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Sample records for maladaptive interpersonal stress

  1. Relationships between Childhood Traumatic Experiences, Early Maladaptive Schemas and Interpersonal Styles

    KAYA TEZEL, Fulya; TUTAREL KIŞLAK, Şennur; BOYSAN, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cognitive theories of psychopathology have generally proposed that early experiences of childhood abuse and neglect may result in the development of early maladaptive self-schemas. Maladaptive core schemas are central in the development and maintenance of psychological symptoms in a schema-focused approach. Psychosocial dysfunction in individuals with psychological problems has been consistently found to be associated with symptom severity. However, till date, linkages between psychosocial functioning, early traumatic experiences and core schemas have received little attention. The aim of the present study was to explore the relations among maladaptive interpersonal styles, negative experiences in childhood and core self-schemas in non-clinical adults. Methods A total of 300 adults (58% women) participated in the study. The participants completed a socio-demographic questionnaire, Young Schema Questionnaire, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and Interpersonal Style Scale. Results Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that the Disconnection and Rejection and Impaired Limits schema domains were significant antecedents of maladaptive interpersonal styles after controlling for demographic characteristics and childhood abuse and neglect. Associations of child sexual abuse with Emotionally Avoidant, Manipulative and Abusive interpersonal styles were mediated by early maladaptive schemas. Early maladaptive schemas mediated the relations of emotional abuse with Emotionally Avoidant and Avoidant interpersonal styles as well as the relations of physical abuse with Avoidant and Abusive interpersonal styles. Conclusion Interpersonal styles in adulthood are significantly associated with childhood traumatic experiences. Significant relations between early traumatic experiences and maladaptive interpersonal styles are mediated by early maladaptive schemas. PMID:28360715

  2. Relationships between Childhood Traumatic Experiences, Early Maladaptive Schemas and Interpersonal Styles.

    Kaya Tezel, Fulya; Tutarel Kişlak, Şennur; Boysan, Murat

    2015-09-01

    Cognitive theories of psychopathology have generally proposed that early experiences of childhood abuse and neglect may result in the development of early maladaptive self-schemas. Maladaptive core schemas are central in the development and maintenance of psychological symptoms in a schema-focused approach. Psychosocial dysfunction in individuals with psychological problems has been consistently found to be associated with symptom severity. However, till date, linkages between psychosocial functioning, early traumatic experiences and core schemas have received little attention. The aim of the present study was to explore the relations among maladaptive interpersonal styles, negative experiences in childhood and core self-schemas in non-clinical adults. A total of 300 adults (58% women) participated in the study. The participants completed a socio-demographic questionnaire, Young Schema Questionnaire, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and Interpersonal Style Scale. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that the Disconnection and Rejection and Impaired Limits schema domains were significant antecedents of maladaptive interpersonal styles after controlling for demographic characteristics and childhood abuse and neglect. Associations of child sexual abuse with Emotionally Avoidant, Manipulative and Abusive interpersonal styles were mediated by early maladaptive schemas. Early maladaptive schemas mediated the relations of emotional abuse with Emotionally Avoidant and Avoidant interpersonal styles as well as the relations of physical abuse with Avoidant and Abusive interpersonal styles. Interpersonal styles in adulthood are significantly associated with childhood traumatic experiences. Significant relations between early traumatic experiences and maladaptive interpersonal styles are mediated by early maladaptive schemas.

  3. Mindfulness Therapy for Maladaptive Interpersonal Dependency: A Preliminary Randomized Controlled Trial.

    McClintock, Andrew S; Anderson, Timothy; Cranston, Saryn

    2015-11-01

    Existing treatments for maladaptive interpersonal dependency and dependent personality disorder do not meet basic scientific standards for effectiveness. The present investigation tested the efficacy of a mindfulness-based approach: mindfulness therapy for maladaptive interpersonal dependency (MT-MID). Forty-eight participants who reported consistently high levels of maladaptive dependency (i.e., scored higher than 1 standard deviation above the mean on the Interpersonal Dependency Inventory at two separate assessments) were randomized to either 5 sessions of MT-MID or a minimal contact control. Five self-reported outcomes (mindfulness, maladaptive interpersonal dependency, helplessness, fears of negative evaluation, and excessive reassurance seeking) were assessed at pretreatment, posttreatment, and a 4-week follow-up. Intent-to-treat analyses indicated that MT-MID yielded greater improvements than the control on all 5 outcomes at posttreatment (median d=1.61) and follow-up (median d=1.51). Participants assigned to MT-MID were more likely than control participants to meet criteria for clinically significant change at posttreatment (56.5% vs. 0%) and follow-up (42.9% vs. 0%). There was also evidence that increases in mindfulness mediated the dependency-related improvements. These results provide preliminary support for the efficacy of a mindfulness-based approach for treating the symptoms of maladaptive dependency. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Early maladaptive schemas in adult survivors of interpersonal trauma: foundations for a cognitive theory of psychopathology

    Thanos Karatzias

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although the association between psychological trauma and early maladaptive schemas (EMS is well established in the literature, no study to date has examined the relationship of EMS to PTSD and psychopathologies beyond depression and anxiety in a sample of adult survivors of interpersonal trauma. This information may be useful in helping our understanding on how to best treat interpersonal trauma. Objective: We set out to investigate the association between EMS and common forms of psychopathology in a sample of women with a history of interpersonal trauma (n=82. We have hypothesised that survivors of interpersonal trauma will present with elevated EMS scores compared to a non-clinical control group (n=78. We have also hypothesised that unique schemas will be associated with unique psychopathological entities and that subgroups of interpersonal trauma survivors would be present in our sample, with subgroups displaying different profiles of schema severity elevations. Method: Participants completed measures of trauma, psychopathology, dissociation, self-esteem, and the Young Schema Questionnaire. Results: It was found that survivors of interpersonal trauma displayed elevated EMS scores across all 15 schemas compared to controls. Although the pattern of associations between different psychopathological features and schemas appears to be rather complex, schemas in the domains of Disconnection and Impaired Autonomy formed significant associations with all psychopathological features in this study. Conclusions: Our findings support the usefulness of cognitive behavioural interventions that target schemas in the domains of Disconnection and Impaired Autonomy in an effort to modify existing core beliefs and decrease subsequent symptomatology in adult survivors of interpersonal trauma.

  5. Life Event Stress and Binge Eating Among Adolescents: The Roles of Early Maladaptive Schemas and Impulsivity.

    Zhu, Hong; Luo, Xingwei; Cai, Taisheng; He, Jinbo; Lu, Yao; Wu, Siyao

    2016-10-01

    This study examined the relationships between life event stress, early maladaptive schemas, impulsivity and binge eating among adolescents and investigated the effects of early maladaptive schemas and impulsivity on the relationship between life event stress and binge eating. Specifically, we examined a moderated mediation model in which early maladaptive schemas mediated this relationship and impulsivity moderated the mediation effect. Life event stress, early maladaptive schemas, impulsivity and binge eating were investigated in a sample of 2172 seventh-, eighth- and tenth-grade middle and high school students (mean age = 14.55 years, standard deviation = 1.29). The results indicated that adolescents with greater life event stress, more early maladaptive schemas and higher levels of impulsivity displayed more severe binge eating. In addition, early maladaptive schemas mediated the relationship between life event stress and binge eating, while impulsivity moderated this relationship. Furthermore, impulsivity also moderated the mediation effect of early maladaptive schemas; as impulsivity levels increased, the strength of the association between life event stress and early maladaptive schemas increased. This study illustrates the importance of understanding individual differences and their effects on the relationship between life event stress and binge eating. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Employee stress management: An examination of adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies on employee health.

    Holton, M Kim; Barry, Adam E; Chaney, J Don

    2015-01-01

    Employees commonly report feeling stressed at work. Examine how employees cope with work and personal stress, whether their coping strategies are adaptive (protective to health) or maladaptive (detrimental to health), and if the manner in which employees cope with stress influences perceived stress management. In this cross-sectional study, a random sample of 2,500 full-time university non-student employees (i.e. faculty, salaried professionals, and hourly non-professionals) were surveyed on health related behaviors including stress and coping. Approximately 1,277 completed the survey (51% ). Hierarchical logistic regression was used to assess the ability of adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies to predict self-reported stress management, while controlling for multiple demographic variables. Over half of employees surveyed reported effective stress management. Most frequently used adaptive coping strategies were communication with friend/family member and exercise, while most frequently used maladaptive coping strategies were drinking alcohol and eating more than usual. Both adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies made significant (p stress management. Only adaptive coping strategies (B = 0.265) predicted whether someone would self-identify as effectively managing stress. Use of maladaptive coping strategies decreased likelihood of self-reporting effective stress management. Actual coping strategies employed may influence employees' perceived stress management. Adaptive coping strategies may be more influential than maladaptive coping strategies on perceived stress management. Results illustrate themes for effective workplace stress management programs. Stress management programs focused on increasing use of adaptive coping may have a greater impact on employee stress management than those focused on decreasing use of maladaptive coping. Coping is not only a reaction to stressful experiences but also a consequence of coping resources. Thereby increasing the

  7. Applying Intuition to Predict Maladaptive Interpersonal Outcomes in Mother-Infant Dyads.

    Trad, Paul V.

    1994-01-01

    This article proposes that intuitive behaviors may be used to detect and resolve potential conflict in mother-infant relationships. Previewing, in which the caregiver introduces the infant to the physical sensations and interpersonal meaning of a new developmental skill, is suggested as a way of moving the mother-infant relationship in the…

  8. The Mediating Roles of Stress and Maladaptive Behaviors on Self-Harm and Suicide Attempts among Runaway and Homeless Youth

    Moskowitz, Amanda; Stein, Judith A.; Lightfoot, Marguerita

    2013-01-01

    Runaway and homeless youth often have a constellation of background behavioral, emotional, and familial problems that contribute to stress and maladaptive behaviors, which, in turn, can lead to self-harming and suicidal behaviors. The current study examined the roles of stress and maladaptive behaviors as mediators between demographic and…

  9. Resident and attending physician perception of maladaptive response to stress in residents

    Lee Ann Riesenberg

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Residency stress has been shown to interfere with resident well-being and patient safety. We developed a survey research study designed to explore factors that may affect perception of a maladaptive response to stress. Methods: A 16-item survey with 12 Likert-type perception items was designed to determine how often respondents agreed or disagreed with statements regarding the resident on the trigger tape. A total of 438 respondents from multiple institutions completed surveys. Results: Attending physicians were more likely than residents to agree that the resident on the trigger tape was impaired, p<0.0001; needed to seek professional counseling, p=0.0003; should be removed from the service, p=0.002; was not receiving adequate support from the attending physician, p=0.007; and was a risk to patient safety, p=0.02. Attending physicians were also less likely to agree that the resident was a good role model, p=0.001, and that the resident should be able to resolve these issues herself/himself, p<0.0001. Conclusion: Our data suggest that resident physicians may not be able to adequately detect maladaptive responses to stress and that attending physicians may be more adept at recognizing this problem. More innovative faculty and resident development workshops should be created to teach and encourage physicians to better observe and detect residents who are displaying maladaptive responses to stress.

  10. Modulation of the maladaptive stress response to manage diseases of protein folding.

    Daniela Martino Roth

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Diseases of protein folding arise because of the inability of an altered peptide sequence to properly engage protein homeostasis components that direct protein folding and function. To identify global principles of misfolding disease pathology we examined the impact of the local folding environment in alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency (AATD, Niemann-Pick type C1 disease (NPC1, Alzheimer's disease (AD, and cystic fibrosis (CF. Using distinct models, including patient-derived cell lines and primary epithelium, mouse brain tissue, and Caenorhabditis elegans, we found that chronic expression of misfolded proteins not only triggers the sustained activation of the heat shock response (HSR pathway, but that this sustained activation is maladaptive. In diseased cells, maladaptation alters protein structure-function relationships, impacts protein folding in the cytosol, and further exacerbates the disease state. We show that down-regulation of this maladaptive stress response (MSR, through silencing of HSF1, the master regulator of the HSR, restores cellular protein folding and improves the disease phenotype. We propose that restoration of a more physiological proteostatic environment will strongly impact the management and progression of loss-of-function and gain-of-toxic-function phenotypes common in human disease.

  11. Maladaptive dependency schemas, posttraumatic stress hyperarousal symptoms, and intimate partner aggression perpetration.

    Kachadourian, Lorig K; Taft, Casey T; Holowka, Darren W; Woodward, Halley; Marx, Brian P; Burns, Anthony

    2013-10-01

    This study examined the associations between maladaptive dependency-related schemas, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) hyperarousal symptoms, and intimate-partner psychological and physical aggression in a sample of court-referred men (N = 174) participating in a domestic-abuser-intervention program. The men were largely African American; average age was 33.5 years. The extent to which hyperarousal symptoms moderated the association between dependency schemas and aggression was also examined. Maladaptive dependency-related schemas were positively associated with severe psychological, and mild and severe physical aggression perpetration. Hyperarousal symptoms were positively associated with mild and severe psychological aggression, and mild physical aggression perpetration. Multiple regression analyses showed a significant interaction for mild physical aggression: For those with high levels of hyperarousal symptoms, greater endorsement of maladaptive dependency schemas was associated with the perpetration of aggression (B = 0.98, p = .001). For those with low levels of hyperarousal symptoms, there was no association between dependency schemas and aggression (B = 0.04, ns). These findings suggest that focusing on problematic dependency and PTSD-hyperarousal symptoms in domestic-abuser-intervention programs may be helpful, and that examining related variables as possible moderators between dependency schemas and intimate aggression would be a fruitful area for future research. Published 2013. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  12. The Role of Career Stress in the Relationship between Maladaptive Perfectionism and Career Attitude Maturity in South Korean Undergraduates

    Park, Heerak; Choi, Bo Young; Nam, Suk Kyung; Lee, Sang Min

    2011-01-01

    Given the central role of career stress in college students' lives, this research examined whether career stress mediated the relationship between maladaptive perfectionism and career attitude maturity in a sample of 185 undergraduate students in South Korea. The results indicated that career ambiguity stress, as measured by a career stress…

  13. The predictive value of early maladaptive schemas in paranoid responses to social stress.

    Sundag, Johanna; Ascone, Leonie; Lincoln, Tania M

    2018-01-01

    Social stress and negatively valenced cognitive representations of the self (self-schemas) play an important role in the formation of delusions. However, it has not been investigated whether and which self-schemas explain paranoid responses to social stress. Building on the framework of schema theory, the aim of this study was thus to investigate whether more pronounced early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) were associated with increased paranoid ideation after a social stress induction in patients with persecutory delusions (PD). Patients with PD (n = 20) and healthy controls (n = 40) were assessed for EMSs with the Young Schema Questionnaire. They were then exposed to a social stress situation in which they were socially excluded in a Cyberball paradigm. Prior to and after the social stress induction, paranoid symptoms were assessed. Patients with PD responded with a stronger increase in paranoia and revealed a significantly higher EMS total score compared to the healthy controls. As expected, higher increases in paranoia following the social stress were accounted for by higher EMS total scores. Exploratory analyses showed that particularly the specific EMSs Defectiveness/Shame and Enmeshment/Undeveloped Self were associated with the increase in paranoia. EMSs are associated with stress-related symptom increases in patients with PD. It thus seems worthwhile to further investigate the relevance of specific schemas for paranoia. The findings also suggest that addressing EMSs in psychological treatment of patients with PD holds potential. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms, Perceived Stress, and Well-Being: The Role of Early Maladaptive Schemata.

    Miklósi, Mónika; Máté, Orsolya; Somogyi, Klára; Szabó, Marianna

    2016-05-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent chronic neuropsychiatric disorders, severely affecting the emotional well-being of children as well as of adults. It has been suggested that individuals who experience symptoms of ADHD develop maladaptive schemata of failure, impaired self-discipline, social isolation, and shame. These schemata may then contribute to impaired emotional well-being by increasing unhelpful responses to stressful life events. However, to date, no empirical research has tested this theoretical proposition. In a sample of 204 nonclinical adults, we conducted a serial multiple mediator analysis, which supported the proposed model. More severe ADHD symptoms were associated with higher levels of perceived stress both directly and indirectly through stronger maladaptive schemata, which, in turn, were related to lower levels of emotional well-being. Results suggest that identifying and modifying maladaptive schemata may be an important addition to psychotherapy for adult ADHD patients.

  15. Relationships between atypical sensory processing patterns, maladaptive behaviour and maternal stress in Spanish children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Nieto, C; López, B; Gandía, H

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated sensory processing in a sample of Spanish children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Specifically, the study aimed to explore (1) the prevalence and distribution of atypical sensory processing patterns, (2) the relationship between adaptive and maladaptive behaviour with atypical sensory processing and (3) the possible relationship between sensory subtype and maternal stress. The short sensory profile 2 (Dunn 2014) and the vineland adaptive behavior scale (Sparrow et al. 1984) were administered to examine the sensory processing difficulties and maladaptive behaviours of 45 children with ASD aged 3 to 14; their mothers also completed the parenting stress index-short form (Abidin 1995). Atypical sensory features were found in 86.7% of the children; avoider and sensor being the two most common patterns. No significant relationship was found between atypical sensory processing and adaptive behaviour. However, the analysis showed a strong relationship between sensory processing and maladaptive behaviour. Both maladaptive behaviour and sensory processing difficulties correlated significantly with maternal stress although maternal stress was predicted only by the sensory variable, and in particular by the avoider pattern. The findings suggest that sensory features in ASD may be driving the high prevalence of parental stress in carers. They also suggest that the effect on parental stress that has been attributed traditionally to maladaptive behaviours may be driven by sensory difficulties. The implications of these findings are discussed in relation to the development of interventions and the need to explore contextual and cultural variables as possible sources of variability. © 2017 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Neuropeptide Y stimulation as primary target for preventive measures of maladaptative cardiovascular reactions in occupational chronic stress exposure.

    Ciumaşu-Rîmbu, Mălina; Popa, Livia; Vulpoi, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Chronic stress may produce a decrease in central NPY expression and subjects exposed to it may prove hypersensitivity to a novel stressor with dysfunctions in the NPY system and cardiovascular maladaptation to stress, even hypertension. Upregulation of NPY expression may contribute to successful behavioral adaptation to stress by reducing cardiovascular tone and suppressing anxious behaviors. Adaptogens, a new class of metabolic regulators stimulate NPY expression and release. The aim of this study is to increase tolerance and adaptation to stress of hypersensitive to novel stressor, occupational chronic stress exposed subjects with cardiovascular maladaptation to mild new stressor using adaptogens as part of prevention protocol. 40 military personnel with known cardiostressor reactional mode and occupational chronic stress exposure were exposed to mild novel stressor: occupational medicine routine evaluation and clinically assessed for maladaptative cardiovascular response prior and before application of 30 day prevention protocol. Employees were randomly split in two groups, one receiving standard prevention protocol (lifestyle counseling) plus adaptogens in multiple dose administration, twice daily and the other receiving only standard prevention protocol. We found significant statistic differences in all cardiovascular parameters in adaptogen group and only in diastolic blood pressure in control group. Adaptogens could be an important factor in successful prevention protocols of chronic occupational stress dysfunctions involving NPY systems.

  17. Comparing Service Delivery Models for Children with Developmental Delays in Canada: Adaptive and Maladaptive Behaviours, Parental Perceptions of Stress and of Care

    Sladeczek, Ingrid E.; Fontil, Laura; Miodrag, Nancy; Karagiannakis, Anastasia; Amar, Daniel; Amos, Janet

    2017-01-01

    This study compares two service delivery models (community-based and centre-based), examining them in light of children's adaptive and maladaptive behaviours, and parental perceptions of stress and of care. More specifically, parents of 96 children with developmental delays assessed their children's adaptive and maladaptive behaviours and rated…

  18. Stress Generation and Adolescent Depression: Contribution of Interpersonal Stress Responses

    Flynn, Megan; Rudolph, Karen D.

    2011-01-01

    This research examined the proposal that ineffective responses to common interpersonal problems disrupt youths' relationships, which, in turn, contributes to depression during adolescence. Youth (86 girls, 81 boys; M age = 12.41, SD = 1.19) and their primary female caregivers participated in a three-wave longitudinal study. Youth completed a…

  19. The Contribution of Deficits in Emotional Clarity to Stress Responses and Depression

    Flynn, Megan; Rudolph, Karen D.

    2010-01-01

    This research investigated the contribution of deficits in emotional clarity to children's socioemotional adjustment. Specifically, this study examined the proposal that deficits in emotional clarity are associated with maladaptive interpersonal stress responses, and that maladaptive interpersonal stress responses act as a mechanism linking…

  20. [Interpersonal games as a method for doctors' occupational stress].

    Samborska-Sablik, Anna; Sablik, Zbigniew; Gaszyński, Tomasz; Drożdż, Jarosław

    2015-03-01

    Doctors are frequently expose to stress during their occupational work. It is mainly the result of burdens caused by taking care of patients, dysfunctional arrangements of the health care system and difficult relationships in their workplace. Chronic stress brings negative emotions and they need to cope with them . Doctors, willing to achieve it, may initiate interpersonal games with the hidden motive of restoring their internal balance. Based on transactional analysis, the authors describe some of the games which may be found in doctors' environment: "How to get out of there", "Mine is better than yours", "Scapegoat", "Fault" and "double bind". The outcome of the games may be receiving a support, proving a benefit derived from stress, getting the feeling of being not guilty, justification, or releasing emotions in apparently unintended way. Interpersonal games may help stressed doctors to get rid of internal tension but at the same time they may be a source of stress for other participants in the games. The way to limit their destructive impact is to create such administrative and organizational solutions which allow to make working conditions more friendly. © 2015 MEDPRESS.

  1. Gender differences in the relationship between maladaptive behaviours and post-traumatic stress disorder. A study on 900 L’Aquila 2009 earthquake survivors.

    Liliana eDell'Osso

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD represents one of the most frequently psychiatric sequelae to earthquake exposure. Increasing evidence suggests the onset of maladaptive behaviors among veterans and adolescents with PTSD, with specific gender differences emerging in the latter. Aims of the present study were to investigate the relationships between maladaptive behaviours and PTSD in earthquake survivors, besides the gender differences in the type and prevalence of maladaptive behaviours and their association with PTSD. Methods: 900 residents of the town of L’Aquila who experienced the earthquake of April 6th 2009 (Richter Magnitude 6.3 were assessed by means of the Trauma and Loss Spectrum Self Report (TALS-SR.Results: Significantly higher maladaptive behaviour prevalence rates were found among subjects with PTSD. A statistically significant association was found between male gender and the presence of at least one maladaptive behaviour among PTSD survivors. In the latter, significant correlations emerged between maladaptive coping and symptoms of re-experiencing, avoidance and numbing and arousal in women, while only between maladaptive coping and avoidance and numbing in men. Conclusions: Our results show high rates of maladaptive behaviours among earthquake survivors with PTSD suggesting a greater severity among men. Interestingly, post-traumatic stress symptomatology appears to be a better correlate of these behaviours among women than among men, suggesting the need for further studies based on a gender approach.

  2. Gender Differences in the Relationship between Maladaptive Behaviors and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. A Study on 900 L' Aquila 2009 Earthquake Survivors.

    Dell'osso, Liliana; Carmassi, Claudia; Stratta, Paolo; Massimetti, Gabriele; Akiskal, Kareen K; Akiskal, Hagop S; Maremmani, Icro; Rossi, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) represents one of the most frequently psychiatric sequelae to earthquake exposure. Increasing evidence suggests the onset of maladaptive behaviors among veterans and adolescents with PTSD, with specific gender differences emerging in the latter. Aims of the present study were to investigate the relationships between maladaptive behaviors and PTSD in earthquake survivors, besides the gender differences in the type and prevalence of maladaptive behaviors and their association with PTSD. 900 residents of the town of L'Aquila who experienced the earthquake of April 6th 2009 (Richter Magnitude 6.3) were assessed by means of the Trauma and Loss Spectrum-Self Report (TALS-SR). Significantly higher maladaptive behavior prevalence rates were found among subjects with PTSD. A statistically significant association was found between male gender and the presence of at least one maladaptive behavior among PTSD survivors. Further, among survivors with PTSD significant correlations emerged between maladaptive coping and symptoms of re-experiencing, avoidance and numbing, and arousal in women, while only between maladaptive coping and avoidance and numbing in men. Our results show high rates of maladaptive behaviors among earthquake survivors with PTSD suggesting a greater severity among men. Interestingly, post-traumatic stress symptomatology appears to be a better correlate of these behaviors among women than among men, suggesting the need for further studies based on a gender approach.

  3. Interpersonal stress and suicidal ideation in adolescence: An indirect association through perceived burdensomeness toward others.

    Buitron, Victor; Hill, Ryan M; Pettit, Jeremy W; Green, Kelly L; Hatkevich, Claire; Sharp, Carla

    2016-01-15

    Research has documented significant associations between life stress, especially interpersonal stress, and suicidal ideation in adolescents. Little is known about variables that explain the association between interpersonal stress and suicidal ideation. The present study evaluated a conceptual model in which interpersonal stress (chronic and episodic) predicted suicidal ideation indirectly via thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness among 180 inpatients (65.0% girls) ages 12-17 years (M=14.72, SD=1.49). Non-interpersonal stress was also examined to determine whether the model was specific to interpersonal stress or common to stress in general. Structural equation modeling identified a significant indirect effect of chronic interpersonal stress on suicidal ideation via perceived burdensomeness. Episodic interpersonal stress was significantly correlated with thwarted belongingness and suicidal ideation, but was not a significant predictor of suicidal ideation in a model that controlled for depressive and anxious symptoms. No significant associations were found between non-interpersonal stress and suicidal ideation. Adolescents were the sole informant source, data on psychiatric diagnoses were not available, and the optimal time interval for examining stress remains unclear. The cross-sectional study design prevents conclusions regarding directionality. These findings highlight the role of chronic interpersonal stress in suicidal ideation in adolescents, as well as the potential promise of perceived burdensomeness as a target for programs designed to prevent or reduce suicidal ideation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. College Students Coping with Interpersonal Stress: Examining a Control-Based Model of Coping

    Coiro, Mary Jo; Bettis, Alexandra H.; Compas, Bruce E.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The ways that college students cope with stress, particularly interpersonal stress, may be a critical factor in determining which students are at risk for impairing mental health disorders. Using a control-based model of coping, the present study examined associations between interpersonal stress, coping strategies, and symptoms.…

  5. Interpersonal Subtypes and Therapy Response in Patients Treated for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    König, Julia; Onnen, Margarete; Karl, Regina; Rosner, Rita; Butollo, Willi

    2016-01-01

    Interpersonal traits may influence psychotherapy success. One way of conceptualizing such traits is the interpersonal circumplex model. In this study, we analyse interpersonal circumplex data, assessed with the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (Horowitz, Strauß, & Kordy, 1994) from a randomized study with 138 patients suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder after trauma in adulthood. The study compared cognitive processing therapy and dialogical exposure therapy, a Gestalt-based intervention. We divided the interpersonally heterogeneous sample according to the quadrants of the interpersonal circumplex. The division into quadrants yielded subgroups that did not differ in their general psychological distress, but the cold-submissive quadrant tended to exhibit higher posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity and interpersonal distress than the other three. There was also a trend for patients in different quadrants to be affected differently by the treatments. Correlation analyses supported these results: in cognitive processing therapy, more dominant patients had more successful therapies, while in dialogical exposure therapy, success was not correlated with interpersonal style. Results indicate that especially patients with cold interpersonal styles profited differentially from the two treatments offered. Dividing samples according to the interpersonal circumplex quadrants seems promising. Interpersonal traits may contribute to psychotherapy outcome. Dividing the sample according to the quadrants of the interpersonal circumplex, as opposed to cluster analysis, yielded promising results. Patients higher in dominance fared better with cognitive processing therapy, while interpersonal style had no correlations with therapy success in dialogical exposure therapy. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Differences in maladaptive schemas between patients suffering from chronic and acute posttraumatic stress disorder and healthy controls

    Ahmadian A

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Alireza Ahmadian,1,2 Jafar Mirzaee,1 Maryam Omidbeygi,1 Edith Holsboer-Trachsler,3 Serge Brand3,41Department of Psychology, Kharazmi University, 2Sadr Psychiatric Hospital, Janbazan Medical and Engineering Research Center (JMERC, Tehran, Iran; 3Psychiatric Clinics of the University of Basel, Center for Affective, Stress and Sleep Disorders, 4Department of Sport, Exercise and Health, Sport Science Section, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland Background: War, as a stressor event, has a variety of acute and chronic negative consequences, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. In this context, early maladaptive schema-based problems in PTSD have recently become an important research area. The aim of this study was to assess early maladaptive schemas in patients with acute and chronic PTSD.Method: Using available sampling methods and diagnostic criteria, 30 patients with chronic PTSD, 30 patients with acute PTSD, and 30 normal military personnel who were matched in terms of age and wartime experience were selected and assessed with the Young Schema Questionnaire-Long Form, Beck Depression Inventory second version (BDI-II, the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI, and the Impact of Events Scale (IES.Results: Both acute and chronic PTSD patients, when compared with normal military personnel, had higher scores for all early maladaptive schemas. Additionally, veterans suffering from chronic PTSD, as compared with veterans suffering from acute PTSD and veterans without PTSD, reported more impaired schemas related, for instance, to Self-Control, Social Isolation, and Vulnerability to Harm and Illness.Discussion: The results of the present study have significant preventative, diagnostic, clinical, research, and educational implications with respect to PTSD. Keywords: veterans, PTSD, depression, anxiety 

  7. Differential Exposure and Reactivity to Interpersonal Stress Predict Sex Differences in Adolescent Depression

    Shih, Josephine H.; Eberhart, Nicole K.; Hammen, Constance L.; Brennan, Patricia A.

    2006-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that higher rates of depression in adolescent girls are explained by their greater exposure and reactivity to stress in the interpersonal domain in a large sample of 15-year-olds. Findings indicate that adolescent girls experienced higher levels of total and interpersonal episodic stress, whereas boys experienced…

  8. Relationship Between Intrinsic Motivation and Undergraduate Students' Depression and Stress: The Moderating Effect of Interpersonal Conflict.

    Huang, Yunhui; Lv, Wei; Wu, Jiang

    2016-10-01

    This study examined the effect of intrinsic academic motivation and interpersonal conflict on the perceived depression and stress. Participants were 537 Chinese undergraduate students (191 males and 346 females; M age = 20.4 years, SD age = 1.3). They completed four scales measuring intrinsic academic motivation, interpersonal conflict, stress, and depression. Linear regressions were conducted with intrinsic academic motivation, interpersonal conflict, and their interaction as independent variables to predict depression and stress. Results showed that intrinsic academic motivation was negatively, while interpersonal conflict was positively, associated with depression and stress. Moreover, the interaction was significant: negative association of "intrinsic academic motivation and depression" and that of "intrinsic academic motivation and stress" was weaker among participants who reported higher (vs. lower) levels of interpersonal conflict. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. The Impact of Interpersonal Discrimination and Stress on Health and Performance for Early Career STEM Academicians

    O’Brien, Katharine R.; McAbee, Samuel T.; Hebl, Michelle R.; Rodgers, John R.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examines the consequences of perceived interpersonal discrimination on stress, health, and performance in a sample of 210 science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) academicians. Using a path model, we test the relation that perceived interpersonal discrimination has on stress and the relation of stress to physical health maladies and on current and future performance. In so doing, we assess the link between discrimination and decrements in performance over time. Additionally, we test supervisor social support as a moderator of the discrimination–stress relation. Findings support relations between perceived interpersonal discrimination and stress, which in turn relates to declines in physical health and performance outcomes. Moreover, supervisory support is shown to mitigate the influence of interpersonal discrimination on stress in STEM academicians. PMID:27199848

  10. The impact of interpersonal discrimination and stress on health and performance for early career STEM academicians

    Katharine Ridgway O'Brien

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study examines the consequences of perceived interpersonal discrimination on stress, health, and performance in a sample of 210 STEM academicians. Using a path model, we test the relation that perceived interpersonal discrimination has on stress and the relation of stress to physical health maladies and on current and future performance. In so doing, we assess the link between discrimination and decrements in performance over time. Additionally, we test supervisor social support as a moderator of the discrimination–stress relation. Findings support relations between perceived interpersonal discrimination and stress, which in turn relates to declines in physical health and performance outcomes. Moreover, supervisory support is shown to mitigate the influence of interpersonal discrimination on stress in STEM academicians.

  11. Off-Time Pubertal Timing Predicts Physiological Reactivity to Postpuberty Interpersonal Stress

    Smith, Anne Emilie; Powers, Sally I.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated associations between retrospectively assessed timing of pubertal development, interpersonal interactions, and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis reactivity to an interpersonal stress task in 110 young adult women. Participants provided salivary cortisol samples at points prior and subsequent to a video-taped conflict discussion…

  12. Overgeneral autobiographical memory and chronic interpersonal stress as predictors of the course of depression in adolescents.

    Sumner, Jennifer A; Griffith, James W; Mineka, Susan; Rekart, Kathleen Newcomb; Zinbarg, Richard E; Craske, Michelle G

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) predicts the course of depression in adolescents. As part of a larger longitudinal study of risk for emotional disorders, 55 adolescents with a past history of major depressive disorder or minor depressive disorder completed the Autobiographical Memory Test. Fewer specific memories predicted the subsequent onset of a major depressive episode (MDE) over a 16-month follow-up period, even when covarying baseline depressive symptoms. This main effect was qualified by an interaction between specific memories and chronic interpersonal stress: Fewer specific memories predicted greater risk of MDE onset over follow-up at high (but not low) levels of chronic interpersonal stress. Thus, our findings suggest that OGM, in interaction with chronic interpersonal stress, predicts the course of depression among adolescents, and highlight the importance of measuring interpersonal stress in OGM research. © 2010 Psychology Press, an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business

  13. Comparing chronic interpersonal and noninterpersonal stress domains as predictors of depression recurrence in emerging adults.

    Sheets, Erin S; Craighead, W Edward

    2014-12-01

    Understanding how persistent interpersonal difficulties distinctly affect the course of major depressive disorder (MDD) during emerging adulthood is critical, given that early experiences impact future coping resources and functioning. Research on stress and MDD has mostly concentrated on stressful life events, while chronic stress largely has not been explored. The present study examined interpersonal (intimate relationship, close friendships, social life, family relationships) and noninterpersonal (academic, work, financial, personal health, and family members' health) domains of chronic stress as time-varying predictors of depressive recurrence in emerging adults. Baseline assessments identified previously depressed emerging adults (N = 119), who subsequently completed 6-month, 12-month and 18-month follow-up interviews to determine chronic stress experiences and onset of new major depressive episodes. Survival analyses indicated that time-varying total chronic stress and chronic interpersonal stress predicted higher risk for depression recurrence; however, chronic noninterpersonal stress was not associated with recurrence. Intimate relationship stress, close friendship stress, family relationship stress, personal health, and family members' health independently predicted MDD recurrence, over and above well-established depression risk factors of dysfunctional cognitions and personality disorder symptoms. Evidence that interpersonal stress could have substantial impact on course of depression is consistent with theories of emerging adulthood, a time when young people are individuating from the family and experiencing significant social transition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Stress, burnout, and maladaptive coping: strategies for surgeon well-being.

    Bittner, James G; Khan, Zarrish; Babu, Maya; Hamed, Osama

    2011-08-01

    Practicing physicians and surgeons, medical and surgical residents, and medical students dedicate their lives to providing optimum patient care, but doing so places them at significant risk for personal and professional stress and, ultimately, burnout. Of great concern is the fact that unrecognized stress and unmanaged burnout are more prevalent among residents than previously believed. Research shows that stress without conflict resolution may lead to burnout, which can contribute to impaired technical performance, medical errors, physical and mental health problems, and even increase the risk of suicide. Therefore, it is crucial that surgeons, and the organizations that train and employ them, recognize the early signs of stress and burnout, adopt adaptive coping strategies, and maintain a culture wherein work-life balance and surgeon well-being are shared goals.

  15. Interpersonal trauma moderates the relationship between personality factors and suicidality of individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Yoo, Yongjoon; Park, Hyeon-Ju; Park, Soowon; Cho, Maeng Je; Cho, Seong-Jin; Lee, Ji Yeon; Choi, Soo-Hee; Lee, Jun-Young

    2018-01-01

    Individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are more prone to suicidal ideation and behavior. While those who have experienced interpersonal trauma exhibit more suicidality than those who have experienced non-interpersonal trauma, it is unclear how the traumatic effects are related to an individual's personality characteristics. This study examined the association between interpersonal trauma and personality factors with suicidality, and elucidated the moderating role of interpersonal trauma in individuals with PTSD. The study included 6,022 participants from the Korean Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study 2011. The Korean Version of Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used for the survey, including the participants' history of suicidality, the traumas they have experienced, and their PTSD symptoms. The 11-item version of the Big Five Inventory (BFI-11) was used to assess the participants' personality factors. 76 individuals were diagnosed with PTSD, while 810 had been exposed to trauma but were not diagnosed with any DSM-IV mental disorder. Among the individuals with PTSD, those who had experienced interpersonal trauma were more likely to have suicidal ideation than those who had experienced non-interpersonal trauma (p = .020; odds ratio [OR] = 3.643; 95% confidence interval of OR = [1.226, 10.825]). High agreeableness and conscientiousness predicted less suicidality in those exposed to non-interpersonal trauma, while predicting more suicidality in those exposed to interpersonal trauma. Clinicians examining individuals with PTSD should pay closer attention to the trauma that they have experienced, as well as their personality factors, to provide appropriate treatment.

  16. Integrated physiological mechanisms of exercise performance, adaptation, and maladaptation to heat stress.

    Sawka, Michael N; Leon, Lisa R; Montain, Scott J; Sonna, Larry A

    2011-10-01

    This article emphasizes significant recent advances regarding heat stress and its impact on exercise performance, adaptations, fluid electrolyte imbalances, and pathophysiology. During exercise-heat stress, the physiological burden of supporting high skin blood flow and high sweating rates can impose considerable cardiovascular strain and initiate a cascade of pathophysiological events leading to heat stroke. We examine the association between heat stress, particularly high skin temperature, on diminishing cardiovascular/aerobic reserves as well as increasing relative intensity and perceptual cues that degrade aerobic exercise performance. We discuss novel systemic (heat acclimation) and cellular (acquired thermal tolerance) adaptations that improve performance in hot and temperate environments and protect organs from heat stroke as well as other dissimilar stresses. We delineate how heat stroke evolves from gut underperfusion/ischemia causing endotoxin release or the release of mitochondrial DNA fragments in response to cell necrosis, to mediate a systemic inflammatory syndrome inducing coagulopathies, immune dysfunction, cytokine modulation, and multiorgan damage and failure. We discuss how an inflammatory response that induces simultaneous fever and/or prior exposure to a pathogen (e.g., viral infection) that deactivates molecular protective mechanisms interacts synergistically with the hyperthermia of exercise to perhaps explain heat stroke cases reported in low-risk populations performing routine activities. Importantly, we question the "traditional" notion that high core temperature is the critical mediator of exercise performance degradation and heat stroke. Published 2011. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  17. Differential relations between youth internalizing/externalizing problems and cortisol responses to performance vs. interpersonal stress.

    Laurent, Heidemarie; Vergara-Lopez, Chrystal; Stroud, Laura R

    2016-09-01

    Efforts to define hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis profiles conferring risk for psychopathology have yielded inconclusive results, perhaps in part due to limited assessment of the stress response. In particular, research has typically focused on HPA responses to performance tasks, while neglecting the interpersonal stressors that become salient during adolescence. In this study we investigated links between psychosocial adjustment - youth internalizing and externalizing problems, as well as competence - and HPA responses to both performance and interpersonal stressors in a normative sample of children and adolescents. Participants (n = 59) completed a set of performance (public speaking, mental arithmetic, mirror tracing) and/or interpersonal (peer rejection) tasks and gave nine saliva samples, which were assayed for cortisol. Hierarchical linear models of cortisol response trajectories in relation to child behavior checklist (CBCL) scores revealed stressor- and sex-specific associations. Whereas internalizing problems related to earlier peaking, less dynamic cortisol responses to interpersonal stress (across males and females), externalizing problems related to lower, earlier peaking and less dynamic cortisol responses to performance stress for males only, and competence-related to later peaking cortisol responses to interpersonal stress for females only. Implications for understanding contextual stress profiles underlying different forms of psychopathology are discussed.

  18. The Contribution of Deficits in Emotional Clarity to Stress Responses and Depression

    Flynn, Megan; Rudolph, Karen D.

    2010-01-01

    This research investigated the contribution of deficits in emotional clarity to children’s socioemotional adjustment. Specifically, this study examined the proposal that deficits in emotional clarity are associated with maladaptive interpersonal stress responses, and that maladaptive interpersonal stress responses act as a mechanism linking deficits in emotional clarity to childhood depressive symptoms. Participants included 345 3rd graders (M age = 8.89, SD = .34) assessed at two waves, appr...

  19. Interpersonal trauma moderates the relationship between personality factors and suicidality of individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder

    Yoo, Yongjoon; Park, Hyeon-Ju; Park, Soowon; Cho, Maeng Je; Cho, Seong-Jin; Lee, Ji Yeon

    2018-01-01

    Individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are more prone to suicidal ideation and behavior. While those who have experienced interpersonal trauma exhibit more suicidality than those who have experienced non-interpersonal trauma, it is unclear how the traumatic effects are related to an individual’s personality characteristics. This study examined the association between interpersonal trauma and personality factors with suicidality, and elucidated the moderating role of interpersonal trauma in individuals with PTSD. The study included 6,022 participants from the Korean Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study 2011. The Korean Version of Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used for the survey, including the participants’ history of suicidality, the traumas they have experienced, and their PTSD symptoms. The 11-item version of the Big Five Inventory (BFI-11) was used to assess the participants’ personality factors. 76 individuals were diagnosed with PTSD, while 810 had been exposed to trauma but were not diagnosed with any DSM-IV mental disorder. Among the individuals with PTSD, those who had experienced interpersonal trauma were more likely to have suicidal ideation than those who had experienced non-interpersonal trauma (p = .020; odds ratio [OR] = 3.643; 95% confidence interval of OR = [1.226, 10.825]). High agreeableness and conscientiousness predicted less suicidality in those exposed to non-interpersonal trauma, while predicting more suicidality in those exposed to interpersonal trauma. Clinicians examining individuals with PTSD should pay closer attention to the trauma that they have experienced, as well as their personality factors, to provide appropriate treatment. PMID:29329352

  20. Interpersonal stress, performance level, and parental support : A Longitudinal study among highly skilled young soccer players

    Van Yperen, N.W.

    1995-01-01

    This study of 65 highly skilled young male soccer players (mean age = 16.6 years) employed a 7-month longitudinal design to examine the causal relationship between performance level and interpersonal stress within the team. Particular attention was paid to the moderating effect of parental support.

  1. Coping with interpersonal stress and psychological distress at work: comparison of hospital nursing staff and salespeople

    Kato T

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tsukasa Kato Department of Social Psychology, Toyo University, Tokyo, Japan Abstract: Hospital nurses frequently experience relationships with patients as stressors in the workplace. Nurses’ coping behavior is one potential buffering factor that can reduce the effects of job stress on their psychological functioning and well-being. In this study, the association between nurses' strategies for coping with interpersonal stress from patients and their psychological distress was examined. Participants included 204 hospital nurses and 142 salespeople, who were used as a comparison group. Participants completed measures of coping with interpersonal stress and psychological distress. Hospital nurses reported more psychological distress than did salespeople. Moreover, distancing coping was correlated with high psychological distress in both nurses and salespeople, and reassessing coping was correlated with low psychological distress in nurses. For nurses only, constructive coping appeared to be an effective strategy for reducing psychological distress. It is important for nurses to understand the role of constructive coping in nurse–patient communication and interaction. Keywords: nurse, relationships with patients, interpersonal stress, coping behavior, job stress

  2. Vulnerability-specific stress generation: An examination of negative cognitive and interpersonal styles

    Liu, Richard T.; Alloy, Lauren B.; Mastin, Becky M.; Choi, Jimmy Y.; Boland, Elaine M.; Jenkins, Abby L.

    2014-01-01

    Although there is substantial evidence documenting the stress generation effect in depression (i.e., the tendency for depression-prone individuals to experience higher rates of life stress to which they contribute), additional research is required to advance current understanding of the specific types of dependent stress (i.e., events influenced by characteristics and attendant behaviors of the individual) relevant to this effect. The present study tested an extension of the stress generation hypothesis, in which the content of dependent stress that is produced by depression-prone individuals is contingent upon, and matches, the nature of their particular vulnerabilities. This extension was tested within the context of two cognitive models (i.e., hopelessness theory [Abramson, Metalsky, & Alloy, 1989] and Cole’s [1990, 1991] competency-based model) and two interpersonal models (i.e., Swann’s [1987] self-verification theory and Coyne’s [1976] interpersonal theory) of depression. Overall, support was obtained for vulnerability-specific stress generation. Specifically, in analyses across vulnerability domains, evidence of stress-generation specificity was found for all domain-specific cognitive vulnerabilities except self-perceived social competence. The within-domain analyses for cognitive vulnerabilities produced more mixed results, but were largely supportive. Additionally, excessive reassurance-seeking was specifically predictive of dependent stress in the social domain, and moderated, but did not mediate, the relation between negative inferential styles overall and in the interpersonal domain and their corresponding generated stress. Finally, no evidence was found for a stress generation effect with negative feedback-seeking. PMID:24679143

  3. Neural indicators of interpersonal anger as cause and consequence of combat training stress symptoms.

    Gilam, G; Lin, T; Fruchter, E; Hendler, T

    2017-07-01

    Angry outbursts are an important feature of various stress-related disorders, and commonly lead to aggression towards other people. Findings regarding interpersonal anger have linked the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) to anger regulation and the locus coeruleus (LC) to aggression. Both regions were previously associated with traumatic and chronic stress symptoms, yet it is unclear if their functionality represents a consequence of, or possibly also a cause for, stress symptoms. Here we investigated the relationship between the neural trajectory of these indicators of anger and the development and manifestation of stress symptoms. A total of 46 males (29 soldiers, 17 civilians) participated in a prospective functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment in which they played a modified interpersonal anger-provoking Ultimatum Game (UG) at two-points. Soldiers were tested at the beginning and end of combat training, while civilians were tested at the beginning and end of civil service. We assumed that combat training would induce chronic stress and result in increased stress symptoms. Soldiers showed an increase in stress symptoms following combat training while civilians showed no such change following civil service. All participants were angered by the modified UG irrespective of time point. Higher post-combat training stress symptoms were associated with lower pre-combat training vmPFC activation and with higher activation increase in the LC between pre- and post-combat training. Results suggest that during anger-provoking social interactions, flawed vmPFC functionality may serve as a causal risk factor for the development of stress symptoms, and heightened reactivity of the LC possibly reflects a consequence of stress-inducing combat training. These findings provide potential neural targets for therapeutic intervention and inoculation for stress-related psychopathological manifestations of anger.

  4. Depression and anxiety predict sex-specific cortisol responses to interpersonal stress.

    Powers, Sally I; Laurent, Heidemarie K; Gunlicks-Stoessel, Meredith; Balaban, Susan; Bent, Eileen

    2016-07-01

    Clinical theories posit interpersonal stress as an important factor in the emergence and exacerbation of depression and anxiety, while neuroendocrine research confirms the association of these syndromes with dysregulation in a major stress response system, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. However, the proposal that depression and anxiety symptoms and diagnoses are associated with problematic HPA responses to close relationship stress has not been directly tested. We examined 196 heterosexual dating couples' depression and anxiety symptoms and diagnoses, assessed with questionnaires and diagnostic interviews, in relation to cortisol responses to discussion of an unresolved relationship conflict. Participants provided seven salivary samples in anticipation of and directly following the discussion, and throughout an hour-long recovery period, which were assayed for cortisol. Multilevel models of the HPA response predicted by symptoms or diagnoses showed that women's depressive symptoms predicted attenuated cortisol levels, with a flatter response curve. In contrast, men's depression symptoms and women's anxiety symptoms and diagnoses predicted higher cortisol levels. These findings highlight the importance of examining sex differences in responses to interpersonal stressors for understanding HPA dysregulation in internalizing psychopathology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Crying in Context: Understanding Associations With Interpersonal Dependency and Social Support

    Katherine L. Fiori

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the associations among interpersonal dependency, social support, and crying proneness, since crying is a behavior that is particularly relevant to the affiliative interpersonal goals characterizing maladaptive forms of dependency (Keltner & Kring, 1998. Data were collected from 305 first-year university students (M age = 18 years. A series of hierarchical linear regressions, controlling for gender, commuting status, romantic relationship status, stress, loneliness, and depressive symptoms, partially supported our hypotheses. That is, we found that a measure of maladaptive dependency (destructive overdependence, or DO and crying proneness were positively correlated, and that DO moderated the associations between social support and crying proneness. Specifically, we found that social support and crying were more closely positively associated among individuals high on DO compared to individuals low on DO. Our findings imply that interpersonal dependency may be an important factor in understanding individual differences in crying, and in determining whether crying is a successful elicitor of social support.

  6. Interaction of CD38 Variant and Chronic Interpersonal Stress Prospectively Predicts Social Anxiety and Depression Symptoms Over Six Years

    Tabak, Benjamin A.; Vrshek-Schallhorn, Suzanne; Zinbarg, Richard E.; Prenoveau, Jason M.; Mineka, Susan; Redei, Eva E.; Adam, Emma K.; Craske, Michelle G.

    2015-01-01

    Variation in the CD38 gene, which regulates secretion of the neuropeptide oxytocin, has been associated with several social phenotypes. Specifically, rs3796863 A allele carriers have demonstrated increased social sensitivity. In 400 older adolescents, we used trait-state-occasion modeling to investigate how rs3796863 genotype, baseline ratings of chronic interpersonal stress, and their gene-environment (GxE) interaction predicted trait social anxiety and depression symptoms over six years. We found significant GxE effects for CD38 A-carrier genotypes and chronic interpersonal stress at baseline predicting greater social anxiety and depression symptoms. A significant GxE effect of smaller magnitude was also found for C/C genotype and chronic interpersonal stress predicting greater depression; however, this effect was small compared to the main effect of chronic interpersonal stress. Thus, in the context of chronic interpersonal stress, heightened social sensitivity associated with the rs3796863 A allele may prospectively predict risk for social anxiety and (to a lesser extent) depression. PMID:26958455

  7. Understanding the impact of prior depression on stress generation: examining the roles of current depressive symptoms and interpersonal behaviours.

    Shih, Josephine H; Eberhart, Nicole K

    2008-08-01

    Stress generation is a process in which individuals contribute to stressful life events. While research has supported an association between current depression and stress generation, it has been noted that individuals with prior depression tend to contribute to stressors even when they are no longer experiencing a depressive episode. The aim of the study is to elucidate the pathways through which prior major depression predicts interpersonal stress generation in women. Specifically, we examined current subsyndromal depressive symptoms and problematic interpersonal behaviours as potential mediators. Fifty-one college women were followed prospectively for 6 weeks. Participants were interviewed to assess current and past depression as well as stressful life events they experienced over the 6-week period. The findings suggest that prior major depression continues to have an impact even after the episode has ended, as the disorder continues to contribute to stress generation through residual depressive symptoms.

  8. Stress-induced neuroplasticity: (mal)adaptation to adverse life events in patients with PTSD--a critical overview.

    Deppermann, S; Storchak, H; Fallgatter, A J; Ehlis, A-C

    2014-12-26

    Stress is an adaptive response to demands of the environment and thus essential for survival. Exposure to stress triggers hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activation and associated neurochemical reactions, following glucocorticoid release from the adrenal glands, accompanied by rapid physiological responses. Stimulation of this pathway results in the activation of specific brain regions, including the hippocampus, amygdala and prefrontal cortex which are enriched with glucocorticoid receptors (GRs). Recent findings indicate that the activation of GRs mediates the regulation of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). BDNF is crucial for neural plasticity, as it promotes cellular growth and synaptic changes. Hence stress-induced activation of these pathways leads to neuroplastic changes, including the formation of long-lasting memories of the experiences. As a consequence, organisms can learn from stressful events and respond in an adaptive manner to similar demands in the future. Whereas an optimal stress level leads to enhancement of memory performance, the exposure to extreme, traumatic or chronic stressors is a risk factor for psychopathologies which are associated with memory impairment and cognitive deficits such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In this review article, we will outline the implications of stress exposure on memory formation involving the role of glucocorticoids and BDNF. Within this context, potential adverse effects of neuroplastic alterations will be discussed using the example of PTSD. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Social support buffers the effect of interpersonal life stress on suicidal ideation and self-injury during adolescence.

    Mackin, D M; Perlman, G; Davila, J; Kotov, R; Klein, D N

    2017-04-01

    The effect of life stress on suicidal symptoms during adolescence is well documented. Stressful life events can trigger suicidality, but most adolescents are resilient and it is unclear which factors protect against the deleterious impact of stress. Social support is thought to be one such factor. Therefore, we investigated the buffering effect of specific sources of social support (parental and peer) on life stress (interpersonal and non-interpersonal) in predicting suicidal symptoms during adolescence. In order to test the specificity of this stress buffering, we also examined it with regard to dysphoric mood. Data come from the Adolescent Development of Emotions and Personality Traits (ADEPT) Project, a cohort of 550 adolescent females aged 13.5-15.5 recruited from Long Island. Self-reported social support, suicidality, and dysphoria were assessed at baseline and suicidality and dysphoria were assessed again at 9-month follow-up. Life stress was assessed by interview at the follow-up. High levels of parental support protected adolescent girls from developing suicidal symptoms following a stressor. This effect was less pronounced for peer support. Also, social support did not buffer the pathogenic effects of non-interpersonal stress. Finally, social support did not buffer the effect of life stress on dysphoric symptoms. Altogether, our results highlight a distinct developmental pathway for the development of suicidal symptoms involving parental support that differs from the development of dysphoria, and signifies the importance and specificity of social support in protecting against suicidality in adolescent girls.

  10. Self-worth as a mediator between attachment and posttraumatic stress in interpersonal trauma.

    Lim, Ban Hong Phylice; Adams, Lauren A; Lilly, Michelle M

    2012-07-01

    It is well documented that most trauma survivors recover from adversity and only a number of them go on to develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In addition, survivors of interpersonal trauma (IPT) appear to be at heightened risk for developing PTSD in comparison to survivors of noninterpersonal trauma (NIPT). Despite a robust association between IPT exposure and attachment disruptions, there is a dearth of research examining the role of attachment-related processes implicated in predicting PTSD. Using a sample of college undergraduates exposed to IPT and NIPT, this study explores the mediating effect of self-worth in the relationship between attachment and PTSD. It is hypothesized that insecure attachment will be related to posttraumatic symptomatology via a reduced sense of self-worth in IPT survivors but not in NIPT survivors. Mediation analyses provide support for this hypothesis, suggesting the importance of considering negative cognitions about the self in therapeutic interventions, particularly those offered to IPT survivors.

  11. The Interplay between Interpersonal Stress and Psychological Intimate Partner Violence over Time for Young At-Risk Couples

    Shortt, Joann Wu; Capaldi, Deborah M.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Tiberio, Stacey S.

    2013-01-01

    The substantial number of young people in romantic relationships that involve intimate partner violence, a situation deleterious to physical and mental health, has resulted in increased attention to understanding the links between risk factors and course of violence. The current study examined couples' interpersonal stress related to not liking…

  12. Relationships between interpersonal trauma, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, and other mental health problems in girls in compulsory residential care

    Leenarts, Laura E. W.; Vermeiren, Robert R. J. M.; van de Ven, Peter M.; Lodewijks, Henny P. B.; Doreleijers, Theo A. H.; Lindauer, Ramón J. L.

    2013-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the relationships (using structural equation modeling) between exposure to early-onset interpersonal trauma, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), symptoms of complex PTSD, and other mental health problems. The participants were 92 girls recruited from

  13. Interpersonal Victimization, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Change in Adolescent Substance Use Prevalence over a Ten-Year Period

    McCart, Michael R.; Zajac, Kristyn; Danielson, Carla Kmett; Strachan, Martha; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Smith, Daniel W.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have identified recent declines in specific types of adolescent substance use. The current study examined whether these declines varied among youth with and without a history of interpersonal victimization or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Data for this study come from two distinct samples of youth (12-17 years of…

  14. Towards a better preclinical model of PTSD: characterizing animals with weak extinction, maladaptive stress responses and low plasma corticosterone.

    Reznikov, Roman; Diwan, Mustansir; Nobrega, José N; Hamani, Clement

    2015-02-01

    Most of the available preclinical models of PTSD have focused on isolated behavioural aspects and have not considered individual variations in response to stress. We employed behavioural criteria to identify and characterize a subpopulation of rats that present several features analogous to PTSD-like states after exposure to classical fear conditioning. Outbred Sprague-Dawley rats were segregated into weak- and strong-extinction groups on the basis of behavioural scores during extinction of conditioned fear responses. Animals were subsequently tested for anxiety-like behaviour in the open-field test (OFT), novelty suppressed feeding (NSF) and elevated plus maze (EPM). Baseline plasma corticosterone was measured prior to any behavioural manipulation. In a second experiment, rats underwent OFT, NSF and EPM prior to being subjected to fear conditioning to ascertain whether or not pre-stress levels of anxiety-like behaviours could predict extinction scores. We found that 25% of rats exhibit low extinction rates of conditioned fear, a feature that was associated with increased anxiety-like behaviour across multiple tests in comparison to rats showing strong extinction. In addition, weak-extinction animals showed low levels of corticosterone prior to fear conditioning, a variable that seemed to predict extinction recall scores. In a separate experiment, anxiety measures taken prior to fear conditioning were not predictive of a weak-extinction phenotype, suggesting that weak-extinction animals do not show detectable traits of anxiety in the absence of a stressful experience. These findings suggest that extinction impairment may be used to identify stress-vulnerable rats, thus providing a useful model for elucidating mechanisms and investigating potential treatments for PTSD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Assessment of maladaptiveness: a core issue in the diagnosing of personality disorders.

    Svanborg, P; Gustavsson, P J; Mattila-Evenden, M; Asberg, M

    1999-01-01

    Although an operationalized and commonly accepted definition of maladaptiveness is lacking, the delineation of personality traits as being adaptive or maladaptive is essential in diagnosing personality disorders (PDs). A way to explore the meaning of maladaptiveness is to compare how patients from all DSM-III-R PDs relate to different traits and dimensions of various dimensional models of personality. In the present study, the Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP) were used in a sample of 94 psychiatric outpatients who were assessed according to severity of maladaption and according to type of predominant cluster type of deviant traits. Only one of four factors of the scores of the KSP subscales, "Interpersonal Aversiveness," was related to degree of maladaption, indicating high detachment, suspicion, irritability, dysphoria, and low socialization as core features of maladaptiveness. Three subscales of the KSP Socialization were all associated with maladaptiveness. However, one subscale, "Childhood Adjustment," was also related to the predominant cluster type of personality pathology.

  16. Interpersonal Stress Regulation and the Development of Anxiety Disorders: An Attachment-Based Developmental Framework

    Nolte, Tobias; Guiney, Jo; Fonagy, Peter; Mayes, Linda C.; Luyten, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Anxiety disorders represent a common but often debilitating form of psychopathology in both children and adults. While there is a growing understanding of the etiology and maintenance of these disorders across various research domains, only recently have integrative accounts been proposed. While classical attachment history has been a traditional core construct in psychological models of anxiety, contemporary attachment theory has the potential to integrate neurobiological and behavioral findings within a multidisciplinary developmental framework. The current paper proposes a modern attachment theory-based developmental model grounded in relevant literature from multiple disciplines including social neuroscience, genetics, neuroendocrinology, and the study of family factors involved in the development of anxiety disorders. Recent accounts of stress regulation have highlighted the interplay between stress, anxiety, and activation of the attachment system. This interplay directly affects the development of social–cognitive and mentalizing capacities that are acquired in the interpersonal context of early attachment relationships. Early attachment experiences are conceptualized as the key organizer of a complex interplay between genetic, environmental, and epigenetic contributions to the development of anxiety disorders – a multifactorial etiology resulting from dysfunctional co-regulation of fear and stress states. These risk-conferring processes are characterized by hyperactivation strategies in the face of anxiety. The cumulative allostatic load and subsequent “wear and tear” effects associated with hyperactivation strategies converge on the neural pathways of anxiety and stress. Attachment experiences further influence the development of anxiety as potential moderators of risk factors, differentially impacting on genetic vulnerability and relevant neurobiological pathways. Implications for further research and potential treatments are outlined. PMID

  17. Interpersonal stress regulation and the development of anxiety disorders: an attachment-based developmental framework

    Tobias eNolte

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders represent a common but often debilitating form of psychopathology in both children and adults. While there is a growing understanding of the aetiology and maintainance of these disorders across various research domains, only recently have integrative accounts been proposed. While classical attachment history has been a traditional core construct in psychological models of anxiety, contemporary attachment theory has the potential to integrate neurobiological and behavioral findings within a multidisciplinary developmental framework.The current paper proposes a modern attachment theory-based developmental model grounded in relevant literature from multiple disciplines including social neuroscience, genetics, neuroendocrinology, and the study of family factors involved in the development of anxiety disorders. Recent accounts of stress regulation have highlighted the interplay between stress, anxiety and activation of the attachment system. This interplay directly affects the development of social cognitive and mentalizing capacities that are acquired in the interpersonal context of early attachment relationships. Early attachment experiences are conceptualised as the key organiser of a complex interplay between genetic, environmental and epigentic contributions to the development of anxiety disorders – a multifactorial aetiology resulting from dysfunctional co-regulation of fear and stress states. These risk-conferring processes are characterised by hyperactivation strategies in the face of anxiety.In the model, the cumulative allostatic load and subsequent wear and tear effects associated with hyperactivation strategies converge on the neural pathways of anxiety and stress. Attachment experiences further influence the development of anxiety as potential moderators of risk factors, differentially impacting on genetic vulnerability and relevant neurobiological pathways. Implications for further research and potential treatments

  18. The Role of Generalized Explicit and Implicit Guilt and Shame in Interpersonal Traumatization and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    Bockers, Estelle; Roepke, Stefan; Michael, Lars; Renneberg, Babette; Knaevelsrud, Christine

    2016-02-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and interpersonal traumatization are frequently associated with trauma-related guilt and shame. However, research on generalized guilt and shame in PTSD is lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate generalized explicit and implicit guilt and shame in interpersonal traumatization and PTSD. Interpersonally traumatized women either with PTSD (n = 28) or without PTSD (n = 32) and 32 nontraumatized women completed the Test of Self-Conscious Affect-3 and the Implicit Association Test to measure explicit and implicit guilt and shame. Explicit guilt and shame were significantly higher in women with PTSD than in traumatized women without PTSD. Traumatized women without PTSD showed significantly higher levels of explicit guilt and shame than nontraumatized women did. PTSD was associated with implicit guilt but not implicit shame. In addition to trauma-related guilt and shame, generalized explicit guilt and shame and implicit guilt seem to play a crucial role in PTSD.

  19. Reactivity to interpersonal stress in patients with eating disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis of studies using an experimental paradigm.

    Monteleone, Alessio Maria; Treasure, Janet; Kan, Carol; Cardi, Valentina

    2018-04-01

    Reactivity to interpersonal stress in patients with eating disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis of studies using an experimental paradigm. NEUROSCI BIOBEHAV REV XXX-XXX, 2018.- Social difficulties have been implicated in the development and maintenance of eating disorder symptoms. The aim of this work was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of experimental studies testing patientsö reactivity to interpersonal stress, compared to healthy controls. Thirty-four studies were included. Meta-analyses were conducted on 16 studies and on following outcomes: attention bias and interference to threatening faces, cortisol, heart rate and negative affect before and after exposure to interpersonal stress. Patients showed heightened attention bias and interference to threatening faces. Lower heart rate after exposure to interpersonal stress and greater negative affect before and after interpersonal stress were observed in the clinical group compared to controls. Surprisingly, only a small minority of studies included measures of abnormal eating behaviour and attitudes. This seems a missed opportunity for testing the causal and maintaining role that abnormalities in interpersonal stress response play in eating disorders. Nonetheless, findings corroborate the hypothesis that patients' response to interpersonal stress differs from that of healthy controls. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Self-Esteem, Perceived Stress, and Gender During Adolescence: Interactive Links to Different Types of Interpersonal Relationships.

    Bi, Yanling; Ma, Lijie; Yuan, Fei; Zhang, Baoshan

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to analyze the relationships between self-esteem, perceived stress, the quality of different types of interpersonal relationships, and gender in adolescents. This study used a sample of 1614 adolescent high school students and robust data analytic techniques to test the proposed relationships. The results partially supported the initial hypothesis in that perceived stress mediated the relationships between self-esteem and four of the types of interpersonal relationships (i.e., same-sex peer relationships, opposite-sex peer relationships, parent-child relationships, and teacher-student relationships) and moderated the relationship between self-esteem and same-sex peer relationships. In addition, a moderated role of gender was also partially supported in that perceived stress mediated the relationships between self-esteem and same-sex peer relationships, opposite-sex peer relationships, and the parent-child relationship for girls, but not boys. On the basis of these findings, it was concluded that perceived stress plays an intervening role in the relationship between self-esteem and different types of interpersonal relationships and that gender seems to be a moderator for some of the patterns of the relationships between these variables. These findings are discussed in light of the possible mechanisms by which the variables could influence each other. Implications for theory and practice as well as some directions for future research were also suggested.

  1. The impact of posttraumatic stress symptoms, posttraumatic stress cognitions and interpersonal dependency on psychological co-morbidities following relationship dissolution among college students.

    Fang, Siqi; Chung, Man Cheung; Watson, Clare

    2018-02-13

    Relationship dissolution is a distressing experience which can result in the emergence of posttraumatic stress (i.e. post-dissolution PTSS) and other psychological symptoms among college students. Little is known, however, whether posttraumatic stress cognitions and interpersonal dependency may influence the severity of these distress outcomes. This study examined the interrelationship between posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), posttraumatic stress cognitions, interpersonal dependency and psychological co-morbidities following relationship dissolution. One hundred and eighty college students (M = 69, F = 111) who had experienced relationship dissolution completed the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale, Posttraumatic Stress Cognition Inventory, Interpersonal Dependency Inventory and General Health Questionnaire-28. Posttraumatic stress symptoms following relationship dissolution (post-dissolution PTSS) were associated with increased psychological co-morbidities. Negative view of oneself and self-blame mediated between PTSS and psychological co-morbidities. Assertion of autonomy moderated the mediational effects of negative cognitions on psychological co-morbidities. People can develop PTSSs and other psychological symptoms following the dissolution of a romantic relationship. Their concept of self and tendency to seek independence and control played a key role in determining the severity of distress symptoms.

  2. The Interplay Between Interpersonal Stress and Psychological Intimate Partner Violence Over Time for Young At-Risk Couples

    Shortt, Joann Wu; Capaldi, Deborah M.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Tiberio, Stacey S.

    2013-01-01

    The substantial number of young people in romantic relationships that involve intimate partner violence, a situation deleterious to physical and mental health, has resulted in increased attention to understanding the links between risk factors and course of violence. The current study examined couples’ interpersonal stress related to not liking partners’ friends and not getting along with parents as contextual factors associated with couples’ psychological partner violence and determined whet...

  3. Interpersonal relationship quality mediates the association between military-related posttraumatic stress and academic dysfunction among student veterans.

    Fredman, Steffany J; Marshall, Amy D; Le, Yunying; Aronson, Keith R; Perkins, Daniel F; Hayes, Jeffrey A

    2018-05-03

    Large numbers of United States service members and veterans are enrolling in colleges and universities. Many are experiencing posttraumatic stress symptoms secondary to their military service, and these symptoms are associated with academic dysfunction. However, little is known about the mechanism(s) through which posttraumatic stress increases risk for academic difficulties. The goal of the current study was to evaluate perceived interpersonal relationship quality as a mediator of this association. The current study investigated the indirect effect of posttraumatic stress on academic dysfunction through three indices of perceived interpersonal relationship quality (i.e., family distress, family support, and social network support) in a clinical sample of 2,120 student service members and veterans. Participants were further divided into four groups based on relationship status and gender (i.e., partnered women, nonpartnered women, partnered men, and nonpartnered men), and moderation by group was examined. For all four groups, there were significant indirect effects of posttraumatic stress on academic dysfunction through greater family distress and lower social network support. Further, the overall indirect effect of posttraumatic stress on academic dysfunction was stronger for partnered women compared with the three other groups and was attributable to the stronger path from family distress to academic dysfunction for partnered women. Poor perceived relationship quality may be a modifiable risk factor for academic dysfunction among student service members and veterans experiencing military-related posttraumatic stress. Partnered women may be especially well-suited to interventions that enhance the interpersonal context of posttraumatic stress as a way to optimize academic outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Role of trait shame in the association between posttraumatic stress and aggression among men with a history of interpersonal trauma.

    Schoenleber, Michelle; Sippel, Lauren M; Jakupcak, Matthew; Tull, Matthew T

    2015-01-01

    Given the theoretical and empirical associations among posttraumatic stress, shame, and interpersonal aggression, this study examined whether trait shame accounts for the associations between posttraumatic stress and aggressive behavior in a sample of 103 men with a history of interpersonal trauma. Results indicated that trait shame accounted for the associations of posttraumatic stress with the variety of both physically and psychologically aggressive behavior, as well as with the frequency of physical aggression. This study also examined trait guilt, given its conceptual relationship to both shame and posttraumatic stress; unlike trait shame, trait guilt did not account for the association between posttraumatic stress and the variety of physically aggressive acts. Additionally, although trait guilt reduced the association between posttraumatic stress and the frequency of physical aggression, the indirect path including guilt was nonsignificant. Taken together, the present study supports existing theories suggesting that shame, but not guilt, may contribute to aggressive behavior, especially among individuals with histories of traumatic exposure. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Suicidal ideation in transgender people: Gender minority stress and interpersonal theory factors.

    Testa, Rylan J; Michaels, Matthew S; Bliss, Whitney; Rogers, Megan L; Balsam, Kimberly F; Joiner, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Research has revealed alarmingly high rates of suicidal ideation (SI) and suicide attempts among transgender and gender nonconforming (TGNC) people. This study aims to analyze the role of factors from the gender minority stress and resilience (GMSR) model (Testa, Habarth, Peta, Balsam, & Bockting, 2015), the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide (IPTS; Joiner, 2005; Van Orden et al., 2010), and the potential integration of these factors, in explaining SI in this population. A convenience sample of 816 TGNC adults responded to measures of current SI, gender minority stressors, and IPTS factors. Path analysis was utilized to test 2 models. Model 1 evaluated the associations between external minority stressors and SI through internal minority stressors. Model 2 examined the relationships between internal minority stressors and SI through IPTS variables (perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness). All GMSR external stressors (rejection, nonaffirmation, victimization, and discrimination), internal stressors (internalized transphobia, negative expectations, and nondisclosure), and IPTS factors (thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness) were related to SI. Both models demonstrated good fit. Model 1 revealed that rejection, nonaffirmation, and victimization were related to SI through experiences of internalized transphobia and negative expectations. Model 2 indicated that internalized transphobia and negative expectations were associated with SI through IPTS factors. The models demonstrate pathways through which GMSR and IPTS constructs relate to one another and confer risk for SI among TGNC individuals. These pathways and several recently proposed constructs examined here provide promising directions for future research and clinical interventions in this area. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Effects of Chronic Interpersonal Stress Exposure on Depressive Symptoms are Moderated by Genetic Variation at IL6 and IL1β in Youth

    Tartter, Margaret; Hammen, Constance; Bower, Julienne E.; Brennan, Patricia A.; Cole, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Aims Close to one third of patients with major depression show increases in pro-inflammatory cytokines, which are in turn associated with risk for inflammatory disease. Genetic variants that enhance immune reactivity may thus enhance inflammatory and depressive reactions to stress. The aim of the present study was to investigate a trio of functional SNPs in the promoter regions of IL6 (-174G>C, rs1800795), IL1β (-511C>T, rs16944), and TNF (-308G>A, rs1800629) as moderators of the relationship between chronic stress exposure and elevations in depressive symptoms. Methods Participants were 444 Australian youth (mean age = 20.12) whose exposure to chronic stress in the past 6 months was assessed using the semi-structured UCLA Life Stress Interview, and who completed the Beck Depression Inventory II at ages 15 and 20. Between ages 22 and 25, all participants in the selected sample provided blood samples for genotyping. Results In line with a hypothesized moderation effect, -174G allele carriers at IL6 had fewer depressive symptoms following interpersonal stress, relative to C/C homozygotes with equal interpersonal stress exposure. However, IL6 genotype did not moderate the effects of non-interpersonal stress exposure (i.e., financial, work and health-related difficulties) on depression. Also in line with hypotheses, the -511C allele in IL1β, previously associated with higher IL-1β expression, was associated with more severe depression following chronic interpersonal stress exposure, relative to T/T homozygotes. Again, the moderating effect was specific to interpersonal stressors and did not generalize to non-interpersonal stress. TNF was not a moderator of the effects of either interpersonal or non-interpersonal stress on later depression outcomes. Conclusion Findings were consistent with the hypothesis that pro-inflammatory genetic variation increases the risk of stress-induced depression. The present results provide evidence of a genetic mechanism contributing to

  7. Nonsuicidal self-injury and interpersonal violence in U.S. veterans seeking help for posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Calhoun, Patrick S; Van Voorhees, Elizabeth E; Elbogen, Eric B; Dedert, Eric A; Clancy, Carolina P; Hair, Lauren P; Hertzberg, Michael; Beckham, Jean C; Kimbrel, Nathan A

    2017-01-01

    Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) has been defined as deliberately damaging one's body tissue without conscious suicidal intent. NSSI is a robust predictor of suicidal ideation and attempts in adults. While NSSI has been associated with other-directed violence in adolescent populations, the link between NSSI and interpersonal violence in adults is less clear. The current study examined the cross-sectional relationship between NSSI and past-year interpersonal violence among 729 help-seeking veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Veterans who reported a recent history of engaging in cutting, hitting, or burning themselves were significantly more likely to report making violent threats and engaging in violent acts, including the use of a knife or gun, in the past year than veterans without NSSI. NSSI was uniquely associated with interpersonal violence after controlling for a variety of dispositional, historical, contextual, and clinical risk factors for violence, including age, race, socio-economic status, marital status, employment status, combat exposure, alcohol misuse, depression, PTSD symptom severity, and reported difficulty controlling violence. These findings suggest that clinicians working with veterans with PTSD should review NSSI history when conducting a risk assessment of violence. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  8. [Psychological features of body integrity identity disorder (BIID): personality traits, interpersonal aspects, coping mechanisms regarding stress and conflicts, body perception].

    Oddo, S; Möller, J; Skoruppa, S; Stirn, A

    2014-05-01

    In BIID a disorder of body identity, concerned subjects desire an amputation of a healthy limb. So far, no psychiatric comorbidity was found in the few studies on BIID-subjects. This study explored clinical symptoms, personality characteristics, interpersonal aspects and coping strategies in 15 BIID persons. Psychometric testing on the topics (1) clinical symptoms, (2) personality and interpersonal aspects, (3) coping strategies, (4) attitudes towards the body were used and statistically evaluated with the T-test for one sample. Some psychopathologies such as depression, anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD) could be excluded although an increased tendency of depressiveness was found. BIID subjects showed specific personality and interpersonal characteristics: high agreeableness, autonomy, autarky and restrained behaviour towards others. Stress and conflicts are managed by self-control and self-affirmation. Their subjective physical attractiveness was low. BIID persons do not exhibit psychopathological characteristics (such as anxiety, depression or OCD), but do show specifics in personality, relationships and coping mechanisms. In the future, further personality traits and personality disorders should be investigated to shed more light on the categorisation and treatment of BIID. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Developmental inter-relations between early maternal depression, contextual risks, and interpersonal stress, and their effect on later child cognitive functioning.

    Jensen, Sarah K G; Dumontheil, Iroise; Barker, Edward D

    2014-07-01

    Maternal depression and contextual risks (e.g. poverty) are known to impact children's cognitive and social functioning. However, few published studies have examined how stress in the social environment (i.e. interpersonal stress) might developmentally inter-relate with maternal depression and contextual risks to negatively affect a child in these domains. This was the purpose of the current study. Mother-child pairs (n = 6979) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents were the study participants. Mothers reported on depression, contextual risks, and interpersonal stress between pregnancy and 33 months child age. At age 8, the children underwent cognitive assessments and the mothers reported on the children's social cognitive skills. Maternal depression, contextual risks, and interpersonal stress showed strong continuity and developmental inter-relatedness. Maternal depression and contextual risks directly predicted a range of child outcomes, including executive functions and social cognitive skills. Interpersonal stress worked indirectly via maternal depression and contextual risks to negatively affect child outcomes. Maternal depression and contextual risks each increased interpersonal stress in the household, which, in turn, contributed to reduced child cognitive and social functioning. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. The strength of aversive and appetitive associations and maladaptive behaviors

    Itzhak, Yossef; Perez-Lanza, Daniel; Liddie, Shervin

    2014-01-01

    Certain maladaptive behaviors are thought to be acquired through classical Pavlovian conditioning. Exaggerated fear response, which can develop through Pavlovian conditioning, is associated with acquired anxiety disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorders (PTSD). Inflated reward-seeking behavior, which develops through Pavlovian conditioning, underlie some types of addictive behavior (e.g., addiction to drugs, food, gambling). These maladaptive behaviors are dependent on associative lear...

  11. Symptoms of borderline personality disorder predict interpersonal (but not independent) stressful life events in a community sample of older adults.

    Powers, Abigail D; Gleason, Marci E J; Oltmanns, Thomas F

    2013-05-01

    Individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) often experience stressful life events at a higher frequency than those without BPD. It is less clear what specific types of events are involved in this effect, and it has not been determined whether some features of BPD are more important than others in accounting for this effect. The latter issue is important in light of the heterogeneous nature of this diagnostic construct. These issues were examined in a large, representative community sample of men and women, ages 55-64. Ten Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev., DSM-IV-TR, Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Association, 2000) personality disorders were assessed at baseline using the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality: SIDP-IV (B. Pfohl, N. Blum, & M. Zimmerman, 1997, Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Press). Life events were measured at three sequential assessments following baseline at 6-month (N = 1,294), 12-month (N = 1,070), and 18-month (N = 837) follow-ups. Stressful life events were identified using a self-report questionnaire (LTE-Q; List of Threatening Experiences Questionnaire: A subset of prescribed life events with considerable long-term contextual threat by T. Brugha, C. Bebbington, P. Tennant, and J. Hurry, 1985, Psychological Medicine, Vol. 15, pp. 189-194.) followed by a telephone interview. Only borderline personality pathology was related to an increase in the frequency of interpersonal stressful life events. Three specific symptoms of BPD were largely responsible for this connection: unstable interpersonal relationships, impulsivity, and chronic feelings of emptiness (negative association). Symptoms of avoidant and schizoid personality disorders were associated with a reduced number of stressful life events that are considered to be outside a person's control (e.g., serious illness, injury, or death of a loved one). None of the personality disorders predicted an increase in the number of

  12. Trauma-Informed Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction for Female Survivors of Interpersonal Violence: Results From a Stage I RCT.

    Kelly, Amber; Garland, Eric L

    2016-04-01

    This pilot randomized controlled trial evaluated a novel trauma-informed model of mindfulness-based stress reduction (TI-MBSR) as a phase I trauma intervention for female survivors of interpersonal violence (IPV). A community-based sample of women (mean age = 41.5, standard deviation = 14.6) with a history of IPV was randomly assigned to an 8-week TI-MBSR intervention (n = 23) or a waitlist control group (n = 22). Symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression as well as anxious and avoidant attachment were assessed pre- and postintervention. Relative to the control group, participation in TI-MBSR was associated with statistically and clinically significant decreases in PTSD and depressive symptoms and significant reductions in anxious attachment. Retention in the intervention was high, with most participants completing at least 5 of the 8 sessions for the intervention. Minutes of mindfulness practice per week significantly predicted reductions in PTSD symptoms. TI-MBSR appears to be a promising and feasible phase I intervention for female survivors of interpersonal trauma. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Co-rumination via cellphone moderates the association of perceived interpersonal stress and psychosocial well-being in emerging adults.

    Murdock, Karla Klein; Gorman, Sarah; Robbins, Maia

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents' and emerging adults' social interactions increasingly revolve around cellphone use, but little research has investigated the psychological properties of cellphone interactions. The current study explored co-rumination via cellphone; that is, the use of cellphone functions to excessively communicate about problems or negative feelings. Face-to-face co-rumination and co-rumination via cellphone were examined as potential moderators of the association between perceived interpersonal stress and psychosocial well-being (i.e., positive mental health and social burnout) in a sample of 142 college students. Face-to-face co-rumination was not a moderator. However, co-rumination via cellphone was a significant moderator such that higher levels of perceived interpersonal stress were associated with lower levels of well-being only among college students who reported higher levels of co-rumination via cellphone. Co-rumination via cellphone should be further investigated to elucidate its developmental trajectory and mental health correlates. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The interplay between interpersonal stress and psychological intimate partner violence over time for young at-risk couples.

    Shortt, Joann Wu; Capaldi, Deborah M; Kim, Hyoun K; Tiberio, Stacey S

    2013-04-01

    The substantial number of young people in romantic relationships that involve intimate partner violence, a situation deleterious to physical and mental health, has resulted in increased attention to understanding the links between risk factors and course of violence. The current study examined couples' interpersonal stress related to not liking partners' friends and not getting along with parents as contextual factors associated with couples' psychological partner violence and determined whether and when couples' friend and parent stress increased the likelihood of couples' psychological partner violence. A linear latent growth curve modeling approach was used with multiwave measures of psychological partner violence, friend stress, parent stress, and relationship satisfaction obtained from 196 men at risk for delinquency and their women partners over a 12-year period. At the initial assessment, on average, the men were age 21.5 years and the women were age 21 years. Findings indicated that couples experiencing high levels of friend and parent stress were more likely to engage in high levels of psychological partner violence and that increases in couples' friend stress predicted increases in couples' partner violence over time, even when accounting for the couples' relationship satisfaction, marital status, children in the home, and financial strain. Interactive effects were at play when the couples were in their early 20s, with couples being most at risk for increases in psychological partner violence if they experienced both high friend stress and low relationship satisfaction. Couples' friend stress had the greatest effect on psychological partner violence when the couples were in their early to mid 20s when levels of friend stress were high. As the couples reached their 30s, low relationship satisfaction became the leading predictor of couples' psychological partner violence.

  15. Behavioral and emotional responses to interpersonal stress: A comparison of adolescents engaged in non-suicidal self-injury to adolescent suicide attempters.

    Kim, Kerri L; Cushman, Grace K; Weissman, Alexandra B; Puzia, Megan E; Wegbreit, Ezra; Tone, Erin B; Spirito, Anthony; Dickstein, Daniel P

    2015-08-30

    Prominent theoretical models and existing data implicate interpersonal factors in the development and maintenance of suicidal behavior and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). However, no known study has yet used computerized behavioral tasks to objectively assess responses to interpersonal conflict/collaboration among teens engaged in NSSI or having made a suicide attempt. The current study, therefore, compared interpersonal functioning indexed by the Prisoner's Dilemma (PD) task among three mutually exclusive groups, adolescents (ages 13-17): engaged in NSSI only without history of a suicide attempt (n=26); who made a suicide attempt without history of NSSI (n=26); and typically developing controls (n=26). Participants also completed the Interpersonal Sensitivity Measure to assess their general sensitivity to/awareness of others' behaviors and feelings. No significant between-group differences were found in PD task performance; however, compared to typically developing control participants and those who had made a suicide attempt, the NSSI group reported significantly more stress during the task. Additionally, NSSI participants rated themselves as more interpersonally sensitive compared to both attempters and typically developing controls. Given the lack of knowledge about whether these groups either differentially activate the same circuitry during stressful interpersonal interactions or instead rely on alternative, compensatory circuits, future work using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging is warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Vulnerability-specific stress generation: An examination of negative cognitive and interpersonal styles

    Liu, Richard T.; Alloy, Lauren B.; Mastin, Becky M.; Choi, Jimmy Y.; Boland, Elaine M.; Jenkins, Abby L.

    2014-01-01

    Although there is substantial evidence documenting the stress generation effect in depression (i.e., the tendency for depression-prone individuals to experience higher rates of life stress to which they contribute), additional research is required to advance current understanding of the specific types of dependent stress (i.e., events influenced by characteristics and attendant behaviors of the individual) relevant to this effect. The present study tested an extension of the stress generation...

  17. Influence of interpersonal violence on maternal anxiety, depression, stress and parenting morale in the early postpartum: a community based pregnancy cohort study

    Malta Lise A

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research has shown that exposure to interpersonal violence is associated with poorer mental health outcomes. Understanding the impact of interpersonal violence on mental health in the early postpartum period has important implications for parenting, child development, and delivery of health services. The objective of the present study was to determine the impact of interpersonal violence on depression, anxiety, stress, and parenting morale in the early postpartum. Methods Women participating in a community-based prospective cohort study (n = 1319 completed questionnaires prior to 25 weeks gestation, between 34–36 weeks gestation, and at 4 months postpartum. Women were asked about current and past abuse at the late pregnancy data collection time point. Postpartum depression, anxiety, stress, and parenting morale were assessed at 4 months postpartum using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, the Spielberger State Anxiety Index, the Cohen Perceived Stress Scale, and the Parenting Morale Index, respectively. The relationship between interpersonal violence and postpartum psychosocial health status was examined using Chi-square analysis (p  Results Approximately 30% of women reported one or more experience of interpersonal violence. Sixteen percent of women reported exposure to child maltreatment, 12% reported intimate partner violence, and 12% reported other abuse. Multivariable logistic regression analysis found that a history of child maltreatment had an independent effect on depression in the postpartum, while both child maltreatment and intimate partner violence were associated with low parenting morale. Interpersonal violence did not have an independent effect on anxiety or stress in the postpartum. Conclusion The most robust relationships were seen for the influence of child maltreatment on postpartum depression and low parenting morale. By identifying women at risk for depression and low parenting morale

  18. Fostering interpersonal relationship: the counsellor's viewpoint ...

    Interpersonal relationship involves activities where two or more people need to communicate with one another. As human beings, we always come in contact with people and in the process, relate with them and sometimes react to their utterances and actions. Pathologies, maladaptive behaviours and most human problems ...

  19. An Investigation of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Depressive Symptomatology among Female Victims of Interpersonal Trauma.

    Taft, Casey T; Resick, Patricia A; Watkins, Laura E; Panuzio, Jillian

    2009-08-01

    This study examined factors associated with PTSD-depression comorbidity among a sample of 162 adult female rape or assault victims with PTSD, as well as potential differential predictors of PTSD and depression severity. PTSD-only participants reported higher levels of childhood sexual abuse than those with comorbid PTSD and depression, and the PTSD/MDD group reported relatively more distorted trauma-related beliefs, dissociation, PTSD severity, and depression severity. Distorted trauma-related beliefs and dissociation were the strongest unique predictors of higher PTSD and depressive symptoms. Rates of PTSD and depression comorbidity did not appear to be a function of symptom overlap. Study findings suggest possible explanations for the high PTSD and depression comorbidity rates commonly found among victims of interpersonal violence.

  20. The mediating role of interpersonal conflict at work in the relationship between negative affectivity and biomarkers of stress.

    Girardi, Damiano; Falco, Alessandra; De Carlo, Alessandro; Benevene, Paula; Comar, Manola; Tongiorgi, Enrico; Bartolucci, Giovanni Battista

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the association between interpersonal conflict at work (ICW) and serum levels of three possible biomarkers of stress, namely the pro-inflammatory cytokines Interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), Interleukin 12 (IL-12), and Interleukin 17 (IL-17). Additionally, this study investigated the role of negative affectivity (NA) in the relationship between ICW and the pro-inflammatory cytokines. Data from 121 employees in an Italian healthcare organization were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Results showed that ICW was positively associated with IL-1β, IL-12, and IL-17, after controlling for the effect of gender. Moreover, ICW completely mediated the relationship between NA and the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-12, and IL-17. This mediating effect was significant after controlling for the effect of gender. Overall, this study suggests that work-related stress may be associated with biomarkers of inflammation, and that negative affectivity may influence the stress process affecting the exposure to psychosocial stressors.

  1. Cumulative childhood interpersonal trauma is associated with reduced cortical differentiation between threat and non-threat faces in posttraumatic stress disorder adults.

    Chu, Denise A; Bryant, Richard A; Gatt, Justine M; Harris, Anthony Wf

    2018-03-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder and childhood trauma frequently co-occur. Both are associated with abnormal neural responses to salient emotion stimuli. As childhood trauma is a risk factor for posttraumatic stress disorder, differentiating between their neurophysiological effects is necessary to elucidate the neural pathways by which childhood trauma exposure contributes to increased posttraumatic stress disorder risks. Face-specific N170 evoked response potentials for backward-masked (non-conscious) and conscious threat (fear, angry) and non-threat (happy) faces were measured in 77 adults (18-64 years old, 64% women, 78% right-handed) symptomatic for posttraumatic stress disorder. Differences in N170 peak amplitudes for fear-versus-happy and angry-versus-happy faces at bilateral temporo-occipital (T5, T6) sites were computed. The effect of cumulative exposure to childhood interpersonal trauma, other childhood trauma, adult trauma, depression and posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity on the N170 response was assessed using hierarchical multiple regression analyses. T5 N170 peak amplitudes for non-conscious fear-versus-happy faces were inversely related to cumulative childhood interpersonal trauma after accounting for socio-demographic, clinical symptom and other trauma factors. Posttraumatic stress disorder Avoidance was positively associated with N170 peak amplitudes for non-conscious fear-versus-happy faces, primarily due to reduced N170 responsivity to happy faces. Childhood interpersonal trauma exposure is associated with reduced discrimination between fear and happy faces, while avoidance symptom severity is associated with dampened responsivity to automatically processed happy faces in posttraumatic stress disorder adults. Results are discussed in terms of the likely contributions of impaired threat discrimination and deficient reward processing during neural processing of salient emotion stimuli, to increased risks of posttraumatic stress disorder

  2. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Interpersonal Process in Homeless Veterans Participating in a Peer Mentoring Intervention: Associations With Program Benefit.

    Van Voorhees, Elizabeth E; Resnik, Linda; Johnson, Erin; O'Toole, Thomas

    2018-01-25

    Homelessness among veterans has dropped dramatically since the expansion of services for homeless veterans in 2009, and now engaging homeless veterans in existing programs will be important to continuing to make progress. While one promising approach for engaging homeless veterans in care is involving peer mentors in integrated services, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may diminish the effects of peer mentorship. This mixed methods study examined how interpersonal and emotional processes in homeless veterans with and without PTSD impacted their capacity to engage in relationships with peer mentors. Four focus groups of 5-8 homeless male veterans (N = 22) were drawn from a larger multisite randomized trial. Qualitative analysis identified five primary themes: disconnectedness; anger, hostility, or resentment; connecting with others; positive view of self; and feeling like an outsider. Thematic comparisons between participants with and without a self-reported PTSD diagnosis, and between those who did and did not benefit from the peer mentor program, were validated by using quantitative methods. Disconnectedness was associated with self-reported PTSD diagnosis and with lack of program benefit; feeling like an outsider was associated with program benefit. Results suggest that disruption to the capacity to develop and maintain social bonds in PTSD may interfere with the capacity to benefit from peer mentorship. Social rules and basic strategies for navigating interpersonal relationships may differ somewhat within the homeless community and outside of it; for veterans who feel disconnected from the domiciled community, a formerly homeless veteran peer may serve as a critical "bridge" between the two social worlds. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Evaluating a Web-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Maladaptive Perfectionism in University Students

    Radhu, Natasha; Daskalakis, Zafiris J.; Arpin-Cribbie, Chantal A.; Irvine, Jane; Ritvo, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study assessed a Web-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for maladaptive perfectionism, investigating perfectionism, anxiety, depression, negative automatic thoughts, and perceived stress. Participants: Participants were undergraduate students defined as maladaptive perfectionists through a screening questionnaire at an urban…

  4. Only reappraisers profit from reappraisal instructions: Effects of instructed and habitual reappraisal on stress responses during interpersonal conflicts.

    Mauersberger, Heidi; Hoppe, Annekatrin; Brockmann, Gudrun; Hess, Ursula

    2018-04-22

    Conflicts are an undesirable yet common aspect of daily interactions with wide-ranging negative consequences. The present research aimed to examine the buffering effect of experimentally instructed reappraisal on self-reported, physiological and behavioral stress indices during interpersonal conflicts, taking into account habitual emotion regulation strategies. For this, 145 participants experienced a standardized laboratory conflict with the instruction to either reappraise (n = 48), to suppress (n = 50), or with no instruction (n = 47) while cardiovascular and neuroendocrine measures were taken. Participants were allowed to eat sweet and salty snacks during the conflict situation. Prior to as well as after the conflict, participants reported on their subjective stress level. Reappraisal instructions were only effective for high habitual reappraisers who exhibited lower cardiovascular and cortisol reactivity and demonstrated fewer snack-eating behaviors under reappraisal instructions than under suppression or no instructions. The opposite pattern emerged for low habitual reappraisers. Neither experimentally instructed nor habitual reappraisal by itself reduced the negative effects of conflicts. Our findings complement the literature on the diverging effects of instructed reappraisal in tense social interactions. © 2018 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  5. Influence of interpersonal violence on maternal anxiety, depression, stress and parenting morale in the early postpartum: a community based pregnancy cohort study.

    Malta, Lise A; McDonald, Sheila W; Hegadoren, Kathy M; Weller, Carol A; Tough, Suzanne C

    2012-12-15

    Research has shown that exposure to interpersonal violence is associated with poorer mental health outcomes. Understanding the impact of interpersonal violence on mental health in the early postpartum period has important implications for parenting, child development, and delivery of health services. The objective of the present study was to determine the impact of interpersonal violence on depression, anxiety, stress, and parenting morale in the early postpartum. Women participating in a community-based prospective cohort study (n = 1319) completed questionnaires prior to 25 weeks gestation, between 34-36 weeks gestation, and at 4 months postpartum. Women were asked about current and past abuse at the late pregnancy data collection time point. Postpartum depression, anxiety, stress, and parenting morale were assessed at 4 months postpartum using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, the Spielberger State Anxiety Index, the Cohen Perceived Stress Scale, and the Parenting Morale Index, respectively. The relationship between interpersonal violence and postpartum psychosocial health status was examined using Chi-square analysis (p violence. Sixteen percent of women reported exposure to child maltreatment, 12% reported intimate partner violence, and 12% reported other abuse. Multivariable logistic regression analysis found that a history of child maltreatment had an independent effect on depression in the postpartum, while both child maltreatment and intimate partner violence were associated with low parenting morale. Interpersonal violence did not have an independent effect on anxiety or stress in the postpartum. The most robust relationships were seen for the influence of child maltreatment on postpartum depression and low parenting morale. By identifying women at risk for depression and low parenting morale, screening and treatment in the prenatal period could have far-reaching effects on postpartum mental health thus benefiting new mothers and their

  6. IQ and Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms in Children Exposed to Interpersonal Violence

    Saltzman, Kasey M.; Weems, Carl F.; Carrion, Victor G.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The literature is mixed as to the relationship between intelligence quotient (IQ) and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptomatology in adult populations. Even less is known about the relationship in children who have been traumatized. Methods: Fifty-nine children and adolescents (mean age = 10.6) with a history of interpersonal…

  7. Posttraumatic stress and social anxiety: the interaction of traumatic events and interpersonal fears

    Collimore, K.C.; Carleton, R.N.; Hofmann, S.G.; Asmundson, G.J.G.

    2010-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and social anxiety disorder (SAD) are frequently camorbid among veteran and community samples. Several studies have demonstrated significant camorbidity between trauma, PTSD, and social anxiety (SA), and a growing number of studies have explored the nature of

  8. Autonomic functioning in mothers with interpersonal violence-related posttraumatic stress disorder in response to separation-reunion.

    Schechter, Daniel S; Moser, Dominik A; McCaw, Jaime E; Myers, Michael M

    2014-05-01

    This study characterizes autonomic nervous system activity reactive to separation-reunion among mothers with Interpersonal Violence-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (IPV-PTSD). Heart-rate (HR) and high frequency heart-rate-variability (HF-HRV) were measured in 17 IPV-PTSD-mothers, 22 sub-threshold-mothers, and 15 non-PTSD mother-controls while interacting with their toddlers (12-48 months). Analyses showed IPV-PTSD-mothers having generally lower HR than other groups. All groups showed negative correlations between changes in HR and HF-HRV from sitting- to standing-baseline. During initial separation, controls no longer showed a negative relationship between HR and HF-HRV. But by the second reunion, the negative relationship reappeared. IPV-PTSD- and sub-threshold-mothers retained negative HR/HF-HRV correlations during the initial separation, but stopped showing them by the second reunion. Results support that mother-controls showed a pattern of autonomic regulation suggestive of hypervigilance during initial separation that resolved by the time of re-exposure. PTSD-mothers showed delayed onset of this pattern only upon re-exposure, and were perhaps exhibiting defensive avoidance or numbing during the initial separation/reunion. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Effectiveness of Stress Management Training on Hope and Interpersonal Compatibility of Addicts under Treatment

    Z Sepehrinasab

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The current study was aimed to examine the effectiveness of stress management with behavioral–cognitive mode in the promotion of hope and socio-affective adjustment of drug abusers under methadone maintenance treatment. Method: A quasi – experimental research design, along with pretest-posttest and control group was employed for the conduct of this study. In this regard, the number of 20 drug abusers under methadone maintenance treatment was selected by convenience sampling method and these participants were assigned into experimental group (10 individuals and control group (10 individuals. The participants received ten training sessions and, then, completed Snyder's Trait Hope Scale and Bell’s social adjustment scale (BAS. Results: The results of the study showed that there is a significant difference between the two groups in terms of hope and affective and social adjustment. In fact, the experimental group experienced a considerable promotion. Conclusion: It can be concluded that stress management with behavioral–cognitive training can be an effective interventionist method for the addicts under methadone maintenance treatment.

  10. Cardiovascular reactivity in hypertensives: differential effect of expressing and inhibiting emotions during moments of interpersonal stress.

    Lipp, Marilda E Novaes; Pereira, Márcia M Bignotto; Justo, Ana Paula; de Matos, Thania M Gomes

    2006-11-01

    This study investigated cardiovascular reactivity of hypertensive adults during periods of emotional stress. Two types of instructions were given at different moments, to the same subject, either to express or to suppress feelings during role-play. Expressing, but not inhibiting, emotions elicited significantly higher reactivity during responding to negative scenes, followed by responding during the positive interactions. Blood pressure increases in both expressing and inhibiting conditions, were also found during the instruction periods. Results indicated that socially demanding situations represent a stressor whose effects may vary depending on whether or not respondents regulate expression of emotions. It is suggested that the difficulty in expressing emotions found in some hypertensive individuals may have the function of controlling or reducing blood pressure reactivity.

  11. Psychosocial support and resilience building among health workers in Sierra Leone: interrelations between coping skills, stress levels, and interpersonal relationships.

    Vesel, Linda; Waller, Kathryn; Dowden, Justine; Fotso, Jean Christophe

    2015-01-01

    In low- and middle-income countries, a shortage of properly trained, supervised, motivated and equitably distributed health workers often hinder the delivery of lifesaving interventions. Various health workforce bottlenecks can be addressed by tackling well-being and interpersonal relationships of health workers with their colleagues and clients. This paper uses data from the Helping Health Workers Cope (HHWC) project in a rural district of Sierra Leone to achieve three objectives. First, we describe the effect of counseling and psychosocial training on coping skills, stress levels, and provider-provider and provider-client relationships. Second, we examine whether a change in coping skills is associated with a change in relationships. Finally, we qualitatively identify key ways through which the uptake of coping skills is linked to a change in relationships. The HHWC project was implemented from February 2012 to June 2013 in Kono district in the Eastern province of Sierra Leone, with the neighboring district of Tonkolili selected as the control site. The evaluation followed a mixed-methods approach, which included a quantitative survey, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with health workers and clients. Mean values of the variables of interest were compared across sub-populations, and correlation analyses were performed between changes in coping skills, stress levels, and changes in relationships. Overall, the results demonstrate that the HHWC intervention had a positive effect on coping skills, stress levels and provider-provider and provider-client relationships. Furthermore, associations were observed between changes in coping skills and changes in relationships as well as changes in stress management skills and changes in relationships. Psychosocial education can have major impacts on health worker well-being and the quality of health care delivery. Integrating psychosocial counseling and training interventions into health worker pre-service and

  12. Tracing the Neural Carryover Effects of Interpersonal Anger on Resting-State fMRI in Men and Their Relation to Traumatic Stress Symptoms in a Subsample of Soldiers

    Gadi Gilam

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Uncontrolled anger may lead to aggression and is common in various clinical conditions, including post traumatic stress disorder. Emotion regulation strategies may vary with some more adaptive and efficient than others in reducing angry feelings. However, such feelings tend to linger after anger provocation, extending the challenge of coping with anger beyond provocation. Task-independent resting-state (rs fMRI may be a particularly useful paradigm to reveal neural processes of spontaneous recovery from a preceding negative emotional experience. We aimed to trace the carryover effects of anger on endogenous neural dynamics by applying a data-driven examination of changes in functional connectivity (FC during rs-fMRI between before and after an interpersonal anger induction (N = 44 men. Anger was induced based on unfair monetary offers in a previously validated decision-making task. We calculated a common measure of global FC (gFC which captures the level of FC between each region and all other regions in the brain, and examined which brain regions manifested changes in this measure following anger. We next examined the changes in all functional connections of each individuated brain region with all other brain regions to reveal which connections underlie the differences found in the gFC analysis of the previous step. We subsequently examined the relation of the identified neural modulations in the aftermath of anger with state- and trait- like measures associated with anger, including brain structure, and in a subsample of designated infantry soldiers (N = 21, with levels of traumatic stress symptoms (TSS measured 1 year later following combat-training. The analysis pipeline revealed an increase in right amygdala gFC in the aftermath of anger and specifically with the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG.We found that the increase in FC between the right amygdala and right IFG following anger was positively associated with smaller right IFG volume

  13. Tracing the Neural Carryover Effects of Interpersonal Anger on Resting-State fMRI in Men and Their Relation to Traumatic Stress Symptoms in a Subsample of Soldiers.

    Gilam, Gadi; Maron-Katz, Adi; Kliper, Efrat; Lin, Tamar; Fruchter, Eyal; Shamir, Ron; Hendler, Talma

    2017-01-01

    Uncontrolled anger may lead to aggression and is common in various clinical conditions, including post traumatic stress disorder. Emotion regulation strategies may vary with some more adaptive and efficient than others in reducing angry feelings. However, such feelings tend to linger after anger provocation, extending the challenge of coping with anger beyond provocation. Task-independent resting-state (rs) fMRI may be a particularly useful paradigm to reveal neural processes of spontaneous recovery from a preceding negative emotional experience. We aimed to trace the carryover effects of anger on endogenous neural dynamics by applying a data-driven examination of changes in functional connectivity (FC) during rs-fMRI between before and after an interpersonal anger induction ( N = 44 men). Anger was induced based on unfair monetary offers in a previously validated decision-making task. We calculated a common measure of global FC (gFC) which captures the level of FC between each region and all other regions in the brain, and examined which brain regions manifested changes in this measure following anger. We next examined the changes in all functional connections of each individuated brain region with all other brain regions to reveal which connections underlie the differences found in the gFC analysis of the previous step. We subsequently examined the relation of the identified neural modulations in the aftermath of anger with state- and trait- like measures associated with anger, including brain structure, and in a subsample of designated infantry soldiers ( N = 21), with levels of traumatic stress symptoms (TSS) measured 1 year later following combat-training. The analysis pipeline revealed an increase in right amygdala gFC in the aftermath of anger and specifically with the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG).We found that the increase in FC between the right amygdala and right IFG following anger was positively associated with smaller right IFG volume, higher

  14. Social Goal Orientations, Interpersonal Stress, and Depressive Symptoms among Early Adolescents in Japan: A Test of the Diathesis-Stress Model Using the Trichotomous Framework of Social Goal Orientations

    Kuroda, Yuji; Sakurai, Shigeo

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated whether depression among early adolescents (aged 12-14 years, N = 116; 65 girls) can be predicted by interactions between social goal orientations and interpersonal stress. Based on Kuroda and Sakurai (2001), this study applied Elliot and Harackiewicz's (1996) trichotomous framework of achievement goals to…

  15. The Comparative Study of Nursing Students and Nurses in Their Twenties on Interpersonal Relations. : Analysis Centering on the Stress Response Burnout

    和田, 由紀子; 小林, 祐子; Wada, Yukiko; Kobayashi, Yuko

    2006-01-01

    We did a questionnaire survey and exam to clarity the connection between stress response burnout and interpersonal relations. The subject of our investigation were nursing students n=226 and 20s nurses in the terminal care unit in the whole country. The results of the exam on nursing students were completely different from a consistent tendency on 20, 30, and 40 nurses. And we analyzed the results on nursing students and 20's nurses based on stress response burnout . According to that, in the...

  16. Nonsuicidal Self-Injury and Interpersonal Violence in U.S. Veterans Seeking Help for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Calhoun, Patrick S.; Van Voorhees, Elizabeth E.; Elbogen, Eric B.; Dedert, Eric A.; Clancy, Carolina P.; Hair, Lauren P.; Hertzberg, Michael; Beckham, Jean C.; Kimbrel, Nathan A.

    2016-01-01

    Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) has been defined as deliberately damaging one's body tissue without conscious suicidal intent. NSSI is a robust predictor of suicidal ideation and attempts in adults. While NSSI has been associated with other-directed violence in adolescent populations, the link between NSSI and interpersonal violence in adults is less clear. The current study examined the cross-sectional relationship between NSSI and past-year interpersonal violence among 729 help-seeking veter...

  17. Childhood trauma and complex posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in older adults: A study of direct effects and social-interpersonal factors as potential mediators.

    Krammer, Sandy; Kleim, Birgit; Simmen-Janevska, Keti; Maercker, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Childhood traumatic events may lead to long-lasting psychological effects and contribute to the development of complex posttraumatic sequelae. These might be captured by the diagnostic concept of complex posttraumatic stress disorder (CPTSD) as an alternative to classic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). CPTSD comprises a further set of symptoms in addition to those of PTSD, namely, changes in affect, self, and interpersonal relationships. Previous empirical research on CPTSD has focused on middle-aged adults but not on older adults. Moreover, predictor models of CPTSD are still rare. The current study investigated the association between traumatic events in childhood and complex posttraumatic stress symptoms in older adults. The mediation of this association by 2 social-interpersonal factors (social acknowledgment as a survivor and dysfunctional disclosure) was investigated. These 2 factors focus on the perception of acknowledgment by others and either the inability to disclose traumatic experiences or the ability to do so only with negative emotional reactions. A total of 116 older individuals (age range = 59-98 years) who had experienced childhood traumatic events completed standardized self-report questionnaires indexing childhood trauma, complex trauma sequelae, social acknowledgment, and dysfunctional disclosure of trauma. The results showed that traumatic events during childhood were associated with later posttraumatic stress symptoms but with classic rather than complex symptoms. Social acknowledgment and dysfunctional disclosure partially mediated this relationship. These findings suggest that childhood traumatic stress impacts individuals across the life span and may be associated with particular adverse psychopathological consequences.

  18. Interpersonal circumplex.

    Leary, T

    1996-04-01

    The social and intellectual climate of the late 1940s and early 1950s in America helped nourish humanistic, person-centered views of human behavior. During that time, psychologists such as Gordon Allport, Abraham Maslow, David McClelland, Harry Murray, and Carl Rogers emphasized the positive growth potential in human character. The psychiatrist Harry Stack Sullivan proposed that personality can best be understood within the context of interpersonal transactions, and he provided a practical, street-smart understanding of psychiatric symptoms that was quite an advance over the traditional medical and psychoanalytic viewpoints. These ideas, along with the concept of dimensionalizing traits rather than categorizing them, inspired my colleagues and I to conduct our cooperative work on the interpersonal circumplex, which culminated in the publication of my monograph. Interpersonal Diagnosis of Personality (Leary, 1957).

  19. Interpersonal Skills

    Barakat NG

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTIONInterpersonal skills are becoming more and more a necessity in the medical profession. The expectation from health care professionals is beyond just knowledge of the medical facts. To practice medicine effectively, doctors need to develop interpersonal skills in communication, leadership, management, teaching and time management. All of these are vital tools and are becoming increasingly essential subjects in teaching both undergraduate students and postgraduate doctors. However, a degree of self-motivation and personal initiative is needed to develop these skills. In this article, I will give an overview on interpersonal skills and will be follow this by a series of articles, in future issues, dealing with these skills.

  20. Improving Maladaptive Behaviors Using Sensory Integration Techniques.

    Shuman, Theresa

    A study examined the use of sensory integration techniques to reduce the maladaptive behaviors that interfered with the learning of nine high school students with mental impairments attending a special school. Maladaptive behaviors identified included rocking, toe walking, echolalia, resistance to change, compulsive behaviors, aggression,…

  1. The Comparison of Maladaptive Schema and Lifestyles in Drug Dependence and Non-Drug Dependence People

    Vahideh Purmohammad

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to compare early maladaptive schemas and life styles in drug dependences and normal population to recognize their role in drug dependence. Due to their importance in interpretation of special situations, cognitive schemas and life styles have a significant role in cognitive theories. Methods: The method of this research were post-facto and sectional styles. The population were included of 100 drug dependence adults and 100 non-drug dependence who were selected by at-reach methods. Young early maladaptive schema-short form and Basic Adlerian scales for interpersonal success-adult form questionnaires were used. Findings: the results showed that there were significant differences between early maladaptive schemas and life styles in groups under research. Conclusion: the study showed that drug dependence people suffer from high levels of early maladaptive schemas and their life styles are maladaptive. As a result, in prediction of dependence to drug and in treating it too much attention must be given to cognitive factors.

  2. Dialogue as interpersonal synergy

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Raczaszek-Leonardi, Joanna; Tylén, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    What is the proper unit of analysis in the psycholinguistics of dialogue? While classical approaches are largely based on models of individual linguistic processing, recent advances stress the social coordinative nature of dialogue. In the influential interactive alignment model, dialogue is thus...... of individual cognitive systems but must be approached also at the interpersonal level. From such a perspective follows a number of new predictions: beyond simple synchrony, dialogue affords complementary dynamics, constrained by contextual sensitivity and functional specificity. We substantiate our arguments...

  3. Mechanisms of Change in Interpersonal Therapy (IPT)

    Lipsitz, Joshua D.; Markowitz, John C.

    2014-01-01

    Although interpersonal therapy (IPT) has demonstrated efficacy for mood and other disorders, little is known about how IPT works. We present interpersonal change mechanisms that we hypothesize account for symptom change in IPT. IPT’s interpersonal model integrates both relational theory, building on work by Sullivan, Bowlby, and others, and insights based on research findings regarding stress, social support, and illness to highlight contextual factors thought to precipitate and maintain psychiatric disorders. IPT frames therapy around a central interpersonal problem in the patient’s life, a current crisis or relational predicament that is disrupting social support and increasing interpersonal stress. By mobilizing and working collaboratively with the patient to resolve (better manage or negotiate) this problem, IPT seeks to activate several interpersonal change mechanisms. These include: 1) enhancing social support, 2) decreasing interpersonal stress, 3) facilitating emotional processing, and 4) improving interpersonal skills. We hope that articulating these mechanisms will help therapists to formulate cases and better maintain focus within an IPT framework. We propose interpersonal mechanisms that might explain how IPT’s interpersonal focus leads to symptom change. Future work needs to specify and test candidate mediators in clinical trials of IPT. We anticipate that pursuing this more systematic strategy will lead to important refinements and improvements in IPT and enhance its application in a range of clinical populations. PMID:24100081

  4. Complex posttraumatic stress disorder: The need to consolidate a distinct clinical syndrome or to reevaluate features of psychiatric disorders following interpersonal trauma?

    Giourou, Evangelia; Skokou, Maria; Andrew, Stuart P; Alexopoulou, Konstantina; Gourzis, Philippos; Jelastopulu, Eleni

    2018-03-22

    Complex posttraumatic stress disorder (Complex PTSD) has been recently proposed as a distinct clinical entity in the WHO International Classification of Diseases, 11 th version, due to be published, two decades after its first initiation. It is described as an enhanced version of the current definition of PTSD, with clinical features of PTSD plus three additional clusters of symptoms namely emotional dysregulation, negative self-cognitions and interpersonal hardship, thus resembling the clinical features commonly encountered in borderline personality disorder (BPD). Complex PTSD is related to complex trauma which is defined by its threatening and entrapping context, generally interpersonal in nature. In this manuscript, we review the current findings related to traumatic events predisposing the above-mentioned disorders as well as the biological correlates surrounding them, along with their clinical features. Furthermore, we suggest that besides the present distinct clinical diagnoses (PTSD; Complex PTSD; BPD), there is a cluster of these comorbid disorders, that follow a continuum of trauma and biological severity on a spectrum of common or similar clinical features and should be treated as such. More studies are needed to confirm or reject this hypothesis, particularly in clinical terms and how they correlate to clinical entities' biological background, endorsing a shift from the phenomenologically only classification of psychiatric disorders towards a more biologically validated classification.

  5. Worry spreads: interpersonal transfer of problem-related anxiety.

    Parkinson, Brian; Simons, Gwenda

    2012-01-01

    This paper distinguishes processes potentially contributing to interpersonal anxiety transfer, including object-directed social appraisal, empathic worry, and anxiety contagion, and reviews evidence for their operation. We argue that these anxiety-transfer processes may be exploited strategically when attempting to regulate relationship partners' emotion. More generally, anxiety may serve as either a warning signal to other people about threat (alerting function) or an appeal for emotional support or practical help (comfort-seeking function). Tensions between these two interpersonal functions may account for mutually incongruent interpersonal responses to expressed anxiety, including mistargeted interpersonal regulation attempts. Because worry waxes and wanes over time as a function of other people's ongoing reactions, interpersonal interventions may help to alleviate some of its maladaptive consequences.

  6. Medosebni odnosi in vsebina dela kot dejavnika stresa pri srednjem managementu = Interpersonal Relationships and Work Content as Stress Factors among Middle Management

    Polona Kožuh

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the modern society, where importance is placed on progress, newtechnologies and economic trends, there is a lack of awareness of thesignificance of good interpersonal relations and organizational culturewithin a company. They both contribute to the better functioningof employees as well as the entire organization. The purpose of thisstudy was to determine any possible differences between the stressorslinked to the relationships within an organization and those linked tothe work of middle management. The study included 58 middle managersworking in commercial activity in the Ljubljana region. The resultshave indicated that the amount of stressors related to the relationships,and stressors related to the managers’ work, that affect themiddle managers participating in the survey is on average the same.The results have therefore shown no statistically significant differencebetween the two forms of the studied stress factors.

  7. Mechanisms of Change in Interpersonal Therapy (IPT)

    Lipsitz, Joshua D.; Markowitz, John C.

    2013-01-01

    Although interpersonal therapy (IPT) has demonstrated efficacy for mood and other disorders, little is known about how IPT works. We present interpersonal change mechanisms that we hypothesize account for symptom change in IPT. IPT’s interpersonal model integrates both relational theory, building on work by Sullivan, Bowlby, and others, and insights based on research findings regarding stress, social support, and illness to highlight contextual factors thought to precipitate and maintain psyc...

  8. Mechanisms of change in interpersonal therapy (IPT).

    Lipsitz, Joshua D; Markowitz, John C

    2013-12-01

    Although interpersonal therapy (IPT) has demonstrated efficacy for mood and other disorders, little is known about how IPT works. We present interpersonal change mechanisms that we hypothesize account for symptom change in IPT. Integrating relational theory and insights based on research findings regarding stress, social support, and illness, IPT highlights contextual factors thought to precipitate and maintain psychiatric disorders. It frames therapy around a central interpersonal problem in the patient's life, a current crisis or relational predicament that is disrupting social support and increasing interpersonal stress. By mobilizing and working collaboratively with the patient to resolve this problem, IPT seeks to activate several interpersonal change mechanisms. These include: 1) enhancing social support, 2) decreasing interpersonal stress, 3) facilitating emotional processing, and 4) improving interpersonal skills. We hope that articulating these mechanisms will help therapists to formulate cases and better maintain focus within an IPT framework. Here we propose interpersonal mechanisms that might explain how IPT's interpersonal focus leads to symptom change. Future work needs to specify and test candidate mediators in clinical trials. We anticipate that pursuing this more systematic strategy will lead to important refinements and improvements in IPT and enhance its application in a range of clinical populations. © 2013.

  9. Interpersonal Perception: Cognitive Complexity and Trait Implication

    Halverson, Charles F., Jr.

    1970-01-01

    Demonstrates that evaluative connotations of personality characteristics have more persuasive effect on interpersonal judgment for persons low in cognitive complexity than for cognitively complex persons. Stresses need for conceptualizing interpersonal judgment as function of interaction between cognitive complexity and evaluative requirements of…

  10. Interrelations between psychosocial functioning and adaptive- and maladaptive-range personality traits.

    Ro, Eunyoe; Clark, Lee Anna

    2013-08-01

    Decrements in one or more domains of psychosocial functioning (e.g., poor job performance, poor interpersonal relations) are commonly observed in psychiatric patients. The purpose of this study is to increase understanding of psychosocial functioning as a broad, multifaceted construct as well as its associations with both adaptive- and maladaptive-range personality traits in both nonclinical and psychiatric outpatient samples. The study was conducted in two phases. In Study 1, a nonclinical sample (N = 429) was administered seven psychosocial functioning and adaptive-range personality trait measures. In Study 2, psychiatric outpatients (N = 181) were administered the same psychosocial functioning measures, and maladaptive- as well as adaptive-range personality trait measures. Exploratory (both studies) and confirmatory (Study 2) factor analyses indicated a common three-factor, hierarchical structure of psychosocial functioning-Well Being, Social/Interpersonal Functioning, and Basic Functioning. These psychosocial functioning domains were closely--and differentially--linked with personality traits, especially strongly so in patients. Across samples, Well Being was associated with both Neuroticism/Negative Affectivity and Extraversion/Positive Affectivity, Social/Interpersonal Functioning was associated with both Agreeableness and Conscientiousness/Disinhibition, and Basic Functioning was associated with Conscientiousness/Disinhibition, although only modestly in the nonclinical sample. These relations generally were maintained even after partialing out current general dysphoric symptoms. These findings have implications for considering psychosocial functioning as an important third domain in a tripartite model together with personality and psychopathology. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Narrative exposure therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder associated with repeated interpersonal trauma in patients with severe mental illness: a mixed methods design

    Maria W. Mauritz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the Netherlands, most patients with severe mental illness (SMI receive flexible assertive community treatment (FACT provided by multidisciplinary community mental health teams. SMI patients with comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD are sometimes offered evidence-based trauma-focused treatment like eye movement desensitization reprocessing or prolonged exposure. There is a large amount of evidence for the effectiveness of narrative exposure therapy (NET within various vulnerable patient groups with repeated interpersonal trauma. Some FACT-teams provide NET for patients with comorbid PTSD, which is promising, but has not been specifically studied in SMI patients. Objectives: The primary aim is to evaluate NET in SMI patients with comorbid PTSD associated with repeated interpersonal trauma to get insight into whether (1 PTSD and dissociative symptoms changes and (2 changes occur in the present SMI symptoms, care needs, quality of life, global functioning, and care consumption. The second aim is to gain insight into patients’ experiences with NET and to identify influencing factors on treatment results. Methods: This study will have a mixed methods convergent design consisting of quantitative repeated measures and qualitative semi-structured in-depth interviews based on Grounded Theory. The study population will include adult SMI outpatients (n=25 with comorbid PTSD and receiving NET. The quantitative study parameters will be existence and severity of PTSD, dissociative, and SMI symptoms; care needs; quality of life; global functioning; and care consumption. In a longitudinal analysis, outcomes will be analyzed using mixed models to estimate the difference in means between baseline and repeated measurements. The qualitative study parameters will be experiences with NET and perceived factors for success or failure. Integration of quantitative and qualitative results will be focused on interpreting how qualitative results

  12. Effects of interpersonal violence-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on mother and child diurnal cortisol rhythm and cortisol reactivity to a laboratory stressor involving separation.

    Cordero, Maria I; Moser, Dominik A; Manini, Aurelia; Suardi, Francesca; Sancho-Rossignol, Ana; Torrisi, Raffaella; Rossier, Michel F; Ansermet, François; Dayer, Alexandre G; Rusconi-Serpa, Sandra; Schechter, Daniel S

    2017-04-01

    Women who have experienced interpersonal violence (IPV) are at a higher risk to develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), with dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and impaired social behavior. Previously, we had reported impaired maternal sensitivity and increased difficulty in identifying emotions (i.e. alexithymia) among IPV-PTSD mothers. One of the aims of the present study was to examine maternal IPV-PTSD salivary cortisol levels diurnally and reactive to their child's distress in relation to maternal alexithymia. Given that mother-child interaction during infancy and early childhood has important long-term consequences on the stress response system, toddlers' cortisol levels were assessed during the day and in response to a laboratory stressor. Mothers collected their own and their 12-48month-old toddlers' salivary samples at home three times: 30min after waking up, between 2-3pm and at bedtime. Moreover, mother-child dyads participated in a 120-min laboratory session, consisting of 3 phases: baseline, stress situation (involving mother-child separation and exposure to novelty) and a 60-min regulation phase. Compared to non-PTSD controls, IPV-PTSD mothers - but not their toddlers, had lower morning cortisol and higher bedtime cortisol levels. As expected, IPV-PTSD mothers and their children showed blunted cortisol reactivity to the laboratory stressor. Maternal cortisol levels were negatively correlated to difficulty in identifying emotions. Our data highlights PTSD-IPV-related alterations in the HPA system and its relevance to maternal behavior. Toddlers of IPV-PTSD mothers also showed an altered pattern of cortisol reactivity to stress that potentially may predispose them to later psychological disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Bidirectional Associations Between Externalizing Behavior Problems and Maladaptive Parenting Within Parent-Son Dyads Across Childhood.

    Besemer, Sytske; Loeber, Rolf; Hinshaw, Stephen P; Pardini, Dustin A

    2016-10-01

    Coercive parent-child interaction models posit that an escalating cycle of negative, bidirectional interchanges influences the development of boys' externalizing problems and caregivers' maladaptive parenting over time. However, longitudinal studies examining this hypothesis have been unable to rule out the possibility that between-individual factors account for bidirectional associations between child externalizing problems and maladaptive parenting. Using a longitudinal sample of boys (N = 503) repeatedly assessed eight times across 6-month intervals in childhood (in a range between 6 and 13 years), the current study is the first to use novel within-individual change (fixed effects) models to examine whether parents tend to increase their use of maladaptive parenting strategies following an increase in their son's externalizing problems, or vice versa. These bidirectional associations were examined using multiple facets of externalizing problems (i.e., interpersonal callousness, conduct and oppositional defiant problems, hyperactivity/impulsivity) and parenting behaviors (i.e., physical punishment, involvement, parent-child communication). Analyses failed to support the notion that when boys increase their typical level of problem behaviors, their parents show an increase in their typical level of maladaptive parenting across the subsequent 6 month period, and vice versa. Instead, across 6-month intervals, within parent-son dyads, changes in maladaptive parenting and child externalizing problems waxed and waned in concert. Fixed effects models to address the topic of bidirectional relations between parent and child behavior are severely underrepresented. We recommend that other researchers who have found significant bidirectional parent-child associations using rank-order change models reexamine their data to determine whether these findings hold when examining changes within parent-child dyads.

  14. Early Pubertal Maturation and Internalizing Problems in Adolescence: Sex Differences in the Role of Cortisol Reactivity to Interpersonal Stress

    Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Ge, Xiaojia; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.; Hastings, Paul D.; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    An accumulating body of literature has shown a link between early pubertal maturation and internalizing problems, particularly among girls. Our knowledge is, however, limited with regard to what accounts for this association. Based on a hypothesis that early maturing girls have heightened stress sensitivity that increases the risk of internalizing…

  15. The strength of aversive and appetitive associations and maladaptive behaviors.

    Itzhak, Yossef; Perez-Lanza, Daniel; Liddie, Shervin

    2014-08-01

    Certain maladaptive behaviors are thought to be acquired through classical Pavlovian conditioning. Exaggerated fear response, which can develop through Pavlovian conditioning, is associated with acquired anxiety disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSDs). Inflated reward-seeking behavior, which develops through Pavlovian conditioning, underlies some types of addictive behavior (e.g., addiction to drugs, food, and gambling). These maladaptive behaviors are dependent on associative learning and the development of long-term memory (LTM). In animal models, an aversive reinforcer (fear conditioning) encodes an aversive contextual and cued LTM. On the other hand, an appetitive reinforcer results in conditioned place preference (CPP) that encodes an appetitive contextual LTM. The literature on weak and strong associative learning pertaining to the development of aversive and appetitive LTM is relatively scarce; thus, this review is particularly focused on the strength of associative learning. The strength of associative learning is dependent on the valence of the reinforcer and the salience of the conditioned stimulus that ultimately sways the strength of the memory trace. Our studies suggest that labile (weak) aversive and appetitive LTM may share similar signaling pathways, whereas stable (strong) aversive and appetitive LTM is mediated through different pathways. In addition, we provide some evidence suggesting that extinction of aversive fear memory and appetitive drug memory is likely to be mediated through different signaling molecules. We put forward the importance of studies aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of weak and strong memories (aversive and appetitive), which would ultimately help in the development of targeted pharmacotherapies for the management of maladaptive behaviors that arise from classical Pavlovian conditioning. © 2014 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  16. Healthy and maladaptive dependency and its relationship to pain management and perceptions in physical therapy patients.

    Huprich, Steven K; Hoban, Patrick; Boys, Ashley; Rosen, Alexandra

    2013-12-01

    This study examined the association among healthy and maladaptive aspects of interpersonal dependency and the management of pain in physical therapy outpatients. Ninety-eight patients were administered the Relationship Profile Test, West Haven-Yale Multidimensional Pain Inventory, and Pain Catastrophizing Scale. Results indicated that Destructive Overdependence was positively associated with an increased number of office visits, pain interference in one's daily life, pain severity, affective distress, and receiving positive partner responses. Dysfunctional Detachment was associated with affective distress, pain interference in one's daily life, and rumination about pain. Healthy Dependency was only associated with receiving distracting responses from others. Believing that a spouse/partner is supportive and caring about one's pain partially mediated the relationship between overdependency and pain interfering in one's life. These results support the clinical utility of assessing interpersonal dependency for its relationship to managing one's pain and health care utilization.

  17. [The relationship between four components of assertiveness and interpersonal behaviors, interpersonal adjustment in high school students' friendship].

    Watanabe, Asami

    2010-04-01

    This study examines the relationship between four components of assertiveness ("open expression", "control of emotion", "consideration for others" and "self-direction") and interpersonal behaviors on friends, interpersonal stress events, social anxiety. A questionnaire which included scales to measure the four components of assertiveness, activities with friend, considerate behavior for friends, interpersonal stress events and social anxiety was completed by 177 high school students. The results showed that "self-direction" had curvilinear relations with considerate behavior for friends, interpersonal stress events. An excessively high score for "self-direction" was associated with fewer considerate behavior and interpersonal stress events. An optimum score for "self-direction" was associated with more considerate behavior and interpersonal stress events.

  18. Maladaptive variants of conscientiousness and agreeableness.

    Samuel, Douglas B; Gore, Whitney L

    2012-12-01

    Although reasonably strong support has been obtained for the Five-Factor Model's (FFM) ability to account for the existing personality disorder (PD) constructs, the support for obsessive-compulsive PD (OCPD) and dependent PD (DPD) has been relatively less consistent. Specifically, the expected correlation between OCPD and the FFM trait of Conscientiousness has varied in magnitude across studies while DPD has, at times, also evinced rather weak relationships with FFM Agreeableness. We determined that these inconsistencies were due primarily to the reliance on FFM measures that lack adequate fidelity to assess the maladaptive aspects of high Conscientiousness and Agreeableness. When alternative measures were utilized, the correlations were generally large and in line with expectations. We conclude that OCPD and DPD can be fruitfully conceptualized within the FFM but encourage the use of measures that provide a comprehensive assessment of both the adaptive and maladaptive aspects of the FFM traits. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Personality © 2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. The effect of self-distancing on adaptive versus maladaptive self-reflection in children.

    Kross, Ethan; Duckworth, Angela; Ayduk, Ozlem; Tsukayama, Eli; Mischel, Walter

    2011-10-01

    Although children and adolescents vary in their chronic tendencies to adaptively versus maladaptively reflect over negative feelings, the psychological mechanisms underlying these different types of self-reflection among youngsters are unknown. We addressed this issue in the present research by examining the role that self-distancing plays in distinguishing adaptive versus maladaptive self-reflection among an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of fifth-grade public schoolchildren. Children were randomly assigned to analyze their feelings surrounding a recent anger-related interpersonal experience from either a self-immersed or self-distanced perspective. They then rated their negative affect and described in writing the stream of thoughts they experienced when they analyzed their feelings. Children's stream-of-thought essays were content analyzed for the presence of recounting statements, reconstruing statements, and blame attributions. Path analyses indicated that children who analyzed their feelings from a self-distanced perspective focused significantly less on recounting the "hot," emotionally arousing features of their memory (i.e., what happened to me?) and relatively more on reconstruing their experience. This shift in thought content--less recounting and more reconstruing--led children in the self-distanced group to blame the other person involved in their recalled experience significantly less, which in turn led them to display significantly lower levels of emotional reactivity. These findings help delineate the psychological mechanisms that distinguish adaptive versus maladaptive forms of self-reflection over anger experiences in children. Their basic findings and clinical implications are discussed.

  20. The Obstacle to Happiness: Early Maladaptive Schemas

    S. Barbaros YALCIN

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study is to determine whether individuals’ early maladaptive schemas predict their happiness levels or not and to find out what early maladaptive schemas prevent individuals’ happiness. Method: Relational screening model was used in the study. The study group consisted of the 253 university students; 198 (%78.3 females and 55 (%21.7 males. “The Qxford Happiness Questionnaire Short Form”, developed by Hills and Argyle (2002 and adapted into Turkish by Dogan and Cotok (2011, and “Young Schema Scale-Short Form 3”, developed by Young et al. (2003 and adapted into Turkish by Soygut, Karaosmanoglu, and Cakir (2009 were used to gather the data for the study. Results: According to the results obtained from the study, it was found out that there is a significantly negative relation between happiness and Vulnerability to Harm & Illness, Pessimism/Negativity, Failure, Social Isolation, Emotional Inhibition, Approval-Seeking and Insufficient Self-Control. Moreover, university students’ Pessimism/Negativity and Failure schemas were found to be the predictors of their happiness levels. Conclusion: Families, teachers and mental health workers should work together to resolve the Pessimism/Negativity and Failure early maladaptive schemas of university students’. It is considered as a preventive measure that the education system must be reviewed. [JCBPR 2018; 7(1.000: 7-13

  1. Risk for post-traumatic stress disorder associated with different forms of interpersonal violence in South Africa.

    Kaminer, Debra; Grimsrud, Anna; Myer, Landon; Stein, Dan J; Williams, David R

    2008-11-01

    The South African population is exposed to multiple forms of violence. Using nationally representative data from 4351 South African adults, this study examined the relative risk for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) associated with political, domestic, criminal, sexual and other (miscellaneous) forms of assault in the South African population. Violence exposure was assessed using the 'worst event' list from the WHO's Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) and a separate questionnaire assessing experiences of human rights abuses, and lifetime PTSD was assessed according to the APA's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria using the CIDI. Findings indicated that over a third of the South African population has been exposed to some form of violence. The most common forms of violence experienced by men were criminal and miscellaneous assaults, while physical abuse by an intimate partner, childhood physical abuse and criminal assaults were most common for women. Among men, political detention and torture were the forms of violence most strongly associated with a lifetime diagnosis of PTSD, while rape had the strongest association with PTSD among women. At a population level, criminal assault and childhood abuse were associated with the greatest number of PTSD cases among men, while intimate partner violence was associated with the greatest number of PTSD cases among women. Recommendations for mental health service provision in South Africa and for future research on the relative risk for PTSD are offered.

  2. Prior Interpersonal Violence Exposure and Experiences During and After a Disaster as Predictors of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Depression Among Adolescent Victims of the Spring 2011 Tornadoes.

    Resnick, Heidi; Zuromski, Kelly L; Galea, Sandro; Price, Matthew; Gilmore, Amanda K; Kilpatrick, Dean G; Ruggiero, Kenneth

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of the current report was to examine prior history of exposure to interpersonal violence (IPV), as compared with prior accident or prior disaster exposure, experiences during and after a disaster, and demographic variables as predictors of past month posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression severity among adolescents exposed to the tornadoes in Alabama and Missouri. IPV exposure has been consistently identified as a unique category of potentially traumatic events (PTE) that significantly increases risk for development of PTSD and other difficulties relative to other event types among adolescents. A population-based sample of adolescents and caregivers ( N = 2,000) were recruited randomly from tornado-affected communities in Alabama and Joplin, Missouri. Participants completed structured telephone interviews on an average of 8.8 months posttornado. Prior history of IPV was prevalent (36.5%), as was reported history of accidents (25.9%) and prior disaster exposure (26.9%). Negative binomial regression analyses with PTSD and depression symptom counts for past month as outcome variables indicated that history of predisaster IPV was most robustly related to PTSD and depression symptoms, such that those with a history of IPV endorsed over 3 times the number of symptoms than those without IPV history. Final model statistics indicated that female gender, physical injury to caregiver, concern about others' safety, prior disaster, prior accident, and prior IPV exposure were also related to PTSD. Predictors of depression symptoms were similar with the exception that concern about others' safety was not a predictor and age was a predictor in the final model. It is important to evaluate potential additive effects of IPV history in addition to recent disaster exposure variables and to consider such history when developing interventions aimed to reduce or prevent symptoms of PTSD and depression among adolescents recently exposed to disaster.

  3. Efficacy of interpersonal therapy-group format adapted to post-traumatic stress disorder: an open-label add-on trial.

    Campanini, Rosaly F B; Schoedl, Aline F; Pupo, Mariana C; Costa, Ana Clara H; Krupnick, Janice L; Mello, Marcelo F

    2010-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a highly prevalent condition, yet available treatments demonstrate only modest efficacy. Exposure therapies, considered by many to be the "gold-standard" therapy for PTSD, are poorly tolerated by many patients and show high attrition. We evaluated interpersonal therapy, in a group format, adapted to PTSD (IPT-G PTSD), as an adjunctive treatment for patients who failed to respond to conventional psychopharmacological treatment. Research participants included 40 patients who sought treatment through a program on violence in the department of psychiatry of Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP). They had received conventional psychopharmacological treatment for at least 12 weeks and failed to have an adequate clinical response. After signing an informed consent, approved earlier by the UNIFESP Ethics Review Board, they received a semi-structured diagnostic interview (SCID-I), administered by a trained mental health worker, to confirm the presence of a PTSD diagnosis according to DSM-IV criteria. Other instruments were administered, and patients completed out self-report instruments at baseline, and endpoint to evaluate clinical outcomes. Thirty-three patients completed the trial, but all had at least one second outcome evaluation. There were significant improvements on all measures, with large effect sizes. IPT-G PTSD was effective not only in decreasing symptoms of PTSD, but also in decreasing symptoms of anxiety and depression. It led to significant improvements in social adjustment and quality of life. It was well tolerated and there were few dropouts. Our results are very preliminary; they need further confirmation through randomized controlled clinical trials.

  4. Personality Characteristics, Early Maladaptive Schema and Family Function in Couples Initiating for Divorce Versus Non-Initiating Ones

    محسن دهقانی

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Decision for divorce depends on various personal and interpersonal variables. Personality characteristics and early maladaptive schema as two individual, and family function, as an interpersonal variable would play crucial role in helping people to cope with problems in life. A sample of 285 couples (147 initiator, and 138 noninitiator were recruited in the family courts, and residential districts in Tehran. They completed a battery of questionnaire including NEO (five factor personality questionnaire, short form of early maladaptive schema questionnaire (YSR, and McMaster family assessment device (FAD. Groups were matched based on age, education level, social economic status, and years of marriage. Results indicated statistical significant differences between two groups in personality characteristics (neuroticism, openness to new experiences, agreeableness and consciousness early maladaptive schemas (emotional deprivation, rejection, distrust, pessimism and emotional inhibition, and family function (problem solving, roles, and behavioral control. The result of regression logistic analysis showed that 34 to 45 percent of dependent variable predicted by these 12 independent variable. As such, it seems that there is a need to attend the factors would play a role both at primary prevention level and secondary level that psychologists and counselors could consider when providing mental health services.

  5. Maladaptive autonomic regulation in PTSD accelerates physiological aging

    John B Williamson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A core manifestation of posttraumatic stress disorder is a disconnection between physiological state and psychological and behavior processes necessary to adequately respond to environmental demands. Patients with PTSD experience oscillations in autonomic states that support either fight and flight behaviors or withdrawal, immobilization, and dissociation without an intervening calm state that would provide opportunities for positive social interactions. This defensive autonomic disposition is adaptive in dangerous and life threatening situations, but in the context of every-day life may lead to significant psychosocial distress and deteriorating social relationships. The perpetuation of these maladaptive autonomic responses, may contribute to the development of comorbid mental health issues such as depression, loneliness, and hostility that further modify the nature of cardiovascular behavior in the context of internal and external stressors. Over time, changes in autonomic, endocrine, and immune function contribute to deteriorating health, which is potently expressed in brain dysfunction and cardiovascular health. In this theoretical review paper, we review the literature on the chronic health effects of post-traumatic stress disorder. We discuss the brain networks underlying post-traumatic stress disorder in the context of autonomic efferent and afferent contributions and how disruption of these networks leads to poor health outcomes. Finally, we discuss treatments based on our theoretical model of posttraumatic stress disorder.

  6. The association between stress, coping, and sexual risk behaviors over 24 months among African-American female adolescents.

    Hulland, Erin N; Brown, Jennifer L; Swartzendruber, Andrea L; Sales, Jessica M; Rose, Eve S; DiClemente, Ralph J

    2015-01-01

    Heightened psychosocial stress coupled with maladaptive coping may be associated with greater sexual risk engagement. This study examined the association between stress levels and coping strategy use as predictors of sexual risk behavior engagement over 24 months among African-American adolescent females (N = 701; M = 17.6 years) enrolled in an STI/HIV risk-reduction intervention program. Participants completed audio computer assisted self-interview (ACASI) measures of global stress, interpersonal stress, coping strategy use, and sexual behaviors prior to intervention participation. Follow-up ACASI assessments were conducted at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months post-intervention. Generalized estimated equation models examined associations between baseline stress levels and coping strategy use as predictors of condom use (past 90 days, last sex) and multiple partners during follow-up. Global stress and individual coping strategy usage were not associated with differences in condom use. Higher interpersonal stress was associated with lower proportion condom use (p = .018), inconsistent condom use (p = .011), and not using a condom at last sex (p = .002). There were no significant associations between stress levels, coping strategy use, and multiple partners. Future research should explore mechanisms that may underlie the association between elevated interpersonal stress and decreased condom use among this population.

  7. Interpersonal psychotherapy for depression and posttraumatic stress disorder among HIV-positive women in Kisumu, Kenya: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Onu, Chinwe; Ongeri, Linnet; Bukusi, Elizabeth; Cohen, Craig R; Neylan, Thomas C; Oyaro, Patrick; Rota, Grace; Otewa, Faith; Delucchi, Kevin L; Meffert, Susan M

    2016-02-03

    Mental disorders are the leading global cause of years lived with disability; the majority of this burden exists in low and middle income countries (LMICs). Over half of mental illness is attributable to depression and anxiety disorders, both of which have known treatments. While the scarcity of mental health care providers is recognized as a major contributor to the magnitude of untreated disorders in LMICs, studies in LMICs find that evidence-based treatments for depression and anxiety disorders, such as brief, structured psychotherapies, are feasible, acceptable and have strong efficacy when delivered by local non-specialist personnel. However, most mental health treatment studies using non-specialist providers in LMICs deploy traditional efficacy designs (T1) without the benefit of integrated mental health treatment models shown to succeed over vertical interventions or methods derived from new implementation science to speed policy change. Here, we describe an effectiveness-implementation hybrid study that evaluates non-specialist delivery of mental health treatment within an HIV clinic for HIV-positive (HIV+) women affected by gender- based violence (GBV) (HIV+ GBV+) in the Nyanza region of Kenya. In this effectiveness-implementation hybrid type I design, 200 HIV+ women with major depressive disorder (MDD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) who are receiving care at a Family AIDS Care Education and Services (FACES)-supported clinic in Kisumu, Kenya will be randomized to: (1) interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) + treatment as usual (TAU) or (2) TAU, both delivered within the HIV clinic. IPT will consist of 12 weekly 60-minute individual IPT sessions, delivered by non-specialists trained to provide IPT. Primary effectiveness outcomes will include MDD and PTSD diagnosis on the Mini International Diagnostic Interview (MINI). Primary implementation outcomes will include treatment cost-benefit, acceptability, appropriateness, feasibility and fidelity of the

  8. Psychosocial Factors, Maladaptive Cognitive Schemas, and Depression in Young Adults: An Integration

    Cankaya, Banu

    2002-01-01

    The present study examined a psychosocial-cognitive model that integrates recent findings on the independent effects of early maladaptive cognitive schemas (EMSs; Young, 1994) and psychosocial factors/stressors; viz., social support, expressed emotion, stressful life events and daily hassles, on level of depressive symptoms in young adults. Consistent with Beck's theory of depression, the expectation was that individuals with the EMSs would be more likely to respond to psychosocial stressors...

  9. Daily Interpersonal and Affective Dynamics in Personality Disorder

    Wright, Aidan G.C.; Hopwood, Christopher J.; Simms, Leonard J.

    2015-01-01

    In this naturalistic study we adopt the lens of interpersonal theory to examine between-and within-person differences in dynamic processes of daily affect and interpersonal behaviors among individuals (N = 101) previously diagnosed with personality disorders who completed daily diaries over the course of 100 days. Dispositional ratings of interpersonal problems and measures of daily stress were used as predictors of daily shifts in interpersonal behavior and affect in multilevel models. Results indicate that ~40%–50% of the variance in interpersonal behavior and affect is due to daily fluctuations, which are modestly related to dispositional measures of interpersonal problems but strongly related to daily stress. The findings support conceptions of personality disorders as a dynamic form of psychopathology involving the individuals interacting with and regulating in response to the contextual features of their environment. PMID:26200849

  10. Interpersonal conflict and depression among Japanese workers with high or low socioeconomic status: findings from the Japan Work Stress and Health Cohort Study.

    Inoue, Akiomi; Kawakami, Norito

    2010-07-01

    Research that focuses on the relationship between interpersonal conflict at work (i.e., intragroup conflict and intergroup conflict) and depression that also considers differences in socioeconomic status (SES) is limited. The purpose of the current study is to investigate the relationship between interpersonal conflict at work and depression at different levels of SES. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a total of 17,390 males and 2923 females employed in nine factories located in several regions of Japan. These participants were surveyed using a self-administered questionnaire that included self-reported measures of interpersonal conflict at work (intragroup conflict and intergroup conflict), SES (education and occupation), worksite support (supervisor support and coworker support), depression (assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression [CES-D] scale), and other demographic covariates. Those who had scores of 16 + on the CES-D scale (4066 males and 873 females) were classified as experiencing depression. The association of interpersonal conflict with depression was significantly greater among males of a high SES (i.e., higher educational status and non-manual workers) than males of a low SES (i.e., lower educational status and manual workers) after adjusting for demographic variables, supervisor support, and coworker support. More specifically, the association of intergroup conflict with depression was significantly greater among males of a high SES than males of a low SES. However, this pattern was not observed in females. The current study suggests that males of a higher SES are more vulnerable to interpersonal conflict at work in terms of developing depression than males of a lower SES. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Family Functioning and Maladaptive Schemas: The Moderating Effects of Optimism

    Buri, John R.; Gunty, Amy L.

    2008-01-01

    Authoritarian parenting is often shown to be associated with negative outcomes for children, including the development of maladaptive schemas. However, this is not the case for all children who experience Authoritarian parenting. Optimism is examined as a moderator in the relationship between Authoritarian parenting and maladaptive schemas that…

  12. Birth Order and Maladaptive Behavior in School-Aged Children.

    Carmichael, Karla D.

    Drawing on Alfred Adler's theories on the effect of birth order on maladaptive behavior in children, this study focused on the relationship between birth order and the referral to counseling of school-aged children with maladaptive disorder. School-aged children (N=217) with academic or behavioral problems, ages 5 to 18, were referred to the staff…

  13. Quantification of Internal Stress-Strain Fields in Human Tendon: Unraveling the Mechanisms that Underlie Regional Tendon Adaptations and Mal-Adaptations to Mechanical Loading and the Effectiveness of Therapeutic Eccentric Exercise

    Maganaris, Constantinos N.; Chatzistergos, Panagiotis; Reeves, Neil D.; Narici, Marco V.

    2017-01-01

    By virtue of their anatomical location between muscles and bones, tendons make it possible to transform contractile force to joint rotation and locomotion. However, tendons do not behave as rigid links, but exhibit viscoelastic tensile properties, thereby affecting the length and contractile force in the in-series muscle, but also storing and releasing elastic stain energy as some tendons are stretched and recoiled in a cyclic manner during locomotion. In the late 90s, advancements were made in the application of ultrasound scanning that allowed quantifying the tensile deformability and mechanical properties of human tendons in vivo. Since then, the main principles of the ultrasound-based method have been applied by numerous research groups throughout the world and showed that tendons increase their tensile stiffness in response to exercise training and chronic mechanical loading, in general, by increasing their size and improving their intrinsic material. It is often assumed that these changes occur homogenously, in the entire body of the tendon, but recent findings indicate that the adaptations may in fact take place in some but not all tendon regions. The present review focuses on these regional adaptability features and highlights two paradigms where they are particularly evident: (a) Chronic mechanical loading in healthy tendons, and (b) tendinopathy. In the former loading paradigm, local tendon adaptations indicate that certain regions may “see,” and therefore adapt to, increased levels of stress. In the latter paradigm, local pathological features indicate that certain tendon regions may be “stress-shielded” and degenerate over time. Eccentric exercise protocols have successfully been used in the management of tendinopathy, without much sound understanding of the mechanisms underpinning their effectiveness. For insertional tendinopathy, in particular, it is possible that the effectiveness of a loading/rehabilitation protocol depends on the topography

  14. Interpersonal emotion regulation.

    Zaki, Jamil; Williams, W Craig

    2013-10-01

    Contemporary emotion regulation research emphasizes intrapersonal processes such as cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression, but people experiencing affect commonly choose not to go it alone. Instead, individuals often turn to others for help in shaping their affective lives. How and under what circumstances does such interpersonal regulation modulate emotional experience? Although scientists have examined allied phenomena such as social sharing, empathy, social support, and prosocial behavior for decades, there have been surprisingly few attempts to integrate these data into a single conceptual framework of interpersonal regulation. Here we propose such a framework. We first map a "space" differentiating classes of interpersonal regulation according to whether an individual uses an interpersonal regulatory episode to alter their own or another person's emotion. We then identify 2 types of processes--response-dependent and response-independent--that could support interpersonal regulation. This framework classifies an array of processes through which interpersonal contact fulfills regulatory goals. More broadly, it organizes diffuse, heretofore independent data on "pieces" of interpersonal regulation, and identifies growth points for this young and exciting research domain.

  15. More adaptive versus less maladaptive coping: What is more predictive of symptom severity? Development of a new scale to investigate coping profiles across different psychopathological syndromes.

    Moritz, Steffen; Jahns, Anna Katharina; Schröder, Johanna; Berger, Thomas; Lincoln, Tania M; Klein, Jan Philipp; Göritz, Anja S

    2016-02-01

    Lack of adaptive and enhanced maladaptive coping with stress and negative emotions are implicated in many psychopathological disorders. We describe the development of a new scale to investigate the relative contribution of different coping styles to psychopathology in a large population sample. We hypothesized that the magnitude of the supposed positive correlation between maladaptive coping and psychopathology would be stronger than the supposed negative correlation between adaptive coping and psychopathology. We also examined whether distinct coping style patterns emerge for different psychopathological syndromes. A total of 2200 individuals from the general population participated in an online survey. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory revised (OCI-R) and the Paranoia Checklist were administered along with a novel instrument called Maladaptive and Adaptive Coping Styles (MAX) questionnaire. Participants were reassessed six months later. MAX consists of three dimensions representing adaptive coping, maladaptive coping and avoidance. Across all psychopathological syndromes, similar response patterns emerged. Maladaptive coping was more strongly related to psychopathology than adaptive coping both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. The overall number of coping styles adopted by an individual predicted greater psychopathology. Mediation analysis suggests that a mild positive relationship between adaptive and certain maladaptive styles (emotional suppression) partially accounts for the attenuated relationship between adaptive coping and depressive symptoms. Results should be replicated in a clinical population. Results suggest that maladaptive and adaptive coping styles are not reciprocal. Reducing maladaptive coping seems to be more important for outcome than enhancing adaptive coping. The study supports transdiagnostic approaches advocating that maladaptive coping is a common factor across different psychopathologies

  16. Maladaptive plasticity in tinnitus-triggers, mechanisms and treatment

    Shore, Susan E; Roberts, Larry E.; Langguth, Berthold

    2016-01-01

    Tinnitus is a phantom auditory sensation that reduces quality of life for millions worldwide and for which there is no medical cure. Most cases are associated with hearing loss caused by the aging process or noise exposure. Because exposure to loud recreational sound is common among youthful populations, young persons are at increasing risk. Head or neck injuries can also trigger the development of tinnitus, as altered somatosensory input can affect auditory pathways and lead to tinnitus or modulate its intensity. Emotional and attentional state may play a role in tinnitus development and maintenance via top-down mechanisms. Thus, military in combat are particularly at risk due to combined hearing loss, somatosensory system disturbances and emotional stress. Neuroscience research has identified neural changes related to tinnitus that commence at the cochlear nucleus and extend to the auditory cortex and brain regions beyond. Maladaptive neural plasticity appears to underlie these neural changes, as it results in increased spontaneous firing rates and synchrony among neurons in central auditory structures that may generate the phantom percept. This review highlights the links between animal and human studies, including several therapeutic approaches that have been developed, which aim to target the neuroplastic changes underlying tinnitus. PMID:26868680

  17. Interrelationships Between Mass and Interpersonal Communication.

    Brownell, Judith

    Academic departmentalization, especially at the undergraduate level, can result in the isolation of subject areas. The two purposes of this paper are to make a case for the interrelationships between mass and interpersonal communication becoming an integral aspect of mass media study, and to stress the importance of presenting this material in…

  18. The Dark Triad and the PID-5 Maladaptive Personality Traits: Accuracy, Confidence and Response Bias in Judgments of Veracity

    Benno G. Wissing

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Dark Triad traits—narcissism, Machiavellianism and psychopathy—have been found to be associated with intra- or interpersonal deception production frequency. This cross-sectional study (N = 207 investigated if the Dark Triad traits are also associated with deception detection accuracy, as implicated by the recent conception of a deception-general ability. To investigate associations between maladaptive personality space and deception, the PID-5 maladaptive personality traits were included to investigate if besides Machiavellianism, Detachment is negatively associated with response bias. Finally, associations between the Dark Triad traits, Antagonism, Negative Affectivity and confidence judgments were investigated. Participants watched videos of lying vs. truth-telling senders and judged the truthfulness of the statements. None of the Dark Triad traits was found to be associated with the ability to detect deception. Detachment was negatively associated with response bias. Psychopathy was associated with global confidence judgments. The results provide additional support that dark and maladaptive personality traits are associated with judgmental biases but not with accuracy in deception detection. The internal consistencies of 4 of the 8 subscales of the used personality short scales were only low and nearly sufficient (αs =0.65–0.69.

  19. TEACHING INTERPERSONAL SKILLS

    Andersson, Niclas

    2009-01-01

    of the examination. This study aims at presenting and reviewing a practical approach to teaching of interpersonal skills, referred to as the Social Risk Analysis, which has been applied and integrated into the curriculum of two engineering courses. The Social Risk Analysis encourages and imposes a critical review......In addition to the traditional learning outcomes for technical disciplinary knowledge, the CDIO-syllabus also specifies personal and interpersonal learning outcomes. The argument for teaching interpersonal skills rest upon the team-based working environment that is typical for engineers, where...... knowledge and skills in teamwork, leadership, and communications are highly required. Thus, the practice of interpersonal skills need to be implemented in engineering teaching, not only in terms of learning objectives, but realised in practical teaching activities and as an integrated part...

  20. Cognitive schemas among mental health professionals: Adaptive or maladaptive?

    Sahoo Saddichha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Maladaptive cognitive schemas can lead to biases during clinical assessment or psychotherapeutic interventions. This study aimed to explore the cognitive schemas among mental health professionals. Materials and Methods: 100 mental health professionals, of both genders, equally divided between psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers, and psychiatric nurses, were approached and administered the Young Schema Questionnaire - Short Form after written informed consent. Results: Males had higher maladaptive schemas than female respondents across all schema domains, viz., disconnection/rejection, impaired autonomy, impaired limits, other-directedness, and overvigilance (P ≤ 0.05. Psychiatrists had higher maladaptive schemas than psychologists (P ≤ 0.05. Age was weakly but positively corelated with the schemas of self-sacrifice (P = 0.038 and unrelenting standards (P = 0.002 . Conclusions: Mental health professionals also may have maladaptive schemas, which needs to be addressed through schema therapy.

  1. Interpersonal psychotherapy for anorexia nervosa.

    McIntosh, V V; Bulik, C M; McKenzie, J M; Luty, S E; Jordan, J

    2000-03-01

    This paper outlines the rationale for treating individuals with anorexia nervosa using interpersonal psychotherapy. We review theoretical, empirical, and psychotherapy literature relating to interpersonal functioning in anorexia nervosa. Etiological theories emphasize interpersonal and family dysfunction in the development of anorexia nervosa. Research supports the notion that families of individuals with anorexia nervosa have dysfunctional patterns of communication. The history of treatment for anorexia nervosa emphasizes the need for resolution of interpersonal dysfunction, within the traditions of psychodynamic, family therapy, and multidimensional therapies. Interpersonal psychotherapy is a time-limited psychotherapy based on the notion that regardless of etiology, interpersonal relationships are intertwined with symptomatology. The goals of the therapy are to improve interpersonal functioning and thereby decrease symptomatology. Factors identified as important in the development of anorexia nervosa are readily conceptualized within the interpersonal psychotherapy problem areas of grief, interpersonal disputes, interpersonal deficits, and role transitions. Copyright 2000 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  2. New DSM-5 PTSD guilt and shame symptoms among Italian earthquake survivors: Impact on maladaptive behaviors.

    Carmassi, Claudia; Bertelloni, Carlo Antonio; Gesi, Camilla; Conversano, Ciro; Stratta, Paolo; Massimetti, Gabriele; Rossi, Alessandro; Dell'Osso, Liliana

    2017-05-01

    Important changes were introduced concerning posttraumatic-stress disorder (PTSD) by the DSM-5 recognizing the role of negative emotions such as guilt and shame, but little evidence is yet available on their prevalence in population assessed by means of DSM-5 criteria. In this study we explored the rates of guilt and shame DSM-5 PTSD diagnostic symptoms among Italian survivors to a massive earthquake and their possible correlation with PTSD and maladaptive behaviors. 869 residents of the town of L'Aquila exposed to the earthquake of April 6th, 2009 were investigated by the Trauma and Loss Spectrum-Self Report (TALS-SR) with particular attention to guilt and shame feelings. DSM-5 symptomatological PTSD was reported by 41.7% of survivors, further 11.6% endorsed at least one guilt/shame symptoms, with significantly higher rates of endorsement were in PTSD respect to No-PTSD subjects, and in the subgroup with at least one maladaptive behavior respect to those with none. There was a significant main effects of PTSD and at least one guilt/shame symptom on TALS-SR symptomatological domains. Mean TALS-SR Maladaptive coping domain score appeared significantly higher in the subgroup with at least one guilt/shame symptom. Further study are needed to investigate guilt and shame feelings in survivors to a natural disaster. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Familial Accumulation of Social Anxiety Symptoms and Maladaptive Emotion Regulation.

    Asbrand, Julia; Svaldi, Jennifer; Krämer, Martina; Breuninger, Christoph; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna

    2016-01-01

    Social anxiety is thought to be strongly related to maladaptive emotion regulation (ER). As social anxiety symptoms accumulate in families, we hypothesize that maladaptive ER is also more prevalent in families with anxious children. Thus, we analyze differences in emotion regulation of both child and mother in relation to social anxiety, as well as both their ER strategies in dealing with anxiety. Further, a positive relation between child and maternal ER strategies is assumed. Children (aged 9 to 13 years) with social, anxiety disorder (SAD; n = 25) and healthy controls (HC, n = 26) as well as their mothers completed several measures of social anxiety and trait ER strategies towards anxiety. As ER of children is still in development, age is considered as covariate. SAD children and their mothers reported more maladaptive ER strategies than HC dyads. Maternal maladaptive ER was related negatively to child adaptive ER which was further moderated by the child's age. Maladaptive ER strategies seem to contribute to the exacerbation of social anxiety in both mother and child. Mothers reporting maladaptive ER may have difficulties supporting their child in coping with social anxiety while simultaneously also experiencing heightened levels of anxiety. Deeper understanding of interactional processes between mothers and children during development can assist the comprehension of factors maintaining SAD. Implications for future research and possible consequences for interventions are discussed.

  4. Familial Accumulation of Social Anxiety Symptoms and Maladaptive Emotion Regulation.

    Julia Asbrand

    Full Text Available Social anxiety is thought to be strongly related to maladaptive emotion regulation (ER. As social anxiety symptoms accumulate in families, we hypothesize that maladaptive ER is also more prevalent in families with anxious children. Thus, we analyze differences in emotion regulation of both child and mother in relation to social anxiety, as well as both their ER strategies in dealing with anxiety. Further, a positive relation between child and maternal ER strategies is assumed.Children (aged 9 to 13 years with social, anxiety disorder (SAD; n = 25 and healthy controls (HC, n = 26 as well as their mothers completed several measures of social anxiety and trait ER strategies towards anxiety. As ER of children is still in development, age is considered as covariate.SAD children and their mothers reported more maladaptive ER strategies than HC dyads. Maternal maladaptive ER was related negatively to child adaptive ER which was further moderated by the child's age.Maladaptive ER strategies seem to contribute to the exacerbation of social anxiety in both mother and child. Mothers reporting maladaptive ER may have difficulties supporting their child in coping with social anxiety while simultaneously also experiencing heightened levels of anxiety. Deeper understanding of interactional processes between mothers and children during development can assist the comprehension of factors maintaining SAD. Implications for future research and possible consequences for interventions are discussed.

  5. Psychedelics and reconsolidation of traumatic and appetitive maladaptive memories: focus on cannabinoids and ketamine.

    Fattore, Liana; Piva, Alessandro; Zanda, Mary Tresa; Fumagalli, Guido; Chiamulera, Cristiano

    2018-02-01

    Clinical data with 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients recently stimulated interest on the potential therapeutic use of psychedelics in disorders characterized by maladaptive memories, including substance use disorders (SUD). The rationale for the use of MDMA in PTSD and SUD is being extended to a broader beneficial "psychedelic effect," which is supporting further clinical investigations, in spite of the lack of mechanistic hypothesis. Considering that the retrieval of emotional memories reactivates specific brain mechanisms vulnerable to inhibition, interference, or strengthening (i.e., the reconsolidation process), it was proposed that the ability to retrieve and change these maladaptive memories might be a novel intervention for PTSD and SUD. The mechanisms underlying MDMA effects indicate memory reconsolidation modulation as a hypothetical process underlying its efficacy. Mechanistic and clinical studies with other two classes of psychedelic substances, namely cannabinoids and ketamine, are providing data in support of a potential use in PTSD and SUD based on the modulation of traumatic and appetitive memory reconsolidation, respectively. Here, we review preclinical and clinical data on cannabinoids and ketamine effects on biobehavioral processes related to the reconsolidation of maladaptive memories. We report the findings supporting (or not) the working hypothesis linking the potential therapeutic effect of these substances to the underlying reconsolidation process. We also proposed possible approaches for testing the use of these two classes of drugs within the current paradigm of reconsolidation memory inhibition. Metaplasticity may be the process in common between cannabinoids and ketamine/ketamine-like substance effects on the mediation and potential manipulation of maladaptive memories.

  6. INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS IN SCHOOL

    Siniša Opić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available As part of the scientific project titled “The Curriculum of Social Competences and Relations in School”, the aim of this paper is to examine the quality of interpersonal relations between teachers and pupils. On a sample of 432 teachers from 20 towns, 35 primary schools in the Republic of Croatia, and 432 pupils, it was confirmed that there is a difference in the appraisal of the quality of their interpersonal relations. Although the overall quality of interpersonal relations between pupils and teachers is at a moderately satisfactory level, pupils still appraise the quality of interpersonal relations lower than their teachers. In view of latent dimensionality, a factor questionnaire structure was used (14 variables; ordinal type and two main components (subscales determined: didactic support and interaction, and rough verbal and physical treatment. As part of the differential draft of our research, no gender differences were established (between female and male teachers in the appraisal of the quality of interpersonal relations with pupils (on two subscales. The correlation analysis confirmed a low negative statistically significant correlation between the years of service and the subscale rough verbal and physical treatment (Rho=-0.101. In view of the subscale of rough verbal and physical treatment between pupils and teachers, such results on a negative correlation imply that older teachers, as opposed to their younger colleagues, use more corporal punishment in schools, treat pupils rudely, use nasty and impolite words, and call pupils insulting names.

  7. Interpersonal problems across levels of the psychopathology hierarchy.

    Girard, Jeffrey M; Wright, Aidan G C; Beeney, Joseph E; Lazarus, Sophie A; Scott, Lori N; Stepp, Stephanie D; Pilkonis, Paul A

    2017-11-01

    We examined the relationship between psychopathology and interpersonal problems in a sample of 825 clinical and community participants. Sixteen psychiatric diagnoses and five transdiagnostic dimensions were examined in relation to self-reported interpersonal problems. The structural summary method was used with the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems Circumplex Scales to examine interpersonal problem profiles for each diagnosis and dimension. We built a structural model of mental disorders including factors corresponding to detachment (avoidant personality, social phobia, major depression), internalizing (dependent personality, borderline personality, panic disorder, posttraumatic stress, major depression), disinhibition (antisocial personality, drug dependence, alcohol dependence, borderline personality), dominance (histrionic personality, narcissistic personality, paranoid personality), and compulsivity (obsessive-compulsive personality). All dimensions showed good interpersonal prototypicality (e.g., detachment was defined by a socially avoidant/nonassertive interpersonal profile) except for internalizing, which was diffusely associated with elevated interpersonal distress. The findings for individual disorders were largely consistent with the dimension that each disorder loaded on, with the exception of the internalizing and dominance disorders, which were interpersonally heterogeneous. These results replicate previous findings and provide novel insights into social dysfunction in psychopathology by wedding the power of hierarchical (i.e., dimensional) modeling and interpersonal circumplex assessment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Trauma-Related Dissociation Is Linked With Maladaptive Personality Functioning

    Antonella Granieri

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Extensive research has demonstrated the positive associations among the exposure to traumatic experiences, the levels of dissociation, and the severity of psychiatric symptoms in adults. However, it has been hypothesized in clinical literature that an excessive activation of the dissociative processes following multiple traumatic experiences may jeopardize the psychological and behavioral functioning of the individuals, fostering higher levels of maladaptive personality functioning.Methods: The study involved 322 adult volunteers from Italy. Participants completed measures on traumatic experiences, dissociation, and maladaptive personality traits.Results: The number of traumatic experiences reported by participants were positively associated with dissociation scores and maladaptive personality scores. Mediation analyses showed that dissociation acted as a partial mediator in the relationship between traumatic experiences and overall maladaptive personality functioning. Regression curve analyses showed that the positive association between maladaptive personality functioning and dissociation was stronger among participants with higher exposure to traumatic experiences.Conclusion: Exposure to multiple traumatic experiences may increase the risk for an excessive activation of the dissociative processes, which in turn may generate severe impairments in multiple domains of personality functioning.

  9. Interpersonal Circumplex Profiles Of Persistent Depression: Goals, Self-Efficacy, Problems, And Effects Of Group Therapy.

    Locke, Kenneth D; Sayegh, Liliane; Penberthy, J Kim; Weber, Charlotte; Haentjens, Katherine; Turecki, Gustavo

    2017-06-01

    We assessed severely and persistently depressed patients' interpersonal self-efficacy, problems, and goals, plus changes in interpersonal functioning and depression during 20 weeks of group therapy. Outpatients (32 female, 26 male, mean age = 45 years) completed interpersonal circumplex measures of goals, efficacy, and problems before completing 20 weeks of manualized group therapy, during which we regularly assessed depression and interpersonal style. Compared to normative samples, patients lacked interpersonal agency, including less self-efficacy for expressive/assertive actions; stronger motives to avoid conflict, scorn, and humiliation; and more problems with being too submissive, inhibited, and accommodating. Behavioral Activation and especially Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy interventions produced improvements in depression and interpersonal agency, with increases in "agentic and communal" efficacy predicting subsequent decreases in depression. While severely and persistently depressed patients were prone to express maladaptive interpersonal dispositions, over the course of group therapy, they showed increasingly agentic and beneficial patterns of cognitions, motives, and behaviors. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Heterogeneity of interpersonal problems among depressed young adults: Associations with substance abuse and pathological personality traits

    Dawood, Sindes; Thomas, Katherine M.; Wright, Aidan G.C.; Hopwood, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    This study extended previous theory and research on interpersonal heterogeneity in depression by identifying groups of depressed young adults who differ in their type and degree of interpersonal problems, and by examining patterns of pathological personality traits and alcohol abuse among these groups. We examined the interpersonal problems, personality traits, and alcohol-related problems of 172 college students with at least moderate levels of self-reported depression on the Patient Health Questionnaire (Spitzer, Kroenke, & Williams, 1999). Scores from the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems – Short Circumplex (Soldz, Budman, Demby, & Merry, 1995) were subjected to latent profile analysis, which classified individuals into five distinct groups defined by the types of interpersonal problems they experience (dominant, warm, submissive, cold, and undifferentiated). As hypothesized, groups did not differ in depression severity, but did show predicted patterns of differences on normative and maladaptive personality traits, as well as alcohol-related problems. The presence of clinically meaningful interpersonal heterogeneity in depression may have important implications for designing more individualized treatments and prevention efforts for depression that target diverse associated interpersonal problems. PMID:23560433

  11. Maladaptively high and low openness: the case for experiential permeability.

    Piedmont, Ralph L; Sherman, Martin F; Sherman, Nancy C

    2012-12-01

    The domain of Openness within the Five-Factor Model (FFM) has received inconsistent support as a source for maladaptive personality functioning, at least when the latter is confined to the disorders of personality included within the American Psychiatric Association's (APA) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR; APA, ). However, an advantage of the FFM relative to the DSM-IV-TR is that the former was developed to provide a reasonably comprehensive description of general personality structure. Rather than suggest that the FFM is inadequate because the DSM-IV-TR lacks much representation of Openness, it might be just as reasonable to suggest that the DSM-IV-TR is inadequate because it lacks an adequate representation of maladaptive variants of both high and low Openness. This article discusses the development and validation of a measure of these maladaptive variants, the Experiential Permeability Inventory. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Personality © 2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Early Maladaptive Schemas in the Patients with Somatoform Disorders

    Ýsmet Kýrpýnar

    2014-08-01

    Method: We investigated a total of 28 patients aged 18-65 years, were diagnosed as Hypochondriasis or Somatization Disorder according to DSM-IV and 30 healthy controls. All participitans were assessed with The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-1. Data were obtained by using a Sociodemographic Questionnaire and Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Form 3. Results: The main age of patients was 36,71 ± 10.39. Most of the patients were female, married and housewives. All early maladaptive schema scores of patients with somatoform disorders were higher than healthy controls. Conclusion: All early maladaptive schemas have been found to be related to somatoform disorders in this study. The role of not a specific one but a total of maladaptive schemas in etiology may reflect the unspecific general sources of the tendency to somatoform disorders. [JCBPR 2014; 3(2.000: 84-93

  13. You spin me right round: Cross-relationship variability in interpersonal emotion regulation

    Karen eNiven

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Individuals use a range of interpersonal emotion regulation strategies to influence the feelings of others, e.g., friends, family members, romantic partners, work colleagues. But little is known about whether people vary their strategy use across these different relational contexts. We characterize and measure this variability as ‘spin’, i.e., the extent of dispersion in a person’s interpersonal emotion regulation strategy use across different relationships, and focus on two key questions. First, is spin adaptive or maladaptive with regard to personal well-being and relationship quality? Second, do personality traits that are considered important for interpersonal functioning (i.e., empathy, attachment style predict spin? The data used in this study is drawn from a large online survey. A key contribution of this study is to reveal that people who varied the type of strategies they used across relationships (i.e., those with high spin had lower positive mood, higher emotional exhaustion and less close relationships. A further key contribution is to show that spin was associated with low empathic concern and perspective taking and high anxious attachment style. High variability in interpersonal emotion regulation strategies across relationships therefore appears to be maladaptive both personally and socially.

  14. Generation of Interpersonal Stressful Events: The Role of Poor Social Skills and Early Physical Maturation in Young Adolescents--The TRAILS Study

    Bakker, Martin P.; Ormel, Johan; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Verhulst, Frank C.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    2011-01-01

    This study developed two specifications of the social skills deficit stress generation hypothesis: the "gender-incongruence" hypothesis to predict peer victimization and the "need for autonomy" hypothesis to predict conflict with authorities. These hypotheses were tested in a prospective large population cohort of 2,064 Dutch…

  15. Negative Social Reactions to Assault Disclosure as a Mediator between Self-Blame and Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms among Survivors of Interpersonal Assault

    Hassija, Christina M.; Gray, Matt J.

    2012-01-01

    The type of causal attributions offered for traumatic life events has been documented as a potential vulnerability factor for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, few investigations have sought to identify the mechanisms by which such explanations are associated with greater posttraumatic distress. One possible factor that may account…

  16. Generation of Interpersonal Stressful Events : The Role of Poor Social Skills and Early Physical Maturation in Young Adolescents-The TRAILS Study

    Bakker, Martin P.; Ormel, Johan; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Verhulst, Frank C.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    2011-01-01

    This study developed two specifications of the social skills deficit stress generation hypothesis: the "gender-incongruence" hypothesis to predict peer victimization and the "need for autonomy" hypothesis to predict conflict with authorities. These hypotheses were tested in a prospective large

  17. Guilt: an interpersonal approach.

    Baumeister, R F; Stillwell, A M; Heatherton, T F

    1994-03-01

    Multiple sets of empirical research findings on guilt are reviewed to evaluate the view that guilt should be understood as an essentially social phenomenon that happens between people as much as it happens inside them. Guilt appears to arise from interpersonal transactions (including transgressions and positive inequities) and to vary significantly with the interpersonal context. In particular, guilt patterns appear to be strongest, most common, and most consistent in the context of communal relationships, which are characterized by expectations of mutual concern. Guilt serves various relationship-enhancing functions, including motivating people to treat partners well and avoid transgressions, minimizing inequities and enabling less powerful partners to get their way, and redistributing emotional distress.

  18. Maladaptive social behaviour of students in secondary vocational education

    Koerhuis, Marie-José

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was twofold: Firstly to create a reliable and valid new instrument to measure maladaptive social behaviour (MSB) of students in secondary vocational education, and secondly to assess which school context variables could predict MSB at school. Three data-waves were conducted

  19. Parental Practices and the Development of Maladaptive Schemas

    Gunty, Amy L.; Buri, John R.

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between Young's (1999) Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMSs) and several parental variables was investigated. The parental variables of interest were: (a) Nurturance, (b) Authority, (c) Intrusiveness, (d) Psychological Control, (e) Overprotection, and (f) Parentification. Regression analyses revealed that these parental practices…

  20. Socio-Cultural Problems and Maladaptive Behaviours of Post ...

    Through survey research design, this study investigated the socio-cultural problems and maladaptive behaviours of post-adolescents in Nigeria. Out of 379 National Youth Service Corps (N. Y. S. C.) members drawn from various parts of Nigeria for the 2010/2011 service year, deployed to Abakaliki, Ebonyi and Izzi Local ...

  1. Validity of the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP-64) for predicting assertiveness in role-play situations.

    Leising, Daniel; Rehbein, Diana; Sporberg, Doreen

    2007-10-01

    The Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP-64; Horowitz, Alden, Wiggins, & Pincus, 2000) is a self-report measure of maladaptive relationship behavior. Ninety-five adult female participants completed the IIP-64 and then interacted with a same-sex confederate in three diagnostic role plays, designed to evoke assertive responses. After each role play, both the participant and the confederate judged how assertive the participant had been, using two subscales from the Interpersonal Adjective Scales (IAS; Wiggins, 1995). The participants' general self-images, assessed with the IIP-64, were quite congruent with how they judged their own assertiveness in the role plays. But when role-play assertiveness was judged by the confederate, the match with the participants' general self-images was considerably lower. Our results indicate that self-reported interpersonal problems do not converge well with external judgments of interpersonal behavior.

  2. Interpersonal Stressors Predict Ghrelin and Leptin Levels in Women

    Jaremka, Lisa M.; Belury, Martha A.; Andridge, Rebecca R.; Malarkey, William B.; Glaser, Ronald; Christian, Lisa; Emery, Charles F.; Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Stressful events enhance risk for weight gain and adiposity. Ghrelin and leptin, two hormones that are implicated in appetite regulation, may link stressful events to weight gain; a number of rodent studies suggest that stressors increase ghrelin production. The present study investigated the links among daily stressors, ghrelin and leptin, and dietary intake in humans. Method Women (N = 50) completed three study appointments that were scheduled at least 2 weeks apart. At each visit, women arrived fasting and ate a standardized breakfast and lunch. Blood samples were collected 45 minutes after each meal. Women completed a self-report version of the Daily Inventory of Stressful Events (DISE) at each appointment. Two composites were created from the DISE data, reflecting the number of stressors that did and did not involve interpersonal tension. Results Women who experienced more stressors involving interpersonal tension had higher ghrelin and lower leptin levels than those who experienced fewer interpersonal stressors. Furthermore, women who experienced more interpersonal stressors had a diet that was higher in calories, fat, carbohydrates, protein, sugar, sodium, and fiber, and marginally higher in cholesterol, vegetables (but not fruits), vitamin A, and vitamin C. Stressors that did not involve interpersonal tension were unrelated to ghrelin and leptin levels or any of the dietary components examined. Conclusions These data suggest that ghrelin and leptin may link daily interpersonal stressors to weight gain and obesity. PMID:25032903

  3. FKBP5 moderation of the relationship between childhood trauma and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies in adolescents.

    Halldorsdottir, Thorhildur; de Matos, Ana Paula Soares; Awaloff, Yvonne; Arnarson, Eiríkur Örn; Craighead, W Edward; Binder, Elisabeth B

    2017-10-01

    Maladaptive emotion regulation strategies, such as rumination and catastrophizing, are transdiagnostic risk factors for psychopathology. FK506-binding protein 51 (FKBP5) has been found to moderate the relationship between stressful life events and various psychiatric disorders. Given the cross-disorder moderation effect of FKBP5 at the diagnostic level, the aim of the current study was to examine whether the relationship between exposure to childhood trauma and transdiagnostic maladaptive emotion regulation processes would also be moderated by genetic FKBP5 variation in a community sample of adolescents. We hypothesized that adolescent carriers of the FKBP5 CATT haplotype composed of rs9296158, rs3800373, rs1360780, and rs9470080, that has been associated with increased risk for psychiatric disorders in adulthood, would also show higher levels of rumination and catastrophizing. Participants included 1345 genotyped adolescents (M age =13.95, 64.2% female; 100% European Caucasians of Portuguese descent) who completed self-report measures on exposure to childhood trauma and emotion regulation strategies. Genotypes of rs9296158, rs3800373, rs1360780, and rs9470080 were used to estimate the CATT haplotype (carriers versus non-carriers). Consistent with our hypotheses and previous findings, adolescent CATT haplotype carriers with higher levels of childhood trauma endorsed higher levels of both rumination and catastrophizing compared to non-carriers. Given the association of these maladaptive emotion regulation processes and psychiatric disorders, the findings suggest possible psychological mechanisms why FKBP5 haplotype carriers exposed to childhood trauma are more vulnerable to developing a psychiatric disorder later in life. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Maladaptive Behavior in Autism Spectrum Disorder: The Role of Emotion Experience and Emotion Regulation

    Samson, Andrea C.; Hardan, Antonio Y.; Lee, Ihno A.; Phillips, Jennifer M.; Gross, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Maladaptive behavior is common in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). However, the factors that give rise to maladaptive behavior in this context are not well understood. The present study examined the role of emotion experience and emotion regulation in maladaptive behavior in individuals with ASD and typically developing (TD) participants.…

  5. Posttraumatic Maladaptive Beliefs Scale: Evolution of the Personal Beliefs and Reactions Scale

    Vogt, Dawne S.; Shipherd, Jillian C.; Resick, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    The Posttraumatic Maladaptive Beliefs Scale (PMBS) was developed to measure maladaptive beliefs about current life circumstances that may occur following trauma exposure. This scale assesses maladaptive beliefs within three domains: (a) Threat of Harm, (b) Self-Worth and Judgment, and (c) Reliability and Trustworthiness of Others. Items for the…

  6. Type D personality, stress, coping and performance on a novel sport task.

    Erika Borkoles

    Full Text Available We investigated (1 the relationship between Type D personality, stress intensity appraisal of a self-selected stressor, coping, and perceived coping effectiveness and (2 the relationship between Type D personality and performance. In study one, 482 athletes completed the Type D personality questionnaire (DS14, stress thermometer and MCOPE in relation to a recently experienced sport stressor. Type D was associated with increased levels of perceived stress and selection of coping strategies (more emotion and avoidance coping as well as perceptions of their effectiveness. In study two, 32 participants completed a rugby league circuit task and were assessed on pre-performance anxiety, post-performance affect and coping. Type D was associated with poorer performance (reduced distance; more errors, decreases in pre-performance self-confidence and more use of maladaptive resignation/withdrawal coping. Findings suggest that Type D is associated with maladaptive coping and reduced performance. Type D individuals would benefit from interventions related to mood modification or enhancing interpersonal functioning.

  7. A stress management workshop improves residents' coping skills.

    McCue, J D; Sachs, C L

    1991-11-01

    We describe the effectiveness of a stress management workshop designed for physicians. Of the 64 medicine, pediatrics, and medicine-pediatrics residents who agreed to participate in the workshop, the 43 who could be freed from clinical responsibilities constituted the intervention group; the 21 residents who could not be freed from clinical responsibilities were asked to be the nonintervention group. The ESSI Stress Systems Instrument and Maslach Burnout Inventory were administered to control subjects and workshop participants 2 weeks before and 6 weeks after the workshop. The half-day workshops taught management of the stresses of medical practice through: (1) learning and practicing interpersonal skills that increase the availability of social support; (2) prioritization of personal, work, and educational demands; (3) techniques to increase stamina and attend to self-care needs; (4) recognition and avoidance of maladaptive responses; and (5) positive outlook skills. Overall, the ESSI Stress Systems Instrument test scores for the workshop participants improved (+1.27), while the nonintervention group's mean scores declined (-0.65). All 21 individual ESSI Stress Systems Instrument scale items improved for the workshop, compared with eight of 21 items for the nonintervention group. The workshop group improved in the Maslach Burnout Inventory emotional exhaustion scale and deteriorated less than the nonintervention group in the depersonalization scale. We conclude that a modest, inexpensive stress management workshop was received positively, and can lead to significant short-term improvement in stress and burnout test scores for medicine and pediatrics residents.

  8. Adaptive and Maladaptive Means of Using Facebook: A Qualitative Pilot Study to Inform Suggestions for Development of a Future Intervention for Depression

    Tran, Tanya B.; Uebelacker, Lisa; Wenze, Susan J.; Collins, Caitlin; Broughton, Monica K.

    2015-01-01

    Existing literature examining the relation between social networking sites and mental health is primarily based on correlational methods and presents mixed findings. Many researchers neglect to examine the cognitive and behavioral processes used while online. This study’s qualitative approach strives to understand how individuals with elevated depressive symptoms may use Facebook following an interpersonal stressor. Participants’ narration of their Facebook use was coded. Common adaptive uses included using Facebook to seek social support, actively communicate, distract, recall positive memories, and reappraise negative thoughts. Maladaptive uses included engaging in social comparison, ruminating, and recalling negative memories. Feedback regarding development of a future intervention was also elicited. Suggestions included using Facebook to view positive, interesting, or meaningful information, distract, garner social support, and engage in social activities. Findings indicate that how one engages with Facebook after an interpersonal stressor may affect adjustment and may help to inform the development of a novel, Facebook-based intervention. PMID:26554330

  9. Adaptive and Maladaptive Means of Using Facebook: A Qualitative Pilot Study to Inform Suggestions for Development of a Future Intervention for Depression.

    Tran, Tanya B; Uebelacker, Lisa; Wenze, Susan J; Collins, Caitlin; Broughton, Monica K

    2015-11-01

    Existing literature examining the relation between social networking sites and mental health is primarily based on correlational methods and presents mixed findings. Many researchers neglect to examine the cognitive and behavioral processes used while online. This study's qualitative approach strives to understand how individuals with elevated depressive symptoms may use Facebook following an interpersonal stressor. Participants' narration of their Facebook use was coded. Common adaptive uses included using Facebook to seek social support, actively communicate, distract, recall positive memories, and reappraise negative thoughts. Maladaptive uses included engaging in social comparison, ruminating, and recalling negative memories. Feedback regarding development of a future intervention was also elicited. Suggestions included using Facebook to view positive, interesting, or meaningful information, distract, garner social support, and engage in social activities. Findings indicate that how one engages with Facebook after an interpersonal stressor may affect adjustment and may help to inform the development of a novel, Facebook-based intervention.

  10. Parental overprotection and interpersonal behavior in generalized social phobia.

    Taylor, Charles T; Alden, Lynn E

    2006-03-01

    Forty-one people with generalized social phobia (GSP) and 42 community controls completed a measure of social developmental experiences and then participated in a social interaction with an experimental assistant whose behavior was either friendly or ambiguous. Following the interaction, confederates rated participants' behavior and their desire to interact with their partner again. In people with social phobia, but not controls, perceptions of parental overprotection were associated with less responsiveness to partner behavior. Moreover, failure to reciprocate the friendly partner's behavior led to social rejection. The results support the value of incorporating social developmental concepts into cognitive-behavioral models of social phobia and highlight the contribution of social learning experiences to the development of maladaptive interpersonal behavior in these individuals.

  11. FOSTERING ADOLESCENTS' INTERPERSONAL BEHAVIOUR: AN ...

    Engr E. Egbochukwu

    skill training (SST) in fostering interpersonal behaviour among Nigerian adolescents. ..... communication problems (Akinade, 1988, Aremu, 1998, Ojekunle, 1999, .... Restructuring on the Enhancement of Self Esteem of Visually Impaired.

  12. Predicting Early Maladaptive Schemas Using Baumrind's Parenting Styles.

    Esmali Kooraneh, Ahmad; Amirsardari, Leili

    2015-06-01

    Families play an essential role in maintaining children's mental, social, and physical health. The family provides the first and the most important social context for human development. The present study aimed to predict early maladaptive schemas using Baumrind's parenting styles (root development). A total of 357 undergraduate students of Islamic Azad University, Urmia Branch, Iran, were selected through random cluster sampling during 2013 and 2014. The students were assessed using the Schema Questionnaire-Short Form (SQ-SF) and the Baumrind's parenting styles inventories. The result of regression analysis showed that Baumrind's parenting styles are significant predictors of early maladaptive schemas (P parenting style has some features such as showing high levels of warmth or encouraging kids to express their own possibly divergent opinions. The authoritarian parenting style, however, possesses traits such as heartlessness, impassiveness, strictness, and lack of attention to the children's developmental needs, which is not acceptable.

  13. Maladaptive synaptic plasticity in L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia

    Qiang Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID in patients with Parkinson disease (PD could be due to maladaptive plasticity of corticostriatal synapses in response to L-DOPA treatment. A series of recent studies has revealed that LID is associated with marked morphological plasticity of striatal dendritic spines, particularly cell type-specific structural plasticity of medium spiny neurons (MSNs in the striatum. In addition, evidence demonstrating the occurrence of plastic adaptations, including aberrant morphological and functional features, in multiple components of cortico-basal ganglionic circuitry, such as primary motor cortex (M1 and basal ganglia (BG output nuclei. These adaptations have been implicated in the pathophysiology of LID. Here, we briefly review recent studies that have addressed maladaptive plastic changes within the cortico-BG loop in dyskinetic animal models of PD and patients with PD.

  14. Psychological peculiarities of the formation and the course of maladaptive states of internship doctors in the aspect of their psychocorrection

    V. V. Vyun

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Tense working conditions unfavorably affect not only the somatic, but also the mental health of people working in conditions of constant neuropsychic and physical stress. The presence of signs of maladaptation (decrease in the level of professional capacity, violation of behavioral regulation, increased conflict with others, tendency to addictive and delictual behavior leads to lack of adequate and purposeful response of such individuals, becomes individual and extreme, and contributes to erroneous actions in the process of professional activity, professional mistakes, and also contributes to further transformation into mental and behavioral disorders. Changes in higher medical education, its integration into the European educational space requires new approaches to postgraduate medical training of a doctor. Conditions for modernization of postgraduate medical education have been created. Therefore, the main tasks of postgraduate education of doctors, especially during the reform period, are to ensure both the improvement of the professional training of internship doctors and the provision of medical and psychological support to the doctors during the period of adaptation to professional activity. on the basis of a systematic approach to the study of mechanisms for the formation of maladaptive states of internship doctors to professional activity, to develop a system of their psychotherapeutic correction. three main levels of adaptation of a doctor to professional activity are identified: The high level (20.1% of men and 13.1% of women is characterized by the high level of work capacity, psychological comfort, availability of reserves for overcoming critical situations, objective difficulties associated with disadvantages in the modern organization of the medical process. The average level (15.4% and 12.2% respectively is characterized by a decrease in the level of efficiency and psychological comfort in crisis situations and in the presence of

  15. Metacognitive interpersonal therapy for co-occurrent avoidant personality disorder and substance abuse.

    Dimaggio, Giancarlo; D'Urzo, Maddalena; Pasinetti, Manuela; Salvatore, Giampaolo; Lysaker, Paul H; Catania, Dario; Popolo, Raffaele

    2015-02-01

    Many patients with substance abuse problems present with co-occurrent cluster C personality disorders. Focusing on both disorders disrupts the maintenance mechanisms and the vicious cycle between the 2 conditions; however, treatment teams often neglect this issue. In this work, we describe the features of metacognitive interpersonal therapy as applied to a man with avoidant and depressive personality disorders and heroin, cocaine, and alcohol abuse. Psychotherapy proceeded through the following steps: (a) conducting drug therapy to deal with symptoms of abstinence from heroin; (b) forming a therapeutic bond to overcome the patient's severe emotional withdrawal; (c) fostering basic metacognitive capacities such as awareness of emotions and their triggers; (d) sharing formulations of maladaptive interpersonal schemas and descriptions of the associated states of mind; (e) conveying an understanding of the link between interpersonal events (recent ones and traumatic memories) and substance abuse; (f) facilitating the acquisition of critical distance from maladaptive schemas; and (g) promoting the use of adaptive coping skills instead of resorting to substance abuse. Implications for generalizing these procedures to the treatment of other patients with co-occurrent personality disorders and substance abuse are described. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Predicting Early Maladaptive Schemas Using Baumrind?s Parenting Styles

    Esmali Kooraneh, Ahmad; Amirsardari, Leili

    2015-01-01

    Background: Families play an essential role in maintaining children?s mental, social, and physical health. The family provides the first and the most important social context for human development. Objectives: The present study aimed to predict early maladaptive schemas using Baumrind?s parenting styles (root development). Patients and Methods: A total of 357 undergraduate students of Islamic Azad University, Urmia Branch, Iran, were selected through random cluster sampling during 2013 and 20...

  17. Early Maladaptive Schemas in Opiate and Stimulant Users

    Zahra Karami

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Early maladaptive schemas are valid representations of unpleasant childhood experiences that shape a person’s viewpoints of the world, and lead to clinical symptoms such as depression, personality disorders, and substance abuse. Given the importance of this matter, we conducted a research on early maladaptive schemas in substance-abusers, to allow more appropriate preventive measures to be taken with a better understanding of the issue. Methods: For this descriptive-comparative study, 115 patients (91 opiate users and 24 stimulant users visiting drug addiction treatment centers were selected through convenience sampling from persons who were admitted to substance abuse treatment centers (Methadone Maintenance therapy centers, addiction treatment camps and self-help groups and Narcotics Anonymous (NA of Yasuj. Data were collected using a Demographic Information Questionnaire and Young’s Schema Questionnaire-Short Form (SQ-SF. Data analysis was done with ANOVA and t-tests. Results: The results showed a significant difference (P<0.05 between users of opiates and stimulants in terms of vulnerability to harm or illness, enmeshment, subjugation, emotional inhibition, entitlement, insufficient self-control/self-discipline, emotional  deprivation, social isolation, defectiveness, failure/shame, and dependence. The average score of the stimulant-users was higher than that of opiate-users in all the schemas except for the dimensions of abandonment, mistrust, and unrelenting standards. Discussion: Stimulant users have more early maladaptive schemas and are at a greater risk of psychological vulnerability. Early maladaptive schemas can be used by clinicians and researchers as a psychopathology and treatment method for substance dependence disorder.

  18. Avoiding maladaptation to climate change: towards guiding principles

    Magnan, Alexandre

    2013-08-01

    The recent publication of the Physical Science Basis volume of IPCC's Fifth Assessment Report reaffirms an already known conclusion: even drastic reductions of global greenhouse gas emissions will be insufficient to avoid some of the impacts of climate change, and is becoming increasingly clear that the temperature increase by the end of the century is likely to exceed the official target of +2 deg. C. Urgent efforts are thus more than ever needed to support socio-ecological systems threatened by climate change, but how to make adaptation happen on the ground remains vague. Consequently, there is a real risk that climate funding may support initiatives that are actually harmful for the socio-ecological systems, i.e. that foster adaptation in the short-term but insidiously affect systems' long-term vulnerability and/or adaptive capacity to climate change. This generally defines 'mal-adaptation', and this paper affirms that avoiding mal-adaptation is a first key concrete step towards adaptation in a broader sense. Focusing on coastal areas at a local scale and with the aim of providing insights to help avoiding mal-adaptation to climate change on the ground, this paper develops eleven practice-oriented guidelines that address the environmental, socio-cultural and economic dimensions of adaptation initiatives (policies, plans, projects). Based upon this, it affirms that the more guidelines an initiative addresses, the lower will be the risk of mal-adaptation. Together, these guidelines and this assumption constitute the 'Assessment framework' for approaching mal-adaptation to climate change at a local level. (author)

  19. Public Relations and Interpersonal Communication.

    Lance, Elizabeth P.

    Despite a lack of consensus on theoretical perspectives on public relations and variations in the ways it and interpersonal communication are defined, public relations may be related to interpersonal communication in three ways: (1) it is two-way communication, (2) it is personal, and (3) it is relational. Even in activities having the highest…

  20. Development of Humane Interpersonal Relationships

    Kleptsova, Elena Yuryevna; Balabanov, Anton Anatolyevich

    2016-01-01

    The article reflects some theoretical aspects of humanization of interpersonal relationships in the sphere of education. The notion "humanization of interpersonal relationships" is being analyzed. The authors offer a characterization of some parameters of relationships: orientation, modality, valence, intensity, awareness,…

  1. A regressional analysis of maladaptive rumination, illness perception and negative emotional outcomes in Asian patients suffering from depressive disorder.

    Lu, Yanxia; Tang, Catherine; Liow, Chiew Shan; Ng, Winnie Wei Ni; Ho, Cyrus Su Hui; Ho, Roger Chun Mun

    2014-12-01

    Although illness perception has been shown to be associated with illness outcomes in various chronic physical diseases, the association of illness perception and rumination are not well elucidated in mental disorders. This study aims to investigate the mediational effects of adaptive and maladaptive rumination in the relationship between illness perception and negative emotions (depression, anxiety and stress) in male and female patients (N=110) suffering from depressive disorders. The results showed that maladaptive rumination mediated the relationship between illness perception and negative emotions in both male and female depressive patients. However, no mediating effects of adaptive rumination were found in the relationship between illness perception and negative emotion. Maladaptive rumination mediated the relationship between perceived identity, chronicity of illness, consequences of illness and emotional representation of illness and negative emotions in males. It also mediated the relationship between perceived identity and emotional representation of illness and negative emotions in females. The results, possible clinical implications and limitations of this study are also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Prosocial Consequences of Interpersonal Synchrony

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. The capacity to establish interpersonal synchrony is fundamental to human beings because it constitutes the basis for social connection and understanding. Interpersonal synchrony refers to instances when the movements or sensations of two or more people overlap in time and form. Recently, the causal influence of interpersonal synchrony on prosociality has been established through experiments. The current meta-analysis is the first to synthesize these isolated and sometimes contradictory experiments. We meta-analyzed 60 published and unpublished experiments that compared an interpersonal synchrony condition with at least one control condition. The results reveal a medium effect of interpersonal synchrony on prosociality with regard to both attitudes and behaviors. Furthermore, experimenter effects and intentionality moderate these effects. We discuss the strengths and limitations of our analysis, as well as its practical implications, and we suggest avenues for future research. PMID:28105388

  3. A socio-interpersonal perspective on PTSD: the case for environments and interpersonal processes.

    Maercker, Andreas; Horn, Andrea B

    2013-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common reaction to traumatic experiences. We propose a socio-interpersonal model of PTSD that complements existing models of post-traumatic memory processes or neurobiological changes. The model adds an interpersonal perspective to explain responses to traumatic stress. The framework draws from lifespan psychology, cultural psychology and research into close relationships and groups. Additionally, clinical knowledge about PTSD is incorporated. This involves knowledge about shame, guilt, estrangement feelings and protective factors, such as social support and forgiveness. Three levels are proposed at which relevant interpersonal processes can be situated and should be adequately researched. First, the individual level comprises social affective states, such as shame, guilt, anger and feelings of revenge. Second, at the close relationship level, social support, negative exchange (ostracism and blaming the victim), disclosure and empathy are proposed as dyadic processes relevant to PTSD research and treatment. Third, the distant social level represents culture and society, in which the collectivistic nature of trauma, perceived injustice, and social acknowledgement are concepts that predict the response trajectories to traumatic stress. Research by the current authors and others is cited in an effort to promote future investigation based on the current model. Methodological implications, such as multi-level data analyses, and clinical implications, such as the need for couple, community or larger-level societal interventions, are both outlined. The socio-interpersonal model proposes an interpersonal view of the processes that occur in the aftermath of a traumatic experience. At the individual level, the model integrates the social affective phenomena that clinical research identifies in PTSD patients, including shame, guilt, anger, revenge and the urges or reluctance to disclose. At the level of close relationships, there is

  4. Cooperative Learning and Interpersonal Synchrony.

    Vink, Roy; Wijnants, Maarten L; Cillessen, Antonius H N; Bosman, Anna M T

    2017-04-01

    Cooperative learning has been shown to result in better task performance, compared to individual and competitive learning, and can lead to positive social effects. However, potential working mechanisms at a micro level remain unexplored. One potential working mechanism might be the level of interpersonal synchrony between cooperating individuals. It has been shown that increased levels of interpersonal synchrony are related to better cognitive performance (e.g., increased memory). Social factors also appear to be affected by the level of interpersonal synchrony, with more interpersonal synchrony leading to increased likeability. In the present study, interpersonal synchrony of postural sway and its relation to task performance and social factors (i.e., popularity, social acceptance, and likeability) was examined. To test this, 183 dyads performed a tangram task while each child stood on a Nintendo Wii Balance Board that recorded their postural sway. The results showed that lower levels of interpersonal synchrony were related to better task performance and those dyads who were on average more popular synchronized more. These results contradict previous findings. It is suggested that for task performance, a more loosely coupled system is better than a synchronized system. In terms of social competence, dyad popularity was associated with more interpersonal synchrony.

  5. Interpersonal sensitivity and persistent attenuated psychotic symptoms in adolescence.

    Masillo, Alice; Brandizzi, M; Valmaggia, L R; Saba, R; Lo Cascio, N; Lindau, J F; Telesforo, L; Venturini, P; Montanaro, D; Di Pietro, D; D'Alema, M; Girardi, P; Fiori Nastro, P

    2018-03-01

    Interpersonal sensitivity defines feelings of inner-fragility in the presence of others due to the expectation of criticism or rejection. Interpersonal sensitivity was found to be related to attenuated positive psychotic symptom during the prodromal phase of psychosis. The aims of this study were to examine if high level of interpersonal sensitivity at baseline are associated with the persistence of attenuated positive psychotic symptoms and general psychopathology at 18-month follow-up. A sample of 85 help-seeking individuals (mean age = 16.6, SD = 5.05) referred an Italian early detection project, completed the interpersonal sensitivity measure and the structured interview for prodromal symptoms (SIPS) at baseline and were assessed at 18-month follow-up using the SIPS. Results showed that individuals with high level of interpersonal sensitivity at baseline reported high level of attenuated positive psychotic symptoms (i.e., unusual thought content) and general symptoms (i.e., depression, irritability and low tolerance to daily stress) at follow-up. This study suggests that being "hypersensitive" to interpersonal interactions is a psychological feature associated with attenuated positive psychotic symptoms and general symptoms, such as depression and irritability, at 18-month follow-up. Assessing and treating inner-self fragilities may be an important step of early detection program to avoid the persistence of subtle but very distressing long-terms symptoms.

  6. Values, Attitudes Toward Interpersonal Violence, and Interpersonal Violent Behavior.

    Seddig, Daniel; Davidov, Eldad

    2018-01-01

    The relevance of human values for the study of the motivational sources of interpersonal violent behavior was investigated in various fields of the social sciences. However, several past studies mixed up values with other dimensions like attitudes, norms, or beliefs, and only a few systematically assessed the effect of values on violent behavior relying on a value theory. Furthermore, in other studies, violence was often analyzed as a composite index of different forms of delinquent behavior rather than as violence per se . In the current study we address these gaps in the literature by building upon Schwartz' theory of basic human values. We use it to explain attitudes toward interpersonal violence and interpersonal violent behavior. We analyze data of young people ( n = 1,810) drawn from a German study in Duisburg, Germany, which assessed various types of self-reported violent behavior as well as values and attitudes toward violence. We test structural equation models in which we explain interpersonal violent behavior with basic human values, and where attitudes toward interpersonal violent behavior mediate this relation. Results show that self-transcendence and conservation values are associated negatively and power and stimulation values positively with interpersonal violent behavior. In addition, attitudes operate as a partial mediator for the former and as a full mediator for the latter in the relation between values and violent behavior. Despite a dominant association between attitudes and behavior, values themselves can significantly contribute to the explanation of violent behavior.

  7. Values, Attitudes Toward Interpersonal Violence, and Interpersonal Violent Behavior

    Daniel Seddig

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of human values for the study of the motivational sources of interpersonal violent behavior was investigated in various fields of the social sciences. However, several past studies mixed up values with other dimensions like attitudes, norms, or beliefs, and only a few systematically assessed the effect of values on violent behavior relying on a value theory. Furthermore, in other studies, violence was often analyzed as a composite index of different forms of delinquent behavior rather than as violence per se. In the current study we address these gaps in the literature by building upon Schwartz’ theory of basic human values. We use it to explain attitudes toward interpersonal violence and interpersonal violent behavior. We analyze data of young people (n = 1,810 drawn from a German study in Duisburg, Germany, which assessed various types of self-reported violent behavior as well as values and attitudes toward violence. We test structural equation models in which we explain interpersonal violent behavior with basic human values, and where attitudes toward interpersonal violent behavior mediate this relation. Results show that self-transcendence and conservation values are associated negatively and power and stimulation values positively with interpersonal violent behavior. In addition, attitudes operate as a partial mediator for the former and as a full mediator for the latter in the relation between values and violent behavior. Despite a dominant association between attitudes and behavior, values themselves can significantly contribute to the explanation of violent behavior.

  8. Passive responses to interpersonal conflict at work amplify employee strain

    Dijkstra, M.T.M.; de Dreu, C.K.W.; Evers, A.; van Dierendonck, D.

    2009-01-01

    Interpersonal conflict at work correlates with stress related outcomes such as psychological strain and exhaustion. Consistent with conflict theory, we argued that this relationship is moderated by the way conflict is managed. Cross-sectional data collected in The Netherlands, from students with

  9. Anger Management Program Participants Gain Behavioral Changes in Interpersonal Relationships

    Pish, Suzanne; Clark-Jones, Teresa; Eschbach, Cheryl; Tiret, Holly

    2016-01-01

    RELAX: Alternatives to Anger is an educational anger management program that helps adults understand and manage anger, develop communication skills, manage stress, and make positive behavioral changes in their interpersonal relationships. A sample of 1,168 evaluation surveys were collected from RELAX: Alternatives to Anger participants over 3…

  10. Computationally Modeling Interpersonal Trust

    Jin Joo eLee

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a computational model capable of predicting—above human accuracy—the degree of trust a person has toward their novel partner by observing the trust-related nonverbal cues expressed in their social interaction. We summarize our prior work, in which we identify nonverbal cues that signal untrustworthy behavior and also demonstrate the human mind’s readiness to interpret those cues to assess the trustworthiness of a social robot. We demonstrate that domain knowledge gained from our prior work using human-subjects experiments, when incorporated into the feature engineering process, permits a computational model to outperform both human predictions and a baseline model built in naivete' of this domain knowledge. We then present the construction of hidden Markov models to incorporate temporal relationships among the trust-related nonverbal cues. By interpreting the resulting learned structure, we observe that models built to emulate different levels of trust exhibit different sequences of nonverbal cues. From this observation, we derived sequence-based temporal features that further improve the accuracy of our computational model. Our multi-step research process presented in this paper combines the strength of experimental manipulation and machine learning to not only design a computational trust model but also to further our understanding of the dynamics of interpersonal trust.

  11. Preventing Interpersonal Violence in Europe

    Dinesh Sethi

    2014-06-01

    CONCLUSION: Community surveys can play an important role to better understand the scale and risk factors of different types of interpersonal violence. Readers are called upon to support a coordinated public health response to prevent this societal and health threat.

  12. Cardiac Response to Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia with a Transition from Adaptation to Maladaptation: The Role of Hydrogen Peroxide

    Xia Yin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is a highly prevalent respiratory disorder of sleep, and associated with chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH. Experimental evidence indicates that CIH is a unique physiological state with potentially “adaptive” and “maladaptive” consequences for cardio-respiratory homeostasis. CIH is also a critical element accounting for most of cardiovascular complications of OSA. Cardiac response to CIH is time-dependent, showing a transition from cardiac compensative (such as hypertrophy to decompensating changes (such as failure. CIH-provoked mild and transient oxidative stress can induce adaptation, but severe and persistent oxidative stress may provoke maladaptation. Hydrogen peroxide as one of major reactive oxygen species plays an important role in the transition of adaptive to maladaptive response to OSA-associated CIH. This may account for the fact that although oxidative stress has been recognized as a driver of cardiac disease progression, clinical interventions with antioxidants have had little or no impact on heart disease and progression. Here we focus on the role of hydrogen peroxide in CIH and OSA, trying to outline the potential of antioxidative therapy in preventing CIH-induced cardiac damage.

  13. A Comparison of Early Maladaptive Schemas in Crystal Addicted Individuals and Normal Individuals

    Zahra Asadi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of present research was to compare early maladaptive schemas in crystal addicted individuals and normal individuals. Method: In this ex post facto research, two groups of subjects (normal adolescent=30 and addicted adolescent=30 were selected via cluster sampling and convenience sampling respectively. Yang early maladaptive schemas questionnaire were conducted, then data were analyzed using multiple analysis of variance. Results: The results revealed that there was significant difference between both groups in early maladaptive schemas. Conclusion: The findings provided empirical support for the proposition that early maladaptive schemas may influence on tendency of adolescent toward substance abuse.

  14. Imprinting can cause a maladaptive preference for infectious conspecifics.

    Stephenson, Jessica F; Reynolds, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Recognizing and associating with specific individuals, such as conspecifics or kin, brings many benefits. One mechanism underlying such recognition is imprinting: the long-term memory of cues encountered during development. Typically, juveniles imprint on cues of nearby individuals and may later associate with phenotypes matching their 'recognition template'. However, phenotype matching could lead to maladaptive social decisions if, for instance, individuals imprint on the cues of conspecifics infected with directly transmitted diseases. To investigate the role of imprinting in the sensory ecology of disease transmission, we exposed juvenile guppies,Poecilia reticulata, to the cues of healthy conspecifics, or to those experiencing disease caused by the directly transmitted parasite Gyrodactylus turnbulli In a dichotomous choice test, adult 'disease-imprinted' guppies preferred to associate with the chemical cues of G. turnbulli-infected conspecifics, whereas 'healthy-imprinted' guppies preferred to associate with cues of uninfected conspecifics. These responses were only observed when stimulus fish were in late infection, suggesting imprinted fish responded to cues of disease, but not of infection alone. We discuss how maladaptive imprinting may promote disease transmission in natural populations of a social host. © 2016 The Author(s).

  15. Predicting Early Maladaptive Schemas Using Baumrind’s Parenting Styles

    Esmali Kooraneh, Ahmad; Amirsardari, Leili

    2015-01-01

    Background: Families play an essential role in maintaining children’s mental, social, and physical health. The family provides the first and the most important social context for human development. Objectives: The present study aimed to predict early maladaptive schemas using Baumrind’s parenting styles (root development). Patients and Methods: A total of 357 undergraduate students of Islamic Azad University, Urmia Branch, Iran, were selected through random cluster sampling during 2013 and 2014. The students were assessed using the Schema Questionnaire-Short Form (SQ-SF) and the Baumrind’s parenting styles inventories. Results: The result of regression analysis showed that Baumrind’s parenting styles are significant predictors of early maladaptive schemas (P parenting style has some features such as showing high levels of warmth or encouraging kids to express their own possibly divergent opinions. The authoritarian parenting style, however, possesses traits such as heartlessness, impassiveness, strictness, and lack of attention to the children’s developmental needs, which is not acceptable. PMID:26288648

  16. Psychotic Experiences and Overhasty Inferences Are Related to Maladaptive Learning.

    Heiner Stuke

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical accounts suggest that an alteration in the brain's learning mechanisms might lead to overhasty inferences, resulting in psychotic symptoms. Here, we sought to elucidate the suggested link between maladaptive learning and psychosis. Ninety-eight healthy individuals with varying degrees of delusional ideation and hallucinatory experiences performed a probabilistic reasoning task that allowed us to quantify overhasty inferences. Replicating previous results, we found a relationship between psychotic experiences and overhasty inferences during probabilistic reasoning. Computational modelling revealed that the behavioral data was best explained by a novel computational learning model that formalizes the adaptiveness of learning by a non-linear distortion of prediction error processing, where an increased non-linearity implies a growing resilience against learning from surprising and thus unreliable information (large prediction errors. Most importantly, a decreased adaptiveness of learning predicted delusional ideation and hallucinatory experiences. Our current findings provide a formal description of the computational mechanisms underlying overhasty inferences, thereby empirically substantiating theories that link psychosis to maladaptive learning.

  17. Coping Styles, Aggression and Interpersonal Conflicts among Depressed and Non-Depressed People.

    Nazir, Amber; Mohsin, Humaira

    2013-01-01

    The present study compared people with depressive symptoms and people without depressive symptoms with reference to their coping styles, level of aggression and interpersonal conflicts. A purposive sample of 128 people (64 depressed and 64 normal controls)was selected from four different teaching hospitals of Lahore. Both the groups were matched on four demographic levels i.e. age, gender, education and monthly income. Symptom Checklist-R was used to screen out depressed and non-depressed people. The Brief COPE, the Aggression Questionnaire and the Bergen Social Relationship Scale were used to assess coping styles, aggression and interpersonal conflicts respectively. The Independent t-test was used to compare the groups. Binary logistic Regression was also carried out to predict the role of research variables in causing depression. The results showed that level of aggression and interpersonal conflict was significantly more in people with depressive symptoms as compared to control group. On the other hand control group was using more adaptive coping styles than people with depressive symptoms but no difference was found in the use of maladaptive coping styles. The present findings revealed that coping styles, aggression and interpersonal conflicts play important role in depression. Therefore, these dimensions must be considered while dealing with the depressive patients. Implications for preventive work are also discussed in the light of previous researches.

  18. Coping Styles, Aggression and Interpersonal Conflicts among Depressed and Non-Depressed People

    Amber Nazir

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study compared people with depressive symp¬toms and people without depressive symptoms with reference to their coping styles, level of aggression and interpersonal conflicts.Methods: A purposive sample of 128 people (64 depressed and 64 normal controls was selected from four different teaching hospitals of Lahore. Both the groups were matched on four demographic levels i.e. age, gender, education and monthly income. Symptom Checklist-R was used to screen out depressed and non-depressed people. The Brief COPE, the Aggres¬sion Questionnaire and the Bergen Social Relationship Scale were used to assess coping styles, aggression and interpersonal conflicts respectively. The Independent t-test was used to compare the groups. Binary logistic Regression was also carried out to predict the role of research variables in causing depression.Results: The results showed that level of aggression and interpersonal conflict was significantly more in people with depressive symptoms as compared to control group. On the other hand control group was using more adaptive coping styles than people with depressive symptoms but no difference was found in the use of maladaptive coping styles. Conclusion: The present findings revealed that coping styles, aggression and interpersonal conflicts play important role in depression. Therefore, these dimen-sions must be considered while dealing with the depressive patients. Implications for preventive work are also discussed in the light of previous researches.

  19. Adaptive and Maladaptive Perfectionism as Mediators of Adult Attachment Styles and Depression, Hopelessness, and Life Satisfaction

    Gnilka, Philip B.; Ashby, Jeffrey S.; Noble, Christina M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism, anxious and avoidant adult attachment styles, depression, hopelessness, and life satisfaction among a sample of 180 undergraduate students. Maladaptive perfectionism mediated the relationship between both forms of adult attachment and depression, hopelessness,…

  20. Replacing Maladaptive Speech with Verbal Labeling Responses: An Analysis of Generalized Responding.

    Foxx, R. M.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Three mentally handicapped students (aged 13, 36, and 40) with maladaptive speech received training to answer questions with verbal labels. The results of their cues-pause-point training showed that the students replaced their maladaptive speech with correct labels (answers) to questions in the training setting and three generalization settings.…

  1. Risk of genetic maladaptation due to climate change in three major European tree species

    Aline Frank; Glenn T. Howe; Christoph Sperisen; Peter Brang; Brad St. Clair; Dirk R. Schmatz; Caroline Heiri

    2017-01-01

    Tree populations usually show adaptations to their local environments as a result of natural selection. As climates change, populations can become locally maladapted and decline in fitness. Evaluating the expected degree of genetic maladaptation due to climate change will allow forest managers to assess forest vulnerability, and develop strategies to preserve forest...

  2. The Effects of Basketball Training on the Maladaptive Behaviors of Trainable Mentally Retarded Children.

    Gencoz, Faruk

    1997-01-01

    The effects of basketball training on the maladaptive behaviors of 19 children (ages 10-14) with mental retardation were investigated. Results indicated the children showed a reduction in their level of maladaptive behavior at home and in school. This reduction was maintained 45 days later in a follow-up assessment. (Author/CR)

  3. Maladaptive Behavior Differences in Prader-Willi Syndrome Due to Paternal Deletion versus Maternal Uniparental Disomy.

    Dykens, Elisabeth M.; King, Bryan H.; Cassidy, Suzanne B.

    1999-01-01

    This study compared maladaptive behavior in 23 people with Prader-Willi syndrome due to paternal deletion and in 23 age- and gender-matched subjects with maternal uniparental disomy. Controlling for IQs, the deletion cases showed significantly higher maladaptive ratings, more symptom-related distress, and more behavior problems. Findings suggest a…

  4. Personality heterogeneity in PTSD: distinct temperament and interpersonal typologies.

    Thomas, Katherine M; Hopwood, Christopher J; Donnellan, M Brent; Wright, Aidan G C; Sanislow, Charles A; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E; Ansell, Emily B; Grilo, Carlos M; McGlashan, Thomas H; Shea, M Tracie; Markowitz, John C; Skodol, Andrew E; Zanarini, Mary C; Morey, Leslie C

    2014-03-01

    Researchers examining personality typologies of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have consistently identified 3 groups: low pathology, internalizing, and externalizing. These groups have been found to predict functional severity and psychiatric comorbidity. In this study, we employed Latent Profile Analysis to compare this previously established typology, grounded in temperament traits (negative emotionality; positive emotionality; constraint), to a novel typology rooted in interpersonal traits (dominance; warmth) in a sample of individuals with PTSD (n = 155). Using Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP) traits to create latent profiles, the 3-group temperament model was replicated. Using Interpersonal Circumplex (IPC) traits to create latent profiles, we identified a 4-group solution with groups varying in interpersonal style. These models were nonredundant, indicating that the depiction of personality variability in PTSD depends on how personality is assessed. Whereas the temperament model was more effective for distinguishing individuals based on distress and comorbid disorders, the interpersonal model was more effective for predicting the chronicity of PTSD over the 10 year course of the study. We discuss the potential for integrating these complementary temperament and interpersonal typologies in the clinical assessment of PTSD. 2014 APA

  5. Identity formation and social maladaptation in foster adolescents.

    Yancey, A K

    1992-01-01

    The literature on identity formation in individuals from socially devalued racial and ethnic groups in the United States is summarized. Implications are discussed for a particular segment of at-risk adolescents--those in foster care residential group homes--who have received little published attention. The majority, in large urban centers, are African-American or Latino. These young people bear a disproportionate burden of such societal problems as unintended pregnancy and childbearing, academic underachievement and early educational discontinuation, substance abuse, and, ultimately, homelessness and more individually and socially costly forms of dependency (criminal justice, welfare, or mental health systems). It is postulated that their social maladaptation is reflective of identity disturbances created by the negative images of African-Americans and Latinos perpetuated by the dominant society and unfiltered by optimal parental racial socialization.

  6. Understanding maladaptive responses to rejection: Aggression with an audience.

    DeBono, Amber; Layton, Rebekah L; Freeman, Nicholas; Muraven, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Logically, responding aggressively to rejection is maladaptive because one is unlikely to seek a relationship with an aggressor. We predict that when concealed, the illogical aggressive response to rejection is more likely, whereas when the rejected individuals' aggressive responses are perceived as public, the aggressive acts may be reduced. Participants were rejected by others (Experiment 1) or were either accepted or rejected during an online ball-tossing game (Experiment 2) and were then given an opportunity to aggress publicly or privately. Across experiments, when the opportunity to aggress was made public, rejected participants exhibited less aggressive behavior. When concerned about the perception of their public aggressive responses by others, rejected individuals' aggressive responses diminished compared with those whose actions were private. Crucially, this extended to aggression visible only to neutral others, suggesting that effects cannot solely be due to fear of retribution.

  7. Neuroticism and maladaptive coping in patients with functional somatic syndromes

    Pedersen, Heidi Frølund; Frostholm, Lisbeth; Jensen, Jens Søndergaard

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The cognitive-behavioural model of functional somatic syndromes (FSS) proposes a multifactorial aetiology consisting of predisposing, precipitating and perpetuating factors. In this study, we sought to investigate three questions that can be drawn from this model: (1) Do patients...... with FSS show high levels of neuroticism? (2) Does neuroticism affect physical health and social functioning, either directly or indirectly through maladaptive coping? (3) Does more adaptive coping mediate the effect of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) on outcome? Design. Secondary analysis....... Reduction in symptom catastrophizing during group CBT partially mediated its long-term effect. Conclusions. The results give support to a generic cognitive-behavioural model of FSS. Targeting symptom catastrophizing may be an essential component in CBT for patients with FSS, regardless of their specific...

  8. Social environments and interpersonal distance regulation in psychosis: A virtual reality study.

    Geraets, Chris N W; van Beilen, Marije; Pot-Kolder, Roos; Counotte, Jacqueline; van der Gaag, Mark; Veling, Wim

    2018-02-01

    Experimentally studying the influence of social environments on mental health and behavior is challenging, as social context is difficult to standardize in laboratory settings. Virtual Reality (VR) enables studying social interaction in terms of interpersonal distance in a more ecologically valid manner. Regulation of interpersonal distance may be abnormal in patients with psychotic disorders and influenced by environmental stress, symptoms or distress. To investigate interpersonal distance in people with a psychotic disorder and at ultrahigh risk for psychosis (UHR) compared to siblings and controls in virtual social environments, and explore the relationship between clinical characteristics and interpersonal distance. Nineteen UHR patients, 52 patients with psychotic disorders, 40 siblings of patients with a psychotic disorder and 47 controls were exposed to virtual cafés. In five virtual café visits, participants were exposed to different levels of social stress, in terms of crowdedness, ethnicity and hostility. Measures on interpersonal distance, distress and state paranoia were obtained. Baseline measures included trait paranoia, social anxiety, depressive, positive and negative symptoms. Interpersonal distance increased when social stressors were present in the environment. No difference in interpersonal distance regulation was found between the groups. Social anxiety and distress were positively associated with interpersonal distance in the total sample. This VR paradigm indicates that interpersonal distance regulation in response to environmental social stressors is unaltered in people with psychosis or UHR. Environmental stress, social anxiety and distress trigger both people with and without psychosis to maintain larger interpersonal distances in social situations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Stress

    ... can be life-saving. But chronic stress can cause both physical and mental harm. There are at least three different types of stress: Routine stress related to the pressures of work, family, and other daily responsibilities Stress brought about ...

  10. Early maladaptive schema-related impairment and co-occurring current major depressive episode-related enhancement of mental state decoding ability in borderline personality disorder.

    Unoka, Zsolt Szabolcs; Fogd, Dóra; Seres, Imola; Kéri, Szabolcs; Csukly, Gábor

    2015-04-01

    Disturbed interpersonal relationships specific to borderline personality disorder (BPD) suggest biased processing of social information. The goal of this study was to examine alterations in mental state decoding (MSD) and their associations with early maladaptive schemas (EMS) that may lead to the misinterpretation of incoming information. In addition, the authors' aim was to evaluate the effects of a co-occurring current major depressive episode (MDE) on the MSD performance of BPD patients. Seventy-eight BPD patients (34 with MDE) and 76 matched healthy controls (HC) were assessed for Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET) and the level of EMS. The authors found that impairment in the total RMET performance, as well as specific impairment regarding the recognition of positive and neutral items, was associated with EMS, and enhanced vigilance to negative mental states was characteristic to BPD with MDE. Results suggest that MSD ability is altered in two independent ways in BPD.

  11. Interpersonal communication and issues for autonomous vehicles.

    2017-06-01

    Interpersonal roadway communication is a vital component of the transportation system. Road users communicate to coordinate movement and increase roadway safety. Future autonomous vehicle research needs to account for the role of interpersonal roadwa...

  12. Recognizing and Managing Interpersonal Conflict.

    Deane, Nancy; Hovland, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Practical advice is offered, to managers and supervisors at any level, on recognizing and analyzing interpersonal conflicts, managing such conflicts and making them productive, and ensuring that performance reviews result in progress for both supervisor and employee. Conflict is seen as inevitable, an opportunity to take action, and manageable.…

  13. Perfectionism in an Interpersonal Context.

    Alden, Lynn E.; Bieling, Peter M.

    Numerous studies have suggested that depression and social anxiety are associated with perfectionism. The present study examines how self-oriented perfectionism and socially-prescribed perfectionism influence cognitive reactions to an interpersonal interaction. Undergraduate women (n=90) completed the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, the Beck…

  14. A Model of Interpersonal Persuasion.

    Cegala, Donald J.

    The traditional views of audience analysis and rhetorical strategy are examined in terms of modifications necessary for application to persuasion in interpersonal communication contexts. To obtain guidance for ways in which the traditional concepts may be modified, a framework consisting of selected work by Erving Goffman and Ernest Becker is…

  15. Interpersonal Relationships in the Workplace.

    Danner, Jean Ortowski; And Others

    This curriculum guide on interpersonal relations in the workplace give techniques for instructors to use in evaluating these skills in their students. Eighteen competencies are included in this guide: adaptability; attendance; attitude; communication (nonverbal); communication (verbal); communication (written); confidence; cooperation; enthusiasm;…

  16. Multidimensional Perfectionism, Depression, and Satisfaction with Life: Differences among Perfectionists and Tests of a Stress-Mediation Model

    Ashby, Jeffrey S.; Noble, Christina L.; Gnilka, Philip B.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism, stress, depression, and satisfaction with life in a sample of undergraduate women. The authors found that maladaptive perfectionists had lower satisfaction with life and higher stress and depression scores compared with adaptive perfectionists. Results also…

  17. The Role of Child Abuse and Neglect in Predicting the Early Maladaptive Schemas Domain

    Mohammad Narimani

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of child abuse and neglect in predicting the early maladaptive schemas domains.Materials and Methods: This is a causal-comparative research. Sampling was performed using multistage clustering and simple random sampling methods. 500 individuals constituted the preliminary sample. After identifying 140 abused individuals, they were compared to 140 ordinary persons. In order to collect the data, the 53-item version of Bernstein Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ, and Yang Schema Questionnaire: Short Form 2 (YSQ-SF2 were used. To analyze the data, multivariate regression coefficient enter method was deployed.Results: Results showed that about 24% of the variance of the disconnection and rejection maladaptive schema domain, as well as 12% of the variance of the impaired autonomy and performance maladaptive schema domain were explained by the emotional abuse, physical abuse, and physical neglect. 13% of the other-directedness maladaptive schema domain variance, 6% of the impaired limits maladaptive schema domain, and 5% of the overvigilance and inhibition maladaptive schema domain variance were explained by the emotional abuse.Conclusion: According to the findings, it can be concluded that one could predict schemas and their respective domains with regards to abused children. Abused children are likely to develop maladaptive schemas and cognitive distortions due to the dull and harsh atmosphere of the family and its unhealthy environment.

  18. The Impact of Childhood Emotional Abuse and Experiential Avoidance on Maladaptive Problem Solving and Intimate Partner Violence

    Bell, Kathryn M.; Higgins, Lorrin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the joint influences of experiential avoidance and social problem solving on the link between childhood emotional abuse (CEA) and intimate partner violence (IPV). Experiential avoidance following CEA may interfere with a person’s ability to effectively problem solve in social situations, increasing risk for conflict and interpersonal violence. As part of a larger study, 232 women recruited from the community completed measures assessing childhood emotional, physical, and sexual abuse, experiential avoidance, maladaptive social problem solving, and IPV perpetration and victimization. Final trimmed models indicated that CEA was indirectly associated with IPV victimization and perpetration via experiential avoidance and Negative Problem Orientation (NPO) and Impulsivity/Carelessness Style (ICS) social problem solving strategies. Though CEA was related to an Avoidance Style (AS) social problem solving strategy, this strategy was not significantly associated with IPV victimization or perpetration. Experiential avoidance had both a direct and indirect effect, via NPO and ICS social problem solving, on IPV victimization and perpetration. Findings suggest that CEA may lead some women to avoid unwanted internal experiences, which may adversely impact their ability to effectively problem solve in social situations and increase IPV risk. PMID:25893570

  19. The impact of childhood emotional abuse and experiential avoidance on maladaptive problem solving and intimate partner violence.

    Bell, Kathryn M; Higgins, Lorrin

    2015-04-16

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the joint influences of experiential avoidance and social problem solving on the link between childhood emotional abuse (CEA) and intimate partner violence (IPV). Experiential avoidance following CEA may interfere with a person's ability to effectively problem solve in social situations, increasing risk for conflict and interpersonal violence. As part of a larger study, 232 women recruited from the community completed measures assessing childhood emotional, physical, and sexual abuse, experiential avoidance, maladaptive social problem solving, and IPV perpetration and victimization. Final trimmed models indicated that CEA was indirectly associated with IPV victimization and perpetration via experiential avoidance and Negative Problem Orientation (NPO) and Impulsivity/Carelessness Style (ICS) social problem solving strategies. Though CEA was related to an Avoidance Style (AS) social problem solving strategy, this strategy was not significantly associated with IPV victimization or perpetration. Experiential avoidance had both a direct and indirect effect, via NPO and ICS social problem solving, on IPV victimization and perpetration. Findings suggest that CEA may lead some women to avoid unwanted internal experiences, which may adversely impact their ability to effectively problem solve in social situations and increase IPV risk.

  20. Does interpersonal behaviour of psychotherapy trainees differ in private and professional relationships?

    Janna Ida Fincke

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of trainees' interpersonal behaviour on Work Involvement (WI and compared their social behaviour within professional and private relationships as well as between different psychotherapeutic orientations. Methods: The interpersonal scales of the Intrex short-form questionnaire and the Work Involvement Scale (WIS were used to evaluate two samples of German psychotherapy trainees in psychoanalytic (PA, psychodynamic (PD and cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT training. Trainees from sample 1 (N = 184 were asked to describe their interpersonal behaviour in relation to their patients when filling out the Intrex, whereas trainees from sample 2 (N = 135 were asked to describe the private relationship with a significant other. Results: Interpersonal affiliation in professional relationships significantly predicted the level of Healing Involvement (HI, while Stress Involvement (SI was predicted by interpersonal affiliation and interdependence in trainees' relationships with their patients. Social behaviour within professional relationships provided higher correlations with WI than private interpersonal behaviour. Significant differences were found between private and professional relation settings in trainees’ interpersonal behaviour with higher levels of affiliation and interdependence with significant others. Differences between therapeutic orientation and social behaviour could only be found when comparing trainees' level of interdependence with the particular relationship setting. Conclusion: Trainees' interpersonal level of affiliation in professional relationships is a predictor for a successful psychotherapeutic development. Vice versa, controlling behaviour in professional settings can be understood as a risk factor against psychotherapeutic growth. Both results strengthen an evidence-based approach for competence development during psychotherapy training.

  1. Does interpersonal behavior of psychotherapy trainees differ in private and professional relationships?

    Fincke, Janna I; Möller, Heidi; Taubner, Svenja

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of trainees' interpersonal behavior on work involvement (WI) and compared their social behavior within professional and private relationships as well as between different psychotherapeutic orientations. The interpersonal scales of the Intrex short-form questionnaire and the Work Involvement Scale (WIS) were used to evaluate two samples of German psychotherapy trainees in psychoanalytic, psychodynamic, and cognitive behavioral therapy training. Trainees from Sample 1 (N = 184) were asked to describe their interpersonal behavior in relation to their patients when filling out the Intrex, whereas trainees from Sample 2 (N = 135) were asked to describe the private relationship with a significant other. Interpersonal affiliation in professional relationships significantly predicted the level of healing involvement, while stress involvement was predicted by interpersonal affiliation and interdependence in trainees' relationships with their patients. Social behavior within professional relationships provided higher correlations with WI than private interpersonal behavior. Significant differences were found between private and professional relation settings in trainees' interpersonal behavior with higher levels of affiliation and interdependence with significant others. Differences between therapeutic orientation and social behavior could only be found when comparing trainees' level of interdependence with the particular relationship setting. Trainees' interpersonal level of affiliation in professional relationships is a predictor for a successful psychotherapeutic development. Vice versa, controlling behavior in professional settings can be understood as a risk factor against psychotherapeutic growth. Both results strengthen an evidence-based approach for competence development during psychotherapy training.

  2. Childhood trauma is associated with maladaptive personality traits.

    de Carvalho, Hudson W; Pereira, Rebeca; Frozi, Julia; Bisol, Luísa W; Ottoni, Gustavo L; Lara, Diogo R

    2015-06-01

    The association between childhood trauma and personality traits has been poorly characterized and reported. Our aim was to evaluate whether distinct types of childhood abuse and neglect are associated with various personality dimensions using data from a large web-based survey. A total of 12,225 volunteers responded anonymously to the Internet versions of the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R) and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) via our research website, but only 8,114 subjects (75.7% women, mean age 34.8±11.3yrs) who met the criteria for validity were included in the analysis. Childhood trauma was positively associated with harm avoidance and was negatively associated with self-directedness and, to a lesser extent, with cooperativeness. The associations were robust with emotional abuse and neglect but were non-significant or mild with physical trauma. Emotional neglect was associated with reduced reward dependence and persistence. All types of abuse, but not neglect, were associated with increased novelty seeking scores. Reporting of childhood trauma, especially of an emotional nature, was associated with maladaptive personality traits. Further investigation of the effects of different types of childhood trauma on psychological and neurobiological parameters is warranted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Maladaptation of cerebral perfusion in the spinal cord injured individuals

    Cho, Ihn Ho; Chun, Kyung A.; Lee, Hyoung Woo; Ahn, Sang Ho; Hayashida, Kohei [National Cardiovascular Center, Osaka (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the tilt-induced alteration of cerebral perfusion of spinal cord injured individuals. Supine and upright sitting brain SPECT was performed using a 1-day protocol with {sup 99m}Tc-ethylcysteinate dimer (ECD) in 11 SCI individuals (mean age, 32.6 y), with lesions between C3 and T4, ad 5 AB individuals (mean age, 31.4 y). The patients rested on a wheelchair in the supine position. Then, they sat up and, at the same time 555MBq of ECD was injected. The upright SPECT was done. Finally, 740MBq of ECD was injected and supine SPECT was performed again. The SPECT data were acquired with dual head gamma camera (E-cam, Siemens). For semiquantitative analysis, 14 ROIs were drawn on the brain. In the SCI individuals, the radiotracer uptake in the frontal, temporal and parietal areas were significantly decreased in the upright SPECT. No postural changes was evident in the occipital lobe, basal ganglia and thalamus in the SCI individuals. In the AB individuals, there were no such changes on the upright SPECT. Postural cerebral hypoperfusion in the frontal, temporal and parietal areas in the SCI individuals might relate to maladaptation of the vascular response during the upright position.

  4. Problematic Internet use, maladaptive future time perspective and school context.

    Díaz-Aguado, María J; Martín-Babarro, Javier; Falcón, Laia

    2018-05-01

    Spain is among the European countries with the highest prevalence of adolescents at risk of Internet addiction, a problem that could be linked to youth unemployment and leaving education early. This research evaluated the role of three variables relative to school context on Problematic Internet Use (PIU) and on the relationship between PIU and Maladaptive Future Time Perspective (MFTP, defined as an excessive focus on the present and a fatalistic attitude towards the future, a variable that had not previously been studied in terms of its relationship to adolescents' PIU). The study was carried out with 1288 adolescents, aged 12 to 16 years old, enrolled at 31 secondary schools in Madrid, Spain. As expected, we found that MFTP and hostile treatment by teachers were associated with an increase in PIU, whereas school appreciation was associated with a decrease in PIU. In addition, hostile treatment by teachers had a moderate effect on the MFTP-PIU relationship. In order to prevent PIU it is important to foster confidence in adolescents in their own potential to build the future from the present through positive interaction with teachers, stimulating an appreciation of school within these digital natives' peer group culture.

  5. EXAMINING ADULT’S IDENTITY STATUSES: ADAPTIVE VS. MALADAPTIVE DIMENSION

    Maia Mestvirishvili

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To achieve the status of ego identity remains the most important challenge for the adolescence period and consequently is a challenge for developmental psychologists too. The vast majority of studies focus on understanding the dynamics of ego identity development, however, factors that cause different path of development remained unclear. This study aims at tracking the paths, which differentiate ego statuses from finding psychosocial factors contributing to ego identity achievement. For this purpose the relationships between four identity statuses - achievement, exploration, moratorium and foreclosure and number of psychosocial variables such as attachment style, self-esteem and perfectionism have been examined. 386 school teenagers aged 14-17 (M = 15.48 filled a set of questionnaires comprised of four instruments: The Ego Identity Process Questionnaire (EIPQ, The Measure of Attachment Qualities (MAQ, The Perfectionism Inventory (PI and Adult Sources of Self-Esteem Inventory (ASSEI. Discriminant analysis revealed two basic dimensions (adaptive and maladaptive, which are capable to depict the difference between ego identity statuses. The first discriminant function of ego identity status is primarily defined by conscientious perfectionism and secured attachment; whereas, the second discriminant function consists of avoidance attachment, self-evaluative perfectionism and ambivalent attachment styles.

  6. Specific Dysphoric Symptoms Are Predicted by Early Maladaptive Schemas

    Roberta Trincas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Early maladaptive schemas (EMSs are cognitive patterns resulting from unmet core emotional needs in childhood that have been linked to the development of psychopathology. As depression is a multifaceted phenomenon, we hypothesized that specific dysphoric symptoms would be predicted by different EMSs. Four hundred and fifty-six participants completed a measure of EMSs (Young Schema Questionnaire and reported on the severity of the symptoms of criterion A for major depression in DSM-IV during the occurrence of a dysphoric episode in the previous 12 months. A series of stepwise multiple regression analyses were performed to investigate the predictive power of the EMSs for the severity of each specific depressive symptom. When controlling for gender and current levels of depression, specific symptoms were predicted by different EMSs: sadness by Negativity/Pessimism; anhedonia by Failure; self-harm by Emotional Deprivation and Vulnerability to Harm or Illness; worthlessness by Failure and Negativity/Pessimism; psychomotor retardation/restlessness by Vulnerability to Harm or Illness and Entitlement/Grandiosity; and poor concentration by Insufficient Self-Control/Self-Discipline. The more physical symptoms of fatigue, insomnia/hypersomnia, and appetite loss/appetite gain were not predicted by any of the EMSs. Although the cross-sectional design of the study does not allow for conclusions about the direction of effects, results suggest that depression is not a unitary phenomenon and provide a possible explanation for previous inconsistent findings.

  7. Early Maladaptive Schemas and Cognitive Distortions in Adults with Morbid Obesity: Relationships with Mental Health Status

    Felipe Q. da Luz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Dysfunctional cognitions may be associated with unhealthy eating behaviors seen in individuals with obesity. However, dysfunctional cognitions commonly occur in individuals with poor mental health independently of weight. We examined whether individuals with morbid obesity differed with regard to dysfunctional cognitions when compared to individuals of normal weight, when mental health status was controlled for. 111 participants—53 with morbid obesity and 58 of normal weight—were assessed with the Mini-Mental State Examination, Young Schema Questionnaire, Cognitive Distortions Questionnaire, Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale, and a Demographic and Clinical Questionnaire. Participants with morbid obesity showed higher scores in one (insufficient self-control/self-discipline of 15 early maladaptive schemas and in one (labeling of 15 cognitive distortions compared to participants of normal weight. The difference between groups for insufficient self-control/self-discipline was not significant when mental health status was controlled for. Participants with morbid obesity showed more severe anxiety than participants of normal weight. Our findings did not show clinically meaningful differences in dysfunctional cognitions between participants with morbid obesity or of normal weight. Dysfunctional cognitions presented by individuals with morbid obesity are likely related to their individual mental health and not to their weight.

  8. Early Maladaptive Schemas and Cognitive Distortions in Adults with Morbid Obesity: Relationships with Mental Health Status

    da Luz, Felipe Q.; Sainsbury, Amanda; Hay, Phillipa; Roekenes, Jessica A.; Swinbourne, Jessica; da Silva, Dhiordan C.; da S. Oliveira, Margareth

    2017-01-01

    Dysfunctional cognitions may be associated with unhealthy eating behaviors seen in individuals with obesity. However, dysfunctional cognitions commonly occur in individuals with poor mental health independently of weight. We examined whether individuals with morbid obesity differed with regard to dysfunctional cognitions when compared to individuals of normal weight, when mental health status was controlled for. 111 participants—53 with morbid obesity and 58 of normal weight—were assessed with the Mini-Mental State Examination, Young Schema Questionnaire, Cognitive Distortions Questionnaire, Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale, and a Demographic and Clinical Questionnaire. Participants with morbid obesity showed higher scores in one (insufficient self-control/self-discipline) of 15 early maladaptive schemas and in one (labeling) of 15 cognitive distortions compared to participants of normal weight. The difference between groups for insufficient self-control/self-discipline was not significant when mental health status was controlled for. Participants with morbid obesity showed more severe anxiety than participants of normal weight. Our findings did not show clinically meaningful differences in dysfunctional cognitions between participants with morbid obesity or of normal weight. Dysfunctional cognitions presented by individuals with morbid obesity are likely related to their individual mental health and not to their weight. PMID:28264484

  9. The Connections between Pathological Personality Traits and Interpersonal Behavior

    Gillian A. McCabe

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available An alternative model of pathological personality traits was recently developed in an effort to address the challenges associated with the categorical model of personality disorder classification (e.g., high rates of comorbidity, minimal overlap with modern conceptualizations of personality structure. More specifically, this alternative model provides a dimensional framework through which personality disorders can be understood in terms of their level of impairment in personality functioning. The development of this alternative model led to the construction of the Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 (PID-5; Krueger, Derringer, Markon, Watson, & Skodol, 2012 which assesses the presence and level of the following pathological personality traits: negative affectivity, detachment, antagonism, disinhibition, and psychoticism. These pathological personality traits are considered to be maladaptive variants of the basic personality dimensions described by the Big Five model (i.e., neuroticism, extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness; Thomas et al., 2013. We will focus our review on previous research concerning the interpersonal outcomes associated with the PID-5 pathological personality traits and suggest possible directions for future research.

  10. Medical student empathy: interpersonal distinctions and correlates.

    Jordan, Kevin D; Foster, Penni Smith

    2016-12-01

    Attention to interpersonal behaviors, communication, and relational factors is taking on increasing importance in medical education. Medical student empathy is one aspect of the physician-patient relationship that is often involved in beneficial interactions leading to improved clinical outcomes and patient satisfaction. As an interpersonal quality, empathy is a social behavior well-suited to be examined from an interpersonal perspective. The present study used the interpersonal theory of clinical, personality, and social psychology to examine the construct of empathy and theorize about likely interpersonal correlates. One hundred and sixty-three students from an academic health center in the southeastern United States participated in this study. The medical student version of the Jefferson Scale of Empathy was used to assess empathy and its factors: Perspective taking, compassionate care, and walking in the patient's shoes. Interpersonal assessments included the International Personality Item Pool-Interpersonal Circumplex, the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List, and the UCLA Loneliness Scale. Distinct interpersonal styles and correlates emerged among empathy and its factors. While all factors of empathy were related to interpersonal warmth, perspective taking and compassionate care were also associated with submissiveness. Of note, only walking in the patient's shoes was correlated with both social support and less loneliness. These findings are discussed in light of interpersonal theory with particular attention paid to the implications for medical education and professional development.

  11. SOCIAL NETWORKS AND INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION

    Veronica GHEORGHIȚĂ

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Social networks visible influence people's ability to interact and communicate. Extending social circles by establishing virtual links involves a number of positive aspects such as: instant access to options for interaction, sharing of information to large communities of people, intensification of acts of communication, high levels of feedback and trust with people with whom we communicate. On the other hand, social networks adversely affects communication by decreasing the interaction face to face, by imposing superficial communications experiences, grammatical and spelling erosion of the language. Therefore, the study aims to capture the spread of social networks, their use and impact on interpersonal communication. More specifically, they look for the answer to the question: what is the nature of interpersonal communication that is found on social networking sites: personal, emotional, private or shared, informal, and public?

  12. Effects of bombing after five years: Development of early maladaptive cognitive schemas in children

    Nikoloski-Končar Nataša

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the study is to examine effects of bombing on development of early maladaptive schemas in children who live in directly bombed towns in comparison with children who live in towns not directly exposed to bombing. The subjects were twelve years old at the moment of testing (February 2005 meaning that they were at the age of seven during the bombing. Additional aim was to examine gender differences in development of early maladaptive schemas. The theory of Young (1990 provided framework for the study. According to the theory, early maladaptive cognitive schemas, which present basis for psychological disorder later in life, begin to develop in childhood in connection with traumatic experiences and/or other aversive circumstances. The results showed that the early maladaptive schemas are more frequent in children from directly exposed towns; and in male subjects comparing with females.

  13. Combinations of resting RSA and RSA reactivity impact maladaptive mood repair and depression symptoms.

    Yaroslavsky, Ilya; Bylsma, Lauren M; Rottenberg, Jonathan; Kovacs, Maria

    2013-10-01

    We examined whether the combined indices of respiratory sinus arrhythmia at rest (resting RSA) and in response to a sad film (RSA reactivity) predict effective and ineffective responses to reduce sadness (adaptive vs. maladaptive mood repair) in women with histories of juvenile-onset depression (n=74) and no history of major mental disorders (n=75). Structural equation models were used to estimate latent resting RSA, depression, and adaptive and maladaptive mood repair and to test the study hypotheses. Results indicated that combinations of resting RSA+RSA reactivity (RSA patterns) predicted maladaptive mood repair, which in turn, mediated the effects of RSA pattern on depression. Further, RSA patterns moderated the depressogenic effects of maladaptive mood repair. RSA patterns were unrelated to adaptive mood repair. Our findings suggest that mood repair is one mechanism through which physiological vulnerabilities adversely affect mental health. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Interpersonal relationships in early adulthood

    Kočevar, Zala

    2014-01-01

    Interpersonal relationships in early adulthood, in people aged 25 to 30 vary considerably among individuals. Some place emphasis on partnership, and others on relations with friends. Even the relationship with parents and siblings are experienced by young adults in a variety of ways. Some have frequent and regular contact with their parents while some no longer have any relationship with their parents. These are two frequent situations hiding much more in between. Relationships are complex an...

  15. The detrimental impact of maladaptive personality on public mental health : a challenge for psychiatric practice

    Hengartner, Michael Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Experts in personality psychology and personality disorders have long emphasized the pervasive and persistent detrimental impact of maladaptive personality traits on mental health and functioning. However, in routine psychiatric practice, maladaptive personality is readily ignored and personality traits are seldom incorporated into clinical guidelines. The aim of this narrative review is to outline how pervasively personality influences public mental health and how personality thereby challen...

  16. The Role of Early Maladaptive Schemas and Coping Strategies in Substance Dependency

    Bikem Haciomeroglu

    2014-12-01

    Discussion: Current study showed that the substance dependents had more maladaptive unhealthy core beliefs and ineffective coping strategies than a non-clinical control group. These findings support the importance of early maladaptive schemas which might be the underlying factor for the dependency problem, and might prevent the person to deal with the problem with more active and problem focused coping strategies. [JCBPR 2014; 3(3.000: 162-170

  17. Maladaptive Plasticity Masks the Effects of Natural Selection in the Red-Shouldered Soapberry Bug.

    Cenzer, Meredith L

    2017-10-01

    Natural selection can produce local adaptation, but local adaptation can be masked by maladaptive plasticity. Maladaptive plasticity may arise as a result of gene flow producing novel gene combinations that have not been exposed to selection. In the 1980s, populations of the red-shouldered soapberry bug (Jadera haematoloma) were locally adapted to feed on the seeds of a native host plant and an introduced host plant; by 2014, local differentiation in beak length had been lost, likely as a consequence of increased gene flow. In this study, I assess the relative contributions of natural selection and plasticity to beak length on these two hosts. I confirm the earlier hypothesis that the host plant seedpod drives divergent natural selection on beak length. I then demonstrate that the proximate cause of the loss of observable differentiation in beak length is maladaptive plasticity, which masks persistent genetic differences between host-associated populations. Maladaptive plasticity is highest in areas where the two plants co-occur; in combination with historical measures of plasticity in hybrids, this indicates that maladaptive plasticity may be a consequence of ongoing gene flow. Although natural selection produced locally adapted genotypes in soapberry bugs, maladaptive plasticity is masking phenotypic differences between populations in nature.

  18. Uric acid promotes vascular stiffness, maladaptive inflammatory responses and proteinuria in western diet fed mice.

    Aroor, Annayya R; Jia, Guanghong; Habibi, Javad; Sun, Zhe; Ramirez-Perez, Francisco I; Brady, Barron; Chen, Dongqing; Martinez-Lemus, Luis A; Manrique, Camila; Nistala, Ravi; Whaley-Connell, Adam T; Demarco, Vincent G; Meininger, Gerald A; Sowers, James R

    2017-09-01

    Aortic vascular stiffness has been implicated in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in obese individuals. However, the mechanism promoting these adverse effects are unclear. In this context, promotion of obesity through consumption of a western diet (WD) high in fat and fructose leads to excess circulating uric acid. There is accumulating data implicating elevated uric acid in the promotion of CVD and CKD. Accordingly, we hypothesized that xanthine oxidase(XO) inhibition with allopurinol would prevent a rise in vascular stiffness and proteinuria in a translationally relevant model of WD-induced obesity. Four-week-old C57BL6/J male mice were fed a WD with excess fat (46%) and fructose (17.5%) with or without allopurinol (125mg/L in drinking water) for 16weeks. Aortic endothelial and extracellular matrix/vascular smooth muscle stiffness was evaluated by atomic force microscopy. Aortic XO activity, 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) and aortic endothelial sodium channel (EnNaC) expression were evaluated along with aortic expression of inflammatory markers. In the kidney, expression of toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) and fibronectin were assessed along with evaluation of proteinuria. XO inhibition significantly attenuated WD-induced increases in plasma uric acid, vascular XO activity and oxidative stress, in concert with reductions in proteinuria. Further, XO inhibition prevented WD-induced increases in aortic EnNaC expression and associated endothelial and subendothelial stiffness. XO inhibition also reduced vascular pro-inflammatory and maladaptive immune responses induced by consumption of a WD. XO inhibition also decreased WD-induced increases in renal TLR4 and fibronectin that associated proteinuria. Consumption of a WD leads to elevations in plasma uric acid, increased vascular XO activity, oxidative stress, vascular stiffness, and proteinuria all of which are attenuated with allopurinol administration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc

  19. Cortisol Reactivity to Social Stress as a Mediator of Early Adversity on Risk and Adaptive Outcomes

    Conradt, Elisabeth; Abar, Beau; Lester, Barry M.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R.; Whitaker, Toni M.; Hammond, Jane A.

    2014-01-01

    Children chronically exposed to stress early in life are at increased risk for maladaptive outcomes, though the physiological mechanisms driving these effects are unknown. Cortisol reactivity was tested as a mediator of the relation between prenatal substance exposure and/or early adversity on adaptive and maladaptive outcomes. Data were drawn…

  20. Is Exposure Necessary? A Randomized Clinical Trial of Interpersonal Psychotherapy for PTSD

    Markowitz, John C.; Petkova, Eva; Neria, Yuval; Van Meter, Page E.; Zhao, Yihong; Hembree, Elizabeth; Lovell, Karina; Biyanova, Tatyana; Marshall, Randall D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Exposure to trauma reminders has been considered imperative in psychotherapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). No treatment benefits all patients, however. We tested Interpersonal Psychotherapy, which has demonstrated antidepressant efficacy and showed promise in pilot PTSD research, as a non-exposure-based, non-cognitive behavioral PTSD treatment. Methods A randomized, fourteen-week trial compared Interpersonal Psychotherapy; Prolonged Exposure, an exposure-based exemplar; and Relaxation Therapy, an active control psychotherapy. Subjects were 110 unmedicated patients having DSM-IV chronic PTSD and Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) score >50. Randomization stratified for comorbid major depression. We hypothesized Interpersonal Psychotherapy would be no more than minimally inferior (CAPS difference 30% CAPS improvement) were: Interpersonal Psychotherapy 63%, Prolonged Exposure 47%, Relaxation Therapy 38% (n.s.). Interpersonal psychotherapy and Prolonged Exposure CAPS outcome differed by 5.5 points (n.s.); the null hypothesis of more than minimal Interpersonal Psychotherapy inferiority was rejected (p=0.035). Patients with comorbid major depression dropped out from Prolonged Exposure nine times more than non-depressed Prolonged Exposure patients. Interpersonal Psychotherapy and Prolonged Exposure improved quality of life and social functioning more than Relaxation Therapy. Conclusions This first controlled study of individual Interpersonal Psychotherapy for PTSD demonstrated non-inferiority to the “gold standard” PTSD treatment. Interpersonal Psychotherapy had (non-significantly) lower attrition and higher response rates than Prolonged Exposure. Contradicting a widespread clinical belief, PTSD treatment may not require cognitive behavioral exposure to trauma reminders. Moreover, as differential therapeutics, patients with comorbid major depression may fare better in Interpersonal Psychotherapy than Prolonged Exposure. PMID:25677355

  1. Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) in major depressive disorder.

    Brakemeier, Eva-Lotta; Frase, Lukas

    2012-11-01

    In this article, we will introduce interpersonal psychotherapy as an effective short-term treatment strategy in major depression. In IPT, a reciprocal relationship between interpersonal problems and depressive symptoms is regarded as important in the onset and as a maintaining factor of depressive disorders. Therefore, interpersonal problems are the main therapeutic targets of this approach. Four interpersonal problem areas are defined, which include interpersonal role disputes, role transitions, complicated bereavement, and interpersonal deficits. Patients are helped to break the interactions between depressive symptoms and their individual interpersonal difficulties. The goals are to achieve a reduction in depressive symptoms and an improvement in interpersonal functioning through improved communication, expression of affect, and proactive engagement with the current interpersonal network. The efficacy of this focused and structured psychotherapy in the treatment of acute unipolar major depressive disorder is summarized. This article outlines the background of interpersonal psychotherapy, the process of therapy, efficacy, and the expansion of the evidence base to different subgroups of depressed patients.

  2. Maladaptive Personality Trait Models: Validating the Five-Factor Model Maladaptive Trait Measures With the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 and NEO Personality Inventory.

    Helle, Ashley C; Mullins-Sweatt, Stephanie N

    2017-05-01

    Eight measures have been developed to assess maladaptive variants of the five-factor model (FFM) facets specific to personality disorders (e.g., Five-Factor Borderline Inventory [FFBI]). These measures can be used in their entirety or as facet-based scales (e.g., FFBI Affective Dysregulation) to improve the comprehensiveness of assessment of pathological personality. There are a limited number of studies examining these scales with other measures of similar traits (e.g., DSM-5 alternative model). The current study examined the FFM maladaptive scales in relation to the respective general personality traits of the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised and the pathological personality traits of the DSM-5 alternative model using the Personality Inventory for DSM-5. The results indicated the FFM maladaptive trait scales predominantly converged with corresponding NEO Personality Inventory-Revised, and Personality Inventory for DSM-5 traits, providing further validity for these measures as extensions of general personality traits and evidence for their relation to the pathological trait model. Benefits and applications of the FFM maladaptive scales in clinical and research settings are discussed.

  3. [Psychoeducation and interpersonal and social rhythm therapy for bipolar disorder].

    Mizushima, Hiroko

    2011-01-01

    In treating bipolar disorder, specific psychotherapies in adjunct to pharmacotherapy have been shown to be effective in preventing new episodes and treating depressive episodes. Among those, interpersonal and social rhythm therapy (IPSRT) developed by Frank, amalgamation of interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) with behavioral therapy focused on social rhythm has been shown to be an efficacious adjunct to mediation in preventing new episodes in bipolar I patients and in treating depression in bipolar I arid II disorder. IPSRT has also been shown to enhance total functioning, relationship functioning and life satisfaction among patients with bipolar disorder, even after pretreatment functioning and concurrent depression were covaried. IPSRT was designed to directly address the major pathways to recurrence in bipolar disorder, namely medication nonadherence, stressful life events, and disruptions in social rhythms. IPT, originated by Klerman et al., is a strategic time-limited psychotherapy focused on one or two of four current interpersonal problem areas (ie, grief, interpersonal role disputes, role transitions, and interpersonal dificits). In IPSRT, the fifth problem area "grief for the lost healthy self" has been added in order to promote acceptance of the diagnosis and the need for life-long treatment. Social rhythm therapy is a behavioral approach aiming at increasing regularity of social rhythms using the Social Rhythm Metric (SRM), a chart to record daily social activities including how stimulating they were, developed from observation that disruptions in social rhythms often trigger affective episodes in patients with bipolar disorder. IPSRT also appears to be a promising intervention for a subset of individuals with bipolar II depression as monotherapy for the acute treatment.

  4. A new measure of interpersonal exploitativeness

    Amy B. Brunell

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Measures of exploitativeness evidence problems with validity and reliability. The present set of studies assessed a new measure (the Interpersonal Exploitativeness Scale that defines exploitativeness in terms of reciprocity. In Studies 1 and 2, 33 items were administered to participants. Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis demonstrated that a single factor consisting of six items adequately assess interpersonal exploitativeness. Study 3 results revealed that the Interpersonal Exploitativeness Scale was positively associated with normal narcissism, pathological narcissism, psychological entitlement, and negative reciprocity and negatively correlated with positive reciprocity. In Study 4, participants competed in a commons dilemma. Those who scored higher on the Interpersonal Exploitativeness Scale were more likely to harvest a greater share of resources over time, even while controlling for other relevant variables, such as entitlement. Together, these studies show the Interpersonal Exploitativeness Scale to be a valid and reliable measure of interpersonal exploitativeness. The authors discuss the implications of these studies.

  5. Antecedents of perceived coach interpersonal behaviors: the coaching environment and coach psychological well- and ill-being.

    Stebbings, Juliette; Taylor, Ian M; Spray, Christopher M; Ntoumanis, Nikos

    2012-08-01

    Embedded in the self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000) framework, we obtained self-report data from 418 paid and voluntary coaches from a variety of sports and competitive levels with the aim of exploring potential antecedents of coaches' perceived autonomy supportive and controlling behaviors. Controlling for socially desirable responses, structural equation modeling revealed that greater job security and opportunities for professional development, and lower work-life conflict were associated with psychological need satisfaction, which, in turn, was related to an adaptive process of psychological well-being and perceived autonomy support toward athletes. In contrast, higher work-life conflict and fewer opportunities for development were associated with a distinct maladaptive process of thwarted psychological needs, psychological ill-being, and perceived controlling interpersonal behavior. The results highlight how the coaching context may impact upon coaches' psychological health and their interpersonal behavior toward athletes. Moreover, evidence is provided for the independence of adaptive and maladaptive processes within the self-determination theory paradigm.

  6. PENGGUNAAN INSTANT MESSANGER dan KOMUNIKASI INTERPERSONAL REMAJA

    Primada Qurrota Ayun

    2016-01-01

    Interpersonal communication should ideally in face to face, until the achievement of intimate communication. Instant messenger makes interpersonal communication easier and more efficient. However, it also resulted in less effective communication to occur, because it only uses text messaging as a means to convey a message so frequent miscommunication. This study wanted to see how the use of instant messenger among teenagers in interpersonal communication. The theory used in this study is a Com...

  7. Penggunaan Instant Messanger Dan Komunikasi Interpersonal Remaja

    Ayun, Primada Qurrota

    2016-01-01

    Interpersonal communication should ideally in face to face, until the achievement of intimate communication. Instant messenger makes interpersonal communication easier and more efficient. However, it also resulted in less effective communication to occur, because it only uses text messaging as a means to convey a message so frequent miscommunication. This study wanted to see how the use of instant messenger among teenagers in interpersonal communication. The theory used in this study is a Com...

  8. Adolescents' Depressive Symptoms and Subsequent Technology-Based Interpersonal Behaviors: A Multi-Wave Study.

    Nesi, Jacqueline; Miller, Adam B; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2017-07-01

    This study examined the longitudinal effects of adolescents' depressive symptoms on engagement in technology-based social comparison and feedback seeking (SCFS) behaviors. A total of 816 adolescents (54.7% girls; M age =14.1 at Time 1) participated at three times points, each one year apart. Adolescents reported technology-based SCFS, depressive symptoms, and frequencies of technology use (cell phones, Facebook, and Instagram). Multiple group (by gender) latent growth curve models examined concurrent and lagged effects of depressive symptoms on SCFS, controlling for adolescent's underlying trajectories of SCFS and overall frequencies of technology use. Results indicated that higher levels of depressive symptoms were concurrently associated with greater SCFS after accounting for adolescents' typical patterns of SCFS. For boys only, higher depressive symptoms were prospectively associated with later increases in SCFS. Results highlight the importance of social media as a unique context in which depressed adolescents may be at risk for maladaptive interpersonal behavior.

  9. Effective Interpersonal Communication: A Practical Guide to Improve Your Life.

    Vertino, Kathleen A

    2014-09-30

    Use of effective interpersonal communication strategies by nurses in both personal and professional settings, may reduce stress, promote wellness, and therefore, improve overall quality of life. This article briefly explores the concept of interpersonal communication as it relates to Maslow's hierarchy of human needs; describes personal variables and the interaction of internal and external variables that can impact communication; and discusses possible causes and consequences of ineffective communication. Drawing on both the literature and experiences as a longtime provider of care in the mental health field, the author offers multiple practical strategies, with specific examples of possible responses for effective communication. Recommendations in this article are intended for nurses to consider as they seek healthy communication strategies that may be useful in both their personal and professional lives.

  10. Stress

    ... taking care of an aging parent. With mental stress, the body pumps out hormones to no avail. Neither fighting ... with type 1 diabetes. This difference makes sense. Stress blocks the body from releasing insulin in people with type 2 ...

  11. Interpersonal Accuracy of Interventions and the Outcome of Cognitive and Interpersonal Therapies for Depression

    Crits-Christoph, Paul; Gibbons, Mary Beth Connolly; Temes, Christina M.; Elkin, Irene; Gallop, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the current investigation was to examine the interpersonal accuracy of interventions in cognitive therapy and interpersonal therapy as a predictor of the outcome of treatment for patients with major depressive disorder. Method: The interpersonal accuracy of interventions was rated using transcripts of treatment sessions…

  12. Reducing Maladaptive Behaviors in Preschool-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Using the Early Start Denver Model

    Fulton, Elizabeth; Eapen, Valsamma; Črnčec, Rudi; Walter, Amelia; Rogers, Sally

    2014-01-01

    The presence of maladaptive behaviors in young people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can significantly limit engagement in treatment programs, as well as compromise future educational and vocational opportunities. This study aimed to explore whether the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM) treatment approach reduced maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children with ASD in a community-based long day care setting. The level of maladaptive behavior of 38 children with ASD was rated using an ...

  13. Reducing maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children with Autism Spectrum Disorder using the Early Start Denver Model

    Elizabeth eFulton; Elizabeth eFulton; Valsamma eEapen; Valsamma eEapen; Rudi eČrnčec; Amelia eWalter; Amelia eWalter; Sally eRogers

    2014-01-01

    The presence of maladaptive behaviors in young people with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) can significantly limit engagement in treatment programs, as well as compromise future educational and vocational opportunities. This study aimed to explore whether the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM) treatment approach reduced maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children with ASD in a community-based long day care setting. The level of maladaptive behavior of 38 children with ASD was rated using an ...

  14. Maladaptive perfectionism as mediator among psychological control, eating disorders, and exercise dependence symptoms in habitual exerciser.

    Costa, Sebastiano; Hausenblas, Heather A; Oliva, Patrizia; Cuzzocrea, Francesca; Larcan, Rosalba

    2016-03-01

    Background and aims The current study examined the mediating role of maladaptive perfectionism among parental psychological control, eating disorder symptoms, and exercise dependence symptoms by gender in habitual exercisers. Methods Participants were 348 Italian exercisers (n = 178 men and n = 170 women; M age = 20.57, SD = 1.13) who completed self-report questionnaires assessing their parental psychological control, maladaptive perfectionism, eating disorder symptoms, and exercise dependence symptoms. Results Results of the present study confirmed the mediating role of maladaptive perfectionism for eating disorder and exercise dependence symptoms for the male and female exercisers in the maternal data. In the paternal data, maladaptive perfectionism mediated the relationships between paternal psychological control and eating disorder and exercise dependence symptoms as full mediator for female participants and as partial mediator for male participants. Discussion Findings of the present study suggest that it may be beneficial to consider dimensions of maladaptive perfectionism and parental psychological control when studying eating disorder and exercise dependence symptoms in habitual exerciser.

  15. The detrimental impact of maladaptive personality on public mental health: a challenge for psychiatric practice

    Michael Pascal Hengartner

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Experts in personality psychology and personality disorders have long emphasised the pervasive and persistent detrimental impact of maladaptive personality traits on mental health and functioning. However, in routine psychiatric practice maladaptive personality is readily ignored and personality traits are seldom incorporated into clinical guidelines. The aim of this narrative review is to outline how pervasively personality influences public mental health and how personality thereby challenges common psychiatric practice. A comprehensive search and synthesis of the scientific literature demonstrates that maladaptive personality traits and personality disorders, in particular high neuroticism and negative affectivity, first, are risk factors for divorce, unemployment and disability pensioning; second, relate to the prevalence, incidence and co-occurrence of common mental disorders; third, impair functioning, symptom remission and recovery in co-occurring common mental disorders; and fourth, predispose to treatment resistance, non-response and poor treatment outcome. In conclusion, maladaptive personality is not only involved in the development and course of mental disorders, but also predisposes to chronicity and re-occurrence of psychopathology and reduces the efficacy of psychiatric treatments. The pernicious impact of maladaptive personality on mental health and functioning demands that careful assessment and thorough consideration of personality should be compulsory in psychiatric practice.

  16. Prevalence and risk factors of maladaptive behaviour in young children with Autistic Disorder

    Hartley, S. L.; Sikora, D. M.; McCoy, R.

    2010-01-01

    Background Children with Autistic Disorder (AD) evidence more co-occurring maladaptive behaviours than their typically developing peers and peers with intellectual disability because of other aetiologies. The present study investigated the prevalence of Clinically Significant maladaptive behaviours during early childhood and identified at-risk subgroups of young children with AD. Method Parents rated their child’s maladaptive behaviours on the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) in 169 children with AD aged 1.5 to 5.8 years. Results One-third of young children with AD had a CBCL Total Problems score in the Clinically Significant range. The highest percentage of Clinically Significant scores were in the Withdrawal, Attention, and Aggression CBCL syndrome scales. There was a high degree of co-morbidity of Clinically Significant maladaptive behaviours. Several subject characteristic risk factors for maladaptive behaviours were identified. Conclusions Findings highlight the need to include behavioural management strategies aimed at increasing social engagement, sustained attention and decreasing aggressive behaviour in comprehensive intervention programmes for young children with AD. PMID:18444989

  17. The Role Of Early Maladaptive Schemas And Coping Strategies In Substance Dependence

    Bikem HACIÖMEROĞLU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the early maladaptive schemas and coping strategies of substance dependents. We hypothesized that substance dependents would have more maladaptive schemas and would use less adaptive coping strategies than healthy controls. Methods: Thirty-two patients diagnosed with substance dependence and 31 control subjects without any psychiatric disorders were evaluated via Young Schema Questionnaire-SF, COPE, and Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I. Results: The substance dependents scored significantly higher than the control group in nine out of fourteen early maladaptive schemas. In terms of coping strategies, the substance dependents scored significantly lower than the control group in positive reinterpretation and growth, seeking social support for instrumental reasons, active coping, and seeking social support for emotional reasons, and significantly higher in behavioral disengagement and alcohol-drug disengagement subscales. Moreover, alcohol-drug disengagement type of coping style was significantly predicted by schemas of emotional deprivation, emotional inhibition, enmeshment/dependence, entitlement/ insufficient self-control, abandonment/instability, punitiveness, defectiveness/shame, vulnerability to harm or illness, and unrelenting standards/hypercriticalness. Discussion: Current study showed that the substance dependents had more maladaptive unhealthy core beliefs and ineffective coping strategies than a non-clinical control group. These findings support the importance of early maladaptive schemas which might be the underlying factor for the dependence problem, and might prevent the person to deal with the problem with more active and problem focused coping strategies.

  18. Neuronal correlates of maladaptive coping: an EEG-study in tinnitus patients.

    Sven Vanneste

    Full Text Available Here we aimed to investigate the neuronal correlates of different coping styles in patients suffering from chronic tinnitus. Adaptive and maladaptive coping styles were determined in 85 tinnitus patients. Based on resting state EEG recordings, coping related differences in brain activity and connectivity were found. Maladaptive coping behavior was related to increases in subjective tinnitus loudness and distress, higher tinnitus severity and higher depression scores. EEG recordings demonstrated increased alpha activity over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC as well as increased connectivity in the default (i.e. resting state network in tinnitus patients with a maladaptive coping style. Correlation analysis revealed that the changes in the DLPFC correlate primarily with maladaptive coping behavior, whereas the changes in the sgACC correlate with tinnitus severity and depression. Our findings are in line with previous research in the field of depression that during resting state a alpha band hyperconnectivity exists within the default network for patients who use a maladaptive coping style, with the sgACC as the dysfunctional node and that the strength of the connectivity is related to focusing on negative mood and catastrophizing about the consequences of tinnitus.

  19. Stress, memory and the amygdala

    Roozendaal, Benno; McEwen, Bruce S.; Chattarji, Sumantra

    Emotionally significant experiences tend to be well remembered, and the amygdala has a pivotal role in this process. But the efficient encoding of emotional memories can become maladaptive - severe stress often turns them into a source of chronic anxiety. Here, we review studies that have identified

  20. Brewing controversies: Darwinian perspective on the adaptive and maladaptive effects of caffeine and ethanol as dietary autonomic modulators.

    Yun, Anthony J; Doux, John D; Daniel, Stephanie M

    2007-01-01

    Ethanol and caffeine are two of the oldest human drugs. Their pervasive integration into the modern human diet may reflect behavioral attempts to correct maladaptations induced by evolutionary displacement of the autonomic system. The dietary adoption of caffeine may parallel the emergence of cognition as an independent basis of competition. Enhancement of the cognitive ability to gather and process information likely evolved as a valuable adjunct to physical behavior in prehistoric fight-or-flight encounters. Caffeine effectively exploits this pre-existing association between adrenergic activity and cognitive readiness, leading to its use in the modern environment where success in competition increasingly depends on cognitive, rather than physical, prowess. Ethanol may have emerged as a dietary means to buffer the maladaptive chronic sympathetic activation and fear response associated with stressful lifestyles and the social phobias associated with the dissolution of kin networks. We explore the health implications of ethanol and caffeine use, with particular attention to their acute and chronic effects on the autonomic axis. The putative protective effects of ethanol in surviving major trauma or reducing inflammation and heart disease may relate to tempering the behavioral and cardiovascular consequences of catastrophic or chronic sympathetic activation. Acute or chronic abuse of ethanol manifests paradoxical pro-adrenergic effects such as tremors and insomnia that may partly represent compensatory responses. Compensatory remodeling may also explain why confirmation of detrimental effects related to caffeine-induced sympathetic activation has proven elusive; indeed, paradoxical pro-vagal benefits may eventually be recognized. Ethanol and caffeine are potential agents that may beneficially expand the dynamic range of the autonomic system. In an environment where the Darwinian value of knowledge has increasingly supplanted that of physical traits, the consumption

  1. Bulimia and Interpersonal Relationships: A Longitudinal Study.

    Thelen, Mark H.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Assessed changes in bulimia in female college students (N=44) and in relation between bulimia and interpersonal relationships over time. Found (1) stable symptomology for normals and bulimics; (2) strong negative correlations between bulimia measures and interpersonal relationships with men; and (3) improvement in symptomology and relationships…

  2. INTERPERSONAL COMUNICATION IN THE CONTEMPORARY SIRCUMSTANCES

    Slobodan JAKULIC

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available In this item, the writer emphasizes the origination of the interpersonal communications in contemporary circumstances on the present evolutionary stage of the civilization. In addition the phenomenon of the interpersonal communications determine the social being of the humans in the area of the family and nation together with the area of the wide social community.

  3. Improving Music Teaching through Interpersonal Relationships

    Royston, Natalie Steele

    2017-01-01

    Interpersonal relationships are fundamental to learning and human development. To develop a positive and safe classroom environment with student motivation and learning, music educators need to learn to relate and connect effectively with others. This article looks at the importance of the interpersonal relationships in the classroom environment…

  4. Interpersonal Psychotherapy: Past, Present and Future

    Markowitz, John C.; Weissman, Myrna M.

    2012-01-01

    The authors briefly describe the origins, theory, and development of interpersonal psychotherapy: its roots in clinical outcome research, its spread from major depression to other psychiatric disorders and its increasing dissemination as an empirically validated clinical intervention included in treatment guidelines. They attempt to forecast research, organizational and training issues the growing interpersonal psychotherapy community may face in the future.

  5. Interpersonal Conflicts In Ghanaian University Libraries | Kofi ...

    Results indicate that personality differences, superior/subordinate relationships, power struggle and competition are responsible for interpersonal conflicts in Ghanaian university libraries. It then makes recommendations on how to manage the various types of interpersonal conflicts within university libraries. Keywords: ...

  6. The Interpersonal Contract: A Vehicle for Change.

    Strickland, Ben; Arnn, John

    All interpersonal relationships are a function of the basic beliefs, expectations, and reactions of the people involved. These conditions may not be written or even verbalized formally, but they exist nontheless and are as binding as any legal contract. Giving specific and intentional consideration to interpersonal contracts and utilizing them as…

  7. Pluralism and Objectivism: Cornerstones for Interpersonal Comparisons

    Nielsen, Lasse

    2012-01-01

    comparison, and between a subjectivist and objectivist standard of interpersonal comparison. The paper provides a normative argument for pluralism and objectivism with regard to interpersonal comparison, and it suggests that the Capability Approach as developed by Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum fits...

  8. Interpersonal Teaching Style and Student Impression Formation

    Coldren, Jeffrey; Hively, Jodi

    2009-01-01

    Assuming that learning is an inherently social process, this research explores interpersonal variables that affect teaching. Specifically, does the interpersonal teaching style affect student impressions of the instructor? Eighty-five undergraduates viewed one of three ten-minute videos that portrayed either an authoritarian, authoritative, or…

  9. The interpersonal core of personality pathology

    Hopwood, Christopher J.; Wright, Aidan G.C.; Ansell, Emily B.; Pincus, Aaron L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that personality pathology is, at its core, fundamentally interpersonal. We review the proposed DSM-5 Section 3 redefinition of personality pathology involving self and interpersonal dysfunction, which we regard as a substantial improvement over the DSM-IV (and DSM-5 Section 2) definition. We note similarities between the proposed scheme and contemporary interpersonal theory and interpret the DSM-5 Section 3 definition using the underlying assumptions and evidence base of the interpersonal paradigm in clinical psychology. We describe how grounding the proposed DSM-5 Section 3 definition in interpersonal theory, and in particular a focus on the “interpersonal situation”, adds to its theoretical texture, empirical support, and clinical utility. We provide a clinical example that demonstrates the ability of contemporary interpersonal theory to augment the DSM-5 definition of personality pathology. We conclude with directions for further research that could clarify the core of personality pathology, and how interpersonal theory can inform research aimed at enhancing the DSM-5 Section 3 proposal and ultimately justify its migration to DSM-5 Section 2. PMID:23735037

  10. Early maladaptive schemas in adult patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Philipsen, Alexandra; Lam, Alexandra P; Breit, Sigrid; Lücke, Caroline; Müller, Helge H; Matthies, Swantje

    2017-06-01

    The main purpose of this study was to examine whether adult patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) demonstrate sets of dysfunctional cognitive beliefs and behavioural tendencies according to Jeffrey Young's schema-focused therapy model. Sets of dysfunctional beliefs (maladaptive schemas) were assessed with the Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ-S2) in 78 adult ADHD patients and 80 control subjects. Patients with ADHD scored significantly higher than the control group on almost all maladaptive schemas. The 'Failure', 'Defectiveness/Shame', 'Subjugation' and 'Emotional Deprivation' schemas were most pronounced in adult ADHD patients, while only 'Vulnerability to Harm or Illness' did not differ between the two groups. The schemas which were most pronounced in adult patients with ADHD correspond well with their learning histories and core symptoms. By demonstrating the existence of early maladaptive schemas in adults suffering from ADHD, this study suggests that schema theory may usefully be applied to adult ADHD therapy.

  11. Manipulation of Auditory Inputs as Rehabilitation Therapy for Maladaptive Auditory Cortical Reorganization

    Hidehiko Okamoto

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurophysiological and neuroimaging data suggest that the brains of not only children but also adults are reorganized based on sensory inputs and behaviors. Plastic changes in the brain are generally beneficial; however, maladaptive cortical reorganization in the auditory cortex may lead to hearing disorders such as tinnitus and hyperacusis. Recent studies attempted to noninvasively visualize pathological neural activity in the living human brain and reverse maladaptive cortical reorganization by the suitable manipulation of auditory inputs in order to alleviate detrimental auditory symptoms. The effects of the manipulation of auditory inputs on maladaptively reorganized brain were reviewed herein. The findings obtained indicate that rehabilitation therapy based on the manipulation of auditory inputs is an effective and safe approach for hearing disorders. The appropriate manipulation of sensory inputs guided by the visualization of pathological brain activities using recent neuroimaging techniques may contribute to the establishment of new clinical applications for affected individuals.

  12. Cultural ecologies of adaptive vs. maladaptive traits: A simple nonlinear model

    Antoci, Angelo; Russu, Paolo; Sacco, Pier Luigi

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we generalize a model by Enquist and Ghirlanda [12] to analyze the "macro" dynamics of cumulative culture in a context where there is a coexistence of adaptive and maladaptive cultural traits. In particular, we introduce a different, nonlinear specification of the main processes at work in the cumulative culture dynamics: imperfect transmission of traits, generation of new traits, and switches from adaptive to maladaptive and vice-versa. We find that the system exhibits a variety of dynamic behaviors where the crucial force is the switching between the adaptive and maladaptive nature of a certain trait, with the other processes playing a modulating role. We identify in particular a number of dynamic regimes with distinctive characteristics.

  13. Global interpersonal inequality: Trends and measurement

    Niño-Zarazúa, Miguel; Roope, Laurence; Tarp, Finn

    This paper discusses different approaches to the measurement of global interpersonal in equality. Trends in global interpersonal inequality during 1975-2005 are measured using data from UNU-WIDER’s World Income Inequality Database. In order to better understand the trends, global interpersonal...... inequality is decomposed into within-country and between-country inequality. The paper illustrates that the relationship between global interpersonal inequality and these constituent components is a complex one. In particular, we demonstrate that the changes in China’s and India’s income distributions over...... the past 30 years have simultaneously caused inequality to rise domestically in those countries, while tending to reduce global inter-personal inequality. In light of these findings, we reflect on the meaning and policy relevance of global vis-à-vis domestic inequality measures...

  14. PENGARUH KONSEP DIRI TERHADAP KOMUNIKASI INTERPERSONAL MAHASISWA

    Sapto Irawan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to test the significance effect of self-concept on students’ interpersonal communication. Subjects in this reasearch were guidance and counseling students in Satwa Wacana Christian University, Salatiga. Analysis of data used simple regression to determine the effect of self-concept on students’ interpersonal communication. The results showed that Sig. = 0.012, which means that there was a significant relationship between self-concept and interpersonal communication. Besides, the value of R Square or determination coefficient was 0.048, which means that self-concept has the contribution effect of a 4.8% on the student interpersonal communication, while the remaining 95.2% was influenced by other factors. It can be concluded that there is a significant relationship between self-concept on students’ interpersonal communication.

  15. Comparison of inbred mouse substrains reveals segregation of maladaptive fear phenotypes

    Stephanie J Temme

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Maladaptive fear, such as fear that is persistent or easily generalized to a nonthreatening stimuli, is associated with anxiety-related disorders in humans. In the laboratory, maladaptive fear can be modeled in rodents using Pavlovian fear conditioning. Recently, an inbred mouse strain known as 129S1/SvImJ, or 129S1 have been reported as exhibiting impairments in fear extinction and enhanced fear generalization. With a long-term goal of identifying segregating genetic markers of maladaptive fear, we used Pavlovian fear conditioning to characterize a closely related substrain designated as 129S6/SvEvTac, or 129S6. Here we report that, like 129S1 animals, 129S6 mice exhibit appropriate levels of fear upon conditioning, but are unable to extinguish fear memories once they are consolidated. Importantly, the maladaptive fear phenotype in this inbred stain can be segregated by sub-strain when probed using conditioning protocols designed to assess generalized fear. We find that unlike the 129S1 substrain, mice from the 129S6 sub-strain do not generalize conditioned fear to previously novel contexts and can learn to discriminate between two similar contexts when trained using a discrimination protocol. These results suggest that at least two forms of maladaptive fear (deficits in fear extinction and fear generalization can be can be functionally segregated, further suggesting that the underlying neurobiology is heritable. Given the observation that two closely related sub-strains can exhibit different constellations of maladaptive fear suggests that these findings could be exploited to facilitate the identification of candidate genes for anxiety-related disorders.

  16. Adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism, and professional burnout among medical laboratory scientists.

    Robakowska, Marlena; Tyrańska-Fobke, Anna; Walkiewicz, Maciej; Tartas, Małgorzata

    2018-05-22

    The goal of this paper is to verify the correlations between adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism and the selected demographic and job characteristics vs. professional burnout among medical laboratory scientists in Poland. The study group consisted of 166 laboratory scientists. The Polish Adaptive and Maladaptive Perfectionism Questionnaire (Szczucka) was used for testing perfectionism. The Oldenburg Burnout Inventory was used for examining burnout syndrome. Adaptive perfectionism was positively and maladaptive perfectionism was negatively correlated with both aspects of professional burnout: the disengagement from work and exhaustion. What is more, maladaptive perfectionism was correlated negatively with age and work experience. People in relationships have a higher level of disengagement and a higher level of exhaustion than single ones. The results of hierarchical regression analyses have revealed, after having controlled selected demographic and job factors, that a significant predictor of disengagement is the high level of adaptive perfectionism and low level of maladaptive perfectionism. In addition, a significant predictor of high level of exhaustion is the low level of maladaptive perfectionism. Professional burnout among medical laboratory scientists is of a specific nature. The "healthier" perfectionism they reveal, the higher level of burnout they present. In this profession, lower risk of burnout is represented by those who are characterized by the lack of confidence in the quality of their actions and a negative reaction to their own imperfections associated with imposed social obligation to be perfect. The individuals pursuing their internal high standards experience burnout faster. Med Pr 2018;69(3):253-260. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  17. Interpersonal trust in different ages.

    Carla Sacchi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar diferentes escalas en español para la evaluación de la confianza interpersonal. La calidad de las relaciones establecidas entre los miembros de un grupo social permite el crecimiento de cada integrante y del grupo como conjunto. En la mayoría de los casos, y particularmente en la infancia, las necesidades solamente pueden ser satisfechas a través de la interacción con los demás; esto implica interdependencia y requiere reciprocidad. Por lo tanto es importante prever cómo actuará la otra persona, para anticipar nuestro comportamiento hacia ella. Las expectativas producen cambios en la atribución, según sea interpretada la actitud del otro como beligerante o cooperativa, y a la vez modifican el comportamiento hacia los demás.

  18. Interactive Teaching in Interpersonal Skills

    Christensen, Jørgen Erik; Karhu, Markku; Christensen, Cecillia

    2013-01-01

    skills, leadership and awareness. Consequently, educational programs for teaching engineers should work with the fact that the capability of communicating with people with different background competences is important, nevertheless the engineering education has traditionally focused on technical skills...... to the CDIO (conceive, design, implement and operate) approach in the autumn of 2008. The CDIO pedagogy encouraged to develop an interactive course in interpersonal skills, where the students have to take an active part in the exercises as well as involve themselves in the interactive communication process....... The course consists of various exercises from which the participants will develop their awareness and knowledge of communication. It is the intention to give the students a personal understanding and idea of a different approach to communicating between people. The students evaluated the course, and the four...

  19. Shared reality in interpersonal relationships.

    Andersen, Susan M; Przybylinski, Elizabeth

    2017-11-24

    Close relationships afford us opportunities to create and maintain meaning systems as shared perceptions of ourselves and the world. Establishing a sense of mutual understanding allows for creating and maintaining lasting social bonds, and as such, is important in human relations. In a related vein, it has long been known that knowledge of significant others in one's life is stored in memory and evoked with new persons-in the social-cognitive process of 'transference'-imbuing new encounters with significance and leading to predictable cognitive, evaluative, motivational, and behavioral consequences, as well as shifts in the self and self-regulation, depending on the particular significant other evoked. In these pages, we briefly review the literature on meaning as interpersonally defined and then selectively review research on transference in interpersonal perception. Based on this, we then highlight a recent series of studies focused on shared meaning systems in transference. The highlighted studies show that values and beliefs that develop in close relationships (as shared reality) are linked in memory to significant-other knowledge, and thus, are indirectly activated (made accessible) when cues in a new person implicitly activate that significant-other knowledge (in transference), with these shared beliefs then actively pursued with the new person and even protected against threat. This also confers a sense of mutual understanding, and all told, serves both relational and epistemic functions. In concluding, we consider as well the relevance of co-construction of shared reality n such processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The poetics of mourning and faith-based intervention in maladaptive grieving processes in Ethiopia.

    Hussein, Jeylan Wolyie

    2018-08-01

    The paper is an inquiry into the poetics of mourning and faith-based intervention in maladaptive grieving processes in Ethiopia. The paper discusses the ways that loss is signified and analyzes the meanings of ethnocultural and psychospiritual practices employed to deal with maladaptive grief processes and their psychological and emotional after-effects. Hermeneutics provided the methodological framework and informed the analysis. The thesis of the paper is that the poetics of mourning and faith-based social interventions are interactionally based meaning making processes. The paper indicates the limitations of the study and their implications for further inquiry.

  1. The Predictive Utility of Narcissism among Children and Adolescents: Evidence for a Distinction between Adaptive and Maladaptive Narcissism

    Barry, Christopher T.; Frick, Paul J.; Adler, Kristy K.; Grafeman, Sarah J.

    2007-01-01

    We examined the predictive utility of narcissism among a community sample of children and adolescents (N=98) longitudinally. Analyses focused on the differential utility between maladaptive and adaptive narcissism for predicting later delinquency. Maladaptive narcissism significantly predicted self-reported delinquency at one-, two-, and…

  2. Potret interpersonal communication skill mahasiswa calon konselor

    Dian Ari Widyastuti

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the interpersonal communication skill level of the counselor candidate students. This study is a quantitative descriptive study with data collection instrument in the form of Interpersonal Communication Skill (ICS scale. The subjects of the study were 105 students of Guidance and Counseling Study Program in one of the universities in Yogyakarta City which was taken by random sampling technique. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistical analysis, where the criteria were calculated using standard deviation and mean formulas. The results showed that as many as 14.29% of students are in the criteria of interpersonal communication skill is very high, 23.81% of students are in interpersonal communication skill criteria high, 37.14% of students are on interpersonal communication skill criteria are, 20% sinterpersonal communication skills criteria are low, and 4.76% of students are in very low interpersonal communication skill criteria. The results of this study can be used as a reference in an effort to develop interpersonal communication skill prospective student counselor

  3. PENGGUNAAN INSTANT MESSANGER dan KOMUNIKASI INTERPERSONAL REMAJA

    Primada Qurrota Ayun

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Interpersonal communication should ideally in face to face, until the achievement of intimate communication. Instant messenger makes interpersonal communication easier and more efficient. However, it also resulted in less effective communication to occur, because it only uses text messaging as a means to convey a message so frequent miscommunication. This study wanted to see how the use of instant messenger among teenagers in interpersonal communication. The theory used in this study is a Computer Mediated Communication, Ecology Media and Interpersonal Intimacy. The method used in this research is phenomenology. The results of this study indicate that the instant messenger is a medium that is considered to be practical and easy to communicate interpersonally with family, friends, and lovers. Interpersonal communication process through instant messenger can not reach the stage of intimate relationship, because of interactions that occur frequently experienced miscommunication due to an incorrect perception. Interpersonal communication is more effective if it is done face to face. Teens when communicating via instant messenger, tend not to believe and to tell the truth.

  4. Attachment Dimensions and Post-traumatic Symptoms Following Interpersonal Traumas versus Impersonal Traumas in Young Adults in Taiwan.

    Huang, Yu-Lien; Chen, Sue-Huei; Su, Yi-Jen; Kung, Yi-Wen

    2017-08-01

    Greater risk of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is seen in individuals exposed to interpersonal traumatic events. Based on an attachment perspective, interpersonal trauma exposure may activate one's attachment insecurity system and disrupt affect, behaviour and interpersonal function, which may in turn create more difficulties to cope with interpersonal traumas and exacerbate PTSD symptomatology. The present study examined whether attachment anxiety relative to attachment avoidance would be a stronger predictor of greater PTSD symptoms following interpersonal traumas versus impersonal traumas in a Taiwanese sample. One hundred and sixty-two trauma-exposed Taiwanese young adults completed the measures of symptoms of depression, anxiety and PTSD, and attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance. In this Taiwanese study, higher attachment anxiety was observed in individuals who were exposed to interpersonal traumas. The interpersonal trauma group reported greater PTSD symptoms than did the impersonal trauma group. Specifically, after controlling for age, occurrence of trauma and distress of trauma, attachment anxiety, but not attachment avoidance, predicted more PTSD total severity and avoidance symptoms in the interpersonal trauma group. The findings may be pertinent to attachment anxiety-related hyperactivating strategies, as well as specific cultural values and a forbearance strategy applied to regulate traumatic distress in a collectivist society. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Neither dichotomous nor split, but schema-related negative interpersonal evaluations characterize borderline patients.

    Sieswerda, Simkje; Barnow, Sven; Verheul, Roel; Arntz, Arnoud

    2013-02-01

    Cognitive models explain extreme thoughts, affects, and behaviors of patients with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) by specific mal-adaptive schemas and dichotomous thinking. Psychodynamic theories ascribe these to splitting. This study expanded the study of Veen and Arntz (2000) and investigated whether extreme evaluations in BPD are (1) dichotomous, negativistic, or split; (2) limited to specific (schema-related) interpersonal situations; and (3) related to traumatic childhood experiences. BPD (n = 18), cluster C personality disorder (n = 16), and nonpatient (n = 17) groups were asked to judge 16 characters portrayed in film fragments in a specific or nonspecific context and with negative, positive, or neutral roles on visual analogue scales. These scales were divided in negative-positive trait opposites related to BPD schemas, negative-positive trait opposites unrelated to BPD schemas, and neutral trait opposites. Interpersonal evaluations of patients with BPD were (1) negativistic; (2) schema related; and (3) partially related to traumatic childhood experiences. Negative evaluations of caring characters in an intimate context particularly characterized BPD. No evidence was found for dichotomous thinking or splitting in BPD.

  6. Maladaptive schemas as mediators of the relationship between previous victimizations in the family and dating violence victimization in adolescents.

    Calvete, Esther; Gámez-Guadix, Manuel; Fernández-Gonzalez, Liria; Orue, Izaskun; Borrajo, Erika

    2018-07-01

    This study examined whether exposure to family violence, both in the form of direct victimization and witnessing violence, predicted dating violence victimization in adolescents through maladaptive schemas. A sample of 933 adolescents (445 boys and 488 girls), aged between 13 and 18 (M = 15.10), participated in a three-year longitudinal study. They completed measures of exposure to family violence, maladaptive schemas of disconnection/rejection, and dating violence victimization. The findings indicate that witnessing family violence predicts the increase of dating violence victimization over time, through the mediation of maladaptive schemas in girls, but not in boys. Direct victimization in the family predicts dating violence victimization directly, without the mediation of schemas. In addition, maladaptive schemas contribute to the perpetuation of dating violence victimization over time. These findings provide new opportunities for preventive interventions, as maladaptive schemas can be modified. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Keterampilan Mendengarkan Secara Aktif dalam Komunikasi Interpersonal

    Nikodemus Thomas Martoredjo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Interpersonal communication is transactional and two-way direction. Therefore active listening skills play a key role in interpersonal communication. These active listening skills can have a positive impact on communication and at the same time creating a better relationship. So it is very useful to improve the skills of active listening. This paper intends to reveal the important role of active listening skills in interpersonal communication, identifying the challenges that exist within it both internally and externally as well as indicate the action that needs to be developed to improve these skills. 

  8. Mental health, sexual identity, and interpersonal violence: Findings from the Australian longitudinal Women's health study.

    Szalacha, Laura A; Hughes, Tonda L; McNair, Ruth; Loxton, Deborah

    2017-09-30

    We examined the relationships among experiences of interpersonal violence, mental health, and sexual identity in a national sample of young adult women in Australia. We used existing data from the third (2003) wave of young adult women (aged 25-30) in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH). We conducted bivariate analyses and fit multiple and logistic regression models to test experiences of six types of interpersonal violence (physical abuse, severe physical abuse, emotional abuse, sexual abuse, harassment, and being in a violent relationship), and the number of types of violence experienced, as predictors of mental health. We compared types and number of types of violence across sexual identity subgroups. Experiences of interpersonal violence varied significantly by sexual identity. Controlling for demographic characteristics, compared to exclusively heterosexual women, mainly heterosexual and bisexual women were significantly more likely to report physical, sexual, and emotional abuse. Mainly heterosexual and lesbian women were more likely to report severe physical abuse. Mainly heterosexual women were more than three times as likely to have been in a violent relationship in the past three years, and all three sexual minority subgroups were two to three times as likely to have experienced harassment. Bisexual women reported significantly higher levels of depression than any of the other sexual identity groups and scored lower on mental health than did exclusively heterosexual women. In linear regression models, interpersonal violence strongly predicted poorer mental health for lesbian and bisexual women. Notably, mental health indicators were similar for exclusively heterosexual and sexual minority women who did not report interpersonal violence. Experiencing multiple types of interpersonal violence was the strongest predictor of stress, anxiety and depression. Interpersonal violence is a key contributor to mental health disparities

  9. Stress

    Keller, Hanne Dauer

    2015-01-01

    Kapitlet handler om stress som følelse, og det trækker primært på de få kvalitative undersøgelser, der er lavet af stressforløb.......Kapitlet handler om stress som følelse, og det trækker primært på de få kvalitative undersøgelser, der er lavet af stressforløb....

  10. Stress !!!

    Fledderus, M.

    2012-01-01

    Twee op de vijf UT-studenten hebben last van ernstige studiestress, zo erg zelfs dat het ze in hun privéleven belemmert. Die cijfers komen overeen met het landelijk beeld van stress onder studenten. Samen met 14 andere universiteits- en hogeschoolbladen enquêteerde UT Nieuws bijna 5500 studenten. Opvallend is dat mannelijke studenten uit Twente zich veel minder druk lijken te maken over hun studie. Onder vrouwen ligt de stress juist erg hoog ten opzichte van het landelijk gemiddelde.

  11. A Language Teacher's Reflection on Maladaptive Immunity, Possible Selves and Motivation

    Ordem, Eser

    2017-01-01

    The concept of language teacher immunity as productive and maladaptive system has emerged in very recent years, although motivation has been incrementally studied in second language field. It is important to establish a relationship between language teacher immunity, possible selves and motivation. This study aimed to focus on a teacher's…

  12. Cardiac responsiveness to attention-demanding tasks in socially maladaptive children

    Althaus, M; Aarnoudse, CC; Minderaa, RB; Mulder, Gysbertus; Mulder, Lambertus

    Cardiac responsiveness to attention-demanding tasks in socially maladaptive children A psychofysiological study of the cardiac adaptivity to attention-demanding reaction time tasks demonstrated that children with a lesser variant of the pervasive developmental disorder (DSM-IV: PDDNOS) exhibit less

  13. Child Abuse, Early Maladaptive Schemas, and Risky Sexual Behavior in College Women

    Roemmele, Melissa; Messman-Moore, Terri L.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research suggests that individuals abused as children are more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior during adulthood. The present study examined early maladaptive schemas as mediators of the child abuse-risky sexual behavior relationship among 653 college women. Self-report surveys assessed three forms of child abuse: Sexual,…

  14. Relax and Try This Instead: Abbreviated Habit Reversal for Maladaptive Self-Biting.

    Jones, Kevin M.; Swearer, Susan M.; Friman, Patrick C.

    1997-01-01

    A study evaluated the effectiveness of an abbreviated habit reversal procedure to reduce maladaptive oral self-biting in an adolescent boy in residential care. Treatment involved a combination of relaxation and two competing responses (gum chewing and tongue-lip rubbing). The intervention eliminated the biting and the tissue damage it caused.…

  15. The Looming Maladaptive Style Questionnaire: Measurement Invariance and Relations to Anxiety and Depression across 10 Countries

    Hong, Ryan; Riskind, John; Cheung, Mike

    2017-01-01

    The Looming Maladaptive Style Questionnaire (LMSQ) is a self-report measure designed to assess the looming cognitive style, a tendency to interpret threats as rapidly approaching and increasing in magnitude. To date, no systematic evaluation on the psychometric properties of the LMSQ across diver...

  16. The Mediating Role of Maladaptive Perfectionism in the Association between Psychological Control and Learned Helplessness

    Filippello, Pina; Larcan, Rosalba; Sorrenti, Luana; Buzzai, Caterina; Orecchio, Susanna; Costa, Sebastiano

    2017-01-01

    Despite the extensive research on parental psychological control, no study has explored the relation between parental and teacher psychological control, maladaptive perfectionism and learned helplessness (LH). The purpose of this study was to investigate (1) whether perceived teacher psychological control predicts positively LH, (2) whether…

  17. Spatial sorting unlikely to promote maladaptive hybridization: response to Lowe, Muhlfeld, and Allendorf

    Phillips, B. L.; Baird, Stuart J. E.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 10 (2015), s. 564-565 ISSN 0169-5347 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Spatial sorting * Maladaptive hybridisation * Moving hybrid zones * Introgression * Hybrid invasion Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 16.735, year: 2015

  18. The Relationship between Defense Patterns and DSM-5 Maladaptive Personality Domains

    Granieri, Antonella; La Marca, Luana; Mannino, Giuseppe; Giunta, Serena; Guglielmucci, Fanny; Schimmenti, Adriano

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Research has extensively examined the relationship between defense mechanisms (DM) and personality traits. However, no study to date has explored if specific defenses (alone or in combination) are able to predict dysfunctional variants of personality domains, as conceived in the alternative DSM-5 model for personality disorders. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between DMs and DSM-5 maladaptive personality domains among adults. Materials and Methods: Three hundred and twenty-eight adults aged between 18 and 64 years old completed measures on DMs and maladapive personality domains. Regression analyses were performed to determine which DMs predicted the maladaptive personality domains of negative affectivity, detachment, antagonism, disinhibition, and psychoticism. Results: According to psychoanalytic literature, results showed that immature defenses positively predicted maladaptive personality domain scores, whereas mature defenses were generally related with better personality functioning. Moreover, different defense patterns emerged as significant predictors of the maladaptive personality domains comprised in the alternative DSM-5 model for personality disorder. Discussion: Our findings support the view that defense patterns represent core components of personality and its disorders, and suggest that an increased use of immature defenses and a reduced use of mature defenses have a negative impact on the development of personality. PMID:29163301

  19. Does Experiential Avoidance Mediate the Effects of Maladaptive Coping Styles on Psychopathology and Mental Health?

    Fledderus, Martine; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T.; Pieterse, Marcel E.

    2010-01-01

    Experiential avoidance (EA) is considered a risk factor for psychopathology. This study explores whether EA mediates the relationship between maladaptive coping styles (palliative, avoidance, and passive coping) and psychopathology and positive mental health. A total of 93 adults with mild to moderate psychological distress completed measures…

  20. Maladaptive Perfectionism and Ineffective Coping as Mediators between Attachment and Future Depression: A Prospective Analysis

    Wei, Meifen; Heppner, P. Paul; Russell, Daniel W.; Young, Shannon K.

    2006-01-01

    This study used a longitudinal design to examine whether maladaptive perfectionism and ineffective coping served as 2 mediators of the relation between adult attachment and future depression. Data were collected from 372 undergraduates at 2 time points. Results indicated that (a) the impact of attachment on future depression was mediated through…

  1. Measuring the Core Components of Maladaptive Personality: Severity Indices of Personality Problems (SIPP-118)

    H. Andrea (Helene); R. Verheul (Roel); C.C. Berghout (Casper); C. Dolan (Conor); P.J.A. van der Kroft (Petra); A.W. Bateman (Anthony); P. Fonagy (Peter); J.J. van Busschbach (Jan)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis report describes a series of studies among 2231 subjects on the development of the Severity Indices for Personality Problems (SIPP), a self-report questionnaire measuring the core components of (mal)adaptive personality functioning. Results show that the 16 facets have good

  2. Predicting marital satisfaction on the basis of early maladaptive schema in married women, Tehran, Iran

    Saeed Seyed Esmaili

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Early maladaptive schemes are cognitive, emotional and self-injurious patterns repeated throughout the life. Family is a natural social system in which couples have major role in the all of stages of its development, and many factors play a role in their marital satisfaction. Marital satisfaction is adopting expectations of couples of marital life. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between early maladaptive scheme with marital satisfaction and identification of predicting factors on marital satisfaction. This was a correlational cross-sectional method study. The population includes all married female persons referring to Tehran municipal regions. We used early maladaptive schemas questionnaire and Enrich marital satisfaction questionnaire for evaluation in participants. Descriptive tests, Pearson correlation test, T-Test, One Way ANOVA Test and Multivariate Regression Test were used for description and analysis of data. The mean age of samples in this study was 31.60±5.12 years old. There was significant relationship between age with Dependence/Incompetence (P=0.033, Self-sacrifice (P=0.010, Entitlement/Grandiosity (P=0.042, Impaired autonomy and performance (P=0.019, Abandonment/Instability (P=0.007. Linear regression analysis showed emotional deprivation and unrelenting standards/hypocriticalness subscales can predict marital satisfaction adversely. They can predict significantly 26% of marital satisfaction changes (P<0.001. we concluded that early maladaptive schema can predict the marital satisfaction negatively and of important role in its improvement or regression.

  3. The Treatment of Maladaptive Shame in Borderline Personality Disorder: A Pilot Study of "Opposite Action"

    Rizvi, Shireen L.; Linehan, Marsha M.

    2005-01-01

    This study sought to pilot test a short-term intervention for maladaptive shame in borderline personality disorder (BPD) based on the skill of "opposite action" from dialectical behavior therapy. Five women with BPD were treated with the intervention using a single-subject, multiple-baseline design. Results indicate that, although state ratings of…

  4. Maladaptive Behaviours Associated with Generalized Anxiety Disorder: An Item Response Theory Analysis.

    Mahoney, Alison E J; Hobbs, Megan J; Newby, Jill M; Williams, Alishia D; Andrews, Gavin

    2018-03-19

    Cognitive models of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) suggest that maladaptive behaviours may contribute to the maintenance of the disorder; however, little research has concentrated on identifying and measuring these behaviours. To address this gap, the Worry Behaviors Inventory (WBI) was developed and has been evaluated within a classical test theory (CTT) approach. As CTT is limited in several important respects, this study examined the psychometric properties of the WBI using an Item Response Theory approach. A large sample of adults commencing treatment for their symptoms of GAD (n = 537) completed the WBI in addition to measures of GAD and depression symptom severity. Patients with a probable diagnosis of GAD typically engaged in four or five maladaptive behaviours most or all of the time in an attempt to prevent, control or avoid worrying about everyday concerns. The two-factor structure of the WBI was confirmed, and the WBI scales demonstrated good reliability across a broad range of the respective scales. Together with previous findings, our results suggested that hypervigilance and checking behaviours, as well as avoidance of saying or doing things that are worrisome, were the most relevant maladaptive behaviours associated with GAD, and discriminated well between adults with low, moderate and high degrees of the respective WBI scales. Our results support the importance of maladaptive behaviours to GAD and the utility of the WBI to index these behaviours. Ramifications for the classification, theoretical conceptualization and treatment of GAD are discussed.

  5. Maladaptive Perfectionism, Adult Attachment, and Self-Esteem in College Students

    Rice, Kenneth G.; Lopez, Frederick G.

    2004-01-01

    Extending an earlier study that found high self-esteem to modify the impact of otherwise maladaptive perfectionism on depression, the current study used adult attachment theory to explore the link between perfectionism, self-esteem, and depression in college students. Results indicated that self-esteem buffered the effects of maladaptive…

  6. Parenting behaviours associated with the development of adaptive and maladaptive offspring personality traits.

    Johnson, Jeffrey G; Liu, Lydia; Cohen, Patricia

    2011-08-01

    To investigate the associations of beneficial parenting behaviours with adaptive and maladaptive offspring personality traits that persist into adulthood among individuals in the community. Families (n = 669) participating in the Children in the Community Study were interviewed during the childhood, adolescence, emerging adulthood, and adulthood of the offspring at the mean ages of 6, 14, 16, 22, and 33 years. Twelve types of beneficial maternal and paternal child-rearing behaviour, reported by offspring at the mean age of 16 years, were associated with elevated offspring personality resiliency, at the mean ages of 22 and 33 years, and with low offspring personality disorder trait levels. These longitudinal associations remained significant when histories of childhood behaviour problems and parental psychiatric disorder were controlled statistically. Similar linear (that is, dose-dependent) associations were observed between the number of beneficial parenting behaviours during childhood and adaptive and maladaptive offspring traits at the mean ages of 22 and 33 years. Maternal and paternal behaviours were independently associated with both adaptive and maladaptive offspring traits. Beneficial maternal and paternal child-rearing behaviours may promote the development of adaptive offspring personality traits that endure into adulthood, and they may be prospectively associated with reduced levels of maladaptive offspring traits. These associations may not be attributable to childhood behaviour problems or parental psychiatric disorders, and they may be equally evident during early and middle adulthood.

  7. The Association between Epilepsy and Autism Symptoms and Maladaptive Behaviors in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Viscidi, Emma W.; Johnson, Ashley L.; Spence, Sarah J.; Buka, Stephen L.; Morrow, Eric M.; Triche, Elizabeth W.

    2014-01-01

    Epilepsy is common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) but little is known about how seizures impact the autism phenotype. The association between epilepsy and autism symptoms and associated maladaptive behaviors was examined in 2,645 children with ASD, of whom 139 had epilepsy, from the Simons Simplex Collection. Children with ASD and…

  8. Evaluating the interpersonal content of the MMPI-2-RF Interpersonal Scales.

    Ayearst, Lindsay E; Sellbom, Martin; Trobst, Krista K; Bagby, R Michael

    2013-01-01

    Convergence between the MMPI-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008) interpersonal scales and 2 interpersonal circumplex (IPC) measures was examined. University students (N = 405) completed the MMPI-2 and 2 IPC measures, the Interpersonal Adjectives Scales Revised Big Five Version (IASR-B5; Trapnell & Wiggins, 1990) and the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems Circumplex (IIP-C; Horowitz, Alden, Wiggins, & Pincus, 2000). Internal consistency was adequate for 3 of the 6 scales investigated. The majority of scales were located in their hypothesized locations, although magnitude of correlations was somewhat weaker than anticipated, partly owing to restricted range from using a healthy sample. The expected pattern of correlations that defines a circular matrix was demonstrated, lending support for the convergent and discriminant validity of the MMPI-2-RF interpersonal scales with respect to the assessment of interpersonal traits and problems.

  9. Interpersonal Mediators Linking Acculturation Stressors to Subsequent Internalizing Symptoms and Self-Esteem in Latino Adolescents

    Smokowski, Paul Richard; Bacallao, Martica; Buchanan, Rachel Lee

    2009-01-01

    The specific aim of this study was to examine pathways leading to internalizing symptoms and self-esteem in Latino adolescents. Adolescent feelings of interpersonal humiliation, family conflict and commitment, and friendships with peers were investigated as potential mediators linking acculturation stress to subsequent adolescent self-esteem and…

  10. Emotional conflict in interpersonal interactions.

    Ruz, María; Tudela, Pío

    2011-01-15

    Facial displays of emotions can help to infer the mental states of other individuals. However, the expectations we generate on the basis of people's emotions can mismatch their actual behaviour in certain circumstances, which generates conflict. In the present study, we explored the neural mechanisms of emotional conflict during interpersonal interactions. Participants had to accept or reject economic offers made by several partners who displayed emotional expressions. On every trial, a cue informed participants of whether they could trust the emotion of their partner or not. Trustworthy (low-conflict) partners with happy facial expressions were cooperative and those with angry expressions did not cooperate. Untrustworthy (high-conflict) partners, on the other hand, cooperated when their expression was angry and did not cooperate when they displayed a happy emotion. Behavioural responses were faster for trustworthy than for untrustworty partners. High-conflict partners activated the anterior cingulate and the anterior insula. In turn, trustworthy partners were associated with activations in the left precuneus. Our results suggest that the emotion displayed by another person affects our decision-making in social contexts. When emotional expressions are linked to their natural consequences, they engage ToM processes. In contrast, untrustworthy emotional expressions engage conflict-related brain regions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Developing Interpersonal Abilities With Interactive Vignettes

    Zbylut, Michelle L; Ward, Jason N

    2004-01-01

    ... of innovation and cultural awareness." This paper discussed an innovative training prototype that not only targets the development of interpersonal ability in junior officers, but also incorporates many of the situation elements...

  12. Increasing interpersonal trust through divergent thinking

    Roberta eSellaro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Interpersonal trust is an essential ingredient of many social relationships but how stable is it actually, and how is it controlled? There is evidence that the degree of trust into others might be rather volatile and can be affected by manipulations like drawing attention to personal interdependence or independence. Here we investigated whether the degree of interpersonal trust can be biased by inducing either a more integrative or a more cognitive-control mode by means of a creativity task requiring divergent or convergent thinking, respectively. Participants then performed the Trust Game, which provides an index of interpersonal trust by assessing the money units one participant (the trustor transfers to another participant (the trustee. As expected, participants transferred significantly more money to the trustee after engaging in divergent thinking as compared to convergent thinking. This observation provides support for the idea that interpersonal trust is controlled by domain-general (i.e., not socially dedicated cognitive states.

  13. Interpersonal Compatibility: Effect on Simulation Game Outcomes.

    Yantis, Betty; Nixon, John E.

    1982-01-01

    Investigates the impact of interpersonal relationships on decision-making success in small groups using a business simulation game as a research vehicle. The study concludes that group decision making may be unfavorably affected by personality conflicts. (Author/JJD)

  14. Interpersonal Communication of Children with Mental Retardation

    Aliyah Nur'aini Hanun

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Tunagrahita were a terminology to called the children with mentally retarded conditions. This conditions caused these children having difficulties at least on four areas, related with attention, memory, language, and academics. The research problem is how interpersonal communication tunagrahita in Dormitory Extraordinary Education Foundation (YPLB Cipaganti Bandung. This research’s aim is to seek the interpersonal communication phenomenon of children with mentally retarded in YPLB Cipaganti Dormitory. The research method which were used is the qualitative method with communication Ethnography approach and Symbolic Interactionism theory to have comprehensive descriptions about life reality of mentally retarded’s children in YPLB Cipaganti Dormitory. Data obtained by participation observer, unstructured interviews, and documentary study. The result showed that interpersonal interactions are done with each child boarding and with the management of the hostel, is a series of unique events and interpersonal communication with a distinctive circular process that takes place continuously.

  15. Interpersonal attraction in buyer–supplier relationships

    Ellegaard, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The concept of attraction is not reserved for the study of interpersonal relationships between husband and wife, family members, or lifelong friends. On the contrary, it contains much potential as a variable describing interpersonal business exchange relationships. This potential has been noted...... by well-known industrial marketing scholars in the past, and recent theoretical advances have incorporated attraction to describe buyer– supplier exchange, although primarily at the interorganizational level of analysis. The in-depth understanding of interpersonal attraction between boundary spanners...... representing buying and supply companies has yet to be developed. By drawing on social psychology and social exchange literature, this paper attempts to fill some of this gap. It contributes by uncovering the elements and process of interpersonal attraction. Furthermore, propositions are formulated to guide...

  16. Group Coupons: Interpersonal Bundling on the Internet

    Yongmin Chen; Tianle Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Sellers sometimes offer goods for sale under both a regular price and a discount for group purchase if the consumer group reaches some minimum size. This selling practice, which we term interpersonal bundling, has been popularized on the Internet by companies such as Groupon. We explain why interpersonal bundling is a profitable strategy in the presence of demand uncertainty, and how it may further boost profits by stimulating product information dissemination. Other reasons for its profitabi...

  17. Relation between birth order and interpersonal styles

    Mauro de Oliveira Magalhães

    2009-01-01

    Interpersonal style is an aspect of personality related to the particular way individuals participate and gain influence in social contexts. It has its origin in childhood’s first social interactions within the family group. It is suggested that the individual position in the family structure, namely birth order, is an important variable in this process. The present study investigated combined effects of sex and birth order on interpersonal style. A sample of 435 college students (196 men and...

  18. Increasing interpersonal trust through divergent thinking

    Sellaro, Roberta; Hommel, Bernhard; de Kwaadsteniet, Erik W.; van de Groep, Suzanne; Colzato, Lorenza S.

    2014-01-01

    Interpersonal trust is an essential ingredient of many social relationships but how stable is it actually, and how is it controlled? There is evidence that the degree of trust into others might be rather volatile and can be affected by manipulations like drawing attention to personal interdependence or independence. Here we investigated whether the degree of interpersonal trust can be biased by inducing either a more integrative or a more focused/exclusive cognitive control mode by means of a...

  19. Lethal Interpersonal Violence in the Middle Pleistocene

    Sala, Nohemi; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Pantoja-P?rez, Ana; Pablos, Adri?n; Mart?nez, Ignacio; Quam, Rolf M.; G?mez-Olivencia, Asier; Berm?dez de Castro, Jos? Mar?a; Carbonell, Eudald

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of interpersonal violence has been documented previously in Pleistocene members of the genus Homo, but only very rarely has this been posited as the possible manner of death. Here we report the earliest evidence of lethal interpersonal violence in the hominin fossil record. Cranium 17 recovered from the Sima de los Huesos Middle Pleistocene site shows two clear perimortem depression fractures on the frontal bone, interpreted as being produced by two episodes of localized blunt force ...

  20. Interpersonal skills for effective library management

    Koganuramath, M. M.; Angadi, Mallikarjun

    2000-01-01

    This paper intends to reveal various facets of interpersonal skills and also the importance of public relations skills, including librarian's own skills, that helps the users to cultivate interpersonal skills as a positive reference service. Surveys of professional librarians show a high need for the skills for professional competencies, management, networking and teamwork. The perceived need for skills in these areas may reflect the increasing interdependence of library workers and relianc...

  1. The Social Neuroscience of Interpersonal Emotions.

    Müller-Pinzler, Laura; Krach, Sören; Krämer, Ulrike M; Paulus, Frieder M

    In our daily lives, we constantly engage in reciprocal interactions with other individuals and represent ourselves in the context of our surrounding social world. Within social interactions, humans often experience interpersonal emotions such as embarrassment, shame, guilt, or pride. How interpersonal emotions are processed on the neural systems level is of major interest for social neuroscience research. While the configuration of laboratory settings in general is constraining for emotion research, recent neuroimaging investigations came up with new approaches to implement socially interactive and immersive scenarios for the real-life investigation of interpersonal emotions. These studies could show that among other brain regions the so-called mentalizing network, which is typically involved when we represent and make sense of others' states of mind, is associated with interpersonal emotions. The anterior insula/anterior cingulate cortex network at the same time processes one's own bodily arousal during such interpersonal emotional experiences. Current research aimed to explore how we make sense of others' emotional states during social interactions and investigates the modulating factors of our emotional experiences during social interactions. Understanding how interpersonal emotions are processed on the neural systems level may yield significant implications for neuropsychiatric disorders that affect social behavior such as social anxiety disorders or autism.

  2. Integrated Physiological Mechanisms of Exercise Performance, Adaptation, and Maladaptation to Heat Stress

    2011-10-01

    en t 120 130 140 150 160 Marathon time, min 170 180 190 25 20 15 10 WBGT, °C Figure 11 Nomogram examining the potential performance decre- ment (y...otherwise healthy individuals participating in marathon and ultramarathon competition (81, 95, 168, 391), military training (132, 304), and recreational ...humans. J Appl Physiol 107: 1519-1525, 2009. 111. Ely MR, Cheuvront SN, Roberts WO, Montain SJ. Impact of weather on marathon -running performance

  3. Stress !!!

    Fledderus, M.

    2012-01-01

    Twee op de vijf UT-studenten hebben last van ernstige studiestress, zo erg zelfs dat het ze in hun privéleven belemmert. Die cijfers komen overeen met het landelijk beeld van stress onder studenten. Samen met 14 andere universiteits- en hogeschoolbladen enquêteerde UT Nieuws bijna 5500 studenten.

  4. Effects of daily maladaptive coping on nightly sleep in mothers.

    Felder, Jennifer N; Epel, Elissa S; Coccia, Michael; Puterman, Eli; Prather, Aric A

    2018-01-01

    We examined effects of daily rumination and suppression in response to stressors on objective and subjective sleep among mothers. Participants were 183 mothers, including chronically stressed mothers of children with an autism spectrum disorder (M-ASD; n = 92) and age-matched mothers of neurotypical children (M-NT; n = 91). In an intensive longitudinal design, participants provided reports of daily rumination and suppression, nightly objective actigraphy-defined sleep and nightly subjective sleep quality for seven consecutive days at baseline, 9 months and 18 months. Total sleep time, sleep fragmentation, sleep onset latency, and subjective sleep quality. Among M-NT with above average depressive symptoms, higher daily rumination was associated with shorter total sleep time. Rumination was associated with more sleep fragmentation among M-NT at the trend level. Rumination was not associated with sleep onset latency among M-NT, or with any sleep outcomes among M-ASD. Suppression was not associated with any sleep outcomes. We provide novel evidence of the effect of rumination on objectively measured sleep duration among M-NT. Coping was not related to sleep among M-ASD. Given the prevalence of poor sleep among mothers, future work should examine modifiable factors perpetuating sleep disturbance.

  5. Interpersonal ambivalence in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Moritz, Steffen; Niemeyer, Helen; Hottenrott, Birgit; Schilling, Lisa; Spitzer, Carsten

    2013-10-01

    The social attitudes and interpersonal relationships of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are subject to a longstanding controversy. Whereas cognitive-behavioural researchers emphasize exaggerated pro-social attitudes in OCD like inflated responsibility and worry for other people (especially significant others), dynamic theories traditionally focus on anti-social attitudes such as latent aggression and hostility. In two recent studies, we gathered support not only for a co-existence of these seemingly opposing attitudes in OCD, but also for a functional connection: inflated responsibility in part appears to serve as a coping strategy (or “defense”) against negative interpersonal feelings. In the present study, we tested a shortened version of the Responsibility and Interpersonal Behaviours and Attitudes Questionnaire (RIBAQ-R). The scale was administered to 34 participants with OCD and 34 healthy controls. The questionnaire concurrently measures pro-social and anti-social interpersonal attitudes across three subscales. In line with our prior studies, patients displayed higher scores on both exaggerated pro-social attitudes (e.g. “I suffer from a strict conscience concerning my relatives”) as well as latent aggression (e.g. “Sometimes I would like to harm strangers on the street“) and suspiciousness/distrust (e.g. “I cannot even trust my own family”). A total of 59% of the patients but only 12% of the healthy controls showed marked interpersonal ambivalence (defined as scores higher than one standard deviation from the mean of the nonclinical controls on both the prosocial and at least one of the two anti-social subscales). The study asserts high interpersonal ambivalence in OCD. Further research is required to pinpoint both the dynamic and causal links between opposing interpersonal styles. Normalization and social competence training may prove beneficial to resolve the apparent problems of patients with OCD regarding anger

  6. A formal model of interpersonal inference

    Michael eMoutoussis

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: We propose that active Bayesian inference – a general framework for decision-making – can equally be applied to interpersonal exchanges. Social cognition, however, entails special challenges. We address these challenges through a novel formulation of a formal model and demonstrate its psychological significance. Method: We review relevant literature, especially with regards to interpersonal representations, formulate a mathematical model and present a simulation study. The model accommodates normative models from utility theory and places them within the broader setting of Bayesian inference. Crucially, we endow people's prior beliefs, into which utilities are absorbed, with preferences of self and others. The simulation illustrates the model's dynamics and furnishes elementary predictions of the theory. Results: 1. Because beliefs about self and others inform both the desirability and plausibility of outcomes, in this framework interpersonal representations become beliefs that have to be actively inferred. This inference, akin to 'mentalising' in the psychological literature, is based upon the outcomes of interpersonal exchanges. 2. We show how some well-known social-psychological phenomena (e.g. self-serving biases can be explained in terms of active interpersonal inference. 3. Mentalising naturally entails Bayesian updating of how people value social outcomes. Crucially this includes inference about one’s own qualities and preferences. Conclusion: We inaugurate a Bayes optimal framework for modelling intersubject variability in mentalising during interpersonal exchanges. Here, interpersonal representations are endowed with explicit functional and affective properties. We suggest the active inference framework lends itself to the study of psychiatric conditions where mentalising is distorted.

  7. Momentary assessment of interpersonal process in psychotherapy.

    Thomas, Katherine M; Hopwood, Christopher J; Woody, Erik; Ethier, Nicole; Sadler, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    To demonstrate how a novel computer joystick coding method can illuminate the study of interpersonal processes in psychotherapy sessions, we applied it to Shostrom's (1966) well-known films in which a client, Gloria, had sessions with 3 prominent psychotherapists. The joystick method, which records interpersonal behavior as nearly continuous flows on the plane defined by the interpersonal dimensions of control and affiliation, provides an excellent sampling of variability in each person's interpersonal behavior across the session. More important, it yields extensive information about the temporal dynamics that interrelate clients' and therapists' behaviors. Gloria's 3 psychotherapy sessions were characterized using time-series statistical indices and graphical representations. Results demonstrated that patterns of within-person variability tended to be markedly asymmetric, with a predominant, set-point-like interpersonal style from which deviations mostly occurred in just 1 direction (e.g., occasional submissive departures from a modal dominant style). In addition, across each session, the therapist and client showed strongly cyclical variations in both control and affiliation, and these oscillations were entrained to different extents depending on the therapist. We interpreted different patterns of moment-to-moment complementarity of interpersonal behavior in terms of different therapeutic goals, such as fostering a positive alliance versus disconfirming the client's interpersonal expectations. We also showed how this method can be used to provide a more detailed analysis of specific shorter segments from each of the sessions. Finally, we compared our approach to alternative techniques, such as act-to-act lagged relations and dynamic systems and pointed to a variety of possible research and training applications. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. What are we measuring? Convergence of leadership with interpersonal and non-interpersonal personality.

    de Vries, R.E.

    2008-01-01

    Since leadership styles have been most commonly defined in terms of interpersonal influence, one would assume that they have their main projections on the interpersonal circumplex. In this study, the relations between leadership styles from the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire and Leader

  9. Gender differences in brain activity toward unpleasant linguistic stimuli concerning interpersonal relationships: an fMRI study.

    Shirao, Naoko; Okamoto, Yasumasa; Okada, Go; Ueda, Kazutaka; Yamawaki, Shigeto

    2005-10-01

    Women are more vulnerable to psychosocial stressors such as interpersonal conflicts than men, and are more susceptible to some psychiatric disorders. We hypothesized that there are differences in the brain activity of men and women while perceiving unpleasant linguistic stimuli concerning interpersonal relationships, and that they underlie the different sensitivity toward these stressful stimuli. We carried out a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study on 13 young female adults and 13 young male adults who performed an emotional decision task including sets of unpleasant words concerning interpersonal relationships and sets of neutral words. In the women, the unpleasant words more significantly activated the bilateral caudate nuclei and left putamen than the neutral words. However, among the men, there was no difference in the level of activation of any brain area induced by the unpleasant or neutral word stimuli. Upon performing the task, there was a significant gender difference in brain activation. Moreover, among the female subjects, the activation in the bilateral caudate nuclei and left thalamus was negatively correlated with the average rating of pleasantness of the words concerning interpersonal conflicts by the subject. These results demonstrate gender differences in brain activity in processing unpleasant linguistic stimuli related to interpersonal conflicts. Our data suggest that the bilateral caudate nuclei and left putamen play an important role in the perception of words concerning interpersonal conflicts in women. The bilateral caudate nuclei and left thalamus may regulate a woman's sensitivity to unpleasant information about interpersonal difficulties.

  10. PENGARUH KONFLIK INTERPERSONAL, WORK-FAMILY CONFLICT DAN STRES, TERHADAP KEPUASAN KERJA DAN DAMPAKNYA TERHADAP KEPUASAN HIDUP

    Adnan Rajak

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis research aims to analyze that the effect of interpersonal conflict, work family on work stress and job satisfacton, effect of work stress on job satisfactin, dan effect of job satisfaction on life satisfaction at Civil Servant Secretariat of Ministry of Eduacation and Cultural. Research Method that used is survey method at fixed lecturer of Secretariat of Ministry. This Research Type is the verification descriptive. Sample size research this is the 200 Civil Servant and the technique used strafied random sampling. Method that used to test of hypothesis is Structural Equation Modeling (SEM. The result of the study, (1 Conflict of interpersonal positive effect on the work stress, (2 Work-family conflict negative effect on the Work stress, (3 Conflict of interpersonal negative effect on the Job satisfaction, (4 Work-family conflict negative effect on the Job satisfaction, (5 Work Stress negative effect on the Job satisfaction, and (6 Job satisfaction positive effect on the Life satisfaction. Recommendation of this study is the Secretariat of Ministry should manage interpersonal conflict and family conflict in a way to identify and evaluate accurately through approaches, Collaborating, problem solving, Avoiding, Competing and Accommodating. While the employee stress can be done through the Individual and organizational approach.Keywords: Interpersonal Conflict, Work Family Conflict, Work Stress, Job Satisfaction, and Life SatisfactionAbstrakTujuan dalam penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh konflik interpersonal, work-family conflict, terhadap stres kerja dan kepuasan kerja, serta pengaruh stres kerja terhadap kepuasan kerja dan kepuasan kerja terhada Kepuasan Hidup PNS pada Sekretariat Jenderal Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah metode survey pada PNS Sekretariat Jenderal. Ukuran sampel penelitian ini adalah 200 PNS dan menggunakan teknik strafied random sampling. Meode yang

  11. The influence of parenting on maladaptive cognitive schema: a cross-sectional research on a group of adults

    Pellerone M

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Monica Pellerone,1 Calogero Iacolino,1 Giuseppe Mannino,2 Ivan Formica,3 Simona Maria Zabbara1 1Faculty of Human and Social Sciences, “Kore” University of Enna, Enna, Sicily, Italy; 2Department of Jurisprudence, “LUMSA” University, Rome, Italy; 3Department of Cognitive, Psychological, Pedagogical Sciences and Cultural Studies, University of Study of Messina, Messina, Sicily, Italy Background: The literature emphasizes the role of early interpersonal experiences in the development of cognitive vulnerability; in particular, interruptions in early family relationships, parental unavailability and dysfunctional parenting are potential evolutionary precursors to negative cognitive style and emotional disorders.Materials and methods: This study measured the relationship of retrospective ratings on parental bonding with cognitive patterns in a group of Italian adults. The objectives of this study were as follows: to analyze the influence of age and education level on cognitive domains; to verify whether being parents and living at home with parents affect both parenting style and cognitive domains; to investigate how the type of the maternal and paternal parenting independently affects cognitive styles; to measure the predictive variables for the use of cognitive dysfunctional patterns and to investigate age as a moderating variable of the relation between parenting styles and cognitive domains in a group of adult men and women. The research involved 209 adults (118 males and 91 females living in Sicily (Italy aged between 20 and 60 years (M = 37.52; SD = 11.42. The research lasted for 1 year. The instruments used were the Parental Bonding Instrument to measure the perception of parenting during childhood and the Young Schema Questionnaire-3 to investigate cognitive patterns.Results: Data show that being a younger adult male with mother’s parenting style characterized by a lower level of nurturance is predictive of the disconnection and

  12. Pathological narcissism and maladaptive self-regulatory behaviours in a nationally representative sample of Canadian men.

    Kealy, David; Ogrodniczuk, John S; Rice, Simon M; Oliffe, John L

    2017-10-01

    Clinical observation has linked externalizing coping strategies such as substance overuse and aggressive behaviours with narcissistic personality dysfunction. This study examined the relationship between pathological narcissism and maladaptive self-regulatory behaviours among Canadian men. An online survey was distributed among a stratified, nationally representative sample of 1000 men from across Canada. The survey included brief self-report measures of pathological narcissism, maladaptive externalizing coping behaviours, and general psychological distress. After controlling for the effects of age and general psychological distress, pathological narcissism was found to be significantly associated with alcohol overuse and aggressive behaviour. Significant though modest interaction effects were found between pathological narcissism and age - with regards to drug use - and distress - with regards to risk-taking behaviour. The findings point to the need for attention to narcissistic dysfunction as a clinical and public health issue among men. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Association of adaptive and maladaptive narcissism with personal burnout: findings from a cross-sectional study.

    VON Känel, Roland; Herr, Raphael Manfred; VAN Vianen, Annelies Elizabeth Maria; Schmidt, Burkhard

    2017-06-08

    Burnout is associated with poor mental and physical functioning and high costs for societies. Personality attributes may critically increase the risk of personal burnout. We specifically examined whether narcissism associates with personal burnout in a working population. We studied n=1,461 employees (mean age 41.3 ± 9.4 yr, 52% men) drawn from a random sample of a pharmaceutical company in Germany. All participants completed the personal burnout subscale of the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory and the Narcissistic Personality Inventory to assess maladaptive (entitlement/exploitativeness) and adaptive (leadership/authority) narcissism. In linear regression analysis, when mutually adjusting for the maladaptive and adaptive narcissism scales, higher adaptive narcissism was associated with lower burnout scores (ß=-0.04, pnarcissism was associated with higher burnout scores (ß=0.04, pnarcissism was associated with increased levels of burnout symptoms, adaptive narcissism was associated with fewer burnout symptoms.

  14. General and maladaptive personality dimensions and the assessment of callous-unemotional traits in adolescence.

    Decuyper, Mieke; De Bolle, Marleen; De Fruyt, Filip; De Clercq, Barbara

    2011-10-01

    Associations between callous-unemotional traits and general and maladaptive personality dimensions are examined in adolescence. More specifically, it was investigated to what extent general and maladaptive personality dimensions can account for the variance in callous-unemotional (CU) scores. Adolescents (N = 509) and their mothers completed the Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits (ICU; Frick, 2003), the Hierarchical Personality Inventory for Children (HiPIC; Mervielde & De Fruyt, 1999, 2002), and the Dimensional Personality Symptom Item Pool (DIPSI; De Clercq, De Fruyt, Van Leeuwen, & Mervielde, 2006). Both personality measures accounted for substantial variance in ICU scores and the overall CU profile in terms of the HiPIC and DIPSI was consistent with psychopathy conceptualizations and consistent across informant. Implications for the assessment of early externalizing trait pathology are discussed.

  15. The importance and acceptability of general and maladaptive personality trait computerized assessment feedback.

    Lengel, Gregory J; Mullins-Sweatt, Stephanie N

    2017-01-01

    Personality traits are a useful component of clinical assessment, and have been associated with positive and negative life outcomes. Assessment of both general and maladaptive personality traits may be beneficial practice, as they may complement each other to comprehensively and accurately describe one's personality. Notably, personal preferences regarding assessment feedback have not been studied. The current study examined the acceptability of personality assessment feedback from the perspective of the examinee. Treatment-seeking participants from a university (n = 72) and Amazon.com MTurk (n = 101) completed measures of the 5-factor model and the DSM-5 alternative model of personality disorder, and were then provided feedback on their general and maladaptive personality traits. Individuals then provided feedback on which aspects they found most useful. Results demonstrated strong participant agreement that the personality trait feedback was accurate and relevant. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Gender Differences in Maladaptive Cognitive Schema in Orphans in Dakahlia, Egypt

    Abdel-Hady El-Gilany

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the gender differences of maladaptive cognitive schema among orphans in Dakahlia governorate orphanages. A cross-sectional comparative study included 152 orphan boys and 48 orphan girls in all orphanages homes in Dakahlia governorate, Egypt. Data collection tools included a structured interview questionnaire for personal data; early maladaptive schema questionnaire-short form (EMSQ-SF. The mean score of the total YSQ and all the subscales, except self-sacrifice and unrelenting standards, are significantly higher among females than males. Attention should be given to the psychological care of the orphans especially security, trust, confidence, and autonomy with more attention to orphan girls.

  17. Impact of the picture exchange communication system: effects on communication and collateral effects on maladaptive behaviors.

    Ganz, Jennifer B; Parker, Richard; Benson, Joanne

    2009-12-01

    Many children with autism require intensive instruction in the use of augmentative or alternative communication systems, such as the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS). This study investigated the use of PECS with three young boys with autism to determine the impact of PECS training on use of pictures for requesting, use of intelligible words, and maladaptive behaviors. A multiple baseline-probe design with a staggered start was implemented. Results indicated that all of the participants quickly learned to make requests using pictures and that two used intelligible speech following PECS instruction; maladaptive behaviors were variable throughout baseline and intervention phases. Although all of the participants improved in at least one dependent variable, there remain questions regarding who is best suited for PECS and similar interventions.

  18. Attachment style and interpersonal trauma in refugees.

    Morina, Naser; Schnyder, Ulrich; Schick, Matthis; Nickerson, Angela; Bryant, Richard A

    2016-12-01

    Refugees can suffer many experiences that threaten their trust in others. Although models of refugee mental health have postulated that attachment securities may be damaged by refugee experiences, this has yet to be empirically tested. This study aimed to understand the relationship between the nature of traumatic experiences sustained by refugees and attachment styles. In a cross-sectional study, treatment-seeking refugees (N = 134) were assessed for traumatic exposure using the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire and Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale. Attachment style was assessed using the Experiences in Close Relationship Scale. Whereas gender and severity of interpersonal traumatic events predicted avoidant attachment style (accounting for 11% of the variance), neither these factors nor non-interpersonal trauma predicted anxious attachment. Exposure to interpersonal traumatic events, including torture, is associated with enduring avoidant attachment tendencies in refugees. This finding accords with attachment theories that prior adverse interpersonal experiences can undermine secure attachment systems, and may promote avoidance of attachment seeking. This finding may point to an important process maintaining poor psychological health in refugees affected by interpersonal trauma. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  19. Adaptation opportunities and maladaptive outcomes in climate vulnerability hotspots of northern Ghana

    Philip Antwi-Agyei

    Full Text Available How climate change adaptation practices can constrain development and deliver maladaptive outcomes in vulnerability hotspots is yet to be explored in-depth using case study analyses. This paper explores the effects of climate change coping and adaptation responses in three case study villages across the Central Gonja district of northern Ghana. The study addresses the following research questions: i What are the key climatic and non-climatic stressors confronting households in northern Ghanaian communities? ii How are households adapting to climatic and non-climatic stressors? and iii What are the outcomes of these coping and adaptation responses on development? The study employs a mixed-method approach including key informant interviews, focus group discussions and household questionnaire surveys. Data identified socioeconomic stressors including a lack of access to (and high cost of farm inputs, labour shortages and population growth. Climatic stressors include erratic rainfall, high temperature, droughts and floods. Climatic and non-climatic stressors interact to affect agricultural practices and related livelihoods. The study identified various adaptation measures including extensification and intensification of agriculture, temporary migration, planting of drought resistant varieties, irrigation, and livelihood diversification. We show that many coping measures (e.g. livelihood diversifications activities such as selling of firewood and charcoal production and adaptation responses (including intensification, extensification and irrigation currently deliver maladaptive outcomes, resulting in lock-ins that could exacerbate future climate vulnerabilities. The paper contributes to the growing literature on adaptation and climate risk management by providing empirical evidence showing how coping and adaptations measures can deliver maladaptive outcomes in vulnerable communities. Keywords: Maladaptation, Climate change and variability

  20. Early Maladaptive Schemas in Depressed Women and Its Relationship with Depression

    Hacer Bolat KONUKÇU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Objective: Schemas are deep enduring cognitive structures that are the source of dysfunctional cognitions, emotions and behaviors, activate after critical incidents in depression. A subset of schemas called Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMS which are hyphotised to arise from early traumatic and adverse life events are also claimed to be related with not only personality disorders but also mood disorders. In this study we aimed to investigate the relationship between early maladaptive schemas and depression and relationship between schema scores and depression severity in depressed women and compare it with non-depressed controls.Methods: 40 women attending to an outpatient psychiatry clinic and 30 healthy controls participated. All participants were assessed with SCID-1. Data were obtained by using a Sociodemographic Questionnaires, Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Form 3 (YSQ and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI.Results: All except one (enmeshment/undeveloped self maladaptive schema scores of depressed women were higher than controls. BDI was correlated to some schema and schema domain scores in both depressed and control groups but the correlations were stronger in control group. Mean emotional deprivation, negativism, abandonment and instability, failure EMS scores showed the highest difference between two groups. The schema domains most related to depression symptom severity were disconnection and rejection, impaired autonomy and performance.Conclusions: Almost all early maladaptive schemas are related to depression, and some schemas are related to depression symptom severity but these correlations are weaker in control group. This may mean that EMS are stable and mood independent structures. Although other schemas are related to depression, mostly related EMS in women might be emotional deprivation schema. These schemas may also overlap with Beck’s unlovability core belief or sociotropy dimension

  1. Mediators of interpersonal violence and drug addiction severity among methamphetamine users in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Hobkirk, Andréa L; Watt, Melissa H; Green, Kimberly T; Beckham, Jean C; Skinner, Donald; Meade, Christina S

    2015-03-01

    South Africa has high rates of interpersonal violence and a rapidly growing methamphetamine epidemic. Previous research has linked experiences of interpersonal violence to higher rates of substance use, and identified mental health constructs as potential mediators of this association. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between interpersonal violence and addiction severity among active methamphetamine users in Cape Town, South Africa, and to explore symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use coping as mediators of this relationship. A community sample of 360 methamphetamine users was recruited through respondent driven sampling and surveyed on their experiences of violence, mental health, coping, and drug use and severity. A series of one-way ANOVAs were conducted to examine the relationship of self-reported interpersonal violence with drug addiction severity, and multiple mediation analyses were used to determine if PTSD symptoms and substance use coping mediated this relationship. The majority (87%) of the sample reported experiencing at least one instance of interpersonal violence in their lifetime, and the number of violent experiences was associated with increased drug addiction severity. PTSD and substance use coping were significant mediators of this association. Only the indirect effect of substance use coping remained significant for the female sample when the mediation model was conducted separately for men and women. The findings point to the need for integrated treatments that address drug use and PTSD for methamphetamine users in South Africa and highlight the importance of coping interventions for women. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Broadening perspectives on trauma and recovery: a socio-interpersonal view of PTSD.

    Maercker, Andreas; Hecker, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is one of the very few mental disorders that requires by definition an environmental context-a traumatic event or events-as a precondition for diagnosis. Both trauma sequelae and recovery always occur in the context of social-interpersonal contexts, for example, in interaction with a partner, family, the community, and the society. The present paper elaborates and extends the social-interpersonal framework model of PTSD. This was developed to complement other intrapersonally focused models of PTSD, which emphasize alterations in an individual's memory, cognitions, or neurobiology. Four primary reasons for broadening the perspective from the individual to the interpersonal-societal contexts are discussed. The three layers of the model (social affects, close relationships, and culture and society) are outlined. We further discuss additional insights and benefits of the social-interpersonal perspective for the growing field of research regarding resilience after traumatic experiences. The paper closes with an outlook on therapy approaches and interventions considering this broader social-interpersonal perspective on PTSD.

  3. Does relational dysfunction mediate the association between anxiety disorders and later depression? Testing an interpersonal model of comorbidity.

    Starr, Lisa R; Hammen, Constance; Connolly, Nicole Phillips; Brennan, Patricia A

    2014-01-01

    Anxiety disorders tend to precede onset of comorbid depression. Several researchers have suggested a causal role for anxiety in promoting depressive episodes, but few studies have identified specific mechanisms. The current study proposes an interpersonal model of comorbidity, where anxiety disorders disrupt interpersonal functioning, which in turn elevates risk for depression. At age 15 (T1), 815 adolescents oversampled for maternal depression completed diagnostic interviews, social chronic stress interviews, and self-report measures. At age 20 (T2), participants repeated all measures and reported on self-perceived interpersonal problems. At approximately age 23 (T3), a subset of participants (n = 475) completed a self-report depressive symptoms measure. Consistent with other samples, anxiety disorders largely preceded depressive disorders. Low sociability and interpersonal oversensitivity mediated the association between T1 social anxiety disorder and later depression (including T2 depressive diagnosis and T3 depressive symptoms), controlling for baseline. Interpersonal oversensitivity and social chronic stress similarly mediated the association between generalized anxiety disorder before age 15 and later depression. Interpersonal dysfunction may be one mechanism through which anxiety disorders promote later depression, contributing to high comorbidity rates. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Pharmacotherapies for decreasing maladaptive choice in drug addiction: Targeting the behavior and the drug.

    Perkins, Frank N; Freeman, Kevin B

    2018-01-01

    Drug addiction can be conceptualized as a disorder of maladaptive decision making in which drugs are chosen at the expense of pro-social, nondrug alternatives. The study of decision making in drug addiction has focused largely on the role of impulsivity as a facilitator of addiction, in particular the tendency for drug abusers to choose small, immediate gains over larger but delayed outcomes (i.e., delay discounting). A parallel line of work, also focused on decision making in drug addiction, has focused on identifying the determinants underlying the choice to take drugs over nondrug alternatives (i.e., drug vs. nondrug choice). Both tracks of research have been valuable tools in the development of pharmacotherapies for treating maladaptive decision making in drug addiction, and a number of common drugs have been studied in both designs. However, we have observed that there is little uniformity in the administration regimens of potential treatments between the designs, which hinders congruence in the development of single treatment strategies to reduce both impulsive behavior and drug choice. The current review provides an overview of the drugs that have been tested in both delay-discounting and drug-choice designs, and focuses on drugs that reduced the maladaptive choice in both designs. Suggestions to enhance congruence between the findings in future studies are provided. Finally, we propose the use of a hybridized, experimental approach that may enable researchers to test the effectiveness of therapeutics at decreasing impulsive and drug choice in a single design. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. A novel cognitive intervention for compulsive checking: Targeting maladaptive beliefs about memory.

    Alcolado, Gillian M; Radomsky, Adam S

    2016-12-01

    Compulsive checking is one of the most common symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Recently it has been proposed that those who check compulsively may believe their memory is poor, rather than having an actual memory impairment. The current study sought to develop and assess a brief cognitive intervention focused on improving maladaptive beliefs about memory, as they pertain to both checking symptoms and memory performance. Participants (N = 24) with a diagnosis of OCD and clinical levels of checking symptomatology were randomly assigned either to receive two weekly 1-hour therapy sessions or to self-monitor during a similar waitlist period. Time spent checking, checking symptoms, maladaptive beliefs about memory, and visuospatial memory were assessed both pre- and post-treatment/waitlist. Results showed that compared to the waitlist condition, individuals in the treatment condition displayed significant decreases in their maladaptive beliefs about memory and checking symptoms from pre- to post-intervention. They also exhibited increased recall performance on a measure of visuospatial memory. Changes in beliefs about memory were predictors of reduced post-intervention checking, but were not predictive of increased post-intervention memory scores. The lack of long term follow-up data and use of a waitlist control leave questions about the stability and specificity of the intervention. Findings provide preliminary evidence that strategies targeting beliefs about memory may be worthy of inclusion in cognitive-behavioural approaches to treating compulsive checking. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Co-rumination, anxiety, and maladaptive cognitive schemas: when friendship can hurt

    Carlucci L

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Leonardo Carlucci, Ines D’Ambrosio, Marco Innamorati, Aristide Saggino, Michela Balsamo Department of Psychological Sciences, Health and Territory, “G. d’Annunzio” University, Chieti, Italy Background: This study investigated maladaptive cognitive schemas as mediators of the relationship between co-rumination and anxiety. Methods: Self-report measures of co-rumination, trait cognitive and somatic anxiety, and early maladaptive cognitive schemas were provided to a nonclinical sample of 461 young adults. Mediation of co-rumination and trait somatic and cognitive anxiety by each early maladaptive schema domain was tested using nonparametric, bootstrap-based resampling. Results: Significant associations between co-rumination and trait and cognitive anxiety were mediated by schema domains related to Rejection and Disconnection, Overvigilance and Inhibition, and Impaired Autonomy. The association between co-rumination and somatic anxiety was mediated by domains related to Rejection and Disconnection and Impaired Autonomy. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that those who engage in co-rumination, potentially resulting in clinical levels of anxiety, might benefit from treatment that focuses on themes of rejection sensitivity and belonging, beliefs about autonomy, and when the anxiety is more cognitive, treatment that focuses on hypercriticalness and emotional inhibition too. Keywords: anxiety, communication, domain, mediation, adults

  7. Maladaptive Schemas as Mediators in the Relationship Between Child Sexual Abuse and Displaced Aggression.

    Estévez, Ana; Ozerinjauregi, Nagore; Herrero-Fernández, David

    2016-01-01

    Child sexual abuse is one of the most serious forms of abuse due to the psychological consequences that persist even into adulthood. Expressions of anger among child sexual abuse survivors remain common even years after the event. While child sexual abuse has been extensively studied, the expression of displaced aggression has been studied less. Some factors, such as the maladaptive early schemas, might account for this deficiency. The objective of this study was to analyze the relationships between child sexual abuse, displaced aggression, and these schemas according to gender and determine if these early schemas mediate the relationship between child sexual abuse and displaced aggression. A total of 168 Spanish subjects who were victims of child sexual abuse completed measures of childhood trauma, displaced aggression, and early maladaptive schemas. The results depict the relationship between child sexual abuse, displaced aggression, and early maladaptive schemas. Women scored higher than men in child sexual abuse, emotional abuse, disconnection or rejection and impaired autonomy. Mediational analysis found a significant mediation effect of disconnection or rejection on the relationship between child sexual abuse and displaced aggression; however, impaired autonomy did not mediate significantly.

  8. Early maladaptive schemas and social anxiety in adolescents: the mediating role of anxious automatic thoughts.

    Calvete, Esther; Orue, Izaskun; Hankin, Benjamin L

    2013-04-01

    Cognitive models state that cognitions are organized hierarchically, so that the underlying schemas affect behavior via more automatic, superficial cognitive processes. This study aimed to demonstrate that early maladaptive schemas predict anxious automatic thoughts, and to show that such automatic thoughts act as mediators between schemas and prospective changes in social anxiety symptoms. The study also examined an alternative reverse model in which schemas acted as mediators between automatic thoughts and social anxiety. A total of 1052 adolescents (499 girls and 553 boys; M(age)=13.43; SD(age)=1.29) completed measures of early maladaptive schemas, socially anxious automatic thoughts, and social anxiety symptoms at Times 1, 2, and 3. The results revealed bidirectional longitudinal relationships among schemas and automatic thoughts that were consistent in content (e.g., the disconnection/rejection schemas and automatic thoughts of negative self-concept). Furthermore, the automatic thoughts of anticipatory negative evaluation by others at Time 2 mediated the relationship between the other-directedness schemas at Time 1 and social anxiety symptoms at Time 3. These findings are consistent with hierarchical cognitive models of social anxiety given that deeper schemas predict more surface-level thoughts. They also support that these more surface-level thoughts contribute to perpetuating schemas. Finally, results show that early maladaptive schemas of the other-directedness domain play a relevant role in the development and maintenance of social anxiety. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of Maladaptive Meta Cognition Beliefs among Substance Dependents and Non-Dependents

    Omid Saed

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of present research was the comparison of maladaptive meta cognition beliefs among substance abusers and non abusers. Methods: For this purpose 70 substance abusers and 70 individuals from the general population by purposive sampling participated in this research and responded to meta cognition questionnaire. For analysis data multiple analysis of variance (MANOVA and discriminant analysis were run. Results: MANOVA revealed that there was significant difference in linier combination of dependent variables (meta cognitive beliefs among two groups also, analysis of dependent variables lonely showed that two groups were significantly different in Positive meta cognitive beliefs, "Negative meta cognitive beliefs", "lack of cognitive confidence", "need to control of thoughts", and "cognitive self-consciousness". Also, the discriminant analysis indicated that three meta-cognitive factors included “negative meta cognitive beliefs", "need to control of thoughts" and "cognitive self-consciousness" were significant predictors to discriminate substance abusers. Conclusion: With consideration of the results it can be concluded that substance abusers have more maladaptive beliefs and these maladaptive beliefs can lead to susceptibility toward substance abuse and staying in this disorder. It is hoped that psychotherapists can be more useful in treating and staying in this research.

  10. The Role of Marital Burnout and Early Maladaptive Schemas in Marital Satisfaction between Young Couples

    Arghavan Kebritchi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Given the fundamental role of the family structure and the importance of proper marriages in modern society as well as the important role of childhood and its effect on marital relations in adulthood, this study aimed to investigate the role of burnout, early maladaptive schemas and style in marital satisfaction among young couples. This study is a correlation (multiple regressions and descriptive research. The sample consisted of 100 couples (100 females and 100 males, couples aged 20 to 35 years with a high school diploma or higher education who were randomly chosen from student couples of Tehran and Karaj Kharazmi university or other couples out of university which filled out four questionnaires. Following questionnaires were used as research tools: Pines’ Couple Burnout Measure (CBM, Enrich’s Marital Satisfaction (Enrich, Yang’s early maladaptive schemas (EMSQ-R.[6][8]. Results showed that there were three interactive relationships among these variables, so that all three variables were investigated and separately explained concerning marital satisfaction. There was a significant negative correlation between marital burnout and all other subscales and marital satisfaction, and a significant positive correlation between marital burnout and all maladaptive schemas except emotional deprivation schema.

  11. Microgeographic maladaptive performance and deme depression in response to roads and runoff

    Steven P. Brady

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite theoretical understanding and empirical detection of local adaptation in natural environments, our knowledge of such divergence in fragmented habitats remains limited, especially in the context of microgeographic spatial scales and contemporary time scales. I used a combination of reciprocal transplant and common garden exposure experiments to evaluate potential microgeographic divergence in a pool-breeding amphibian occupying a landscape fragmented by roads. As indicated by reduced rates of survival and increased rates of malformation, I found evidence for maladaptation in road adjacent populations. This response is in direct counterpoint to recently described local adaption by a cohabiting species of amphibian. These results suggest that while divergence might commonly follow habitat modification, the direction of its outcome cannot be generalized even in identical habitats. Further, maladaptive responses can be associated with a more generalized depression effect that transcends the local environment. Alongside recent reports, these results suggest that maladaptive responses may be an emerging consequence of human-induced environmental change. Thus future studies should carefully consider the population unit as a key level for inference.

  12. The dark triad: Emotional and interpersonal characteristics

    Tomić Katarina N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Dark triad is a construct of pathological personality traits, which consists of three components conceptually different, but still with significant empirical overlap: narcissism, Machiavellianism and subclinical psychopathy. The concept of Dark Triad found its place in the current structural models of personality, such as the Big-five and HEXACO model, and also an Interpersonal circumplex, within which the personal qualities project itselves into certain patterns of interpersonal behavior. This paper provides a brief theoretical overview of the basic elements of the Dark Triad, and an overview of current research related to (un justified observation of the three constituent dimensions as a single construct in theoretical and empirical terms. Also, the paper presents an overview of the emotional dysfunctions typical for the triad, as well as the problems and consequences in the area of interpersonal and social relations.

  13. A free response test of interpersonal effectiveness.

    Getter, H; Nowinski, J K

    1981-06-01

    Development of the Interpersonal Problem Solving Assessment Technique (IPSAT), College form, is described. Guided by Rotter's Social Learning Theory, problem-solving, and assertiveness research, a semi-structured free response format was designed to assess components of interpersonal effectiveness, The instrument yields patterns of self-reported behaviors in six classes of problematic social situations. A detailed manual enabled reliable scoring of the following response categories: Effectiveness, avoidance, appropriateness, dependency and solution productivity. Scores were not materially affected by sex, verbal ability, or social desirability response sets. Correlations with the College Self-Expression Scale, the Edwards Personal Preference Schedule and the Lanyon Psychological Screening Inventory provided initial evidence of validity. Comparison of mean IPSAT scores of 23 psychotherapy clients with those of 78 normative subjects showed that clients report less interpersonal effectiveness and more avoidance than controls. Implications for utility of the IPSAT are discussed.

  14. Interpersonal conflict, agreeableness, and personality development.

    Jensen-Campbell, Lauri A; Gleason, Katie A; Adams, Ryan; Malcolm, Kenya T

    2003-12-01

    This multimethod research linked the Big-Five personality dimensions to interpersonal conflict in childhood. Agreeableness was the personality dimension of focus because this dimension has been associated with maintaining positive interpersonal relations in adolescents and adults. In two studies, elementary school children were assessed on the Big-Five domains of personality. Study 1 (n=276) showed that agreeableness was uniquely associated with endorsements of conflict resolution tactics in children as well as parent and teacher reports of coping and adjustment. Study 2 (n=234) revealed that children's perceptions of themselves and others during conflict was influenced by their agreeableness regardless of their partner's agreeableness. Observers also reported that pairs higher in agreeableness had more harmonious, constructive conflicts. Overall findings suggest that of the Big-Five dimensions, agreeableness is most closely associated with processes and outcomes related to interpersonal conflict and adjustment in children.

  15. Stress.

    Chambers, David W

    2008-01-01

    We all experience stress as a regular, and sometimes damaging and sometimes useful, part of our daily lives. In our normal ups and downs, we have our share of exhaustion, despondency, and outrage--matched with their corresponding positive moods. But burnout and workaholism are different. They are chronic, dysfunctional, self-reinforcing, life-shortening habits. Dentists, nurses, teachers, ministers, social workers, and entertainers are especially susceptible to burnout; not because they are hard-working professionals (they tend to be), but because they are caring perfectionists who share control for the success of what they do with others and perform under the scrutiny of their colleagues (they tend to). Workaholics are also trapped in self-sealing cycles, but the elements are ever-receding visions of control and using constant activity as a barrier against facing reality. This essay explores the symptoms, mechanisms, causes, and successful coping strategies for burnout and workaholism. It also takes a look at the general stress response on the physiological level and at some of the damage American society inflicts on itself.

  16. Stressed and depressed? Check your GDNF for epigenetic repression.

    Miller, Courtney A

    2011-01-27

    Some adults fail to adapt to chronic stress, developing symptoms of depression and anxiety. In this issue of Neuron, Uchida and colleagues link maladaptive stress responses to GDNF through a comprehensive investigation of the neurotrophic factor's regulation. Further, this study is an excellent example for investigators interested in neuroepigenetics research. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Change in Autism Symptoms and Maladaptive Behaviors in Adolescence and Adulthood: The Role of Positive Family Processes

    Woodman, Ashley C.; Smith, Leann E.; Greenberg, Jan S.; Mailick, Marsha R.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about outcomes for individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) into adulthood. Several characteristics of individuals with ASD predict long-term outcomes, and the family environment may also play a role. The present study uses a prospective, longitudinal design to describe and predict trajectories of autism symptoms and maladaptive behaviors over 8.5 years in a large, community-based sample of adolescents and adults with ASD. Overall, autism symptoms and maladaptive behav...

  18. [Interpersonal and social rhythm therapy (IPSRT)].

    Bottai, T; Biloa-Tang, M; Christophe, S; Dupuy, C; Jacquesy, L; Kochman, F; Meynard, J-A; Papeta, D; Rahioui, H; Adida, M; Fakra, E; Kaladjian, A; Pringuey, D; Azorin, J-M

    2010-12-01

    Bipolar disorder is common, recurrent, often severe and debiliting disorder. All types of bipolar disorder have a common determinant: depressive episode. It is justify to propose a psychotherapy which shown efficacy in depression. Howewer, perturbations in circadian rhythms have been implicated in the genesis of each episode of the illness. Biological circadian dysregulation can be encouraged by alteration of time-givers (Zeitgebers) or occurrence of time-disturbers (Zeitstörers). Addition of social rhythm therapy to interpersonal psychotherapy leads to create a new psychotherapy adaptated to bipolar disorders: InterPersonal and Social Rhythm Therapy (IPSRT). IPSRT, in combinaison with medication, has demonstrated efficacy as a treatment for bipolar disorders. IPSRT combines psychoeducation, behavioral strategy to regularize daily routines and interpersonal psychotherapy which help patients cope better with the multiple psychosocial and relationship problems associated with this chronic disorder. The main issues of this psychotherapy are: to take the history of the patient's illness and review of medication, to help patient for "grief for the lost healthy self" translated in the french version in "acceptance of a long-term medical condition", to give the sick role, to examinate the current relationships and changes proximal to the emergence of mood symptoms in the four problem areas (unresolved grief, interpersonal disputes, role transitions, role déficits), to examinate and increase daily routines and social rhythms. French version of IPSRT called TIPARS (with few differences), a time-limited psychotherapy, in 24 sessions during approximatively 6 months, is conducted in three phases. In the initial phase, the therapist takes a thorough history of previous episodes and their interpersonal context and a review of previous medication, provides psychoeducation, evaluates social rhythms, introduces the Social Rhythm Metric, identifies the patient's main interpersonal

  19. The secure base script: associated with early maladaptive schemas related to attachment.

    McLean, Heather R; Bailey, Heidi N; Lumley, Margaret N

    2014-12-01

    To examine the relations between traditionally assessed early maladaptive schemas and the attachment-specific secure base script (a script-like representation of what individuals expect to happen when they face distress), to inform our understanding of beliefs about the self in relation to others. The present study took an ecologically driven approach, assessing knowledge of the secure base script from descriptions of current relationships. A cross-sectional design was used. One hundred forty-six undergraduate students, recruited as part of a larger study on adversity and self-concept, provided narrative descriptions of their current relationships. Narratives were coded for attachment-related 'secure base' content using a secure base script scale for relationship narratives. Early maladaptive schemas were assessed with the Young Schema Questionnaire, and attachment was additionally evaluated using the Experiences in Close Relationships questionnaire. Self-reported attachment avoidance and anxiety were related to secure base script content in theory-consistent ways. The extent to which participants described secure base script content was inversely associated with four out of five maladaptive schemas characterized most centrally by disconnection from others. Furthermore, these associations remained significant when controlling for self-reported attachment style. Self-reported attachment avoidance and anxiety also were related to maladaptive schemas in a predictable pattern. Results bridge cognitive and attachment theories, supporting the interrelatedness of secure base script knowledge assessed in current relationships, and schema-related content regarding connectedness with others. Better integration of theories regarding internal representations may serve to enrich psychotherapeutic formulation from a variety of clinical perspectives. Schema Therapy's (Young, Klosko, & Weishaar, 2003 , Schema therapy: A practitioner's guide. New York: Guilford Press) early

  20. Transactional Associations between Youths' Responses to Peer Stress and Depression: The Moderating Roles of Sex and Stress Exposure

    Agoston, Anna M.; Rudolph, Karen D.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined transactional associations between responses to peer stress and depression in youth. Specifically, it tested the hypotheses that (a) depression would predict fewer effortful responses and more involuntary, dysregulated responses to peer stress over time; and (b) fewer adaptive and more maladaptive responses would predict…

  1. Reducing maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children with autism spectrum disorder using the early start denver model.

    Fulton, Elizabeth; Eapen, Valsamma; Crnčec, Rudi; Walter, Amelia; Rogers, Sally

    2014-01-01

    The presence of maladaptive behaviors in young people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can significantly limit engagement in treatment programs, as well as compromise future educational and vocational opportunities. This study aimed to explore whether the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM) treatment approach reduced maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children with ASD in a community-based long day care setting. The level of maladaptive behavior of 38 children with ASD was rated using an observation-based measure on three occasions during the intervention: on entry, 12 weeks post-entry, and on exit (post-intervention) over an average treatment duration of 11.8 months. Significant reductions were found in children's maladaptive behaviors over the course of the intervention, with 68% of children showing a treatment response by 12 weeks and 79% on exit. This change was accompanied by improvement in children's overall developmental level as assessed by the Mullen scales of early learning, but not by significant changes on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II or Social Communication Questionnaire. Replication with a larger sample, control conditions, and additional measures of maladaptive behavior is necessary in order to determine the specific factors underlying these improvements; however, the findings of the present study suggest that the ESDM program may be effective in improving not only core developmental domains, but also decreasing maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children with ASD.

  2. Reducing maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children with Autism Spectrum Disorder using the Early Start Denver Model

    Elizabeth eFulton

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The presence of maladaptive behaviors in young people with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD can significantly limit engagement in treatment programs, as well as compromise future educational and vocational opportunities. This study aimed to explore whether the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM treatment approach reduced maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children with ASD in a community-based long day care setting. The level of maladaptive behavior of 38 children with ASD was rated using an observation based measure on three occasions during the intervention: on entry, 12 weeks post-entry, and on exit (post-intervention over an average treatment duration of 11.8 months. Significant reductions were found in children’s maladaptive behaviors over the course of the intervention, with 68% of children showing a treatment response by 12 weeks and 79% on exit. This change was accompanied by improvement in children’s overall developmental level as assessed by the Mullen Scales of Early Learning, but not by significant changes on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II or Social Communication Questionnaire. Replication with a larger sample, control conditions and additional measures of maladaptive behavior is necessary in order to determine the specific factors underlying these improvements; however, the findings of the present study suggest that the ESDM program may be effective in improving not only core developmental domains, but also decreasing maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children.

  3. Early Maladaptive Schemas in a Sample of Airline Pilots seeking Residential Substance Use Treatment: An Initial Investigation.

    Shorey, Ryan C; Brasfield, Hope; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has begun to examine the early maladaptive schemas of substance abusers, as it is believed that targeting these core beliefs in treatment may result in improved substance use outcomes. One special population that has received scant attention in the research literature, despite high levels of substance use, is airline pilots. The current study examined the early maladaptive schemas of a sample of airline pilots ( n = 64) who were seeking residential treatment for alcohol dependence and whether they differed in early maladaptive schemas from non-pilot substance abusers who were also seeking residential treatment for alcohol dependence ( n = 45). Pre-existing medical records from patients of a residential substance abuse treatment facility were reviewed for the current study. Of the 18 early maladaptive schemas, results demonstrated that pilots scored higher than non-pilots on the early maladaptive schema of unrelenting standards (high internalized standards of behavior), whereas non-pilots scored higher on insufficient self-control (low frustration tolerance and self-control). Early maladaptive schemas may be a relevant treatment target for substance abuse treatment seeking pilots and non-pilots.

  4. Stepping forward together: Could walking facilitate interpersonal conflict resolution?

    Webb, Christine E; Rossignac-Milon, Maya; Higgins, E Tory

    2017-01-01

    Walking has myriad benefits for the mind, most of which have traditionally been explored and explained at the individual level of analysis. Much less empirical work has examined how walking with a partner might benefit social processes. One such process is conflict resolution-a field of psychology in which movement is inherent not only in recent theory and research, but also in colloquial language (e.g., "moving on"). In this article, we unify work from various fields pointing to the idea that walking together can facilitate both the intra- and interpersonal pathways to conflict resolution. Intrapersonally, walking supports various psychological mechanisms for reconciliation, including creativity, locomotion motivation, and embodied notions of forward progress. Both alone and in combination with its effects on mood and stress, walking can encourage individual mindsets conducive to resolving conflict (e.g., divergent thinking). Interpersonally, walking can allow partners to reap the cognitive, affective, and behavioral advantages of synchronous movement, such as increased positive rapport, empathy, and prosociality. Walking partners naturally adopt cooperative (as opposed to competitive) postural stances, experience shared attention, and can benefit from discussions in novel environments. Overall, despite its prevalence in conflict resolution theory, little is known about how movement influences conflict resolution practice. Such knowledge has direct implications for a range of psychological questions and approaches within negotiation and alternative mediation techniques, clinical settings, and the study of close relationships. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Interpersonal conflict and referrals to counseling among married soldiers following return from deployment.

    Gibbs, Deborah A; Clinton-Sherrod, A Monique; Johnson, Ruby E

    2012-10-01

    Deployment represents a significant potential strain on military families. The impact of postdeployment stresses may be increased if family coping resources are diminished by returning service members' physical injuries, mental health issues, or substance abuse. This article examines the health and mental health correlates of self-reported concerns regarding interpersonal conflict among married soldiers following return from deployment and the likelihood that soldiers acknowledging such concerns are referred to counseling services. Among 20,166 married Army soldiers completing Post-Deployment Health Reassessments, 18% reported having experienced serious interpersonal conflict with their spouse, family members, close friends, or coworkers. Results indicate that interpersonal conflict was more common among those who reported health problems, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and alcohol abuse. Among soldiers reporting interpersonal conflict and not already receiving services, 11% were referred to service. Findings support the need to communicate with soldiers and their spouses about the availability of services following return from deployment and to continue efforts to reduce stigma associated with seeking treatment.

  6. Effects of acute and chronic stress on telencephalic neurochemistry and gene expression in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Moltesen, Maria; Laursen, Danielle Caroline; Thörnqvist, Per Ove

    2016-01-01

    By filtering relevant sensory inputs and initiating stress responses, the brain is an essential organ in stress coping and adaptation. However, exposure to chronic or repeated stress can lead to allostatic overload, where neuroendocrinal and behavioral reactions to stress become maladaptive. This...

  7. Interpersonal relationship of high schools' teachers and teachers profile

    Telli, Sibel; Cakiroglu, Jale; den Brok, Perry

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine associations between Turkish high school students' perceptions of their teachers' interpersonal behavior and drawn attention to the relationship between students' affective outcomes and teachers' interpersonal behavior. The Questionnaire on Teacher Interaction

  8. Interpersonal relationships of high schools' teachers and teachers' profiles

    Telli, S.; Cakiroglu, J.; Brok, den P.J.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examnine associations between Turkish high school students'perceptions of their teacher's interpersonal behavior and drawn attention to the relationship between students'affective outcomes and teachers' interpersonal behavior. The Questionnaire on Teacher

  9. Responding to Destructive Interpersonal Interactions: A way forward ...

    Responding to Destructive Interpersonal Interactions: A way forward for ... cultural intolerance and other destructive interpersonal interactions and relationships clearly ... This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

  10. Communication skills: A tool for interpersonal relationship in nursing ...

    Communication skills: A tool for interpersonal relationship in nursing care. ... Journal Home > Vol 1, No 2 (2007) >. Log in or Register to ... Background: The interpersonal relationship between the nurse and other health care providers is poor.

  11. Interpersonal Group Therapy for Women Experiencing Bulimia

    Choate, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Bulimia Nervosa (BN) is a chronic disorder that results in a high degree of psychological impairment for many women. This article presents a description of Interpersonal Therapy for Group (IPT-G), an evidence-based approach for the treatment of BN. The author presents a rationale for the use of IPT-G, an outline of the group model, and provides…

  12. Designing social play through interpersonal touch

    Padfield, Nicolas; Löwgren, Jonas; Hobye, Mads

    2013-01-01

    We present five design cases as an annotated portfolio, exploring ways to design for intimate, interpersonal touch and social intimacy in interaction design. Five key qualities are elicited from the cases, including novel connotations sparking curiosity; providing an excuse to interact; unfolding...

  13. Negative Interpersonal Interactions in Student Training Settings

    Ferris, Patricia A.; Kline, Theresa J. B.

    2009-01-01

    Studies demonstrate that negative interpersonal interaction(s) (NII) such as bullying are frequent and harmful to individuals in workplace and higher education student settings. Nevertheless, it is unclear whether the degree of perceived severity of NII varies by the status of the actor. The present study explored the moderating effect of actor…

  14. Interpersonal communication: It's relevance to nursing practice ...

    This paper is aimed at highlighting how essential interpersonal communication is necessary for establishing rapport, understanding the needs of the patients and planning effective intervention for meeting holistic health care. To be continually relevant, Nurses have to improve on their communication skills to meet the ...

  15. Medical Student Empathy: Interpersonal Distinctions and Correlates

    Jordan, Kevin D.; Foster, Penni Smith

    2016-01-01

    Attention to interpersonal behaviors, communication, and relational factors is taking on increasing importance in medical education. Medical student empathy is one aspect of the physician-patient relationship that is often involved in beneficial interactions leading to improved clinical outcomes and patient satisfaction. As an interpersonal…

  16. Fostering Adolescents' Interpersonal Behaviour: An Empirical ...

    The study investigated the effect of enhanced thinking skills (ETS) and social skill training (SST) in fostering interpersonal behaviour among Nigerian adolescents. A pre- and post-test experimental-control group design with a 3x2 factorial matrix was employed for the study. Gender which was used as a moderator variable ...

  17. Interpersonal Attraction in the Counseling Relationship.

    Wachowiak, Dale; Diaz, Sandra

    Murstein's Stimulus-Value-Role theory of dyadic relationships, in which attraction depends on the exchange value of the assets and liabilities each person brings to the situation, is employed as a foundation for this review of the literature on interpersonal attraction in the counseling relationship. A three-stage model, accounting for both…

  18. Culture and Pragmatic Inference in Interpersonal Communication

    cognitive process, and that the human capacity for inference is crucially important ... been noted that research in interpersonal communication is currently pushing the ... communicative actions, the social-cultural world of everyday life is not only ... personal experiences of the authors', as documented over time and recreated ...

  19. Only Children, Achievement, and Interpersonal Orientation.

    Falbo, Toni

    Many psychological theories point to the importance of siblings in individual personality development. The impact of sibling status on interpersonal and achievement orientation was examined with undergraduates (N=1782) who completed a series of objective personality measures and a background questionnaire. Sibling status was defined in terms of…

  20. Physical pain increases interpersonal trust in females.

    Wang, C; Gao, J; Ma, Y; Zhu, C; Dong, X-W

    2018-01-01

    People behave and interact with others differently when experiencing physical pain. Pain has dramatic effects on one's emotional responses, cognitive functions and social interaction. However, little has been known about whether and how physical pain influences interpersonal trust in social interaction. In the present study, we examined the influence of physical pain on trusting behaviour. A total of 112 healthy participants were recruited and assigned to physical pain condition (induced by Capsaicin) and control condition (with hand cream), respectively. Thirty minutes after pain induction, three decision-making tasks were conducted to measure behaviours in social interaction, including trust and trustworthiness (trust game), non-social risk-taking (risk game) and altruism (dictator game). Results showed that physical pain increased interpersonal trust among females, but not among males. Pain did not influence non-social risk-taking, altruism or trustworthiness, as evaluated by monetary transfers in those tasks. Moreover, the effect of physical pain on interpersonal trust was fully mediated by expectation of monetary profit. These findings demonstrate an effect of pain on interpersonal trust and suggest a reciprocity mechanism that the effect may be driven by self-interest rather than altruistic motivation. The pain effect on trust was evident only in females, implying distinct pain coping strategies used by both genders. The present work highlights the social component of pain and extends our understanding of mutual interactions between pain and social cognition. © 2017 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  1. Interpersonal Relations: A Choice-Theoretic Framework.

    Couvillion, L. Michael; Eckstein, Daniel G.

    The microeconomic theory relating to utility and cost is applied to the "risk," and the possible "payoff" relative to relationships with others. A good measure of utility is the need or want-satisfying power of an alternative. For the analysis of interpersonal relationships, the needs delineated by Maslow (i.e. food, shelter, belongingness, love,…

  2. Joining the Ideational and the Interpersonal Metafunction

    Holsting, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    in question are ideational (clause complex, Angle) and interpersonal (modal Adjunct, modal auxiliary, mood) and how they – individually and in combination – emphasize different aspects of projection meaning. A specific status is ascribed to the subjunctive mood, which has a special instructive function...

  3. Risk factors for interpersonal conflicts at work.

    De Raeve, Lore; Jansen, Nicole Wh; van den Brandt, Piet A; Vasse, Rineke M; Kant, Ijmert

    2008-04-01

    The main goal of this study was to identify work-related risk factors for the onset of interpersonal conflicts at work. Longitudinal data from the Maastricht Cohort Study on "fatigue at work" (N=9241) were used. After the respondents who reported an interpersonal conflict at baseline were excluded, logistic regression analyses were used to determine the role of several work-related risk factors at baseline in the onset of a conflict with coworkers or supervisors after 1 year of follow-up. Higher psychological job demands, higher levels of role ambiguity, the presence of physical demands, higher musculoskeletal demands, a poorer physical work environment, shift work, overtime, and higher levels of job insecurity significantly predicted the onset of both a coworker conflict and a supervisor conflict. Higher levels of coworker and supervisor social support, more autonomy concerning the terms of employment, good overall job satisfaction, monetary gratification, and esteem reward significantly protected against the onset of both a coworker conflict and a supervisor conflict. Higher levels of decision latitude and more career opportunities also significantly protected against the onset of a supervisor conflict. Several factors in the work environment were related to the onset of interpersonal conflicts at work. Given the rather serious consequences of interpersonal conflicts at work with respect to health and well-being, the observed risk factors can serve as a starting point for effective prevention and intervention strategies in the workplace.

  4. Interpersonal violence against children in sport

    Tine Vertommen; Filip Van Den Ede; Nicolette Schipper-van Veldhoven

    2017-01-01

    Children worldwide are confronted with interpersonal violence (IV) on a daily basis. They encounter violence in children’s books, cartoons, on television and in the media or, more personally, in social media, at home, at school, in church or on the streets, with the acts being perpetrated by

  5. Severe interpersonal violence against children in sport

    Vertommen, Tine; Kampen, Jarl; Schipper-van Veldhoven, Nicolette; Uzieblo, Kasia; Eede, Van Den Filip

    2018-01-01

    In a recent large-scale prevalence study of interpersonal violence (IV) against child athletes in the Netherlands and Belgium we found that 9% of adult respondents who participated in organized sports before the age of 18 had experienced severe psychological violence, 8% severe physical violence,

  6. Relation between birth order and interpersonal styles

    Mauro de Oliveira Magalhães

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Interpersonal style is an aspect of personality related to the particular way individuals participate and gain influence in social contexts. It has its origin in childhood’s first social interactions within the family group. It is suggested that the individual position in the family structure, namely birth order, is an important variable in this process. The present study investigated combined effects of sex and birth order on interpersonal style. A sample of 435 college students (196 men and 239 women with ranging in age from 18 to 40 years (M = 23,3 answered the BASIS-A (Basic Adlerian Scales of Interpersonal Styles and a brief demographic questionnaire. Interactions between sex and birth order were found. Lastborn women showed greater tendency to search for success and social approval than firstborn women and lastborn men. Among men, lastborn revealed less need for social approval compared to firstborn and only children. First born men showed a higher need to attend social conventions and obtain success. The interaction between sex and birth order was relevant for the understanding of personality development in the context of family relations.   Keywords: birth order; interpersonal styles; personality.

  7. Lethal interpersonal violence in the Middle Pleistocene.

    Nohemi Sala

    Full Text Available Evidence of interpersonal violence has been documented previously in Pleistocene members of the genus Homo, but only very rarely has this been posited as the possible manner of death. Here we report the earliest evidence of lethal interpersonal violence in the hominin fossil record. Cranium 17 recovered from the Sima de los Huesos Middle Pleistocene site shows two clear perimortem depression fractures on the frontal bone, interpreted as being produced by two episodes of localized blunt force trauma. The type of injuries, their location, the strong similarity of the fractures in shape and size, and the different orientations and implied trajectories of the two fractures suggest they were produced with the same object in face-to-face interpersonal conflict. Given that either of the two traumatic events was likely lethal, the presence of multiple blows implies an intention to kill. This finding shows that the lethal interpersonal violence is an ancient human behavior and has important implications for the accumulation of bodies at the site, supporting an anthropic origin.

  8. Lethal interpersonal violence in the Middle Pleistocene.

    Sala, Nohemi; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Pantoja-Pérez, Ana; Pablos, Adrián; Martínez, Ignacio; Quam, Rolf M; Gómez-Olivencia, Asier; Bermúdez de Castro, José María; Carbonell, Eudald

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of interpersonal violence has been documented previously in Pleistocene members of the genus Homo, but only very rarely has this been posited as the possible manner of death. Here we report the earliest evidence of lethal interpersonal violence in the hominin fossil record. Cranium 17 recovered from the Sima de los Huesos Middle Pleistocene site shows two clear perimortem depression fractures on the frontal bone, interpreted as being produced by two episodes of localized blunt force trauma. The type of injuries, their location, the strong similarity of the fractures in shape and size, and the different orientations and implied trajectories of the two fractures suggest they were produced with the same object in face-to-face interpersonal conflict. Given that either of the two traumatic events was likely lethal, the presence of multiple blows implies an intention to kill. This finding shows that the lethal interpersonal violence is an ancient human behavior and has important implications for the accumulation of bodies at the site, supporting an anthropic origin.

  9. Instructional Materials in Consumer Education: Interpersonal Relations.

    North Dakota State Board for Vocational Education, Bismarck.

    The seven interpersonal relations units in the consumer education guide are: Expressing Satisfaction or Dissatisfaction with Consumer Goods and Services, What to Do in Case of a Financial Crisis, Bridging the Generation Gap, Rebellion, Emotions, Discovering Myself, and Dual Role (homemaker/wage earner). Grade levels of the units, are…

  10. Others : Essays on Interpersonal and Consumer Behavior

    I. Consiglio (Irene)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractIn this dissertation, I explore the intersection between interpersonal and consumer behaviour in three chapters. In chapter 2, I propose that consumers with low self-esteem become wary of new relationships with alternative service providers if they experience service failures in a

  11. Salivary Oxytocin and Vasopressin Levels in Police Officers With and Without Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Frijling, J. L.; van Zuiden, M.; Nawijn, L.; Koch, S. B. J.; Neumann, I. D.; Veltman, D. J.; Olff, M.

    2015-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterised by symptoms associated with maladaptive fear and stress responses, as well as with social detachment. The neuropeptides oxytocin (OT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) have been associated with both regulating fear and neuroendocrine stress

  12. Interpersonal Functioning in Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder

    Cain, Nicole M.; Ansell, Emily B.; Simpson, H. Blair; Pinto, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    The core symptoms of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) often lead to interpersonal difficulties. However, little research has explored interpersonal functioning in OCPD. The current study examined interpersonal problems, interpersonal sensitivities, empathy, and systemizing, the drive to analyze and derive underlying rules for systems, in a sample of 25 OCPD individuals, 25 individuals with comorbid OCPD and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and 25 healthy controls. We found...

  13. [Interpersonal psychotherapy from research to practice].

    Rahioui, H; Blecha, L; Bottai, T; Depuy, C; Jacquesy, L; Kochman, F; Meynard, J-A; Papeta, D; Rammouz, I; Ghachem, R

    2015-04-01

    Interpersonal therapy (IPT) is a brief, structured psychotherapy initially intended to treat adult depression that was developed in the 1970s and manualized in 1984 by G. Klerman and his team. Two main theories served as a basis for its design: Bowlby's attachment theory and communication theory. Klerman theorized that tensions and problems in interpersonal relationships (i.e. disputes) cause psychological distress in vulnerable individuals that may lead to a major depressive episode. Clinical and epidemiological studies have shown that an insecure attachment style is strongly associated with lifetime depression. Severe depressive episodes have been correlated with avoidant attachment in women. IPT is based on the hypothesis that recent or ongoing disturbances in interpersonal relationships either trigger or follow the onset of mood disorder. In practice, IPT assists patients in analysing their interpersonal relationship modes, correlating their relational states with their mood and in learning to use better communication. Resolving difficulties in interpersonal relationships through the use of better communication skills promotes the improvement of depressive symptoms. Klerman identified four interpersonal areas that seem to be highly correlated with depressive episodes: grief (a close and important personal relation who has died), interpersonal disputes (conflicts with significant people such as a spouse or another close family member), role transition (significant life changes such as retirement, parenthood or chronic and invalidating illness) and interpersonal deficits (patients who have limited social contacts and few interpersonal relations). Classically, IPT is planned around 12-16 weekly sessions. During the initial sessions, the therapist will explore all existing interpersonal relations and any significant dysfunctions, both recent and ongoing. Following this interview, the area the patient considers as driving the current depressive episode will be

  14. Development and Validation of Coaches' Interpersonal Style Questionnaire

    Pulido, Juan J.; Sánchez-Oliva, David; Leo, Francisco M.; Sánchez-Cano, Jorge; García-Calvo, Tomás

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The objectives were to develop and validate the Coaches' Interpersonal Style Questionnaire. The Coaches' Interpersonal Style Questionnaire analyzes the interpersonal style adopted by coaches when implementing their strategy of supporting or thwarting athletes' basic psychological needs. Method: In Study 1, an exploratory factor analysis…

  15. An Examination of the "Interpersonalness" of the Outcome Questionnaire

    Hess, Timothy R.; Rohlfing, Jessica E.; Hardy, Amanda O.; Glidden-Tracey, Cynthia; Tracey, Terence J. G.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether the Outcome Questionnaire-45 (OQ) and its subscales assessed unique interpersonal distress. The Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP) was used to assess discriminant validity for unique interpersonal distress. Participants (N = 121) were recruited from a southwestern university counselor training center. Significant…

  16. The effect of counsellors' personality types on interpersonal skills in ...

    The result indicated that personality types (introvert and extrovert) do not affect counsellors' interpersonal skill in counselling therapy. It was also concluded that counsellor personality types do not have much implication on the use of interpersonal skills. The researcher, therefore, recommended that mastering interpersonal ...

  17. A Multisurface Interpersonal Circumplex Assessment of Rejection Sensitivity.

    Cain, Nicole M; De Panfilis, Chiara; Meehan, Kevin B; Clarkin, John F

    2017-01-01

    Individuals high in rejection sensitivity (RS) are at risk for experiencing high levels of interpersonal distress, yet little is known about the interpersonal profiles associated with RS. This investigation examined the interpersonal problems, sensitivities, and values associated with RS in 2 samples: 763 multicultural undergraduate students (Study 1) and 365 community adults (Study 2). In Study 1, high anxious RS was associated with socially avoidant interpersonal problems, whereas low anxious RS was associated with vindictive interpersonal problems. In Study 2, we assessed both anxious and angry expectations of rejection. Circumplex profile analyses showed that the high anxious RS group reported socially avoidant interpersonal problems, sensitivities to remoteness in others, and valuing connections with others, whereas the high angry RS group reported vindictive interpersonal problems, sensitivities to submissiveness in others, and valuing detached interpersonal behavior. Low anxious RS was related to domineering interpersonal problems, sensitivity to attention-seeking behavior, and valuing detached interpersonal behavior, whereas low angry RS was related to submissive interpersonal problems, sensitivity to attention-seeking behavior, and valuing receiving approval from others. Overall, results suggest that there are distinct interpersonal profiles associated with varying levels and types of RS.

  18. Inner resources for survival: integrating interpersonal psychotherapy with spiritual visualization with homeless youth.

    Mastropieri, Biagio; Schussel, Lorne; Forbes, David; Miller, Lisa

    2015-06-01

    Homeless youth have particular need to develop inner resources to confront the stress, abusive environment of street life, and the paucity of external resources. Research suggests that treatment supporting spiritual awareness and growth may create a foundation for coping, relationships, and negotiating styles to mitigate distress. The current pilot study tests the feasibility, acceptability, and helpfulness of an interpersonal spiritual group psychotherapy, interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) integrated with spiritual visualization (SV), offered through a homeless shelter, toward improving interpersonal coping and ameliorating symptoms of depression, distress, and anxiety in homeless youth. An exploratory pilot of integrative group psychotherapy (IPT + SV) for homeless young adults was conducted in a New York City on the residential floor of a shelter-based transitional living program. Thirteen young adult men (mean age 20.3 years, SD = 1.06) participated in a weekly evening psychotherapy group (55 % African-American, 18 % biracial, 18 % Hispanic, 9 % Caucasian). Measures of psychological functioning were assessed at pre-intervention and post-intervention using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9, GAD-7), and the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP-32). A semi-structured exit interview and a treatment satisfaction questionnaire were also employed to assess acceptability following treatment. Among homeless young adults to participate in the group treatment, significant decreases in symptoms of general distress and depression were found between baseline and termination of treatment, and at the level of a trend, improvement in overall interpersonal functioning and levels of general anxiety. High utilization and treatment satisfaction showed the intervention to be both feasible and acceptable. Offered as an adjunct to the services-as-usual model at homeless shelters serving young adults, interpersonal psychotherapy

  19. Emotional adjustment and distressed interpersonal relations among low-income African American mothers: moderating effects of demanding kin relations.

    Taylor, Ronald D; Budescu, Mia

    2013-01-01

    Association of mothers' emotional adjustment and negative kin relations with distressed interpersonal relations was examined. Among 115 low-income African American mothers, relationship of depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and demanding kin relations with psychological control and stressful interpersonal relations was assessed. Depressive symptoms and demanding kin relations were positively associated with mothers' use of psychological control in parenting. Interaction of self-esteem with demanding kin relations revealed that self-esteem was negatively associated with psychological control for mothers with high-demanding kin relations but not for mothers with low-demanding kin relations. Mothers' depressive symptoms and demanding kin relations were positively associated with their stressful interpersonal relations. Findings were discussed in terms of the need for research on the beneficial and detrimental aspects of families' social network.

  20. Interpersonal issues between pain physician and patient: strategies to reduce conflict.

    Diesfeld, Kate

    2008-11-01

    This article analyzes scholarship on the interpersonal challenges that pain physicians face, with an emphasis on strategies to reduce conflicts within therapeutic relationships. Scholarship on the dilemmas pain physicians face suggests that 1) there are unique and perhaps unrecognized features of pain medicine that generate stress; 2) interpersonal conflict may contribute to stress; and 3) clinicians' biases may interfere with the doctor-patient relationship and with the best practice of pain medicine. Application of a framework based on clinicians' beliefs and Papadimos' reflections on justice and temperance may reduce such conflicts. The challenges of pain medicine may be complicated by the clinician's undisclosed attitudes regarding their roles and their perceptions of pain sufferers. A strategy for physicians to examine their beliefs within a supportive environment may aid physicians caring for people with chronic pain. Papadimos' reflections upon the virtues of justice and tolerance guide this analysis.

  1. Human-assisted spread of a maladaptive behavior in a critically endangered bird.

    Massaro, Melanie; Sainudiin, Raazesh; Merton, Don; Briskie, James V; Poole, Anthony M; Hale, Marie L

    2013-01-01

    Conservation management often focuses on counteracting the adverse effects of human activities on threatened populations. However, conservation measures may unintentionally relax selection by allowing the 'survival of the not-so-fit', increasing the risk of fixation of maladaptive traits. Here, we report such a case in the critically-endangered Chatham Island black robin (Petroica traversi) which, in 1980, was reduced to a single breeding pair. Following this bottleneck, some females were observed to lay eggs on the rims of their nests. Rim eggs left in place always failed to hatch. To expedite population recovery, rim eggs were repositioned inside nests, yielding viable hatchlings. Repositioning resulted in rapid growth of the black robin population, but by 1989 over 50% of all females were laying rim eggs. We used an exceptional, species-wide pedigree to consider both recessive and dominant models of inheritance over all plausible founder genotype combinations at a biallelic and possibly sex-linked locus. The pattern of rim laying is best fitted as an autosomal dominant Mendelian trait. Using a phenotype permutation test we could also reject the null hypothesis of non-heritability for this trait in favour of our best-fitting model of heritability. Data collected after intervention ceased shows that the frequency of rim laying has strongly declined, and that this trait is maladaptive. This episode yields an important lesson for conservation biology: fixation of maladaptive traits could render small threatened populations completely dependent on humans for reproduction, irreversibly compromising the long term viability of populations humanity seeks to conserve.

  2. Human-assisted spread of a maladaptive behavior in a critically endangered bird.

    Melanie Massaro

    Full Text Available Conservation management often focuses on counteracting the adverse effects of human activities on threatened populations. However, conservation measures may unintentionally relax selection by allowing the 'survival of the not-so-fit', increasing the risk of fixation of maladaptive traits. Here, we report such a case in the critically-endangered Chatham Island black robin (Petroica traversi which, in 1980, was reduced to a single breeding pair. Following this bottleneck, some females were observed to lay eggs on the rims of their nests. Rim eggs left in place always failed to hatch. To expedite population recovery, rim eggs were repositioned inside nests, yielding viable hatchlings. Repositioning resulted in rapid growth of the black robin population, but by 1989 over 50% of all females were laying rim eggs. We used an exceptional, species-wide pedigree to consider both recessive and dominant models of inheritance over all plausible founder genotype combinations at a biallelic and possibly sex-linked locus. The pattern of rim laying is best fitted as an autosomal dominant Mendelian trait. Using a phenotype permutation test we could also reject the null hypothesis of non-heritability for this trait in favour of our best-fitting model of heritability. Data collected after intervention ceased shows that the frequency of rim laying has strongly declined, and that this trait is maladaptive. This episode yields an important lesson for conservation biology: fixation of maladaptive traits could render small threatened populations completely dependent on humans for reproduction, irreversibly compromising the long term viability of populations humanity seeks to conserve.

  3. Maladaptive spinal plasticity opposes spinal learning and recovery in spinal cord injury

    Adam R Ferguson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Synaptic plasticity within the spinal cord has great potential to facilitate recovery of function after spinal cord injury (SCI. Spinal plasticity can be induced in an activity-dependent manner even without input from the brain after complete SCI. The mechanistic basis for these effects is provided by research demonstrating that spinal synapses have many of the same plasticity mechanisms that are known to underlie learning and memory in the brain. In addition, the lumbar spinal cord can sustain several forms of learning and memory, including limb-position training. However, not all spinal plasticity promotes recovery of function. Central sensitization of nociceptive (pain pathways in the spinal cord may emerge with certain patterns of activity, demonstrating that plasticity within the spinal cord may contribute to maladaptive pain states. In this review we discuss interactions between adaptive and maladaptive forms of activity-dependent plasticity in the spinal cord. The literature demonstrates that activity-dependent plasticity within the spinal cord must be carefully tuned to promote adaptive spinal training. Stimulation that is delivered in a limb position-dependent manner or on a fixed interval can induce adaptive plasticity that promotes future spinal cord learning and reduces nociceptive hyper-reactivity. On the other hand, stimulation that is delivered in an unsynchronized fashion, such as randomized electrical stimulation or peripheral skin injuries, can generate maladaptive spinal plasticity that undermines future spinal cord learning, reduces recovery of locomotor function, and promotes nociceptive hyper-reactivity after spinal cord injury. We review these basic phenomena, discuss the cellular and molecular mechanisms, and discuss implications of these findings for improved rehabilitative therapies after spinal cord injury.

  4. Maladaptive spinal plasticity opposes spinal learning and recovery in spinal cord injury

    Ferguson, Adam R.; Huie, J. Russell; Crown, Eric D.; Baumbauer, Kyle M.; Hook, Michelle A.; Garraway, Sandra M.; Lee, Kuan H.; Hoy, Kevin C.; Grau, James W.

    2012-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity within the spinal cord has great potential to facilitate recovery of function after spinal cord injury (SCI). Spinal plasticity can be induced in an activity-dependent manner even without input from the brain after complete SCI. A mechanistic basis for these effects is provided by research demonstrating that spinal synapses have many of the same plasticity mechanisms that are known to underlie learning and memory in the brain. In addition, the lumbar spinal cord can sustain several forms of learning and memory, including limb-position training. However, not all spinal plasticity promotes recovery of function. Central sensitization of nociceptive (pain) pathways in the spinal cord may emerge in response to various noxious inputs, demonstrating that plasticity within the spinal cord may contribute to maladaptive pain states. In this review we discuss interactions between adaptive and maladaptive forms of activity-dependent plasticity in the spinal cord below the level of SCI. The literature demonstrates that activity-dependent plasticity within the spinal cord must be carefully tuned to promote adaptive spinal training. Prior work from our group has shown that stimulation that is delivered in a limb position-dependent manner or on a fixed interval can induce adaptive plasticity that promotes future spinal cord learning and reduces nociceptive hyper-reactivity. On the other hand, stimulation that is delivered in an unsynchronized fashion, such as randomized electrical stimulation or peripheral skin injuries, can generate maladaptive spinal plasticity that undermines future spinal cord learning, reduces recovery of locomotor function, and promotes nociceptive hyper-reactivity after SCI. We review these basic phenomena, how these findings relate to the broader spinal plasticity literature, discuss the cellular and molecular mechanisms, and finally discuss implications of these and other findings for improved rehabilitative therapies after SCI. PMID

  5. Stress, memory and the amygdala.

    Roozendaal, Benno; McEwen, Bruce S; Chattarji, Sumantra

    2009-06-01

    Emotionally significant experiences tend to be well remembered, and the amygdala has a pivotal role in this process. But the efficient encoding of emotional memories can become maladaptive - severe stress often turns them into a source of chronic anxiety. Here, we review studies that have identified neural correlates of stress-induced modulation of amygdala structure and function - from cellular mechanisms to their behavioural consequences. The unique features of stress-induced plasticity in the amygdala, in association with changes in other brain regions, could have long-term consequences for cognitive performance and pathological anxiety exhibited in people with affective disorders.

  6. Interpersonal vulnerability among offspring of Holocaust survivors gay men and its association with depressive symptoms and life satisfaction.

    Shenkman, Geva; Shrira, Amit; Ifrah, Kfir; Shmotkin, Dov

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine whether offspring of Holocaust survivors (OHS) gay men report higher interpersonal vulnerability in comparison to non-OHS gay men, and to further assess whether that vulnerability mediates the association between having a Holocaust background and mental health outcomes (depressive symptoms and life satisfaction). For this purpose, a community-dwelling sample of 79 middle-aged and older OHS and 129 non-OHS gay men completed measures of hostile-world scenario (HWS) in the interpersonal domain, satisfaction from current steady relationship, depressive symptoms and life satisfaction. Results indicated that OHS reported higher HWS interpersonal vulnerability and lower satisfaction from current relationship in comparison to non-OHS gay men. Also, having a Holocaust background had an indirect effect on depressive symptoms and life satisfaction through HWS interpersonal vulnerability as well as through satisfaction from current relationship. These findings are the first to suggest interpersonal vulnerability of older OHS, in comparison to non-OHS, gay men, and an association between this vulnerability and adverse psychological outcomes. This interpersonal vulnerability, possibly representing HWS threats of both early family-based trauma and current sexual minority stress, along with its implications, should be addressed by practitioners who work with older gay men having a Holocaust background. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Differentiating adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism on the MMPI-2 and MIPS revised.

    Rice, Kenneth G; Stuart, Jennifer

    2010-03-01

    Although conceptualizations of perfectionism have emphasized adaptive as well as maladaptive expressions of the construct, how these different dimensions or types of perfectionists might be reflected in comprehensive personality assessment instruments is unknown. An initial sample of 267 university students completed the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2; Butcher, Dahlstrom, Graham, Tellegen, & Kaemmer, 2001), Millon Index of Personality Styles Revised (MIPS-R; Millon, 2004), and Almost Perfect Scale-Revised (Slaney, Mobley, Trippi, Ashby, & Johnson, 1996). Analyses indicated that dimensions and types of perfectionism were associated, in expected directions, with select scores on the MMPI-2 and MIPS-R.

  8. A psycho-educational approach to adolescents who experience interpersonal challenges in a suburb in Soweto.

    2008-01-01

    M.Ed. This research study indicates that young adolescents who experience interpersonal challenges in a suburb in Soweto undergo disturbances involving body, mind and spirit. This bring about a variety of future adjustment difficulties, problems and coping abilities. This is attributed to a low socio-economic environment, lack of communication, lack of information, poor parental involvement, lack of school support, peer pressure, anger, anxiety, depression and stress. They are overwhelmed ...

  9. Posttranscriptional regulation of adrenal TH gene expression contributes to the maladaptive responses triggered by insulin-induced recurrent hypoglycemia.

    Kudrick, Necla; Chan, Owen; La Gamma, Edmund F; Kim, Juhye Lena; Tank, Arnold William; Sterling, Carol; Nankova, Bistra B

    2015-02-01

    Acute metabolic stress such as insulin-induced hypoglycemia triggers a counterregulatory response during which the release of catecholamines (epinephrine), the activation of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) enzyme and subsequent compensatory catecholamine biosynthesis occur in the adrenal medulla. However, recurrent exposure to hypoglycemia (RH), a consequence of tight glycemic control in individuals with type 1 and type 2 diabetes compromises this physiological response. The molecular mechanisms underlying the maladaptive response to repeated glucose deprivation are incompletely understood. We hypothesize that impaired epinephrine release following RH reflects altered regulation of adrenal catecholamine biosynthesis. To test this hypothesis, we compared the effect of single daily (RH) and twice-daily episodes of insulin-induced hypoglycemia (2RH) on adrenal epinephrine release and production in normal rats. Control animals received saline injections under similar conditions (RS and 2RS, respectively). Following 3 days of treatment, we assessed the counterregulatory hormonal responses during a hypoglycemic clamp. Changes in adrenal TH gene expression were also analyzed. The counterregulatory responses, relative TH transcription and TH mRNA levels and Ser40-TH phosphorylation (marker for enzyme activation) were induced to a similar extent in RS, 2RS, and RH groups. In contrast, epinephrine and glucagon responses were attenuated in the 2RH group and this was associated with a limited elevation of adrenal TH mRNA, rapid inactivation of TH enzyme and no significant changes in TH protein. Our results suggest that novel posttranscriptional mechanisms controlling TH mRNA and activated TH enzyme turnover contribute to the impaired epinephrine responses and may provide new therapeutic targets to prevent HAAF. © 2015 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  10. Self-determination theory and diminished functioning: the role of interpersonal control and psychological need thwarting.

    Bartholomew, Kimberley J; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Ryan, Richard M; Bosch, Jos A; Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie

    2011-11-01

    Drawing from self-determination theory, three studies explored the social-environmental conditions that satisfy versus thwart psychological needs and, in turn, affect psychological functioning and well-being or ill-being. In cross-sectional Studies 1 and 2, structural equation modeling analyses supported latent factor models in which need satisfaction was predicted by athletes' perceptions of autonomy support, and need thwarting was better predicted by coach control. Athletes' perceptions of need satisfaction predicted positive outcomes associated with sport participation (vitality and positive affect), whereas need thwarting more consistently predicted maladaptive outcomes (disordered eating, burnout, depression, negative affect, and physical symptoms). In addition, athletes' perceptions of psychological need thwarting were significantly associated with perturbed physiological arousal (elevated levels of secretory immunoglobulin A) prior to training. The final study involved the completion of a diary and supported the relations observed in the cross-sectional studies at a daily level. These findings have important implications for the operationalization and measurement of interpersonal styles and psychological needs.

  11. Coping with Stress in School.

    Dunham, Jack

    1983-01-01

    Signs and sources of stress among approximately 220 special educators were identified, the most prevalent being feelings of exhaustion, frustration, disturbed sleep, and withdrawal. Coping resources included personal, interpersonal, organizational, and community approaches. Conclusions stressed the need for more administrative support, counseling,…

  12. Interpersonal functioning in obsessive-compulsive personality disorder.

    Cain, Nicole M; Ansell, Emily B; Simpson, H Blair; Pinto, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    The core symptoms of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) often lead to interpersonal difficulties. However, little research has explored interpersonal functioning in OCPD. This study examined interpersonal problems, interpersonal sensitivities, empathy, and systemizing, the drive to analyze and derive underlying rules for systems, in a sample of 25 OCPD individuals, 25 individuals with comorbid OCPD and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and 25 healthy controls. We found that OCPD individuals reported hostile-dominant interpersonal problems and sensitivities with warm-dominant behavior by others, whereas OCPD+OCD individuals reported submissive interpersonal problems and sensitivities with warm-submissive behavior by others. Individuals with OCPD, with and without OCD, reported less empathic perspective taking relative to healthy controls. Finally, we found that OCPD males reported a higher drive to analyze and derive rules for systems than OCPD females. Overall, results suggest that there are interpersonal deficits associated with OCPD and the clinical implications of these deficits are discussed.

  13. Interpersonal Functioning in Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder

    Cain, Nicole M.; Ansell, Emily B.; Simpson, H. Blair; Pinto, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    The core symptoms of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) often lead to interpersonal difficulties. However, little research has explored interpersonal functioning in OCPD. The current study examined interpersonal problems, interpersonal sensitivities, empathy, and systemizing, the drive to analyze and derive underlying rules for systems, in a sample of 25 OCPD individuals, 25 individuals with comorbid OCPD and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and 25 healthy controls. We found that OCPD individuals reported hostile-dominant interpersonal problems and sensitivities with warm-dominant behavior by others while OCPD+OCD individuals reported submissive interpersonal problems and sensitivities with warm-submissive behavior by others. Individuals with OCPD, with and without OCD, reported less empathic perspective taking relative to healthy controls. Finally, we found that OCPD males reported a higher drive to analyze and derive rules for systems than OCPD females. Overall, results suggest that there are interpersonal deficits associated with OCPD and the clinical implications of these deficits are discussed. PMID:25046040

  14. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for PTSD and Depression Symptoms Reduces Risk for Future Intimate Partner Violence among Interpersonal Trauma Survivors

    Iverson, Katherine M.; Gradus, Jaimie L.; Resick, Patricia A.; Suvak, Michael K.; Smith, Kamala F.; Monson, Candice M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Women who develop symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression subsequent to interpersonal trauma are at heightened risk for future intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is effective in reducing PTSD and depression symptoms, yet limited research has investigated the…

  15. Older Adults' Coping with Negative Life Events: Common Processes of Managing Health, Interpersonal, and Financial/Work Stressors

    Moos, Rudolf H.; Brennan, Penny L.; Schutte, Kathleen K.; Moos, Bernice S.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined how older adults cope with negative life events in health, interpersonal, and financial/work domains and whether common stress and coping processes hold across these three domains. On three occasions, older adults identified the most severe negative event they faced in the last year and described how they appraised and coped…

  16. Effect of interpersonal and cognitive stressors on habituation and the utility of heart rate variability to measure habituation

    Interpersonal stressors promote eating. Habituation to the sensory properties of a food slows or stops motivated responding for a food. Stress may increase eating by acting as a dishabituator that prolongs responding for a food. Mental arithmetic (memory requirements), Stroop task (cognitive disson...

  17. Interpersonal Biocybernetics: Connecting Through Social Psychophysiology

    Pope, Alan T.; Stephens, Chad L.

    2012-01-01

    One embodiment of biocybernetic adaptation is a human-computer interaction system designed such that physiological signals modulate the effect that control of a task by other means, usually manual control, has on performance of the task. Such a modulation system enables a variety of human-human interactions based upon physiological self-regulation performance. These interpersonal interactions may be mixes of competition and cooperation for simulation training and/or videogame entertainment

  18. Interpersonal conflict: strategies and guidelines for resolution.

    Wolfe, D E; Bushardt, S C

    1985-02-01

    Historically, management theorists have recommended the avoidance or suppression of conflict. Modern management theorists recognize interpersonal conflict as an inevitable byproduct of growth and change. The issue is no longer avoidance of conflict but the strategy by which conflict is resolved. Various strategies of conflict resolution and the consequences of each are discussed in this article, along with guidelines for the effective use of confrontation strategy.

  19. The influence of Facebook on interpersonal communication

    Sevük, Tolga

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Today, with the development of communication technologies, social network sites become common and popular. People prefer to communicate with each other via social network sites. In particular, Facebook is used by almost everyone and today it has about 901 million users from all around the world. Therefore, the aim of this study is to explore the influence of Facebook on interpersonal communication among 200 students who study at the Faculty of Communication and Media Studies at the ...

  20. Social cohesion and interpersonal conflicts in projects

    Ojiako, Udechukwu; Manville, Graham; Zouk, Nadine; Chipulu, Maxwell

    2016-01-01

    One particular area of project management literature that has continued to gain momentum in literature is its social dimension; with a number of scholars emphasising the fact that there is a considerable social dimension to every project activity. Within this context, the authors examine parameters that drive social facets of projects with a particular focus on social cohesion, interpersonal conflicts and national culture. Data from 167 project managers working in Kuwait were collected utilis...

  1. Broadening perspectives on trauma and recovery: a socio-interpersonal view of PTSD†

    Andreas Maercker

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD is one of the very few mental disorders that requires by definition an environmental context—a traumatic event or events—as a precondition for diagnosis. Both trauma sequelae and recovery always occur in the context of social–interpersonal contexts, for example, in interaction with a partner, family, the community, and the society. The present paper elaborates and extends the social–interpersonal framework model of PTSD. This was developed to complement other intrapersonally focused models of PTSD, which emphasize alterations in an individual's memory, cognitions, or neurobiology. Four primary reasons for broadening the perspective from the individual to the interpersonal–societal contexts are discussed. The three layers of the model (social affects, close relationships, and culture and society are outlined. We further discuss additional insights and benefits of the social–interpersonal perspective for the growing field of research regarding resilience after traumatic experiences. The paper closes with an outlook on therapy approaches and interventions considering this broader social–interpersonal perspective on PTSD.

  2. An Investigation of the Relationship between Maladaptive Primary Schemas and Happiness in Adolescents

    Seyed Davood Mohammadi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Maladaptive Primary Schemas are fighting for their survival. On the other hand, several variables can relate to adolescents’ identity. One of these variables is happiness. This research was conducted to determine the relationship between happiness and maladaptive primary schemas in male and female adolescents and also comparing the level of happiness and use of this schemas in students. Methods: This research was a correlational study, which its sample size was estimated to be 212 subjects, who were selected using random sampling. Data collection tools were Young Schema Questionnaire and Oxford Happiness Inventory. Data analysis was performed using Pearson correlation coefficient and spontaneous regression. Results: There was significant relationships between happiness and distrust/abuse and obedience schemas in males and entitlement/grandiosity schemas and unrelenting standards in females. Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that boys who have obedience schema have higher level of happiness compared to those who do not have this schema, and boys who have distrust/abuse schema have lower level of happiness. Also, girls who have entitlement/grandiosity schema have higher level of happiness.

  3. Insecure Attachment, Maladaptive Personality Traits, and the Perpetration of In-Person and Cyber Psychological Abuse.

    Bui, Nghi H; Pasalich, Dave S

    2018-02-01

    Although past findings show that insecure attachment and maladaptive personality traits confer risk for perpetrating intimate partner violence (IPV), little is known about how these factors may underpin psychological abuse (PA) committed in-person and via technology. This study examined whether borderline personality disorder (BPD) traits and psychopathic traits account for indirect effects of insecure attachment on the perpetration of face-to-face and cyber PA. Participants included a community-based sample ( N = 200; M age = 22.28 years) in Australia who completed a battery of online questionnaires. Results from bivariate correlations showed that elevated levels of attachment anxiety and avoidance, and higher scores on BPD traits and psychopathic traits, were significantly associated with the perpetration of both face-to-face and cyber PA. Findings from mediation analysis indicated that attachment anxiety was indirectly linked with the perpetration of both forms of PA via elevated scores on BPD traits and psychopathic traits. High levels of psychopathic traits accounted for the indirect effects of attachment avoidance on both forms of PA. Results support the theory that insecure attachment and maladaptive personality functioning might be involved in the development and/or maintenance of the perpetration of PA. These findings have implications for preventive and treatment programs for the perpetration of IPV in terms of shedding new light on potential risk factors for engagement in face-to-face and technology-based PA.

  4. Maladaptive learning and memory in hybrids as a reproductive isolating barrier.

    Rice, Amber M; McQuillan, Michael A

    2018-05-30

    Selection against hybrid offspring, or postzygotic reproductive isolation, maintains species boundaries in the face of gene flow from hybridization. In this review, we propose that maladaptive learning and memory in hybrids is an important, but overlooked form of postzygotic reproductive isolation. Although a role for learning in premating isolation has been supported, whether learning deficiencies can contribute to postzygotic isolation has rarely been tested. We argue that the novel genetic combinations created by hybridization have the potential to impact learning and memory abilities through multiple possible mechanisms, and that any displacement from optima in these traits is likely to have fitness consequences. We review evidence supporting the potential for hybridization to affect learning and memory, and evidence of links between learning abilities and fitness. Finally, we suggest several avenues for future research. Given the importance of learning for fitness, especially in novel and unpredictable environments, maladaptive learning and memory in hybrids may be an increasingly important source of postzygotic reproductive isolation. © 2018 The Author(s).

  5. Mechanisms of formation of maladaptation states among internship doctors and approaches to their correction

    V. V. Vyun

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A doctor’s adaptation to medical activity has a great influence on the effectiveness of his professional activity. The objective: to explore individual psychological predictors of the formation of maladaptation states of internship doctors for the development of a system for their diagnosis, correction and psychoprophylaxis. A comprehensive clinical-psychological, psychodiagnostic and clinical-anamnestic examination of 213 internship doctors of the first year of training atKharkovNationalMedicalUniversity, 116 women and 97 men, aged 22-25 years old had been conducted. It had been established that internship doctors are characterized by feelings of internal tension and dissatisfaction, decreased mood, irritability, anxiety, long-term uncertain negative emotions, unmotivated fears, self-doubt, doubts about making decisions, decline in intellectual activityin conjunction with increased exhaustion and withdrawal mercurial attention. We have developed a system of medical and psychological support during the professional training period depending on the type of disadaptation. The psychotherapeutic complex in the internship doctors included the use of rational psychotherapy, autogenous training (psychotonic version of Shogham-Mirovsky, art therapy, progressive muscle relaxation by Jacobson, cognitive-behavioral therapy of Beck, autogenous training in the modification of Lebedinsky - Bortnik, etc. were used. The results of a three-year catamnestic study proved the effectiveness of the proposed system of psychotherapeutic correction of disorders of adaptation, positive dynamics of the mental state was noted, the maladaptive states were reduced; 92.6% of the examined recurrences of the violations of adaptation did not occur.

  6. Cognitive structures in women with sexual dysfunction: the role of early maladaptive schemas.

    Oliveira, Cátia; Nobre, Pedro J

    2013-07-01

    Cognitive schemas are often related to psychological problems. However, the role of these structures within sexual problems is not yet well established. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence and importance of early maladaptive schemas on women's sexual functioning and cognitive schemas activated in response to negative sexual events. A total of 228 women participated in the study: a control sample of 167 women without sexual problems, a subclinical sample of 37 women with low sexual functioning, and a clinical sample of 24 women with sexual dysfunction. Participants completed several self-reported measures: the Schema Questionnaire, the Questionnaire of Cognitive Schema Activation in Sexual Context, the Brief Symptom Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Female Sexual Function Index. Findings indicated that women with sexual dysfunction presented significantly more early maladaptive schemas from the Impaired Autonomy and Performance domain, particularly failure (P depreciation (P < 0.01, η(2) = 0.05), and difference/loneliness (P < 0.01, η(2) = 0.05) schemas. Results supported differences between women with and without sexual problems regarding cognitive factors. This may have implications for the knowledge, assessment, and treatment of sexual dysfunction in women. © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  7. Paternal malparenting and offspring personality disorders: Mediating effect of early maladaptive schemas.

    Batool, Naila; Shehzadi, Humaira; Riaz, Muhammad Naveed; Riaz, Muhammad Akram

    2017-04-01

    To examine the mediating role of maladaptive schemas between permissive/authoritarian parenting by fathers and personality disorders, including histrionic, antisocial, narcissistic and depressive attitudes among adults. This cross-sectional study was conducted at the University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Pakistan, and comprised university students. Data was collected by administering the parental authority questionnaire, the young schema questionnaire and the personality diagnostic questionnaire. SPSS 23 was used for data analysis. The study was completed in one year. It was started from June 2014 and ended in June 2015. Of the 200 participants who were handed the questionnaires, 100(50%) returned it fully filled up. Of them, 87(87%) were women and 13(13%) were men. All scales had greater than 0.70 alpha reliability coefficients. The values of skewness for all scales ranged from 0.10 to 0.86.Permissive parenting style had positive correlation with histrionic (pAuthoritarian parenting had positive correlation with early maladaptive schemas (pauthoritarian parenting styles led to personality disorders among offspring in the adult phase of their lives.

  8. Systemic Factors Associated With Prosocial Skills and Maladaptive Functioning in Youth Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence.

    Howell, Kathryn H; Thurston, Idia B; Hasselle, Amanda J; Decker, Kristina; Jamison, Lacy E

    2018-04-01

    Children are frequently present in homes in which intimate partner violence (IPV) occurs. Following exposure to IPV, children may develop behavioral health difficulties, struggle with regulating emotions, or exhibit aggression. Despite the negative outcomes associated with witnessing IPV, many children also display resilience. Guided by Bronfenbrenner's bioecological model, this study examined person-level, process-level (microsystem), and context-level (mesosystem) factors associated with positive and negative functioning among youth exposed to IPV. Participants were 118 mothers who reported on their 6- to 14-year-old children. All mothers experienced severe physical, psychological, and/or sexual IPV in the past 6 months. Linear regression modeling was conducted separately for youth maladaptive functioning and prosocial skills. The linear regression model for maladaptive functioning was significant, F(6, 110) = 9.32, p prosocial skills was also significant, F(6, 110) = 3.34, p prosocial skills. These findings provide critical knowledge on specific mutable factors associated with positive and negative functioning among children in the context of IPV exposure. Such factors could be incorporated into strength-based interventions following family violence.

  9. Genetic Correlates of Maladaptive Beliefs: COMT VAL(158)MET and Irrational Cognitions Linked Depending on Distress.

    Podina, Ioana; Popp, Radu; Pop, Ioan; David, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    Maladaptive/irrational beliefs are significant cognitive vulnerability mechanisms in psychopathology. They are more likely to be associated with a genetic vulnerability marker under conditions of emotional distress when irrational beliefs are more salient. Therefore, in the current study we investigated the COMT Val(158)Met gene variation in relation to irrational beliefs, assuming this relationship depended on the level of emotional distress. Two hundred and sixty-seven genotyped volunteers were assessed for core/general maladaptive beliefs, as well as trait emotional distress. We focused on context-independent measures of irrational beliefs and emotional distress in the absence of a stressor. As expected, the relationship between COMT Val(158)Met and irrational beliefs depended on the level of emotional distress (f(2)=.314). The COMT Val(158)Met-irrationality association was significant only when individuals fell in the average to above average range of emotional distress. Furthermore, within this range the Met allele seemed to relate to higher irrational beliefs. These results were significant for overall irrational beliefs and its subtypes, but not for rational beliefs, the functional counterpart of irrationality. In light of the study's limitations, the results should be considered as preliminary. If replicable, these findings have potential implications for therapygenetics, changing the view that COMT Val(158)Met might be of greater relevance when treatment modality does not rely on cognitive variables. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Interpersonal polyvictimization and mental health in males.

    Burns, Carol Rhonda; Lagdon, Susan; Boyda, David; Armour, Cherie

    2016-05-01

    A consistent conclusion within the extant literature is that victimization and in particular polyvictimization leads to adverse mental health outcomes. A large body of literature exists as it pertains to the association between victimisation and mental health in studies utilising samples of childhood victims, female only victims, and samples of male and female victims; less research exists as it relates to males victims of interpersonal violence. The aim of the current study was therefore to identify profiles of interpersonal victimizations in an exclusively male sample and to assess their differential impact on a number of adverse mental health outcomes. Using data from 14,477 adult males from Wave 2 of the NESARC, we identified interpersonal victimization profiles via Latent Class Analysis. Multinomial Logistic Regression was subsequently utilized to establish risk across mental health disorders. A 4-class solution was optimal. Victimisation profiles showed elevated odds ratios for the presence of mental health disorders; suggesting that multiple life-course victimisation typologies exists, and that victimization is strongly associated with psychopathology. Several additional notable findings are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Movement constraints on interpersonal coordination and communication.

    Tolston, Michael T; Shockley, Kevin; Riley, Michael A; Richardson, Michael J

    2014-10-01

    The present study investigated how constraining movement affects interpersonal coordination and joint cognitive performance. Pairs of participants worked cooperatively to solve picture-puzzle tasks in which they conversed to identify differences between pictures in 3 degree-of-constraint conditions: both participants were free to move their hands (free-free; FF); both participants' hands were restrained (restrained-restrained; RR); and the hands of 1 participant were free while the hands of the other participant were restrained (free-restrained; FR). Eye tracking data were collected, and movement was measured at the waist, hand, and head. Data were analyzed using Cross-Recurrence Quantification Analysis (CRQ). Postural sway coordination, gaze coordination, and task performance were predicted to be highest in FF, followed by RR, and then by FR. Results showed the asymmetric FR condition generally exhibited lesser degrees of coordination than the symmetric Conditions FF and RR, and that the patterning of coordination in the symmetric conditions varied across the measured body segments. These results demonstrate that movement restraints affect not only interpersonal postural coordination, but also joint attention. Additionally, significant positive relationships were found between task performance and total amount of anterior-posterior movement measured at the head, hand and waist; number of utterances; and number of differences pairs found in the puzzles. These findings indicate a relationship between movement and task performance consistent with the hypotheses that both interpersonal coordination and cognitive performance are sensitive to local action constraints.

  12. Interpersonal violence in the United Arab Emirates.

    Osman, Ossama T; Abbas, Alaa K; Eid, Hani O; Salem, Mohamed O; Abu-Zidan, Fikri M

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to study the anatomical distribution, severity and outcome of hospitalised interpersonal violence-related injured patients in Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates so as to give recommendations regarding the magnitude of this problem, its causes and priorities of prevention. Data were retrieved from Al-Ain Hospital Trauma Registry, which was prospectively collected over three years. There were 75 patients (males = 85.3%) having a mean age of 30 years. Eighty-one percent had blunt trauma. The estimated annual injury hospitalisation of interpersonal violence in Al-Ain city was 6.7 per 100,000 population. Females were significantly more injured by a family member (p = 0.02), at home (p = 0.005), and had more severe injuries (p = 0.003). There was a trend for children less than 18 years old to have more penetrating trauma (p = 0.06) and to be injured by a family member (p = 0.09). There was only one case of woman sexual assault and two cases of child abuse. The mean (SD) hospital stay was 7.87 (14.1) days. Less than 3% (n = 2) were admitted to the intensive care unit with no deaths. In conclusion, the majority of patients in our study had minor injuries. Nevertheless, the psychological impact may be major. This highlights the need to develop suitable mental health services in support of victims of interpersonal violence.

  13. The interpersonal effects of Facebook reassurance seeking.

    Clerkin, Elise M; Smith, April R; Hames, Jennifer L

    2013-11-01

    Social networking sites like Facebook represent a potentially valuable means for individuals with low self-esteem or interpersonal difficulties to connect with others; however, recent research indicates that individuals who are most in need of social benefits from Facebook may be ineffective in their communication strategies, and thereby sabotage their potential to benefit interpersonally. The current study tested whether reassurance seeking via Facebook negatively influenced self-esteem, and whether this change in self-esteem mediated the relationship between Facebook reassurance seeking and greater thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness. Participants completed measures online at two time-points approximately 24 days apart. Results provided evidence that Facebook reassurance seeking predicted lower levels of self-esteem, which in turn predicted increased feelings that one does not belong and that one is a burden. Key limitations to this study include our use of a predominantly young, female, Caucasian sample, a novel reassurance seeking measure, and only evaluating two time points. These results suggest that Facebook usage has the potential for negative and far-reaching influences on one's interpersonal functioning. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. KEMAMPUAN MENGELOLA KONFLIK INTERPERSONAL DI TEMPAT KERJA DITINJAU DARI PERSEPSI TERHADAP KOMUNIKASI INTERPERSONAL DAN TIPE KEPRIBADIAN EKSTROVERT

    Tyas Hapsari Dewi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the relationship between perceptions of interpersonal communication and extrovert personality type with the ability to manage interpersonal conflict in the workplace on employees Editorial Suara Merdeka Semarang. The sample in this study was 60 employees. Major hypothesis in this study is that there is a relationship between perceptions of interpersonal communication and extrovert personality types with the ability to manage interpersonal conflict in the workplace. Minor hypotheses in this study were 1 There is a positive relationship between perceptions of interpersonal communication with the ability to manage interpersonal conflict in the workplace, 2 There is a positive relationship between the extroverted personality type with the ability to manage interpersonal conflict in the workplace. Major hypothesis testing using regression analysis two predictors, the results obtained ry (1-2 = 0.639 with p = 0.000 (p 0,05.

  15. Pengaruh Konflik Interpersonal, Work-family Conflict Dan Stres, Terhadap Kepuasan Kerja Dan Dampaknya Terhadap Kepuasan Hidup

    Rajak, Adnan

    2013-01-01

    This research aims to analyze that the effect of interpersonal conflict, work family on work stress and job satisfacton, effect of work stress on job satisfactin, dan effect of job satisfaction on life satisfaction at Civil Servant Secretariat of Ministry of Eduacation and Cultural. Research Method that used is survey method at fixed lecturer of Secretariat of Ministry. This Research Type is the verification descriptive. Sample size research this is the 200 Civil Servant and the technique use...

  16. PENGARUH KONFLIK INTERPERSONAL, WORK-FAMILY CONFLICT DAN STRES, TERHADAP KEPUASAN KERJA DAN DAMPAKNYA TERHADAP KEPUASAN HIDUP

    Adnan Rajak

    2015-01-01

    AbstractThis research aims to analyze that the effect of interpersonal conflict, work family on work stress and job satisfacton, effect of work stress on job satisfactin, dan effect of job satisfaction on life satisfaction at Civil Servant Secretariat of Ministry of Eduacation and Cultural. Research Method that used is survey method at fixed lecturer of Secretariat of Ministry. This Research Type is the verification descriptive. Sample size research this is the 200 Civil Servant and the techn...

  17. Are There Subtypes of Panic Disorder? An Interpersonal Perspective

    Zilcha-Mano, Sigal; McCarthy, Kevin S.; Dinger, Ulrike; Chambless, Dianne L.; Milrod, Barbara L.; Kunik, Lauren; Barber, Jacques P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Panic disorder (PD) is associated with significant personal, social, and economic costs. However, little is known about specific interpersonal dysfunctions that characterize the PD population. The current study systematically examined these interpersonal dysfunctions. Method The present analyses included 194 patients with PD out of a sample of 201 who were randomized to cognitive-behavioral therapy, panic-focused psychodynamic psychotherapy, or applied relaxation training. Interpersonal dysfunction was measured using the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems–Circumplex (Horowitz, Alden, Wiggins, & Pincus, 2000). Results Individuals with PD reported greater levels of interpersonal distress than that of a normative cohort (especially when PD was accompanied by agoraphobia), but lower than that of a cohort of patients with major depression. There was no single interpersonal profile that characterized PD patients. Symptom-based clusters (with versus without agoraphobia) could not be discriminated on core or central interpersonal problems. Rather, as revealed by cluster analysis based on the pathoplasticity framework, there were two empirically derived interpersonal clusters among PD patients which were not accounted for by symptom severity and were opposite in nature: domineering-intrusive and nonassertive. The empirically derived interpersonal clusters appear to be of clinical utility in predicting alliance development throughout treatment: While the domineering-intrusive cluster did not show any changes in the alliance throughout treatment, the non-assertive cluster showed a process of significant strengthening of the alliance. Conclusions Empirically derived interpersonal clusters in PD provide clinically useful and non-redundant information about individuals with PD. PMID:26030762

  18. Are there subtypes of panic disorder? An interpersonal perspective.

    Zilcha-Mano, Sigal; McCarthy, Kevin S; Dinger, Ulrike; Chambless, Dianne L; Milrod, Barbara L; Kunik, Lauren; Barber, Jacques P

    2015-10-01

    Panic disorder (PD) is associated with significant personal, social, and economic costs. However, little is known about specific interpersonal dysfunctions that characterize the PD population. The current study systematically examined these interpersonal dysfunctions. The present analyses included 194 patients with PD out of a sample of 201 who were randomized to cognitive-behavioral therapy, panic-focused psychodynamic psychotherapy, or applied relaxation training. Interpersonal dysfunction was measured with the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-Circumplex (Horowitz, Alden, Wiggins, & Pincus, 2000). Individuals with PD reported greater levels of interpersonal distress than that of a normative cohort (especially when PD was accompanied by agoraphobia), but lower than that of a cohort of patients with major depression. There was no single interpersonal profile that characterized PD patients. Symptom-based clusters (with vs. without agoraphobia) could not be discriminated on core or central interpersonal problems. Rather, as revealed by cluster analysis based on the pathoplasticity framework, there were 2 empirically derived interpersonal clusters among PD patients that were not accounted for by symptom severity and were opposite in nature: domineering-intrusive and nonassertive. The empirically derived interpersonal clusters appear to be of clinical utility in predicting alliance development throughout treatment: Although the domineering-intrusive cluster did not show any changes in the alliance throughout treatment, the nonassertive cluster showed a process of significant strengthening of the alliance. Empirically derived interpersonal clusters in PD provide clinically useful and nonredundant information about individuals with PD. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Interpersonal Development, Stability, and Change in Early Adulthood

    Wright, Aidan G. C.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Lenzenweger, Mark F.

    2011-01-01

    Objective This goal of this research was to explore the development of the interpersonal system mapped by the interpersonal circumplex in early adulthood (Ages 18-22). Method This study uses the Longitudinal Study of Personality Disorders sample (N = 250; 53% Female). Participants completed the Revised Interpersonal Adjective Scales (Wiggins, Trapnell, & Phillips, 1988) in their freshman, sophomore, and senior years of college. Estimates of structural, rank-order, mean, individual, and ipsative stability were calculated for the broad interpersonal dimensions of Dominance and Affiliation, and also the lower-order octant scales. Additionally, the interpersonal profile parameters of differentiation and prototypicality were calculated at each wave and explored longitudinally, and also used as predictors of interpersonal stability. Results We found excellent structural and high rank-order and ipsative stability in the interpersonal scales over this time period. Mean increases on the Affiliation axis, but not on the Dominance axis, were found to mask differential rates of change among the octant scales, along with significant individual variation in the rates of change. Interpersonal differentiation and prototypicality were related to higher stability in overall interpersonal style. Conclusions Results point to evidence of both stability and nuanced change, illuminating some of the features of the structural variables that can be derived from interpersonal circumplex profiles. PMID:22224462

  20. Nursing and pharmacy students' use of emotionally intelligent behaviours to manage challenging interpersonal situations with staff during clinical placement: A qualitative study.

    McCloughen, Andrea; Foster, Kim

    2017-04-20

    To identify challenging interpersonal interactions experienced by nursing and pharmacy students during clinical placement, and strategies used to manage those situations. Healthcare students and staff experience elevated stress when exposed to dynamic clinical environments, complex care and challenging professional relationships. Emotionally intelligent behaviours are associated with appropriate recognition and management of emotions evoked by stressful experiences and development of effective relationships. Nursing and pharmacy students' use of emotionally intelligent behaviours to manage challenging interpersonal situations is not well known. A qualitative design, using semi-structured interviews to explore experiences of challenging interpersonal situations during clinical placement (Phase two of a larger mixed-methods study). Final-year Australian university nursing and pharmacy students (n = 20) were purposefully recruited using a range of Emotional Intelligence scores (derived in Phase one), measured using the GENOS Emotional intelligence Inventory (concise version). Challenging interpersonal situations involving student-staff and intrastaff conflict, discourteous behaviour and criticism occurred during clinical placement. Students used personal and relational strategies, incorporating emotionally intelligent behaviours, to manage these encounters. Strategies included reflecting and reframing, being calm, controlling discomfort and expressing emotions appropriately. Emotionally intelligent behaviours are effective to manage stressful interpersonal interactions. Methods for strengthening these behaviours should be integrated into education of nursing and pharmacy students and qualified professionals. Education within the clinical/workplace environment can incorporate key interpersonal skills of collaboration, social interaction and reflection, while also attending to sociocultural contexts of the healthcare setting. Students and staff are frequently exposed

  1. Patterns of interpersonal problems and their improvement in depressive and anxious patients treated with psychoanalytic therapy.

    Salzer, Simone; Leibing, Eric; Jakobsen, Thorsten; Rudolf, Gerd; Brockmann, Josef; Eckert, Jochen; Huber, Dorothea; Klug, Günther; Henrich, Gerhard; Grande, Tilmann; Keller, Wolfram; Kreische, Reinhard; Biskup, Joachim; Staats, Hermann; Warwas, Jasmin; Leichsenring, Falk

    2010-01-01

    Interpersonal problems were studied in 121 patients treated with psychoanalytic therapy using the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems. Four characteristic subtypes were identified, which differed in the quality and flexibility of their interpersonal behavior. Independent of the predominant type of interpersonal problems, the psychotherapy treatment led to strong decreases in interpersonal distress and increases in interpersonal differentiation. Psychoanalytic therapy was highly effective for all identified interpersonal subtypes and seems to help patients achieve more satisfactory relationships.

  2. The Study of early maladaptive Schemas in Men Dependent on Drugs and those Not Dependent

    MR Firoozi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Objectives of the Study Dependence on drugs is a prevalent problem throughout the world, in general and in Iran, in particular. Such a phenomenon is associated with numerous negative consequences. Given the changes in the consumption patterns in different countries, especially in Iran, and the abuse of drugs, identifying the factors which may pave the way for drug abuse is absolutely essential, which can be taken into account in setting the objectives of therapy programs. Cognizant of this, the present study has sought to study early maladaptive schemas in men dependent on drugs and those that are not. Materials and Method: The research design adopted in the present study was causal-comparative. The populaiton of interest was all the men dependent on drugs in the city of Yasouj, who had presented to recovery centers affiliated to welfare organization and Yasouj University of Medical Sciences in the year 2014 and were undergoing treatment. Using multi-stage cluster sampling, initially out of 23 centers for recovery programs, four centers were randomly chosen. Following that, out of each center, 20 and in total, 80 clients were chosen as the sample through convenience sampling. In addition, 80 men not dependent on drugs were chosen through matching with the sample dependent on drugs in terms of age, gender and locality. For the purpsoe of measuing early maladaptive schemas, we made use of the short version of Young’s early maladaptive Schemas Questionnaire. In order to determine the prevalent schemas in men dependent on drugs and those not dependent and the difference between the two groups, use was made of independent-sample t-test and effect size (d. Findings: The findings suggest that mean values of those dependent on drugs in all the schemas in quesiton were significantly higher than those of men not dependent. Although the difference in effect size of all schemas fell in the domain of the large effect, the largest

  3. Vulnerability to burnout within the nursing workforce-The role of personality and interpersonal behaviour.

    Geuens, Nina; Van Bogaert, Peter; Franck, Erik

    2017-12-01

    To study the combination of personality and interpersonal behaviour of staff nurses in general hospitals in relation to burnout and its separate dimensions. More research on the individual factors contributing to the development of burnout is needed to improve the risk profile of nursing staff. Therefore, a combination of Leary's interpersonal circumplex model, which depicts the interpersonal behaviour trait domain, and the five-factor model was considered in the study at hand. A cross-sectional research method was applied using self-report questionnaires. A total of 880 Belgian general hospital nurses were invited to participate in the study. Data were collected from November 2012-July 2013. The questionnaire consisted of three validated self-report instruments: the NEO five-factor inventory, the Dutch Interpersonal Behaviour Scale and the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Of the 880 nurses invited to participate, 587 (67%) returned the questionnaire. Sex, neuroticism, submissive-friendly behaviour, dominant-friendly behaviour and vector length were found to be predictive factors for emotional exhaustion. For depersonalisation, sex, neuroticism, conscientiousness, friendly behaviour, submissive-friendly behaviour, dominant-hostile behaviour and vector length were predictive factors. Finally, personal accomplishment was determined by neuroticism, openness, conscientiousness, and hostile behaviour. This study confirmed the influence of the Big Five personality factors on the separate dimensions of burnout. Interpersonal behaviour made a significant contribution to the predictive capacity of the regression models of all three dimensions of burnout. Additional longitudinal research is required to confirm the causal relationship between these individual factors and burnout. The results of this study can help to achieve a better understanding of which vulnerabilities an individual prevention programme for burnout should target. In addition, hospitals could use assessment

  4. Lifetime interpersonal violence and self-reported chlamydia trachomatis diagnosis among California women.

    Alvarez, Jennifer; Pavao, Joanne; Mack, Katelyn P; Chow, Joan M; Baumrind, Nikki; Kimerling, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    To examine the relationship between cumulative exposure to various types of interpersonal violence throughout the life span and self-reported history of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) diagnosis in a population-based sample of California women. This was a cross-sectional analysis of a population-based survey of California women aged 18-44 years (n = 3521). Participants reported their experience of multiple types of interpersonal violence: physical or sexual abuse in childhood or adulthood and intimate partner violence (IPV) in the past 12 months. Current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depressive symptoms were also reported. Separate logistic regression models assessed the association between experiencing each type of interpersonal violence, as well as women's cumulative exposure to violence, and past CT diagnosis, adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, and poverty, as well as mental health problems. Six percent of women reported a past diagnosis of CT, and 40.8% reported experiencing at least one type of interpersonal violence in their lifetime. All types of violence were significantly associated with higher odds of having a past CT diagnosis even after controlling for sociodemographics. Women who reported experiencing four or more types of violence experiences had over five times the odds of reporting a lifetime CT diagnosis compared with women who never experienced interpersonal violence (adjusted odds ratio = 5.71, 95% CI 3.27-9.58). Current PTSD and depressive symptoms did not significantly affect the relationship between a woman's cumulative experience of violence and her risk of past CT diagnosis. There is a robust association between experiencing multiple forms of violence and having been diagnosed with CT. Women who seek treatment for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), such as CT, should be assessed for their lifetime history of violence, especially violence in their current intimate relationships. Sexual risk reduction counseling may also be important

  5. Pathological Narcissism and Interpersonal Behavior in Daily Life

    Roche, Michael J.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Conroy, David E.; Hyde, Amanda L.; Ram, Nilam

    2014-01-01

    The Cognitive-Affective Processing System (CAPS) has been proposed as a useful meta-framework for integrating contextual differences in situations with individual differences in personality pathology. In this article, we evaluated the potential of combining the CAPS meta-framework and contemporary interpersonal theory to investigate how individual differences in pathological narcissism influenced interpersonal functioning in daily life. University students (N = 184) completed event-contingent reports about interpersonal interactions across a 7-day diary study. Using multilevel regression models, we found that combinations of narcissistic expression (grandiosity, vulnerability) were associated with different interpersonal behavior patterns reflective of interpersonal dysfunction. These results are among the first to empirically demonstrate the usefulness of the CAPS model to conceptualize personality pathology through the patterning of if-then interpersonal processes. PMID:23205698

  6. Interpersonal subtypes in social phobia: diagnostic and treatment implications.

    Cain, Nicole M; Pincus, Aaron L; Grosse Holtforth, Martin

    2010-11-01

    Interpersonal assessment may provide a clinically useful way to identify subtypes of social phobia. In this study, we examined evidence for interpersonal subtypes in a sample of 77 socially phobic outpatients. A cluster analysis based on the dimensions of dominance and love on the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-Circumplex Scales (Alden, Wiggins, & Pincus, 1990) found 2 interpersonal subtypes of socially phobic patients. These subtypes did not differ on pretreatment global symptom severity as measured by the Brief Symptom Inventory (Derogatis, 1993) or diagnostic comorbidity but did exhibit differential responses to outpatient psychotherapy. Overall, friendly-submissive social phobia patients had significantly lower scores on measures of social anxiety and significantly higher scores on measures of well-being and satisfaction at posttreatment than cold-submissive social phobia patients. We discuss the results in terms of interpersonal theory and the clinical relevance of assessment of interpersonal functioning prior to beginning psychotherapy with socially phobic patients.

  7. The four key characteristics of interpersonal emotion regulation.

    Niven, Karen

    2017-10-01

    Emotion researchers are increasingly interested in processes by which people influence others' feelings. Although one such process, interpersonal emotion regulation, has received particular attention in recent years, there remains confusion about exactly how to define this process. The present article aims to distinguish interpersonal emotion regulation from other, related processes by outlining its four key characteristics. Specifically, interpersonal emotion regulation is presented as a process of (i) regulation, that (ii) has an affective target, (iii) is deliberate, and (iv) has a social target. Considering these characteristics raises questions for future research concerning factors that may influence the process of interpersonal emotion regulation, why interpersonal emotion regulation sometimes fails, and whether interventions can improve people's use of interpersonal emotion regulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Mathematics creative thinking levels based on interpersonal intelligence

    Kuncorowati, R. H.; Mardiyana; Saputro, D. R. S.

    2017-12-01

    Creative thinking ability was one of student’s ability to determine various alternative solutions toward mathematics problem. One of indicators related to creative thinking ability was interpersonal intelligence. Student’s interpersonal intelligence would influence to student’s creativity. This research aimed to analyze creative thinking ability level of junior high school students in Karanganyar using descriptive method. Data was collected by test, questionnaire, interview, and documentation. The result showed that students with high interpersonal intelligence achieved third and fourth level in creative thinking ability. Students with moderate interpersonal intelligence achieved second level in creative thinking ability and students with low interpersonal intelligence achieved first and zero level in creative thinking ability. Hence, students with high, moderate, and low interpersonal intelligence could solve mathematics problem based on their mathematics creative thinking ability.

  9. The relation between antisocial and borderline personality symptoms and early maladaptive schemas in a treatment seeking sample of male substance users.

    Shorey, Ryan C; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with substance use disorders are more likely to have antisocial and borderline personality disorder than non-substance abusers. Recently, research has examined the relations between early maladaptive schemas and personality disorders, as early maladaptive schemas are believed to underlie personality disorders. However, there is a dearth of research on the relations between early maladaptive schemas and personality disorders among individuals seeking treatment for substance abuse. The current study examined the relations among early maladaptive schemas and antisocial and borderline personality within in a sample of men seeking substance abuse treatment (n = 98). Results demonstrated that early maladaptive schema domains were associated with antisocial and borderline personality symptoms. Implications of these findings for substance use treatment and research are discussed. Antisocial (ASPD) and Borderline (BPD) personality disorder symptoms are prevalence among individuals seeking substance abuse treatment. Early maladaptive schemas are believed to underlie the development of ASPD and BPD symptoms, and are also prevalence among individuals seeking substance use treatment. Findings from the current study suggest that specific early maladaptive schema domains predict ASPD and BPD symptoms in a substance abuse treatment seeking sample of adult males. The treatment of ASPD and BPD among men seeking substance use treatment may want to focus on early maladaptive schemas. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. The relationships of personal and cultural identity to adaptive and maladaptive psychosocial functioning in emerging adults.

    Schwartz, Seth J; Zamboanga, Byron L; Weisskirch, Robert S; Wang, Sherry C

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the extent to which cultural identity would be associated with adaptive and maladaptive psychosocial functioning, both directly and indirectly through a personal identity consolidation. A sample of 773 White, Black, and Hispanic university students completed measures of cultural identity, personal identity consolidation, adaptive psychosocial functioning, internalizing symptoms, and proclivity toward externalizing symptoms. Both heritage and American cultural identity were positively related to adaptive psychosocial functioning; American-culture identity was negatively associated with internalizing symptoms; and heritage-culture identity was negatively related to proclivity toward externalizing symptoms. All of these findings were mediated by personal identity consolidation and were fully consistent across ethnic groups. We discuss implications in terms of broadening the study of identity to include both personal and cultural dimensions of self.

  11. The relationship between alexithymia and maladaptive perfectionism in eating disorders: a mediation moderation analysis methodology.

    Marsero, S; Ruggiero, G M; Scarone, S; Bertelli, S; Sassaroli, S

    2011-09-01

    This work aimed to explore the relationship between alexithymia and maladaptive perfectionism in the psychological process leading to eating disorders (ED). Forty-nine individuals with ED and 49 controls completed the Concern over Mistakes subscale of the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, the Perfectionism subscale of the Eating Disorders Inventory, the total score of the Toronto Alexithymia Scale, and the Drive for Thinness, Bulimia, and Body Dissatisfaction subscales of the Eating Disorders Inventory. We tested a model in which alexythimia is the independent variable and perfectionism is the possible mediator or moderator. Analyses confirmed the assumed model. In addition, it emerged that perfectionism played a mediating or moderating role when measured by different instruments. This result suggested that different instruments measured subtly different aspects of the same construct. Results could suggest that alexithymia is a predisposing factor for perfectionism, which in turn may lead to the development of eating disorders.

  12. Context effects and the (mal)adaptive nature of guilt and shame in children.

    Ferguson, T J; Stegge, H; Eyre, H L; Vollmer, R; Ashbaker, M

    2000-08-01

    Symptoms of internalization were examined in relation to children's self-reports of three emotions in situations that were either ambiguous or unambiguous as to the child's responsibility for various standard violations. Children ranging in age from 6 to 13 years were drawn from elementary schools (61 boys, 79 girls, mean age = 8.7) and from a community mental health center (23 boys, 18 girls, mean age = 8.5) to which they had been referred for problems related to internalization or externalization. Shame proneness was consistently linked to internalizing symptoms across contexts. Guilt proneness, in response to ambiguous scenarios, was also associated with internalization, whereas pride responses were unrelated to symptoms. Few age- or gender-related differences were found. The results cast doubt on notions that self-conscious emotions, such as guilt, are necessarily adaptive or maladaptive. Systematic research is needed to understand which features of any emotion contribute to children's psychological adjustment.

  13. Relation Between Early Maladaptive Schemes and Anxiety and Depression Features in University Students

    Diana Lucía Sánchez-Ortíz***

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety and depression are important health problems, because of the high prevalence rates in normal population and in clinical population. This non-experimental study intends to identify the cognitive profile, through the early maladaptive schemes in students from the Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana Bucaramanga, related with depression and anxiety scores. Thegoal is to contribute to the identification of cognitive characteristics that could help in the prevention of these disorders. 259 psychology students of the first seven semesters were evaluated by means from the following questionnaires: BDI, ST/DEP, STAI and YSQ-L2. The results don’t show the presence of specific schemes as a function of the presence of State/ Trait depression or State/Trait anxiety, which might suggest, through the dimensional paradigm, the presence of a cognitive pattern for an anxiety and depression mix disorder. It is suggested that further research should be carried out with other samples, including clinical population.

  14. INEQUALITY, INCENTIVES AND THE INTERPERSONAL TEST

    Lippert-Rasmussen, Kasper

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT This article defends three claims: (1) even if Rawls' difference principle permits incentives to induce talented people to be more productive, it does not follow that it permits inequalities; (2) the difference principle, when adequately specified, may in some circumstances permit incent...... incentives and allow that the worst off are not made as well off as they could be; and (3) an argument for incentives might pass Cohen's interpersonal test even if it is unsound and might not pass it even if it is sound. 1...

  15. [Motives and interpersonal functions of aggression].

    Ohbuchi, K

    1987-06-01

    In this review, the author theoretically and empirically examined motives and interpersonal functions of aggression. A factor-analysis of Averill's questionnaire items on anger revealed that motives involved in aggressive responses were clustered into two groups: the hostile and the instrumental. It was also clarified that an individual is likely to engage in aggression particularly when some hostile motives are evoked. Concerning the interpersonal functions, the author proposed that aggression might serve four principal goals. (1) Aggression can be generated as an avoidance response to an aversive stimulus, such as frustration, annoyance, or pain, and so on. It depends on the severity of the stimulus. It was however emphasized that aggression is also mediated by social cognition, such as an attribution of intent to a harm-doer. (2) Aggression can be used as a means of coercing the other person into doing something. An individual is likely to use such a power strategy if he/she is lacking in self-confidence or a perspective for influencing the target person by more peaceful strategies. (3) Aggression can be interpreted as a punishment when it is directed toward a transgressor. In this case, aggression is motivated by restoration of a social justice, and thus its intensity is determined by the perceived moral responsibility of the transgressor. Further, it was indicated that aggression is intensified if it is justified as a sanctional conduct against the immoral. (4) Aggression can be also evoked when an individual's social identity is threatened. It was suggested that impression management motives are involved in aggression by an unexpected finding that the presence of audience or the identifiability rather facilitated retaliative aggression. The aggression-inhibition effect of apology was also explained in terms of impression management. In conclusion, it was presented that aggression is a behavioral strategy as an attempt to resolve interpersonal conflicts

  16. The Relational Antecedents of Interpersonal Helping

    Stea, Diego; Pedersen, Torben; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2017-01-01

    networks are also associated with cognitive costs, which may reduce the focal employee's ability to both recognize the need for help and engage in helping behaviours. For these reasons, the authors assert an inverted U-shaped relation between the size of an ego's social network and engagement in helping...... behaviour. However, high-quality relationships imply higher mutual understanding between the actors, and hence lower cognitive costs. In turn, the position (and threshold) of the curve between network size and interpersonal helping should be influenced by the quality of the relationship between the provider...

  17. Interpersonal bullying behaviours in the workplace

    Charlotte Pietersen

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper employing a phenomenological method to explicate seven informants’ experience of interpersonal bullying behaviors in a South African work context, I demarcated four general themes namely: lack of recognition, discrimination, obstructionism, and isolation. Moreover, I found that perpetrators (male and female managers predominantly used verbal and indirect negative acts to bully subordinates. Finally, racial tensions contributed to bullying behavior. While a phenomenological approach shows promise to explore local bullying behavior more research is needed to broaden our understanding of the phenomenon, including explicating bullying through the eyes of bystanders and alleged bullies.

  18. The Relation Between Antisocial and Borderline Personality Symptoms and Early Maladaptive Schemas in a Treatment Seeking Sample of Male Substance Users

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with substance use disorders are more likely to have antisocial and borderline personality disorder than non-substance abusers. Recently, research has examined the relations between early maladaptive schemas and personality disorders, as early maladaptive schemas are believed to underlie personality disorders. However, there is a dearth of research on the relations between early maladaptive schemas and personality disorders among individuals seeking treatment for substance abuse. The current study examined the relations among early maladaptive schemas and antisocial and borderline personality within in a sample of men seeking substance abuse treatment (n = 98). Results demonstrated that early maladaptive schema domains were associated with antisocial and borderline personality symptoms. Implications of these findings for substance use treatment and research are discussed. PMID:23650153

  19. Therapy of anorexia and Young’s early maladaptive schemas. Longitudinal study

    Dorota Mącik

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Young’s early maladaptive schemas are defined as convictions about oneself acquired in childhood, formed by a child in response to deprivation of his or her basic needs, especially in the area of relationships. In the case of anorexia, the role of the family and relations is emphasized as crucial for the genesis of this disorder. The aim of the research was to investigate whether Young’s early maladaptive schemas change during the therapy, which would prognosticate higher treatment efficiency. Participants and procedure The study group included 30 women suffering from anorexia, starting their 6-week therapeutic program. The procedure included double measurement: during the administration and discharge. The respondents filled in the Young Schema Questionnaire in its short form (YSQ-S3 (twice, the Acceptance of Illness Scale (AIS adapted by Juczyński (twice, and a demographic chart (once. Results The intensity of all schemas decreased after completion of the therapeutic program; the differences were mostly statistically significant. The composition of the most intense schemas did not change significantly: unrelenting standards and abandonment were the highest during both measurements. What changed were the interrelations between the schemas. They are also connected with the acceptance of the illness (the weaker they are, the greater the acceptance, and the stronger the relations and with psychological well-being, especially during the post-therapy measurement. Conclusions The schemas seem to be significant from the perspective of understanding anorexia. They are susceptible to be changed by integrative therapies. Nevertheless, it seems that in order to achieve a durable change, schema therapy should be applied.

  20. Maladaptive social information processing in childhood predicts young men's atypical amygdala reactivity to threat.

    Choe, Daniel Ewon; Shaw, Daniel S; Forbes, Erika E

    2015-05-01

    Maladaptive social information processing, such as hostile attributional bias and aggressive response generation, is associated with childhood maladjustment. Although social information processing problems are correlated with heightened physiological responses to social threat, few studies have examined their associations with neural threat circuitry, specifically amygdala activation to social threat. A cohort of 310 boys participated in an ongoing longitudinal study and completed questionnaires and laboratory tasks assessing their social and cognitive characteristics the boys were between 10 and 12 years of age. At age 20, 178 of these young men underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging and a social threat task. At age 22, adult criminal arrest records and self-reports of impulsiveness were obtained. Path models indicated that maladaptive social information-processing at ages 10 and 11 predicted increased left amygdala reactivity to fear faces, an ambiguous threat, at age 20 while accounting for childhood antisocial behavior, empathy, IQ, and socioeconomic status. Exploratory analyses indicated that aggressive response generation - the tendency to respond to threat with reactive aggression - predicted left amygdala reactivity to fear faces and was concurrently associated with empathy, antisocial behavior, and hostile attributional bias, whereas hostile attributional bias correlated with IQ. Although unrelated to social information-processing problems, bilateral amygdala reactivity to anger faces at age 20 was unexpectedly predicted by low IQ at age 11. Amygdala activation did not mediate associations between social information processing and number of criminal arrests, but both impulsiveness at age 22 and arrests were correlated with right amygdala reactivity to anger facial expressions at age 20. Childhood social information processing and IQ predicted young men's amygdala response to threat a decade later, which suggests that childhood social

  1. [Examination of the Young maladaptive schemes in a group of Gamblers Anonymous].

    Katona, Zsuzsa; Körmendi, Attila

    2012-01-01

    Literature of gambling addiction has become widespread in last years. Many studies were written about the vulnerability factors helping the development of addiction, theoretical models, comorbid problems and therapy possibilities. Currently there is no integrated theoretical model that could explain sufficiently the development and maintenance of pathological gambling. The treatment issue is also unresolved. Cognitive psychology is a dynamically developing field of psychology and good results are achieved in gambling treatment with applying cognitive techniques. Jeffrey Young's schema-focused therapy is a recent theoretical and therapeutic direction within cognitive psychology which emphasizes the necessity of emotional changes beside rational ones in the interest of efficiency. The purpose of our research is to examine and analyse active maladaptive schemas among gamblers who are members of Gamblers Anonymous self-help group. 23 control persons and 23 gamblers associated with support group of Gamblers Anonymous took part in our research. The severity of gambling behaviour was measured by Gamblers Anonymous Twenty Questions. For exploring maladaptive schemas we used the shorter 114-item version of the Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ-S3). All the examined gamblers were considered as problem gamblers based on Gamblers Anonymous Twenty Questions. In the control group there where no active schemas while in the group of gamblers several schemas (Emotional deprivation, Self-sacrifice, Recognition seeking, Emotional inhibition, Unrelenting standards, Self-punitiveness, Insufficient self-control) showed activity. Active schemas show similarity in their matter with main establishments of researches about gamblers and support the role of impulsivity, narcissistic traits, self-medicalization and emotional deprivation in the development and maintenance of pathological gambling.

  2. Early maladaptive schemas and level of depression in alcohol addicts

    Maciej Jabłoński

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the study was to determine whether a link exists between early maladaptive schemas identified by Young et al. and depression in alcoholics. The relationships of schemas with selected alcohol dependence variables and suicidal thoughts in alcoholics were also checked. Material and methods: Seventy-seven alcohol addicts participated in the study – 19 women and 58 men. Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ-S3, Beck’s Depression Inventory (BDI and Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST were used. Results: Based on the results obtained, 16 out of 18 schemas are positively and statistically correlated with depression among alcoholics. The strongest relationships were noted for emotional deprivation, social isolation/alienation and subjugation. Correlations between the schemas and the severity of addiction and the age of drinking initiation were also found. Differences in the intensity of some schemas occurred between people experiencing suicidal thoughts and people without these thoughts. Conclusions: There is a need to consider inclusion therapy focused on changing maladaptive schemas in alcoholics. This is especially true of the schemas of social isolation, emotional deprivation and subjugation. There is also a need for further research in this area.

  3. Interpersonal well-being and mental health among male partners of women with breast cancer.

    Segrin, Chris; Badger, Terry; Sieger, Amelia; Meek, Paula; Lopez, Ana Maria

    2006-05-01

    The focus of this investigation was on the mental health of men whose partners had recently been diagnosed with breast cancer. In accord with theoretical models that specify the importance of interpersonal relationships in maintaining mental health, men's relationship satisfaction and perceptions of social support were predicted to be positively associated with their mental health during this stressful time. The sample included 63 male partners of women with breast cancer who participated in a three-wave panel study that assessed various indicators of mental health and interpersonal well being at T1, T1 + 6 weeks, and T1 + 10 weeks. Results indicated substantial distress in at least 25% of the men. However this distress subsided over time. Relationship satisfaction was both concurrently and prospectively associated with better mental health. Social support was negatively associated with concurrent mental health but post hoc analyses suggested that men's social networks perhaps provide greater social support to the extent that the men are emotionally distressed.

  4. An Identification of Interpersonal Skills for Building Army Civilian Leaders

    Elliott, Kari A; Erickson, Michael D; Fowler, Edward T; Gieseking, John K; Weiss, Mary P

    2006-01-01

    .... This project expands the findings from the 2003 Army Training and Leadership Development Panel, Communication Task Force initiative, which identified a perceived gap in interpersonal skills exhibited...

  5. Forum: Interpersonal Communication in Instructional Settings: Interpersonal Communication Research in Instructional Contexts: A Dyadic Approach

    Goodboy, Alan K.; Kashy, Deborah A.

    2017-01-01

    Do we study too much interpersonal communication and not enough of other topics in the instructional communication literature? This forum provides a mixed bag of both affirmative and negative responses to this question. On one hand, answering "yes" is quite defensible because there are many recent studies examining interpersonal…

  6. Interpersonal Interaction within the Violin Teaching Studio: The Influence of Interpersonal Dynamics on Outcomes for Teachers

    Creech, Andrea; Hallam, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The overall aims of this study were to identify qualities of interpersonal interaction within teacher-parent-pupil learning partnerships and to explore whether these characteristics were predictors of learning and teaching outcomes for teachers, parents and pupils participating in pursuit of expertise on musical instruments. This article presents…

  7. Forum: Interpersonal Communication in Instructional Settings. The Interplay between Interpersonal Communication and Instructional Communication

    Punyanunt-Carter, Narissra Maria; Arias, V. Santiago

    2017-01-01

    In this brief forum article, the authors suggest that in order to truly understand communication education, both interpersonal and instructional variables must be analyzed. Instructors, researchers, and scholars need to find balance between content and relationship aspects while being aware of context boundaries to truly assist in maximizing…

  8. Measuring teachers’ interpersonal self-efficacy: relationship with realized interpersonal aspirations, classroom management efficacy and age

    Veldman, Ietje; Admiraal, Wilfried; Mainhard, Tim; Wubbels, Theo; Van Tartwijk, Jan

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we present the development and validation of an instrument for measuring teachers’ interpersonal self-efficacy: the Questionnaire on Teacher Interaction-Self-Efficacy (QTI-SE). We used the Questionnaire on Teacher Interaction as a basis to construct items. Current scales on teacher

  9. Relationship of Perceived Stress, Perfectionism and Social Support with Students’ Academic Burnout and -Academic Performance

    Pourseyyed SM

    2015-07-01

    Conclusion: Perceived stress has negative direct relationship with social support and positive direct relationship with academic burnout. Social support also has positive direct relationship with academic performance. Relationship of maladaptive perfectionism with academic burnout and also the relationship of adaptive perfectionism with academic performance is direct positive. Relationship of perceived stress with academic performance is indirect mediated by social support.

  10. Acculturative Stress, Poor Mental Health and Condom-Use Intention among International Students in China

    Yang, Ningxi; Xu, Yayun; Chen, Xinguang; Yu, Bin; Yan, Hong; Li, Shiyue

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: Engaging in sexual risk behaviour can be a maladaptive strategy for international students to deal with stress. This study examined the role of poor mental health in mediating the relationship between acculturative stress and condom-use intention among international students in Beijing, China. Methods: The study used a cross-sectional…

  11. Childhood maltreatment, maladaptive personality types and level and course of psychological distress : A six-year longitudinal study

    Spinhoven, Philip; Elzinga, Bernet M.; Van Hemert, Albert M.; de Rooij, Mark; Penninx, Brenda W.

    Background: Childhood maltreatment and maladaptive personality are both cross-sectionally associated with psychological distress. It is unknown whether childhood maltreatment affects the level and longitudinal course of psychological distress in adults and to what extent this effect is mediated by

  12. Relationship Between Early Maladaptive Schemas and Meaning of Life and Psychological Well-Being of the Elderly

    Soheila Orang

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion Findings of this research revealed that early maladaptive schemas (unrelenting standards, self-sacrifice, subjugation, emotional deprivation, social isolation, and failure have predictive power for meaning of life and well-being, which may affect the mental health of the elderly.

  13. The Role of Early Maladaptive Schemas in the Appearance of Psychological Symptomatology in Adult Women Victims of Child Abuse.

    Estévez, Ana; Jauregui, Paula; Ozerinjauregi, Nagore; Herrero-Fernández, David

    2017-01-01

    Child abuse affects people's ways of thinking, feeling, and observing the world, resulting in dysfunctional beliefs and maladaptive schemas. Thus, consequences of child abuse may persist during adulthood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the psychological consequences (anxiety, phobic anxiety, depression, and hopelessness) of different types of maltreatment (physical, sexual, and emotional abuse and physical and emotional neglect) and to study the role of early maladaptive schemas in the onset of symptomatology in adult female victims of child abuse. The sample consisted of 75 women referred by associations for treatment of abuse and maltreatment in childhood. Sexual abuse was the type of maltreatment that was most strongly related to most dysfunctional symptomatology, followed by emotional abuse and physical abuse, whereas physical neglect was the least related. Also, early maladaptive schemas were found to correlate with child abuse and dysfunctional symptomatology. Finally, early maladaptive schemas mediated the relationship between sexual abuse and dysfunctional symptomatology when the effect of other types of abuse was controlled. These results may provide important guidance for clinical intervention.

  14. In Search of the Sources of Psychologically Controlling Parenting: The Role of Parental Separation Anxiety and Parental Maladaptive Perfectionism

    Soenens, Bart; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Duriez, Bart; Goossens, Luc

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the role of two dimensions of parental separation anxiety--Anxiety about Adolescent Distancing (AAD) and Comfort with Secure Base Role (CSBR)--and parental maladaptive perfectionism in the prediction of psychologically controlling parenting. In a sample of middle adolescents and their parents (N=677), it was found that…

  15. The Effects of Psychotherapist's and Clients' Interpersonal Behaviors during a First Simulated Session: A Lab Study Investigating Client Satisfaction

    François Moors

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of psychotherapists' behaviors during a first simulated therapy session on clients' satisfaction, including their intention to pursue or drop out from therapy. The importance of psychotherapists' warmth on clients' satisfaction was examined to check previous findings stressing this determining factor. Examining the role of warm behaviors is however insufficient according to the interpersonal perspective. We therefore tested the role of the psychotherapist's agentic behaviors since only a few studies provide contradictory results about the role of this interpersonal dimension on clients' satisfaction and how it is influenced by matching up client and therapist's profiles. To test our hypotheses and control for alternative therapy-related explanatory variables, we used different videos as experimental conditions manipulating the therapist's behaviors. Seventy-five participants had to imagine themselves as potential clients arriving for a first therapy session. They successively watched a role-playing therapist behaving according to five randomized interpersonal profiles. Results confirmed that warmth was a major dimension predicting client satisfaction. They revealed that agency was also a determinant of client satisfaction and that its effects depended on the client's own interpersonal agentic profile. Dominant clients were found to be more satisfied with the dominant psychotherapist than the submissive one while submissive clients preferred only the warm psychotherapist. These findings are discussed and suggest that therapists may need to be flexible and adapt their behaviors according to their client's interpersonal profile to increase their client satisfaction and decrease drop outs.

  16. Psychological and Interpersonal Dimensions of Sexual Function and Dysfunction.

    Brotto, Lori; Atallah, Sandrine; Johnson-Agbakwu, Crista; Rosenbaum, Talli; Abdo, Carmita; Byers, E Sandra; Graham, Cynthia; Nobre, Pedro; Wylie, Kevan

    2016-04-01

    Psychological, interpersonal, and sociocultural factors play a significant role in making one vulnerable to developing a sexual concern, in triggering the onset of a sexual difficulty, and in maintaining sexual dysfunction in the long term. To focus on psychological and interpersonal aspects of sexual functioning in women and men after a critical review of the literature from 2010 to the present. This report is part 1 of 2 of our collaborative work during the 2015 International Consultation on Sexual Medicine for Committee 2. Systematic review of the literature with a focus on publications since 2010. Our work as sexual medicine clinicians is essentially transdisciplinary, which involves not only the collaboration of multidisciplinary professionals but also the integration and application of new knowledge and evaluation and subsequent revision of our practices to ensure the highest level of care provided. There is scant literature on gender non-conforming children and adolescents to clarify specific developmental factors that shape the development of gender identity, orientation, and sexuality. Conversely, studies consistently have demonstrated the interdependence of sexual function between partners, with dysfunction in one partner often contributing to problems in sexual functioning and/or sexual satisfaction for the other. We recommend that clinicians explore attachment styles of patients, childhood experiences (including sexual abuse), onset of sexual activity, personality, cognitive schemas, infertility concerns, and sexual expectations. Assessment of depression, anxiety, stress, substance use and post-traumatic stress (and their medical treatments) should be carried out as part of the initial evaluation. Clinicians should attempt to ascertain whether the anxiety and/or depression is a consequence or a cause of the sexual complaint, and treatment should be administered accordingly. Cognitive distraction is a significant contributor to sexual response problems

  17. The Interpersonal Sunk-Cost Effect.

    Olivola, Christopher Y

    2018-05-01

    The sunk-cost fallacy-pursuing an inferior alternative merely because we have previously invested significant, but nonrecoverable, resources in it-represents a striking violation of rational decision making. Whereas theoretical accounts and empirical examinations of the sunk-cost effect have generally been based on the assumption that it is a purely intrapersonal phenomenon (i.e., solely driven by one's own past investments), the present research demonstrates that it is also an interpersonal effect (i.e., people will alter their choices in response to other people's past investments). Across eight experiments ( N = 6,076) covering diverse scenarios, I documented sunk-cost effects when the costs are borne by someone other than the decision maker. Moreover, the interpersonal sunk-cost effect is not moderated by social closeness or whether other people observe their sunk costs being "honored." These findings uncover a previously undocumented bias, reveal that the sunk-cost effect is a much broader phenomenon than previously thought, and pose interesting challenges for existing accounts of this fascinating human tendency.

  18. Interpersonal consequences of seeking self-esteem.

    Park, Lora E; Crocker, Jennifer

    2005-11-01

    This study examines the interactive effects of self-esteem, contingencies of self-worth, and ego threat on supportiveness and liking. Targets high or low in self-esteem and academic contingency receive failure test feedback or no evaluative feedback. Then, targets interact with another participant who discloses a personal problem; afterward, both participants complete questionnaires assessing targets' supportiveness and liking. High self-esteem, highly contingent targets feel less supportive and like partners less after interacting under threat than under no threat. Partners, in turn, perceive these targets to be less supportive and less likeable. Low self-esteem, highly contingent targets show the reverse pattern, although these findings do not reach statistical significance. Further analyses reveal that the interpersonal effects of ego threat were caused by threats in a specific domain of contingency (e.g., academics) rather than being a contingent person in general or having external or internal contingent self-worth. Implications for self-esteem and interpersonal processes are discussed.

  19. Childhood maltreatment, maladaptive personality types and level and course of psychological distress: A six-year longitudinal study.

    Spinhoven, Philip; Elzinga, Bernet M; Van Hemert, Albert M; de Rooij, Mark; Penninx, Brenda W

    2016-02-01

    Childhood maltreatment and maladaptive personality are both cross-sectionally associated with psychological distress. It is unknown whether childhood maltreatment affects the level and longitudinal course of psychological distress in adults and to what extent this effect is mediated by maladaptive personality. A sample of 2947 adults aged 18-65, consisting of healthy controls, persons with a prior history or current episode of depressive and/or anxiety disorders according to the Composite Interview Diagnostic Instrument were assessed in six waves at baseline (T0) and 1 (T1), 2 (T2), 4 (T4) and 6 years (T6) later. At each wave psychological distress was measured with the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology, Beck Anxiety Inventory, and Fear Questionnaire. At T0 childhood maltreatment types were measured with a semi-structured interview (Childhood Trauma Interview) and personality traits with the NEO-Five Factor Inventory. Using latent variable analyses, we found that severity of childhood maltreatment (emotional neglect and abuse in particular) predicted higher initial levels of psychological distress and that this effect was mediated by maladaptive personality types. Differences in trajectories of distress between persons with varying levels of childhood maltreatment remained significant and stable over time. Childhood maltreatment was assessed retrospectively and maladaptive personality types and level of psychological distress at study entry were assessed concurrently. Routine assessment of maladaptive personality types and possible childhood emotional maltreatment in persons with severe and prolonged psychological distress seems warranted to identify persons who may need a different or more intensive treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Time and flow-dependent changes in the p27(kip1) gene network drive maladaptive vascular remodeling.

    DeSart, Kenneth M; Butler, Khayree; O'Malley, Kerri A; Jiang, Zhihua; Berceli, Scott A

    2015-11-01

    Although clinical studies have identified that a single nucleotide polymorphism in the p27(kip1) gene is associated with success or failure after vein bypass grafting, the underlying mechanisms for this difference are not well defined. Using a high-throughput approach in a flow-dependent vein graft model, we explored the differences in p27(kip1)-related genes that drive the enhanced hyperplastic response under low-flow conditions. Bilateral rabbit carotid artery interposition grafts with jugular vein were placed with a unilateral distal outflow branch ligation to create differential flow states. Grafts were harvested at 2 hours and at 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28 days after implantation, measured for neointimal area, and assayed for cell proliferation. Whole-vessel messenger RNA was isolated and analyzed using an Affymetrix (Santa Clara, Calif) gene array platform. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (Ingenuity, Redwood City, Calif) was used to identify the gene networks surrounding p27(kip1). This gene set was then analyzed for temporal expression changes after graft placement and for differential expression in the alternate flow conditions. Outflow branch ligation resulted in an eightfold difference in mean flow rates throughout the 28-day perfusion period (P Flow reduction led to a robust hyperplastic response, resulting in a significant increase in intimal area by 7 days (0.13 ± 0.04 mm(2) vs 0.014 ± 0.006 mm(2); P flow grafts demonstrated a burst of actively dividing intimal cells (36.4 ± 9.4 cells/mm(2) vs 11.5 ± 1.9 cells/mm(2); P = .04). Sixty-five unique genes within the microarray were identified as components of the p27(kip1) network. At a false discovery rate of 0.05, 26 genes demonstrated significant temporal changes, and two dominant patterns of expression were identified. Class comparison analysis identified differential expression of 11 genes at 2 hours and seven genes and 14 days between the high-flow and low-flow grafts (P flow and shear stress result in

  1. Professional stress

    Stanojević Dragana Z.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Job stress is a line, for the person at work hired adverse physiological, psychological and behavioral reactions to situations in which job requirements are not in accordance with its capabilities, abilities and needs. Sources of stress at work are numerous. Personal factors: personality types have been most studied so far, environmental changes and demographic characteristics as well. Interpersonal stress inducing factors act and influence to the occurrence of many psychosomatic diseases. Psychosocial climate and relationships which are prevented or encouraged such as: cooperation and competition, trust and suspicion certainly affect to the appearance of professional stress. The way of leadership is very important. Organizational factors are the type of work, work time, noncompliance of the job, the introduction of new ethnologies, the conflict of personal roles, fear of job loss, bad physical conditions of working environment. The consequences of stress at work are numerous: at the cognitive level, the emotional level, the production plan, the health, plan reduces the immune system that cause a variety of psychosomatic illnesses and accidents at work.

  2. Interpersonal Communication in the Workplace: A Largely Unexplored Region

    DeKay, Sam H.

    2012-01-01

    Recent research has identified interpersonal communication skills as critical attributes for new employees and more experienced workers seeking promotion. However, despite the significance of interpersonal communication in the workplace, one's knowledge of these skills and how they may be taught is limited. The two articles comprising this theme…

  3. Old Wine, New Bottle? Comparing Interpersonal Bullying and Cyberbullying Victimization

    Payne, Allison Ann; Hutzell, Kirsten L.

    2017-01-01

    This study uses a large nationally representative sample to compare and contrast interpersonal bullying and cyberbullying by asking the following questions: (a) How does the prevalence of cyberbullying victimization compare with the prevalence of interpersonal bullying victimization? (b) How does the relationship between demographic predictors and…

  4. Media Exposure, Interpersonal Communication and the Electoral Decision Process.

    Kimsey, William D.; Hantz, Alan

    The relationships among mass media, interpersonal communication, and voting behavior were explored in a two-stage panel study of 141 respondents during a 1974 Illinois congressional election. Analyses of perceived exposures to mass media and to interpersonal communication were interpreted as supporting Rogers and Shoemakers' (1971)…

  5. Interpersonal Skills Training: Online versus Instructor-Led Courses.

    Gilmore, Erika R.; Fritsch, Paula J.

    2001-01-01

    Compares instructional methods used in interpersonal skills training courses delivered online to the methods used in similar courses delivered in a traditional instructor-led classroom. Discusses implications for performance improvement professionals who are responsible for selecting and designing interpersonal skills training interventions.…

  6. Improving Interpersonal Job Skills by Applying Cross-Cultural Training

    Barker, S. A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental study that examined the effects of cross-cultural instruction on the interpersonal job skills of students in secondary vocational programs. The findings indicated that students receiving the cross-cultural instruction had significantly higher generalizable interpersonal relations skills achievement than students…

  7. A Cross-Cultural Analysis of Interpersonal Needs.

    Cambra, Ronald E.; Klopf, Donald W.

    The Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation--Behavior (FIRO-B) was administered to 504 Japanese, 219 Australian, 73 Korean, and 397 United States college students to assess interpersonal needs in the four cultures. The FIRO-B provides ratings for inclusion, control, and affection needs on an "expressed" dimension to indicate the…

  8. Interpersonal Problems and Developmental Trajectories of Binge Eating Disorder

    Blomquist, Kerstin K.; Ansell, Emily B.; White, Marney A.; Masheb, Robin M.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore associations between specific interpersonal constructs and the developmental progression of behaviors leading to binge eating disorder (BED). Method Eighty-four consecutively evaluated, treatment-seeking obese (BMI ≥ 30) men and women with BED were assessed with structured diagnostic and clinical interviews and completed a battery of established measures to assess the current and developmental eating- and weight-related variables as well as interpersonal functioning. Results Using the interpersonal circumplex structural summary method, amplitude, elevation, the affiliation dimension, and the quadratic coefficient for the dominance dimension were associated with eating and weight-related developmental variables. The amplitude coefficient and more extreme interpersonal problems on the dominance dimension (quadratic)—i.e., problems with being extremely high (domineering) or low in dominance (submissive)—were significantly associated with ayounger age at onset of binge eating, BED, and overweight as well as accounted for significant variance in age at binge eating, BED, and overweight onset. Greater interpersonal problems with having an overly affiliative interpersonal style were significantly associated with, and accounted for significant variance in, ayounger age at diet onset. Discussion Findings provide further support for the importance of interpersonal problems among adults with BED and converge with recent work highlighting the importance of specific types of interpersonal problems for understanding heterogeneity and different developmental trajectories of individuals with BED. PMID:22727087

  9. Sharing Concerns: Interpersonal Worry Regulation in Romantic Couples

    2016-01-01

    Two dyadic studies investigated interpersonal worry regulation in heterosexual relationships. In Study 1, we video-recorded 40 romantic couples discussing shared concerns. Male partners’ worry positively predicted female partners’ interpersonal calming attempts, and negatively predicted female partners’ interpersonal alerting attempts (i.e., attempts to make their partners appreciate the seriousness of concerns). Video-cued recall data also indicated that changes in partner A’s worry over time positively predicted partner B’s motivation to reduce partner A’s worry, and that this effect was stronger when B was the female partner. Study 2 was a dyadic survey of 100 couples. Individual differences in partner A’s negative affect were positive predictors of partner B’s interpersonal calming, and individual differences in partner A’s expressive suppression were negative predictors of partner B’s interpersonal calming. Further, individual differences in male partners’ expressivity were significant positive predictors of female partners’ interpersonal calming, and individual differences in male partners’ reappraisal were significant positive predictors of female partners’ interpersonal alerting. These findings suggest that interpersonal worry regulation relates to partners’ expression and intrapersonal regulation of worry, but not equally for men and women. PMID:26882336

  10. Monitoring interpersonal relationships through games with social dilemma

    Gorbunov, R.D.; Barakova, E.I.; Ahn, R.M.C.; Rauterberg, G.W.M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a method to monitor interpersonal relations through a game with a social dilemma. In the game players can interact with each other through negotiations and by exchanges of resources. To enable the monitoring of interpersonal relations this environment confronts players

  11. Mass Media vs. Interpersonal Channels: The Synthetic Competition.

    Chaffee, Steven H.

    Some of the major assumptions, empirical inferences, and theoretical linkages that underlie the generalization that interpersonal influence is more efficacious than mass communication in bringing about social change are examined in this paper. The central premise of the paper is that the presumed competition between mass and interpersonal channels…

  12. The Interpersonal Metafunction Analysis of Barack Obama's Victory Speech

    Ye, Ruijuan

    2010-01-01

    This paper carries on a tentative interpersonal metafunction analysis of Barack Obama's victory speech from the interpersonal metafunction, which aims to help readers understand and evaluate the speech regarding its suitability, thus to provide some guidance for readers to make better speeches. This study has promising implications for speeches as…

  13. The Validity of the Interpersonal Behaviors Questionnaire (IBQ) in Sport

    Rocchi, Meredith; Pelletier, Luc; Desmarais, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    According to Self-Determination Theory (SDT), basic psychological needs will be influenced by other individuals' interpersonal behaviors. The objective of the present research is to extend the validity of the Interpersonal Behaviors Questionnaire (IBQ and IBQ-Self) to the sport context. The measure was designed to assess perceptions of…

  14. Sharing concerns: Interpersonal worry regulation in romantic couples.

    Parkinson, Brian; Simons, Gwenda; Niven, Karen

    2016-06-01

    Two dyadic studies investigated interpersonal worry regulation in heterosexual relationships. In Study 1, we video-recorded 40 romantic couples discussing shared concerns. Male partners' worry positively predicted female partners' interpersonal calming attempts, and negatively predicted female partners' interpersonal alerting attempts (i.e., attempts to make their partners appreciate the seriousness of concerns). Video-cued recall data also indicated that changes in partner A's worry over time positively predicted partner B's motivation to reduce partner A's worry, and that this effect was stronger when B was the female partner. Study 2 was a dyadic survey of 100 couples. Individual differences in partner A's negative affect were positive predictors of partner B's interpersonal calming, and individual differences in partner A's expressive suppression were negative predictors of partner B's interpersonal calming. Further, individual differences in male partners' expressivity were significant positive predictors of female partners' interpersonal calming, and individual differences in male partners' reappraisal were significant positive predictors of female partners' interpersonal alerting. These findings suggest that interpersonal worry regulation relates to partners' expression and intrapersonal regulation of worry, but not equally for men and women. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Interpersonal problems and impacts: further evidence for the role of interpersonal functioning in treatment outcome in major depressive disorder.

    Quilty, Lena C; Mainland, Brian J; McBride, Carolina; Bagby, R Michael

    2013-09-05

    Empirical research has converged to support the concurrent association between social difficulties and psychiatric symptoms; yet, longitudinal associations between interpersonal problems and treatment outcome require clarification. The current investigation evaluated the influence of interpersonal problems assessed prior to treatment on interpersonal impacts assessed during treatment as well as on treatment outcome in outpatients with major depressive disorder (MDD). 125 participants with a primary diagnosis of MDD were randomized to receive cognitive behavioural therapy or interpersonal therapy. Participants completed the Beck Depression Inventory-II, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and Inventory of Interpersonal Problems Circumplex before and after treatment. Therapists completed the Impact Message Inventory during and after treatment. Interpersonal distress improved over the course of treatment; all other interpersonal changes were non-significant when distress was taken into account. Pre-treatment rigidity and agentic problems predicted less reduction in depressive symptoms, whereas agentic and communal impacts upon therapists during treatment predicted greater symptom change. Overall interpersonal distress was only indirectly associated with treatment response later in treatment, through its association with agentic style. Results did not differ across therapy type, and were replicated across self-report and interviewer-rated measures of depression severity. Limitations include the brief duration of treatment, lack of medication arm, and potentially restricted generalizability of patients in a randomized control trial to those in routine practice. Interpersonal style demonstrated a trait-like stability over treatment, and appears to fluctuate due to co-occurring distress. Yet, specific interpersonal styles were negative prognostic indicators, even within therapy specifically targeting interpersonal functioning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  16. Perfectionism in school teachers: Relations with stress appraisal, coping styles,and burnout

    Stoeber, Joachim; Rennert, Dirk

    2008-01-01

    Many school teachers suffer from stress and burnout, and perfectionism is a personality characteristic that has been associated with increased stress, maladaptive coping, and burnout. Recent findings, however, show that perfectionism has both positive and negative facets. To investigate how these facets are related to stress, coping, and burnout in teachers, a sample of 118 secondary school teachers completed multidimensional measures of perfectionism, stress appraisals, coping styles, and bu...

  17. Intrinsic motivation and sportsmanship: mediating role of interpersonal relationships.

    Núñez, Juan L; Martín-Albo, José; Navarro, José G; Sánchez, Juana M; González-Cutre, David

    2009-06-01

    This study analyzed the mediating role of interpersonal relations between intrinsic motivation and sportsmanship. Athletes (98 men, 97 women), ages 11 to 43 years, completed measures of intrinsic motivation toward sports, self-concept of social and family relations, and sportsmanship orientation. A structural equation model indicated that self-concept of interpersonal relations mediated the relation between intrinsic motivation and sportsmanship. Also, intrinsic motivation was directly and positively associated with self-concept of interpersonal relations, which, in turn, was positively and significantly related to sportsmanship. Variances explained by self-concept of interpersonal relations and by sportsmanship were 32 and 56%, respectively. The motivational interaction between the context of interpersonal relations and the sports context proposed in the hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation was discussed.

  18. Reciprocal burnout model: Interconnectedness of interpersonal and intrapersonal factors

    Andreja Pšeničny

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Burnout can be described as chronic state of extreme psychophysical and emotional exhaustion. Burning out is a stage process consisting of: the stage of exhaustion, the stage of captivity and the final stage – adrenal burnout. Adrenal burnout syndrome (ABS is the final stage of burning out process, resulting in a functional blocade of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis which causes secondary cortisol insufficiency. Even though they share similar symptoms, burnout and depression are two different types of disorder. They differ mainly in basic cortisol levels and self-esteem. Researchers tend to link the burnout syndrome and environmental stress (interpersonal causes. Recently, some of them found connection between burnout syndrome and personality traits (intrapersonal causes. Reciprocal burnout model links both causes. It shows that in the same circumstances only a few people suffer from adrenal burnout syndrome. It states that personal characteristics are one of the main causes why people suffering from burnout syndrome enroll in nonreciprocal personal and professional relations. Socialization process plays an important role in development of personality traits. The core of the reciprocal burnout model consists of one's attitude towards his or her basic needs' fulfillment, personal system of values, and correlation between fulfillment of basic needs (energy accumulation and burning out process (energy consumption. Reciprocal burnout model is opening a series of questions, concerning the connection between personality traits, life satisfaction and personal values, and burnout syndrome risk behavior, as well as the influence of whole life circumstances on burning out process.

  19. Evolution of the interpersonal conflict paradigm

    Mandeep K. Dhami

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Using Brunswik's (1952 lens model framework, Hammond (1965 proposed interpersonal conflict theory to explain the nature, source, and resolution of disagreement or ``cognitive conflict'' between parties performing judgment tasks. An early review by Brehmer (1976 highlighted the potential of this approach in, for example, understanding the structure of cognitive conflicts, and the effect of task and person variables on judgment policy change and conflict resolution. However, our bibliographic and content reviews from 1976 to the present day demonstrate that research on cognitive conflict using the lens model has declined sharply, while research on ``task conflict'' has grown dramatically. There has also been a shift to less theoretical precision and methodological rigor. We discuss possible reasons for these developments, and suggest ways in which lens model research on cognitive conflict can be revitalized by borrowing from recent theoretical and methodological advances in the field of judgment and decision making.

  20. Interpersonal communication and creativity in journalistic telework.

    Manssour, Ana Beatriz Benites

    2003-02-01

    Man and work histories are interlaced to tell us how the interaction among different human groups have helped in the development of intellectual capacities of our species. Creativity is mostly seen as a gift or an individual quality, for whose bloom and exercise there are internal and external factors, understood as stimulants of the creative process. Research for a master's thesis had, as its principal aim, the analysis of the subjective impact of telework on the workers personal satisfaction. Our second category authenticates the importance of interpersonal communication among fellow workers as incentive to personal creativity. The study was developed with columnists of a great newspaper with a big circulation in the south of Brazil, because telework is a tool of the press media, and creativity is a requirement for journalistic employment.