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Sample records for malay population living

  1. Validity and reliability of a Malay version of the Lawton instrumental activities of daily living scale among the Malay speaking elderly in Malaysia.

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    Kadar, Masne; Ibrahim, Suhaili; Razaob, Nor Afifi; Chai, Siaw Chui; Harun, Dzalani

    2018-02-01

    The Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale is a tool often used to assess independence among elderly at home. Its suitability to be used with the elderly population in Malaysia has not been validated. This current study aimed to assess the validity and reliability of the Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale - Malay Version to Malay speaking elderly in Malaysia. This study was divided into three phases: (1) translation and linguistic validity involving both forward and backward translations; (2) establishment of face validity and content validity; and (3) establishment of reliability involving inter-rater, test-retest and internal consistency analyses. Data used for these analyses were obtained by interviewing 65 elderly respondents. Percentages of Content Validity Index for 4 criteria were from 88.89 to 100.0. The Cronbach α coefficient for internal consistency was 0.838. Intra-class Correlation Coefficient of inter-rater reliability and test-retest reliability was 0.957 and 0.950 respectively. The result shows that the Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale - Malay Version has excellent reliability and validity for use with the Malay speaking elderly people in Malaysia. This scale could be used by professionals to assess functional ability of elderly who live independently in community. © 2018 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  2. THE INFLUENCE OF PRIVACY REGULATION ON URBAN MALAY FAMILIES LIVING IN TERRACE HOUSING

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    Ahmad Hariza Hashim; Zaiton Abdul Rahim

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on behavioral norms and territoriality as part of behavioral and environmental mechanisms used to regulate privacy among urban Malay families living in terrace housing. In-depth interview was employed involving 11 case studies of Malay families living in three-bedroom two-storey terrace housings in the urban areas. Findings indicate that while most of the behavioral norms employed to regulate privacy are consistent with Malay cultural norms and religious belief, there are a...

  3. Analysis of the genetic structure of the Malay population: Ancestry-informative marker SNPs in the Malay of Peninsular Malaysia.

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    Yahya, Padillah; Sulong, Sarina; Harun, Azian; Wan Isa, Hatin; Ab Rajab, Nur-Shafawati; Wangkumhang, Pongsakorn; Wilantho, Alisa; Ngamphiw, Chumpol; Tongsima, Sissades; Zilfalil, Bin Alwi

    2017-09-01

    Malay, the main ethnic group in Peninsular Malaysia, is represented by various sub-ethnic groups such as Melayu Banjar, Melayu Bugis, Melayu Champa, Melayu Java, Melayu Kedah Melayu Kelantan, Melayu Minang and Melayu Patani. Using data retrieved from the MyHVP (Malaysian Human Variome Project) database, a total of 135 individuals from these sub-ethnic groups were profiled using the Affymetrix GeneChip Mapping Xba 50-K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array to identify SNPs that were ancestry-informative markers (AIMs) for Malays of Peninsular Malaysia. Prior to selecting the AIMs, the genetic structure of Malays was explored with reference to 11 other populations obtained from the Pan-Asian SNP Consortium database using principal component analysis (PCA) and ADMIXTURE. Iterative pruning principal component analysis (ipPCA) was further used to identify sub-groups of Malays. Subsequently, we constructed an AIMs panel for Malays using the informativeness for assignment (I n ) of genetic markers, and the K-nearest neighbor classifier (KNN) was used to teach the classification models. A model of 250 SNPs ranked by I n , correctly classified Malay individuals with an accuracy of up to 90%. The identified panel of SNPs could be utilized as a panel of AIMs to ascertain the specific ancestry of Malays, which may be useful in disease association studies, biomedical research or forensic investigation purposes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. THE INFLUENCE OF PRIVACY REGULATION ON URBAN MALAY FAMILIES LIVING IN TERRACE HOUSING

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    Ahmad Ahmad Hashim

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on behavioral norms and territoriality as part of behavioral and environmental mechanisms used to regulate privacy among urban Malay families living in terrace housing. In-depth interview was employed involving 11 case studies of Malay families living in three-bedroom two-storey terrace housings in the urban areas. Findings indicate that while most of the behavioral norms employed to regulate privacy are consistent with Malay cultural norms and religious belief, there are a few which are not consistent due to the constraint of terrace housing. Defined territory and the need to respect the neighbors’ privacy are found to indirectly affect community intimacy among Malay families living in terrace housings.

  5. Population genetic structure of peninsular Malaysia Malay sub-ethnic groups.

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    Hatin, Wan Isa; Nur-Shafawati, Ab Rajab; Zahri, Mohd-Khairi; Xu, Shuhua; Jin, Li; Tan, Soon-Guan; Rizman-Idid, Mohammed; Zilfalil, Bin Alwi

    2011-04-05

    Patterns of modern human population structure are helpful in understanding the history of human migration and admixture. We conducted a study on genetic structure of the Malay population in Malaysia, using 54,794 genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism genotype data generated in four Malay sub-ethnic groups in peninsular Malaysia (Melayu Kelantan, Melayu Minang, Melayu Jawa and Melayu Bugis). To the best of our knowledge this is the first study conducted on these four Malay sub-ethnic groups and the analysis of genotype data of these four groups were compiled together with 11 other populations' genotype data from Indonesia, China, India, Africa and indigenous populations in Peninsular Malaysia obtained from the Pan-Asian SNP database. The phylogeny of populations showed that all of the four Malay sub-ethnic groups are separated into at least three different clusters. The Melayu Jawa, Melayu Bugis and Melayu Minang have a very close genetic relationship with Indonesian populations indicating a common ancestral history, while the Melayu Kelantan formed a distinct group on the tree indicating that they are genetically different from the other Malay sub-ethnic groups. We have detected genetic structuring among the Malay populations and this could possibly be accounted for by their different historical origins. Our results provide information of the genetic differentiation between these populations and a valuable insight into the origins of the Malay sub-ethnic groups in Peninsular Malaysia.

  6. Population Genetic Structure of Peninsular Malaysia Malay Sub-Ethnic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatin, Wan Isa; Nur-Shafawati, Ab Rajab; Zahri, Mohd-Khairi; Xu, Shuhua; Jin, Li; Tan, Soon-Guan; Rizman-Idid, Mohammed; Zilfalil, Bin Alwi

    2011-01-01

    Patterns of modern human population structure are helpful in understanding the history of human migration and admixture. We conducted a study on genetic structure of the Malay population in Malaysia, using 54,794 genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism genotype data generated in four Malay sub-ethnic groups in peninsular Malaysia (Melayu Kelantan, Melayu Minang, Melayu Jawa and Melayu Bugis). To the best of our knowledge this is the first study conducted on these four Malay sub-ethnic groups and the analysis of genotype data of these four groups were compiled together with 11 other populations' genotype data from Indonesia, China, India, Africa and indigenous populations in Peninsular Malaysia obtained from the Pan-Asian SNP database. The phylogeny of populations showed that all of the four Malay sub-ethnic groups are separated into at least three different clusters. The Melayu Jawa, Melayu Bugis and Melayu Minang have a very close genetic relationship with Indonesian populations indicating a common ancestral history, while the Melayu Kelantan formed a distinct group on the tree indicating that they are genetically different from the other Malay sub-ethnic groups. We have detected genetic structuring among the Malay populations and this could possibly be accounted for by their different historical origins. Our results provide information of the genetic differentiation between these populations and a valuable insight into the origins of the Malay sub-ethnic groups in Peninsular Malaysia. PMID:21483678

  7. FTO variants are associated with obesity in the Chinese and Malay populations in Singapore.

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    Tan, Jonathan T; Dorajoo, Rajkumar; Seielstad, Mark; Sim, Xue Ling; Ong, Rick Twee-Hee; Chia, Kee Seng; Wong, Tien Yin; Saw, Seang Mei; Chew, Suok Kai; Aung, Tin; Tai, E-Shyong

    2008-10-01

    Association between genetic variants at the FTO locus and obesity has been consistently observed in populations of European ancestry and inconsistently in non-Europeans. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of FTO variants on obesity and type 2 diabetes in Southeast Asian populations. We examined associations between nine previously reported FTO single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with obesity, type 2 diabetes, and related traits in 4,298 participants (2,919 Chinese, 785 Malays, and 594 Asian Indians) from the 1998 Singapore National Health Survey (NHS98) and 2,996 Malays from the Singapore Malay Eye Study (SiMES). All nine SNPs exhibited strong linkage disequilibrium (r(2) = 0.6-0.99), and minor alleles were associated with obesity in the same direction as previous studies with effect sizes ranging from 0.42 to 0.68 kg/m(2) (P Chinese, 0.65 to 0.91 kg/m(2) (P Malays, and 0.52 to 0.64 kg/m(2) (P Malays after adjustment for age, sex, smoking, alcohol consumption, and exercise. The variants were also associated with type 2 diabetes, though not after adjustment for BMI (with the exception of the SiMES Malays: odds ratio 1.17-1.22; P Chinese and Malays in Singapore. Our data do not support the hypothesis that differences in allele frequency or genetic architecture underlie the lack of association observed in some populations of Asian ancestry. Examination of gene-environment interactions involving variants at this locus may provide further insights into the role of FTO in the pathogenesis of human obesity and diabetes.

  8. Population structure of Helicobacter pylori among ethnic groups in Malaysia: recent acquisition of the bacterium by the Malay population.

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    Tay, Chin Yen; Mitchell, Hazel; Dong, Quanjiang; Goh, Khean-Lee; Dawes, Ian W; Lan, Ruiting

    2009-06-19

    Helicobacter pylori is a major gastric bacterial pathogen. This pathogen has been shown to follow the routes of human migration by their geographical origin and currently the global H. pylori population has been divided into six ancestral populations, three from Africa, two from Asia and one from Europe. Malaysia is made up of three major ethnic populations, Malay, Chinese and Indian, providing a good population for studying recent H. pylori migration and admixture. Seventy eight H. pylori isolates, including 27 Chinese, 35 Indian and 16 Malay isolates from Malaysia were analysed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of seven housekeeping genes and compared with the global MLST data. STRUCTURE analysis assigned the isolates to previously identified H. pylori ancestral populations, hpEastAsia, hpAsia2 and hpEurope, and revealed a new subpopulation, hspIndia, within hpAsia2. Statistical analysis allowed us to identify population segregation sites that divide the H. pylori populations and the subpopulations. The majority of Malay isolates were found to be grouped together with Indian isolates. The majority of the Malay and Indian H. pylori isolates share the same origin while the Malaysian Chinese H. pylori is distinctive. The Malay population, known to have a low infection rate of H. pylori, was likely to be initially H. pylori free and gained the pathogen only recently from cross infection from other populations.

  9. Population structure of Helicobacter pylori among ethnic groups in Malaysia: recent acquisition of the bacterium by the Malay population

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    Dawes Ian W

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Helicobacter pylori is a major gastric bacterial pathogen. This pathogen has been shown to follow the routes of human migration by their geographical origin and currently the global H. pylori population has been divided into six ancestral populations, three from Africa, two from Asia and one from Europe. Malaysia is made up of three major ethnic populations, Malay, Chinese and Indian, providing a good population for studying recent H. pylori migration and admixture. Results Seventy eight H. pylori isolates, including 27 Chinese, 35 Indian and 16 Malay isolates from Malaysia were analysed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST of seven housekeeping genes and compared with the global MLST data. STRUCTURE analysis assigned the isolates to previously identified H. pylori ancestral populations, hpEastAsia, hpAsia2 and hpEurope, and revealed a new subpopulation, hspIndia, within hpAsia2. Statistical analysis allowed us to identify population segregation sites that divide the H. pylori populations and the subpopulations. The majority of Malay isolates were found to be grouped together with Indian isolates. Conclusion The majority of the Malay and Indian H. pylori isolates share the same origin while the Malaysian Chinese H. pylori is distinctive. The Malay population, known to have a low infection rate of H. pylori, was likely to be initially H. pylori free and gained the pathogen only recently from cross infection from other populations.

  10. Anthropometric Measurements of the Human Distal Femur: A Study of the Adult Malay Population

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    Hussain, Fitdriyah; Abdul Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq; Zulkifly, Ahmad Hafiz; Sa'at, Azlin; Aziz, Azian Abd.; Hossain, Md. Golam; Kamarul, T.; Syahrom, Ardiyansyah

    2013-01-01

    The distal femurs of 100 subjects (50 men, 50 women) from the Malay population aged between 19 and 38 years were scanned to measure the anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral (ML) width. The mean AP values were 64.02 ± 3.38 mm and 57.33 ± 3.26 mm for men and women, respectively, and the mean ML values were 74.91 ± 3.52 mm and 64.53 ± 3.07 mm. We compared our data to that published previously for the Chinese and Indian populations. It was found that the Malay population had smaller distal femur than that of the Chinese but was larger than that of the Indian population (P population, the variations in different Asian ethnicities may need to be considered when designing the appropriate knee implant. PMID:24294597

  11. Fine-scale population structure of Malays in Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore and implications for association studies.

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    Hoh, Boon-Peng; Deng, Lian; Julia-Ashazila, Mat Jusoh; Zuraihan, Zakaria; Nur-Hasnah, Ma'amor; Nur-Shafawati, Ab Rajab; Hatin, Wan Isa; Endom, Ismail; Zilfalil, Bin Alwi; Khalid, Yusoff; Xu, Shuhua

    2015-07-22

    Fine scale population structure of Malays - the major population in Malaysia, has not been well studied. This may have important implications for both evolutionary and medical studies. Here, we investigated the population sub-structure of Malay involving 431 samples collected from all states from peninsular Malaysia and Singapore. We identified two major clusters of individuals corresponding to the north and south peninsular Malaysia. On an even finer scale, the genetic coordinates of the geographical Malay populations are in correlation with the latitudes (R(2) = 0.3925; P = 0.029). This finding is further supported by the pairwise FST of Malay sub-populations, of which the north and south regions showed the highest differentiation (FST [North-south] = 0.0011). The collective findings therefore suggest that population sub-structure of Malays are more heterogenous than previously expected even within a small geographical region, possibly due to factors like different genetic origins, geographical isolation, could result in spurious association as demonstrated in our analysis. We suggest that cautions should be taken during the stage of study design or interpreting the association signals in disease mapping studies which are expected to be conducted in Malay population in the near future.

  12. Population differences in brain morphology and microstructure among Chinese, Malay, and Indian neonates.

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    Bai, Jordan; Abdul-Rahman, Muhammad Farid; Rifkin-Graboi, Anne; Chong, Yap-Seng; Kwek, Kenneth; Saw, Seang-Mei; Godfrey, Keith M; Gluckman, Peter D; Fortier, Marielle V; Meaney, Michael J; Qiu, Anqi

    2012-01-01

    We studied a sample of 75 Chinese, 73 Malay, and 29 Indian healthy neonates taking part in a cohort study to examine potential differences in neonatal brain morphology and white matter microstructure as a function of ethnicity using both structural T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). We first examined the differences in global size and morphology of the brain among the three groups. We then constructed the T2-weighted MRI and DTI atlases and employed voxel-based analysis to investigate ethnic differences in morphological shape of the brain from the T2-weighted MRI, and white matter microstructure measured by fractional anisotropy derived from DTI. Compared with Malay neonates, the brains of Indian neonates' tended to be more elongated in anterior and posterior axis relative to the superior-inferior axis of the brain even though the total brain volume was similar among the three groups. Although most anatomical regions of the brain were similar among Chinese, Malay, and Indian neonates, there were anatomical variations in the spinal-cerebellar and cortical-striatal-thalamic neural circuits among the three populations. The population-related brain regions highlighted in our study are key anatomical substrates associated with sensorimotor functions.

  13. Anthropometric Measurements of the Human Distal Femur: A Study of the Adult Malay Population

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    Fitdriyah Hussain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The distal femurs of 100 subjects (50 men, 50 women from the Malay population aged between 19 and 38 years were scanned to measure the anterior-posterior (AP and medial-lateral (ML width. The mean AP values were 64.02 ± 3.38 mm and 57.33 ± 3.26 mm for men and women, respectively, and the mean ML values were 74.91 ± 3.52 mm and 64.53 ± 3.07 mm. We compared our data to that published previously for the Chinese and Indian populations. It was found that the Malay population had smaller distal femur than that of the Chinese but was larger than that of the Indian population (P < 0.05. In conclusion, although it is well established that Asians have a smaller distal femur size than that of the Western population, the variations in different Asian ethnicities may need to be considered when designing the appropriate knee implant.

  14. Anthropometric measurements of the human distal femur: a study of the adult Malay population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Fitdriyah; Abdul Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq; Zulkifly, Ahmad Hafiz; Sa'at, Azlin; Aziz, Azian Abd; Hossain, Golam; Kamarul, T; Syahrom, Ardiyansyah

    2013-01-01

    The distal femurs of 100 subjects (50 men, 50 women) from the Malay population aged between 19 and 38 years were scanned to measure the anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral (ML) width. The mean AP values were 64.02 ± 3.38 mm and 57.33 ± 3.26 mm for men and women, respectively, and the mean ML values were 74.91 ± 3.52 mm and 64.53 ± 3.07 mm. We compared our data to that published previously for the Chinese and Indian populations. It was found that the Malay population had smaller distal femur than that of the Chinese but was larger than that of the Indian population (P < 0.05). In conclusion, although it is well established that Asians have a smaller distal femur size than that of the Western population, the variations in different Asian ethnicities may need to be considered when designing the appropriate knee implant.

  15. Vitamin D status and its associated factors of free living Malay adults in a tropical country, Malaysia.

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    Moy, Foong Ming

    2011-09-02

    Vitamin D status is influenced by sun exposure, geographic latitude, daily outdoor activities, body surface exposed to sunlight and dietary intakes. Malaysia, is sunny all year round. However, the vitamin D status of this population especially among the healthy and free living adults is not known. Therefore a study of vitamin D status and associated factors was initiated among an existing Malay cohort in Kuala Lumpur. A total of 380 subjects were sampled to have their vitamin D status assessed using 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D). A short questionnaire enquiring socio-demographic characteristics, exposure to sunlight and clothing style was administered. Their mean age was 48.5±5.2years and the mean 25(OH)D for males and females were 56.2±18.9nmol/L and 36.2±13.4nmol/L respectively. There were significant positive correlation for sun exposure score (r=0.27, pobesity, lifestyle behaviours and clothing style are directly associated with our participants especially females' low vitamin D status. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. D1S80 (pMCT118) allele frequencies in a Malay population sample from Malaysia.

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    Koh, C L; Lim, M E; Ng, H S; Sam, C K

    1997-01-01

    The D1S80 allele frequencies in 124 unrelated Malays from the Malaysian population were determined and 51 genotypes and 19 alleles were encountered. The D1S80 frequency distribution met Hardy-Weinberg expectations. The observed heterozygosity was 0.80 and the power of discrimination was 0.96.

  17. Inheritance pattern of lip prints among Malay population: A pilot study.

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    George, Renjith; Nora Afandi, Nurulain Syafinaz Binti; Zainal Abidin, Siti Nur Hayati Binti; Binti Ishak, Nur Ismawani; Soe, Htoo Htoo Kyaw; Ismail, Abdul Rashid Hj

    2016-04-01

    We assessed the resemblance of lip print patterns between parents and biological offspring in families of 31 Malay students as well as the distribution of different types of lip print in the study group. Only a few studies have successfully established the inheritance pattern of lip prints. Such studies can be population specific and need to be conducted in various populations. No such study have been conducted in Malay population in Malaysia, according to our knowledge. Present study was carried out to ascertain whether there is any inherence pattern in lip prints and thereby to investigate the potential role of lip prints in personal identification. We found 58.06% resemblance of lip print patterns between the parents and their biological offspring in our study. The influence of heredity in lip print pattern is still a new concept and there is lack of concrete evidence. The data from our study shows that there is potential influence of inheritance in the lip print patterns among the family members. Further researches involving larger samples size are suggested to derive more reliable and accurate results. The most common lip print pattern among the study group is type I (29.84%) followed by type II (23.12%), type III (22.45%), type I' (13.44%), type IV (9.54%) and type V (1.61%). Racial variations in lip print patterns and their prevalence may serve as an aid in forensic identification and crime scene investigation. The results of this pilot study will help in establishing guidelines for future researches on lip print analysis in Malaysia. Lip print patterns are unique and individualistic. However, there are some similarities in basic patterns of lip prints between family members which may be attributed to influence of inheritance. 1. To determine the inheritance pattern of lip prints among Malay family members of the student. 2. To identify the distribution of different types of lip prints among Malay population. and Observational pilot study. Lip prints of 124

  18. Bazaar Malay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakker, P.

    2003-01-01

    Malay as a military contact language during the second world war. Structure, simplification, pidginisation......Malay as a military contact language during the second world war. Structure, simplification, pidginisation...

  19. Replication of 13 obesity loci among Singaporean Chinese, Malay and Asian-Indian populations.

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    Dorajoo, R; Blakemore, A I F; Sim, X; Ong, R T-H; Ng, D P K; Seielstad, M; Wong, T-Y; Saw, S-M; Froguel, P; Liu, J; Tai, E-S

    2012-01-01

    Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 38 obesity-associated loci among European populations. However, their contribution to obesity in other ethnicities is largely unknown. We utilised five GWAS (N=10 482) from Chinese (three cohorts, including one with type 2 diabetes and another one of children), Malay and Indian ethnic groups from Singapore. Data sets were analysed individually and subsequently in combined meta-analysis for Z-score body-mass index (BMI) associations. Variants at the FTO locus showed the strongest associations with BMI Z-score after meta-analysis (P-values 1.16 × 10(-7)-7.95 × 10(-7)). We further detected associations with nine other index obesity variants close to the MC4R, GNPDA2, TMEM18, QPCTL/GIPR, BDNF, ETV5, MAP2K5/SKOR1, SEC16B and TNKS/MSRA loci (meta-analysis P-values ranging from 3.58 × 10(-4)-1.44 × 10(-2)). Three other single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from CADM2, PTBP2 and FAIM2 were associated with BMI (P-value ≤ 0.0418) in at least one dataset. The neurotrophin/TRK pathway (P-value=0.029) was highlighted by pathway-based analysis of loci that had statistically significant associations among Singaporean populations. Our data confirm the role of FTO in obesity predisposition among Chinese, Malays and Indians, the three major Asian ethnic groups. We additionally detected associations for 12 obesity-associated SNPs among Singaporeans. Thus, it is likely that Europeans and Asians share some of the genetic predisposition to obesity. Furthermore, the neurotrophin/TRK signalling may have a central role for common obesity among Asians.

  20. Physical Activity Measurement by Accelerometry Among Older Malay Adults Living in Semi-Rural Areas-A Feasibility Study.

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    Zainol Abidin, Nurdiana; Brown, Wendy J; Clark, Bronwyn; Muhamed, Ahmad Munir Che; Singh, Rabindarjeet

    2016-10-01

    We evaluated feasibility of physical activity measurement by accelerometry among older Malay adults living in semi-rural areas in Malaysia. Results showed that 95% of 146 participants (aged [SD] 67.6 [6.4] years) were compliant in wearing the accelerometer for at least five days. Fifteen participants were asked for re-wear the accelerometer because they did not have enough valid days during the first assessment. Participants wore the accelerometer an average of 15.3 hr in a 24-hr day, with 6.5 (1.2) valid wear days. No significant difference in valid wear day and time was found between men and women. Participants who are single provide more valid wear days compared with married participants (p < .05), and participants with higher levels of education provide longer periods of accelerometer wearing hours (p < .01). Eighty-seven percent of participants reported 'no issues' with wearing the meter. This study suggests that accelerometry is a feasible method to assess the physical activity level among older Malay adults living in semi-rural areas.

  1. The Malay Enclave of Kampong Bharu as a Living Tradition: A place of uncertainty

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    Norsidah Ujang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the case of Asian cities, poor redevelopment process has often resulted in the loss of historic urban fabric. Kampong Bharu is a traditional Malay settlement in the heart of the Kuala Lumpur city, holds a unique case of a struggle to preserve its local identity. This paper reviews the scenario regarding the enclave in light of the current redevelopment proposal. Reviews of literature and analysis of recent reports indicated that the future of the enclave is in the state of uncertainty. People oriented planning based upon a deep understanding of culture and tradition could bring about a natural approach towards a definitive redevelopment initiatives.

  2. Hemolytic disease of fetus and newborn due to maternal red blood cell alloantibodies in the Malay population

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    Hassan, Mohd Nazri; Mohd Noor, Noor Haslina; Johan Noor, Shah Reza; Sukri, Salamah Ahmad; Mustafa, Rapiaah; Luc Aster, Hans Van Rostenberghe

    2014-01-01

    Background: Maternal red blood cell (RBC) alloimmunization may lead to production of harmful antibodies that result in hemolytic disease of fetus and newborn (HDFN). There is insufficient data on the prevalence of HDFN due to RBC alloantibodies in the Malay neonatal population. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of HDFN in the Malay neonatal population due to clinically significant RBC alloantibodies. Subjects and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in Transfusion Medicine Unit, Hospital Universitiy Sains Malaysia over one year period from January to December 2009. A total of 5163 Malay pregnant women who attended labor room for delivery were collected and analyzed prospectively. The blood samples were subjected to the standard immunohematological procedure for RBC antibody screening and identification using reagents of Diamed-ID Gel microtyping system. All the newborns with RBC alloantibody were investigated for the evidence of HDFN. Results: Thirty (0.58%) women were found to have clinically significant RBC alloantibodies. Most of the alloantibodies belonged to Rhesus (Rh) system (56.7%) where anti-E (33.3%) was the most common followed by anti-D (10.0%). Rh antibodies were the main cause of HDFN in fourteen (0.27%) neonates. Anti-D and anti-c were identified to cause moderate to very severe HDFN. Conclusions: With the low prevalence of clinically significant RBC alloantibodies and HDFN, routine antenatal antibody screening practice may not be advised as a routine practice at present, preferably reserved for those women of RhD negative or with history of HDFN, significantly of those attributed to anti-c. PMID:25161351

  3. Hemolytic disease of fetus and newborn due to maternal red blood cell alloantibodies in the Malay population

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    Mohd Nazri Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maternal red blood cell (RBC alloimmunization may lead to production of harmful antibodies that result in hemolytic disease of fetus and newborn (HDFN. There is insufficient data on the prevalence of HDFN due to RBC alloantibodies in the Malay neonatal population. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of HDFN in the Malay neonatal population due to clinically significant RBC alloantibodies. Subjects and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in Transfusion Medicine Unit, Hospital Universitiy Sains Malaysia over one year period from January to December 2009. A total of 5163 Malay pregnant women who attended labor room for delivery were collected and analyzed prospectively. The blood samples were subjected to the standard immunohematological procedure for RBC antibody screening and identification using reagents of Diamed-ID Gel microtyping system. All the newborns with RBC alloantibody were investigated for the evidence of HDFN. Results: Thirty (0.58% women were found to have clinically significant RBC alloantibodies. Most of the alloantibodies belonged to Rhesus (Rh system (56.7% where anti-E (33.3% was the most common followed by anti-D (10.0%. Rh antibodies were the main cause of HDFN in fourteen (0.27% neonates. Anti-D and anti-c were identified to cause moderate to very severe HDFN . Conclusions: With the low prevalence of clinically significant RBC alloantibodies and HDFN, routine antenatal antibody screening practice may not be advised as a routine practice at present, preferably reserved for those women of RhD negative or with history of HDFN, significantly of those attributed to anti-c.

  4. A New Subspecies Identification and Population Study of the Asian Small-Clawed Otter (Aonyx cinereus in Malay Peninsula and Southern Thailand Based on Fecal DNA Method

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    M. K. A. Rosli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three species of otter can be found throughout Malay Peninsula: Aonyx cinereus, Lutra sumatrana, and Lutrogale perspicillata. In this study, we focused on the A. cinereus population that ranges from the southern and the east coast to the northern regions of Malay Peninsula up to southern Thailand to review the relationships between the populations based on the mitochondrial D-loop region. Forty-eight samples from six populations were recognized as Johor, Perak, Terengganu, Kelantan, Ranong, and Thale Noi. Among the 48 samples, 33 were identified as A. cinereus, seven as L. sumatrana, and eight as L. perspicillata. Phylogenetically, two subclades formed for A. cinereus. The first subclade grouped all Malay Peninsula samples except for samples from Kelantan, and the second subclade grouped Kelantan samples with Thai sample. Genetic distance analysis supported the close relationships between Thai and Kelantan samples compared to the samples from Terengganu and the other Malaysian states. A minimum-spanning network showed that Kelantan and Thailand formed a haplogroup distinct from the other populations. Our results show that Thai subspecies A. cinereus may have migrated to Kelantan from Thai mainland. We also suggest the classification of a new subspecies from Malay Peninsula, the small-clawed otter named A. cinereus kecilensis.

  5. A new subspecies identification and population study of the Asian small-clawed otter (Aonyx cinereus) in Malay Peninsula and southern Thailand based on fecal DNA method.

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    Rosli, M K A; Syed-Shabthar, S M F; Abdul-Patah, P; Abdul-Samad, Z; Abdul, S N; Burhanuddin, M N; Zulkifli, N A; Shukor, M N; Budsabong, K; Changtragoon, S; Sekiguchi, T; Sasaki, H; Md-Zain, B M

    2014-01-01

    Three species of otter can be found throughout Malay Peninsula: Aonyx cinereus, Lutra sumatrana, and Lutrogale perspicillata. In this study, we focused on the A. cinereus population that ranges from the southern and the east coast to the northern regions of Malay Peninsula up to southern Thailand to review the relationships between the populations based on the mitochondrial D-loop region. Forty-eight samples from six populations were recognized as Johor, Perak, Terengganu, Kelantan, Ranong, and Thale Noi. Among the 48 samples, 33 were identified as A. cinereus, seven as L. sumatrana, and eight as L. perspicillata. Phylogenetically, two subclades formed for A. cinereus. The first subclade grouped all Malay Peninsula samples except for samples from Kelantan, and the second subclade grouped Kelantan samples with Thai sample. Genetic distance analysis supported the close relationships between Thai and Kelantan samples compared to the samples from Terengganu and the other Malaysian states. A minimum-spanning network showed that Kelantan and Thailand formed a haplogroup distinct from the other populations. Our results show that Thai subspecies A. cinereus may have migrated to Kelantan from Thai mainland. We also suggest the classification of a new subspecies from Malay Peninsula, the small-clawed otter named A. cinereus kecilensis.

  6. High frequency of NAT2 slow acetylator alleles in the Malay population of Indonesia: an awareness to the anti-tuberculosis drug induced liver injury and cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retno W. Susilowati

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Arylamine N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2 polymorphism was previously reported to have association with the risk of drug toxicities and the development of various diseases. Previous research on the Indonesian population, especially Javanese and Sundanese, showed that there were 33% NAT2 slow acetylator phenotype. The aim of this study was to map the NAT2 variation in the Malay ethnic to gain a deeper insight into NAT2 haplotypic composition in this ethnic.Methods: 50 healthy samples from the Indonesian Malay ethnic were obtained. They were interviewed about their ethnic backgrounds for the last three generations. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood and NAT2 genotyping was done using the PCR direct Sequencing. Data were compiled according to the genotype and allele frequencies estimated from the observed numbers of each specific allele. Haplotype reconstruction was performed using PHASE v2.1.1 software.Results: We found 7 haplotypes consisting of 6 SNPs and 14 NAT2 genotype variations in Indonesian Malay population. The most frequent allele was NAT2*6A (38% which was classified as a slow acetylator allele. According to bimodal distribution, the predicted phenotype of the Malay population was composed of 62% rapid acetylator and 38% slow acetylator. According to trimodal distribution, the predicted phenotypes for rapid, intermediate and slow acetylators were 10%, 52% and 38% respectively.Conclusion: Our result indicates the presence of the allelic distribution and revealed the most frequent acetylator status and phenotype for the Indonesian Malay population. The result of this study will be helpful for future epidemiological or clinical studies and for understanding the genetic basis of acetylation polymorphism in Indonesia.

  7. Haplotype diversity of 16 Y-chromosomal STRs in three main ethnic populations (Malays, Chinese and Indians) in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yuet Meng; Perumal, Revathi; Keat, Phoon Yoong; Kuehn, Daniel L C

    2007-03-22

    We have analyzed 16 Y-STR loci (DYS456, DYS389I, DYS390, DYS389II, DYS458, DYS19, DYS385a/b, DYS393, DYS391, DYS439, DYS635 or Y-GATA C4, DYS392, Y-GATA H4, DYS437, DYS438 and DYS448) from the non-recombining region of the human Y-chromosome in 980 male individuals from three main ethnic populations in Malaysia (Malay, Chinese, Indian) using the AmpFlSTR((R)) Y-filertrade mark (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA). The observed 17-loci haplotypes and the individual allele frequencies for each locus were estimated, whilst the locus diversity, haplotype diversity and discrimination capacity were calculated in the three ethnic populations. Analysis of molecular variance indicated that 88.7% of the haplotypic variation is found within population and 11.3% is between populations (fixation index F(ST)=0.113, p=0.000). This study has revealed Y-chromosomes with null alleles at several Y-loci, namely DYS458, DYS392, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS439, DYS448 and Y-GATA H4; and several occurrences of duplications at the highly polymorphic DYS385 loci. Some of these deleted loci were in regions of the Y(q) arm that have been implicated in the occurrence of male infertility.

  8. Validation study of the Mini-Mental State Examination in a Malay-speaking elderly population in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Norlinah M; Shohaimi, Shamarina; Chong, Heng-Thay; Rahman, Abdul Hamid Abdul; Razali, Rosdinom; Esther, Ebernezer; Basri, Hamidon B

    2009-01-01

    In view of the differing sensitivity and specificity of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in the non-English-speaking populations, we conducted the first validation study of the Malay version (M-MMSE) in Malaysia among 300 subjects (from the community and outpatient clinics). Three versions were used: M-MMSE-7 (serial 7), M-MMSE-3 (serial 3) and M-MMSE-S (spell 'dunia' backwards). Dementia was assessed using the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV. The optimal cutoff scores were obtained from the receiver operating characteristics curves. Seventy-three patients (24.3%) had dementia and 227 (75.7%) were controls. Three hundred patients completed the M-MMSE-7, 160 the M-MMSE-3 and 145 the M-MMSE-S. All 3 versions were valid and reliable in the diagnosis of dementia. The optimal cutoff scores varied with each version and gender. In the control group, significant gender differences were observed in the patients with the lowest educational status. Increasing educational levels significantly improved the M-MMSE performance in both genders. All 3 versions of the M-MMSE are valid and reliable as a screening tool for dementia in the Malaysian population, but at different cutoff scores. In those with the lowest educational background, gender-adjusted cutoff scores should be applied. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. An Alternative Policy Proposal for the Provinces Populated by the Malay Ethnonationality in the South of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto F. von Feigenblatt

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a public policy analysis of governance in the provinces populated by the Malay ethnonationality in the South of Thailand. Important stakeholders are identified as well as important sociopolitical environmental factors. The final sections of the paper present a proposal for a new governance structure for the Muslim South of Thailand taking into consideration the social, cultural, and economic context as well as the wellbeing and right to self-determination of the local population. This study concludes that considerable economic, political, and social opportunities for development are being lost in the South of Thailand due to misguided governance policies. --- Dieser Artikel stellt eine politische Analyse von Governance in den von der nationalen Minderheit der Malaien bewohnten Provinzen in Südthailand vor. Zunächst werden zentrale InteressensvertreterInnen und soziopolitische Faktoren identifiziert. Anschließend diskutiert der Autor einen Vorschlag für eine neue Governancestruktur, die soziale, kulturelle und wirtschaftliche Kontexte ebenso beachtet wie die Bedürfnisse und das Recht zur Selbstbestimmung der lokalen Bevölkerung. Der Beitrag konkludiert, dass beträchtliche Möglichkeiten zur wirtschaftlichen, politischen und sozialen Entwicklung aufgrund von fehlgeleiteten Politiken ausgelassen wurden.

  10. Toll-like receptor 4 Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile polymorphisms and typhoid susceptibility in Asian Malay population in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuvanendran, Saatheeyavaane; Hussin, Hani M; Meran, Lila P; Anthony, Amy A; Zhang, Leilei; Burch, Lauranell H; Phua, Kia K; Ismail, Asma; Balaram, Prabha

    2011-09-01

    Typhoid fever is a major health problem with frequent outbreaks in Kelantan, Malaysia. Prevalence of TLR4 gene polymorphisms varies with ethnic groups (0-20%) and predisposean individual to gram-negative infections. The prevalence rate of TLR4 Asp299Gly and Thr399lle polymorphisms in the Malay population or the influence of these on typhoid fever susceptibility is not yet reported. 250 normal and 304 susceptible Malay individuals were investigated for these polymorphisms using allele-specific PCR and analysed for its association with typhoid fever susceptibility. The total prevalence of polymorphisms in the normal population was 4.8% in comparison to 12.5% in the susceptible population (p = 0.002). An increased frequency of both polymorphisms was observed in the susceptible population (p population and suggests that these polymorphisms confer a higher risk for typhoid, infection. The higher incidence of typhoid fever in Kelantan could be attributed to the higher percentage of Malays (95%) in this state. In order to reduce the incidence of this disease, people with these polymorphisms, can be prioritised for prophylactic strategies. Copyright © 2011 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Human neutrophil antigen profiles in Banjar, Bugis, Champa, Jawa and Kelantan Malays in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manaf, Siti M; NurWaliyuddin, Hanis Z A; Panneerchelvam, Sundararajulu; Zafarina, Zainuddin; Norazmi, Mohd N; Chambers, Geoffrey K; Edinur, Hisham A

    2015-10-01

    Human neutrophil antigens (HNA) are polymorphic and immunogenic proteins involved in the pathogenesis of neonatal alloimmune neutropenia, transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) and transfusion-related alloimmune neutropenia. The characterisation of HNA at a population level is important for predicting the risk of alloimmunisation associated with blood transfusion and gestation and for anthropological studies. Blood samples from 192 healthy, unrelated Malays were collected and genotyped using polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific primers (HNA-1, -3, -4) and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphisms (HNA-5). The group comprised 30 Banjar, 37 Bugis, 51 Champa, 39 Jawa and 35 Kelantan Malays. The most common HNA alleles in the Malays studied were HNA-1a (0.641-0.765), -3a (0.676-0.867), -4a (0.943-1.000) and -5a (0.529-0.910). According to principal coordinate plots constructed using HNA allele frequencies, the Malay sub-ethnic groups are closely related and grouped together with other Asian populations. The risks of TRALI or neonatal neutropenia were not increased for subjects with HNA-1, -3 and -4 loci even for donor and recipient or pairs from different Malay sub-ethnic groups. Nonetheless, our estimates showed significantly higher risks of HNA alloimmunisation during pregnancy and transfusion between Malays and other genetically differentiated populations such as Africans and Europeans. This study reports HNA allele and genotype frequencies for the five Malay sub-ethnic groups living in Peninsular Malaysia for the first time. These Malay sub-ethnic groups show closer genetic relationships with other Asian populations than with Europeans and Africans. The distributions of HNA alleles in other lineages of people living in Malaysia (e.g. Chinese, Indian and Orang Asli) would be an interesting subject for future study.

  12. Queer Melayu: queer sexualities and the politics of Malay identity and nationalism in contemporary Malaysian literature and culture

    OpenAIRE

    Jerome, Collin

    2012-01-01

    This thesis examines Malay identity construction by focusing on the complex processes of self-identification among queer-identified Malays living in Malaysia and beyond. By analysing representations of queer Malays in the works of contemporary Malaysian Malay writers, scholars, and filmmakers, as well as queer Malays on the internet and in the diaspora, the thesis demonstrates how self-identifying gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgendered Malays create and express their identities, and the wa...

  13. Asian population frequencies and haplotype distribution of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) genes among Chinese, Malay, and Indian in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yi Chuan; Chan, Soh Ha; Ren, Ee Chee

    2008-11-01

    Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) gene frequencies have been shown to be distinctly different between populations and contribute to functional variation in the immune response. We have investigated KIR gene frequencies in 370 individuals representing three Asian populations in Singapore and report here the distribution of 14 KIR genes (2DL1, 2DL2, 2DL3, 2DL4, 2DL5, 2DS1, 2DS2, 2DS3, 2DS4, 2DS5, 3DL1, 3DL2, 3DL3, 3DS1) with two pseudogenes (2DP1, 3DP1) among Singapore Chinese (n = 210); Singapore Malay (n = 80), and Singapore Indian (n = 80). Four framework genes (KIR3DL3, 3DP1, 2DL4, 3DL2) and a nonframework pseudogene 2DP1 were detected in all samples while KIR2DS2, 2DL2, 2DL5, and 2DS5 had the greatest significant variation across the three populations. Fifteen significant linkage patterns, consistent with associations between genes of A and B haplotypes, were observed. Eighty-four distinct KIR profiles were determined in our populations, 38 of which had not been described in other populations. KIR haplotype studies were performed using nine Singapore Chinese families comprising 34 individuals. All genotypes could be resolved into corresponding pairs of existing haplotypes with eight distinct KIR genotypes and eight different haplotypes. The haplotype A2 with frequency of 63.9% was dominant in Singapore Chinese, comparable to that reported in Korean and Chinese Han. The A haplotypes predominate in Singapore Chinese, with ratio of A to B haplotypes of approximately 3:1. Comparison with KIR frequencies in other populations showed that Singapore Chinese shared similar distributions with Chinese Han, Japanese, and Korean; Singapore Indian was found to be comparable with North Indian Hindus while Singapore Malay resembled the Thai.

  14. Re-adaptation of Malay House Thermal Comfort Design Elements into Modern Building Elements – Case Study of Selangor Traditional Malay House & Low Energy Building in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Nur Hidayahtuljamilah Ramli

    2012-01-01

    The traditional Malay house is one of the richest components of Malay’s cultural heritage in Malaysia. Generally, the traditional Malay house is a reflection of the Malay community’s way of living. With greater global awareness of the environment and a renewed perspective on contemporary Malaysian architecture, architects and designers are once again looking for tropical solutions in building design. One of the main characteristics of traditional Malay house is that they are designed with a d...

  15. Psychometric Evaluation of the Malay Satisfaction with Life Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas

    2009-01-01

    The Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) is one of the most widely used scales for the measurement of subjective well-being across the globe, but no satisfactory version exists for use among Malay-speaking populations. The present study reports on the translation of a new Malay SWLS and examines its psychometric properties in a community sample of…

  16. Iqbal and Malay World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad ʿUthman EI-Muhammady

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available ‘Allāmah Dr. Muhammad Iqbal has attracted the attention of the Malay World as well as the Muslims in Southeast Asia. His prose works like The Reconstruction and his poetic compositions like Asrar-i-Khudi, Shikwah wa Jawab-i-Shikwah and others have been read and translated into Bahasa Melayu and Bahasa Indonesia. Most Indonesian and Malay front ranking leaders were influenced by his ideal of serving the cause of the Ummah. They used Iqbal's argument to mobilize the Muslims for reforms of their respective societies in particular in Malaysia and Indonesia.

  17. Implementation of Traditional Malay Design Values in Contemporary Malay Houses

    OpenAIRE

    Elham Hosseini; Gurupiah Mursib; Raja Nafida Raja Shahminan

    2016-01-01

    Traditional houses are the most essential architectural experience that is in harmony with the people's culture, beliefs, environment and lifestyles. The development of design values in contemporary architecture by tracking traditional design values in architecture paves the way for arguments concerning the implementation of authentic Malay traditional house design values in contemporary Malay houses. In addition, it is hypothesized that the Malay traditional houses theoretically provide a co...

  18. STR data for the AmpFlSTR Profiler loci from the three main ethnic population groups (Malay, Chinese and Indian) in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, K B; Jeevan, N H; Jaya, P; Othman, M I; Lee, Y H

    2001-06-01

    Allele frequencies for the nine STRs genetic loci included in the AmpFlSTR Profiler kit were obtained from samples of unrelated individuals comprising 139-156 Malays, 149-153 Chinese and 132-135 Indians, residing in Malaysia.

  19. Psychometric Properties of the Malay Version of the Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment for Geriatrics (M-LOTCA-G) among the Malaysian Elderly Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Natar, Ahmad Kamal; Nagappan, Rajendran; Ainuddin, Husna Ahmad; Masuri, Ghazali; Thanapalan, Chandra Kannan K.

    2015-01-01

    Current cognitive screening tests are difficult to use due to their deficit in cultural and conceptual significance and translation into other languages. The purpose of this study was to translate the Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment for Geriatrics (LOTCA-G) into Malay language and test its reliability and validity for…

  20. Health Information in Malay (Bahasa Malaysia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → Malay (Bahasa Malaysia) URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/malay.html Health Information in Malay (Bahasa Malaysia) To use the sharing features on this page, ...

  1. Implementation of Traditional Malay Design Values in Contemporary Malay Houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Hosseini

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Traditional houses are the most essential architectural experience that is in harmony with the people's culture, beliefs, environment and lifestyles. The development of design values in contemporary architecture by tracking traditional design values in architecture paves the way for arguments concerning the implementation of authentic Malay traditional house design values in contemporary Malay houses. In addition, it is hypothesized that the Malay traditional houses theoretically provide a constructive innovative framework for the design performance of the contemporary Malay house. In this research, data was compiled through field observation and documentary review. The evidence revealed that Malay traditional houses convey a concrete message of richness encompassing architectural design values and theoretical propositions. The credibility of the results was improved and confirmed by a confluence of evidence via a confirmation process. The findings suggested that there is a rich source of subjective support, lending proof to the premise of the research investigation. The research has highlighted the significance of traditional architectural design values towards innovative design in the architecture of contemporary Malay houses as a workable pattern for use in the design of contemporary architecture.

  2. America's Families and Living Arrangements: 2003. Population Characteristics. Current Population Reports. P20-553

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Jason

    2004-01-01

    The data in this report is from the Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC) to the 2003 Current Population Survey (CPS). The population represented (the population universe) in the ASEC is the civilian non institutionalized population living in the United States. Members of the Armed Forces living off post or with their families on post are…

  3. Comparing physical activity of Malaysian Malay men before, during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    during this time of the year, most Muslims will live an inactive and sedentary lifestyle. However, no empirical data exist to substantiate this assumption among Malay Muslims. Study showed that minimum of 10,000 steps per day is required to achieve an active lifestyle status. The active lifestyle status is recommended ...

  4. Influence of culture on ornament of the traditional architecture in Medan (Malay Deli Sultanate)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawawiy Loebis, M.; Ginting, Nurlisa; Simanjuntak, Haryanto; Jamaluddin, Fattah

    2018-03-01

    During the Dutch colonialism, Malay Deli Sultanate was dominant and big which now their superiority was destroyed by Social Revolution. At that time, Malay people live in the peak of glory and civilization resulting in their growing culture. The purpose of research is to find the influence of culture in Malay Deli ornaments as a part of Architecture. Data obtained with literatures study and observation. The data was analysed using qualitative method to describe the phenomenon occur between variables. The aim of this research is identifying any culture influences ornaments in architecture. Such as Islam influences Malay ornament on the building and ornament division between the noble and people. The research result is the culture such as language, religion have influence on ornaments in Malay Deli architecture.

  5. Malay Childhood, Temperament and Individuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Ellen

    This study of children in a Malay community assesses the cross-cultural validity of one conceptualization of temperament, identifies cultural differences in child rearing practices and beliefs, and explores parents' recognition of individual differences emerging in early childhood. The community studied consisted of three villages located about 20…

  6. The prevalence and types of glaucoma in malay people: the Singapore Malay eye study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Sunny Y; Wong, Tien Y; Foster, Paul J; Loo, Jing-Liang; Rosman, Mohamad; Loon, Seng-Chee; Wong, Wan Ling; Saw, Seang-Mei; Aung, Tin

    2008-09-01

    To assess the prevalence and types of glaucoma in an Asian Malay population. The Singapore Malay Eye Study is a population-based, cross-sectional survey that examined 3280 (78.7% response) persons aged 40 to 80 years. Participants underwent a standardized clinical examination including slit-lamp biomicroscopy, Goldmann applanation tonometry, and dilated optic disc assessment. Participants who were suspected to have glaucoma also underwent visual field examination (24-2 SITA standard, Humphrey Visual Field Analyzer II), gonioscopy, and repeat applanation tonometry. Glaucoma was defined according to International Society for Geographical and Epidemiologic Ophthalmology criteria. Of the 3280 participants, 150 (4.6%) had diagnosed glaucoma, giving an age- and sex-standardized prevalence of 3.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.3%-3.5%). The age- and sex-standardized prevalence of primary open-angle glaucoma was 2.5% (95% CI, 2.4%-2.6%), primary angle-closure glaucoma 0.12% (95% CI, 0.10%-0.14%), and secondary glaucoma 0.61% (95% CI, 0.59%-0.63%). Of the 150 glaucoma cases, only 12 (8%) had a previous known history of glaucoma. Twenty-seven (18%) eyes had low vision (based on best corrected visual acuity logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution [logMAR] >0.30 to /=1.00). The prevalence of glaucoma among Malay persons 40 years of age and older in Singapore is 3.4%, comparable to ethnic Chinese people in Singapore and other racial/ethnic groups in Asia. As in Chinese, Caucasians, and African people, primary open-angle glaucoma was the main form of glaucoma in this population. More than 90% of glaucoma cases were previously undetected.

  7. Catquest-9SF questionnaire: validation of Malay and Chinese-language versions using Rasch analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnan, Tassha Hilda; Mohamed Apandi, Mokhlisoh; Kamaruddin, Haireen; Salowi, Mohamad Aziz; Law, Kian Boon; Haniff, Jamaiyah; Goh, Pik Pin

    2018-01-05

    Catquest questionnaire was originally developed in Swedish to measure patients' self-assessed visual function to evaluate the benefit of cataract surgery. The result of the Rasch analysis leading to the creation of the nine-item short form of Catquest, (Catquest-9SF), and it had been translated and validated in English. The aim is therefore to evaluate the translated Catquest-9SF questionnaire in Malay and Chinese (Mandarin) language version for measuring patient-reported visual function among cataract population in Malaysia. The English version of Catquest-9SF questionnaire was translated and back translated into Malay and Chinese languages. The Malay and Chinese translated versions were self-administered by 236 and 202 pre-operative patients drawn from a cataract surgery waiting list, respectively. The translated Catquest-9SF data and its four response options were assessed for fit to the Rasch model. The Catquest-9SF performed well in the Malay and Chinese translated versions fulfilling all criteria for valid measurement, as demonstrated by Rasch analysis. Both versions of questionnaire had ordered response thresholds, with a good person separation (Malay 2.84; and Chinese 2.59) and patient separation reliability (Malay 0.89; Chinese 0.87). Targeting was 0.30 and -0.11 logits in Malay and Chinese versions respectively, indicating that the item difficulty was well suited to the visual abilities of the patients. All items fit a single overall construct (Malay infit range 0.85-1.26, outfit range 0.73-1.13; Chinese infit range 0.80-1.51, outfit range 0.71-1.36), unidimensional by principal components analysis, and was free of Differential Item Functioning (DIF). These results support the good overall functioning of the Catquest-9SF in patients with cataract. The translated questionnaire to Malay and Chinese-language versions are reliable and valid in measuring visual disability outcomes in the Malaysian cataract population.

  8. Prevalence and risk factors of undercorrected refractive errors among Singaporean Malay adults: the Singapore Malay Eye Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosman, Mohamad; Wong, Tien Y; Tay, Wan-Ting; Tong, Louis; Saw, Seang-Mei

    2009-08-01

    To describe the prevalence and the risk factors of undercorrected refractive error in an adult urban Malay population. This population-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in Singapore in 3280 Malay adults, aged 40 to 80 years. All individuals were examined at a centralized clinic and underwent standardized interviews and assessment of refractive errors and presenting and best corrected visual acuities. Distance presenting visual acuity was monocularly measured by using a logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) number chart at a distance of 4 m, with the participants wearing their "walk-in" optical corrections (spectacles or contact lenses), if any. Refraction was determined by subjective refraction by trained, certified study optometrists. Best corrected visual acuity was monocularly assessed and recorded in logMAR scores using the same test protocol as was used for presenting visual acuity. Undercorrected refractive error was defined as an improvement of at least 0.2 logMAR (2 lines equivalent) in the best corrected visual acuity compared with the presenting visual acuity in the better eye. The mean age of the subjects included in our study was 58 +/- 11 years, and 52% of the subjects were women. The prevalence rate of undercorrected refractive error among Singaporean Malay adults in our study (n = 3115) was 20.4% (age-standardized prevalence rate, 18.3%). More of the women had undercorrected refractive error than the men (21.8% vs. 18.8%, P = 0.04). Undercorrected refractive error was also more common in subjects older than 50 years than in subjects aged 40 to 49 years (22.6% vs. 14.3%, P Malay adults with refractive errors was higher than that of the Singaporean Chinese adults with refractive errors. Undercorrected refractive error is a significant cause of correctable visual impairment among Singaporean Malay adults, affecting one in five persons.

  9. A whole genome analyses of genetic variants in two Kelantan Malay individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan Juhari, Wan Khairunnisa; Md Tamrin, Nur Aida; Mat Daud, Mohd Hanif Ridzuan; Isa, Hatin Wan; Mohd Nasir, Nurfazreen; Maran, Sathiya; Abdul Rajab, Nur Shafawati; Ahmad Amin Noordin, Khairul Bariah; Nik Hassan, Nik Norliza; Tearle, Rick; Razali, Rozaimi; Merican, Amir Feisal; Zilfalil, Bin Alwi

    2014-12-01

    The sequencing of two members of the Royal Kelantan Malay family genomes will provide insights on the Kelantan Malay whole genome sequences. The two Kelantan Malay genomes were analyzed for the SNP markers associated with thalassemia and Helicobacter pylori infection. Helicobacter pylori infection was reported to be low prevalence in the north-east as compared to the west coast of the Peninsular Malaysia and beta-thalassemia was known to be one of the most common inherited and genetic disorder in Malaysia. By combining SNP information from literatures, GWAS study and NCBI ClinVar, 18 unique SNPs were selected for further analysis. From these 18 SNPs, 10 SNPs came from previous study of Helicobacter pylori infection among Malay patients, 6 SNPs were from NCBI ClinVar and 2 SNPs from GWAS studies. The analysis reveals that both Royal Kelantan Malay genomes shared all the 10 SNPs identified by Maran (Single Nucleotide Polymorphims (SNPs) genotypic profiling of Malay patients with and without Helicobacter pylori infection in Kelantan, 2011) and one SNP from GWAS study. In addition, the analysis also reveals that both Royal Kelantan Malay genomes shared 3 SNP markers; HBG1 (rs1061234), HBB (rs1609812) and BCL11A (rs766432) where all three markers were associated with beta-thalassemia. Our findings suggest that the Royal Kelantan Malays carry the SNPs which are associated with protection to Helicobacter pylori infection. In addition they also carry SNPs which are associated with beta-thalassemia. These findings are in line with the findings by other researchers who conducted studies on thalassemia and Helicobacter pylori infection in the non-royal Malay population.

  10. The Dynamics of Malay Culture in West Kalimantan in the 20th Century

    OpenAIRE

    Ahyat, Ita Syamtasiyah

    2014-01-01

    There are various Malay communities in West Kalimantan, which can be divided into two broad categories: (1) Malay migrants from outside Kalimantan (West Kalimantan) or contemporary Malays and (2) local Malays or native Malays who are considered as indigenous Malays. Contemporary Malays are Malay people who came from various areas in Sumatra, Riau Islands, Malay peninsula, East Malaysia (Serawak and Sabah States), and Brunei Darussalam. This paper aims to reconstruct the dynamics of Malay cult...

  11. The effectiveness of traditional Malay massage: A narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhanisah Sejari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional Malay massage (TMM, also known locally as urut Melayu, is one of the fields of traditional and complementary medicine. The practices and understanding are originally related to Malay culture in selected hospitals under the Ministry of Health since 2007. This study is to review the available evidence on the effectiveness of TMM as an alternative therapeutic approach to various conditions. An online electronic search in databases (Ovid™ , Scopus, EMBASE and PubMed was performed using keywords such as Malay massage and urut Melayu. Documents including case studies, case reports, and research studies were examined and analyzed. Two case studies and one qualitative research study about TMM for chronic diseases were explored. It was reported that the majority of those having chronic diseases sought TMM as an alternative treatment to improve mobility and quality of life. The second case study explored the effectiveness of TMM for a postpartum stroke patient, and there was improvement of physical function, mobility and optimizing the activity of daily living for this patient. The third article provided treatment-seeking behavior of poststroke patients and their TMM practitioners. From their interviews with 17 volunteers, they reported that Malay massage is very helpful for their body conditions after stroke due to high blood pressure and postdelivery complications. The patients revealed that TMM has provided them positive, beneficial effects. The review indicated that TMM could serve as an alternative treatment for those having chronic diseases, postpartum stroke and poststroke conditions. Therefore, the current review highlights the role TMM has in view of positive, beneficial effects to improve and optimize mobility, physical function, activity, daily living and quality of life.

  12. Ensuring the population living safety in the contaminated areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Voronov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The state policy of the Russian Federation to ensure population, living in the contaminated areas, life safety is implemented by means of federal programs.12 programs for overcoming the Chernobyl accident consequences, children’s population protection and housing provision for the Chernobyl accident liquidators are adopted and realized during this time. Total financing amount from the federal budget is more than 9,2 billion rubles. The main efforts are directed to create necessary infrastructure in settlements, development and deployment rehabilitation measures for agricultural lands and forests, creation of radiation situation monitoring systems, increase housekeeping safety culture in the contaminated territories, informational support and social and psychological rehabilitation of the population. Within the state programs are developing complex systems of a radiation situation monitoring in 12 subjects of the Russian Federation. Experts training for the outreach work with population, concerning radiation safety, increasing population knowledge level about radiation in a format of seminars, conferences, with use of online technologies is provided. The project on creation the uniform interdepartmental information system on overcoming radiation accidents aftermath, integrating the operating information systems of The Ministry of the Russian Federation for Civil Defence, Emergencies and Elimination of Consequences of Natural Disasters, Federal Service for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring, the Russian Federal Service for Surveillance on Consumer Rights Protection and Human Wellbeing and the Russian Academy of Sciences is realized.However, the problem of overcoming the radiation accidents aftermath remains relevant up to date.In 14 subjects of the Russian Federation there are territories contaminated by radioactive materials as a result of the Chernobyl accident where more than 1,5 million people live.

  13. A Glimpse of Chinese-Malay Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cendrawaty Tjong

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Chinese-Malay literature begans in the end of 19th century. The beginning of this period was known from the works depicted Classical-Malay literature. In the development, due to the booming of publication houses and newspaper agencies, this school of literature flourished. The origin of this period was closely related to Chinese-descendants, background and history. The long history, the big numbers of works and the miscellaneous contents of the works were the characteristics of this period. Chinese-Malay literature period was the period highlighted with typical Chinese-Indonesian society.  

  14. A PERSPECTIVE OF MALAY QUATRAIN IN MEDIA TECHNOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Arbaie SUJUD; Nik Rafidah NIK AFFENDI; Normaliza ABD RAHIM; Siti Nur ALIAA ROSLAN

    2012-01-01

    Malay quatrain has been introduced since long time ago among the Malay communities. It has also been used until today in formal ceremonies like the weddings, meetings and speeches. The Malay quatrain has also been taught in schools in order to inculcate the culture among children at young age. Therefore, this study ascertains the perspective of Malay quatrain in the media technology. The objectives of the study were to identify the types of Malay quatrain favored by the students and discuss t...

  15. Consonant acquisition in the Malay language: a cross-sectional study of preschool aged Malay children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoon, Hooi San; Abdullah, Anna Christina; Lee, Lay Wah; Murugaiah, Puvaneswary

    2014-05-01

    To date, there has been little research done on phonological acquisition in the Malay language of typically developing Malay-speaking children. This study serves to fill this gap by providing a systematic description of Malay consonant acquisition in a large cohort of preschool-aged children between 4- and 6-years-old. In the study, 326 Malay-dominant speaking children were assessed using a picture naming task that elicited 53 single words containing all the primary consonants in Malay. Two main analyses were conducted to study their consonant acquisition: (1) age of customary and mastery production of consonants; and (2) consonant accuracy. Results revealed that Malay children acquired all the syllable-initial and syllable-final consonants before 4;06-years-old, with the exception of syllable-final /s/, /h/ and /l/ which were acquired after 5;06-years-old. The development of Malay consonants increased gradually from 4- to 6 years old, with female children performing better than male children. The accuracy of consonants based on manner of articulation showed that glides, affricates, nasals, and stops were higher than fricatives and liquids. In general, syllable-initial consonants were more accurate than syllable-final consonants while consonants in monosyllabic and disyllabic words were more accurate than polysyllabic words. These findings will provide significant information for speech-language pathologists for assessing Malay-speaking children and designing treatment objectives that reflect the course of phonological development in Malay.

  16. Validity and reliability of a Malay version of the brief illness perception questionnaire for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chew, Boon-How; Vos, Rimke C; Heijmans, Monique; Shariff Ghazali, Sazlina; Fernandez, Aaron; Rutten, Guy E H M

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Illness perceptions involve the personal beliefs that patients have about their illness and may influence health behaviours considerably. Since an instrument to measure these perceptions for Malay population in Malaysia is lacking, we translated and examined the psychometric properties

  17. Validity and reliability of a Malay version of the brief illness perception questionnaire for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chew, B.H.; Vos, R.; Heijmans, M.; Metzendorf, M.I.; Scholten, R.J.P.M.; Rutten, G.E.H.M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Illness perceptions involve the personal beliefs that patients have about their illness and may influence health behaviours considerably. Since an instrument to measure these perceptions for Malay population in Malaysia is lacking, we translated and examined the psychometric properties

  18. The contemporary Malay Cultural and architecture in Medan City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawawiy Loebis, M.; Nirfalini Aulia, Dwira; Asdiana; Tuah Aditya Saragih, Jhon

    2018-03-01

    Malay is one of the identity of the city of Medan. Especially the Malay kingdom that has an important role in the history of the city of Medan and the river Deli. Some relics of the Malay kingdom in the form of buildings with Malay architecture that made the tourist area. In this modern era, many buildings are designed contemporary and leave behind a cultural background, especially Malay architecture. The research methodology used is qualitative methodology by way of observation and interviews with informants who are Malay people still in Medan city. And the distribution of questionnaires to the Malay community. The variables tested are, location and environment, language, technology, organizational livelihood system, the arts, and religious system. This study aims to determine the contemporary Malay culture and architecture prevailing in today’s Malay society.

  19. Boycott or Buycott? Malay Middle-Class Consumption Post-9/11

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Johan

    2007-01-01

    Much current anti-consumerist and anti-globalisation discourse identifies boycotting as an immensely powerful force. Religious and secular activists alike promote consumer boycotts as a type of practised resistance that promises to break US economic, military and cultural hegemony. Obviously...... in Malaysia in the wake of 9/11. I shall show how this issue evokes a wide range of contestations and paradoxes in the everyday lives of suburban Malay Muslim middle-class families. Most of all, the boycott confronts divergent Malay middle-class groups with the problem of how to translate intentionality...

  20. Construct validity and internal consistency reliability of the Malay version of the 21-item depression anxiety stress scale (Malay-DASS-21) among male outpatient clinic attendees in Johor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusli, B N; Amrina, K; Trived, S; Loh, K P; Shashi, M

    2017-10-01

    The 21-item English version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21) has been proposed as a method for assessing self-perceived depression, anxiety and stress over the past week in various clinical and nonclinical populations. Several Malay versions of the DASS-21 have been validated in various populations with varying success. One particular Malay version has been validated in various occupational groups (such as nurses and automotive workers) but not among male clinic outpatient attendees in Malaysia. To validate the Malay version of the DASS-21 (Malay-DASS-21) among male outpatient clinic attendees in Johor. A validation study with a random sample of 402 male respondents attending the outpatient clinic of a major public outpatient clinic in Johor Bahru and Segamat was carried out from January to March 2016. Construct validity of the Malay-DASS-21 was examined using Exploratory Factor Analysis (KMO = 0.947; Bartlett's test of sphericity is significant, pDASS- 21 and the internal consistency reliability using Cronbach's alpha. Construct validity of the Malay-DASS-21 based on eigenvalues and factor loadings to confirm the three factor structure (depression, anxiety, and stress) was acceptable. The internal consistency reliability of the factor construct was very impressive with Cronbach's alpha values in the range of 0.837 to 0.863. The present study showed that the Malay- DASS-21 has acceptable psychometric construct and high internal consistency reliability to measure self-perceived depression, anxiety and stress over the past week in male outpatient clinic attendees in Johor. Further studies are necessary to revalidate the Malay-DASS-21 across different populations and cultures, and using confirmatory factor analyses.

  1. Affixes, Austronesian and iconicity in Malay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Benjamin

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Explanations are offered for the puzzling differences between the forms and meanings of the Malay affixes and those of the broader Austronesian affixal system from which they derive. Oral-gesture iconicity is involved in the encoding of meanings that have both language-internal and social significance. The various verbal prefixes can be analysed both historically and iconically as different combinations of (1 a labial series (m , b , p indicating ‘source orientation’ with (2 r ‘iterative’ and (3 ( N ‘process marker’. The full range of forms becomes apparent only if a sufficiently wide range of Malay and Malayic speech-varieties, both ancient and modern, are brought to bear on the discussion. The different meanings and functions associated with the various prefixes are motivated by the different semantic concerns engendered by the social and cultural circumstances peculiar to each of the speech-varieties.

  2. Blended Design Approach of Long Span Structure and Malay Traditional Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundari, Titin

    2017-12-01

    The growing population in the world is so fast, which is followed by the increasing need of some new and large activities. Architects face the problem on how to facilitate buildings with various activities such as for large meeting, conference, indoors gymnasium and sports, and many others. The long span structure of building is one of the solutions to solve that problem. Generally, large buildings which implemented this structure will look as a technological, modern and futuristic ones or even neo futuristic performance. But on the other hand, many people still want to enjoy the specific and unique senses of local traditional architecture. So is the Malay people who want an easy pleasant large facilities which can be fulfilled by implementing modern long span building structure technology. In the same time, their unique sense of Malay traditional architecture can still be maintained. To overcome this double problems of design, it needs a blended design approach of long span structure and Malay Traditional Architecture.

  3. Gender messages in contemporary popular Malay songs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collin Jerome

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Gender has been an important area of research in the field of popular music studies. Numerous scholars have found that contemporary popular music functions as a locus of diverse constructions and expressions of gender. While most studies focus on content analyses of popular music, there is still a need for more research on audience’s perception of popular music’s messages. This study examined adult Malay listeners’ perceptions of gender messages in contemporary Malay songs. A total of 16 contemporary Malay songs were analysed using Fairclough’s (1992 method of text analysis. The content of the songs that conveyed messages about gender were the basis for analysis. The results showed that the messages revolve mainly around socially constructed gender roles and expectations in romantic relationships. Gender stereotypes are also used in the songs to reinforce men’s and women’s roles in romantic relationships. The results also showed that, while listeners acknowledge the songs’ messages about gender, their own perceptions of gender and what it means to be a gendered being in today’s world are neither represented nor discussed fully in the songs analysed. It is hoped the findings from this, particularly the mismatch between projected and perceived notions of gender, contribute to the field of popular Malay music studies in particular, and popular music studies in general where gender messages in popular songs and their influence on listeners’ perceptions of their own gender is concerned.

  4. How close do we live to water? A global analysis of population distance to freshwater bodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matti Kummu

    Full Text Available Traditionally, people have inhabited places with ready access to fresh water. Today, over 50% of the global population lives in urban areas, and water can be directed via tens of kilometres of pipelines. Still, however, a large part of the world's population is directly dependent on access to natural freshwater sources. So how are inhabited places related to the location of freshwater bodies today? We present a high-resolution global analysis of how close present-day populations live to surface freshwater. We aim to increase the understanding of the relationship between inhabited places, distance to surface freshwater bodies, and climatic characteristics in different climate zones and administrative regions. Our results show that over 50% of the world's population lives closer than 3 km to a surface freshwater body, and only 10% of the population lives further than 10 km away. There are, however, remarkable differences between administrative regions and climatic zones. Populations in Australia, Asia, and Europe live closest to water. Although populations in arid zones live furthest away from freshwater bodies in absolute terms, relatively speaking they live closest to water considering the limited number of freshwater bodies in those areas. Population distributions in arid zones show statistically significant relationships with a combination of climatic factors and distance to water, whilst in other zones there is no statistically significant relationship with distance to water. Global studies on development and climate adaptation can benefit from an improved understanding of these relationships between human populations and the distance to fresh water.

  5. Sanitary study of the population living in the Chernobyl region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mettler, F.A. Jr.; Briggs, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    The populations of Ukraine, Belarus and Russian Federation affected by Chernobyl accident are anxious about the radiation effects on their healthy. The International Chernobyl Project has, in a great part, looked for the pathology increase and to assess its incidence on their healthy. This study does not prove that the Chernobyl accident would have important effects on population healthy of contaminated areas

  6. Sex hormones in Malay and Chinese men in Malaysia: are there age and race differences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok-Yong Chin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Variations in the prevalence of sex-hormone-related diseases have been observed between Asian ethnic groups living in the same country; however, available data concerning their sex hormone levels are limited. The present study aimed to determine the influence of ethnicity and age on the sex hormone levels of Malay and Chinese men in Malaysia. METHODS: A total of 547 males of Malay and Chinese ethnicity residing in the Klang Valley Malaysia underwent a detailed screening, and their blood was collected for sex hormones analyses. RESULTS: Testosterone levels were normally distributed in the men (total, free and non-sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG bound fractions, and significant ethnic differences were observed (p<0.05; however, the effect size was small. In general, testosterone levels in males began to decline significantly after age 50. Significant ethnic differences in total, free and non-SHBG bound fraction estradiol levels were observed in the 20-29 and 50-59 age groups (p<0.05. The estradiol levels of Malay men decreased as they aged, but they increased for Chinese men starting at age 40. CONCLUSIONS: Small but significant differences in testosterone levels existed between Malay and Chinese males. Significant age and race differences existed in estradiol levels. These differences might contribute to the ethnic group differences in diseases related to sex hormones, which other studies have found in Malaysia.

  7. Sex hormones in Malay and Chinese men in Malaysia: are there age and race differences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok-Yong Chin

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Variations in the prevalence of sex-hormone-related diseases have been observed between Asian ethnic groups living in the same country; however, available data concerning their sex hormone levels are limited. The present study aimed to determine the influence of ethnicity and age on the sex hormone levels of Malay and Chinese men in Malaysia. METHODS: A total of 547 males of Malay and Chinese ethnicity residing in the Klang Valley Malaysia underwent a detailed screening, and their blood was collected for sex hormones analyses. RESULTS: Testosterone levels were normally distributed in the men (total, free and non-sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG bound fractions, and significant ethnic differences were observed (p<0.05; however, the effect size was small. In general, testosterone levels in males began to decline significantly after age 50. Significant ethnic differences in total, free and non-SHBG bound fraction estradiol levels were observed in the 20-29 and 50-59 age groups (p<0.05. The estradiol levels of Malay men decreased as they aged, but they increased for Chinese men starting at age 40. CONCLUSIONS: Small but significant differences in testosterone levels existed between Malay and Chinese males. Significant age and race differences existed in estradiol levels. These differences might contribute to the ethnic group differences in diseases related to sex hormones, which other studies have found in Malaysia.

  8. Tradition and modernity in Malay society (1830s-1930s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoo Kay Kim

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to explicate what happened to the Malays between the turn of the 20th century and the beginning of World War II. This is important to underscore the fact that, contrary to general impressions, Islam did not hold back the progress of the Malays, and that even before World War II, major changes were taking place in Malay society. Modernity in Malay society began to emerge even before World War I. Although the intrusion of British administration to a great extent contributed to socio-economic changes in many parts of the Malay Peninsula, the Muslim intelligentsia were indefatigably urging the Malays to be sensitive to their environment; and one way of keeping abreast of change was to expose themselves to modern education. Malay journalism, Malay literature and the frequent exchange of ideas in the Malay media were characteristics of Malay society beginning from the early 20th century. Politics then was not yet to the fore. As in other societies, there were also conservative elements within that placed obstacles in the way of those who tirelessly pursued change from tradition to modernity.

  9. A PERSPECTIVE OF MALAY QUATRAIN IN MEDIA TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbaie SUJUD

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Malay quatrain has been introduced since long time ago among the Malay communities. It has also been used until today in formal ceremonies like the weddings, meetings and speeches. The Malay quatrain has also been taught in schools in order to inculcate the culture among children at young age. Therefore, this study ascertains the perspective of Malay quatrain in the media technology. The objectives of the study were to identify the types of Malay quatrain favored by the students and discuss the interactions of the students during the process of learning. The samples of the study involved 20 volunteered subjects from a school in Malaysia. The subjects were nine year olds male and female students. The subjects were given a website which consists of Malay quatrain activities. The Malay quatrains consisted of moral values that were able to be understood among the students. The subjects were in pairs and they were to try out the website and discuss their opinion about the Malay quatrain. The interactions among the subjects were taped and selected interactions related to the study were analyzed. The discourse analysis method was used to analyze the interactions. The results of the study revealed that the subjects would prefer the Malay quatrain which has the value of love among family members, friends and teachers. It is hoped that future research concentrates on the use the Malay quatrain with aesthetic values among children at primary schools.

  10. Living with infertility : Experiences among urban slum populations in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papreen, N; Sabin, K; Begum, L; Ahsan, SK; Baqui, AH

    This paper explores the perceived causes of infertility, treatment-seeking for infertility and the consequences of childlessness, particularly for women, among a predominantly Muslim population in urban slums of Dhaka in Bangladesh. In-depth interviews were conducted with 60 women and GO men

  11. Radobiologic effects in the population living near Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livingston, G.; Pratt, G.; Silberstein, E.; Shukla, R.; Jensen, R.; Hinnefeld, J.; Bigbee, W.; Langlois, R.

    1994-01-01

    Eightly citizens of the former Soviet Union were examined after immigrating to the U.S. from 1989-91. During the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident, they were residents of four cities (Kiev, Gomel, Bobrujsk and Mozyr) all located 100-200 km from the plant. Examination of each individual included one - four whole-body radiation counts and a cytogenetic analysis of mitogen-stimulated peripheral blood lymphocytes for micronuclei as a biomarker of chromosome damage. In addition, 19 of the subjects heterozygous for the MN blood group were further tested using the glycophorin-A (GPA) specific locus mutation assay on erythrocytes. Results showed 48 immigrants including persons from all four cities had detectable levels of radiocesium contamination. The highest body burdens were found in a family who had lived in Mozyr, about 100 km northwest of Chernobyl. The observed decline in radiocesium of these subjects was consistent with the published biological half-life of 137 Cs. Adults showed the highest body burdens of radiocesium and the adult males from all four cities consistently showed higher levels than adult females. Age was found to account for much of the variation of lymphocyte micronuclei, however, a significant correlation was also demonstrated with radiocesium body burden and the absorbed dose for 20 subjects. Consistent with earlier studies, the frequency of simple allele loss (N/O) variants at the autosomal GPA locus was significantly higher than age- and sex-matched contemporaneous controls. Nine of the 19 MN heterozygotes showed variant frequencies 4-fold higher than mean frequency of matched controls. The allele loss mutations also showed a significant positive correlation with the radiocesium body burden. Results from this study indicate individuals living as far as 100-200 km from Chernobyl received radiation exposure from fallout sufficient to induce both cytogenetic abnormalities and specific locus mutations in hematopoietic tissues

  12. Live long and prosper: challenges ahead for an aging population

    OpenAIRE

    Erica L. Groshen; Thomas Klitgaard

    2002-01-01

    Over the next thirty years, the percentage of people who are 65 and over will grow rapidly while the percentage of people in their working years will decline. This shift in the age distribution of the population will put enormous pressure on social security systems in the United States, Germany, and Japan as the number of workers whose payroll taxes fund each retiree drops sharply.

  13. [The population of India and the standard of living].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etienne, G

    1983-01-01

    In 1951 the Indian population arrived at the end of its period of slow growth associated with British colonial rule. The mortality rate was still high at 27-31/1000; with a birth rate of 41-43/1000, the annual rate of growth was 1.2-1.3%. In the following decade, mortality declined appreciably due to progress in medicine and public health, but after 1961 the mortality decline slowed. Fertility began to decline, but much more slowly than hoped. The rate of urbanization was more moderate than in many developing countries, and the sex ratio for reasons not well understood continued to favor males. The rate of increase in several states slowed between 1961-71, and it appeared plausible that declining natality was a factor. The proportion literate increased from 24.03% in 1961 to 36.17% in 1981. In 1981, 46.74% of men and 24.88% of women were literate. Between 1951-81, mortality declined from 27-31/1000 to 13/1000 while fertility declined from 41-43/1000 to 34/1000. The effects of the future fertility decline will be partially offset by declining mortality. Although India has had some kind of family planning program since the 5-Year Plan of 1951-56, progress has been slow and uneven. Concern about overpopulation is increasing among the population, but available methods of contraception are imperfect, many programs are poorly administered, and skilled personnel are in short supply. The age at marriage has increased somewhat but not enough to have a major impact on fertility. Despite the extreme difficulty of establishing the caloric intake and real incomes of the poorest classes, it is known that wide disparities of income existed before independence and that population growth began to outpace increases in agricultural production long ago in some regions. However, after independence food production in the country as a whole increased by 114.3% while population increased by 93.7%. Growth of agricultural productivity has subsequently slowed. Improvements have been unevenly

  14. Do eating habits of the population living in Roma settlements differ from those of the majority population in Slovakia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijová, Emília; Gecková, Andrea Madarasová; Babinská, Ingrid

    2014-03-01

    Living in Roma settlements is associated with worse health in comparison with the majority population; this might be partially explained by socioeconomic disadvantages as well as cultural differences, including lifestyle. Eating habits represent an important part of lifestyle closely related to primary causes of morbidity and mortality, such as cardiovascular diseases, metabolic diseases or cancers. The eating habits of the population living in Roma settlements in comparison with those of the majority population were explored using the cross-sectional epidemiological HepaMeta study conducted in 2011. A representative sample of Roma (n = 452, mean age = 34.7; 35.2% men) and non-Roma (n = 403, mean age = 33.5; 45.9% men) aged 18-55 years living in the Kosice region were asked about breakfasting and recent consumption of fruits, vegetables, dairy products, meat products, meat, farinaceous dishes, and soft drinks. A logistic regression model was used separately for male and female participants. The population living in Roma settlements reported the recent consumption of fruit, vegetables and dairy products significantly less frequently in comparison with the majority population. Moreover, Roma females, in comparison with non-Roma females, reported significantly more frequently the consumption of meat and soft drinks. No differences were found between Roma and non-Roma in the consumption of meat products and farinaceous dishes. The population living in Roma settlements reported more frequently unhealthy eating habits in comparison with the majority population; this might contribute to worse health status of this population. The differences might be attributed to cultural differences between ethnic as well as socioeconomic groups, reduced availability of certain food items due to segregation or poverty and lower health literacy.

  15. Genetic association of SNPs in the FTO gene and predisposition to obesity in Malaysian Malays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apalasamy, Y.D.; Ming, M.F.; Rampal, S.; Bulgiba, A.; Mohamed, Z.

    2012-01-01

    The common variants in the fat mass- and obesity-associated (FTO) gene have been previously found to be associated with obesity in various adult populations. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and linkage disequilibrium (LD) blocks in various regions of the FTO gene are associated with predisposition to obesity in Malaysian Malays. Thirty-one FTO SNPs were genotyped in 587 (158 obese and 429 non-obese) Malaysian Malay subjects. Obesity traits and lipid profiles were measured and single-marker association testing, LD testing, and haplotype association analysis were performed. LD analysis of the FTO SNPs revealed the presence of 57 regions with complete LD (D' = 1.0). In addition, we detected the association of rs17817288 with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The FTO gene may therefore be involved in lipid metabolism in Malaysian Malays. Two haplotype blocks were present in this region of the FTO gene, but no particular haplotype was found to be significantly associated with an increased risk of obesity in Malaysian Malays

  16. Genetic association of SNPs in the FTO gene and predisposition to obesity in Malaysian Malays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apalasamy, Y.D. [Pharmacogenomics Laboratory, Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Ming, M.F.; Rampal, S.; Bulgiba, A. [Julius Centre University of Malaya, Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Mohamed, Z. [Pharmacogenomics Laboratory, Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2012-08-24

    The common variants in the fat mass- and obesity-associated (FTO) gene have been previously found to be associated with obesity in various adult populations. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and linkage disequilibrium (LD) blocks in various regions of the FTO gene are associated with predisposition to obesity in Malaysian Malays. Thirty-one FTO SNPs were genotyped in 587 (158 obese and 429 non-obese) Malaysian Malay subjects. Obesity traits and lipid profiles were measured and single-marker association testing, LD testing, and haplotype association analysis were performed. LD analysis of the FTO SNPs revealed the presence of 57 regions with complete LD (D' = 1.0). In addition, we detected the association of rs17817288 with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The FTO gene may therefore be involved in lipid metabolism in Malaysian Malays. Two haplotype blocks were present in this region of the FTO gene, but no particular haplotype was found to be significantly associated with an increased risk of obesity in Malaysian Malays.

  17. Genetic association of SNPs in the FTO gene and predisposition to obesity in Malaysian Malays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.D. Apalasamy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The common variants in the fat mass- and obesity-associated (FTO gene have been previously found to be associated with obesity in various adult populations. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and linkage disequilibrium (LD blocks in various regions of the FTO gene are associated with predisposition to obesity in Malaysian Malays. Thirty-one FTO SNPs were genotyped in 587 (158 obese and 429 non-obese Malaysian Malay subjects. Obesity traits and lipid profiles were measured and single-marker association testing, LD testing, and haplotype association analysis were performed. LD analysis of the FTO SNPs revealed the presence of 57 regions with complete LD (D’ = 1.0. In addition, we detected the association of rs17817288 with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The FTO gene may therefore be involved in lipid metabolism in Malaysian Malays. Two haplotype blocks were present in this region of the FTO gene, but no particular haplotype was found to be significantly associated with an increased risk of obesity in Malaysian Malays.

  18. Semantic-based Ontology for Malay Qur'an Reader

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, ND; Bennett, B; Atwell, ES

    2016-01-01

    The Quran has been translated into various languages around the world by Muslim experts. One of them is in Malay. There are numerous applications built to facilitate the retrieval of knowledge from the Malay Qur’an. However, there are limited resources and tools that are available or made accessible for the research on Malay Qur’an. Furthermore, there are several issues that need to be considered when dealing with Malay Qur’an translation; such as ambiguities of words, lack of equivalence wor...

  19. Thyroid status and mortality in nonagenarians from long-lived families and the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Vliet, Nicolien A.; van der Spoel, Evie; Beekman, Marian

    2017-01-01

    (TSH), free thyroxine (fT4) and free triiodothyronine (fT3) were measured. In nonagenarians from long-lived families and from the general population, associations between thyroid parameters and mortality were similar. We found no interaction between study population and parameters of thyroid status...

  20. Factors That Condition the Attitude Toward Living Related Kidney Donation Among Santiago of Cuba's Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos, A; López-Navas, A I; Sánchez, Á; Martínez-Alarcón, L; Ayala, M A; Garrido, G; Sebastián, M J; Ramis, G; Hernández, A M; Ramírez, P; Parrilla, P

    2018-03-01

    Living kidney donation is currently the most important kidney donor source in Latin America, and it is necessary to further increase its rates. To analyze the attitude toward living kidney donation among the Santiago de Cuba's population and to determine the sociopersonal factors with which it is associated. The population over 15 years old residing in Santiago de Cuba, stratified by sex and age, was screened. The "PCID-LKD Ríos" attitude questionnaire toward living kidney donation was administered to a random selection of the people surveyed according to the stratification and the census data. The completion was anonymized and self-administered. Verbal consent was obtained. The study was completed by 445 people, of whom the 86% (n = 389) were in favor of living related kidney donation. This attitude is associated with the level of education (P donation (P = .006); attitude toward cadaveric organ donation (P donation (P = .001); religious beliefs (P = .001); and assessment of the risk of living kidney donation (P donation; (3) carrying out of prosocial activities; and (4) risk assessment of living donation. Living related donation is very well accepted among the Santiago de Cuba's population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Rule-based Approach on Extraction of Malay Compound Nouns in Standard Malay Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Bakar, Zamri; Kamal Ismail, Normaly; Rawi, Mohd Izani Mohamed

    2017-08-01

    Malay compound noun is defined as a form of words that exists when two or more words are combined into a single syntax and it gives a specific meaning. Compound noun acts as one unit and it is spelled separately unless an established compound noun is written closely from two words. The basic characteristics of compound noun can be seen in the Malay sentences which are the frequency of that word in the text itself. Thus, this extraction of compound nouns is significant for the following research which is text summarization, grammar checker, sentiments analysis, machine translation and word categorization. There are many research efforts that have been proposed in extracting Malay compound noun using linguistic approaches. Most of the existing methods were done on the extraction of bi-gram noun+noun compound. However, the result still produces some problems as to give a better result. This paper explores a linguistic method for extracting compound Noun from stand Malay corpus. A standard dataset are used to provide a common platform for evaluating research on the recognition of compound Nouns in Malay sentences. Therefore, an improvement for the effectiveness of the compound noun extraction is needed because the result can be compromised. Thus, this study proposed a modification of linguistic approach in order to enhance the extraction of compound nouns processing. Several pre-processing steps are involved including normalization, tokenization and tagging. The first step that uses the linguistic approach in this study is Part-of-Speech (POS) tagging. Finally, we describe several rules-based and modify the rules to get the most relevant relation between the first word and the second word in order to assist us in solving of the problems. The effectiveness of the relations used in our study can be measured using recall, precision and F1-score techniques. The comparison of the baseline values is very essential because it can provide whether there has been an improvement

  2. The Malay version of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (Malay-ECOHIS)--assessing validity and reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Azlina N; Yusof, Zamros Y M; Esa, Rashidah

    2015-11-25

    The Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) is used to assess oral impacts on the quality of life of preschool aged children and their families. The objective of this study was to perform a cross-cultural adaptation of the ECOHIS into Malay and assess its psychometric properties. The cross-cultural adaptation of ECOHIS into Malay comprised of translating the ECOHIS into the Malay language (Malay-ECOHIS) by experts followed by face validation of the Malay-ECOHIS by a group of mothers. The Malay-ECOHIS was back translated into English and this was compared with the original ECOHIS. Minor changes were made to the Malay-ECOHIS before it was finalised. The Malay-ECOHIS' psychometric properties were assessed in terms of construct, convergent and discriminant validity as well as internal and test-retest reliability based on two separate studies involving 127 parents of 4-6 year old preschool children followed by oral examinations of 860 preschool children from 25 kindergartens from two districts in Selangor state, Malaysia. Non-parametric statistics were used to assess the relationships between the Malay-ECOHIS and the subjective and clinical outcome measures. The Cronbach's alpha was 0.83 and the weighted Kappa was 0.95 (intraclass correlation = 0.94). The Malay-ECOHIS demonstrated significant associations with different subjective and normative measures, i.e. levels of oral health satisfaction, perceived oral health status, perceived oral health need, toothache experience, pattern of dental attendance, and caries status of preschool children. These significant associations supported its construct, convergent and discriminant validity as well as internal and test-retest reliability. This study showed that the Malay-ECOHIS is a valid and reliable instrument to assess the negative impacts of oral disorders/conditions on the quality of life of 4-6 year old preschool children and their families in Malaysia.

  3. Nigerian Immigrant Population in Spain Is Little Sensitized to Living-Related Kidney Donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos, A; Carrillo, J; López-Navas, A I; Ayala, M A; Garrido, G; Sebastián, M J; Martínez-Alarcón, L; Ramis, G; Hernández, A M; Ramírez, P; Parrilla, P

    2018-03-01

    The Nigerian population is an emerging group in Spain and in Europe, but their sensitization toward living kidney donation has not been studied. The aim of this work was to analyze the attitude toward related renal donation while alive among the population born in Nigeria resident in Spain. A population older than 15 years born in Nigeria and resident in Spain, stratified by age and sex, was studied with the use of the attitude questionnaire about living kidney donation, "PCID-DVR-Ríos." People were randomly selected based on stratification. African immigration support associations advised on the location of potential respondents. Completion of the questionnaire was anonymous and self-administered. Verbal consent was requested to assist in the study. Statistical methods included Student t test, χ 2 , Fisher exact test, and logistic regression analysis. A total of 179 respondents were included in the study: 70% (n = 125) were in favor of living-related kidney donation, and 30% (n = 54) remained against or undecided. This attitude was associated with different psychosocial factors: marital status (P = .001), having offspring (P = .029), risk assessment of live donation (P donation (P donation and/or transplantation (P donation (P donation and/or transplantation (odds ratio, 8.064) persisted as the main related factor. The Nigerian immigrant population in Spain has a less favorable attitude toward living kidney donation than the native western European and Spanish population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Compositae of the Malay Archipelago. I. Vernonieae and Eupatorieae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, Joséphine Th.

    1935-01-01

    The region, from which the Vernonieae and the Eupatorieae have been worked out, includes the Greater Sunda Islands, the Lesser Sunda Islands and the Moluccas. It is a well-known fact, that the Malay Peninsula and the Philippines have a flora, which is related to that of the Malay Archipelago, sensu

  5. Comparative study on corpus development for Malay investment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative study on corpus development for Malay investment fraud detection in website. ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences ... The aim of this research is to develop a corpus for Malay investment fraud so that it can be used in ...

  6. Evaluation of Psychometric Properties of the Malay Version ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of Psychometric Properties of the Malay Version Perceived Stress Scale in Two Occupational Settings In Malaysia. ... Statistical analysis was carried out using statistical package for the social sciences version 16 (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA) software. Results: Analysis yielded two factor structure of the Malay version ...

  7. Translation and Validation of the Malay Subjective Happiness Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren

    2008-01-01

    The Subjective Happiness Scale (Lyubomirsky and Lepper, "Social Indicators Research," 46, 137-155, 1999) is a brief measure for assessing subjective happiness. The reliability and validity of the Malay version of the Subjective Happiness Scale was investigated in a community sample of 290 Chinese and 227 Malays in Malaysia. Results…

  8. Gender-dependent association of a β(2)-adrenergic gene variant with obesity parameters in Malaysian Malays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apalasamy, Yamunah Devi; Ming, Moy Foong; Rampal, Sanjay; Bulgiba, Awang; Mohamed, Zahurin

    2015-03-01

    Recent findings have shown that the rs1042714 (Gln27Glu) single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) on the β2-adrenoceptor gene may predispose to obesity. The findings from other studies carried on different populations, however, have been inconsistent. The authors investigated the association between the rs1042714 SNP with obesity-related parameters. DNA of 672 Malaysian Malays was analyzed using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses revealed significant associations between rs1042714 and diastolic blood pressure in the pooled Malaysian Malay subjects under additive and recessive models. After gender stratification, however, a significant association was found between the rs1042714 and triglyceride and the rs1042714 and log-transformed high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in Malaysian Malay men. No significant association was found between the SNP and log-transformed body mass index. This polymorphism may have an important role in the development of obesity-related traits in Malaysian Malays. Gender is an effect modifier for the effect of the rs1042714 polymorphism on obesity-related traits in Malaysian Malays. © 2011 APJPH.

  9. Screening of some Malay medicated oils for antimicrobial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Khalisanni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Oils from six Malay medicated oils, used traditionally in the treatment of infectious and septic diseases in humans, were tested for their antimicrobial property. The aim was to evaluate the antimicrobial properties of six Malay medicated oils against certain microbial isolates. Locally available Malay medicated oils were checked for their antimicrobial activities using six species of bacteria: E. coli, Salmonella spp., Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus, Bacillus subtilis and 2 fungi with 1 yeast (Aspergillus niger, Penicillum spp. and Candida albicans. Clove oil showed the highest antibacterial activity followed, respectively, by 'bunga merah', cajaput, nutmeg, lemon grass and 'gamat' oil. Clove oil and lemon grass showed anticandidal activity. The Malay medicated oil studies did not show any antifungal activity. The study shows that Malay medicated oils, like antibiotics, have antimicrobial activities against some microorganisms.

  10. Business Lures Employed by Malay Kelantanese Entrepreneurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahad Mohd Nizam

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The foundation of a successful business is essentially the level of consumer response to a product or service offered. Entrepreneurs’ abilitities to cater to their consumers’ needs are one of their secrets to success. Hence, the objective of this study is to uncover the secrets of business success, particularly the business lures that have helped Kelantan entrepreneurs to popularise products or services they offer. A qualitative approach was used to analyse the interview data according to themes. The study found five factors which determined the business success of the selected Malay Kelantanese entrepreneurs. These factors were: they were persistent in asking for help from Allah, they strived to be approachable entrepreneurs, and they cultivated positive entrepreneurial virtues such as having an honourable personality, being creative, and innovative, as well as being bold in their marketing strategy. Although the findings are not representative of all Malay entrepreneurs in Malaysia, this study can, however, serve as a source of reference to encourage other entrepreneurs to emulate the business success of the selected entrepreneurs. Apart from that, it can encourage awareness among the Muslim entrepreneurs, about the importance of managing a business in accordance with the Islamic laws

  11. Speech to Text Translation for Malay Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-khulaidi, Rami Ali; Akmeliawati, Rini

    2017-11-01

    The speech recognition system is a front end and a back-end process that receives an audio signal uttered by a speaker and converts it into a text transcription. The speech system can be used in several fields including: therapeutic technology, education, social robotics and computer entertainments. In most cases in control tasks, which is the purpose of proposing our system, wherein the speed of performance and response concern as the system should integrate with other controlling platforms such as in voiced controlled robots. Therefore, the need for flexible platforms, that can be easily edited to jibe with functionality of the surroundings, came to the scene; unlike other software programs that require recording audios and multiple training for every entry such as MATLAB and Phoenix. In this paper, a speech recognition system for Malay language is implemented using Microsoft Visual Studio C#. 90 (ninety) Malay phrases were tested by 10 (ten) speakers from both genders in different contexts. The result shows that the overall accuracy (calculated from Confusion Matrix) is satisfactory as it is 92.69%.

  12. Strategies to reduce exclusion among populations living in urban slum settlements in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Sabina Faiz

    2009-08-01

    The health and rights of populations living in informal or slum settlements are key development issues of the twenty-first century. As of 2007, the majority of the world's population lives in urban areas. More than one billion of these people, or one in three city-dwellers, live in inadequate housing with no or a few basic resources. In Bangladesh, urban slum settlements tend to be located in low-lying, flood-prone, poorly-drained areas, having limited formal garbage disposal and minimal access to safe water and sanitation. These areas are severely crowded, with 4-5 people living in houses of just over 100 sq feet. These conditions of high density of population and poor sanitation exacerbate the spread of diseases. People living in these areas experience social, economic and political exclusion, which bars them from society's basic resources. This paper overviews policies and actions that impact the level of exclusion of people living in urban slum settlements in Bangladesh, with a focus on improving the health and rights of the urban poor. Despite some strategies adopted to ensure better access to water and health, overall, the country does not have a comprehensive policy for urban slum residents, and the situation remains bleak.

  13. Strategies to Reduce Exclusion among Populations Living in Urban Slum Settlements in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The health and rights of populations living in informal or slum settlements are key development issues of the twenty-first century. As of 2007, the majority of the world's population lives in urban areas. More than one billion of these people, or one in three city-dwellers, live in inadequate housing with no or a few basic resources. In Bangladesh, urban slum settlements tend to be located in low-lying, flood-prone, poorly-drained areas, having limited formal garbage disposal and minimal access to safe water and sanitation. These areas are severely crowded, with 4–5 people living in houses of just over 100 sq feet. These conditions of high density of population and poor sanitation exacerbate the spread of diseases. People living in these areas experience social, economic and political exclusion, which bars them from society's basic resources. This paper overviews policies and actions that impact the level of exclusion of people living in urban slum settlements in Bangladesh, with a focus on improving the health and rights of the urban poor. Despite some strategies adopted to ensure better access to water and health, overall, the country does not have a comprehensive policy for urban slum residents, and the situation remains bleak. PMID:19761090

  14. Allele frequencies of human platelet antigens in Banjar, Bugis, Champa, Jawa and Kelantan Malays in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan Syafawati, W U; Norhalifah, H K; Zefarina, Z; Zafarina, Z; Panneerchelvam, S; Norazmi, M N; Chambers, G K; Edinur, H A

    2015-10-01

    The major aims of this study are to characterise and compile allelic data of human platelet antigen (HPA)-1 to -6 and -15 systems in five Malay sub-ethnic groups in Peninsular Malaysia. HPAs are polymorphic glycoproteins expressed on the surface of platelet membranes and are genetically differentiated across ethnogeographically unrelated populations. Blood samples were obtained with informed consent from 192 volunteers: Banjar (n = 30), Bugis (n = 37), Champa (n = 51), Jawa (n = 39) and Kelantan (n = 35). Genotyping was done using polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific primer method. In general, frequencies of HPAs in the Malay sub-ethnic groups are more similar to those in Asian populations compared with other more distinct populations such as Indians, Australian Aborigines and Europeans. This study provides the first HPA datasets for the selected Malay sub-ethnic groups. Subsequent analyses including previously reported HPA data of Malays, Chinese and Indians revealed details of the genetic relationships and ancestry of various sub-populations in Peninsular Malaysia. Furthermore, the comprehensive HPA allele frequency information from Peninsular Malaysia provided in this report has potential applications for future study of diseases, estimating risks associated with HPA alloimmunization and for developing an efficient HPA-typed donor recruitment strategy. © 2015 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  15. [Health risks in different living circumstances of mothers. Analyses based on a population study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperlich, Stefanie

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the living circumstances ('Lebenslagen') in mothers which are associated with elevated health risks. Data were derived from a cross-sectional population based sample of German women (n = 3129) with underage children. By means of a two-step cluster analysis ten different maternal living circumstances were assessed which proved to be distinct with respect to indicators of socioeconomic position, employment status and family-related factors. Out of the ten living circumstances, one could be attributed to higher socioeconomic status (SES), while five were assigned to a middle SES and four to a lower SES. In line with previous findings, mothers with a high SES predominantly showed the best health while mothers with a low SES tended to be at higher health risk with respect to subjective health, mental health (anxiety and depression), obesity and smoking. However, there were important health differences between the different living circumstances within the middle and lower SES. In addition, varying health risks were found among different living circumstances of single mothers, pointing to the significance of family and job-related living conditions in establishing health risks. With this exploratory analysis strategy small-scale living conditions could be detected which were associated with specific health risks. This approach seemed particularly suitable to provide a more precise definition of target groups for health promotion. The findings encourage a more exrensive application of the concept of living conditions in medical sociology research as well as health monitoring.

  16. Sex hormones in Malay and Chinese men in Malaysia: are there age and race differences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Kok-Yong; Soelaiman, Ima-Nirwana; Mohamed, Isa Naina; Ahmad, Fairus; Ramli, Elvy Suhana Mohd; Aminuddin, Amilia; Ngah, Wan Zurinah Wan

    2013-01-01

    Variations in the prevalence of sex-hormone-related diseases have been observed between Asian ethnic groups living in the same country; however, available data concerning their sex hormone levels are limited. The present study aimed to determine the influence of ethnicity and age on the sex hormone levels of Malay and Chinese men in Malaysia. A total of 547 males of Malay and Chinese ethnicity residing in the Klang Valley Malaysia underwent a detailed screening, and their blood was collected for sex hormones analyses. Testosterone levels were normally distributed in the men (total, free and non-sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) bound fractions), and significant ethnic differences were observed (pChinese men starting at age 40. Small but significant differences in testosterone levels existed between Malay and Chinese males. Significant age and race differences existed in estradiol levels. These differences might contribute to the ethnic group differences in diseases related to sex hormones, which other studies have found in Malaysia.

  17. A Comparison of Practices During the Confinement Period among Chinese, Malay, and Indian Mothers in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fok, Doris; Aris, Izzuddin M.; Ho, Jiahui; Lim, Sok Bee; Chua, Mei Chien; Pang, Wei Wei; Saw, Seang-Mei; Kwek, Kenneth; Godfrey, Keith M.; Kramer, Michael S.; Chong, Yap Seng

    2016-01-01

    Background Confinement (restrictions placed on diet and practices during the month right after delivery) represents a key feature of Asian populations. Few studies however, have focused specifically on ethnic differences in confinement practices. This study assesses the confinement practices of three ethnic groups in a multi-ethnic Asian population. Methods Participants were part of a prospective birth cohort study that recruited 1247 pregnant women (57.2% Chinese, 25.5% Malay, 17.3% Indian) during their first trimester. 1220 participants were followed up 3-weeks postpartum at home when questionnaires were administered to ascertain the frequency of adherence to the following confinement practices: showering; confinement-specific meals; going out with or without the baby; choice of caregiver assistance; and the use of massage therapy. Results Most participants reported that they followed confinement practices during the first three weeks post-partum (Chinese: 96.4%, Malay: 92.4%, Indian: 85.6%). Chinese and Indian mothers tended to eat more special confinement diets than Malay mothers (ppractices, but the three Asian ethnic groups differed in specific confinement practices. Future studies should examine whether ethnic differences persist in later child-rearing practices. PMID:27018256

  18. The main directions of prospective cohort study of population living around the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site

    OpenAIRE

    ZHUNUSSOVA T.; GROSCHE B.; APSALIKOV K.; BELIKHINA T.; PIVINA L.; MULDAGALIEV T.

    2014-01-01

    In the paper we have presented the possibilities of prospective cohort study of health status in the radiation exposed population living around the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site. It was substantiated the necessity of international cooperation of scientists from Kazakhstan, Europe, Japan and the United States for long-term study of radiation effects for the people and the environment.

  19. The Dynamics of Malay Culture in West Kalimantan in the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ita Syamtasiyah Ahyat

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available There are various Malay communities in West Kalimantan, which can be divided into two broad categories: (1 Malay migrants from outside Kalimantan (West Kalimantan or contemporary Malays and (2 local Malays or native Malays who are considered as indigenous Malays. Contemporary Malays are Malay people who came from various areas in Sumatra, Riau Islands, Malay peninsula, East Malaysia (Serawak and Sabah States, and Brunei Darussalam. This paper aims to reconstruct the dynamics of Malay culture in West Kalimantan. This historiographical project is undertaken by applying historical method which consists of several main steps: searching for relevant sources, selecting the sources, interpreting the sources, and reconstructing events as relevant to the main topic. Bibliography consists of local sources, documents, and works of foreign scholars which are relevant to the topic.

  20. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Malay Version of the Confusion, Hubbub and Order Scale (CHAOS-6) among Myocardial Infarction Survivors in a Malaysian Cardiac Healthcare Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganasegeran, Kurubaran; Selvaraj, Kamaraj; Rashid, Abdul

    2017-08-01

    The six item Confusion, Hubbub and Order Scale (CHAOS-6) has been validated as a reliable tool to measure levels of household disorder. We aimed to investigate the goodness of fit and reliability of a new Malay version of the CHAOS-6. The original English version of the CHAOS-6 underwent forward-backward translation into the Malay language. The finalised Malay version was administered to 105 myocardial infarction survivors in a Malaysian cardiac health facility. We performed confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) using structural equation modelling. A path diagram and fit statistics were yielded to determine the Malay version's validity. Composite reliability was tested to determine the scale's reliability. All 105 myocardial infarction survivors participated in the study. The CFA yielded a six-item, one-factor model with excellent fit statistics. Composite reliability for the single factor CHAOS-6 was 0.65, confirming that the scale is reliable for Malay speakers. The Malay version of the CHAOS-6 was reliable and showed the best fit statistics for our study sample. We thus offer a simple, brief, validated, reliable and novel instrument to measure chaos, the Skala Kecelaruan, Keriuhan & Tertib Terubahsuai (CHAOS-6) , for the Malaysian population.

  1. Study of genetic markers of CODIS and ESS systems in a population of individuals from Cabo Verde living in Lisboa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resende, Ana; Amorim, António; da Silva, Cláudia Vieira; Ribeiro, Teresa; Porto, Maria João; Costa Santos, Jorge; Afonso Costa, Heloísa

    2017-01-01

    Twenty-two autosomal short tandem repeats included in the PowerPlex® Fusion System Amplification kit (Promega Corporation) were genotyped in a population sample of 500 unrelated individuals from Cabo Verde living in Lisboa. Allelic frequency data and forensic and statistical parameters were calculated and evaluated in this work. The genetic relationship among immigrant population from Cabo Verde living in Lisboa and other populations, such as Brazilian and Angola immigrants living in Lisboa; Afro-Americans, Caucasians, Hispanics and Asians living in the USA and the population from Lisboa was assessed, and a multidimensional scaling plot was drown to show these results.

  2. From the streets to assisted living: perceptions of a vulnerable population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Susan; Cary, Patricia; Krautscheid, Lorretta

    2006-06-01

    The rapid growth of assisted-living facilities is paralleled by the necessity to understand the needs of the people living in them. A hallmark challenge for individuals who are poor and disabled, and often marginalized from mainstream society, is maintaining integrity and being a whole person, rather than a sum of broken parts. A key to maintaining this integrity is the ability to find stable housing and support systems. The inner-city assisted-living facility in this study is unique in that all of its residents are funded by Medicaid. The residents have complex needs related to histories of homelessness, mental illness, drug and/or alcohol addiction, and chronic illness. The purpose of this study was to explore the needs of this vulnerable population as they adapt to a new home and a new concept of assisted, yet independent, living. Structured interviews with key informants and oral survey questionnaires with residents provided quantitative and qualitative data about physical and mental health status, social support, perception of control, psychological wellbeing, and life satisfaction. This study provided valuable insights into the challenges inherent in providing a high quality of life in assisted living for a vulnerable population with diverse needs.

  3. Variation in the local population dynamics of the short-lived Opuntia macrorhiza (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haridas, C V; Keeler, Kathleen H; Tenhumberg, Brigitte

    2015-03-01

    Spatiotemporal variation in demographic rates can have profound effects for population persistence, especially for dispersal-limited species living in fragmented landscapes. Long-term studies of plants in such habitats help with understanding the impacts of fragmentation on population persistence but such studies are rare. In this work, we reanalyzed demographic data from seven years of the short-lived cactus Opuntia macrorhiza var. macrorhiza at five plots in Boulder, Colorado. Previous work combining data from all years and all plots predicted a stable population (deterministic log lamda approximately 0). This approach assumed that all five plots were part of a single population. Since the plots were located in a suburban-agricultural interface separated by highways, grazing lands, and other barriers, and O. macrorhiza is likely dispersal limited, we analyzed the dynamics of each plot separately using stochastic matrix models assuming each plot represented a separate population. We found that the stochastic population growth rate log lamdaS varied widely between populations (log lamdaS = 0.1497, 0.0774, -0.0230, -0.2576, -0.4989). The three populations with the highest growth rates were located close together in space, while the two most isolated populations had the lowest growth rates suggesting that dispersal between populations is critical for the population viability of O. macrorhiza. With one exception, both our prospective (stochastic elasticity) and retrospective (stochastic life table response experiments) analysis suggested that means of stasis and growth, especially of smaller plants, were most important for population growth rate. This is surprising because recruitment is typically the most important vital rate in a short-lived species such as O. macrorhiza. We found that elasticity to the variance was mostly negligible, suggesting that O. macrorhiza populations are buffered against large temporal variation. Finally, single-year elasticities to means

  4. IDENTIFYING MOTIVATION FACTOR INVOLVEMENT OF SARAWAK MALAY WOMEN ENTREPRENEUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masyantie Mohamad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sarawak multilayered cake among Sarawak product signature famous among the local as well as international tourist visiting Sarawak. In fact, Sarawak Malay women entrepreneurs have become very necessary players in the entrepreneurial field specifically in this cottage industries from the early introduction of this business, they have facing various problem in this businesses. Thus, this research aims to build an understanding of motivational factor that encourage Sarawak Malay women entrepreneurial experiences especially in multilayered cake businesses. Using qualitative methods, this research aims to identify the entrepreneurial motivations factors; with regards to start-up motivation by Sarawak Malay women. The finding shows that the motivations that influence Malay women within Kuching, Sarawak areas to start and grow their business are involve self-driven and context driven that motivate them involve in multilayered cakes businesses.

  5. A new species of Dalbergia (Leguminosae from Malay Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang - Sunarno

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available SUNARNO, BAMBANG & OHASHI, HIROSHI. 2002. A new species of Dalbergia (Leguminosae from Malay Peninsula. Reinwardtia 12(1: 117–119. ⎯ A new species, Dalbergia johoriensis from the Malay Peninsula is described. It is close to D. rostrata and D. havilandii but readily distinguished by the grooved midrib beneath, flowers with narrower standard and wings and style hairy in the lower part.

  6. MALAY POP: MASS MEDIA HEGEMONY IN INDONESIA POPULAR MUSIC

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Aziz Turhan Kariko

    2009-01-01

    Article discusses the domination of Malay pop music through textual analysis of songs, observation of musical programs, and interviews with important figures. The research data were obtained by library research and analyzed through a critical theory approach to gain an understanding of the text and its effects. The article concludes that Malay pop contains a strong uniformity which may be termed a phenomenon in the context of the culture industry, while also being dominant because of its legi...

  7. Stemming Malay Text and Its Application in Automatic Text Categorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasukawa, Michiko; Lim, Hui Tian; Yokoo, Hidetoshi

    In Malay language, there are no conjugations and declensions and affixes have important grammatical functions. In Malay, the same word may function as a noun, an adjective, an adverb, or, a verb, depending on its position in the sentence. Although extensively simple root words are used in informal conversations, it is essential to use the precise words in formal speech or written texts. In Malay, to make sentences clear, derivative words are used. Derivation is achieved mainly by the use of affixes. There are approximately a hundred possible derivative forms of a root word in written language of the educated Malay. Therefore, the composition of Malay words may be complicated. Although there are several types of stemming algorithms available for text processing in English and some other languages, they cannot be used to overcome the difficulties in Malay word stemming. Stemming is the process of reducing various words to their root forms in order to improve the effectiveness of text processing in information systems. It is essential to avoid both over-stemming and under-stemming errors. We have developed a new Malay stemmer (stemming algorithm) for removing inflectional and derivational affixes. Our stemmer uses a set of affix rules and two types of dictionaries: a root-word dictionary and a derivative-word dictionary. The use of set of rules is aimed at reducing the occurrence of under-stemming errors, while that of the dictionaries is believed to reduce the occurrence of over-stemming errors. We performed an experiment to evaluate the application of our stemmer in text mining software. For the experiment, text data used were actual web pages collected from the World Wide Web to demonstrate the effectiveness of our Malay stemming algorithm. The experimental results showed that our stemmer can effectively increase the precision of the extracted Boolean expressions for text categorization.

  8. Model of external exposure of population living in the areas subjected to radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golikov, V.Yu.; Balonov, M.I.

    2002-01-01

    In the paper, we formulated the general approach to assessment of external doses to population living in contaminated areas (the model equation and the set of parameters). The model parameters were assessed on the basis of results of monitoring in the environment, phantom experiments, and social and demographic information obtained on the contaminated areas. Verification of model assessments performed by comparison with measurement results of individual external doses in inhabitants within the thermoluminescent dosimetry method have shown that differences in dose assessments within both methods does not exceed 1.5 times at a confidence level of 95%. In the paper, we present the results illustrating specific features of external dose formation in population living in the areas of Russia subjected to radioactive contamination due to nuclear tests at the Semipalatinsk test site, radioactive releases from the Mayak enterprise, and the Chernobyl accident. (author)

  9. THE LEGAL FRAMEWORK FOR ENSURING THE STANDARDS OF THE LIVING STANDARDS OF THE POPULATION IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Levanda

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is legal base in the context of the system of ensuring standards of living standards of the population of Ukraine. Methodology. The analysis of normative – legal documents on the basic level of life of different population groups. The legislative field is investigated through the official web portal of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine, the State statistics service of Ukraine clarified the period from 1991 to the present. Results. Functioning laws of the last century – outdated, not consistent with the goals of social policy and the contemporary economy. It is important to modernize the laws, concerning basic living standards of the population to the country's foreign policy, according to the EU methodology. Apply state social standard as a tool for poverty reduction, and the perspective tool starter package with a guaranteed standard of living government to its citizens. The practical implications. Different stages of development of economy of independent Ukraine, laid the foundations of the legislative framework of normative documents concerning social protection of the population. A country's legal framework contains a set of laws belonging to the last century, policy and regulatory documents that comply with EU standards. In turn, the regulatory framework has tenedency to the modernization of laws that establish the guaranteed state social standards and guarantees for every citizen. Value/originality. Analysis of the legislative base, revealed the ineffectiveness of the law guaranteeing basic social standard to citizens. Understanding of the process of modernization of a relatively large part of the laws adopted in the last century.

  10. Socioeconomic characteristics of the population living in Roma settlements and their association with health and health-related behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gecková, Andrea Madarasová; Babinská, Ingrid; Bobáková, Daniela; Veselská, Zuzana Dankulincová; Bosáková, Lucia; Kolarcik, Peter; Jarcuska, Peter; Pella, Daniel; Halánová, Monika

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare socioeconomic characteristics of the Roma population living in Roma settlements with the majority population. Moreover, it was aimed to assess socioeconomic differences in health and health-related behaviour within the population living in Roma settlements. Data from the cross-sectional HepaMeta study conducted in Slovakia in 2011 were used. The sample consisted of 452 Roma (mean age = 34.7; 35.2% men) and 403 non-Roma (mean age = 33.5; 45.9% men) respondents. Roma in selected settlements were recruited by local Roma community workers. Respondents from the major population were randomly selected from a list of patients from general practitioners. Data were collected via questionnaire, anthropometric measures and analysed blood samples. Differences in socioeconomic characteristics between the population living in Roma settlements and the majority population were tested using the chi-square test. The contribution of selected socioeconomic characteristics on health and health-related behaviour of the population living in Roma settlements was assessed by logistic regression models adjusted for age and gender. The population living in Roma settlements is characterised by significantly lower socioeconomic standards, and the living conditions are significantly worse compared with the majority. With few exceptions, the study did not confirm any significant association between socioeconomic indicators and health and health-related behaviour within the population living in Roma settlements. The deteriorating effect of living in Roma settlement on health and health-related behaviour seems to be immense regardless differences in socioeconomic characteristics or living condition within the settlement population.

  11. Minisatellite mutations and retrospective biodosimetry of population living close to the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindholm, C.; Bersimbaev, R.I.; Dubrova, Y.E. EI KAUP; EI MAATA

    2003-01-01

    During the period between 1949 and 1989 nuclear weapon testing carried out at the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (STS) resulted in local fallout affecting the residents of Semipalatinsk, East Kazakhstan and Pavlodar districts of Kazakhstan and Altai region of Russia. The Semipalatinsk nuclear polygon in Kazakhstan has been the site for 470 nuclear tests, including 26 tests performed on the ground and 87 in the atmosphere. More than 1.5 million people living in the vicinity of the test site were repeatedly exposed to ionizing radiation. The paper reviews the study where the main objectives are: (1) to establish a biosample database of blood samples of families in three generations living close to the STS and control families in three generations from clean areas, (2) to determine the minisatellite mutation rates in the three generations of exposed people and the control families of the same ethinic origin living in non-contaminated areas, and (3) to determine the chromosomal translocation frequencies by FISH chromosome painting in the lymphocytes of the exposed and the control people in order to determine the radiation exposure. The aim of the study was to select the population living near to the STS and subjected to the greatest radiation exposure. Of particular interest was the first test of 29th of August 1949, as this was reported to have caused heavy fallout along a narrow trajectory extending north-east from Polygon, also covering parts of the Altai region of Russia and parts of Pavlodar and Karaganda regions in Kazakhstan

  12. [Prevalence of type 2 diabetes and obesity in two Chilean aboriginal populations living in urban zones].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Elena P; Pérez, Francisco B; Angel, Bárbara B; Albala, Cecilia B; Santos, J Luis M; Larenas, Gladys Y; Montalvo, Domingo V

    2004-10-01

    The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors is increasing in aboriginal populations in Chile. To study the prevalence of obesity, type 2 diabetes and serum lipids in two aboriginal populations, Mapuche and Aymara, that were transferred from a rural to a urban environment. Two groups of subjects over 20 years were analyzed, Mapuche and Aymara. The Mapuche group was formed by 42 men and 105 women, living in four urban communities of Santiago, and an Aymara group formed by 42 men and 118 women, living in Arica, in Northern Chile. Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, lipid profile, oral glucose tolerance test, fasting insulin and serum leptin were determined. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes was 6.9% in Aymara and 8.2% in Mapuche subjects. The frequency of glucose intolerance was similar in both groups, but greater among men. A total blood cholesterol over 200 mg/dl was observed in 43.1% of Aymara and 27.9% of Mapuche subjects (p Mapuche individuals, respectively (p= NS). The prevalence of type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia in turban aboriginal populations is higher than that of their rural counterparts. A possible explanation for these results are changes in lifestyles that come along with urbanization, characterized by a high consumption of saturated fat and refined sugars and a low level of physical activity.

  13. A tale of two communities: intestinal polyparasitism among Orang Asli and Malay communities in rural Terengganu, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elyana, Fatin Nur; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Ithoi, Init; Abdulsalam, Awatif M; Dawaki, Salwa; Nasr, Nabil A; Atroosh, Wahib M; Abd-Basher, Mohamad Hafiz; Al-Areeqi, Mona A; Sady, Hany; Subramaniam, Lahvanya R; Anuar, Tengku Shahrul; Lau, Yee Ling; Moktar, Norhayati; Surin, Johari

    2016-07-16

    demonstrates that IPIs are highly prevalent in rural Terengganu, Malaysia. Community awareness about IPIs was found to be imperative in protecting Malay children from these infections. An integrated control programme for the prevention and control of IPIs is highly recommended for these communities, with a special emphasis on the Orang Asli population.

  14. Climate change and functional traits affect population dynamics of a long-lived seabird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenouvrier, Stéphanie; Desprez, Marine; Fay, Remi; Barbraud, Christophe; Weimerskirch, Henri; Delord, Karine; Caswell, Hal

    2018-07-01

    Recent studies unravelled the effect of climate changes on populations through their impact on functional traits and demographic rates in terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems, but such understanding in marine ecosystems remains incomplete. Here, we evaluate the impact of the combined effects of climate and functional traits on population dynamics of a long-lived migratory seabird breeding in the southern ocean: the black-browed albatross (Thalassarche melanophris, BBA). We address the following prospective question: "Of all the changes in the climate and functional traits, which would produce the biggest impact on the BBA population growth rate?" We develop a structured matrix population model that includes the effect of climate and functional traits on the complete BBA life cycle. A detailed sensitivity analysis is conducted to understand the main pathway by which climate and functional trait changes affect the population growth rate. The population growth rate of BBA is driven by the combined effects of climate over various seasons and multiple functional traits with carry-over effects across seasons on demographic processes. Changes in sea surface temperature (SST) during late winter cause the biggest changes in the population growth rate, through their effect on juvenile survival. Adults appeared to respond to changes in winter climate conditions by adapting their migratory schedule rather than by modifying their at-sea foraging activity. However, the sensitivity of the population growth rate to SST affecting BBA migratory schedule is small. BBA foraging activity during the pre-breeding period has the biggest impact on population growth rate among functional traits. Finally, changes in SST during the breeding season have little effect on the population growth rate. These results highlight the importance of early life histories and carry-over effects of climate and functional traits on demographic rates across multiple seasons in population response to climate

  15. Current radiological simulation and dose assessment on the population living in the Techa Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golikov, V.Yu.; Balonov, M.I.; Bruk, G.Ya.

    2002-01-01

    In the beginning of the fifties, planned releases of liquid radioactive wastes were performed from the radiochemical enterprise Mayak to the riverbed of the Techa river flowing in the area of the Chelyabinsk region. These releases caused high contamination of the riverbed and water meadows of the Techa river especially by 9 0S r and 1 37C s. After the termination of intensive releases, a part of the population living in the riverside settlements (15 settlements with total population of 72000 persons) was resettled from 1954-1962. Within the Chelyabinsk region, four inhabited settlements remained on the river: Muslyumovo, Brodokalmak, Russkaya Techa and Nizhnepetropavlovskoye with a total population of 9229 persons according to the census of 1989. The second, but much less significant, source of contamination to this environment was the dispersion and transport of contaminated sediments from Lake Karachay in 1967 [Romanov et al. 1995; Kryshev et al. 1998; Kravtsova et al. 1998]. The overall purpose of this work was determination of ways and estimation of current levels of exposure to population of two settlements, Muslyumovo and Brodokalmak, which is necessary for development of measures on radiation and social protection of population

  16. Malay divorce in Peninsular Malaysia: the near-disappearance of an institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, P C; Jones, G W

    1990-01-01

    The authors explore factors affecting the sharp decline in divorce rates among the Malay population of Peninsular Malaysia during the period 1950-1985. They consider the rise in marriage age, trends away from arranged marriage and polygamy, and the contributions of Islamic reform movements and women's groups. The focus is on the changes in attitudes toward marriage and divorce. Data are from the 1981-1982 Study on Marriage and Marital Dissolution in Peninsular Malaysia. Appendixes containing laws and statutes concerning divorce are included.

  17. Population ecology and conservation of beetles and pseudoscorpions living in hollow oaks in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Ranius, T.

    2002-01-01

    This paper aims at giving a summary of recent research on the habitat requirements and population structure of beetles and pseudoscorpions living in old, hollow oaks in Sweden. An inventory of old oaks in pasture woodlands revealed that the species richness of beetles is higher at sites that are originally open and are still grazed. The trees in these plots are preferred for two reasons: they are more sun-exposed and have a larger trunk diameter. Many species are harmed by forest regrowth and...

  18. Genetic Polymorphisms of 15 STR Loci within Turkish Student Population Living in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina

    OpenAIRE

    Dogan, Serkan; Kovačević, Lejla; Marjanović, Damir

    2013-01-01

    Allele frequencies of 15 STRs included in the PowerPlex 16 System (D3S1358, TH01, D21S11, D18S51, Penta E, D5S818, D13S317, D7S820, D16S539, CSF1PO, Penta D, VWA, D8S1179, TPOX and FGA) were calculated from the referent sample of 100 unrelated individuals of both sexes from Turkish student population living in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Buccal swab, as a source of DNA, was collected from the volunteers from whom the informed consent form was obtained. DNA extraction was performed using...

  19. Past and present practices of the Malay food heritage and culture in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Nazri Abdul Raji

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Malay heritage varies from north to south; however, there are various similarities and differences. Essentially, Malay heritage food is influenced by a myriad of cultures, such as Arab, Indian, Chinese, Siamese, Javanese, Minangkabau, and others. Different regions in Malaysia are known for their unique or signature dishes, such as beef rendang, laksa, nasi lemak, and tapai. Indeed, it is noted that Malay food is identical in terms of its spiciness. This can be seen from the prepreparation, methods of cooking, and availability and use of prominent ingredients, such as local aromatic herbs and spices. This article highlights the regional Malay food, past and present practices of Malay food culture, and characteristics of Malay food. In addition, this article also discusses the different occasions and table etiquette practices among Malay communities. The reported findings are expected to contribute to the literature on food culture, specifically in Malay heritage food.

  20. Malay Pop: Mass Media Hegemony in Indonesia Popular Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Aziz Turhan Kariko

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Article discusses the domination of Malay pop music through textual analysis of songs, observation of musical programs, and interviews with important figures. The research data were obtained by library research and analyzed through a critical theory approach to gain an understanding of the text and its effects. The article concludes that Malay pop contains a strong uniformity which may be termed a phenomenon in the context of the culture industry, while also being dominant because of its legitimacy created by the media. The nature of Malay pop is also very profitable for those participating in it, therefore the spirit of capitalism was also quite dominant in this context. There is also resistance from the indie music movement, and its attempts to fight regressive qualities of music that are legitimized in the mainstream mass media.  

  1. Being Modern, Malay, and Muslim in the Movies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Thomas Gray

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Serious analyses of media, especially popular media, and how those media are being negotiated can provide insight into broader social and political change. Media provide us with an arena where global meta-forces - globalization, politics, economics, etc. - intersect with daily life. Analyzing wider social and political-economic issues in Malaysian politics using Malay language cinema as a media example illustrates this point. In this paper the role of Malay language cinema as being both a catalyst for and receiver of Malay lower middle class dissatisfactions with authority, especially in terms of the Malaysian government’s attempts at religious authority, bring new insights into the intersection between media, politics, religion, and society in Malaysia.

  2. Projected demographic composition of the United States population of people living with diagnosed HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Julia E; Golden, Matthew R; Hughes, James P; Goodreau, Steven M; Siddiqi, Azfar-E-Alam; Buskin, Susan E; Hawes, Stephen E

    2017-12-01

    The transformation of HIV from a fatal disease to lifelong disease has resulted in an HIV-infected population that is growing and aging, placing new and increasing demands on public programs and health services. We used National HIV Surveillance System and US census data to project the demographic composition of the population of people living with diagnosed HIV (PLWDH) in the United States through 2045. The input parameters for the projections include: (1) census projections, (2) number of people with an existing HIV diagnosis in 2013, (3) number of new HIV diagnoses in 2013, and (4) death rate within the PLWDH population in 2013. Sex-, risk group-, and race-specific projections were estimated through an adapted Leslie Matrix Model for age-structured populations. Projections for 2013-2045 suggest that the number of PLWDH in the U.S. will consistently grow, from 917,294 to 1,232,054, though the annual growth rate will slow from 1.8% to 0.8%. The number of PLWDH aged 55 years and older will increase from 232,113 to 470,221. The number of non-Hispanic (NH) African Americans/Blacks and Hispanics is projected to consistently grow, shifting the racial/ethnic composition of the US PLWDH population from 32 to 23% NH-White, 42 to 38% NH-Black, and 20-32% Hispanic between 2013 and 2045. Given current trends, the composition of the PLWDH population is projected to change considerably. Public health practitioners should anticipate large shifts in the age and racial/ethnic structure of the PLWDH population in the United States.

  3. Neuropsychological state of the population living in the Aral Sea region (zone of ecological crisis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakiev, Kanat; Battakova, Sharbanu; Namazbaeva, Zulkiya; Ibrayeva, Lyazat; Otarbayeva, Maral; Sabirov, Zhanbol

    2017-04-01

    Background The Aral Sea crisis has led to harmful effects on human habitat. In recent years, mild cognitive impairment is a growing problem. Objectives This article provides the results of studying the neuropsychological state of residents living in the crisis zone of the Aral Sea region in the case of Shalkar city. We have provided an assessment of the neuropsychological state of examined population and determined the leading pathology in this region. Methods The survey sample included 344 persons of reproductive age from 21 to 45 years. We have obtained results in biochemical studies, indicating perturbations of proteometabolism and lipid metabolism. Results A correlation analysis showed dependence between a decrease of albumin and high-density lipoproteins, an increase of low-density lipoproteins and parameters of cognitive function. Conclusions The research suggests a high prevalence of cerebrovascular pathology among the population, changes in cognitive function parameters, long-term and short-term memory problems and high levels of depression.

  4. Self-help countermeasure strategies for populations living within contaminated areas of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beresford, N.A.; Voigt, G.; Wright, S.M.; Howard, B.J.; Barnett, C.L.; Prister, B.; Balonov, M.; Ratnikov, A.; Travnikova, I.; Gillett, A.G.; Mehli, H.; Skuterud, L.; Lepicard, S.; Semiochkina, N.; Perepeliantnikova, L.; Goncharova, N.; Arkhipov, A.N.

    2001-01-01

    Countermeasures have been effectively employed within intensive agricultural systems in areas of the Former Soviet Union (FSU) affected by the Chernobyl accident. However, ingestion doses continue to be elevated in some areas as a result of few foodstuffs which are collected from the wild or produced by the household. Forest fungi and berries, and milk from privately owned cattle are the most notable contributors to 137 Cs intakes amongst these foodstuffs. In this paper we consider advice which would help affected populations to both understand the importance of these exposure routes and to reduce their exposure. In addition to the potential radiological benefits, self-help schemes are highly cost-effective and likely to have a positive psychological influence on populations living within contaminated areas of the FSU. Evidence to suggest that the transfer of radiocaesium to cow milk is considerably higher in the FSU than within western Europe and North America is discussed

  5. Population Pressure, Global Living Standards, and the Promise of Space Solar Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, John K., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    What many sincere environmentalists advocate: (severe restrictions on energy use, to reduce global warming), may actually end up being very harmful to the environment. Since 85 percent of the global energy use is derived from carbon based fossil fuels, this may seem to be a reasonable position. However, the proponents of energy use restrictions are ignoring some very important relationships. The greatest damage to the environment, in terms of species loss, is loss and/or human modification of habitat. The two greatest threats to habitat seem to be (1) population pressure and (2) logging. Logging does not necessarily permanently occupy the land, while either default squatter occupation or "colonization by policy" is often permanent. Increased population degrades the land by causing over- farming, and also creates an ever greater demand for raw materials and food resources. Poor people have no time nor money to think about or help save the environment. Therefore the greatest threat to species survival is human population growth and its frequent companion: poverty. There is an existing way to reduce population growth, and thus to reduce pressure on habitats, called "raising the standard of living". Wherever it succeeds, population growth slows rapidly. In many European countries, there would be a negative population growth if not for immigration. Personal energy use is closely correlated with living standards, and it is impossible to have a higher living standard without a higher degree of personal energy use. It would seem, however, that extending high living standards to the developing world would create an even greater demand for the use of fossil fuels. The solution to this dilemma can only be found in the use of very high capacity sources of non- fossil energy that do not significantly damage the environment. Are there sources of clean, economical energy with a large enough combined capacity to provide high living standards for the whole world, including those

  6. Toward objective monitoring of ingestive behavior in free-living population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazonov, Edward S; Schuckers, Stephanie A C; Lopez-Meyer, Paulo; Makeyev, Oleksandr; Melanson, Edward L; Neuman, Michael R; Hill, James O

    2009-10-01

    Understanding of eating behaviors associated with obesity requires objective and accurate monitoring of food intake patterns. Accurate methods are available for measuring total energy expenditure and its components in free-living populations, but methods for measuring food intake in free-living people are far less accurate and involve self-reporting or subjective monitoring. We suggest that chews and swallows can be used for objective monitoring of ingestive behavior. This hypothesis was verified in a human study involving 20 subjects. Chews and swallows were captured during periods of quiet resting, talking, and meals of varying size. The counts of chews and swallows along with other derived metrics were used to build prediction models for detection of food intake, differentiation between liquids and solids, and for estimation of the mass of ingested food. The proposed prediction models were able to detect periods of food intake with >95% accuracy and a fine time resolution of 30 s, differentiate solid foods from liquids with >91% accuracy, and predict mass of ingested food with >91% accuracy for solids and >83% accuracy for liquids. In earlier publications, we have shown that chews and swallows can be captured by noninvasive sensors that could be developed into a wearable device. Thus, the proposed methodology could lead to the development of an innovative new way of assessing human eating behavior in free-living conditions.

  7. Population ecology and conservation of beetles and pseudoscorpions living in hollow oaks in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranius, T.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at giving a summary of recent research on the habitat requirements and population structure of beetles and pseudoscorpions living in old, hollow oaks in Sweden. An inventory of old oaks in pasture woodlands revealed that the species richness of beetles is higher at sites that are originally open and are still grazed. The trees in these plots are preferred for two reasons: they are more sun-exposed and have a larger trunk diameter. Many species are harmed by forest regrowth and, thus, to preserve the rarer saproxylic fauna it is important to continue the management of areas with old oaks. In four of thirteen species (Osmoderma eremita, Tenebrio opacus, Elater ferrugineus and Larca lata, the occupancy per tree were found to be significantly positively correlated with the number of trees in the stand. This finding is noteworthy as there is little scientific evidence available to support that saproxylic beetles suffer from habitat fragmentation. The population dynamics were investigated on a certain study species, O. eremita. The results suggest that the individuals of each tree could be seen as a local population, and the populations in all occupied trees in a stand together form a metapopulation.

  8. Population-based evaluation of the 'LiveLighter' healthy weight and lifestyle mass media campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, B; Niven, P; Dixon, H; Swanson, M; Szybiak, M; Shilton, T; Pratt, I S; Slevin, T; Hill, D; Wakefield, M

    2016-04-01

    The Western Australian (WA) 'LiveLighter' (LL) mass media campaign ran during June-August and September-October 2012. The principal campaign ad graphically depicts visceral fat of an overweight individual ('why' change message), whereas supporting ads demonstrate simple changes to increase activity and eat healthier ('how' to change message). Cross-sectional surveys among population samples aged 25-49 were undertaken pre-campaign (N= 2012) and following the two media waves (N= 2005 and N= 2009) in the intervention (WA) and comparison state (Victoria) to estimate the population impact of LL. Campaign awareness was 54% after the first media wave and overweight adults were more likely to recall LL and perceive it as personally relevant. Recall was also higher among parents, but equal between socio-economic groups. The 'why' message about health-harms of overweight rated higher than 'how' messages about lifestyle change, on perceived message effectiveness which is predictive of health-related intention and behaviour change. State-by-time interactions showed population-level increases in self-referent thoughts about the health-harms of overweight (P stereotypes of overweight individuals did not increase after LL aired. LL was associated with some population-level improvements in proximal and intermediate markers of campaign impact. However, sustained campaign activity will be needed to impact behaviour. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  9. Validation of the Malay version of the Quality of Life Questionnaire of the European Foundation for Osteoporosis (QUALEFFO-41) in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagammai, Thiagarajan; Mohazmi, Mohamed; Liew, Su May; Chinna, Karuthan; Lai, Pauline Siew Mei

    2015-08-01

    To assess the validity and reliability of the Malay version of the Quality of Life (QOL) Questionnaire of the European Foundation for Osteoporosis (QUALEFFO-41) in Malaysia. The QUALEFFO-41 was translated from English to Malay and administered to 215 post-menopausal osteoporotic women ≥50 years who could understand Malay, at baseline and 4 weeks. The SF-36 was administered at baseline to assess convergent validity. To assess discriminative validity, patients with and without back pain were recruited. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the QUALEFFO-41 had five domains. Good internal consistency was seen in all domains (0.752-0.925) except for the social activity domain (0.692). Test-retest reliability showed adequate correlation for all items (0.752-0.964, p Malaysia. To enable the QUALEFFO-41 to be used in a multiracial population, further studies should look into validating other versions of the QUALEFFO-41 in Malaysia.

  10. Reconstructions of human history by mapping dental markers in living Eurasian populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashibadze, Vera F.; Nasonova, Olga G.; Nasonov, Dmitry S.

    2013-01-01

    Using advances in gene geography and anthropophenetics, the phenogeographical method for anthropological research was initiated and developed using dental data. Statistical and cartographical analyses are provided for 498 living Eurasian populations. Mapping principal components supplied evidence for the phene pool structure in Eurasian populations, and for reconstructions of Homo sapiens history on the continent. Longitudinal variability seems to be the most important regularity revealed by principal components analysis (PCA) and mapping, indicating the division of the whole area into western and eastern main provinces. So, the most ancient scenario in the history of Eurasian populations developed from two perspective different groups: a western group related to ancient populations of West Asia and an eastern one rooted in ancestry in South and/or East Asia. In spite of the enormous territory and the revealed divergence, the populations of the continent have undergone wide scale and intensive timeespace interaction. Many details in the revealed landscapes are background to different historical events. Migrations and assimilation are two essential phenomena in Eurasian history: the widespread of the western combination through the whole continent to the Pacific coastline and the movement of the paradoxical combinations of eastern and western markers from South or Central Asia to the east and west. Taking into account that no additional eastern combinations in the total variation in Asian groups have been found, but that mixed or western markers' sets and that eastern dental characteristics are traced in Asia since Homo erectus, the assumption is made in favour of the hetero-level assimilation in the eastern province and of net-like evolution of H. sapiens.

  11. An acoustic investigation of Arabic vowels pronounced by Malay speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Abd Almisreb

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In Malaysia, Arabic language is spoken, and commonly used among the Malays. Malays use Arabic in their daily life, such as during performing worship. Hence, in this paper, some of the Arabic vowels attributes are investigated, analyzed and initial findings are presented based on tokens articulated by Malay speakers as we can consider the spoken Arabic by Malays as one of the Arabic dialects. It is known that in Arabic language there are 28 consonants and 6 main vowels. Firstly, the duration, variability, and overlapping attributes are highlighted based on syllables of Consonant–Vowel with each syllable representing every Arabic consonant with the corresponding vowels. Next, the dispersion of each vowel is examined to be compared with each other along with the variability among vowels that may cause overlapping between vowels in the vowel-space. Results showed that the vowel overlapping occurred between short vowels and their long counterpart vowels. Furthermore, an investigation of the Arabic vowel duration is addressed as well, and duration analysis for all the vowels is discussed, followed by the analysis for each vowel separately. In addition, a comparison between long and short vowels is presented as well as comparison between high and low vowel is carried out.

  12. Linguistic Alternants and Code Selection in Baba Malay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakir, Anne

    1989-01-01

    Provides a brief account and explanation of the phenomenon of language use among the Baba community, which uses Hokkien, Malay, and English in the process of code selection and code mixing/switching. Data are drawn from recordings of conversation of the Babas and Nyonyas. (Author/OD)

  13. Origin of the flora of the Malay Peninsula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridley, H.N.

    1937-01-01

    In my work on the Malay Peninsula, I included such plants as were known from the districts of North Kedah, Perlis and Setul. Botanically however, the Malayan flora ceases at a line running from a little north of Kedah peak Lat. 6.5, to Kota Bahru in North Kelantan Lat. 6.10. It is in fact

  14. Ethnicity and Accommodation: Malay-Chinese Relations in Kelantan, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raybeck, Douglas

    1980-01-01

    Argues that despite antipathy toward the Chinese manifested at state and urban levels, the Malay-Chinese relations at the village level in Kelantan, Malaysia, are better than corresponding relationships in the country's more developed states. Suggests both cultural and political reasons for the success of the Chinese group. (Author/GC)

  15. Association between physical activity and metabolic syndrome among Malay adults in a developing country, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Anne H Y; Moy, F M

    2014-03-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a highly prevalent health problem within the adult population in developing countries. We aimed to study the association of physical activity levels and metabolic risk factors among Malay adults in Malaysia. Cross-sectional. Body mass index, waist circumference, and systolic/diastolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, fasting triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were measured in 686 Malay participants (aged 35-74 years). Self-reported physical activity was obtained with the validated International Physical Activity Questionnaire (Malay version) and categorized into low, moderate or high activity levels. Individuals who were classified as overweight and obese predominated (65.6%). On the basis of the modified NCEP ATP III criteria, metabolic syndrome was diagnosed in 31.9% of all participants, of whom 46.1% were men and 53.9% were women. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome among participants with low, moderate or high activity levels was 13.3%, 11.7% and 7.0%, respectively (p<0.001). Statistically significant negative associations were found between a number of metabolic risk factors and activity categories (p<0.05). The odds ratios for metabolic syndrome in the moderate and high activity categories were 0.42 (95% CI: 0.27-0.65) and 0.52 (95% CI: 0.35-0.76), respectively, adjusted for gender. Moderate and high activity levels were each associated with reduced odds for metabolic syndrome independent of gender. Although a slightly lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome was associated with high activity than with moderate activity, potential health benefits were observed when moderate activity was performed. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. All rights reserved.

  16. Association of Serum Adiponectin Levels with Metabolic Syndrome Risk Factors in Malay Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Firdaus Isa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between serum adiponectin and metabolic syndrome in adults living in rural Malaysia. Methods: A total of 299 Malay adults (men=124; women = 175 with a mean age 48.8 (11.7 years were recruited. Measurements for waist circumference and blood pressure were taken before drawing an overnight fasting blood samples. Biochemical tests for triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, glucose and serum adiponectin concentration were measured. Results: Our results show that the adiponectin level in the subjects with metabolic syndrome was significantly lower than those without metabolic syndrome (p < 0.05. Among the metabolic syndrome risk factors, adiponectin level was significantly associated with hypertriglyceridemia and reduced HDL cholesterol (p < 0.001. Conclusion: The outcome from this study which highlights the association of hypoadiponectinemia with risk factors of metabolic syndrome in Malay adults, suggests that the reduced level of adiponectin may play a pivotal role in the development of metabolic syndrome in this ethnic group.

  17. Risk of adverse birth outcomes in populations living near landfill sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Paul; Briggs, David; Morris, Sara; de Hoogh, Cornelis; Hurt, Christopher; Jensen, Tina Kold; Maitland, Ian; Richardson, Sylvia; Wakefield, Jon; Jarup, Lars

    2001-01-01

    Objective To investigate the risk of adverse birth outcomes associated with residence near landfill sites in Great Britain. Design Geographical study of risks of adverse birth outcomes in populations living within 2 km of 9565 landfill sites operational at some time between 1982 and 1997 (from a total of 19 196 sites) compared with those living further away. Setting Great Britain. Subjects Over 8.2 million live births, 43 471 stillbirths, and 124 597 congenital anomalies (including terminations). Main outcome measures All congenital anomalies combined, some specific anomalies, and prevalence of low and very low birth weight (<2500 g and <1500 g). Results For all anomalies combined, relative risk of residence near landfill sites (all waste types) was 0.92 (99% confidence interval 0.907 to 0.923) unadjusted, and 1.01 (1.005 to 1.023) adjusted for confounders. Adjusted risks were 1.05 (1.01 to 1.10) for neural tube defects, 0.96 (0.93 to 0.99) for cardiovascular defects, 1.07 (1.04 to 1.10) for hypospadias and epispadias (with no excess of surgical correction), 1.08 (1.01 to 1.15) for abdominal wall defects, 1.19 (1.05 to 1.34) for surgical correction of gastroschisis and exomphalos, and 1.05 (1.047 to 1.055) and 1.04 (1.03 to 1.05) for low and very low birth weight respectively. There was no excess risk of stillbirth. Findings for special (hazardous) waste sites did not differ systematically from those for non-special sites. For some specific anomalies, higher risks were found in the period before opening compared with after opening of a landfill site, especially hospital admissions for abdominal wall defects. Conclusions We found small excess risks of congenital anomalies and low and very low birth weight in populations living near landfill sites. No causal mechanisms are available to explain these findings, and alternative explanations include data artefacts and residual confounding. Further studies are needed to help differentiate between the various

  18. Population trends and live birth rates associated with common ART treatment strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Georgina M; Wand, Handan; Macaldowie, Alan; Chapman, Michael G; Farquhar, Cynthia M; Bowman, Mark; Molloy, David; Ledger, William

    2016-11-01

    Have ART live birth rates improved in Australia over the last 12 years? There were striking improvements in per-cycle live birth rates observed for frozen/thaw embryo transfers, blastocyst transfer and single embryo transfer (SET), while live birth rates following ICSI were lower than IVF for non-male factor infertility in most years. ART and associated techniques have become the predominant treatment of infertility over the past 30 years in most developed countries. However, there are differences in ART laboratory and clinical practices, and success rates worldwide. Australia has one of the highest ART utilization rates and lowest multiple birth rates in the world, thus providing a unique setting to investigate the contribution of common ART strategies in an unrestricted population of patients to ART success rates. A retrospective cohort study of 585 065 ART treatment cycles performed in Australia between 2002 and 2013 using the Australian and New Zealand Assisted Reproduction Database (ANZARD). An unrestricted population of all women who underwent autologous ART treatment between 2002 and 2013. Visual descriptive analysis was used to assess the trends in ART procedures by the calendar years. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) of a live birth for four common ART techniques were calculated after controlling for important confounders including female age, infertility diagnosis, stage of the embryo (blastocyst versus cleavage stage), type of embryo (fresh versus thawed), fertilization method (IVF versus ICSI) and number of embryos transferred (SET versus multiple embryos). The overall live birth rate per embryo transfer increased from 19.2% in 2002 to 23.3% in 2013 (21.9-24.3% for fresh embryo transfers and 14.6-23.3% for frozen/thaw embryo transfers). This occurred concurrently with an increase in SET from 29.7% to 78.9%, and an increase in the average age of women undergoing treatment from 35.0 to 35.9 years. Individuals who had a frozen/thaw embryo transfer cycle in 2002

  19. Minisatellite mutations and retrospective biodosimetry of population living close to the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindholm, C.; Bersimbacv, R. I.; Dubrova, Y. E.; Hulten, M.; Bigbee, W. I.; Murphy, B. P.; Koivistoinen, A.; Tankimonova, M.; Mamyrbaeva, Z.; Djansugarova, L.; Mustonen, R.; Salomaa, S.

    2004-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to determine minisatellite mutation rates in families in three generations and to perform retrospective biodosimetry of individuals in these families living close to the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site in Kazakhstan. The oldes generation (Po) lived in the area at the time of the first Soviet nuclear test in 1949 whereas the younger generations (F1,F2) were exposed to smaller doses from the residual fallout and later tests. Matched control families in three generations living in non-contamianted areas were analysed in parallel. The retrospective biodosimetry comprehended two endpoints; chromosomal translocations determined by FISH chromosome painting and the glycophorin A (GPA) somatic mutation assay. The minisatellite mutation rate in the cohort of P0 parents was 1-8-fold higher than in the control non-exposed population. Moreover, the minisatellite mutatin rate in the cohort of f1 parents from the exposed area showed a significant negative correlation with with the year of birth, fully consistent with the decay of radioisotopes after the cessation of surface and atmospheric nuclear tests. The results from the FISH painting analysis showed similar translocation frequencies in the Semipalatinsk cohort and the control group. Based on the FISH results it can be concluded that the P0 generation has received a cumulative mean dose of less than 0.5 Gy. The GPA assay did not reveal significant diffrences in the variant cell frequencies for all subjects from the Semipalatinsk area compared with the matched controls. However, a significant increase (P<0.05) of the mean allele-loss φN variant frequency was observed among the exposed P0 generation in comparison to controls. Considering the sensitivity of the GPA assay, the results suggest that the mean dose to the P0 generation of the affected villages was relatively low and in accordance to the results obtained using FISH. (Author) 17 refs

  20. Minisatellite mutations and retrospective biodosimetry of population living close to the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindholm, C.; Bersimbacv, R. I.; Dubrova, Y. E.; Hulten, M.; Bigbee, W. I.; Murphy, B. P.; Koivistoinen, A.; Tankimonova, M.; Mamyrbaeva, Z.; Djansugarova, L.; Mustonen, R.; Salomaa, S.

    2004-07-01

    The objectives of the study were to determine minisatellite mutation rates in families in three generations and to perform retrospective biodosimetry of individuals in these families living close to the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site in Kazakhstan. The oldes generation (Po) lived in the area at the time of the first Soviet nuclear test in 1949 whereas the younger generations (F1,F2) were exposed to smaller doses from the residual fallout and later tests. Matched control families in three generations living in non-contamianted areas were analysed in parallel. The retrospective biodosimetry comprehended two endpoints; chromosomal translocations determined by FISH chromosome painting and the glycophorin A (GPA) somatic mutation assay. The minisatellite mutation rate in the cohort of P0 parents was 1-8-fold higher than in the control non-exposed population. Moreover, the minisatellite mutatin rate in the cohort of f1 parents from the exposed area showed a significant negative correlation with with the year of birth, fully consistent with the decay of radioisotopes after the cessation of surface and atmospheric nuclear tests. The results from the FISH painting analysis showed similar translocation frequencies in the Semipalatinsk cohort and the control group. Based on the FISH results it can be concluded that the P0 generation has received a cumulative mean dose of less than 0.5 Gy. The GPA assay did not reveal significant diffrences in the variant cell frequencies for all subjects from the Semipalatinsk area compared with the matched controls. However, a significant increase (P<0.05) of the mean allele-loss {phi}N variant frequency was observed among the exposed P0 generation in comparison to controls. Considering the sensitivity of the GPA assay, the results suggest that the mean dose to the P0 generation of the affected villages was relatively low and in accordance to the results obtained using FISH. (Author) 17 refs.

  1. Populational genetic structure of free-living maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus determined by proteic markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. R. De Mattos

    Full Text Available Electrophoretic analysis of presumptive twenty gene loci products was conducted in hemolisates and plasma samples of twenty-eight maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus from an area in northeastern São Paulo State, Brazil. The area sampled was divided into three sub-areas, with the Mogi-Guaçu and Pardo rivers regarded as barriers to the gene flow. The polymorphism degree and heterozygosity level (intralocus and average estimated in this study were similar to those detected by other authors for maned wolves and other species of wild free-living canids. The samples of each sub-area and the total sample exhibited genotype frequencies consistent with the genetic equilibrium model. The values of the F-statistics evidenced absence of inbreeding and population subdivision and, consequently, low genetic distances were found among the samples of each area.

  2. [Population dynamics, urban structure, and production of living space in the metropolitan zone of Mexico City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schteingart, M

    1989-01-01

    "In this article, an attempt is made to account for certain trends in the growth and distribution of the population, and in the structuring of living space in the metropolitan zone of Mexico City.... Among the important conclusions of this essay are those having to do with the huge growth of some political-administrative units and the relation of this phenomenon to the practices followed by private realtors, often articulated with the policies and programs set by the State's housing agencies, as well as those that associate urban growth and expansion with the development of habitational spaces within the so-called 'formal' and 'informal' housing sectors." Data are from Mexican censuses and other official sources. (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt

  3. Validity of the Malay version of the Internet Addiction Test: a study on a group of medical students in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Ng Chong; Isa, Saramah Mohammed; Hashim, Aili Hanim; Pillai, Subash Kumar; Harbajan Singh, Manveen Kaur

    2015-03-01

    The use of the Internet has been increasing dramatically over the decade in Malaysia. Excessive usage of the Internet has lead to a phenomenon called Internet addiction. There is a need for a reliable, valid, and simple-to-use scale to measure Internet addiction in the Malaysian population for clinical practice and research purposes. The aim of this study was to validate the Malay version of the Internet Addiction Test, using a sample of 162 medical students. The instrument displayed good internal consistency (Cronbach's α = .91), parallel reliability (intraclass coefficient = .88, P students with and without Internet dependence. Principal component analysis with varimax rotation identified a 5-factor model. The Malay version of the Internet Addiction Test appeared to be a valid instrument for assessing Internet addiction in Malaysian university students. © 2012 APJPH.

  4. Internal exposure of populations to long-lived radionuclides released into the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balonov, M.I.

    1997-01-01

    This chapter discusses the events that led to the contamination of environments with the long-lived radionuclides of caesium, strontium and other elements, and to the internal exposure of populations living in contaminated areas. Among these events are radioactive releases into the river Techa from the Soviet nuclear weapons facility Mayak in 1949-1956, thermonuclear weapons test in the 1950s and 1960s, the Kyshtim and Windscale accidents in 1957, and the Chernobyl and Tomsk-7 accidents in 1986 and 1993, respectively. Methods of environmental monitoring and individual internal dose monitoring of inhabitants are described. These are based on measuring the content of radionuclides not only in the air, drinking water and local food products, but also in humans using whole-body counters and analysing excreta and autopsy samples. The dynamics of internal exposure of people of different ages to radionuclides of caesium, strontium and plutonium from the environment are considered. Examples of radionuclide distributions in the environment, and of individual/collective internal doses and related medical effects are presented. (Author)

  5. Prevalence of refractive error in malay primary school children in suburban area of Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Syaratul-Emma; Tan, Hui-Ken; Wan-Hazabbah, W H; Ibrahim, Mohtar

    2008-11-01

    Refractive error remains one of the primary causes of visual impairment in children worldwide, and the prevalence of refractive error varies widely. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of refractive error and study the possible associated factors inducing refractive error among primary school children of Malay ethnicity in the suburban area of Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia. A school-based cross-sectional study was performed from January to July 2006 by random selection on Standard 1 to Standard 6 students of 10 primary schools in the Kota Bharu district. Visual acuity assessment was measured using logMAR ETDRS chart. Positive predictive value of uncorrected visual acuity equal or worse than 20/40, was used as a cut-off point for further evaluation by automated refraction and retinoscopic refraction. A total of 840 students were enumerated but only 705 were examined. The prevalence of uncorrected visual impairment was seen in 54 (7.7%) children. The main cause of the uncorrected visual impairment was refractive error which contributed to 90.7% of the total, and with 7.0% prevalence for the studied population. Myopia is the most common type of refractive error among children aged 6 to 12 years with prevalence of 5.4%, followed by hyperopia at 1.0% and astigmatism at 0.6%. A significant positive correlation was noted between myopia development with increasing age (P <0.005), more hours spent on reading books (P <0.005) and background history of siblings with glasses (P <0.005) and whose parents are of higher educational level (P <0.005). Malays in suburban Kelantan (5.4%) have the lowest prevalence of myopia compared with Malays in the metropolitan cities of Kuala Lumpur (9.2%) and Singapore (22.1%). The ethnicity-specific prevalence rate of myopia was the lowest among Malays in Kota Bharu, followed by Kuala Lumpur, and is the highest among Singaporean Malays. Better socio-economic factors could have contributed to higher myopia rates in the

  6. Measuring limitations in activities of daily living: a population-based validation of a short questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfering, Achim; Cronenberg, Sonja; Grebner, Simone; Tamcan, Oezguer; Müller, Urs

    2017-12-01

    A newly developed questionnaire assessing limitations in activity of daily living (LADL-Q) that should improve assessment of LADL is tested in a large population-based validation study. This survey was paper-based. Overall, 16,634 individuals who were representative of the working population in the German-speaking part of Switzerland participated in the study. Item analysis was used the final version of the LADL-Q to four items per subscale that correspond to potential problems in three body regions (back and neck, upper extremities, lower extremities). Analysis included tests for reliability, internal consistency, dimensionality and convergent validity. Test-retest reliability coefficients after 2 weeks ranged from 0.82 to 0.99 (Mdn = 0.87), with no item having a coefficient below 0.60. The median item-total coefficients ranged between moderate and good. Correlation coefficients between LADL-Q subscales and three validated clinical instruments (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities osteoarthritis index, shoulder pain disability index, Oswestry) ranged from 0.63 to 0.81. In structural equation modeling the three subscales were significantly related with two important outcomes in occupational rehabilitation: self-reported general health and daily task performance. The new LADL-Q is a brief, reliable and valid tool for assessment of LADL in studies on musculoskeletal health.

  7. Time-Location Patterns of a Population Living in an Air Pollution Hotspot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, X.M.; Fan, Z.T.; Strickland, P.O.; Wu, X.M.; Fan, Z.T.; Strickland, P.O.

    2010-01-01

    This study characterized the time-location pattern of 107 residents living in air pollution hotspots, the Waterfront South and Cope wood/Davis Streets communities in Camden, NJ. Most residents in the two communities are minority and impoverished individuals. Results showed that employment status played the fundamental role in determining time-location patterns of this study population, and the variations of time-location pattern by season and by day-type were partially attributed to employment status. Compared to the National Human Activity Pattern Survey, the Camden cohort spent significantly more time outdoors (3.8 hours versus 1.8 hours) and less time indoors (19.4 hours versus 20.9 hours) than the general US population, indicating a higher risk of exposure to ambient air pollution for the Camden cohort. The findings of the study are important for understanding exposure routes and sources for the socio economically disadvantaged subgroup and ultimately help develop effective strategies to reduce community exposure to ambient air pollution in hotspots

  8. Ensuring living condition for ageing population by public–private partnership (PPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konjar Miha

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Lack of financial resources has become one of the main issues in fulfilling social and physical needs in urban development. The declining levels of public resources make the collaboration between public and private investors necessary. When facing the challenges of ageing population, shared investment may contribute to the appropriate development of sheltered housing to meet the goals of spatial planning as well as certain standards at the level of urban design. By ensuring appropriate living conditions for all generations such urban PPP projects may contribute to the fulfilment of the public interest. The paper presents practice of PPP implementation in Ljubljana, Slovenia, where local authority with the collaboration of private partners ensured more than 400 sheltered apartments in the last years. Examples show the extension of the idea from the 70s onwards in finding new models of housing for the aging population. The development of new models can be a good example of strengthening the cooperation between public and private partners in the field of urban development practice.

  9. Pollutants emitted by a cement plant: health risks for the population living in the neighborhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuhmacher, Marta; Domingo, J.L.; Garreta, Josepa

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the health risks due to combustor emissions in the manufacturing of Portland cement for the population living in the neighborhood of a cement kiln in Catalonia, Spain. Pollutants emitted to the atmosphere in the course of cement production were modeled. The ISC3-ST model was applied to estimate air dispersion of the contaminants emitted by the cement plant. Air concentrations of NO 2 , SO 2 , PM 10 , metals, and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), as well as the potential exposure in the vicinity of the facility, were assessed via models based on US EPA guidance documents. PCDD/F and metal concentrations were also modeled for soil and vegetation. Based on these concentrations, the levels of human exposure were calculated. Individual cancer and noncancer risks for the emissions of the cement kiln were assessed. Health effects due to NO 2 , SO 2 , and PM 10 emissions were also evaluated. Risk assessment was performed as a deterministic analysis. The main individual risk in the population was evaluated in a central-tendency and a high-end approach. The results show that the incremental individual risk due to emissions of the cement plant is very low not only with regard to health effects, but also in relation to toxicological and cancer risks produced by pollutants such as metals and PCDD/Fs emitted by the cement kiln

  10. Ensuring living condition for ageing population by public-private partnership (PPP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konjar, Miha; Nikšič, Matej; Grom, Janez Peter; Mujkić, Sabina; Fikfak, Alenka

    2018-03-01

    Lack of financial resources has become one of the main issues in fulfilling social and physical needs in urban development. The declining levels of public resources make the collaboration between public and private investors necessary. When facing the challenges of ageing population, shared investment may contribute to the appropriate development of sheltered housing to meet the goals of spatial planning as well as certain standards at the level of urban design. By ensuring appropriate living conditions for all generations such urban PPP projects may contribute to the fulfilment of the public interest. The paper presents practice of PPP implementation in Ljubljana, Slovenia, where local authority with the collaboration of private partners ensured more than 400 sheltered apartments in the last years. Examples show the extension of the idea from the 70s onwards in finding new models of housing for the aging population. The development of new models can be a good example of strengthening the cooperation between public and private partners in the field of urban development practice.

  11. Up-to-date information about China's population and living standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-04-01

    China's rate of natural increase was 11.45/1000 in 1993, as a result of the crude birth rate of 18.09/1000 and a crude death rate of 6.64/1000. The total population in 1993 was 1,185.17 million. There was an increase of 13.46 million between 1992 and 1993. Personal income increased by 28% to RMB 2337 yuan in 1993, which was a real growth of 10.2%. Rural income increased by 3.2% (adjusted for inflation to 921 yuan). The urban and rural gap widened and living standards declined for some populations. Urban unemployment was 2.6% in 1993, and 128,000 unemployed persons received some assistance. Employment increased to 150.4 million, which was an increase of 2.48 million workers. Private sector and state owned business employment increased. Wages increased by 21.1% to RMB 477 billion yuan for all workers. The average per person wage increased by 19.4% to RMB 3236 yuan. Living conditions as measured by total floor space improved for the urban and rural populations. Social welfare beds available also increased. 40.51 million people received relief funds in rural and urban areas. 31.5% of townships and towns had a social security system. 97,000 community service networks were established in 1993. The number of retired urban persons receiving old age pensions from the community increased. This constituted a change from retirees receiving pensions from their work units. The number of environmental protection workers amounted to 81,000 by the end of 1993. 2290 environmental monitoring stations employed 33,000 workers. 77 national natural reserves were secured by 1993, of which 10 are members of the Man and Biosphere International Protection Network. Standards have been established for assuring environmental quality in 313 ways. Soot control zones were established in 472 cities and numbered 2935. Environmental noise control zones in 363 cities were established; the zones numbered 1774 and covered 3689 sq. miles. 5737 projects were established dealing with environmental

  12. Living bacteria rheology: Population growth, aggregation patterns, and collective behavior under different shear flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrício, P.; Almeida, P. L.; Portela, R.; Sobral, R. G.; Grilo, I. R.; Cidade, T.; Leal, C. R.

    2014-08-01

    The activity of growing living bacteria was investigated using real-time and in situ rheology—in stationary and oscillatory shear. Two different strains of the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus—strain COL and its isogenic cell wall autolysis mutant, RUSAL9—were considered in this work. For low bacteria density, strain COL forms small clusters, while the mutant, presenting deficient cell separation, forms irregular larger aggregates. In the early stages of growth, when subjected to a stationary shear, the viscosity of the cultures of both strains increases with the population of cells. As the bacteria reach the exponential phase of growth, the viscosity of the cultures of the two strains follows different and rich behaviors, with no counterpart in the optical density or in the population's colony-forming units measurements. While the viscosity of strain COL culture keeps increasing during the exponential phase and returns close to its initial value for the late phase of growth, where the population stabilizes, the viscosity of the mutant strain culture decreases steeply, still in the exponential phase, remains constant for some time, and increases again, reaching a constant plateau at a maximum value for the late phase of growth. These complex viscoelastic behaviors, which were observed to be shear-stress-dependent, are a consequence of two coupled effects: the cell density continuous increase and its changing interacting properties. The viscous and elastic moduli of strain COL culture, obtained with oscillatory shear, exhibit power-law behaviors whose exponents are dependent on the bacteria growth stage. The viscous and elastic moduli of the mutant culture have complex behaviors, emerging from the different relaxation times that are associated with the large molecules of the medium and the self-organized structures of bacteria. Nevertheless, these behaviors reflect the bacteria growth stage.

  13. Malaysia: where big is still better. For Malays, large families are part of the plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-11-03

    The benefits of various-sized families in Malaysia were discussed by several women and supplemented with official statements on family planning (FP). The Director of the National Population and Family Development, Dr. Raj Karim, advised that maternal health is jeopardized when women have more than five children. About 30% of reproductive age women in Malaysia have five or more children. A Federation of FP Associations spokesperson agreed that women should be advised of the dangers of bearing over five children, of the importance of spacing births two to four years apart, and of the ideal age of childbearing (21-39 years). The government lacks an official policy on family size. The government position is, however, compatible with Islamic teachings on spacing in order to protect the health of the mother and child. Islamic law does not permit sterilization or abortion. The "fatwas" of Islamic teaching may have been misconstrued by those not using any form of contraception. Dr. Karim, who has five children, reported that having a large family can be difficult for a woman with a job, a career, and a husband or when both parents work. Most Malays desire large families. The average Malay family size was 4.1 children in 1990; Malaysian Chinese have fertility of 2.3 children and Malaysian Indians have 2.6 children. People say that the benefits outweigh the hardships of a large family.

  14. Apolipoprotein CIII polymorphism and triglyceride levels of a Japanese population living in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Parzianello

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Apolipoprotein CIII (apo-CIII participates in the regulation of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein metabolism. Several polymorphic sites have been detected within and around the apo-CIII gene. Here, we examined the relationship between apo-CIII SstI polymorphism (CC, CG, GG genotypes and plasma triglyceride (TG levels in a group of 159 Japanese individuals living in Southern Brazil. The sample was divided into a group of Japanese descendants (N = 51 with high TG (HTG; >200 mg/dL and a group of Japanese descendants (N = 108 with normal TG (NTG; <200 mg/dL. TG and total cholesterol levels were analyzed by an enzymatic method using the Labtest-Diagnostic kit and high- and low-density lipoproteins by a direct method using the Labtest-Diagnostic kit and DiaSys Diagnostic System International kit, respectively. A 428-bp sequence of apo-CIII gene was amplified using oligonucleotide primers 5' GGT GAC CGA TGG CTT CAG TTC CCT GA 3' and 5' CAG AAG GTG GAT AGA GCG CTG GCC T 3'. The PCR products were digested with a restriction endonuclease SstI. Rare G allele was highly prevalent in our study population (0.416 compared to Caucasians (0.00-0.11. G allele was almost two times more prevalent in the HTG group compared to the NTG group (P < 0.001. The genotype distribution was consistent with the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. There was a significant association between rare G allele and HTG in Japanese individuals living in Southern Brazil as indicated by one-way ANOVA, P < 0.05.

  15. Rehabilitation needs for older adults with stroke living at home: perceptions of four populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viscogliosi Chantal

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many people who have suffered a stroke require rehabilitation to help them resume their previous activities and roles in their own environment, but only some of them receive inpatient or even outpatient rehabilitation services. Partial and unmet rehabilitation needs may ultimately lead to a loss of functional autonomy, which increases utilization of health services, number of hospitalizations and early institutionalization, leading to a significant psychological and financial burden on the patients, their families and the health care system. The aim of this study was to explore partially met and unmet rehabilitation needs of older adults who had suffered a stroke and who live in the community. The emphasis was put on needs that act as obstacles to social participation in terms of personal factors, environmental factors and life habits, from the point of view of four target populations. Methods Using the focus group technique, we met four types of experts living in three geographic areas of the province of Québec (Canada: older people with stroke, caregivers, health professionals and health care managers, for a total of 12 groups and 72 participants. The audio recordings of the meetings were transcribed and NVivo software was used to manage the data. The process of reducing, categorizing and analyzing the data was conducted using themes from the Disability Creation Process model. Results Rehabilitation needs persist for nine capabilities (e.g. related to behaviour or motor activities, nine factors related to the environment (e.g. type of teaching, adaptation and rehabilitation and 11 life habits (e.g. nutrition, interpersonal relationships. The caregivers and health professionals identified more unmet needs and insisted on an individualized rehabilitation. Older people with stroke and the health care managers had a more global view of rehabilitation needs and emphasized the availability of resources. Conclusion Better

  16. Relationship Between Visual Constructive Abilities and Activity of Daily Living in Home Dwelling Elderly Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negin Chehrehnegar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Increasing life expectancy and decreasing birthrates have significantly contributed to an increased aging population throughout the world. This sudden change is a global phenomenon often resulting in biological changes that may have various consequences, such as reduced life power and coping skills in the elderly population. Cognitive deficits are one of the most severe impairments in the elderly people. Deficits in cognitive abilities, especially visual constructive skills, can have a considerable impact on the independency of the daily living skills of the elderly people. Self-care by individuals to maintain their life and wellbeing is a key element for their independency. The activity of daily living (ADL can support personal life independency, and is considered as a morbidity index. In the present cross-sectional study, we assessed the visual abilities and ADL in older subjects to determine whether cognitive impairment is associated with changes in self-care behavior. Methods & Materials: This study employed random sampling technique to select and recruit forty seven individuals aged between 60 to 80 years from Jahandidegan club in Shiraz, Iran. They were evaluated through "visual constructive ability" sub-scale from Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment (LOTCA battery and "Katz Index", which were used to assess their associated skill and ADL, respectively. Data was collected through observation and interviews. Data analysis was performed through Pearson's correlation test using SPSS. Results: The mean age of the participants (9 women and 38 men was 69.94±4.66 years. Lower scores in cognitive domains predicted functional decline in some scales. There was a significant correlation between visual constructive ability and eating; however, no significant correlation was found between this sub-scale with bathing, moving, toileting, and bowel control. Conclusion: In summary, a significant correlation was noted

  17. Does the population living in Roma settlements differ in physical activity, smoking and alcohol consumption from the majority population in Slovakia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babinská, Ingrid; Gecková, Andrea Madarasová; Jarcuska, Peter; Pella, Daniel; Mareková, Mária; Stefková, Gabriela; Veselská, Zuzana Dankulincová

    2014-03-01

    Several studies have revealed a high prevalence of risk factors associated with unhealthy lifestyle among individuals with lower socioeconomic status. In Slovakia, one of the most socially and health-disadvantaged groups is the Roma minority. The aim of this study is to explore differences in physical activity, smoking and alcohol consumption between the population living in Roma settlements and the majority population in Slovakia. Data from the cross-sectional epidemiological HepaMeta study conducted in Slovakia in 2011 were used. The sample consisted of 452 Roma (mean age = 34.7; 35.2% men) and 403 non-Roma (mean age = 33.5; 45.9% men) respondents. The differences in health-related behaviour between the population living in Roma settlements and the majority population were analysed using logistic models separately for males and females. These data show a clear difference between the population living in Roma settlements and the majority population with regard to leisure-time physical activity (only in women) and smoking, although not alcohol consumption. The prevalence of leisure-time physical activities such as walking or some other type of sport was significantly lower among Roma women than among non-Roma women. Men and women living in Roma settlements are more likely to smoke on a daily basis and they are heavier smokers in comparison with the majority population. HepaMeta study did not find differences in alcohol consumption between the Roma and non-Roma men. However, Roma women reported less frequent recent drinking and binge-drinking of 6 or more doses of alcohol on a single occasion. The higher prevalence of unhealthy lifestyle activities among Roma seem to contribute to these inequalities in cardiovascular diseases morbidity and mortality in comparison with the majority population.

  18. Psychological Distress and Lifestyle of Malay Medical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hani Ramli Zafirah

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Medical education is a laborious program which may give negative consequences on the physical and psychological health of medical students. The aims of this study were to evaluate psychological distress among Malay medical students and to assess its relationship with their lifestyle.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 221 Malay medical students. Psychological distress and lifestyle were assessed using Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21 and Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II (HPLPII respectively.Results: About 30.8% of Malay medical students had mild to extremely severe depressive symptoms, 62.9 % showed mild to extremely severe anxiety symptoms, and 34.9% of them had mild to extremely severe stress. The depressive subscale was significantly higher among female than male students (Z=-2.613, P=0.009. There was a significant negative correlation between total psychological distress and spiritual growth (r=-0.217, P=0.001. Depression was found not only negatively correlated with spiritual growth (r =-0.328, P=0.000 but also interpersonal relationship (r=-0.161, P=0.016. Stress was inversely correlated with physical activity (r =-0.172, P=0.011. Preclinical students had significantly better scores in health responsibility (Z=-2.301, P=0.021, interpersonal relationship (Z=-2.840, P=0.005, stress management (Z=-2.339, P=0.019, spiritual growth (Z=-2.483, P=0.013 and nutrition and diet (Z =-2.456, P=0.014 than clinical students.Conclusions: Malay medical students had significant symptoms that indicate psychological distress that related to their lifestyle. This warrants further psychiatric evaluation and management for them to be good and safe future doctors. Keywords: Depression, Anxiety, Stress, Lifestyle, Medical Students

  19. Influence of industrial heavy metal pollution on soil free-living nematode population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pen-Mouratov, Stanislav; Shukurov, Nosir; Steinberger, Yosef

    2008-01-01

    The effect of distance from a heavy metal pollution source on the soil nematode community (trophic structure, sex structure, and taxa composition) was investigated along a 15-km transect originating at the Almalyk Industrial Complex, Uzbekistan (pollution source). The soil nematode community was exposed to heavy metal influence both directly and through soil properties changes. Pollution effect on the density and biomass of soil free-living nematodes was found to be highest at pollution source, with fungivores and plant parasites dominating at the upper and deeper soil layers next to the pollution source. These groups decreased along the transect, yielding domination to bacteria- and fungi-feeders. The sex ratio of nematode communities was found to be dependent on heavy metal pollution levels, with the juveniles being the most sensitive nematode group. The Maturity and modified Maturity Indices, reflecting the degree of disturbance of the soil ecosystem, were found to be the most sensitive indices. - Trophic structure and sex ratio of soil nematode population are sensitive tools for monitoring industrial pollution

  20. Profiles of doses to the population living in the high background radiation areas in Kerala, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chougaonkar, M.P. E-mail: mpckar@hotmail.com; Eappen, K.P.; Ramachandran, T.V.; Shetty, P.G.; Mayya, Y.S.; Sadasivan, S.; Venkat Raj, V

    2004-07-01

    A sample study of the profiles of radiation exposures to the populations living in the high background radiation areas (HBRAs) of the monazite-bearing region in Kerala, India, has been conducted by monitoring 200 dwellings selected from two villages in this region. Each of these dwellings was monitored for 1 year and the study lasted for a period of 2 years. The indoor gamma ray dose measurements were carried out using thermo luminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and the inhalation doses due to radon, thoron and their progenies were monitored using solid-state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) based twin-cup dosimeters. Outdoor gamma ray dose measurements were carried out using Geiger Muller (GM) tube based survey meters. Annual effective doses were computed, using occupancy factors of 0.8 and 0.2, respectively, for indoor and outdoor, by adding the three components. Occupants of 41.6% of the houses surveyed were observed to receive the annual effective doses ranging between 0.5 and 5 mSv/a, 41.6% between 5 and 10 mSv/a, 10.2% between 10 and 15 mSv/a and 6.6% greater than 15 mSv/a. The inhalation component was generally smaller than the external gamma ray component and on an average it was found to constitute about 30% of the total dose. The paper presents the details of the methodology adopted and the analysis of the results.

  1. Epidemiology of viral haemorrhagic disease and myxomatosis in a free-living population of wild rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvete, C; Estrada, R; Villafuerte, R; Osácar, J J; Lucientes, J

    2002-06-22

    From January 1993 to June 1996, the epidemiology of myxomatosis and viral haemorrhagic disease (VHD) was studied in a free-living population of wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in Spain by means of serological surveys and radiotracking. Myxomatosis was endemic and associated with the breeding period. Its serological pattern was characterised by a 100 per cent prevalence of antibodies in adult rabbits and a rapid increase in antibodies in young rabbits in their first year. No mortality from myxomatosis was detected in adults, and mortality in young rabbits could not be estimated because of interference by predators and scavengers and the deaths of many radiotagged rabbits inside their burrows. VHD was also an endemic disease associated with the breeding period. Adults had a higher prevalence of antibodies against VHD than young rabbits, reaching values of 80 to 90 per cent. During the study, there was an increase in rabbit numbers as a result of a decrease in mortality from predation which was associated with an increase in mortality due to VHD and in the prevalence of antibodies to VHD. Mortality from VHD was lower in rabbits with VHD antibodies than in seronegative rabbits, but some mortality from the disease was also detected in seropositive rabbits. The annual mean mortality rate due to VHD in adult rabbits was estimated to be 21.8 per cent.

  2. Neglected Population, Neglected Right: Children Living with HIV and the Right to Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, Michael L; MacNaughton, Gillian; Sprague, Courtenay

    2017-12-01

    The laws, language, and tools of human rights have been instrumental in expanding access to lifesaving treatment for people living with HIV. Children, however, remain a neglected population, as evidenced by inadequate child-specific and child-friendly HIV treatment options. In this article, we explore the right to science, a potentially powerful but underdeveloped right in international law, and its application to research and development for pediatric HIV treatment. Drawing on reports of human rights bodies and scholars and applying the human rights typology of state obligations to respect, protect, and fulfill, we argue that states have five core obligations related to research and development for child-specific and child-friendly treatment: (1) adopting a public goods approach to science and science policy; (2) including and protecting children in research activities; (3) adopting legal and policy frameworks to support research and development through public funding and private sector incentives; (4) promoting international cooperation and assistance; and (5) ensuring the participation of marginalized communities in decision-making processes. In concluding, we make a number of recommendations for states, human rights bodies, international organizations, civil society, and private industry to further develop and implement the right to science.

  3. Influence of industrial heavy metal pollution on soil free-living nematode population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pen-Mouratov, Stanislav [The Mina and Everard Goodman Faculty of Life Sciences, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900 (Israel); Shukurov, Nosir [Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Academy of Sciences, Tashkent 700041 (Uzbekistan); Steinberger, Yosef [The Mina and Everard Goodman Faculty of Life Sciences, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900 (Israel)], E-mail: steinby@mail.biu.ac.il

    2008-03-15

    The effect of distance from a heavy metal pollution source on the soil nematode community (trophic structure, sex structure, and taxa composition) was investigated along a 15-km transect originating at the Almalyk Industrial Complex, Uzbekistan (pollution source). The soil nematode community was exposed to heavy metal influence both directly and through soil properties changes. Pollution effect on the density and biomass of soil free-living nematodes was found to be highest at pollution source, with fungivores and plant parasites dominating at the upper and deeper soil layers next to the pollution source. These groups decreased along the transect, yielding domination to bacteria- and fungi-feeders. The sex ratio of nematode communities was found to be dependent on heavy metal pollution levels, with the juveniles being the most sensitive nematode group. The Maturity and modified Maturity Indices, reflecting the degree of disturbance of the soil ecosystem, were found to be the most sensitive indices. - Trophic structure and sex ratio of soil nematode population are sensitive tools for monitoring industrial pollution.

  4. Sedih sampai buta : Blindness, modernity and tradition in Malay films of the 1950s and 1960s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy P. Barnard

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In the 1950s and 1960s Malaya/Malaysia was undergoing a tremendous amount of social change. One method of examining how this period was understood is through Malay film. A number of Malay writers and activists found work in the vibrant film industry of the Peninsula, which was centred on Singapore at the time, and proceeded to infuse many of the films with their ideas, hopes, and understandings of the society they saw around them. As part of these developments, and perhaps due to the phenomenon of repetition, blindness became a metaphor in a number of films to address the issue of modernity and tradition, and the tension between rural and urban. In films produced in the early 1950s blindness occurs among kampung-based characters, or among supporting players within the larger drama. Their blindness is usually caused or compounded by a sadness in their lives. In these films, an urban-based character attempts to arrange for an operation that will remedy the condition, but only after a character has had to deal with the underside of modernity. The use of blindness as a trope for moral/ethical failure is alien to traditional Malay culture. Thus, its use and repetition represent the external influences and ideas of modernity in Malay filmmaking of the period. While the city was frightening, it held the possibility of change for the better. Characters in these films had to deal first with the negative sides of such a life, but if they retained the positive traditional values of Malay culture, all would be well. By the early 1960s, however, after the promise of independence had transitioned to debates over merger, identity, and economic and social disruption, the metaphor of blindness had also shifted. Although technologycould cure the condition, the world that accompanied this technology was one that was unbearable. Unlike the earlier supporting characters facing a sightless life, it was now the main character who becomes blind in a manner that is

  5. The estimation of the dose from cosmic radiation received by the population living at mainland areas of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Hua; Yue Qingyu

    1989-01-01

    According to the distribution of cosmic ray ionization with altitude and latitude as well as the census information in all of our country (the end of the year 1986), the population-weighted mean annual effective dose equivalent received by the population living at mainland areas of China is estimated to be about 278 μSv, in which the ionizing component and the neutron component are 252 μSv and 26 μSv, respectively

  6. Effectiveness of Smartphone Application for the Development of Youth Anthusiasm to Malay Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asril, Elvira; Fajrizal; Wiza, Fana

    2017-12-01

    This study will measure the effectiveness of Malay cultural applications, by socializing Melayu.com web, then distributing questionnaires to them (young people / high school students), and will be able to find out what features are of interest to them. With this smartphone introduction application of Malay culture, it is expected to increase young enthusiasm towards Malay culture which is really beautiful if it is known and understood. After the socialization of 30 high school students, the results obtained that they are less interested in the application. Because it is not user friendly, not interactive and rigid. Eventhough they have interest in this Malay culture, they have not found an app or media that can attract attention. Thus, they ask if the application of Malay culture can add game content later, eg War games using background and other elements related to Malay culture.

  7. The application of Malay wood carving on contemporary architecture in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nila Inangda Manyam Keumala Daud

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Malay wood carving has been identified as one of the most important element in Malay Traditional Architecture. The application of this special element has its own philosophy and its purpose was meant to enrich the architecture character values. Issues are currently raised that the application of the Malay wood carving on contemporary architecture in Malaysia has ignored its unique original concept and philosophy. This indicate that the development of Malay Wood Carving requires attention and need more encouragement in order to catch up with the vast development of architecture in Malaysia, and overcome the problem of introducing more meaningful Malay wood carving in contemporary architecture building. A research has been conducted to investigate the thread of the development and application of Malay wood carving in contemporary architecture based on case study of a five star hotel in Kuala Lumpur.

  8. cytogenetic effects in populations of amphibians Rana arvalis living on the radio-contaminated area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yushkova, E.; Bodnar, I.; Zainullin, V. [Institute of Biology of Komi Scientific Centre of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    The study of the features reactions of the animals a differing complicated individual development (metamorphosis) and living in conditions of radioactive contamination is an important trend in the modern radio-ecology. This information is of interest not only from the point of view of detection the mechanisms of radiobiological effects (hyper-radiosensitivity, hormesis, radio-adaptation, etc.) but also viewpoint of predicting delayed radiation effects that is necessary at account the normalization of technogeneous loading on natural ecosystems. An assessment of the level of cytogenetic damages (single-strand and double-strand DNA breaks) in the blood cells of tadpoles of Rana arvalis living in areas contaminated of wastes radium production (Russia, Komi Republic, Ukhta district) was conducted. Using this biological matter as a bioindicator due to the fact that development amphibian is carried out by metamorphosis and includes larval stage. At this stage post-embryonic development of an individual are the most sensitive to anthropogenic impact. To exclude the effects of other factors (temperature, age-specific peculiarities, overpopulation, etc.) on the formation of DNA damages from the studied reservoirs were taken laying eggs of amphibians (12-15 egg laying from the area) which afterwards are contain in strictly controlled laboratory conditions using water, belt silt, plants of native pond. The reaction of amphibians on the contamination was assessed by the level of DNA damage by method Comet assay was determined. With each egg laying were selected for 7 even-aged individuals. Total for cytogenetic analysis was used 189 individuals. It is shown that in animals that develop on the radio-contaminated area the level of single-strand DNA (alkaline pH version of the Comet assay) was higher than in the control area. According an estimate to the level of double-strand DNA (neutral pH version of the Comet assay) significant differences not was found. The high variability

  9. Past and present practices of the Malay food heritage and culture in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Nazri Abdul Raji; Shahrim Ab Karim; Farah Adibah Che Ishak; Mohd Mursyid Arshad

    2017-01-01

    Malay heritage varies from north to south; however, there are various similarities and differences. Essentially, Malay heritage food is influenced by a myriad of cultures, such as Arab, Indian, Chinese, Siamese, Javanese, Minangkabau, and others. Different regions in Malaysia are known for their unique or signature dishes, such as beef rendang, laksa, nasi lemak, and tapai. Indeed, it is noted that Malay food is identical in terms of its spiciness. This can be seen from the prepreparation, me...

  10. Tobacco and the Malays: ethnicity, health and the political economy of tobacco in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraclough, Simon; Morrow, Martha

    2017-04-01

    To identify the historical nexus between Malaysia's largest and politically dominant ethnic group and the political economy of tobacco, and to consider the implications of this connection for tobacco control. Primary and secondary documentary sources in both English and Malay were analysed to illuminate key events and decisions, and the discourse of industry and government. Sources included: speeches by Malaysian political and industry actors; tobacco industry reports, press releases and websites; government documents; World Health Organization (WHO) tobacco control literature; and press reports. Malays have the highest smoking prevalence among Malaysia's major ethnic groups. The tobacco industry has consistently been promoted as furthering Malay economic development. Malays play the major role in growing and curing. Government-owned Malay development trusts have been prominent investors in tobacco corporations, which have cultivated linkages with the Malay elite. The religious element of Malay ethnicity has also been significant. All Malays are Muslim, and the National Fatwa Council has declared smoking to be haram (forbidden); however, the Government has declined to implement this ruling. Exaggerated claims for the socio-economic benefits of tobacco production, government investment and close links between tobacco corporations and sections of the Malay elite have created a conflict of interest in public policy, limited the focus on tobacco as a health policy issue among Malays and retarded tobacco control policy. More recently, ratification of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, regional free trade policies reducing the numbers of growers, concerns about smoking from an Islamic viewpoint, and anxieties about the effects of smoking upon youth have increasingly challenged the dominant discourse that tobacco furthers Malay interests. Nevertheless, the industry remains a formidable political and economic presence in Malaysia that is likely to continue to

  11. Saudara (1928-1941: Continuity and Change in the Malay Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Suhana Wan Sulong

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: A content analysis of Saudara, published in the Straits Settlement of Penang between 1928 and 1941, shows the development of Malay social, political and religious thinking in a crucial period of transition in Malay society. The analysis of various issues debated in this newspaper contributed to the social history of Malaya and of the Malay community within Malaya. The issues raised in Saudara are echoed in contemporary Malaysia with varying emphasis and elements.

  12. Validity and Psychometric Properties of Malay Translated Religious Orientation Scale-Revised among Malaysian Adult Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Rahim Kamaluddin; Rohany Nasir; Wan Shahrazad Wan Sulaiman; Rozainee Khairudin; Zainah Ahmad Zamani

    2017-01-01

    Religious Orientation Scale-Revised (ROS-R) has been used increasingly as an important measure in psychology of religion based researches and widely administered in cross-cultural settings. Unfortunately, there is no valid and reliable ROS-R available in Malay language to assess religious orientations among Malaysians. With that in mind, the present study aims to validate and document the psychometric properties of Malay translated ROS-R (henceforth, M-ROS-R) among sample of Malay...

  13. Determination of mercury and selenium in hair samples of Brazilian Indian populations living in the Amazonic region by NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcellos, M.B.A.; Paletti, G.; Catharino, M.G.M.; Saiki, M.; Favaro, D.I.T.; Bode, P.; Ammerlaan, A.K.; Byrne, A.R.; Baruzzi, R.; Rodrigues, D.A.

    2000-01-01

    Biomonitoring of mercury contamination of Brazilian Indian population groups living in the Xingu Park, a reservation situated in the Amazonic region, has revealed very high levels of mercury in hair samples as compared to controls. Total mercury was determined by INAA in most of the tribes living in the Park and methylmercury was determined by CVAAS in samples with total mercury above 10 mg/kg. Due to the fact that selenium seems to protect animals against the toxic effects of methylmercury, it was considered also of interest to determine its concentrations in the hair samples with very high mercury levels. Selenium was determined by INAA via the short-lived radionuclide 77m Se (T 1/2 = 17.45 s). The correlations between selenium and mercury concentrations in Brazilian controls and in the Indian population groups are discussed. (author)

  14. Current status of coronary risk factors among rural Malays in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawawi, Hapizah M; Nor, Idris M; Noor, Ismail M; Karim, Norimah A; Arshad, Fatimah; Khan, Rahmattullah; Yusoff, Khalid

    2002-02-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of death in Malaysia, despite its status as a developing country. The rural population is thought to be at low risk. To investigate the prevalence of risk factors and global risk profile among rural Malays in Malaysia. We studied 609 rural Malay subjects (346 females, 263 males; age range 30-65 years). Blood pressure (BP), body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), smoking habits and family history of premature CHD were documented. Fasting blood samples were analysed for serum lipids, lipoprotein (a), plasma glucose and fibrinogen. Oral glucose tolerance tests were performed using 75 g anhydrous glucose. The prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia for total cholesterol concentrations of > or = 5.2, > or =6.5 and > or =7.8 mmol/l were 67.3, 30.5 and 11.8% respectively. There was a high prevalence of low serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (13.1%), hypertension (30.3%), smokers (24.4%), diabetes (6.4%), impaired fasting glucose or glucose tolerance (13.9%), overweight or obesity (44.7%) and increased WHR (48.5%). Global risk assessment showed that 67.3% of the study population were at risk, with 15.9, 18.9 and 32.5% in the mild, moderate and high risk categories respectively. Prevalence of risk factors was high in the rural population. Global risk assessment showed a high-risk profile with two-thirds being at risk, and one-third being categorized into the high-risk group. Although rural communities were considered at low risk of developing CHD, this is changing fast, possibly due to the rapid socio-economic development, in addition to underlying genetic predisposition.

  15. Molecular and morphological characterization of Xiphinema chambersi population from live oak in Jekyll Island, Georgia, with comments on morphometric variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar A. Handoo; Lynn K. Carta; Andrea M. Skantar; Sergei A. Subbotin; Stephen Fraedrich

    2016-01-01

    A population of Xiphinema chambersi from the root zone around live oak (Quercus virginiana Mill.) trees on Jekyll Island, GA, is described using both morphological and molecular tools and compared with descriptions of type specimens. Initially, because of a few morphological differences, this nematode was thought to represent an undescribed species. However, on further...

  16. Reliability and Validity of the English-, Chinese- and Malay-Language Versions of the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF) Questionnaire in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Yin Bun; Yeo, Khung Keong; Chong, Kok Joon; Khoo, Eric Yh; Wee, Hwee Lin

    2017-12-01

    The World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF) questionnaire is a 26-item questionnaire that evaluates 4 domains of quality of life (QoL), namely Physical, Psychological, Social Relationships and Environment. This study aimed to evaluate the validity and reliability of the WHOQOL-BREF among Singapore residents aged 21 and above. We recruited participants from the general population by using multistage cluster sampling and participants from 2 hospitals by using convenience sampling. Participants completed either English, Chinese or Malay versions of the WHOQOL-BREF and the EuroQoL 5 Dimension 5 Levels (EQ-5D-5L) questionnaires. Confirmatory factor analysis, known-group validity, internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) and test-retest reliability using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were performed. Data from 1316 participants were analysed (Chinese: 46.9%, Malay: 41.0% and Indian: 11.7%; 57.5% mean, mean standard deviation [SD, range] age: 51.9 [15.68, 24 to 90] years); 154 participants took part in the retest in various languages (English: 60, Chinese: 49 and Malay: 45). Tucker-Lewis Index (TLI) was 0.919, 0.913 and 0.909 for the English, Chinese and Malay versions, respectively. Cronbach's alpha exceeded 0.7 and ICC exceeded 0.4 for all domains in all language versions. The WHOQOL-BREF is valid and reliable for assessing QoL in Singapore. Model fit is reasonable with room for improvement.

  17. Thyroid gland status among population living around the semipalatinsk nuclear test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhumadilov, Z.; Land, C.; Hartshorne, M.

    2000-01-01

    From 1949-1962, regions of Kazakstan near the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) were contaminated with high levels of radioactive fallout from atomic bomb tests carried out at the SNTS. The effective-dose is a principal criterion for the evaluation of the effect of radioactive fallout upon population. Thyroid disease prevalence may be ascertained, as a biomarker of radiation exposure and because it is of interest in itself. Some features from three studies of thyroid gland status among population living around SNTS will be reported. The first study is a case review of pathological findings of 7,271 patients from three regions adjacent to the SNTS, who were surgically treated during 1966-96; the second is a thyroid screening study of a cohort of 3000 village residents who were <20 years of age at the time of major fallout events in the Semipalatinsk region; the third is a complex molecular, morphological investigation and some approaches to rehabilitation of patients with thyroid abnormalities. Our first study revealed that there is a significant trend for the proportion of thyroid cancer to increase over time in the Semipalatinsk region of Kazakstan 20-29 years after onset of testing in 1949, which might be related to radiation exposure. There are many ethnic groups in this region. Our research among two main ethnic groups (native Kazakh and European extraction) detected that the initial level of thyroid abnormalities and thyroid cancer was higher among residents of European extraction. The total number of surgical cases increased among both ethnic groups over the years, but the numbers of cases with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and thyroid cancer increased dramatically among ethnic Kazakhs. Overall, papillary and follicular cancers predominated, but it should be noted the relatively high percentage of follicular cancers after 1982 in the Semipalatinsk region. The primary screening outcome measure was the prevaleance of thyroid nodules as determined by ultrasound

  18. Thyroid gland status among population living around the semipalatinsk nuclear test site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhumadilov, Z. [Semipalatinsk State Medical Academy (Kazakstan); Land, C.; Hartshorne, M. [and others

    2000-05-01

    From 1949-1962, regions of Kazakstan near the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) were contaminated with high levels of radioactive fallout from atomic bomb tests carried out at the SNTS. The effective-dose is a principal criterion for the evaluation of the effect of radioactive fallout upon population. Thyroid disease prevalence may be ascertained, as a biomarker of radiation exposure and because it is of interest in itself. Some features from three studies of thyroid gland status among population living around SNTS will be reported. The first study is a case review of pathological findings of 7,271 patients from three regions adjacent to the SNTS, who were surgically treated during 1966-96; the second is a thyroid screening study of a cohort of 3000 village residents who were <20 years of age at the time of major fallout events in the Semipalatinsk region; the third is a complex molecular, morphological investigation and some approaches to rehabilitation of patients with thyroid abnormalities. Our first study revealed that there is a significant trend for the proportion of thyroid cancer to increase over time in the Semipalatinsk region of Kazakstan 20-29 years after onset of testing in 1949, which might be related to radiation exposure. There are many ethnic groups in this region. Our research among two main ethnic groups (native Kazakh and European extraction) detected that the initial level of thyroid abnormalities and thyroid cancer was higher among residents of European extraction. The total number of surgical cases increased among both ethnic groups over the years, but the numbers of cases with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and thyroid cancer increased dramatically among ethnic Kazakhs. Overall, papillary and follicular cancers predominated, but it should be noted the relatively high percentage of follicular cancers after 1982 in the Semipalatinsk region. The primary screening outcome measure was the prevaleance of thyroid nodules as determined by

  19. THE DYNAMICS OF FOOD RATIONS OF BRYANSK REGION POPULATION LIVING IN THE TERRITORIESCONTAMINATED AFTER THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. G. Travnikova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the years passed after the Chernobyl accident we are carrying out monitoring of the radiation situation in the Sough-Western territories of the Bryansk region, contaminated with the long-living radionuclides which includes 137Сs concentration measurements in agricultural and natural foodstuffs, surveys of local populations on the structure and composition of the diet accompanied with 137Сs content measurements in the human body. In the article the obtained data is systematized on the food rations of the adult population of theBryansk region, on food rations dynamics in the first and following years after the accident, which is necessary for the correct estimation of internal exposure doses of the population living on the contaminated territories.

  20. Patrescence in Southern Thailand: cosmological and social dimensions of fatherhood among the Malay-Muslims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merli, Claudia

    2011-12-01

    This paper examines fatherhood among the Malay Muslims of Southern Thailand (representing a minority at the national level, but constituting the majority population in the region). Traditional practices related to birth and the postpartum period are upheld as a marker of ethnic and religious identity by such groups. Building on the concept of patrescence as 'becoming a father', proposed by Dana Raphael, the data presented show how the process of assuming fatherhood develops during pregnancy and continues after birth through a series of ritual practices in which a man contributes to female postpartum practices. The medicalisation of birth in synergy with recent literalist interpretations of Islam has impacted on these practices, making it difficult to comply with the ritual burial of the afterbirth, which constitutes the cosmological and physical anchoring of individual and ethnic identity to the soil.

  1. Religious and secular Cape Malay Afrikaans: Literary varieties used by Shaykh Hanif Edwards (1906-1958

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Luffin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the White and Christian-dominated Afrikaans language movements, followed by apartheid, little attention has been paid to an Afrikaans literary variety used among Muslim Cape Coloureds, a group often referred to as ‘Cape Malays’. Descending mainly from Asian slaves brought by the Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie (VOC, Dutch East India Company, and bearing the marks of cohabitation with non-Asian populations at the Cape, the Cape Malays at an early stage developed a distinct religious culture through their adherence to Islam, as well as a distinct Cape Dutch linguistic identity through their connections with the Dutch East Indies and the Islamic world. These cultural idiosyncrasies found expression in a local literature, religious and (more rarely secular, using as a medium a variety of Cape Dutch/Afrikaans written either in the Arabic alphabet or in the Roman alphabet.

  2. Mitochondrial DNA diversity of the Amerindian populations living in the Andean Piedmont of Bolivia: Chimane, Moseten, Aymara and Quechua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corella, Alfons; Bert, Francesc; Pérez-Pérez, Alejandro; Gené, Manel; Turbón, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Chimane, Moseten Aymara and Quechua are Amerindian populations living in the Bolivian Piedmont, a characteristic ecoregion between the eastern slope of the Andean mountains and the Amazonian Llanos de Moxos. In both neighbouring areas, dense and complex societies have developed over the centuries. The Piedmont area is especially interesting from a human peopling perspective since there is no clear evidence regarding the genetic influence and peculiarities of these populations. This land has been used extensively as a territory of economic and cultural exchange between the Andes and Amazonia, however Chimane and Moseten populations have been sufficiently isolated from their neighbour groups to be recognized as distinct populations. Genetic information suggests that evolutionary processes, such as genetic drift, natural selection and genetic admixture have formed the history of the Piedmont populations. The objective of this study is to characterize the genetic diversity of the Piedmont populations, analysing the sequence variability of the HVR-I control region in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Haplogroup mtDNA data available from the whole of Central and South America were utilized to determine the relationship of the Piedmont populations with other Amerindian populations. Hair pulls were obtained in situ, and DNA from non-related individuals was extracted using a standard Chelex 100 method. A 401 bp DNA fragment of HVR-I region was amplified using standard procedures. Two independent 401 and 328 bp DNA fragments were sequenced separately for each sample. The sequence analyses included mismatch distribution and mean pairwise differences, median network analyses, AMOVA and principal component analyses. The genetic diversity of DNA sequences was measured and compared with other South Amerindian populations. The genetic diversity of 401 nucleotide mtDNA sequences, in the hypervariable Control Region, from positions 16 000-16 400, was characterized in a sample of 46

  3. Population-level consequences of herbivory, changing climate, and source-sink dynamics on a long-lived invasive shrub.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Klinken, R D; Pichancourt, J B

    2015-12-01

    Long-lived plant species are highly valued environmentally, economically, and socially, but can also cause substantial harm as invaders. Realistic demographic predictions can guide management decisions, and are particularly valuable for long-lived species where population response times can be long. Long-lived species are also challenging, given population dynamics can be affected by factors as diverse as herbivory, climate, and dispersal. We developed a matrix model to evaluate the effects of herbivory by a leaf-feeding biological control agent released in Australia against a long-lived invasive shrub (mesquite, Leguminoseae: Prosopis spp.). The stage-structured, density-dependent model used an annual time step and 10 climatically diverse years of field data. Mesquite population demography is sensitive to source-sink dynamics as most seeds are consumed and redistributed spatially by livestock. In addition, individual mesquite plants, because they are long lived, experience natural climate variation that cycles over decadal scales, as well as anthropogenic climate change. The model therefore explicitly considered the effects of both net dispersal and climate variation. Herbivory strongly regulated mesquite populations through reduced growth and fertility, but additional mortality of older plants will be required to reach management goals within a reasonable time frame. Growth and survival of seeds and seedlings were correlated with daily soil moisture. As a result, population dynamics were sensitive to rainfall scenario, but population response times were typically slow (20-800 years to reach equilibrium or extinction) due to adult longevity. Equilibrium population densities were expected to remain 5% higher, and be more dynamic, if historical multi-decadal climate patterns persist, the effect being dampened by herbivory suppressing seed production irrespective of preceding rainfall. Dense infestations were unlikely to form under a drier climate, and required net

  4. The Prevalence of Parasitic Contamination of Vegetables Consumed in Malayer City, West of Iran, in 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadije Rahmati

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Transmission of infectious agents, such as parasites, is associated with consumption of raw vegetables. Thus, the health of vegetables reflects the health status of a region. Objectives Due to considerable parasitic contamination in Hamadan province and lack of information about health of vegetables in this region, this study was conducted in Malayer city, west of Iran. Methods This investigation was a cross-sectional study carried out on 383 samples of different vegetables including leek, parsley, coriander, radish, spring onion, tarragon, basil, mint, cress, and savory. The samples were randomly collected from 38 farms around Malayer city and subjected to parasitic contamination analysis using sedimentation and floatation methods. Results The results showed that 14.6% of the vegetable samples were contaminated with various pathogenic (5.2% and non-pathogenic (9.4% parasites including protozoan cyst (3.7%, worm eggs (3.9%, and free-living larvae (7%. Giardia intestinalis (1.3% and Entamoeba coli (2.3% were the only protozoa that were detected in the samples. Frequencies of worm egg contamination were 1.6% for Taenia/Echinococcus spp., 0.5% for Dicrocoelium dendriticum, 0.8% for Toxocara spp., 0.5% for Hymenolepis nana, 0.3% for Trichostrongylus spp., and 0.3% for Fasciola spp. Leek was the most contaminated vegetable (31.7%, although there was no contamination in tarragon (P < 0.001. Significant relationships were observed between parasitic contamination and fertilizer (P = 0.018 and water consumption (P < 0.001 used in the farm vegetables. Conclusions The results demonstrate the potential role of raw vegetables consumption in the transmission of parasitic infections in the area. Therefore, it is recommended for some necessary hygienic measures to be applied to increase the public health of the community.

  5. Individualizing characteristics of footprints in Malaysian Malays for person identification from a forensic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Nataraja Moorthy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the valuable physical evidence that a suspect leaves unintentionally at a crime scene is likely to include footprints. Physical evidence needs to be utilized to express individual characteristics. Very keen analysis of footprints can provide useful information to establish personal identity and ease the crime investigation. The present study aims to analyze and describe the individual characteristics of footprints of Malaysian Malays from a forensic perspective in a sample of 400 adult Malay participants consisting of 200 males and 200 females. The footprints were collected using an inkless shoe print kit (Carolina, USA. Various features of the toes, humps in the toe line, phalange marks, flatfoot condition, pits, cracks, corns, etc., were investigated. The frequency of these characteristics was recorded. The frequency of the fibularis-type foot is the highest, followed by the tibialis-type, the intermediate-type and the midularis-type is found to have the least frequency in both the sexes. This sequence is found to be different from the sequence observed in the north Indian population. Two humps have been found most often in male footprints followed by three humps and zero hump is found to be the least frequent. While in female footprints, three humps have been found, most often followed by two humps and zero hump is found to be the least frequent. Other identifying features are also highlighted using illustrations. This trait shows bilateral variation. The morphological length of toes and some other features in this study are found to be different from footprints of Indian Tamils, North Indian Gujjars and the Thai population.

  6. Allele frequencies of 18 autosomal STR loci in the Uyghur population living in Kashgar Prefecture, Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Li, Zhenghui; Mo, Xiaoting; Ma, Wenhua; Zhang, Hantao; Lin, Ziqing; Ye, Jian

    2018-03-10

    There is currently no large population data-based data set in Kashgar Prefecture Uyghur. The allele frequencies of 18 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci included in the DNATyper™ 19 kit were evaluated in 2600 Uyghur individuals living in Kashgar Prefecture, Northwest China. The values of combined power of discrimination (CPD) and combined probability of exclusion (CPE) of all 18 autosomal STR loci were 0.99999999999999999998235 and 0.99999998670, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the Uyghur population has a closer relationship with the Xinjiang-Kazakh, Inner Mongolia-Mongolian, and other three Uyghur populations. In addition, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that Uyghur population is an admixture of Eastern Asian and European populations.

  7. Study of living kidney donor-recipient relationships: variation with socioeconomic deprivation in the white population of England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Phillippa K; Tomson, Charles Rv; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav

    2013-01-01

    Socioeconomic deprivation is associated with higher renal replacement therapy acceptance rates in the UK but lower rates of living kidney transplantation. This study examines donor-recipient relationship patterns with socioeconomic deprivation in the white population of England. Demographic characteristics of all white live renal transplant donors and recipients between 2001 and 2010 in England were analyzed. Patterns of donor-recipient relationship were analyzed to see whether they differed according to an ecological measure of socioeconomic status (Index of Multiple Deprivation). Group comparisons were performed using chi-square tests and multivariable logistic regression. Sources of living kidney transplants differed with deprivation (p Recipients living in poorer areas were more likely to receive a kidney from a sibling, child, and "other relative" donor and less likely from spouses/partners. Logistic regression suggested differences seen with spouse/partner donations with deprivation were explained by differences in the age and gender of the recipients. The source of living kidneys differs by level of area deprivation. Given the disparity in rates of living kidney transplants between the most and least socioeconomically deprived, there is a need to understand the reasons behind these observed relationship differences, with the aim of increasing transplantation rates in the most deprived. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. Genetic polymorphisms in 18 autosomal STR loci in the Tibetan population living in Tibet Chamdo, Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenghui; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Hantao; Lin, Ziqing; Ye, Jian

    2018-05-01

    Short tandem repeats (STRs) play a vitally important role in forensics. Population data is needed to improve the field. There is currently no large population data-based data set in Chamdo Tibetan. In our study, the allele frequencies and forensic statistical parameters of 18 autosomal STR loci (D5S818, D21S11, D7S820, CSF1PO, D2S1338, D3S1358, VWA, D8S1179, D16S539, PentaE, TPOX, TH01, D19S433, D18S51, FGA, D6S1043, D13S317, and D12S391) included in the DNATyper™19 kit were investigated in 2249 healthy, unrelated Tibetan subjects living in Tibet Chamdo, Southwest China. The combined power of discrimination and the combined probability of exclusion of all 18 loci were 0.9999999999999999999998174 and 0.99999994704, respectively. Furthermore, the genetic relationship between our Tibetan group and 33 previously published populations was also investigated. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the Chamdo Tibetan population is more closely related genetically with the Lhasa Tibetan group. Our results suggest that these autosomal STR loci are highly polymorphic in the Tibetan population living in Tibet Chamdo and can be used as a powerful tool in forensics, linguistics, and population genetic analyses.

  9. The estimation of the dose from cosmic radiation received by the population living at mainland of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Hua; Yue Qingyu

    1989-11-01

    The measurement of ionization distribution caused by the cosmic ray ionizing components in the air, the survey of population distribution in geography and the investigation of total passengers taking air liners at the mainland of China have been completed. By taking the data from the census of the year 1986 and the population distribution of the mainland, considering the cosmic ray distribution with the height and referring the distribution of neutron flux density in cosmic ray, the population-weighted mean annual effective dose equivalent, which is obtained from 2017 counties and 353 cities, for inhabitants living in every provinces and municipalities directly under Central Government has been calculated. The collective dose equivalent produced by the external exposure of cosmic ray is also estimated when people are taking air liners. The results which are effected by the population distribution show that the annual effective dose equivalant received by the population of China from the cosmic ray is 28% lower than the population of the world. The most of Chinese people are living at the north hemisphere area having lower elevation and geomagnetic latitude, and 53.6% among them is in the area of elevation below 100 m and 91% is in the area of geomagnetic latitude below 30 deg N

  10. Quantification of live Lactobacillus acidophilus in mixed populations of live and killed by application of attenuated reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy combined with chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toziou, Peristera-Maria; Barmpalexis, Panagiotis; Boukouvala, Paraskevi; Verghese, Susan; Nikolakakis, Ioannis

    2018-05-30

    Since culture-based methods are costly and time consuming, alternative methods are investigated for the quantification of probiotics in commercial products. In this work ATR- FTIR vibration spectroscopy was applied for the differentiation and quantification of live Lactobacillus (La 5) in mixed populations of live and killed La 5, in the absence and in the presence of enteric polymer Eudragit ® L 100-55. Suspensions of live (La 5_L) and killed in acidic environment bacillus (La 5_K) were prepared and binary mixtures of different percentages were used to grow cell cultures for colony counting and spectral analysis. The increase in the number of colonies with added%La 5_L to the mixture was log-linear (r 2  = 0.926). Differentiation of La 5_L from La 5_K was possible directly from the peak area at 1635 cm -1 (amides of proteins and peptides) and a linear relationship between%La 5_L and peak area in the range 0-95% was obtained. Application of partial least squares regression (PLSR) gave reasonable prediction of%La 5_L (RMSEp = 6.48) in binary mixtures of live and killed La 5 but poor prediction (RMSEp = 11.75) when polymer was added to the La 5 mixture. Application of artificial neural networks (ANNs) improved greatly the predictive ability for%La 5_L both in the absence and in the presence of polymer (RMSEp = 8.11 × 10 -8 for La 5 only mixtures and RMSEp = 8.77 × 10 -8 with added polymer) due to their ability to express in the calibration models more hidden spectral information than PLSR. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Genetic analysis of eight population groups living in Taiwan using a 13 X-chromosomal STR loci multiplex system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwa, Hsiao-Lin; Lee, James Chun-I; Chang, Yih-Yuan; Yin, Hsiang-Yi; Chen, Ya-Hui; Tseng, Li-Hui; Su, Yi-Ning; Ko, Tsang-Ming

    2011-01-01

    A 13 X-chromosomal short tandem repeat (STR) multiplex system (DXS6807, DXS8378, DSX9902, DXS7132, DXS9898, DXS6809, DXS6789, DXS7424, DXS101, GATA172D05, HPRTB, DXS8377, and DXS7423) was tested on 1,037 DNA samples from eight population groups currently living in Taiwan. Different distributions of the allelic frequencies in different populations were presented. DXS8377 and DXS101 were the two most polymorphic loci in these eight populations, whereas DXS7423 was the least informative marker in most of the populations studied. The genetic distances between the populations and the constructed phylogenetic tree revealed a long genetic distance between Asian and Caucasian populations as well as isolation of the Tao population. The phylogenetic tree grouped populations into clusters compatible with their ethnogeographic relationships. This 13 X-chromosomal short tandem repeat multiplex system offers a considerable number of polymorphic patterns in different populations. This system can be useful in forensic identification casework and ethnogeographic research.

  12. The magmatism and metamorphism at the Malayer area, Western Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahadnejad, V.; Valizadeh, M. V.; Esmaeily, D.

    2009-04-01

    The Malayer area is located in the NW-SE aligned Sanandaj-Sirjan metamorphic belt, western Iran and consists mainly of Mesozoic schists so-called Hamadan Phyllites, Jurassic to Tertiary intrusive rocks and related contact metamorphic aureoles, aplites and pegmatites. The Sanandj-Sirjan Zone is produced by oblique collisional event between Arabian plate and Central Iran microcontinent. Highest level of regional metamorphism in the area is greenschist facies and injection of felsic magmas is caused contact metamorphism. Magmatism is consist of a general northwest trend large felsic to intermediate intrusive bodies. The main trend of structural features i.e. faults, fractures and other structural features is NW-SE. The Malayer granitoid complex is ellipsoid in shape and has NW-SE foliation especially at the corners of the intrusions. Petrography of the magmatic rocks revealed recrystallization of quartz and feldspars, bending of biotite, and aligment of minerals paralle to the main trend of magmatic and metamorphic country rocks. These indicated that intrusion of felsic magma is coincide to the regional metamorphism and is syn-tectoinc. Non-extensive contact metamorphism aureoles and rareness of pegmatite and aplite in the area are interpreted as injection of felsic magmas into the high-strain metamorphic zone. The regional metamorphic rocks mainly consist of meta-sandstone, slate, phyllite, schist. These gray to dark metasedimentary rocks are consist of quartz, muscovite, turmaline, epidote, biotite and chlorite. Sheeted minerals form extended schistosity and study of porphyroblast-matrix relationships shows that injection of granitic magma into the country rocks is syn to post-tectonic. Syn-tectonic indicating porphyroblast growth synchronous with the development of the external fabric. The thermal contact area of the granite can be observed in the contact margin of granite and regional metamorphic rocks, where it produced hornfelses, andalusit-garnet schists and

  13. THE COMPARISONS AND CONTRASTS BETWEEN ENGLISH AND MALAY LANGUAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Nazri Latiff Azmi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available English and Malay languages are categorized as popular languages in the world. However, both languages underwent different history and composition. This study investigates the languages in terms of history, phonology, loanwords, grammar, morphology and semantics. The purposes of studying the comparisons and contrasts of both languages are not only to analyze the uniqueness of the languages but also to identify the process of understanding the languages especially the view of second language learners. It is found that two languages come from different background; somehow they share similar characteristics such as the vowels sounds, loanwords and semantics. However, the learners face difficulty in learning both languages especially in pronunciations and spelling.

  14. The Nearly Forgotten Malay Folklore: Shall We Start with the Software?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Rahim, Normaliza

    2014-01-01

    The study focuses on the nearly forgotten Malay folklore in Malaysia. The objectives of the study were to identify and discuss the types of Malay folklore among primary school learners. The samples of the study were 100 male and female students at schools in Selangor. The samples were picked at random from several schools and they were given…

  15. The Interesting Teaching and Learning of Malay Language to Foreign Speakers: Language through Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharudin, Mazlina; Ikhsan, Siti Ajar

    2016-01-01

    The interesting teaching and learning of Malay languages is a challenging effort and need a relevant plan to the students' needs especially for the foreign students who already have the basic Indonesian Malay language variation that they have learned for four semesters in their own country, Germany. Therefore, the variety of teaching and learning…

  16. A View into Successful Teaching Techniques: Teaching Malay Language as a Foreign Language in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharudin, Mazlina; Sadik, Azlina Md

    2016-01-01

    This paper will highlight successful teaching techniques used in class in teaching the Malay Language 1 course in Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM). The course is to equip foreign students for their studies and also as means of basic communication with the locals in Malaysia. In Malaysia, the emphasis in Malay language teaching are focused to…

  17. 1948 AND THE COLD WAR IN MALAYA: SAMPLINGS OF MALAY REACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rahman Haji Ismail

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a preliminary report of an on-going research on the reactions of the Malays in Malaya to the coming of the Cold War to the region, with particular reference to the importance of the year 1948. For the majority of the Malays, the Cold War was most popularly associated with the Emergency, which British authorities had declared in the effort to quell the armed uprising mounted by the MCP. The vast majority of Malays in Malaya were not interested in the on-going Cold War between the Western bloc led by the United States on the side the Eastern bloc led by the Soviet Union on the other. The preoccupations of the Malays during the immediate post-Pacific War period was nationalism and the concomitant effort to gain independence for Malaya from Britain. In particular, they had been rather anxious that the Malays, who were the native of the land, were not robbed of the custodianship over Malaya and political privileges of the Malays in independent Malaya. Consumed with these issues, the Malays had little interests in external affairs. It was perhaps the lack of Malay support that foredoomed the fate of communism in Malaya.

  18. Parent Ratings of ADHD Symptoms: Differential Symptom Functioning across Malaysian Malay and Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Rapson; Vance, Alasdair

    2008-01-01

    This study examined differential symptom functioning (DSF) in ADHD symptoms across Malay and Chinese children in Malaysia. Malay (N = 571) and Chinese (N = 254) parents completed the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale, which lists the DSM-IV ADHD symptoms. DSF was examined using the multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC) structural equation…

  19. No excess risk of adverse birth outcomes in populations living near special waste landfill sites in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, S E; Thomson, A O; Jarup, L; de Hoogh, C; Briggs, D J; Elliott, P

    2003-11-01

    A recent study showed small excess risks of low birth weight, very low birth weight and certain congenital anomalies in populations living near landfill sites in Great Britain. The objective of the current study was to investigate the risk of adverse birth outcomes associated with residence near special waste landfill sites in Scotland. We studied risks of adverse birth outcomes in populations living within 2 km of 61 Scottish special waste landfill sites operational at some time between 1982 and 1997 compared with those living further away. 324,167 live births, 1,849 stillbirths, and 11,138 congenital anomalies (including terminations) were included in the study. Relative risks were computed for all congenital anomalies combined, some specific anomalies and prevalence of stillbirth and low and very low birth weight (special waste landfill sites was 0.96 (99% confidence interval 0.89 to 1.02) adjusted for confounders. Adjusted risks were 0.71 (0.36 to 1.42) for neural tube defects, 1.03 (0.85 to 1.26) for cardiovascular defects, 0.84 (0.58 to 1.22) for hypospadias and epispadias (with no excess of surgical corrections), 0.78 (0.27 to 2.23) for abdominal wall defects (1.32 (0.42-4.17) for hospital admissions), 1.22 (0.28 to 5.38) for surgical correction of gastroschisis and exomphalos and 1.01 (0.96 to 1.07) and 1.01 (0.90 to 1.15) for low and very low birth weight respectively. There was no excess risk of stillbirth. In conclusion, we found no statistically significant excess risks of congenital anomalies or low birth weight in populations living near special waste landfill sites in Scotland.

  20. Characterisation and confirmation of rare beta-thalassaemia mutations in the Malay, Chinese and Indian ethnic groups in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jin Ai Mary Anne; Chin, Pui See; Wong, Yean Ching; Tan, Kim Lian; Chan, Lee Lee; George, Elizabeth

    2006-10-01

    In Malaysia, about 4.5% of the Malay and Chinese populations are heterozygous carriers of beta-thalassaemia. The initial identification of rare beta-globin gene mutations by genomic sequencing will allow the development of simpler and cost-effective PCR-based techniques to complement the existing amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) and gap-PCR used for the identification of beta-thalassaemia mutations. DNA from 173 beta-thalassaemia carriers and five beta-thalassaemia major patients from the Malay, Chinese and Indian ethnic groups were first analysed by ARMS and gap-PCR. Ninety-five per cent (174/183) of the 183 beta-globin genes studied were characterised using these two techiques. The remaining nine uncharacterised beta-globin genes (4.9%) were analysed using genomic sequencing of a 904 bp amplified PCR product consisting of the promoter region, exon 1, intervening sequence (IVS) 1, exon 2 and the 5' IVS2 regions of the beta-globin gene. The rare beta-globin mutations detected in the Chinese patients were CD27/28 (+C) and CD43 (GAG-TAG), and -88 (C-T) in an Indian patient. Beta-globin mutations at CD16 (-C), IVS1-1 (G-A), IVS2-1 (G-A), -86 (C-G) and Haemoglobin South Florida (CD1, GTG-ATG) were confirmed in the Malay patients. The seven rare beta-globin mutations and a rare haemoglobin variant confirmed in this study have been described in other populations but have not been previously described in Malaysian beta-thalassemia patients.

  1. Model for prognostication of population irradiation dose at the soil way of long-living radionuclides including in food chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prister, B.S.; Vinogradskaya, V.D.

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of modern pictures of cesium and strontium ion absorption mechanisms a soil taking complex was build the kinetic model of radionuclide migration from soil to plants. Model parameter association with the agricultural chemistry properties of soil, represented by complex estimation of soil properties S e f. The example of model application for prognostication of population internal irradiation dose due to consumption of milk at the soil way of long-living radionuclides including in food chains

  2. Biomonitoring of urinary metals in a population living in the vicinity of industrial sources: a comparison with the general population of Andalusia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Inmaculada; Daponte, Antonio; Gil, Fernando; Hernández, Antonio F; Godoy, Patricia; Pla, Antonio; Ramos, Juan Luis

    2008-12-15

    The Ria of Huelva (south-west Spain) is one of the most polluted fluvial-estuarine systems in the world. Industrial activity delivers huge amounts of pollutants to the local environment, particularly heavy metals and arsenic. Here we aimed to determine urinary levels of As, Cd, Cr, Cu and Ni in a representative sample (n=857) of adults living in the Ria of Huelva. Levels were compared to those from a representative sample of 861 adults of the general urban population of Andalusia (southern Spain) and multiple regression models were developed to identify individual factors associated with urinary levels of these elements. Arsenic levels were significantly higher in the Ria of Huelva as compared to other Andalusian cities, whereas Cd and Ni levels were significantly lower. Despite these differences, levels in both groups were similar to the reference values reported in previous studies for general population. Age, gender, diet and lifestyle were the major factors contributing to the interindividual variation in urinary metals. In conclusion, despite living in a highly polluted area, the population of the Ria of Huelva failed to show higher urinary levels of the studied metals as compared to a reference urban population of the same region.

  3. Diabetes mellitus in two genetically distinct populations in Jordan. A comparison between Arabs and Circassians/Chechens living with diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laith N. Al-Eitan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare clinical, anthropometric, and laboratory characteristics in diabetes type 2 patients of 2 genetically-distinct ethnicities living in Jordan, Arabs and Circassians/Chechens. Methods: This cross sectional ethnic comparison study was conducted in King Abdullah University Hospital, Irbid and The National Center for Diabetes, Endocrinology, and Genetics, Amman, Jordan between June 2013 and February 2014. A sample of 347 (237 Arab and 110 Circassian/Chechen people living with diabetes were included in the study. Data were collected through direct interviews with the participants. Clinical data were collected using a questionnaire and anthropometric measurements. Laboratory data were extracted from the patients’ medical records. Results: More Arabs with diabetes had hypertension as a comorbidity than Circassians/Chechens with diabetes. Arabs living with diabetes were generally more obese, whereas Circassians/Chechens living with diabetes had worse lipid control. Arabs with diabetes had higher means of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c and fasting blood sugar, and more Arabs with diabetes had unsatisfactory glycemic control (60.6% than Circassians/Chechens with diabetes (38.2% (HbA1c ≥7.0%. Most participants (88.8% had at least one lipid abnormality (dyslipidemia. Conclusion: Multiple discrepancies among the 2 ethnic diabetic populations were found. New diabetes management recommendations and policies should be used when treating people living with diabetes of those ethnicities, particularly in areas of glycemic control, lipid control, and obesity.

  4. [Analysis of genetico-demographic structure of rural populations living near the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sviatova, G S; Berezina, G M; Abil'dinova, G Zh

    2001-12-01

    Rural populations neighboring the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site were used as a model to develop and test an integrated population-genetic approach to analysis of the medical genetic situation and environmental conditions in the areas studied. The contributions of individual factors of population dynamics into the formation of the genetic load were also assessed. The informative values of some genetic markers were estimated. Based on these estimates, a mathematical model was constructed that makes it possible to calculate numerical scores for analysis of the genetic loads in populations differing in environmental exposure.

  5. A Descriptive Study of Television in the Lives of an Elderly Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Richard Harding

    This study sought to determine what influence the following variables had upon the television viewing by an older audience: age, sex, marital status, work status, mobility, health, income, living arrangements, individual interpersonal relationships, family and friends, and the language spoken. Subjects included 300 urban residents and 174 suburban…

  6. The health of populations living in the indigenous minority settlements of northern Yakutia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtseva, Tatiana E; Uvarova, Tatiana E; Tomsky, Mikhail I; Odland, Jon Ø

    2014-01-01

    This monograph contains the results of a study carried out by the Yakutsk Research Center for Complex Medical Problems, "Evaluating the health of the indigenous minorities of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia) and optimizing medical assistance using innovative technologies and telemedicine in indigenous settlements." The child population was studied in 19 indigenous minority settlements, and the adult population was studied in 12 settlements.

  7. Nesting habits influence population genetic structure of a bee living in anthropogenic disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickruck, J L; Richards, M H

    2017-05-01

    While most organisms are negatively affected by anthropogenic disturbance, a few species thrive in landscapes altered by humans. Typically, native bees are negatively impacted by anthropogenic environmental change, including habitat alteration and climate change. Here, we investigate the population structure of the eastern carpenter bee Xylocopa virginica, a generalist pollinator with a broad geographic range spanning eastern North America. Eastern carpenter bees now nest almost exclusively in artificial wooden structures, linking their geographic distribution and population structure to human activities and disturbance. To investigate the population structure of these bees, we sampled females from 16 different populations from across their range. Nine species-specific microsatellite loci showed that almost all populations are genetically distinct, but with high levels of genetic diversity and low levels of inbreeding overall. Broadly speaking, populations clustered into three distinct genetic groups: a northern group, a western group and a core group. The northern group had low effective population sizes, decreased genetic variability and the highest levels of inbreeding in the data set, suggesting that carpenter bees may be expanding their range northward. The western group was genetically distinct, but lacked signals of a recent range expansion. Climatic data showed that summer and winter temperatures explained a significant amount of the genetic differentiation seen among populations, while precipitation did not. Our results indicate that X. virginica may be one of the rare 'anthrophilic' species that thrive in the face of anthropogenic disturbance. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Live Fast, Die Young: Experimental Evidence of Population Extinction Risk due to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bestion, Elvire; Teyssier, Aimeric; Richard, Murielle; Clobert, Jean; Cote, Julien

    2015-01-01

    Evidence has accumulated in recent decades on the drastic impact of climate change on biodiversity. Warming temperatures have induced changes in species physiology, phenology, and have decreased body size. Such modifications can impact population dynamics and could lead to changes in life cycle and demography. More specifically, conceptual frameworks predict that global warming will severely threaten tropical ectotherms while temperate ectotherms should resist or even benefit from higher temperatures. However, experimental studies measuring the impacts of future warming trends on temperate ectotherms' life cycle and population persistence are lacking. Here we investigate the impacts of future climates on a model vertebrate ectotherm species using a large-scale warming experiment. We manipulated climatic conditions in 18 seminatural populations over two years to obtain a present climate treatment and a warm climate treatment matching IPCC predictions for future climate. Warmer temperatures caused a faster body growth, an earlier reproductive onset, and an increased voltinism, leading to a highly accelerated life cycle but also to a decrease in adult survival. A matrix population model predicts that warm climate populations in our experiment should go extinct in around 20 y. Comparing our experimental climatic conditions to conditions encountered by populations across Europe, we suggest that warming climates should threaten a significant number of populations at the southern range of the distribution. Our findings stress the importance of experimental approaches on the entire life cycle to more accurately predict population and species persistence in future climates. PMID:26501958

  9. Gene expression and physiological changes of different populations of the long-lived bivalve Arctica islandica under low oxygen conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva E R Philipp

    Full Text Available The bivalve Arctica islandica is extremely long lived (>400 years and can tolerate long periods of hypoxia and anoxia. European populations differ in maximum life spans (MLSP from 40 years in the Baltic to >400 years around Iceland. Characteristic behavior of A. islandica involves phases of metabolic rate depression (MRD during which the animals burry into the sediment for several days. During these phases the shell water oxygen concentrations reaches hypoxic to anoxic levels, which possibly support the long life span of some populations. We investigated gene regulation in A. islandica from a long-lived (MLSP 150 years German Bight population and the short-lived Baltic Sea population, experimentally exposed to different oxygen levels. A new A. islandica transcriptome enabled the identification of genes important during hypoxia/anoxia events and, more generally, gene mining for putative stress response and (anti- aging genes. Expression changes of a antioxidant defense: Catalase, Glutathione peroxidase, manganese and copper-zinc Superoxide dismutase; b oxygen sensing and general stress response: Hypoxia inducible factor alpha, Prolyl hydroxylase and Heat-shock protein 70; and c anaerobic capacity: Malate dehydrogenase and Octopine dehydrogenase, related transcripts were investigated. Exposed to low oxygen, German Bight individuals suppressed transcription of all investigated genes, whereas Baltic Sea bivalves enhanced gene transcription under anoxic incubation (0 kPa and, further, decreased these transcription levels again during 6 h of re-oxygenation. Hypoxic and anoxic exposure and subsequent re-oxygenation in Baltic Sea animals did not lead to increased protein oxidation or induction of apoptosis, emphasizing considerable hypoxia/re-oxygenation tolerance in this species. The data suggest that the energy saving effect of MRD may not be an attribute of Baltic Sea A. islandica chronically exposed to high environmental variability (oxygenation

  10. Population genetics at three spatial scales of a rare sponge living in fragmented habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uriz Maria J

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rare species have seldom been studied in marine habitats, mainly because it is difficult to formally assess the status of rare species, especially in patchy benthic organisms, for which samplings are often assumed to be incomplete and, thus, inappropriate for establishing the real abundance of the species. However, many marine benthic invertebrates can be considered rare, due to the fragmentation and rarity of suitable habitats. Consequently, studies on the genetic connectivity of rare species in fragmented habitats are basic for assessing their risk of extinction, especially in the context of increased habitat fragmentation by human activities. Sponges are suitable models for studying the intra- and inter-population genetic variation of rare invertebrates, as they produce lecitotrophic larvae and are often found in fragmented habitats. Results We investigated the genetic structure of a Mediterranean sponge, Scopalina lophyropoda (Schmidt, using the allelic size variation of seven specific microsatellite loci. The species can be classified as "rare" because of its strict habitat requirements, the low number of individuals per population, and the relatively small size of its distribution range. It also presents a strong patchy distribution, philopatric larval dispersal, and both sexual and asexual reproduction. Classical genetic-variance-based methods (AMOVA and differentiation statistics revealed that the genetic diversity of S. lophyropoda was structured at the three spatial scales studied: within populations, between populations of a geographic region, and between isolated geographic regions, although some stochastic gene flow might occur among populations within a region. The genetic structure followed an isolation-by-distance pattern according to the Mantel test. However, despite philopatric larval dispersal and fission events in the species, no single population showed inbreeding, and the contribution of clonality to the

  11. Effectiveness of exercise and protein supplementation intervention on body composition, functional fitness, and oxidative stress among elderly Malays with sarcopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahar, Suzana; Kamaruddin, Norshafarina Shari; Badrasawi, Manal; Sakian, Noor Ibrahim Mohamed; Abd Manaf, Zahara; Yassin, Zaitun; Joseph, Leonard

    2013-01-01

    Sarcopenia, characterized as muscle loss that occurs with aging, is a major health problem in an aging population, due to its implications on mobility, quality of life, and fall risk. Protein supplementation could improve the physical fitness by increasing protein anabolism, and exercise has a documented evidence of positive effect on functional status among the elderly. However, the combined effect of both protein supplementation and exercise has not been investigated among sarcopenic elderly in the Asian population. Thus, this study aimed to determine the effectiveness of exercise intervention and protein supplementation either alone or in combination for 12 weeks, on body composition, functional fitness, and oxidative stress among elderly Malays with sarcopenia. Sixty five sarcopenic elderly Malays aged 60-74 years were assigned to the control group, exercise group (ExG), protein supplementation group (PrG), or the combination of exercise and protein supplementation group. A significant interaction effect between body weight and body mass index (BMI) was observed, with the PrG (-2.1% body weight, -1.8% BMI) showing the highest reductions. Further, there was a decrease in % body fat (-4.5%) and an increase in fat-free mass (kg) (+5.7%) in the ExG after 12 weeks (P exercise program was found to improve muscle strength and body composition, while protein supplementation reduced body weight and increased upper body strength, among sarcopenic elderly in Malaysia.

  12. Validity and reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for dietary assessment in Malay adolescents in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurul-Fadhilah, Abdullah; Teo, Pey Sze; Foo, Leng Huat

    2012-01-01

    Food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) must be tailored to the target populations because dietary habits vary within the populations due to differences in cultural and lifestyles practices. Limited information is available to assess the validity of FFQ used among Malaysian adolescents. To construct the validity and reproducibility of a newly developed FFQ in assessing habitual nutrients intake over the past year of 170 Malay adolescent boys and girls in Kelantan, Malaysia. The FFQ that consisted of 124 food items was assessed, whereas three days of 24-hours dietary recalls (DR) was administered as the standard criteria method. Estimated mean intake for most nutrients assessed by the FFQ were higher as compared to the three DRs (pcross classification of quartile analysis showed that most nutrients were classified into the same or adjacent quartiles (median=52.7%). For the reproducibility of FFQ, the correlation of nutrients ranged from 0.43 for carotene to 0.86 for total fat intake (median=0.67), after adjusting for total energy intake. The newly developed dietary FFQ is a relatively good and valid tool in assessing habitual nutrients intake for the past year among Malay adolescents in Malaysia.

  13. Women Living with HIV over Age of 65: Cervical Cancer Screening in a Unique and Growing Population

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    Alexandra Aserlind

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Women living with HIV are at increased risk of human papillomavirus (HPV infection, which can lead to cervical cancer. New guidelines recommend indefinite screening. The objective of this study is to describe cervical cancer screening practices and colposcopy results in a cohort of women living with HIV over age of 65 who were followed before the new guidelines. Comorbidities, sexually transmitted infections (STIs, and other risk factors were evaluated. Methods. We conducted a retrospective chart review on 75 women aged 65 or older living with HIV with at least one Pap smear. Results. The mean age of the cohort was 66.5 and at HIV diagnosis was 56. The majority of women were immunocompetent. 80% had serial Pap smears. Of these, 86% of 238 were negative or ASCUS. No women progressed to HSIL. 92% of colposcopies had negative or CIN I results. Three women were treated successfully for high-grade dysplasia. More than half of women had other STIs. 72% were screened for HPV; 50% were positive. Conclusion. The majority of women had negative and low-grade Pap smears. Questions remain regarding the utility of continued Pap screening and the added value of HPV testing in this unique population of older women living with HIV.

  14. [Contraception in the Roma population living in two low-income neighborhoods of Barcelona (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio, Alba; Nebot, Laia; Estruga, Lluïsa; Perez, Glòria; Diez, Èlia

    2018-02-22

    To describe the knowledge and use of contraceptive methods and health services in the Roma population (Kale/Spanish Gitanos) of two low-income neighbourhoods of Barcelona (2011-2015). Mixed. Community setting. 1) Descriptive cross-sectional study. We interviewed with a questionnaire a sample of residents of childbearing age. We compared the knowledge and use of contraception and services by ethnic self-identification and sex with adjusted logistic regression models to obtain adjusted odds ratio (ORa) and 95% confidence interval (95%CI). 2) Qualitative descriptive study with ethnographic method. We interviewed 10 Roma residents and three health professionals to explore aspects of contraception, family and roles. We performed a narrative analysis of discourse from the recorded texts. 834 people participated, with an 11.8% self-identified Roma population. With regard to the non-Roma population, more Roma women used tubal ligation (ORa: 3.0; 95%CI: 1.3-7)] and implant (ORa:4.9; 95%CI: 3.1-72), and had better knowledge of IUD (ORa: 2,4; 95%CI: 1,4-4,1), tubal obstruction (ORa: 3,3; 95%CI: 1,1-9,9) and injectables (ORa: 2,4; 95%CI: 1.3-4.4). Roma men used withdrawal more frequently (ORa: 3.6; 95%CI: 1.3-10), a practice confirmed in the qualitative study. Both communities used emergency contraception and health services. In the Roma population, contraception and reproduction are in the hands of women. As abortion is culturally penalized in the Roma population, women use it, but they face it alone. Gender emerged as a cross-cutting determinant in all issues explored. In the Roma population reproductive control and contraception remain the responsibility of women. Once the family is complete, Roma women use long-term contraception. Both populations use health services. Copyright © 2018 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. The decision-making process in dealing with populations living in areas contaminated by the Chernobyl accident. The ETHOS project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heriard-Dubreuil, G.; Schneider, T.

    1998-01-01

    Experience from the Chernobyl accident revealed strong disturbance in social life and stress phenomenon in the population living in the contaminated territories. The ETHOS project (founded by the radiation protection research programme of the European Commission-DG XII) has initiated an alternative approach of the rehabilitation of living conditions in the contaminated territories of the CIS in the post-accident context of Chernobyl. This project started at the beginning of 1996 and is implemented in the Republic of Belarus. Its main goal is to create the conditions for the inhabitants of contaminated territories to reconstruct their global quality of life. The main features of the methodological approach of the ETHOS project in the village of Olmany in the district of Stolyn (Brest region) since March 1996 are presented, and its implementation and first results are discussed. (R.P.)

  16. Mitochondrial genetic characterization of Gujar population living in the Northwest areas of Pakistan

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    Inam Ullah

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diversity of communities with specific cultural, ethnic, lingual and geographical backgrounds makes Pakistani society a suitable study subject to unravel the early human migrations, evolutionary history of population having about 18 ethnic groups. Gujars are mostly Indic-speaking nomadic herders with the claims of multiple origins in the sub-continent. Present study was aimed at the determination of maternal lineage of Gujars by mitochondrial DNA analysis. Methods: Total DNA from the human buccal cells was isolated using modified phenol chloroform method. Purified DNA was used for the PCR amplification of mitochondrial Hyper Variable Region 1 and 2 (HVR1 & 2. The nucleotide sequences of amplified PCR products were used to explore the maternal lineage of the Gujar population residing in Northern Pakistan. Results: Haplotypes, allele frequencies and population data of the mitochondrial control region was determined in 73 unrelated individuals belonging to Gujar ethnic group of Northwest areas of Pakistan. Total 46 diverse haplotypes were identified out of which 29 were found unique with (0.9223 genetic diversity and (0.9097 power of discrimination. Haplogroup R was the most frequent (48% followed by haplogroup M (45% and N (7%. Conclusion: We found that the Gujar population has multiple maternal gene pool comprising of South Asian, West Eurasian, East Eurasian, Southeast Asian and fractions of Eastern Asian, Eastern Europe and Northern Asian lineages. This study will contribute for the development of mitochondrial DNA database for Pakistani population.

  17. Living Kidney Donation Questionnaire (PCID-DVR-Ríos): Validation and Psychometric Characteristics in a Spanish-Speaking Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos, A; López-Navas, A I; De-Francisco, C; Sánchez, Á; Hernández, A M; Ramírez, P; Parrilla, P

    2018-03-01

    The attitude toward living kidney donation is important for certain promotion campaigns, however, there are few validated questionnaires in this regard. The aim of this work was to analyze the psychometric characteristics of the attitudes questionnaire about living renal donation, PCID-DVR-Ríos (Cuestionario del Proyecto Colaborativo Internacional Donante sobre Donación de Vivo Renal [Questionnaire of the International Collaborative Donor Project on Living Kidney Donation] developed by Dr Ríos) for the validation of the questionnaire in population of Spanish speakers. The sample studied represented the population >18 years of age, native and resident of Spain, stratified by age and sex. The measurement instrument was the PCID-DVR-Ríos questionnaire. Analysis of data was structured in several stages: an initial description of the data, exploratory factor analysis, item analysis, and internal consistency of the factors. The questionnaire consists of 11 items, distributed in 3 factors of 6, 3, and 2 items. This structure accounts for 63.995% of the total variance. By factors, the variance is distributed as follows: factor 1: 38.461%; factor 2: 14.228%; and factor 3: 11.306%. The analysis of items and internal consistency supported the trifactorial composition. Each factor is internally consistent (α1 = .80; α2 = .70; α3 = .55). The analyzed dimensions of the PCID-DVR Ríos questionnaire to analyze attitude toward living kidney donation showed a good fit in terms of factorial validity and internal consistency values. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Future Estimation of Convenience Living Facilities Withdrawal due to Population Decline all Over Japan from 2010 TO 2040 - Focus on Supermarkets, Convenience Stores and Drugstores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimoto, Yuka; Akiyama, Yuki; Shibasaki, Ryosuke

    2016-06-01

    Population explosion is considered to be one of the most crucial problems in the world. However, in Japan, the opposite problem: population decline has become serious now. Japanese population is estimated to decrease by twenty millions in 2040. This negative situation will cause to increase areas where many residents cannot make a daily living all over Japan because many convenience living facilities such as supermarkets, convenience stores and drugstores will be difficult to maintain their market area population due to future population decline. In our research, we used point data of convenience living facilities developed by address geocoding of digital telephone directory and point data of future population projection developed by distribution of Japanese official population projection data proportionally among the building volume of digital residential map, which can monitor building volumes all over Japan. In conclusion, we estimated that various convenience living facilities in Japan will shrink and close by population decline in near future. In particular, it is cleared that approximately 14.7% of supermarkets will be possible to withdraw all over Japan by 2040. In addition, it is cleared that over 40% of supermarkets in some countryside prefectures will be possible to withdraw by 2040. Thus, we estimated future distributions of convenience living facilities that cannot maintain their market area population due to future population decline. Moreover, we estimated the number of people that they will become inconvenience in buying fresh foods.

  19. FUTURE ESTIMATION OF CONVENIENCE LIVING FACILITIES WITHDRAWAL DUE TO POPULATION DECLINE ALL OVER JAPAN FROM 2010 TO 2040 - FOCUS ON SUPERMARKETS, CONVENIENCE STORES AND DRUGSTORES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Nishimoto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Population explosion is considered to be one of the most crucial problems in the world. However, in Japan, the opposite problem: population decline has become serious now. Japanese population is estimated to decrease by twenty millions in 2040. This negative situation will cause to increase areas where many residents cannot make a daily living all over Japan because many convenience living facilities such as supermarkets, convenience stores and drugstores will be difficult to maintain their market area population due to future population decline. In our research, we used point data of convenience living facilities developed by address geocoding of digital telephone directory and point data of future population projection developed by distribution of Japanese official population projection data proportionally among the building volume of digital residential map, which can monitor building volumes all over Japan. In conclusion, we estimated that various convenience living facilities in Japan will shrink and close by population decline in near future. In particular, it is cleared that approximately 14.7% of supermarkets will be possible to withdraw all over Japan by 2040. In addition, it is cleared that over 40% of supermarkets in some countryside prefectures will be possible to withdraw by 2040. Thus, we estimated future distributions of convenience living facilities that cannot maintain their market area population due to future population decline. Moreover, we estimated the number of people that they will become inconvenience in buying fresh foods.

  20. Cadmium exposure pathways in a population living near a battery plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellstroem, Lennart; Persson, Bodil; Brudin, Lars; Grawe, Kierstin Petersson; Oborn, Ingrid; Jaerup, Lars

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives of the present study were to assess the relative impact of different pathways of environmental cadmium (Cd) exposure and to evaluate the contribution from locally produced vegetables and root crops to the total dietary intake of Cd. Methods: Cadmium in urine was determined for 492 individuals living near a closed down battery factory in Sweden. For each individual we created an environmental exposure-index based on Cd emissions to ambient air and number of years living at various distances from the plant. This information as well as dietary data were collected via questionnaires. Samples of soil, carrots and/or potatoes were collected from 37 gardens and analysed for Cd concentration. Results: Eating homegrown vegetables/potatoes, environmental Cd-exposure-index, female gender, age above 30 years and smoking more than one pack of cigarettes daily for at least 10 years were found to be significantly associated with increased urine concentrations of Cd (UCd > 1.0 nmol/mmol creatinine). We found a statistically significant relation between Cd in urine and environmental Cd-exposure-index in persons eating homegrown vegetables/potatoes regularly. Cd concentrations in homegrown carrots, potatoes and in garden soil were highest in the area closest to the factory. Daily consumption of potatoes and vegetables cultivated in the vicinity of the closed battery factory was estimated to increase Cd intake by 18-38%. Conclusion: The present study shows that consumption of locally grown vegetables and root crops was an important exposure pathway, in subjects living near a nickel-cadmium battery plant, whereas direct exposure via ambient air was less important

  1. Social living environment of population in the surveillance area of Rivne nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prilipko, V.A.; Ozerova, Yu.Yu.; Morozova, M.M.; Shevchenko, K.K.

    2014-01-01

    The list of benefits and compensations associated with living near the functioning NPP needs improvement and coordination with opinion of local communities. Their implementation at that needs a permanent information support. Some links are established between areas that are important in shaping of social feelings and assessment of environmental situation, perception of radiation situation, possibility of socio-political, man-made and natural emergencies. The more confident respondents in welfare of ecological state of residence, the higher level is in their social comfort

  2. [Living conditions and gastroenteritis in the low income population of Tijuana, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaiz Fernández, G; Barragán de Olaiz, C

    1989-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out in the low income population of certain areas of the city of Tijuana, Mexico. Data collected showed that these suburban areas are inhabited by people from rural areas of Mexico, with minimum education, that basically work at the "maquiladoras". General hygienic conditions were poor and the services insufficient. The prevalence of diarrheas among the population was extremely high in the two weeks previous to the study, being highest for children less than one year old, in which the proportion with at least one episode of diarrhea was 47 per cent.

  3. Explosions in Semarang: Reading Malay tales in 1895

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henk Maier

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available On the morning of 12 December 1895, a well-dressed young man enters the railway station in the city of Semarang. He purchases a ticket, walks around on the platform, and then gets on the train to Solo, ready for departure. Once the machine starts moving, the man looks out of the window, visibly confused. He turns to his fellow passengers, many of them unknown to him. In Malay, the language of travellers, he exchanges information, tells and hears stories, discusses issues of daily life, of himself, of the people who, out in the rice fields, on the roads, in the plantations, are staring at the roaring machine passing by. Now and then the man looks into his own heart again, losing himself in empty thoughts. And with every tick of his watch the landscape out there changes its appearance. And farmers and labourers stop their work, distracted by the awesome noise of the iron monster.

  4. Psychometric Properties of the Malay Language Version of Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS Questionnaire among Knee Osteoarthritis Patients: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkifli MM

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to cross-culturally adapt a Malay version of Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS and to evaluate its psychometric properties in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The English version KOOS was translated into a Malay version using forward and backward translation process, followed by face validity and content validity. Two hundred and twenty-six knee OA patients attending the Outpatient and Orthopaedic Clinics, Universiti Sains Malaysia Hospital, completed the Malay version KOOS. Construct validity using confirmatory factor analysis and internal reliability assessment were performed. RESULTS: The results showed that the original five-factor model with 42 items failed to achieve acceptable values of the goodness of fit indices, indicating poor model fit. A new five-factor model of 26 items demonstrated acceptable level of goodness of fit (comparative fit index= 0.929, incremental fit index= 0.930, Tucker Lewis fit index= 0.920, root mean square error of approximation= 0.073 and Chisquared/ degree of freedom= 2.183 indices to signify a model fit. The Cronbach’s alpha value for the new model ranged from 0.776 to 0.946. The composite reliability values of each construct ranged between 0.819 and 0.921, indicating satisfactory to high level of convergent validity. CONCLUSION: The five-factor model with 26 items in the Malay version of KOOS questionnaire demonstrated a good degree of goodness of fit and was found to be valid, reliable and simple as an assessment tool for symptoms, pain, activity of daily living, sports and recreational activity and quality of life for Malaysian adults suffering from knee osteoarthritis.

  5. The Characteristics Of Malay House Spatial Layout Of Pekanbaru In Accordance With Islamic Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samra, Boby

    2017-12-01

    House is not only is a place to get rest and do activities bu also treated as a pride for the Malay community. The values contained in the spatial layout of the house have specific meaning to the owners. This makes the Malay house becomes the symbol of pride to uphold the “tuah” and dignity of the owner. This research is conducted using qualitative approach through management and data management available through several methods such as observation, interview, documentation and group discussion. This is expected to provide understanding of the perception of Islam dealing with the characteristics of the spatial layout of the Malay house of Pekanbaru.

  6. Effect of water and nitrogen additions on free-living nitrogen fixer populations in desert grass root zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, R P; Provencio, K R; Torrez, R J; Seager, G M

    1993-01-01

    In this study we measured changes in population levels of free-living N2-fixing bacteria in the root zones of potted Bouteloua eriopoda and Sporobolus flexuosus plants as well as the photosynthetic indices of the plants in response to added nitrogen, added water, and added water plus nitrogen treatments. In addition, N2 fixer population changes in response to added carbon source and nitrogen were measured in plant-free soil columns. There were significant increases in the numbers of N2 fixers associated with both plant species in the water and the water plus nitrogen treatments. Both treatments increased the photosynthetic index, suggesting that plant exudates were driving N2 fixer population changes. Population increases were greatest in the water plus nitrogen treatments, indicating that added nitrogen was synergistic with added water and suggesting that nitrogen addition spared bacteria the metabolic cost of N2 fixation, allowing greater reproduction. Plant-free column studies demonstrated a synergistic carbon-nitrogen effect when carbon levels were limiting (low malate addition) but not when carbon was abundant (high malate), further supporting this hypothesis. The results of this study indicate the presence of N2 fixer populations which interact with plants and which may play a role in the nitrogen balance of desert grasslands. PMID:8215373

  7. Prevalence and factors associated with depressive symptoms in Malay women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Din, Meriam Omar; Noor, Noraini M

    2009-12-01

    Due to a dearth of research on depressive symptoms in Malaysia, particularly in Malay women, a community study was conducted to examine the prevalence and factors associated with current depressive symptoms in rural and urban Malay women with low socioeconomic status. Four hundred eighty-seven women (N rural = 242, N urban = 245) were interviewed. Information on socio-demographic variables, potential risk factors (family history of mental health problems, lifetime major depressive symptoms, and current life stressors), and current depressive symptoms (measured by the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, CES-D) was collected. The prevalence of current depressive symptoms (CES-D scores > or = 16) reported was 34.5%, while the prevalence of lifetime major depressive symptoms was 27.5%. A significantly higher rate of current depressive symptoms was observed in urban women compared to rural women, chi(2) (1, N = 487) = 3.99, p depressive symptoms. The results of the multiple hierarchical regression analysis indicated that three potential factors (family history of mental health problems, lifetime major depressive symptoms, and current life stressors) were positively associated with current depressive symptoms, accounting for 17.8% of the variance, over and above the socio-demographic variables. The prevalence of depressive symptoms reported in the study was comparable to past studies. Among the factors associated with current depressive symptoms, the single most important was lifetime major depressive symptoms, followed by current life stressors, and family history of mental health problems. Among the socio-demographic variables used, perceived health status was the most important. The factors associated with depressive symptoms found in this study are consistent with past findings in the West, implying the universality of the phenomenon and common factors related to depressive symptoms in women.

  8. Modeling population response to anthropogenic threats for a long-lived reptile, the desert tortoise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Question/Methods The decline in desert tortoise population densities and abundances since the 1970s has been attributed to numerous threats, leading scientists, land managers, and conservationists to describe the plight of the species as a “death by a thousand cuts.” ...

  9. Metabolite profiling to predict resistance to Phytophthora ramorum in natural populations of coast live oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Conrad; B. Mcpherson; D. Wood; S. Opiyo; S. Mori; P. Bonello

    2013-01-01

    Sudden oak death, caused by the invasive oomycete pathogen Phytophthora ramorum, continues to shape the dynamics of coastal populations of oak (Quercus spp.) and tanoak (Notholithocarpus densiflorus (Hook. & Arn.) Manos, Cannon & S.H. Oh) in California and tanoak in southwestern Oregon. Over the...

  10. Seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori in Hispanics living in Puerto Rico: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Pons, María; Soto-Salgado, Marievelisse; Sevilla, Javier; Márquez-Lespier, Juan M; Morgan, Douglas; Pérez, Cynthia M; Cruz-Correa, Marcia

    2018-02-01

    Helicobacter pylori is an important etiologic factor for peptic ulcers and gastric cancer, one of the top ten leading causes of cancer death in Puerto Rico. However, the prevalence of H. pylori infections in this population was previously unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the seroprevalence of H. pylori and its associated risk factors in Puerto Rico. A cross-sectional study was designed using an existing population-based biorepository. Seropositivity was determined using the Premier ™ H. pylori immunoassay. Helicobacter pylori seroprevalence was estimated with 95% confidence using marginal standardization following logistic regression. To assess the risk factors associated with H. pylori seropositivity, a multivariable log-binomial model was fitted to estimate the prevalence ratio (PR) and its 95% confidence interval (95% CI). A total of 528 population-based serum samples were analyzed. The mean age of the study population was 41 ± 12 years, of whom 55.3% were females. The overall seroprevalence of H. pylori was 33.0% (95% CI = 28.3%-38.1%). Increasing age and having Puerto Rico. The H. pylori seroprevalence observed in Puerto Rico is similar to the seroprevalence reported in the overall population of the United States. The association between H. pylori seroprevalence and the risk factors analyzed offers insight into the epidemiology of gastric cancer in Puerto Rico and warrants further investigation. © 2017 The Authors. Helicobacter Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Increase in Unemployment over the 2000's: Comparison between People Living with HIV and the French General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annequin, Margot; Lert, France; Spire, Bruno; Dray-Spira, Rosemary

    2016-01-01

    Despite improved health, unemployment has increased among people living with HIV (PlwHIV) over the last decade. However, since the economic recession of 2008, unemployment also increased in the French general population. This paper aimed to determine if the increase in the unemployment rate in the HIV population was higher than that in the French general population. We used data from the ANRS-Vespa study, a repeated cross-sectional survey among two national representative samples of PlwHIV followed at hospitals in France in 2003 and 2011. We compared employment and unemployment rates between HIV-infected people (overall and according to period of HIV diagnosis) and the French general population in 2003 and 2011, using multivariate Poisson regressions adjusted for individual sociodemographic characteristics. The employment rate among PlwHIV was consistently lower than that in the general population in 2003 and 2011. In contrast, there was a trend of an increasing unemployment rate difference between PlwHIV and the general population: PlwHIV's unemployment rate was 1.48 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.16-1.90) times higher than that of the general population in 2003, versus 1.62 (95% CI: 1.34-1.96) times higher in 2011. This unemployment rate difference was the highest for PlwHIV diagnosed in or after 2008 (adjusted prevalence rate ratio: 2.06; 95% CI: 1.59-2.67). These results suggest that in time of economic recession, an increasing proportion of PlwHIV may be excluded from the labor market although they are willing to re-enter it. This constitutes a major issue relative to social consequences of chronic disease.

  12. Increase in Unemployment over the 2000’s: Comparison between People Living with HIV and the French General Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annequin, Margot; Lert, France; Spire, Bruno; Dray-Spira, Rosemary

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite improved health, unemployment has increased among people living with HIV (PlwHIV) over the last decade. However, since the economic recession of 2008, unemployment also increased in the French general population. This paper aimed to determine if the increase in the unemployment rate in the HIV population was higher than that in the French general population. Methods We used data from the ANRS-Vespa study, a repeated cross-sectional survey among two national representative samples of PlwHIV followed at hospitals in France in 2003 and 2011. We compared employment and unemployment rates between HIV-infected people (overall and according to period of HIV diagnosis) and the French general population in 2003 and 2011, using multivariate Poisson regressions adjusted for individual sociodemographic characteristics. Results The employment rate among PlwHIV was consistently lower than that in the general population in 2003 and 2011. In contrast, there was a trend of an increasing unemployment rate difference between PlwHIV and the general population: PlwHIV’s unemployment rate was 1.48 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.16–1.90) times higher than that of the general population in 2003, versus 1.62 (95% CI: 1.34–1.96) times higher in 2011. This unemployment rate difference was the highest for PlwHIV diagnosed in or after 2008 (adjusted prevalence rate ratio: 2.06; 95% CI: 1.59–2.67). Conclusions These results suggest that in time of economic recession, an increasing proportion of PlwHIV may be excluded from the labor market although they are willing to re-enter it. This constitutes a major issue relative to social consequences of chronic disease. PMID:27814374

  13. Diet, life-style and cardiovascular morbidity in the rural, free living population of Elafonisos island

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    Chris J. Kapelios

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are about 70 small islands in the Aegean and Ionian Sea, of less than 300 Km2 and 5000 inhabitants each, comprising a total population of more than 75,000 individuals with geographical and socioeconomic characteristics of special interest. The objective of the present study was to assess lifestyle characteristics and the state of cardiovascular risk of the population of a small Eastern Mediterranean island, Elafonisos. Methods PERSEAS (Prospective Evaluation of cardiovascular Risk Surrogates in Elafonisos Area Study is an ongoing, population-based, longitudinal survey of cardiovascular risk factors, life-style characteristics and related morbidity/mortality performed in a small and relatively isolated island of the Aegean Sea, named Elafonisos. Validated, closed-ended questionnaires for demographic, socio-economic, clinical and lifestyle characteristics were distributed and analyzed. The MedDietScore, a validated Mediterranean diet score was also calculated. In addition, all participants underwent measurement of anthropometric parameters, blood pressure and a full blood panel for glucose and lipids. Results The analysis included 596 individuals who represented 74.5% of the target population. The mean age of the population was 49.5 ± 19.6 years and 48.2% were males. Fifty participants (8.4% had a history of cardiovascular disease (CVD. The rates of reported diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia were 7.7%, 30.9% and 30.9% respectively, with screen-detection of each condition accounting for an additional 4.0%, 12.9%, and 23.3% of cases, respectively. Four hundred and seven individuals (68.3% were overweight or obese, 25% reported being physically inactive and 36.6% were active smokers. The median MedDietScore was 25 [interquartile range: 6, range 12–47] with higher values significantly associated with older age, better education, increased physical activity, absence of history of diabetes and known

  14. Health effects of environmental pollution in population living near industrial complex areas in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Sang-Yong; Choi, Jonghyuk; Bae, Sanghyuk; Lim, Ji-Ae; Kim, Guen-Bae; Yu, Seung-Do; Kim, Yangho; Lim, Hyun-Sul; Son, Bu-Soon; Paek, Domyung; Kim, Yong-Dae; Kim, Heon; Ha, Mina; Kwon, Ho-Jang

    2018-01-01

    Several epidemiological studies have reported an association between environmental pollution and various health conditions in individuals residing in industrial complexes. To evaluate the effects of pollution from industrial complex on human health, we performed a pooled analysis of environmental epidemiologic monitoring data for residents living near national industrial complexes in Korea. The respiratory and allergic symptoms and the prevalence of acute and chronic diseases, including cancer, were used as the outcome variables for health effects. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the relationship between exposure to pollution from industrial complexes and health conditions. After adjusting for age, sex, smoking status, occupational exposure, level of education, and body mass index, the residents near the industrial complexes were found to have more respiratory symptoms, such as cough (odds ratio [OR], 1.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06 to 1.31) and sputum production (OR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.24), and symptoms of atopic dermatitis (OR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.20). Among residents of the industrial complexes, the prevalence of acute eye disorders was approximately 40% higher (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.84) and the prevalence of lung and uterine cancer was 3.45 times and 1.88 times higher, respectively, than those among residents of the control area. This study showed that residents living in the vicinity of industrial complexes have a high risk of acute and chronic diseases including respiratory and allergic conditions. These results can be used as basic objective data for developing health management measures for individuals residing near industrial complexes.

  15. Health effects of environmental pollution in population living near industrial complex areas in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Yong Eom

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Several epidemiological studies have reported an association between environmental pollution and various health conditions in individuals residing in industrial complexes. To evaluate the effects of pollution from industrial complex on human health, we performed a pooled analysis of environmental epidemiologic monitoring data for residents living near national industrial complexes in Korea. The respiratory and allergic symptoms and the prevalence of acute and chronic diseases, including cancer, were used as the outcome variables for health effects. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the relationship between exposure to pollution from industrial complexes and health conditions. After adjusting for age, sex, smoking status, occupational exposure, level of education, and body mass index, the residents near the industrial complexes were found to have more respiratory symptoms, such as cough (odds ratio [OR], 1.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06 to 1.31 and sputum production (OR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.24, and symptoms of atopic dermatitis (OR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.20. Among residents of the industrial complexes, the prevalence of acute eye disorders was approximately 40% higher (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.84 and the prevalence of lung and uterine cancer was 3.45 times and 1.88 times higher, respectively, than those among residents of the control area. This study showed that residents living in the vicinity of industrial complexes have a high risk of acute and chronic diseases including respiratory and allergic conditions. These results can be used as basic objective data for developing health management measures for individuals residing near industrial complexes.

  16. Social and genetic interactions drive fitness variation in a free-living dolphin population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frère, Celine H; Krützen, Michael; Mann, Janet; Connor, Richard C; Bejder, Lars; Sherwin, William B

    2010-11-16

    The evolutionary forces that drive fitness variation in species are of considerable interest. Despite this, the relative importance and interactions of genetic and social factors involved in the evolution of fitness traits in wild mammalian populations are largely unknown. To date, a few studies have demonstrated that fitness might be influenced by either social factors or genes in natural populations, but none have explored how the combined effect of social and genetic parameters might interact to influence fitness. Drawing from a long-term study of wild bottlenose dolphins in the eastern gulf of Shark Bay, Western Australia, we present a unique approach to understanding these interactions. Our study shows that female calving success depends on both genetic inheritance and social bonds. Moreover, we demonstrate that interactions between social and genetic factors also influence female fitness. Therefore, our study represents a major methodological advance, and provides critical insights into the interplay of genetic and social parameters of fitness.

  17. Living in the branches: population dynamics and ecological processes in dendritic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, E.H.C.; Lowe, W.H.; Fagan, W.F.

    2007-01-01

    Spatial structure regulates and modifies processes at several levels of ecological organization (e.g. individual/genetic, population and community) and is thus a key component of complex systems, where knowledge at a small scale can be insufficient for understanding system behaviour at a larger scale. Recent syntheses outline potential applications of network theory to ecological systems, but do not address the implications of physical structure for network dynamics. There is a specific need to examine how dendritic habitat structure, such as that found in stream, hedgerow and cave networks, influences ecological processes. Although dendritic networks are one type of ecological network, they are distinguished by two fundamental characteristics: (1) both the branches and the nodes serve as habitat, and (2) the specific spatial arrangement and hierarchical organization of these elements interacts with a species' movement behaviour to alter patterns of population distribution and abundance, and community interactions. Here, we summarize existing theory relating to ecological dynamics in dendritic networks, review empirical studies examining the population- and community-level consequences of these networks, and suggest future research integrating spatial pattern and processes in dendritic systems.

  18. Phenotypic plasticity despite source-sink population dynamics in a long-lived perennial plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jill T; Sparks, Jed P; Geber, Monica A

    2010-11-01

    • Species that exhibit adaptive plasticity alter their phenotypes in response to environmental conditions, thereby maximizing fitness in heterogeneous landscapes. However, under demographic source-sink dynamics, selection should favor traits that enhance fitness in the source habitat at the expense of fitness in the marginal habitat. Consistent with source-sink dynamics, the perennial blueberry, Vaccinium elliottii (Ericaceae), shows substantially higher fitness and population sizes in dry upland forests than in flood-prone bottomland forests, and asymmetrical gene flow occurs from upland populations into bottomland populations. Here, we examined whether this species expresses plasticity to these distinct environments despite source-sink dynamics. • We assessed phenotypic responses to a complex environmental gradient in the field and to water stress in the glasshouse. • Contrary to expectations, V. elliottii exhibited a high degree of plasticity in foliar and root traits (specific leaf area, carbon isotope ratios, foliar nitrogen content, root : shoot ratio, root porosity and root architecture). • We propose that plasticity can be maintained in source-sink systems if it is favored within the source habitat and/or a phylogenetic artifact that is not costly. Additionally, plasticity could be advantageous if habitat-based differences in fitness result from incipient niche expansion. Our results illuminate the importance of evaluating phenotypic traits and fitness components across heterogeneous landscapes. © The Authors (2010). Journal compilation © New Phytologist Trust (2010).

  19. Living in highly dynamic polluted river floodplains, do contaminants contribute to population and community effects?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klok, Chris; Kraak, Michiel H.S.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to collect evidence for the effects of contaminants on biota in a highly dynamic river Rhine floodplain. To this purpose we reviewed the results of circa 10 studies performed in this floodplain. The floodplain was contaminated with elevated levels of cadmium, copper, PAHs, and PCBs and high levels of zinc which were at some sites above legislative values. The results showed that the present contaminants were accumulated by the floodplain inhabiting organisms, but meanwhile population and community effects were ambiguous. Only for the mayfly Ephoron virgo clear effects were detected at the level of the single floodplain. The absence of clear population and community effects is puzzling since at lower contaminant concentrations adverse effects were detected in other environments. Factors that may mask toxic effects include flooding and food quality and quantity. We conclude that given the site specific conditions, being an open, eutrophic system with a highly dynamic flooding pattern, assessment of the contribution of toxicants to observed population density or biomass and community composition requires 1] an increase in number of replicates; 2] a larger scale of investigation and 3] comparison to stable systems with comparable contamination levels

  20. Gnathostoma spinigerum in live Asian swamp eels (Monopterus spp.) from food markets and wild populations, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Rebecca A.; Choudhury, Anindo; Nico, Leo G.; Griffin, Kathryn M.

    2014-01-01

    In Southeast Asia, swamp eels (Synbranchidae: Monopterus spp.) are a common source of human gnathostomiasis, a foodborne zoonosis caused by advanced third-stage larvae (AL3) of Gnathostoma spp. nematodes. Live Asian swamp eels are imported to US ethnic food markets, and wild populations exist in several states. To determine whether these eels are infected, we examined 47 eels from markets and 67 wild-caught specimens. Nematodes were identified by morphologic features and ribosomal intergenic transcribed spacer–2 gene sequencing. Thirteen (27.7%) M. cuchia eels from markets were infected with 36 live G. spinigerum AL3: 21 (58.3%) in liver; 7 (19.4%) in muscle; 5 (13.8%) in gastrointestinal tract, and 3 (8.3%) in kidneys. Three (4.5%) wild-caught M. albus eels were infected with 5 G. turgidum AL3 in muscle, and 1 G. lamothei AL3 was found in a kidney (both North American spp.). Imported live eels are a potential source of human gnathostomiasis in the United States.

  1. RELIGION, CULTURE AND LOCAL WISDOM IN THE DEATH RITUAL OF PONTIANAK MALAY SOCIETY

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    Sumarman Muhammad Djar’ie

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Death is inevitable and will occur to every living creature, including humans no mater what religion or belief they have; however, no one knows for sure when it happens. Humans can only predict death based on indicators that can be seen before it occurs. Still until now, there are many people who attempt to oppose death, even though in the end they have to admit that Allah is the Almighty. Therefore, no wonder if the death is still considered a tragedy rather than the culmination of happiness when humans finally harvest of deeds they have done all their life. In this light, death rituals are often accompanied by the tears of the family of the deceased, even some cry hard to express their pain as someone they love is gone, coupled with the arrival of relatives and acquaintances who mourn, and condolences as well as the phrase “inna lillâh wa inna ilaihi raji’ȗn”. A day of joy has turned into a day of sorrow, although it always ends with kendurian (gathering for remembering the dead, whose excitement is like that of selamatan (communal feast and syukuran (celebration of thankfulness. This paper tries to present the infiltration of religion and culture in the death ritual in Pontianak Malay community as an object of discussion of local wisdom by using mafhȗm mukhâlafah approach, to provide a new understanding of the meaning of death.

  2. Differences in labour participation between people living with HIV and the general population: Results from Spain along the business cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña Longobardo, Luz María; Oliva-Moreno, Juan

    2018-01-01

    HIV/AIDS (Human immunodeficiency virus/Acquired immune deficiency syndrome) not only has a strong impact on the health of the worldwide population but also affects the labour status of HIV-positive people. The primary aim of this paper is to compare the labour participation of people living with HIV (PlwHIV) with the labour participation of the general population along the last business cycle in Spain. The data used are from the Hospital Survey on HIV-AIDS, with a total sample size of 4,651 PlwHIV and the Labour Force Survey from 2001 to 2010, with a total sample size of 660,674 individuals as general population. Propensity Score Matching method was used to analyse the differences between the labour participation of PlwHIV and the general population. Additionally, several specific models categorised into different subgroups (gender, education, source of infection and level of defences) were also performed. We identified a convergence in labour participation across the period in the two populations considered: PlwHIV was 23% less likely to have a job than the general population during 2001-2002 and 14% less likely during 2009-2010. This convergence is mainly explained by two facts: first, the positive evolution of people infected by sex; second, the change in the PlwHIV population composition with a decreasing weight of people infected by drug use throughout the decade. Thereby, at the end of period, there was no statistical difference in the employment rate between PlwHIV infected through sex and the general population but there was strongly difference in PlwHIV infected through drugs. Inmunological status, source of infection and level of education play a relevant role among the PlwHIV population when comparing their labour participation with the general population. In spite of this positive result, the likelihood of being employed in HIV-positive people continues to be different from that of non-carriers. Our study shows that institutional features of labour

  3. How genetic data improve the interpretation of results of faecal glucocorticoid metabolite measurements in a free-living population.

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    Maik Rehnus

    Full Text Available Measurement of glucocorticoid metabolites (GCM in faeces has become a widely used and effective tool for evaluating the amount of stress experienced by animals. However, the potential sampling bias resulting from an oversampling of individuals when collecting "anonymous" (unknown sex or individual faeces has rarely been investigated. We used non-invasive genetic sampling (NIGS to investigate potential interpretation errors of GCM measurements in a free-living population of mountain hares during the mating and post-reproductive periods. Genetic data improved the interpretation of results of faecal GCM measurements. In general GCM concentrations were influenced by season. However, genetic information revealed that it was sex-dependent. Within the mating period, females had higher GCM levels than males, but individual differences were more expressed in males. In the post-reproductive period, GCM concentrations were neither influenced by sex nor individual. We also identified potential pitfalls in the interpretation of anonymous faecal samples by individual differences in GCM concentrations and resampling rates. Our study showed that sex- and individual-dependent GCM levels led to a misinterpretation of GCM values when collecting "anonymous" faeces. To accurately evaluate the amount of stress experienced by free-living animals using faecal GCM measurements, we recommend documenting individuals and their sex of the sampled population. In stress-sensitive and elusive species, such documentation can be achieved by using NIGS and for diurnal animals with sexual and individual variation in appearance or marked individuals, it can be provided by a detailed field protocol.

  4. [Serum lipids and blood pressure levels in the +Mapuche population living in the Chilean region of Araucanía].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockins, B; Larenas, G; Charles, M; Standen, D; Espinoza, O; Illesca, M; Opazo, J A; Carrasco, B; Lanas, F; Davis, M

    1998-11-01

    Chilean aboriginal populations (Mapuche) predominantly live in the region of Araucanía, in the southern part of the country. Their cardiovascular risk factors have not been systematically assessed. To study the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in the Mapuche population. Blood pressure, weight, height, dietary habits, fasting serum total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and triglycerides were measured in 1.948 adults living in 28 Mapuche communities. Thirteen percent of males and 16% of females had high blood pressure. Body mass index was 25.5 kg/m2 in males and 28.1 kg/m2 in females. Forty five percent of women and 24% of men were classified as obese. Mean serum total cholesterol was 186.7 +/- 9.6 mg/dl, HDL cholesterol was 58.7 +/- 30.7 mg/dl, total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol was 3.4 +/- 2 and triglycerides were 155.2 +/- 91.2 mg/dl. Twenty eight percent of males and 9.6% of females smoked. Mapuche individuals have higher levels of HDL cholesterol a better total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio and lower frequency of smoking than non aboriginal Chileans subjects.

  5. Translation and validation of the Malay version of the Stroke Knowledge Test

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    Siti Noorkhairina Sowtali

    2016-04-01

    Conclusions: Malay version Stroke Knowledge Test was a valid and reliable tool to assess educational needs and to evaluate stroke knowledge among participants of group-based stroke education programs in Malaysia.

  6. Permanent dentition occlusion in Chinese, Indian and Malay groups in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woon, K C; Thong, Y L; Abdul Kadir, R

    1989-03-01

    This survey outlines the proportion of the various features of occlusion in the permanent dentition of the three ethnic races, Chinese, Malay and Indian in Malaysia. The mean age of the high school children surveyed was 16.4 years. The Chinese and Malays had almost similar distribution of the different types of occlusion. There was a significantly higher prevalence of Class III occlusion among the Chinese and Malays as compared to the Indians. In addition, an edge to edge incisor relationship seemed to be a norm in the Chinese (54%) and Malays (50%) whilst the overjet of between 2-4 mm and the overbite of between 1/3 to 2/3 was more normal to Indians (50%). A crowded dentition was also a norm for the three races.

  7. Sailing the Archipelago in a boat of rhymes Pantun in the Malay world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Haji Salleh

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The extremely popular poetic form from Insular Southeast Asia, the pantun, travelled from its unknown source throughout the Malay Archipelago, first in Malay, then in the languages of Southeast Asia. In the ports and states where they were received, local colour, other idiosyncrasies, references, and linguistic characteristics have been added, and in fact, special forms with special names developed. This basic form is known, composed, and loved in at least 40 dialects of Malay, and 35 non-Malay languages, in the Peninsula and many of the islands of Malaysia and Indonesia. It spread through trade routes, ports, and also via diasporas and colonial economic projects which caused numerous peoples to move, who in turn brought the pantun along with them. It is now the most dynamic single literary form and has the longest history.

  8. Stability in Chinese and Malay heritage languages as a source of divergence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalberse, S.; Moro, F.; Braunmüller, K.; Höder, S.; Kühl, K.

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses Malay and Chinese heritage languages as spoken in the Netherlands. Heritage speakers are dominant in another language and use their heritage language less. Moreover, they have qualitatively and quantitatively different input from monolinguals. Heritage languages are often

  9. Stability in Chinese and Malay heritage languages as a source of divergence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalberse, S.; Moro, F.R.; Braunmüller, K.; Höder, S.; Kühl, K.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses Malay and Chinese heritage languages as spoken in the Netherlands. Heritage speakers are dominant in another language and use their heritage language less. Moreover, they have qualitatively and quantitatively different input from monolinguals. Heritage languages are often

  10. Population monitoring: three generation study of residents living in the vicinity of Semipalatinsk nuclear test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bersimbaev, R.I.

    2002-01-01

    The objectives of this work are as follows: to establish a Blood Bio-sample Database of three generations families living close to the Semipalatinsk test site (STS) and control families in three generation from clean areas; to determine the mini-satellite mutations rates in the three generation of radiation exposed people and control families of the same ethnic origin; to definition the chromosomal translocation frequencies by FISH chromosome painting in the lymphocytes of the exposed and control people in order to determine the radiation exposure. The following criteria for select to examined groups were used: the people from control group should be permanently living at clean area (far from STS or any places where the nuclear tests occur and far from any chemical industrial plants), e.g. they should not been exposed to radiation during their life (including a radiotherapy and cytostatics); the people of both examined groups should be matched regard to structure of families, age, ethnic background, parental age of P 0 and F 1 to the moment children birth, smoking habit, lifestyle and occupation. The maximum of available families by appropriate criteria in villages were chosen. As exposed inhabitation serves residents of following villages: Dolon, Mostik, Bodene, Cheremushki, Kanonerka, Karamyrza (all these villages are situated in Beskargai district). The inhabitants of Dzerzhinsk, Zhanatalap and Ushtobe villages of former Taldy-Kurgan oblast were included for study as a control group. The Bio-sample Bank consists of the frozen EDTA blood (at - 20 deg C), and isolated whole blood DNA (at - 70 deg C), the fixated erythrocytes (at - 70 deg C), isolated lymphocytes (in liquid nitrogen container) and lymphocyte cultures (at - 20 deg C). The Bio-sample Bank is supplement with a computerized database identifying the samples and number of vial stored, and information on individuals studied (all questionnaire data) and family tree. Results from the translocation FISH

  11. Mortality and malnutrition among populations living in South Darfur, Sudan: results of 3 surveys, September 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandesso, Francesco; Sanderson, Frances; Kruijt, Jenneke; Koene, Ton; Brown, Vincent

    2005-03-23

    Mass violence against civilians in the west of Sudan has resulted in the displacement of more than 1.5 million people (25% of the population of the Darfur region). Most of these people are camped in 142 settlements. There has been increasing international concern about the health status of the displaced population. To perform rapid epidemiological assessments of mortality and nutritional status at 3 sites in South Darfur for relief efforts. In August and September 2004, mortality surveys were conducted among 137,000 internally displaced persons (IDPs) in 3 sites in South Darfur (Kass [n = 900 households], Kalma [n = 893 households], and Muhajiria [n = 900 households]). A nutritional survey was performed concomitantly among children aged 6 to 59 months using weight for height as an index of acute malnutrition (Kass [n = 894], Kalma [n = 888], and Muhajiria [n = 896]). A questionnaire detailing access to food and basic services was administered to a subset of households (n = 210 in each site). Crude and under 5-year mortality rates and nutritional status of IDPs in Kass, Kalma, and Muhajiria, South Darfur. Crude mortality rates, expressed as deaths per 10,000 per day, were 3.2 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.2-4.1) in Kass, 2.0 (95% CI, 1.3-2.7) in Kalma, and 2.3 (95% CI, 1.2-3.4) in Muhajiria. Under 5-year mortality rates were 5.9 (95% CI, 3.8-8.0) in Kass, 3.5 (95% CI, 1.5-5.7) in Kalma, and 1.0 (95% CI, 0.03-1.9) in Muhajiria. During the period of displacement covered by our survey in Muhajiria, violence was reported to be responsible for 72% of deaths, mainly among young men. Diarrheal disease was reported to cause between 25% and 47% of deaths in camp residents and mainly affected the youngest and oldest age groups. Acute malnutrition was common, affecting 14.1% of the target population in Kass, 23.6% in Kalma, and 10.7% in Muhajiria. This study provides epidemiological evidence of the high rates of mortality and malnutrition among the displaced population in

  12. Assessment of living conditions of the Ukranian working-age population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazhak, Iryna

    2017-01-01

    as many women performing the majority of the duties as men. About one-third of the respondents considered their profession to be prestigious, about half - average, a quarter – low prestige. Respondents: the working-age population of Ukraine – males aged 18-65, females aged 18-60. The sample is split up......, a quarter (24%) – performed the majority of the duties themselves, 20% – reported that the majority of the duties were performed by the other family member, 14% - all the duties were performed by the respondent, and only 5% – all the duties were performed by the other family member. There were four times...

  13. Trends in disability of instrumental activities of daily living among older Chinese adults, 1997-2006: population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yajun; Welmer, Anna-Karin; Möller, Jette; Qiu, Chengxuan

    2017-08-28

    Data on trends for disability in instrumental activity of daily living (IADL) are sparse in older Chinese adults. To assess trends in prevalence and incidence of IADL disability among older Chinese adults and to explore contributing factors. Population based study. 15 provinces and municipalities in China. Participants (age ≥60) were from four waves of the China Health and Nutrition Survey, conducted in 1997 (n=1533), 2000 (n=1581), 2004 (n=2028) and 2006 (n=2256), and from two cohorts constructed within the national survey: cohort 1997-2004 (n=712) and cohort 2000-2006 (n=823). IADL disability was defined as inability to perform one or more of the following: shopping, cooking, using transportation, financing and telephoning. Data were analysed with logistic regression and generalised estimating equation models. The prevalence of IADL disability significantly decreased from 1997 to 2006 in the total sample and in all of the subgroups by age, sex, living region and IADL items (all p trend 0.10). The recovery rate from IADL disability significantly increased over time in those aged 60-69 years (p=0.03). Living in a rural area or access to local clinics for healthcare was less disabling over time (p trend <0.02). The prevalence of IADL disability decreased among older Chinese adults during 1997-2006, whereas the incidence remained stable. The declining prevalence of IADL disability might be partly due to the decreased duration of IADL disability, and to improvements in living conditions and healthcare facilities over time. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Cytogenetic investigation in a population living in the high background radiation area in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deqing, C.

    1980-04-01

    On the basis of the previous investigation, 24,000 metaphases of the lymphocytes of 120 inhabitants from Tongyou region, where the highest individual cummulative exposure per year of 372 mR in weighted average was recorded in the high background radiation area selected, have been analysed with the method recommended by WHO in 1973, in order to determine the extent of human chromosome aberrations induced by the high background radiation of various levels. The results show that the difference between the total number of chromosome breakages in the individuals living in the high background radiation area and that in the control area (0.32x10/sup -2/ and 0.27x10/sup -2/ per cell respectively) is not significant whereas that between the numbers of two-hite aberrations (mainly dicentric) in the same two groups (0.042x10/sup -2/ and 0.0048x10/sup -2/ per cell) is significant (X/sup 2/ = 6.1475, P<0.05). In addition, the normal value of the chromosome aberrations of human lymphocytes was analyzed.

  15. Grammatical relations and grammatical categories in Malay; The Indonesian prefix meN- revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnny Tjia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The lexical roots of Malay are flexible with regard to their grammatical categories, which presents a problem in providing grammatical evidence for their category determination. This paper attempts to propose the use of affixes as one way to deal with the issue. Data from Indonesian and Ambon (Malay language are among others given for clarification. The grammatical evidence from Indonesian active meN-, together with other affixes, are revisited as they can contribute to our understanding of the matter.

  16. Grammatical Relations and Grammatical Categories in Malay; the Indonesian Prefix MeN- Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Tjia, Johnny

    2015-01-01

    The lexical roots of Malay are flexible with regard to their grammatical categories, which presents a problem in providing grammatical evidence for their category determination. This paper attempts to propose the use of affixes as one way to deal with the issue. Data from Indonesian and Ambon (Malay) language are among others given for clarification. The grammatical evidence from Indonesian active meN-, together with other affixes, are revisited as they can contribute to our understanding of ...

  17. Psychometric Properties of the Drive for Muscularity Scale in Malay Men

    OpenAIRE

    Swami, Viren; Barron, David; Lau, Poh Li; Jaafar, Jas Laile

    2016-01-01

    The Drive for Muscularity Scale (DMS) is a widely used measure in studies of men’s body image, but few studies have examined its psychometric properties outside English-speaking samples. Here, we assessed the factor structure of a Malay translation of the DMS. A community sample of 159 Malay men from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, completed the DMS, along with measures of self-esteem, body appreciation, and muscle discrepancy. Exploratory factor analysis led to the extraction of two factors, differe...

  18. Acculturation of Javanese and Malay Islam in Wedding Tradition of Javanese Ethnic Community at Selangor, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Rohmanu, Abid

    2016-01-01

    This study is to see the level of acculturation of Javanese and Malay Islams in Javanese community wedding at Selangor Malaysia. According to the theory of culture, each culture has a uniqueness, as a individual uniqueness. The unique culture of Javanese ethnic wedding in Selangor is believed to be a process of negotiation between Malay and Javanese culture.. Acculturation theory is used in this research to explain and understand the reality of that culture. The study concluded that ethnic we...

  19. The Ornamental Design of Traditional Malay Utensils (Kukuran) in Peninsula Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Md Yusoff Zulkfli bin; Md Zain Dzul Haimi bin; Saniman Hamidon bin

    2016-01-01

    Woodcarving is a significant craft in Malay society that reflects the local traditions and customs. It is a manifestation of craftsmen artistic skills and intutitive ideas into a piece of wood. It is also manifestation of the creative process of imitation, denaturalization, stylization and abstraction. Historically, the Malay craftsmen have created many attractive traditional art forms and one of it is the coconut graters (kukuran). The ornamental carved kukuran is closely related to its Mala...

  20. Psychometric Properties of the Malay Version of the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ) in a Sample of Malaysian Adults Attending a Health Care Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Kavitha; Low, Wah Yun; Chinna, Karuthan; Chin, Kin Fah; Krishnaswamy, Saroja

    2017-08-01

    This study aims to investigate the psychometric properties of the Malay version of the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ) among Malaysian adults. The Malay version of the DEBQ instrument was administered to 398 outpatients (269 women and 129 men) at the University of Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC). Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was conducted to study the construct validity of the instrument. Composite reliability coefficient, Raykov's rho, was used to determine the internal consistency. The proposed three-factor structure for the DEBQ instrument was appropriate, although three items (Items 21, 14 and 27) showed problematic loadings with inappropriate model fit and were removed. The modified version had an appropriate model fit χ 2 /df = 2.129, TLI = 0.908, CFI = 0.918, RMSEA = 0.053 (90%CI = 0.048-0.058), close-fit P -value = 0.136 and satisfactory internal consistency of 0.914 for emotional eating scale, 0.819 for external eating scale and 0.856 for restrained eating scale. The Malay version of the DEBQ is a valid instrument to study eating behaviour traits among Malaysian adults. Further research is warranted to determine if Items 14 and 27 are appropriate for the Malaysian population.

  1. Factors Influencing the Prevalence of Mental Health Problems among Malay Elderly Residing in a Rural Community: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Manaf, M Rizal; Mustafa, Madihah; Abdul Rahman, Mohd Rizam; Yusof, Khairul Hazdi; Abd Aziz, Noor Azah

    2016-01-01

    Mental health problems are common in old age, but frequently remain undetected and untreated. Mental health problems in the elderly are the result of a complex interaction of social, psychological and biological factors. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of mental health problems (depression, anxiety, and emotional stress) and their associated factors among the Malay elderly in a rural community of Perak, Malaysia. It was a cross-sectional study. The Malay elderly aged 60 years and above were selected through convenient sampling to give a total of 230 respondents. The Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21) was used to assess the symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress. Bivariate analyses were performed using chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the association between the factors and each of the mental health statuses assessed. The results showed that the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress among the elderly respondents was 27.8%, 22.6%, and 8.7%, respectively. The significant factors for depression were single elderly (Adjusted OR = 3.27, 95%CI 1.66, 6.44), living with family (Adjusted OR = 4.98, 95%CI 2.05, 12.10), and poor general health status (Adjusted OR = 2.28, 95%CI 1.20, 4.36). Living with family was the only significant factor for anxiety (Adjusted OR = 2.68, 95%CI 1.09, 6.57). There was no significant factor for stress. Depression and anxiety among the Malay elderly in the rural community were very worrying. More equity in health should be created or strengthened in order to intensify the opportunity to identify, diagnose, and treat those with mental health problems. Living arrangement in the rural community was an important factor that had influenced depression and anxiety. Therefore, further research is recommended for more comprehensive information, as a result of which appropriate intervention can be made.

  2. Mercury risk assessment combining internal and external exposure methods for a population living near a municipal solid waste incinerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Chunyan; Xie, Han; Ye, Xuejie; Zhang, Haoran; Liu, Maodian; Tong, Yindong; Ou, Langbo; Yuan, Wen; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Xuejun

    2016-12-01

    Risk assessments for human health have been conducted for municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) in many western countries, whereas only a few risk assessments have been performed for MSWIs in developing countries such as China where the use of waste incineration is increasing rapidly. To assess the mercury exposure risks of a population living near the largest MSWI in South China, we combined internal exposure and external exposure assessment with an individual-specific questionnaire. The mercury concentrations in air, soil, and locally collected food around the MSWI were assessed. The total mercury (T-Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) of 447 blood samples from a control group, residential exposure group, and MSWI workers were measured. The internal and external exposures of the subject population were analyzed. Significant difference in MeHg concentrations was observed between the control group and the exposed group, between the control group and the MSWI workers, and between the exposed group and the MSWI workers (median levels: 0.70 μg/L, 0.81 μg/L, and 1.02 μg/L for the control group, exposed group, and MSWI workers, respectively). The MeHg/T-Hg ratio was 0.51 ± 0.19, 0.59 ± 0.17 and 0.58 ± 0.25, respectively. Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that MeHg concentrations were positively correlated with the gaseous mercury in the air. Combining internal and external exposure assessment showed that the direct contribution of MSWI emissions was minor compared with the dietary contribution. The external and internal exposures were well matched with each other. This study also suggested that an integrated method combining internal and external exposure assessment with an individual-specific questionnaire is feasible to assess the risks for a population living near a MSWI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Estimation of internal radiation dose to the adult Asian population from the dietary intakes of two long-lived radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyengar, G.V.; Kawamura, H.; Dang, H.S.; Parr, R.M.; Wang, J.W.; Akhter, Perveen; Cho, S.Y.; Natera, E.; Miah, F.K.; Nguyen, M.S.

    2004-01-01

    Daily dietary intakes of two naturally occurring long-lived radionuclides, 232 Th and 238 U, were estimated for the adult population living in a number of Asian countries, using highly sensitive analytical methods such as instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation analysis (INAA and RNAA), and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The Asian countries that participated in the study were Bangladesh (BGD), China (CPR), India (IND), Japan (JPN), Pakistan (PAK), Philippines (PHI), Republic of Korea (ROK) and Vietnam (VIE). Altogether, these countries represent more than 50% of the world population. The median daily intakes of 232 Th ranged between 0.6 and 14.4 mBq, the lowest being for Philippines and the highest for Bangladesh, and daily intakes of 238 U ranged between 6.7 and 62.5 mBq, lowest and the highest being for India and China, respectively. The Asian median intakes were obtained as 4.2 mBq for 232 Th and 12.7 mBq for 238 U. Although the Asian intakes were lower than intakes of 12.3 mBq (3.0 μg) 232 Th and 23.6 mBq (1.9 μg) 238 U proposed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for the ICRP Reference Man, they were comparable to the global intake values of 4.6 mBq 232 Th and 15.6 mBq 238 U proposed by the United Nation Scientific Commission on Effects of Radiation (UNSCEAR). The annual committed effective doses to Asian population from the dietary intake of 232 Th and 238 U were calculated to be 0.34 and 0.20 μSv, respectively, which are three orders of magnitude lower than the global average annual radiation dose of 2400 μSv to man from the natural radiation sources as proposed by UNSCEAR

  4. Ethnic differences in quality of life in adolescents among Chinese, Malay and Indians in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Tze Pin; Lim, Lionel Chee Chong; Jin, Aizhen; Shinfuku, N

    2005-09-01

    Health-related quality of life in adolescents and ethnic and cultural differences are not well characterized. We used the Quality of Life Questionnaire for Adolescents (QOLQA) to examine ethnic differences in reported QOL scores among Chinese, Malay and Indian ethnicities in Singapore. The 70-item QOLQA measuring five QOL domains (physical, psychological, independence, social and environmental) was administered to a random sample of 1363 school-children aged 10-15 years, representative of the ethnic composition of Singapore adolescents (Chinese 72%, Malays 20% and Indians 8%). Indians reported the highest overall QOL (mean 3.71 +/- SD 0.54) compared to Chinese (3.59 +/- 0.43), p Malays (3.58 +/- 0.44), p Chinese (3.55 +/- 0.54), p Chinese scored highest on physical and independence domains (3.97 +/- 0.54), p Malays (3.82 +/- 0.55). There were no statistically significant gender differences in QOL scores. QOL declined significantly from age 10 to 15 for overall score, psychological, physical (p Chinese (r = 0.39) or Malays (r = 0.39), Indians showed a higher correlation of psychological scores with physical score (r = 0.59) and with other domain scores. Significant ethnic differences in reported adolescent quality of life among Chinese, Malays and Indians in Singapore that are independent of socioeconomic and health status suggest important cultural differences.

  5. The Ornamental Design of Traditional Malay Utensils (Kukuran in Peninsula Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Yusoff Zulkfli bin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Woodcarving is a significant craft in Malay society that reflects the local traditions and customs. It is a manifestation of craftsmen artistic skills and intutitive ideas into a piece of wood. It is also manifestation of the creative process of imitation, denaturalization, stylization and abstraction. Historically, the Malay craftsmen have created many attractive traditional art forms and one of it is the coconut graters (kukuran. The ornamental carved kukuran is closely related to its Malay woodcarving tradition and philosophy. The aim of this paper is to illustrate this tradition of the great traditional Malay kukuran, the testiment of its time through its visual characteristics and design composition. This study presents an analysis of six kukuran, which were gathered from the state museums in Peninsular Malaysia. The discussion is focused on the formalistic and iconology aspects of the kukuran carving ornaments. The finding briefly shows the fusion of Malay concept of beauty, Malay culture and the understanding of Islam had been manifested in these domestic utensils - the ornamental kukuran

  6. On the general principles of health monitoring of population living in NPP environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrov, P.

    1991-01-01

    The basic principles of health monitoring and its significance as a source of information for the organization and regulation of health control are pointed out. Attention is drawn to the surveillance and quantitative evaluation of the factors affecting individuals, as well as their consequencies. The necessity of determining the real health status of the population, as well as of forecasting its future changes and of evaluating the prognosticated changes is stressed. The nosologic units and classes of diseases, relevant to radiation action, should be put into constant observation. Special attention is paid to the study of demographic indices, congenital malformations, neoplasms of thyroid, lungs, leucoses, osteosarcomas, reproduction ability based on data for sterile marriages, spontaneous abortions, death-borns and perinatal lethality. 9 refs., 1 tab

  7. [Hygienic assessment of living conditions and morbidity of the population in the port cities of the Sakhalin region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alikbayeva, L A; Kim, A V; Iakubova, Sh; Ok, Im En; Darizhapov, B B

    The aim of this study was to perform a comprehensive hygienic assessment of environmental conditions in the port cities of the Sakhalin region to identify priority risk factors affecting on population health and management decisions for the optimization of living conditions. As a result of the assessment of risk and damages for public health from the effects of air pollution on the dose-response, effects were found to excess of impact on the target organs by 10 times. The main ecotoxicant was determined to be manganese oxide, which is associated with a priority manganese content in soil samples ofport cities. The positive dynamics of the gain in the accumulation of soil heavy metals according to the total index indicates to the existence of problems for soil contamination. Analysis of demographic variables shows that the population of the Sakhalin region in general and the port cities in particular relates to a regressive type. The main causes of the population decline are mortality and migration outflow of able-bodied population in other regions of Russia. However, in the port cities there is an increase in the number of work places, contributing to an increase in the labor force. The primary and general morbidity of the population ofport cities is characterized by higher levels compared with the average for the Sakhalin Region and the Far Eastern Federal District. Among all the classes of diseases as priority ones there are marked “neoplasm”, “diseases of the nervous system”, “respiratory diseases”, “diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissue”. Port cities occupy the top ranking places on the incidence of malignant tumors among the cities of the Sakhalin region.

  8. Clonality, genetic diversity and support for the diversifying selection hypothesis in natural populations of a flower-living yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, C M; Pozo, M I; Bazaga, P

    2011-11-01

    Vast amounts of effort have been devoted to investigate patterns of genetic diversity and structuring in plants and animals, but similar information is scarce for organisms of other kingdoms. The study of the genetic structure of natural populations of wild yeasts can provide insights into the ecological and genetic correlates of clonality, and into the generality of recent hypotheses postulating that microbial populations lack the potential for genetic divergence and allopatric speciation. Ninety-one isolates of the flower-living yeast Metschnikowia gruessii from southeastern Spain were DNA fingerprinted using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Genetic diversity and structuring was investigated with band-based methods and model- and nonmodel-based clustering. Linkage disequilibrium tests were used to assess reproduction mode. Microsite-dependent, diversifying selection was tested by comparing genetic characteristics of isolates from bumble bee vectors and different floral microsites. AFLP polymorphism (91%) and genotypic diversity were very high. Genetic diversity was spatially structured, as shown by amova (Φ(st)  = 0.155) and clustering. The null hypothesis of random mating was rejected, clonality seeming the prevailing reproductive mode in the populations studied. Genetic diversity of isolates declined from bumble bee mouthparts to floral microsites, and frequency of five AFLP markers varied significantly across floral microsites, thus supporting the hypothesis of diversifying selection on clonal lineages. Wild populations of clonal fungal microbes can exhibit levels of genetic diversity and spatial structuring that are not singularly different from those shown by sexually reproducing plants or animals. Microsite-dependent, divergent selection can maintain high local and regional genetic diversity in microbial populations despite extensive clonality. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Population-based evaluation of the ‘LiveLighter’ healthy weight and lifestyle mass media campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, B.; Niven, P.; Dixon, H.; Swanson, M.; Szybiak, M.; Shilton, T.; Pratt, I. S.; Slevin, T.; Hill, D.; Wakefield, M.

    2016-01-01

    The Western Australian (WA) ‘LiveLighter’ (LL) mass media campaign ran during June–August and September–October 2012. The principal campaign ad graphically depicts visceral fat of an overweight individual (‘why’ change message), whereas supporting ads demonstrate simple changes to increase activity and eat healthier (‘how’ to change message). Cross-sectional surveys among population samples aged 25–49 were undertaken pre-campaign (N = 2012) and following the two media waves (N = 2005 and N = 2009) in the intervention (WA) and comparison state (Victoria) to estimate the population impact of LL. Campaign awareness was 54% after the first media wave and overweight adults were more likely to recall LL and perceive it as personally relevant. Recall was also higher among parents, but equal between socio-economic groups. The ‘why’ message about health-harms of overweight rated higher than ‘how’ messages about lifestyle change, on perceived message effectiveness which is predictive of health-related intention and behaviour change. State-by-time interactions showed population-level increases in self-referent thoughts about the health-harms of overweight (P campaign impact. However, sustained campaign activity will be needed to impact behaviour. PMID:26956039

  10. Population Genetics of Identifiler System in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yasutaka; Samejima, Michinaga; Minaguchi, Kiyoshi; Nambiar, Phrabhakaran

    2016-01-01

    Short tandem repeat (STR) polymorphisms were investigated in 341 unrelated Malay individuals (218 males and 123 females) living in or around Kuala Lumpur by using a forensic analysts kit. The following STRs were targeted: D8S1179, D21S11, D7S820, CSF1PO, D3S1358, TH01, D13S317, D16S539, D2S1338, D19S433, vWA, TPOX, D18S51, D5S818, and FGA. The purpose of this study was to elucidate population genetics in Malaysia and calculate statistical parameters for forensic and anthropological research. Data on these STRs in the target population were obtained and subjected to statistical analysis. Accordance with the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was proven for all the loci targeted. The combined power of discrimination was greater than 0.9999999999, indicating that this multiplex system is an excellent tool for forensic casework. The allele frequency in the data were weighed against that in four other local populations (Chinese, Iranian, Belgian, and African). The average coefficient of correlation was strongest in the order of Africa (0.092522), Belgium (0.264822), Iran (0.404363), and China (0.706661). These results are consistent with what is known about the anthropological history of and prehistoric human migration in the Malay region. We believe that these data offer a valuable anthropological resource, being applicable to the statistical evaluation of DNA evidence in human identification, as well as the determination of ethnicity in healthy populations.

  11. Determination of Seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi IgG in Adult Population Living in Trabzon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cora, Merve; Kaklıkkaya, Neşe; Topbaş, Murat; Çan, Gamze; Yavuzyılmaz, Asuman; Tosun, İlknur; Aydın, Faruk

    2017-01-01

    Lyme borreliosis is a tick-borne, multi-systemic infectious disease that is thought to be wide spread in Turkey even though studies on its seroprevalence are limited. To determine the seroprevalence of Lyme borreliosis in part of north-eastern Tur-key (in the city of Trabzon), and to identify possible relationships between seropositivity and various factors such as location, gender, age group, occupation, income, and educational level. Retrospective cross-sectional study. A total of 884 blood samples collected from provincial and district health centers serving a population of about 800,000 were included in this study. ELISA was used to determine the anti-Borrelia IgG antibody levels in the samples. Samples that yielded positive results by ELISA were further subjected to western blot (WB). IgG antibodies were found in 128 samples (14.5%). Statistical analysis revealed significant differences between age groups and educational levels in terms of the incidence of seropositivity, whereas location, gender, occupational group and income level had no effect (p<0.001, p<0.001, p=0.948, p=0.645, p=0.131, p=0.080 respectively). The risk of contracting Lyme borreliosis in Trabzon is high, and necessary measures need to be taken to avoid the spread of disease.

  12. Determination of Seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi IgG in Adult Population Living in Trabzon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merve Cora

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lyme borreliosis is a tick-borne, multi-systemic infectious disease that is thought to be wide spread in Turkey even though studies on its seroprevalence are limited. Aims: To determine the seroprevalence of Lyme borreliosis in part of north-eastern Tur-key (in the city of Trabzon, and to identify possible relationships between seropositivity and various factors such as location, gender, age group, occupation, income, and educational level. Study Design: Retrospective cross-sectional study. Methods: A total of 884 blood samples collected from provincial and district health centers serving a population of about 800,000 were included in this study. ELISA was used to determine the anti-Borrelia IgG antibody levels in the samples. Samples that yielded positive results by ELISA were further subjected to western blot (WB. Results: IgG antibodies were found in 128 samples (14.5%. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences between age groups and educational levels in terms of the incidence of seropositivity, whereas location, gender, occupational group and income level had no effect (p<0.001, p<0.001, p=0.948, p=0.645, p=0.131, p=0.080 respectively. Conclusions: The risk of contracting Lyme borreliosis in Trabzon is high, and necessary measures need to be taken to avoid the spread of disease

  13. Cytogenetic screening of population living in ecologically unfavourable region of Semipalatinsk region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundakbaeva, G.B.

    1998-01-01

    Cytogenetic examination of groups of people from ecologically unfavourable region of 4 settlements located at different distance from the center of nuclear explosions was conducted. For purpose of conducting biological indication and dosimetry, the radio sensibility of cells peripheral blood was determined with the account for the sex and age of the individuals from examined groups of people. Correlation analysis of frequency of chromosome aberration (CA) was implement taking into account the sex, age and absorbed dose of radiation. It was established that the frequency of chromosome aberration in examined groups exceed the control level 3,5 times (1,63±0,26). It was shown that total frequency of CA from people constituted: the Dolon settlement (zone of extreme risk) - 6,16±1,23 per 100 analyzed metaphases; the Kononerka settlement (zone of maximum risk) - 4,4 ±0,84; the Ramadan settlement (zone of maximum risk) - 5,97±1,08. Frequency of radiation induction chromosome markets within the region constituted 0,41±0,16 per 100 cells as average, - this exceeds control level (0,67±0,002) 6 times. Considerable factions (0,5-17,7 %) of exit of chromosome aberrations were discovered among different individuals. It was established that the frequency of stable and unstable CA increases due to the age of the people examined. Using the method of biological dosimetry based of registration of frequency of stable and unstable CA it was established that the population of examined regions has probably absorbed the following doses: the Dolon settlement - 0,14 Gy, the Kanonerka settlement - 0,13 Gy, the Buras settlement - 0,06 Gy, the Ramadan - 0,095 Gy. (author)

  14. Cardiovascular health among two ethnic groups living in the same region: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benderly, Michal; Chetrit, Angela; Murad, Havi; Abu-Saad, Kathleen; Gillon-Keren, Michal; Rogowski, Ori; Sela, Ben-Ami; Kanety, Hannah; Harats, Dror; Atamna, Ahmed; Alpert, Gershon; Goldbourt, Uri; Kalter-Leibovici, Ofra

    2017-02-01

    Poor cardiovascular health (CVH) among ethnic/racial minorities, studied primarily in the USA, may reflect lower access to healthcare. We examined factors associated with minority CVH in a setting of universal access to healthcare. CVH behaviors and factors were evaluated in a random population sample (551 Arabs, 553 Jews) stratified by sex, ethnicity and age. More Jews (10%) than Arabs (3%) had 3 ideal health behaviors. Only one participant had all four. Although ideal diet was rare (≤1.5%) across groups, Arabs were more likely to meet intake recommendations for whole grains, but less likely to meet intake recommendations for fruits/vegetables and fish. Arabs had lower odds of attaining ideal levels for body mass index and physical activity. Smoking prevalence was 57% among Arab men and 6% among Arab women. Having four ideal health factors (cholesterol, blood pressure, glucose, smoking) was observed in 2% and 8% of Arab and Jewish men, respectively, and 13% of Arab and Jewish women. Higher prevalence of ideal total-cholesterol corresponded to lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol among Arabs. No participant met ideal levels for all 7 metrics and only 1.8% presented with 6. Accounting for age and lower socioeconomic status, Arabs were less likely to meet a greater number of metric goals (odds ratio (95% confidence interval): 0.62 (0.42-0.92) for men, and 0.73 (0.48-1.12) for women). Ideal CVH, rare altogether, was less prevalent among the Arab minority albeit universal access to healthcare. Health behaviors were the main contributors to the CVH disparity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Australoheros mattosi Ottoni, 2012 (Teleostei: Cichlidae: live coloration, population differences, and new data on adult external anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar Ferreira Carmo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2016v29n1p55 Recently collected specimens of Australoheros mattosi in water courses around locality type (Das Velhas River drainage, including Upper Cipó River, Minas Gerais, Brazil revealed new data on the adult live coloration (iridescent markings on the base of the dorsal and anal fins and reddish to grayish hyaline coloration on the distal margin of the caudal-fin, population (dorsal head profile and head ground coloration and ontogenetic variations (variation in the nostril position, head ventral profile, scales on the cheek and the anal and dorsal fins, spot on the posterior margin of the operculum, and ground coloration in alcohol on the external morphology and new morphometric data (pelvic-pectoral distance, eye position in relation to the horizontal axis at the symphysis and the 5th ceratobranchial levels on adult individuals.

  16. INDONESIAN SUFI IN MALAY WORLD: A Preliminary Exploration with Reference to Tariqa Naqshbandiyya-Khalidiyya Babussalam (TNKB)

    OpenAIRE

    Ziaulhaq Hidayat; Muzakkir Syahrul

    2017-01-01

    This article is an initial exploration of Indonesian Sufi, developed in the Malay world of Indonesia and Malaysia. The spread of this particular tariqa (sufi’s order) relates specifically to the mandate received by Tuan Guru of TNKB, as its certified Shaykh, who then actively involved in the network acitivity by visiting the Malay Sultanate areas scattered in the Malay Peninsula. This research reveals the incorporation of some elements of different tariqas in the “form” of TNKB, such as Tariq...

  17. Petroleum systems of the Malay Basin Province, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Michele G.

    2002-01-01

    The offshore Malay Basin province is a Tertiary oil and gas province composed of a complex of half grabens that were filled by lacustrine shales and continental clastics.These deposits were overlain by clastics of a large delta system that covered the basin.Delta progradation was interupted by transgressions of the South China Sea to the southeast, which finally flooded the basin to form the Gulf of Thailand.Oil and gas from the Oligocene to Miocene lacustrine shales and Miocene deltaic coals is trapped primarily in anticlines formed by inversion of the half grabens during the late Miocene.Hydrocarbon reserves that have been discovered amount to 12 billion barrels of oil equivalent.The U.S. Geological Survey assessment of the estimated quantities of conventional oil, gas and condensate that have the potential to be added to reserves by the year 2025 for this province is 6.3 billion barrels of oil equivalent (BBOE) (U. S. Geological Survey World Energy Assessment Team, 2000).

  18. ISLAMIC ELEMENTS IN TRADITIONAL INDONESIAN AND MALAY THEATRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam-Sarwar Yousof

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available From the earliest times, traditional theatre in Southeast Asia has been shaped by a wide range of religious and cultural influences—those deriving from animism, Hinduism, Buddhism, Islam, as well as from Chinese and western traditions. The overwhelming influences, especially of Hinduism, have had the tendency to obscure contributions from the Middle- and Near-East. The view that Islam, with rare exceptions, prohibits performing arts has resulted in a negligence of these arts forms in Muslim societies with the possible exception of Indonesia. This paper highlights significant elements of Islamic culture that have shaped Indonesian and Malay traditional theatre through the adaptation of borrowed genres such as taziya, as well as locally created styles of shadow play (wayang kulit and the doll-puppet theatre (wayang golek; the use of important themes from Islamic literature, in particular thosederived from Hikayat Amir Hamza; as well as esoteric interpretationsof certain episodes originally derived from pre-Islamic sources,including the Mahabharata, in terms of Sufism to make them both highly meaningful and acceptable to Muslim audiences.

  19. Secondary polycythaemia in a Malay girl with homozygous Hb Tak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amran, H S; Aziz, M A; George, E; Mahmud, N; Lee, T Y; Md Noor, S

    2017-12-01

    Hb Tak is one of more than 200 high affinity haemoglobin variants reported worldwide. It results from the insertion of two nucleotides (AC) at the termination codon, between codon 146 and codon 147 of the beta-globin gene [Beta 147 (+AC)]. Polycythaemia is the main clinical feature although affected carriers are usually asymptomatic and do not require intervention. Several case studies in this region have reported the co-inheritance of Hb Tak with Hb E, delta beta and beta thalassaemia with one case of homozygous Hb Tak in a Thai boy. In this case report, a cluster of haemoglobin Tak was found in a family of Malay ethnic origin. Cascade family screening was conducted while investigating a 4-year old girl who presented with symptomatic polycythaemia. She had 2 previous Hb analysis done, at 7-month and 2-year-old with the diagnosis of possible Hb Q Thailand and Homozygous Hb D, respectively. Both diagnosis did not fit her clinical presentations. She was plethoric, had reduced exercise tolerance as well as cardiomyopathy. Her parents were consanguineously married and later diagnosed as asymptomatic carriers of Hb Tak. Consequently, re-analysis of the girl's blood sample revealed a homozygous state of Hb Tak. In conclusion, high oxygen affinity haemoglobin like Hb Tak should be considered in the investigation of polycythaemic patients with abnormal Hb analyses. In this case, DNA analysis was crucial in determining the correct diagnosis.

  20. A demographic history of a population of howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata living in a fragmented landscape in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurgi Cristóbal Azkarate

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Long-term field studies are critical for our understanding of animal life history and the processes driving changes in demography. Here, we present long-term demographic data for the northernmost population of mantled howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata residing in a highly anthropogenically fragmented landscape in Los Tuxtlas, Mexico. We carried out 454 monthly group visits to 10 groups of mantled howler monkeys between 2000 and 2011. The population remained relatively stable over the 11-year study period, with an overall increase in the total number of individuals. Birth rates and inter-birth intervals were comparable to those of howler monkeys at non-fragmented sites, suggesting that living in a fragmented landscape did not affect the reproductive output of our study population. Moreover, despite the landscape, dispersal events were commonplace, including many secondary dispersals (individuals emigrating from groups that they had previously immigrated into. Finally, we found a marked effect of seasonality on the dynamics of our study population. In particular, the period of lowest temperatures and resource scarcity between November and March was associated with higher mortality and reproductive inhibition, while the period of resource abundance between April and May was associated with the majority of conceptions and weaning of offspring. This, in turn, could be influencing dispersal patterns in our study area, as male howler monkeys seem to time some of their immigrations into new groups to coincide with the start of the period of higher fertility, while females preferentially joined new groups several months before the onset of this period. These data have important implications for the conservation and management of howler monkeys in fragmented landscapes, as well as for our understanding of the effect of seasonality over howler monkey dispersal, reproduction and survival.

  1. Adherence to the cervical cancer screening program in women living with HIV in Denmark: comparison with the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsteinsson, Kristina; Ladelund, Steen; Jensen-Fangel, Søren; Katzenstein, Terese L; Johansen, Isik Somuncu; Pedersen, Gitte; Junge, Jette; Helleberg, Marie; Storgaard, Merete; Lebech, Anne-Mette

    2014-05-13

    Women living with HIV (WLWH) are at increased risk of invasive cervical cancer (ICC). International HIV guidelines suggest cervical screening twice the first year after HIV diagnosis and thereafter annually. Adherence to the HIV cervical screening program in Denmark is unknown. We studied women from a population-based, nationwide HIV cohort in Denmark and a cohort of age-matched females from the general population. Screening behaviour was assessed from 1999-2010. Adjusted odds ratios (OR's) for screening attendance in the two cohorts and potential predictors of attendance to guidelines were estimated. Pathology specimens were identified from The Danish Pathology Data Bank. We followed 1143 WLWH and 17,145 controls with no prior history of ICC for 9,509 and 157,362 person-years. The first year after HIV diagnosis 2.6% of WLWH obtained the recommended two cervical cytologies. During the different calendar intervals throughout the study period between 29-46% of WLWH followed the HIV cervical screening guidelines. Adjusted OR's of attendance to the general population screening program for WLWH aged 30, 40 and 50 years, compared to controls, were 0.69 (95% CI: 0.56-0.87), 0.67 (0.55-0.80) and 0.84 (0.61-1.15). Predictors of attendance to the HIV cervical screening program were a CD4 count > 350 cells/μL and HIV RNA < 500 copies/mL. Calendar period after 2002 and HIV RNA < 500 copies/mL predicted attendance to the general population cervical screening program. The majority of WLWH do not follow the HIV guidelines for cervical screening. We support the idea of cytology as part of an annual review and integration of HIV care and cervical screening in a single clinic setting.

  2. Higher fine-scale genetic structure in peripheral than in core populations of a long-lived and mixed-mating conifer - eastern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Fine-scale or spatial genetic structure (SGS) is one of the key genetic characteristics of plant populations. Several evolutionary and ecological processes and population characteristics influence the level of SGS within plant populations. Higher fine-scale genetic structure may be expected in peripheral than core populations of long-lived forest trees, owing to the differences in the magnitude of operating evolutionary and ecological forces such as gene flow, genetic drift, effective population size and founder effects. We addressed this question using eastern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis) as a model species for declining to endangered long-lived tree species with mixed-mating system. Results We determined the SGS in two core and two peripheral populations of eastern white cedar from its Maritime Canadian eastern range using six nuclear microsatellite DNA markers. Significant SGS ranging from 15 m to 75 m distance classes was observed in the four studied populations. An analysis of combined four populations revealed significant positive SGS up to the 45 m distance class. The mean positive significant SGS observed in the peripheral populations was up to six times (up to 90 m) of that observed in the core populations (15 m). Spatial autocorrelation coefficients and correlograms of single and sub-sets of populations were statistically significant. The extent of within-population SGS was significantly negatively correlated with all genetic diversity parameters. Significant heterogeneity of within-population SGS was observed for 0-15 m and 61-90 m between core and peripheral populations. Average Sp, and gene flow distances were higher in peripheral (Sp = 0.023, σg = 135 m) than in core (Sp = 0.014, σg = 109 m) populations. However, the mean neighborhood size was higher in the core (Nb = 82) than in the peripheral (Nb = 48) populations. Conclusion Eastern white cedar populations have significant fine-scale genetic structure at short distances. Peripheral

  3. Higher fine-scale genetic structure in peripheral than in core populations of a long-lived and mixed-mating conifer - eastern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis L.

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    Pandey Madhav

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fine-scale or spatial genetic structure (SGS is one of the key genetic characteristics of plant populations. Several evolutionary and ecological processes and population characteristics influence the level of SGS within plant populations. Higher fine-scale genetic structure may be expected in peripheral than core populations of long-lived forest trees, owing to the differences in the magnitude of operating evolutionary and ecological forces such as gene flow, genetic drift, effective population size and founder effects. We addressed this question using eastern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis as a model species for declining to endangered long-lived tree species with mixed-mating system. Results We determined the SGS in two core and two peripheral populations of eastern white cedar from its Maritime Canadian eastern range using six nuclear microsatellite DNA markers. Significant SGS ranging from 15 m to 75 m distance classes was observed in the four studied populations. An analysis of combined four populations revealed significant positive SGS up to the 45 m distance class. The mean positive significant SGS observed in the peripheral populations was up to six times (up to 90 m of that observed in the core populations (15 m. Spatial autocorrelation coefficients and correlograms of single and sub-sets of populations were statistically significant. The extent of within-population SGS was significantly negatively correlated with all genetic diversity parameters. Significant heterogeneity of within-population SGS was observed for 0-15 m and 61-90 m between core and peripheral populations. Average Sp, and gene flow distances were higher in peripheral (Sp = 0.023, σg = 135 m than in core (Sp = 0.014, σg = 109 m populations. However, the mean neighborhood size was higher in the core (Nb = 82 than in the peripheral (Nb = 48 populations. Conclusion Eastern white cedar populations have significant fine-scale genetic structure at short

  4. Gaps in Educational Outcomes: Analysing National Examination Performance of Singaporean Malay and Non-Malay Students in the Past 20 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Farhan

    2016-01-01

    Singaporean students generally perform very well in international tests of mathematics and science. Nonetheless, in multi-cultural Singapore, there exist gaps with the Malays, a minority group in Singapore, systematically lagging behind the other ethnic groups of the Chinese and Indians in many educational performance indicators. While there have…

  5. The associations between bridal pregnancy and obstetric outcomes among live births in Korea: population-based study.

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    Jung-Yun Lee

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In East Asia the recently increased number of marriages in response to pregnancy is an important social issue. This study evaluated the association of marriage preceded by pregnancy (bridal pregnancy with obstetric outcomes among live births in Korea. METHODS: In this population-based study, 1,152,593 first singleton births were evaluated from data registered in the national birth registration database from 2004 to 2008 in Korea. In the study population, the pregnancy outcomes among live births from the bridal pregnancy group (N = 62,590 were compared with the outcomes of the post-marital pregnancy group (N = 564,749, composed of women who gave birth after 10 months but before 24 months of marriage. The variables preterm birth (PTB; <37 weeks gestation and low birth weight (LBW; <2.5 kg were used to determine the primary outcome. The adjusted odds ratios (aORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated after controlling for socio-demographic factors. RESULTS: The socio-demographic factors among the bridal pregnancy group were associated with a social disadvantage and particular risk factors. In the subgroup analyses of maternal age, differences in adverse pregnancy outcomes from bridal pregnancy were identified between women in the following age group: (i ≤19, (ii 20-39, and (iii ≥40 years. After the multivariate analysis, the aORs for each age group were 1.47 (95% CI: 1.15-1.89, 1.76 (1.70-1.83, and 1.13 (0.77-1.66, respectively, for PTB and 0.92 (0.70-1.21, 1.60 (1.53-1.66, and 1.11 (0.71-1.74, respectively, for LBW. In the adjusted logistic regression models, bridal pregnancy was associated with PTB (1.76, 1.69-1.82 and LBW (1.53, 1.48-1.59. CONCLUSION: Pregnancy outcomes among live births from bridal pregnancies are associated with higher risks for PTB and LBW in Korea.

  6. The first Malay database toward the ethnic-specific target molecular variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim-Fikri, Hashim; Etemad, Ali; Abdul Latif, Ahmad Zubaidi; Merican, Amir Feisal; Baig, Atif Amin; Annuar, Azlina Ahmad; Ismail, Endom; Salahshourifar, Iman; Liza-Sharmini, Ahmad Tajudin; Ramli, Marini; Shah, Mohamed Irwan; Johan, Muhammad Farid; Hassan, Nik Norliza Nik; Abdul-Aziz, Noraishah Mydin; Mohd Noor, Noor Haslina; Nur-Shafawati, Ab Rajab; Hassan, Rosline; Bahar, Rosnah; Zain, Rosnah Binti; Yusoff, Shafini Mohamed; Yusoff, Surini; Tan, Soon Guan; Thong, Meow-Keong; Wan-Isa, Hatin; Abdullah, Wan Zaidah; Mohamed, Zahurin; Abdul Latiff, Zarina; Zilfalil, Bin Alwi

    2015-04-30

    The Malaysian Node of the Human Variome Project (MyHVP) is one of the eighteen official Human Variome Project (HVP) country-specific nodes. Since its inception in 9(th) October 2010, MyHVP has attracted the significant number of Malaysian clinicians and researchers to participate and contribute their data to this project. MyHVP also act as the center of coordination for genotypic and phenotypic variation studies of the Malaysian population. A specialized database was developed to store and manage the data based on genetic variations which also associated with health and disease of Malaysian ethnic groups. This ethnic-specific database is called the Malaysian Node of the Human Variome Project database (MyHVPDb). Currently, MyHVPDb provides only information about the genetic variations and mutations found in the Malays. In the near future, it will expand for the other Malaysian ethnics as well. The data sets are specified based on diseases or genetic mutation types which have three main subcategories: Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP), Copy Number Variation (CNV) followed by the mutations which code for the common diseases among Malaysians. MyHVPDb has been open to the local researchers, academicians and students through the registration at the portal of MyHVP ( http://hvpmalaysia.kk.usm.my/mhgvc/index.php?id=register ). This database would be useful for clinicians and researchers who are interested in doing a study on genomics population and genetic diseases in order to obtain up-to-date and accurate information regarding the population-specific variations and also useful for those in countries with similar ethnic background.

  7. Utilization of maternal health services by the migrant population living in the non-notified slums of Hyderabad city, India

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    Jagjivan Babu Geddam

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite increase in accessibility and utilization of maternal health services in the state of Telangana, penetration of these services in vulnerable communities is inadequate. Aims & Objectives: To understand the determinants of utilization of reproductive health services by migrant population living in non-notified slums of Hyderabad city in the Indian state of Telangana. Material & Methods: It is a community based cross sectional study of 761 rural to urban internal migrant mothers with a child of less than 2 years of age residing for a period minimum of 30 days and not more than 10 years. Information was collected for socio demographic details, antenatal care and child delivery. Results: Mothers receiving at least 4 antenatal care visits and institutional deliveries in migrants was 69.6% and 69% respectively, compared to 85.8% and 97% in general population of Hyderabad city. The likelihood of mothers receiving adequate care is 6.7 times higher in mothers with secondary education compared to formal education. The likelihood of institutional delivery is 7.8 times higher in mothers availing adequate antenatal care versus inadequate care and 2.2 times higher in mothers with secondary education versus formal education. Conclusion: Utilization of antenatal care services and promotion of institutional deliveries can be improved by acting on the supply side barriers such as health care infrastructure and demand side barriers such as indirect consumer costs, financial constraints and community engagement

  8. Estimation of internal radiation dose to the adult Asian population from the dietary intakes of two long-lived radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyengar, G.V. E-mail: v.iyengar@iaea.org; Kawamura, H.; Dang, H.S.; Parr, R.M.; Wang, J.W.; Akhter, Perveen; Cho, S.Y.; Natera, E.; Miah, F.K.; Nguyen, M.S

    2004-07-01

    Daily dietary intakes of two naturally occurring long-lived radionuclides, {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U, were estimated for the adult population living in a number of Asian countries, using highly sensitive analytical methods such as instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation analysis (INAA and RNAA), and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The Asian countries that participated in the study were Bangladesh (BGD), China (CPR), India (IND), Japan (JPN), Pakistan (PAK), Philippines (PHI), Republic of Korea (ROK) and Vietnam (VIE). Altogether, these countries represent more than 50% of the world population. The median daily intakes of {sup 232}Th ranged between 0.6 and 14.4 mBq, the lowest being for Philippines and the highest for Bangladesh, and daily intakes of {sup 238}U ranged between 6.7 and 62.5 mBq, lowest and the highest being for India and China, respectively. The Asian median intakes were obtained as 4.2 mBq for {sup 232}Th and 12.7 mBq for {sup 238}U. Although the Asian intakes were lower than intakes of 12.3 mBq (3.0 {mu}g) {sup 232}Th and 23.6 mBq (1.9 {mu}g) {sup 238}U proposed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for the ICRP Reference Man, they were comparable to the global intake values of 4.6 mBq {sup 232}Th and 15.6 mBq {sup 238}U proposed by the United Nation Scientific Commission on Effects of Radiation (UNSCEAR). The annual committed effective doses to Asian population from the dietary intake of {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U were calculated to be 0.34 and 0.20 {mu}Sv, respectively, which are three orders of magnitude lower than the global average annual radiation dose of 2400 {mu}Sv to man from the natural radiation sources as proposed by UNSCEAR.

  9. Validation of the Malay Version of the Parental Bonding Instrument among Malaysian Youths Using Exploratory Factor Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Noor Azimah; Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Omar, Khairani; Shah, Shamsul Azhar; Mohd Amin, Rahmah

    2014-01-01

    Parenting behaviour is culturally sensitive. The aims of this study were (1) to translate the Parental Bonding Instrument into Malay (PBI-M) and (2) to determine its factorial structure and validity among the Malaysian population. The PBI-M was generated from a standard translation process and comprehension testing. The validation study of the PBI-M was administered to 248 college students aged 18 to 22 years. Participants in the comprehension testing had difficulty understanding negative items. Five translated double negative items were replaced with five positive items with similar meanings. Exploratory factor analysis showed a three-factor model for the PBI-M with acceptable reliability. Four negative items (items 3, 4, 8, and 16) and item 19 were omitted from the final PBI-M list because of incorrect placement or low factor loading (parenting style. Confirmatory factor analysis may further support this finding. Malaysia, parenting, questionnaire, validity.

  10. Incidence of cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer in women living with HIV in Denmark: comparison with the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsteinsson, K; Ladelund, S; Jensen-Fangel, S; Katzenstein, T L; Johansen, I Somuncu; Pedersen, G; Junge, J; Helleberg, M; Storgaard, M; Obel, N; Lebech, A-M

    2016-01-01

    Women living with HIV (WLWH) are reportedly at increased risk of invasive cervical cancer (ICC). A recent publication found that WLWH in Denmark attend the national ICC screening programme less often than women in the general population. We aimed to estimate the incidence of cervical dysplasia and ICC in WLWH in Denmark compared with that in women in the general population. We studied a nationwide cohort of WLWH and a cohort of 15 age-matched women per WLWH from the general population for the period 1999-2010. Pathology samples were obtained from The Danish Pathology Data Bank, which contains nationwide records of all pathology specimens. The cumulative incidence and hazard ratios (HRs) for time from inclusion to first cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)/ICC and time from first normal cervical cytology result to first CIN/ICC were estimated. Sensitivity analyses were performed to include prior screening outcome, screening intensity and treatment of CIN/ICC in the interpretation of results. We followed 1140 WLWH and 17 046 controls with no prior history of ICC or hysterectomy for 9491 and 156 865 person-years, respectively. Compared with controls, the overall incidences of CIN1 or worse (CIN1+), CIN2+ and CIN3+, but not ICC, were higher in WLWH and predicted by young age and a CD4 count < 200 cells/μL. In women with normal baseline cytology, incidences of CIN1+ and CIN2+ were higher in WLWH. However, when we compared subgroups of WLWH and controls where women in both groups were adherent to the national ICC screening programme and had a normal baseline cytology, incidences of CIN and ICC were comparable. Overall, WLWH developed more cervical disease than controls. Yet, in WLWH and controls adherent to the national ICC screening programme and with normal baseline cytology, incidences of CIN and ICC were comparable. © 2015 British HIV Association.

  11. Estimating trends of population decline in long-lived marine species in the Mediterranean Sea based on fishers' perceptions.

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    Francesc Maynou

    Full Text Available We conducted interviews of a representative sample of 106 retired fishers in Italy, Spain and Greece, asking specific questions about the trends they perceived in dolphin and shark abundances between 1940 and 1999 (in three 20 year periods compared to the present abundance. The large marine fauna studied were not target species of the commercial fleet segment interviewed (trawl fishery. The fishers were asked to rank the perceived abundance in each period into qualitative ordinal classes based on two indicators: frequency of sightings and frequency of catches (incidental or intentional of each taxonomic group. The statistical analysis of the survey results showed that both incidental catches and the sighting frequency of dolphins have decreased significantly over the 60+ years of the study period (except for in Greece due to the recent population increase. This shows that fishers' perceptions are in agreement with the declining population trends detected by scientists. Shark catches were also perceived to have diminished since the early 1940s for all species. Other long-lived Mediterranean marine fauna (monk seals, whales were at very low levels in the second half of the 20(th century and no quantitative data could be obtained. Our study supports the results obtained in the Mediterranean and other seas that show the rapid disappearance (over a few decades of marine fauna. We show that appropriately designed questionnaires help provide a picture of animal abundance in the past through the valuable perceptions of fishers. This information can be used to complement scientific sources or in some cases be taken as the only information source for establishing population trends in the abundance of sensitive species.

  12. Prevalence of fetal alcohol syndrome in a population-based sample of children living in remote Australia: the Lililwan Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, James P; Latimer, Jane; Carter, Maureen; Oscar, June; Ferreira, Manuela L; Carmichael Olson, Heather; Lucas, Barbara R; Doney, Robyn; Salter, Claire; Try, Julianne; Hawkes, Genevieve; Fitzpatrick, Emily; Hand, Marmingee; Watkins, Rochelle E; Martiniuk, Alexandra L C; Bower, Carol; Boulton, John; Elliott, Elizabeth J

    2015-04-01

    Aboriginal leaders concerned about high rates of alcohol use in pregnancy invited researchers to determine the prevalence of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and partial fetal alcohol syndrome (pFAS) in their communities. Population-based prevalence study using active case ascertainment in children born in 2002/2003 and living in the Fitzroy Valley, in Western Australia (April 2010-November 2011) (n = 134). Socio-demographic and antenatal data, including alcohol use in pregnancy, were collected by interview with 127/134 (95%) consenting parents/care givers. Maternal/child medical records were reviewed. Interdisciplinary assessments were conducted for 108/134 (81%) children. FAS/pFAS prevalence was determined using modified Canadian diagnostic guidelines. In 127 pregnancies, alcohol was used in 55%. FAS or pFAS was diagnosed in 13/108 children, a prevalence of 120 per 1000 (95% confidence interval 70-196). Prenatal alcohol exposure was confirmed for all children with FAS/pFAS, 80% in the first trimester and 50% throughout pregnancy. Ten of 13 mothers had Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test scores and all drank at a high-risk level. Of children with FAS/pFAS, 69% had microcephaly, 85% had weight deficiency and all had facial dysmorphology and central nervous system abnormality/impairment in three to eight domains. The population prevalence of FAS/pFAS in remote Aboriginal communities of the Fitzroy Valley is the highest reported in Australia and similar to that reported in high-risk populations internationally. Results are likely to be generalisable to other age groups in the Fitzroy Valley and other remote Australian communities with high-risk alcohol use during pregnancy. Prevention of FAS/pFAS is an urgent public health challenge. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2015 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  13. Translation and validation of the Malay version of the Stroke Knowledge Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowtali, Siti Noorkhairina; Yusoff, Dariah Mohd; Harith, Sakinah; Mohamed, Monniaty

    2016-04-01

    To date, there is a lack of published studies on assessment tools to evaluate the effectiveness of stroke education programs. This study developed and validated the Malay language version of the Stroke Knowledge Test research instrument. This study involved translation, validity, and reliability phases. The instrument underwent backward and forward translation of the English version into the Malay language. Nine experts reviewed the content for consistency, clarity, difficulty, and suitability for inclusion. Perceived usefulness and utilization were obtained from experts' opinions. Later, face validity assessment was conducted with 10 stroke patients to determine appropriateness of sentences and grammar used. A pilot study was conducted with 41 stroke patients to determine the item analysis and reliability of the translated instrument using the Kuder Richardson 20 or Cronbach's alpha. The final Malay version Stroke Knowledge Test included 20 items with good content coverage, acceptable item properties, and positive expert review ratings. Psychometric investigations suggest that Malay version Stroke Knowledge Test had moderate reliability with Kuder Richardson 20 or Cronbach's alpha of 0.58. Improvement is required for Stroke Knowledge Test items with unacceptable difficulty indices. Overall, the average rating of perceived usefulness and perceived utility of the instruments were both 72.7%, suggesting that reviewers were likely to use the instruments in their facilities. Malay version Stroke Knowledge Test was a valid and reliable tool to assess educational needs and to evaluate stroke knowledge among participants of group-based stroke education programs in Malaysia.

  14. Psychometric properties of the Drive for Muscularity Scale in Malay men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Barron, David; Lau, Poh Li; Jaafar, Jas Laile

    2016-06-01

    The Drive for Muscularity Scale (DMS) is a widely used measure in studies of men's body image, but few studies have examined its psychometric properties outside English-speaking samples. Here, we assessed the factor structure of a Malay translation of the DMS. A community sample of 159 Malay men from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, completed the DMS, along with measures of self-esteem, body appreciation, and muscle discrepancy. Exploratory factor analysis led to the extraction of two factors, differentiating attitudes from behaviours, which mirrors the parent scale. Both factors also loaded on to a higher-order drive for muscularity factor. The subscales of the Malay DMS had adequate internal consistencies and good convergent validity, insofar as significant relationships were reported with self-esteem, body appreciation, muscle discrepancy, and body mass index. These results indicate that the Malay DMS has acceptable psychometric properties and can be used to assess body image concerns in Malay men. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Surgical Morphometry of C1 and C2 Vertebrae: A Three-Dimensional Computed Tomography Analysis of 180 Chinese, Indian, and Malay Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chee Kean; Tan, Tiam Siong; Chan, Chris Yin Wei; Kwan, Mun Keong

    2017-04-01

    Clinical imaging study. To study the surgical morphometry of C1 and C2 vertebrae in Chinese, Indian, and Malay patients. C1 lateral mass and C2 pedicle screw fixation is gaining popularity. However, there is a lack of C1-C2 morphometric data for the Asian population. Computed tomography analysis of 180 subjects (60 subjects each belonging to Chinese, Indian, and Malay populations) using simulation software was performed. Length and angulations of C1 lateral mass (C1LM) and C2 pedicle (C2P) screws were assessed. The predicted C1LM screw length was between 23.2 and 30.2 mm. The safe zone of trajectories was within 11.0°±7.7° laterally to 29.1°±6.2° medially in the axial plane and 37.0°±10.2° caudally to 20.9°±7.8° cephalically in the sagittal plane. The shortest and longest predicted C2P screw lengths were 22.1±2.8 mm and 28.5±3.2 mm, respectively. The safe trajectories were from 25.1° to 39.3° medially in the axial plane and 32.3° to 45.9° cephalically in the sagittal plane. C1LM screw length was 23-30 mm with the axial safe zone from 11° laterally to 29° medially and sagittal safe zone at 21° cephalically. C2P screw length was 22-28 mm with axial safe zone from 26° to 40° medially and sagittal safe zone from 32° to 46° cephalically. These data serve as an important reference for Chinese, Indian, and Malay populations during C1-C2 instrumentation.

  16. Variations in tooth size and arch dimensions in Malay schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Khalid W; Rajion, Zainul A; Hassan, Rozita; Noor, Siti Noor Fazliah Mohd

    2009-11-01

    To compare the mesio-distal tooth sizes and dental arch dimensions in Malay boys and girls with Class I, Class II and Class III malocclusions. The dental casts of 150 subjects (78 boys, 72 girls), between 12 and 16 years of age, with Class I, Class II and Class III malocclusions were used. Each group consisted of 50 subjects. An electronic digital caliper was used to measure the mesio-distal tooth sizes of the upper and lower permanent teeth (first molar to first molar), the intercanine and intermolar widths. The arch lengths and arch perimeters were measured with AutoCAD software (Autodesk Inc., San Rafael, CA, U.S.A.). The mesio-distal dimensions of the upper lateral incisors and canines in the Class I malocclusion group were significantly smaller than the corresponding teeth in the Class III and Class II groups, respectively. The lower canines and first molars were significantly smaller in the Class I group than the corresponding teeth in the Class II group. The lower intercanine width was significantly smaller in the Class II group as compared with the Class I group, and the upper intermolar width was significantly larger in Class III group as compared with the Class II group. There were no significant differences in the arch perimeters or arch lengths. The boys had significantly wider teeth than the girls, except for the left lower second premolar. The boys also had larger upper and lower intermolar widths and lower intercanine width than the girls. Small, but statistically significant, differences in tooth sizes are not necessarily accompanied by significant arch width, arch length or arch perimeter differences. Generally, boys have wider teeth, larger lower intercanine width and upper and lower intermolar widths than girls.

  17. Population-Based Study of Cerebral Microbleeds in Stroke-Free Older Adults Living in Rural Ecuador: The Atahualpa Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Brutto, Victor J; Zambrano, Mauricio; Mera, Robertino M; Del Brutto, Oscar H

    2015-07-01

    Prevalence of cerebral microbleeds (CMB) in white and Asian populations range from 4% to 15%. However, there is no information from indigenous Latin American people. We aimed to assess prevalence and cerebrovascular correlates of CMB in stroke-free older adults living in rural Ecuador. Of 311 Atahualpa residents aged ≥60 years identified during a door-to-door survey, 258 (83%) underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging. Twenty-one were further excluded for a diagnosis of overt stroke. Using multivariate logistic regression models, adjusted for demographics and cardiovascular risk factors, we evaluated whether CMB were independently associated with silent strokes, white matter hyperintensities, and global cortical atrophy. Twenty-six (11%) of 237 participants had CMB, which were single in 54% of cases. CMB were deep in 11 patients, cortical in 9, and located both deep and cortical in 6. In univariate analyses, CMB were associated with age, systolic blood pressure, moderate-to-severe white matter hyperintensities, silent lacunar infarcts, and cortical atrophy. Mean (±SD) values for systolic blood pressure were 155±27 mm Hg in patients who had CMB versus 142±26 mm Hg in those who did not (P=0.017). In the adjusted models, moderate-to-severe white matter hyperintensities (P=0.009), silent lacunar infarcts (P=0.003), and global cortical atrophy (P=0.04) were independently associated with CMB. Prevalence of CMB in stroke-free older adults living in Atahualpa is comparable with those reported from other ethnic groups. There is a strong relationship between CMB and increased age, high systolic blood pressure, silent markers of cerebral small vessel disease, and cortical atrophy. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Community patterns of stigma towards persons living with HIV: A population-based latent class analysis from rural Vietnam

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Pharris, Anastasia

    2011-09-18

    Abstract Background The negative effects of stigma on persons living with HIV (PLHIV) have been documented in many settings and it is thought that stigma against PLHIV leads to more difficulties for those who need to access HIV testing, treatment and care, as well as to limited community uptake of HIV prevention and testing messages. In order to understand and prevent stigma towards PLHIV, it is important to be able to measure stigma within communities and to understand which factors are associated with higher stigma. Methods To analyze patterns of community stigma and determinants to stigma toward PLHIV, we performed an exploratory population-based survey with 1874 randomly sampled adults within a demographic surveillance site (DSS) in rural Vietnam. Participants were interviewed regarding knowledge of HIV and attitudes towards persons living with HIV. Data were linked to socioeconomic and migration data from the DSS and latent class analysis and multinomial logistic regression were conducted to examine stigma group sub-types and factors associated with stigma group membership. Results We found unexpectedly high and complex patterns of stigma against PLHIV in this rural setting. Women had the greatest odds of belong to the highest stigma group (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.42-2.37), while those with more education had lower odds of highest stigma group membership (OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.32-0.62 for secondary education; OR 0.19, 95% CI 0.10-0.35 for tertiary education). Long-term migration out of the district (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.4-0.91), feeling at-risk for HIV (OR 0.42, 95% CI 0.27-0.66), having heard of HIV from more sources (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.3-0.66), and knowing someone with HIV (OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.58-0.99) were all associated with lower odds of highest stigma group membership. Nearly 20% of the population was highly unsure of their attitudes towards PLHIV and persons in this group had significantly lower odds of feeling at-risk for HIV (OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.33-0.90) or of knowing

  19. Validity and reliability of a Malay version of the brief illness perception questionnaire for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Boon-How; Vos, Rimke C; Heijmans, Monique; Shariff-Ghazali, Sazlina; Fernandez, Aaron; Rutten, Guy E H M

    2017-08-03

    Illness perceptions involve the personal beliefs that patients have about their illness and may influence health behaviours considerably. Since an instrument to measure these perceptions for Malay population in Malaysia is lacking, we translated and examined the psychometric properties of the Malay version of the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (MBIPQ) in adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The MBIPQ has nine items, all use a 0-10 response scale, except the ninth item about causal factors, which is an open-ended item. A standard procedure was used to translate and adapt the English BIPQ into Malay language. Construct validity was examined comparing item scores and scores on the Diabetes Management Self-Efficacy Scale, the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale, the World Health Organization Quality of Life-brief, the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire, the 17-item Diabetes Distress Scale, HbA1c and the presence of complications. In addition, 2-week and 4-week test-retest reliability were studied. A total of 312 patients completed the MBIPQ. Out of this, 97 and 215 patients completed the 2- or 4-weeks test-retest reliability questionnaire, respectively. Moderate inter-items correlations were observed between illness perception dimensions (r = -0.31 to 0.53). MBIPQ items showed the expected correlations with self-efficacy (r = 0.35), medication adherence (r = 0.29), quality of life (r = -0.17 to 0.31) and depressive symptoms (r = -0.18 to 0.21). People with severe diabetes-related distress also were more concern (t-test = 4.01, p personal control (t-test = 2.07, p = 0.031). People with any diabetes-related complication perceived the consequences as more serious (t-test = 2.04, p = 0.044). The 2-week and 4-week test-retest reliabilities varied between ICC agreement 0.39 to 0.70 and 0.58 to 0.78, respectively. The psychometric properties of items in the MBIPQ are moderate. The MBIPQ showed good cross-cultural validity and moderate

  20. Genetic Divergence and Signatures of Natural Selection in Marginal Populations of a Keystone, Long-Lived Conifer, Eastern White Pine (Pinus strobus) from Northern Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhatre, Vikram E.; Rajora, Om P.

    2014-01-01

    Marginal populations are expected to provide the frontiers for adaptation, evolution and range shifts of plant species under the anticipated climate change conditions. Marginal populations are predicted to show genetic divergence from central populations due to their isolation, and divergent natural selection and genetic drift operating therein. Marginal populations are also expected to have lower genetic diversity and effective population size (N e) and higher genetic differentiation than central populations. We tested these hypotheses using eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) as a model for keystone, long-lived widely-distributed plants. All 614 eastern white pine trees, in a complete census of two populations each of marginal old-growth, central old-growth, and central second-growth, were genotyped at 11 microsatellite loci. The central populations had significantly higher allelic and genotypic diversity, latent genetic potential (LGP) and N e than the marginal populations. However, heterozygosity and fixation index were similar between them. The marginal populations were genetically diverged from the central populations. Model testing suggested predominant north to south gene flow in the study area with curtailed gene flow to northern marginal populations. Signatures of natural selection were detected at three loci in the marginal populations; two showing divergent selection with directional change in allele frequencies, and one balancing selection. Contrary to the general belief, no significant differences were observed in genetic diversity, differentiation, LGP, and N e between old-growth and second-growth populations. Our study provides information on the dynamics of migration, genetic drift and selection in central versus marginal populations of a keystone long-lived plant species and has broad evolutionary, conservation and adaptation significance. PMID:24859159

  1. Genetic divergence and signatures of natural selection in marginal populations of a keystone, long-lived conifer, Eastern White Pine (Pinus strobus) from Northern Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhatre, Vikram E; Rajora, Om P

    2014-01-01

    Marginal populations are expected to provide the frontiers for adaptation, evolution and range shifts of plant species under the anticipated climate change conditions. Marginal populations are predicted to show genetic divergence from central populations due to their isolation, and divergent natural selection and genetic drift operating therein. Marginal populations are also expected to have lower genetic diversity and effective population size (Ne) and higher genetic differentiation than central populations. We tested these hypotheses using eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) as a model for keystone, long-lived widely-distributed plants. All 614 eastern white pine trees, in a complete census of two populations each of marginal old-growth, central old-growth, and central second-growth, were genotyped at 11 microsatellite loci. The central populations had significantly higher allelic and genotypic diversity, latent genetic potential (LGP) and Ne than the marginal populations. However, heterozygosity and fixation index were similar between them. The marginal populations were genetically diverged from the central populations. Model testing suggested predominant north to south gene flow in the study area with curtailed gene flow to northern marginal populations. Signatures of natural selection were detected at three loci in the marginal populations; two showing divergent selection with directional change in allele frequencies, and one balancing selection. Contrary to the general belief, no significant differences were observed in genetic diversity, differentiation, LGP, and Ne between old-growth and second-growth populations. Our study provides information on the dynamics of migration, genetic drift and selection in central versus marginal populations of a keystone long-lived plant species and has broad evolutionary, conservation and adaptation significance.

  2. Translation and validation of the Malay Acceptance of Cosmetic Surgery Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren

    2010-09-01

    The present study examined the psychometric properties of a Malay translation of the Acceptance of Cosmetic Surgery Scale (ACSS; Henderson-King & Henderson-King, 2005). A total of 373 Malaysian women completed the ACSS along with measures of ideal-actual weight discrepancy, body appreciation, sociocultural attitudes toward appearance, self-esteem, life satisfaction, and demographics. Results showed that the Malay ACSS was best reduced to a two-factor solution, although an overall score of all 15 ACSS items showed the highest internal consistency. Results also showed that this overall score had good discriminant and divergent validity. It is expected that the availability of a Malay version of the ACSS will stimulate cross-cultural research on the acceptance of cosmetic surgery. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. English Phonological Awareness in Bilinguals: A Cross-Linguistic Study of Tamil, Malay and Chinese English-Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, L. Quentin; Chuang, Hui-Kai; Quiroz, Blanca

    2012-01-01

    To test the lexical restructuring hypothesis among bilingual English-language learners, English phonological awareness (PA), English vocabulary and ethnic language vocabulary (Mandarin Chinese, Malay or Tamil) were assessed among 284 kindergarteners (168 Chinese, 71 Malays and 45 Tamils) in Singapore. A multi-level regression analysis showed that…

  4. Carotid stenosis and cognitive impairment amongst older Chinese adults living in a rural area: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Z; Liang, Y; Shi, J; Cai, C; Jiang, H; Song, A; Qiu, C

    2016-01-01

    The possible association between carotid stenosis and cognitive impairment in the Chinese population has been rarely investigated. The association between the severity of carotid stenosis and cognitive impairment amongst older Chinese people living in a rural area was assessed. This cross-sectional study included 1375 participants (age ≥60 years) from the Confucius Hometown Aging Project in Shandong. In 2010-2011, data were collected through interviews and clinical examinations. Carotid stenosis was assessed using ultrasonography. Cognitive impairment was defined according to the education-specific cutoff scores of the Mini-Mental State Examination. Data were analyzed using multinomial logistic models. The overall prevalence was 7.0% for moderate carotid stenosis, 2.0% for severe stenosis and 6.0% for cognitive impairment. The multi-adjusted odds ratio of cognitive impairment was 1.43 (95% confidence interval 0.63-3.22) for moderate carotid stenosis and 3.75 (1.24-11.40) for severe carotid stenosis (P(trend) = 0.023). Similar results were obtained in people without a history of cerebrovascular disease. Severe carotid stenosis, even asymptomatic, is associated with cognitive impairment independent of atherosclerotic risk factors and disorders amongst older Chinese people. © 2015 EAN.

  5. Evaluation of properties of the Vestibular Disorders Activities of Daily Living Scale (Brazilian version in an elderly population

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    Natalia A. Ricci

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Vestibular Disorders Activities of Daily Living Scale (VADL is considered an important subjective assessment to evaluate patients suffering from dizziness and imbalance. Although frequently used, its metric characteristics still require further investigation. Objective: This paper aims to analyze the psychometric properties of the Brazilian version of the VADL in an elderly population. Method: The sample comprises patients (≥65 years old with chronic dizziness resulting from vestibular disorders. For discriminant analysis, patients were compared to healthy subjects. All subjects answered the VADL-Brazil by interview. To examine the VADL validity, patients filled out the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI and the ABC scale and were tested on the Dynamic Gait Index (DGI. To evaluate the VADL responsiveness, 20 patients were submitted to rehabilitation. Results: Patients (n=140 had a VADL total score of 4.1±1.6 points. Healthy subjects scored significantly less than patients in all the subscales and in the VADL total score. The VADL-Brazil was weakly correlated with the DHI and moderately to the ABC scale and the DGI. Instead of the original 3 subscales, factor analysis resulted in 6 factors. The VADL was capable of detecting changes after rehabilitation, which means that the instrument has responsiveness. Conclusions: This study provided more data about the psychometric properties and usefulness of the VADL-Brazil. The use of such a reliable and valid instrument increases the knowledge about disability in patients with vestibular disorders.

  6. Malnutrition and Mortality Patterns among Internally Displaced and Non-Displaced Population Living in a Camp, a Village or a Town in Eastern Chad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrier, Gilles; Zounoun, Malaïka; Delarosa, Olimpia; Defourny, Isabelle; Lacharite, Michelo; Brown, Vincent; Pedalino, Biagio

    2009-01-01

    Background Certain population groups have been rendered vulnerable in Chad because of displacement of more than 200,000 people over the last three years as a result of mass violence against civilians in the east of the country. The objective of the study was to assess mortality and nutritional patterns among displaced and non-displaced population living in camps, villages and a town in the Ouddaï and Salamat regions of Chad. Methodology Between May and October 2007, two stage, 30-cluster household surveys were conducted among 43,900 internally displaced persons (IDPs) living in camps in Ouaddai region (n = 898 households), among 19,400 non-displaced persons (NDPs) living in 42 villages in Ouaddai region (n = 900 households) and among 17,000 NDPs living in a small town in Salamat region (n = 901 households). Data collection included anthropometric measurements, measles vaccination rates and retrospective mortality. Crude mortality rate (CMR), mortality rate among children younger than 5 years (U5MR), causes of death and the prevalence of wasting (weight-for-height z score malnutrition rates (according to the WHO definition) among 904 IDP children, 956 NDPs children living in a village, 901 NDP children living in a town aged 6 to 59 months were 20.6% (95% CI, 17.9%–23.3%), 16.4% (95% CI, 14.0%–18.8%) and 10.1% (95% CI, 8.1%–12.2%) respectively. The study found a high mortality rate among IDPs and an elevated prevalence of wasting not only in IDP camps but also in villages located in the same region. The town-dweller population remains at risk of malnutrition. Appropriate contingency plans need to be made to ensure acceptable living standards for these populations. PMID:19956627

  7. Towards understanding the low prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in Malays: genetic variants among Helicobacter pylori-negative ethnic Malays in the north-eastern region of Peninsular Malaysia and Han Chinese and South Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maran, Sathiya; Lee, Yeong Yeh; Xu, Shu Hua; Raj, Mahendra Sundramoorthy; Abdul Majid, Noorizan; Choo, Keng Ee; Zilfalil, Bin Alwi; Graham, David Y

    2013-04-01

    To identify gene polymorphisms that differ between Malays, Han Chinese and South Indians, and to identify candidate genes for the investigation of their role in protecting Malays from Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. Malay participants born and residing in Kelantan with a documented absence of H. pylori infection were studied. Venous blood was used for genotyping using the Affymetrix 50K Xba I kit. CEL files from 141 Han Chinese and 76 South Indians were analyzed to compare their allele frequency with that of the Malays using fixation index (FST ) calculation. The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with the highest allele frequency (outliers) were then examined for their functional characteristics using F-SNP software and the Entrez Gene database. In all, 37 Malays were enrolled in the study; of whom 7 were excluded for low genotyping call rates. The average FST estimated from the genome-wide data were 0.038 (Malays in Kelantan vs the South Indians), 0.015 (Malays in Kelantan vs Han Chinese) and 0.066 (Han Chinese vs South Indians), respectively. The outlier gene variants present in Malays with functional characteristics were C7orf10 (FST  0.29988), TSTD2 (FST  0.43278), SMG7 (FST  0.29877) and XPA (FST  0.43393 and 0.43644). Genetic variants possibly related to protection against H. pylori infection in ethnic Malays from the north-eastern region of Peninsular Malaysia were identified for testing in subsequent trials among infected and uninfected Malays. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Digestive Diseases © 2012 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. Incidence and risk factors for breast cancer subtypes in three distinct South-East Asian ethnic groups: Chinese, Malay and natives of Sarawak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, C R Beena; Tang, Tieng Swee; Corbex, Marilys

    2012-12-15

    We determined the incidences of the estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) subtypes among breast cancer cases in Sarawak, Malaysia and their correlation with various risk factors in the three ethnic groups: Chinese, Malay and native. Subtype status was ascertained for 1,034 cases of female breast cancer (93% of all cases diagnosed since 2003), and the age-standardized incidence rates (ASRs) of each subtype were inferred. Case-case comparisons across subtypes were performed for reproductive risk factors. We found 48% luminal A (ER+/PR+/HER2-), 29% triple-negative (ER-/PR-/HER2-), 12% triple-positive (ER+/PR+/HER2+) and 11% HER2-overexpressing (ER-/PR-/HER2+) subtypes, with ASRs of 10.6, 6.0, 2.8 and 2.8 per 100,000, respectively. The proportions of subtypes and ASRs differed significantly by ethnic groups: HER2-positive cases were more frequent in Malays (29%; 95% CI [23;35]) than Chinese (22%; [19;26] and natives (21%; [16;26]); triple-negative cases were less frequent among Chinese (23%; [20;27]) than Malays (33%; [27;39]) and natives (37%; [31;43]). The results of the case-case comparison were in accordance with those observed in western case series. Some uncommon associations, such as between triple-negative subtype and older age at menopause (OR, 1.59; p < 0.05), were found. The triple-negative and HER2+ subtypes predominate in our region, with significant differences among ethnic groups. Our results support the idea that the risk factors for different subtypes vary markedly. Westernized populations are more likely to have factors that increase the risk for the luminal A type, while risk factors for the triple-negative type are more frequent in local populations. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  9. The Perception towards National Anti-Smoking Initiatives among Malay Male Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Suriani ISMAIL; Muhamad Hanafiah JUNI; Kulanthayan KCMANI; Muhamad Suhainizam SALILUDDIN; Raja Ahmad ZAKWAN; Ling Rong TIONG

    2015-01-01

    Background: Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS), Malaysia 2011 reported that the prevalence of smoking was highest among Malays male i.e., 24.6% (CI:22.1,27.3). The aim of this study was to evaluate the perception of a group of smokers towards various national anti-smoking initiatives as well as its association with age and education level.Methods: The study was conducted in a randomly selected pre-dominantly Malay settlement in Malaysia using a validated self-administered questionnaire. The n...

  10. Teacher ratings of ODD symptoms: measurement equivalence across Malaysian Malay, Chinese and Indian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Rapson

    2014-04-01

    The study examined the measurement equivalence for teacher ratings across Malaysian Malay, Chinese and Indian children. Malaysian teachers completed ratings of the ODD symptoms for 574 Malay, 247 Chinese and 98 Indian children. The results supported the equivalences for the configural, metric, and error variances models, and the equivalences for ODD latent variances and mean scores. Together, these findings suggest good support for measurement and structural equivalences of the ODD symptoms across these ethnic groups. The theoretical and clinical implications of the findings for cross-cultural equivalence of the ODD symptoms are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. INDONESIAN SUFI IN MALAY WORLD: A Preliminary Exploration with Reference to Tariqa Naqshbandiyya-Khalidiyya Babussalam (TNKB

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    Ziaulhaq Hidayat

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is an initial exploration of Indonesian Sufi, developed in the Malay world of Indonesia and Malaysia. The spread of this particular tariqa (sufi’s order relates specifically to the mandate received by Tuan Guru of TNKB, as its certified Shaykh, who then actively involved in the network acitivity by visiting the Malay Sultanate areas scattered in the Malay Peninsula. This research reveals the incorporation of some elements of different tariqas in the “form” of TNKB, such as Tariqa Shazaliyya and Tariqa Sammaniyya, as well as adaptation of local culture of Malays ethnic which become part of its unique ritual. Supported by the Sultan, TNKB has become the “official order” of Malay Sultanate, which covers area of Riau, Sumatera Utara (North Sumatera in Indonesia as well as Johor in Malaysia—with caliph as its “agent”.

  12. Translation, Validation, and Adaptation of the Time Use Diary from English into the Malay Language for Use in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmuri, Siti Noraini; Brown, Ted; Broom, Lisa J

    2016-07-01

    Valid translations of time use scales are needed by occupational therapists for use in different cross-cultural contexts to gather relevant data to inform practice and research. The purpose of this study was to describe the process of translating, adapting, and validating the Time Use Diary from its current English language edition into a Malay language version. Five steps of the cross-cultural adaptation process were completed: (i) translation from English into the Malay language by a qualified translator, (ii) synthesis of the translated Malay version, (iii) backtranslation from Malay to English by three bilingual speakers, (iv) expert committee review and discussion, and (v) pilot testing of the Malay language version with two participant groups. The translated version was found to be a reliable and valid tool identifying changes and potential challenges in the time use of older adults. This provides Malaysian occupational therapists with a useful tool for gathering time use data in practice settings and for research purposes.

  13. Injuries to Aboriginal populations living on- and off-reserve in metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas in British Columbia, Canada: Incidence and trends, 1986-2010

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    Mariana Brussoni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disparities in injury rates between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations in British Columbia (BC are well established. Information regarding the influence of residence on disparities is scarce. We sought to fill these gaps by examining hospitalization rates for all injuries, unintentional injuries and intentional injuries across 24 years among i Aboriginal and total populations; ii populations living in metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas; and iii Aboriginal populations living on- and off-reserve. Methods We used data spanning 1986 through 2010 from BC’s universal health care insurance plan, linked to vital statistics databases. Aboriginal people were identified by insurance premium group and birth and death record notations, and their residence was determined by postal code. “On-reserve” residence was established by postal code areas associated with an Indian reserve or settlement. Health Service Delivery Areas (HSDAs were classified as “metropolitan” if they contained a population of at least 100,000 with a density of 400 or more people per square kilometre. We calculated the crude hospitalization incidence rate and the Standardized Relative Risk (SRR of hospitalization due to injury standardizing by gender, 5-year age group, and HSDA. We assessed cumulative change in SRR over time as the relative change between the first and last years of the observation period. Results Aboriginal metropolitan populations living off-reserve had the lowest SRR of injury (2.0, but this was 2.3 times greater than the general British Columbia metropolitan population (0.86. For intentional injuries, Aboriginal populations living on-reserve in non-metropolitan areas were at 5.9 times greater risk than the total BC population. In general, the largest injury disparities were evident for Aboriginal non-metropolitan populations living on-reserve (SRR 3.0; 2.5 times greater than the general BC non-metropolitan population (1

  14. Assessing the impact of removal scenarios on population viability of a threatened, long-lived avian scavenger

    OpenAIRE

    Margalida, Antoni; Colomer, M? ?ngels; Oro, Daniel; Arlettaz, Rapha?l; Don?zar, Jos? A.

    2015-01-01

    The removal of eggs or chicks from wild populations to create captive populations, reinforce free-ranging populations or reintroduce species into the wild is a restoration tool that requires an assessment of potential detrimental effects upon the donor population. This is an absolute prerequisite when wild donor populations are scarce and small. Here, we forecast the population trend of the largest European population of the bearded vulture (Gypaetus barbatus) over the next 30 years under dif...

  15. "We're Not Going to Suffer Like This in the Mud": Educational Aspirations, Social Mobility and Independent Child Migration among Populations Living in Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyden, Jo

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the association between formal education, social mobility and independent child migration in Ethiopia, India (Andhra Pradesh), Peru and Vietnam and draws on data from Young Lives, a longitudinal study of childhood poverty and schooling. It argues that among resource-poor populations, child migration sustains kin relations…

  16. Molecular and morphological characterization of Xiphinema chambersi population from live oak in Jekyll Island, Georgia, with comments on morphometric variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar A Handoo; Lynn K. Carta; Andrea M. Skantar; Sergei A. Subbotin; Stephen W. Fraedrich

    2016-01-01

    A population of Xiphinema chambersi from the root zone around live oak (Quercus virginiana Mill.) trees on Jekyll Island, GA, is described using both morphological and molecular tools and compared with descriptions of type specimens. Initially, because of a few morphological differences, this nematode was thought to represent...

  17. Correlates of anal sex roles among Malay and Chinese MSM in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangerfield, Derek T; Gravitt, Patti; Rompalo, Anne M; Tai, Raymond; Lim, Sin How

    2016-03-01

    Identifying roles for anal sex is an important issue for populations of MSM. We describe the prevalence of identifying as being 'top', 'bottom', 'versatile', or 'don't know/not applicable' among Malay and Chinese MSM in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, and behavioural outcomes according to these labels for sexual role identity. Data analysis was conducted on a survey administered during weekly outreach throughout Kuala Lumpur in 2012. Pearson's Chi square tests were used to compare demographic and behavioural characteristics of MSM who reported roles for anal sex. Binary logistic regression was used to explore the odds of behavioural outcomes among MSM who identified as 'bottom', 'versatile,' and 'don't know' compared to MSM who reported that 'top' was their sexual role. Labels for anal sex roles were significantly associated with condom use for last anal sex. Among MSM who used labels for anal sex roles, MSM who identified as 'bottom' had highest level of not using condoms for last anal sex (24.1%, p = .045). In binary logistic regression model, identifying as 'top' was significantly associated with reporting using a condom during last anal sex and reported consistent condom use for anal sex in the past six months (p = .039 and .017, respectively). With regard to sexual role identity, some MSM may be a part of a special subgroup of at-risk men to be targeted. Future research should evaluate the origins, meanings, and perceptions of these labels, and the developmental process of how these MSM identify with any of these categories. Research should also uncover condom use decision making with regard to these labels for sexual positioning. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. The Change in Living Kidney Donation in Women and Men in the United States (2005-2015): A Population-Based Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Jagbir; Joffres, Yayuk; Rose, Caren; Lesage, Julie; Landsberg, David; Kadatz, Matthew; Gill, John

    2018-04-01

    The factors underlying the decline in living kidney donation in the United States since 2005 must be understood to inform strategies to ensure access to this option for future patients. Population-based estimates provide a better assessment of donation activity than do trends in the number of living donor transplants. Using data from the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients and the United States Census, we determined longitudinal changes in living kidney donation between 2005 and 2015, focusing on the effect of sex and income. We used multilevel Poisson models to adjust for differences in age, race, the incidence of ESRD, and geographic factors (including population density, urbanization, and daily commuting). During the study period, the unadjusted rate of donation was 30.1 and 19.3 per million population in women and men, respectively, and the adjusted incidence of donation was 44% higher in women (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 1.44; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.39 to 1.49). The incidence of donation was stable in women (IRR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.84 to 1.07) but declined in men (IRR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.68 to 0.83). Income was associated with longitudinal changes in donation in both sexes, yet donation was stable in the highest two population income quartiles in women but only in the highest income quartile in men. In both sexes, living related donations declined, irrespective of income. In conclusion, living donation declined in men but remained stable in women between 2005 and 2015, and income appeared to have a greater effect on living donation in men. Copyright © 2018 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  19. Frequency, risk factors and preventive approach to fall among aged population living in a nursing home in Ankara

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    Evren Kibar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Increase in aged population in number brings along the risk of falls and fall-related injuries among elderly. It has been reported that almost 60% of falls occur in nursing homes and majority of admissions to emergency departments due to falls consist of elderly. The purpose of this study conducted in a nursing home in Ankara was to determine the frequency of falls and risk factors, and to clear out the opinions and views of the participants on planning and promoting interventions for prevention. METHOD: This cross-sectional study was carried out among 60 years of age and older residents who lived in a nursing home. Data of the study was collected via face to face interviewing technique. The questionnaire consisted of four sections including socio-demographic characteristics, health status of the participants, healthy/risky behavior and fall related characteristics. RESULTS: Mean age of the 75 female and 59 male participants involved in the study was 73.99+/-7.18. Females were found to fall more in frequency than males (p>0.05. It was found that nearly half of the males (47.5% and more than half of the females (56.0% fell at least once within the previous year. Number of falls were higher among 75 years of age and older participants compared to the other age groups (p=0.003. Compared to the participants with fall background, aged people without fall background gave more correct answers in number to the questions which were asked to assess the knowledge on falls. Six out of 20 answers were statistically significantly correct (p <0.05. CONCLUSION: Individual and environmental interventions to be continued both inside and outside the institutions in order to prevent falls. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(1.000: 23-32

  20. Evaluation of a digital method to assess evening meal intake in a free-living adult population

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    Anne Dahl Lassen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years new applications of technologies, including digital images, to capture dietary behaviour in real time have been explored. Objectives: To validate a digital method for estimating evening meal intake in a free-living adult population, and to examine the feasibility of the method for recording evening meal intake over a prolonged period of time. Design: The digital method was compared against weighed records of 19 participants’ usual evening meals for five consecutive days. Two trained image analysts independently estimated the weight of individual foods within the meals into major food categories, and the nutrient content was calculated. A second study included interviews with 28 participants recording their evening meals on weekdays for three consecutive weeks to get their perspective on the feasibility of the method. Results: High correlation coefficients between the digital method and weighed records were found for all measured food categories and nutrients. Comparable means and acceptable limits of agreement (mean difference +/− 2 SD were found with regard to macronutrient distribution (e.g. fat content −5 to 6 E%, energy density (−75 to 91 kJ/100 g, and energy-adjusted foods (e.g. fruit and vegetable content −241 to 236 g/10 MJ. The majority of the participants expressed satisfaction with the method and were willing to record their evening meals for 1 month or more using the digital method. Conclusion: The digital method is valid and feasible for evening meal estimation in real-time where a prolonged recording period of participants’ meals is needed.

  1. Measurement of nicotine withdrawal symptoms: linguistic validation of the Wisconsin Smoking Withdrawal Scale (WSWS in Malay

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    Shafie Asrul A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of the linguistic validation of the Wisconsin Smoking Withdrawal Scale (WSWS was to produce a translated version in Malay language which was "conceptually equivalent" to the original U.S. English version for use in clinical practice and research. Methods A seven-member translation committee conducted the translation process using the following methodology: production of two independent forward translations; comparison and reconciliation of the translations; backward translation of the first reconciled version; comparison of the original WSWS and the backward version leading to the production of the second reconciled version; pilot testing and review of the translation, and finalization. Results Linguistic and conceptual issues arose during the process of translating the instrument, particularly pertaining to the title, instructions, and some of the items of the scale. In addition, the researchers had to find culturally acceptable equivalents for some terms and idiomatic phrases. Notable among these include expressions such as "irritability", "feeling upbeat", and "nibbling on snacks", which had to be replaced by culturally acceptable expressions. During cognitive debriefing and clinician's review processes, the Malay translated version of WSWS was found to be easily comprehensible, clear, and appropriate for the smoking withdrawal symptoms intended to be measured. Conclusions We applied a rigorous translation method to ensure conceptual equivalence and acceptability of WSWS in Malay prior to its utilization in research and clinical practice. However, to complete the cultural adaptation process, future psychometric validation is planned to be conducted among Malay speakers.

  2. Validation of the Malay version of the Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale (APAIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Fahmi, Z; Lai, L L; Loh, P S

    2015-08-01

    Preoperative anxiety is a significant problem worldwide that may affect patients' surgical outcome. By using a simple and reliable tool such as the Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale (APAIS), anaesthesiologists would be able to assess preoperative anxiety adequately and accurately. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate the Malay version of APAIS (Malay-APAIS), and assess the factors associated with higher anxiety scores. The authors performed forward and backward translation of APAIS into Malay and then tested on 200 patients in the anaesthetic clinic of University Malaya Medical Centre. Psychometric analysis was performed with factor analysis, internal consistency and correlation with Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-state). A good correlation was shown with STAI-state (r = 0.59). Anxiety and need for information both emerged with high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha 0.93 and 0.90 respectively). Female gender, surgery with a higher risk and need for information were found to be associated with higher anxiety scores. On the other hand, previous experience with surgery had lower need for information. The Malay-APAIS is a valid and reliable tool for the assessment of patients' preoperative anxiety and their need for information. By understanding and measuring patient's concerns objectively, the perioperative management will improve to a much higher standard of care.

  3. Proposing a Web-Based Tutorial System to Teach Malay Language Braille Code to the Sighted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wah, Lee Lay; Keong, Foo Kok

    2010-01-01

    The "e-KodBrailleBM Tutorial System" is a web-based tutorial system which is specially designed to teach, facilitate and support the learning of Malay Language Braille Code to individuals who are sighted. The targeted group includes special education teachers, pre-service teachers, and parents. Learning Braille code involves memorisation…

  4. Google Translate as a Supplementary Tool for Learning Malay: A Case Study at Universiti Sains Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahri, Hossein; Mahadi, Tengku Sepora Tengku

    2016-01-01

    The present paper examines the use of Google Translate as a supplementary tool for helping international students at Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) to learn and develop their knowledge and skills in learning Bahasa Malaysia (Malay Language). The participants of the study were 16 international students at the School of Languages, Literacies, and…

  5. Crossing Borders: The Linguistic Practices of Aspiring Bilinguals in the Malay Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajadurai, Joanne

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of Malay learners of English in Malaysia as they attempt to extend their use of English outside the classroom and thus participate in new linguistic practices. Using a multiple case study approach, the study examines the narrative accounts of learners generated through student journals and focus group discussions.…

  6. Upholding the Malay Language and Strengthening the English Language Policy: An Education Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamat, Hamidah; Umar, Nur Farita Mustapa; Mahmood, Muhammad Ilyas

    2014-01-01

    Today's global economy and dependency on technology has led to educational reforms in Malaysia, which includes language policies; namely the Upholding the Malay Language, and Strengthening the English Language ("MBMMBI") policy. This policy underpins the project presented and discussed in this paper; on the development of a bilingual…

  7. A Psychometric Properties of the Malay-version Police Stress Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    IRNIZA, Rasdi; EMILIA, Zainal Abidin; MUHAMMAD SALILUDDIN, Suhainizam; NIZAM ISHA, Ahmad Shahrul

    2014-01-01

    Background: Police Stress Questionnaire (PSQ) was developed to measure police-specific stressors. The present study was the first to have translated the PSQ to Malay. This study aims to test the reliability, construct validity, and component structure of the Malay-version PSQ. Methods: A set of survey consisted of the Malay-version PSQ, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ), Global Stress Questionnaire (GSQ) and General Self-rated Health (GSRH) were distributed to 300 traffic police officers in Kuala Lumpur and all traffic police officers in a few districts of Pahang and Negeri Sembilan. Results: The response rate was 65.5% (N = 262). The reported Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was 0.93 for Operational PSQ (PSQ-Op) and 0.94 for Organisational PSQ (PSQ-Org). Findings indicated that the PSQ had positive construct validity with the GSRH, GSQ, and GHQ. After excluding four factors related to lifestyles, all police-specific stressors were highly loaded (0.50) in one component. Conclusion: It is confirmed that the Malay-version PSQ, excluding the four factors related to lifestyle, was uni-dimensional, reliable, and a valid questionnaire. This study proffers a potentially better instrument for assessing the stressors among Malaysian police. PMID:25977621

  8. The Malay Lexicon Project: a database of lexical statistics for 9,592 words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Melvin J; Liow, Susan J Rickard; Jalil, Sajlia Binte; Faizal, Siti Syuhada Binte

    2010-11-01

    Malay, a language spoken by 250 million people, has a shallow alphabetic orthography, simple syllable structures, and transparent affixation--characteristics that contrast sharply with those of English. In the present article, we first compare the letter-phoneme and letter-syllable ratios for a sample of alphabetic orthographies to highlight the importance of separating language-specific from language-universal reading processes. Then, in order to develop a better understanding of word recognition in orthographies with more consistent mappings to phonology than English, we compiled a database of lexical variables (letter length, syllable length, phoneme length, morpheme length, word frequency, orthographic and phonological neighborhood sizes, and orthographic and phonological Levenshtein distances) for 9,592 Malay words. Separate hierarchical regression analyses for Malay and English revealed how the consistency of orthography-phonology mappings selectively modulates the effects of different lexical variables on lexical decision and speeded pronunciation performance. The database of lexical and behavioral measures for Malay is available at http://brm.psychonomic-journals.org/content/supplemental.

  9. Towards Homogeneity in Home Languages: Malay, Chinese Foochow and Indian Tamil Families in Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Su-Hie; Mahadhir, Mahanita

    2009-01-01

    This preliminary study examines the languages used by parents with their children in Malay, Chinese Foochow and Indian Tamil families to find out how the similarity or dissimilarity in parents' ethnic language influenced the choice of language transmitted to children and how far standard languages have permeated the family domain in Kuching City…

  10. Grief Experience of Bereaved Malay/Muslim Youths in Singapore: The Spiritual Dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Murshidah; Mehta, Kalyani

    2010-01-01

    This article is based on a qualitative study conducted in Singapore which examined different coping mechanisms engaged by Malay/Muslim bereaved youths following parental death. The research applied the revised Transactional Model of Stress and Coping as well as the Adolescent Coping Scale as a theoretical framework for analysing findings. Of the…

  11. Acquisition of Malay Word Recognition Skills: Lessons from Low-Progress Early Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lay Wah; Wheldall, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Malay is a consistent alphabetic orthography with complex syllable structures. The focus of this research was to investigate word recognition performance in order to inform reading interventions for low-progress early readers. Forty-six Grade 1 students were sampled and 11 were identified as low-progress readers. The results indicated that both…

  12. The Influence of Personal History on Preservice Malay, Tamil and Chinese Teacher Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodycott, Peter

    1997-01-01

    This study explored the influence of personal history on preservice teachers' construction of the ideal language teacher. Written biographies and metaphors and personal construct interviews with Chinese, Tamil, and Malay preservice language teachers indicated that they entered teacher education with unique, well-developed constructs of the ideal…

  13. The first Malay language storytelling text-to-speech (TTS) corpus for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    speech annotations are described in detail in accordance to baseline work. The stories were recorded in two speaking styles that are neutral and storytelling speaking style. The first. Malay language storytelling corpus is not only necessary for the development of a storytelling text-to-speech (TTS) synthesis. It is also ...

  14. A cross-language study of the speech sounds in Yorùbá and Malay: Implications for Second Language Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boluwaji Oshodi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Acquiring a language begins with the knowledge of its sounds system which falls under the branch of linguistics known as phonetics. The knowledge of the sound system becomes very important to prospective learners particularly L2 learners whose L1 exhibits different sounds and features from the target L2 because this knowledge is vital in order to internalise the correct pronunciation of words. This study examined and contrasted the sound systems of Yorùbá a Niger-Congo language spoken in Nigeria to that of Malay (Peninsular variety, an Austronesian language spoken in Malaysia with emphasis on the areas of differences. The data for this study were collected from ten participants; five native female Malay speakers who are married to Yorùbá native speakers but live in Malaysia and five Yorùbá native speakers who reside in Nigeria. The findings revealed that speakers from both sides have difficulties with sounds and features in the L2 which are not attested in their L1 and they tended to substitute them for similar ones in their L1 through transfer. This confirms the fact that asymmetry between the sound systems of L1 and L2 is a major source of error in L2 acquisition.

  15. Risky sexual behaviors among Malay adolescents: a comparison with Chinese adolescents in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Junice Y S; Wong, Mee-Lian

    2017-07-01

    Malays, with majority of the individuals being Muslim, form the largest ethnic group in Southeast Asia. This region is experiencing a rising incidence of HIV infections. Due to circumcision and prohibition of sex outside marriage, being Muslim was argued to be a protective factor against sexually transmitted infections (STI) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). However, Malay adolescents were found to be more likely to contract chlamydia and gonorrhea than non-Malay adolescents in Singapore. Using a cross-sectional survey, we examined and compared safer sex knowledge, attitudes and self-efficacy, and sexual behaviors of 248 sexually active Malay adolescents with 384 Chinese adolescents aged 16-19 years in Singapore. Poisson regression, adjusted for socio-demographic characteristics, was used for modeling each dependent variable. Adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were obtained. On multivariate analysis, Malay adolescents were more likely to report marginally unfavorable attitude towards condom use (aPR 1.21 CI 1.00-1.48) and significantly lower confidence in using condoms correctly (aPR 1.24 CI 1.05-1.47) than Chinese adolescents. They were also more likely to report significantly younger first sex age (aPR 0.98 CI 0.96-1.00), never use of condoms for vaginal sex (aPR 1.32 CI 1.16-1.49) and anal sex (aPR 1.75 CI 1.11-2.76) and non-use of contraceptives at last sex (aPR 1.30 CI 1.17-1.45) than Chinese respondents. Malay males were less likely to buy sex (aPR 0.56 CI 0.37-0.85), but they reported higher likelihood of inconsistent condom use with female sex workers (aPR 2.24 CI 1.30-3.87). Malay ethnicity was associated with unfavorable condom use attitude and lower self-efficacy in using condoms, which was consistent with risky sexual behaviors such as non-use of condoms. Future research should use mixed methods to explore and identify cultural influences to these behaviors.

  16. Conceptual Framework: Development of Interactive Reading Malay Language Learning System (I-ReaMaLLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Nurulisma

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Reading is very important to access knowledge. Reading skills starts during preschool level no matter of the types of languages. At present, there are many preschool children who are still unable to recognize letters or even words. This leads to the difficulties in reading. Therefore, there is a need of intervention in reading to overcome such problems. Thus, technologies were adapted in enhancing learning skills, especially in learning to read among the preschool children. Phonological is one of the factors to be considered to ensure a smooth of transition into reading. Phonological concept enables the first learner to easily learn reading such to learn reading Malay language. The medium of learning to read Malay language can be assisted via the supportive of multimedia technology to enhance the preschool children learning. Thus, an interactive system is proposed via a development of interactive reading Malay language learning system, which is called as I-ReaMaLLS. As a part of the development of I-ReaMaLLS, this paper focus on the development of conceptual framework in developing interactive reading Malay language learning system (I-ReaMaLLS. I-ReaMaLLS is voice based system that facilitates the preschool learner in learning reading Malay language. The conceptual framework of developing I-ReaMaLLS is conceptualized based on the initial study conducted via methods of literature review and observation with the preschool children, aged 5 – 6 years. As the result of the initial study, research objectives have been affirmed that finally contributes to the design of conceptual framework for the development of I-ReaMaLLS.

  17. Extremely low microsatellite diversity but distinct population structure in a long-lived threatened species, the Australian lungfish Neoceratodus forsteri (Dipnoi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane M Hughes

    Full Text Available The Australian lungfish is a unique living representative of an ancient dipnoan lineage, listed as 'vulnerable' to extinction under Australia's Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999. Historical accounts indicate this species occurred naturally in two adjacent river systems in Australia, the Burnett and Mary. Current day populations in other rivers are thought to have arisen by translocation from these source populations. Early genetic work detected very little variation and so had limited power to answer questions relevant for management including how genetic variation is partitioned within and among sub-populations. In this study, we use newly developed microsatellite markers to examine samples from the Burnett and Mary Rivers, as well as from two populations thought to be of translocated origin, Brisbane and North Pine. We test whether there is significant genetic structure among and within river drainages; assign putatively translocated populations to potential source populations; and estimate effective population sizes. Eleven polymorphic microsatellite loci genotyped in 218 individuals gave an average within-population heterozygosity of 0.39 which is low relative to other threatened taxa and for freshwater fishes in general. Based on FST values (average over loci = 0.11 and STRUCTURE analyses, we identify three distinct populations in the natural range, one in the Burnett and two distinct populations in the Mary. These analyses also support the hypothesis that the Mary River is the likely source of translocated populations in the Brisbane and North Pine rivers, which agrees with historical published records of a translocation event giving rise to these populations. We were unable to obtain bounded estimates of effective population size, as we have too few genotype combinations, although point estimates were low, ranging from 29 - 129. We recommend that, in order to preserve any local adaptation in the three distinct

  18. Living in isolation - population structure, reproduction, and genetic variation of the endangered plant species Dianthus gratianopolitanus (Cheddar pink).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putz, Christina M; Schmid, Christoph; Reisch, Christoph

    2015-09-01

    The endangered plant species Dianthus gratianopolitanus exhibits a highly fragmented distribution range comprising many isolated populations. Based upon this pattern of distribution, we selected a study region in Switzerland with a lower magnitude of isolation (Swiss Jura) and another study region in Germany with a higher degree of isolation (Franconian Jura). In each region, we chose ten populations to analyze population structure, reproduction, and genetic variation in a comparative approach. Therefore, we determined population density, cushion size, and cushion density to analyze population structure, investigated reproductive traits, including number of flowers, capsules, and germination rate, and analyzed amplified fragment length polymorphisms to study genetic variation. Population and cushion density were credibly higher in German than in Swiss populations, whereas reproductive traits and genetic variation within populations were similar in both study regions. However, genetic variation among populations and isolation by distance were stronger in Germany than in Switzerland. Generally, cushion size and density as well as flower and capsule production increased with population size and density, whereas genetic variation decreased with population density. In contrast to our assumptions, we observed denser populations and cushions in the region with the higher magnitude of isolation, whereas reproductive traits and genetic variation within populations were comparable in both regions. This corroborates the assumption that stronger isolation must not necessarily result in the loss of fitness and genetic variation. Furthermore, it supports our conclusion that the protection of strongly isolated populations contributes essentially to the conservation of a species' full evolutionary potential.

  19. Factors Influencing the Prevalence of Mental Health Problems among Malay Elderly Residing in a Rural Community: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rizal Abdul Manaf

    Full Text Available Mental health problems are common in old age, but frequently remain undetected and untreated. Mental health problems in the elderly are the result of a complex interaction of social, psychological and biological factors. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of mental health problems (depression, anxiety, and emotional stress and their associated factors among the Malay elderly in a rural community of Perak, Malaysia.It was a cross-sectional study. The Malay elderly aged 60 years and above were selected through convenient sampling to give a total of 230 respondents. The Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21 was used to assess the symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress. Bivariate analyses were performed using chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the association between the factors and each of the mental health statuses assessed.The results showed that the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress among the elderly respondents was 27.8%, 22.6%, and 8.7%, respectively. The significant factors for depression were single elderly (Adjusted OR = 3.27, 95%CI 1.66, 6.44, living with family (Adjusted OR = 4.98, 95%CI 2.05, 12.10, and poor general health status (Adjusted OR = 2.28, 95%CI 1.20, 4.36. Living with family was the only significant factor for anxiety (Adjusted OR = 2.68, 95%CI 1.09, 6.57. There was no significant factor for stress.Depression and anxiety among the Malay elderly in the rural community were very worrying. More equity in health should be created or strengthened in order to intensify the opportunity to identify, diagnose, and treat those with mental health problems. Living arrangement in the rural community was an important factor that had influenced depression and anxiety. Therefore, further research is recommended for more comprehensive information, as a result of which appropriate intervention can be made.

  20. Effectiveness of exercise and protein supplementation intervention on body composition, functional fitness, and oxidative stress among elderly Malays with sarcopenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahar S

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Suzana Shahar,1 Norshafarina Shari Kamaruddin,2 Manal Badrasawi,1 Noor Ibrahim Mohamed Sakian,3 Zahara Abd Manaf,1 Zaitun Yassin,4 Leonard Joseph51Dietetic Programme, 2Biomedical Programme, 3Occupational Therapy Programme, School of Healthcare Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, Kuala Lumpur, 4Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, 5Department of Physiotherapy, School of Healthcare Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, Kuala Lumpur, MalaysiaAbstract: Sarcopenia, characterized as muscle loss that occurs with aging, is a major health problem in an aging population, due to its implications on mobility, quality of life, and fall risk. Protein supplementation could improve the physical fitness by increasing protein anabolism, and exercise has a documented evidence of positive effect on functional status among the elderly. However, the combined effect of both protein supplementation and exercise has not been investigated among sarcopenic elderly in the Asian population. Thus, this study aimed to determine the effectiveness of exercise intervention and protein supplementation either alone or in combination for 12 weeks, on body composition, functional fitness, and oxidative stress among elderly Malays with sarcopenia. Sixty five sarcopenic elderly Malays aged 60-74 years were assigned to the control group, exercise group (ExG, protein supplementation group (PrG, or the combination of exercise and protein supplementation group. A significant interaction effect between body weight and body mass index (BMI was observed, with the PrG (-2.1% body weight, -1.8% BMI showing the highest reductions. Further, there was a decrease in % body fat (-4.5% and an increase in fat-free mass (kg (+5.7% in the ExG after 12 weeks (P < 0.05. The highest increments in lower and upper body strength were observed in the Pr

  1. Socio-demographic transformations and living conditions among two indigenous and black populations in Northern Cauca during the period of 1993-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrea Giraldo, Fernando; Rodríguez Sánchez, Diego Alejandro

    2012-04-01

    To describe the changes that occurred in some patterns of socio-demographic variables and in living conditions among the Nasa, Guambiana and Afrocolombian populations in the northern region of the Department of Cauca, and those occurring in two residential communities, one white-mestizo and one black, in Cali during the 1993-2005 period. This paper presents a descriptive study that analyzes several socio-demographic indicators from the census of 1993 and 2005, the specific data include: rate of juvenile dependency; total masculinity index; average size of the household; specific global and local birth rates, and infant mortality rates; life expectancy at birth; average years of schooling; health cover age status; and percentage of the population with unmet basic needs (UBN). In this way, it is possible to note differences in the course of socio-demographic evolution and in the standard of living trends in the differing populations under study. The Guambiana Indian population in the municipality of Silvia presents lower birth rates than the Nasa population, characterized by their seasonal birth rates. Differing from the pattern of the indigenous people of Northern Cauca, the Afro-Colombian population both from this region and from the population residing in the urban zones of Cali's tend to show similar socio-demographic patterns. Although there have been profound changes recorded during this period among these populations under study, the ethnic-racial inequalities and those of social class seem to persist. From this first diagnosis, attention is called to the need for a more adequate reproductive health policy to attend the specific needs presented by the indigenous population.

  2. Low genetic diversity and local adaptive divergence of Dracaena cambodiana (Liliaceae) populations associated with historical population bottlenecks and natural selection: an endangered long-lived tree endemic to Hainan Island, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, D-J; Xie, L-S; Zhu, J-H; Zhang, Z-L

    2012-09-01

    Historical population bottlenecks and natural selection have important effects on the current genetic diversity and structure of long-lived trees. Dracaena cambodiana is an endangered, long-lived tree endemic to Hainan Island, China. Our field investigations showed that only 10 populations remain on Hainan Island and that almost all have been seriously isolated and grow in distinct habitats. A considerable amount of genetic variation at the species level, but little variation at the population level, and a high level of genetic differentiation among the populations with limited gene flow in D. cambodiana were detected using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analyses. No significant correlation was found between genetic diversity and actual population size, as the genetic diversities were similar regardless of population size. The Mantel test revealed that there was no correlation between genetic and geographic distances among the 10 populations. The UPGMA, PCoA and Bayesian analyses showed that local adaptive divergence has occurred among the D. cambodiana populations, which was further supported by habitat-private fragments. We suggest that the current genetic diversity and population differentiation of D. cambodiana resulted from historical population bottlenecks and natural selection followed by historical isolation. However, the lack of natural regeneration of D. cambodiana indicates that former local adaptations with low genetic diversity may have been genetically weak and are unable to adapt to the current ecological environments. © 2012 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  3. The AMEL study, a cross sectional population-based survey on aging and malnutrition in 1200 elderly Lebanese living in rural settings: protocol and sample characteristics.

    OpenAIRE

    Boulos , Christa; Salameh , Pascale; Barberger-Gateau , Pascale

    2013-01-01

    International audience; BACKGROUND: Lebanon is faced with a particular challenge because of large socioeconomic inequality and accelerated demographic transition. Rural residents seem more vulnerable because of limited access to transport, health and social services. No information is available regarding health, nutrition and living conditions of this specific population. The purpose of the AMEL (Aging and Malnutrition in Elderly Lebanese) study is to assess the nutritional status of communit...

  4. Is the Partners in Recovery program connecting with the intended population of people living with severe and persistent mental illness? What are their prioritised needs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Nicola; Smith-Merry, Jennifer; Gillespie, James A; Yen, Ivy

    2017-10-01

    Objective The Partners in Recovery (PIR) program is an Australian government initiative designed to make the mental health and social care sectors work in more coordinated ways to meet the needs of those with severe and complex mental illness. Herein we reflect on demographic data collected during evaluation of PIR implementation in two Western Sydney sites. The aims of the present study were to: (1) explore whether two Sydney-based PIR programs had recruited their intended population, namely people living with severe and persistent mental illness; and (2) learn more about this relatively unknown population and their self-identified need priorities. Methods Routinely collected initial client assessment data were analysed descriptively. Results The data suggest that the two programs are engaging the intended population. The highest unmet needs identified included psychological distress, lack of daytime activities and company, poor physical health and inadequate accommodation. Some groups remain hard to connect, including people from Aboriginal and other culturally diverse communities. Conclusions The data confirm that the PIR program, at least in the two regions evaluated, is mostly reaching its intended audience. Some data were being collected inconsistently, limiting the usefulness of the data and the ability to build on PIR findings to develop ongoing support for this population. What is known about the topic? PIR is a unique national program funded to engage with and address the needs of Australians living with severe and persistent mental illness by facilitating service access. What does this paper add? This paper reports on recruitment of people living with severe and persistent mental illness, their need priorities and data collection. These are three central elements to successful roll-out of the much anticipated mental health component of the National Disability Insurance Scheme, as well as ongoing PIR operation. What are the implications for practitioners

  5. Developing a systems-based framework of the factors influencing dietary and physical activity behaviours in ethnic minority populations living in Europe - a DEDIPAC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdsworth, Michelle; Nicolaou, Mary; Langøien, Lars Jørun; Osei-Kwasi, Hibbah Araba; Chastin, Sebastien F M; Stok, F Marijn; Capranica, Laura; Lien, Nanna; Terragni, Laura; Monsivais, Pablo; Mazzocchi, Mario; Maes, Lea; Roos, Gun; Mejean, Caroline; Powell, Katie; Stronks, Karien

    2017-11-07

    Some ethnic minority populations have a higher risk of non-communicable diseases than the majority European population. Diet and physical activity behaviours contribute to this risk, shaped by a system of inter-related factors. This study mapped a systems-based framework of the factors influencing dietary and physical activity behaviours in ethnic minority populations living in Europe, to inform research prioritisation and intervention development. A concept mapping approach guided by systems thinking was used: i. Preparation (protocol and terminology); ii. Generating a list of factors influencing dietary and physical activity behaviours in ethnic minority populations living in Europe from evidence (systematic mapping reviews) and 'eminence' (89 participants from 24 academic disciplines via brainstorming, an international symposium and expert review) and; iii. Seeking consensus on structuring, rating and clustering factors, based on how they relate to each other; and iv. Interpreting/utilising the framework for research and interventions. Similar steps were undertaken for frameworks developed for the majority European population. Seven distinct clusters emerged for dietary behaviour (containing 85 factors) and 8 for physical activity behaviours (containing 183 factors). Four clusters were similar across behaviours: Social and cultural environment; Social and material resources; Psychosocial; and Migration context. Similar clusters of factors emerged in the frameworks for diet and physical activity behaviours of the majority European population, except for 'migration context'. The importance of factors across all clusters was acknowledged, but their relative importance differed for ethnic minority populations compared with the majority population. This systems-based framework integrates evidence from both expert opinion and published literature, to map the factors influencing dietary and physical activity behaviours in ethnic minority groups. Our findings illustrate

  6. Malnutrition risk and its association with appetite, functional and psychosocial status among elderly Malays in an agricultural settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzana, S; Boon, P C; Chan, P P; Normah, C D

    2013-04-01

    Malnutrition is a common phenomenon among the elderly and quite often related to psychosocial problems. The objective of this study was to determine malnutrition risk and its association with appetite, functional and psychosocial status among elderly Malays in an agricultural settlement, i.e. FELDA Sungai Tengi, Selangor. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 160 subjects (men = 36.2%), with a mean age of 65.0 +/- 3.9 years, who were interviewed to obtain information on malnutrition risk and appetite using Mini Nutritional Assessment Short Form and Simplified Nutritional Appetite Questionnaire, respectively. Functional status was determined using Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL), Elderly Mobility Scale (EMS) and handgrip strength. Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE), Geriatric Depression Scale and De Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale were used to identify cognitive impairment, depressive symptoms and loneliness status of subjects respectively. A total of 42.5% of subjects were at risk of malnutrition and 61.2% had poor appetite. The mean scores of IADL and EMS were lower in subjects at risk of malnutrition, compared to those who were not at high risk (p risk was predicted by poor appetite, decreased functional status (IADL) and depression. Malnutrition risk was prevalent and associated with poor appetite, functional status and psychosocial problems among the elderly subjects. The psychosocial aspect should also be incorporated in nutrition intervention programmes in order to improve mental well-being and functional independancy.

  7. Comparative Performance of Creatinine-Based Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate Equations in the Malays: A Pilot Study in Tertiary Hospital in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maisarah Jalalonmuhali

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To validate the accuracy of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR equations in Malay population attending our hospital in comparison with radiolabeled measured GFR. Methods. A cross-sectional study recruiting volunteered patients in the outpatient setting. Chromium EDTA (51Cr-EDTA was used as measured GFR. The predictive capabilities of Cockcroft-Gault equation corrected for body surface area (CGBSA, four-variable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (4-MDRD, and Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI equations were calculated. Results. A total of 51 subjects were recruited with mean measured GFR 42.04 (17.70–111.10 ml/min/1.73 m2. Estimated GFR based on CGBSA, 4-MDRD, and CKD-EPI were 40.47 (16.52–115.52, 35.90 (14.00–98.00, and 37.24 (14.00–121.00, respectively. Higher accuracy was noted in 4-MDRD equations throughout all GFR groups except for subgroup of GFR ≥ 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 where CGBSA was better. Conclusions. The 4-MDRD equation seems to perform better in estimating GFR in Malay CKD patients generally and specifically in the subgroup of GFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 and both BMI subgroups.

  8. Association of insertion/deletion polymorphism of angiotensin-converting enzyme gene among Malay male hypertensive subjects in response to ACE inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Farzad; Vasudevan, Ramachandran; Mohd Ali, Siti Zubaidah; Ismail, Patimah; Etemad, Ali; Pishva, Seyyed Reza; Othman, Fauziah; Abu Bakar, Suhaili

    2015-12-01

    Several studies show that the insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene has been associated with hypertension in various populations. The present study sought to determine the association of the I/D gene polymorphism among Malay male essential hypertensive subjects in response to ACE inhibitors (enalapril and lisinopril). A total of 72 patients with newly diagnosed hypertension and 72 healthy subjects were recruited in this study. Blood pressure was recorded from 0 to 24 weeks of treatment with enalapril or lisinopril. Genotyping of the I/D polymorphism was carried out using a standard PCR method. Statistically significant association of the D allele of the ACE gene was observed between the case and control subjects (p ACE gene. Patients carrying the DD genotype had higher blood pressure-lowering response when treated with ACE inhibitors enalapril or lisinopril than those carrying ID and II genotypes, suggesting that the D allele may be a possible genetic marker for essential hypertension among Malay male subjects. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. MTHFR C677T polymorphism, homocysteine and B-vitamins status in a sample of Chinese and Malay subjects in Universiti Putra Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, S C; Loh, S P; Khor, G L; Sabariah, M N; Rozita, R

    2011-08-01

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T is involved in folate and homocysteine metabolism. Disruption in the activity of this enzyme will alter their levels in the body. This study assessed MTHFR C677T polymorphism and its relationship with serum homocysteine and B-vitamins levels in a sample of Chinese and Malays subjects in UPM, Serdang. One hundred subjects were randomly selected from among the university population. Folate, vitamin B12, B6, and homocysteine levels were determined using MBA, ECLIA, and HPLC, respectively. PCR coupled with HinfI digestion was used for detection of MTHFR C677T polymorphism. The frequency of T allele was higher in the Chinese subjects (0.40) compared to the Malay (0.14). Folate, vitamin B12 and B6 levels were highest in the wild genotype in both ethnic groups. Subjects with heterozygous and homozygous genotype showed the highest homocysteine levels. The serum folate and homocysteine were mainly affected by homozygous genotype. MTHFR C677T polymorphism plays an important role in influencing the folate and homocysteine metabolism.

  10. Validation of the Malay Version of the Parental Bonding Instrument among Malaysian Youths Using Exploratory Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    MUHAMMAD, Noor Azimah; SHAMSUDDIN, Khadijah; OMAR, Khairani; SHAH, Shamsul Azhar; MOHD AMIN, Rahmah

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parenting behaviour is culturally sensitive. The aims of this study were (1) to translate the Parental Bonding Instrument into Malay (PBI-M) and (2) to determine its factorial structure and validity among the Malaysian population. Methods: The PBI-M was generated from a standard translation process and comprehension testing. The validation study of the PBI-M was administered to 248 college students aged 18 to 22 years. Results: Participants in the comprehension testing had difficulty understanding negative items. Five translated double negative items were replaced with five positive items with similar meanings. Exploratory factor analysis showed a three-factor model for the PBI-M with acceptable reliability. Four negative items (items 3, 4, 8, and 16) and item 19 were omitted from the final PBI-M list because of incorrect placement or low factor loading (overprotection factor. All the items loaded positively on their respective factors. Conclusion: The Malaysian population favoured positive items in answering questions. The PBI-M confirmed the three-factor model that consisted of care, autonomy and overprotection. The PBI-M is a valid and reliable instrument to assess the Malaysian parenting style. Confirmatory factor analysis may further support this finding. Keywords: Malaysia, parenting, questionnaire, validity PMID:25977634

  11. Prevalence of Autism in Children of Somali Origin Living in Stockholm: Brief Report of an At-Risk Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnevik-Olsson, Martina; Gillberg, Christopher; Fernell, Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    This work was a follow-up study (birth years 1999-2003) of the prevalence of autism in children of Somali background living in the county of Stockholm, Sweden. In a previous study (birth years 1988-98), the prevalence of autism associated with learning disability was found to be three to four times higher among Somali children compared with other…

  12. A comparison of smoking behaviour characteristics between Caucasian smokers in the United Kingdom and Malay smokers in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Noorzurani; Bond, Alyson; Wolff, Kim

    2013-01-01

    There is evidence that smoking behaviour differs by ethnicity. This study aims to compare smoking behaviour characteristics between Caucasian and Malay smokers. A cross sectional survey, involving 175 smokers attending smoking cessation clinics at the Institute of Psychiatry, London, United Kingdom and University Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia between May 2005 and February 2007. Data on demographics, smoking history, nicotine dependence and smoking behaviour were collected. All participants were males, mean age 30.7 ± 10.3 years. Caucasians initiated smoking significantly earlier (mean age 14.8 ± 2.8 years) (p = 0.001) and smoked regularly significantly earlier (mean age 17.3 ± 3.5) (p = 0.003) than Malays (mean starting age 16.9 ± 4.4 years and mean age regular use 19.5 ± 4.5 years), respectively. Caucasians smoked less for social integration than Malays (p = 0.03) but smoked more for regulation of negative affect than Malays (p = 0.008) and smoked more for hedonism than Malays (p < 0.001). Malays smoke as a means of socially integrating. This has important public health implications. Social reasons and the social environment play a role in smoking uptake, smoking maintenance and smoking cessation and this should be borne in mind for strategies planning to promote smoking cessation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Liberalism in the Islamic World and its influence in the Malay Archipelago: Model in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Mansur Tamam

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Liberalism means here Orientalist attempt to attract even Islam conformity with the principles of Western liberalism in form and substance. Hence Zhardha in the Islamic world have to do Orientalism, which under his leadership became the U.S. currently wants Islam that corresponds to the values of modernity and secularism and Western liberalism. And this phenomenon coincides appearance in the Islamic world with its appearance Malay archipelago and Indonesia to face particular Alholanda since colonial days, and then taking this trend develops even have an influence on contemporary history in these islands. So this includes talking on two things: Orientalist role for the emergence of liberalism in the Islamic world, and its influence in the Malay islands.

  14. Parent ratings of ADHD symptoms: differential symptom functioning across Malaysian Malay and Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Rapson; Vance, Alasdair

    2008-08-01

    This study examined differential symptom functioning (DSF) in ADHD symptoms across Malay and Chinese children in Malaysia. Malay (N=571) and Chinese (N=254) parents completed the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale, which lists the DSM-IV ADHD symptoms. DSF was examined using the multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC) structural equation modeling procedure. Although DSF was found for a single inattention (IA) symptom and three hyperactivity-impulsivity (HI) symptoms, all these differences had low effect sizes. Controlling for these DSF, Chinese children had higher IA and HI latent factor scores. However the effect sizes were small. Together, these findings suggest adequate support for invariance of the ADHD symptoms across these ethno-cultural groups. The implications of the findings for cross-cultural invariance of the ADHD symptoms are discussed.

  15. The effect of faith-based smoking cessation intervention during Ramadan among Malay smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail, Suriani; Abdul Rahman, Hejar; Abidin, Emelia Zainal; Isha, Ahmad Sharul Nizam; Abu Bakar, Sallehuddin; Zulkifley, Nur Aishah; Fuad, Ahmad Farhan Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To study the effects of a faith-based smoking cessation intervention during Ramadan among Malay male smokers working in public offices. Methods: This was a quasi-experimental study conducted during Ramadan 2015. The intervention was developed based on the constructs within the Theory of Planned Behaviour. The intervention intended to increase the intention and the perceived behaviour control to stop smoking among Muslim smokers during Ramadan. The outcomes measured were changes in...

  16. The Role of Multicultural Marketing on Malay Consumers Perceptions towards Global vs. Local Ethnic Food Brands

    OpenAIRE

    Umair, Sana

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation combines two different elements of interest in International Marketing Research. The objective of this research is the comparison of global versus local brand within the context of ethnic marketing in the multicultural society of Malaysia. The product instant noodle in the category of ethnic food was chosen in the variant of Asam Laksa as the target sample focused specifically on Malay consumers. Comparison was done between Maggi (global) and Mamee (local). The sample compri...

  17. Validation of a Malay Version of the Smartphone Addiction Scale among Medical Students in Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siew Mooi Ching

    Full Text Available This study was initiated to determine the psychometric properties of the Smart Phone Addiction Scale (SAS by translating and validating this scale into the Malay language (SAS-M, which is the main language spoken in Malaysia. This study can distinguish smart phone and internet addiction among multi-ethnic Malaysian medical students. In addition, the reliability and validity of the SAS was also demonstrated.A total of 228 participants were selected between August 2014 and September 2014 to complete a set of questionnaires, including the SAS and the modified Kimberly Young Internet addiction test (IAT in the Malay language.There were 99 males and 129 females with ages ranging from 19 to 22 years old (21.7±1.1 included in this study. Descriptive and factor analyses, intra-class coefficients, t-tests and correlation analyses were conducted to verify the reliability and validity of the SAS. Bartlett's test of sphericity was significant (p <0.01, and the Kaiser-Mayer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy for the SAS-M was 0.92, indicating meritoriously that the factor analysis was appropriate. The internal consistency and concurrent validity of the SAS-M were verified (Cronbach's alpha = 0.94. All of the subscales of the SAS-M, except for positive anticipation, were significantly related to the Malay version of the IAT.This study developed the first smart phone addiction scale among medical students. This scale was shown to be reliable and valid in the Malay language.

  18. The Interesting Teaching and Learning of Malay Language to Foreign Speakers: Language through Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazlina Baharudin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The interesting teaching and learning of Malay languages is a challenging effort and need a relevant plan to the students’ needs especially for the foreign students who already have the basic Indonesian Malay language variation that they have learned for four semesters in their own country, Germany. Therefore, the variety of teaching and learning strategies should be considered by the teachers to make teaching and learning become interesting, effective and not boring. Basic effectiveness of a language program was the factors of socio-culture, the style of teaching and learning, the students, and the characteristics of the program. This paper however focused on the socio-cultural factors (learning of cultures and the activities program that enable to generate excitement and effectiveness in the teaching and learning of Malay language as a foreign language. In the teaching and learning process found that the more we gave the activities to the students, the more the students acquired the meaning of the lessons. In this study, the selected respondents were the two groups of students from TWG, Konstanz, Germany who have followed the Malay Language and Culture Program in the Languages, Literacies and Translation Center, University of Sains Malaysia, Penang, in 2011. The first group was started in March to June, and the second group in September to November. The research was based on formal and informal observations and interviews. This paper also discussed about the outdoor activities program used as curriculum in the teaching and learning process that gives an interesting environment to foreign students

  19. A mosaic genetic structure of the human population living in the South Baltic region during the Iron Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolarek, Ireneusz; Juras, Anna; Handschuh, Luiza; Marcinkowska-Swojak, Malgorzata; Philips, Anna; Zenczak, Michal; Dębski, Artur; Kóčka-Krenz, Hanna; Piontek, Janusz; Kozlowski, Piotr; Figlerowicz, Marek

    2018-02-06

    Despite the increase in our knowledge about the factors that shaped the genetic structure of the human population in Europe, the demographic processes that occurred during and after the Early Bronze Age (EBA) in Central-East Europe remain unclear. To fill the gap, we isolated and sequenced DNAs of 60 individuals from Kowalewko, a bi-ritual cemetery of the Iron Age (IA) Wielbark culture, located between the Oder and Vistula rivers (Kow-OVIA population). The collected data revealed high genetic diversity of Kow-OVIA, suggesting that it was not a small isolated population. Analyses of mtDNA haplogroup frequencies and genetic distances performed for Kow-OVIA and other ancient European populations showed that Kow-OVIA was most closely linked to the Jutland Iron Age (JIA) population. However, the relationship of both populations to the preceding Late Neolithic (LN) and EBA populations were different. We found that this phenomenon is most likely the consequence of the distinct genetic history observed for Kow-OVIA women and men. Females were related to the Early-Middle Neolithic farmers, whereas males were related to JIA and LN Bell Beakers. In general, our findings disclose the mechanisms that could underlie the formation of the local genetic substructures in the South Baltic region during the IA.

  20. A cross-cultural study of request speech act: Iraqi and Malay students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Farnia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have indicated that the range and linguistics expressions of external modifiers available in one language differ from those available in another language. The present study aims to investigate the cross-cultural differences and similarities with regards to the realization of request external modifications. To this end, 30 Iraqi and 30 Malay university students are selected as the participants of this study. Spencer-Oatey's (2008 rapport management theoretical framework is used to examine how face rapport is managed through the use of external modifications. The corpus consists of responses to a Discourse Completion Test (DCT consisting of eight situations. The questionnaires, adopted from Rose (1994, were distributed among Iraqi students and Malaysian Malay students studying at Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia. The corpus were then analyzed based on Blum-Kulka, House and Kasper (1989 classification of external modifiers. The primary objective of this paper is to compare the effect of situational factors on the realization patterns of request modification between Iraqi and Malay university students .The findings are hoped to have implications for comparative cross-cultural and intercultural communication studies.

  1. A Survey: Framework of an Information Retrieval for Malay Translated Hadith Document

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    Zulkefli Nurul Syeilla Syazhween

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews and analyses the limitation of the existing method used in the IR process in retrieving Malay Translated Hadith documents related to the search request. Traditional Malay Translated Hadith retrieval system has not focused on semantic extraction from text. The bag-of-words representation ignores the conceptual similarity of information in the query text and documents, which produce unsatisfactory retrieval results. Therefore, a more efficient IR framework is needed. This paper claims that the significant information extraction and subject-related information are actually important because the clues from this information can be used to search and find the relevance document to a query. Also, unimportant information can be discarded to represent the document content. So, semantic understanding of query and document is necessary to improve the effectiveness and accuracy of retrieval results for this domain study. Therefore, advance research is needed and it will be experimented in the future work. It is hoped that it will help users to search and find information regarding to the Malay Translated Hadith document.

  2. ISLAM IN SOUTH THAILAND: ACCULTURATION OF ISLAM IN THE MALAY CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryadi Suryadi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the perspective of history, the religious and cultural system of Patani Malays in Southern Thailand have underground evolution development stages from animism and dynamism to Hinduism and Buddhism. This ‘’old’’ culture has been handed down into the traditions and values as well as the mindset of the present day life and culture of the Patani Malays. The arrival of Islam has brought chnges in the religious and cultural system of the Patani Malays. The Patani’s worldview was formerly based on the religious and cultural system of animism, dynamism, Hinduism, and Buddhism in the term of their customs and traditions. This study examines the process of inculturation of Islamic values into Patani malay’s culture in Southern Thailand. This study used a descriptive-analytical method and an historical-anthropological approach. This study researches the Patani malay’s religious system and culture as manifested in their everyday life and the dynamic relationship of Islamic values and local culture. In so doing, the study can describe and analyze the development of Islamic Values and Patani Malay’s culture have eventually facilitated the process of its inculturation into Patani Malay’s religious system and culture. Keywords: The religious systems, Islamic values, culture, inculturation.

  3. Validation of a Malay Version of the Smartphone Addiction Scale among Medical Students in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Siew Mooi; Yee, Anne; Ramachandran, Vasudevan; Sazlly Lim, Sazlyna Mohd; Wan Sulaiman, Wan Aliaa; Foo, Yoke Loong; Hoo, Fan Kee

    2015-01-01

    This study was initiated to determine the psychometric properties of the Smart Phone Addiction Scale (SAS) by translating and validating this scale into the Malay language (SAS-M), which is the main language spoken in Malaysia. This study can distinguish smart phone and internet addiction among multi-ethnic Malaysian medical students. In addition, the reliability and validity of the SAS was also demonstrated. A total of 228 participants were selected between August 2014 and September 2014 to complete a set of questionnaires, including the SAS and the modified Kimberly Young Internet addiction test (IAT) in the Malay language. There were 99 males and 129 females with ages ranging from 19 to 22 years old (21.7±1.1) included in this study. Descriptive and factor analyses, intra-class coefficients, t-tests and correlation analyses were conducted to verify the reliability and validity of the SAS. Bartlett's test of sphericity was significant (p addiction scale among medical students. This scale was shown to be reliable and valid in the Malay language.

  4. Potential hydrophobic protein markers of breast cancer in Malaysian Chinese, Malay and Indian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Seng; Singh, Manjit; Gam, Lay-Harn

    Breast cancer is a leading cause of worldwide mortality in females. In Malaysia, breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women. Of these, the Chinese had the most number of breast cancer cases, followed by the Indian and the Malay. The most common type of breast cancer is infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDC). A proteomic approach was used to identify protein profile changes in cancerous tissues compared with the normal tissues, the tissues were collected from patients of three different ethnicities, i.e. Chinese, Malay and Indian. Ten differentially expressed hydrophobic proteins were identified. We had evaluated the potential of these proteins as biomarker for infiltrating ducal carcinoma (IDC) and the ethnic-specific expression of these proteins was also determined. The data showed that peroxiredoxin-2, heat shock protein 60, protein disulfide isomerase and calreticulin may serve as ethnic-related potential markers for either one or combination of Chinese, Malay and Indian cohorts as their expression levels were significantly high in the cancerous tissues compared to the normal tissues in the ethnic group tested.

  5. Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Psychometric Properties of the Malay Version of the Short Sensory Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ee, Su Im; Loh, Siew Yim; Chinna, Karuthan; Marret, Mary J

    2016-01-01

    To translate, culturally adapt, and examine psychometric properties of the Malay version Short Sensory Profile (SSP-M). Pretesting (n = 30) of the original English SSP established its applicability for use with Malaysian children aged 3-10 years. This was followed by the translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the SSP-M. Two forward and two back translations were compared and reviewed by a committee of 10 experts who validated the content of the SSP-M, before pilot testing (n = 30). The final SSP-M questionnaire was completed by 419 parents of typically developing children aged 3-10 years. Cronbach's alpha of each section of the SSP-M ranged from 0.73 to 0.93 and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) indicated good reliability (0.62-0.93). The seven factor model of the SSP-M had an adequate fit with evidence of convergent and discriminant validity. We conclude that the SSP-M is a valid and reliable screening tool for use in Malaysia with Malay-speaking parents of children aged 3-10 years. The SSP-M enables Malay-speaking parents to answer the questionnaire with better reliability, and provides occupational therapists with a valid tool to screen for sensory processing difficulties.

  6. Acculturation of Javanese And Malay Islam in Wedding Tradition of Javanese Ethnic Community at Selangor, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abid Rohmanu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is to see the level of acculturation of Javanese and Malay Islams in Javanese community wedding at Selangor Malaysia. According to the theory of culture, each culture has a uniqueness, as a individual uniqueness. The unique culture of Javanese ethnic wedding in Selangor is believed to be a process of negotiation between Malay and Javanese culture.. Acculturation theory is used in this research to explain and understand the reality of that culture. The study concluded that ethnic wedding traditions of Javanese Islam in Selangor pointed to the high level of acculturation. The acculturation leads to a “substitution” and “syncretism”. The substitution refers to the meaning that the Javanese tradition for the most replaced with new cultures (Malay. Acculturation can also be said as a cultural syncretism, the mixing of these two cultures into a new culture that are distinctive.Copyright (c 2016 by KARSA. All right reserved DOI: 10.19105/karsa.v24i1.1008

  7. Low interannual precipitation has a greater negative effect than seedling herbivory on the population dynamics of a short-lived shrub, Schiedea obovata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialic-Murphy, Lalasia; Gaoue, Orou G

    2018-01-01

    Climate projections forecast more extreme interannual climate variability over time, with an increase in the severity and duration of extreme drought and rainfall events. Based on bioclimatic envelope models, it is projected that changing precipitation patterns will drastically alter the spatial distributions and density of plants and be a primary driver of biodiversity loss. However, many other underlying mechanisms can impact plant vital rates (i.e., survival, growth, and reproduction) and population dynamics. In this study, we developed a size-dependent integral projection model (IPM) to evaluate how interannual precipitation and mollusk herbivory influence the dynamics of a Hawaii endemic short-lived shrub, Schiedea obovata (Caryophyllaceae). Assessing how wet season precipitation effects population dynamics it critical, as it is the timeframe when most of the foliar growth occurs, plants flower and fruit, and seedlings establish. Temporal variation in wet season precipitation had a greater effect than mollusk herbivory on S . obovata population growth rate λ, and the impact of interannual precipitation on vital rates shifted across plant ontogeny. Furthermore, wet season precipitation influenced multiple vital rates in contrasting ways and the effect of precipitation on the survival of larger vegetative and reproductively mature individuals contributed the most to variation in the population growth rate. Among all combination of wet season precipitation and herbivory intensities, the only scenario that led to a growing population was when high wet precipitation was associated with low herbivory. Our study highlights the importance of evaluating how abiotic factors and plant-consumer interactions influence an organism across its life cycle to fully understand the underpinning mechanisms that structure its spatial and temporal distribution and abundance. Our results also illustrate that for short-lived species, like S. obovata , seedling herbivory can have

  8. Radiation-induced thyroid cancer in children and adult population, living in contaminated territories after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parshkov, E.; Sokolov, V.; Proshin, A.; Barnes, J.

    2003-01-01

    Results of the analysis of own and literature data on the occurrence and development of radiation-induced thyroid cancer are presented. Analysis involved distribution of the thyroid cancer incidence among 1 million children and 3 millions adults, living in the radioactively contaminated territories of Russia by age and sex. The main attention was paid to the understanding of latency period of spontaneous and radiation-induced cancer, comparison of oncological pathology features in children and adults, and the role of screening in the increase of incidence rate parameters. Analysis permitted to offer new interpretation of several previously known facts and to make new statements on the induction and development of radiogenic thyroid cancer, in particularly, on far more significant increase of the thyroid cancer incidence in adults, living in the contaminated territories, than it was considered earlier

  9. HLA variants rs9271366 and rs9275328 are associated with systemic lupus erythematosus susceptibility in Malays and Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, H C; Phipps, M E; Othman, I; Tan, L P; Chua, K H

    2013-02-01

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antigens and genes have long been reported associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) susceptibility in many populations. With the advance in technologies such as genome-wide association studies, many newly discovered SLE-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been reported in recent years. These include HLA-DRB1/HLA-DQA1 rs9271366 and HLA-DQB1/HLA-DQA2 rs9275328. Our aim was to investigate these SNPs in a Malaysian SLE cohort. SNPs rs9271366 and rs9275328 were screened across 790 Malaysian citizens from three ethnic groups (360 patients and 430 healthy volunteers) by Taqman SNP genotyping assays. Allele and genotyping frequencies, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, Fisher's exact test and odds ratio were calculated for each SNP and ethnic group. Linkage disequilibrium and interaction between the two SNPs were also evaluated. The minor allele G and its homozygous genotype GG of HLA-DRB1/HLA-DQA1 rs9271366 significantly increased the SLE susceptibility in Malaysian patients, including those of Malay and Chinese ethnicity (odds ratio (OR) > 1, p < 0.05). As for HLA-DQB1/HLA-DQA2 rs9275328, the minor allele T and the heterozygous genotype CT conferred protective effect to SLE in Malaysians, as well as in Malays and Chinese, by having OR < 1 and p value <0.05. Both SNPs did not show associations to SLE in Indians. D' and r (2) values for the two SNPs in LD analysis were 0.941 and 0.065, respectively, with haplotype GC and AT being significantly associated with SLE (p < 5.0 × 10(-4)) after 10,000 permutations were performed. The MDR test clustered the genotype combinations of GG and CC, and AG and CC of rs9271366 and rs9275328, accordingly, as high-risk group, and the two SNPs interacted redundantly by removing 1.96% of the entropy. Our findings suggest that in addition to some classical HLA variants, rs9271366 and rs9275328 are additional polymorphisms worth considering in the Malaysian and possibly in

  10. Validity and reliability of a Malay version of the brief illness perception questionnaire for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

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    Boon-How Chew

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Illness perceptions involve the personal beliefs that patients have about their illness and may influence health behaviours considerably. Since an instrument to measure these perceptions for Malay population in Malaysia is lacking, we translated and examined the psychometric properties of the Malay version of the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (MBIPQ in adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods The MBIPQ has nine items, all use a 0–10 response scale, except the ninth item about causal factors, which is an open-ended item. A standard procedure was used to translate and adapt the English BIPQ into Malay language. Construct validity was examined comparing item scores and scores on the Diabetes Management Self-Efficacy Scale, the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale, the World Health Organization Quality of Life-brief, the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire, the 17-item Diabetes Distress Scale, HbA1c and the presence of complications. In addition, 2-week and 4-week test-retest reliability were studied. Results A total of 312 patients completed the MBIPQ. Out of this, 97 and 215 patients completed the 2- or 4-weeks test-retest reliability questionnaire, respectively. Moderate inter-items correlations were observed between illness perception dimensions (r = −0.31 to 0.53. MBIPQ items showed the expected correlations with self-efficacy (r = 0.35, medication adherence (r = 0.29, quality of life (r = −0.17 to 0.31 and depressive symptoms (r = −0.18 to 0.21. People with severe diabetes-related distress also were more concern (t-test = 4.01, p < 0.001 and experienced lower personal control (t-test = 2.07, p = 0.031. People with any diabetes-related complication perceived the consequences as more serious (t-test = 2.04, p = 0.044. The 2-week and 4-week test-retest reliabilities varied between ICCagreement 0.39 to 0.70 and 0.58 to 0.78, respectively. Conclusions The psychometric properties

  11. Seasonal variation in population density and heterotrophic activity of attached and free-living bacteria in coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iriberri, J.; Unanue, M.; Barcina, I.; Egea, L.

    1987-01-01

    The abundance and heterotrophic activity of attached and free-living bacteria was examined seasonally in coastal water. Heterotrophic activity was determined by the uptake of [ 14 C]glucose. The density of attached bacteria was always minor, not showing a seasonal variation, whereas the free-living bacteria were more numerous and showed a marked seasonal variation, their density being higher under warmer conditions. The contribution of the attached bacteria to the total assimilation of [ 14 C]glucose was lower than that of the free-living bacteria, neither of them showing a seasonal variation. On a cellular basis, attached bacteria were more active, since they assimilated more [ 14 C]glucose and showed, under warmer conditions, a higher cellular volume. The authors consider that the factors responsible for these observations were the amount and quality of the particulate material, the different availability of organic matter for the two types of bacteria, and in a fundamental way, the variation in water temperature

  12. Multiple estimates of effective population size for monitoring a long-lived vertebrate: an application to Yellowstone grizzly bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, Pauline L; Haroldson, Mark A; Luikart, Gordon; Paetkau, David; Whitman, Craig; van Manen, Frank T

    2015-11-01

    Effective population size (N(e)) is a key parameter for monitoring the genetic health of threatened populations because it reflects a population's evolutionary potential and risk of extinction due to genetic stochasticity. However, its application to wildlife monitoring has been limited because it is difficult to measure in natural populations. The isolated and well-studied population of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem provides a rare opportunity to examine the usefulness of different N(e) estimators for monitoring. We genotyped 729 Yellowstone grizzly bears using 20 microsatellites and applied three single-sample estimators to examine contemporary trends in generation interval (GI), effective number of breeders (N(b)) and N(e) during 1982-2007. We also used multisample methods to estimate variance (N(eV)) and inbreeding N(e) (N(eI)). Single-sample estimates revealed positive trajectories, with over a fourfold increase in N(e) (≈100 to 450) and near doubling of the GI (≈8 to 14) from the 1980s to 2000s. N(eV) (240-319) and N(eI) (256) were comparable with the harmonic mean single-sample N(e) (213) over the time period. Reanalysing historical data, we found N(eV) increased from ≈80 in the 1910s-1960s to ≈280 in the contemporary population. The estimated ratio of effective to total census size (N(e) /N(c)) was stable and high (0.42-0.66) compared to previous brown bear studies. These results support independent demographic evidence for Yellowstone grizzly bear population growth since the 1980s. They further demonstrate how genetic monitoring of N(e) can complement demographic-based monitoring of N(c) and vital rates, providing a valuable tool for wildlife managers. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Multiple estimates of effective population size for monitoring a long-lived vertebrate: An application to Yellowstone grizzly bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, Pauline L.; Haroldson, Mark A.; Luikart, Gordon; Paetkau, David; Whitman, Craig L.; van Manen, Frank T.

    2015-01-01

    Effective population size (Ne) is a key parameter for monitoring the genetic health of threatened populations because it reflects a population's evolutionary potential and risk of extinction due to genetic stochasticity. However, its application to wildlife monitoring has been limited because it is difficult to measure in natural populations. The isolated and well-studied population of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem provides a rare opportunity to examine the usefulness of different Ne estimators for monitoring. We genotyped 729 Yellowstone grizzly bears using 20 microsatellites and applied three single-sample estimators to examine contemporary trends in generation interval (GI), effective number of breeders (Nb) and Ne during 1982–2007. We also used multisample methods to estimate variance (NeV) and inbreeding Ne (NeI). Single-sample estimates revealed positive trajectories, with over a fourfold increase in Ne (≈100 to 450) and near doubling of the GI (≈8 to 14) from the 1980s to 2000s. NeV (240–319) and NeI (256) were comparable with the harmonic mean single-sample Ne (213) over the time period. Reanalysing historical data, we found NeV increased from ≈80 in the 1910s–1960s to ≈280 in the contemporary population. The estimated ratio of effective to total census size (Ne/Nc) was stable and high (0.42–0.66) compared to previous brown bear studies. These results support independent demographic evidence for Yellowstone grizzly bear population growth since the 1980s. They further demonstrate how genetic monitoring of Ne can complement demographic-based monitoring of Nc and vital rates, providing a valuable tool for wildlife managers.

  14. Prevalence and predictors of depression and anxiety among the elderly population living in geriatric homes in Cairo, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Dalia; El Shair, Inas Helmi; Taher, Eman; Zyada, Fadia

    2014-12-01

    Anxiety and depression are common in the elderly and affect their quality of life. The rates of depression and anxiety are higher among those living in institutional settings and are usually undiagnosed. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and predictors of depression, anxiety and mixed form (i.e. depression and anxiety) in the elderly living at geriatric homes. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 240 elderly participants from four randomly selected geriatric homes in Cairo. A pretested interview questionnaire was used to collect data. A short version of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15), the Hamilton Anxiety Scale, the Katz scale for Activity of Daily living, the three-item loneliness scale and the Personal Wellbeing Index Scale were used. The prevalence of depression, anxiety and mixed disorder among the studied group were 37.5, 14.2 and 30%, respectively. Old age and the presence of comorbidities were predictors for depression and/or anxiety. Female sex, a lower social class, insufficient income, partial independence and loneliness feeling are significant predictors for depression. Being married and loneliness feeling are significant predictors for anxiety, whereas the functional status is a significant predictor for mixed depression and anxiety. Depression and/or anxiety were found in more than 80% of the studied group. An older age, female sex, insufficient income, a lower social class, a partially independent functional status, the presence of comorbidities, more frequent loneliness feeling and being married or divorced were found to be significant predictors for these problems. This study reflects the need for the screening of the elderly in geriatric homes for depression and/or anxiety, especially among high-risk groups, and developing interventions to prevent and control such problems.

  15. Public Health Interventions for Control of Malaria in the Population Living in the Terai Region of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Kiran Raj; Adefemi, Kazeem; Awasthi, Mamata Sherpa; Chalise, Binaya

    2018-01-01

    Infectious diseases are a major problem for developing countries. Controlling and eradicating these diseases have remained a challenge because of the multitudes of social and environmental factors involved. However, a multi-sectoral and collective effort in dealing with these diseases has been shown to result in positive outcomes. This paper looks at the current situation of Malaria in Nepal and a population that is at high risk. It explains the impact that social and environmental determinants have on this target population. This review then critically examines the various possible public health interventions that could potentially help in the control of malaria in this high risk population, drawing from evidences and experiences reported from other countries with suggestions for adapting these interventions to the Nepali environment.

  16. Food-chain analysis (lead and cadmium) in free-living animal populations in the Saar area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, P.

    1983-02-01

    The populations and substrates involved in food webs are integrators of the burdening of areas and ecosystems. After several years of experiences my study group started continuous populations and residue analyses in Saarland (Aromatics, Heavy metals). It was shown that with the knowledge of the ecological variables, the analyses of soil types, of earth-worms (Lumbricidae), ground beetles (Carabidae), blackbirds (Turdus meruala), honey-bees (Apis mellifica), goshawks (Accipiter gentilis) and foxes (Vulpes vulpes) carried out at the same site yielded expecially useful area-related results. Heavy metal concentration (Pb, Cd) in leaves of Populus nigra, Physa acuta, Erprobdella octoculata, Asellus aquaticus, earthworms, Carabids, goshawks and foxes are presented.

  17. Malay comedy in a late colonial and post-colonial context : the Singapore comedy films of P. Ramlee, 1957-1964

    OpenAIRE

    Hashim, Rohani

    2017-01-01

    This thesis is a study of the major Malay language comedy films written and directed in Singapore for the Shaw Brothers company, Malay Film Productions, by P. Ramlee, in the period 1957-1964, a period which is commonly regarded as the "Golden Age of the Malay Film Industry." Ramlee was born in Penang in 1929, and having established himself as a singer, songwriter, popular actor and scriptwriter, began his career as a film director in 1956, shortly before the Malay Federation achieved independ...

  18. Changes in mortality rates and causes of death in a population-based cohort of persons living with and without HIV from 1996 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyawo, Oghenowede; Franco-Villalobos, Conrado; Hull, Mark W; Nohpal, Adriana; Samji, Hasina; Sereda, Paul; Lima, Viviane D; Shoveller, Jeannie; Moore, David; Montaner, Julio S G; Hogg, Robert S

    2017-02-27

    Non-HIV/AIDS-related diseases are gaining prominence as important causes of morbidity and mortality among people living with HIV. The purpose of this study was to characterize and compare changes over time in mortality rates and causes of death among a population-based cohort of persons living with and without HIV in British Columbia (BC), Canada. We analysed data from the Comparative Outcomes And Service Utilization Trends (COAST) study; a retrospective population-based study created via linkage between the BC Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS and Population Data BC, and containing data for HIV-infected individuals and the general population of BC, respectively. Our analysis included all known HIV-infected adults (≥ 20 years) in BC and a random 10% sample of uninfected BC adults followed from 1996 to 2012. Deaths were identified through Population Data BC - which contains information on all registered deaths in BC (BC Vital Statistics Agency dataset) and classified into cause of death categories using International Classification of Diseases (ICD) 9/10 codes. Age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) and mortality rate ratios were calculated. Trend test were performed. 3401 (25%), and 47,647 (9%) individuals died during the 5,620,150 person-years of follow-up among 13,729 HIV-infected and 510,313 uninfected individuals, respectively. All-cause and cause-specific mortality rates were consistently higher among HIV-infected compared to HIV-negative individuals, except for neurological disorders. All-cause ASMR decreased from 126.75 (95% CI: 84.92-168.57) per 1000 population in 1996 to 21.29 (95% CI: 17.79-24.79) in 2011-2012 (83% decline; p ASMR reductions were also observed for hepatic/liver disease and drug abuse/overdose deaths. ASMRs for neurological disorders increased significantly over time. Non-AIDS-defining cancers are currently the leading non-HIV/AIDS-related cause of death in both HIV-infected and uninfected individuals. Despite the significant

  19. First results from dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in the population from Madeira Island, Portugal. Part 1. Biomonitoring in blood of the general population living near to a solid waste incinerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Fatima Reis; J. Pereira Miguel; Sampaio, C. [Inst. of Preventive Medicine, Lisbon (Portugal); J. Mauricio Melim [Public Health Regional Dept., Funchal (Portugal); Aguiar, P. [National School of Public Health, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2004-09-15

    The present study is one of a series of papers describing selected results of the ongoing projects, designed to ultimately evaluate the potential impact on public health of the updated solid waste incinerator. Addressing dioxins and dioxin-like compounds, specific aims of this study were: (i) to determine whether living in the vicinity of the Meia Serra incinerator increases the dioxin body burden of the general population; (ii) to investigate other potential determinants of dioxin exposure in this population for prevention priorities; (iii) to provide data on the extent and pattern of exposure of the general population to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds by determining respective toxicity levels and congeners profile in blood samples.

  20. A programme for exposure and epidemiological surveillance of populations living in the vicinity of industrial waste dumps in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardis, E.; Hours, M.; Fabry, J.

    1991-01-01

    Following the environmental contamination at the industrial waste site of Montchain, the government of France has resolved to sponsor a programme for monitoring the impact of industrial waste dumps on the environment and on the health of neighbouring populations. The epidemiological approach is generally limited in its power to quantify risks and even to identify hazards because of: 1. the usual lack of information on the identify and level of toxic substances in the dump itself, on the exposures of individuals in the vicinity and therefore on the diseases and symptoms to be studied; 2. the relatively small size of the populations 'at risk' of exposure. The proposed solution is to carry out a systematic - prospective - surveillance of specific exposures in, and around, every industrial waste site in activity in France. The surveillance will be tailored to each dump. This will yield much needed information on the distribution and temporal pattern of exposures in the population. Risk projection models can then be applied and ranges of risk estimates derived in order that public authorities can make decisions on the operation of the dump. A health risk information campaign will be set up. A prospective epidemiologic study of dump workers, involving exposure monitoring, and biological and clinical follow-up, will also be set up. Subsequently, and depending on the agents and levels of exposure identified at individual dumps, epidemiologic surveillance of high risk groups (pregnant women, children) and biological monitoring of a subsample of the population may be set up

  1. EPR pilot study on the population of Stepnogorsk city living in the vicinity of a uranium processing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhumadilov, Kassym; Akilbekov, Abdirash; Morzabayev, Aidar [L.N. Gumilyov Eurasian National University, Astana (Kazakhstan); Ivannikov, Alexander; Stepanenko, Valeriy [Medical Radiological Research Center, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Abralina, Sholpan; Sadvokasova, Lyazzat; Rakhypbekov, Tolebay [Semey State Medical University, Semey (Kazakhstan); Hoshi, Masaharu [Hiroshima University, Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2015-03-15

    The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate possible doses in teeth received by workers of a uranium processing plant, in excess to the natural background dose. For this, the electron paramagnetic resonance dosimetry method was applied. Absorbed doses in teeth from the workers were compared with those measured in teeth from the Stepnogorsk city population and a control pool population from Astana city. The measured tooth samples were extracted according to medical indications. In total, 32 tooth enamel samples were analyzed, 5 from Astana city, Kazakhstan (control population), 21 from the residents of Stepnogorsk city (180 km from Astana city), and 6 from the workers of a uranium processing plant. The estimated doses in tooth enamel from the uranium processing plant workers were not significantly different to those measured in enamel from the control population. In teeth from the workers, the maximum dose in excess to background dose was 33 mGy. In two teeth from residents of Stepnogorsk city, however, somewhat larger doses were measured. The results of this pilot study encourage further investigations in an effort to receiving a final conclusion on the exposure situation of the uranium processing plant workers and the residents of Stepnogorsk city. (orig.)

  2. Biological effects of low-dose radiation on human population living in high-background radiation areas of Kerala coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Birajalaxmi

    2016-01-01

    High-level natural radiation areas (HLNRA) of Kerala coast is densely populated and known for its wide variation in background radiation dose levels due to uneven distribution of monazite in the beach sand. The background radiation dose varies from 1 to 45 mGv/y. The areas with >1.5mGy/y is considered as HLNRA. Human population inhabiting in this area are exposed to low-dose chronic radiation since generations. Hence, this population provides an ideal situation to study dose response and adaptive response, if any, due to natural chronic low-dose exposure. It has been investigated extensively to study the biological and health effects of long-term low-dose/low-dose radiation exposure. So far over 150, 000 newborns monitored from hospital-based study did not reveal any significant difference in the incidence of any of the malformations and stillbirth between HLNRA and adjacent control areas. A case-control study on cleft lip/palate and mental retardation did not show any association with background radiation dose. Cytogenetic investigation of over 27,000 newborns did not show any significant increase in the frequency of chromosome aberrations and karyotype anomalies. DNA damage endpoints, such as micronuclei, telomere length and DNA strand breaks, did not reveal any significant difference between control and exposed population. Studies on DNA damage and repair revealed efficient repair of DNA strand breaks in HLNRA individuals. Molecular studies using high throughput microarray analysis indicated a large number of genes involved in various molecular and cellular pathways. Indications of in vivo radioadaptive response due to natural chronic low-dose exposure in this population have important implications to human health. (author)

  3. Health indices of the rural population living in the area affected by the Krasnoyarsk mining and chemical combine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazharov, V.F.; Tikhonova, I.V.; Babyonyshev, S.V.; Koenenkov, V.I.; Protopopov, B.V.; Miretsky, G.I.; Kashin, V.N.; Theodorovich, O.A.

    1997-01-01

    Radioactive contamination of the floodplain of the Yenisei River with the wastes dumped by the Krasnoyarsk Mining, and Chemical Combine (MCC) might cause external and internal irradiation of a large part of rural population inhabiting the banks of the Yenisei. Due the lack of comprehensive data on the dose status and doses received by the population, the health parameters of the population were studied by comparing the recorded incidences of diseases and mortality in the areas located at different distances from the MCC, in the periods before and after the MCC was put into operation, and in different age groups. Also studied were territorial differences in the immunologic and immunogenetic statuses of some groups of population. It has been found out that in the district subjected to radioactive contamination (RAC-districts) there are characteristic shifts in the pathologies that are the main markers of the radiation factor. With possible accumulation of radiation doses the shifts become more distinct, and with the distance from the MCC less distinct. Time and space gradients of the cancer morbidity and mortality rate in the RAC-area have been found. In the riverside settlements of the RAC-area the mortality from malignant neoplasms (MN) of blood, blood-forming organs, and lymphatic system is higher than in the settlements located farther from the Yenisei. As the distance from the MCC down the Yenisei gets longer, the mortality of children due to congenital developmental defects and leukaemia decreases. The space gradient has been also found for most somatic disorders originating from stressogenic (psycho-emotional strain) and immunodeficient states. Besides increased incidence of cancer, in the RAC-area there is a higher incidence of pathological states determined to a large extent genetically - complicated pregnancies and their outcome, mortinatality, and congenital developmental defects. Investigations of immunologic and immunogenetic statuses of the RAC

  4. Revalidation of the Malay Version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) Among Malay Postpartum Women Attending the Bakar Bata Health Center in Alor Setar, Kedah, North West Of Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Wan Mohd. Rushidi Wan; Awang, Amir; Mohamed, Mahmood Nazar

    2003-01-01

    Aim: To reevaluate the psychometric characteristics of the Malay version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale among a sample of postpartum Malay women attending the Bakar Bata Health Center in Alor Setar, Kedah, North West of Peninsular Malaysia. Materials and methods: 64 women between 4 to 12 weeks postpartum were recruited for there validation study. They were given questionnaires on socio-demography, the 21-item Malay version of the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) and the 10-item Malay version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). All the participants were later interviewed using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17) and the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). All diagnoses were made based on the Tenth Edition of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) Results: 9 women (14.1%) were diagnosed to have significant depression (7 mild depressive episodes and 2 moderate depressive episodes according to ICD-10). EPDS was found to have good internal consistency (Cronbach alpha =0.86) and split half reliability (Spearman split half coefficient = 0.83). The instrument also showed satisfactory discriminant and concurrent validity as evidenced by the statistically significant difference in EPDS scores between the depressed group and their non-depressed counterparts (Mann Whitney U test: 2 tailed p value Depression Scale in identifying postpartum depression among recently delivered Malay women attending the Bata Bata Health Center in Alor Setar, Kedah, North West of Peninsular Malaysia. PMID:23386800

  5. Project TwEATs: a feasibility study testing the use of automated text messaging to monitor appetite ratings in a free-living population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schembre, Susan M.; Yuen, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    There are no standardized methods for monitoring appetite in free-living populations. Fifteen participants tested a computer-automated text-messaging system designed to track hunger ratings over seven days. Participants were sent text-messages (SMS) hourly and instructed to reply during waking hours with their current hunger rating. Of 168 SMS, 0.6-7.1% were undelivered, varying by mobile service provider, On average 12 SMS responses were received daily with minor variations by observation day or day of the week. Compliance was over 74% and 93% of the ratings were received within 30-minutes. Automated text-messaging is a feasible method to monitor appetite ratings in this population. PMID:21251941

  6. Effect of different densities of live and dead Chlorella vulgaris on the population growth of rotifers Brachionus calyciflorus and Brachionus patulus (Rotifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Lucía-Pavón

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to maintain rotifer populations during periods of low algal production, it is necessary to offer alternate diets, some of which include forms of preserved algae. The present work is based on the effect of live and dead Chlorella vulgaris on the population growth of Brachionus calyciflorus and Brachionus patulus. The experimental design consisted of 3 algal levels (0.5x10(6, 1.5x10(6 and 4.5x10(6 cells ml-1 offered in 3 forms (living, frozen and heat-killed. The maximal population density values for B. calyciflorus ranged from 55±1 ind. ml-1 (at 0.5x10(6 cells ml-1 to 471±72 ind. ml-1 (at 4.5x10(6 cells ml-1 with live Chlorella, but was much lower (6±1 to 26±6 ind. ml-1 with frozen or heat-killed alga under comparable food levels. However, the maximum population density of B. patulus under live or or heat-killed Chlorella was similar at comparable algal levels but when offered frozen algae it was four times less. The highest mean peak population density was 1227±83 ind. ml-1 under 4.5x10(6 cells ml-1. The rate of population increase for B. calyciflorus varied from 0.50 to 0.79 using live Chlorella, but under comparable conditions, this range was lower (0.21 to 0.31 for B. patulus. Results have been discussed in light of possible application for aquaculturePara mantener poblaciones de rotíferos durante periodos con escasez de microalgas, es necesario ofrecer dietas alternativas, incluyendo algunas formas de microalgas preservadas. El presente trabajo analiza el efecto de Chlorella vulgaris viva y muerta sobre el crecimiento poblacional de Brachionus calyciflorus y Brachonus patulus. El diseño experimental consistió en tres niveles de algas (0.5x10(6, 1.5x10(6 y 4.5x10(6 células ml-1 ofrecidas en tres formas (viva, congelada y muerta con agua caliente. Las abundancias máximas de población de B. calyciflorus variaron desde 55±1 ind. ml-1 (en 0.5x10(6 células ml-1 a 471±72 ind. ml-1 (en 4.5x10(6 células ml-1 con Chlorella viva

  7. The mutation frequency of Drosophila melanogaster populations living under conditions of increased background radiation due to the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainullin, V.G.; Rakin, A.O.; Shevchenko, V.A.; Myasnyankina, E.N.; Generalova, M.V.

    1992-01-01

    One of the problems facing the program in the wake of the Chernobyl accident is the estimation of genetic damage to plants and animals. Special attention was directed to studying the influence of radioactive pollutants at the accident site by means of an appropriate test system, using standard genetic subjects. The present study describes such investigations. Levels of persistent genetic damage in natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster found in the vicinity of the Chernobyl accident site were examined from August 1986-September 1989. Evidence is presented which indicates a relationship between the levels of radioactive pollution resulting from the Chernobyl accident and increasing genetic damage to exposed populations. The possible reasons for the decrease of mutation frequency observed in 1988 and 1989 are also discussed. Furthermore, evidence is presented which suggests that radiosensitive Drosophila mutants may be particularly sensitive indicators of radioactive pollution. (author). 16 refs.; 6 figs

  8. Human Stressors Are Driving Coastal Benthic Long-Lived Sessile Fan Mussel Pinna nobilis Population Structure More than Environmental Stressors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salud Deudero

    Full Text Available Coastal degradation and habitat disruption are severely compromising sessile marine species. The fan shell Pinna nobilis is an endemic, vulnerable species and the largest bivalve in the Mediterranean basin. In spite of species legal protection, fan shell populations are declining. Models analyzed the contributions of environmental (mean depth, wave height, maximum wave height, period of waves with high energy and mean direction of wave source versus human-derived stressors (anchoring, protection status, sewage effluents, fishing activity and diving as explanatory variables depicting Pinna nobilis populations at a mesoscale level. Human stressors were explaining most of the variability in density spatial distribution of fan shell, significantly disturbing benthic communities. Habitat protection affected P. nobilis structure and physical aggression by anchoring reveals a high impact on densities. Environmental variables instead played a secondary role, indicating that global change processes are not so relevant in coastal benthic communities as human-derived impacts.

  9. Human Stressors Are Driving Coastal Benthic Long-Lived Sessile Fan Mussel Pinna nobilis Population Structure More than Environmental Stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deudero, Salud; Vázquez-Luis, Maite; Álvarez, Elvira

    2015-01-01

    Coastal degradation and habitat disruption are severely compromising sessile marine species. The fan shell Pinna nobilis is an endemic, vulnerable species and the largest bivalve in the Mediterranean basin. In spite of species legal protection, fan shell populations are declining. Models analyzed the contributions of environmental (mean depth, wave height, maximum wave height, period of waves with high energy and mean direction of wave source) versus human-derived stressors (anchoring, protection status, sewage effluents, fishing activity and diving) as explanatory variables depicting Pinna nobilis populations at a mesoscale level. Human stressors were explaining most of the variability in density spatial distribution of fan shell, significantly disturbing benthic communities. Habitat protection affected P. nobilis structure and physical aggression by anchoring reveals a high impact on densities. Environmental variables instead played a secondary role, indicating that global change processes are not so relevant in coastal benthic communities as human-derived impacts.

  10. The passive yet successful way of planktonic life: genomic and experimental analysis of the ecology of a free-living polynucleobacter population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin W Hahn

    Full Text Available The bacterial taxon Polynucleobacter necessarius subspecies asymbioticus represents a group of planktonic freshwater bacteria with cosmopolitan and ubiquitous distribution in standing freshwater habitats. These bacteria comprise <1% to 70% (on average about 20% of total bacterioplankton cells in various freshwater habitats. The ubiquity of this taxon was recently explained by intra-taxon ecological diversification, i.e. specialization of lineages to specific environmental conditions; however, details on specific adaptations are not known. Here we investigated by means of genomic and experimental analyses the ecological adaptation of a persistent population dwelling in a small acidic pond.The investigated population (F10 lineage contributed on average 11% to total bacterioplankton in the pond during the vegetation periods (ice-free period, usually May to November. Only a low degree of genetic diversification of the population could be revealed. These bacteria are characterized by a small genome size (2.1 Mb, a relatively small number of genes involved in transduction of environmental signals, and the lack of motility and quorum sensing. Experiments indicated that these bacteria live as chemoorganotrophs by mainly utilizing low-molecular-weight substrates derived from photooxidation of humic substances.Evolutionary genome streamlining resulted in a highly passive lifestyle so far only known among free-living bacteria from pelagic marine taxa dwelling in environmentally stable nutrient-poor off-shore systems. Surprisingly, such a lifestyle is also successful in a highly dynamic and nutrient-richer environment such as the water column of the investigated pond, which was undergoing complete mixis and pronounced stratification in diurnal cycles. Obviously, metabolic and ecological versatility is not a prerequisite for long-lasting establishment of abundant bacterial populations under highly dynamic environmental conditions. Caution should be exercised

  11. Prevalence and factors associated with metabolic syndrome in an urban population of adults living with HIV in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiama, Catherine Nduku; Wamicwe, Joyce Njeri; Oyugi, Elvis Omondi; Obonyo, Mark Odhiambo; Mungai, Jane Githuku; Roka, Zeinab Gura; Mwangi, Ann

    2018-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome affects 20-25% of the adult population globally. It predisposes to cardiovascular disease and Type 2 diabetes. Studies in other countries suggest a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome among HIV-infected patients but no studies have been reported in Kenya. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and factors associated with metabolic syndrome in adult HIV-infected patients in an urban population in Nairobi, Kenya. In a cross-sectional study design, conducted at Riruta Health Centre in 2016, 360 adults infected with HIV were recruited. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demography. Blood was collected by finger prick for fasting glucose and venous sampling for lipid profile. Using the harmonized Joint Scientific Statement criteria, metabolic syndrome was present in 19.2%. The prevalence was higher among females than males (20.7% vs. 16.0%). Obesity (AOR = 5.37, P metabolic syndrome while physical activity (AOR = 0.28, P = 0.001) was associated with decreased odds. Metabolic syndrome is prevalent in this study population. Obesity, lack of formal education, family history of hypertension, and physical inactivity are associated with metabolic syndrome. Screening for risk factors, promotion of healthy lifestyle, and nutrition counselling should be offered routinely in HIV care and treatment clinics.

  12. Jawi Writing in Malay Archipelago Manuscript: A General Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haji Harun Makmur

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Jawi writing is the main form of writing in various manuscripts recovered around the Archipelago, especially during the early arrival of Islam. These manuscripts are found to record history, art, culture, language, social, as well as ancient knowledge. The usage of Jawi writings had covered a number of calligraphy which are high in value with deep philosophical meaning, are full with creative notion as well as countless of patterns that went along with the call to Islam around the Archipelago in a relatively short period of time. The development of Jawi writing had been immortalized in various genres such as books, manuscripts and letters written by individual writers and in groups as a local way of living. This writing was also introduced through a long process using certain methods of writing and reading, and kept as individual as well as institutional collections all around the Archipelago. This article is focused in various manuscripts that not only were exclusively used as learning and teaching aids, but were also garnished as beautiful symbols and philosophical Islamic art that deserves a high degree of honour. This article’s objective is to deeply analyze the usage of this writing from manuscripts found around the Archipelago as a proof on the importance of this form of writing. The methodology of this article is library study, through a number of theories and methods. The implication of this article is hoped to form a certain standard as well as its own identity for the local society through their acceptance of this writing form, especially during the early arrival of Islam in the Archipelago thus deemed as a national treasure.

  13. Men from Sub-Saharan Africa Living in Worker Hostels in France: A Hidden Population with Poor Access to HIV Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiguet, M; Dionou, S; Volant, J; Samba, M C; Benammar, N; Chauvin, P; Simon, A

    2017-08-01

    Delayed presentation to care among HIV-infected individuals continued to be frequent in France. Migrants are at high risk for late presentation. This cross-sectional study investigated barriers to HIV testing in the specific population of men from sub-Saharan Africa living in four migrant worker hostels in Paris, France. Factors associated with never having been tested for HIV were examined using logistic regression. In all, 550 men participated, coming mainly from Mali and Senegal, with 31 % having lived in France for less than 5 years, and 25 % without any health insurance. Only 37 % have ever been tested for HIV. Not having health insurance was the main risk factor for never-testing [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2.4; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.4-4.0]. Despite free and anonymous HIV testing available at dedicated public screening centers, 63 % of men living in migrant worker hostels had never been tested for HIV.

  14. What are the living conditions and health status of those who don’t report their migration status? a population-based study in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabieses Baltica

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Undocumented immigrants are likely to be missing from population databases, making it impossible to identify an accurate sampling frame in migration research. No population-based data has been collected in Chile regarding the living conditions and health status of undocumented immigrants. However, the CASEN survey (Caracterizacion Socio- Economica Nacional asked about migration status in Chile for the first time in 2006 and provides an opportunity to set the base for future analysis of available migration data. We explored the living conditions and health of self-reported immigrants and respondents who preferred not to report their migration status in this survey. Methods Cross-sectional secondary analysis of CASEN survey in Chile in 2006. Outcomes: any disability, illness/accident, hospitalization/surgery, cancer/chronic condition (all binary variables; and the number of medical/emergency attentions received (count variables. Covariates: Demographics (age, sex, marital status, urban/rural, ethnicity, socioeconomic status (education level, employment status and household income, and material standard of living (overcrowding, sanitation, housing quality. Weighted regression models were estimated for each health outcome, crude and adjusted by sets of covariates, in STATA 10.0. Results About 1% of the total sample reported being immigrants and 0.7% preferred not to report their migration status (Migration Status - Missing Values; MS-MV. The MS-MV lived in more deprived conditions and reported a higher rate of health problems than immigrants. Some gender differences were observed by health status among immigrants and the MS-MV but they were not statistically significant. Regressions indicated that age, sex, SES and material factors consistently affected MS-MVs’ chance of presenting poor health and these patterns were different to those found among immigrants. Great heterogeneity in both the MS-MV and the immigrants, as

  15. What are the living conditions and health status of those who don't report their migration status? A population-based study in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabieses, Baltica; Pickett, Kate E; Tunstall, Helena

    2012-11-21

    Undocumented immigrants are likely to be missing from population databases, making it impossible to identify an accurate sampling frame in migration research. No population-based data has been collected in Chile regarding the living conditions and health status of undocumented immigrants. However, the CASEN survey (Caracterizacion Socio- Economica Nacional) asked about migration status in Chile for the first time in 2006 and provides an opportunity to set the base for future analysis of available migration data. We explored the living conditions and health of self-reported immigrants and respondents who preferred not to report their migration status in this survey. Cross-sectional secondary analysis of CASEN survey in Chile in 2006. any disability, illness/accident, hospitalization/surgery, cancer/chronic condition (all binary variables); and the number of medical/emergency attentions received (count variables). Covariates: Demographics (age, sex, marital status, urban/rural, ethnicity), socioeconomic status (education level, employment status and household income), and material standard of living (overcrowding, sanitation, housing quality). Weighted regression models were estimated for each health outcome, crude and adjusted by sets of covariates, in STATA 10.0. About 1% of the total sample reported being immigrants and 0.7% preferred not to report their migration status (Migration Status - Missing Values; MS-MV). The MS-MV lived in more deprived conditions and reported a higher rate of health problems than immigrants. Some gender differences were observed by health status among immigrants and the MS-MV but they were not statistically significant. Regressions indicated that age, sex, SES and material factors consistently affected MS-MVs' chance of presenting poor health and these patterns were different to those found among immigrants. Great heterogeneity in both the MS-MV and the immigrants, as indicated by wide confidence intervals, prevented the identification

  16. What are the living conditions and health status of those who don’t report their migration status? a population-based study in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Undocumented immigrants are likely to be missing from population databases, making it impossible to identify an accurate sampling frame in migration research. No population-based data has been collected in Chile regarding the living conditions and health status of undocumented immigrants. However, the CASEN survey (Caracterizacion Socio- Economica Nacional) asked about migration status in Chile for the first time in 2006 and provides an opportunity to set the base for future analysis of available migration data. We explored the living conditions and health of self-reported immigrants and respondents who preferred not to report their migration status in this survey. Methods Cross-sectional secondary analysis of CASEN survey in Chile in 2006. Outcomes: any disability, illness/accident, hospitalization/surgery, cancer/chronic condition (all binary variables); and the number of medical/emergency attentions received (count variables). Covariates: Demographics (age, sex, marital status, urban/rural, ethnicity), socioeconomic status (education level, employment status and household income), and material standard of living (overcrowding, sanitation, housing quality). Weighted regression models were estimated for each health outcome, crude and adjusted by sets of covariates, in STATA 10.0. Results About 1% of the total sample reported being immigrants and 0.7% preferred not to report their migration status (Migration Status - Missing Values; MS-MV). The MS-MV lived in more deprived conditions and reported a higher rate of health problems than immigrants. Some gender differences were observed by health status among immigrants and the MS-MV but they were not statistically significant. Regressions indicated that age, sex, SES and material factors consistently affected MS-MVs’ chance of presenting poor health and these patterns were different to those found among immigrants. Great heterogeneity in both the MS-MV and the immigrants, as indicated by wide confidence

  17. A Malay version of the Child Oral Impacts on Daily Performances (Child-OIDP index: assessing validity and reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusof Zamros YM

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study aimed to develop and test a Malay version of the Child-OIDP index, evaluate its psychometric properties and report on the prevalence of oral impacts on eight daily performances in a sample of 11–12 year old Malaysian schoolchildren. Methods The Child-OIDP index was translated from English into Malay. The Malay version was tested for reliability and validity on a non-random sample of 132, 11–12 year old schoolchildren from two urban schools in Kuala Lumpur. Psychometric analysis of the Malay Child-OIDP involved face, content, criterion and construct validity tests as well as internal and test-retest reliability. Non-parametric statistical methods were used to assess relationships between Child-OIDP scores and other subjective outcome measures. Results The standardised Cronbach’s alpha was 0.80 and the weighted Kappa was 0.84 (intraclass correlation = 0.79. The index showed significant associations with different subjective measures viz. perceived satisfaction with mouth, perceived needs for dental treatment, perceived oral health status and toothache experience in the previous 3 months (p  Conclusion This study indicated that the Malay Child-OIDP index is a valid and reliable instrument to measure the oral impacts of daily performances in 11–12 year old urban schoolchildren in Malaysia.

  18. Al-Attas’ Philosophy of History on the Arrival and Proliferation of Islam in the Malay World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AZMUL FAHIMI KAMARUZAMAN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the philosophy of history of Syed Muhammad Naquib al-Attas on the theory of the arrival and spread of Islam in the Malay world, particularly in his work ‘Historical Facts and Fictions’. This philosophy of history is consequent to al-Attas' critical research contained in his previous works such as ‘Preliminary Statement on a General Theory of The Islamization of the Malay-Indonesian Archipelago’ (1969, ‘Islam in the Malay History and Culture’ (1972 and ‘The Correct Date of the Terengganu Inscription’ (1972. This study analyses these works and his other works to look into the aspects of history and historiography contained in the philosophy of history of al-Attas on the arrival and spread of Islam in the Malay world in terms of their scope, sources and history methods. This study found that in terms of epistemology al-Attas has contributed in creating a theoretical framework and a novel approach to the philosophy of history of the history of Islam in the Malay world.

  19. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis Infection and Its Association with Sexual Behaviour and Alcohol Use in the Population Living in Separated and Segregated Roma Settlements in Eastern Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babinská, Ingrid; Halánová, Monika; Kalinová, Zuzana; Čechová, Lenka; Čisláková, Lýdia; Madarasová Gecková, Andrea

    2017-12-14

    The aim of the study was to explore sexual behaviour and the occurrence of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection in the population living in Roma settlements compared to the majority population in Slovakia and to assess the association between alcohol use and sexual behaviour within both populations. A cross-sectional population-based Hepa-Meta study was conducted in Slovakia in 2011. The final sample comprised 452 Roma and 403 non-Roma respondents. The occurrence of CT was detected by direct proof of the pathogen by PCR. The association between alcohol use and the prevalence of risky sexual behaviour were assessed using a logistic regression. First intercourse at age 15 or younger was reported by 27.9% of Roma (vs. 4.5% of non-Roma); 93.4% of Roma (vs. 77.9% of non-Roma) used condom inconsistently, 22.8% of Roma (vs. 43.9% of non-Roma) used a condom for protection from unwanted pregnancies and only 8.8% of Roma (vs. 21.8% of non-Roma) due to protection against infectious diseases. However, Roma reported having had five or more sexual partners less often compared to the majority (11.5% of Roma vs. 20.6% of non-Roma). Binge drinking at least once a month was associated with a higher number of sexual partners in both groups, but not with condom non-use. The prevalence of CT infection in the Roma population was higher (3.8%) compared to non-Roma (2.7%); however, the difference was not statistically significant. Our study found no differences in the prevalence of CT infection between Roma and non-Roma despite differences in sexual behaviour. Roma begin their sexual life earlier and have unprotected sex more often, but on the other hand, they seem to be much more restrained in terms of the number of sexual partners compared to the majority population.

  20. Novel microchip-based tools facilitating live cell imaging and assessment of functional heterogeneity within NK cell populations

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    Elin eForslund

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Each individual has a heterogeneous pool of NK cells consisting of cells that may be specialized towards specific functional responses such as secretion of cytokines or killing of tumor cells. Many conventional methods are not fit to characterize heterogeneous populations as they measure the average response of all cells. Thus, there is a need for experimental platforms that provide single cell resolution. In addition, there are also transient and stochastic variations in functional responses at the single cell level, calling for methods that allow studies of many events over extended times. This paper presents a versatile microchip platform enabling long-term microscopic studies of individual NK cells interacting with target cells. Each microchip contains an array of microwells, optimized for medium or high-resolution time-lapse imaging of single or multiple NK and target cells, or for screening of thousands of isolated NK-target cell interactions. Individual NK cells confined with target cells in small microwells is a suitable setup for high-content screening and rapid assessment of heterogeneity within populations, while microwells of larger dimensions are appropriate for studies of NK cell migration and sequential interactions with multiple target cells. By combining the chip technology with ultrasonic manipulation, NK and target cells can be forced to interact and positioned with high spatial accuracy within individual microwells. This setup effectively and synchronously creates NK-target conjugates at hundreds of parallel positions in the microchip. Thus, this facilitates assessment of temporal aspects of NK-target cell interactions, e.g. conjugation, immune synapse formation and cytotoxic events. The microchip platform presented here can be used to effectively address questions related to fundamental functions of NK cells that can lead to better understanding of how the behavior of individual cells add up to give a functional response at

  1. Impact of valvular heart disease on activities of daily living of nonagenarians: the Leiden 85-plus study a population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bemmel, Thomas; Delgado, Victoria; Bax, Jeroen J; Gussekloo, Jacobijn; Blauw, Gerard J; Westendorp, Rudi G; Holman, Eduard R

    2010-04-01

    Data on the prevalence of valvular heart disease in very old individuals are scarce and based mostly on in-hospital series. In addition, the potential detrimental effect of valvular heart disease on the activities of daily living is unknown. The present study evaluated the prevalence of significant valvular heart disease and the impact of valvular heart disease on the activities of daily living in community dwelling nonagenarians. Nested within the Leiden 85-plus study, a population based follow-up study of the oldest old, a sample of 81 nonagenarians was recruited. The left ventricular (LV) dimensions, function and the presence and severity of heart valvular disease were evaluated by echocardiography. Significant valvular heart disease included any mitral or aortic stenosis severity, moderate or severe mitral regurgitation, moderate or severe aortic regurgitation and moderate or severe tricuspid regurgitation. Activities of daily living were assessed using the Groningen Activity Restriction Scale (GARS). LV cavity diameters (end-diastolic diameter 47 +/- 8 mm, end-systolic diameter 30 +/- 8 mm) and systolic LV function (LV ejection fraction 66 +/- 13%) were within normal for the majority of the participants. Significant valvular disease was present in 57 (70%) individuals, with mitral regurgitation and aortic regurgitation as the most frequent valve diseases (49% and 28% respectively). The GARS score between individuals with and without significant valvular heart disease was similar (36.2 +/- 9.2 vs. 34.4 +/- 13.2, p = 0.5). Nonagenarian, outpatient individuals have a high prevalence of significant valvular heart disease. However, no relation was observed between the presence of significant valvular heart disease and the ability to perform activities of daily living.

  2. At Work..., and Poor? A Look at the Czech Working Poor Population in the Living Conditions Survey (EU-SILC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarka Sustova

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the article is to analyse the working poor employees and their household's social situation in the national income and living conditions survey (EU-SILC. The analysis starts with the definition of the two main groups of employees according to the number of months spent in the full-time employment - those working whole year and those employed for 6 to 11 months. Poverty in earned income concept is used to evaluate poverty at individual level, confronting employee's income with single person household poverty line benchmark. The study then moves to the household level poverty measure based on household's disposable equivalised income. When shifting from the individual income to the household's one the economies of scale represented by an implicit or explicit equivalence scale used in the construction of the household poverty measure play a crucial role. Therefore, attention is paid to the comparison of poverty level based on equivalised disposable income using equivalence scales and per-capita income. At the end, material deprivation of different subgroups of employees according to their poverty status is examined.

  3. Heart Failure and Frailty in the Community-Living Elderly Population: What the UFO Study Will Tell Us.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Erik; Hui, Elsie; Yang, Xiaobo; Lui, Leong T; Cheng, King F; Li, Qi; Fan, Yiting; Sahota, Daljit S; Ma, Bosco H M; Lee, Jenny S W; Lee, Alex P W; Woo, Jean

    2018-01-01

    Heart failure and frailty are clinical syndromes that present with overlapping phenotypic characteristics. Importantly, their co-presence is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. While mechanical and electrical device therapies for heart failure are vital for select patients with advanced stage disease, the majority of patients and especially those with undiagnosed heart failure would benefit from early disease detection and prompt initiation of guideline-directed medical therapies. In this article, we review the problematic interactions between heart failure and frailty, introduce a focused cardiac screening program for community-living elderly initiated by a mobile communication device app leading to the Undiagnosed heart Failure in frail Older individuals (UFO) study, and discuss how the knowledge of pre-frailty and frailty status could be exploited for the detection of previously undiagnosed heart failure or advanced cardiac disease. The widespread use of mobile devices coupled with increasing availability of novel, effective medical and minimally invasive therapies have incentivized new approaches to heart failure case finding and disease management.

  4. Heart Failure and Frailty in the Community-Living Elderly Population: What the UFO Study Will Tell Us

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Fung

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Heart failure and frailty are clinical syndromes that present with overlapping phenotypic characteristics. Importantly, their co-presence is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. While mechanical and electrical device therapies for heart failure are vital for select patients with advanced stage disease, the majority of patients and especially those with undiagnosed heart failure would benefit from early disease detection and prompt initiation of guideline-directed medical therapies. In this article, we review the problematic interactions between heart failure and frailty, introduce a focused cardiac screening program for community-living elderly initiated by a mobile communication device app leading to the Undiagnosed heart Failure in frail Older individuals (UFO study, and discuss how the knowledge of pre-frailty and frailty status could be exploited for the detection of previously undiagnosed heart failure or advanced cardiac disease. The widespread use of mobile devices coupled with increasing availability of novel, effective medical and minimally invasive therapies have incentivized new approaches to heart failure case finding and disease management.

  5. Heart Failure and Frailty in the Community-Living Elderly Population: What the UFO Study Will Tell Us

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Erik; Hui, Elsie; Yang, Xiaobo; Lui, Leong T.; Cheng, King F.; Li, Qi; Fan, Yiting; Sahota, Daljit S.; Ma, Bosco H. M.; Lee, Jenny S. W.; Lee, Alex P. W.; Woo, Jean

    2018-01-01

    Heart failure and frailty are clinical syndromes that present with overlapping phenotypic characteristics. Importantly, their co-presence is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. While mechanical and electrical device therapies for heart failure are vital for select patients with advanced stage disease, the majority of patients and especially those with undiagnosed heart failure would benefit from early disease detection and prompt initiation of guideline-directed medical therapies. In this article, we review the problematic interactions between heart failure and frailty, introduce a focused cardiac screening program for community-living elderly initiated by a mobile communication device app leading to the Undiagnosed heart Failure in frail Older individuals (UFO) study, and discuss how the knowledge of pre-frailty and frailty status could be exploited for the detection of previously undiagnosed heart failure or advanced cardiac disease. The widespread use of mobile devices coupled with increasing availability of novel, effective medical and minimally invasive therapies have incentivized new approaches to heart failure case finding and disease management. PMID:29740330

  6. Thyroid nodules in the population living around semipalatinsk nuclear test site. Possible implications for dose-response relationships study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhumadilov, Z.

    2006-01-01

    The risk of radiation-induced nodules is higher than the risk for radiation-induced cancer. Risk factors and specific modifiers of the dose-response relationship may vary among different populations and not be well recognized. Many thyroid studies have considered thyroid nodularity itself, but not specific morphological types of thyroid nodules. There are many specific types of thyroid nodules which follow a morphological classification of thyroid lesions, including some congenital and tumor-like conditions. Modern equipment and technique can help us to identify particular specific types of thyroid nodules. In this study we report some results of a clinically applicable approach to materials derived from three studies. From 1999 through 2002, we have screened 571 current residents from 4 exposed and 1 control village near the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site area, who were of similar ages (<20) at the time of major radiation fallout events at the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS). Prevalent nodules were identified by ultrasound and fine-needle aspiration biopsy, cytopathology results. Analysis of ultrasound images and cytopathology of thyroid lesions among exposed and non-exposed population allowed us to distinguish some interesting ultrasound features for specific types of thyroid nodules. We believe that it would be interesting and possibly more informative for thyroid dosimetry studies to consider specific morphological types of thyroid nodules. We need more detailed research to clarify the feasibility of applying these findings for study of the dose-response relationship. (author)

  7. Reliability and validity of the Malay translated version of diabetes quality of life for youth questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamaiyah H

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Many studies reported poorer quality of life (QoL in youth with diabetes compared to healthy peers. One of the tools used is the Diabetes Quality of Life for Youth (DQoLY questionnaire in English. A validated instrument in Malay is needed to assess the perception of QoL among youth with diabetes in Malaysia. Objective: To translate the modified version, i.e., the DQoLY questionnaire,into Malay and determine its reliability and validity.Methods: Translation and back-translation were used. An expert panel reviewed the translated version for conceptual and content equivalence. The final version was then administered to youths with type 1 diabetes mellitus from the universities and Ministry of Health hospitals between August 2006 and September 2007. Reliability was analysed using Cronbach’s alpha, while validity was confirmed using concurrent validity (HbA1c and self-rated health score.Results: A total of 82 youths with type 1 diabetes (38 males aged 10-18 years were enrolled from eight hospitals. The reliability of overall questionnaire was 0.917, and the reliabilities of the three domains ranged from 0.832 to 0.867. HbA1c was positively correlated with worry (p=0.03. The self-rated health score was found to have significant negative correlation with the “satisfaction” (p=0.013 and “impact” (p=0.007 domains.Conclusion: The Malay translated version of DQoLY questionnaire was reliable and valid to be used among youths with type 2 diabetes in Malaysia.

  8. Immunomodulatory Effectiveness of Aqueous Obat Pahit Extract of Lingga Malay Ethnic on White Rats (Rattus novergicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitmawati Fitmawati

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Obat pahit has been generally known and believed by Lingga Malay society as anti-aging agent. However, the study of Obat pahit is not scientifically proven. This research was aimed to prove immunomodulatory ability of Obat pahit potion from Lingga, Riau Archipelago. This study used white rats as an animal modelling, and Staphylococcus aureus as bacteria tester. The rats had been treated with aqueous Obat pahit extract from three TMPs on dose scales of 0.09, 0.18 and 0.27 mL/200g of body weight through oral administration for 7 days. Furthermore, on the 8th days, the experiment animals were injected by the preparation of bacteria tester through intraperitoneal administration in the amount of 0.5 mL/200 gram of body weigth and subsequently incubated for 1 hour after the injection. There were 2 observed parameters on this study, i.e efectivity and capacity of phagocytosis by leukocytes. The observation of leukocytes-phagocytocis activity was carried out by making a smear preparat samples of peritoneum fluid from rats. After the observation under microscope on a magnification of 100 times. The result was obtained the Obat pahit from Kalan PMT swere more effective on dose 2, while from SP4 and Linau TMPs were much more effective on dose 1. It is therefore, using these data of the results, the advanced doses scale of this Obat pahit would not be necessary. Obat pahit potion from Malay Lingga Malay Ethnic could become raw materials of immunomodulatory herbal medicine based on traditional knowledge. It also potentially as a standardized herbal.

  9. Multi-layered population structure in Island Southeast Asians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mörseburg, Alexander; Pagani, Luca; Ricaut, Francois-Xavier; Yngvadottir, Bryndis; Harney, Eadaoin; Castillo, Cristina; Hoogervorst, Tom; Antao, Tiago; Kusuma, Pradiptajati; Brucato, Nicolas; Cardona, Alexia; Pierron, Denis; Letellier, Thierry; Wee, Joseph; Abdullah, Syafiq; Metspalu, Mait; Kivisild, Toomas

    2016-01-01

    The history of human settlement in Southeast Asia has been complex and involved several distinct dispersal events. Here, we report the analyses of 1825 individuals from Southeast Asia including new genome-wide genotype data for 146 individuals from three Mainland Southeast Asian (Burmese, Malay and Vietnamese) and four Island Southeast Asian (Dusun, Filipino, Kankanaey and Murut) populations. While confirming the presence of previously recognised major ancestry components in the Southeast Asian population structure, we highlight the Kankanaey Igorots from the highlands of the Philippine Mountain Province as likely the closest living representatives of the source population that may have given rise to the Austronesian expansion. This conclusion rests on independent evidence from various analyses of autosomal data and uniparental markers. Given the extensive presence of trade goods, cultural and linguistic evidence of Indian influence in Southeast Asia starting from 2.5 kya, we also detect traces of a South Asian signature in different populations in the region dating to the last couple of thousand years. PMID:27302840

  10. An association between urinary cadmium and urinary stone disease in persons living in cadmium-contaminated villages in northwestern Thailand: A population study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya; Mahasakpan, Pranee; Limpatanachote, Pisit; Krintratun, Somyot

    2011-01-01

    Excessive urinary calcium excretion is the major risk of urinary stone formation. Very few population studies have been performed to determine the relationship between environmental cadmium exposure and urinary stone disease. This population-based study examined an association between urinary cadmium excretion, a good biomarker of long-term cadmium exposure, and prevalence of urinary stones in persons aged 15 years and older, who lived in the 12 cadmium-contaminated villages in the Mae Sot District, Tak Province, northwestern Thailand. A total of 6748 persons were interviewed and screened for urinary cadmium and urinary stone disease in 2009. To test a correlation between urinary excretion of cadmium and calcium, we measured urinary calcium content in 1492 persons, who lived in 3 villages randomly selected from the 12 contaminated villages. The rate of urinary stones significantly increased from 4.3% among persons in the lowest quartile of urinary cadmium to 11.3% in the highest quartile. An increase in stone prevalence with increasing urinary cadmium levels was similarly observed in both genders. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed a positive association between urinary cadmium levels and stone prevalence, after adjusting for other co-variables. The urinary calcium excretion significantly increased with increasing urinary cadmium levels in both genders, after adjusting for other co-variables. Elevated calciuria induced by cadmium might increase the risk of urinary stone formation in this environmentally exposed population. - Research highlights: → Excessive calciuria is the major risk of urinary stone formation. → We examine cadmium-exposed persons for urinary cadmium, calcium, and stones. → The rate of urinary stones increases with increasing urinary cadmium. → Urinary calcium excretion increases with increasing urinary cadmium. → Elevated calciuria induced by cadmium may increase the risk of urinary stones.

  11. Population-Level Differentiation in Growth Rates and Leaf Traits in Seedlings of the Neotropical Live Oak Quercus oleoides Grown under Natural and Manipulated Precipitation Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose A. Ramírez-Valiente

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Widely distributed species are normally subjected to spatial heterogeneity in environmental conditions. In sessile organisms like plants, adaptive evolution and phenotypic plasticity of key functional traits are the main mechanisms through which species can respond to environmental heterogeneity and climate change. While extended research has been carried out in temperate species in this regard, there is still limited knowledge as to how species from seasonally-dry tropical climates respond to spatial and temporal variation in environmental conditions. In fact, studies of intraspecific genetically-based differences in functional traits are still largely unknown and studies in these ecosystems have largely focused on in situ comparisons where environmental and genetic effects cannot be differentiated. In this study, we tested for ecotypic differentiation and phenotypic plasticity in leaf economics spectrum (LES traits, water use efficiency and growth rates under natural and manipulated precipitation regimes in a common garden experiment where seedlings of eight populations of the neotropical live oak Quercus oleoides were established. We also examined the extent to which intraspecific trait variation was associated with plant performance under different water availability. Similar to interspecific patterns among seasonally-dry tropical tree species, live oak populations with long and severe dry seasons had higher leaf nitrogen content and growth rates than mesic populations, which is consistent with a “fast” resource-acquisition strategy aimed to maximize carbon uptake during the wet season. Specific leaf area (SLA was the best predictor of plant performance, but contrary to expectations, it was negatively associated with relative and absolute growth rates. This observation was partially explained by the negative association between SLA and area-based photosynthetic rates, which is contrary to LES expectations but similar to other recent

  12. Does arsenic in soil contribute to arsenic urinary concentrations in a French population living in a naturally arsenic contaminated area?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillol, Clemence; Dor, Frederic; Clozel, Blandine; Goria, Sarah; Seta, Nathalie

    2010-01-01

    A cross sectional study using environmental and biological samples was implemented to assess the association between arsenic (As) concentrations in the environment and urinary As levels of residents living in an area where the soil is naturally As rich. As was measured in drinking water, atmospheric particulate matter, and soil and a geographic information system was used to assign environmental concentrations closest to the participants' dwellings and the sum of inorganic As and metabolites in urine samples. The only potential source of As environmental contamination was from soil with a range of 13-131 mg As/kg of dry matter. As(V) was the only species present among As extracted from the analyzed soil samples. The chemical extraction showed a poor mobility of As soil. There was no difference between child and teenager, and adult urinary As concentrations, though men had higher urinary As concentrations than women (p < 0.001). Given the important differences in lifestyle between 7-18 year olds, men, and women, these groups were analyzed separately. Whilst we were unable to find a stable model for the 7-18 year old group, for the adult men group we found that seafood consumption in the 3 days prior to the investigation (p = 0.02), and beer (p = 0.03) and wine consumption in the 4 days before the study, were associated with As urinary levels (μg/L). In adult women, creatinine was the only variable significantly associated with As urinary concentration (μg/L). The concentrations we measured in soils were variable and although high, only moderately so and no link between As concentrations in the soil and urinary As concentrations could be found for either men or women. Some individual factors explained half of the variability of adult men urinary As levels. The unexplained part of the variability should be searched notably in As mobility in soil and uncharacterized human behavior.

  13. Does arsenic in soil contribute to arsenic urinary concentrations in a French population living in a naturally arsenic contaminated area?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fillol, Clemence, E-mail: c.fillol@invs.sante.fr [Universite Paris Descartes, Laboratoire Sante Publique et Environnement, EA 4064, Paris (France); Institut de Veille Sanitaire, Departement Sante Environnement, Saint-Maurice (France); Dor, Frederic [Institut de Veille Sanitaire, Departement Sante Environnement, Saint-Maurice (France); Clozel, Blandine [BRGM French Geological Survey, Service Geologique Regional Lorraine, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Goria, Sarah [Institut de Veille Sanitaire, Departement Sante Environnement, Saint-Maurice (France); Seta, Nathalie [Universite Paris Descartes, Laboratoire Sante Publique et Environnement, EA 4064, Paris (France); AP-HP, Hopital Bichat-Claude Bernard, Biochimie, Paris (France)

    2010-11-01

    A cross sectional study using environmental and biological samples was implemented to assess the association between arsenic (As) concentrations in the environment and urinary As levels of residents living in an area where the soil is naturally As rich. As was measured in drinking water, atmospheric particulate matter, and soil and a geographic information system was used to assign environmental concentrations closest to the participants' dwellings and the sum of inorganic As and metabolites in urine samples. The only potential source of As environmental contamination was from soil with a range of 13-131 mg As/kg of dry matter. As(V) was the only species present among As extracted from the analyzed soil samples. The chemical extraction showed a poor mobility of As soil. There was no difference between child and teenager, and adult urinary As concentrations, though men had higher urinary As concentrations than women (p < 0.001). Given the important differences in lifestyle between 7-18 year olds, men, and women, these groups were analyzed separately. Whilst we were unable to find a stable model for the 7-18 year old group, for the adult men group we found that seafood consumption in the 3 days prior to the investigation (p = 0.02), and beer (p = 0.03) and wine consumption in the 4 days before the study, were associated with As urinary levels ({mu}g/L). In adult women, creatinine was the only variable significantly associated with As urinary concentration ({mu}g/L). The concentrations we measured in soils were variable and although high, only moderately so and no link between As concentrations in the soil and urinary As concentrations could be found for either men or women. Some individual factors explained half of the variability of adult men urinary As levels. The unexplained part of the variability should be searched notably in As mobility in soil and uncharacterized human behavior.

  14. PROCESSION OF "TEPUNG TAWAR" AS AN ALTERNATIVE SOLUTION FOR CRIMINAL CASE IN MALAY CUSTOM LAW OF RIAU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdianto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of the principle of legality in criminal law enforcement Indonesia in fact has caused some problems in the case and piling them over the prison capacity. It is necessary to find a model that is based on the completion of criminal cases and restorative local wisdom . One model that is “tepung tawar” in Malay society . Through empirical legal research found that the model completion of minor criminal matters in the Malay community is not united in procession “tepuk tepung tawar” but in other models, namely the density “ninik mamak” or different with “tepung tawar” practices applied in Jambi and South Sumatra , but the settlement of disputes and several criminal cases in the Malay community is also done with a model of restorative approaches .

  15. Comparison of blood serum selenium concentrations from elderly population living in Sao Paulo city and literature data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiki, Mitiko; Alves, Edson R.; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A.; Sumita, Nairo M.; Jaluul, Omar; Jacob Filho, Wilson

    2005-01-01

    Selenium is an essential nutrient of fundamental importance to human biology. This element is a component of the enzyme glutathione peroxidase that avoids the formation of free radicals protecting the organism against the oxidative damage. The Se concentrations in serum vary from one part of the world to another and this fact has been satisfactorily explained as a consequence of different Se intakes of the population. The main objective of this paper was the determination of serum Se concentrations in healthy elderly population included in a program for 'Successful Ageing' of the Hospital das Clinicas, Sao Paulo University Medical School. The blood samples were collected after a 12 h fast from 32 subjects aged 60 to 87 years. The blood was centrifuged after completely clotted and 4.0 mL of serum were freeze.dried for Se determination using neutron activation analysis. The serum samples and Se standard were irradiated for 16 h under a thermal neutron flux of de 5 x 10 12 n cm - '2 s -1 at the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor. Se was determined by measuring the gamma activity of 75 Se using an HGe detector coupled to a gamma ray spectrometer. The mean value of (0.92±0.07) μmol L -1 was obtained for serum Se concentration. This value is within the data used as reference values in clinical laboratories and those published in literature. Results obtained for certified reference materials NIST 1566b Oyster Tissue and NIST 1577b Bovine Liver showed good precision and agreed with the certified values. The relative standard deviation of the results was lower than 4.8 % and relative error lower than 0.97 %. Detection limit value obtained for serum Se determination was 0.003 μmol L-1. (author)

  16. Book Review Who lives where. Habitability conditions of the population living in the great Andalusian cities / Reseña Del Libro Quién vive dónde. Las condiciones de habitabilidad de la población que vive en las grandes ciudades andaluzas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Sánchez González

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Book Review Who lives where. Habitability conditions of the population living in the great Andalusian cities Reseña Del Libro Quién vive dónde. Las condiciones de habitabilidad de la población que vive en las grandes ciudades andaluzas

  17. The Design of Video Games in the Implementation of Malay Language Learning among Foreign Students in an Institution of Higher Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosman, Fuziah; Alias, Norlidah; Rahman, Mohd Nazri Abdul; Dewitt, Dorothy

    2015-01-01

    This study aims at reviewing the curriculum design by including video games in the implementation of the Malay language course at an Institute of Higher Learning. The objective of this study is to obtain expert opinion on the expected manner of implementation of video games in learning the Malay language. The Fuzzy Delphi technique (FDM) is used…

  18. Living conditions, including life style, in primary-care patients with nonacute, nonspecific spinal pain compared with a population-based sample: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odd Lindell

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Odd Lindell, Sven-Erik Johansson, Lars-Erik Strender1Center for Family and Community Medicine, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, SwedenBackground: Nonspecific spinal pain (NSP, comprising back and/or neck pain, is one of the leading disorders behind long-term sick-listing, including disability pensions. Early interventions to prevent long-term sick-listing require the identification of patients at risk. The aim of this study was to compare living conditions associated with long-term sick-listing for NSP in patients with nonacute NSP, with a nonpatient population-based sample. Nonacute NSP is pain that leads to full-time sick-listing>3 weeks.Methods: One hundred and twenty-five patients with nonacute NSP, 2000–2004, were included in a randomized controlled trial in Stockholm County with the objective of comparing cognitive–behavioral rehabilitation with traditional primary care. For these patients, a cross-sectional study was carried out with baseline data. Living conditions were compared between the patients and 338 nonpatients by logistic regression. The conditions from univariate analyses were included in a multivariate analysis. The nonsignificant variables were excluded sequentially to yield a model comprising only the significant factors (P <0.05. The results are shown as odds ratios (OR with 95% confidence intervals.Results: In the univariate analyses, 13 of the 18 living conditions had higher odds for the patients with a dominance of physical work strains and Indication of alcohol over-consumption, odds ratio (OR 14.8 (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.2–67.6. Five conditions qualified for the multivariate model: High physical workload, OR 13.7 (CI 5.9–32.2; Hectic work tempo, OR 8.4 (CI 2.5–28.3; Blue-collar job, OR 4.5 (CI 1.8–11.4; Obesity, OR 3.5 (CI 1.2–10.2; and Low education, OR 2.7 (CI 1.1–6.8.Conclusions: As most of the living conditions have previously been

  19. Living alone, obesity, and smoking increase risk for suicide independently of depressive mood findings from the population-based MONICA/KORA Augsburg cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Barbara; Lukaschek, Karoline; Baumert, Jens; Meisinger, Christa; Erazo, Natalia; Ladwig, Karl-Heinz

    2014-01-01

    Suicide is strongly associated with mental disorders, particularly with depression. There is insufficient knowledge to what extent sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics contribute to suicide risk. A population-based cohort study on three independent cross-sectional MONICA/KORA Augsburg surveys with 12,888 subjects (6456 men, 6432 women) was followed up on average for 12.0 years. Information on sociodemographic characteristics, chronic disease conditions, smoking habits, alcohol consumption, depressive symptoms, personality type, and other psychodiagnostic parameters was assessed by standardized interviews. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used to compute hazard ratios (HRs) as estimates of relative risks for suicide mortality. Additionally, population-attributable risks were calculated. Within the follow-up period, a total of 1449 persons had died, 38 of them by suicide. Although several variables were associated with increased risk in the basic analyses, only obesity (HR=2.73), smoking (HR=2.23), and living alone (HR=2.19) remained significantly associated with suicide additionally to male sex (HR=3.57) and depressed mood (HR=2.01) in a multivariate analysis. The generalization of our findings to countries with different social, economic or cultural conditions may be questioned. Our findings extend the knowledge about sociodemographic and behavioral risk factors for suicide in the general population: Suicide prevention measures should not consider only subjects with mental disorders but also address other adverse conditions. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Correlations of urinary cadmium with hypertension and diabetes in persons living in cadmium-contaminated villages in northwestern Thailand: A population study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya, E-mail: swaddi@hotmail.com [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Mahasakpan, Pranee [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Limpatanachote, Pisit; Krintratun, Somyot [Department of Internal Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak (Thailand)

    2010-08-15

    Risk for hypertension and diabetes has not been conclusively found to be a result of cadmium exposure. A population-based study was conducted in 2009 to examine the correlations of urinary cadmium, a good biomarker of long-term cadmium exposure, with hypertension and diabetes in persons aged 35 years and older who lived in the 12 cadmium-contaminated rural villages in northwestern Thailand. A total of 5273 persons were interviewed and screened for urinary cadmium, hypertension, and diabetes. The geometric mean level of urinary cadmium for women (2.4{+-}2.3 {mu}g/g creatinine) was significantly greater than that for men (2.0{+-}2.2 {mu}g/g creatinine). Hypertension was presented in 29.8% of the study population and diabetes was detected in 6.6%. The prevalence of hypertension significantly increased from 25.0% among persons in the lowest tertile of urinary cadmium to 35.0% in the highest tertile. In women, the rate of hypertension significantly increased with increasing urinary cadmium levels in both ever and never smokers, after adjusting for age, alcohol consumption, body mass index, and diabetes. In men, such association was less significantly found in never smokers. The study revealed no significant association between urinary cadmium and diabetes in either gender. Our study supports the hypothesis that environmental exposure to cadmium may increase the risk of hypertension. Risk for diabetes in relation to cadmium exposure remains uncertain in this exposed population.

  1. Correlations of urinary cadmium with hypertension and diabetes in persons living in cadmium-contaminated villages in northwestern Thailand: A population study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya; Mahasakpan, Pranee; Limpatanachote, Pisit; Krintratun, Somyot

    2010-01-01

    Risk for hypertension and diabetes has not been conclusively found to be a result of cadmium exposure. A population-based study was conducted in 2009 to examine the correlations of urinary cadmium, a good biomarker of long-term cadmium exposure, with hypertension and diabetes in persons aged 35 years and older who lived in the 12 cadmium-contaminated rural villages in northwestern Thailand. A total of 5273 persons were interviewed and screened for urinary cadmium, hypertension, and diabetes. The geometric mean level of urinary cadmium for women (2.4±2.3 μg/g creatinine) was significantly greater than that for men (2.0±2.2 μg/g creatinine). Hypertension was presented in 29.8% of the study population and diabetes was detected in 6.6%. The prevalence of hypertension significantly increased from 25.0% among persons in the lowest tertile of urinary cadmium to 35.0% in the highest tertile. In women, the rate of hypertension significantly increased with increasing urinary cadmium levels in both ever and never smokers, after adjusting for age, alcohol consumption, body mass index, and diabetes. In men, such association was less significantly found in never smokers. The study revealed no significant association between urinary cadmium and diabetes in either gender. Our study supports the hypothesis that environmental exposure to cadmium may increase the risk of hypertension. Risk for diabetes in relation to cadmium exposure remains uncertain in this exposed population.

  2. Actinides and long-lived radionuclides in tissues of the Japanese population. Summary of the past 20-year studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takizawa, Y.; Abe, T.; Yamashita, J.

    2000-01-01

    Radioactive fallout constitutes the major source of contamination of the environment with fission products. Our primary interest was in selected fission products, such as 131 I, 89 Sr, 90 Sr, and 137 Cs, and neutron activation products, such as 3 H and 14 C. Plutonium-239,240, 241 Am and 90 Tc are generated from nuclear tests, and they are important by-products on nuclear industries. Polonium-210, 210 Pb and 232 Th, 230 Th and 228 Th occur widely in nature. These radionuclides enter the human body through inhalation and the ingestion through food and water. These nuclides may cause radiation doses to certain organs of the body. Assessment of the resulting health hazards is an essential public health activity, which demands reliable techniques for the assay of the various radionuclides in man and his environment. Accumulation of radionuclides from man-made sources and primordial radionuclides in various tissues of the Japanese population is presented. The studies were performed at the Department of Public Health, Akita University School of Medicine, during the periods from 1973 to 1995. (author)

  3. Epidemiology of hematological diseases of adult population living in a zone of Semipalatinsk nuclear test site, 1994-2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akilzhanova, A.; Urazalina, Z.; Urazalin, M.

    2005-01-01

    Analyses of the dynamics of frequency of hematological diseases were conducted in the area of former Semipalatinsk nuclear test site and in different zones of radiation risk during the period of 1994-2003. Hematological diseases were diagnosed in 1,667 persons who were directly exposed to radiation, including their second and third generations. General morbidity of hematological diseases in this period gradually increased from 19.8 to 23.8 per 100,000 population. To observe dynamics of structure of hematological morbidity for the 10-year period we compared the proportion of each disease in 1994, 1999, 2003, i.e., at the beginning, the middle and the end of the observation period. In the analyses, the specific weight of chronic lymphoid leukemia for this period was reduced, the specific weight of acute leukemia increased in 1999 and then decreased in 2003, while chronic myeloid leukemia had no positive dynamics. The increasing tendency of specific weight of autoimmune diseases and pernicious anaemias was marked. There was still a high frequency of blood diseases in the zones of extreme and maximal radiation risk. The changes in structure of hematological diseases in a zone of the former Semipalatinsk nuclear test site are probably related to a hereditable predisposition of radiation induced immune imbalances. (author)

  4. Temperature Effects on Development and Phenotype in a Free-Living Population of Western Pond Turtles (Emys marmorata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Nicole E; Geist, Nicholas R

    Changes in temperature regimes are occurring globally due to climate change as well as habitat alterations. Temperatures are expected to continue to rise in the future, along with a greater degree of climatic instability. Such changes could have potentially serious consequences for oviparous ectotherms, especially those with temperature-dependent sex determination. To investigate the effects of temperature on a range of developmental phenomena in a population of western pond turtles (Emys marmorata), we placed temperature sensors on top of each layer of eggs within nests and recorded temperatures hourly through the first 2-3 mo of incubation. These methods allowed us to look at in situ nest temperatures with high resolution. We found that mean incubation temperatures were similar between different nests and at different levels within nests but that incubation temperature fluctuations and maximum incubation temperatures differed greatly in both cases. The hatchling turtles were more likely to be female if they spent 30% or more of their sex-determining period of incubation above 29°C. Hatching success was best predicted by the maximum incubation temperature. We also found that incubation duration tended to be shorter as the mean temperature increased. However, exposure to either extremely high or low temperatures extended incubation times.

  5. TELLING TALES, PRINT AND THE EXTENSION OF MEDIA: MALAY MEDIA STUDIES BEGINNING WITH ABDULLAH MUNSYI THROUGH SYED SHAYKH AL-HADY AND MAHATHIR MOHAMAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Murad Merican

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The representation and embodiment of Malay identity are certainly complex. How we know ourselves and how we have selected that knowledge determine the facts accumulated about us. What do the Malays make out of media? One assumption says that the Malays are averse to print and more attuned to orality and aurality. There is nevertheless also the category of baca, membaca and cerita which may not fit within the understanding of the European mind. Locating the categories of communication and media in the contexts of meaning, culture and thought may illustrate that the Malays do not share Euro-American presuppositions; at the same time, however, efforts to localise and indigenise the minda, concepts and practices only reattach them to the matrix of globalised modernity. Who represents what? Who represents media to Malay thought? What is being represented and at what levels?

  6. Blastocystis infection in Malaysia: Evidence of waterborne and human-to-human transmissions among the Proto-Malay, Negrito and Senoi tribes of Orang Asli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuar Tengku Shahrul

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Blastocystis has been described as the most common intestinal parasite in humans and has an increased impact on public health. However, the transmission of this parasite has not been conclusively determined. Methods To contribute to a better comprehension of the epidemiology of this infection, a cross-sectional survey aimed at providing the first documented data on the prevalence and risk factors associated with Blastocystis infection was carried out among three Orang Asli tribes (Proto-Malay, Negrito and Senoi in selected villages at Negeri Sembilan, Perak and Pahang, Peninsular Malaysia. Faecal samples were examined by formalin-ether sedimentation and trichrome staining techniques. Results Of 500 individuals, 20.4% (102 were detected positive for Blastocystis; 13.3% (20/150 of Proto-Malays, 21.6% (30/139 of Negritos and 24.7% (52/211 of Senois were positive for Blastocystis, respectively. The positive cases showed a decrease with increasing age and most of the positive cases were observed in individuals less than 15 years old. Multivariate analysis confirmed that drinking untreated water and the presence of other family members infected with Blastocystis were significant risk factors of infection among the three tribes and overall population studied. Conclusion Essentially, the findings highlighted that Blastocystis infection is prevalent among Orang Asli communities in Malaysia. Further studies using molecular approaches to distinguish the subtype of Blastocystis is needed. The present study also revealed that this infection may be transmitted through waterborne and human-to-human contact. Therefore, interventions with the provision of clean water supply for the communities and health education especially to the parents are urgently required.

  7. Blastocystis infection in Malaysia: evidence of waterborne and human-to-human transmissions among the Proto-Malay, Negrito and Senoi tribes of Orang Asli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuar, Tengku Shahrul; Ghani, Mohamed Kamel Abdul; Azreen, Siti Nor; Salleh, Fatmah Md; Moktar, Norhayati

    2013-02-22

    Blastocystis has been described as the most common intestinal parasite in humans and has an increased impact on public health. However, the transmission of this parasite has not been conclusively determined. To contribute to a better comprehension of the epidemiology of this infection, a cross-sectional survey aimed at providing the first documented data on the prevalence and risk factors associated with Blastocystis infection was carried out among three Orang Asli tribes (Proto-Malay, Negrito and Senoi) in selected villages at Negeri Sembilan, Perak and Pahang, Peninsular Malaysia. Faecal samples were examined by formalin-ether sedimentation and trichrome staining techniques. Of 500 individuals, 20.4% (102) were detected positive for Blastocystis; 13.3% (20/150) of Proto-Malays, 21.6% (30/139) of Negritos and 24.7% (52/211) of Senois were positive for Blastocystis, respectively. The positive cases showed a decrease with increasing age and most of the positive cases were observed in individuals less than 15 years old. Multivariate analysis confirmed that drinking untreated water and the presence of other family members infected with Blastocystis were significant risk factors of infection among the three tribes and overall population studied. Essentially, the findings highlighted that Blastocystis infection is prevalent among Orang Asli communities in Malaysia. Further studies using molecular approaches to distinguish the subtype of Blastocystis is needed. The present study also revealed that this infection may be transmitted through waterborne and human-to-human contact. Therefore, interventions with the provision of clean water supply for the communities and health education especially to the parents are urgently required.

  8. Factors associated with vision-related quality of life among the adult population living in Nagorno Karabagh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harutyunyan, T; Giloyan, A; Petrosyan, V

    2017-12-01

    Visual impairment and blindness are major public health problems causing significant suffering, disability, loss of productivity, and diminishing quality of life for millions of people. This study explored the factors associated with the overall vision-related quality of life (VRQoL) and its different domains in the adult population of Nagorno Karabakh and assessed the independent contribution of specific eye diseases to VRQoL. A cross-sectional study. We conducted interviewer-administered survey along with free eye screenings among adult residents of Hadrut and Martuni regions of Nagorno Karabakh (Artsakh) in 2014-2015. The study questionnaire included questions about sociodemographic characteristics, non-communicable diseases, use of eye care services, visual acuity, eye diseases, and VRQoL. National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire-25 (NEI VFQ-25) was used to assess VRQoL. In total, 531 adults participated in the study. The mean age of participants was 60.1 years (standard deviation [SD] = 13.7), ranging from 18 to 90 years. The majority of participants were female (71.4%). The most frequently diagnosed eye disorder was cataract (33.8%). The prevalence of moderate and severe visual impairment was 7.0% and 0.8%, respectively. Almost 2.8% (15) of participants were blind. The mean global score of VFQ-25 in all study participants was 71.1 ± 19.28 (SD), whereas the mean global scores of VFQ-25 among not visually impaired, visually impaired, and blind participants were 74.0 ± 16.47 (SD), 51.7 ± 21.77 (SD), and 30.9 ± 20.2 (SD), respectively. In the adjusted linear regression model having moderate/severe visual impairment or blindness, age, socio-economic status, and having eye diseases such as glaucoma and cataract were significantly associated with VFQ-25 global score. The subscales of near vision, distance vision, peripheral vision, role difficulties, and mental health had significant associations with severe/moderate visual impairment in

  9. Metal-induced stress in bivalves living along a gradient of Cd contamination: relating sub-cellular metal distribution to population-level responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perceval, Olivier; Couillard, Yves; Pinel-Alloul, Bernadette; Giguere, Anik; Campbell, Peter G.C.

    2004-01-01

    The use of biomarkers to assess the impacts of contaminants on aquatic ecosystems has noticeably increased over the past few years. Few of these studies, however, have contributed to the prediction of ecologically significant effects (i.e., at the population or community levels). The present field study was designed to evaluate the potential of metallothionein (MT) and sub-cellular metal partitioning measurements for predicting toxic effects at higher levels of the biological organization in freshwater bivalves (Pyganodon grandis) chronically exposed to Cd. For that purpose, we quantitatively sampled P. grandis populations in the littoral zone of nine lakes on the Precambrian Canadian Shield during two consecutive summers (1998 and 1999); lakes were characterized by contrasting Cd levels but similar trophic status. We tested relationships between the population status of P. grandis (i.e., growth parameters, density, biomass, secondary production, turnover ratio and cumulative fecundity) and (i) ambient Cd concentrations, (ii) sub-organismal responses (MT concentrations in the gill cytosol of individuals and Cd concentrations in three metal-ligand pools identified as M-HMW, the high molecular weight pool, M-MT, the metallothionein-like pool and M-LMW, the low molecular weight pool) and (iii) ecological confounding factors (food resources, presence of host fishes for the obligatory parasitic larval stage of P. grandis). Our results show that littoral density, live weight, dry viscera biomass, production and cumulative fecundity decreased with increasing concentrations of the free-cadmium ion in the environment (Pearson's r ranging from -0.63 to -0.78). On the other hand, theoretical maximum shell lengths (L ∞ ) in our populations were related to both the dissolved Ca concentration and food quality (sestonic C and N concentrations). Overall, Cd concentrations in the gill cytosolic HMW pool of the individual molluscs were the biomarker response that was most

  10. The ammonium content in the Malayer igneous and metamorphic rocks (Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone, Western Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahadnejad, Vahid; Hirt, Ann Marie; Valizadeh, Mohammad-Vali; Bokani, Saeed Jabbari

    2011-04-01

    The ammonium (NH4+) contents of the Malayer area (Western Iran) have been determined by using the colorimetric method on 26 samples from igneous and metamorphic rocks. This is the first analysis of the ammonium contents of Iranian metamorphic and igneous rocks. The average ammonium content of metamorphic rocks decreases from low-grade to high-grade metamorphic rocks (in ppm): slate 580, phyllite 515, andalusite schist 242. In the case of igneous rocks, it decreases from felsic to mafic igneous types (in ppm): granites 39, monzonite 20, diorite 17, gabbro 10. Altered granitic rocks show enrichment in NH4+ (mean 61 ppm). The high concentration of ammonium in Malayer granites may indicate metasedimentary rocks as protoliths rather than meta-igneous rocks. These granitic rocks (S-types) have high K-bearing rock-forming minerals such as biotite, muscovite and K-feldspar which their potassium could substitute with ammonium. In addition, the high ammonium content of metasediments is probably due to inheritance of nitrogen from organic matter in the original sediments. The hydrothermally altered samples of granitic rocks show highly enrichment of ammonium suggesting external sources which intruded additional content by either interaction with metasedimentary country rocks or meteoritic solutions.

  11. Gender classification in children based on speech characteristics: using fundamental and formant frequencies of Malay vowels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zourmand, Alireza; Ting, Hua-Nong; Mirhassani, Seyed Mostafa

    2013-03-01

    Speech is one of the prevalent communication mediums for humans. Identifying the gender of a child speaker based on his/her speech is crucial in telecommunication and speech therapy. This article investigates the use of fundamental and formant frequencies from sustained vowel phonation to distinguish the gender of Malay children aged between 7 and 12 years. The Euclidean minimum distance and multilayer perceptron were used to classify the gender of 360 Malay children based on different combinations of fundamental and formant frequencies (F0, F1, F2, and F3). The Euclidean minimum distance with normalized frequency data achieved a classification accuracy of 79.44%, which was higher than that of the nonnormalized frequency data. Age-dependent modeling was used to improve the accuracy of gender classification. The Euclidean distance method obtained 84.17% based on the optimal classification accuracy for all age groups. The accuracy was further increased to 99.81% using multilayer perceptron based on mel-frequency cepstral coefficients. Copyright © 2013 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Belief in supernatural causes of mental illness among Malay patients: impact on treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razali, S M; Khan, U A; Hasanah, C I

    1996-10-01

    The concept of aetiology of mental illness in 134 Malay patients was investigated by means of a 20-item checklist. About 53% of the patients attributed their illnesses to supernatural agents. Witchcraft and possession by evil spirits were regarded as common causes of illness. The number of patients who believed in supernatural causes of their mental illness was significantly higher among those who had consulted bomohs (Malay traditional healers) than among those who had not consulted them. The belief that mental illness is caused by supernatural agents is firmly held by bomohs, who reinforce this notion in those who seek their advice. Belief in supernatural causes of mental illness was not significantly associated with age, gender, level of education or occupation of the patients. Patients who believed in supernatural causes of mental illness were also found to show poor drug compliance, and the number of such patients at 6 months follow-up was significantly lower than the corresponding figure for those who did not believe in supernatural causes. The importance of understanding the patients' cultural background when treating psychiatric patients is highlighted.

  13. Ethical Concerns About Human Genetic Enhancement in the Malay Science Fiction Novels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isa, Noor Munirah; Hj Safian Shuri, Muhammad Fakhruddin

    2018-02-01

    Advancements in science and technology have not only brought hope to humankind to produce disease-free offspring, but also offer possibilities to genetically enhance the next generation's traits and capacities. Human genetic enhancement, however, raises complex ethical questions, such as to what extent should it be allowed? It has been a great challenge for humankind to develop robust ethical guidelines for human genetic enhancement that address both public concerns and needs. We believe that research about public concerns is necessary prior to developing such guidelines, yet the issues have not been thoroughly investigated in many countries, including Malaysia. Since the novel often functions as a medium for the public to express their concerns, this paper explores ethical concerns about human genetic enhancement expressed in four Malay science fiction novels namely Klon, Leksikon Ledang, Transgenesis Bisikan Rimba and Transgenik Sifar. Religion has a strong influence on the worldview of the Malays therefore some concerns such as playing God are obviously religious. Association of the negative image of scientists as well as the private research companies with the research on human genetic enhancement reflects the authors' concerns about the main motivations for conducting such research and the extent to which such research will benefit society.

  14. Validation of the Malay Version of the Inventory of Functional Status after Childbirth Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norhayati Mohd Noor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study was designed to examine the psychometric properties of Malay version of the Inventory of Functional Status after Childbirth (IFSAC. Design. A cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods. A total of 108 postpartum mothers attending Obstetrics and Gynaecology Clinic, in a tertiary teaching hospital in Malaysia, were involved. Construct validity and internal consistency were performed after the translation, content validity, and face validity process. The data were analyzed using Analysis of Moment Structure version 18 and Statistical Packages for the Social Sciences version 20. Results. The final model consists of four constructs, namely, infant care, personal care, household activities, and social and community activities, with 18 items demonstrating acceptable factor loadings, domain to domain correlation, and best fit (Chi-squared/degree of freedom = 1.678; Tucker-Lewis index = 0.923; comparative fit index = 0.936; and root mean square error of approximation = 0.080. Composite reliability and average variance extracted of the domains ranged from 0.659 to 0.921 and from 0.499 to 0.628, respectively. Conclusion. The study suggested that the four-factor model with 18 items of the Malay version of IFSAC was acceptable to be used to measure functional status after childbirth because it is valid, reliable, and simple.

  15. Validation of the Malay version of the Inventory of Functional Status after Childbirth questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Norhayati Mohd; Aziz, Aniza Abd; Mostapa, Mohd Rosmizaki; Awang, Zainudin

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the psychometric properties of Malay version of the Inventory of Functional Status after Childbirth (IFSAC). A cross-sectional study. A total of 108 postpartum mothers attending Obstetrics and Gynaecology Clinic, in a tertiary teaching hospital in Malaysia, were involved. Construct validity and internal consistency were performed after the translation, content validity, and face validity process. The data were analyzed using Analysis of Moment Structure version 18 and Statistical Packages for the Social Sciences version 20. The final model consists of four constructs, namely, infant care, personal care, household activities, and social and community activities, with 18 items demonstrating acceptable factor loadings, domain to domain correlation, and best fit (Chi-squared/degree of freedom = 1.678; Tucker-Lewis index = 0.923; comparative fit index = 0.936; and root mean square error of approximation = 0.080). Composite reliability and average variance extracted of the domains ranged from 0.659 to 0.921 and from 0.499 to 0.628, respectively. The study suggested that the four-factor model with 18 items of the Malay version of IFSAC was acceptable to be used to measure functional status after childbirth because it is valid, reliable, and simple.

  16. Integrating between Malay culture and conservation in Green campus program: Best practices from Universitas Riau, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwondo, Darmadi, Yunus, Mohd.

    2017-11-01

    Green campus program (GCP) is a policy to optimize the role of the University of Riau in implementing sustainable development. Green campus development is done by integrating Malay culture and conservation in every implementation of the program. We identify the biophysical, economic and socio-cultural characteristics as well as the problems encountered in the campus environment. This study uses desk study, survey, and focus group discussion (FGD). GCP analysis is divided into several stages, namely assess problem, design, implementation, monitor, evaluate and adjust. Bina Widya Campus of Universitas Riau has a good biodiversity of flora and fauna with species characteristics in lowland tropical forest ecosystems. Plant species of the Dipterocarpaceae family are the dominant species, whereas fauna is from reptile, leaves, and mammals. Efforts to maintain and enhance species diversity are undertaken by designing and constructing Arboretum and Ecoedupark for the ex situ conservation of flora and fauna. The enrichment of species is carried out by planting vegetation types that are closely related to Malay culture. On the other hand, the management of the green campus faces challenges in the diverse perceptions of stakeholders with low levels of academic participation. Economically the existence of the campus provides a multiplier effect on the emergence of various economic activities of the community around the campus. Implementation of green university campus of Riau University by integrating Melayu culture and conservation contributes to the creation of green open space which is increasingly widespread and able to support sustainable development, especially in Pekanbaru City.

  17. A magnetic resonance imaging study on the articulatory and acoustic speech parameters of Malay vowels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zourmand, Alireza; Mirhassani, Seyed Mostafa; Ting, Hua-Nong; Bux, Shaik Ismail; Ng, Kwan Hoong; Bilgen, Mehmet; Jalaludin, Mohd Amin

    2014-07-25

    The phonetic properties of six Malay vowels are investigated using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to visualize the vocal tract in order to obtain dynamic articulatory parameters during speech production. To resolve image blurring due to the tongue movement during the scanning process, a method based on active contour extraction is used to track tongue contours. The proposed method efficiently tracks tongue contours despite the partial blurring of MRI images. Consequently, the articulatory parameters that are effectively measured as tongue movement is observed, and the specific shape of the tongue and its position for all six uttered Malay vowels are determined.Speech rehabilitation procedure demands some kind of visual perceivable prototype of speech articulation. To investigate the validity of the measured articulatory parameters based on acoustic theory of speech production, an acoustic analysis based on the uttered vowels by subjects has been performed. As the acoustic speech and articulatory parameters of uttered speech were examined, a correlation between formant frequencies and articulatory parameters was observed. The experiments reported a positive correlation between the constriction location of the tongue body and the first formant frequency, as well as a negative correlation between the constriction location of the tongue tip and the second formant frequency. The results demonstrate that the proposed method is an effective tool for the dynamic study of speech production.

  18. Public knowledge and beliefs about depression among urban and rural Malays in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Loo, Phik-Wern; Furnham, Adrian

    2010-09-01

    This study examined knowledge and beliefs about depression among Malaysian Malays varying in socioeconomic status. A total of 153 urban and 189 rural participants completed a questionnaire in which they had to identify two cases of depression and rate a series of items about the causes and best treatments for depression. Results showed that urban participants were more likely to use psychiatric labels ('depression') for the two vignettes, whereas rural participants tended to use more generic terms ('emotional stress'). Principal components analysis (PCA) showed that beliefs about the causes of depression factored into five components, of which stressful life events was most strongly endorsed by both groups. PCA of treatment items revealed four stable components, of which religious factors were most strongly endorsed. There were also a number of significant between-group differences in the endorsement of these factors (eta(p) (2) = .03-.11), with rural participants generally rating supernatural and religious factors more strongly than urban Malays. These results are discussed in relation to mental health literacy programmes in Malaysia.

  19. Perceived Stress and Coping Styles among Malay Caregivers of Children with Learning Disabilities in Kelantan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isa, Siti Nor Ismalina; Ishak, Ismarulyusda; Rahman, Azriani Ab; Saat, Nur Zakiah Mohd; Din, Normah Che; Lubis, Syarif Husin; Ismail, Muhammad Faiz Mohd

    2017-03-01

    Caregivers of children with learning disabilities have been shown to experience increased stress and greater negative caregiving consequences than those with typically developing children. There remains a lack of studies focusing on stress and coping mechanisms among caregivers of a wider age group and diagnosis of individuals with disabilities in Asian countries. The current study examines levels of perceived stress and associated child and caregiver factors among caregivers of children with learning disabilities in the Malaysian context. An additional aim was to determine whether caregiver coping styles may be predictors of perceived stress. The Malay version of the Perceived Stress Scale with 10 items and the Brief COPE Scale were administered to a sample of 190 Malay caregivers of children with learning disabilities registered with community-based rehabilitation centres in Kelantan, a state in Peninsular Malaysia. Multiple linear regression analysis was applied to determine the predictors of perceived stress. The mean total perceived stress score of caregivers was 16.96 (SD = 4.66). The most frequently used coping styles found among caregivers included religion, acceptance and positive reframing, while substance use and behavioural disengagement were least frequently used. Higher perceived stress was significantly predicted among caregivers with fewer children, frequent use of instrumental support and behavioural disengagement coping, and lack of emotional support and religious coping. Findings indicate that the perceived stress levels among caregivers were significantly predicted by different coping styles. It is vital to help the caregivers improve their good coping styles in order to reduce their stress levels.

  20. Translating the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders into Malay: evaluation of content and process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, Suan-Phaik; Yap, Adrian U Jin; Chan, Yiong Huak; Bulgiba, Awang M

    2008-01-01

    To develop a Malay-language version of the Axis II Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) through a formal translation/back-translation process and to summarize available data about the psychometric properties of the translated scales. To cross-culturally adapt the instrument, the RDC/TMD underwent translation using a forward-backward method. Subjects were recruited to test the congruency between translated and original versions of the RDC/TMD. The psychometric properties of 3 domains (Graded Chronic Pain Scale, Nonspecific Physical Symptoms, and Depression) of the RDC/TMD were examined, and the literature on this topic was reviewed. All the items scored 93% to 100% congruency. Cronbach's alphas for Graded Chronic Pain Scale, Nonspecific Physical Symptoms, and Depression were 0.77, 0.71, and 0.88, respectively (n = 40). The test-retest reliability of scores (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC]) and levels (Spearman's rho) for these domains showed ICCs of 0.97, 0.94, and 0.95, respectively, with a lowest ICC value of 0.84 (n = 40); the Spearman's rho values were 0.93, 0.74, and 0.74, respectively. The discriminant validity between patients with pain symptoms (n = 40) and normal pain-free controls (n = 40) were statistically significant (P cultural adaptation of the RDC/TMD into the Malay language is suitable for use in Malaysia.

  1. Sleep fragmentation and sleep-disordered breathing in individuals living close to main roads: results from a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbase, M W; Dratva, J; Germond, M; Tschopp, J M; Pépin, J L; Carballo, D; Künzli, N; Probst-Hensch, N M; Adam, M; Zemp Stutz, E; Roche, F; Rochat, T

    2014-03-01

    Nighttime traffic noise is associated with sleep disturbances, but sleep fragmentation and sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) have not been demonstrated in individuals living near busy roads. We asked 1383 participants to answer a health questionnaire and to undergo 24-h electrocardiogram (ECG). Nocturnal ECG records were used to calculate the very low frequency index (VLFI) interval, a surrogate marker of sleep fragmentation. Distances of participants' addresses to roadways were calculated using the VECTOR25© Swisstopo roads classification, a traffic noise proxy. Distances of homes within 100 or 50 m of major roads defined proximity to busy roads. Adjusted multivariate logistic regressions analyzed associations between the distance of home to main roads and VLFI or self-reported SDB. Distance of participants' homes to main roads was significantly associated with the VLFI in women (odds ratio [OR], 1.58 [confidence interval {CI}, 1.03-2.42]; P = .038) but not in men (OR, 1.35 [CI, 0.77-2.35]; P = .295). Women under hormonal replacement therapy (HRT) were at higher risk for increased VLFI when living close to main roads (OR, 2.10 [CI, 1.20-3.68]; P = .01) than untreated women (P = .584). Associations with self-reported SDB were not statistically relevant. In our large population, women living close to main roads were at significantly higher risk for sleep fragmentation than men. The 2-fold higher risk for menopausal women under HRT underscores the vulnerability of this group. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. High-rise construction in Russia as one of the objectives of improving the management mechanism for living standards of the population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeeva, Svetlana; Komyshova, Lyudmila; Nagibina, Natalia

    2018-03-01

    The article is aimed at determining the significance of solving the problem of high-rise construction in Russia as one of the tasks of improving the mechanism of managing the living standards of the population. To determine the effectiveness of measures aimed at improving the quality of life management mechanism, the expert evaluation method is used. The paper presents the measures to improve the quality of life and consequently the migration attractiveness of the region. Despite a number of actual difficulties and lack of sufficient experience, there is an interest in the development of high-rise construction. The result of the analysis of the general demographic dynamics for the last fifteen years is shown. Migration is the most mobile tool for managing short-term demographic processes; therefore, great attention should be paid to this component. Moreover, it is necessary to take into account other consequences of migration.

  3. Relationship between mercury levels in hair and fish consumption in a population living near a hydroelectric tropical dam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrugo-Negrete, José Luis; Ruiz-Guzmán, Javier Alonso; Díez, Sergi

    2013-02-01

    In the present study, total mercury (T-Hg) concentrations were assessed in human hair samples (n = 76) and fish muscle (n = 33) collected at Urrá dam, upstream Sinú river, northwestern Colombia. Based on interviews with study participants, weekly intakes of total mercury (WIT-Hg) and methylmercury (WIMeHg) by fish consumption were also estimated. T-Hg concentrations in hair samples ranged from 0.40 to 24.56 μg/g dw. The highest concentrations were recorded in children (CH) (2-15 years old, n = 24) with significant differences (p < 0.05) with respect to women of childbearing age (WCHA) (16-49 years old, n = 29) and the rest of the population (RP) (n = 23), which were not significantly different. The highest T-Hg concentrations in muscle tissue were recorded in the carnivorous fish (0.65-2.25 μg/g wet weight, ww), with significant differences (p < 0.05) compared to non-carnivorous fish (0.16-0.54 μg/g ww). WIT-Hg recorded the highest values in CH (2.18-50.41 μg/kg/week), with significant differences (p < 0.05) with respect to WCHA (2.02-23.54 μg/kg/week) and RP (1.09-24.71 μg/kg/week), which were not significantly different. Correlation analysis showed a significant relationship between weekly fish consumption and hair T-Hg in CH (r = 0.37, p < 0.05) and WCHA (r = 0.44, p < 0.05). This association was also observed with the number of days per week with fish consumption in CH (r = 0.37, p < 0.05) and WCHA (r = 0.45, p < 0.05). These results suggest that Hg exposure in people inhabiting the Urrá dam should be carefully monitored, particularly in vulnerable groups such as CH and WCHA.

  4. CYP2A6 and CYP2E1 polymorphisms in a Brazilian population living in Rio de Janeiro

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    A. Rossini

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Cytochrome P450 (CYP is a superfamily of enzymes involved in the metabolism of endogenous compounds and xenobiotics. CYP2A6 catalyzes the oxidation of nicotine and the activation of carcinogens such as aflatoxin B1 and nitrosamines. CYP2E1 metabolizes ethanol and other low-molecular weight compounds and can also activate nitrosamines. The CYP2A6 and CYP2E1 genes are polymorphic, altering their catalytic activities and susceptibility to cancer and other diseases. A number of polymorphisms described are ethnic-dependent. In the present study, we determined the genotype and allele frequencies of the main CYP2A6 and CYP2E1 polymorphisms in a group of 289 volunteers recruited at the Central Laboratory of Hospital Universitário Pedro Ernesto. They had been residing in the city of Rio de Janeiro for at least 6 months and were divided into two groups according to skin color (white and non-white. The alleles were determined by allele specific PCR (CYP2A6 or by PCR-RFLP (CYP2E1. The frequencies of the CYP2A6*1B and CYP2A6*2 alleles were 0.29 and 0.02 for white individuals and 0.24 and 0.01 for non-white individuals, respectively. The CYP2A6*5 allele was not found in the population studied. Regarding the CYP2E1*5B allele, we found a frequency of 0.07 in white individuals, which was statistically different (P < 0.05 from that present in non-white individuals (0.03. CYP2E1*6 allele frequency was the same (0.08 in both groups. The frequencies of CYP2A6*1B, CYP2A6*2 and CYP2E1*6 alleles in Brazilians are similar to those found in Caucasians and African-Americans, but the frequency of the CYP2E1*5B allele is higher in Brazilians.

  5. CYP2A6 and CYP2E1 polymorphisms in a Brazilian population living in Rio de Janeiro

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    Rossini A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytochrome P450 (CYP is a superfamily of enzymes involved in the metabolism of endogenous compounds and xenobiotics. CYP2A6 catalyzes the oxidation of nicotine and the activation of carcinogens such as aflatoxin B1 and nitrosamines. CYP2E1 metabolizes ethanol and other low-molecular weight compounds and can also activate nitrosamines. The CYP2A6 and CYP2E1 genes are polymorphic, altering their catalytic activities and susceptibility to cancer and other diseases. A number of polymorphisms described are ethnic-dependent. In the present study, we determined the genotype and allele frequencies of the main CYP2A6 and CYP2E1 polymorphisms in a group of 289 volunteers recruited at the Central Laboratory of Hospital Universitário Pedro Ernesto. They had been residing in the city of Rio de Janeiro for at least 6 months and were divided into two groups according to skin color (white and non-white. The alleles were determined by allele specific PCR (CYP2A6 or by PCR-RFLP (CYP2E1. The frequencies of the CYP2A6*1B and CYP2A6*2 alleles were 0.29 and 0.02 for white individuals and 0.24 and 0.01 for non-white individuals, respectively. The CYP2A6*5 allele was not found in the population studied. Regarding the CYP2E1*5B allele, we found a frequency of 0.07 in white individuals, which was statistically different (P < 0.05 from that present in non-white individuals (0.03. CYP2E1*6 allele frequency was the same (0.08 in both groups. The frequencies of CYP2A6*1B, CYP2A6*2 and CYP2E1*6 alleles in Brazilians are similar to those found in Caucasians and African-Americans, but the frequency of the CYP2E1*5B allele is higher in Brazilians.

  6. A STUDY ESTABLISHING THE IMPORTANCE OF BODY COMPOSITION ANALYSIS, REGULAR PHYSIOTHERAPY AND DIETARY MODIFICATIONS FOR INDEPENDENT AND HEALTHY LIVING AMONG GERIATRIC POPULATION: A DETAILED SYSTEMATIC REVIEW ARTICLE

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    Rohit Subhedar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: This systematic review article aims towards comprehensive and elaborative collection of research articles related to the importance of body composition analysis, Physiotherapy and nutrition for independent geriatric lifestyle. The review article includes articles which suggest the importance of Body composition analysis, Physiotherapy interventions, specific exercises and a combination of fat free, fiber, fruit and fluid diet. Methods: A comprehensive electronic search was conducted using electronic databases Pub Med, MEDLINE, Google Scholar, Science Direct, Research gate, ICMJE, DOAJ, DRJI, IOSR, WAME and many others. In Total 3714, Research papers were reviewed which reported, Age ≥50 years, changes in Body composition in elderly , effects of Diet &Exercises on Body composition and effects of regular Physiotherapy in Geriatric health and obesity. Literature search was restricted to the studies conducted during 1980-2015. Results: Finally 55 papers along with references in research proposal were included. Review shows that ageing, body composition, Physiotherapeutic intervention and nutrition play an interdependent role in providing independent and healthy living among geriatric population. Conclusion: Combined and comprehensive interventions in form of periodic Body Composition Analysis, Physiotherapy interventions with Exercise therapy sessions and Nutritional Supplementation, will be more effective in combating ageing and independent healthy living among Geriatric population. Finally with this review we shall conclude that achieving perfect geriatric health depends upon awareness among the geriatric community to periodically analyze their body composition and regularly comply with exercise therapy sessions, subjective Physiotherapy modality sessions and nutritional supplementation. These principles help in achieving physically fit, healthy, happy and independent geriatric Community.

  7. Higher fine-scale genetic structure in peripheral than in core populations of a long-lived and mixed-mating conifer--eastern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis L.).

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    Pandey, Madhav; Rajora, Om P

    2012-04-05

    Fine-scale or spatial genetic structure (SGS) is one of the key genetic characteristics of plant populations. Several evolutionary and ecological processes and population characteristics influence the level of SGS within plant populations. Higher fine-scale genetic structure may be expected in peripheral than core populations of long-lived forest trees, owing to the differences in the magnitude of operating evolutionary and ecological forces such as gene flow, genetic drift, effective population size and founder effects. We addressed this question using eastern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis) as a model species for declining to endangered long-lived tree species with mixed-mating system. We determined the SGS in two core and two peripheral populations of eastern white cedar from its Maritime Canadian eastern range using six nuclear microsatellite DNA markers. Significant SGS ranging from 15 m to 75 m distance classes was observed in the four studied populations. An analysis of combined four populations revealed significant positive SGS up to the 45 m distance class. The mean positive significant SGS observed in the peripheral populations was up to six times (up to 90 m) of that observed in the core populations (15 m). Spatial autocorrelation coefficients and correlograms of single and sub-sets of populations were statistically significant. The extent of within-population SGS was significantly negatively correlated with all genetic diversity parameters. Significant heterogeneity of within-population SGS was observed for 0-15 m and 61-90 m between core and peripheral populations. Average Sp, and gene flow distances were higher in peripheral (Sp = 0.023, σg = 135 m) than in core (Sp = 0.014, σg = 109 m) populations. However, the mean neighborhood size was higher in the core (Nb = 82) than in the peripheral (Nb = 48) populations. Eastern white cedar populations have significant fine-scale genetic structure at short distances. Peripheral populations have several

  8. Tobacco smoking in HIV-infected versus general population in france: heterogeneity across the various groups of people living with HIV.

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    Tron, Laure; Lert, France; Spire, Bruno; Dray-Spira, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Although the various groups of people living with HIV (PLWHIV) considerably differ regarding socioeconomic and behavioral characteristics, their specificities regarding tobacco smoking have been poorly investigated. We aimed to assess patterns of tobacco consumption across the various groups of PLWHIV and to compare them to the general population, accounting for the specific socioeconomic profile of PLWHIV. We used data of the ANRS-Vespa2 study, a national representative survey on PLWHIV conducted in France in 2011. Prevalence of past and current tobacco consumption, heavy smoking and strong nicotine dependence were assessed among the various groups of PLWHIV as defined by transmission category, gender and geographic origin, and compared to the French general population using direct standardization and multivariate Poisson regression models, accounting for gender, age, education and geographic origin. Among the 3,019 participants aged 18-85 years (median time since HIV diagnosis: 12 years), 37.5% were current smokers and 22.1% were past smokers, with marked differences across the various groups of PLWHIV. Compared to the general population, the prevalence of regular smoking was increased among HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) (adjusted prevalence rate ratio (aPRR): 1.19, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.07-1.32), French-native women (aPRR: 1.32, 95% CI: 1.10-1.57), and heterosexual French-native men (although not significantly, aPRR: 1.19, 95% CI: 0.98-1.45). Additionally, HIV-infected MSM were significantly less likely to be ex-smokers (aPRR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.64-0.82) than the general population and similar trends were observed among heterosexual French-native men (aPRR: 0.89, 95% CI: 0.78-1.02) and women (aPRR: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.70-1.01). HIV-infected sub-Saharan African migrants were less likely to be regular smokers than the general population. Smoking constitutes a major concern in various groups of PLWHIV in France including MSM and heterosexual

  9. Tobacco smoking in HIV-infected versus general population in france: heterogeneity across the various groups of people living with HIV.

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    Laure Tron

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although the various groups of people living with HIV (PLWHIV considerably differ regarding socioeconomic and behavioral characteristics, their specificities regarding tobacco smoking have been poorly investigated. We aimed to assess patterns of tobacco consumption across the various groups of PLWHIV and to compare them to the general population, accounting for the specific socioeconomic profile of PLWHIV. METHODS: We used data of the ANRS-Vespa2 study, a national representative survey on PLWHIV conducted in France in 2011. Prevalence of past and current tobacco consumption, heavy smoking and strong nicotine dependence were assessed among the various groups of PLWHIV as defined by transmission category, gender and geographic origin, and compared to the French general population using direct standardization and multivariate Poisson regression models, accounting for gender, age, education and geographic origin. RESULTS: Among the 3,019 participants aged 18-85 years (median time since HIV diagnosis: 12 years, 37.5% were current smokers and 22.1% were past smokers, with marked differences across the various groups of PLWHIV. Compared to the general population, the prevalence of regular smoking was increased among HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM (adjusted prevalence rate ratio (aPRR: 1.19, 95% confidence interval (95% CI: 1.07-1.32, French-native women (aPRR: 1.32, 95% CI: 1.10-1.57, and heterosexual French-native men (although not significantly, aPRR: 1.19, 95% CI: 0.98-1.45. Additionally, HIV-infected MSM were significantly less likely to be ex-smokers (aPRR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.64-0.82 than the general population and similar trends were observed among heterosexual French-native men (aPRR: 0.89, 95% CI: 0.78-1.02 and women (aPRR: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.70-1.01. HIV-infected sub-Saharan African migrants were less likely to be regular smokers than the general population. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking constitutes a major concern in various groups

  10. Alcohol Consumption in Population Aged 25-65 Years Living in the Metropolis of South Moravia, Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiala, Jindřich; Sochor, Ondřej; Klimusová, Helena; Homolka, Martin

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate alcohol consumption in a representative sample of the population of the city of Brno, as part of research on cardiovascular risk factors. Cross-sectional survey on a sample of 2,160 randomly selected residents 35-65 years old was carried out. For the invited volunteers who became a part of the investigation, alcohol consumption was determined in a controlled, face to face interview structured in accordance with a special questionnaire form. The frequency of alcohol consumption during the previous year was determined, in more detail during the last month (including quantification using "units of alcohol", their normal and maximum level of drinking, and any association between alcohol consumption and meals), and during the last week in the form of a complete, beverage specified and quantified 7-day recall period. Typical patterns of alcohol consumption were explored by the means of cluster analysis. During the past 12 months, 90.0% of the men and 79.0% of the women had consumed alcohol, the rest can be considered abstinent. The most commonly reported frequency was 2-4 times per week (35.6% of the men), or 1-3 times per month (22.8% of the women). Daily or almost daily consumption was reported by 24.8% of the men and 12.8% of the women. The number of units of alcohol consumed usually on one occasion amounts to an average of 3.88±4.80 for the men and 2.25±1.39 for the women, but the amount most often cited by both sexes was 2 drinks (36.4% of the men and 40.4% of the women). The largest amount consumed on any occasion during the last 30 days was 5 or more units in 69.3% of the men, and in 33.9% of the women it was 4 or more units (this amount of alcohol leads to a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 0.08, the border of drunkenness). In 19.9% of the men and 7.5% of the women, this border was exceeded more than 5 times in the past month. Only 14.7% of the men and 10.3% of the women reported that the majority of their alcohol

  11. Cumulative live birth rates after one or more complete cycles of IVF: a population-based study of linked cycle data from 178,898 women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLernon, David J; Maheshwari, Abha; Lee, Amanda J; Bhattacharya, Siladitya

    2016-03-01

    What is the chance of a live birth following one or more linked complete cycles of IVF (including ICSI)? The chance of a live birth after three complete cycles of IVF was 42.3% for treatment commencing from 1999 to 2007. IVF success has generally been reported on the basis of live birth rates after a single episode of treatment resulting in the transfer of a fresh embryo. This fails to capture the real chance of having a baby after a number of complete cycles-each involving the replacement of fresh as well as frozen-thawed embryos. Population-based observational cohort study of 178 898 women between 1992 and 2007. Participants included all women who commenced IVF treatment at a licenced clinic in the UK as recorded in the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA) national database. Exclusion criteria included women whose treatment involved donor insemination, egg donation, surrogacy and the transfer of more than three embryos. Cumulative rates of live birth, term (>37 weeks) singleton live birth, and multiple pregnancy were estimated for two time-periods, 1992-1998 and 1999-2007. Conservative estimates assumed that women who did not return for IVF would not have the outcome of interest while optimal estimates assumed that these women would have similar outcome rates to those who continued IVF. A total of 71 551 women commenced IVF treatment during 1992-1998 and an additional 107 347 during 1999-2007. After the third complete IVF cycle (defined as three fresh IVF treatments-including replacement of any surplus frozen-thawed embryos), the conservative CLBR in women who commenced IVF during 1992-1998 was 30.8% increasing to 42.3% during 1999-2007. The optimal CLBRs were 44.6 and 57.1%, respectively. After eight complete cycles the optimal CLBR was 82.4% in the latter time period. The conservative rate for multiple pregnancy per pregnant woman fell from 31.9% during the earlier time period to 26.2% during the latter. Linkage of all IVF treatments to

  12. Prevalence and risk factors of underweight, overweight and obesity among a geriatric population living in a high-altitude region of rural Uttarakhand, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Aakriti; Kapil, Umesh; Khandelwal, Ritika; Khenduja, Preetika; Sareen, Neha; Pandey, Ravindra Mohan; Upadhyay, Ashish Datt

    2018-03-15

    To assess the prevalence and risk factors of underweight, overweight and obesity among a geriatric population living in a high-altitude region of India. Community-based cross-sectional study. Data were collected on sociodemographic profile and anthropometric parameters. Weight and height measurements were utilized for calculation of BMI. Nutrient intake data were collected using 24 h dietary recall. High-altitude region of Nainital District, Uttarakhand State, North India. Community-dwelling geriatric subjects (n 981) aged 60 years or above. We found that 26·6 % of the elderly subjects were underweight (BMI<18·5 kg/m2). Overweight (BMI 25·0-29·9 kg/m2) and obesity (BMI≥30·0 kg/m2) was seen among 18·0 % and 4·6 %, respectively. After controlling for potential cofounders, risk factors such as low level of education and income, chewing problems and lower number of daily meals were found to be associated with underweight. On the other hand, risk factors for overweight/obesity were lower age, high income and unskilled work. There is a need to develop and implement intervention strategies to prevent underweight, overweight and obesity among the geriatric population of India.

  13. Assessing the functional disability of rural elderly population from North-West India using activity of daily living scale: A cross-sectional survey

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    Parveen Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aging is associated with both physical impairment and functional disability. One of the areas of concerns is a derangement in the activities of daily living (ADL where the elderly people are unable to perform their basic personal care tasks. The present study was planned with the aim to evaluate functional impairment among rural elderly using ADL scale. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted as a cross-sectional population-based survey using multistage randomized sampling technique from August 2015 to October 2015 in Miran Sahib Health Zone of R S Pura health block in Jammu District in North-West India. The study involved 418 elderly individuals above 60 years of age. Results: A higher proportion of elderly (378/418; 90.43% were classified as functionally independent. Among the study participants 9.54% (40/418 were found to have some had some impairment. Among the elderly impaired individuals, 5.26% (22/418 were moderately impaired while 2.64% (11/418 were severely impaired. However, importantly only a small proportion (7/418; 1.67% of elderly individuals was completely dependent on others. Conclusion: The total impairment prevalence reported among the geriatrics in the current study was 9.5%. With the increase in the geriatric population expected in near future, this number will be significant. Policies with a clear focus on geriatric health-care need to be developed to reduce the dependency among elderly.

  14. Qualitative needs assessment of HIV services among Dominican, Mexican and Central American immigrant populations living in the New York City area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shedlin, M G; Shulman, L

    2004-05-01

    This paper reports on research designed to assess access to care by Latino immigrant populations in the New York area. A qualitative approach and methods were employed, involving focus groups with PLWAs (persons living with AIDS) and affected men and women from Mexico, the Dominican Republic and Central America to explore the perceptions, beliefs, experiences and knowledge of HIV care issues. A total of 57 men and women participated, ranging in age from 19-61. Results included detailed information on cultural meanings of HIV/AIDS; experience of stigma and rejection; gendered health-seeking behaviour; testing issues; and satisfaction with services. Data support the conclusion that to be effective in reaching and providing services to these immigrant groups, it is crucial to understand the environment from which they come and the impact of immigration. Poverty, repressive governments, lack of education/literacy, ethnicity, class, colour-based stigma and cultural norms are crucial factors in determining their attitudes, motivations, decisions and behaviour. AIDS agencies were seen to play a crucial role in connecting PLWAs to services and resources. The key elements for the provision of services to this population appear to be those that build on cultural norms and network human and institutional resources.

  15. [Consumption of nutrients among the elderly living in Porto Alegre in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil: a population-based study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturini, Carina Duarte; Engroff, Paula; Sgnaolin, Vanessa; El Kik, Raquel Milani; Morrone, Fernanda Bueno; da Silva Filho, Irenio Gomes; De Carli, Geraldo Attilio

    2015-12-01

    A cross-sectional, population-based study was conducted on a random sample of 427 elderly individuals living in Porto Alegre, Brazil, to establish the nutrient consumption profile and verify its association with sociodemographic and health variables. Dietary intake was assessed using the 24-hour Food Recall Survey and the Dietetic Research Investigation technique. Seventy percent of the elderly respondents were women: 48.5% were between 60 and 69 years old; 68.8% had less than 8 years of schooling; 39% had a family income of between 2 and 5 minimum wages and 58.4% took no physical exercise. Hypertension was the most prevalent disease among the elderly and 54.9% were underweight. Men consumed more calories, protein, fiber, minerals and vitamins than women. Carbohydrate and calcium intake increases with advancing age, while zinc intake decreases. Physical exercise increased the intake of calories, magnesium, potassium and phosphorus. The higher the schooling the greater the intake of vitamins B6 and B12; the higher the family income, the greater the consumption of vitamin B6 and folic acid. The results show that there are nutritional deficiencies in the daily diet of the Brazilian elderly population, especially among women and individuals over 80 years of age.

  16. The impact of demographic factors, behaviors and environmental exposure to mercury content in the hair of the population living in the region of Lodz (central Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinek-Jacel, Marta; Albińska, Jadwiga; Pawlaczyk, Aleksandra; Szynkowska, Małgorzata Iwona

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this work was to access the influence of different factors such as sex, age, fish consumption, hair dyeing or smoking habit on the content of mercury in human hair samples. The research was carried on 444 samples (102 males and 342 females) collected from the population of people living in the region of Lodz (central Poland). The content of mercury in human hair samples was determined using the Mercury Analyzer MA 3000 (Nippon Instruments, Japan). The obtained results were elaborated using Statistica ver. 10.0 software. The mean value of mercury in investigated human hair samples was found to be 0.174±0.137mg/kg. We observed the statistically significant correlations (p<0.05) between the content of Hg in hair of the studied population and factors such as gender, age, and fish consumption. However, no statistically significant differences were found in relation to cosmetic treatment such as hair dyeing or smoking. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Negotiating Discourses of Gender, Ethnicity and Schooling: Ways of Being Malay, Chinese and Indian Schoolgirls in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Cynthia

    2006-01-01

    This article uses the notion of resistance as an analytical tool, emphasizing its sociopolitical significance and multidimensionality, to understand the complex link between ways of being Malay, Chinese and Indian schoolgirls, schooling and the wider Malaysian society. The macro and micro dynamics of the Malaysian ethnoscape, namely the ethnic…

  18. Evaluation of psychometric properties of the malay version perceived stress scale in two occupational settings in malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dubai, Sar; Ganasegeran, K; Barua, A; Rizal, Am; Rampal, Kg

    2014-07-01

    The 10-item version of Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) is a widely used tool to measure stress. The Malay version of the PSS-10 has been validated among Malaysian Medical Students. However, studies have not been conducted to assess its validity in occupational settings. The aim of this study is to assess the psychometric properties of the Malay version of the PSS-10 in two occupational setting in Malaysia. This study was conducted among 191 medical residents and 513 railway workers. An exploratory factor analysis was performed using the principal component method with varimax rotation. Correlation analyses, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin, Bartlett's test of Sphericity and Cronbach's alpha were obtained. Statistical analysis was carried out using statistical package for the social sciences version 16 (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA) software. Analysis yielded two factor structure of the Malay version of PSS-10 in both occupational groups. The two factors accounted for 59.2% and 64.8% of the variance in the medical residents and the railway workers respectively. Factor loadings were greater than 0.59 in both occupational groups. Cronbach's alpha co-efficient was 0.70 for medical residents and 0.71 for railway workers. The Malay version of PSS-10 had adequate psychometric properties and can be used to measure stress among occupational settings in Malaysia.

  19. –ED ALLOMORPHS AND LINGUISTIC KNOWLEDGE OF MALAY SPEAKERS OF ENGLISH: A DESCRIPTIVE AND CORRELATIONAL STUDY

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    Maskanah Mohammad Lotfie

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Malay is a language from the Austronesian family and unlike the Indo-European-originated English, it does not generally have inflectional temporal markers. Investigating this from a cross-linguistics - influence perspective, differences between the languages could mean difficulties for Malay speakers to acquire features of English. The objectives of this study are to investigate Malay speakers’ pronunciation of the English language –ed allomorphs – [d], [t] and [ɪd]/[əd] – and the relationship between the morphophonological forms and two types of linguistic knowledge, one of which is implicit while the other is explicit. Data were collated from fifty participants who are social science undergraduates and English majors who speak English as a second language. Four instruments were used to gauge the respondents’ verbal use of –ed allomorphs as well as their implicit and explicit knowledge of the allomorphs. Results indicate that the students’ verbal usage of the target items either lacks approximation to Standard English pronunciation or is largely dropped altogether. Results also suggest a moderate relationship between implicit and explicit knowledge of the allomorphs and their verbal production by Malay speakers of English. The finding illuminates acquisition problem of English language speakers whose mother tongue does not share similar inflectional markers. Pedagogical solutions can help learners of the English language to approximate Standard English and in the long run, enhance effective communication and increase chances of employability.

  20. The effects of three factor VII polymorphisms on factor VII coagulant levels in healthy Singaporean Chinese, Malay and Indian newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quek, S C; Low, P S; Saha, N; Heng, C K

    2006-11-01

    Factor VII (FVII) is an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease. Three polymorphisms of the factor VII gene (F7) were studied in a group of healthy newborns comprising 561 Chinese, 398 Malays and 226 Asian Indians from Singapore. The allele frequencies of 3 polymorphisms (R353Q, Promoter 0/10bp Del/Ins and Intron 7) in the FVII gene were ascertained through genotyping by polymerase chain reaction and restriction digestion of amplified fragments. In Chinese the minor allele frequencies are Q: 0.04, Ins: 0.03, R7: 0.44; Malays, Q: 0.06, Ins: 0.10, R7: 0.41; and Indians, Q: 0.25, Ins: 0.23, R7: 0.43. Strong linkage disequilibrium (Delta > 0.7) is observed between the 0/10 bp and the R353Q sites in all ethnic groups. We conclude that: (i) the prevalence of the minor Q and Ins alleles of the R353Q and 0/10 bp polymorphisms are significantly higher in the Indian newborns than the Chinese and Malays; (ii) the Q allele is significantly associated (p = 0.01) with a lower plasma FVII coagulant level in the Indian and Malay neonates; and this polymorphism explains up to 3.8% of the variance in FVII coagulant levels; (iii) there is no significant difference in allele frequencies of the three polymorphisms between neonates with and without family histories of CAD.

  1. The Significance of Bilingual Chinese, Malay, and Tamil Children's English Network Patterns on Community Language Use Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, Vanithamani

    2001-01-01

    Surveyed groups of Chinese, Malay and Tamil families, their use of community languages or mother tongue, and their speaking, reading, and writing proficiency. Found that when parents' community language proficiency in speaking is lower they tend to choose English as preferred language. Children's language confidence affected their language choice.…

  2. The paradox of low body mass index and high body fat percentage among Chinese, Malays and Indians in Singapore

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deurenberg-Yap, M.; Schmidt, G.; Staveren, van W.A.; Deurenberg, P.

    2000-01-01

    To study the relationship between body fat percentage and body mass index (BMI) in three different ethnic groups in Singapore (Chinese, Malays and Indians) in order to evaluate the validity of the BMI cut-off points for obesity. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SUBJECTS: Two-hundred and ninety-one

  3. ISLAM AS A CULTURAL CAPITAL IN INDONESIA AND THE MALAY WORLD: A Convergence of Islamic Studies, Social Sciences and Humanities

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    Amin Abdullah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of socio-political-religious life in the Middle East is a complete contrast to the socio-political-religious life in Southeast Asia, particularly in Indonesia and in Malay world in general. The changing of socio-political leadership in Indonesia from the New Order to Reformation Order (1998 is relatively smooth, followed by the violence-free legislative election and the presidential election in 2004, 2009, and 2014. Meanwhile, the changing of socio-political leadership in the Middle East countries (the Arab Spring are always overshadowed and followed by socio-political conflict and religious violence causing a lot of casualties. Socio-political life of the Muslim commu­nities in Indonesia and in Malay world takes a different path from the Middle Eastern societies, and also form South Asia. Over the leadership transition in Indonesia, which is Islam as the majority, it can be run peacefully without violence and casualties. This paper will review the Indonesian Muslim intellectuals’ contribution—as an integral part of Malay world—to the development of Southeast Asian Islamic thoughts and its contribution in framing moderate-progressive Muslim in Malay world in caring for diversity, inclusion, openness, peace and harmony in the current global world.

  4. Research on the health state of the Sicilian population living in areas at environmental or natural risk: the experience of the Regional Department of Epidemiology

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    Achille Cernigliaro

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: In Sicily, people live near areas characterized by the presence of environmental polluting substances derived from urbanization and industrialization. In the areas of Augusta-Priolo (SR,Gela (CL and Milazzo (ME, the increase of number of pathologies could be linked with environmental pollution. The aim of this paper is to present an overview of the available data and studies to underline the importance of these sources to conduct epidemiological survey in Sicily, besides to the analysis of mortality and morbidity.

    Methods: An evaluation of the health status of the residential population was done comparing the mortality and morbidity of the local population with the mortality and morbidity of a reference population. Data was obtained from the Italian national office of statistics and Hospital Discharge Records. Standardized Mortality Ratios and Standardized Hospitalization Ratios were calculated.

    Results: In the area of Augusta-Priolo we observed, in for men, a significative increase in mortality and hospital admissions for colon-rectal, trachea, bronchus, lung and pleura cancers. In Biancavilla, we observed an increase in mortality for pleura cancer in men and women and an increase in morbidity in women only. In Gela, a significant increase in mortality in males and females was observed only for tumoral diseases. In Milazzo, we only found a significant increase in the incidence of larynx cancer and cardiovascular disease for men and in women of pulmonary disease for women.

    Conclusions: This first review allowed us to update previous analyses of mortality data conducted in the same areas. The results, even taking into account the differences between the areas,, highlights changes in health status related to some diagnostic groups. These could be linked with pollution. Now that the available health data has been revised and updated new studies must

  5. Lactose intolerance among Malay and Orang Asli female children in selected rural Selangor and its effect on bone mineral density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makbul, Ika Aida Aprilini; Daud, Norlida Mat; Aziz, Nurul Azrianti Abdul; Yahya, Noor Fairuzi Suhana

    2016-11-01

    Sufficient intake of calcium during childhood is very important to ensure an optimal growth and strong bones development. However, lactose intolerance (LI) may limit the intake of milk and dairy products due to the inability of the body to digest lactose to its constituents, glucose and galactose. Children in rural area were a major concern as they are commonly associated with an inadequate intake of nutrients. Hence, the objectives of this study are to determine the prevalence of LI among Malay and Orang Asli female children in rural Selangor and its association with bone mineral density (BMD). A total of 65 (39 Malay, 26 Orang Asli) female primary school students with a mean age of 10.4 ± 0.6 years old underwent hydrogen breath test and lactose tolerance test (LTT) during fasting and after ingestion of 25g lactose solution. A Wong Baker Face Pain Rating Scale (WBFPRS) was used to assess the presence of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms during the study. LI symptoms are defined when breath H2 levels exceed 20 ppm above baseline values, an increase of postprandial blood glucose (PBG) levels of less than 1.1 mmol/L and GI symptom score is more or equal than score 2. BMD was measured in the calcaneus using QUS-2 Ultrasonometer. The result showed that 35 subjects (15 Malay, 20 Orang Asli) had a positive breath test (>20ppm). A total of 74.4% Malay and 88.5% Orang Asli children had an increase of PBG of less than 1.1 mmol/L. Both groups have low percentage (35.9 % Malay, 34.6 % Orang Asli) of GI symptoms. A total of 20.0% children (n=13, Malay=4, Orang Asli=9) was found to experience LI. Orang Asli children showed a significantly higher (p<0.001) BMD (95.7 ± 11.0 dB/MHz) compared to Malay children (71.7 ± 8.6 dB/MHz). The result shown there is an association between LI with BMD (p=0.031). Hence, LI does affect in decreasing an individual BMD. In conclusion, the prevalence of LI among female children in rural Selangor is low. However, the relationship between LI and BMD

  6. Adjustment of a Population of South African Children of Mothers Living With/and Without HIV Through Three Years Post-Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Tomlinson, Mark; Scheffler, Aaron; Harris, Danielle M; Nelson, Sandahl

    2017-06-01

    Mothers living with HIV (MLH) and their children are typically studied to ensure that perinatal HIV transmission is blocked. Yet, HIV impacts MLH and their children lifelong. We examine child outcomes from pregnancy to 3 years post-birth among a peri-urban population of pregnant MLH and mothers without HIV (MWOH). Almost all pregnant women in 12 neighborhoods (98 %; N = 584) in Cape Town, South Africa were recruited and repeatedly assessed within 2 weeks of birth (92 %), at 6 months (88 %), 18 months (84 %), and 3 years post-birth (86 %). There were 186 MLH and 398 MWOH. Controlling for neighborhood and repeated measures, child and maternal outcomes were contrasted over time using longitudinal random effects regression analyses. For measures collected only at 3 years, outcomes were analyzed using multiple regressions. Compared to MWOH, MLH had less income, more informal housing and food insecurity, used alcohol more often during pregnancy, and were more depressed during pregnancy and over time. Only 4.8 % of MLH's children were seropositive; seropositive children were excluded from additional analyses. Children of MLH tended to have significantly lower weights (p rates (8.5 %) and were similar in social and behavioral adjustment, vocabulary, and executive functioning at 3 years post-birth. Despite living in households with fewer resources and having more depressed mothers, only the physical health of children of MLH is compromised, compared to children of MWOH. In township neighborhoods with extreme poverty, social, behavioral, language, and cognitive functioning appear similar over the first three years of life between children of MLH and MWOH.

  7. Haplotype analysis of the HFE gene among populations of Northern Eurasia, in patients with metabolic disorders or stomach cancer, and in long-lived people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailova, S V; Babenko, V N; Ivanoshchuk, D E; Gubina, M A; Maksimov, V N; Solovjova, I G; Voevoda, M I

    2016-06-17

    Previously, it was shown that the HFE gene (associated with human hereditary hemochromatosis) has several haplotypes of intronic polymorphisms. Some haplotype frequencies are race specific and hence can be used in phylogenetic analysis. We assumed that analysis of Caucasoid patients-living now in Western Siberia and having diseases associated with dietary habits and metabolic rate-will allow us to understand the processes of possible selection during settling of the northern part of Asia. Haplotype analysis of Northern Eurasian native and recently settled ethnic groups was performed on polymorphisms rs1799945, rs1800730, rs1800562, rs2071303, rs1800708, rs1572982, rs2794719, rs807209, and rs2032451 of this gene. The CCA haplotype of the rs2071303, rs1800708, and rs1572982 was found to be associated with HLA-A2 (39 %) in Asian populations. Haplotype analysis for the rs1799945, rs1800730, rs1800562, rs2071303, rs1800708, and rs1572982 was performed on Russian patients with some metabolic disorders or stomach cancer and among long-lived people. Decreased frequencies of the TTA haplotype (T in rs2071303, T in rs1800708, and A in rs1572982) were observed in the groups of patients with diseases associated with overweight (fatty liver disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, or metabolic syndrome + arterial hypertension) as compared with the control sample. We detected significant differences in this haplotype's frequency between the patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and Russian adolescents, elderly citizens, and long-lived people (χ(2) P value = 0.003, 0.010, and 0.015, respectively). No significant differences in frequencies of the alleles with mutations in coding regions of the HFE gene (C282Y, H63D, and S65C) were detected between the analyzed patients (with stomach cancer, metabolic syndrome, fatty liver disease, or type 2 diabetes mellitus) and the control Caucasoid sample. Monophyletic origin of H63D (rs1799945) was confirmed in Caucasoids and Northern

  8. Culture and Learner Beliefs: A Study of Three Malay Postgraduate Students

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    Faizah A Majid

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Culture influences how people experience. Although there is literature on how culture can influence adult learners’ orientation to learning, there is little on how culture influences the nature of successful learning amongst adults (Merriam and Mohamad, 2000. The purpose of this paper is to examine how cultural values influence a selected group of successful adult learners’ views on learning in the Malaysian education context. A qualitative research design was adopted to explore this question. Three postgraduates who had completed their studies on time were interviewed. Using the constant comparative method of data analysis (Wellington, 2000, five cultural values as identified by Abdullah (1996 and Hofstede (1991; collectivistic, religious, relationship-oriented, hierarchical, and face conscious were used to serve as the main themes in the analysis. In analysing the data, three cultural values emerged; religious, relationship-oriented and, collectivistic. These findings have implications for understanding how cultural values may influence adult Malay students’ views on learning.

  9. The Perfomance, Text, and Context Cenggok-Cenggok Malay Panai Labuhanbatu - Sumatera Utara, Indonesia

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    tengku winona Emelia

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was conducted by the fact that the artistic of oral tradition cenggok-cenggok is almost extinct. This tradition is one of the Malay society Panai cultures that were once widespread in the community in Labuhanbatu. This tradition includes the noble values that can be positively applied in social life associated with their moral messages, beliefs, social norms, and the value of education which can be used formally or informally. A descriptive qualitative ethnographic approach was utilized in this current study. The focus on this research is the form of performance, text, and context. The results showed that the oral tradition cenggok-cenggok is a cultural communication event that has a dimension of social, cultural and aesthetic as a form of creativity that generates interaction between performer and audience in the play.

  10. Construct validation of SF-36 Malay version among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Bee Wah; Jannoo, Zeinab; Razali, Nornadiah Mohd; Ghani, Nor Azura Md.; Lazim, Mohamad Alias

    2015-02-01

    The Short Form 36 (SF-36) is one of the most widely used generic health status measure. This study used the SF-36 Health Survey instrument to investigate the functional health and well-being of Malay Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus patients in Malaysia. The survey was carried out in three local hospitals in Selangor. The method of questionnaire administration was both self-administered and interviewer administered. A total of 354 questionnaires was returned, but only 295 questionnaires with no missing data were analyzed. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was used to confirm the first-order and third-order CFA models. The higher order analyses included a third-order CFA models with two second-order factors (physical and mental component) and three second-order factors (physical, general well-being and mental health) and both showed satisfactory model fit indices. This study confirmed the multidimensional factor structure of the SF-36.

  11. Paleomagnetic results from the upper silurian of the Shan-Thai-Malay Block, southwest Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haihong; Zhong, Dalai; Heller, Friedrich; Dobson, Jon P.

    77 paleomagnetic samples from the Upper Silurian reddish limestone and marlstone of the Shan-Thai-Malay block near Baoshan ( 99.1°E, 24.8°N ), western Yunnan, China, reveal a pre-folding remnant magnetization, with a mean direction of D=49.6°, I= -3.2°, k=9.7, a95=5.5°, corresponding a paleopole at 207.0°E, 36.8°N. These results, unlike the upper Paleozoic data with steeper inclinations published earlier, suggest that the block was located at equatorial latitude during late Silurian time, probably adjacent to the northern margin of Gondwanaland.

  12. Culture Influence on the Perception of the Body Language by Arab and Malay Students

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    Marzieh Gordan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Intercultural communication is applied for communicating with each other among the different cultures and traditions. It highlighted the problems which faced by different communities and organizations, the problems which are natural to the person like when the people face to new culture or tradition even the religious issues. So intercultural communication here is seeking for an answer between the different nations that how they communicate with each other when they face some problems in their tradition and culture. This one highlights how the people encode a message and how they interpret a message to each other.  So here in this paper interaction is between students of Arabs and Malays from National University of Malaysia and it deals with their body language especially hand gestures. This paper is based on the Micheal Byram theory of language. In this quantitative research some questions will distribute among the students and the similarities and differences between their sign languages will be highlighted.

  13. Perceived Stress and Coping Styles among Malay Caregivers of Children with Learning Disabilities in Kelantan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isa, Siti Nor Ismalina; Ishak, Ismarulyusda; Rahman, Azriani Ab; Saat, Nur Zakiah Mohd; Din, Normah Che; Lubis, Syarif Husin; Ismail, Muhammad Faiz Mohd

    2017-01-01

    Background Caregivers of children with learning disabilities have been shown to experience increased stress and greater negative caregiving consequences than those with typically developing children. There remains a lack of studies focusing on stress and coping mechanisms among caregivers of a wider age group and diagnosis of individuals with disabilities in Asian countries. The current study examines levels of perceived stress and associated child and caregiver factors among caregivers of children with learning disabilities in the Malaysian context. An additional aim was to determine whether caregiver coping styles may be predictors of perceived stress. Methods The Malay version of the Perceived Stress Scale with 10 items and the Brief COPE Scale were administered to a sample of 190 Malay caregivers of children with learning disabilities registered with community-based rehabilitation centres in Kelantan, a state in Peninsular Malaysia. Multiple linear regression analysis was applied to determine the predictors of perceived stress. Results The mean total perceived stress score of caregivers was 16.96 (SD = 4.66). The most frequently used coping styles found among caregivers included religion, acceptance and positive reframing, while substance use and behavioural disengagement were least frequently used. Higher perceived stress was significantly predicted among caregivers with fewer children, frequent use of instrumental support and behavioural disengagement coping, and lack of emotional support and religious coping. Conclusion Findings indicate that the perceived stress levels among caregivers were significantly predicted by different coping styles. It is vital to help the caregivers improve their good coping styles in order to reduce their stress levels. PMID:28381931

  14. Validity and Psychometric Properties of Malay Translated Religious Orientation Scale-Revised among Malaysian Adult Samples

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    Mohammad Rahim Kamaluddin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Religious Orientation Scale-Revised (ROS-R has been used increasingly as an important measure in psychology of religion based researches and widely administered in cross-cultural settings. Unfortunately, there is no valid and reliable ROS-R available in Malay language to assess religious orientations among Malaysians. With that in mind, the present study aims to validate and document the psychometric properties of Malay translated ROS-R (henceforth, M-ROS-R among sample of Malaysian adults. This study commenced with Forward-Backward translations and was followed by content and face validities. Subsequently, a cross-sectional study was conducted among Malaysian adults (n = 226 using convenience sampling method for the purpose of construct and factorial validations. Later, construct and factorial validity was performed via Exploratory Factor Analysis using Principal Component Analysis with Varimax rotation. Finally, reliability testing was performed to determine the internal consistency of the items which was achieved using Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient method (α. The factor loading consisted of three factors with a total variance of 64.76%. The final version of M-ROS-R consisted of 14 items with Factor 1 (Intrinsic Orientation comprised of 8 items, Factor 2 (Extrinsic-Socially Orientated with 3 items while Factor 3 (Extrinsic-Personally Orientated constituted 3 items. The internal consistency values of the factors ranged between 0.68 and 0.86, indicating the scale is reliable. The intercorrelations between factors were also significant with each other. M-ROS-R was concluded as a valid and reliable scale to measure and assess religious orientations among Malaysians.

  15. Validation study of the Leeds Dyspepsia Questionnaire in a multi-ethnic Asian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadeva, Sanjiv; Chan, Wah-Kheong; Mohazmi, Mohammed; Sujarita, Ramanujam; Goh, Khean-Lee

    2011-11-01

    Outcome measures for clinical trials in dyspepsia require an assessment of symptom response. There is a lack of validated instruments assessing dyspepsia symptoms in the Asian region. We aimed to translate and validate the Leeds Dyspepsia Questionnaire (LDQ) in a multi-ethnic Asian population. A Malay and culturally adapted English version of the LDQ were developed according to established protocols. Psychometric evaluation was performed by assessing the validity, internal consistency, test-retest reliability and responsiveness of the instruments in both primary and secondary care patients. Between April and September 2010, both Malay (n=166) and Malaysian English (n=154) versions were assessed in primary and secondary care patients. Both language versions were found to be reliable (internal consistency was 0.80 and 0.74 (Cronbach's α) for Malay and English, respectively; spearman's correlation coefficient for test-retest reliability was 0.98 for both versions), valid (area under receiver operating curve for accuracy of diagnosing dyspepsia was 0.71 and 0.77 for Malay and English versions, respectively), discriminative (median LDQ score discriminated between primary and secondary care patients in Malay (11.0 vs 20.0, PAsian population with dyspepsia. © 2011 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. Development of a polyclonal anti-dugong immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody with evaluation of total plasma IgG in a living dugong (Dugong dugon) population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Arthur; Lanyon, Janet M; McKee, Sara J; Linedale, Richard; Woolford, Lucy; Long, Trevor; Leggatt, Graham R

    2018-06-01

    Species-specific antibodies (Ab) for the measurement of immunoglobulins (Ig) are valuable tools for determining the humoral immune status of threatened and endangered wildlife species such as dugongs. However, no studies have reported antibody reagents against dugong immunoglobulin. The object of this study was to develop an Ab with specificity for dugong IgG and apply this tool to survey total IgG levels in plasma samples from a live wild population of dugongs in southern Queensland, Australia. Dugong IgG was isolated from plasma by protein A/G column chromatography and a polyclonal antiserum was successfully raised against the dugong IgG through immunization of mice. The anti-dugong antiserum was reactive with dugong serum but not immunoglobulin from other species such as rats and humans. When tested against a panel of dugong plasma samples, relative IgG levels from dugongs (n = 116) showed biologically relevant relationships with pregnancy status and a principal component of Body Mass Index (BMI)/globulin/fecal glucocorticosteroid (chronic stress) levels combined, which together accounted for 9.2% of the variation in total Ig levels. Together these data suggest that dugongs show variation in total IgG and that this correlates with some physiological parameters of dugong health. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Increased Rates of Respiratory and Diarrheal Illnesses in HIV-Negative Persons Living With HIV-Infected Individuals in a Densely Populated Urban Slum in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Joshua M; Cosmas, Leonard; Nyachieo, Dhillon; Williamson, John M; Olack, Beatrice; Okoth, George; Njuguna, Henry; Feikin, Daniel R; Burke, Heather; Montgomery, Joel M; Breiman, Robert F

    2015-09-01

    Prolonged pathogen shedding and increased duration of illness associated with infections in immunosuppressed individuals put close human im