeptin abolished gelatinolysis. Further, the ~400 kDa component degraded all physiological substrates tested (laminin, fibronectin, albumin, and goat IgG) and the 120 kDa component degraded albumin and goat IgG while proteinases of lower MW (45, 32, and 26 kDa) only degraded laminin and fibronectin, preferentially at alkaline pH (9.0). By protein modeling approaches using the known sequences of TES components, only TES26 and MUC4 displayed folding patterns significantly related to reference serine proteinases. These data suggest that most of serine proteinase activities secreted in vitro by infective larvae of T. canis have intriguing nature but otherwise help the parasite to affect multiple components of somatic organs and bodily fluids within the infected host.

  12. External Ophthalmomyiasis Caused by a Rare Infesting Larva, Sarcophaga argyrostoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shmuel Graffi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. External ophthalmomyiasis (EO is caused by infesting larvae belonging to various species of flies. Most documented cases result from sheep (Oestrus ovis and Russian (Rhinoestrus purpureus botfly larvae, but we recently discovered a rare case of EO caused by flesh fly (Sarcophaga argyrostoma larvae. Here, we report the case of a patient with EO who had been hospitalized and sedated for 1 week because of unrelated pneumonia. Methods. Case report. Results. A total of 32 larvae were removed from the adnexae of both eyes. Larvae identification was confirmed through DNA analysis. Treatment with topical tobramycin resulted in complete resolution of EO. Conclusion. EO can be caused by S. argyrostoma, and the elderly and debilitated may require extra ocular protection against flies during sedation.

  13. Effect of fungal colonization of wheat grains with Fusarium spp. on food choice, weight gain and mortality of meal beetle larvae (Tenebrio molitor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqing Guo

    Full Text Available Species of Fusarium have significant agro-economical and human health-related impact by infecting diverse crop plants and synthesizing diverse mycotoxins. Here, we investigated interactions of grain-feeding Tenebrio molitor larvae with four grain-colonizing Fusarium species on wheat kernels. Since numerous metabolites produced by Fusarium spp. are toxic to insects, we tested the hypothesis that the insect senses and avoids Fusarium-colonized grains. We found that only kernels colonized with F. avenaceum or Beauveria bassiana (an insect-pathogenic fungal control were avoided by the larvae as expected. Kernels colonized with F. proliferatum, F. poae or F. culmorum attracted T. molitor larvae significantly more than control kernels. The avoidance/preference correlated with larval feeding behaviors and weight gain. Interestingly, larvae that had consumed F. proliferatum- or F. poae-colonized kernels had similar survival rates as control. Larvae fed on F. culmorum-, F. avenaceum- or B. bassiana-colonized kernels had elevated mortality rates. HPLC analyses confirmed the following mycotoxins produced by the fungal strains on the kernels: fumonisins, enniatins and beauvericin by F. proliferatum, enniatins and beauvericin by F. poae, enniatins by F. avenaceum, and deoxynivalenol and zearalenone by F. culmorum. Our results indicate that T. molitor larvae have the ability to sense potential survival threats of kernels colonized with F. avenaceum or B. bassiana, but not with F. culmorum. Volatiles potentially along with gustatory cues produced by these fungi may represent survival threat signals for the larvae resulting in their avoidance. Although F. proliferatum or F. poae produced fumonisins, enniatins and beauvericin during kernel colonization, the larvae were able to use those kernels as diet without exhibiting increased mortality. Consumption of F. avenaceum-colonized kernels, however, increased larval mortality; these kernels had higher enniatin

  14. Effect of Fungal Colonization of Wheat Grains with Fusarium spp. on Food Choice, Weight Gain and Mortality of Meal Beetle Larvae (Tenebrio molitor)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhiqing; Döll, Katharina; Dastjerdi, Raana; Karlovsky, Petr; Dehne, Heinz-Wilhelm; Altincicek, Boran

    2014-01-01

    Species of Fusarium have significant agro-economical and human health-related impact by infecting diverse crop plants and synthesizing diverse mycotoxins. Here, we investigated interactions of grain-feeding Tenebrio molitor larvae with four grain-colonizing Fusarium species on wheat kernels. Since numerous metabolites produced by Fusarium spp. are toxic to insects, we tested the hypothesis that the insect senses and avoids Fusarium-colonized grains. We found that only kernels colonized with F. avenaceum or Beauveria bassiana (an insect-pathogenic fungal control) were avoided by the larvae as expected. Kernels colonized with F. proliferatum, F. poae or F. culmorum attracted T. molitor larvae significantly more than control kernels. The avoidance/preference correlated with larval feeding behaviors and weight gain. Interestingly, larvae that had consumed F. proliferatum- or F. poae-colonized kernels had similar survival rates as control. Larvae fed on F. culmorum-, F. avenaceum- or B. bassiana-colonized kernels had elevated mortality rates. HPLC analyses confirmed the following mycotoxins produced by the fungal strains on the kernels: fumonisins, enniatins and beauvericin by F. proliferatum, enniatins and beauvericin by F. poae, enniatins by F. avenaceum, and deoxynivalenol and zearalenone by F. culmorum. Our results indicate that T. molitor larvae have the ability to sense potential survival threats of kernels colonized with F. avenaceum or B. bassiana, but not with F. culmorum. Volatiles potentially along with gustatory cues produced by these fungi may represent survival threat signals for the larvae resulting in their avoidance. Although F. proliferatum or F. poae produced fumonisins, enniatins and beauvericin during kernel colonization, the larvae were able to use those kernels as diet without exhibiting increased mortality. Consumption of F. avenaceum-colonized kernels, however, increased larval mortality; these kernels had higher enniatin levels than F

  15. Effect of fungal colonization of wheat grains with Fusarium spp. on food choice, weight gain and mortality of meal beetle larvae (Tenebrio molitor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhiqing; Döll, Katharina; Dastjerdi, Raana; Karlovsky, Petr; Dehne, Heinz-Wilhelm; Altincicek, Boran

    2014-01-01

    Species of Fusarium have significant agro-economical and human health-related impact by infecting diverse crop plants and synthesizing diverse mycotoxins. Here, we investigated interactions of grain-feeding Tenebrio molitor larvae with four grain-colonizing Fusarium species on wheat kernels. Since numerous metabolites produced by Fusarium spp. are toxic to insects, we tested the hypothesis that the insect senses and avoids Fusarium-colonized grains. We found that only kernels colonized with F. avenaceum or Beauveria bassiana (an insect-pathogenic fungal control) were avoided by the larvae as expected. Kernels colonized with F. proliferatum, F. poae or F. culmorum attracted T. molitor larvae significantly more than control kernels. The avoidance/preference correlated with larval feeding behaviors and weight gain. Interestingly, larvae that had consumed F. proliferatum- or F. poae-colonized kernels had similar survival rates as control. Larvae fed on F. culmorum-, F. avenaceum- or B. bassiana-colonized kernels had elevated mortality rates. HPLC analyses confirmed the following mycotoxins produced by the fungal strains on the kernels: fumonisins, enniatins and beauvericin by F. proliferatum, enniatins and beauvericin by F. poae, enniatins by F. avenaceum, and deoxynivalenol and zearalenone by F. culmorum. Our results indicate that T. molitor larvae have the ability to sense potential survival threats of kernels colonized with F. avenaceum or B. bassiana, but not with F. culmorum. Volatiles potentially along with gustatory cues produced by these fungi may represent survival threat signals for the larvae resulting in their avoidance. Although F. proliferatum or F. poae produced fumonisins, enniatins and beauvericin during kernel colonization, the larvae were able to use those kernels as diet without exhibiting increased mortality. Consumption of F. avenaceum-colonized kernels, however, increased larval mortality; these kernels had higher enniatin levels than F

  16. IDENTIFICACIÓN DE ANTÍGENOS INMUNODOMINANTES ESPECÍFICOS EN PRODUCTOS DE EXCRECIÓN/SECRECIÓN DE LARVAS DE Toxocara canisI IDENTIFICATION OF SPECIFIC IMMUNODOMINANT ANTIGENS IN SECRETION / EXCRETION PRODUCTS OF Toxocara canis L A RVA E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherlene Mosquera

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The toxocariasis is the infection caused by Toxocara canis and T. cati , parasites of dogs and cats, respectively. Man is an accidental host, when is infected with eggs from these parasites. The larvae invade organs or the eyeball, producing two syndromes, visceral larva migrans and ocular larva migrans. The diagnosis presents difficulties due to non-specific symptoms and the larvae can only be evidenced by biopsies. Immunological methods are an alternative, but may have cross-reactions with other parasites. Due to limitations in the diagnosis of the disease, the main objective of this work was to identify the specific immunodominant antigens in excretion/secretion products of T. cani s larvae, by Western blotting technique. The reaction conditions were standardized, by determining optimal antigen concentration and dilutions of reagents and sera. Subsequently, the standardized technique was performed using sera from individuals with toxocariasis, individuals with other parasitic infections and healthy individuals. The results showed that the optimal concentrations of excretory/ secretory antigen was 10 μg/strip, and dilutions of 1/100 and 1/5,000 for serum and conjugate, respectively. Recognition of immunodominant bands of 26, 40 and 57 kDa was observed only by sera from individuals with toxocariasis, while patients with other parasitic diseases and healthy individuals did not recognize any of these bands. Antigens of 26 and 57 kDa have been described as specific for the diagnosis of toxocariasis, while the 40 kDa band had not been previously identified. The Western blotting technique allowed a sensitive and specific diagnosis of human toxocariasis

  17. Decapod larvae from the nearshore waters of Karwar

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, V.R.; Paulinose, V.T.

    Abundance of decapod larvae at three stations in Binge Bay, Karwar has been reported based on surface collections taken during the period October 1975 to September 1976. The larvae were very common in the Bay and the postmonsoon months sustained...

  18. Effects of the Liquids Used to Kill Larvae on the Length of Forensically Important Blow Fly Lucilia sericata Meigen (Diptera: Calliphoridae) Larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Halide Nihal Açıkgöz; Ali Açıkgöz

    2017-01-01

    Forensic entomological practices rely upon accurate larval identification and measurement of larval length, for the estimation of post-mortem intervals. The methods used for killing larvae may affect the length of larvae. In the autopsy hall, corpses which are contain entomological remains have been washed with grape vinegar. Besides, while collecting and killing the larvae on corpses, crime scene teams use alcohol 70% because it is practical. The aim of this study was to determine which...

  19. Worm burden and leukocyte response in Angiostrongylus malaysiensis-infected rats: the influence of testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamis, A B; Ahmad, R A; Badrul-Munir, M Z

    1992-01-01

    Gonadectomized male albino rats aged 7 weeks were given 1.5 mg/kg testosterone propionate daily and inoculated with 50 third-stage larvae of Angiostrongylus malaysiensis. The treatment significantly increased the number of larvae and adult worms recovered from the brain and pulmonary arteries, respectively, and the rats exhibited smaller thymus glands. The total numbers of leukocytes, monocytes, neutrophils, and especially eosinophils increased significantly post-infection, but the counts were higher in the untreated infected controls. Presumably, immunosuppressive effects of testosterone may at least partly be responsible for the higher loads of A. malaysiensis worms found in male rats as compared with females in the field.

  20. Terapia Larval e a aplicação de larvas para cicatrização: revisão e estado da arte no Brasil e no mundo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciéle S Masiero

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Larval therapy (LT or maggot debridement therapy (MDT con-sists in applying sterile and live larvae of necrophagous flies reared in lab-oratories on injuries, chronic or infected wounds. This treatment aims to help the wound healing process from the removal of devitalized tissue and secretion by larvae. Furthermore, the larvae apparently inhibit the growth of pathogenic microorganisms in the wound bed, due to bactericidal sub-stances secreted by them. This study aims to expose an overview of the im-portance of LT (or MDT as an alternative therapeutic modality to promote healing of acute and/or chronic injuries, to stimulate health professionals and educators in the dissemination and propagation of knowledge and de-mystification of this technique for application large-scale public health.

  1. Mananoligossacarídeo em dietas para larvas de tilápia Mannanoligosaccharides in diets for tilapia larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Kalko Schwarz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento foi realizado para avaliar níveis crescentes de mananoligossacarídeo (MOS na dieta de larvas de tilápias-do-nilo (linhagem Supreme® na fase de reversão sexual durante 30 dias. Larvas de tilápia-do-nilo (n=1500, P=0,01 g ± 0,001 g foram distribuídas aleatoriamente em 30 tanques de 100 litros. Os peixes foram distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, composto por seis tratamentos e cinco repetições. A dieta controle (isenta de MOS foi elaborada para conter aproximadamente 35% de proteína bruta e 3.100 kcal de ED/kg. As demais foram suplementadas com 0; 0,15; 0,30; 0,45; 0,60 e 0,75% de MOS em substituição ao milho da dieta controle. Com o aumento nos níveis de MOS nas dietas, foi observado aumento linear sobre o comprimento do intestino, a altura das vilosidades intestinais e a densidade dos vilos. Não houve diferença na composição corporal, no ganho em peso, no peso final, no comprimento final, no fator de condição, na taxa de sobrevivência e no número de células caliciformes do intestino das larvas. Os níveis de MOS tiveram efeito quadrático sobre a conversão alimentar, cujos melhores resultados foram obtidos com 0,34% de MOS. A utilização de MOS no nível de 0,34% em dietas para larvas de tilápia-do-nilo melhora a conversão alimentar e promove aumento do comprimento do intestino, da altura das vilosidades e da densidade de vilos intestinal.This experiment was conducted to evaluate increasing levels of mannanoligosaccharides (MOS in the diet of Nile tilapia larvae (Supreme® at the sex reversal stage for 30 days. Nile tilapia larvae (n = 1500, p = 0.01 ± 0.001 g, were randomly distributed in 30 tanks of 100 liters each, for 30 days. The fish were distributed in a randomized design with six treatments and five replicates. The control diet (no MOS was elaborated to contain approximately 35% of crude protein and 3,100 kcal DE/kg. Mannanoligosaccharides were included in the other diets

  2. Phylogenetic Analysis of C Type Lectin from Toxocara canis Infective Larvae and Comparison with the C Type Lectin Fam-ily in the Immune System of Mouse and Human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazeleh ETEBAR

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: C type lectin (CTL family is a type of calcium-dependent proteins found in vertebrates and invertebrates. The objective of this study was to perform a comparative analysis and phylogenetic inferring for understanding the similarities and differences of carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD domain of Toxocara canis CTL and other nematodes, and similar C type lectin involved in the immune system of mouse and human as their host.Methods: The female T. canis was retrieved from the 2-6 months puppies (Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, 2015. To collect T. canis eggs, the worms were cultured for 5 d until they were embryonated. The hatching process was accelerated for collecting the stage 2 larvae, and the larvae were cultured for a week. A cDNA library was made from the total mRNA of T. canis infective larvae. The PCR amplification for C type lectin gene was performed and the amino acids were analyzed using the alignment method and the construction of phylogenetic tree.Results: The suspension sample maintained at 30 ºC for four weeks could embryonate 90%-100% of eggs. T. canis CTL gene was 657 bp in length and encoded a protein with 219 amino acids. The CTL of species of Strongylida order were closely placed in the tree, whereas the members of Ascaridida orders were located in a separate branch. High levels of similarity (36%-44% and conservation of C type lectin from T. canis with mouse and human C type lectins. Its C type lectin showed a higher similarity with asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR, macrophage lectin, dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN, MINCLE receptor of mouse and human.Conclusion: Analysis of CRD domain of C type lectin protein could make a better understanding of their role in the interaction of nematode parasite with their hosts.

  3. Application of Spirulina platensis for prevention of white spot syndrome virus in post larvae and juvenile black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemtanon, P.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the extract of Spirulina platensis were examined in vitro to inhibit white spot syndrome virus (WSSV and application of dry S. platensis in diet for prevention of white spot syndrome (WSS in post larvae and juvenile black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon. The results showed that the lowest concentration of the extract for inhibiting WSSV was 0.01 mg/ml, while the optimum concentration was found to be 0.1 mg/ ml in which the mortality rate of the shrimp was 4 percents and infection was not detected from survivalshrimp by the immunohistochemistry method.Furthermore, The results showed that the survival rate of the post larvae fed on steamed egg containing dry S. platensis 5 g/kg of diet was higher than that of the control (p<0.05 when challenged with WSSV and no WSSV infected shrimp examine by polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay. In the case of juvenile shrimp, the survival rate of shrimp fed pellets containing dry S. platensis 10 g/kg of diet was higher than that of the control group (p<0.05 after challenging with WSSV. Moreover percent of WSSV infection in the survival shrimp using the immunohistochemistry method was lower than that of the control group.

  4. Using Real-time PCR for Identification of Paenibacillus larvae

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    Vladimíra Kňazovická

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was identification of Paenibacillus larvae that causes American foulbrood disease (AFB in colony of bees (Apis mellifera. Bacterial isolates originated from honey samples, because presence of P. larvae in honey is treated as early diagnostic of AFB. Intense proteolytic activity and no catalase activity are typical for Gram positive rod-shaped bacteria P. larvae. We diluted honey (1:2, heated at 80 °C for 10 min and inoculated on semiselective medium MYPGP agar with nalidixic acid. Plates were cultivated at 37 °C for 48 – 72 h under the aerobic conditions. Selected colonies were transferred on MYT agar and cultivated 24 h. We analysed 30 honey samples and found 27 bacterial isolates. All isolates were Gram positive and mainly rod-shaped. No catalase activity was documented for 6 from 27 isolates. Identification was finished by real-time PCR to detect the 16S rRNA gene of Paenibacillus larvae with real-time cycler Rotor-Gene 6000. As DNA template we used genomic DNA isolated with commercial kit and DNA lysate obtaining by boiled cells. We used 2 strains of P. larvae from CCM (Czech Collection of Microorganisms as positive control. The reliable method of detection P. larvae has important rule for beekeeping.

  5. Prevalence Of Caprine Strongyle Infection And The Diagnostic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of caprine strongyle infections and the diagnostic efficacy of some culture media in supporting the recovery of strongyle larvae were evaluated using 840 faecal sampes collected from goats during slaughter at Maiduguri Metropolitan abattoir. Faecal examination conducted by the modfied McMaster ...

  6. Structure and occurrence of cyphonautes larvae (Bryozoa, Ectoprocta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus; Worsaae, Katrine

    2010-01-01

    We have studied larvae of the freshwater ctenostome Hislopia malayensis with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and LM of serial sections. Some additional observations on larvae of M. membranacea using SEM and CLSM are also reported. The overall configu...

  7. The method by which Cephenemyia trompe (Modeer larvae invade reindeer (Rangifer tarandus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Anderson

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory electrostimulated C. trompe (Modeer females forcefully expelled (sprayed larvae for 5-20 cm. The watery spray consisted of about 20 tiny droplets containing two to several larvae. Crawling first-instar larvae exhibited negative geotactic and phototropic responses; they were subject to rapid desiccation and became immobile as the tiny droplets dried within a few seconds. When 5-50 larvae from dissectedfemales were dropped in physiological saline onto different areas of the muzzle of restrained reindeer, only larvae placed deep within the nostrils and on the lips crawled out-of-sight down the nostril passage or into the mouth. Drops of larvae placed elsewhere quickly desiccated and the larvae became immobile. Larvae deposited by wild females onto a COz-baited reindeer model with the muzzle, lips and nostrils coated with insect trapping adhesive all were stuck only along the dorsal lip below the philtrum. All experimental evidence supports a natural per os mode of invasion.

  8. Role for sumoylation in systemic inflammation and immune homeostasis in Drosophila larvae.

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    Indira Paddibhatla

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available To counter systemic risk of infection by parasitic wasps, Drosophila larvae activate humoral immunity in the fat body and mount a robust cellular response resulting in encapsulation of the wasp egg. Innate immune reactions are tightly regulated and are resolved within hours. To understand the mechanisms underlying activation and resolution of the egg encapsulation response and examine if failure of the latter develops into systemic inflammatory disease, we correlated parasitic wasp-induced changes in the Drosophila larva with systemic chronic conditions in sumoylation-deficient mutants. We have previously reported that loss of either Cactus, the Drosophila (IκB protein or Ubc9, the SUMO-conjugating enzyme, leads to constitutive activation of the humoral and cellular pathways, hematopoietic overproliferation and tumorogenesis. Here we report that parasite infection simultaneously activates NF-κB-dependent transcription of Spätzle processing enzyme (SPE and cactus. Endogenous Spätzle protein (the Toll ligand is expressed in immune cells and excessive SPE or Spätzle is pro-inflammatory. Consistent with this function, loss of Spz suppresses Ubc9⁻ defects. In contrast to the pro-inflammatory roles of SPE and Spätzle, Cactus and Ubc9 exert an anti-inflammatory effect. We show that Ubc9 maintains steady state levels of Cactus protein. In a series of immuno-genetic experiments, we demonstrate the existence of a robust bidirectional interaction between blood cells and the fat body and propose that wasp infection activates Toll signaling in both compartments via extracellular activation of Spätzle. Within each organ, the IκB/Ubc9-dependent inhibitory feedback resolves immune signaling and restores homeostasis. The loss of this feedback leads to chronic inflammation. Our studies not only provide an integrated framework for understanding the molecular basis of the evolutionary arms race between insect hosts and their parasites, but also offer

  9. Cranial Mesenteric Arterial Obstruction Due To Strongylus vulgaris Larvae in a Donkey (Equus asinus.

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    Hassan Borji

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Arteritis due to Strongylus vulgaris is a well-known cause of colic in horses and donkeys. The current report describes a fatal incidence of arterial obstruction in cranial mesenteric artery caused by S. vulgaris infection in an adult donkey in which anthelmintic treatment was not regularly administered. Necropsy findings of the abdominal cavity revealed a complete cranial mesenteric arterial obstruction due to larvae of S. vulgaris, causing severe colic. To the authors' knowledge, a complete cranial mesenteric arterial obstruction due to verminous arteritis has rarely been described in horses and donkeys. Based on recent reports of fatal arterial obstruction due to S. vulgaris infection in donkeys, it may be evident to consider acute colic caused by this pathogenic parasite a re-emerging disease in donkeys and horses.

  10. Immunological studies on Metastrongylus apri infection, 3. Migratory behavior in the guinea pig of 5 x 10/sup 4/R X-irradiated M. apri larvae used as attenuated larval vaccine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onishi, T [Osaka Prefectural Univ., Sakai (Japan). Coll. of Agriculture

    1975-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the migratory behavior of Metastronglylus apri larvae artificially attenuated by X-ray irradiation. Guinea pigs were inoculated orally with 2,000 M. apri larvae irradiated with 5 x 10/sup 4/ R of X-rays and killed at various intervals after inoculation. Various tissues were collected from them and examined for larvae by the pepsin digestion method (group A) and additionally by the microscopical method (group B). All larvae recovered were examined for the number and developmental stage. Results obtained are summarized as follows. On the 1st to 3rd days after inoculation, a large number of 3rd- or 4th-stage larvae were recovered from various tissues, as well as from the same tissues of normal controls. From the lungs, a few female 5th-stage worms were recovered on the 5th to 12th days, but to worms on the 15th day or later. There were no larvae in the thoracic cavity, blood from the right heart, or small intestine on any given day. In the tissues, especially in the walls of the cecum and the anterior part of the colon, and on the omentum, many larvae grew to early 4th-stage ones, but few to advanced 4th-stage ones. All the worms recovered from the lungs grew to early 5th-stage ones, but failed to reach the mature state. On the basis of these findings, it is concluded that 5 x 10/sup 4/ R X-irradiated larvae could penetrate rapidly into the gut and migrated for about 1 to 3 days after inoculation like normal larvae, but that they could grow neither to advanced 4th-stage ones nor to early 5th-stage ones. In other words, it can be seen that 5 x 10/sup 4/ R X-irradiation affected M. apri larvae over, or at least immediately after, the period of transition from the 4th to 5th stage. The 4th stage, however, was sustained longer in the X-irradiated larvae than in normal ones. All the larvae that had invaded tissues may have been caught mainly in the gut, on the omentum, or at other sites to be killed and organized in these tissues.

  11. Specific serum protein changes associated with primary and secondary Strongylus vulgaris infections in pony yearlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, J E

    1987-03-01

    The concentrations of haptoglobin, immunoglobin (Ig)G(T) and IgG were measured in the serum of four previously parasite-free pony yearlings following a single dose of 700 (Group H) or 200 (Group L) stage three Strongylus vulgaris larvae (L3) and following a reinfection with the same doses 34 weeks later. The results are compared with an uninfected control pony. The haptoglobin concentration increased during Weeks 1 to 6 and 14 to 17 after infection in the serum of the ponies receiving 200 L3, but in only one pony dosed with 700 L3 (during Weeks 1 to 16). The serum haptoglobin also increased during the first seven weeks after the second infection, in three of the four ponies following the second dose of larvae. The serum IgG(T) concentration started to increase from Week 6 or 9 in the ponies given 700 L3, reaching peaks of 44 and 32 g/litre respectively, eight to nine weeks later, compared with a peak of 16 g/litre 20 to 22 weeks after infection in ponies dosed with 200 L3. The IgG(T) concentration increased to a maximum of 25 g/litre in the serum of only one of the four ponies after the reinfection. The serum IgG concentration in all ponies increased nearly twofold during the first eight weeks after both the primary and secondary dose of larvae. It is concluded that the measurement of specific proteins is more reliable and quicker than the electrophoretic separation and quantitation of protein bands, in tracing changes in serum proteins following the artificial infection of ponies with S vulgaris larvae.

  12. Bronchoalveolar lavage as a tool for evaluation of cellular alteration during Aelurostrongylus abstrusus infection in cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor M. Ribeiro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL is a procedure that retrieves cells and other elements from the lungs for evaluation, which helps in the diagnosis of pulmonary diseases. The aim of this study was to perform this procedure for cellular analysis of BAL fluid alterations during experimental infection with Aelurostrongylus abstrusus in cats. Fourteen cats were individually inoculated with 800 third stage larvae of A. abstrusus and five non-infected cats lined as a control group. The BAL procedure was performed through the use of an endotracheal tube on the nineteen cats with a mean age of 18 months, on 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180 and 270 days after infection. Absolute cell counts in the infected cats revealed that alveolar macrophages and eosinophils were the predominant cells following infection. This study shows that the technique allows us to retrieve cells and first stage larvae what provides information about the inflammatory process caused by aelurostrongylosis.

  13. Parasites of fish larvae: do they follow metabolic energetic laws?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Gabriela; Landaeta, Mauricio F; Palacios-Fuentes, Pamela; George-Nascimento, Mario

    2015-11-01

    Eumetazoan parasites in fish larvae normally exhibit large body sizes relative to their hosts. This observation raises a question about the potential effects that parasites might have on small fish. We indirectly evaluated this question using energetic metabolic laws based on body volume and the parasite densities. We compared the biovolume as well as the numeric and volumetric densities of parasites over the host body volume of larval and juvenile-adult fish and the average of these parasitological descriptors for castrator parasites and the parasites found in the fish studied here. We collected 5266 fish larvae using nearshore zooplankton sampling and 1556 juveniles and adult fish from intertidal rocky pools in central Chile. We considered only the parasitized hosts: 482 fish larvae and 629 juvenile-adult fish. We obtained 31 fish species; 14 species were in both plankton and intertidal zones. Fish larvae exhibited a significantly smaller biovolume but larger numeric and volumetric densities of parasites than juvenile-adult fish. Therefore, fish larvae showed a large proportion of parasite biovolume per unit of body host (cm(3)). However, the general scaling of parasitological descriptors and host body volume were similar between larvae and juvenile-adult fish. The ratio between the biovolume of parasites and the host body volume in fish larvae was similar to the proportion observed in castrator parasites. Furthermore, the ratios were different from those of juvenile-adult fish, which suggests that the presence of parasites implies a high energetic cost for fish larvae that would diminish the fitness of these small hosts.

  14. Investigations into the prevention of prenatal and lactogenic Toxocara canis infections in puppies by application of moxidectin to the pregnant dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krämer, F; Hammerstein, R; Stoye, M; Epe, C

    2006-06-01

    Aim of the investigation was to examine whether two administrations of moxidectin to pregnant dogs could prevent pre-natal and lactogenic infections of puppies with reactivated Toxocara canis larvae. Four pregnant beagles, infected experimentally with 20 000 embryonated eggs of T. canis, were treated subcutaneously with 1 mg moxidectin per kg body weight on days 40 and 55 of pregnancy (5-13 days before parturition). One further dam and its puppies served as untreated control. Two applications of moxidectin completely prevented pre-natal and lactogenic infections in the puppies. Neither intestinal stages nor somatic larvae were found in the dams or their corresponding puppies. All puppies and dams of the treatment group remained coproscopically negative until 42 days after parturition. The administration of moxidectin did not show any side effects in the dams. None of the puppies of the treated dams showed any pathological abnormalities. In the untreated dam one adult and 26 somatic larvae of T. canis were detected at necropsy. All puppies of the untreated dam showed a patent T. canis infection from day 28 post-natum (p.n.); 296 pre-adult and adult stages of T. canis were spontaneously eliminated and 51 intestinal stages and five somatic larvae of T. canis were recovered at necropsy. In contrast to the puppies of the treated dams all negative control puppies showed blood eosinophilia after parturition and elevated liver enzyme levels.

  15. The larva of Paracapnia disala (Jewett) (Plecoptera: Capniidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth W. Stewart

    2010-01-01

    The larva of Paracapnia disala (Jewett) was associated from two first order headwater streams in the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, Oregon, U.S.A. Larvae of this first western Paracapnia species to be associated, were studied and compared morphologically with those of the eastern Paracapnia angulata...

  16. Composition, Abundance and Distribution of Brachyuran Larvae in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Ocypodidae, Grapsidae and Xanthidae. Abundance of brachyuran larvae was significantly positively correlated with total zooplankton abundance (r2 = 0.8) and salinity (r2 = 0.71). Keywords: Brachyuran larvae, abundance, composition, Mida creek, Kenya West Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science Vol. 3 (2) 2004: pp.

  17. How to kill the honey bee larva: genomic potential and virulence mechanisms of Paenibacillus larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marvin Djukic

    Full Text Available Paenibacillus larvae, a Gram positive bacterial pathogen, causes American Foulbrood (AFB, which is the most serious infectious disease of honey bees. In order to investigate the genomic potential of P. larvae, two strains belonging to two different genotypes were sequenced and used for comparative genome analysis. The complete genome sequence of P. larvae strain DSM 25430 (genotype ERIC II consisted of 4,056,006 bp and harbored 3,928 predicted protein-encoding genes. The draft genome sequence of P. larvae strain DSM 25719 (genotype ERIC I comprised 4,579,589 bp and contained 4,868 protein-encoding genes. Both strains harbored a 9.7 kb plasmid and encoded a large number of virulence-associated proteins such as toxins and collagenases. In addition, genes encoding large multimodular enzymes producing nonribosomally peptides or polyketides were identified. In the genome of strain DSM 25719 seven toxin associated loci were identified and analyzed. Five of them encoded putatively functional toxins. The genome of strain DSM 25430 harbored several toxin loci that showed similarity to corresponding loci in the genome of strain DSM 25719, but were non-functional due to point mutations or disruption by transposases. Although both strains cause AFB, significant differences between the genomes were observed including genome size, number and composition of transposases, insertion elements, predicted phage regions, and strain-specific island-like regions. Transposases, integrases and recombinases are important drivers for genome plasticity. A total of 390 and 273 mobile elements were found in strain DSM 25430 and strain DSM 25719, respectively. Comparative genomics of both strains revealed acquisition of virulence factors by horizontal gene transfer and provided insights into evolution and pathogenicity.

  18. How to kill the honey bee larva: genomic potential and virulence mechanisms of Paenibacillus larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djukic, Marvin; Brzuszkiewicz, Elzbieta; Fünfhaus, Anne; Voss, Jörn; Gollnow, Kathleen; Poppinga, Lena; Liesegang, Heiko; Garcia-Gonzalez, Eva; Genersch, Elke; Daniel, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    Paenibacillus larvae, a Gram positive bacterial pathogen, causes American Foulbrood (AFB), which is the most serious infectious disease of honey bees. In order to investigate the genomic potential of P. larvae, two strains belonging to two different genotypes were sequenced and used for comparative genome analysis. The complete genome sequence of P. larvae strain DSM 25430 (genotype ERIC II) consisted of 4,056,006 bp and harbored 3,928 predicted protein-encoding genes. The draft genome sequence of P. larvae strain DSM 25719 (genotype ERIC I) comprised 4,579,589 bp and contained 4,868 protein-encoding genes. Both strains harbored a 9.7 kb plasmid and encoded a large number of virulence-associated proteins such as toxins and collagenases. In addition, genes encoding large multimodular enzymes producing nonribosomally peptides or polyketides were identified. In the genome of strain DSM 25719 seven toxin associated loci were identified and analyzed. Five of them encoded putatively functional toxins. The genome of strain DSM 25430 harbored several toxin loci that showed similarity to corresponding loci in the genome of strain DSM 25719, but were non-functional due to point mutations or disruption by transposases. Although both strains cause AFB, significant differences between the genomes were observed including genome size, number and composition of transposases, insertion elements, predicted phage regions, and strain-specific island-like regions. Transposases, integrases and recombinases are important drivers for genome plasticity. A total of 390 and 273 mobile elements were found in strain DSM 25430 and strain DSM 25719, respectively. Comparative genomics of both strains revealed acquisition of virulence factors by horizontal gene transfer and provided insights into evolution and pathogenicity.

  19. Chironomidae bloodworms larvae as aquatic amphibian food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fard, Mojdeh Sharifian; Pasmans, Frank; Adriaensen, Connie; Laing, Gijs Du; Janssens, Geert Paul Jules; Martel, An

    2014-01-01

    Different species of chironomids larvae (Diptera: Chironomidae) so-called bloodworms are widely distributed in the sediments of all types of freshwater habitats and considered as an important food source for amphibians. In our study, three species of Chironomidae (Baeotendipes noctivagus, Benthalia dissidens, and Chironomus riparius) were identified in 23 samples of larvae from Belgium, Poland, Russia, and Ukraine provided by a distributor in Belgium. We evaluated the suitability of these samples as amphibian food based on four different aspects: the likelihood of amphibian pathogens spreading, risk of heavy metal accumulation in amphibians, nutritive value, and risk of spreading of zoonotic bacteria (Salmonella, Campylobacter, and ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae). We found neither zoonotic bacteria nor the amphibian pathogens Ranavirus and Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in these samples. Our data showed that among the five heavy metals tested (Hg, Cu, Cd, Pb, and Zn), the excess level of Pb in two samples and low content of Zn in four samples implicated potential risk of Pb accumulation and Zn inadequacy. Proximate nutritional analysis revealed that, chironomidae larvae are consistently high in protein but more variable in lipid content. Accordingly, variations in the lipid: protein ratio can affect the amount and pathway of energy supply to the amphibians. Our study indicated although environmentally-collected chironomids larvae may not be vectors of specific pathogens, they can be associated with nutritional imbalances and may also result in Pb bioaccumulation and Zn inadequacy in amphibians. Chironomidae larvae may thus not be recommended as single diet item for amphibians. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Transient infection of the zebrafish notochord with E. coli induces chronic inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai Nguyen-Chi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Zebrafish embryos and larvae are now well-established models in which to study infectious diseases. Infections with non-pathogenic Gram-negative Escherichia coli induce a strong and reproducible inflammatory response. Here, we study the cellular response of zebrafish larvae when E. coli bacteria are injected into the notochord and describe the effects. First, we provide direct evidence that the notochord is a unique organ that is inaccessible to leukocytes (macrophages and neutrophils during the early stages of inflammation. Second, we show that notochord infection induces a host response that is characterised by rapid clearance of the bacteria, strong leukocyte recruitment around the notochord and prolonged inflammation that lasts several days after bacteria clearance. During this inflammatory response, il1b is first expressed in macrophages and subsequently at high levels in neutrophils. Moreover, knock down of il1b alters the recruitment of neutrophils to the notochord, demonstrating the important role of this cytokine in the maintenance of inflammation in the notochord. Eventually, infection of the notochord induces severe defects of the notochord that correlate with neutrophil degranulation occurring around this tissue. This is the first in vivo evidence that neutrophils can degranulate in the absence of a direct encounter with a pathogen. Persistent inflammation, neutrophil infiltration and restructuring of the extracellular matrix are defects that resemble those seen in bone infection and in some chondropathies. As the notochord is a transient embryonic structure that is closely related to cartilage and bone and that contributes to vertebral column formation, we propose infection of the notochord in zebrafish larvae as a new model to study the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying cartilage and bone inflammation.

  1. Population dynamics of Ascaris suum in trickle-infected pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejsum, Peter; Thamsborg, Stig M; Petersen, Heidi H; Kringel, Helene; Fredholm, Merete; Roepstorff, Allan

    2009-10-01

    The population dynamics of Ascaris suum was studied by long-term exposure of pigs to infective eggs. The pigs were experimentally inoculated with 25 A. suum eggs/kg/day, and 7, 8, and 8 pigs were necropsied at weeks 4, 8, and 14 postinoculation (PI), respectively. Despite the fact that the pigs were continuously reinfected, dramatic reductions in numbers of liver lesions (white spots) and migrating lung larvae were observed as a function of time. However, even at the end of the study, a few larvae were able to complete migration, but these larvae seemed unable to mature in the small intestine. Thus, the adult worm population seemed to consist of worms from the first part of the exposure period. The noticeable decrease in number of white spots suggests that the level of exposure is not reflected in the number of white spots in the late phase of a continuous infection. The serum levels of A. suum L3-specific IgG1 and IgA were significantly elevated by week 4 PI, after which the antibody levels declined. The population dynamics and parasite regulating mechanisms are discussed for A. suum in pigs as well as for the closely related species A. lumbricoides in humans.

  2. Quantification of vestibular-induced eye movements in zebrafish larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mo Weike

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vestibular reflexes coordinate movements or sensory input with changes in body or head position. Vestibular-evoked responses that involve the extraocular muscles include the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR, a compensatory eye movement to stabilize retinal images. Although an angular VOR attributable to semicircular canal stimulation was reported to be absent in free-swimming zebrafish larvae, recent studies reveal that vestibular-induced eye movements can be evoked in zebrafish larvae by both static tilts and dynamic rotations that tilt the head with respect to gravity. Results We have determined herein the basis of sensitivity of the larval eye movements with respect to vestibular stimulus, developmental stage, and sensory receptors of the inner ear. For our experiments, video recordings of larvae rotated sinusoidally at 0.25 Hz were analyzed to quantitate eye movements under infrared illumination. We observed a robust response that appeared as early as 72 hours post fertilization (hpf, which increased in amplitude over time. Unlike rotation about an earth horizontal axis, rotation about an earth vertical axis at 0.25 Hz did not evoke eye movements. Moreover, vestibular-induced responses were absent in mutant cdh23 larvae and larvae lacking anterior otoliths. Conclusions Our results provide evidence for a functional vestibulo-oculomotor circuit in 72 hpf zebrafish larvae that relies upon sensory input from anterior/utricular otolith organs.

  3. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names CI to CO

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  4. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names DH to EC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  5. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names TF to U

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  6. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names HJ to ID

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  7. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names AN to AR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  8. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names SJ to ST

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  9. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names CP to DE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  10. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names C to CE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  11. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names EV to GN

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  12. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names V to Z

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  13. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names ED to EU

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  14. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names SD to SI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  15. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names MB to MO

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  16. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names LJ to MA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  17. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names AS to BA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  18. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names SB to SC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  19. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names MP to NA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  20. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names SU to TE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  1. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names PL to PO

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  2. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names IE to LA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  3. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names A to AM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  4. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names HB to HI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  5. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names OM to OX

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  6. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names Q to SA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  7. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names PP to PZ

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  8. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names GO to HA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  9. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names NB to OL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  10. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names LB to LI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  11. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names BCE to BZ

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  12. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names CD to CH

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  13. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names OY to PI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  14. Evaluation of Pathogenicity of the Fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana in Hazelnut Weevil (Curculio nucum L., Coleoptera, Curculionidae) Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yunqing; Liu, Ting; Zhao, Yixin; Geng, Wanting; Chen, Longtao; Liu, Jianfeng

    2016-12-01

    The nut weevil ( Curculio nucum ) is one of the most important and widespread pests in hazelnut orchards. In order to screen entomopathogenic fungal strains with high virulence against C. nucum , the growth rate, sporulation, and cumulative mortality of different Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana strains were investigated, and the process by which M. anisopliae CoM 02 infects C. nucum larvae was observed using scanning electron microscopy. The results indicated that the growth rate and sporulation of different fungal strains significantly differed. Thirteen days after inoculation with M. anisopliae CoM 02, the cumulative mortality of C. nucum larvae reached 100 %, which was considerably higher than that of the other five strains. As the most virulent of the six test strains, the cadaver rate, LT 50 , and LT 90 of M. anisopliae CoM 02 were 93.4 %, 7.05 and 11.90 days, respectively. Analysis of the infection process by scanning electron microscopy showed that the spore attachment, hyphal germination, hyphal rapid growth, and sporulation of M. anisopliae CoM 02 occurred on the 3rd, 5th, 7th, and 11th day after inoculation, respectively, indicating that the infection cycle takes approximately 11 days. This finding suggests that the highly virulent M. anisopliae plays an important role in the biocontrol of C. nucum in China.

  15. Quantification of Leishmania infantum DNA in females, eggs and larvae of Rhipicephalus sanguineus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otranto Domenico

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Leishmania infantum is a widespread parasite that affects dogs and humans worldwide. It is transmitted primarily by phlebotomine sand flies, but recently there has been much discussion on the role of the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, as a potential vector for this protozoan. Recent laboratory and field investigations have contributed to this hypothesis, but a proof of the vector capacity of R. sanguineus has yet to be provided. Following a recent study suggesting that L. infantum passes transovarially from the female tick to her progeny the current study provides new evidence of the transovarial transmission of L. infantum in R. sanguineus. Methods Engorged females of R. sanguineus were collected from the environment in a dog shelter of southern Italy, where canine leishmaniosis is endemic. In the laboratory, 97 females that successfully laid eggs, their eggs and the originated larvae were subjected to DNA extraction and then tested by a TaqMan-based real time PCR targeting a fragment of the kinetoplast DNA (kDNA of L. infantum. Results and conclusions L. infantum kDNA was detected in engorged females, their eggs and originating larvae, with a parasite load ranging from 1.8 × 10-4 to 10.0 × 100. Certainly, the current study provides further evidence on the passage of L. infantum from R. sanguineus females to their offspring. The observation of promastigote forms in larvae is necessary to definitively confirm this hypothesis, which would raise interesting questions about the possible role of ticks in the maintenance of L. infantum infection among dogs in certain areas.

  16. The use of fly larvae for organic waste treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čičková, Helena; Newton, G Larry; Lacy, R Curt; Kozánek, Milan

    2015-01-01

    The idea of using fly larvae for processing of organic waste was proposed almost 100 years ago. Since then, numerous laboratory studies have shown that several fly species are well suited for biodegradation of organic waste, with the house fly (Musca domestica L.) and the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens L.) being the most extensively studied insects for this purpose. House fly larvae develop well in manure of animals fed a mixed diet, while black soldier fly larvae accept a greater variety of decaying organic matter. Blow fly and flesh fly maggots are better suited for biodegradation of meat processing waste. The larvae of these insects have been successfully used to reduce mass of animal manure, fecal sludge, municipal waste, food scrapes, restaurant and market waste, as well as plant residues left after oil extraction. Higher yields of larvae are produced on nutrient-rich wastes (meat processing waste, food waste) than on manure or plant residues. Larvae may be used as animal feed or for production of secondary products (biodiesel, biologically active substances). Waste residue becomes valuable fertilizer. During biodegradation the temperature of the substrate rises, pH changes from neutral to alkaline, ammonia release increases, and moisture decreases. Microbial load of some pathogens can be substantially reduced. Both larvae and digested residue may require further treatment to eliminate pathogens. Facilities utilizing natural fly populations, as well as pilot and full-scale plants with laboratory-reared fly populations have been shown to be effective and economically feasible. The major obstacles associated with the production of fly larvae from organic waste on an industrial scale seem to be technological aspects of scaling-up the production capacity, insufficient knowledge of fly biology necessary to produce large amounts of eggs, and current legislation. Technological innovations could greatly improve performance of the biodegradation facilities and

  17. Subcutaneous dirofilariosis (Dirofilaria repens: an infection spreading throughout the old world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Genchi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two main Dirofilaria species infect dogs: D. immitis and D. repens. While D. immitis has a worldwide distribution, D. repens is currently found only in Europe, Asia, and Africa. Adult D. repens are located in subcutaneous tissues of natural hosts where they survive for long periods of time. First-stage larvae, microfilariae, circulate in the peripheral bloodstream, where they are taken up by the mosquito intermediate hosts. Infected mosquitoes then transmit infective third-stage (L3 larvae to new hosts through the blood meal. In dogs, most infections are asymptomatic, although cutaneous disorders such as pruritus, dermal swelling, subcutaneous nodules, and ocular conjunctivitis can be observed. Currently, two factors have increased the concerns about this parasitic infection 1 its spread throughout the European countries and to other continents and its prevalence in dog populations, where in some cases it has overcome D. immitis; and 2 its zoonotic potential, which is much greater than that of D. immitis. Results Different hypotheses can be put forward to explain these concerns. First, climate change has allowed more favorable conditions for survival of culicid vectors. Second, accidental hosts such as humans may have a less efficient immune reaction against a parasite that is located in subcutaneous tissues, and thus less exposed to the host’s immune response than, for instance, D. immitis. Furthermore, the absence of clinical signs in the majority of canine infections and the difficulty in diagnosing the infection, due to the lack of serologic tests and thus the reliance on the identification of microfilariae and differentiation from D. immitis to confirm the presence of the parasite, favor the further spread of this species. Finally, among the macrocyclic lactones currently used to prevent heartworm infection, only moxidectin has been found to be fully effective against the infective larvae transmitted by mosquitoes and

  18. DETECTION OF PAENIBACILLUS LARVAE SPORES IN HONEY SAMPLES FROM BEEKEEPERS OF THE CENTRAL REGION OF ALGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adjlane Noureddine

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The American foulbrood in one of the most serious diseases that may affect brood of larvae and pupae stages, which cause economic losses and biological hazards in a large beekeeping sector in several countries across the world in general and Algeria in particular. The causative agent of this disease is a bacterium called Paenibacillus larvae that target bees Apis mellifera the latter are often present in honey.The aim of this project is studying the spread of this disease in the northern region of Algeria through the analysis of honey obtained from these areas. Microbiological, microscopic and biochemical methods were used in this study. The results obtained have shown that the prevalence rate varies from region to region, several factors may explain this variation in the prevalence of the disease. The average infection rate for all regions is 32%. To prevent the spread of this disease in Algeria must be taken is mandatory and means of prevention into account.

  19. First record of a nematode Metastrongyloidea (Aelurostrongylus abstrusus larvae) in Achatina (Lissachatina) fulica (Mollusca, Achatinidae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiengo, Silvana C; Fernandez, Monica A; Torres, Eduardo J L; Coelho, Pablo M; Lanfredi, Reinalda M

    2008-05-01

    Achatina (Lissachatina) fulica was introduced in Brazil in the 1980s for commercial purposes ("escargot" farming) and nowadays, mainly by human activity, it is widespread in at least 23 out of 26 Brazilian states and Brasília, including the Amazonian region and natural reserves, where besides a general nuisance for people it is a pest and also a public health concern, since it is one of the natural intermediate host of Angiostrongylus cantonensis, ethiological agent of the meningoencephalitis in Asia. As Brazil is experiencing the explosive phase of the invasion, the Laboratório de Malacologia do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz/Fiocruz has been receiving samples of these molluscs for identification and search for Angiostrongylus cantonensis and Angiostrongylus costaricensis larvae. While examining samples of A. fulica different nematode larvae were obtained, including Aelurostrongylus, whose different species are parasites of felids, dogs, primates, and badger. Morphological and morphometric analyses presented herein indicated the species Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, as well as the occurrence of other nematode larvae (Strongyluris-like) found in the interior of the pallial cavity of A. fulica. This is the first report in Brazil of the development of A. abstrusus infective larvae in A. fulica evidencing the veterinary importance of this mollusc in the transmission of A. abstrusus to domestic cats. Since the spread of A. fulica is pointed out in the literature as one of the main causative spread of the meningoencephalitis caused by A. cantonensis the authors emphasize the need of sanitary vigilance of snails and rats from vulnerable areas for A. cantonensis introduction as the port side areas.

  20. Identification of Hymenolepis diminuta Cysticercoid Larvae in Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) Beetles from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makki, Mahsa Sadat; Mowlavi, Gholamreza; Shahbazi, Farideh; Abai, Mohammad Reza; Najafi, Faezeh; Hosseini-Farash, Bibi Razieh; Teimoori, Salma; Hasanpour, Hamid; Naddaf, Saied Reza

    2017-06-01

    Hymenolepis diminuta is a cestod of rodents and rarely infects humans. Infection in humans is via ingestion of infected insects. This study was aimed to detect H. diminuta cysticercoids in red flour beetles, Tribolium castaneum, and cockroaches originated from different regions of Iran. The red flour beetles and cockroaches were collected from local bakeries in five cities including Tehran, Ahvaz, Kazerun, and Sabzevar during 2010-2011. Some beetles and cockroaches were colonized in insectary and adults from F1 generation were fed on H. diminuta eggs. Both laboratory-infected and field-collected samples were dissected and examined for cysticercoids. Detection of H. diminuta DNA in T. castaneum beetles was performed by targeting a partial sequence of Ribosomal gene. Except the beetles from Ahvaz, all specimens were negative for cysticercoid by microscopy. Of the four dissected beetles from Ahvaz, one harbored 12 cysticercoids. Also, 110 (52%) of laboratory-infected beetles showed infection with an average of 12-14 larvae. None of the cockroaches was infected. Two beetles from Ahvaz, including the remainder of the microscopic positive specimen, yielded the expected amplicon in PCR assay. The H. diminuta DNA sequences generated in this study were identical and matched 97-100% with similar sequences from GenBank database. Lack of infection in the majority of beetles may reflect a low rat infestation rate in those areas, alternatively, the examined specimens might not have been the representative samples of the T. castaneum populations.

  1. Crustacean Larvae-Vision in the Plankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Thomas W; Bok, Michael J; Lin, Chan

    2017-11-01

    We review the visual systems of crustacean larvae, concentrating on the compound eyes of decapod and stomatopod larvae as well as the functional and behavioral aspects of their vision. Larval compound eyes of these macrurans are all built on fundamentally the same optical plan, the transparent apposition eye, which is eminently suitable for modification into the abundantly diverse optical systems of the adults. Many of these eyes contain a layer of reflective structures overlying the retina that produces a counterilluminating eyeshine, so they are unique in being camouflaged both by their transparency and by their reflection of light spectrally similar to background light to conceal the opaque retina. Besides the pair of compound eyes, at least some crustacean larvae have a non-imaging photoreceptor system based on a naupliar eye and possibly other frontal eyes. Larval compound-eye photoreceptors send axons to a large and well-developed optic lobe consisting of a series of neuropils that are similar to those of adult crustaceans and insects, implying sophisticated analysis of visual stimuli. The visual system fosters a number of advanced and flexible behaviors that permit crustacean larvae to survive extended periods in the plankton and allows them to reach acceptable adult habitats, within which to metamorphose. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Observations of the sound producing organs in achelate lobster larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Fornshell

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Achelata, lobsters lacking claws and having a phyllosoma larva, are divided into two families, the Palinuridae or spiny lobsters and the Scyllaridae or slipper lobsters. Within the Palinuridae adults of two groups were identified by Parker (1884, the Stridentesthat are capable of producing sounds, and the Silentesthat are not known to produce sounds. The Stridentes employ a file-like structure on the dorsal surface of the cephalon and a plectrum consisting of a series of ridges on the proximal segment of the second antenna to produce their sounds. All species of Achelata hatch as an unpigmented thin phyllosoma larva. The phyllosoma larva of the Stridentes have a presumptive file-like structure on the dorsal cephalon. A similar file-like structure is found on the cephalon of one species of Silentes, Palinurellus wienckki, and some but not all of the phyllosoma larvae of the Scyllaridae. No presumptive plectrum is found on the second antenna of any of the phyllosoma larvae. Presence of a presumptive file-like structure on phyllosoma larvae of Silentes and Scyllaridae suggests that the ability to produce sounds may have been lost secondarily in the Silentes and Scyllaridae.

  3. Starvation-Induced Dietary Behaviour in Drosophila melanogaster Larvae and Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Muhammad; Chaudhary, Safee Ullah; Afzal, Ahmed Jawaad; Tariq, Muhammad

    2015-09-24

    Drosophila melanogaster larvae are classified as herbivores and known to feed on non-carnivorous diet under normal conditions. However, when nutritionally challenged these larvae exhibit cannibalistic behaviour by consuming a diet composed of larger conspecifics. Herein, we report that cannibalism in Drosophila larvae is confined not only to scavenging on conspecifics that are larger in size, but also on their eggs. Moreover, such cannibalistic larvae develop as normally as those grown on standard cornmeal medium. When stressed, Drosophila melanogaster larvae can also consume a carnivorous diet derived from carcasses of organisms belonging to diverse taxonomic groups, including Musca domestica, Apis mellifera, and Lycosidae sp. While adults are ill-equipped to devour conspecific carcasses, they selectively oviposit on them and also consume damaged cadavers of conspecifics. Thus, our results suggest that nutritionally stressed Drosophila show distinct as well as unusual feeding behaviours that can be classified as detritivorous, cannibalistic and/or carnivorous.

  4. Parasite infections in nestling red-shouldered hawks (Buteo lineatus) in northeast Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Janet C; Dubay, Shelli A; Huspeni, Todd C; VanLanen, Andrew R; Gerhold, Richard W

    2010-06-01

    Red-shouldered hawks (Buteo lineatus) are threatened in Wisconsin and long-term data suggest that nest productivity is low in the state for unknown reasons. Our objective was to determine whether red-shouldered hawks in northeast Wisconsin were infected with parasites that could contribute to low nest productivity. We examined nestlings for the presence of Trichomonas gallinae, Protocalliphora avium, and blood parasites in June 2006 and 2007. We did not detect T. gallinae in throat swabs taken from 24 nestlings in 2007. Ear canals of nestlings were parasitized by P. avium larvae in 10 of 11 (91%) nests and in 22 of 24 (92%) nestlings. Larvae were found in higher intensity in 1 ear relative to the other. Leucocytozoon toddi was present in 90.5% (38/42) of the nestlings. At least 1 bird in each nest was infected. Intensity of L. toddi averaged 48.6 +/- 58.3 infected cells per 2,000 erythrocytes (2.4 +/- 2.9%). No other blood parasites were identified.

  5. Phylogenetics links monster larva to deep-sea shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken-Grissom, Heather D; Felder, Darryl L; Vollmer, Nicole L; Martin, Joel W; Crandall, Keith A

    2012-10-01

    Mid-water plankton collections commonly include bizarre and mysterious developmental stages that differ conspicuously from their adult counterparts in morphology and habitat. Unaware of the existence of planktonic larval stages, early zoologists often misidentified these unique morphologies as independent adult lineages. Many such mistakes have since been corrected by collecting larvae, raising them in the lab, and identifying the adult forms. However, challenges arise when the larva is remarkably rare in nature and relatively inaccessible due to its changing habitats over the course of ontogeny. The mid-water marine species Cerataspis monstrosa (Gray 1828) is an armored crustacean larva whose adult identity has remained a mystery for over 180 years. Our phylogenetic analyses, based in part on recent collections from the Gulf of Mexico, provide definitive evidence that the rare, yet broadly distributed larva, C. monstrosa, is an early developmental stage of the globally distributed deepwater aristeid shrimp, Plesiopenaeus armatus. Divergence estimates and phylogenetic relationships across five genes confirm the larva and adult are the same species. Our work demonstrates the diagnostic power of molecular systematics in instances where larval rearing seldom succeeds and morphology and habitat are not indicative of identity. Larval-adult linkages not only aid in our understanding of biodiversity, they provide insights into the life history, distribution, and ecology of an organism.

  6. Competência de peixes como predadores de larvas de Aedes aegypti, em condições de laboratório Efficacy of fish as predators of Aedes aegypti larvae, under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Pamplona de Góes Cavalcanti

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a competência de peixes na predação de larvas de Aedes aegypti, em condições de laboratório. MÉTODOS: Foram testados machos e fêmeas de cinco espécies de peixe. Os testes de predação duravam cinco semanas para cada espécie. Cada ensaio compreendia quatro caixas testes e quatro caixas controles. Das caixas controle, duas tinham somente um peixe e as outras duas, apenas larvas. Cada caixa teste continha um peixe e larvas. Na primeira semana foram expostas 100 larvas em cada caixa, e a cada semana acrescentavam-se 100 larvas por caixa/dia, até se obter um máximo de 500 larvas/dia. Comprimento e peso dos peixes foram medidos semanalmente. RESULTADOS: Foram utilizadas 369.000 larvas no total. O Trichogaster trichopteros foi a única espécie em que ambos os sexos predaram 100% das larvas oferecidas. O Betta splendens deixou de predar apenas 15 larvas. Machos do Poecilia reticulata apresentaram baixa capacidade larvófaga quando comparados às fêmeas da mesma espécie. Em relação ao peso e tamanho o Betta splendens mostrou-se capaz de predar 523 larvas/grama/dia. CONCLUSÕES: Fêmeas e machos de Trichogaster trichopteros e de Astyanax fasciatus, e fêmeas de Betta splendens e de Poecillia sphenops foram os peixes que apresentaram maior competência para predar as larvas. Embora com competência menor, machos de Poecillia sphenops e fêmeas de Poecilia reticulata foram capazes de eliminar o número de larvas de Aedes aegypti que possam emergir durante 24 horas num criadouro, em condições naturais. Machos de Poecilia reticulata não foram predadores eficazes.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of fish as predators of the Aedes aegypti larvae in laboratory conditions. METHODS: The male and female of five different fish were included in the experiment. The tests to measure their consumption ability lasted five weeks for each species. Each trial involved four test tanks and four control tanks. Two control tanks

  7. Anisakis simplex (Nematoda: Anisakidae) third-stage larval infections of marine cage cultured cobia, Rachycentron canadum L., in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Hsiu-Hui; Ku, Chen-Chun; Wang, Chun-Shun

    2010-08-04

    The first confirmed case of Anisakis simplex infection of the marine cage cobia, Rachycentron canadum (L.), was recorded in Taiwan. The case investigation revealed the presence of third-stage larvae (L3) in either the stomach lumen or abdominal cavity of the cobia but never within the musculatures. Larvae were mainly encapsulated in the peritoneal mesentery on the outer surface of the stomach wall and occasionally on the liver surface. Part of the diet fed to the cobia includes chopped raw fish, and of these, seven species were found to harbor these larvae (as paratenic hosts), indicating that these particular fish might be the larval sources for this infection. To illustrate the course of infection and distribution of this parasite inside cobia, both juvenile and adult cobia were experimentally infected with live L3 by oral transmission. The prevalence of infection reached 100% at the end of all trials. The course of the infection was assessed after necropsy by histological and ultrastructural observations. A. simplex L3 recovered from various locations within juvenile cobia at different post-infection (p.i.) times were at the L3 stage and did not grow significantly. The L3 either adhered to or penetrated into the gastric mucosa of cobia by 2 h p.i. By 25 d p.i., many were trapped within the submucosa and encapsulated by fibroconnective tissue. This phenomenon was more apparent in adult cobia, such that 37.5-86.0% of the injected L3 were primarily found encapsulated within the gastric submucosa. Based upon a PCR-RFLP assay, the larvae encountered in this study were identified as having a recombinant genotype of A. simplex sensu stricto and A. pegreffii. Based upon the results of this study, strategies to ensure the safety of seafood manufactured from cobia and to prevent the potential risks of anisakiasis or allergies risk to consumers were suggested. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Role of the eosinophil in serum-mediated adherence of equine leukocytes to infective larvae of Strongylus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klei, T R; Chapman, M R; Dennis, V A

    1992-06-01

    The adherence of equine leukocytes to Strongylus vulgaris infective larvae (L3) in the presence of normal and immune sera was examined in vitro. Immune sera promoted adherence of buffy coat cells from ponies with S. vulgaris-induced eosinophilia (eosinophilic ponies) to S. vulgaris L3. However, eosinophils in the buffy coat cells were the predominant adherent cell type. Studies using leukocyte populations enriched for eosinophils, neutrophils, and mononuclear cells from eosinophilic ponies support the observations using buffy coat cells that eosinophils were the main effector cells. Adherent eosinophils from eosinophilic ponies immobilized L3. Neutrophils were less adherent and did not immobilize L3. Mononuclear cells failed to adhere. Normal eosinophils from strongly-naive ponies did not immobilize S. vulgaris L3 in the presence of immune serum, suggesting the in vivo activation of eosinophils in eosinophilic animals. Immune serum promoted less adherence of buffy coat cells to Strongylus edentatus or mixed species of Cyathostominae L3, suggesting that the serum-mediated cellular adherence phenomenon was species-specific. Normal serum promoted less cellular adherence to S. vulgaris L3 than immune serum. The adherence mediated by normal serum was removed by heat inactivation, suggesting that this nonspecific phenomenon was a complement-mediated reaction. Immune globulins promoted reactions similar to that seen using heat-inactivated immune serum, whereas normal globulins did not promote adherence. Immune globulins absorbed with pieces of S. vulgaris adult worms did not promote the adherence of buffy coat cells to S. vulgaris L3, suggesting that adult and L3 stages share antigens important in this phenomenon that resulted in the removal of specific adherence antibody during absorption.

  9. Weight changes and organ pathology in rats given edible larvae of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Processing the larvae by boiling and sun-drying reduced the toxicity on the liver and heart but not in the kidney. More research is needed on the toxicological aspects of the consumption of Cirina forda larva. Keywords: insect larvae, processing, entomophagy, histopathology, rats. African Journal of Biomedical Research Vol.

  10. DISTRIBUSI, KELIMPAHAN DAN VARIASI UKURAN LARVA IKAN DI ESTUARIA SUNGAI MUSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Prianto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian tentang distribusi, kelimpahan dan ukuran larva ikan dilakukan pada bulan Maret, Mei, Juni dan Oktober 2011. Stasiun pengambilan contoh meliputi Muara Delta Upang (stasiun 1, Muara Sungai Musi (stasiun 2 dan Pulau Payung (stasiun 3. Pengambilan larva pada siang hari menggunakan Bongo net yang berukuran mata jaring 250 µm. Hasil identifikasi diperoleh 13 famili ditinjau menurut musim, pada bulan Mei dan Oktober masing-masing diperoleh 7 famili, dan pada bulan juni sebanyak 3 famili. Kelimpahan larva ikan berkisar antara 9-46 ind/m3 dengan jumlah yang tertinggi (46 ind/m3 pada bulan Mei dan terendah pada bulan Juni (9 ind/m3. Larva ikan dari famili Gobiidae memiliki sebaran yang cukup luas baik spasial maupun temporal. Variasi ukuran larva ikan menurut famili setiap bulannya memiliki variasi ukuran yang hampir sama.  Research about the distribution, abundance and size of fish larvae was conducted in March, May, June and October 2011. Sampling stations encompasses Delta Upang (station 1, Muara Sungai Musi (station 2 and Pulau Payung (station 3. Larvae taken during the daytime using a Bongo net with mesh size of 250 µm. Identification results obtained 13 families based on the season, in May and October respectively 7 families, and in June as many as 3 families. Abundance of fish larval around 9-46 ind/m3 with the highest number (46 ind/m3 in May and the lowest in June (9 ind/m3. Larvae of Gobiidae family have a large distribution on spatial and temporal. The variation in size of fish larvae by family on each month are the same.

  11. Lagrangian Observations and Modeling of Marine Larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Claire B.; Irisson, Jean-Olivier

    2017-04-01

    Just within the past two decades, studies on the early-life history stages of marine organisms have led to new paradigms in population dynamics. Unlike passive plant seeds that are transported by the wind or by animals, marine larvae have motor and sensory capabilities. As a result, marine larvae have a tremendous capacity to actively influence their dispersal. This is continuously revealed as we develop new techniques to observe larvae in their natural environment and begin to understand their ability to detect cues throughout ontogeny, process the information, and use it to ride ocean currents and navigate their way back home, or to a place like home. We present innovative in situ and numerical modeling approaches developed to understand the underlying mechanisms of larval transport in the ocean. We describe a novel concept of a Lagrangian platform, the Drifting In Situ Chamber (DISC), designed to observe and quantify complex larval behaviors and their interactions with the pelagic environment. We give a brief history of larval ecology research with the DISC, showing that swimming is directional in most species, guided by cues as diverse as the position of the sun or the underwater soundscape, and even that (unlike humans!) larvae orient better and swim faster when moving as a group. The observed Lagrangian behavior of individual larvae are directly implemented in the Connectivity Modeling System (CMS), an open source Lagrangian tracking application. Simulations help demonstrate the impact that larval behavior has compared to passive Lagrangian trajectories. These methodologies are already the base of exciting findings and are promising tools for documenting and simulating the behavior of other small pelagic organisms, forecasting their migration in a changing ocean.

  12. Three different agglomerations of blood cells in a Caliroa limacina larva

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barendrecht, G.

    1949-01-01

    Some time ago in our laboratory a number of larvae of Caliroa limacina Retz., the well known slug like sawfly larva of the pear, were fixed in toto and sectioned into complete series, which were coloured with EHRLICH’S or HEIDENHAIN’S haematoxylin and counterstained with eosin. Most of these larvae

  13. Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) larvae: A new biodiesel resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhuoxue; Yang, Depo; Huang, Miaoling; Hu, Xinjun; Shen, Jiangang; Zhao, Zhimin; Chen, Jianping

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ►Chrysomya megacephala larvae oil as a new resource transforming to biodiesel. ► Larvae were grown up on restaurant garbage for five days then oil was extracted. ► Oil content in larvae was 24.40 wt% to 26.29 wt% comparing to soybean of 20 wt%. ► Utilization of garbage reduces pollution and makes economic recycle possible. ► The properties of ultimately FAME reach the ASTM D6751 and EN 14124 standards. -- Abstract: The current energy crisis greatly affects worldwide economic development. Therefore, identifying for new energy resources is critically important. In this study, we introduce a potential biodiesel source: Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) larvae (CML), which are proliferative and can be fed with a variety of low cost materials, such as manure, wheat bran, rotted meat and decayed vegetation. The potential of C. megacephala (Fabricius) larvae oil (CMLO) for biodiesel applications was explored. Oil was extracted from the CML raised by feeding on restaurant garbage for five days. The oil content obtained from the dehydrated CML ranged from 24.40% to 26.29% since restaurant garbage varies in composition day to day. The acid value of the CMLO was tested to be 1.10 mg KOH/g. Four factors were subsequently considered to optimize the transesterification of CMLO to biodiesel. The optimized conditions included a 6:1 methanol to oil molar ratio, 1.6% KOH catalyst, a reaction temperature of 55 °C and a reaction time of 30 min. Under these conditions, the maximum yield of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) from CMLO was 87.71%. Finally, properties of the FAME were within the specifications of ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 biodiesel standards. Therefore, we concluded that C. megacephala (Fabricius) larvae represent a potential alternative feedstock for biodiesel production.

  14. Evaluation of pyrantel pamoate, nitramisole and avermectin B1a against migrating Strongylus vulgaris larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocombe, J O; McCraw, B M

    1980-01-01

    Trials were conducted in ponies to evaluate the efficacy of pyrantel pamoate (Strongid-T(R)) and two newer anthelmintics not yet commercially available, nitramisole and avermectin B(1)a, against migrating Strongylus vulgaris larvae. Ponies were removed from their mares within 24-48 hr after birth and reared in isolation, worm free. Between six and 14 weeks of age they were infected with 2000 or 2500 infective S. vulgaris larvae. Subsequently, they were monitored daily for clinical signs until the experiment terminated at 28 days postinfection. All ponies showed increased body temperature and reduced appetite within the first week of infection. All anthelmintics were administered on day 7 and in addition pyrantel pamoate was given on day 8 postinfection. The anthelmintics were in liquid formulation. Nitramisole and pyrantel pamoate were given by stomach tube and avermectin B(1)a by subcutaneous injection.Following administration of these compounds toxic reactions were not observed. All anthelmintics caused a reduction in body temperature and increased appetite and effected a clinical cure. In ponies which were not treated with an anthelmintic, temperatures remained elevated and appetites never returned completely to normal. These ponies also showed variable degrees of lethargy, depression, recumbency and colic and the majority died between two and three weeks postinfection. At necropsy, these control ponies showed variable degrees of adhesions involving the abdominal organs, necrosis of the ileum and cecum and severe arteritis and thrombosis of the major abdominal arteries and their branches.Although pyrantel pamoate, used at eight times the therapeutic dose for intestinal nematodes in the horse, effected a clinical cure it did not produce a radical cure. At necropsy, ponies treated with pyrantel pamoate had arteritis and thrombosis of the cranial mesenteric artery and its major branches. Nitramisole and avermectin B(1)a were able to effect both a clinical and

  15. Laboratory trials to infect insects and nematodes by some acaropathogenic Hirsutella strains (Mycota: Clavicipitaceous anamorphs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bałazy, Stanisław; Wrzosek, Marta; Sosnowska, Danuta; Tkaczuk, Cezary; Muszewska, Anna

    2008-02-01

    Laboratory assays have been carried out to artificially infect insect larvae of the birch bark-beetle (Scolytus ratzeburgi Jans.-Coleoptera, Scolytidae) and codling moth Cydia pomonella L. -Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) as well as the potato cyst nematode-Globodera rostochiensis Wollenweber, sugar beet nematode-Heterodera schachtii Schmidt and root-knot nematode-Meloidogyne hapla Chif (Nematoda, Heteroderidae), by the phialoconidia of some fungal species of the genus Hirsutella. From among four species tested on insects only H. nodulosa Petch infected about 20% of S. ratzeburgi larvae, whereas H. kirchneri (Rostrup) Minter, Brady et Hall, H. minnesotensis Chen, Liu et Chen, and H. rostrata Bałazy et Wiśniewski did not affect insect larvae. Only single eggs of the root-knot nematode were infected by H. minnesotensis in the laboratory trials, whereas its larvae remained unaffected. No infection cases of the potato cyst nematode (G. rostochiensis) and sugar beet nematode eggs were obtained. Comparisons of DNA-ITS-region sequences of the investigated strains with GenBank data showed no differences between H. minnesotensis isolates from the nematodes Heterodera glycines Ichinohe and from tarsonemid mites (authors' isolate). A fragment of ITS 2 with the sequence characteristic only for H. minnesotensis was selected. Two cluster analyses indicated close similarity of this species to H. thompsonii as sister clades, but the latter appeared more heterogenous. Insect and mite pathogenic species H. nodulosa localizes close to specialized aphid pathogen H. aphidis, whereas the phytophagous mite pathogens H. kirchneri and H. gregis form a separate sister clade. Hirsutella rostrata does not show remarkable relations to the establishment of aforementioned groups. Interrelated considerations on the morphology, biology and DNA sequencing of investigated Hirsutella species state their identification more precisely and facilitate the establishment of systematic positions.

  16. EXPERIMENTAL INFECTION WITH Toxocara cati IN PIGS: MIGRATORY PATTERN AND PATHOLOGICAL RESPONSE IN EARLY PHASE

    <