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Sample records for making processes involved

  1. Public involvement in decision making process in nuclear field

    Constantin, M.; Diaconu, D.

    2009-01-01

    Decision Making Process (DMP) in nuclear field is influenced by multiple factors such as: complex technical aspects, diversity of stakeholders, long term risks, psychological stresses, societal attitudes, etc. General public is sometimes considered as the only one of stakeholders, the involvement of the public being seen as a factor to obtain the acceptance in the late phase of DMP. Generally it is assessed by public consultation on the environment impact studies and by approval of the sitting through the local authorities decision. Modern society uses methods to involve public from the beginning of DMP. The paper shows a general view of the methods and tools used in Europe for public involvement in DMP. The process of construction of a continuous democratic dialog inside of Romanian Stakeholder Group (RSG) in the frame of the FP6-COWAM2 and CIP projects is presented with a focusing of the barriers and factors of disturbing the trust and collaboration between stakeholders. The influence on the public acceptance is also discussed. (authors)

  2. Public involvement in the decision making process, Argentine experience

    Clein, D.

    1999-01-01

    In the frame of a young participative democracy the Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (C.N.E.A.), technical and legal responsible for radioactive waste management, is developing a plan for the close out of tailings facilities from past mining and milling operations and the environmental restoration of nine different sites in six provinces all over the country. In the first site, Malargue Facility, different activities have been developed promoting public involvement in the decision making process. The lessons learned and the experience acquired have given the background for the systematization of public consultation in the ongoing and future stages of the plan. Malargue's experience in this field will be analyzed stressing on different aspects considered of importance for the design of a communicational strategy adapted to the characteristics of a society without experience in this field. The influence of public concern on conservative bias of technical decisions will be evaluated. (author)

  3. Has patients' involvement in the decision-making process changed over time?

    Brink-Muinen, A. van den; Dulmen, A.M. van; Haes, H.C.J.M. de; Visser, A.P.; Schellevis, F.G.; Bensing, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To get insight into the changes over time of patients' involvement in the decision-making process, and into the factors contributing to patients' involvement and general practitioners' (GPs) communication related to the Medical Treatment Act (MTA) Issues: information about treatment,

  4. Has patients’ involvement in the decision-making process changed over time?

    Brink-Muinen, A. van den; Dulmen, S.M. van; Haes, H.C.J.M. de; Visser, A.P.; Schellevis, F.G.; Bensing, J.

    2006-01-01

    Objective To get insight into the changes over time of patients’ involvement in the decision-making process, and into the factors contributing to patients’ involvement and general practitioners’ (GPs) communication related to the Medical Treatment Act (MTA) issues: information about treatment,

  5. Cochlear Implant: the complexity involved in the decision making process by the family

    Sheila de Souza Vieira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to understand the meanings the family attributes to the phases of the decision-making process on a cochlear implant for their child.METHOD: qualitative research, using Symbolic Interactionism and Grounded Theory as the theoretical and methodological frameworks, respectively. Data collection instrument: semistructured interview. Nine families participated in the study (32 participants.RESULTS: knowledge deficit, difficulties to contextualize benefits and risks and fear are some factors that make this process difficult. Experiences deriving from interactions with health professionals, other cochlear implant users and their relatives strengthen decision making in favor of the implant.CONCLUSION: deciding on whether or not to have the implant involves a complex process, in which the family needs to weigh gains and losses, experience feelings of accountability and guilt, besides overcoming the risk aversion. Hence, this demands cautious preparation and knowledge from the professionals involved in this intervention.

  6. Cochlear Implant: the complexity involved in the decision making process by the family.

    Vieira, Sheila de Souza; Bevilacqua, Maria Cecília; Ferreira, Noeli Marchioro Liston Andrade; Dupas, Giselle

    2014-01-01

    to understand the meanings the family attributes to the phases of the decision-making process on a cochlear implant for their child. qualitative research, using Symbolic Interactionism and Grounded Theory as the theoretical and methodological frameworks, respectively. Data collection instrument: semistructured interview. Nine families participated in the study (32 participants). knowledge deficit, difficulties to contextualize benefits and risks and fear are some factors that make this process difficult. Experiences deriving from interactions with health professionals, other cochlear implant users and their relatives strengthen decision making in favor of the implant. deciding on whether or not to have the implant involves a complex process, in which the family needs to weigh gains and losses, experience feelings of accountability and guilt, besides overcoming the risk aversion. Hence, this demands cautious preparation and knowledge from the professionals involved in this intervention.

  7. Cochlear Implant: the complexity involved in the decision making process by the family1

    Vieira, Sheila de Souza; Bevilacqua, Maria Cecília; Ferreira, Noeli Marchioro Liston Andrade; Dupas, Giselle

    2014-01-01

    Objective to understand the meanings the family attributes to the phases of the decision-making process on a cochlear implant for their child. Method qualitative research, using Symbolic Interactionism and Grounded Theory as the theoretical and methodological frameworks, respectively. Data collection instrument: semistructured interview. Nine families participated in the study (32 participants). Results knowledge deficit, difficulties to contextualize benefits and risks and fear are some factors that make this process difficult. Experiences deriving from interactions with health professionals, other cochlear implant users and their relatives strengthen decision making in favor of the implant. Conclusion deciding on whether or not to have the implant involves a complex process, in which the family needs to weigh gains and losses, experience feelings of accountability and guilt, besides overcoming the risk aversion. Hence, this demands cautious preparation and knowledge from the professionals involved in this intervention. PMID:25029052

  8. A non-linear decision making process for public involvement in environmental management activities

    Harper, M.R.; Kastenberg, W.

    1995-01-01

    The international industrial and governmental institutions involved in radioactive waste management and environmental remediation are now entering a new era in which they must significantly expand public involvement. Thus the decision making processes formerly utilized to direct and guide these institutions must now be shifted to take into consideration the needs of many more stakeholders than ever before. To meet this challenge, they now have the job of developing and creating a new set of accurate, sufficient and continuous self-regulating and self-correcting information pathways between themselves and the many divergent stakeholder groups in order to establish sustainable, trusting and respectful relationships. In this paper the authors introduce a new set of non-linear, practical and effective strategies for interaction. These self-regulating strategies provide timely feedback to a system, establishing trust and creating a viable vehicle for staying open and responsive to the needs out of which change and balanced adaptation can continually emerge for all stakeholders. The authors present a decision making process for public involvement which is congruent with the non-linear ideas of holographic and fractal relationships -- the mutual influence between related parts of the whole and the self-symmetry of systems at every level of complexity

  9. Qualified public involvement in the decision making process of siting a waste repository

    Rodrigues, Danielle Monegalha; Almeida, Ivan Pedro Salati de

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to identify the most important characteristics required for the qualification of local communities for participating in the process of defining a specific site for a radioactive waste repository. It also compares the strategies used by Hungary, United Kingdom and Belgium to stimulate the public participation in the decision-making process of building and operating a radioactive waste repository, considering both the stepwise process and the spontaneous candidacy. Two main aspects are discussed as prerequisites to constitute a qualified public. The first aspect is how well the person or entity can be considered an effective representative of the community affected by the repository. This means the conditions the representative has to speak on behalf of the community and participate in the decision making process as its voice. The second characteristic is the level and quality of the information that the community and its representatives must have to participate actively in the decision-making process and what can be done to improve this status. Referring to the strategy to public involvement, this paper discusses the importance of transparency in the process, aiming the credibility of the entrepreneur as the first pace to gaining the confidence of the public affected by the project. Implementing an open dialog and listening to the needs and claims of the population are the first steps to being accepted as a true partner of the community. Preliminary discussions and explanations are important to introduce the subject and to reduce beliefs of false threats in the affected community. The constitution of a local committee is suggested, to act as a legal and formal channel to facilitate the partnership between local community, neighbors and the entrepreneur in order to achieve a positive result in the whole process. (author)

  10. Facilitated workshop method to involve stakeholders and public in decision making process in radiological emergencies

    Mustonen, Raimo; Sinkko, Kari [STUK-Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland). Research and Environmental Surveillance; Haemaelaeinen, Raimo P. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Helsinki (Finland). System Analysis Laboratory

    2006-09-15

    International organisations in radiation protection have for many years recommended that key players, e.g. authorities, expert organisations, industry, producers of foodstuffs and even the public, should be involved in the planning of protective actions in case of a nuclear accident. In this work, we have developed and tested a facilitated workshop method where representatives from various fields of the society aim to identify and evaluate systematically protective actions. Decision analysis techniques have been applied in workshops in order to find out the most feasible countermeasure strategies and to make the decision making-process transparent and auditable. The work builds on case studies where it was assumed that a hypothetical accident had led to a release of considerable amounts of radionuclides and therefore various types of countermeasures should be considered. This paper provides experiences gained in several European countries on how to facilitate this kind of workshops and how modern decision analysis techniques can be applied in the decision-making process.

  11. Facilitated workshop method to involve stakeholders and public in decision making process in radiological emergencies

    Mustonen, Raimo; Sinkko, Kari; Haemaelaeinen, Raimo P.

    2006-01-01

    International organisations in radiation protection have for many years recommended that key players, e.g. authorities, expert organisations, industry, producers of foodstuffs and even the public, should be involved in the planning of protective actions in case of a nuclear accident. In this work, we have developed and tested a facilitated workshop method where representatives from various fields of the society aim to identify and evaluate systematically protective actions. Decision analysis techniques have been applied in workshops in order to find out the most feasible countermeasure strategies and to make the decision making-process transparent and auditable. The work builds on case studies where it was assumed that a hypothetical accident had led to a release of considerable amounts of radionuclides and therefore various types of countermeasures should be considered. This paper provides experiences gained in several European countries on how to facilitate this kind of workshops and how modern decision analysis techniques can be applied in the decision-making process

  12. Public Involvement in Repository Site Selection for Nuclear Waste: Towards a more Dynamic View in Decision-Making Processes

    Kruetli, Pius; Stauffacher, Michael; Flueeler, Thomas; Scholz, Roland W. [ETH Zuerich (Switzerland). lnst. for Human-Environment Systems (HES)

    2006-09-15

    This paper discusses possibilities of public involvement in radioactive waste management. A general overview of the radioactive waste issue is presented referring to a proposed model of the respective decision-making process. Based on the well known participation ladder by Arnstein, we differentiate various intensities of public involvement. A matrix with public involvement and the decision-making process is introduced and three prototypical patterns are discussed. We conclude that time frame, the level of public involvement and the mission have to be considered as well as techniques and the overarching context - all in all, a systematic and dynamic approach for public involvement is needed.

  13. Public Involvement in Repository Site Selection for Nuclear Waste: Towards a more Dynamic View in Decision-Making Processes

    Kruetli, Pius; Stauffacher, Michael; Flueeler, Thomas; Scholz, Roland W.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses possibilities of public involvement in radioactive waste management. A general overview of the radioactive waste issue is presented referring to a proposed model of the respective decision-making process. Based on the well known participation ladder by Arnstein, we differentiate various intensities of public involvement. A matrix with public involvement and the decision-making process is introduced and three prototypical patterns are discussed. We conclude that time frame, the level of public involvement and the mission have to be considered as well as techniques and the overarching context - all in all, a systematic and dynamic approach for public involvement is needed

  14. Patients' preferences for involvement in the decision-making process for treating diabetic retinopathy.

    Marahrens, Lydia; Kern, Raimar; Ziemssen, Tjalf; Fritsche, Andreas; Martus, Peter; Ziemssen, Focke; Roeck, Daniel

    2017-08-09

    To assess factors associated with the preferred role of the attending ophthalmologist in the decision-making processes before treating diabetic retinopathy (DR). Cross-sectional study of 810 adults attending secondary diabetes care centers (NCT02311504). Diabetes patients were classified using a validated questionnaire in an ophthalmologist-dominant decision-making (ODM), shared decision-making (SDM) and patient-dominant decision-making (PDM) style. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to determine factors associated with the decision-making process. A majority of 74.3% patients preferred SDM between ophthalmologist and patient, 17.4% patients wanted ODM, delegating the decision-making process to the ophthalmologist, 8.3% preferred the autonomous style of PDM. Patients wanting ODM were older (OR = 1.2 per decade, p = 0.013), had a lower level of education (OR = 1.4, p = 0.001) and had a higher frequency of consultations per year (OR = 1.3, p = 0.022). Patients with better basic knowledge in DR and memorizing their HbA 1 c level showed a higher propensity for SDM (OR = 1.1, p = 0.037). Patients wanting PDM had a significantly higher education (OR = 1.3, p = 0.036) and a greater desire for receiving information from self-help groups (OR = 1.3, p = 0.015). The first evaluation of the general patient wishes for the treatment of DR confirmed the concept of SDM, which was favored by three quarters. In particular, older patients with low educational attainment wanted to delegate the decision-making process to the ophthalmologist. Amelioration of ophthalmologic education in diabetic programs might take up patients' propensity for SDM. Regardless of the decision-making group, nearly all patients wanted the medical and scientific information to be transferred by and shared with the ophthalmologist. The study was registered on www.clinicaltrials.gov (identifier: NCT02311504) on December 4th 2014.

  15. Stakeholder involvement activities in Slovakia. NRA's Commitment to Transparent Regulatory Process. Stakeholder Involvement in the French Regulatory Process - From Public Information to Public Participation. Stakeholder involvement in nuclear decision making in the Russian Federation

    Ziakova, Marta Chairperson; Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic; Nuclear Regulation Authority - NRA; Ferapontov, Alexey

    2017-01-01

    Session 2 focused on the regulatory perspectives related to stakeholder involvement in the regulatory decision-making process. Presentations provided the audience with information regarding the international and national legal framework implemented in the Slovak Republic, in France, in Japan and in Russia. Examples of stakeholder involvement, as well as some tools used for this purpose, were presented and discussed. The value of consistency and complementarity between international and national requirements was highlighted. Presentations and discussion confirmed the very close tie between the way the stakeholder involvement process is conducted and the public confidence and perception of reliability the regulatory body may gain, or lose. The four presentations confirmed that stakeholder involvement is a key challenge for maintaining regulatory body credibility, independence and legitimacy. All countries confirmed their commitment to trying to make their stakeholder involvement processes as open, visible, transparent and comprehensive as possible. Involvement represents a long and permanent process which requires investment of time, human resources and money, as well as the ability to reach out, to listen, to share, and to take input into account, while keeping in view the goal of delivering decisions that are as rational and objective as possible. Involving stakeholders is more than informing or communicating. The earlier the stakeholders are involved in the decision-making process, the greater the chance of success. If losing credibility is easy, all regulatory bodies agreed on the long process needed to recover it

  16. Gamification as a Means to User Involvement in Decision-making Processes for Sustainable Buildings

    Hansen, Hanne Tine Ring; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann; Skøtt, Stine

    2017-01-01

    of life. Design thinking was used as method to develop a tool that focuses on how to make sustainable strategy development accessible to non-specialists during those critical stages of building design processes when goals and prioritisations are set. The tool is based on an open and editable platform...... and it will be available to the public in the early Summer of 2017. The paper presents how design thinking is used as an engaging research and development methodology, as well as, an introduction to the dialogue and prioritisation tool’s content and format.......User ownership, actors’ and stakeholders’ lack of knowledge is often identified as critical success parameters and barriers when evaluating how well sustainable buildings perform. Recognising that it is impossible to drive sustainable development without the people who pay for sustainable buildings...

  17. Modelling Joint Decision Making Processes Involving Emotion-Related Valuing and Mutual Empathic Understanding

    Treur, J.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper a social agent model for joint decision making is presented addressing the role of mutually acknowledged empathic understanding in the decision making. The model is based on principles from recent neurological theories on mirror neurons, internal simulation, and emotion-related

  18. The impact of stakeholder involvement in hospital policy decision-making: a study of the hospital's business processes.

    Malfait, Simon; Van Hecke, Ann; Hellings, Johan; De Bodt, Griet; Eeckloo, Kristof

    2017-02-01

    In many health care systems, strategies are currently deployed to engage patients and other stakeholders in decisions affecting hospital services. In this paper, a model for stakeholder involvement is presented and evaluated in three Flemish hospitals. In the model, a stakeholder committee advises the hospital's board of directors on themes of strategic importance. To study the internal hospital's decision processes in order to identify the impact of a stakeholder involvement committee on strategic themes in the hospital decision processes. A retrospective analysis of the decision processes was conducted in three hospitals that implemented a stakeholder committee. The analysis consisted of process and outcome evaluation. Fifteen themes were discussed in the stakeholder committees, whereof 11 resulted in a considerable change. None of these were on a strategic level. The theoretical model was not applied as initially developed, but was altered by each hospital. Consequentially, the decision processes differed between the hospitals. Despite alternation of the model, the stakeholder committee showed a meaningful impact in all hospitals on the operational level. As a result of the differences in decision processes, three factors could be identified as facilitators for success: (1) a close interaction with the board of executives, (2) the inclusion of themes with a more practical and patient-oriented nature, and (3) the elaboration of decisions on lower echelons of the organization. To effectively influence the organization's public accountability, hospitals should involve stakeholders in the decision-making process of the organization. The model of a stakeholder committee was not applied as initially developed and did not affect the strategic decision-making processes in the involved hospitals. Results show only impact at the operational level in the participating hospitals. More research is needed connecting stakeholder involvement with hospital governance.

  19. The Public Health Service guidelines. Governing research involving human subjects: An analysis of the policy-making process

    Frankel, M. S.

    1972-01-01

    The policy making process which led to development of the Public Health Service Guidelines governing research involving human subjects is outlined. Part 1 examines the evolution of PHS Guidelines, tracing (1) evolution of thought and legal interpretation regarding research using human subjects; (2) initial involvement of the Federal government; (3) development of the government's research program; (4) the social-political environment in which formal government policy was developed; and (5) various policy statements issued by the government. Part 2 analyzes the process by which PHS Guidelines were developed and examines the values and other underlying factors which contributed to their development. It was concluded that the evolution of the Guidelines is best understood within the context of a mixed-scanning strategy. In such a strategy, policy makers make fundamental decisions regarding the basic direction of policy and subsequent decisions are made incrementally and within the contexts set by the original fundamental decisions.

  20. Perceptual grouping does not affect multi-attribute decision making if no processing costs are involved.

    Ettlin, Florence; Bröder, Arndt

    2015-05-01

    Adaptive strategy selection implies that a decision strategy is chosen based on its fit to the task and situation. However, other aspects, such as the way information is presented, can determine information search behavior; especially when the application of certain strategies over others is facilitated. But are such display effects on multi-attribute decisions also at work when the manipulation does not entail differential costs for different decision strategies? Three Mouselab experiments with hidden information and one eye tracking experiment with an open information board revealed that decision behavior is unaffected by purely perceptual manipulations of the display based on Gestalt principles; that is, based on manipulations that induce no noteworthy processing costs for different information search patterns. We discuss our results in the context of previous findings on display effects; specifically, how the combination of these findings and our results reveal the crucial role of differential processing costs for different strategies for the emergence of display effects. This finding describes a boundary condition of the commonly acknowledged influence of information displays and is in line with the ideas of adaptive strategy selection and cost-benefit tradeoffs. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Situation concerning public information about and involvement in the decision-making processes in the nuclear sector. Final report

    Gadbois, S.; Heriard Dubreuil, G.; Vaillant, L.; Schneider, T.; Paterson, J.; Dawson, M.; Borg Barthet, J.; Prades, A.; Lopez, M.; Sala, R.

    2007-01-01

    The European Commission Directorate General for Energy and Transport (EC DGTREN) launched a study on 'the situation concerning public information about and involvement in decision-making processes in the nuclear sector' in January 2005. The main goal of this project was to inform the EC DGTREN and interested parties of recent developments in the Member States and to provide opportunities for decision-makers and stakeholders at local, national and EU level to exchange views. This study is based on the analysis of opinion polls, regulation and case studies where public information and involvement are a key dimension in the decision-making process and where innovative approaches have been observed. The research material and proposals were presented and discussed at a workshop with 50 delegates, representing the various stakeholders concerned by nuclear activities in Europe. As testified by recent opinion polls and feedback from case studies, there is a strong public demand for more participation in decision-making processes relating to the environment, and nuclear issues specifically. There is an increasing expectation that the phase of decision-framing which determines the scope and objectives of a regulation or of a decision on an industrial facility, involves not only experts and politics, but also NGOs, independent experts, local actors, etc. This expectation is now supported by significant legislation at EU and national levels, the foundation stone of which is the 'Aarhus Convention on the Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-Making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters' (1998). One can find different but convergent rationales behind these developments. On the one hand, there is a consideration that nuclear technologies have a potential impact on the public and accordingly require that their development involves affected parties. On the other hand, the problems raised by nuclear activities have an impact at several levels (local

  2. Situation concerning public information about and involvement in the decision-making processes in the nuclear sector. Final report

    Gadbois, S.; Heriard Dubreuil, G. [Mutadis, 75 - Paris (France); Vaillant, L.; Schneider, T. [Centre d' Etude sur l' Evaluation de la Protection dans le Domaine Nucleaire - CEPN, 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France); Paterson, J.; Dawson, M.; Borg Barthet, J. [Aberdeen Univ. (United Kingdom); Prades, A.; Lopez, M.; Sala, R. [CIEMAT, Barcelona (Spain)

    2007-07-01

    The European Commission Directorate General for Energy and Transport (EC DGTREN) launched a study on 'the situation concerning public information about and involvement in decision-making processes in the nuclear sector' in January 2005. The main goal of this project was to inform the EC DGTREN and interested parties of recent developments in the Member States and to provide opportunities for decision-makers and stakeholders at local, national and EU level to exchange views. This study is based on the analysis of opinion polls, regulation and case studies where public information and involvement are a key dimension in the decision-making process and where innovative approaches have been observed. The research material and proposals were presented and discussed at a workshop with 50 delegates, representing the various stakeholders concerned by nuclear activities in Europe. As testified by recent opinion polls and feedback from case studies, there is a strong public demand for more participation in decision-making processes relating to the environment, and nuclear issues specifically. There is an increasing expectation that the phase of decision-framing which determines the scope and objectives of a regulation or of a decision on an industrial facility, involves not only experts and politics, but also NGOs, independent experts, local actors, etc. This expectation is now supported by significant legislation at EU and national levels, the foundation stone of which is the 'Aarhus Convention on the Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-Making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters' (1998). One can find different but convergent rationales behind these developments. On the one hand, there is a consideration that nuclear technologies have a potential impact on the public and accordingly require that their development involves affected parties. On the other hand, the problems raised by nuclear activities have an impact at several

  3. Patient involvement in the decision-making process improves satisfaction and quality of life in postmastectomy breast reconstruction.

    Ashraf, Azra A; Colakoglu, Salih; Nguyen, John T; Anastasopulos, Alexandra J; Ibrahim, Ahmed M S; Yueh, Janet H; Lin, Samuel J; Tobias, Adam M; Lee, Bernard T

    2013-09-01

    The patient-physician relationship has evolved from the paternalistic, physician-dominant model to the shared-decision-making and informed-consumerist model. The level of patient involvement in this decision-making process can potentially influence patient satisfaction and quality of life. In this study, patient-physician decision models are evaluated in patients undergoing postmastectomy breast reconstruction. All women who underwent breast reconstruction at an academic hospital from 1999-2007 were identified. Patients meeting inclusion criteria were mailed questionnaires at a minimum of 1 y postoperatively with questions about decision making, satisfaction, and quality of life. There were 707 women eligible for our study and 465 completed surveys (68% response rate). Patients were divided into one of three groups: paternalistic (n = 18), informed-consumerist (n = 307), shared (n = 140). There were differences in overall general satisfaction (P = 0.034), specifically comparing the informed group to the paternalistic group (66.7% versus 38.9%, P = 0.020) and the shared to the paternalistic group (69.3% versus 38.9%, P = 0.016). There were no differences in aesthetic satisfaction. There were differences found in the SF-12 physical component summary score across all groups (P = 0.033), and a difference was found between the informed and paternalistic groups (P mental component score (P = 0.42). Women undergoing breast reconstruction predominantly used the informed model of decision making. Patients who adopted a more active role, whether using an informed or shared approach, had higher general patient satisfaction and physical component summary scores compared with patients whose decision making was paternalistic. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Stakeholder involvement in CSR strategy-making?

    Trapp, Leila

    2014-01-01

    A given characteristic of successful corporate social responsibility (CSR) programs is that they reflect stakeholder expectations and preferences for corporate behavior. This study examines the process by which this alignment is sought by CSR managers in the CSR strategy-making process. Through...... listening to others in the strategy-making process rather than directly involving others in decision-making. Also, because non-stakeholders, such as paid-for consultants, are found to be note-worthy influencers in the CSR strategy-making process, it is concluded that the process is not only a stakeholder...

  5. Access to the decision-making process: opportunities for public involvement in the facility decommissioning process of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission

    Cameron, F.X.

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses recent initiatives taken by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission NRC) to effectively involve the public in decommissioning decisions. Initiatives discussed include the Commission's rulemaking to establish the radiological criteria for decommissioning, as well as public involvement methods that have been used on a site-by-site basis. As un example of public involvement, the NRC is currently in the process of developing generic rules on the radiological criteria for the decontamination and decommissioning of NRC-licensed sites. Not only was this proposed rule developed through an extensive and novel approach for public involvement, but it also establishes the basic provisions that will govern public involvement in future NRC decisions on the decommissioning of individual sites. The aim is to provide the public with timely information about all phases of the NRC staff to express concerns and make recommendations. Th NRC recognizes the value and the necessity of effective public involvement in its regulatory activities and has initiated a number of changes to its regulatory program to accomplish this. From the NRC's perspective, it is much easier and less costly to incorporate these mechanisms for public involvement into the regulatory program early in the process, rather than try to add them after considerable public controversy on an action has already been generated. The historical antecedents for initiatives mentioned, as well as 'lessons learned' from prior experience are also discussed. (author)

  6. [Implementation of telemedicine programs in Spain: experience of the main actors involved in the decision-making process].

    Mahtani Chugani, Vinita; Martín Fernández, Roberto Luis; Soto Pedre, Enrique; Yanes López, Virginia; Serrano Aguilar, Pedro

    2009-01-01

    To identify the main benefits and risks related to the implementation of telemedicine programs in Spain, based on the experience of the actors influencing the decision-making process. We performed a qualitative study based on audiotaped semi-structured telephone interviews. Eleven interviews were carried out, and the perspective of four physicians, three administrators, two researchers and two telecommunications industry workers were included. Theoretical sampling was used and thematic inductive analysis was performed. The following factors were identified as necessary to successfully resolve problems by using telemedicine programs: the commitment of the persons involved, technological aspects, economic and institutional support, acceptance by healthcare professionals and patients, the existence of protocols adjusted to the context, the need for information and training prior to the development of telemedicine programs, a forward-looking approach, routine use and full acceptance of telemedicine programs in the organization, and the need to defend equity for professionals and users. Successfully developing a telemedicine program requires a favorable environment in which risk can be foreseen. The main key element seems to be the human factor. The factors identified in this study should be considered when developing strategies to increase the chances of success of telemedicine programs in Spain.

  7. Situation Concerning Public Information about and Involvement in the Decision-Making Processes in the Nuclear Sector. Public Opinion Review.

    Prades, A.; Sala, R.; Lopez, M.

    2006-07-01

    This report summarizes the CIEMAT's contribution to the study {sup S}ituation concerning Public Information about and Involvement in the Decision-Making Processes in the Nuclear Sector{sup ,} contract number TREN/ 04/NUC/ S07.39556 between the European Commission and Mutadis Consultants. The research was composed by Mutadis Consultants and CEPN (Nuclear Protection Evaluation Centre) (France), University of Aberdeen (UK) and CIEMAT (Spain). The objective of the project was to build a detailed overview of the EU situation regarding information and participation practices in the nuclear domain, provide an elaborated assessment, and to produce reporting and recommendations in the field. CIEMAT contribution' focused on the review of public opinion polis. Thus, Eurobarometers Standard Surveys (EBs) were analysed to report about the European citizens' public opinion regarding public Information and participation in the nuclear field. Additionally, the International Social Survey Program (ISSP), and some additional national polis were analysed. In terms of the EU public opinion, the follow up of the public information and participation domains receiving as much attention as necessary. Extremely few questions dealing with the subject were identified in the Eurobarometers, the national polis and the ISSP (International Social Survey Program) surveys reviewed in this study. An unambiguous illustration of this lack of attention is the fact that no questions dealing with public participation issues emerged in the {sup n}uclear EBs{sup u}ntil 1998. Even though, Eurobarometers (EBs) still provide an invaluable source of information on the topics we are interested on at the EU allowing longitudinal descriptions (trend analysis) of some key issues in our area of interest. (Author) 11 refs.

  8. Situation Concerning Public Information about and Involvement in the Decision-Making Processes in the Nuclear Sector. Public Opinion Review

    Prades, A.; Sala, R.; Lopez, M.

    2006-01-01

    This report summarizes the CIEMAT's contribution to the study S ituation concerning Public Information about and Involvement in the Decision-Making Processes in the Nuclear Sector , contract number TREN/ 04/NUC/ S07.39556 between the European Commission and Mutadis Consultants. The research was composed by Mutadis Consultants and CEPN (Nuclear Protection Evaluation Centre) (France), University of Aberdeen (UK) and CIEMAT (Spain). The objective of the project was to build a detailed overview of the EU situation regarding information and participation practices in the nuclear domain, provide an elaborated assessment, and to produce reporting and recommendations in the field. CIEMAT contribution' focused on the review of public opinion polis. Thus, Eurobarometers Standard Surveys (EBs) were analysed to report about the European citizens' public opinion regarding public Information and participation in the nuclear field. Additionally, the International Social Survey Program (ISSP), and some additional national polis were analysed. In terms of the EU public opinion, the follow up of the public information and participation domains receiving as much attention as necessary. Extremely few questions dealing with the subject were identified in the Eurobarometers, the national polis and the ISSP (International Social Survey Program) surveys reviewed in this study. An unambiguous illustration of this lack of attention is the fact that no questions dealing with public participation issues emerged in the n uclear EBs u ntil 1998. Even though, Eurobarometers (EBs) still provide an invaluable source of information on the topics we are interested on at the EU allowing longitudinal descriptions (trend analysis) of some key issues in our area of interest. (Author) 11 refs

  9. Children Involvement on Family Purchase Decision Making

    Jostein, Revina Wintry

    2013-01-01

    Children take big involvement in family decision making process today. There are several factors that make this phenomenon happen, such as media influence. Currently, the development of information and communication technology is so fast, indirectly encourages all parties, including the children to be able to follow the changes. There are two main objectives that will be examined, related with all the stated problems at the previous section, which are to analyze which product category does ch...

  10. Achieving involvement: process outcomes from a cluster randomized trial of shared decision making skill development and use of risk communication aids in general practice.

    Elwyn, G; Edwards, A; Hood, K; Robling, M; Atwell, C; Russell, I; Wensing, M; Grol, R

    2004-08-01

    A consulting method known as 'shared decision making' (SDM) has been described and operationalized in terms of several 'competences'. One of these competences concerns the discussion of the risks and benefits of treatment or care options-'risk communication'. Few data exist on clinicians' ability to acquire skills and implement the competences of SDM or risk communication in consultations with patients. The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of skill development workshops for SDM and the use of risk communication aids on the process of consultations. A cluster randomized trial with crossover was carried out with the participation of 20 recently qualified GPs in urban and rural general practices in Gwent, South Wales. A total of 747 patients with known atrial fibrillation, prostatism, menorrhagia or menopausal symptoms were invited to a consultation to review their condition or treatments. Half the consultations were randomly selected for audio-taping, of which 352 patients attended and were audio-taped successfully. After baseline, participating doctors were randomized to receive training in (i) SDM skills or (ii) the use of simple risk communication aids, using simulated patients. The alternative training was then provided for the final study phase. Patients were allocated randomly to a consultation during baseline or intervention 1 (SDM or risk communication aids) or intervention 2 phases. A randomly selected half of the consultations were audio-taped from each phase. Raters (independent, trained and blinded to study phase) assessed the audio-tapes using a validated scale to assess levels of patient involvement (OPTION: observing patient involvement), and to analyse the nature of risk information discussed. Clinicians completed questionnaires after each consultation, assessing perceived clinician-patient agreement and level of patient involvement in decisions. Multilevel modelling was carried out with the OPTION score as the dependent variable, and

  11. Making process improvement 'stick'.

    Studer, Quint

    2014-06-01

    To sustain gains from a process improvement initiative, healthcare organizations should: Explain to staff why a process improvement initiative is needed. Encourage leaders within the organization to champion the process improvement, and tie their evaluations to its outcomes. Ensure that both leaders and employees have the skills to help sustain the sought-after process improvements.

  12. Parental decision making involvement and decisional conflict: a descriptive study.

    Boland, Laura; Kryworuchko, Jennifer; Saarimaki, Anton; Lawson, Margaret L

    2017-06-13

    Decisional conflict is a state of uncertainty about the best treatment option among competing alternatives and is common among adult patients who are inadequately involved in the health decision making process. In pediatrics, research shows that many parents are insufficiently involved in decisions about their child's health. However, little is known about parents' experience of decisional conflict. We explored parents' perceived decision making involvement and its association with parents' decisional conflict. We conducted a descriptive survey study in a pediatric tertiary care hospital. Our survey was guided by validated decisional conflict screening items (i.e., the SURE test). We administered the survey to eligible parents after an ambulatory care or emergency department consultation for their child. Four hundred twenty-nine respondents were included in the analysis. Forty-eight percent of parents reported not being offered treatment options and 23% screened positive for decisional conflict. Parents who reported being offered options experienced less decisional conflict than parents who reported not being offered options (5% vs. 42%, p conflict after their clinical consultation. Involving parents in the decision making process might reduce their risk of decisional conflict. Evidence based interventions that support parent decision making involvement, such as shared decision making, should be evaluated and implemented in pediatrics as a strategy to reduce parents' decisional conflict.

  13. Colorectal cancer patients' attitudes towards involvement in decision making.

    Beaver, Kinta; Campbell, Malcolm; Craven, Olive; Jones, David; Luker, Karen A; Susnerwala, Shabbir S

    2009-03-01

    To design and administer an attitude rating scale, exploring colorectal cancer patients' views of involvement in decision making. To examine the impact of socio-demographic and/or treatment-related factors on decision making. To conduct principal components analysis to determine if the scale could be simplified into a number of factors for future clinical utility. An attitude rating scale was constructed based on previous qualitative work and administered to colorectal cancer patients using a cross-sectional survey approach. 375 questionnaires were returned (81.7% response). For patients it was important to be informed and involved in the decision-making process. Information was not always used to make decisions as patients placed their trust in medical expertise. Women had more positive opinions on decision making and were more likely to want to make decisions. Written information was understood to a greater degree than verbal information. The scale could be simplified to a number of factors, indicating clinical utility. Few studies have explored the attitudes of colorectal cancer patients towards involvement in decision making. This study presents new insights into how patients view the concept of participation; important when considering current policy imperatives in the UK of involving service users in all aspects of care and treatment.

  14. Colorectal cancer patients’ attitudes towards involvement in decision making

    Beaver, Kinta; Campbell, Malcolm; Craven, Olive; Jones, David; Luker, Karen A.; Susnerwala, Shabbir S.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Objectives  To design and administer an attitude rating scale, exploring colorectal cancer patients’ views of involvement in decision making. To examine the impact of socio‐demographic and/or treatment‐related factors on decision making. To conduct principal components analysis to determine if the scale could be simplified into a number of factors for future clinical utility. Methods  An attitude rating scale was constructed based on previous qualitative work and administered to colorectal cancer patients using a cross‐sectional survey approach. Results  375 questionnaires were returned (81.7% response). For patients it was important to be informed and involved in the decision‐making process. Information was not always used to make decisions as patients placed their trust in medical expertise. Women had more positive opinions on decision making and were more likely to want to make decisions. Written information was understood to a greater degree than verbal information. The scale could be simplified to a number of factors, indicating clinical utility. Conclusion  Few studies have explored the attitudes of colorectal cancer patients towards involvement in decision making. This study presents new insights into how patients view the concept of participation; important when considering current policy imperatives in the UK of involving service users in all aspects of care and treatment. PMID:19250150

  15. The involvement of the striatum in decision making

    Goulet-Kennedy, Julie; Labbe, Sara; Fecteau, Shirley

    2016-01-01

    Decision making has been extensively studied in the context of economics and from a group perspective, but still little is known on individual decision making. Here we discuss the different cognitive processes involved in decision making and its associated neural substrates. The putative conductors in decision making appear to be the prefrontal cortex and the striatum. Impaired decision-making skills in various clinical populations have been associated with activity in the prefrontal cortex and in the striatum. We highlight the importance of strengthening the degree of integration of both cognitive and neural substrates in order to further our understanding of decision-making skills. In terms of cognitive paradigms, there is a need to improve the ecological value of experimental tasks that assess decision making in various contexts and with rewards; this would help translate laboratory learnings into real-life benefits. In terms of neural substrates, the use of neuroimaging techniques helps characterize the neural networks associated with decision making; more recently, ways to modulate brain activity, such as in the prefrontal cortex and connected regions (eg, striatum), with noninvasive brain stimulation have also shed light on the neural and cognitive substrates of decision making. Together, these cognitive and neural approaches might be useful for patients with impaired decision-making skills. The drive behind this line of work is that decision-making abilities underlie important aspects of wellness, health, security, and financial and social choices in our daily lives. PMID:27069380

  16. Involvement and Influence of Healthcare Providers, Family Members, and Other Mutation Carriers in the Cancer Risk Management Decision-Making Process of BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers.

    Puski, Athena; Hovick, Shelly; Senter, Leigha; Toland, Amanda Ewart

    2018-03-29

    Deciding between increased cancer screening or prophylactic surgery and the timing of such procedures can be a difficult and complex process for women with BRCA mutations. There are gaps in our understanding of involvement of others in the decision-making process for women with BRCA mutations. This study evaluated the management decision-making process of women with BRCA mutations, focusing on the involvement of others. Grounded theory was used to analyze and code risk management decision-making information from interviews with 20 BRCA mutation carriers. Unaffected at-risk participants with a BRCA mutation, those under age 40, and those with no children described having a difficult time making risk management decisions. Physicians were an integral part of the decision-making process by providing decisional support and management recommendations. Family members and other mutation carriers filled similar yet distinct roles by providing experiential information as well as decisional and emotional support for carriers. Participants described genetic counselors as short-term providers of risk information and management recommendations. The study findings suggest that unaffected at-risk women, women under 40, and those who do not have children may benefit from additional support and information during the decision-making process. Genetic counselors are well trained to help women through this process and connect them with resources, and may be under-utilized in long-term follow-up for women with a BRCA mutation.

  17. Partnerships and Opportunity: A Canadian Success Story Community engagement on uranium mining in northern Saskatchewan. Informing and Involving Stakeholders in the Context of the Finnish Decision-making Process. Stakeholder involvement and public debate

    Katz, Sharonne; Vanhatalo, Hanna; Thome-Jassaud, Pierre-Franck

    2017-01-01

    Session 5 featured case studies of stakeholder involvement in decisions related to new nuclear power and fuel cycle facilities. The chair highlighted that more than 30 countries either have nuclear power facilities or are considering developing them, and 15 countries are currently building new reactors. The topic of new nuclear facilities is quite broad, and the session covered three case studies that were quite different. Ms Katz of Natural Resources Canada Limited outlined stakeholder engagement commitments by a number of actors in Canada, including the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission. She provided an overview on Cameco's behalf of their experience in engaging the local stakeholders of uranium mining activities. Ms Vanhatalo reviewed Fennovoima's activities related to the site selection and move towards construction of a new nuclear reactor. Mr Thome-Jassaud presented the experience of electricite de France on two proposed reactor projects with France's formalised public debate process. A central theme of the presentations was the importance of establishing and maintaining a good reputation, especially in the local community. Ms Katz relayed a story of Cameco inviting community leaders, near an Australian property that Cameco had acquired to visit a mining community in Saskatchewan. Instead of tightly controlling the interaction, Cameco left the Australian guests to stay with local families for several days to ask questions and hear directly from members of the Canadian community without any interference. This required confidence on the part of the company that it had built a strong and positive relationship with the Canadian host community. Ms Vanhatalo described how the success in siting nuclear power plant Hanhikivi 1 near Pyhaejoki was attributable not only to Fennovoima's commitment to engage the community, but also to the reputation that the company Teollisuuden Voima Oy had built with its Olkiluoto nuclear power plant and the positive association with

  18. DHA involvement in neurotransmission process

    Vancassel Sylvie

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The very high enrichment of the nervous system in the polyunsaturated fatty acids, arachidonic (AA, 20: 4n-6 and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA, 22: 6n-3, is dependant of the dietary availability of their respective precursors, linoleic (18: 2n-6 and_-linolenic acids (18: 3n-3. Inadequate amounts of DHA in brain membranes have been linked to a wide variety of abnormalities ranging from visual acuity and learning irregularities, to psychopathologies. However, the molecular mechanisms involved remain unknown. Several years ago, we hypothesized that a modification of DHA contents of neuronal membranes by dietary modulation could change the neurotransmission function and then underlie inappropriate behavioural response. We showed that, in parallel to a severe loss of brain DHA concomitant to a compensatory substitution by 22:5n-6, the dietary lack of α-linolenic acid during development induced important changes in the release of neurotransmitters (dopamine, serotonin, acetylcholine in cerebral areas specifically involved in learning, memory and reward processes. Data suggested alteration of presynaptic storage process and dysregulations of reciprocal functional interactions between monoaminergic and cholinergic pathways. Moreover, we showed that recovery of these neurochemical changes was possible when the deficient diet was switched to a diet balanced in n-3 and n-6 PUFA before weaning. The next step is to understand the mechanism involved. Particularly, we focus on the study of the metabolic cooperation between the endothelial cell, the astrocyte and the neuron which regulate synaptic transmission.These works could contribute to the understanding of the link between some neuropsychiatric disorders and the metabolism of n-3 PUFA, through their action on neurotransmission.

  19. Serotonin and decision making processes.

    Homberg, Judith R

    2012-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) is an important player in decision making. Serotonergic antidepressant, anxiolytic and antipsychotic drugs are extensively used in the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders characterized by impaired decision making, and exert both beneficial and harmful effects in patients. Detailed insight into the serotonergic mechanisms underlying decision making is needed to strengthen the first and weaken the latter. Although much remains to be done to achieve this, accumulating studies begin to deliver a coherent view. Thus, high central 5-HT levels are generally associated with improved reversal learning, improved attentional set shifting, decreased delay discounting, and increased response inhibition, but a failure to use outcome representations. Based on 5-HT's evolutionary role, I hypothesize that 5-HT integrates expected, or changes in, relevant sensory and emotional internal/external information, leading to vigilance behaviour affecting various decision making processes. 5-HT receptor subtypes play distinctive roles in decision making. 5-HT(2A) agonists and 5-HT2c antagonists decrease compulsivity, whereas 5-HT(2A) antagonists and 5-HT(2C) agonists decrease impulsivity. 5-HT(6) antagonists univocally affect decision making processes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Involving young people in decision making about sequential cochlear implantation.

    Ion, Rebecca; Cropper, Jenny; Walters, Hazel

    2013-11-01

    The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence guidelines recommended young people who currently have one cochlear implant be offered assessment for a second, sequential implant, due to the reported improvements in sound localization and speech perception in noise. The possibility and benefits of group information and counselling assessments were considered. Previous research has shown advantages of group sessions involving young people and their families and such groups which also allow young people opportunity to discuss their concerns separately to their parents/guardians are found to be 'hugely important'. Such research highlights the importance of involving children in decision-making processes. Families considering a sequential cochlear implant were invited to a group information/counselling session, which included time for parents and children to meet separately. Fourteen groups were held with approximately four to five families in each session, totalling 62 patients. The sessions were facilitated by the multi-disciplinary team, with a particular psychological focus in the young people's session. Feedback from families has demonstrated positive support for this format. Questionnaire feedback, to which nine families responded, indicated that seven preferred the group session to an individual session and all approved of separate groups for the child and parents/guardians. Overall the group format and psychological focus were well received in this typically surgical setting and emphasized the importance of involving the young person in the decision-making process. This positive feedback also opens up the opportunity to use a group format in other assessment processes.

  1. The Degree to Which Students and Teachers Are Involved in Second-Level School Processes and Participation in Decision-Making: An Irish Case Study

    Harrison, Kathy; Taysum, Alison; McNamara, Gerry; O'Hara, Joe

    2016-01-01

    The Education Act (1998) is a key policy document in Irish education, emphasising the rights, roles and responsibilities of key stakeholders, including parents, teachers and pupils in schools. Since 1998 the Department of Education and Skills (DES) has stressed the need to introduce an increased role for teachers and pupils in decision-making. It…

  2. Achieving involvement: process outcomes from a cluster randomized trial of shared decision making skill development and use of risk communication aids in general practice.

    Elwyn, G.; Edwards, A.; Hood, K.; Robling, M.; Atwell, C.; Russell, I.; Wensing, M.J.P.; Grol, R.P.T.M.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A consulting method known as 'shared decision making' (SDM) has been described and operationalized in terms of several 'competences'. One of these competences concerns the discussion of the risks and benefits of treatment or care options-'risk communication'. Few data exist on

  3. DHA involvement in neurotransmission process

    Vancassel Sylvie; Aïd Sabah; Denis Isabelle; Guesnet Philippe; Lavialle Monique

    2007-01-01

    The very high enrichment of the nervous system in the polyunsaturated fatty acids, arachidonic (AA, 20: 4n-6) and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA, 22: 6n-3), is dependant of the dietary availability of their respective precursors, linoleic (18: 2n-6) and_-linolenic acids (18: 3n-3). Inadequate amounts of DHA in brain membranes have been linked to a wide variety of abnormalities ranging from visual acuity and learning irregularities, to psychopathologies. However, the molecular mechanisms involved ...

  4. implications of decision making process on agricultural employees

    This study was designed to determine the implications of decision making process on employees' turnover in the Institute of ... Involvement in Decision Making and Agricultural Employees' Turnover in Ibadan, Nigeria 37 ..... Lack of motivation.

  5. Processes involved in solving mathematical problems

    Shahrill, Masitah; Putri, Ratu Ilma Indra; Zulkardi, Prahmana, Rully Charitas Indra

    2018-04-01

    This study examines one of the instructional practices features utilized within the Year 8 mathematics lessons in Brunei Darussalam. The codes from the TIMSS 1999 Video Study were applied and strictly followed, and from the 183 mathematics problems recorded, there were 95 problems with a solution presented during the public segments of the video-recorded lesson sequences of the four sampled teachers. The analyses involved firstly, identifying the processes related to mathematical problem statements, and secondly, examining the different processes used in solving the mathematical problems for each problem publicly completed during the lessons. The findings revealed that for three of the teachers, their problem statements coded as `using procedures' ranged from 64% to 83%, while the remaining teacher had 40% of his problem statements coded as `making connections.' The processes used when solving the problems were mainly `using procedures', and none of the problems were coded as `giving results only'. Furthermore, all four teachers made use of making the relevant connections in solving the problems given to their respective students.

  6. Serotonin and decision making processes.

    Homberg, J.R.

    2012-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) is an important player in decision making. Serotonergic antidepressant, anxiolytic and antipsychotic drugs are extensively used in the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders characterized by impaired decision making, and exert both beneficial and harmful effects in patients.

  7. User involvement in the innovation process

    Christensen, Dan Saugstrup

    2008-01-01

    User involvement in the innovation process is not a new phenomenon. However, combined with the growing individualisation of demand and with highly competitive and dynamic environments, user involvement in the innovation process and thereby in the design, development, and manufacturing process, can...... nevertheless provide a competitive advantage. This is the case as an intensified user involvement in the innovation process potentially results in a more comprehensive understanding of the user needs and requirements and the context within which these are required, and thereby provides the possibility...... of developing better and more suitable products. The theoretical framework of this thesis is based on user involvement in the innovation process and how user involvement in the innovation process can be deployed in relation to deriving and colleting user needs and requirements, and thereby serves...

  8. What makes process models understandable?

    Mendling, J.; Reijers, H.A.; Cardoso, J.; Alonso, G.; Dadam, P.; Rosemann, M.

    2007-01-01

    Despite that formal and informal quality aspects are of significant importance to business process modeling, there is only little empirical work reported on process model quality and its impact factors. In this paper we investigate understandability as a proxy for quality of process models and focus

  9. 2nd FSC Workshop - Executive Summary and International Perspective, Stakeholder Involvement and Confidence in the Process of Decision-making for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel in Finland, 15-16 November 2001, Turku, Finland

    2002-01-01

    The 2. FSC workshop examined 'Stakeholder Involvement and Confidence in the Process of Decision-making for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel in Finland'. By gathering Finnish Stakeholders, those who expressed favour and opposition, as well as observer-participants from the other NEA/FSC countries, a joint reflection on a complex reality was achieved from which general conclusions can also be drawn concerning stakeholder involvement in the long-term management of radioactive waste. This Executive Summary gives an overview of the presentations and discussions that took place at the workshop. It presents, for the most part, a factual account of the individual presentations and of the discussions that took place. It relies importantly on the notes that were taken at the meeting. Most materials are elaborated upon in a fuller way in the texts that the various speakers and session moderators contributed for these proceedings. The structure of the Executive Summary follows the structure of the workshop itself. Complementary to this Executive Summary and also provided with this document, is a NEA Secretariat's perspective aiming to place the results of all discussions, feedback and site visit into an international perspective

  10. Process mining: making knowledge discovery process centric

    Aalst, van der W.M.P.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the Task Force on Process Mining released the Process Mining Manifesto. The manifesto is supported by 53 organizations and 77 process mining experts contributed to it. The active contributions from end-users, tool vendors, consultants, analysts, and researchers illustrate the growing

  11. Patient involvement in health care decision making: a review.

    Vahdat, Shaghayegh; Hamzehgardeshi, Leila; Hessam, Somayeh; Hamzehgardeshi, Zeinab

    2014-01-01

    Patient participation means involvement of the patient in decision making or expressing opinions about different treatment methods, which includes sharing information, feelings and signs and accepting health team instructions. Given the importance of patient participation in healthcare decision making which empowers patients and improves services and health outcomes, this study was performed to review previous studies on patient participation in healthcare decision making. To prepare this narrative review article, researchers used general and specific search engines, as well as textbooks addressing this subject for an in-depth study of patient involvement in healthcare decision-making. As a result, 35 (out of 100 relevant) articles and also two books were selected for writing this review article. BASED ON THE REVIEW OF ARTICLES AND BOOKS, TOPICS WERE DIVIDED INTO SIX GENERAL CATEGORIES: definition of participation, importance of patient participation, factors influencing participation of patients in healthcare decisions, method of patient participation, tools for evaluating participation, and benefits and consequences of patient participation in health care decision-making. IN MOST STUDIES, FACTORS INFLUENCING PATIENT PARTICIPATION CONSISTED OF: factors associated with health care professionals such as doctor-patient relationship, recognition of patient's knowledge, allocation of sufficient time for participation, and also factors related to patients such as having knowledge, physical and cognitive ability, and emotional connections, beliefs, values and their experiences in relation to health services.

  12. Getting Involved in the IEP Process

    Kowalski, Ellen; Lieberman, Lauren J.; Daggett, Sara

    2006-01-01

    Although, in many districts, physical educators are integral members of the Individualized Education Program (designed for students with disabilities such as Down syndrome and autism), in other districts, physical educators are only partially involved in the process or are not given the opportunity to be involved at all. However, the physical…

  13. Emotions and Feelings in a Collaborative Dance-Making Process

    Rouhiainen, Leena; Hamalainen, Soili

    2013-01-01

    This paper looks into the significance emotions and feelings can have in a collaborative dance-making process. This is done by introducing a narrative based on a dance pedagogy student's writings. They contain observations of her experiences on being the facilitating choreographer in a dance-making process involving a cross-artistic group of…

  14. Prostate cancer patients’ experience of involvement in decision-making

    Løwe Netsey-Afedo, Mette Margrethe; Birkelund, Regner

    2016-01-01

    ’ experiences of being involved in the course of their disease and whether they experience being informed in a relevant way. In Denmark this area remains under investigated. Patient satisfaction, treatment results and patient safety can be improved if patients are involved in decision-making concerning...... sufficiently informed. Method: This study is based on qualitative semi-structured life-world interviews of 6 prostate cancer patients. The interviews were carried out in the participants’ homes during March and April 2014. The interpretation of the data is based on Paul Ricoeur’s phenomenological...

  15. Operator involvement in plant decision making and self-assessment

    Dugwyler, R.L.

    1993-04-01

    The Fast Flux Test Facility has a history of innovation that goes beyond mere compliance with DOE Conduct of Operations. This innovation fosters excellence at all levels of daily operations. Consistent operator input into management decision making and self-assessment has helped to produce an Operations staff that is proud and professional. A group of operators drafted the Fast Flux Test Facility Operations Professional Code, which serves as a benchmark for excellence. Operator committees have proposed changes as varied as the twelve hour rotating shift schedule, a streamlined reactor operator qualification program and an improved new hire training process. The changes succeeded because they had widespread operator acceptance. Similar committees have initiated staffing and qualification changes to help Operations cope with transforming the plant from an operating to a standby status. Standing committees such as the Operations Review Team (1985 to 1988) and the Operations Performance Enhancement Committee (1990 to present) have provided operators with an independent review of root causes and corrective actions to events. This occurs both for in-plant and other DOE facility events, through a Lessons Learned Program. The committees have also had open-quotes management's earclose quotes regarding suggestions for improving safety, efficiency and operator performance. As the Fast Flux Test Facility goes from an operating plant to a plant in standby, one of the primary changes will be to maintain operator interest in continual improvement. The Operations Performance Enhancement Committee can assist in this pursuit -- a pursuit of excellence. The purpose of this paper is to relate the successes of operator involvement at the Fast Flux Test Facility from the viewpoint of an Operations Engineer

  16. Patients' preferences for involvement in treatment decision making in Japan

    Shimbo Takuro

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of previous studies have suggested that the Japanese have few opportunities to participate in medical decision-making, as a result both of entrenched physician paternalism and national characteristics of dependency and passivity. The hypothesis that Japanese patients would wish to participate in treatment decision-making if adequate information were provided, and the decision to be made was clearly identified, was tested by interview survey. Methods The subjects were diabetic patients at a single outpatient clinic in Kyoto. One of three case study vignettes (pneumonia, gangrene or cancer was randomly assigned to each subject and, employing face-to-face interviews, the subjects were asked what their wishes would be as patients, for treatment information, participation in decision-making and family involvement. Results 134 patients participated in the study, representing a response rate of 90%. The overall proportions of respondents who preferred active, collaborative, and passive roles were 12%, 71%, and 17%, respectively. Respondents to the cancer vignette were less likely to prefer an active role and were more likely to prefer family involvement in decision-making compared to non-cancer vignette respondents. If a physician's recommendation conflicted with their own wishes, 60% of the respondents for each vignette answered that they would choose to respect the physician's opinion, while few respondents would give the family's preference primary importance. Conclusions Our study suggested that a majority of Japanese patients have positive attitudes towards participation in medical decision making if they are fully informed. Physicians will give greater patient satisfaction if they respond to the desire of patients for participation in decision-making.

  17. Reasons for family involvement in elective surgical decision-making in Taiwan: a qualitative study.

    Lin, Mei-Ling; Huang, Chuen-Teng; Chen, Ching-Huey

    2017-07-01

    To inquire into the reasons for family involvement in adult patients' surgical decision-making processes from the point of view of the patients' family. Making a patient the centre of medical decision-making is essential for respecting individual's autonomy. However, in a Chinese society, family members are often deeply involved in a patient's medical decision-making. Although family involvement has long been viewed as an aspect of the Chinese culture, empirical evidence of the reasons for family involvement in medical decision-making has been lacking. A qualitative study. In order to record and examine reasons for family involvement in adult patients' surgical decision-making, 12 different family members of 12 elective surgery patients were interviewed for collecting and analysing data. Three major reasons for family involvement emerged from the data analyses: (1) to share responsibility; (2) to ensure the correctness of medical information; and (3) to safeguard the patient's well-being. These findings also reveal that culture is not the only reason for family involvement. Making decision to undergo a surgery is a tough and stressful process for a patient. Family may provide the patient with timely psychological support to assist the patient to communicate with his or her physician(s) and other medical personnel to ensure their rights. It is also found that due to the imbalanced doctor-patient power relationship, a patient may be unable, unwilling to, or even dare not, tell the whole truth about his or her illness or feelings to the medical personnel. Thus, a patient would expect his or her family to undertake such a mission during the informed consent and decision-making processes. The results of this study may provide medical professionals with relevant insights into family involvement in adult patients' surgical decision-making. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Spin versus helicity in processes involving transversity

    Mekhfi, Mustapha

    2011-01-01

    We construct the spin formalism in order to deal in a direct and natural way with processes involving transversity which are now of increasing popularity. The helicity formalism which is more appropriate for collision processes of definite helicity has been so far used also to manage processes with transversity, but at the price of computing numerous helicity amplitudes generally involving unnecessary kinematical variables.In a second step we work out the correspondence between both formalisms and retrieve in another way all results of the helicity formalism but in simpler forms.We then compute certain processes for comparison.A special process:the quark dipole magnetic moment is shown to be exclusively treated within the spin formalism as it is directly related to the transverse spin of the quark inside the baryon.

  19. Nonrational processes in ethical decision making.

    Rogerson, Mark D; Gottlieb, Michael C; Handelsman, Mitchell M; Knapp, Samuel; Younggren, Jeffrey

    2011-10-01

    Most current ethical decision-making models provide a logical and reasoned process for making ethical judgments, but these models are empirically unproven and rely upon assumptions of rational, conscious, and quasilegal reasoning. Such models predominate despite the fact that many nonrational factors influence ethical thought and behavior, including context, perceptions, relationships, emotions, and heuristics. For example, a large body of behavioral research has demonstrated the importance of automatic intuitive and affective processes in decision making and judgment. These processes profoundly affect human behavior and lead to systematic biases and departures from normative theories of rationality. Their influence represents an important but largely unrecognized component of ethical decision making. We selectively review this work; provide various illustrations; and make recommendations for scientists, trainers, and practitioners to aid them in integrating the understanding of nonrational processes with ethical decision making.

  20. Involving IDPs in the Darfur peace process

    David Lanz

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The UN estimates that there are 2.4 millionIDPs in Darfur –over one third of the totalpopulation. There can be no meaningfulpeace process without their involvement.Giving IDPs a formal seat in official peacenegotiations is problematic but there areother ways to ensure their participation.

  1. Behavioural Decision Making and Suggestional Processes

    Molz, Günter

    2001-01-01

    Common features between the domains of behavioural decision making and suggestional processes are discussed. These features are allocated in two aspects. First, behavioural decision making and suggestional processes are traditionally considered to provoke inadequate human behaviour. In this article arguments are put forward against this interpretation: Actions induced by non-rational decisions and / or by suggestional processes often have adaptive functions. Second, two common themat...

  2. Family involvement in medical decision-making: Perceptions of nursing and psychology students.

    Itzhaki, Michal; Hildesheimer, Galya; Barnoy, Sivia; Katz, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Family members often rely on health care professionals to guide and support them through the decision-making process. Although family involvement in medical decisions should be included in the preservice curriculum for the health care professions, perceptions of students in caring professions on family involvement in medical decision-making have not yet been examined. To examine the perceptions of nursing and psychology students on family involvement in medical decision-making for seriously ill patients. A descriptive cross-sectional design was used. First year undergraduate nursing and psychology students studying for their Bachelor of Arts degree were recruited. Perceptions were assessed with a questionnaire constructed based on the Multi-Attribute Utility Theory (MAUT), which examines decision-maker preferences. The questionnaire consisted of two parts referring to the respondent once as the patient and then as the family caregiver. Questionnaires were completed by 116 nursing students and 156 psychology students. Most were of the opinion that family involvement in decision-making is appropriate, especially when the patient is incapable of making decisions. Nursing students were more inclined than psychology students to think that financial, emotional, and value-based considerations should be part of the family's involvement in decision-making. Both groups of students perceived the emotional consideration as most acceptable, whereas the financial consideration was considered the least acceptable. Nursing and psychology students perceive family involvement in medical decision-making as appropriate. In order to train students to support families in the process of decision-making, further research should examine Shared Decision-Making (SDM) programs, which involve patient and clinician collaboration in health care decisions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Nonrational Processes in Ethical Decision Making

    Rogerson, Mark D.; Gottlieb, Michael C.; Handelsman, Mitchell M.; Knapp, Samuel; Younggren, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Most current ethical decision-making models provide a logical and reasoned process for making ethical judgments, but these models are empirically unproven and rely upon assumptions of rational, conscious, and quasi-legal reasoning. Such models predominate despite the fact that many nonrational factors influence ethical thought and behavior,…

  4. Shared decision making and the concept of equipoise: the competences of involving patients in healthcare choices.

    Elwyn, G; Edwards, A; Kinnersley, P; Grol, R

    2000-11-01

    Involving patients in healthcare decisions makes a potentially significant and enduring difference to healthcare outcomes. One difficulty (among many) is that the 'involvement' of patients in decisions has been left undefined. It is usually conceptualised as 'patient centredness', which is a broad and variably interpreted concept that is difficult to assess using current tools. This paper attempts to gauge general practitioners' (GPs') attitudes to patient involvement in decision making and their views about the contextual factors, competences, and stages required to achieve shared decisions within consultations. To explore and understand what constitutes the appropriate involvement of patients in decision making within consultations, to consider previous theory in this field, and to propose a set of competences (skills) and steps that would enable clinical practitioners (generalists) to undertake 'shared decision making' in their clinical environment. Qualitative study using focus group interviews of key informants. Experienced GPs with educational roles have positive attitudes to the involvement of patients in decisions, provided the process matches the role individuals wish to play. They perceive some clinical problems as being more suited to a cooperative approach to decision making and conceptualised the existence of professional equipoise towards the existence of legitimate treatment options as an important facilitative factor. A sequence of skills was proposed as follows: 1) implicit or explicit involvement of patients in the decision-making process; 2) explore ideas, fears, and expectations of the problem and possible treatments; 3) portrayal of equipoise and options; 4) identify preferred data format and provide tailor-made information; 5) checking process: understanding of information and reactions (e.g. ideas, fears, and expectations of possible options); 6) acceptance of process and decision making role preference; 7) make, discuss or defer decisions; 8

  5. Vygotsky's Analysis of Children's Meaning Making Processes

    Mahn, Holbrook

    2012-01-01

    Vygotsky's work is extensive and covers many aspects of the development of children's meaning-making processes in social and cultural contexts. However, his main focus is on the examination of the unification of speaking and thinking processes. His investigation centers on the analysis of the entity created by this unification--an internal…

  6. Charge exchange processes involving iron ions

    Phaneuf, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    A review and evaluation is given of the experimental data which are available for charge exchange processes involving iron ions and neutral H, H 2 and He. Appropriate scaling laws are presented, and their accuracy estimated for these systems. A bibliography is given of available data sources, as well as of useful data compilations and review articles. A procedure is recommended for providing single approximate formulae to the fusion community to describe total cross sections for electron capture by partially-stripped Fe/sup q+/ ions in collisions with H, H 2 and He, based on the scaling relationships suggested by Janev and Hvelplund

  7. Involving construction in the preliminary engineering process

    Mahoney, D.T. Jr.; Boccieri, S.V. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    With today's high cost associated with modifications in nuclear power plants, it is imperative that the authors continue to investigate ways to cut costs but at the same time improve efficiency and reduce radiation exposure to those directly associated with the implementation of modifications. The success associated with involving construction in the preliminary engineering process will not only cut costs and improve efficiency but will establish a Team Building concept to provide accountability to all those associated with the implementation of the task. This form of partnering focuses on the solutions rather than highlighting the difficulties. This paper will demonstrate techniques to implement such ideas and provide examples to corroborate actual successes already achieved

  8. Cognitive processes in anesthesiology decision making.

    Stiegler, Marjorie Podraza; Tung, Avery

    2014-01-01

    The quality and safety of health care are under increasing scrutiny. Recent studies suggest that medical errors, practice variability, and guideline noncompliance are common, and that cognitive error contributes significantly to delayed or incorrect diagnoses. These observations have increased interest in understanding decision-making psychology.Many nonrational (i.e., not purely based in statistics) cognitive factors influence medical decisions and may lead to error. The most well-studied include heuristics, preferences for certainty, overconfidence, affective (emotional) influences, memory distortions, bias, and social forces such as fairness or blame.Although the extent to which such cognitive processes play a role in anesthesia practice is unknown, anesthesia care frequently requires rapid, complex decisions that are most susceptible to decision errors. This review will examine current theories of human decision behavior, identify effects of nonrational cognitive processes on decision making, describe characteristic anesthesia decisions in this context, and suggest strategies to improve decision making.

  9. Modeling as a Decision-Making Process

    Bleiler-Baxter, Sarah K.; Stephens, D. Christopher; Baxter, Wesley A.; Barlow, Angela T.

    2017-01-01

    The goal in this article is to support teachers in better understanding what it means to model with mathematics by focusing on three key decision-making processes: Simplification, Relationship Mapping, and Situation Analysis. The authors use the Theme Park task to help teachers develop a vision of how students engage in these three decision-making…

  10. Process for making lyophilized radiographic imaging kit

    Grogg, T.W.; Bates, P.E.; Bugaj, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    A process for making a lyophilized composition useful for skeletal imaging whereby an aqueous solution containing an ascorbate, gentisate, or reductate stabilizer is contacted with tin metal or an alloy containing tin and, thereafter, lyophilized. Preferably, such compositions also comprise a tissue-specific carrier and a stannous compound. It is particularly preferred to incorporate stannous oxide as a coating on the tin metal

  11. The public participation handbook: making better decisions through citizen involvement

    Creighton, James L

    2005-01-01

    "Internationally renowned facilitator and consultant James L. Creighton offers a practical guide to designing and facilitating public participation in environmental and public policy decision making...

  12. Developing Holocaust Curricula: The Content Decision-Making Process

    Lindquist, David H.

    2008-01-01

    The content decision-making process involved in developing Holocaust curricula is unusually complex and problematic. Educators must consider factors such as historical accuracy, selection of topics covered, potential teaching materials (such as textbooks and literary texts), and graphic materials (such as films and photographs) as they plan their…

  13. Hospital boards and hospital strategic focus: the impact of board involvement in strategic decision making.

    Ford-Eickhoff, Karen; Plowman, Donde Ashmos; McDaniel, Reuben R

    2011-01-01

    Despite pressures to change the role of hospital boards, hospitals have made few changes in board composition or director selection criteria. Hospital boards have often continued to operate in their traditional roles as either "monitors" or "advisors." More attention to the direct involvement of hospital boards in the strategic decision-making process of the organizations they serve, the timing and circumstances under which board involvement occurs, and the board composition that enhances their abilities to participate fully is needed. We investigated the relationship between broader expertise among hospital board members, board involvement in the stages of strategic decision making, and the hospital's strategic focus. We surveyed top management team members of 72 nonacademic hospitals to explore the participation of critical stakeholder groups such as the board of directors in the strategic decision-making process. We used hierarchical regression analysis to explore our hypotheses that there is a relationship between both the nature and involvement of the board and the hospital's strategic orientation. Hospitals with broader expertise on their boards reported an external focus. For some of their externally-oriented goals, hospitals also reported that their boards were involved earlier in the stages of decision making. In light of the complex and dynamic environment of hospitals today, those charged with developing hospital boards should match the variety in the external issues that the hospital faces with more variety in board makeup. By developing a board with greater breadth of expertise, the hospital responds to its complex environment by absorbing that complexity, enabling a greater potential for sensemaking and learning. Rather than acting only as monitors and advisors, boards impact their hospitals' strategic focus through their participation in the strategic decision-making process.

  14. The effectiveness of student involvement in decision- making and ...

    universities in South-West Nigeria.1The research findings indicate that there is a significant relationship ... the management-student relationship and teaching effectiveness. .... involvement to accomplish the university's mission through its strategic plan. ..... Students should remain in the classroom and not get involved in the.

  15. Parental Involvement in School Governance and Decision Making in Israel

    Nir, Adam E.; Bogler, Ronit

    2012-01-01

    A review of the memorandums set by the Israeli Ministry of Education reveals that they stress the importance of parental involvement for schools and children. A review of studies that focused on parental involvement in Israeli school governance suggests that parents' participation is usually confined to the provision of funds, equipment, or other…

  16. Pediatric oncologists' attitudes towards involving adolescents in decision-making concerning research participation.

    de Vries, Martine C; Wit, Jan M; Engberts, Dirk P; Kaspers, Gertjan J L; van Leeuwen, Evert

    2010-07-15

    Various regulations and guidelines stipulate the importance of involving adolescents in decision-making concerning research participation. Several studies have shown that in the context of pediatric oncology this involvement is difficult to achieve due to emotional stress, the complexity of research protocols and limited time. Still, up to 80% of adolescents with cancer enter onto a trial during their illness. The aim of this study was to determine clinicians' views and attitudes towards enrolling adolescents in research, considering the difficulties surrounding their involvement in decision-making. A qualitative multicenter study was performed, using in-depth semi-structured interviews on the informed consent process with 15 pediatric hemato-oncologists. Four central themes emerged that characterize clinicians' attitudes towards involving adolescents in the decision-making process: (1) clinicians regard most adolescents as not capable of participating meaningfully in discussions regarding research; (2) clinicians do not always provide adolescents with all information; (3) proxy consent from parents is obtained and is deemed sufficient; (4) clinician-investigator integrity: clinicians judge research protocols as not being harmful and even in the best interest of the adolescent. Clinicians justify not involving adolescents in research discussions by referring to best interest arguments (adolescents' incompetence, proxy consent, and investigator integrity), although this is not in line with legal regulations and ethical guidelines.

  17. Considering patient values and treatment preferences enhances patient involvement in rectal cancer treatment decision making.

    Kunneman, Marleen; Marijnen, Corrie A M; Baas-Thijssen, Monique C M; van der Linden, Yvette M; Rozema, Tom; Muller, Karin; Geijsen, Elisabeth D; Stiggelbout, Anne M; Pieterse, Arwen H

    2015-11-01

    The shared decision making (SDM) model states that patients' values and preferences should be clarified to choose a strategy that best fits the patient. This study aimed to assess whether values and preferences of rectal cancer patients are voiced and considered in deciding about preoperative radiotherapy (PRT), and whether this makes patients feel more involved in treatment decision making. Pre-treatment consultations of radiation oncologists and patients eligible for PRT were audiotaped (N=90). Tapes were transcribed and coded to identify patients' values and treatment preferences. Patients filled in a post-consultation questionnaire on their perceived involvement in decision making (N=60). Patients' values were voiced for 62/611 of benefits/harms addressed (10%), in 38/90 consultations (42%; maximum 4 values per consultation), and most often related to major long-term treatment outcomes. Patients' treatment preferences were discussed in 20/90 consultations (22%). In 16/90 consultations (18%), the oncologists explicitly indicated to consider patients' values or preferences. Patients perceived a significantly more active role in decision making if their values or preferences had been voiced or considered. Patients' values and treatment preferences are voiced or considered in a minority of consultations. If they are, this increases patients' perceived involvement in the decision making process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Health literacy, numeracy, and other characteristics associated with hospitalized patients' preferences for involvement in decision making.

    Goggins, Kathryn M; Wallston, Kenneth A; Nwosu, Samuel; Schildcrout, Jonathan S; Castel, Liana; Kripalani, Sunil

    2014-01-01

    Little research has examined the association of health literacy and numeracy with patients' preferred involvement in the problem-solving and decision-making process in the hospital. Using a sample of 1,249 patients hospitalized with cardiovascular disease from the Vanderbilt Inpatient Cohort Study (VICS), we assessed patients' preferred level of involvement using responses to two scenarios of differing symptom severity from the Problem-Solving Decision-Making Scale. Using multivariable modeling, we determined the relationship of health literacy, subjective numeracy, and other patient characteristics with preferences for involvement in decisions, and how this differed by scenario. The authors found that patients with higher levels of health literacy desired more participation in the problem-solving and decision-making process, as did patients with higher subjective numeracy skills, greater educational attainment, female gender, less perceived social support, or greater health care system distrust (pparticipate more in the decision-making process when the hypothetical symptom they were experiencing was less severe (i.e., they deferred more to their physician when the hypothetical symptom was more severe). These findings underscore the role that patient characteristics, especially health literacy and numeracy, play in decisional preferences among hospitalized patients.

  19. Defining stakeholder involvement in participatory design processes

    Vink, P.; Imada, A.S.; Zink, K.J.

    2008-01-01

    A participatory approach could be used to implement work place or organizational improvements. However, the question is which participants should be involved and how. In this paper the theoretical involvement in different steps of a linear stepwise approach is described and compared with the latest

  20. Family involvement for breast cancer decision making among Chinese-American women.

    Lee, Shiuyu Katie C; Knobf, M Tish

    2016-12-01

    To describe family involvement in decision making for primary treatment in Chinese-American women with early-stage breast cancer. Qualitative data were collected in 2003 from semi-structured questions in interviews with a sample of Chinese-American (ChA) women with breast cancer, who were recruited from the metropolitan New York area. Responses to the questions were written in Chinese immediately during the interview and read back to the subject for accuracy and validation. Content analysis was used to inductively code and analyze the data to generate themes. The participants consisted of 123 ChA women with early stage breast cancer with a mean age of 48.7 years (±9.3) and who had lived in the United States a median of 13.6 years. Support and Caring was the major theme that described family involvement in the breast cancer decision-making process. Gathering Information, Being There, Navigating the Health Care System, Maintaining Family Life and Making the Decision described the aspects of family support in the process. The majority of women described the treatment decision making as a collaborative supportive process with the family, but limited English fluency, strong opinions, lack of a shared perspective, distant living proximity and competing work responsibilities of family members were stressful for the women and perceived as non-supportive. Family involvement in health care decision making is culturally embedded in Asian populations. Culturally sensitive patient and family consultation strategies are needed to assist informed treatment decision making in Chinese-American women diagnosed with breast cancer. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Making chocolate from beans: what’s involved?

    Sundara, Ramana; Manez, Angel; Coutel, Fabien

    2015-01-01

    Industry differentiates between cocoa processing and chocolate manufacturing. Cocoa processing covers the activity of converting the beans into nib, liquor, butter, cake and powder. Chocolate manufacturing covers the blending and refining of cocoa liquor, cocoa butter and various optional ingredients, such as milk and sugar.

  2. Evacuation decision-making: process and uncertainty

    Mileti, D.; Sorensen, J.; Bogard, W.

    1985-09-01

    The purpose was to describe the processes of evacuation decision-making, identify and document uncertainties in that process and discuss implications for federal assumption of liability for precautionary evacuations at nuclear facilities under the Price-Anderson Act. Four major categories of uncertainty are identified concerning the interpretation of hazard, communication problems, perceived impacts of evacuation decisions and exogenous influences. Over 40 historical accounts are reviewed and cases of these uncertainties are documented. The major findings are that all levels of government, including federal agencies experience uncertainties in some evacuation situations. Second, private sector organizations are subject to uncertainties at a variety of decision points. Third, uncertainties documented in the historical record have provided the grounds for liability although few legal actions have ensued. Finally it is concluded that if liability for evacuations is assumed by the federal government, the concept of a ''precautionary'' evacuation is not useful in establishing criteria for that assumption. 55 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  3. Customer Involvement in the Game Development Process

    Kaja Prystupa-Rządca

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The creative industry is a fast developing sector of economy in many countries. Growing competition in this area has led many companies to implement strategy of users' involvement in product development in order to deliver products that are more aligned with customers’ needs. On the other hand, the attempt to align the customers’ expectations with artistic creativity may create tensions. Therefore, the aim of the research is to examine the methods of users’ involvement in product development and real impact of the users on project design. The obtained findings are based on two-year qualitative research project conducted in game development companies.

  4. Involving men in reproductive health: making the mandate a reality.

    Ndong, I; Steele, C; Mahony, E

    1998-01-01

    When men are provided with information about reproductive health issues, they are more likely to support their partners' family planning decisions. Such support is particularly important in cultures where women are unable to negotiate sexual relationships, and may therefore be exposing themselves to sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and unwanted pregnancies. Good communication between partners ensures that women receive the reproductive health care they need. AVSC International developed the Men As Partners (MAP) initiative with the goals of increasing men's awareness and support of their partners' reproductive health choices; men's awareness of the need to safeguard reproductive health, especially through the prevention of STDs; and the use of contraceptive methods which require the participation and cooperation of men among couples who want to use them. In May 1997, AVSC organized the first-ever interregional workshop on men's involvement in reproductive health. More than 150 participants from 5 continents attended the event in Mombasa, Kenya, where they discussed ways to involve men in the health of their female partners. Main workshop themes were gender issues, reproductive health services for men, community outreach and workplace programs, access to services, and adolescents.

  5. EMPLOYEE INVOLVEMENT IN DECISION MAKING AND FIRMS PERFORMANCE IN THE MANUFACTURING SECTOR IN NIGERIA

    Abdul-Hameed Adeola Sulaimon

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationship between employee involvement in decision making andfirms’ performance in the manufacturing sector in Nigeria. Data were generated by means ofquestionnaires to 670 manufacturing firms on employee involvement in decision making andperformance variables. Responses from the survey were statistically analysed using descriptivestatistics, product moment correlation, regression analysis and Z-test (approximated with theindependent samples t-test. The results of the study indicate a statistically significant relationshipbetween employee involvement in decision making and firms’ performance as well as reveal asignificant difference between the performance of firms whose employee involvement in decisionmaking are deep and the performance of firms whose employee involvement in decision making areshallow. The findings also reveal the involvement of participating firms in employee involvement indecision making. The implications of this study include the need for manufacturing firms todemonstrate high level of commitment to employee involvement in decision making for performanceenhancement.

  6. Involvement of Family Members and Professionals in Older Women's Post-Fall Decision Making.

    Bergeron, Caroline D; Hilfinger Messias, DeAnne K; Friedman, Daniela B; Spencer, S Melinda; Miller, Susan C

    2018-03-01

    This exploratory, descriptive study examined involvement of family members and professionals in older women's post-fall decision making. We conducted semistructured interviews with 17 older women who had recently fallen and 11 individuals these women identified as being engaged in their post-fall decision-making processes. Qualitative data analysis involved open and axial coding and development of themes. After experiencing a fall, these older women's openness to others' opinions and advice; their assessments of types and credibility of potential information sources; and the communication practices they established with these sources influenced how they accessed, accepted, or rejected information from family members and professionals. Increased awareness of the involvement of others in post-fall decision making could enhance communication with older women who fall. Developing and implementing practical strategies to help family members and professionals initiate and engage in conversations about falls and their consequences could lead to more open decision making and improved post-fall quality of life among older women.

  7. Children's Decision-Making Involvement About Research Participation: Associations With Perceived Fairness and Self-Efficacy.

    Miller, Victoria A; Feudtner, Chris; Jawad, Abbas F

    2017-04-01

    The primary objective of this study was to examine the associations of children's involvement in decisions about research participation with their perceptions of the decision-making process and self-efficacy. Participants were children (ages 8-17) who enrolled in research studies in the prior 2 months. Children completed a questionnaire that yielded three decision-making involvement subscales: Researcher Engages Child, Researcher Supports Autonomy, and Child Participates. Children reported on fairness of the decision-making process and health-related decision self-efficacy. After adjusting for age, higher scores on Researcher Engages Child were associated with greater self-efficacy, and higher scores on Researcher Supports Autonomy were associated with greater perceived fairness. These data underscore the potential importance of researcher-child interactions about research participation when assent is sought, including proactively involving children in the decision by asking for their opinions and communicating their central role in the decision, which are likely to be more meaningful to children than receiving information or signing a form.

  8. Organizing for public involvement in Fernald decision-making

    Morgan, K.L.; Hoopes, J.

    1993-01-01

    Fernald is returning to the basics of interpersonal communication as a cornerstone of its public involvement program. The guiding premise behind this concept is the belief that face-to-face interaction between people is more likely to build trust and confidence than public meetings, news releases and other traditional public information techniques. A network of project spokespersons, called ''envoys,'' is being organized to develop person-to-person relationships with people interested in the future of Fernald. To support this approach, public affairs personnel are adopting roles as management consultants and communications coaches in addition to serving in their traditional role as public information specialists. Early observations seem to show signs of improvement in the level of public trust in Fernald decision-makers

  9. Organizing for public involvement in Fernald decision-making

    Morgan, K.L. [USDOE Fernald Field Office, OH (United States); Hoopes, J. [Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corp., Cincinnati, OH (United States). Fernald Environmental Management Project

    1993-10-24

    Fernald is returning to the basics of interpersonal communication as a cornerstone of its public involvement program. The guiding premise behind this concept is the belief that face-to-face interaction between people is more likely to build trust and confidence than public meetings, news releases and other traditional public information techniques. A network of project spokespersons, called ``envoys,`` is being organized to develop person-to-person relationships with people interested in the future of Fernald. To support this approach, public affairs personnel are adopting roles as management consultants and communications coaches in addition to serving in their traditional role as public information specialists. Early observations seem to show signs of improvement in the level of public trust in Fernald decision-makers.

  10. [Involving patients, the insured and the general public in healthcare decision making].

    Mühlbacher, Axel C; Juhnke, Christin

    2016-01-01

    No doubt, the public should be involved in healthcare decision making, especially when decision makers from politics and self-government agencies are faced with the difficult task of setting priorities. There is a general consensus on the need for a stronger patient centeredness, even in HTA processes, and internationally different ways of public participation are discussed and tested in decision making processes. This paper describes how the public can be involved in different decision situations, and it shows how preference measurement methods are currently being used in an international context to support decision making. It distinguishes between different levels of decision making on health technologies: approval, assessment, pricing, and finally utilization. The range of participation efforts extends from qualitative surveys of patients' needs (Citizen Councils of NICE in the UK) to science-based documentation of quantitative patient preferences, such as in the current pilot projects of the FDA in the US and the EMA at the European level. Possible approaches for the elicitation and documentation of preference structures and trade-offs in relation to alternate health technologies are decision aids, such as multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA), that provide the necessary information for weighting and prioritizing decision criteria. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  11. Housing decision making methods for initiation development phase process

    Zainal, Rozlin; Kasim, Narimah; Sarpin, Norliana; Wee, Seow Ta; Shamsudin, Zarina

    2017-10-01

    Late delivery and sick housing project problems were attributed to poor decision making. These problems are the string of housing developer that prefers to create their own approach based on their experiences and expertise with the simplest approach by just applying the obtainable standards and rules in decision making. This paper seeks to identify the decision making methods for housing development at the initiation phase in Malaysia. The research involved Delphi method by using questionnaire survey which involved 50 numbers of developers as samples for the primary stage of collect data. However, only 34 developers contributed to the second stage of the information gathering process. At the last stage, only 12 developers were left for the final data collection process. Finding affirms that Malaysian developers prefer to make their investment decisions based on simple interpolation of historical data and using simple statistical or mathematical techniques in producing the required reports. It was suggested that they seemed to skip several important decision-making functions at the primary development stage. These shortcomings were mainly due to time and financial constraints and the lack of statistical or mathematical expertise among the professional and management groups in the developer organisations.

  12. Information processing in decision-making systems.

    van der Meer, Matthijs; Kurth-Nelson, Zeb; Redish, A David

    2012-08-01

    Decisions result from an interaction between multiple functional systems acting in parallel to process information in very different ways, each with strengths and weaknesses. In this review, the authors address three action-selection components of decision-making: The Pavlovian system releases an action from a limited repertoire of potential actions, such as approaching learned stimuli. Like the Pavlovian system, the habit system is computationally fast but, unlike the Pavlovian system permits arbitrary stimulus-action pairings. These associations are a "forward'' mechanism; when a situation is recognized, the action is released. In contrast, the deliberative system is flexible but takes time to process. The deliberative system uses knowledge of the causal structure of the world to search into the future, planning actions to maximize expected rewards. Deliberation depends on the ability to imagine future possibilities, including novel situations, and it allows decisions to be taken without having previously experienced the options. Various anatomical structures have been identified that carry out the information processing of each of these systems: hippocampus constitutes a map of the world that can be used for searching/imagining the future; dorsal striatal neurons represent situation-action associations; and ventral striatum maintains value representations for all three systems. Each system presents vulnerabilities to pathologies that can manifest as psychiatric disorders. Understanding these systems and their relation to neuroanatomy opens up a deeper way to treat the structural problems underlying various disorders.

  13. Innovative Pedagogical Processes Involving Educational Technology

    Weitze, Charlotte Lærke

    to create motivating learning for the students. This was done by examining the three actors in the educational institution (students, teachers and the surrounding organisation) individually and relationally. The design-based research project developed knowledge in co-design processes with the three actors...

  14. A comparative study of Swedish generation Y decision-making style between high involvement and low involvement products.

    Pakdeejirakul, Warangkhana; Agosi, Micheal

    2013-01-01

    Title A comparative study of Swedish generation Y decision-making style between high involvement and low involvement products. Research questions  How does product involvement influence consumer decision-making styles in Generation Y of Swedish nationals for the two selected products?  To what level does the model proposed by Sproles and Kendall in 1986 now apply to the modern-day Generation Y in Sweden as they decide on both of the selected products? Purpose The purpose of this research unde...

  15. Microwave heating processes involving carbon materials

    Menendez, J.A.; Arenillas, A.; Fidalgo, B.; Fernandez, Y.; Zubizarreta, L.; Calvo, E.G.; Bermudez, J.M. [Instituto Nacional del Carbon, CSIC, Apartado 73, 33080 Oviedo (Spain)

    2010-01-15

    Carbon materials are, in general, very good absorbents of microwaves, i.e., they are easily heated by microwave radiation. This characteristic allows them to be transformed by microwave heating, giving rise to new carbons with tailored properties, to be used as microwave receptors, in order to heat other materials indirectly, or to act as a catalyst and microwave receptor in different heterogeneous reactions. In recent years, the number of processes that combine the use of carbons and microwave heating instead of other methods based on conventional heating has increased. In this paper some of the microwave-assisted processes in which carbon materials are produced, transformed or used in thermal treatments (generally, as microwave absorbers and catalysts) are reviewed and the main achievements of this technique are compared with those obtained by means of conventional (non microwave-assisted) methods in similar conditions. (author)

  16. Evacuation decision-making: process and uncertainty

    Mileti, D.; Sorensen, J.; Bogard, W.

    1985-09-01

    The purpose was to describe the processes of evacuation decision-making, identify and document uncertainties in that process and discuss implications for federal assumption of liability for precautionary evacuations at nuclear facilities under the Price-Anderson Act. Four major categories of uncertainty are identified concerning the interpretation of hazard, communication problems, perceived impacts of evacuation decisions and exogenous influences. Over 40 historical accounts are reviewed and cases of these uncertainties are documented. The major findings are that all levels of government, including federal agencies experience uncertainties in some evacuation situations. Second, private sector organizations are subject to uncertainties at a variety of decision points. Third, uncertainties documented in the historical record have provided the grounds for liability although few legal actions have ensued. Finally it is concluded that if liability for evacuations is assumed by the federal government, the concept of a ''precautionary'' evacuation is not useful in establishing criteria for that assumption. 55 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  17. Health literacy, numeracy, and other characteristics associated with hospitalized patients' preferences for involvement in decision-making

    Goggins, KM; Wallston, KA; Nwosu, S; Schildcrout, JS; Castel, L; Kripalani, S

    2014-01-01

    Little research has examined the association of health literacy and numeracy with patients' preferred involvement in the problem-solving and decision-making process in the hospital. Using a sample of 1,249 patients hospitalized with cardiovascular disease from the Vanderbilt Inpatient Cohort Study (VICS), we assessed patients' preferred level of involvement using responses to two scenarios of differing symptom severity from the Problem-Solving Decision-Making (PSDM) Scale. Using multivariable...

  18. Electrochemical redox processes involving soluble cerium species

    Arenas, L.F.; Ponce de León, C.; Walsh, F.C.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The relevance of cerium in laboratory and industrial electrochemistry is considered. • The history of fundamental electrochemical studies and applications is considered. • The chemistry, redox thermodynamics and electrode kinetics of cerium are summarised. • The uses of cerium ions in synthesis, energy storage, analysis and environmental treatment are illustrated. • Research needs and development perspectives are discussed. - Abstract: Anodic oxidation of cerous ions and cathodic reduction of ceric ions, in aqueous acidic solutions, play an important role in electrochemical processes at laboratory and industrial scale. Ceric ions, which have been used for oxidation of organic wastes and off-gases in environmental treatment, are a well-established oxidant for indirect organic synthesis and specialised cleaning processes, including oxide film removal from tanks and process pipework in nuclear decontamination. They also provide a classical reagent for chemical analysis in the laboratory. The reversible oxidation of cerous ions is an important reaction in the positive compartment of various redox flow batteries during charge and discharge cycling. A knowledge of the thermodynamics and kinetics of the redox reaction is critical to an understanding of the role of cerium redox species in these applications. Suitable choices of electrode material (metal or ceramic; coated or uncoated), geometry/structure (2-or 3-dimensional) and electrolyte flow conditions (hence an acceptable mass transport rate) are critical to achieving effective electrocatalysis, a high performance and a long lifetime. This review considers the electrochemistry of soluble cerium species and their diverse uses in electrochemical technology, especially for redox flow batteries and mediated electrochemical oxidation.

  19. Process for making propenyl ethers and photopolymerizable compositions containing them

    Crivello, James V.

    1996-01-01

    Propenyl ether monomers of formula V A(OCH.dbd.CHCH.sub.3).sub.n wherein n is an integer from one to six and A is selected from cyclic ethers, polyether and alkanes are disclosed. The monomers are readily polymerized in the presence of cationic photoinitiators, when exposed to actinic radiation, to form poly(propenyl ethers) that are useful for coatings, sealants, varnishes and adhesives. Compositions for preparing polymeric coatings comprising the compounds of formula V together with particular cationic photoinitiators are also disclosed, as are processes for making the monomers from allyl halides and readily available alcohols. The process involves rearranging the resulting allyl ethers to propenyl ethers.

  20. Motivational Influences on Cognition: Task Involvement, Ego Involvement, and Depth of Information Processing.

    Graham, Sandra; Golan, Shari

    1991-01-01

    Task involvement and ego involvement were studied in relation to depth of information processing for 126 fifth and sixth graders in 2 experiments. Ego involvement resulted in poorer word recall at deep rather than shallow information processing levels. Implications for the study of motivation are discussed. (SLD)

  1. Consumer recycling: An ethical decision-making process

    Culiberg, Barbara; Bajde, Domen

    2013-01-01

    Although recycling is often experienced as a moral dilemma, studies that systematically approach this issue from an ethical perspective are scarce. Moreover, previous studies have explored recycling by mainly using single ethical constructs, such as moral norms, values or obligations, rarely...... approaching it as an ethical decision-making process. Our study takes a more holistic approach and integrates the recycling literature with business ethics theory in order to develop a conceptual model of ethical decision making involved in recycling. The model is based on Jones' issue-contingent model...... using structural equation modelling. The results of our study confirmed the relationships between three key facets of ethical decision making: moral recognition, moral judgment and moral intention. Higher levels of moral recognition were found to lead to more positive moral judgments, which in turn...

  2. Stakeholder participation in radiological decision making: processes and implication

    2004-01-01

    Since 1998, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency has been organizing a series of workshops to address the various aspects of stakeholder involvement in radiological protection decision making. These workshops have been instrumental in forging consensus and improving understanding of key issues in this area. Building on the experience of the first two 'Villigen workshops', the third in the series extensively analysed three case studies, which covered the licensing of a new facility, the clean-up and release of an old facility, and the rehabilitation of a large, contaminated area. Consideration was given to the stakeholder involvement processes that had been used, and the implications that these did or could have on radiological protection policy, regulation and application. The workshop papers analysing these processes and implications are presented in these proceedings, which should provide valuable examples and lessons for governments, regulators and practitioners. (author)

  3. IronMaking Process Alternatives Screening Study

    none,

    2000-10-01

    This study by Lockwood Greene evaluates a number ironmaking processes. The appendices provide greater detail and further exploration of the ironmaking processes, including components, relative costs, and comparisons.

  4. Patient and family involvement in decision making for management of cancer patients at a centre in Singapore.

    Chong, Jia An; Quah, Yan Ling; Yang, Grace Meijuan; Menon, Sumytra; Radha Krishna, Lalit Kumar

    2015-12-01

    The practice of patient autonomy within the prevailing bioethical framework in the West appears increasingly at odds with the prominent influence of the family in medical decision making in the Asian culture. The actual extent of involvement of patient versus the family in the decision making process for cancer management in clinical practice is largely unknown in Asia. (1) To describe patient and family involvement in healthcare decision making in actual practice, and to determine whether those practices are consistent with Singapore law; and (2) to act as a pilot for a larger prospective study examining the preferences of cancer patients on the decision making process, and the reasons for excluding patients from that process. A retrospective review of patients who died in an oncology ward in Singapore General Hospital from February to April 2011. Patient and family involvement in discussions on (1) disclosure of diagnosis, (2) initial treatment decisions and (3) initiation of a 'maximum ward management' order was evaluated by reviewing case notes completed by healthcare professionals. Data were collected for 55 patients. Involvement of patients and families at first disclosure of diagnosis was noted in 61% and 64% of cases, respectively. In 12% of cases, the family requested withholding of the diagnosis from the patient. 86% of patients were involved in the initial treatment decisions, and their family was involved in 65% of cases. Only 9% of the 32 alert patients were consulted in end of life decisions. Factors associated with lower patient involvement were advanced age and inability to speak English. While most cancer patients are involved in the healthcare decision making process during the early phase, familial involvement gains prominence as the disease progresses. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  5. 24 CFR 55.20 - Decision making process.

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Decision making process. 55.20 Section 55.20 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT Procedures for Making Determinations on Floodplain Management § 55.20 Decision making process. The decision making...

  6. Motivators That Intervene in the Decision Making Process in Tourism

    Alexandra VINEREAN

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Being part of the tourism industries involves many researches and analyses in different periods of time, regarding different segments of consumers. Therefore, it is important to be aware of all the factors and motivators that influence a tourist to purchase a particular tourism services. These complex variables are crucial for the final purchase decision of an offer with emotional value for customers. This paper presents the principals motivators which intervene in the decision making process that should be acknowledged by marketers in order to provide the ideal tourism package.

  7. Private sector involvement in science and innovation policy-making in Hungary

    Annamária Inzelt

    2008-01-01

    The overall thrust of this paper is that policy learning is enhanced by the participation of private business. It is assumed that business involvement would suggest abundant opportunities for policy learning and transfer. The empirical part of this paper investigates private sector involvement in science, technology and innovation (STI) policy-making in a transition economy (Hungary). Private sector involvement in Hungarian STI policy-making is investigated in terms of the stages and types of...

  8. Optimizing a Laser Process for Making Carbon Nanotubes

    Arepalli, Sivaram; Nikolaev, Pavel; Holmes, William

    2010-01-01

    A systematic experimental study has been performed to determine the effects of each of the operating conditions in a double-pulse laser ablation process that is used to produce single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). The comprehensive data compiled in this study have been analyzed to recommend conditions for optimizing the process and scaling up the process for mass production. The double-pulse laser ablation process for making SWCNTs was developed by Rice University researchers. Of all currently known nanotube-synthesizing processes (arc and chemical vapor deposition), this process yields the greatest proportion of SWCNTs in the product material. The aforementioned process conditions are important for optimizing the production of SWCNTs and scaling up production. Reports of previous research (mostly at Rice University) toward optimization of process conditions mention effects of oven temperature and briefly mention effects of flow conditions, but no systematic, comprehensive study of the effects of process conditions was done prior to the study described here. This was a parametric study, in which several production runs were carried out, changing one operating condition for each run. The study involved variation of a total of nine parameters: the sequence of the laser pulses, pulse-separation time, laser pulse energy density, buffer gas (helium or nitrogen instead of argon), oven temperature, pressure, flow speed, inner diameter of the flow tube, and flow-tube material.

  9. 44 CFR 9.6 - Decision-making process.

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Decision-making process. 9.6... HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION OF WETLANDS § 9.6 Decision-making process... protection decision-making process to be followed by the Agency in applying the Orders to its actions. While...

  10. Data processing framework for decision making

    Larsen, Jan

    The aim of the talk is * to provide insight into some of the issues in data processing and detection systems * to hint at possible solutions using statistical signal processing and machine learning methodologies...

  11. Identifying knowledge in decision-making processes

    Jensen, Anna Rose Vagn; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2010-01-01

    Managing knowledge reflects the innovation capability of a company. Mapping decision processes and links to knowledge is a way to learn more in structuring knowledge in innovation processes. Through an empirical study the paper aims to identify knowledge...

  12. Shared decision making and medication management in the recovery process.

    Deegan, Patricia E; Drake, Robert E

    2006-11-01

    Mental health professionals commonly conceptualize medication management for people with severe mental illness in terms of strategies to increase compliance or adherence. The authors argue that compliance is an inadequate construct because it fails to capture the dynamic complexity of autonomous clients who must navigate decisional conflicts in learning to manage disorders over the course of years or decades. Compliance is rooted in medical paternalism and is at odds with principles of person-centered care and evidence-based medicine. Using medication is an active process that involves complex decision making and a chance to work through decisional conflicts. It requires a partnership between two experts: the client and the practitioner. Shared decision making provides a model for them to assess a treatment's advantages and disadvantages within the context of recovering a life after a diagnosis of a major mental disorder.

  13. Involved, inputting or informing: "Shared" decision making in adult mental health care.

    Bradley, Eleanor; Green, Debra

    2018-02-01

    A diagnosis of serious mental illness can impact on the whole family. Families informally provide significant amounts of care but are disproportionately at risk of carer burden when compared to those supporting people with other long-term conditions. Shared decision making (SDM) is an ethical model of health communication associated with positive health outcomes; however, there has been little research to evaluate how routinely family is invited to participate in SDM, or what this looks like in practice. This UK study aimed to better understand how the family caregivers of those diagnosed with SMI are currently involved in decision making, particularly decisions about treatment options including prescribed medication. Objectives were to Explore the extent to which family members wish to be involved in decisions about prescribed medication Determine how and when professionals engage family in these decisions Identify barriers and facilitators associated with the engagement of family in decisions about treatment. Open-ended questions were sent to professionals and family members to elicit written responses. Qualitative responses were analysed thematically. Themes included the definition of involvement and "rules of engagement." Staff members are gatekeepers for family involvement, and the process is not democratic. Family and staff ascribe practical, rather than recovery-oriented roles to family, with pre-occupation around notions of adherence. Staff members need support, training and education to apply SDM. Time to exchange information is vital but practically difficult. Negotiated teams, comprising of staff, service users, family, peers as applicable, with ascribed roles and responsibilities could support SDM. © 2017 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Dissociating sensory from decision processes in human perceptual decision making.

    Mostert, Pim; Kok, Peter; de Lange, Floris P

    2015-12-15

    A key question within systems neuroscience is how the brain translates physical stimulation into a behavioral response: perceptual decision making. To answer this question, it is important to dissociate the neural activity underlying the encoding of sensory information from the activity underlying the subsequent temporal integration into a decision variable. Here, we adopted a decoding approach to empirically assess this dissociation in human magnetoencephalography recordings. We used a functional localizer to identify the neural signature that reflects sensory-specific processes, and subsequently traced this signature while subjects were engaged in a perceptual decision making task. Our results revealed a temporal dissociation in which sensory processing was limited to an early time window and consistent with occipital areas, whereas decision-related processing became increasingly pronounced over time, and involved parietal and frontal areas. We found that the sensory processing accurately reflected the physical stimulus, irrespective of the eventual decision. Moreover, the sensory representation was stable and maintained over time when it was required for a subsequent decision, but unstable and variable over time when it was task-irrelevant. In contrast, decision-related activity displayed long-lasting sustained components. Together, our approach dissects neuro-anatomically and functionally distinct contributions to perceptual decisions.

  15. Dissociating sensory from decision processes in human perceptual decision making

    Mostert, Pim; Kok, Peter; de Lange, Floris P.

    2015-01-01

    A key question within systems neuroscience is how the brain translates physical stimulation into a behavioral response: perceptual decision making. To answer this question, it is important to dissociate the neural activity underlying the encoding of sensory information from the activity underlying the subsequent temporal integration into a decision variable. Here, we adopted a decoding approach to empirically assess this dissociation in human magnetoencephalography recordings. We used a functional localizer to identify the neural signature that reflects sensory-specific processes, and subsequently traced this signature while subjects were engaged in a perceptual decision making task. Our results revealed a temporal dissociation in which sensory processing was limited to an early time window and consistent with occipital areas, whereas decision-related processing became increasingly pronounced over time, and involved parietal and frontal areas. We found that the sensory processing accurately reflected the physical stimulus, irrespective of the eventual decision. Moreover, the sensory representation was stable and maintained over time when it was required for a subsequent decision, but unstable and variable over time when it was task-irrelevant. In contrast, decision-related activity displayed long-lasting sustained components. Together, our approach dissects neuro-anatomically and functionally distinct contributions to perceptual decisions. PMID:26666393

  16. Making methodology a matter of process ontology

    Revsbæk, Line

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a practice of doing qualitative interview analysis from the insights of the process ontology in G. H. Mead’s Philosophy of the Present (1932). The paper presents two cases of analyzing in the present while listening to recorded interview material eliciting researcher’s case...... study and otherwise related experiences creating case narratives inclusive of researcher’s reflexive voice. The paper presents an auto-ethnographic approach to data analysis based on process theory ontology....

  17. The Right to Be Heard: Australian Children's Views about Their Involvement in Decision-Making Following Parental Separation

    Campbell, Alan

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the findings from a qualitative study that explored the views of a small group of Australian children about their involvement in decision-making processes following their parents' separation. Sixteen children, aged between seven and 17 years, participated in in-depth interviews that focused on their understandings of the…

  18. Democratizing Process Innovation? On Citizen Involvement in Public Sector BPM

    Niehaves, Björn; Malsch, Robert

    ‘Open Innovation’ has been heavily discussed for product innovations; however, an information systems (IS) perspective on ‘process innovation’ has not yet been taken. Analyzing the example of the public sector in Germany, the paper seeks to investigate the factors that hinder and support ‘open process innovation’, a concept we define as the involvement of citizens in business process management (BPM) activities. With the help of a quantitative study (n=358), six factors are examined for their impact on citizen involvement in local government BPM initiatives. The results show that citizen involvement in reform processes is not primarily motivated by the aim of cost reduction, but rather related to legitimacy reasons and the intent to increase employee motivation. Based on these findings, implications for (design) theory and practice are discussed: Instead of detailed collaborative business processes modeling, the key of citizen involvement in public sector BPM lies in communication and mutual understanding.

  19. Formal and Informal Parental Involvement in School Decision-Making in Denmark.

    Ravn, Birte

    1998-01-01

    Discusses and critiques both formal and informal parental involvement in education decision making in Denmark's primary and lower secondary schools. Describes the educational and political trends that have led to an emphasis on decentralized decision making and home-school cooperation in the Danish Education System. Considers a model of joint…

  20. Introduction of new vaccines: decision-making process in Bangladesh.

    Uddin, Jasim; Sarma, Haribondhu; Bari, Tajul I; Koehlmoos, Tracey P

    2013-06-01

    The understanding of the decision-making process in the introduction of new vaccines helps establish why vaccines are adopted or not. It also contributes to building a sustainable demand for vaccines in a country. The purpose of the study was to map and analyze the formal decision-making process in relation to the introduction of new vaccines within the context of health policy and health systems and identify the ways of making decisions to introduce new vaccines in Bangladesh. During February-April 2011, a qualitative assessment was made at the national level to evaluate the decision-making process around the adoption of new vaccines in Bangladesh. The study population included: policy-level people, programme heads or associates, and key decision-makers of the Government, private sector, non-governmental organizations, and international agencies at the national level. In total, 13 key informants were purposively selected. Data were collected by interviewing key informants and reviewing documents. Data were analyzed thematically. The findings revealed that the actors from different sectors at the policy level were involved in the decision-making process in the introduction of new vaccines. They included policy-makers from the ministries of health and family welfare, finance, and local government and rural development; academicians; researchers; representatives from professional associations; development partners; and members of different committees on EPI. They contributed to the introduction of new vaccines in their own capacity. The burden of disease, research findings on vaccine-preventable diseases, political issues relating to outbreaks of certain diseases, initiatives of international and local stakeholders, pressure of development partners, the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI) support, and financial matters were the key factors in the introduction of new vaccines in Bangladesh. The slow introduction and uptake of new vaccines is a concern

  1. Parent Involvement in Education: Toward an Understanding of Parents' Decision Making

    Anderson, Kellie J.; Minke, Kathleen M.

    2007-01-01

    Parent involvement (PI) in education is associated with positive outcomes for students; however, little is known about how parents decide to be involved in children's education. On the basis of the K. V. Hoover-Dempsey and H. M. Sandler (1995, 1997) model of parent decision making, the authors examined the relationship among 4 parent variables…

  2. Pediatric oncologists' attitudes towards involving adolescents in decision-making concerning research participation.

    Vries, M.C. de; Wit, J.M.; Engberts, D.P.; Kaspers, G.J.L.; Leeuwen, E. van

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Various regulations and guidelines stipulate the importance of involving adolescents in decision-making concerning research participation. Several studies have shown that in the context of pediatric oncology this involvement is difficult to achieve due to emotional stress, the complexity

  3. What role does health literacy play in patients' involvement in medical decision-making?

    Brabers, A.E.M.; Rademakers, J.J.D.J.M.; Groenewegen, P.P.; Dijk, L. van; Jong, J.D. de

    2017-01-01

    Patients vary in their preferences towards involvement in medical decision-making. Previous research, however, gives no clear explanation for this observed variation in their involvement. One possible explanation might be health literacy. Health literacy refers to personal characteristics and social

  4. International Patients' Travel Decision Making Process- A Conceptual Framework.

    Khan, Mohammad Jamal; Chelliah, Shankar; Haron, Mahmod Sabri

    2016-02-01

    Role of information source, perceived benefits and risks, and destination image has significantly been examined in travel and tourism literature; however, in medical tourism it is yet to be examined thoroughly. The concept discussed in this article is drawn form well established models in tourism literature. The purpose of this research was to identify the source of information, travel benefits and perceived risks related to movement of international patients and develop a conceptual model based on well-established theory. Thorough database search (Science Direct, utmj.org, nih.gov, nchu.edu.tw, palgrave-journals, medretreat, Biomedcentral) was performed to fulfill the objectives of the study. International patients always concern about benefits and risks related to travel. These benefits and risks form images of destination in the minds of international patients. Different sources of information make international patients acquaint about the associated benefits and risks, which later leads to development of intention to visit. This conceptual paper helps in establishing model for decision-making process of international patients in developing visit intention. Ample amount of literature is available detailing different factors involved in travel decision making of international patients; however literature explaining relationship between these factors is scarce.

  5. International Patients’ Travel Decision Making Process- A Conceptual Framework

    KHAN, Mohammad Jamal; CHELLIAH, Shankar; HARON, Mahmod Sabri

    2016-01-01

    Background: Role of information source, perceived benefits and risks, and destination image has significantly been examined in travel and tourism literature; however, in medical tourism it is yet to be examined thoroughly. The concept discussed in this article is drawn form well established models in tourism literature. Methods: The purpose of this research was to identify the source of information, travel benefits and perceived risks related to movement of international patients and develop a conceptual model based on well-established theory. Thorough database search (Science Direct, utmj.org, nih.gov, nchu.edu.tw, palgrave-journals, medretreat, Biomedcentral) was performed to fulfill the objectives of the study. Results: International patients always concern about benefits and risks related to travel. These benefits and risks form images of destination in the minds of international patients. Different sources of information make international patients acquaint about the associated benefits and risks, which later leads to development of intention to visit. This conceptual paper helps in establishing model for decision-making process of international patients in developing visit intention. Conclusion: Ample amount of literature is available detailing different factors involved in travel decision making of international patients; however literature explaining relationship between these factors is scarce. PMID:27114978

  6. Process for making rare earth metal chlorides

    Kruesi, P.R.

    1981-01-01

    An uncombined metal or a metal compound such as a sulfide, oxide, carbonate or sulfate is converted in a liquid salt bath to the corresponding metal chloride by reacting it with chlorine gas or a chlorine donor. The process applies to metals of groups 1b, 2a, 2b, 3a, 3b, 4a, 5a and 8 of the periodic table and to the rare earth metals. The chlorine donor may be ferric or sulfur chloride. The liquid fused salt bath is made up of chlorides of alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, ammonia, zinc and ferric iron. Because the formed metal chlorides are soluble in the liquid fused salt bath, they can be recovered by various conventional means

  7. An inferentialist perspective on the coordination of actions and reasons involved in making a statistical inference

    Bakker, Arthur; Ben-Zvi, Dani; Makar, Katie

    2017-12-01

    To understand how statistical and other types of reasoning are coordinated with actions to reduce uncertainty, we conducted a case study in vocational education that involved statistical hypothesis testing. We analyzed an intern's research project in a hospital laboratory in which reducing uncertainties was crucial to make a valid statistical inference. In his project, the intern, Sam, investigated whether patients' blood could be sent through pneumatic post without influencing the measurement of particular blood components. We asked, in the process of making a statistical inference, how are reasons and actions coordinated to reduce uncertainty? For the analysis, we used the semantic theory of inferentialism, specifically, the concept of webs of reasons and actions—complexes of interconnected reasons for facts and actions; these reasons include premises and conclusions, inferential relations, implications, motives for action, and utility of tools for specific purposes in a particular context. Analysis of interviews with Sam, his supervisor and teacher as well as video data of Sam in the classroom showed that many of Sam's actions aimed to reduce variability, rule out errors, and thus reduce uncertainties so as to arrive at a valid inference. Interestingly, the decisive factor was not the outcome of a t test but of the reference change value, a clinical chemical measure of analytic and biological variability. With insights from this case study, we expect that students can be better supported in connecting statistics with context and in dealing with uncertainty.

  8. Primary Care Physician Involvement in Shared Decision Making for Critically Ill Patients and Family Satisfaction with Care.

    Huang, Kevin B; Weber, Urs; Johnson, Jennifer; Anderson, Nathanial; Knies, Andrea K; Nhundu, Belinda; Bautista, Cynthia; Poskus, Kelly; Sheth, Kevin N; Hwang, David Y

    2018-01-01

    An intensive care unit (ICU) patient's primary care physician (PCP) may be able to assist family with certain ICU shared medical decisions. We explored whether families of patients in nonopen ICUs who nevertheless report involvement of a patient's PCP in medical decision making are more satisfied with ICU shared decision making than families who do not. Between March 2013 and December 2015, we administered the Family Satisfaction in the ICU 24 survey to family members of adult neuroscience ICU patients. We compared the mean score for the survey subsection regarding shared decision making (graded on a 100-point scale), as well as individual survey items, between those who reported the patient's PCP involvement in any medical decision making versus those who did not. Among 263 respondents, there was no difference in mean overall decision-making satisfaction scores for those who reported involvement (81.1; SD = 15.2) versus those who did not (80.1; SD = 12.8; P = .16). However, a higher proportion reporting involvement felt completely satisfied with their 1) inclusion in the ICU decision making process (75.9% vs 61.4%; P = .055), and 2) control over the care of the patient (73.6% vs 55.6%; P = .02), with no difference regarding consistency of clinical information provided by the medical team (64.8% vs 63.5%; P = 1.00). Families who report involvement of a patient's PCP in medical decision making for critically ill patients may be more satisfied than those who do not with regard to specific aspects of ICU decision making. Further research would help understand how best to engage PCPs in shared decisions. © Copyright 2018 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  9. Market Segmentation in the Decision Making Process in Tourism

    Alexandra VINEREAN

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I examine the responses of 154 tourists in relation to their predisposition to purchase and the patterns and habits that are usually decisive in the decision making process regarding tourism services or products. For this research, I conducted a selective direct research, whose purpose was to obtain a segmentation of consumers who purchase tourism services based on specific dimensions of behavior. This research also implied studying the behavior of current and potential customers who purchase travel services depending on several variables for establishing different consumption habits. Thus, to establish a more detailed image of the tourists who participated in this direct and selective research, the analysis involved a factor analysis and a cluster analysis.

  10. Why orphan drug coverage reimbursement decision-making needs patient and public involvement.

    Douglas, Conor M W; Wilcox, Elizabeth; Burgess, Michael; Lynd, Larry D

    2015-05-01

    Recently there has been an increase in the active involvement of publics and patients in healthcare and research, which is extending their roles beyond the passive recipients of medicines. However, there has been noticeably less work engaging them into decision-making for healthcare rationing exercises, priority setting, health technology assessment, and coverage decision-making. This is particularly evident in reimbursement decision-making for 'orphan drugs' or drugs for rare diseases. Medicinal products for rare disease offer particular challenges in coverage decision-making because they often lack the 'evidence of efficacy' profiles of common drugs that have been trialed on larger populations. Furthermore, many of these drugs are priced in the high range, and with limited health care budgets the prospective opportunity costs of funding them means that those resources cannot be allocated elsewhere. Here we outline why decision-making for drugs for rare diseases could benefit from increased levels of publics and patients involvement, suggest some possible forms that involvement could take, and advocate for empirical experimentation in this area to evaluate the effects of such involvement. Focus is given to the Canadian context in which we are based; however, potentialities and challenges relating to involvement in this area are likely to be similar elsewhere. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Investigating Individuals' Intention to be Involved in Knowledge Management Process

    M. J.M. Razi; N. S.A. Karim

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Implementation of Knowledge Management (KM) process in organizations is considered as essential to be competitive in the present competitive world. Though the modern KM practices highly depend on technology, individuals (organizational members) intention to be involved in KM process plays a major role in the success. Hence, the evaluation of individuals intention is deemed as significant before the actual implementation of KM process in organizations. Nevertheless, inadequa...

  12. The decision-making process between rationality and emotions

    Alvino, Letizia; Franco, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    The decision-making process has been analyzed in several disciplines (economics, social sciences, humanities, etc.) with the aim of creating models to help decision-makers in strategy formulation. The Organizational theory takes into account both the decision-making process of individuals and groups

  13. Treatment preferences and involvement in treatment decision making of patients with endometrial cancer and clinicians.

    Kunneman, M; Pieterse, A H; Stiggelbout, A M; Nout, R A; Kamps, M; Lutgens, L C H W; Paulissen, J; Mattheussens, O J A; Kruitwagen, R F P M; Creutzberg, C L

    2014-08-12

    Vaginal brachytherapy (VBT) in high-intermediate-risk endometrial cancer (EC) provides a significant reduction in the risk of local cancer recurrence, but without survival benefit and with increased mucosal atrophy. Five-year local control is estimated to be similar for VBT and a watchful waiting policy (WWP), in which patients receive VBT combined with external radiation in case of a recurrence. Our aim was to assess treatment preferences of EC patients and clinicians regarding VBT and WWP, and to evaluate their preferred and perceived involvement in treatment decision making. Interviews were held with 95 treated EC patients. The treatment trade-off method was used to assess the minimally desired benefit from VBT in local control. Patients' preferred and perceived involvement in decision making were assessed using a questionnaire. Seventy-seven clinicians completed a questionnaire assessing their minimally desired benefit and preferred involvement in decision making. Minimally desired benefit of VBT was significantly lower for patients than for clinicians (median=0 vs 8%, Pdecision about VBT. However, irradiated patients indicated low perceived involvement in actual treatment decision making. We found variations between and within patients and clinicians in minimally desired benefit from VBT. However, the recurrence risk at which patients preferred VBT was low. Our results showed that patients consider active participation in decision making essential.

  14. Policy Making Processes with Respect to Teacher Education in Finland and Norway

    Afdal, Hilde Wagsas

    2013-01-01

    This article examines policy making processes in the area of teacher education (TE) in Finland and Norway. Particular attention is given to the roles different actors play in these processes and the potential effects of their involvement on the TE programs in the two countries. Contemporary policy processes are analyzed through a set of interviews…

  15. Process for making unsaturated hydrocarbons using microchannel process technology

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee [Dublin, OH; Yuschak, Thomas [Lewis Center, OH; LaPlante, Timothy J [Columbus, OH; Rankin, Scott [Columbus, OH; Perry, Steven T [Galloway, OH; Fitzgerald, Sean Patrick [Columbus, OH; Simmons, Wayne W [Dublin, OH; Mazanec, Terry Daymo, Eric

    2011-04-12

    The disclosed invention relates to a process for converting a feed composition comprising one or more hydrocarbons to a product comprising one or more unsaturated hydrocarbons, the process comprising: flowing the feed composition and steam in contact with each other in a microchannel reactor at a temperature in the range from about 200.degree. C. to about 1200.degree. C. to convert the feed composition to the product, the process being characterized by the absence of catalyst for converting the one or more hydrocarbons to one or more unsaturated hydrocarbons. Hydrogen and/or oxygen may be combined with the feed composition and steam.

  16. Conformity and Internalisation in a Participative Decision Making Process

    Bombaerts, Gunter

    2003-01-01

    This paper reflects upon the stretching concept of the RISCOM model. We agree with the Habermassian point of departure that a competent speaker makes validity claims on truth, legitimacy and authenticity and partially with the Dialogue Project's conclusions that opening the black box of science is not possible in a decision making process (DMP) on a highly technical issue. Accordingly, we see an important role for a regulator to stretch the implementer, i.e. balance commercial and guardian ethics in the DMP. However, some caution is needed. Conformity studies indicate the large influence of group norms on individuals. When individuals lack personal reference frames of a particular issue they are prone to conform. The more values are shared, the more group members are convinced of the correctness. And social psychology shows more. In studies on persuasion, a difference between compliance and internalisation is made. Compliance is attained from rewards and coercive sources of power, whereas internalisation originates from expertise, legitimacy and credibility. Because of the shift to legitimacy and authenticity in the DMP, alignment of the norms and internalisation of discussed values becomes more apparent in the RISCOM participation model. Conformity reactions and possible internalisation are normal aspect of human interaction and not necessarily a negative aspect of public involvement. But keeping the importance of conformity in mind, a few consequences can be mentioned with regard to the relation implementer-regulator, the non-participation majority, and non-participating critics. The new role of the regulator and the involved public in the RISCOM mode] cannot absolutely avoid the risks due to conformity, it can only decrease the conformity influence

  17. Agent-Based Modeling of Consumer Decision making Process Based on Power Distance and Personality

    Roozmand, O.; Ghasem-Aghaee, N.; Hofstede, G.J.; Nematbakhsh, M.A.; Baraani, A.; Verwaart, T.

    2011-01-01

    Simulating consumer decision making processes involves different disciplines such as: sociology, social psychology, marketing, and computer science. In this paper, we propose an agent-based conceptual and computational model of consumer decision-making based on culture, personality and human needs.

  18. Stakeholder Involvement in Decision Making: A Short Guide to Issues, Approaches and Resources

    2015-01-01

    Radioactive waste management is embedded in broader societal issues such as the environment, risk management, energy, health policy and sustainability. In all these fields, there is an increasing demand for public involvement and engagement. This 2015 update of Stakeholder Involvement Techniques: Short Guide and Annotated Bibliography, assists practitioners and non-specialists by outlining the steps and issues associated with stakeholder involvement in decision making and by facilitating access to useful online resources (handbooks, toolboxes and case studies). The updated guide has been considerably enriched with experiences since 2004 and includes extensive references to the literature. It is published alongside the release of an online annotated bibliography that will be updated regularly. (authors)

  19. Dual processing model of medical decision-making

    Djulbegovic, Benjamin; Hozo, Iztok; Beckstead, Jason; Tsalatsanis, Athanasios; Pauker, Stephen G

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Dual processing theory of human cognition postulates that reasoning and decision-making can be described as a function of both an intuitive, experiential, affective system (system I) and/or an analytical, deliberative (system II) processing system. To date no formal descriptive model of medical decision-making based on dual processing theory has been developed. Here we postulate such a model and apply it to a common clinical situation: whether treatment should be administe...

  20. Communicative processes and decision-making in relation to prostate cancer patients

    Løwe Netsey-Afedo, Mette Margrethe; Birkelund, Regner

    BACKGROUND: There are many benefits of involving patients in decision-making, including increased patient safety and improved health. Many patients with prostate cancer wish to be involved when making decisions in the course of their treatment. However, studies show that Patient Involvement and SDM...... of treatment, it is essential to involve patients' preferences, needs and desires when making decisions during the course of their disease. Furthermore, it is important that patients are adequately informed about treatment, side effects, and other specific issues important for the individual patient. The aim...... of this project is to examine the processes of communication between prostate cancer patients and health professionals related to decision-making in the course of the patient’s treatment. Organizational possibilities and constraints related to the involvement will also be examined. METHODS: Data will be collected...

  1. A conceptual framework for negotiating public involvement in municipal waste management decision-making in the UK.

    Garnett, Kenisha; Cooper, Tim; Longhurst, Philip; Jude, Simon; Tyrrel, Sean

    2017-08-01

    The technical expertise that politicians relied on in the past to produce cost-effective and environmentally sound solutions no longer provides sufficient justification to approve waste facilities. Local authorities need to find more effective ways to involve stakeholders and communities in decision-making since public acceptance of municipal waste facilities is integral to delivering effective waste strategies. This paper presents findings from a research project that explored attitudes towards greater levels of public involvement in UK waste management decision-making. The study addressed questions of perception, interests, the decision context, the means of engagement and the necessary resources and capacity for adopting a participatory decision process. Adopting a mixed methods approach, the research produced an empirical framework for negotiating the mode and level of public involvement in waste management decision-making. The framework captures and builds on theories of public involvement and the experiences of practitioners, and offers guidance for integrating analysis and deliberation with public groups in different waste management decision contexts. Principles in the framework operate on the premise that the decision about 'more' and 'better' forms of public involvement can be negotiated, based on the nature of the waste problem and wider social context of decision-making. The collection of opinions from the wide range of stakeholders involved in the study has produced new insights for the design of public engagement processes that are context-dependent and 'fit-for-purpose'; these suggest a need for greater inclusivity in the case of contentious technologies and high levels of uncertainty regarding decision outcomes. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Introducing CARL - Studying Stakeholder Involvement in Decision-Making on RWM

    Bergmans, Anne

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides some background on the four following papers, drawing on the research conducted within the CARL research project. CARL is a cross-national 'social sciences research project into the effects of stakeholder involvement on decision-making in radioactive waste management'. The paper introduces the project, its aims, activities and describes the common framework used to look at each individual country

  3. Practitioners' Views on Involving Young Children in Decision Making: Challenges for the Children's Rights Agenda

    Hudson, Kim

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the key findings and discussion from a research project and subsequent report: "Involving young children in decision making: An exploration of practitioners' views". This research explored early childhood practitioners'--childcare workers, kindergarten, pre-primary and grade 1-2 teachers--views on decision making…

  4. Involving youth in program decision-making: how common and what might it do for youth?

    Akiva, Thomas; Cortina, Kai S; Smith, Charles

    2014-11-01

    The strategy of sharing program decision-making with youth in youth programs, a specific form of youth-adult partnership, is widely recommended in practitioner literature; however, empirical study is relatively limited. We investigated the prevalence and correlates of youth program decision-making practices (e.g., asking youth to help decide what activities are offered), using single-level and multilevel methods with a cross-sectional dataset of 979 youth attending 63 multipurpose after-school programs (average age of youth = 11.4, 53 % female). The prevalence of such practices was relatively high, particularly for forms that involved low power sharing such as involving youth in selecting the activities a program offers. Hierarchical linear modeling revealed positive associations between youth program decision-making practices and youth motivation to attend programs. We also found positive correlations between decision-making practices and youth problem-solving efficacy, expression efficacy, and empathy. Significant interactions with age suggest that correlations with problem solving and empathy are more pronounced for older youth. Overall, the findings suggest that involving youth in program decision-making is a promising strategy for promoting youth motivation and skill building, and in some cases this is particularly the case for older (high school-age) youth.

  5. Involving the public in decision-making at federal facilities: The Department of Energy experience

    Gesalman, C.M.

    1996-01-01

    The Department of Energy is involved in cleanup of a wide variety of sites used in the development and production of nuclear weapons. Substantial and increasing efforts have been made to involve the public in the planning and implementation of the cleanup projects. Early in the program, public participation was mainly an information transfer effort. More recently, innovative techniques have been used to increase public understanding of the tradeoffs required in making cleanup decisions (e.g., more stringent cleanup standards lead to higher costs). Sites now realize that relationships are key and are working to develop them. Advisory boards have been established at several sites. The methods of forming the boards have varied from site to site, as have the size of the group and the issues addressed. The effectiveness of the boards in their goal of improving public participation at the sites will be evaluated in the next fiscal year. DOE has sought public input on an increasing number of issues, such as future use of its facilities, environmental justice concerns, and budget development. Assumptions about future use of sites are crucial to setting realistic cleanup standards and controlling costs. Decisions made in the early phases of the budget process are now based in part on stakeholder input regarding priorities; for example, stakeholder concerns about and support for emphasizing plutonium cleanup at Rocky Flats have led to changes in priorities between the materials stabilization and environmental restoration programs. Environmental justice has become an increasing issue; sites must ensure that public participation programs effectively reach minority and low-income populations

  6. Secretory processes involved in the formation of milk

    Knutsson, P.G.

    1976-01-01

    Current knowledge on milk formation is reviewed. Emphasis is given to sites of formation of protein, fat and lactose, and transfer of these compounds into the alveolar lumen. Further, the formation of the water phase of milk is thoroughly discussed, and evidence presented that milk formation includes both secretory and re-absorptive processes as well as diffusion. A short presentation of colostrum formation is included. Neither biochemical processes involved in synthesis of organic compounds nor mammary gland endocrinology are discussed. (author)

  7. Foreign Policy Involvement Matters: Towards an Analytical Framework Examining the Role of the Media in the Making of Foreign Policy

    Kerstin Schulz

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Foreign policy processes have long played a minor role in the study of political communication. There is a broad consensus that the media is the central mediating actor and primary conduit between political decision-makers and the public. However, the media’s influence on foreign policy remains contingent across various processes and phases of foreign policy making; it is dynamic and multi-directional. Considering that the public sphere is essential for the legitimacy of foreign policy making, there is a demand for further research on the media’s performance in the making of foreign policy. Based on secondary research, this paper proposes an analytical framework for the systematic analysis of media–foreign policy relations by integrating foreign-policy context conditions as a research variable. The framework is based on the assumption that the role of the media varies across diverse foreign policy contexts depending on the intensity of governmental involvement in foreign affairs. The intensity is distinguished according to three dimensions: no involvement, indirect involvement and direct involvement. Finally, a case study is suggested in order to demonstrate the framework’s explanatory power: the German media coverage of Russia.

  8. Research Education: Perspectives and subjective processes involved in educational research

    Harm H. Tillema

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Educational research acknowledges that researcher’s beliefs and training play a role in framing the outcomes of any study. Research not only consists of defining objectives and following certain methods (search but also of making decisions over the steps taking during the inquiry process (research.Establishing a conceptual framework to guide actions on the subjective processes in research is then crucial to control them. With that purpose in mind we offer researchers and Teacher Educators a heuristic tool to be conscious on the risks that can be taken when immersed in research interpretative process. This instrument could be utilised in PhD programs, masters and research projects.

  9. Space Launch System Complex Decision-Making Process

    Lyles, Garry; Flores, Tim; Hundley, Jason; Monk, Timothy; Feldman,Stuart

    2012-01-01

    The Space Shuttle program has ended and elements of the Constellation Program have either been cancelled or transitioned to new NASA exploration endeavors. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has worked diligently to select an optimum configuration for the Space Launch System (SLS), a heavy lift vehicle that will provide the foundation for future beyond low earth orbit (LEO) large-scale missions for the next several decades. From Fall 2010 until Spring 2011, an SLS decision-making framework was formulated, tested, fully documented, and applied to multiple SLS vehicle concepts at NASA from previous exploration architecture studies. This was a multistep process that involved performing figure of merit (FOM)-based assessments, creating Pass/Fail gates based on draft threshold requirements, performing a margin-based assessment with supporting statistical analyses, and performing sensitivity analysis on each. This paper focuses on the various steps and methods of this process (rather than specific data) that allowed for competing concepts to be compared across a variety of launch vehicle metrics in support of the successful completion of the SLS Mission Concept Review (MCR) milestone.

  10. Simulation Models of Human Decision-Making Processes

    Nina RIZUN

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the paper is presentation of the new concept of human decision-making process modeling via using the analogy with Automatic Control Theory. From the author's point of view this concept allows to develop and improve the theory of decision-making in terms of the study and classification of specificity of the human intellectual processes in different conditions. It was proved that the main distinguishing feature between the Heuristic / Intuitive and Rational Decision-Making Models is the presence of so-called phenomenon of "enrichment" of the input information with human propensity, hobbies, tendencies, expectations, axioms and judgments, presumptions or bias and their justification. In order to obtain additional knowledge about the basic intellectual processes as well as the possibility of modeling the decision results in various parameters characterizing the decision-maker, the complex of the simulation models was developed. These models are based on the assumptions that:  basic intellectual processes of the Rational Decision-Making Model can be adequately simulated and identified by the transient processes of the proportional-integral-derivative controller; basic intellectual processes of the Bounded Rationality and Intuitive Models can be adequately simulated and identified by the transient processes of the nonlinear elements.The taxonomy of the most typical automatic control theory elements and their compliance with certain decision-making models with a point of view of decision-making process specificity and decision-maker behavior during a certain time of professional activity was obtained.

  11. Dissolving decision making? : Models and their roles in decision-making processes and policy at large

    Zeiss, Ragna; van Egmond, S.

    2014-01-01

    This article studies the roles three science-based models play in Dutch policy and decision making processes. Key is the interaction between model construction and environment. Their political and scientific environments form contexts that shape the roles of models in policy decision making.

  12. Making DATA Work: A Process for Conducting Action Research

    Young, Anita; Kaffenberger, Carol

    2013-01-01

    This conceptual model introduces a process to help school counselors use data to drive decision making and offers examples to implement the process. A step-by-step process is offered to help school counselors and school counselor supervisors address educational issues, close achievement gaps, and demonstrate program effectiveness. To illustrate…

  13. How Critical Thinking Shapes the Military Decision Making Process

    2004-05-17

    emotional rebuttal. Conversely, people cannot make good rational decisions without at least a twinge of emotion attached to the decision . 2) Our minds... decision they make . If emotions overwhelm reason, then decisions should be postponed.27 Service biases are one of the strongest emotional bias. Any...FINAL 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE How Critical Thinking Shapes the Military Decision Making Process 5a. CONTRACT

  14. Functional brain networks involved in decision-making under certain and uncertain conditions

    Farrar, Danielle C.; Moss, Mark B.; Killiany, Ronald J. [Boston University School of Medicine, Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Boston, MA (United States); Mian, Asim Z. [Boston University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Budson, Andrew E. [VA Boston Healthcare System, Boston, MA (United States)

    2018-01-15

    The aim of this study was to describe imaging markers of decision-making under uncertain conditions in normal individuals, in order to provide baseline activity to compare to impaired decision-making in pathological states. In this cross-sectional study, 19 healthy subjects ages 18-35 completed a novel decision-making card-matching task using a Phillips T3 Scanner and a 32-channel head coil. Functional data were collected in six functional runs. In one condition of the task, the participant was certain of the rule to apply to match the cards; in the other condition, the participant was uncertain. We performed cluster-based comparison of the two conditions using FSL fMRI Expert Analysis Tool and network-based analysis using MATLAB. The uncertain > certain comparison yielded three clusters - a midline cluster that extended through the midbrain, the thalamus, bilateral prefrontal cortex, the striatum, and bilateral parietal/occipital clusters. The certain > uncertain comparison yielded bilateral clusters in the insula, parietal and temporal lobe, as well as a medial frontal cluster. A larger, more connected functional network was found in the uncertain condition. The involvement of the insula, parietal cortex, temporal cortex, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and orbitofrontal cortex of the certain condition reinforces the notion that certainty is inherently rewarding. For the uncertain condition, the involvement of the prefrontal cortex, parietal cortex, striatum, thalamus, amygdala, and hippocampal involvement was expected, as these are areas involved in resolving uncertainty and rule updating. The involvement of occipital cortical involvement and midbrain involvement may be attributed to increased visual attention and increased motor control. (orig.)

  15. Functional brain networks involved in decision-making under certain and uncertain conditions

    Farrar, Danielle C.; Moss, Mark B.; Killiany, Ronald J.; Mian, Asim Z.; Budson, Andrew E.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe imaging markers of decision-making under uncertain conditions in normal individuals, in order to provide baseline activity to compare to impaired decision-making in pathological states. In this cross-sectional study, 19 healthy subjects ages 18-35 completed a novel decision-making card-matching task using a Phillips T3 Scanner and a 32-channel head coil. Functional data were collected in six functional runs. In one condition of the task, the participant was certain of the rule to apply to match the cards; in the other condition, the participant was uncertain. We performed cluster-based comparison of the two conditions using FSL fMRI Expert Analysis Tool and network-based analysis using MATLAB. The uncertain > certain comparison yielded three clusters - a midline cluster that extended through the midbrain, the thalamus, bilateral prefrontal cortex, the striatum, and bilateral parietal/occipital clusters. The certain > uncertain comparison yielded bilateral clusters in the insula, parietal and temporal lobe, as well as a medial frontal cluster. A larger, more connected functional network was found in the uncertain condition. The involvement of the insula, parietal cortex, temporal cortex, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and orbitofrontal cortex of the certain condition reinforces the notion that certainty is inherently rewarding. For the uncertain condition, the involvement of the prefrontal cortex, parietal cortex, striatum, thalamus, amygdala, and hippocampal involvement was expected, as these are areas involved in resolving uncertainty and rule updating. The involvement of occipital cortical involvement and midbrain involvement may be attributed to increased visual attention and increased motor control. (orig.)

  16. Stakeholders involvement in the decommissioning processes in Italy

    Dionisi, Mario

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the situation about stakeholders involvement in Italy in the framework of the decommissioning process of the Italian nuclear installations, and in particular the specific experience of the Italian Regulatory Body APAT. Specific aspects and APAT initiatives for building confidence of stakeholders in the process of the release of solid material from the regulatory control are presented. Content: Decommissioning activities in Italy, Decommissioning licensing procedures (Site and material release, APAT - ARPA Partnership approach in the clearance process)

  17. Mothers' process of decision making for gastrostomy placement.

    Brotherton, Ailsa; Abbott, Janice

    2012-05-01

    In this article we present the findings of an exploration of mothers' discourses on decision making for gastrostomy placement for their child. Exploring in-depth interviews of a purposive sample, we analyzed the mothers' discourses of the decision-making process to understand how their experiences of the process influenced their subsequent constructions of decision making. Mothers negotiated decision making by reflecting on their personal experiences of feeding their child, either orally or via a tube, and interwove their background experiences with the communications from members of the health care team until a decision was reached. Decision making was often fraught with difficulty, resulting in anxiety and guilt. Experiences of decision making ranged from perceived coercion to true choice, which encompasses a truly child-centered decision. The resulting impact of the decision-making process on the mothers was profound. We conclude with an exploration of the implications for clinical practice and describe how health care professionals can support mothers to ensure that decision-making processes for gastrostomy placement in children are significantly improved.

  18. On the Decision-Making Process in Music Education.

    Jorgensen, Estelle R.

    1985-01-01

    Sketches a conceptual framework for the systematic description of decision-making processes in music education. Refers to existing formulations in education, management, marketing, and economics. Lists decision-making phases in music education, each exhibiting the characteristics of a social system. Offers a historical example of each phase. (AYC)

  19. STAKEHOLDER INVOLVEMENT IN THE HEALTH TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT PROCESS IN LATIN AMERICA.

    Pichon-Riviere, Andres; Soto, Natalie; Augustovski, Federico; Sampietro-Colom, Laura

    2018-06-11

    Latin American countries are taking important steps to expand and strengthen universal health coverage, and health technology assessment (HTA) has an increasingly prominent role in this process. Participation of all relevant stakeholders has become a priority in this effort. Key issues in this area were discussed during the 2017 Latin American Health Technology Assessment International (HTAi) Policy Forum. The Forum included forty-one participants from Latin American HTA agencies; public, social security, and private insurance sectors; and the pharmaceutical and medical device industry. A background paper and presentations by invited experts and Forum members supported discussions. This study presents a summary of these discussions. Stakeholder involvement in HTA remains inconsistently implemented in the region and few countries have established formal processes. Participants agreed that stakeholder involvement is key to improve the HTA process, but the form and timing of such improvements must be adapted to local contexts. The legitimization of both HTA and decision-making processes was identified as one of the main reasons to promote stakeholder involvement; but to be successful, the entire system of assessment and decision making must be properly staffed and organized, and certain basic conditions must be met, including transparency in the HTA process and a clear link between HTA and decision making. Participants suggested a need for establishing clear rules of participation in HTA that would protect HTA producers and decision makers from potentially distorting external influences. Such rules and mechanisms could help foster trust and credibility among stakeholders, supporting actual involvement in HTA processes.

  20. Tightening the Purchasing Process: Superintendents Get More Involved in Buying Policies

    Rivero, Victor

    2009-01-01

    Over the last 18 months, school district purchasing offices across the country have been tightening the reins like never before while more top-level administrators get involved in the budget process. "When the economy really hit the skids, states got hit hard, so a lot of school districts were forced to make severe budget cuts," says John Musso,…

  1. Effect of Bread Making Process on Aflatoxin Level Changes

    Jafar Milani; Seyed Saman Seyed Nazari; Elmira Bamyar; Gisou Maleki

    2014-01-01

    Wheat flour is a commodity with a high risk of aflatoxins (AFs) contamination. During the bread making there are many processes that can affect the AFs stability. The effect of bread making process using different yeast types on AFs levels was investigated. For this purpose, standards of AFs including B and Gwere added to flour and then bread loaves were prepared. Three types of commercially available yeast including active dry yeast, instant dry yeast and compressed yeast were used for dough...

  2. The decision-making process between rationality and emotions

    Alvino, Letizia; Franco, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    The decision-making process has been analyzed in several disciplines (economics, social sciences, humanities, etc.) with the aim of creating models to help decision-makers in strategy formulation. The Organizational theory takes into account both the decision-making process of individuals and groups of a company. Numerous models have been built, which include a wide range of psychological, environmental, hierarchical factors, all of which only account the notion of rationality. In time, such ...

  3. Attitudes Toward Family Involvement in Cancer Treatment Decision Making: The Perspectives of Patients, Family Caregivers, and Their Oncologists.

    Shin, Dong Wook; Cho, Juhee; Roter, Debra L; Kim, So Young; Yang, Hyung Kook; Park, Keeho; Kim, Hyung Jin; Shin, Hee-Young; Kwon, Tae Gyun; Park, Jong Hyock

    2017-06-01

    To investigate how cancer patients, family caregiver, and their treating oncologist view the risks and benefits of family involvement in cancer treatment decision making (TDM) or the degree to which these perceptions may differ. A nationwide, multicenter survey was conducted with 134 oncologists and 725 of their patients and accompanying caregivers. Participant answered to modified Control Preferences Scale and investigator-developed questionnaire regarding family involvement in cancer TDM. Most participants (>90%) thought that family should be involved in cancer TDM. When asked if the oncologist should allow family involvement if the patient did not want them involved, most patients and caregivers (>85%) thought they should. However, under this circumstance, only 56.0% of oncologists supported family involvement. Patients were significantly more likely to skew their responses toward patient rather than family decisional control than were their caregivers (P family decisional control than caregivers (P family involvement is helpful and neither hamper patient autonomy nor complicate cancer TDM process. Oncologists were largely positive, but less so in these ratings than either patients or caregivers (P family caregivers, and, to a lesser degree, oncologists expect and valued family involvement in cancer TDM. These findings support a reconsideration of traditional models focused on protection of patient autonomy to a more contextualized form of relational autonomy, whereby the patient and family caregivers can be seen as a unit for autonomous decision. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. The decision-making process in public healthcare entities – identification of the decision-making process type

    Szymaniec-Mlicka Karolina

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The decisions made in the organization determine its success, therefore, conducting studies in the scope of decision-making seems important both for theory and practice. The aim of the studies was to identify the type of decision-making process in public medical entities with the use of typology developed by P. Nutt. For this purpose we used qualitative methods. Interviews with 8 directors of hospitals were conducted and the reconstruction was made on the basis of the decision-making process, which enabled the assignment of the model of decision-making process to the organization. The research indicated that four organizations use the historical decision-making model, three organizations represent the model of generating solutions, and one organization uses the model of available solutions.

  5. Factors associated with oncology patients' involvement in shared decision making during chemotherapy.

    Colley, Alexis; Halpern, Jodi; Paul, Steven; Micco, Guy; Lahiff, Maureen; Wright, Fay; Levine, Jon D; Mastick, Judy; Hammer, Marilyn J; Miaskowski, Christine; Dunn, Laura B

    2017-11-01

    Oncology patients are increasingly encouraged to play an active role in treatment decision making. While previous studies have evaluated relationships between demographic characteristics and decision-making roles, less is known about the association of symptoms and psychological adjustment characteristics (eg, coping styles and personality traits) and decision-making roles. As part of a larger study of symptom clusters, patients (n = 765) receiving chemotherapy for breast, gastrointestinal, gynecological, or lung cancer provided information on demographic, clinical, symptom, and psychological adjustment characteristics. Patient-reported treatment decision-making roles (ie, preferred role and role actually played) were assessed using the Control Preferences Scale. Differences among patients, who were classified as passive, collaborative, or active, were evaluated using χ 2 analyses and analyses of variance. Over half (56.3%) of the patients reported that they both preferred and actually played a collaborative role. Among those patients with concordant roles, those who were older, those with less education and lower income, and those who were less resilient were more likely to prefer a passive role. Several psychological adjustment characteristics were associated with decision-making role, including coping style, personality, and fatalism. Oncology patients' preferences for involvement in treatment decision making are associated with demographic characteristics as well as with symptoms and psychological adjustment characteristics, such as coping style and personality. These results reaffirm the complexities of predicting patients' preferences for involvement in decision making. Further study is needed to determine if role or coping style may be influenced by interventions designed to teach adaptive coping skills. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Involving patients in health technology funding decisions: stakeholder perspectives on processes used in Australia.

    Lopes, Edilene; Street, Jackie; Carter, Drew; Merlin, Tracy

    2016-04-01

    Governments use a variety of processes to incorporate public perspectives into policymaking, but few studies have evaluated these processes from participants' point of view. The objective of this study was twofold: to understand the perspectives of selected stakeholders with regard to involvement processes used by Australian Advisory Committees to engage the public and patients; and to identify barriers and facilitators to participation. Twelve semi-structured interviews were conducted with representatives of different stakeholder groups involved in health technology funding decisions in Australia. Data were collected and analysed using a theoretical framework created by Rowe and Frewer, but adapted to more fully acknowledge issues of power and influence. Stakeholder groups disagreed as to what constitutes effective and inclusive patient involvement. Barriers reported by interviewees included poor communication, a lack of transparency, unworkable deadlines, and inadequate representativeness. Also described were problems associated with defining the task for patients and their advocates and with the timing of patient input in the decision-making process. Interviewees suggested that patient participation could be improved by increasing the number of patient organizations engaged in processes and including those organizations at different stages of decision making, especially earlier. The different evaluations made by stakeholder groups appear to be underpinned by contrasting conceptions of public involvement and its value, in line with Graham Martin's work which distinguishes between 'technocratic' and 'democratic' public involvement. Understanding stakeholders' perspectives and the contrasting conceptions of public involvement could foster future agreement on which processes should be used to involve the public in decision making. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Prospect Theory and the Risks Involved in Decision-Making: Content Analysis in ProQuest Articles

    Sady Darcy da Silva-Junior

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the objective is to perform content analysis on articles of a reliable database, dealing with the prospect theory and the risks involved in the decision making process, evaluating some criteria for the theoretical and methodological approaches that allow a joint analysis and comparative. Therefore, a search in ProQuest database was performed which resulted in 15 articles that were submitted to content analysis process, based on the evaluation of nine factors identified by researchers. Among the results highlight the critical attitude to the prospect theory, in contrast to the assertion of his representative capacity of real situations and application in various situations.

  8. Enantioselective behaviour of tetraconazole during strawberry wine-making process.

    Liu, Na; Pan, Xinglu; Zhang, Shuang; Ji, Mingshan; Zhang, Zhihong

    2018-05-01

    The fate of tetraconazole enantiomers in strawberries during wine-making process was studied. The residues were determined by ultra-performance convergence chromatography tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry after each process steps. Results indicated that there was significant enantioselective dissipation of tetraconazole enantiomers during the fermentation process. And (-)-tetraconazole degraded faster than (+)-tetraconazole. The half-lives of (-)-tetraconazole and (+)-tetraconazole were 3.12, 3.76 days with washing procedure and 3.18, 4.05 days without washing procedure. The processing factors of strawberry wine samples after each step were generally less than 1. In particular, the processing factors of the fermentation process were the lowest. The results could help facilitate more accurate risk assessments of tetraconazole during wine-making process. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Decision-making style and response to parental involvement in brief interventions for adolescent substance use.

    Piehler, Timothy F; Winters, Ken C

    2017-04-01

    Adolescent decision making has been previously identified as risk factor for substance abuse as well as a proximal intervention target. The study sought to extend this research by evaluating the role of decision-making style in response to parent involvement in brief substance abuse interventions. Adolescents (aged 12 to 18 years; n = 259) identified in a school setting as abusing alcohol and marijuana were randomly assigned to complete 1 of 2 brief interventions (BIs), either a 2-session adolescent-only program (BI-A) or the 2-session adolescent program with an additional parent session (BI-AP). Interventions were manualized and delivered in a school setting by trained counselors. Adolescent decision-making style was evaluated at intake, and alcohol and marijuana use were evaluated at intake and at a 6-month follow-up assessment. Supporting past research with these interventions, BI-AP demonstrated overall stronger outcomes for marijuana when compared with BI-A. Across both intervention models, an adaptive decision-making style (i.e., constructive, rational) assessed at intake predicted greater reductions in marijuana use. A significant moderation effect emerged for alcohol outcomes. Adolescents with maladaptive decision-making tendencies (i.e., impulsive/careless, avoidant) demonstrated the largest benefit from the parental involvement in BI-AP, whereas those with a less impulsive style derived little additional benefit from parental involvement in regard to alcohol use outcomes. Implications for the tailoring of brief interventions for adolescent substance abuse are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Who Decides: Me or We? Family Involvement in Medical Decision Making in Eastern and Western Countries.

    Alden, Dana L; Friend, John; Lee, Ping Yein; Lee, Yew Kong; Trevena, Lyndal; Ng, Chirk Jenn; Kiatpongsan, Sorapop; Lim Abdullah, Khatijah; Tanaka, Miho; Limpongsanurak, Supanida

    2018-01-01

    Research suggests that desired family involvement (FI) in medical decision making may depend on cultural values. Unfortunately, the field lacks cross-cultural studies that test this assumption. As a result, providers may be guided by incomplete information or cultural biases rather than patient preferences. Researchers developed 6 culturally relevant disease scenarios varying from low to high medical seriousness. Quota samples of approximately 290 middle-aged urban residents in Australia, China, Malaysia, India, South Korea, Thailand, and the USA completed an online survey that examined desired levels of FI and identified individual difference predictors in each country. All reliability coefficients were acceptable. Regression models met standard assumptions. The strongest finding across all 7 countries was that those who desired higher self-involvement (SI) in medical decision making also wanted lower FI. On the other hand, respondents who valued relational-interdependence tended to want their families involved - a key finding in 5 of 7 countries. In addition, in 4 of 7 countries, respondents who valued social hierarchy desired higher FI. Other antecedents were less consistent. These results suggest that it is important for health providers to avoid East-West cultural stereotypes. There are meaningful numbers of patients in all 7 countries who want to be individually involved and those individuals tend to prefer lower FI. On the other hand, more interdependent patients are likely to want families involved in many of the countries studied. Thus, individual differences within culture appear to be important in predicting whether a patient desires FI. For this reason, avoiding culture-based assumptions about desired FI during medical decision making is central to providing more effective patient centered care.

  11. Gasification of coal making use of nuclear processing heat

    Schilling, H.D.; Bonn, B.; Krauss, U.

    1981-01-01

    In the chapter 'Gasification of coal making use of nuclear processing heat', the steam gasification of brown coal and bituminous coal, the hydrogenating gasification of brown coal including nuclear process heat either by steam cracking methane in the steam reformer or by preheating the gasifying agent, as well as the hydrogenating gasification of bituminous coal are described. (HS) [de

  12. The Longitudinal Association Between Early Childhood Obesity and Fathers' Involvement in Caregiving and Decision-Making.

    Wong, Michelle S; Jones-Smith, Jessica C; Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Thorpe, Roland J; Bleich, Sara N; Chan, Kitty S

    2017-10-01

    Fathers have increased their involvement in child caregiving; however, their changing role in childhood obesity is understudied. This study assessed the longitudinal association between changes in obesity among children aged 2 to 4 years and changes in fathers' involvement with raising children. Longitudinal data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort were used to conduct child fixed-effects linear and logistic regression analyses to assess the association between changes in childhood obesity-related outcomes (sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, screen time, BMI z score, overweight/obesity, obesity) and fathers' involvement with raising children (caregiving and influencing child-related decisions). Fixed-effects models control for all time-invariant characteristics. Analyses were controlled for time-varying confounders, including child age, maternal and paternal employment, and family poverty status. Children whose fathers increased their frequency of taking children outside and involvement with physical childcare experienced a decrease in their odds of obesity from age 2 to age 4. Obesity-related outcomes were not associated with fathers' decision-making influence. Increases in fathers' involvement with some aspects of caregiving may be associated with lower odds of childhood obesity. Encouraging fathers to increase their involvement with raising children and including fathers in childhood obesity prevention efforts may help reduce obesity risk among young children. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  13. The TRIO Framework: Conceptual insights into family caregiver involvement and influence throughout cancer treatment decision-making.

    Laidsaar-Powell, Rebekah; Butow, Phyllis; Charles, Cathy; Gafni, Amiram; Entwistle, Vikki; Epstein, Ronald; Juraskova, Ilona

    2017-11-01

    Family caregivers are regularly involved in cancer consultations and treatment decision-making (DM). Yet there is limited conceptual description of caregiver influence/involvement in DM. To address this, an empirically-grounded conceptual framework of triadic DM (TRIO Framework) and corresponding graphical aid (TRIO Triangle) were developed. Jabareen's model for conceptual framework development informed multiple phases of development/validation, incorporation of empirical research and theory, and iterative revisions by an expert advisory group. Findings coalesced into six empirically-grounded conceptual insights: i) Caregiver influence over a decision is variable amongst different groups; ii) Caregiver influence is variable within the one triad over time; iii) Caregivers are involved in various ways in the wider DM process; iv) DM is not only amongst three, but can occur among wider social networks; v) Many factors may affect the form and extent of caregiver involvement in DM; vi) Caregiver influence over, and involvement in, DM is linked to their everyday involvement in illness care/management. The TRIO Framework/Triangle may serve as a useful guide for future empirical, ethical and/or theoretical work. This Framework can deepen clinicians's and researcher's understanding of the diverse and varying scope of caregiver involvement and influence in DM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. EARLY READING ASSESSMENT INSTRUMENTS: ABILITIES AND PROCESSES INVOLVED

    Ana Cláudia de Souza

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the following early reading assessment instruments: “Bateria de Recepção e Produção da Linguagem Verbal” (SCLIAR-CABRAL, 2003a and “Teste de Competência de Leitura de Palavras e Pseudopalavras” (SEABRA; CAPOVILLA, 2010. The main research goal is to analyze in each one of these reading assessment instruments some of the multiple cognitive processes and basic low-level abilities involved in reading. In this sense, decoding, word recognition, lexical access, syntactic and textual processing, and comprehension are the cognitive processes taken into account. With regard to the basic reading abilities, accuracy and fluency (rhythm, prosody and speed are considered. The results indicate that each one of the analyzed reading assessment instruments assesses different aspects of the reading processes and abilities, mainly through off-line measures. ScliarCabral’s assessment battery allows the researcher or the teacher to evaluate the following processes: perception of the grapheme opposition in minimal pairs of words and in sentences, difficulties in sentence processing, skills in decoding the graphemic-phonemic relationship, and textual comprehension. In its turn, the reading assessment instrument proposed by Seabra e Capovilla allows one to evaluate student’s reading development level, by classifying the kind of processing as logographic, alphabetic or orthographic.

  15. Influence of prior information on pain involves biased perceptual decision-making.

    Wiech, Katja; Vandekerckhove, Joachim; Zaman, Jonas; Tuerlinckx, Francis; Vlaeyen, Johan W S; Tracey, Irene

    2014-08-04

    Prior information about features of a stimulus is a strong modulator of perception. For instance, the prospect of more intense pain leads to an increased perception of pain, whereas the expectation of analgesia reduces pain, as shown in placebo analgesia and expectancy modulations during drug administration. This influence is commonly assumed to be rooted in altered sensory processing and expectancy-related modulations in the spinal cord, are often taken as evidence for this notion. Contemporary models of perception, however, suggest that prior information can also modulate perception by biasing perceptual decision-making - the inferential process underlying perception in which prior information is used to interpret sensory information. In this type of bias, the information is already present in the system before the stimulus is observed. Computational models can distinguish between changes in sensory processing and altered decision-making as they result in different response times for incorrect choices in a perceptual decision-making task (Figure S1A,B). Using a drift-diffusion model, we investigated the influence of both processes in two independent experiments. The results of both experiments strongly suggest that these changes in pain perception are predominantly based on altered perceptual decision-making. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. How are people with dementia involved in care-planning and decision-making? An Irish social work perspective.

    Donnelly, Sarah; Begley, Emer; O'Brien, Marita

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, there have been national and international policy advances around capacity and decision-making and an apparent burgeoning rights-based approach to the issue, all of which have the potential to impact on the experience for people with dementia in Ireland. There is little evidence however on whether these policies and principles are being translated into practice and whether traditional paternalistic approaches to decision-making are being challenged. To gain insight into current practice, research was undertaken with social workers working with older people in Ireland; reporting on the involvement of people living with dementia in care-planning processes. Data collection included a mixed method approach; an on-line survey of social workers from across the country who reported on their open caseload during the month of June 2015 (N = 38 social workers reporting on the experiences of 788 older people, of which 39% of older people had a formal diagnosis of dementia). In addition, semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with social workers working in the nine Community Health Organisation areas (N = 21). Findings show that people with dementia were high users of social work services, accounting for 44.5% of the client group. Social workers reported that there were no standardised approaches to how Health and Social Care Professionals involved people with dementia in care planning and decision-making. Overall, people with dementia were more likely to be excluded from decision-making processes due to (i) assumptions that they lacked capacity, (ii) family members preferences that the person was not involved, (iii) communication difficulties, (iv) time constraints, (v) little or no opportunity given or (vi) the person delegated decision-making to others. Good practices were identified through multidisciplinary team approaches and formal care planning meetings. This research highlights variability in how people with dementia participate

  17. Visual histories of decision processes for collaborative decision making

    Kozlova, Karine

    2016-01-01

    Remembering, understanding and reconstructing past activities is a necessary part of any learning, sense-making or decision making process. It is also essential for any collaborative activity. This dissertation investigates the design and evaluation of systems to support decision remembering, understanding and reconstruction by groups and individuals. By conducting three qualitative case studies of small professional groups, we identify the critical activities where history functionality is n...

  18. The household decision making process in replacement of durable goods

    Marell Molander, Agneta

    1998-01-01

    As durables are essential in many households, the level of ownership is high and, due to the high degree of penetration, a vast proportion of the current sales are replacement purchases. Even though a lot of research attention has been paid to decision making and decision processes many models are oriented towards non-durable goods and although a majority of purchases of many durable goods are replacements, few studies seem to make a distinction between a replacement purchase decision and a d...

  19. Stakeholder Involvement in Nuclear Decision Making, NEA Workshop, 17-19 January 2017. Workshop wrap-up and conclusions

    Maclachlan, Ann

    2017-01-01

    The NEA workshop in January 2017 gathered representatives of governments, specialists of most aspects of the operation, management and oversight of the full nuclear fuel cycle, and other actors and experts from across the world. Stakeholder involvement in almost all types of nuclear decision making was addressed, and findings were underlined in other technology sectors. The plenary talks and topical presentations provided an overview of major considerations, while dialogue sessions enabled workshop attendees to deepen their understanding and exchange experience. Even considering the specificity of each context, some take-away were clearly supported by presentations, dialogues and exchanges. They constitute a part of the collective wisdom developed when participants from across member countries and sectors come together at such a unique, cross-cutting workshop. It was beneficial to sit together, talk and compare experience with persons from different backgrounds and areas of competence. Stakeholder involvement is not only about what decision is made. It is also about achieving decisions that visibly and transparently reflect stakeholder concerns and input. Stakeholder involvement is 'a process or a tool to reach a decision that is better-informed, sound and widely accepted'. Stakeholder involvement is viewed also as a principle of democracy. There is no one-approach-fits-all: the stakeholder involvement process needs to be adapted to the country-specific context. Across nations, there are different political systems and legal frameworks that are reflected in the mind-sets of populations and approaches to stakeholder involvement. The shape of involvement will be different in the case of a general, policy-type decision or a project or site-specific decision. The involvement process may respond strictly to legal requirements or it may go beyond this minimum. Societal expectations are that stakeholder involvement will go beyond the sharing of information or consultation

  20. Evolution of quantum-like modeling in decision making processes

    Khrennikova, Polina

    2012-12-01

    The application of the mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics to model behavioral patterns in social science and economics is a novel and constantly emerging field. The aim of the so called 'quantum like' models is to model the decision making processes in a macroscopic setting, capturing the particular 'context' in which the decisions are taken. Several subsequent empirical findings proved that when making a decision people tend to violate the axioms of expected utility theory and Savage's Sure Thing principle, thus violating the law of total probability. A quantum probability formula was devised to describe more accurately the decision making processes. A next step in the development of QL-modeling in decision making was the application of Schrödinger equation to describe the evolution of people's mental states. A shortcoming of Schrödinger equation is its inability to capture dynamics of an open system; the brain of the decision maker can be regarded as such, actively interacting with the external environment. Recently the master equation, by which quantum physics describes the process of decoherence as the result of interaction of the mental state with the environmental 'bath', was introduced for modeling the human decision making. The external environment and memory can be referred to as a complex 'context' influencing the final decision outcomes. The master equation can be considered as a pioneering and promising apparatus for modeling the dynamics of decision making in different contexts.

  1. Evolution of quantum-like modeling in decision making processes

    Khrennikova, Polina [School of Management, University of Leicester, University Road Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2012-12-18

    The application of the mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics to model behavioral patterns in social science and economics is a novel and constantly emerging field. The aim of the so called 'quantum like' models is to model the decision making processes in a macroscopic setting, capturing the particular 'context' in which the decisions are taken. Several subsequent empirical findings proved that when making a decision people tend to violate the axioms of expected utility theory and Savage's Sure Thing principle, thus violating the law of total probability. A quantum probability formula was devised to describe more accurately the decision making processes. A next step in the development of QL-modeling in decision making was the application of Schroedinger equation to describe the evolution of people's mental states. A shortcoming of Schroedinger equation is its inability to capture dynamics of an open system; the brain of the decision maker can be regarded as such, actively interacting with the external environment. Recently the master equation, by which quantum physics describes the process of decoherence as the result of interaction of the mental state with the environmental 'bath', was introduced for modeling the human decision making. The external environment and memory can be referred to as a complex 'context' influencing the final decision outcomes. The master equation can be considered as a pioneering and promising apparatus for modeling the dynamics of decision making in different contexts.

  2. Evolution of quantum-like modeling in decision making processes

    Khrennikova, Polina

    2012-01-01

    The application of the mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics to model behavioral patterns in social science and economics is a novel and constantly emerging field. The aim of the so called 'quantum like' models is to model the decision making processes in a macroscopic setting, capturing the particular 'context' in which the decisions are taken. Several subsequent empirical findings proved that when making a decision people tend to violate the axioms of expected utility theory and Savage's Sure Thing principle, thus violating the law of total probability. A quantum probability formula was devised to describe more accurately the decision making processes. A next step in the development of QL-modeling in decision making was the application of Schrödinger equation to describe the evolution of people's mental states. A shortcoming of Schrödinger equation is its inability to capture dynamics of an open system; the brain of the decision maker can be regarded as such, actively interacting with the external environment. Recently the master equation, by which quantum physics describes the process of decoherence as the result of interaction of the mental state with the environmental 'bath', was introduced for modeling the human decision making. The external environment and memory can be referred to as a complex 'context' influencing the final decision outcomes. The master equation can be considered as a pioneering and promising apparatus for modeling the dynamics of decision making in different contexts.

  3. Who decides? The decision-making process of juvenile judges concerning minors with mental disorders.

    Cappon, Leen

    2016-01-01

    Previous research on juvenile judges' decision-making process has neglected the role of the different actors involved in judicial procedures. The decision can be considered as a result of information exchange between the different actors involved. The process of making a decision is equally important as the decision itself, especially when the decision considers minors with mental disorders. The presence and the type of interaction determine the information available to the juvenile judges to make their final decision. The overall aim of this study is to gain insight into the role of all actors, including the juvenile judge, in the juvenile judge's decision-making process in cases relating to minors with mental disorders. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with professional actors (n=32), minors (n=31) and parents (n=17). The findings indicated that the judge's decision is overall the result of an interaction between the juvenile judge, the social services investigator and the youth psychiatrist. The other professional actors, the minors and the parents had only a limited role in the decision-making process. The research concludes that the judge's decision-making process should be based on dialogue, and requires enhanced collaboration between the juvenile court and youth psychiatrists from mental health services. Future decision-making research should pay more attention to the interactions of the actors that guide a juvenile judge's decision. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of Bread Making Process on Aflatoxin Level Changes

    Jafar Milani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Wheat flour is a commodity with a high risk of aflatoxins (AFs contamination. During the bread making there are many processes that can affect the AFs stability. The effect of bread making process using different yeast types on AFs levels was investigated. For this purpose, standards of AFs including B and Gwere added to flour and then bread loaves were prepared. Three types of commercially available yeast including active dry yeast, instant dry yeast and compressed yeast were used for dough preparation. AFs levels in flour, dough, and bread were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with fluorescence detector. The results showed that maximum reduction in aflatoxin levels observed during first proof while the least decline was seen for the baking stage. The order of AFs reduction in bread making process was AFB1>AFB2>AFG1. Furthermore, the results indicated that the most effective yeast for AFs reduction was instant dry yeast.

  5. Conflict and user involvement in drug misuse treatment decision-making: a qualitative study.

    Fischer, Jan; Neale, Joanne; Bloor, Michael; Jenkins, Nicholas

    2008-10-06

    This paper examines client/staff conflict and user involvement in drug misuse treatment decision-making. Seventy-nine in-depth interviews were conducted with new treatment clients in two residential and two community drug treatment agencies. Fifty-nine of these clients were interviewed again after twelve weeks. Twenty-seven interviews were also conducted with staff, who were the keyworkers for the interviewed clients. Drug users did not expect, desire or prepare for conflict at treatment entry. They reported few actual conflicts within the treatment setting, but routinely discussed latent conflicts--that is, negative experiences and problematic aspects of current or previous treatment that could potentially escalate into overt disputes. Conflict resulted in a number of possible outcomes, including the premature termination of treatment; staff deciding on the appropriate outcome; the client appealing to the governance structure of the agency; brokered compromise; and staff skilfully eliciting client consent for staff decisions. Although the implementation of user involvement in drug treatment decision-making has the potential to trigger high levels of staff-client conflict, latent conflict is more common than overt conflict and not all conflict is negative. Drug users generally want to be co-operative at treatment entry and often adopt non-confrontational forms of covert resistance to decisions about which they disagree. Staff sometimes deploy user involvement as a strategy for managing conflict and soliciting client compliance to treatment protocols. Suggestions for minimising and avoiding harmful conflict in treatment settings are given.

  6. Emission sensitization processes involving Nd{sup 3+} in YAG

    Lupei, V., E-mail: lupei_voicu@yahoo.com [National Institute of Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Bucharest 077125 (Romania); Lupei, A.; Gheorghe, C. [National Institute of Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Bucharest 077125 (Romania); Ikesue, A. [World Lab. Co., Nagoya (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    The paper investigates the characteristics of sensitization processes of Nd{sup 3+} emission in YAG ceramics under broad band pumping by co-doping with Cr{sup 3+} and the prospect of using Nd{sup 3+} and Cr{sup 3+} for sensitization of emission of Yb{sup 3+}. It is evidenced that the energy transfer from Cr{sup 3+} to Nd{sup 3+} involves both direct and weak migration-assisted processes and is thus dependent on the concentrations of both species. It is also found that the ion–ion interaction responsible for the direct transfer contains besides the dipole–dipole coupling strong superexchange contribution that dominates the transfer to the Nd{sup 3+} ions up to the third coordination sphere and has major implication in sensitization. Investigation of (Cr, Nd, Yb)-doped YAG ceramics shows that Cr{sup 3+} can sensitize the emission of Yb{sup 3+} both via the chain Cr–Nd–Yb or by direct Cr–Yb energy transfer. The prospect of utilization of these processes in the solar-pumped laser is discussed. - Highlights: • The efficiency of sensitization increases at high Cr and Nd doping concentrations. • The Cr-to-Nd energy transfer involves both direct and migration-assisted processes. • The direct transfer implies both dipole–dipole and superexchange interactions. • The superexchange interaction has major influence on sensitization. • Sensitized emission of Yb{sup 3+} in (Cr,Nd,Yb):YAG by Cr–Nd–Yb and Cr–Yb transfers.

  7. Learning craft skills. Exploring preschoolers' craft making process

    Virpi Yliverronen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore a preschooler craft-making process in which 18 preschool novices cut pieces for fabric bags and designed and printed patterns to decorate the bags. Through the task, children were familiarised with a small-scale holistic craft process. The intention was to determine how preschoolers perceived, verbalised and interpreted the craft-making process and how children used bodily expressions when explaining a learned craft skill. The present study relies on the videographic method: two preschool groups’ stamp printing activities were recorded, and each child was interviewed individually. Children’s embodied expressions were particularly in focus in video analysis. The results reveal that all the children were able to sufficiently explain the making phase, however, some children compensated for missing words using bodily and facial expressions and gestures when talking about making. The results showed that children worked logically, and the skill learning phases of perceiving, making, and interpretation were revealed from their learning.

  8. Sexual picture processing interferes with decision-making under ambiguity.

    Laier, Christian; Pawlikowski, Mirko; Brand, Matthias

    2014-04-01

    Many people watch sexually arousing material on the Internet in order to receive sexual arousal and gratification. When browsing for sexual stimuli, individuals have to make several decisions, all possibly leading to positive or negative consequences. Decision-making research has shown that decisions under ambiguity are influenced by consequences received following earlier decisions. Sexual arousal might interfere with the decision-making process and should therefore lead to disadvantageous decision-making in the long run. In the current study, 82 heterosexual, male participants watched sexual pictures, rated them with respect to sexual arousal, and were asked to indicate their current level of sexual arousal before and following the sexual picture presentation. Afterwards, subjects performed one of two modified versions of the Iowa Gambling Task in which sexual pictures were displayed on the advantageous and neutral pictures on the disadvantageous card decks or vice versa (n = 41/n = 41). Results demonstrated an increase of sexual arousal following the sexual picture presentation. Decision-making performance was worse when sexual pictures were associated with disadvantageous card decks compared to performance when the sexual pictures were linked to the advantageous decks. Subjective sexual arousal moderated the relationship between task condition and decision-making performance. This study emphasized that sexual arousal interfered with decision-making, which may explain why some individuals experience negative consequences in the context of cybersex use.

  9. Understanding the cognitive processes involved in writing to learn.

    Arnold, Kathleen M; Umanath, Sharda; Thio, Kara; Reilly, Walter B; McDaniel, Mark A; Marsh, Elizabeth J

    2017-06-01

    Writing is often used as a tool for learning. However, empirical support for the benefits of writing-to-learn is mixed, likely because the literature conflates diverse activities (e.g., summaries, term papers) under the single umbrella of writing-to-learn. Following recent trends in the writing-to-learn literature, the authors focus on the underlying cognitive processes. They draw on the largely independent writing-to-learn and cognitive psychology learning literatures to identify important cognitive processes. The current experiment examines learning from 3 writing tasks (and 1 nonwriting control), with an emphasis on whether or not the tasks engaged retrieval. Tasks that engaged retrieval (essay writing and free recall) led to better final test performance than those that did not (note taking and highlighting). Individual differences in structure building (the ability to construct mental representations of narratives; Gernsbacher, Varner, & Faust, 1990) modified this effect; skilled structure builders benefited more from essay writing and free recall than did less skilled structure builders. Further, more essay-like responses led to better performance, implicating the importance of additional cognitive processes such as reorganization and elaboration. The results highlight how both task instructions and individual differences affect the cognitive processes involved when writing-to-learn, with consequences for the effectiveness of the learning strategy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Risk-Based Decision Making for Deterioration Processes Using POMDP

    Nielsen, Jannie Sønderkær; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a method for risk-based decision making for maintenance of deteriorating components, based on the partially observable Markov decision process (POMDP). Unlike most methods, the decision polices do not need to be stationary and can vary according to seasons and near the end...

  11. Preferences for political decision-making processes and issue publics

    Wojcieszak, M.

    2014-01-01

    Research on public attitudes toward political decision-making has typically focused on politics in general. This study attends to issue-level as well as individual-level factors that can explain political process preferences. First, drawing on the classic distinction between easy and hard political

  12. Curator's process of meaning-making in National museums

    Cole, Anne Jodon

    2014-01-01

    The paper aims to understand the meaning-making process curators engage in designing/developing exhibitions of the nations indigenous peoples. How indigenous people are represented can with perpetuate stereotypes or mediate change while strengthening their personal and group identity. Analysis...

  13. Participation in decision-making process, incentives and training as ...

    Participation in decision-making process, incentives and training as predictors of organizational commitment among industrial workers. ... African Journal for the Psychological Study of Social Issues ... Results indicated that the three motivational factors jointly and significantly predicted organizational commitment. Also, each ...

  14. Investigating the Decision-Making Process of Standard Setting Participants

    Papageorgiou, Spiros

    2010-01-01

    Despite the growing interest of the language testing community in standard setting, primarily due to the use of the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR-Council of Europe, 2001), the participants' decision-making process in the CEFR standard setting context remains unexplored. This study attempts to fill in this gap by analyzing these…

  15. Noncontaminating technique for making holes in existing process systems

    Hecker, T. P.; Czapor, H. P.; Giordano, S. M.

    1972-01-01

    Technique is developed for making cleanly-contoured holes in assembled process systems without introducing chips or other contaminants into system. Technique uses portable equipment and does not require dismantling of system. Method was tested on Inconel, stainless steel, ASTMA-53, and Hastelloy X in all positions.

  16. Recovery and decision-making involvement in people with severe mental illness from six countries: a prospective observational study.

    Loos, Sabine; Clarke, Eleanor; Jordan, Harriet; Puschner, Bernd; Fiorillo, Andrea; Luciano, Mario; Ivánka, Tibor; Magyar, Erzsébet; Krogsgaard-Bording, Malene; Østermark-Sørensen, Helle; Rössler, Wulf; Kawohl, Wolfram; Mayer, Benjamin; Slade, Mike

    2017-01-23

    Clinical decision-making is the vehicle of health care provision, and level of involvement predicts implementation and satisfaction. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of decision-making experience on recovery. Data derived from an observational cohort study "Clinical decision making and outcome in routine care for people with severe mental illness" (CEDAR). Adults (aged 18-60) meeting standardised criteria for severe mental illness were recruited from caseloads of outpatient and community mental health services in six European countries. After consenting, they were assessed using standardised measures of decision-making, clinical outcome and stage of recovery at baseline and 1 year later. Latent class analysis was used to identify course of recovery, and proportional odds models to investigate predictors of recovery stage and change. Participants (n = 581) clustered into three stages of recovery at baseline: Moratorium (N = 115; 19.8%), Awareness/Preparation (N = 145; 25.0%) and Rebuilding/Growth (N = 321; 55.2%). Higher stage was cross-sectionally associated with being male, married, living alone or with parents, and having better patient-rated therapeutic alliance and fewer symptoms. The model accounted for 40% of the variance in stage of recovery. An increased chance of worse outcome (change over 1 year to lower stage of recovery) was found for patients with active involvement compared with either shared (OR = 1.84, 95% CI 1.15-2.94) or passive (OR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.00-2.95) involvement. Overall, both process (therapeutic relationship) and outcome (symptomatology) are cross-sectionally associated with stage of recovery. Patient-rated decision-making involvement and change in stage of recovery are associated. Joint consideration of decision practise within the recovery process between patient and clinician is supposed to be a useful strategy to improve clinical practice (ISRCTN registry: ISRCTN75841675

  17. Domestic Abuse and Child Contact: Positioning Children in the Decision-Making Process

    Holt, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on a three-year Irish research study, this paper focuses on the decision-making process in child contact, specifically the assessment and management of risk of continuing abuse to young people previously exposed to domestic abuse. A mixed methodological approach involved the completion of survey questionnaires by 219 mothers and the…

  18. 'The public is too subjective': public involvement at different levels of health-care decision making.

    Litva, Andrea; Coast, Joanna; Donovan, Jenny; Eyles, John; Shepherd, Michael; Tacchi, Jo; Abelson, Julia; Morgan, Kieran

    2002-06-01

    There are a number of impulses towards public participation in health care decision making including instrumentalist, communitarian, educative and expressive impulses and the desire for increased accountability. There has, however, been little research looking systematically at the public's preferences for being involved in particular types of rationing decisions, nor indeed, has there been a critical examination of the degree of involvement desired by the public. The research reported here uses findings from focus groups and in-depth interviews to explore these questions. Eight focus groups were conducted with a total of 57 informants, four amongst randomly selected members of the public and four with informants from health and non-health related organisations. Nineteen interviews were conducted to allow the elaboration of focus group comments, to probe views more deeply and to pursue emerging themes. The findings show variations in the willingness of members of the public to be involved in health care decisions and consistency across the different forms of the public as represented by the focus groups with randomly selected citizens and pre-existing organisations. There was a strong desire in all the groups for the public to be involved both at the system and programme levels, with much less willingness to be involved at the individual level. At the system and programme levels informants generally favoured consultation, without responsibility for decisions, but with the guarantee that their contribution would be heard and that decisions taken following consultation would be explained. At the patient level informants felt that the public should participate only by setting criteria for deciding between potential beneficiaries of treatment. The public has much to contribute, particularly at the system and programme levels, to supplement the inputs of health care professionals.

  19. Motor cortical processing is causally involved in object recognition.

    Decloe, Rebecca; Obhi, Sukhvinder S

    2013-12-14

    Motor activity during vicarious experience of actions is a widely reported and studied phenomenon, and motor system activity also accompanies observation of graspable objects in the absence of any actions. Such motor activity is thought to reflect simulation of the observed action, or preparation to interact with the object, respectively. Here, in an initial exploratory study, we ask whether motor activity during observation of object directed actions is involved in processes related to recognition of the object after initial exposure. Single pulse Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) was applied over the thumb representation of the motor cortex, or over the vertex, during observation of a model thumb typing on a cell-phone, and performance on a phone recognition task at the end of the trial was assessed. Disrupting motor processing over the thumb representation 100 ms after the onset of the typing video impaired the ability to recognize the phone in the recognition test, whereas there was no such effect for TMS applied over the vertex and no TMS trials. Furthermore, this effect only manifested for videos observed from the first person perspective. In an additional control condition, there was no evidence for any effects of TMS to the thumb representation or vertex when observing and recognizing non-action related shape stimuli. Overall, these data provide evidence that motor cortical processing during observation of object-directed actions from a first person perspective is causally linked to the formation of enduring representations of objects-of-action.

  20. Motor cortical processing is causally involved in object recognition

    2013-01-01

    Background Motor activity during vicarious experience of actions is a widely reported and studied phenomenon, and motor system activity also accompanies observation of graspable objects in the absence of any actions. Such motor activity is thought to reflect simulation of the observed action, or preparation to interact with the object, respectively. Results Here, in an initial exploratory study, we ask whether motor activity during observation of object directed actions is involved in processes related to recognition of the object after initial exposure. Single pulse Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) was applied over the thumb representation of the motor cortex, or over the vertex, during observation of a model thumb typing on a cell-phone, and performance on a phone recognition task at the end of the trial was assessed. Disrupting motor processing over the thumb representation 100 ms after the onset of the typing video impaired the ability to recognize the phone in the recognition test, whereas there was no such effect for TMS applied over the vertex and no TMS trials. Furthermore, this effect only manifested for videos observed from the first person perspective. In an additional control condition, there was no evidence for any effects of TMS to the thumb representation or vertex when observing and recognizing non-action related shape stimuli. Conclusion Overall, these data provide evidence that motor cortical processing during observation of object-directed actions from a first person perspective is causally linked to the formation of enduring representations of objects-of-action. PMID:24330638

  1. Contingency Management and deliberative decision-making processes

    Paul S. Regier

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Contingency Management is an effective treatment for drug addiction. The current explanation for its success is rooted in alternative reinforcement theory. We suggest that alternative reinforcement theory is inadequate to explain the success of Contingency Management and produce a model based on demand curves that show how little the monetary rewards offered in this treatment would affect drug use. Instead, we offer an explanation of its success based on the concept that it accesses deliberative decision-making processes. We suggest that Contingency Management is effective because it offers a concrete and immediate alternative to using drugs, which engages deliberative processes, improves the ability of those deliberative processes to attend to non-drug options, and offsets more automatic action-selection systems. This theory makes explicit predictions that can be tested, suggests which users will be most helped by Contingency Management, and suggests improvements in its implementation.

  2. Contingency Management and Deliberative Decision-Making Processes.

    Regier, Paul S; Redish, A David

    2015-01-01

    Contingency management is an effective treatment for drug addiction. The current explanation for its success is rooted in alternative reinforcement theory. We suggest that alternative reinforcement theory is inadequate to explain the success of contingency management and produce a model based on demand curves that show how little the monetary rewards offered in this treatment would affect drug use. Instead, we offer an explanation of its success based on the concept that it accesses deliberative decision-making processes. We suggest that contingency management is effective because it offers a concrete and immediate alternative to using drugs, which engages deliberative processes, improves the ability of those deliberative processes to attend to non-drug options, and offsets more automatic action-selection systems. This theory makes explicit predictions that can be tested, suggests which users will be most helped by contingency management, and suggests improvements in its implementation.

  3. New opportunities for biocatalysis: making pharmaceutical processes greener

    Woodley, John

    2008-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry requires synthetic routes to be environmentally compatible as well as to fulfill the demands of process economics and product specification and to continually reduce development times. Biocatalysis has the potential to deliver 'greener' chemical syntheses, and in this ......The pharmaceutical industry requires synthetic routes to be environmentally compatible as well as to fulfill the demands of process economics and product specification and to continually reduce development times. Biocatalysis has the potential to deliver 'greener' chemical syntheses...... of biocatalysis for making pharmaceutical processes greener....

  4. Male involvement in family planning decision making in sub-Saharan Africa- what the evidence suggests

    Vouking, Marius Zambou; Evina, Christine Danielle; Tadenfok, Carine Nouboudem

    2014-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) estimated in 2012 that 287,000 maternal deaths occurred in 2010; sub-Saharan Africa (56%) and Southern Asia (29%) accounted for the global burden of maternal deaths. Men are also recognized to be responsible for the large proportion of ill reproductive health suffered by their female partners. Male involvement helps not only in accepting a contraceptive but also in its effective use and continuation. The objectives were to assess men's knowledge, attitude, and practice of modern contraceptive methods; determine the level of spousal communication about family planning decision making; and investigate the correlates of men's opinion about their roles in family planning decision making. We searched the following electronic databases from January 1995 to December 2013: Medline, Embase, CINAHL, LILAS, International Bibliography of Social Sciences, Social Services Abstracts, and Sociological Abstracts. Along with MeSH terms and relevant keywords, we used the Cochrane Highly Sensitive Search Strategy for identifying reports of articles in PubMed. There were no restrictions to language or publication status. Of 137 hits, 7 papers met the inclusion criteria. The concept of family planning was well known to men. In the Nigerian study, almost (99%) men were aware of the existence of modern contraceptives, and most of them were aware of at least two modern methods. Awareness of the condom was highest (98%). In the Malawi study, all of the participants reported that they were not using contraception before the intervention. In Ethiopia, above 90% of male respondents have supported and approved using and choosing family planning methods, but none of them practiced terminal methods. Generally, more male respondents disagreed than agreed that men should make decisions about selected family planning issues in the family. Decision-making dynamics around method choice followed a slightly different pattern. According to female participants

  5. Education and parental involvement in decision-making about newborn screening: understanding goals to clarify content.

    Potter, Beth K; Etchegary, Holly; Nicholls, Stuart G; Wilson, Brenda J; Craigie, Samantha M; Araia, Makda H

    2015-06-01

    A challenge in designing effective education for parents about newborn screening (NBS) has been uncertainty about appropriate content. Arguing that the goals of education may be usefully tied to parental decision-making, we sought to: (1) explore how different ways of implementing NBS differ in their approaches to parental engagement in decision-making; (2) map the potential goals of education onto these "implementation models"; and (3) consider the content that may be needed to support these goals. The resulting conceptual framework supports the availability of comprehensive information about NBS for parents, irrespective of the model of implementation. This is largely because we argue that meeting parental expectations and preferences for communication is an important goal regardless of whether or notparents are actively involved in making a decision. Our analysis supports a flexible approach, in which some educational messages are emphasized as important for all parents to understand while others are made available depending on parents' preferences. We have begun to define the content of NBS education for parents needed to support specific goals. Further research and discussion is important to determine the most appropriate strategies for delivering the tailored approach to education that emerged from our analysis.

  6. Surgical Consultation as Social Process: Implications for Shared Decision Making.

    Clapp, Justin T; Arriaga, Alexander F; Murthy, Sushila; Raper, Steven E; Schwartz, J Sanford; Barg, Frances K; Fleisher, Lee A

    2017-12-12

    This qualitative study examines surgical consultation as a social process and assesses its alignment with assumptions of the shared decision-making (SDM) model. SDM stresses the importance of patient preferences and rigorous discussion of therapeutic risks/benefits based on these preferences. However, empirical studies have highlighted discrepancies between SDM and realities of surgical decision making. Qualitative research can inform understanding of the decision-making process and allow for granular assessment of the nature and causes of these discrepancies. We observed consultations between 3 general surgeons and 45 patients considering undergoing 1 of 2 preference-sensitive elective operations: (1) hernia repair, or (2) cholecystectomy. These patients and surgeons also participated in semi-structured interviews. By the time of the consultation, patients and surgeons were predisposed toward certain decisions by preceding events occurring elsewhere. During the visit, surgeons had differential ability to arbitrate surgical intervention and construct the severity of patients' conditions. These upstream dynamics frequently displaced the centrality of the risk/benefit-based consent discussion. The influence of events preceding consultation suggests that decision-making models should account for broader spatiotemporal spans. Given surgeons' authority to define patients' conditions and control service provision, SDM may be premised on an overestimation of patients' power to alter the course of decision making once in a specialist's office. Considering the subordinate role of the risk/benefit discussion in many surgical decisions, it will be important to study if and how the social process of decision making is altered by SDM-oriented decision aids that foreground this discussion.

  7. Dual processing model of medical decision-making

    2012-01-01

    Background Dual processing theory of human cognition postulates that reasoning and decision-making can be described as a function of both an intuitive, experiential, affective system (system I) and/or an analytical, deliberative (system II) processing system. To date no formal descriptive model of medical decision-making based on dual processing theory has been developed. Here we postulate such a model and apply it to a common clinical situation: whether treatment should be administered to the patient who may or may not have a disease. Methods We developed a mathematical model in which we linked a recently proposed descriptive psychological model of cognition with the threshold model of medical decision-making and show how this approach can be used to better understand decision-making at the bedside and explain the widespread variation in treatments observed in clinical practice. Results We show that physician’s beliefs about whether to treat at higher (lower) probability levels compared to the prescriptive therapeutic thresholds obtained via system II processing is moderated by system I and the ratio of benefit and harms as evaluated by both system I and II. Under some conditions, the system I decision maker’s threshold may dramatically drop below the expected utility threshold derived by system II. This can explain the overtreatment often seen in the contemporary practice. The opposite can also occur as in the situations where empirical evidence is considered unreliable, or when cognitive processes of decision-makers are biased through recent experience: the threshold will increase relative to the normative threshold value derived via system II using expected utility threshold. This inclination for the higher diagnostic certainty may, in turn, explain undertreatment that is also documented in the current medical practice. Conclusions We have developed the first dual processing model of medical decision-making that has potential to enrich the current medical

  8. Dual processing model of medical decision-making.

    Djulbegovic, Benjamin; Hozo, Iztok; Beckstead, Jason; Tsalatsanis, Athanasios; Pauker, Stephen G

    2012-09-03

    Dual processing theory of human cognition postulates that reasoning and decision-making can be described as a function of both an intuitive, experiential, affective system (system I) and/or an analytical, deliberative (system II) processing system. To date no formal descriptive model of medical decision-making based on dual processing theory has been developed. Here we postulate such a model and apply it to a common clinical situation: whether treatment should be administered to the patient who may or may not have a disease. We developed a mathematical model in which we linked a recently proposed descriptive psychological model of cognition with the threshold model of medical decision-making and show how this approach can be used to better understand decision-making at the bedside and explain the widespread variation in treatments observed in clinical practice. We show that physician's beliefs about whether to treat at higher (lower) probability levels compared to the prescriptive therapeutic thresholds obtained via system II processing is moderated by system I and the ratio of benefit and harms as evaluated by both system I and II. Under some conditions, the system I decision maker's threshold may dramatically drop below the expected utility threshold derived by system II. This can explain the overtreatment often seen in the contemporary practice. The opposite can also occur as in the situations where empirical evidence is considered unreliable, or when cognitive processes of decision-makers are biased through recent experience: the threshold will increase relative to the normative threshold value derived via system II using expected utility threshold. This inclination for the higher diagnostic certainty may, in turn, explain undertreatment that is also documented in the current medical practice. We have developed the first dual processing model of medical decision-making that has potential to enrich the current medical decision-making field, which is still to the

  9. Dual processing model of medical decision-making

    Djulbegovic Benjamin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dual processing theory of human cognition postulates that reasoning and decision-making can be described as a function of both an intuitive, experiential, affective system (system I and/or an analytical, deliberative (system II processing system. To date no formal descriptive model of medical decision-making based on dual processing theory has been developed. Here we postulate such a model and apply it to a common clinical situation: whether treatment should be administered to the patient who may or may not have a disease. Methods We developed a mathematical model in which we linked a recently proposed descriptive psychological model of cognition with the threshold model of medical decision-making and show how this approach can be used to better understand decision-making at the bedside and explain the widespread variation in treatments observed in clinical practice. Results We show that physician’s beliefs about whether to treat at higher (lower probability levels compared to the prescriptive therapeutic thresholds obtained via system II processing is moderated by system I and the ratio of benefit and harms as evaluated by both system I and II. Under some conditions, the system I decision maker’s threshold may dramatically drop below the expected utility threshold derived by system II. This can explain the overtreatment often seen in the contemporary practice. The opposite can also occur as in the situations where empirical evidence is considered unreliable, or when cognitive processes of decision-makers are biased through recent experience: the threshold will increase relative to the normative threshold value derived via system II using expected utility threshold. This inclination for the higher diagnostic certainty may, in turn, explain undertreatment that is also documented in the current medical practice. Conclusions We have developed the first dual processing model of medical decision-making that has potential to

  10. Exploring the decision-making process in the delivery of physiotherapy in a stroke unit.

    McGlinchey, Mark P; Davenport, Sally

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the decision-making process in the delivery of physiotherapy in a stroke unit. A focused ethnographical approach involving semi-structured interviews and observations of clinical practice was used. A purposive sample of seven neurophysiotherapists and four patients participated in semi-structured interviews. From this group, three neurophysiotherapists and four patients were involved in observation of practice. Data from interviews and observations were analysed to generate themes. Three themes were identified: planning the ideal physiotherapy delivery, the reality of physiotherapy delivery and involvement in the decision-making process. Physiotherapists used a variety of clinical reasoning strategies and considered many factors to influence their decision-making in the planning and delivery of physiotherapy post-stroke. These factors included the therapist's clinical experience, patient's presentation and response to therapy, prioritisation, organisational constraints and compliance with organisational practice. All physiotherapists highlighted the importance to involve patients in planning and delivering their physiotherapy. However, there were varying levels of patient involvement observed in this process. The study has generated insight into the reality of decision-making in the planning and delivery of physiotherapy post-stroke. Further research involving other stroke units is required to gain a greater understanding of this aspect of physiotherapy. Implications for Rehabilitation Physiotherapists need to consider multiple patient, therapist and organisational factors when planning and delivering physiotherapy in a stroke unit. Physiotherapists should continually reflect upon how they provide physiotherapy, with respect to the duration, frequency and time of day sessions are delivered, in order to guide current and future physiotherapy delivery. As patients may demonstrate varying levels of participation in deciding and

  11. What makes for robust decisions and the involvement of all of the stakeholders in the debate?

    Le Bars, Yves

    2006-01-01

    So that decisions will be robust and proof against conflicts of interest and changes of administrators and policy-makers, it is essential that they are reached through a process that involves stakeholders and allows time for debate. The first point to note is that in the culture of many countries the concept of public policy, in the sense of defining a policy agenda, is not that straightforward. Secondly, drawing on the work of the 'Forum on Stakeholder Confidence' (FSC/NEA), the author looks at what goes into the mix, based on a number of different examples: processes, actor structures and behaviour. Lastly, he gives a few rules for conducting public debates. In conclusion, each national situation is specific to the given country: any transfer of experience out of that context must be handled with extreme caution. This said, would it not be possible to keep some generic rules? For example on difficulties with process definition, the necessary clarity of the structure and respective role of the actors, particularly when they are public actors, the behaviour of experts and technicians involved which becomes an increasingly sensitive point the closer they are to process leadership. We can expect significant progress from comparing our experience - and managing dismantling is no exception to that rule. In France, a 1999 decree authorises the implementation of a Local Information and Monitoring Committee to be chaired by the Prefect of Department where an underground research laboratory (URL) project is implemented

  12. Ethical implications and decision making in care education process

    Layse Kelle Silva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine ethical implications for nursing practice at the point of decision making by nursing professors in practice area. Methodology. A qualitative method was adopted, with use of semistructured interviews with sixteen nursing professors who delivered care at a teaching hospital in Salvador, Bahia, from May to June 2011. The methodological reference used was the discourse of the collective subject (DCS by Lefévre and Lefévre. Results. In response to DCSs, the following subjects appeared: "Ethics is fundamental and of vital importance in the decision making process," "searching for knowledge and research to identify problems and solutions, including alternatives and support for decisions," and "to act in the best way." Conclusion. Professors who provide education about patient care also delivered care. They have the responsibility to consider the ethical implications of decision making because they stimulate fundamental reflection and could positively influence future nursing professionals.

  13. A dynamic dual process model of risky decision making.

    Diederich, Adele; Trueblood, Jennifer S

    2018-03-01

    Many phenomena in judgment and decision making are often attributed to the interaction of 2 systems of reasoning. Although these so-called dual process theories can explain many types of behavior, they are rarely formalized as mathematical or computational models. Rather, dual process models are typically verbal theories, which are difficult to conclusively evaluate or test. In the cases in which formal (i.e., mathematical) dual process models have been proposed, they have not been quantitatively fit to experimental data and are often silent when it comes to the timing of the 2 systems. In the current article, we present a dynamic dual process model framework of risky decision making that provides an account of the timing and interaction of the 2 systems and can explain both choice and response-time data. We outline several predictions of the model, including how changes in the timing of the 2 systems as well as time pressure can influence behavior. The framework also allows us to explore different assumptions about how preferences are constructed by the 2 systems as well as the dynamic interaction of the 2 systems. In particular, we examine 3 different possible functional forms of the 2 systems and 2 possible ways the systems can interact (simultaneously or serially). We compare these dual process models with 2 single process models using risky decision making data from Guo, Trueblood, and Diederich (2017). Using this data, we find that 1 of the dual process models significantly outperforms the other models in accounting for both choices and response times. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. The necessary burden of involving stakeholders in agent-based modelling for education and decision-making

    Bommel, P.; Bautista Solís, P.; Leclerc, G.

    2016-12-01

    We implemented a participatory process with water stakeholders for improving resilience to drought at watershed scale, and for reducing water pollution disputes in drought prone Northwestern Costa Rica. The purpose is to facilitate co-management in a rural watershed impacted by recurrent droughts related to ENSO. The process involved designing "ContaMiCuenca", a hybrid agent-based model where users can specify the decisions of their agents. We followed a Companion Modeling approach (www.commod.org) and organized 10 workshops that included research techniques such as participatory diagnostics, actor-resources-interaction and UML diagrams, multi-agents model design, and interactive simulation sessions. We collectively assessed the main water issues in the watershed, prioritized their importance, defined the objectives of the process, and pilot-tested ContaMiCuenca for environmental education with adults and children. Simulation sessions resulted in debates about the need to improve the model accuracy, arguably more relevant for decision-making. This helped identify sensible knowledge gaps in the groundwater pollution and aquifer dynamics that need to be addressed in order to improve our collective learning. Significant mismatches among participants expectations, objectives, and agendas considerably slowed down the participatory process. The main issue may originate in participants expecting technical solutions from a positivist science, as constantly promoted in the region by dole-out initiatives, which is incompatible with the constructivist stance of participatory modellers. This requires much closer interaction of community members with modellers, which may be hard to attain in the current research practice and institutional context. Nevertheless, overcoming these constraints is necessary for a true involvement of water stakeholders to achieve community-based decisions that facilitate integrated water management. Our findings provide significant guidance for

  15. Staff Involvement in Leadership Decision Making in the UK Further Education Sector: Perceptions of Quality and Social Justice

    Maringe, Felix

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to explore the quality of leadership decision making at various leadership levels in the further education (FE) sector. Using Hoffberg and Korver's model for integrated decision making, the paper aims to examine how staff in five UK FE colleges perceive the quality of their involvement in decision-making teams…

  16. The application of the heuristic-systematic processing model to treatment decision making about prostate cancer.

    Steginga, Suzanne K; Occhipinti, Stefano

    2004-01-01

    The study investigated the utility of the Heuristic-Systematic Processing Model as a framework for the investigation of patient decision making. A total of 111 men recently diagnosed with localized prostate cancer were assessed using Verbal Protocol Analysis and self-report measures. Study variables included men's use of nonsystematic and systematic information processing, desire for involvement in decision making, and the individual differences of health locus of control, tolerance of ambiguity, and decision-related uncertainty. Most men (68%) preferred that decision making be shared equally between them and their doctor. Men's use of the expert opinion heuristic was related to men's verbal reports of decisional uncertainty and having a positive orientation to their doctor and medical care; a desire for greater involvement in decision making was predicted by a high internal locus of health control. Trends were observed for systematic information processing to increase when the heuristic strategy used was negatively affect laden and when men were uncertain about the probabilities for cure and side effects. There was a trend for decreased systematic processing when the expert opinion heuristic was used. Findings were consistent with the Heuristic-Systematic Processing Model and suggest that this model has utility for future research in applied decision making about health.

  17. Exploring the Reshoring and Insourcing Decision Making Process

    Bals, Lydia; Kirchoff, Jon F.; Foerstl, Kai

    2016-01-01

    The topics of reshoring and insourcing have recently become more widely discussed among operations management and international business scholars and managers, as some firms are revoking their offshoring and outsourcing decisions. This research focuses on and clarifies the decision making process...... organizational readiness in addition to decision drivers, improve coverage of the implementation stage and explore further contingency factors such as technological advancement as well as to focus on decision makers as the unit of analysis.......The topics of reshoring and insourcing have recently become more widely discussed among operations management and international business scholars and managers, as some firms are revoking their offshoring and outsourcing decisions. This research focuses on and clarifies the decision making processes...

  18. Use of PRA in Shuttle Decision Making Process

    Boyer, Roger L.; Hamlin, Teri L.

    2010-01-01

    How do you use PRA to support an operating program? This presentation will explore how the Shuttle Program Management has used the Shuttle PRA in its decision making process. It will reveal how the PRA has evolved from a tool used to evaluate Shuttle upgrades like Electric Auxiliary Power Unit (EAPU) to a tool that supports Flight Readiness Reviews (FRR) and real-time flight decisions. Specific examples of Shuttle Program decisions that have used the Shuttle PRA as input will be provided including how it was used in the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) manifest decision. It will discuss the importance of providing management with a clear presentation of the analysis, applicable assumptions and limitations, along with estimates of the uncertainty. This presentation will show how the use of PRA by the Shuttle Program has evolved overtime and how it has been used in the decision making process providing specific examples.

  19. Decision-making process to shut down, refurbish/modify, or decommission research reactors

    Stover, R.L.; Murphie, W.E.

    1992-01-01

    Most US research reactors were built more than 20 years ago and some more than 40 years ago. Many have undergone refurbishments and modifications to update their safety systems and experimental capabilities. But changing safety bases, social concerns, and budget constraints have required research reactor operators to continually make decisions to shut down or refurbish/modify their facilities. These decisions involve potential replacement of reactor equipment that has reached its lifetime limits. Changes in philosophy and operation of the reactors are also factors to be considered. In this paper, each of the four factors involved in the decision-making process are discussed in detail. Then, several examples from DOE research reactors in the United States are discussed. Finally, some general conclusions are given to aid in the decision-making process

  20. How the elderly and young adults differ in the decision making process of nonprescription medication purchases.

    Sansgiry, S S; Cady, P S

    1996-01-01

    The study compared elderly and young adults in their behavior and involvement in the decision making process of over-the-counter (OTC) medication purchases. Elderly subjects were more involved in the decision making process to purchase OTC medications compared to young adults. The elderly not only purchase and spend more money on medications but also read OTC labels completely. They requested help from the pharmacist more frequently than young adults. Needs of the elderly in making an OTC medication purchase were different compared to young adults. The two age groups differed on importance rating for several attributes regarding OTC medications, such as; ease of opening the package, child resistant package, side effects of medicine, manufacturer of medicine, print size on package labels, and greater choice of medicine.

  1. The role of women in nuclear - attracting public participation in regulatory decision-making process

    Mohamad Jais, Azlina; Hassan, Najwa

    2018-01-01

    Public participation is vital in demonstrating transparency and enhancing effectiveness of a nuclear regulatory process. As such, it is necessary for nuclear practitioners to involve the public in key nuclear delivery milestones. This paper specifically discusses challenges faced in attracting public participation throughout the nuclear regulatory decision-making process, and highlights the roles of women in nuclear (WiN) in initiating the said public discourse.

  2. A Make-or-buy Decision Process for Outsourcing

    Bajec, Patricija; Jakomin, Igor

    2010-01-01

    Should firms perform logistics services on their own or should they buy them from a logistics provider? Today’s global competition forces companies to re-evaluate their existing processes, technologies and services in order to focuse on strategic activities. Outsourcing is now increasingly used as a competitive weapon in today’s economy. External parties can often do job quicker, cheaper and better. This has resulted in an increasing awareness of the importance of the make-or-buy decision, th...

  3. Mechanisms of public participation in the decision-making process

    Corner, J.

    1993-01-01

    Public inquiries, hearings, referenda and government reviews are among a number of commonly mechanisms through which the public in the relevant OECD countries participate in the decision-making process in respect of nuclear power and its development. The scope, application and effectiveness of these procedures appear to vary from country to country; differences which may result from styles of government, history, national interest and other factors. We listen to each OECD member in turn, explaining how is the situation in his country

  4. A decision-making process model of young online shoppers.

    Lin, Chin-Feng; Wang, Hui-Fang

    2008-12-01

    Based on the concepts of brand equity, means-end chain, and Web site trust, this study proposes a novel model called the consumption decision-making process of adolescents (CDMPA) to understand adolescents' Internet consumption habits and behavioral intention toward particular sporting goods. The findings of the CDMPA model can help marketers understand adolescents' consumption preferences and habits for developing effective Internet marketing strategies.

  5. The analytic hierarchy process as a support for decision making

    Filipović Milanka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The first part of this text deals with a convention site selection as one of the most lucrative areas in the tourism industry. The second part gives a further description of a method for decision making - the analytic hierarchy process. The basic characteristics: hierarchy constructions and pair wise comparison on the given level of the hierarchy are allured. The third part offers an example of application. This example is solved using the Super - Decision software, which is developed as a computer support for the analytic hierarchy process. This indicates that the AHP approach is a useful tool to help support a decision of convention site selection. .

  6. When domestic goes capital: Juror decision making in capital murder trials involving domestic homicide.

    Richards, Tara N; Smith, M Dwayne; Fogel, Sondra J; Bjerregaard, Beth

    2015-08-01

    Prior research suggests that homicide cases involving familial offenders and victims are subject to a "domestic discount" that reduces sentencing severity. However, the operation of a domestic discount in regard to death penalty sentencing has been rarely examined. The current research uses a near-population of jury decisions in capital murder trials conducted in North Carolina from 1991 to 2009 (n = 800), and a series of logistic regression analyses to determine whether there is (a) a direct effect between offender-victim relationship (e.g., domestic, friend/acquaintance, and stranger) and jury decision making, and/or (b) whether domestic offender-victim relationship (as well as other offender-victim relationships) moderates the effect of legal and extralegal case characteristics on jury assessment of the death penalty. Our findings revealed no empirical support for a "domestic discount" whereby juries are less likely to impose death sentences in cases involving domestic homicides. However, substantial differences in predictors of death sentencing were found across offender-victim dyads; most notably, domestic homicide cases demonstrated the most legalistic model of jury decisions to impose death sentences. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Volunteer stream monitoring: Do the data quality and monitoring experience support increased community involvement in freshwater decision making?

    Richard G. Storey

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent freshwater policy reforms in New Zealand promote increased community involvement in freshwater decision making and management. Involving community members in scientific monitoring increases both their knowledge and their ability to discuss this knowledge with professionals, potentially increasing their influence in decision-making processes. However, these interactions rarely occur because, in particular, of perceptions that volunteer-collected data are unreliable. We assessed the agreement between volunteer (community group and local government (regional council data at nine stream sites across New Zealand. Over 18 months, community groups and regional council staff monitored, in parallel, a common set of water quality variables, physical habitat, periphyton and benthic macroinvertebrates that are routinely used by regional councils for statutory state of environment reporting. Community groups achieved close agreement (correlations ≥ 0.89, bias < 1% with regional councils for temperature, electrical conductivity, visual water clarity, and Escherichia coli. For dissolved oxygen, nitrate, and pH, correlations were weaker (0.2, 0.53, and 0.4, respectively. Volunteer assessments of physical habitat were as consistent over time as those of councils. For visual assessments of thick periphyton growths (% streambed cover, volunteers achieved a correlation of 0.93 and bias of 0.1% relative to councils. And for a macroinvertebrate biotic index that indicates water and habitat quality, correlation was 0.88, bias was < 5%, and the average difference was 12% of the index score. Volunteers showed increased awareness of local freshwaters, understanding of stream ecosystems, and attentiveness to local and national freshwater issues. Most volunteers had shared their knowledge and interest with others in their community. Most groups had developed relationships with their regional council, and some volunteers became more interested in engaging in

  8. Safety assessment as basis for the decision making process

    Ilie, P.; Didita, L.; Danchiv, A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with the safety assessment for a new near surface repository, particularly for the early stage of repository development using ISAM (Improvement of Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Disposal Facilities) safety assessment methodology. In this stage of the repository life cycle the main purpose of the safety assessment is to demonstrate that the plant is capable to be constructed and operated safely. The paper is based on development of the ASAM (Application of the Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near-Surface Disposal Facilities) Decision Support Subgroup of the Common Aspects Working Group. The implications of decision making for the application of the ISAM methodology on post-closure safety assessment are analysed. Some important elements of the decision-making process with impact on key components of the ISAM process are described. Following the development of Decision Support Subgroup of the ASAM Common Aspects Working Group the proposed change of ISAM methodology is analysed. This approach puts all activities in a decision context where the first iteration of the safety assessment is based on the existing state of knowledge and the initial engineering design. Confidence in the process is accomplished through the direct inclusion of all decision makers and stakeholders in the formulation of decisions, the definition of the state of knowledge, and decision making activities. The decision process is developed in context of undertaking assessments with little site-specific information, this situation is specifically for new planned repository. Limited site-specific information can result in a high degree of uncertainty, therefore it is important first of all to identify the sources of uncertainty arising from the limited nature of the site-specific information and then to apply appropriate approaches to manage the uncertainties and to determine whether the uncertainties are important to the overall safety of the disposal facility

  9. Theory of mind and decision-making processes are impaired in Parkinson's disease.

    Xi, Chunhua; Zhu, Youling; Mu, Yanfang; Chen, Bing; Dong, Bin; Cheng, Huaidong; Hu, Panpan; Zhu, Chunyan; Wang, Kai

    2015-02-15

    Prefrontal cortex plays a vital role in the theory of mind (ToM) and decision making, as shown in functional brain imaging and lesion studies. Considering the primary neuropathology of Parkinson's disease (PD) involving the frontal lobe system, patients with PD are expected to exhibit deficits in ToM and social decision making. The aim of this study was to investigate affective ToM and decision making in patients with PD and healthy controls (HC) in a task assessing affective ToM (Reading the Mind in the Eyes, RME) and two decision-making tasks (Iowa Gambling Task, IGT; Game of Dice Task, GDT). Consistent with previous findings, patients with PD were impaired in the affective ToM task, and when making decisions under ambiguity and in risk situations. The score of emotion recognition in the RME task was negatively correlated with the severity of the disease and positively correlated with the total number of advantageous cards chosen in the IGT. However, the final capital in the GDT was correlated with memory impairment. The present study implies that affective ToM and decision making under ambiguity may share similar neural mechanisms, while decision making under ambiguity and decision making under risk may involve processing within different neural networks. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Process to make core-shell structured nanoparticles

    Luhrs, Claudia; Phillips, Jonathan; Richard, Monique N

    2014-01-07

    Disclosed is a process for making a composite material that contains core-shell structured nanoparticles. The process includes providing a precursor in the form of a powder a liquid and/or a vapor of a liquid that contains a core material and a shell material, and suspending the precursor in an aerosol gas to produce an aerosol containing the precursor. In addition, the process includes providing a plasma that has a hot zone and passing the aerosol through the hot zone of the plasma. As the aerosol passes through the hot zone of the plasma, at least part of the core material and at least part of the shell material in the aerosol is vaporized. Vapor that contains the core material and the shell material that has been vaporized is removed from the hot zone of the plasma and allowed to condense into core-shell structured nanoparticles.

  11. Threat Prioritization Process for the Czech Security Strategy Making

    Milos Balaban

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article offers systematic view of a process of identification of security threats and, subsequently, their use in the making of strategic documents, notably the Security Strategy of the Czech Republic. It is not the aim of the authors to name or define such threats, but to present the process itself. It is paramount to any credible security strategy that it deals with the threat identification in the most precise fashion. The authors take reservations against the “catalogue” approach and claim the processes of prioritization and categorization to be essential for any policies derived from the security strategy, especially in times of economic need. It is also the 2011 final paper of the project “Trends, Risks, and Scenarios of the Security Developments in the World, Europe, and the Czech Republic – Impacts on the Policy and Security System of the Czech Republic” (TRS / VG20102013009.

  12. A qualitative study on community pharmacists' decision-making process when making a diagnosis.

    Sinopoulou, Vassiliki; Summerfield, Paul; Rutter, Paul

    2017-12-01

    Self-care policies are increasingly directing patients to seek advice from community pharmacists. This means pharmacists need to have sound diagnostic decision-making skills to enable them to recognise a variety of conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the process by which pharmacists manage patient signs and symptoms and to explore their use of decision-making for diagnostic purposes. Data were collected through semi-structured, face-to-face interviews with community pharmacists working in England, between August 2013 and November 2014. Pharmacists were asked to share their experiences on how they performed patient consultations, and more specifically how they would approach a hypothetical headache scenario. As part of the interview, their sources of knowledge and experience were also explored. Framework analysis was used to identify themes and subthemes. Eight interviews were conducted with pharmacists who had a wide range of working practice, from 1 year through to 40 years of experience. The pharmacists' main motivations during consultations were product selection and risk minimisation. Their questioning approach and decision-making relied heavily on mnemonic methods. This led to poor quality information gathering-although pharmacists acknowledged they needed to "delve deeper" but were often unable to articulate how or why. Some pharmacists exhibited elements of clinical reasoning in their consultations, but this seemed, mostly, to be unconscious and subsequently applied inappropriately. Overall, pharmacists exhibited poor decision-making ability, and often decisions were based on personal belief and experiences rather than evidence. Community pharmacists relied heavily on mnemonic methods to manage patients' signs and symptoms with diagnosis-based decision-making being seldom employed. These findings suggest practicing pharmacists should receive more diagnostic training. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Beyond dual-process models: A categorisation of processes underlying intuitive judgement and decision making

    Glöckner, A.; Witteman, C.L.M.

    2010-01-01

    Intuitive-automatic processes are crucial for making judgements and decisions. The fascinating complexity of these processes has attracted many decision researchers, prompting them to start investigating intuition empirically and to develop numerous models. Dual-process models assume a clear

  14. Challenges to fair decision-making processes in the context of health care services

    Shayo, Elizabeth H.; Norheim, Ole F.; Mboera, Leonard E. G.

    2012-01-01

    challenges to fair decision-making processes in health care services with a special focus on the potential influence of gender, wealth, ethnicity and education. We draw on the principle of fairness as outlined in the deliberative democratic theory. METHODS: The study was carried out in the Mbarali District......ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Fair processes in decision making need the involvement of stakeholders who can discuss issues and reach an agreement based on reasons that are justifiable and appropriate in meeting people's needs. In Tanzania, the policy of decentralization and the health sector reform place......: The study findings indicate a substantial influence of gender, wealth, ethnicity and education on health care decision-making processes. Men, wealthy individuals, members of strong ethnic groups and highly educated individuals had greater influence. Opinions varied among the study informants as to whether...

  15. Arthritis patients' motives for (not) wanting to be involved in medical decision-making and the factors that hinder or promote patient involvement.

    Nota, Ingrid; Drossaert, Constance H C; Taal, Erik; van de Laar, Mart A F J

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study is to gain insight into arthritis patients' motives for (not) wanting to be involved in medical decision-making (MDM) and the factors that hinder or promote patient involvement. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 29 patients suffering from Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). Many patients perceived the questions about involvement in MDM as difficult, mostly because they were unaware of having a choice. Shared decision-making (SDM) was generally preferred, but the preferred level of involvement varied between and within individuals. Preference regarding involvement may vary according to the type of treatment and the severity of the complaints. A considerable group of respondents would have liked more participation than they had experienced in the past. Perceived barriers could be divided into doctor-related (e.g. a paternalistic attitude), patient-related (e.g. lack of knowledge) and context-related (e.g. too little time to decide) factors. This study demonstrates the complexity of predicting patients' preferences regarding involvement in MDM: most RA patients prefer SDM, but their preference may vary according to the situation they are in and the extent to which they experience barriers in getting more involved. Unawareness of having a choice is still a major barrier for patient participation. The attending physician seems to have an important role as facilitator in enhancing patient participation by raising awareness and offering options, but implementing SDM is a shared responsibility; all parties need to be involved and educated.

  16. The Characterization of Cognitive Processes Involved in Chemical Kinetics Using a Blended Processing Framework

    Bain, Kinsey; Rodriguez, Jon-Marc G.; Moon, Alena; Towns, Marcy H.

    2018-01-01

    Chemical kinetics is a highly quantitative content area that involves the use of multiple mathematical representations to model processes and is a context that is under-investigated in the literature. This qualitative study explored undergraduate student integration of chemistry and mathematics during problem solving in the context of chemical…

  17. Information processing as a paradigm for decision making.

    Oppenheimer, Daniel M; Kelso, Evan

    2015-01-03

    For decades, the dominant paradigm for studying decision making--the expected utility framework--has been burdened by an increasing number of empirical findings that question its validity as a model of human cognition and behavior. However, as Kuhn (1962) argued in his seminal discussion of paradigm shifts, an old paradigm cannot be abandoned until a new paradigm emerges to replace it. In this article, we argue that the recent shift in researcher attention toward basic cognitive processes that give rise to decision phenomena constitutes the beginning of that replacement paradigm. Models grounded in basic perceptual, attentional, memory, and aggregation processes have begun to proliferate. The development of this new approach closely aligns with Kuhn's notion of paradigm shift, suggesting that this is a particularly generative and revolutionary time to be studying decision science.

  18. Implantación de programas de telemedicina en la sanidad pública de España: experiencia desde la perspectiva de clínicos y decisores Implementation of telemedicine programs in Spain: experience of the main actors involved in the decision-making process

    Vinita Mahtani Chugani

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Identificar los principales beneficios y riesgos en el proceso de implantación de los programas de telemedicina en España, a partir de la experiencia de los profesionales que influyen en la toma de decisiones. Participantes y métodos: Estudio cualitativo basado en entrevistas semiestructuradas grabadas telefónicamente, con análisis temático inductivo. Se realizaron 11 entrevistas que incluyeron la perspectiva de 4 facultativos, 3 gestores, 2 investigadores y 2 responsables de producto de la industria de telecomunicaciones. Se llevó a cabo un muestreo teórico. Resultados: Se identificaron una serie de factores necesarios para alcanzar con éxito la resolución del problema mediante un programa de telemedicina: el compromiso de las personas involucradas, los aspectos tecnológicos, el apoyo económico e institucional, la aceptación por parte de clínicos y pacientes, la existencia de protocolos que se adapten al contexto, la necesidad de informarse y formarse previamente, la visión de futuro e innovación, la normalización del programa en el sistema organizativo, y la necesidad de mantener el principio de equidad con relación a clínicos y usuarios. Conclusiones: Para que un programa de telemedicina tenga éxito es necesario desarrollarlo en un contexto favorecedor, en el cual se puedan prever los riesgos. El factor humano se revela como la clave principal. Los factores identificados en este estudio cualitativo deberían considerarse a la hora de elaborar estrategias que permitan incrementar las posibilidades de éxito en la implantación de futuros programas de telemedicina en nuestro medio.Objective: To identify the main benefits and risks related to the implementation of telemedicine programs in Spain, based on the experience of the actors influencing the decision-making process. Participants and methods: We performed a qualitative study based on audiotaped semi-structured telephone interviews. Eleven interviews were

  19. Constructing knowledge through perceptual processes in making craft-art

    Milla Ojala

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The focus of the study is on the knowledge that is constructed through perceptual processes during craft making in the context of the Finnish Basic Education in the Arts (BEA system. Craft studies in the BEA are defined as craft-art. The research method used is the grounded theory. The data consists of seven interviews and participant observations. Participants in the study are adolescents who study craft-art in the BEA system in Visual Art School, Aimo in Hämeenlinna. The aim of the article is to present, define and reflect on the concepts, properties and dimensions concerning perceptual processes that are discovered in this stage of the study following grounded theory procedures. The perceptual processes are an essential means of constructing knowledge in craft-art. Consequently, one aim of the study is to discuss how these processes are connected to various types of knowledge. The perceptual processes are described by seven concepts: imitative, anticipative, evaluative, experimental, emotional, temporal and bodily perceptions. They indicate on a conceptual level the characteristic of knowledge constructed through perceptual processes in craft-art. Further, theconcepts have several properties that can vary dimensionally between two qualities. The properties are activity, function and position. The dimensions of the properties vary from active to passive, formal to informal and internal to external. In conclusion, the concepts can describe a large range of incidents in different situations. They also seem to describe well the practice of  craft-art and there are several connections with pre-existing concepts of knowledge.Keywords: Craft, Knowledge, Perceptual process, Basic Education in the Arts, Grounded Theory 

  20. Motivated information processing and group decision-making : Effects of process accountability on information processing and decision quality

    Scholten, Lotte; van Knippenberg, Daan; Nijstad, Bernard A.; De Dreu, Carsten K. W.

    Integrating dual-process models [Chaiken, S., & Trope, Y. (Eds.). (1999). Dual-process theories in social psychology. NewYork: Guilford Press] with work on information sharing and group decision-making [Stasser, G., & Titus, W. (1985). Pooling of unshared information in group decision making: biased

  1. Final report on the public involvement process phase 1, Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility Feasibility Study

    Moore, L.; Shanteau, C.

    1992-12-01

    This report summarizes the pubic involvement component of Phase 1 of the Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility (NM) Feasibility Study in San Juan County, Utah. Part of this summary includes background information on the federal effort to locate a voluntary site for temporary storage of nuclear waste, how San Juan County came to be involved, and a profile of the county. The heart of the report, however, summarizes the activities within the public involvement process, and the issues raised in those various forums. The authors have made every effort to reflect accurately and thoroughly all the concerns and suggestions expressed to us during the five month process. We hope that this report itself is a successful model of partnership with the citizens of the county -- the same kind of partnership the county is seeking to develop with its constituents. Finally, this report offers some suggestions to both county officials and residents alike. These suggestions concern how decision-making about the county's future can be done by a partnership of informed citizens and listening decision-makers. In the Appendix are materials relating to the public involvement process in San Juan County

  2. Final report on the public involvement process phase 1, Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility Feasibility Study

    Moore, L.; Shanteau, C.

    1992-12-01

    This report summarizes the pubic involvement component of Phase 1 of the Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility (NM) Feasibility Study in San Juan County, Utah. Part of this summary includes background information on the federal effort to locate a voluntary site for temporary storage of nuclear waste, how San Juan County came to be involved, and a profile of the county. The heart of the report, however, summarizes the activities within the public involvement process, and the issues raised in those various forums. The authors have made every effort to reflect accurately and thoroughly all the concerns and suggestions expressed to us during the five month process. We hope that this report itself is a successful model of partnership with the citizens of the county -- the same kind of partnership the county is seeking to develop with its constituents. Finally, this report offers some suggestions to both county officials and residents alike. These suggestions concern how decision-making about the county's future can be done by a partnership of informed citizens and listening decision-makers. In the Appendix are materials relating to the public involvement process in San Juan County.

  3. Final report on the public involvement process phase 1, Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility Feasibility Study

    Moore, L.; Shanteau, C.

    1992-12-01

    This report summarizes the pubic involvement component of Phase 1 of the Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility (NM) Feasibility Study in San Juan County, Utah. Part of this summary includes background information on the federal effort to locate a voluntary site for temporary storage of nuclear waste, how San Juan County came to be involved, and a profile of the county. The heart of the report, however, summarizes the activities within the public involvement process, and the issues raised in those various forums. The authors have made every effort to reflect accurately and thoroughly all the concerns and suggestions expressed to us during the five month process. We hope that this report itself is a successful model of partnership with the citizens of the county -- the same kind of partnership the county is seeking to develop with its constituents. Finally, this report offers some suggestions to both county officials and residents alike. These suggestions concern how decision-making about the county`s future can be done by a partnership of informed citizens and listening decision-makers. In the Appendix are materials relating to the public involvement process in San Juan County.

  4. Drowning unconformities: Palaeoenvironmental significance and involvement of global processes

    Godet, Alexis

    2013-07-01

    Drowning unconformities are stratigraphic key surfaces in the history of carbonate platforms. They mostly consist in the deposition of deep marine facies on top of shallow marine limestones. Although large-scale depositional geometries mimic lowstand systems track architecture, these sedimentary turnovers are developed in relation with major sea level rise, inducing an increase in the rate of creation of accommodation space that outpaces the capacity of carbonate to keep up. This so-called paradox of carbonate platform drowning implies that parameters other than purely eustatic fluctuations are involved in the demise of shallow marine ecosystems. Worldwide and at different times during Earth history, in-depth studies of drowning unconformities revealed that changes in nutrient input, clastic delivery, temperature, or a combination of them may be responsible for a decrease in light penetration in the water column and the progressive suffocation and poisoning of photosynthetic carbonate producers. The examination of such case examples from various stratigraphic intervals and palaeogeographical settings thus helps in identifying and hierarchizing potential triggering mechanisms for drowning unconformities. This is complemented by new data from Early Cretaceous successions from the Helvetic Alps. During this time period, the Helvetic carbonate platform developed along the northern Tethyan margin using both photozoan and heterozoan communities. Phases of healthy production were interrupted by several drowning episodes. The latter are marked in the sedimentary record by condensation and associated phosphogenesis and glauconitisation. From the earliest Valanginian to the early to late Barremian, three drowning unconformities reflect the intermittent installation of a more humid climate and subsequent enhanced trophic conditions, which first induced a switch from photozoan to heterozoan communities and then to long-lasting drowning phases. The latter encompass several sea

  5. Attribute Based Selection of Thermoplastic Resin for Vacuum Infusion Process: A Decision Making Methodology

    Raghavalu Thirumalai, Durai Prabhakaran; Lystrup, Aage; Løgstrup Andersen, Tom

    2012-01-01

    The composite industry looks toward a new material system (resins) based on thermoplastic polymers for the vacuum infusion process, similar to the infusion process using thermosetting polymers. A large number of thermoplastics are available in the market with a variety of properties suitable...... be beneficial. In this paper, the authors introduce a new decision making tool for resin selection based on significant attributes. This article provides a broad overview of suitable thermoplastic material systems for vacuum infusion process available in today’s market. An illustrative example—resin selection...... for vacuum infused of a wind turbine blade—is shown to demonstrate the intricacies involved in the proposed methodology for resin selection....

  6. Examining chronic care patient preferences for involvement in health-care decision making: the case of Parkinson's disease patients in a patient-centred clinic.

    Zizzo, Natalie; Bell, Emily; Lafontaine, Anne-Louise; Racine, Eric

    2017-08-01

    Patient-centred care is a recommended model of care for Parkinson's disease (PD). It aims to provide care that is respectful and responsive to patient preferences, values and perspectives. Provision of patient-centred care should entail considering how patients want to be involved in their care. To understand the participation preferences of patients with PD from a patient-centred care clinic in health-care decision-making processes. Mixed-methods study with early-stage Parkinson's disease patients from a patient-centred care clinic. Study involved a modified Autonomy Preference Index survey (N=65) and qualitative, semi-structured in-depth interviews, analysed using thematic qualitative content analysis (N=20, purposefully selected from survey participants). Interviews examined (i) the patient preferences for involvement in health-care decision making; (ii) patient perspectives on the patient-physician relationship; and (iii) patient preferences for communication of information relevant to decision making. Preferences for participation in decision making varied between individuals and also within individuals depending on decision type, relational and contextual factors. Patients had high preferences for communication of information, but with acknowledged limits. The importance of communication in the patient-physician relationship was emphasized. Patient preferences for involvement in decision making are dynamic and support shared decision making. Relational autonomy corresponds to how patients envision their participation in decision making. Clinicians may need to assess patient preferences on an on-going basis. Our results highlight the complexities of decision-making processes. Improved understanding of individual preferences could enhance respect for persons and make for patient-centred care that is truly respectful of individual patients' wants, needs and values. © 2016 The Authors. Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. OPTION(5) versus OPTION(12) instruments to appreciate the extent to which healthcare providers involve patients in decision-making

    Stubenrouch, Fabienne E.; Pieterse, Arwen H.; Falkenberg, Rijan; Santema, T. Katrien B.; Stiggelbout, Anne M.; van der Weijden, Trudy; Aarts, J. Annemijn W. M.; Ubbink, Dirk T.

    2016-01-01

    The 12-item "observing patient involvement" (OPTION(12))-instrument is commonly used to assess the extent to which healthcare providers involve patients in health-related decision-making. The five-item version (OPTION(5)) claims to be a more efficient measure. In this study we compared the Dutch

  8. OPTION(5) versus OPTION(12) instruments to appreciate the extent to which healthcare providers involve patients in decision-making

    Stubenrouch, F.E.; Pieterse, A.H.; Falkenberg, R.; Santema, T.K.; Stiggelbout, A.M.; Weijden, G.D.E.M. van der; Aarts, J.W.M.; Ubbink, D.T.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The 12-item "observing patient involvement" (OPTION(12))-instrument is commonly used to assess the extent to which healthcare providers involve patients in health-related decision-making. The five-item version (OPTION(5)) claims to be a more efficient measure. In this study we compared

  9. Decision-making contexts involving Earth observations in federal and state government agencies

    Kuwayama, Y.; Thompson, A.

    2017-12-01

    National and international organizations are placing greater emphasis on the societal and economic benefits that can be derived from applications of Earth observations, yet improvements are needed to connect to the decision processes that produce actions with direct societal benefits. The Consortium for the Valuation of Applications Benefits Linked with Earth Science (VALUABLES), a cooperative agreement between Resources for the Future (RFF) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), has the goal of advancing methods for the valuation and communication of the applied benefits linked with Earth observations. One of the Consortium's activities is a set of Policy Briefs that document the use of Earth observations for decision making in federal and state government agencies. In developing these Policy Briefs, we pay special attention to documenting the entire information value chain associated with the use of Earth observations in government decision making, namely (a) the specific data product, modeling capability, or information system used by the agency, (b) the decision context that employs the Earth observation information and translates it into an agency action, (c) the outcomes that are realized as a result of the action, and (d) the beneficiaries associated with the outcomes of the decision. Two key examples include the use of satellite data for informing the US Drought Monitor (USDM), which is used to determine the eligibility of agricultural communities for drought disaster assistance programs housed at the US Department of Agriculture (USDA), and the use of satellite data by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection to develop numeric nutrient water quality standards and monitoring methods for chlorophyll-a, which is codified in Florida state code (62-302.532).

  10. Stakeholder participation in radiological decision making: processes and implications

    2004-01-01

    Within the radiological protection community, stakeholder issues have moved steadily to the fore-front of policy discussions, and clearly form a key element in decisions regarding the development and implementation of radiological protection policy. It was in this light that the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) undertook three case studies on stakeholder involvement processes and experiences. Experience and lessons were analysed and extracted that may have application to numerous situations in other national contexts. They are intended to aid decision makers and regulators who are involved in radiological protection, and may have particular value for post-accident contamination situations, the siting of new nuclear installations, the management of emissions from routine operations at nuclear facilities, and the decommissioning of existing nuclear installations. The three case studies presented in this report were specifically developed as input to the Third Villigen Workshop (Villigen, Switzerland, 21-23 October 2003) and address the following situations: - the Canadian review process for uranium production projects in Northern Saskatchewan; - the Rocky Flats controversy on radionuclide action levels; - the ETHOS project for post-accident rehabilitation in the area of Belarus contaminated by the Chernobyl disaster. (author)

  11. Fuzzy methods in decision making process - A particular approach in manufacturing systems

    Coroiu, A. M.

    2015-11-01

    We are living in a competitive environment, so we can see and understand that the most of manufacturing firms do the best in order to accomplish meeting demand, increasing quality, decreasing costs, and delivery rate. In present a stake point of interest is represented by the development of fuzzy technology. A particular approach for this is represented through the development of methodologies to enhance the ability to managed complicated optimization and decision making aspects involving non-probabilistic uncertainty with the reason to understand, development, and practice the fuzzy technologies to be used in fields such as economic, engineering, management, and societal problems. Fuzzy analysis represents a method for solving problems which are related to uncertainty and vagueness; it is used in multiple areas, such as engineering and has applications in decision making problems, planning and production. As a definition for decision making process we can use the next one: result of mental processes based upon cognitive process with a main role in the selection of a course of action among several alternatives. Every process of decision making can be represented as a result of a final choice and the output can be represented as an action or as an opinion of choice. Different types of uncertainty can be discovered in a wide variety of optimization and decision making problems related to planning and operation of power systems and subsystems. The mixture of the uncertainty factor in the construction of different models serves for increasing their adequacy and, as a result, the reliability and factual efficiency of decisions based on their analysis. Another definition of decision making process which came to illustrate and sustain the necessity of using fuzzy method: the decision making is an approach of choosing a strategy among many different projects in order to achieve some purposes and is formulated as three different models: high risk decision, usual risk

  12. Somatic Markers and Explicit Knowledge Are both Involved in Decision-Making

    Guillaume, Sebastien; Jollant, Fabrice; Jaussent, Isabelle; Lawrence, Natalia; Malafosse, Alain; Courtet, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    In 1994, it was proposed that decision-making requires emotion-related signals, known as somatic markers. In contrast, some authors argued that conscious knowledge of contingencies is sufficient for advantageous decision-making. We aimed to investigate the respective roles of somatic markers and explicit knowledge in decision-making. Thirty…

  13. A process for integrating public involvement into technical/social programs

    Wiltshire, S.; Williams, C.

    1994-01-01

    Good technical/social decisions--those that are technically sound and publicly acceptable--result from a planning process that considers consulting the public a basic part of the technical program, as basic as hiring a technical consultant to advise about new ideas in computer modeling. This paper describes a specific process for making public involvement an integral part of decision-making about high-level radioactive waste management, so that important technical, social, environmental, economic, and cultural information and values can be incorporated in a meaningful way in planning and carrying out a high-level waste management program or project. The process for integration must consider: (a) the decision or task for which public interaction is needed; (b) the people who should or will want to participate in the decision or task; (c) the goals or purposes of the communication or interaction--the agency's and the public's; (d) the kinds of information the public needs and that the agency needs in order to understand the relevant technical and social issues; and (e) the types of communication or involvement that best serve to meet the agency's and the public's goals

  14. Node-making process in network meta-analysis of nonpharmacological treatment are poorly reported.

    James, Arthur; Yavchitz, Amélie; Ravaud, Philippe; Boutron, Isabelle

    2018-05-01

    To identify methods to support the node-making process in network meta-analyses (NMAs) of nonpharmacological treatments. We proceeded in two stages. First, we conducted a literature review of guidelines and methodological articles about NMAs to identify methods proposed to lump interventions into nodes. Second, we conducted a systematic review of NMAs of nonpharmacological treatments to extract methods used by authors to support their node-making process. MEDLINE and Google Scholar were searched to identify articles assessing NMA guidelines or methodology intended for NMA authors. MEDLINE, CENTRAL, and EMBASE were searched to identify reports of NMAs including at least one nonpharmacological treatment. Both searches involved articles available from database inception to March 2016. From the methodological review, we identified and extracted methods proposed to lump interventions into nodes. From the systematic review, the reporting of the network was assessed as long as the method described supported the node-making process. Among the 116 articles retrieved in the literature review, 12 (10%) discussed the concept of lumping or splitting interventions in NMAs. No consensual method was identified during the methodological review, and expert consensus was the only method proposed to support the node-making process. Among 5187 references for the systematic review, we included 110 reports of NMAs published between 2007 and 2016. The nodes were described in the introduction section of 88 reports (80%), which suggested that the node content might have been a priori decided before the systematic review. Nine reports (8.1%) described a specific process or justification to build nodes for the network. Two methods were identified: (1) fit a previously published classification and (2) expert consensus. Despite the importance of NMA in the delivery of evidence when several interventions are available for a single indication, recommendations on the reporting of the node-making

  15. The assessment of depressive patients' involvement in decision making in audio-taped primary care consultations.

    Loh, A.; Simon, D.; Hennig, K.; Hennig, B.; Harter, M.; Elwyn, G.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In primary care of depression treatment options such as antidepressants, counseling and psychotherapy are reasonable. Patient involvement could foster adherence and clinical outcome. However, there is a lack of empirical information about the extent to which general practitioners involve

  16. Interactive methods to involve users into workspace design process

    Souza da Conceição, Carolina; Broberg, Ole; Banke, Palle

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the question of whether the use of a combination of interactive methods involving workers can lead to a useful input to the (re)design of their workspace. The workbook and the layout design game methods were tested, and a comparison between their use and the ergonomic analysi...

  17. Parental Involvement and Children's School Achievement: Evidence for Mediating Processes

    Rogers, Maria A.; Theule, Jennifer; Ryan, Bruce A.; Adams, Gerald R.; Keating, Leo

    2009-01-01

    This study used path analytic techniques and an ecological framework to examine the association between children's perceptions of their parents' educational involvement, children's personal characteristics, and their school achievement. Fathers' academic pressure was predictive of lower achievement, whereas mothers' encouragement and support…

  18. Qualitative modeling of the decision-making process using electrooculography.

    Zargari Marandi, Ramtin; Sabzpoushan, S H

    2015-12-01

    A novel method based on electrooculography (EOG) has been introduced in this work to study the decision-making process. An experiment was designed and implemented wherein subjects were asked to choose between two items from the same category that were presented within a limited time. The EOG and voice signals of the subjects were recorded during the experiment. A calibration task was performed to map the EOG signals to their corresponding gaze positions on the screen by using an artificial neural network. To analyze the data, 16 parameters were extracted from the response time and EOG signals of the subjects. Evaluation and comparison of the parameters, together with subjects' choices, revealed functional information. On the basis of this information, subjects switched their eye gazes between items about three times on average. We also found, according to statistical hypothesis testing-that is, a t test, t(10) = 71.62, SE = 1.25, p < .0001-that the correspondence rate of a subjects' gaze at the moment of selection with the selected item was significant. Ultimately, on the basis of these results, we propose a qualitative choice model for the decision-making task.

  19. An overview of patient involvement in healthcare decision-making: a situational analysis of the Malaysian context.

    Ng, Chirk-Jenn; Lee, Ping-Yein; Lee, Yew-Kong; Chew, Boon-How; Engkasan, Julia P; Irmi, Zarina-Ismail; Hanafi, Nik-Sherina; Tong, Seng-Fah

    2013-10-11

    Involving patients in decision-making is an important part of patient-centred care. Research has found a discrepancy between patients' desire to be involved and their actual involvement in healthcare decision-making. In Asia, there is a dearth of research in decision-making. Using Malaysia as an exemplar, this study aims to review the current research evidence, practices, policies, and laws with respect to patient engagement in shared decision-making (SDM) in Asia. In this study, we conducted a comprehensive literature review to collect information on healthcare decision-making in Malaysia. We also consulted medical education researchers, key opinion leaders, governmental organisations, and patient support groups to assess the extent to which patient involvement was incorporated into the medical curriculum, healthcare policies, and legislation. There are very few studies on patient involvement in decision-making in Malaysia. Existing studies showed that doctors were aware of informed consent, but few practised SDM. There was limited teaching of SDM in undergraduate and postgraduate curricula and a lack of accurate and accessible health information for patients. In addition, peer support groups and 'expert patient' programmes were also lacking. Professional medical bodies endorsed patient involvement in decision-making, but there was no definitive implementation plan. In summary, there appears to be little training or research on SDM in Malaysia. More research needs to be done in this area, including baseline information on the preferred and actual decision-making roles. The authors have provided a set of recommendations on how SDM can be effectively implemented in Malaysia.

  20. What makes it so difficult for nurses to coach patients in shared decision making? A process evaluation.

    Lenzen, Stephanie Anna; Daniëls, Ramon; van Bokhoven, Marloes Amantia; van der Weijden, Trudy; Beurskens, Anna

    2018-04-01

    Primary care nurses play a crucial role in coaching patients in shared decision making about goals and actions. This presents a challenge to practice nurses, who are frequently used to protocol-based working routines. Therefore, an approach was developed to support nurses to coach patients in shared decision making. To investigate how the approach was implemented and experienced by practice nurses and patients. A process evaluation was conducted using quantitative and qualitative methods. Fifteen female practice nurses (aged between 28 and 55 years), working with people suffering from diabetes, COPD, asthma and/or cardiovascular diseases, participated. Nurses were asked to apply the approach to their chronically ill patients and to recruit patients (n = 10) willing to participate in an interview or an audio-recording of a consultation (n = 13); patients (13 women, 10 men) were aged between 41 and 88 years and suffered from diabetes, COPD or cardiovascular diseases. The approach involved a framework for shared decision making about goals and actions, a tool to explore the patient perspective, a patient profiles model and a training course. Interviews (n = 15) with nurses, a focus group with nurses (n = 9) and interviews with patients (n = 10) were conducted. Nurses filled in a questionnaire about their work routine before, during and after the training course. They were asked to deliver audiotapes of their consultations (n = 13). Overall, nurses felt that the approach supported them to coach patients in shared decision making. Nurses had become more aware of their own attitudes and learning needs and reported to have had more in-depth discussions with patients. The on-the-job coaching was experienced as valuable. However, nurses struggled to integrate the approach in routine care. They experienced the approach as different to their protocol-based routines and expressed the importance of receiving support and the need for integration of the

  1. Effect of the bread-making process on zearalenone levels.

    Heidari, Sara; Milani, Jafar; Nazari, Seyed Saman Seyed Jafar

    2014-01-01

    The effects of the bread-making process including fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus fermentum) and baking at 200°C on zearalenone (ZEA) levels were investigated. Standard solutions of ZEA were added to flour and then loaves of bread were prepared. Sourdough and three types of yeast including active dry yeast, instant dry yeast and compressed yeast were used for the fermentation of dough. ZEA levels in flour, dough and bread were determined by HPLC with fluorescence detection after extraction and clean-up on an immunoaffinity column. The highest reduction in levels of ZEA was found in the first fermentation (first proof), while the lowest reduction was observed in the baking stage. In addition, the results showed that compressed yeast had the maximum reduction potential on ZEA levels even at the baking stage.

  2. How to make your development process user centred

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    I’ve been designing and managing the development processes of websites and applications for companies since the 90s. In those years I’ve seen a lot of projects fail. The biggest issue: development teams prefer to spend the majority of their time in their cave behind their screens and clients stay in their ivory tower. This means that software is developed based on assumptions and personal taste. I’ve been to way to many meetings where arguments were leverages with ‘I don’t like this’ or ‘I think the user doesn’t want this’. During this presentation I will show the steps that should be taken to avoid all these issues and make a product that does bring the business objectives and the user’s desires together and is optimised for the real end user thus creates a usable product.

  3. Use of Probabilistic Risk Assessment in Shuttle Decision Making Process

    Boyer, Roger L.; Hamlin, Teri, L.

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) to assist in the decision making for the shuttle design and operation. Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) is a comprehensive, structured, and disciplined approach to identifying and analyzing risk in complex systems and/or processes that seeks answers to three basic questions: (i.e., what can go wrong? what is the likelihood of these occurring? and what are the consequences that could result if these occur?) The purpose of the Shuttle PRA (SPRA) is to provide a useful risk management tool for the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) to identify strengths and possible weaknesses in the Shuttle design and operation. SPRA was initially developed to support upgrade decisions, but has evolved into a tool that supports Flight Readiness Reviews (FRR) and near real-time flight decisions. Examples of the use of PRA for the shuttle are reviewed.

  4. Communicating climate information: travelling through the decision-making process

    Stoverinck, F.; Dubois, G.; Amelung, B.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change forces society to adapt. Adaptation strategies are preferably based on the best available climate information. Climate projections, however, often inform adaptation strategies after being interpreted once or several times. This process affects the original message put forward by climate scientists when presenting the basic climate projections, in particular regarding uncertainties. The nature of this effect and its implications for decision-making are as yet poorly understood. This paper explores the nature and consequences of a) the communication tools used by scientists and experts, and b)changes in the communicated information as it travels through the decision-making process. It does so by analysing the interpretative steps taken in a sample of 25 documents, pertaining to the field of public policies for climate change impact assessment and adaptation strategies. Five phases in the provisioning of climate information are distinguished: pre-existing knowledge (i.e. climate models and data), climate- change projection, impact assessment, adaptation strategy, and adaptation plan. Between the phases, climate information is summarized and synthesised in order to be passed on. The results show that in the sample information on uncertainty is under-represented: e.g. studies focus on only one scenario, and/or disregard probability distributions. In addition, visualization tools are often used ineffectively, leading to confusion and unintended interpretations. Several recommendations are presented. A better training of climatologists to communication issues, but also a training to climatology for decision makers are required, as well as more cautious and robust adaptation strategies, accounting for the uncertainty inherent to climate projections. (authors)

  5. Across frequency processes involved in auditory detection of coloration

    Buchholz, Jörg; Kerketsos, P

    2008-01-01

    filterbank was designed to approximate auditory filter-shapes measured by Oxenham and Shera [JARO, 2003, 541-554], derived from forward masking data. The results of the present study demonstrate that a “purely” spectrum-based model approach can successfully describe auditory coloration detection even at high......When an early wall reflection is added to a direct sound, a spectral modulation is introduced to the signal's power spectrum. This spectral modulation typically produces an auditory sensation of coloration or pitch. Throughout this study, auditory spectral-integration effects involved in coloration...... detection are investigated. Coloration detection thresholds were therefore measured as a function of reflection delay and stimulus bandwidth. In order to investigate the involved auditory mechanisms, an auditory model was employed that was conceptually similar to the peripheral weighting model [Yost, JASA...

  6. Detecting fast, online reasoning processes in clinical decision making.

    Flores, Amanda; Cobos, Pedro L; López, Francisco J; Godoy, Antonio

    2014-06-01

    In an experiment that used the inconsistency paradigm, experienced clinical psychologists and psychology students performed a reading task using clinical reports and a diagnostic judgment task. The clinical reports provided information about the symptoms of hypothetical clients who had been previously diagnosed with a specific mental disorder. Reading times of inconsistent target sentences were slower than those of control sentences, demonstrating an inconsistency effect. The results also showed that experienced clinicians gave different weights to different symptoms according to their relevance when fluently reading the clinical reports provided, despite the fact that all the symptoms were of equal diagnostic value according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; American Psychiatric Association, 2000). The diagnostic judgment task yielded a similar pattern of results. In contrast to previous findings, the results of the reading task may be taken as direct evidence of the intervention of reasoning processes that occur very early, rapidly, and online. We suggest that these processes are based on the representation of mental disorders and that these representations are particularly suited to fast retrieval from memory and to making inferences. They may also be related to the clinicians' causal reasoning. The implications of these results for clinician training are also discussed.

  7. Information Technology Process Improvement Decision-Making: An Exploratory Study from the Perspective of Process Owners and Process Managers

    Lamp, Sandra A.

    2012-01-01

    There is information available in the literature that discusses information technology (IT) governance and investment decision making from an executive-level perception, yet there is little information available that offers the perspective of process owners and process managers pertaining to their role in IT process improvement and investment…

  8. Nurse involvement in end-of-life decision making: the ETHICUS Study

    Benbenishty, Julie; Ganz, Freda DeKeyser; Lippert, Anne

    2006-01-01

    The purpose was to investigate physicians' perceptions of the role of European intensive care nurses in end-of-life decision making.......The purpose was to investigate physicians' perceptions of the role of European intensive care nurses in end-of-life decision making....

  9. Toward theoretical understanding of the fertility preservation decision-making process: Examining information processing among young women with cancer

    Hershberger, Patricia E.; Finnegan, Lorna; Altfeld, Susan; Lake, Sara; Hirshfeld-Cytron, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Background Young women with cancer now face the complex decision about whether to undergo fertility preservation. Yet little is known about how these women process information involved in making this decision. Objective The purpose of this paper is to expand theoretical understanding of the decision-making process by examining aspects of information processing among young women diagnosed with cancer. Methods Using a grounded theory approach, 27 women with cancer participated in individual, semi-structured interviews. Data were coded and analyzed using constant-comparison techniques that were guided by five dimensions within the Contemplate phase of the decision-making process framework. Results In the first dimension, young women acquired information primarily from clinicians and Internet sources. Experiential information, often obtained from peers, occurred in the second dimension. Preferences and values were constructed in the third dimension as women acquired factual, moral, and ethical information. Women desired tailored, personalized information that was specific to their situation in the fourth dimension; however, women struggled with communicating these needs to clinicians. In the fifth dimension, women offered detailed descriptions of clinician behaviors that enhance or impede decisional debriefing. Conclusion Better understanding of theoretical underpinnings surrounding women’s information processes can facilitate decision support and improve clinical care. PMID:24552086

  10. Toward theoretical understanding of the fertility preservation decision-making process: examining information processing among young women with cancer.

    Hershberger, Patricia E; Finnegan, Lorna; Altfeld, Susan; Lake, Sara; Hirshfeld-Cytron, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Young women with cancer now face the complex decision about whether to undergo fertility preservation. Yet little is known about how these women process information involved in making this decision. The purpose of this article is to expand theoretical understanding of the decision-making process by examining aspects of information processing among young women diagnosed with cancer. Using a grounded theory approach, 27 women with cancer participated in individual, semistructured interviews. Data were coded and analyzed using constant-comparison techniques that were guided by 5 dimensions within the Contemplate phase of the decision-making process framework. In the first dimension, young women acquired information primarily from clinicians and Internet sources. Experiential information, often obtained from peers, occurred in the second dimension. Preferences and values were constructed in the third dimension as women acquired factual, moral, and ethical information. Women desired tailored, personalized information that was specific to their situation in the fourth dimension; however, women struggled with communicating these needs to clinicians. In the fifth dimension, women offered detailed descriptions of clinician behaviors that enhance or impede decisional debriefing. Better understanding of theoretical underpinnings surrounding women's information processes can facilitate decision support and improve clinical care.

  11. The Interaction between Personality, Social Network Position and Involvement in Innovation Process

    E. Dolgova (Evgenia); W. van Olffen (Woody); F.A.J. van den Bosch (Frans); H.W. Volberda (Henk)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractAbstract This dissertation proposal investigates how personality and individuals’ social network position affect individuals’ involvement into the innovation process. It posits that people would feel inclined to become involved into the different phases of the innovation process

  12. Decision making using AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) and fuzzy set theory in waste management

    Chung, J.Y.; Lee, K.J.; Kim, C.D.

    1995-01-01

    The major problem is how to consider the differences in opinions, when many experts are involved in decision making process. This paper provides a simple general methodology to treat the differences in various opinions. The authors determined the grade of membership through the process of magnitude estimation derived from pairwise comparisons and AHP developed by Saaty. They used fuzzy set theory to consider the differences in opinions and obtain the priorities for each alternative. An example, which can be applied to radioactive waste management, also was presented. The result shows a good agreement with the results of averaging methods

  13. Processes involved in pion capture in hydrogen-containing molecules

    Horvath, D.

    1983-03-01

    A systematic analysis is presented of the possible elementary processes determining the fate of negative pions stopped in hydrogen-containing samples. Using a phenomenological description in comparison with the available experimental information on pion capture in hydrogen, it is shown that the formation and decay of pπ - atoms in compounds Zsub(m)Hsub(n) are determined mainly by the processes of Auger capture in a molecular orbit ZHπ - , transition from molecular to atomic orbit, transfer of pions to atoms Z in collisions pπ - +Z, and nuclear capture in collisions pπ - +H. The recent assumption of a considerable role of the processes of radiative atomic capture in bound hydrogen atoms, nuclear capture of pions by protons from the molecular state ZHπ - , or 'inner' transfer of the pion via tunnelling through the bond Z-H is not supported by the theory and contradicts the experimental data

  14. Processing and analysis techniques involving in-vessel material generation

    Schabron, John F [Laramie, WY; Rovani, Jr., Joseph F.

    2012-09-25

    In at least one embodiment, the inventive technology relates to in-vessel generation of a material from a solution of interest as part of a processing and/or analysis operation. Preferred embodiments of the in-vessel material generation (e.g., in-vessel solid material generation) include precipitation; in certain embodiments, analysis and/or processing of the solution of interest may include dissolution of the material, perhaps as part of a successive dissolution protocol using solvents of increasing ability to dissolve. Applications include, but are by no means limited to estimation of a coking onset and solution (e.g., oil) fractionating.

  15. Stakeholders and public involvement in river management: heterogeneous acceptance of participatory processes among Swiss institutions.

    Buletti, Nora; Utz, Stephan; Ejderyan, Olivier; Graefe, Olivier; Lane, Stuart; Reynard, Emmanuel

    2014-05-01

    This research explores participatory processes in the domain of river management in Switzerland. The main objective is to better understand how participatory processes are incorporated into river management practice. Switzerland being a federal state, river management is a cantonal (regional) responsibility, under the supervision (and co-funding) of the State (a Confederation). The federal funding includes the opportunity to fund additional participatory activities to aid river management, not least because the federal authorities consider the involvement of wider stakeholders and the public in decision-making as a means of aiding the progression of projects. This is a particularly important goal in a Swiss setting where direct democracy (the possibility of calling the decision of any level of government into question through a popular vote) means that a reasonable level of project acceptance is a necessary element of project progression. River management in Switzerland now includes both flood protection and river restoration objectives, which has served to increase its controversy: river corridors contain competing interests with different objectives (e.g. ecological enhancement, protection of agricultural land, flood risk reduction). We were asked by the Confederation to evaluate participatory processes it sponsored and one element of this evaluation aimed to develop a typology of stakeholder participation. We conducted interviews with the 26 cantonal officers in charge of river management. These interviews were based upon thematically structured open ended questions, with the responses analyzed qualitatively. We have identified significant divergence in the implementation of participatory processes between the cantons. These appear to be related to two factors: (1) the canton's historical experience of river management; and (2) the methods used to select stakeholders for inclusion in the decisional process. Cantons that refer to guidelines or pre

  16. Male Involvement in Family Planning Decision Making in Ile-Ife ...

    Erah

    spousal communication, and investigated the correlates of men's opinion in family planning decision making in ... questionnaire to collect information from 402 male study participants. ..... who attained post-secondary education were more.

  17. eHealth Literacy and Partner Involvement in Treatment Decision Making for Men With Newly Diagnosed Localized Prostate Cancer.

    Song, Lixin; Tatum, Kimberly; Greene, Giselle; Chen, Ronald C

    2017-03-01

    To examine how the eHealth literacy of partners of patients with newly diagnosed prostate cancer affects their involvement in decision making, and to identify the factors that influence their eHealth literacy.
. Cross-sectional exploratory study.
. North Carolina.
. 142 partners of men with newly diagnosed localized prostate cancer. 
. A telephone survey and descriptive and multiple linear regression analyses were used.
. The partners' eHealth literacy, involvement in treatment decision making, and demographics, and the health statuses of the patients and their partners. 
. Higher levels of eHealth literacy among partners were significantly associated with their involvement in getting a second opinion, their awareness of treatment options, and the size of the social network they relied on for additional information and support for treatment decision making for prostate cancer. The factor influencing eHealth literacy was the partners' access to the Internet for personal use, which explained some of the variance in eHealth literacy.
. This study described how partners' eHealth literacy influenced their involvement in treatment decision making for prostate cancer and highlighted the influencing factors (i.e., partners' access to the Internet for personal use).
. When helping men with prostate cancer and their partners with treatment decision making, nurses need to assess eHealth literacy levels to determine whether nonelectronically based education materials are needed and to provide clear instructions on how to use eHealth resources.

  18. Improving industrial designers work process by involving user research

    Dai, Zheng; Ómarsson, Ólafur

    2011-01-01

    With changing times, new technologies and more opinionated consumers, the modern industrial designer has found himself in need of fresher and more up to date approaches in his daily work. In a fast moving industry, the designer needs to keep a thinking process of dynamic and subjective attitude...... will give the grounding for believing that the industrial designer needs to adopt user research methods to a level where he can still continue to work under the very nature of industrial design that has made it a successful practice for the last century. The combing of the approaches and attitude will help....... User research is part of user centered design (UCD). UCD has a reputation for subjective and reflective practice. In this paper there are two example cases. One is conducted by a classical industrial design process, and another is costing half of energy and time in user research. These examples...

  19. Reflective processes and competencies involved in teaching practice at university: a case study

    Caetano da Costa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Founded on practical rationality, this qualitative case study aimed to explore the teaching practice at university, focusing on teacher's reflections and competencies. To this end, teaching practices were described, analyzed, and interpreted. These interactions with students on a course in the pharmacy program, brought about situations involving dilemmas and learning opportunities for problem-solving and decision-making skills. Throughout the study, students were encouraged to use knowledge-in-action, reflection-in-action, and reflection-on-action, and these processes were also experienced by the teacher. Analysis of the records from classroom observation and the interviews with students and the teacher showed the fundamental role of such reflective processes, which led to attainment of the intended objectives. In this sense, the teacher's reflective practice was essential for supporting the application of each curricular component of the course.

  20. Physical Processes Involved In Yellow Sea Solitary Waves

    Warn-Varnas, A.; Chin-Bing, S.; King, D.; Lamb, K.; Hawkins, J.; Teixeira, M.

    The study area is located south of the Shandong peninsula. In this area, soliton gener- ation and propagation studies are per formed with the Lamb(1994) model. The model is nonhydrostatic and is formulated in 2 1/2 dimensions for terrain following c oordi- nates. In the area, 20 to 30 m topographic variations over distances of 10 to 20 km are found to occur in the digit al atlas of Choi (1999). The area is shallow with maximum depths ranging from 40 m to 70 m. Along the southern boundary of the region the semi-diurnal tidal strength magnitude varies from .6 m/sec to 1.2 m/sec, Fang(1994). We show that, for sum mer conditions, the existing physical processes associated with the semi-diurnal tidal flow over the topographic variations , in the shelfbreak region, lead to the formation of internal bores in the model simulations. Through acting phys- ical proce sses, the internal bores propagate on and off the shelf. A disintegration process of internal bores into solitary waves occ urs through frequency and ampli- tude dispersion. SAR observations of the area show images containing six events con- sisting of internal bores and solitary waves that travel in a well-defined direction for two and a half days. The origin of the trains appeared to be at a point along a steep topo graphic drop. The SAR observations are used for guiding and tuning the model simulations, by comparing spectra of observed and modeled wavelengths. The tuned model yields wavelengths that are within a factor of 2 of the SAR data. The modeled amp litudes are within a factor of 2 of amplitudes obtained with a two-layer model and the SAR data The signature on the acoustical field of ongoing physical processes through the interaction of the resultant oceanic struct ure with the acoustical field is pursued. Internal bore and solitary wave structures interact with the acoustic field. A re distribution of acoustical energy to higher acoustical modes occurs at some fre- quencies. Mode decomposition of the

  1. Realistic decision-making processes in a vaccination game

    Iwamura, Yoshiro; Tanimoto, Jun

    2018-03-01

    Previous studies of vaccination games have nearly always assumed a pairwise comparison between a focal and neighboring player for the strategy updating rule, which comes from numerous compiled studies on spatial versions of 2-player and 2-strategy (2 × 2) games such as the spatial prisoner's dilemma (SPD). We propose, in this study, new update rules because the human decision-making process of whether to commit to a vaccination is obviously influenced by a "sense of crisis" or "fear" urging him/her toward vaccination, otherwise they will likely be infected. The rule assumes that an agent evaluates whether getting a vaccination or trying to free ride should be attempted based on observations of whether neighboring non-vaccinators were able to successfully free ride during the previous time-step. Compared to the conventional updating rule (standard pairwise comparison assuming a Fermi function), the new rules generally realize higher vaccination coverage and smaller final epidemic sizes. One rule in particular shows very good performance with significantly smaller epidemic sizes despite comparable levels of vaccination coverage. This is because the specific update rule helps vaccinators spread widely in the domain, which effectively hampers the spread of epidemics.

  2. Explaining the use of attribute cut-off values in decision making by means of involvement

    Peschel, Anne O.; Grebitus, Carola; Colson, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    evidence on consumers’ heterogeneous use of attribute cut-offs with a unique focus on the relationship with consumer involvement, a key component in consumer choice theory. Behavioral data from an online choice experiment on beef steak employing shelf simulations are combined with questions defining...... a latent class model identifies several key consumer segments (e.g., a price sensitive group) based on their choice behavior and reveals that the relationship between involvement, cut-off use and cut-off violations is not uniform across consumer segments....... respondents’ attribute cut-off values and their validated Personal Involvement Inventory (PII). Evidence from the analysis indicates that consumers who are highly involved are more likely to exhibit attribute cut-off values and are less likely to violate their cut-off values. Further investigation using...

  3. Male Involvement in Family Planning Decision Making in Ile-Ife ...

    Erah

    ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE. Male Involvement ... However, fertility and family planning research and .... design, employing both quantitative and qualitative research .... Table 2: Types of family planning methods known to male residents ...

  4. Why it is important to promote communication in the decision-making process

    Viktorsson, C.

    2001-01-01

    Opportunity, nightmare, integrity and public confidence are all well-known words for us working in the nuclear area. Dealing with the outside world involves all those elements. However, having an active communication component in the decision making process can reduce the risk of getting into a nightmare situation and at the same time it contributes to gaining public confidence. The nuclear regulatory authority needs confidence to achieve effectiveness. Investing in trust is, therefore, necessary but requires a well-defined strategy and working methods. Moreover, it requires patience, and a culture of openness and relaxed attitude towards media. Finally, my experience tells me that it requires training of staff and motivators that constantly remind us of the importance of promoting communication in the decision-making process. In this paper I am presenting some insights into how SKI (Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate) works when preparing decision and why we are doing it. (author)

  5. Psychiatric service staff perceptions of implementing a shared decision-making tool: a process evaluation study.

    Schön, Ulla-Karin; Grim, Katarina; Wallin, Lars; Rosenberg, David; Svedberg, Petra

    2018-12-01

    Shared decision making, SDM, in psychiatric services, supports users to experience a greater sense of involvement in treatment, self-efficacy, autonomy and reduced coercion. Decision tools adapted to the needs of users have the potential to support SDM and restructure how users and staff work together to arrive at shared decisions. The aim of this study was to describe and analyse the implementation process of an SDM intervention for users of psychiatric services in Sweden. The implementation was studied through a process evaluation utilizing both quantitative and qualitative methods. In designing the process evaluation for the intervention, three evaluation components were emphasized: contextual factors, implementation issues and mechanisms of impact. The study addresses critical implementation issues related to decision-making authority, the perceived decision-making ability of users and the readiness of the service to increase influence and participation. It also emphasizes the importance of facilitation, as well as suggesting contextual adaptations that may be relevant for the local organizations. The results indicate that staff perceived the decision support tool as user-friendly and useful in supporting participation in decision-making, and suggest that such concrete supports to participation can be a factor in implementation if adequate attention is paid to organizational contexts and structures.

  6. Patients' perception of their involvement in shared treatment decision making: Key factors in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.

    Veilleux, Sophie; Noiseux, Isabelle; Lachapelle, Nathalie; Kohen, Rita; Vachon, Luc; Guay, Brian White; Bitton, Alain; Rioux, John D

    2018-02-01

    This study aims to characterize the relationships between the quality of the information given by the physician, the involvement of the patient in shared decision making (SDM), and outcomes in terms of satisfaction and anxiety pertaining to the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). A Web survey was conducted among 200 Canadian patients affected with IBD. The theoretical model of SDM was adjusted using path analysis. SAS software was used for all statistical analyses. The quality of the knowledge transfer between the physician and the patient is significantly associated with the components of SDM: information comprehension, patient involvement and decision certainty about the chosen treatment. In return, patient involvement in SDM is significantly associated with higher satisfaction and, as a result, lower anxiety as regards treatment selection. This study demonstrates the importance of involving patients in shared treatment decision making in the context of IBD. Understanding shared decision making may motivate patients to be more active in understanding the relevant information for treatment selection, as it is related to their level of satisfaction, anxiety and adherence to treatment. This relationship should encourage physicians to promote shared decision making. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Male Involvement in Family Planning Decision Making in Ile-Ife ...

    This study assessed men's awareness, attitude, and practice of modern contraceptive methods, determined the level of spousal communication, and investigated the correlates of men's opinion in family planning decision making in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Quantitative methodology was employed in this cross-sectional descriptive ...

  8. Making Sense of Learning at Secondary School: Involving Students to Improve Teaching Practice

    Kane, Ruth G.; Maw, Nicola

    2005-01-01

    Consulting students on their experiences of learning and teaching in schools, while signalled as a potentially valuable research practice fifteen years ago by Michael Fullan, is now gaining prominence in educational research within New Zealand. The "Making Sense of Learning at Secondary Schools" research began with the premise that to…

  9. Is there pain in champagne? Semantic involvement of words within words during sense-making

    van Alphen, P.M.; van Berkum, J.J.A.

    2010-01-01

    In an ERP experiment, we examined whether listeners, when making sense of spoken utterances, take into account the meaning of spurious words that are embedded in longer words, either at their onsets (e.g., pie in pirate) or at their offsets (e.g., pain in champagne). In the experiment, Dutch

  10. Power relations and contrasting conceptions of evidence in patient-involvement processes used to inform health funding decisions in Australia.

    Lopes, Edilene; Carter, Drew; Street, Jackie

    2015-06-01

    We collected and analysed views of key stakeholders on the processes used to involve patient organisations in health care funding decision making in Australia. We conducted 12 semi-structured interviews with patient organisation representatives and members of Advisory Committees that provide advice to the Australian Department of Health and employ Health Technology Assessment (HTA) as an evaluation framework. Using two theoretical frameworks, we analysed structural and contextual elements pertaining to the involvement processes. The findings reported in this article relate to interviewees' perspectives on contextual elements, analysed using a Foucauldian lens. These elements include: the perspectives of marginalised voices; the diversity of views on what ought to be considered valid evidence in a HTA setting; and the relationships between stakeholders, along with how these relationships impact on involvement processes and the outcomes of those processes. The findings demonstrate that the involvement processes currently used are deemed inadequate by both patient organisation representatives and Advisory Committee members, but for different reasons connected to how different stakeholders conceptualise evidence. Advisory Committee members viewed evidence as encompassing clinical outcomes and patient preferences, whereas patient organisation representatives tended to view evidence as encompassing aspects not directly related to a disease entity, such as the social and emotional aspects of patients' experiences in living with illness. Patient organisation representatives reported interacting with other stakeholders (especially industry) to increase the influence of their conception of evidence on decision making. The use of this strategy by interviewees illustrates how power struggles occur in government decision-making processes which involve both medical expertise and patients' accounts. Such struggles, and the power differentials they reflect, need to be considered

  11. Social justice and the university community: does campus involvement make a difference?

    McAuliff, Kathleen E; Williams, Shannon M; Ferrari, Joseph R

    2013-01-01

    We examined perceptions on school sense of community and social justice attitudes among undergraduates (N = 427; 308 women, 115 men; M age = 19.72, SD = 1.91), and how year in school and club membership affected these constructs. Results demonstrated that involvement with a greater number of clubs was associated with having a stronger school sense of community and more positive social justice attitudes. Multiple regression analyses demonstrated that year in school did not significantly predict social justice attitudes. Results suggested that greater involvement and sense of school belonging might be linked to social justice attitudes.

  12. Evaluating public participation in environmental decision-making: EPA's superfund community involvement program.

    Susan Charnley; Bruce. Engelbert

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses an 8-year, ongoing project that evaluates the Environmental Protection Agency's Superfund community involvement program. The project originated as a response to the Government Performance and Results Act, which requires federal agencies to articulate program goals, and evaluate and report their progress in meeting those goals. The evaluation...

  13. A Reliable Sounding Board: Parent Involvement in Students' Academic and Career Decision Making

    Simmons, Andrew N.

    2008-01-01

    With concern over parental involvement in students' academic lives on the rise, research is needed to provide guidance for advisors and parents. In this article, student-parent interactions about academic and career decisions are examined. Data come from the Brown University Office of Institutional Research and semi-structured interviews with…

  14. The Use of the Evidence from the Behavioral Sciences in the Organizational Decision-Making Process

    Bogdan MÎNJINĂ

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The important managerial decision-making and the development of policies, strategies, internal normative acts and procedures must be solid grounded for efficient achieving of their objectives. To this end, the evidence-based approach uses various types of evidence, a leading role having those scientific, and the critical thinking. The evidence from behavioral sciences is especially important when the decisions objectives involve behavioral elements. They also help to ensure the rationality of any decision-making process. The concern for the use of behavioral sciences research in the decision-making preceded the occurrence of evidence-based approach. The increased knowledge fund of organizations, the access to the best practices and to the relevant scientific research findings represent only the initial stages of the evidence-based approach implementation and functioning. The ensuring of their effective use calls for special skills training among staff, the creation of tools and organizational mechanisms and of a facilitating organizational culture. This paper argues the need to integrate two approaches that promote the decision-making based on scientific evidence, the evidence-based approach and the use of behavioral and social sciences in the decision-making, to potentiate the contribution of the behavioral sciences to the increasing of the decision-making efficiency. The efforts made in this paper had overall objective to prepare and facilitate the use of research evidence provided by behavioral sciences in the organizational decision-making process by presenting the main concepts and knowledge in the field and by proposing an outline procedure specifically developed.

  15. The Effects of Argument Quality and Involvement Type on Attitude Formation and Attitude Change: A Test of Dual-Process and Social Judgment Predictions

    Park, Hee Sun; Levine, Timothy R.; Kingsley Westerman, Catherine Y.; Orfgen, Tierney; Foregger, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    Involvement has long been theoretically specified as a crucial factor determining the persuasive impact of messages. In social judgment theory, ego-involvement makes people more resistant to persuasion, whereas in dual-process models, high-involvement people are susceptible to persuasion when argument quality is high. It is argued that these…

  16. The Experience of Older People in the Shared Decision-Making Process in Advanced Kidney Care

    Jenkins, Karen; McManus, Breeda; Gracey, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. This qualitative descriptive study was designed to understand the experiences of older people (>70 years) when making a decision about renal replacement therapy. This was a coproduced study, whereby patients and carers were involved in all aspects of the research process. Methods. A Patient and Carer Group undertook volunteer and research training. The group developed the interview questions and interviewed 29 people who had commenced dialysis or made a decision not to have dialysis. Interview data were transcribed and analysed, and common themes were identified. Results. 22 men and 7 women (mean age 77.4 yrs) from two hospitals were interviewed. 18 had chosen haemodialysis, 6 peritoneal dialysis, and 5 supportive care. The majority of patients were involved in the dialysis decision. Most were satisfied with the amount of information that they received, although some identified that the quality of the information could be improved, especially how daily living can be affected by dialysis. Conclusion. Our findings show that overall older patients were involved in the dialysis decision along with their families. Our approach is innovative because it is the first time that patients and carers have been involved in a coproduced study about shared decision-making. PMID:27990438

  17. Family involvement in decision making for people with dementia in residential aged care: a systematic review of quantitative literature.

    Petriwskyj, Andrea; Gibson, Alexandra; Parker, Deborah; Banks, Susan; Andrews, Sharon; Robinson, Andrew

    2014-06-01

    Ensuring older adults' involvement in their care is accepted as good practice and is vital, particularly for people with dementia, whose care and treatment needs change considerably over the course of the illness. However, involving family members in decision making on people's behalf is still practically difficult for staff and family. The aim of this review was to identify and appraise the existing quantitative evidence about family involvement in decision making for people with dementia living in residential aged care. The present Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) metasynthesis assessed studies that investigated involvement of family members in decision making for people with dementia in residential aged care settings. While quantitative and qualitative studies were included in the review, this paper presents the quantitative findings. A comprehensive search of 15 electronic databases was performed. The search was limited to papers published in English, from 1990 to 2013. Twenty-six studies were identified as being relevant; 10 were quantitative, with 1 mixed method study. Two independent reviewers assessed the studies for methodological validity and extracted the data using the JBI Meta Analysis of Statistics Assessment and Review Instrument (JBI-MAStARI). The findings were synthesized and presented in narrative form. The findings related to decisions encountered and made by family surrogates, variables associated with decisions, surrogates' perceptions of, and preferences for, their roles, as well as outcomes for people with dementia and their families. The results identified patterns within, and variables associated with, surrogate decision making, all of which highlight the complexity and variation regarding family involvement. Attention needs to be paid to supporting family members in decision making in collaboration with staff.

  18. Monitoring supports performance in a dual-task paradigm involving a risky decision-making task and a working memory task

    Bettina eGathmann

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Performing two cognitively demanding tasks at the same time is known to decrease performance. The current study investigates the underlying executive functions of a dual-tasking situation involving the simultaneous performance of decision making under explicit risk and a working memory task. It is suggested that making a decision and performing a working memory task at the same time should particularly require monitoring - an executive control process supervising behavior and the state of processing on two tasks. To test the role of a supervisory/monitoring function in such a dual-tasking situation we investigated 122 participants with the Game of Dice Task plus 2-back task (GDT plus 2-back task. This dual task requires participants to make decisions under risk and to perform a 2-back working memory task at the same time. Furthermore, a task measuring a set of several executive functions gathered in the term concept formation (Modified Card Sorting Test, MCST and the newly developed Balanced Switching Task (BST, measuring monitoring in particular, were used. The results demonstrate that concept formation and monitoring are involved in the simultaneous performance of decision making under risk and a working memory task. In particular, the mediation analysis revealed that BST performance partially mediates the influence of MCST performance on the GDT plus 2-back task. These findings suggest that monitoring is one important subfunction for superior performance in a dual-tasking situation including decision making under risk and a working memory task.

  19. Monitoring supports performance in a dual-task paradigm involving a risky decision-making task and a working memory task

    Gathmann, Bettina; Schiebener, Johannes; Wolf, Oliver T.; Brand, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Performing two cognitively demanding tasks at the same time is known to decrease performance. The current study investigates the underlying executive functions of a dual-tasking situation involving the simultaneous performance of decision making under explicit risk and a working memory task. It is suggested that making a decision and performing a working memory task at the same time should particularly require monitoring—an executive control process supervising behavior and the state of processing on two tasks. To test the role of a supervisory/monitoring function in such a dual-tasking situation we investigated 122 participants with the Game of Dice Task plus 2-back task (GDT plus 2-back task). This dual task requires participants to make decisions under risk and to perform a 2-back working memory task at the same time. Furthermore, a task measuring a set of several executive functions gathered in the term concept formation (Modified Card Sorting Test, MCST) and the newly developed Balanced Switching Task (BST), measuring monitoring in particular, were used. The results demonstrate that concept formation and monitoring are involved in the simultaneous performance of decision making under risk and a working memory task. In particular, the mediation analysis revealed that BST performance partially mediates the influence of MCST performance on the GDT plus 2-back task. These findings suggest that monitoring is one important subfunction for superior performance in a dual-tasking situation including decision making under risk and a working memory task. PMID:25741308

  20. Process of making porous ceramic materials with controlled porosity

    Anderson, Marc A.; Ku, Qunyin

    1993-01-01

    A method of making metal oxide ceramic material is disclosed by which the porosity of the resulting material can be selectively controlled by manipulating the sol used to make the material. The method can be used to make a variety of metal oxide ceramic bodies, including membranes, but also pellets, plugs or other bodies. It has also been found that viscous sol materials can readily be shaped by extrusion into shapes typical of catalytic or adsorbent bodies used in industry, to facilitate the application of such materials for catalytic and adsorbent applications.

  1. Science teachers' meaning-making when involved in a school-based professional development project

    Nielsen, Birgitte Lund

    2012-01-01

    A group of teachers’ meaning-making when they are collaboratively analyzing artifacts from practice in local science classrooms in a school-based professional development (PD) project is examined through repeated interviews and represented as meaning-making maps. The interpretation of the teachers......’ meaningmaking includes both their reference to outcomes from the project and their expressed ideas about teaching and learning of science. All four teachers refer to experiences from experimenting in their classrooms and interpret the collected artifacts in relation to students’ learning. Furthermore, they all...... felt encouraged to continue collaboration around science. During the interviews, the teachers emphasize various elements apparently connected to concrete challenges they each experience in their professional work. Implications in relation to the design of PD are discussed....

  2. Science teachers' meaning-making when involved in a school-based professional development project

    Nielsen, Birgitte Lund

    2012-01-01

    A group of teachers' meaning-making when they are collaboratively analyzing artifacts from practice in local science classrooms in a school-based professional development (PD) project is examined through repeated interviews and represented as meaning-makig maps. The interpretation of the teachers......' meaning-making includes both their reference to outcomes from the project and their expressed ideas about teaching and learning of science. All four teachers refer to experiences from experimenting in their classrooms and interpret the collected artifacts in relation to students' learning. Furthermore......, they all felt encouraged to continue collaboration around science. During the interviews, the teachers emphasize various elements apparently connected to concrete challenges they each experience in their professional work. Implications in relation to the design of PD are discussed....

  3. Making Marble Tracks Can Involve Lots of Fun as Well as STEM Learning

    Nagel, Bert

    2015-01-01

    Marble tracks are a very popular toy and big ones can be found in science centres in many countries. If children want to make a marble track themselves it is quite a job. It takes a long time, they can take up a lot of space and most structures are quite fragile, as the materials used can very quickly prove unfit for the task and do not last very…

  4. Exploring emotions and the shared decision-making process in pediatric primary care

    Francesca Dicé

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to identify conversational interaction patterns in pediatrics with a focus on the shared decision-making process and dialogue about emotions in doctor–patient relationships. We documented conversations in 163 visits by 168 children in pediatric primary care; we observed, audiorecordered, transcribed and analyzed them with specific instruments of analysis of doctor patient relationship. Our survey was conducted in four pediatric primary care practices and 15 health providers were involved. The data collection period lasted three months and was undertaken twice a week on days. We analyzed visits with Verona Coding Definitions of Emotional Sequences (VR-CoDES and Observing Patient Involvement in Shared Decision Making (OPTION instruments. Frequencies of emotions’ signals (cues/concerns obtained using VR-CoDES were analyzed and compared with the OPTION ratings. We documented 318 cues/concerns for parents and 167 for children. The relationship between cues/concerns and Healthcare Providers responses was strongest in dialogues between parents and pediatricians. The conversational patterns focused on the procedures of the care, with little opportunities of dialogue about emerging emotions. We also observed limited possibilities for participant involvement, especially by children, due to several difficulties integrating dialogue about emotions and concordance processes. The conversations seemed to be characterized by rarity of shared decision making or attention to the informational value of children’s emotions. It could be useful to implement psychological interventions to achieve an enrichment of the dialogue between participants, helping them to incorporate emotions into conversations and to recognize decisional competences, necessary to concordance processes.

  5. The interactive alphabet with augmented reality as a form of involving children in educational process

    Vladimir D. Sekerin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Research objective: to prove the expediency of using technologies with augmented reality in educational process of children in order to increase the level of their involvement and to improve the efficiency of educational process. Materials and methods. The information base of the research was made by scientific publications, information and analytical reviews, periodicals, monographs, information placed in the Internet network, concerning practical application of technologies with augmented reality in educational process, descriptive and comparative methods of analysis form the methodical basis of this research. Results. It is shown that in educational process of children it is expedient to use the modern technological achievements allowing organizing productive interactions and relationship of the students among themselves and with teachers, lecturers. Educational, business, role-playing games, discussions promoting acceleration of acquiring  a new experience and receiving new knowledge are the perspective formats of realizing the educational process. The world of augmented reality has the following properties: combines the real and virtual, interacts in real time mode, and functions in three-dimensional space. The advantages of the Interactive alphabet on the basis of the augmented reality technology are as follows: 1 security of strong emotional responses; 2 the involvement and interactivity promoting steady memorizing; 3 possibilities of interaction with the artificial world by means of gadgets; 4 Digital and offline communication; 5 possibility of carrying out virtual lessons. One of the main features of virtual reality is the feeling of participation and the opportunity to observe everything from the first person. It makes expedient to carry out lessons entirely in the virtual reality. Achievement of full involvement in educational process promotes increase of motivation and progress in knowledge acquisition.  The use of the augmented

  6. Decision Making Processes for Global Product Development - a Case Study

    Søndergaard, Erik Stefan; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2015-01-01

    Global Product Development (GPD), outsourcing and offshoring of product development is a widespread phenomenon on today’s global economy, and consequently most engineering manufacturing companies will have to make decisions regarding how to organise their product development activities globally...

  7. [The ethical reflection approach in decision-making processes in health institutes].

    Gruat, Renaud

    2015-12-01

    Except in the specific case of end-of-life care, the law says nothing about the way in which health professionals must carry out ethical reflection regarding the treatment of their patients. A problem-solving methodology called the "ethical reflection approach" performed over several stages can be used. The decision-making process involves the whole team and draws on the ability of each caregiver to put forward a reasoned argument, in the interest of the patient. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Dysfunctional involvement of emotion and reward brain regions on social decision making in excess weight adolescents.

    Verdejo-García, Antonio; Verdejo-Román, Juan; Rio-Valle, Jacqueline S; Lacomba, Juan A; Lagos, Francisco M; Soriano-Mas, Carles

    2015-01-01

    Obese adolescents suffer negative social experiences, but no studies have examined whether obesity is associated with dysfunction of the social brain or whether social brain abnormalities relate to disadvantageous traits and social decisions. We aimed at mapping functional activation differences in the brain circuitry of social decision making in adolescents with excess versus normal weight, and at examining whether these separate patterns correlate with reward/punishment sensitivity, disordered eating features, and behavioral decisions. In this fMRI study, 80 adolescents aged 12 to 18 years old were classified in two groups based on age adjusted body mass index (BMI) percentiles: normal weight (n = 44, BMI percentiles 5th-84th) and excess weight (n = 36, BMI percentile ≥ 85th). Participants were scanned while performing a social decision-making task (ultimatum game) in which they chose to "accept" or "reject" offers to split monetary stakes made by another peer. Offers varied in fairness (Fair vs. Unfair) but in all cases "accepting" meant both players win the money, whereas "rejecting" meant both lose it. We showed that adolescents with excess weight compared to controls display significantly decreased activation of anterior insula, anterior cingulate, and midbrain during decisions about Unfair versus Fair offers. Moreover, excess weight subjects show lower sensitivity to reward and more maturity fears, which correlate with insula activation. Indeed, blunted insula activation accounted for the relationship between maturity fears and acceptance of unfair offers. Excess weight adolescents have diminished activation of brain regions essential for affective tracking of social decision making, which accounts for the association between maturity fears and social decisions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. The involvement of cancer patients in the four stages of decision-making preceding continuous sedation until death: A qualitative study.

    Robijn, Lenzo; Seymour, Jane; Deliens, Luc; Korfage, Ida; Brown, Jayne; Pype, Peter; Van Der Heide, Agnes; Chambaere, Kenneth; Rietjens, Judith

    2018-04-01

    Involving patients in decision-making is considered to be particularly appropriate towards the end of life. Professional guidelines emphasize that the decision to initiate continuous sedation should be made in accordance with the wishes of the dying person and be preceded by their consent. To describe the decision-making process preceding continuous sedation until death with particular attention to the involvement of the person who is dying. Qualitative case studies using interviews. Interviews with 26 physicians, 30 nurses and 24 relatives caring for 24 patients with cancer who received continuous sedation until death in Belgium, the United Kingdom and the Netherlands. We distinguished four stages of decision-making: initiation, information exchange, deliberation and the decision to start continuous sedation until death. There was wide variation in the role the patient had in the decision-making process. At one end of the spectrum (mostly in the United Kingdom), the physician discussed the possible use of sedation with the patient, but took the decision themselves. At the other end (mostly in Belgium and the Netherlands), the patient initiated the conversation and the physician's role was largely limited to evaluating if and when the medical criteria were met. Decision-making about continuous sedation until death goes through four stages and the involvement of the patient in the decision-making varies. Acknowledging the potential sensitivity of raising the issue of end-of-life sedation, we recommend building into clinical practice regular opportunities to discuss the goals and preferences of the person who is dying for their future medical treatment and care.

  10. Patients' and observers' perceptions of involvement differ. Validation study on inter-relating measures for shared decision making.

    Kasper, Jürgen; Heesen, Christoph; Köpke, Sascha; Fulcher, Gary; Geiger, Friedemann

    2011-01-01

    Patient involvement into medical decisions as conceived in the shared decision making method (SDM) is essential in evidence based medicine. However, it is not conclusively evident how best to define, realize and evaluate involvement to enable patients making informed choices. We aimed at investigating the ability of four measures to indicate patient involvement. While use and reporting of these instruments might imply wide overlap regarding the addressed constructs this assumption seems questionable with respect to the diversity of the perspectives from which the assessments are administered. The study investigated a nested cohort (N = 79) of a randomized trial evaluating a patient decision aid on immunotherapy for multiple sclerosis. Convergent validities were calculated between observer ratings of videotaped physician-patient consultations (OPTION) and patients' perceptions of the communication (Shared Decision Making Questionnaire, Control Preference Scale & Decisional Conflict Scale). OPTION reliability was high to excellent. Communication performance was low according to OPTION and high according to the three patient administered measures. No correlations were found between observer and patient judges, neither for means nor for single items. Patient report measures showed some moderate correlations. Existing SDM measures do not refer to a single construct. A gold standard is missing to decide whether any of these measures has the potential to indicate patient involvement. Pronounced heterogeneity of the underpinning constructs implies difficulties regarding the interpretation of existing evidence on the efficacy of SDM. Consideration of communication theory and basic definitions of SDM would recommend an inter-subjective focus of measurement. Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN25267500.

  11. Completing the third person's perspective on patients' involvement in medical decision-making: approaching the full picture.

    Kasper, Jürgen; Hoffmann, Frauke; Heesen, Christoph; Köpke, Sascha; Geiger, Friedemann

    2012-01-01

    Shared decision making is based on the idea of cooperation and partnership between patients and doctors. In this concept both parties may initiate and perform specific decision-making steps. However, the common observation-based instruments focus solely on doctors' behaviour. Content and quality of information provided to involve patients in medical decisions are hardly considered in evaluation of SDM. This study investigates the advantages of a revised observer inventory taking into account these aspects. Based on the OPTION scale, a more comprehensive observation-based inventory was developed, additionally considering both the patient-sided indicators for patient involvement and the criteria of evidence-based patient information. The inventory comprises three scales (doctor, patient, doctor-patient dyad) and 15 indicators each. Rater training and re-analyses of 76 consultations previously analysed using the OPTION scale were conducted. Convergent validities were calculated between the observer-based scales and the patients' ratings on the Shared Decision Making Questionnaire, the Decisional Conflict Scale and the Control Preference Scale. Interrater reliabilities of the revised scales were high (r=.87 to .74) and even higher when only the dyadic perspective was coded (.86). The revised inventory provided additional information on the involvement taking place. No substantive correlations were found between observation-based and patients' subjective judgments. The observers' perspective on patient involvement needs to consider patient activities. Inconsistencies of patients' and observers' judgements concerning patient participation need further investigation. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  12. 44 CFR 5.8 - Records involved in litigation or other judicial process.

    2010-10-01

    ... litigation or other judicial process. 5.8 Section 5.8 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY... Provisions § 5.8 Records involved in litigation or other judicial process. Where there is reason to believe that any records requested may be involved in litigation or other judicial process in which the United...

  13. CI in the work place: does involving the HRM function make any difference?

    Hyland, Paul; Becker, Karen; Sload, Terry

    2008-01-01

    benefit the organisation's performance. The HRM function is often given the task of championing cultural change and managing aspects of training and learning, and it would appear that involvement of HRM professionals would enhance CI efforts and assist in the timely solution of issues within the CI......People are central to successful Continuous Improvement (CI), and in larger organisations a Human Resource Management (HRM) function is responsible for people related issues. Central to CI is learning and a culture that supports CI. Learning needs to be both individual and organisational, and must...

  14. A multi-criteria optimization and decision-making approach for improvement of food engineering processes

    Alik Abakarov

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to propose a multi-criteria optimization and decision-making technique to solve food engineering problems. This technique was demonstrated using experimental data obtained on osmotic dehydration of carrot cubes in a sodium chloride solution. The Aggregating Functions Approach, the Adaptive Random Search Algorithm, and the Penalty Functions Approach were used in this study to compute the initial set of non-dominated or Pareto-optimal solutions. Multiple non-linear regression analysis was performed on a set of experimental data in order to obtain particular multi-objective functions (responses, namely water loss, solute gain, rehydration ratio, three different colour criteria of rehydrated product, and sensory evaluation (organoleptic quality. Two multi-criteria decision-making approaches, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP and the Tabular Method (TM, were used simultaneously to choose the best alternative among the set of non-dominated solutions. The multi-criteria optimization and decision-making technique proposed in this study can facilitate the assessment of criteria weights, giving rise to a fairer, more consistent, and adequate final compromised solution or food process. This technique can be useful to food scientists in research and education, as well as to engineers involved in the improvement of a variety of food engineering processes.

  15. Neural responses to ambiguity involve domain-general and domain-specific emotion processing systems.

    Neta, Maital; Kelley, William M; Whalen, Paul J

    2013-04-01

    Extant research has examined the process of decision making under uncertainty, specifically in situations of ambiguity. However, much of this work has been conducted in the context of semantic and low-level visual processing. An open question is whether ambiguity in social signals (e.g., emotional facial expressions) is processed similarly or whether a unique set of processors come on-line to resolve ambiguity in a social context. Our work has examined ambiguity using surprised facial expressions, as they have predicted both positive and negative outcomes in the past. Specifically, whereas some people tended to interpret surprise as negatively valenced, others tended toward a more positive interpretation. Here, we examined neural responses to social ambiguity using faces (surprise) and nonface emotional scenes (International Affective Picture System). Moreover, we examined whether these effects are specific to ambiguity resolution (i.e., judgments about the ambiguity) or whether similar effects would be demonstrated for incidental judgments (e.g., nonvalence judgments about ambiguously valenced stimuli). We found that a distinct task control (i.e., cingulo-opercular) network was more active when resolving ambiguity. We also found that activity in the ventral amygdala was greater to faces and scenes that were rated explicitly along the dimension of valence, consistent with findings that the ventral amygdala tracks valence. Taken together, there is a complex neural architecture that supports decision making in the presence of ambiguity: (a) a core set of cortical structures engaged for explicit ambiguity processing across stimulus boundaries and (b) other dedicated circuits for biologically relevant learning situations involving faces.

  16. Cognitive Structures in Vocational Information Processing and Decision Making.

    Nevill, Dorothy D.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Tested the assumptions that the structural features of vocational schemas affect vocational information processing and career self-efficacy. Results indicated that effective vocational information processing was facilitated by well-integrated systems that processed information along fewer dimensions. The importance of schematic organization on the…

  17. Processes of decision making on energy issues: micro and macro analysis (the case of Poland 2015

    Katarzyna Iwińska

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Article tackles the idea of environmental and participatory democracy in Poland. Due to Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters known as the Aarhus Convention people should be involved in decisions concerning environment and energy issues in the country. All large investments, and those are certainly investments in energy infrastructure, are associated with a variety of interest groups and organizations. The main goal of this article is to show the decision making processes do not come across the knowledge and public information on nuclear energy in Poland. We present the context and background for the structural model of energy decisions using and reinterpreting survey data from 2014 and 2015 from the opinion polls on various sources of energy in Poland. From this point of departure we distinguish the micro-, meso- and macro- level of energy decisions.

  18. Involvement as inclusion? Shared decision-making in social work practice in Israel: a qualitative account.

    Levin, Lia

    2015-03-01

    Shared decision-making (SDM), a representation of shared knowledge and power between social workers and their clients, is gaining popularity and prevalence in social services around the world. In many senses, SDM reflects values traditionally associated with social work and service provision, such as equality and anti-discrimination. In the complex context of social problem-solving, however, the relationship between SDM, social workers and their clients is multi-faceted and deserves particular attention. The current study examined SDM and the dilemmas it entails through interviews conducted in 2012 with 77 Israeli social workers and policy makers whose responses were analysed according to the guiding principles of descriptive phenomenological content analysis and dialogical commonality. Participants' responses represent notions of hope, change, identity and choice. Findings are discussed in correspondence with current and recent trends in Israeli social services, and the social work profession in Israel. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Child Migration Decision Making in Ghana: The Actors and Processes

    Agribotix GCS 077

    The discourse on child migration decision making tends to present children as vulnerable and .... methods approach in a family migration research project with 37 families who moved within .... system (Hart, 1971), with many members living in common compounds in different household ... including housing, transport, water.

  20. Dissociating sensory from decision processes in human perceptual decision making

    Mostert, P.; Kok, P.; Lange, F.P. de

    2015-01-01

    A key question within systems neuroscience is how the brain translates physical stimulation into a behavioral response: perceptual decision making. To answer this question, it is important to dissociate the neural activity underlying the encoding of sensory information from the activity underlying

  1. Intervention decision-making processes and information preferences of parents of children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Grant, N; Rodger, S; Hoffmann, T

    2016-01-01

    When a child is diagnosed with autism, parents are faced with the task of choosing from many different intervention options. To find information about the options available, parents turn to a number of different sources. This study explores parents' (n = 23) intervention decision-making processes and information preferences following the diagnosis of ASD for their child. Qualitative thematic analysis of verbatim transcripts from interviews and focus groups involving parents of children with an autism diagnosis was undertaken. Analysis of the results revealed that there are concurrent emotional and pragmatic intervention 'journeys' undertaken by parents post diagnosis, which encompass the primary themes of: (1) information sources used, (2) parents' information preferences and (3) factors influencing intervention decision making. Parents described a journey from the point of diagnosis that involved seeking information on ASD interventions from multiple sources, with the Internet being the primary source. They were overwhelmed by the sheer volume of information available, and their preferences for information varied according to their stage in the journey post diagnosis. Parents had a 'trial and error' approach to choosing ASD interventions, with confidence increasing as they became more familiar with their child's condition, and had opportunities to explore numerous information sources about their child's diagnosis. While confidence increased over time, consideration of the effectiveness or evidence supporting interventions remained largely absent throughout the journey. This study highlights the need for parents of children with ASD to be supported to make informed intervention decisions, particularly with consideration for research evidence. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Transparency in decision-making processes governing hazardous activities

    Rasmussen, B.; Jensen, K.K.; Sandøe, P.

    2007-01-01

    Transparent decisions are decisions in which the decision maker clearly presents to others the normative and factual premises behind the conclusions and explains the reasoning leading from these premises to the conclusion. Transparency thus involves uncovering, describing, documenting...... and communicating all the argumentative steps in the line of reasoning. It also involves acknowledging the weighting of any evidence drawn upon in reaching the final decision. It is recommended that each decision should be accompanied by an audit trail describing the premises justifying it. Uncertainties should...

  3. Dissociating sensory from decision processes in human perceptual decision making

    Mostert, Pim; Kok, Peter; de Lange, Floris P.

    2015-01-01

    A key question within systems neuroscience is how the brain translates physical stimulation into a behavioral response: perceptual decision making. To answer this question, it is important to dissociate the neural activity underlying the encoding of sensory information from the activity underlying the subsequent temporal integration into a decision variable. Here, we adopted a decoding approach to empirically assess this dissociation in human magnetoencephalography recordings. We used a funct...

  4. The Decision-Making Process of a Small Task Group.

    Roderick, Joan C.

    1985-01-01

    This article focuses on the following areas of group process: the nature of the task group, the steps taken to reach a decision, and the ways in which a leader can effectively manage the inevitable conflict that emerges within groups as the problem-solving process progresses. (CT)

  5. Team confidence, motivated information processing, and dynamic group decision making

    de Dreu, C.K.W.; Beersma, B.

    2010-01-01

    According to the Motivated Information Processing in Groups (MIP-G) model, groups should perform ambiguous (non-ambiguous) tasks better when they have high (low) epistemic motivation and concomitant tendencies to engage in systematic (heuristic) information processing and exchange. The authors

  6. Evidence combination for incremental decision-making processes

    Berrada, Ghita; van Keulen, Maurice; de Keijzer, Ander

    The establishment of a medical diagnosis is an incremental process highly fraught with uncertainty. At each step of this painstaking process, it may be beneficial to be able to quantify the uncertainty linked to the diagnosis and steadily update the uncertainty estimation using available sources of

  7. Assessments of the extent to which health-care providers involve patients in decision making: a systematic review of studies using the OPTION instrument.

    Couët, Nicolas; Desroches, Sophie; Robitaille, Hubert; Vaillancourt, Hugues; Leblanc, Annie; Turcotte, Stéphane; Elwyn, Glyn; Légaré, France

    2015-08-01

    We have no clear overview of the extent to which health-care providers involve patients in the decision-making process during consultations. The Observing Patient Involvement in Decision Making instrument (OPTION) was designed to assess this. To systematically review studies that used the OPTION instrument to observe the extent to which health-care providers involve patients in decision making across a range of clinical contexts, including different health professions and lengths of consultation. We conducted online literature searches in multiple databases (2001-12) and gathered further data through networking. (i) OPTION scores as reported outcomes and (ii) health-care providers and patients as study participants. For analysis, we only included studies using the revised scale. Extracted data included: (i) study and participant characteristics and (ii) OPTION outcomes (scores, statistical associations and reported psychometric results). We also assessed the quality of OPTION outcomes reporting. We found 33 eligible studies, 29 of which used the revised scale. Overall, we found low levels of patient-involving behaviours: in cases where no intervention was used to implement shared decision making (SDM), the mean OPTION score was 23 ± 14 (0-100 scale). When assessed, the variables most consistently associated with higher OPTION scores were interventions to implement SDM (n = 8/9) and duration of consultations (n = 8/15). Whatever the clinical context, few health-care providers consistently attempt to facilitate patient involvement, and even fewer adjust care to patient preferences. However, both SDM interventions and longer consultations could improve this. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Psychological Functions of Semiotic Borders in Sense-Making: Liminality of Narrative Processes.

    De Luca Picione, Raffaele; Valsiner, Jaan

    2017-08-01

    In this paper we discuss the semiotic functions of the psychological borders that structure the flow of narrative processes. Each narration is always a contextual, situated and contingent process of sensemaking, made possible by the creation of borders, such as dynamic semiotic devices that are capable of connecting the past and the future, the inside and the outside, and the me with the non-me. Borders enable us to narratively construct one's own experiences using three inherent processes: contextualization, intersubjective positioning and setting of pertinence. The narrative process - as a subjective articulation of signs in a contingent social context - involves several functions of semiotic borders: separation, differentiation, distinction-making, connection, articulation and relation-enabling. The relevant psychological aspect highlighted here is that a border is a semiotic device which is required for both maintaining stability and inducing transformation at the same time. The peculiar dynamics and the semiotic structure of borders generate a liminal space, which is characterized by instability, by a blurred space-time distinction and by ambiguities in the semantic and syntactic processes of sensemaking. The psychological processes that occur in liminal space are strongly affectively loaded, yet it is exactly the setting and activation of liminality processes that lead to novelty and creativity and enable the creation of new narrative forms.

  9. The Migrant Making Organization Gender, Labor and Agency in a New Migration Process

    Marit Aure

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Labor migration is increasing in scale and diversity and is characterized by a new feminization. Despite these transformations, a common theme remains unchanged: immigrant workers are employed in low-skilled jobs. This study of labor migration from Russia to Norway analyzes the establishment of a new migration process, who was involved in this migration, and why this migration from Russia to Norway became dominated by women. It also discusses the situation of the Russian workers in the Norwegian labor market. Analyses of the recruitment processes show how gender, sexuality, age, marital status, education, and motherhood construct women as suitable migrants and how cultural processes combined with immigration policy restricts the migrants and contributes to deskilling and ethnic/national subordination. Focusing on the situated migrants’ contextual practices acknowledges the migrants’ willingness to seek challenges, intra- and inter-household relations, the costs involved and individual strategies and goals. This prevents the victimizing of migrants’ experiences inherent in the “othering” of migrants and adds to the understanding of migrants’ decision-making processes.

  10. The detrimental effects of emotional process dysregulation on decision making in substance dependence

    Anna eMurphy

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Substance dependence is complex and multifactorial, with many distinct pathways involved in both the development and subsequent maintenance of addictive behaviours. Various cognitive mechanisms have been implicated, including impulsivity, compulsivity and impaired decision-making. These mechanisms are modulated by emotional processes, resulting in increased likelihood of initial drug use, sustained substance dependence, and increased relapse during periods of abstinence. Emotional traits, such as sensation seeking, are risk factors for substance use, and chronic drug use can result in further emotional dysregulation via effects on reward, motivation and stress systems. We will explore theories of hyper and hypo sensitivity of the brain reward systems that may underpin motivational abnormalities and anhedonia. Disturbances in these systems contribute to the biasing of emotional processing toward cues related to drug use at the expense of natural rewards, which serves to maintain addictive behaviour, via enhanced drug craving. We will additionally focus on the sensitization of the brain stress systems that result in negative affect states that continue into protracted abstinence that is may lead to compulsive drug taking. We will explore how these emotional dysregulations impact upon decision-making controlled by goal-directed and habitual action selections systems, and, in combination with a failure of prefrontal inhibitory control, mediate maladaptive decision-making observed in substance dependent individuals such that they continue drug use in spite of negative consequences. An understanding of the emotional impacts on cognition in substance dependent individuals may guide the development of more effective therapeutic interventions.

  11. The detrimental effects of emotional process dysregulation on decision-making in substance dependence

    Murphy, Anna; Taylor, Eleanor; Elliott, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Substance dependence is complex and multifactorial, with many distinct pathways involved in both the development and subsequent maintenance of addictive behaviors. Various cognitive mechanisms have been implicated, including impulsivity, compulsivity, and impaired decision-making. These mechanisms are modulated by emotional processes, resulting in increased likelihood of initial drug use, sustained substance dependence, and increased relapse during periods of abstinence. Emotional traits, such as sensation-seeking, are risk factors for substance use, and chronic drug use can result in further emotional dysregulation via effects on reward, motivation, and stress systems. We will explore theories of hyper and hypo sensitivity of the brain reward systems that may underpin motivational abnormalities and anhedonia. Disturbances in these systems contribute to the biasing of emotional processing toward cues related to drug use at the expense of natural rewards, which serves to maintain addictive behavior, via enhanced drug craving. We will additionally focus on the sensitization of the brain stress systems that result in negative affect states that continue into protracted abstinence that is may lead to compulsive drug-taking. We will explore how these emotional dysregulations impact upon decision-making controlled by goal-directed and habitual action selections systems, and, in combination with a failure of prefrontal inhibitory control, mediate maladaptive decision-making observed in substance dependent individuals such that they continue drug use in spite of negative consequences. An understanding of the emotional impacts on cognition in substance dependent individuals may guide the development of more effective therapeutic interventions. PMID:23162443

  12. A trap for the unwary: jury decision making in cases involving the entrapment defense.

    Peters, Christopher S; Lampinen, James Michael; Malesky, L Alvin

    2013-02-01

    This article examines the opinions of jury-eligible participants regarding entrapment-related issues in online sex offender sting operations. Participants provided lower guilt ratings when the undercover officer initiated the online sexual solicitation than when the defendant initiated the online sexual solicitation. This effect was mediated by the causal attributions (situational vs. dispositional) made by mock jurors for the defendant's actions. The results also suggested that the entrapment defense was less successful for participants with a crime control orientation than for participants with a due process orientation. Based on the results, it is implied that law enforcement should exercise caution when performing these types of sting operations. Furthermore, defense and prosecuting attorneys should take into account the originators of the sexual solicitation when deciding whether to plea bargain or take a case to trial.

  13. Involving stakeholders in radiological protection decision making: recovery history and lessons from the people of Fukushima.

    Lazo, T

    2016-12-01

    Between September 2011 and August 2015, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) organised a series of 12 stakeholder dialogue workshops with residents of Fukushima Prefecture. Discussions focused on recovery, addressing topics such as protection of children, management of contaminated food, monitoring, and self-help measures. The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) supported, and the Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH) Secretariat attended, all 12 meetings to listen directly to the concerns of affected individuals and draw lessons for CRPPH. To summarise the dialogue results, ICRP organised a final meeting in Date, Japan with the support of NEA and other organisations. The lessons from and utility of the dialogue meetings were praised by dialogue participants and sponsors, and ICRP agreed that some form of dialogue would continue, although with ICRP participation and support rather than leadership. This paper summarises the internationally relevant lessons learned by CRPPH from this important process.

  14. Corticostriatal interactions during learning, memory processing, and decision making

    Pennartz, C.M.A.; Berke, J.D.; Graybiel, A.M.; Ito, R.; Lansink, C.S.; van der Meer, M.; Redish, A.D.; Smith, K.S.; Voorn, P.

    2009-01-01

    This mini-symposium aims to integrate recent insights from anatomy, behavior, and neurophysiology, highlighting the anatomical organization, behavioral significance, and information-processing mechanisms of corticostriatal interactions. In this summary of topics, which is not meant to provide a

  15. Process for making solid-state radiation-emitting composition

    Ashley, C.S.; Brinker, C.J.; Reed, S.; Walko, R.J.

    1993-08-31

    The invention provides a process for loading an aerogel substrate with tritium and the resultant compositions. According to the process, an aerogel substrate is hydrolyzed so that surface OH groups are formed. The hydrolyzed aerogel is then subjected to tritium exchange employing, for example, a tritium-containing gas, whereby tritium atoms replace H atoms of surface OH groups. OH and/or CH groups of residual alcohol present in the aerogel may also undergo tritium exchange.

  16. Decision Making Under Objective Risk Conditions-a Review of Cognitive and Emotional Correlates, Strategies, Feedback Processing, and External Influences.

    Schiebener, Johannes; Brand, Matthias

    2015-06-01

    While making decisions under objective risk conditions, the probabilities of the consequences of the available options are either provided or calculable. Brand et al. (Neural Networks 19:1266-1276, 2006) introduced a model describing the neuro-cognitive processes involved in such decisions. In this model, executive functions associated with activity in the fronto-striatal loop are important for developing and applying decision-making strategies, and for verifying, adapting, or revising strategies according to feedback. Emotional rewards and punishments learned from such feedback accompany these processes. In this literature review, we found support for the role of executive functions, but also found evidence for the importance of further cognitive abilities in decision making. Moreover, in addition to reflective processing (driven by cognition), decisions can be guided by impulsive processing (driven by anticipation of emotional reward and punishment). Reflective and impulsive processing may interact during decision making, affecting the evaluation of available options, as both processes are affected by feedback. Decision-making processes are furthermore modulated by individual attributes (e.g., age), and external influences (e.g., stressors). Accordingly, we suggest a revised model of decision making under objective risk conditions.

  17. [The Decision-Making Processes in Taiwanese Women With Repeat Caesarean Deliveries].

    Chen, Shu-Wen

    2016-10-01

    Repeat caesarean delivery (RCD) ranks as the top reason for the high caesarean rates in Taiwan. More than 90% of Taiwanese women who have had a previous caesarean delivery chose RCD following their next pregnancy. To explore the decision-making processes regarding RCD in Taiwanese women. A qualitative approach with grounded theory was used to conduct this research. Participants were recruited from a private medical centre in northern Taiwan. Methods of data collection include in-depth interviews, observation, and field notes. Constant comparative analytical techniques were employed for data analysis. A total of 16 women chose RCD. Ensuring the well-being of mother and fetus was the core theme. Women's decisions were influenced by both internal factors (previous negative experience of birth, concern about uterine rupture, fixing the scar of previous caesarean and current pregnancy situation) and external factors (obstetrician's recommendation, the experience of female significant others, an inaccurate information from internet and the unconditional financial coverage from Health National Insurance). Decision-making processes involved searching information regarding mode of birth, evaluating vaginal birth risk, trusting obstetricians' professional judgment, and a lack of progress during the course of labour. The well-being of mother and fetus is the major concern affecting mothers' decisions regarding RCD. The majority of Taiwanese women participate passively in the decision-making process regarding their options for mode of birth. In the present study, women choices were primarily guided by reducing the risk of uterine rupture. Hospitals should reduce unnecessary induction interventions. Obstetricians should inform women of the risks and benefits of various birth modes. The government could establish a website that provides a clear explanation of the criteria for the government to financially cover the costs of RCD in order to assist women to make optimal birth

  18. Patient involvement in a scientific advisory process: setting the research agenda for medical products.

    Elberse, J.E.; Pittens, C.A.C.M.; de Cock Buning, J.T.; Broerse, J.E.W.

    2012-01-01

    Patient involvement in scientific advisory processes could lead to more societally relevant advice. This article describes a case study wherein the Health Council of the Netherlands involved patient groups in an advisory process with a predefined focus: setting a research agenda for medical products

  19. Study of the mechanisms involved in the laser superficial hardening process of metallic alloys

    Silva, Edmara Marques Rodrigues da

    2001-01-01

    The laser superficial hardening process of a ferrous alloy (gray cast iron) and of an aluminum-silicon alloy was investigated in this work. These metallic alloys are used in the automobile industry for manufacturing cylinders and pistons, respectively. By application of individual pulses and single tracks, the involved mechanisms during the processing were studied. Variables such as energy density, power density, temporal width, beam diameter on the sample surface, atmosphere of the processing region, overlapping and scanning velocity. The hardened surface was characterized by optical and scanning electronic microscopy, dispersive energy microanalysis, X-ray mapping, X-ray diffraction, and measurements of roughness and Vickers microhardness. Depending on the processing parameters, it is possible to obtain different microstructures. The affected area of gray cast iron, can be hardened by remelting or transformation hardening (total or partial) if the reached temperature is higher or not that of melting temperature. Laser treatment originated new structures such as retained austenite, martensite and, occasionally, eutectic of cellular dendritic structure. Aluminum-silicon alloy does not have phase transformation in solid state, it can be hardened only by remelting. The increase of hardness is a function of the precipitation hardening process, which makes the silicon particles smaller and more disperse in the matrix. Maximal values of microhardness (700-1000 HV) were reached with the laser treatment in gray cast iron samples. The initial microhardness is of 242 HV. For aluminum-silicon alloy, the laser remelting increases the initial microhardness of 128 HV to the range of 160-320 HV. The found results give a new perspective for using the CLA/IPEN's laser in the heat treatment area. Besides providing a higher absorptivity to the materials, compared with the CO 2 laser, and optical fiber access, the superficial hardening with Nd:YAG laser, depending on the level of

  20. Patients' and observers' perceptions of involvement differ. Validation study on inter-relating measures for shared decision making.

    Jürgen Kasper

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Patient involvement into medical decisions as conceived in the shared decision making method (SDM is essential in evidence based medicine. However, it is not conclusively evident how best to define, realize and evaluate involvement to enable patients making informed choices. We aimed at investigating the ability of four measures to indicate patient involvement. While use and reporting of these instruments might imply wide overlap regarding the addressed constructs this assumption seems questionable with respect to the diversity of the perspectives from which the assessments are administered. METHODS: The study investigated a nested cohort (N = 79 of a randomized trial evaluating a patient decision aid on immunotherapy for multiple sclerosis. Convergent validities were calculated between observer ratings of videotaped physician-patient consultations (OPTION and patients' perceptions of the communication (Shared Decision Making Questionnaire, Control Preference Scale & Decisional Conflict Scale. RESULTS: OPTION reliability was high to excellent. Communication performance was low according to OPTION and high according to the three patient administered measures. No correlations were found between observer and patient judges, neither for means nor for single items. Patient report measures showed some moderate correlations. CONCLUSION: Existing SDM measures do not refer to a single construct. A gold standard is missing to decide whether any of these measures has the potential to indicate patient involvement. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Pronounced heterogeneity of the underpinning constructs implies difficulties regarding the interpretation of existing evidence on the efficacy of SDM. Consideration of communication theory and basic definitions of SDM would recommend an inter-subjective focus of measurement. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN25267500.

  1. The decision-making process for breast reconstruction after cancer surgery: Representations of heterosexual couples in long-standing relationships.

    Fasse, Léonor; Flahault, Cécile; Vioulac, Christel; Lamore, Kristopher; Van Wersch, Anna; Quintard, Bruno; Untas, Aurélie

    2017-05-01

    Most people deal with intrusive life events such as cancer and the care trajectory together with their intimate partners. To our knowledge, no research has studied the involvement of the partner in the decision-making process regarding breast reconstruction (BR) after cancer. This study aimed to gain a better understanding of the couples' decision-making process for BR in the cancer context and particularly to investigate the partners' involvement in this process. Eighteen participants (nine women who underwent a mastectomy following a first breast cancer and their intimate partners) took part in this study. We conducted semidirective interviews, and a general inductive approach was chosen to capture the representations of the couples. The women in the sample were aged between 33 and 66 years (M = 54, SD = 7.5) and their partner between 40 and 76 years (M = 59, SD = 11.6). The duration of their intimate relationship was on average 18 years (SD = 10.4; minimum = 4; maximum = 33). The analysis revealed 11 major themes. The two most salient ones were 'external influence' and 'implication of the partner'. The exploration of the subthemes revealed that the decision-making process is often reported as an interrelated experience by the couples and as a dyadic stressor. The partner's role is depicted as consultative and mostly supportive. These results provide new insights on the involvement of the partner in decision-making. Thus, it now seems crucial to develop a prospective study, which will help understand the progression of the decision-making process over time. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Most people deal with intrusive life events such as cancer and the care trajectory together with their intimate partners. Shared decision-making between patients and physicians is now the 'gold standard' in Western Europe and the United States. However, in the context of breast reconstruction (BR) after cancer, factors guiding

  2. Making CVE Work: A Focused Approach Based on Process Disruption

    J.M. Berger

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the biggest barriers to designing a comprehensive Countering Violent Extremism (CVE programme is defining its scope. This paper argues for a narrow approach, focusing on disengagement and the disruption of recruitment. The author develops a simplified model of radicalisation and the concurrent terrorist recruitment process, proposing concrete themes for disruptive intervention and messaging. After analysing case studies of disengagement, the author offers recommendations for specific action to accomplish CVE goals by disrupting recruitment processes and deploying targeted messaging within the framework of the correlated models.

  3. Shared decision making after severe stroke-How can we improve patient and family involvement in treatment decisions?

    Visvanathan, Akila; Dennis, Martin; Mead, Gillian; Whiteley, William N; Lawton, Julia; Doubal, Fergus Neil

    2017-12-01

    People who are well may regard survival with disability as being worse than death. However, this is often not the case when those surviving with disability (e.g. stroke survivors) are asked the same question. Many routine treatments provided after an acute stroke (e.g. feeding via a tube) increase survival, but with disability. Therefore, clinicians need to support patients and families in making informed decisions about the use of these treatments, in a process termed shared decision making. This is challenging after acute stroke: there is prognostic uncertainty, patients are often too unwell to participate in decision making, and proxies may not know the patients' expressed wishes (i.e. values). Patients' values also change over time and in different situations. There is limited evidence on successful methods to facilitate this process. Changes targeted at components of shared decision making (e.g. decision aids to provide information and discussing patient values) increase patient satisfaction. How this influences decision making is unclear. Presumably, a "shared decision-making tool" that introduces effective changes at various stages in this process might be helpful after acute stroke. For example, by complementing professional judgement with predictions from prognostic models, clinicians could provide information that is more accurate. Decision aids that are personalized may be helpful. Further qualitative research can provide clinicians with a better understanding of patient values and factors influencing this at different time points after a stroke. The evaluation of this tool in its success to achieve outcomes consistent with patients' values may require more than one clinical trial.

  4. Improving Work Processes by Making the Invisible Visible

    Bakker, Arthur; Hoyles, Celia; Kent, Phillip; Noss, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Increasingly, companies are taking part in process improvement programmes, which brings about a growing need for employees to interpret and act on data representations. We have carried out case studies in a range of companies to identify the existence and need of what we call "techno-mathematical literacies" (TmL): functional mathematical…

  5. Error Tendencies in Processing Student Feedback for Instructional Decision Making.

    Schermerhorn, John R., Jr.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Seeks to assist instructors in recognizing two basic errors that can occur in processing student evaluation data on instructional development efforts; offers a research framework for future investigations of the error tendencies and related issues; and suggests ways in which instructors can confront and manage error tendencies in practice. (MBR)

  6. When Family Considerations Influence Work Decisions: Decision-Making Processes

    Powell, Gary N.; Greenhaus, Jeffrey H.

    2012-01-01

    The work-family literature has provided an abundance of evidence that various family factors are linked to various work decisions, suggesting that the "family-relatedness" of work decisions is a prevalent phenomenon (Greenhaus & Powell, 2012). However, the cognitive processes by which such linkages occur have received little attention. We offer a…

  7. Mutant strain of C. acetobutylicum and process for making butanol

    Jain, Mahendra K.; Beacom, Daniel; Datta, Rathin

    1993-01-01

    A biologically pure asporogenic mutant of Clostridium acetobutylicum is produced by growing sporogenic C. acetobutylicum ATCC 4259 and treating the parent strain with ethane methane sulfonate. The mutant which as been designated C. acetobutylicum ATCC 55025 is useful in an improved ABE fermentation process, and produces high concentrations of butanol and total solvents.

  8. Making decision process knowledge explicit using the product data model

    Petrusel, R.; Vanderfeesten, I.T.P.; Dolean, Cristina; Mican, D.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new knowledge acquisition and formalization method: the decision mining approach. Basically, we aim to produce a model of the workflow of mental actions performed by decision makers during the decision process. We show that through the use of a Product Data Model (PDM) we

  9. Motivated information processing in group judgement and decision making

    de Dreu, C.K.W.; Nijstad, B.A.; van Knippenberg, D.

    2008-01-01

    This article expands the view of groups as information processors into a motivated information processing in groups (MIP-G) model by emphasizing, first, the mixedmotive structure of many group tasks and, second, the idea that individuals engage in more or less deliberate information search and

  10. Motivated information processing in group judgment and decision making

    De Dreu, Carsten K. W.; Nijstad, Bernard A.; van Knippenberg, Daan

    This article expands the view of groups as information processors into a motivated information processing in groups (MIP-G) model by emphasizing, first, the mixed-motive structure of many group tasks and, second, the idea that individuals engage in more or less deliberate information search and

  11. Improving work processes by making the invisible visible

    Bakker, A.; Hoyles, C.; Kent, P.; Noss, R.

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing movement for industrial companies to modify their production practices according to methodologies collectively known as process improvement. After World War II, Japanese companies such as Toyota developed new manufacturing paradigms (e.g., lean manufacturing) under the guidance of

  12. Unionism, the Decision-Making Process and Social Security Reform in Brazil

    Sidney Jard da Silva

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the vast literature on social security reform there are relatively few studies that analyze the participation of representatives coming from the union movement in the decision-making process. This article aims to fill part of that gap in Brazilian academic production on unionism and public policy. In situations in which unionist representatives support the ruling party, does the union bloc tend to defend the specific interests of their base of social representation or to follow the guidance of the party coalition of which they are part? The study addresses this research problemby analyzing the participation of the union bloc in the decision-making process of a social security reform, Proposal of Amendment to the Constitution, Article 40 (PEC 40, during the first term of Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva's government. The main findings of the study confirm the thesis of party predominance. In an institutional political scenario in which party discipline prevails, unionist representatives and senators tend to follow the guidance of the party coalition even under contrary pressures from their electoral base. The research sheds light on the relations involved between the Executive and Legislative branches, in the process of changing public policy, in which a government considered to be allied imposes losses for specific sectors of the union base, notably the active and inactive public servants of the federal government, states and municipalities.

  13. Involvement of people with dementia in making decisions about their lives: a qualitative study that appraises shared decision-making concerning daycare.

    Groen-van de Ven, Leontine; Smits, Carolien; de Graaff, Fuusje; Span, Marijke; Eefsting, Jan; Jukema, Jan; Vernooij-Dassen, Myrra

    2017-11-12

    To explore how people with dementia, their informal caregivers and their professionals participate in decision making about daycare and to develop a typology of participation trajectories. A qualitative study with a prospective, multiperspective design, based on 244 semistructured interviews, conducted during three interview rounds over the course of a year. Analysis was by means of content analysis and typology construction. Community settings and nursing homes in the Netherlands. 19 people with dementia, 36 of their informal caregivers and 38 of their professionals (including nurses, daycare employees and case managers). The participants' responses related to three critical points in the decision-making trajectory about daycare: (1) the initial positive or negative expectations of daycare; (2) negotiation about trying out daycare by promoting, resisting or attuning to others; and (3) trying daycare, which resulted in positive or negative reactions from people with dementia and led to a decision. The ways in which care networks proceeded through these three critical points resulted in a typology of participation trajectories, including (1) working together positively toward daycare, (2) bringing conflicting perspectives together toward trying daycare and (3) not reaching commitment to try daycare. Shared decision making with people with dementia is possible and requires and adapted process of decision making. Our results show that initial preferences based on information alone may change when people with dementia experience daycare. It is important to have a try-out period so that people with dementia can experience daycare without having to decide whether to continue it. Whereas shared decision making in general aims at moving from initial preferences to informed preferences, professionals should focus more on moving from initial preferences to experienced preferences for people with dementia. Professionals can play a crucial role in facilitating the

  14. NEA Workshop on Stakeholder Involvement in Nuclear Decision Making, 17-19 January 2017, OECD Conference Centre, Paris, Room CC9

    Burns, Stephen G.; Yanush, Maryna; Jendroska, Jerzy; Beyens, Marc; Emmerechts, Sam; Touitou-Durand, Florence; Crosland, Martha; Ziakova, Marta; Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic; Nuclear Regulation Authority; Ferapontov, Alexey; Hayano, Ryugo; Boyd, Mike; Mayall, Andrew; Tomkiv, Yevgeniya; Kawabuchi, Hideo; Kuenzi, Pascale; Shaver, Kathryn; Yngve Toernqvist, Johanna; Bjoerklund, Sara; Gerhardsson, Ansi; Kuenzi, Pascale; Birkhaeuser, Philip; Smith, Katherine; Katz, Sharonne; Vanhatalo, Hanna; Thome-Jassaud, Pierre-Franck; Bae, Su Hwan; Straub, Ralf; Gadano, Julian; Wolsink, Maarten; Komendantova, Nadejda; Kalaydjian, Francois; Harrington, Holly; Bouchot, Emmanuel; Runyon, Timothy; Gonzalez Herrero, Eva; Maclachlan, Ann

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear issues are embedded with broader societal issues such as the environment, risk management, energy and health policies, and sustainability. As such, nuclear projects often generate considerable interest and concern from stakeholders. In this context 'stakeholder' is intended to be taken in its broadest sense and should include concerned public, businesses, economic actors, NGOs, local, regional and national authorities, nuclear regulators, etc. Anyone who has relevant information, experience or concerns may seek to participate in the decision making process, and to interact with other stakeholders. Nuclear regulators, governments, operators, and other decision makers have a responsibility to ensure a high degree of transparency and to make clear and well-reasoned decisions. In this respect, there is an increasing demand for stakeholder involvement, participation and engagement. Across NEA member countries, many different approaches are taken to stakeholder involvement as decisions are made and implemented. Well-informed decisions broadly reflect the input of stakeholder views in a balanced fashion, the achievement of which can be difficult to assess. Attempts to achieve such broad understanding of views and acceptance of resulting decisions are an important part of building public confidence. Additionally, interested citizens, other stakeholders, and non-governmental organisations often call upon decision processes to be conducted in a manner that maintains public confidence. This workshop was not about what decision is made. Rather, it was about decision making processes used to reflect stakeholder concerns and input. How does one effectively involve stakeholders? How does one build and assess public confidence? How can broader stakeholder involvement help decision makers to make well-informed decisions that effectively address stakeholder views? On 17-19 January 2017, the NEA hosted a workshop on Stakeholder Involvement in Nuclear Decision Making

  15. Coated armor system and process for making the same

    Chu, Henry S.; Lillo, Thomas M.; McHugh, Kevin M.

    2010-11-23

    An armor system and method involves providing a core material and a stream of atomized coating material that comprises a liquid fraction and a solid fraction. An initial layer is deposited on the core material by positioning the core material in the stream of atomized coating material wherein the solid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material is less than the liquid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material on a weight basis. An outer layer is then deposited on the initial layer by positioning the core material in the stream of atomized coating material wherein the solid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material is greater than the liquid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material on a weight basis.

  16. Pythagorean fuzzy analytic hierarchy process to multi-criteria decision making

    Mohd, Wan Rosanisah Wan; Abdullah, Lazim

    2017-11-01

    A numerous approaches have been proposed in the literature to determine the criteria of weight. The weight of criteria is very significant in the process of decision making. One of the outstanding approaches that used to determine weight of criteria is analytic hierarchy process (AHP). This method involves decision makers (DMs) to evaluate the decision to form the pair-wise comparison between criteria and alternatives. In classical AHP, the linguistic variable of pairwise comparison is presented in terms of crisp value. However, this method is not appropriate to present the real situation of the problems because it involved the uncertainty in linguistic judgment. For this reason, AHP has been extended by incorporating the Pythagorean fuzzy sets. In addition, no one has found in the literature proposed how to determine the weight of criteria using AHP under Pythagorean fuzzy sets. In order to solve the MCDM problem, the Pythagorean fuzzy analytic hierarchy process is proposed to determine the criteria weight of the evaluation criteria. Using the linguistic variables, pairwise comparison for evaluation criteria are made to the weights of criteria using Pythagorean fuzzy numbers (PFNs). The proposed method is implemented in the evaluation problem in order to demonstrate its applicability. This study shows that the proposed method provides us with a useful way and a new direction in solving MCDM problems with Pythagorean fuzzy context.

  17. Sourdough microbial community dynamics: An analysis during French organic bread-making processes.

    Lhomme, Emilie; Urien, Charlotte; Legrand, Judith; Dousset, Xavier; Onno, Bernard; Sicard, Delphine

    2016-02-01

    Natural sourdoughs are commonly used in bread-making processes, especially for organic bread. Despite its role in bread flavor and dough rise, the stability of the sourdough microbial community during and between bread-making processes is debated. We investigated the dynamics of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeast communities in traditional organic sourdoughs of five French bakeries during the bread-making process and several months apart using classical and molecular microbiology techniques. Sourdoughs were sampled at four steps of the bread-making process with repetition. The analysis of microbial density over 68 sourdough/dough samples revealed that both LAB and yeast counts changed along the bread-making process and between bread-making runs. The species composition was less variable. A total of six LAB and nine yeast species was identified from 520 and 1675 isolates, respectively. The dominant LAB species was Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, found for all bakeries and each bread-making run. The dominant yeast species changed only once between bread-making processes but differed between bakeries. They mostly belonged to the Kazachstania clade. Overall, this study highlights the change of population density within the bread-making process and between bread-making runs and the relative stability of the sourdough species community during bread-making process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Healthy kids: Making school health policy a participatory learning process

    Stjernqvist, Nanna Wurr; Bruselius-Jensen, Maria; Høstgaard Bonde, Ane

    enjoyed having a voice in school matters and to deal with real life during health education. Teachers were very positive towards the integration of school health policy work into teaching the curriculum in Danish, Maths and Biology. However, the transferring from the classroom to the organizational levels....... Methods The presented model works at two levels - the classroom and the organizational level – and is based on four phases, namely: Investigation – Vision – Action – Change, viewed as an iterative process. Pupil perspectives and learning is the basis in all four phases based on a set of health education...... was weakhindering sustainable health changes. Conclusion Findings indicate that integrating school policy processes into the teaching of curriculum might pave the way for schools to engage in health promotion. But further knowledge on how to likewise engage the staff on an organisational level is needed....

  19. School nurse evaluations: making the process meaningful and motivational.

    McDaniel, Kathryn H; Overman, Muriel; Guttu, Martha; Engelke, Martha Keehner

    2013-02-01

    The professional standards of school nursing practice provide a framework to help school nurses focus on their unique mission of promoting health and academic achievement for all students. Without the standards, the nurse's role can become task oriented and limited in scope. By using an evaluation tool that reflects the standards, nurses not only become aware and begin to understand the standards; they also become directly accountable for meeting them. In addition, developing an evaluation process based on the standards of school nurse practice increases the visibility of school nurses and helps school administrators understand the role of the school nurse. This article describes how one school district integrated the scope and standards of school nursing into the job description and performance evaluation of the nurse. The process which is used to complete the evaluation in a manner that is meaningful and motivational to the school nurse is described.

  20. Defense Waste Processing Facility radioactive operations -- Part 2, Glass making

    Carter, J.T.; Rueter, K.J.; Ray, J.W.; Hodoh, O.

    1996-01-01

    The Savannah River Site's Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) near Aiken, SC is the nation's first and world's largest vitrification facility. Following a ten year construction period and nearly 3 year non-radioactive test program, the DWPF began radioactive operations in March, 1996. The results of the first 8 months of radioactive operations are presented. Topics include facility production from waste preparation batching to canister filling

  1. Neural Correlates of Feedback Processing in Decision Making under Risk

    Beate eSchuermann

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Event-related brain potentials (ERP provide important information about the sensitivity of the brain to process varying risks. The aim of the present study was to determine how different risk levels are reflected in decision-related ERPs, namely the feedback-related negativity (FRN and the P300. Material and Methods. 20 participants conducted a probabilistic two-choice gambling task while an electroencephalogram was recorded. Choices were provided between a low-risk option yielding low rewards and low losses and a high-risk option yielding high rewards and high losses. While options differed in expected risks, they were equal in expected values and in feedback probabilities. Results. At the behavioral level, participants were generally risk-averse but modulated their risk-taking behavior according to reward history. An early positivity (P200 was enhanced on negative feedbacks in high-risk compared to low-risk options. With regard to the FRN, there were significant amplitude differences between positive and negative feedbacks in high-risk options, but not in low-risk options. While the FRN on negative feedbacks did not vary with decision riskiness, reduced amplitudes were found for positive feedbacks in high-risk relative to low-risk choices. P300 amplitudes were larger in high-risk decisions, and in an additive way, after negative compared to positive feedback. Discussion. The present study revealed significant influences of risk and valence processing on ERPs. FRN findings suggest that the reward prediction error signal is increased after high-risk decisions. The increased P200 on negative feedback in risky decisions suggests that large negative prediction errors are processed as early as in the P200 time range. The later P300 amplitude is sensitive to feedback valence as well as to the risk of a decision. Thus, the P300 carries additional information for reward processing, mainly the enhanced motivational significance of risky

  2. More About Arc-Welding Process for Making Carbon Nanotubes

    Benavides, Jeanette M.; Leidecker, Henning

    2005-01-01

    High-quality batches of carbon nanotubes are produced at relatively low cost in a modified atmospheric-pressure electric-arc welding process that does not include the use of metal catalysts. What would normally be a welding rod and a weldment are replaced by an amorphous carbon anode rod and a wider, hollow graphite cathode rod. Both electrodes are water-cooled. The cathode is immersed in ice water to about 0.5 cm from the surface. The system is shielded from air by flowing helium during arcing. As the anode is consumed during arcing at 20 to 25 A, it is lowered to maintain it at an approximately constant distance above the cathode. The process causes carbon nanotubes to form on the lowest 5 cm of the anode. The arcing process is continued until the anode has been lowered to a specified height. The nanotube-containing material is then harvested. The additional information contained in the instant report consists mostly of illustrations of carbon nanotubes and a schematic diagram of the arc-welding setup, as modified for the production of carbon nanotubes.

  3. Organisational Structure: Essential in Making Mechanisms Process Management

    Domnica Doina Parcalabu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Although public management is a new field of management science, there are already convinced that the extension of specific principles and approaches, there is only a relative matter, but becomes animperative necessity, which determines the coordinates of the major public sector reform. Otherwise, there is increased risk of slipping into formalism, changing some general understandings and essential to thedetriment of the fundamental, meeting new public management. As a consequence, it is absolutely necessary to waive the perception and treatment of the old administrative system, public institutions in general and inparticular as bureaucratic administrative apparatus that develop rules, regulations and laws by which they are applied and the transition to new principles and regularities of public management, the administrative systemas a whole and each public institution by public managers seek an given level of managerial performance, reflected in increasing general public interest and satisfaction of specific social needs. To this we highlightthe organizational analysis and design of technology-specific organizational structure of public institutions, structures of communication within public institutions, participatory decision-making structures that are mostefficient and effective types of organizations based on structures - pyramidal and hierarchical organizations network-type organizations.

  4. Consumer's Buying Decision-Making Process in E-Commerce

    Puspitasari, Nia Budi; Susatyo, Nugroho W. P.; Amyhorsea, Deya Nilan; Susanty, Aries

    2018-02-01

    The e-commerce growth and development in Indonesia is very rapid as well as the internet grows, but it is not well-balanced with the number of online buying transaction which is still relatively low. Even the today's biggest B2C e-commerce people in Indonesia, Lazada, has continually decreased online purchasing. This research is aimed to describe factors affecting online buying decision- making in the e-commerce Lazada. The type of this research is confirmatory research. The variable used is following conceptual model i.e. Electronic Word of Mouth (EWOM), social identity, risk perception, trust, and purchase intention. The data were obtained through the questionnaire with Likert scale 1-5. There are 104 people researching sample who meets the criteria as Lazada consumer that, at least do a transaction in recent six months. Data analyzing were done using Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) method by Analysis of Moment Structures (AMOS) software. The results showed that the purchase intention has positively related to the purchase decision. Variable EWOM toward trust has positive relation, variable social identity and risk perception have no any significant relation to trust. Variable risk perception toward purchase intention has no significant relation, while the variable trust has significant positive relation to purchase intention.

  5. Thin film superconductors and process for making same

    Nigrey, P.J.

    1988-01-21

    A process for the preparation of oxide superconductors from high-viscosity non-aqueous solution is described. Solutions of lanthanide nitrates, alkaline earth nitrates and copper nitrates in a 1:2:3 stoichiometric ratio, when added to ethylene glycol containing citric acid solutions, have been used to prepare highly viscous non-aqueous solutions of metal mixed nitrates-citrates. Thin films of these compositions are produced when a layer of the viscous solution is formed on a substrate and subjected to thermal decomposition.

  6. Decision-Making Processes in the Workplace: How Exhaustion, Lack of Resources and Job Demands Impair Them and Affect Performance.

    Ceschi, Andrea; Demerouti, Evangelia; Sartori, Riccardo; Weller, Joshua

    2017-01-01

    The present study aims to connect more the I/O and the decision-making psychological domains, by showing how some common components across jobs interfere with decision-making and affecting performance. Two distinct constructs that can contribute to positive workplace performance have been considered: decision-making competency (DMCy) and decision environment management (DEM). Both factors are presumed to involve self-regulatory mechanisms connected to decision processes by influencing performance in relation to work environment conditions. In the framework of the job demands-resources (JD-R) model, the present study tested how such components as job demands, job resources and exhaustion can moderate decision-making processes and performance, where high resources are advantageous for decision-making processes and performance at work, while the same effect happens with low job demands and/or low exhaustion. In line with the formulated hypotheses, results confirm the relations between both the decision-making competences, performance (i.e., in-role and extra-role) and moderators considered. In particular, employees with low levels of DMCy show to be more sensitive to job demands toward in-role performance, whereas high DEM levels increase the sensitivity of employees toward job resources and exhaustion in relation to extra-role performance. These findings indicate that decision-making processes, as well as work environment conditions, are jointly related to employee functioning.

  7. Decision-Making Processes in the Workplace: How Exhaustion, Lack of Resources and Job Demands Impair Them and Affect Performance

    Andrea Ceschi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to connect more the I/O and the decision-making psychological domains, by showing how some common components across jobs interfere with decision-making and affecting performance. Two distinct constructs that can contribute to positive workplace performance have been considered: decision-making competency (DMCy and decision environment management (DEM. Both factors are presumed to involve self-regulatory mechanisms connected to decision processes by influencing performance in relation to work environment conditions. In the framework of the job demands-resources (JD-R model, the present study tested how such components as job demands, job resources and exhaustion can moderate decision-making processes and performance, where high resources are advantageous for decision-making processes and performance at work, while the same effect happens with low job demands and/or low exhaustion. In line with the formulated hypotheses, results confirm the relations between both the decision-making competences, performance (i.e., in-role and extra-role and moderators considered. In particular, employees with low levels of DMCy show to be more sensitive to job demands toward in-role performance, whereas high DEM levels increase the sensitivity of employees toward job resources and exhaustion in relation to extra-role performance. These findings indicate that decision-making processes, as well as work environment conditions, are jointly related to employee functioning.

  8. Decision making for wildfires: A guide for applying a risk management process at the incident level

    Mary A. Taber; Lisa M. Elenz; Paul G. Langowski

    2013-01-01

    This publication focuses on the thought processes and considerations surrounding a risk management process for decision making on wildfires. The publication introduces a six element risk management cycle designed to encourage sound risk-informed decision making in accordance with Federal wildland fire policy, although the process is equally applicable to non-Federal...

  9. "We just follow the patients' lead": Healthcare professional perspectives on the involvement of teenagers with cancer in decision making.

    Day, Emma; Jones, Louise; Langner, Richard; Stirling, L Caroline; Hough, Rachael; Bluebond-Langner, Myra

    2018-03-01

    We report on an in-depth interview and participant observation study that uses data from multiple sources to determine how the involvement of teenagers with leukaemia is understood and enacted in healthcare. In this article, we investigate healthcare professionals' (HCP) views of teenagers' involvement in decisions about their care and treatment for leukaemia. We conducted participant observation at 98 multi-disciplinary meetings and 95 open-ended, semi-structured interviews and informal conversations with clinical teenage cancer teams at one UK tertiary referral centre. Data were collected over a 9-month period, audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using principles of grounded theory. HCP revealed principles relating to the involvement of teenagers with leukaemia in decision making: (1) do the 'right thing', (2) act on the care and treatment preferences of the teenager and (3) openly disclose information about the teenagers' condition. These principles were prioritised and utilised uniquely in each situation, reliant on three mediating factors: (1) family communication styles, (2) stage of illness and (3) nature of the disease. Specialist haematology teams are aware of the individual, and shifting and situational preferences of teenagers. They follow the lead which teenagers give them with regard to these preferences. If actual practice with regard to the involvement of teenagers is found to be wanting, this study refutes that this should be ascribed to insensitivity on the part of HCP about teenagers informational and decisional role preferences. © 2017 The Authors. Pediatric Blood & Cancer Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Make

    Frauenfelder, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The first magazine devoted entirely to do-it-yourself technology projects presents its 29th quarterly edition for people who like to tweak, disassemble, recreate, and invent cool new uses for technology. MAKE Volume 29 takes bio-hacking to a new level. Get introduced to DIY tracking devices before they hit the consumer electronics marketplace. Learn how to build an EKG machine to study your heartbeat, and put together a DIY bio lab to study athletic motion using consumer grade hardware.

  11. Process quality of decision-making in multidisciplinary cancer team meetings: a structured observational study.

    Hahlweg, Pola; Didi, Sarah; Kriston, Levente; Härter, Martin; Nestoriuc, Yvonne; Scholl, Isabelle

    2017-11-17

    The quality of decision-making in multidisciplinary team meetings (MDTMs) depends on the quality of information presented and the quality of team processes. Few studies have examined these factors using a standardized approach. The aim of this study was to objectively document the processes involved in decision-making in MDTMs, document the outcomes in terms of whether a treatment recommendation was given (none vs. singular vs. multiple), and to identify factors related to type of treatment recommendation. An adaptation of the observer rating scale Multidisciplinary Tumor Board Metric for the Observation of Decision-Making (MDT-MODe) was used to assess the quality of the presented information and team processes in MDTMs. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and mixed logistic regression analysis. N = 249 cases were observed in N = 29 MDTMs. While cancer-specific medical information was judged to be of high quality, psychosocial information and information regarding patient views were considered to be of low quality. In 25% of the cases no, in 64% one, and in 10% more than one treatment recommendations were given (1% missing data). Giving no treatment recommendation was associated with duration of case discussion, duration of the MDTM session, quality of case history, quality of radiological information, and specialization of the MDTM. Higher levels of medical and treatment uncertainty during discussions were found to be associated with a higher probability for more than one treatment recommendation. The quality of different aspects of information was observed to differ greatly. In general, we did not find MDTMs to be in line with the principles of patient-centered care. Recommendation outcome varied substantially between different specializations of MDTMs. The quality of certain information was associated with the recommendation outcome. Uncertainty during discussions was related to more than one recommendation being considered. Time constraints

  12. Theoretical Background for the Decision-Making Process Modelling under Controlled Intervention Conditions

    Bakanauskienė Irena; Baronienė Laura

    2017-01-01

    This article is intended to theoretically justify the decision-making process model for the cases, when active participation of investing entities in controlling the activities of an organisation and their results is noticeable. Based on scientific literature analysis, a concept of controlled conditions is formulated, and using a rational approach to the decision-making process, a model of the 11-steps decision-making process under controlled intervention is presented. Also, there have been u...

  13. Emotion word processing: does mood make a difference?

    Sereno, Sara C.; Scott, Graham G.; Yao, Bo; Thaden, Elske J.; O'Donnell, Patrick J.

    2015-01-01

    Visual emotion word processing has been in the focus of recent psycholinguistic research. In general, emotion words provoke differential responses in comparison to neutral words. However, words are typically processed within a context rather than in isolation. For instance, how does one's inner emotional state influence the comprehension of emotion words? To address this question, the current study examined lexical decision responses to emotionally positive, negative, and neutral words as a function of induced mood as well as their word frequency. Mood was manipulated by exposing participants to different types of music. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions—no music, positive music, and negative music. Participants' moods were assessed during the experiment to confirm the mood induction manipulation. Reaction time results confirmed prior demonstrations of an interaction between a word's emotionality and its frequency. Results also showed a significant interaction between participant mood and word emotionality. However, the pattern of results was not consistent with mood-congruency effects. Although positive and negative mood facilitated responses overall in comparison to the control group, neither positive nor negative mood appeared to additionally facilitate responses to mood-congruent words. Instead, the pattern of findings seemed to be the consequence of attentional effects arising from induced mood. Positive mood broadens attention to a global level, eliminating the category distinction of positive-negative valence but leaving the high-low arousal dimension intact. In contrast, negative mood narrows attention to a local level, enhancing within-category distinctions, in particular, for negative words, resulting in less effective facilitation. PMID:26379570

  14. Monitoring in the nearshore: A process for making reasoned decisions

    Bodkin, James L.; Dean, T.A.

    2003-01-01

    Over the past several years, a conceptual framework for the GEM nearshore monitoring program has been developed through a series of workshops. However, details of the proposed monitoring program, e.g. what to sample, where to sample, when to sample and at how many sites, have yet to be determined. In FY 03 we were funded under Project 03687 to outline a process whereby specific alternatives to monitoring are developed and presented to the EVOS Trustee Council for consideration. As part of this process, two key elements are required before reasoned decisions can be made. These are: 1) a comprehensive historical perspective of locations and types of past studies conducted in the nearshore marine communities within Gulf of Alaska, and 2) estimates of costs for each element of a proposed monitoring program. We have developed a GIS database that details available information from past studies of selected nearshore habitats and species in the Gulf of Alaska and provide a visual means of selecting sites based (in part) on the locations for which historical data of interest are available. We also provide cost estimates for specific monitoring plan alternatives and outline several alternative plans that can be accomplished within reasonable budgetary constraints. The products that we will provide are: 1) A GIS database and maps showing the location and types of information available from the nearshore in the Gulf of Alaska; 2) A list of several specific monitoring alternatives that can be conducted within reasonable budgetary constraints; and 3) Cost estimates for proposed tasks to be conducted as part of the nearshore program. Because data compilation and management will not be completed until late in FY03 we are requesting support for close-out of this project in FY 04.

  15. Theoretical Background for the Decision-Making Process Modelling under Controlled Intervention Conditions

    Bakanauskienė Irena

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is intended to theoretically justify the decision-making process model for the cases, when active participation of investing entities in controlling the activities of an organisation and their results is noticeable. Based on scientific literature analysis, a concept of controlled conditions is formulated, and using a rational approach to the decision-making process, a model of the 11-steps decision-making process under controlled intervention is presented. Also, there have been unified conditions, describing the case of controlled interventions thus providing preconditions to ensure the adequacy of the proposed decision-making process model.

  16. Automatic Control of Arc Process for Making Carbon Nanotubes

    Scott, Carl D.; Pulumbarit, Robert B.; Victor, Joe

    2004-01-01

    An automatic-control system has been devised for a process in which carbon nanotubes are produced in an arc between a catalyst-filled carbon anode and a graphite cathode. The control system includes a motor-driven screw that adjusts the distance between the electrodes. The system also includes a bridge circuit that puts out a voltage proportional to the difference between (1) the actual value of potential drop across the arc and (2) a reference value between 38 and 40 V (corresponding to a current of about 100 A) at which the yield of carbon nanotubes is maximized. Utilizing the fact that the potential drop across the arc increases with the interelectrode gap, the output of the bridge circuit is fed to a motor-control circuit that causes the motor to move the anode toward or away from the cathode if the actual potential drop is more or less, respectively, than the reference potential. Thus, the system regulates the interelectrode gap to maintain the optimum potential drop. The system also includes circuitry that records the potential drop across the arc and the relative position of the anode holder as function of time.

  17. What makes corruption in the public procurement process awful?

    Kofi Osei-Afoakwa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Corruption as a societal bane has afflicted homes, families, societies, businesses, governments and nations for ages. Some have traced it to the days of Adam. Under every culture, the phenomenon has been considered detestable although its exact definition has defied definite expression. Its pervasiveness has also been recognised by sociologists for ages. It has appeared in households, offices, churches, marriages and all facets of social endeavours and interactions. When corruption rears its ugly head in the process through which governments acquire goods, works and services for the purpose of running their business, it is highly unacceptable and particularly dangerous to such nations. But why is there the cause to worry about corruption? Why is corruption unacceptable? A theoretical basis is provided to elucidate societal abhorrence to corruption as it affects public procurement in particular using the deontologist-consequentialist dichotomised ethical and moral explanations. It has been concluded that corruption in procurement is awful not only because of its negative consequences but because it is inherently wrong, unethical, immoral and above all an illegality.

  18. Site selection process for new nuclear power plants - a method to support decision making and improving public participation

    Martins, Vivian B.; Cunha, Tatiana S. da; Simoes Filho, Francisco Fernando Lamego; Lapa, Celso Marcelo F.

    2011-01-01

    The Brazilian Energy Plan (PNE 2030) that guides the Government in formulating its strategy for expanding energy supply by 2030 highlights the need for the Brazilian electrical system have more than 4,000 MW from nuclear sources by 2025. Therefore, the Government presented a proposal to build four more nuclear power plants with capacity of 1,000 MW each, at first, two in the Northeast and two in Southeast. The selection and site assessment are key parts of the installation process of a nuclear plant and may significantly affect the cost, public acceptance and safety of the facility during its entire life cycle. The result of this initial stage, it can even seriously affect program success. Wrong decisions in the process of site selection may also require a financial commitment to higher planned in a later phase of the project, besides causing extensive and expensive downtime. Select the location where these units will be built is not a trivial process, because involves the consideration of multiple criteria and judgments in addition to obtaining, organizing and managing a diverse range of data, both qualitative and quantitative, to assist in decision making and ensure that the site selected is the most appropriate in relation to safety and technical, economic and environmental feasibility. This paper presents an overview of the site selection process and its stages, the criteria involved in each step, the tools to support decision making that can be used and the difficulties in applying a formal process of decision making. Also discussed are ways to make the process more transparent and democratic, increasing public involvement as a way to improve acceptance and reduce opposition from various sectors of society, trying to minimize the expense and time involved in the implementation of undertakings of this kind. (author)

  19. Cancer treatment decision-making processes for older patients with complex needs: a qualitative study.

    Bridges, Jackie; Hughes, Jane; Farrington, Naomi; Richardson, Alison

    2015-12-14

    Although older people can experience complex health and social care needs alongside a primary cancer diagnosis, little is understood about how cancer treatment decisions are made for this population. This study aimed to investigate how cancer treatment decisions are formulated for older people with complex health and social care needs and the factors that shape these processes. Qualitative study involving semistructured interviews and non-participant observations. Framework approach used for data analysis. Breast and colorectal cancer services in five English NHS hospital trusts. Interviews: purposive sample of 22 clinicians directly involved in a face-to-face clinical role with patients regarding cancer treatment and care, maximising variation across clinical roles, tumour types and trusts. purposive sample of five cancer multidisciplinary meetings, maximising variation across location, team size and tumour type. The initial stages of cancer treatment decision-making are team-based, medically dominated and focused on the cancer. For patients with complex health and social care needs that extend beyond cancer pathology, later and less visible stages in the decision-making process are more haphazard and may result in less effective and workable treatment plans, as individual clinicians struggle to devise and deliver these plans without breaching time-based targets. Service targets that focus resources solely on the presenting disease can disadvantage older patients with complex health and social care needs that extend beyond this primary diagnosis. Care should be taken to ensure time-based targets do not disincentivise thorough and timely assessment that can lead to the formulation of treatment plans tailored to individual needs and circumstances. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  20. Decision-Making Involvement and Prediction of Adherence in Youth With Type 1 Diabetes: A Cohort Sequential Study.

    Miller, Victoria A; Jawad, Abbas F

    2018-05-17

    To assess developmental trajectories of decision-making involvement (DMI), defined as the ways in which parents and children engage each other in decision-making about illness management, in youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and examine the effects of DMI on levels of and changes in adherence with age. Participants included 117 youth with T1D, enrolled at ages 8-16 years and assessed five times over 2 years. The cohort sequential design allowed for the approximation of the longitudinal curve from age 8 to 19 from overlapping cohort segments. Children and parents completed the Decision-Making Involvement Scale, which yields subscales for different aspects of DMI, and a self-report adherence questionnaire. Mixed-effects growth curve modeling was used for analysis, with longitudinal measures nested within participant and participants nested within cohort. Most aspects of DMI (Parent Express, Parent Seek, Child Express, and Joint) increased with child age; scores on some child report subscales (Parent Express, Child Seek, and Joint) decreased after age 12-14 years. After accounting for age, Child Seek, Child Express, and Joint were associated with overall higher levels of adherence in both child (estimates = 0.08-0.13, p < .001) and parent (estimates = 0.07- 0.13, p < .01) report models, but they did not predict changes in adherence with age. These data suggest that helping children to be more proactive in T1D discussions, by encouraging them to express their opinions, share information, and solicit guidance from parents, is a potential target for interventions to enhance effective self-management.

  1. The decision-making process during accidents or incidents in the operational nuclear area

    Martins, Maria da Penha Sanches; Vanni, Silvia Regina Vanni [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), SP (Brazil); Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], email: penhamartins@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: sjcvanni@yahoo.com.br; Andrade, Delvonei Alves de [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: delvonei@ipen.br

    2009-07-01

    This study reflects on one of the human behavior mediating factors that face nuclear facility operators during their decision-making process. It includes some mental processes used to determine the best course of action, based on intuitive and creative decisions, within a specific set of rational conditions which depend much more on perception about threats than on theoretical knowledge. A fast and efficient decision, in an unstable and ongoing changing scenario/environment, is extremely complex. The decision-making process goes beyond the purely rational level and many times is influenced by intuition. The importance of the decision-making process leads the study to also review human factors. The methodology used in this paper is based on cognitive aspects which are focused essentially on studies such as: decision process models, decision types and human rationality limits (time) versus individual decisions. Lastly, it makes assessments on how reason, emotion and being under stress relate to the decision-making process (author)

  2. The decision-making process during accidents or incidents in the operational nuclear area

    Martins, Maria da Penha Sanches; Vanni, Silvia Regina Vanni; Andrade, Delvonei Alves de

    2009-01-01

    This study reflects on one of the human behavior mediating factors that face nuclear facility operators during their decision-making process. It includes some mental processes used to determine the best course of action, based on intuitive and creative decisions, within a specific set of rational conditions which depend much more on perception about threats than on theoretical knowledge. A fast and efficient decision, in an unstable and ongoing changing scenario/environment, is extremely complex. The decision-making process goes beyond the purely rational level and many times is influenced by intuition. The importance of the decision-making process leads the study to also review human factors. The methodology used in this paper is based on cognitive aspects which are focused essentially on studies such as: decision process models, decision types and human rationality limits (time) versus individual decisions. Lastly, it makes assessments on how reason, emotion and being under stress relate to the decision-making process (author)

  3. Session 2 report the process of decision making in Finland: Its history and outcome

    Aebersold, M.

    2002-01-01

    The round-table discussions focussed on three questions: what were the most important steps in the decision-making process for the different stakeholders? What influenced the process and the outcome? What are the lessons learnt? (authors)

  4. CapDEM TDP - DND Capability Decision-Making Process: the As-Is

    Harvey, Gaetane; Leclerc, Jocelyn; Dussault, Genevieve

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the current DND/CF Acquisition process as well as the associated decision-making process in order to provide the project team with a common understanding...

  5. The Role of Dysfunctional Myths in a Decision-Making Process under Bounded Rationality: A Complex Dynamical Systems Perspective.

    Stamovlasis, Dimitrios; Vaiopoulou, Julie

    2017-07-01

    The present study examines the factors influencing a decision-making process, with specific focus on the role of dysfunctional myths (DM). DM are thoughts or beliefs that are rather irrational, however influential to people's decisions. In this paper a decision-making process regarding the career choice of university students majoring in natural sciences and education (N=496) is examined by analyzing survey data taken via Career Decision Making Difficulties Questionnaire (CDDQ). The difficulty of making the choice and the certainty about one's decision were the state variables, while the independent variables were factors related to the lack of information or knowledge needed, which actually reflect a bounded rationality. Cusp catastrophe analysis, based on both least squares and maximum likelihood procedures, showed that the nonlinear models predicting the two state variables were superior to linear alternatives. Factors related to lack of knowledge about the steps involved in the process of career decision-making, lack of information about the various occupations, lack of information about self and lack of motivation acted as asymmetry, while dysfunctional myths acted as bifurcation factor for both state variables. The catastrophe model, grounded in empirical data, revealed a unique role for DM and a better interpretation within the context of complexity and the notion of bounded rationality. The analysis opens the nonlinear dynamical systems (NDS) perspective in studying decision-making processes. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  6. Decision Making under Uncertainty: A Neural Model based on Partially Observable Markov Decision Processes

    Rajesh P N Rao

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental problem faced by animals is learning to select actions based on noisy sensory information and incomplete knowledge of the world. It has been suggested that the brain engages in Bayesian inference during perception but how such probabilistic representations are used to select actions has remained unclear. Here we propose a neural model of action selection and decision making based on the theory of partially observable Markov decision processes (POMDPs. Actions are selected based not on a single optimal estimate of state but on the posterior distribution over states (the belief state. We show how such a model provides a unified framework for explaining experimental results in decision making that involve both information gathering and overt actions. The model utilizes temporal difference (TD learning for maximizing expected reward. The resulting neural architecture posits an active role for the neocortex in belief computation while ascribing a role to the basal ganglia in belief representation, value computation, and action selection. When applied to the random dots motion discrimination task, model neurons representing belief exhibit responses similar to those of LIP neurons in primate neocortex. The appropriate threshold for switching from information gathering to overt actions emerges naturally during reward maximization. Additionally, the time course of reward prediction error in the model shares similarities with dopaminergic responses in the basal ganglia during the random dots task. For tasks with a deadline, the model learns a decision making strategy that changes with elapsed time, predicting a collapsing decision threshold consistent with some experimental studies. The model provides a new framework for understanding neural decision making and suggests an important role for interactions between the neocortex and the basal ganglia in learning the mapping between probabilistic sensory representations and actions that maximize

  7. Overview of session and situation in Fukushima. Stakeholder Involvement and the CRPPH: A Learning Process - From Chernobyl to Fukushima. Public dialogue and policy making: The UK's Science-wise programme. Post-Chernobyl experience: Sami reindeer herders in Norway. JAEC's initiative to encourage public understanding in Japan

    Hayano, Ryugo; Boyd, Mike; ); Mayall, Andrew; Tomkiv, Yevgeniya; Oughton, Deborah; Liland, Astrid; Skuterud, Lavrans; Eikelmann, Inger; Kawabuchi, Hideo

    2017-01-01

    Mr Boyd reflected that radiological protection decisions often combine not only scientific aspects but also economic, social, philosophical and emotional facets as well. Moreover, decisions are not often taken by radiological protection specialists themselves, but in fact by governments, licensees, workers and affected publics. This blurring of roles was seen for instance at Fukushima Daiichi, where a lack of immediate communication following the 2011 nuclear accident led to confusion and conflicting messages for local residents. Mr Hayano illustrated the high public demand in that context for reliable information, dialogue and expert support in order to face decisions ranging from evacuation, to returning home, to consuming agricultural and fishery products. Professionals such as teachers and general practitioners, who lacked training on radiological protection subjects, also needed support to play their role in the community. There is a continuing need in the aftermath of the accident for reliable information and dialogue to help combat unfounded beliefs and stereotypes. Independent verification of information, measurements and data can be an important element of trust. Mr Mayall presented the UK Environment Agency's experience using the Science-wise programme, suggesting that we need not 're-invent the wheel' but rather focus on proven means and skills for achieving communication between government, scientists and the public. The agency voluntarily initiated dialogue to gather input towards an improved siting process for a future geological disposal facility for radioactive waste, as well as to improve regulatory engagement with the public in conducting generic reactor design assessments. Science-wise facilitated live and digital engagement events, and provided training and mentoring. Its guidance publications bolster dialogue design and also evaluation. Experience shows that societal stakeholders are interested in the information that can help them understand

  8. A Case Study on Improving the Process of Desicion Making in Industrial Companies

    Valdas Bernatavičius

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with small and medium-sized industrial enterprises and looks into problems about the process of decision making in order to optimize the cost of enterprises within critical financial times. The article focuses on the theoretical models for decision making and presents the analysis of metal processing company „X“ to disclose multiple factors that have an influence on successful processes of selecting and making decisions. The paper also describes the theoretical decision-making model for optimizing company's costs on the basis of which decision-making processes should be moved to e-environment which may assist in improving the overall decision-making procedures in small enterprises.Article in Lithuanian

  9. Classification of processes involved in sharing individual participant data from clinical trials.

    Ohmann, Christian; Canham, Steve; Banzi, Rita; Kuchinke, Wolfgang; Battaglia, Serena

    2018-01-01

    Background: In recent years, a cultural change in the handling of data from research has resulted in the strong promotion of a culture of openness and increased sharing of data. In the area of clinical trials, sharing of individual participant data involves a complex set of processes and the interaction of many actors and actions. Individual services/tools to support data sharing are available, but what is missing is a detailed, structured and comprehensive list of processes/subprocesses involved and tools/services needed. Methods : Principles and recommendations from a published data sharing consensus document are analysed in detail by a small expert group. Processes/subprocesses involved in data sharing are identified and linked to actors and possible services/tools. Definitions are adapted from the business process model and notation (BPMN) and applied in the analysis. Results: A detailed and comprehensive list of individual processes/subprocesses involved in data sharing, structured according to 9 main processes, is provided. Possible tools/services to support these processes/subprocesses are identified and grouped according to major type of support. Conclusions: The list of individual processes/subprocesses and tools/services identified is a first step towards development of a generic framework or architecture for sharing of data from clinical trials. Such a framework is strongly needed to give an overview of how various actors, research processes and services could form an interoperable system for data sharing.

  10. Towards a Dialogic Understanding of Children's Art-Making Process

    Kim, Hyunsu

    2018-01-01

    This article is intended to identify the complex process of children's art making by bringing new methodologies into the analysis of children's pictures. This article analyses the art-making process of a selected drawing by a five-year-old boy. The study builds on previous findings regarding children's verbal discourses during the art-making…

  11. Strategic environmental assessment and the limits to rationality in decision making processes

    Kørnøv, Lone

    The paper focueses on the subject of rationality in decision making processes and the implications for the integration of SEA.......The paper focueses on the subject of rationality in decision making processes and the implications for the integration of SEA....

  12. The Policy-Making Process of the State University System of Florida.

    Sullivan, Sandra M.

    The policy-making process of the State University System of Florida is described using David Easton's model of a political system as the conceptual framwork. Two models describing the policy-making process were developed from personal interviews with the primary participants in the governance structure and from three case studies of policy…

  13. 44 CFR Appendix A to Part 9 - Decision-making Process for E.O. 11988

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Decision-making Process for E.O. 11988 A Appendix A to Part 9 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT..., App. A Appendix A to Part 9—Decision-making Process for E.O. 11988 EC02FE91.074 ...

  14. [Clinical decision making and critical thinking in the nursing diagnostic process].

    Müller-Staub, Maria

    2006-10-01

    The daily routine requires complex thinking processes of nurses, but clinical decision making and critical thinking are underestimated in nursing. A great demand for educational measures in clinical judgement related with the diagnostic process was found in nurses. The German literature hardly describes nursing diagnoses as clinical judgements about human reactions on health problems / life processes. Critical thinking is described as an intellectual, disciplined process of active conceptualisation, application and synthesis of information. It is gained through observation, experience, reflection and communication and leads thinking and action. Critical thinking influences the aspects of clinical decision making a) diagnostic judgement, b) therapeutic reasoning and c) ethical decision making. Human reactions are complex processes and in their course, human behavior is interpreted in the focus of health. Therefore, more attention should be given to the nursing diagnostic process. This article presents the theoretical framework of the paper "Clinical decision making: Fostering critical thinking in the nursing diagnostic process through case studies".

  15. The Process and Impact of Stakeholder Engagement in Developing a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit Communication and Decision-Making Intervention.

    Michelson, Kelly N; Frader, Joel; Sorce, Lauren; Clayman, Marla L; Persell, Stephen D; Fragen, Patricia; Ciolino, Jody D; Campbell, Laura C; Arenson, Melanie; Aniciete, Danica Y; Brown, Melanie L; Ali, Farah N; White, Douglas

    2016-12-01

    Stakeholder-developed interventions are needed to support pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) communication and decision-making. Few publications delineate methods and outcomes of stakeholder engagement in research. We describe the process and impact of stakeholder engagement on developing a PICU communication and decision-making support intervention. We also describe the resultant intervention. Stakeholders included parents of PICU patients, healthcare team members (HTMs), and research experts. Through a year-long iterative process, we involved 96 stakeholders in 25 meetings and 26 focus groups or interviews. Stakeholders adapted an adult navigator model by identifying core intervention elements and then determining how to operationalize those core elements in pediatrics. The stakeholder input led to PICU-specific refinements, such as supporting transitions after PICU discharge and including ancillary tools. The resultant intervention includes navigator involvement with parents and HTMs and navigator-guided use of ancillary tools. Subsequent research will test the feasibility and efficacy of our intervention.

  16. The Process and Impact of Stakeholder Engagement in Developing a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit Communication and Decision-Making Intervention

    Frader, Joel; Sorce, Lauren; Clayman, Marla L; Persell, Stephen D; Fragen, Patricia; Ciolino, Jody D; Campbell, Laura C; Arenson, Melanie; Aniciete, Danica Y; Brown, Melanie L; Ali, Farah N; White, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Stakeholder-developed interventions are needed to support pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) communication and decision-making. Few publications delineate methods and outcomes of stakeholder engagement in research. We describe the process and impact of stakeholder engagement on developing a PICU communication and decision-making support intervention. We also describe the resultant intervention. Stakeholders included parents of PICU patients, healthcare team members (HTMs), and research experts. Through a year-long iterative process, we involved 96 stakeholders in 25 meetings and 26 focus groups or interviews. Stakeholders adapted an adult navigator model by identifying core intervention elements and then determining how to operationalize those core elements in pediatrics. The stakeholder input led to PICU-specific refinements, such as supporting transitions after PICU discharge and including ancillary tools. The resultant intervention includes navigator involvement with parents and HTMs and navigator-guided use of ancillary tools. Subsequent research will test the feasibility and efficacy of our intervention. PMID:28725847

  17. A functional difference in information processing between orbitofrontal cortex and ventral striatum during decision-making behaviour.

    Stott, Jeffrey J; Redish, A David

    2014-11-05

    Both orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and ventral striatum (vStr) have been identified as key structures that represent information about value in decision-making tasks. However, the dynamics of how this information is processed are not yet understood. We recorded ensembles of cells from OFC and vStr in rats engaged in the spatial adjusting delay-discounting task, a decision-making task that involves a trade-off between delay to and magnitude of reward. Ventral striatal neural activity signalled information about reward before the rat's decision, whereas such reward-related signals were absent in OFC until after the animal had committed to its decision. These data support models in which vStr is directly involved in action selection, but OFC processes decision-related information afterwards that can be used to compare the predicted and actual consequences of behaviour. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  18. Using social network analysis to examine the decision-making process on new vaccine introduction in Nigeria.

    Wonodi, C B; Privor-Dumm, L; Aina, M; Pate, A M; Reis, R; Gadhoke, P; Levine, O S

    2012-05-01

    The decision-making process to introduce new vaccines into national immunization programmes is often complex, involving many stakeholders who provide technical information, mobilize finance, implement programmes and garner political support. Stakeholders may have different levels of interest, knowledge and motivations to introduce new vaccines. Lack of consensus on the priority, public health value or feasibility of adding a new vaccine can delay policy decisions. Efforts to support country-level decision-making have largely focused on establishing global policies and equipping policy makers with the information to support decision-making on new vaccine introduction (NVI). Less attention has been given to understanding the interactions of policy actors and how the distribution of influence affects the policy process and decision-making. Social network analysis (SNA) is a social science technique concerned with explaining social phenomena using the structural and relational features of the network of actors involved. This approach can be used to identify how information is exchanged and who is included or excluded from the process. For this SNA of vaccine decision-making in Nigeria, we interviewed federal and state-level government officials, officers of bilateral and multilateral partner organizations, and other stakeholders such as health providers and the media. Using data culled from those interviews, we performed an SNA in order to map formal and informal relationships and the distribution of influence among vaccine decision-makers, as well as to explore linkages and pathways to stakeholders who can influence critical decisions in the policy process. Our findings indicate a relatively robust engagement of key stakeholders in Nigeria. We hypothesized that economic stakeholders and implementers would be important to ensure sustainable financing and strengthen programme implementation, but some economic and implementation stakeholders did not appear centrally on

  19. Role of centralized review processes for making reimbursement decisions on new health technologies in Europe.

    Stafinski, Tania; Menon, Devidas; Davis, Caroline; McCabe, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare centralized reimbursement/coverage decision-making processes for health technologies in 23 European countries, according to: mandate, authority, structure, and policy options; mechanisms for identifying, selecting, and evaluating technologies; clinical and economic evidence expectations; committee composition, procedures, and factors considered; available conditional reimbursement options for promising new technologies; and the manufacturers' roles in the process. A comprehensive review of publicly available information from peer-reviewed literature (using a variety of bibliographic databases) and gray literature (eg, working papers, committee reports, presentations, and government documents) was conducted. Policy experts in each of the 23 countries were also contacted. All information collected was reviewed by two independent researchers. Most European countries have established centralized reimbursement systems for making decisions on health technologies. However, the scope of technologies considered, as well as processes for identifying, selecting, and reviewing them varies. All systems include an assessment of clinical evidence, compiled in accordance with their own guidelines or internationally recognized published ones. In addition, most systems require an economic evaluation. The quality of such information is typically assessed by content and methodological experts. Committees responsible for formulating recommendations or decisions are multidisciplinary. While criteria used by committees appear transparent, how they are operationalized during deliberations remains unclear. Increasingly, reimbursement systems are expressing interest in and/or implementing reimbursement policy options that extend beyond the traditional "yes," "no," or "yes with restrictions" options. Such options typically require greater involvement of manufacturers which, to date, has been limited. Centralized reimbursement systems have become an

  20. Searching Choices: Quantifying Decision-Making Processes Using Search Engine Data.

    Moat, Helen Susannah; Olivola, Christopher Y; Chater, Nick; Preis, Tobias

    2016-07-01

    When making a decision, humans consider two types of information: information they have acquired through their prior experience of the world, and further information they gather to support the decision in question. Here, we present evidence that data from search engines such as Google can help us model both sources of information. We show that statistics from search engines on the frequency of content on the Internet can help us estimate the statistical structure of prior experience; and, specifically, we outline how such statistics can inform psychological theories concerning the valuation of human lives, or choices involving delayed outcomes. Turning to information gathering, we show that search query data might help measure human information gathering, and it may predict subsequent decisions. Such data enable us to compare information gathered across nations, where analyses suggest, for example, a greater focus on the future in countries with a higher per capita GDP. We conclude that search engine data constitute a valuable new resource for cognitive scientists, offering a fascinating new tool for understanding the human decision-making process. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Topics in Cognitive Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Cognitive Science Society.

  1. Ethically-based clinical decision-making in physical therapy: process and issues.

    Finch, Elspeth; Geddes, E Lynne; Larin, Hélène

    2005-01-01

    The identification and consideration of relevant ethical issues in clinical decision-making, and the education of health care professionals (HCPs) in these skills are key factors in providing quality health care. This qualitative study explores the way in which physical therapists (PTs) integrate ethical issues into clinical practice decisions and identifies ethical themes used by PTs. A purposive sample of eight PTs was asked to describe a recent ethically-based clinical decision. Transcribed interviews were coded and themes identified related to the following categories: 1) the integration of ethical issues in the clinical decision-making process, 2) patient welfare, 3) professional ethos of the PT, and 4) health care economics and business practices. Participants readily described clinical situations involving ethical issues but rarely identified specific conflicting ethical issues in their description. Ethical dilemmas were more frequently resolved when there were fewer emotional sequelae associated with the dilemma, and the PT had a clear understanding of professional ethos, valued patient autonomy, and explored a variety of alternative actions before implementing one. HCP students need to develop a clear professional ethos and an increased understanding of the economic factors that will present ethical issues in practice.

  2. Lessons learnt on stake holder involvement on decision-making process

    Shin, W.K.

    2007-01-01

    Transparency issues have emerged in recent years as a challenge to nuclear regulators. Beginning debates on public communication, meetings and workshops have been held on public trust and confidence so far and it is on the transparency this time. Transparency, as defined and discussed yesterday, means literally that something can he seen through. The definition tells us that it is, more actively, to provide the public with factual information about regulatory activities, and to respond promptly to 'the public's right to know' about the information acquired or developed by regulatory organisation. The public trust, public confidence, public participation and transparency are those 'key word' that have appeared recently and approached us when we are talking about public communication issues. Recent research tells us that trust or confidence consists of competence, consistency in words and behaviours, openness, sharing values and ideas(or goals) of trustees and trustee's care and consideration of trusters, mostly the general public. I think openness or transparency is, in this regards, one of the key elements to build public confidence in regulator that acts as major role in achieving regulatory goal. Regulatory goal, now under active discussions among regulators, is to assure that nuclear safety is maintained as 'acceptable' level. It is also related to the public satisfaction with nuclear safety accomplished. Based on this, we believe that if we are open and transparent, the public will more likely trust regulators and have confidence in us accordingly. Regarding the transparency policy, more frequently, we have been asked a question: 'how transparent is transparent enough?' Though transparency is universally admired in principle, its implementation may conflict with other societal values or different interests. (author)

  3. Treatment decision-making processes in the systemic treatment of ovarian cancer: review of the scientific evidence.

    Luketina, Hrvoje; Fotopoulou, Christina; Luketina, Ruzica-Rosalia; Pilger, Adak; Sehouli, Jalid

    2012-09-01

    The systemic treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer (OC) is one of the cornerstones in the multimodal management of advanced OC in both primary and recurrent stages of this disease. In most situations various treatment options are available but only few data exists about the treatment decision-making process. Therefore, we conducted a review of the current literature regarding the decision-making process concerning the systemic therapy in patients with advanced ovarian cancer. The electronic database MEDLINE (PubMed) was systematically reviewed for studies that evaluate the treatment decision-making processes in patients with advanced OC. The PubMed database was searched in detail for all titles and abstracts of potentially relevant studies published between 1995 and 2011. An initial search identified 15 potentially relevant studies, but only seven met all inclusion criteria. Factors that influence treatment decisions in patients with OC include not only rational arguments and medical reasons, but also individual attitudes, fears, existential questions, various projections resulting from the physician patient relationship and the social environment. The physician's personal experience with OC treatment seems to be an important factor, followed by previous personal experience with medical issues, and the fear of side-effects and future metastases. Family and self-support organisations also seem to play a significant role in the treatment decision-making process. This review underlines the need for more research activities to explore the treatment decision-making process to enable the best individual support for patients in treatment decision-making. It is a challenge for clinicians to determine the individual information needs of women with OC and to involve them during the decision-making process to the extent they wish.

  4. Analysis of the decision-making process of nurse managers: a collective reflection.

    Eduardo, Elizabete Araujo; Peres, Aida Maris; de Almeida, Maria de Lourdes; Roglio, Karina de Dea; Bernardino, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    to analyze the decision-making model adopted by nurses from the perspective of some decision-making process theories. qualitative approach, based on action research. Semi-structured questionnaires and seminars were conducted from April to June 2012 in order to understand the nature of decisions and the decision-making process of nine nurses in position of managers at a public hospital in Southern Brazil. Data were subjected to content analysis. data were classified in two categories: the current situation of decision-making, which showed a lack of systematization; the construction and collective decision-making, which emphasizes the need to develop a decision-making model. the decision-making model used by nurses is limited because it does not consider two important factors: the limits of human rationality, and the external and internal organizational environments that influence and determine right decisions.

  5. Identifying the processes underpinning anticipation and decision-making in a dynamic time-constrained task.

    Roca, André; Ford, Paul R; McRobert, Allistair P; Mark Williams, A

    2011-08-01

    A novel, representative task was used to examine skill-based differences in the perceptual and cognitive processes underlying performance on a dynamic, externally paced task. Skilled and less skilled soccer players were required to move and interact with life-size, action sequences involving 11 versus 11 soccer situations filmed from the perspective of a central defender in soccer. The ability of participants to anticipate the intentions of their opponents and to make decisions about how they should respond was measured across two separate experiments. In Experiment 1, visual search behaviors were examined using an eye-movement registration system. In Experiment 2, retrospective verbal reports of thinking were gathered from a new sample of skilled and less skilled participants. Skilled participants were more accurate than less skilled participants at anticipating the intentions of opponents and in deciding on an appropriate course of action. The skilled players employed a search strategy involving more fixations of shorter duration in a different sequential order and toward more disparate and informative locations in the display when compared with the less skilled counterparts. The skilled players generated a greater number of verbal report statements with a higher proportion of evaluation, prediction, and planning statements than the less skilled players, suggesting they employed more complex domain-specific memory representations to solve the task. Theoretical, methodological, and practical implications are discussed.

  6. Non-technical factors impacting on the decision making processes in environmental remediation. Influences on the decision making process such as cost, planned land use and public perception

    2002-04-01

    The IAEA attaches great importance to the dissemination of information that can assist Member States with the development, implementation, maintenance and continuous improvement of systems, programmes and activities that support the nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear applications, including the legacy of past practices and accidents. In response to this, the IAEA has initiated a comprehensive programme of work covering all aspects of environmental remediation: factors important for formulating a strategy for environmental remediation; site characterisation techniques and strategies; assessment of remediation technologies; assessment of technical options for cleanup of contaminated media; post-restoration compliance monitoring; assessment of the costs of remediation measures; remediation of low-level disperse radioactive contaminations in the environment. While this project mainly focus on technological aspects, non-technical factors will be influencing the decision making process in remediation decisively. Often their influence is only tacitly accepted and not explicitly acknowledged by the responsible decision makers. This makes it difficult to trace the decision making process in the event that it has to be revisited. The present publication attempts to make these factors explicit and to present methods to include them consciously into the decision making process

  7. Involvement of Rabbinic and communal authorities in decision-making by haredi Jews in the UK with breast cancer: an interpretative phenomenological analysis.

    Coleman-Brueckheimer, Kate; Spitzer, Joseph; Koffman, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines how Rabbinic and communal authorities participated in treatment decisions made by a group of strictly orthodox haredi Jews with breast cancer living in London. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with five haredi breast cancer patients. The transcripts were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Demographic and personal data were collected using structured questionnaires. All participants sought Rabbinic involvement, with four seeking rulings concerning religious rituals and treatment options. Participants' motivations were to ensure their actions accorded with Jewish law and hence God's will. By delegating treatment decisions, decision-making became easier and participants could avoid guilt and blame. They could actively participate in the process by choosing which Rabbi to approach, by providing personal information and by stating their preferences. Attitudes towards Rabbinic involvement were occasionally conflicted. This was related to the understanding that Rabbinic rulings were binding, and occasional doubts that their situation would be correctly interpreted. Three participants consulted the community's 'culture broker' for medical referrals and non-binding advice concerning treatment. Those who consulted the culture broker had to transcend social norms restricting unnecessary contact between men and women. Hence, some participants described talking to him as uncomfortable. Other concerns related to confidentiality. By consulting Rabbinic authorities, haredi cancer patients participated in a socially sanctioned method of decision-making continuous with their religious values. Imposing meaning on their illness in this way may be associated with positive psychological adjustment. Rabbinic and communal figures may endorse therapeutic recommendations and make religious and cultural issues comprehensible to clinicians, and as such healthcare practitioners may benefit from this involvement.

  8. Age Differences in Dual Information-Processing Modes: Implications for Cancer Decision Making

    Peters, Ellen; Diefenbach, Michael A.; Hess, Thomas M.; Västfjäll, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Age differences in affective/experiential and deliberative processes have important theoretical implications for cancer decision making as cancer is often a disease of older adulthood. We examine evidence for adult age differences in affective and deliberative information processes, review the sparse evidence about age differences in decision making and introduce how dual process theories and their findings might be applied to cancer decision making. Age-related declines in the efficiency of deliberative processes predict poorer-quality decisions as we age, particularly when decisions are unfamiliar and the information is numeric. However, age-related adaptive processes, including an increased focus on emotional goals and greater experience, can influence decision making and potentially offset age-related declines. A better understanding of the mechanisms that underlie cancer decision processes in our aging population should ultimately allow us to help older adults to better help themselves. PMID:19058148

  9. Age differences in dual information-processing modes: implications for cancer decision making.

    Peters, Ellen; Diefenbach, Michael A; Hess, Thomas M; Västfjäll, Daniel

    2008-12-15

    Age differences in affective/experiential and deliberative processes have important theoretical implications for cancer decision making, as cancer is often a disease of older adulthood. The authors examined evidence for adult age differences in affective and deliberative information processes, reviewed the sparse evidence about age differences in decision making, and introduced how dual process theories and their findings might be applied to cancer decision making. Age-related declines in the efficiency of deliberative processes predict poorer-quality decisions as we age, particularly when decisions are unfamiliar and the information is numeric. However, age-related adaptive processes, including an increased focus on emotional goals and greater experience, can influence decision making and potentially offset age-related declines. A better understanding of the mechanisms that underlie cancer decision processes in our aging population should ultimately allow us to help older adults to better help themselves.

  10. OPTION(5) versus OPTION(12) instruments to appreciate the extent to which healthcare providers involve patients in decision-making.

    Stubenrouch, Fabienne E; Pieterse, Arwen H; Falkenberg, Rijan; Santema, T Katrien B; Stiggelbout, Anne M; van der Weijden, Trudy; Aarts, J Annemijn W M; Ubbink, Dirk T

    2016-06-01

    The 12-item "observing patient involvement" (OPTION(12))-instrument is commonly used to assess the extent to which healthcare providers involve patients in health-related decision-making. The five-item version (OPTION(5)) claims to be a more efficient measure. In this study we compared the Dutch versions of the OPTION-instruments in terms of inter-rater agreement and correlation in outpatient doctor-patient consultations in various settings, to learn if we can safely switch to the shorter OPTION(5)-instrument. Two raters coded 60 audiotaped vascular surgery and oncology patient consultations using OPTION(12) and OPTION(5). Unweighted Cohen's kappa was used to compute inter-rater agreement on item-level. The association between the total scores of the two OPTION-instruments was investigated using Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) and a Bland & Altman plot. After fine-tuning the OPTION-manuals, inter-rater agreement for OPTION(12) and OPTION(5) was good to excellent (kappa range 0.69-0.85 and 0.63-0.72, respectively). Mean total scores were 23.7 (OPTION(12); SD=7.8) and 39.3 (OPTION(5); SD=12.7). Correlation between the total scores was high (r=0.71; p=0.01). OPTION(5) scored systematically higher with a wider range than OPTION(12). Both OPTION-instruments had a good inter-rater agreement and correlated well. OPTION(5) seems to differentiate better between various levels of patient involvement. The OPTION(5)-instrument is recommended for clinical application. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Some applications of fuzzy sets and the analytical hierarchy process to decision making

    Castro, Alberto Rosas

    1984-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution unlimited This thesis examines the use of fuzzy set theory and the analytic hierarchy process in decision making. It begins by reviewing the insight of psychologists, social scientists and computer scientists to the decision making process. The Operations Research- Systems Analysis approach is discussed followed by a presentation of the basis of fuzzy set theory and the analytic hierarchy process. Two applications of these meth...

  12. Process of making decisions on loan currency: Influence of representativeness on information processing and coherence with consumption motives

    Anđelković Dragan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rationality of decision maker is often reduced by heuristics and biases, and also by different types of external stimuli. In decision-making process individuals simplify phases of information selection and information processing by using heuristics, simple rules which are focused on one aspect of complex problem and ignore other aspects, and in that way 'speed up' decision-making process. This method of making decisions, although efficient in making simple decisions, can lead to mistakes in probability assessment and diminish rationality of decision maker. In that way it can influence drastically on transaction outcome for which decision is being made. The subject of this study is influence of representativeness heuristic on making financial decisions by individuals, and influence of consumption motives on stereotypical elements in information processing phase. Study was conducted by determining attitudes of respondents toward currencies, and then by conducting experiments with aim of analyzing method of making decisions on loan currency. Aim of study was determining whether and to what extent representativeness influence choice of currency in process of making loan decisions. Results of conducted behavioral experiments show that respondents, opposite to rational model, do not asses probability by processing available information and in accordance with their preferences, but by comparing decision objects with other objects which have same attributes, showing in that way moderate positive correlation between stereotypical attitudes and choice of loan currency. Experiments have shown that instrumental motive significantly influence representativeness heuristics, that is, individuals are prone to process information with diminished influence of stereotypical attitudes caused by external stimuli, in situations where there is no so called 'hedonistic decision-making'. Respondents have been making more efficient decisions if they had motive which does

  13. Dual Processing Model for Medical Decision-Making: An Extension to Diagnostic Testing.

    Tsalatsanis, Athanasios; Hozo, Iztok; Kumar, Ambuj; Djulbegovic, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Dual Processing Theories (DPT) assume that human cognition is governed by two distinct types of processes typically referred to as type 1 (intuitive) and type 2 (deliberative). Based on DPT we have derived a Dual Processing Model (DPM) to describe and explain therapeutic medical decision-making. The DPM model indicates that doctors decide to treat when treatment benefits outweigh its harms, which occurs when the probability of the disease is greater than the so called "threshold probability" at which treatment benefits are equal to treatment harms. Here we extend our work to include a wider class of decision problems that involve diagnostic testing. We illustrate applicability of the proposed model in a typical clinical scenario considering the management of a patient with prostate cancer. To that end, we calculate and compare two types of decision-thresholds: one that adheres to expected utility theory (EUT) and the second according to DPM. Our results showed that the decisions to administer a diagnostic test could be better explained using the DPM threshold. This is because such decisions depend on objective evidence of test/treatment benefits and harms as well as type 1 cognition of benefits and harms, which are not considered under EUT. Given that type 1 processes are unique to each decision-maker, this means that the DPM threshold will vary among different individuals. We also showed that when type 1 processes exclusively dominate decisions, ordering a diagnostic test does not affect a decision; the decision is based on the assessment of benefits and harms of treatment. These findings could explain variations in the treatment and diagnostic patterns documented in today's clinical practice.

  14. Dual Processing Model for Medical Decision-Making: An Extension to Diagnostic Testing.

    Athanasios Tsalatsanis

    Full Text Available Dual Processing Theories (DPT assume that human cognition is governed by two distinct types of processes typically referred to as type 1 (intuitive and type 2 (deliberative. Based on DPT we have derived a Dual Processing Model (DPM to describe and explain therapeutic medical decision-making. The DPM model indicates that doctors decide to treat when treatment benefits outweigh its harms, which occurs when the probability of the disease is greater than the so called "threshold probability" at which treatment benefits are equal to treatment harms. Here we extend our work to include a wider class of decision problems that involve diagnostic testing. We illustrate applicability of the proposed model in a typical clinical scenario considering the management of a patient with prostate cancer. To that end, we calculate and compare two types of decision-thresholds: one that adheres to expected utility theory (EUT and the second according to DPM. Our results showed that the decisions to administer a diagnostic test could be better explained using the DPM threshold. This is because such decisions depend on objective evidence of test/treatment benefits and harms as well as type 1 cognition of benefits and harms, which are not considered under EUT. Given that type 1 processes are unique to each decision-maker, this means that the DPM threshold will vary among different individuals. We also showed that when type 1 processes exclusively dominate decisions, ordering a diagnostic test does not affect a decision; the decision is based on the assessment of benefits and harms of treatment. These findings could explain variations in the treatment and diagnostic patterns documented in today's clinical practice.

  15. Conceptual Frameworks for the Workplace Change Adoption Process: Elements Integration from Decision Making and Learning Cycle Process.

    Radin Umar, Radin Zaid; Sommerich, Carolyn M; Lavender, Steve A; Sanders, Elizabeth; Evans, Kevin D

    2018-05-14

    Sound workplace ergonomics and safety-related interventions may be resisted by employees, and this may be detrimental to multiple stakeholders. Understanding fundamental aspects of decision making, behavioral change, and learning cycles may provide insights into pathways influencing employees' acceptance of interventions. This manuscript reviews published literature on thinking processes and other topics relevant to decision making and incorporates the findings into two new conceptual frameworks of the workplace change adoption process. Such frameworks are useful for thinking about adoption in different ways and testing changes to traditional intervention implementation processes. Moving forward, it is recommended that future research focuses on systematic exploration of implementation process activities that integrate principles from the research literature on sensemaking, decision making, and learning processes. Such exploration may provide the groundwork for development of specific implementation strategies that are theoretically grounded and provide a revised understanding of how successful intervention adoption processes work.

  16. Identification of indigenous science in the brick-making process through ethnoscience study

    Nuroso, H.; Supriyadi; Sudarmin, S.; Sarwi

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to find indigenous science in making bricks. In the brick-making process there are concepts of science used for generations obtained through local wisdom. This research method is descriptive qualitative by collecting data through interviews on brick-making home industries in Penggaron village of Semarang city and in Welahan village of Jepara. The result of the research indicates that the indigenous science is in the process of making bricks which includes materials composing, printing, drying, burning and brick quality testing. These findings can be integrated in the course of environmental physics.

  17. Decision-making process of prenatal screening described by pregnant women and their partners.

    Wätterbjörk, Inger; Blomberg, Karin; Nilsson, Kerstin; Sahlberg-Blom, Eva

    2015-10-01

    Pregnant women are often faced with having to decide about prenatal screening for Down's syndrome. However, the decision to participate in or refrain from prenatal screening can be seen as an important decision not only for the pregnant woman but also for both the partners. The aim of this study was to explore the couples' processes of decision making about prenatal screening. A total of 37 semi-structured interviews conducted at two time points were analysed using the interpretive description. The study was carried out in Maternal health-care centres, Örebro County Council, Sweden. Fifteen couples of different ages and with different experiences of pregnancy and childbirth were interviewed. Three different patterns of decision making were identified. For the couples in 'The open and communicative decision-making process', the process was straightforward and rational, and the couples discussed the decision with each other. 'The closed and personal decision-making process' showed an immediate and non-communicative decision making where the couples decided each for themselves. The couples showing 'The searching and communicative decision-making process' followed an arduous road in deciding whether to participate or not in prenatal screening and how to cope with the result. The decision-making process was for some couples a fairly straightforward decision, while for others it was a more complex process that required a great deal of consideration. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Theoretical aspects of cellular decision-making and information-processing.

    Kobayashi, Tetsuya J; Kamimura, Atsushi

    2012-01-01

    Microscopic biological processes have extraordinary complexity and variety at the sub-cellular, intra-cellular, and multi-cellular levels. In dealing with such complex phenomena, conceptual and theoretical frameworks are crucial, which enable us to understand seemingly different intra- and inter-cellular phenomena from unified viewpoints. Decision-making is one such concept that has attracted much attention recently. Since a number of cellular behavior can be regarded as processes to make specific actions in response to external stimuli, decision-making can cover and has been used to explain a broad range of different cellular phenomena [Balázsi et al. (Cell 144(6):910, 2011), Zeng et al. (Cell 141(4):682, 2010)]. Decision-making is also closely related to cellular information-processing because appropriate decisions cannot be made without exploiting the information that the external stimuli contain. Efficiency of information transduction and processing by intra-cellular networks determines the amount of information obtained, which in turn limits the efficiency of subsequent decision-making. Furthermore, information-processing itself can serve as another concept that is crucial for understanding of other biological processes than decision-making. In this work, we review recent theoretical developments on cellular decision-making and information-processing by focusing on the relation between these two concepts.

  19. The purchase decision process and involvement of the elderly regarding nonprescription products.

    Reisenwitz, T H; Wimbish, G J

    1997-01-01

    The elderly or senior citizen is a large and growing market segment that purchases a disproportionate amount of health care products, particularly nonprescription products. This study attempts to examine the elderly's level of involvement (high versus low) and their purchase decision process regarding nonprescription or over-the-counter (OTC) products. Frequencies and percentages are calculated to indicate level of involvement as well as purchase decision behavior. Previous research is critiqued and managerial implications are discussed.

  20. Stakeholder involvement in stages of a participatory process illustrated in interior design cases

    Vink, Peter; van Rhijn, Gu; Seim, Rikke

    2008-01-01

    In a previous study (Vink et al., 2008) an overview was made of the involvement of different stakeholders in a participatory design process. In this paper this overview was used to describe four participatory design cases focused on improvising productivity, health, and comfort by interior design....... It appeared that this overview is useful to describe the involvement in participatory interior design projects. However, it can only serve as an initial benchmark as much is dependent on the specific case at hand....

  1. Challenges to fair decision-making processes in the context of health care services: a qualitative assessment from Tanzania.

    Shayo, Elizabeth H; Norheim, Ole F; Mboera, Leonard E G; Byskov, Jens; Maluka, Stephen; Kamuzora, Peter; Blystad, Astrid

    2012-06-07

    Fair processes in decision making need the involvement of stakeholders who can discuss issues and reach an agreement based on reasons that are justifiable and appropriate in meeting people's needs. In Tanzania, the policy of decentralization and the health sector reform place an emphasis on community participation in making decisions in health care. However, aspects that can influence an individual's opportunity to be listened to and to contribute to discussion have been researched to a very limited extent in low-income settings. The objective of this study was to explore challenges to fair decision-making processes in health care services with a special focus on the potential influence of gender, wealth, ethnicity and education. We draw on the principle of fairness as outlined in the deliberative democratic theory. The study was carried out in the Mbarali District of Tanzania. A qualitative study design was used. In-depth interviews and focus group discussion were conducted among members of the district health team, local government officials, health care providers and community members. Informal discussion on the topics was also of substantial value. The study findings indicate a substantial influence of gender, wealth, ethnicity and education on health care decision-making processes. Men, wealthy individuals, members of strong ethnic groups and highly educated individuals had greater influence. Opinions varied among the study informants as to whether such differences should be considered fair. The differences in levels of influence emerged most clearly at the community level, and were largely perceived as legitimate. Existing challenges related to individuals' influence of decision making processes in health care need to be addressed if greater participation is desired. There is a need for increased advocacy and a strengthening of responsive practices with an emphasis on the right of all individuals to participate in decision-making processes. This

  2. Cue acquisition: A feature of Malawian midwives decision making process to support normality during the first stage of labour.

    Chodzaza, Elizabeth; Haycock-Stuart, Elaine; Holloway, Aisha; Mander, Rosemary

    2018-03-01

    to explore Malawian midwives decision making when caring for women during the first stage of labour in the hospital setting. this focused ethnographic study examined the decision making process of 9 nurse-midwives with varying years of clinical experience in the real world setting of an urban and semi urban hospital from October 2013 to May 2014.This was done using 27 participant observations and 27 post-observation in-depth interviews over a period of six months. Qualitative data analysis software, NVivo 10, was used to assist with data management for the analysis. All data was analysed using the principle of theme and category formation. analysis revealed a six-stage process of decision making that include a baseline for labour, deciding to admit a woman to labour ward, ascertaining the normal physiological progress of labour, supporting the normal physiological progress of labour, embracing uncertainty: the midwives' construction of unusual labour as normal, dealing with uncertainty and deciding to intervene in unusual labour. This six-stage process of decision making is conceptualised as the 'role of cue acquisition', illustrating the ways in which midwives utilise their assessment of labouring women to reason and make decisions on how to care for them in labour. Cue acquisition involved the midwives piecing together segments of information they obtained from the women to formulate an understanding of the woman's birthing progress and inform the midwives decision making process. This understanding of cue acquisition by midwives is significant for supporting safe care in the labour setting. When there was uncertainty in a woman's progress of labour, midwives used deductive reasoning, for example, by cross-checking and analysing the information obtained during the span of labour. Supporting normal labour physiological processes was identified as an underlying principle that shaped the midwives clinical judgement and decision making when they cared for women in

  3. HTA and decision-making processes in Central, Eastern and South Eastern Europe: Results from a survey.

    García-Mochón, Leticia; Espín Balbino, Jaime; Olry de Labry Lima, Antonio; Caro Martinez, Araceli; Martin Ruiz, Eva; Pérez Velasco, Román

    2017-03-31

    To gain knowledge and insights on health technology assessment (HTA) and decision-making processes in Central, Eastern and South Eastern Europe (CESEE) countries. A cross-sectional study was performed. Based on the literature, a questionnaire was developed in a multi-stage process. The questionnaire was arranged according to 5 broad domains: (i) introduction/country settings; (ii) use of HTA in the country; (iii) decision-making process; (iv) implementation of decisions; and (v) HTA and decision-making: future challenges. Potential survey respondents were identified through literature review-with a total of 118 contacts from the 24 CESEE countries. From March to July 2014, the survey was administered via e-mail. A total of 22 questionnaires were received generating an 18.6% response rate, including 4 responses indicating that their institutions had no involvement in HTA. Most of the CESEE countries have entities under government mandates with advisory functions and different responsibilities for decision-making, but mainly in charge of the reimbursement and pricing of medicines. Other areas where discrepancies across countries were found include criteria for selecting technologies to be assessed, stakeholder involvement, evidence requirements, use of economic evaluation, and timeliness of HTA. A number of CESEE countries have created formal decision-making processes for which HTA is used. However, there is a high level of heterogeneity related to the degree of development of HTA structures, and the methods and processes followed. Further studies focusing on the countries from which information is scarcer and on the HTA of health technologies other than medicines are warranted. Reviews/comparative analyses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Domestic Violence Protective Orders: A Qualitative Examination of Judges' Decision-Making Processes.

    Agnew-Brune, Christine; Beth Moracco, Kathryn E; Person, Cara J; Bowling, J Michael

    2015-06-17

    Approximately one in three women in the United States experience intimate partner violence (IPV). IPV is associated with long-term negative health consequences; therefore, there is a need to examine potential prevention strategies. Evidence suggests that domestic violence protective orders (DVPOs), a legal intervention that prevents contact between two parties for up to 12 months, are an effective secondary prevention tool. However, because judges have relative autonomy in granting or denying DVPOs, research is needed to examine the processes they use to guide their decisions. The aim of the study was to investigate how District Court judges decide whether to issue a DVPO. Using in-depth interviews with 20 North Carolina District Court judges, the present study addressed three research questions: (a) what factors influence judges' decisions to grant or deny a DVPO, (b) what heuristics or cognitive shortcuts potentially guide their decisions, and (c) what judges worry about when making decisions. Three themes emerged from the data analyses: (a) violent incidents must reach a certain threshold, (b) the presence of children creates competing concerns, and (c) judges worry about the negative impact their decisions may have on the lives of those involved. Recommendations for improving the DVPO issuance process are also discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. The participation of the German Länder in the EU decision-making process

    Carlo Panara

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article sketches out the main features of the German system of regional participation in the EU decision-making process with the aim of identifying the key strengths and weaknesses of that system. The author will be examining whether the model currently in place allows for a sufficiently rapid and effective response to the EU decision-making process, and whether there is a sufficiently balanced representation of regional and federal interests at the EU level. The article will also contain a proposal as to how the German model of regional participation in the EU decision-making process could be further improved.

  6. Credible decision-making regarding the management of spent nuclear fuel -four key questions concerning the decision-making process

    Kaaberger, T. [Swedish Society for Nature Conservation (Sweden)

    1995-12-01

    The author starts by questioning the need for an EIA, since he sees a common attitude that the EIA is a tool for getting the community to accept the implementation of decisions that have already been made, and not a rational, organized way of achieving a basis for decision-making. A question of decisive importance for the relevancy of an EIA is whether (or not) the decisions already have been made, and the author points at indications which he believes support this view. Finally, arguments for delegating the EIA process to an external body are given.

  7. Credible decision-making regarding the management of spent nuclear fuel -four key questions concerning the decision-making process

    Kaaberger, T.

    1995-01-01

    The author starts by questioning the need for an EIA, since he sees a common attitude that the EIA is a tool for getting the community to accept the implementation of decisions that have already been made, and not a rational, organized way of achieving a basis for decision-making. A question of decisive importance for the relevancy of an EIA is whether (or not) the decisions already have been made, and the author points at indications which he believes support this view. Finally, arguments for delegating the EIA process to an external body are given

  8. Predictors of affect following treatment decision-making for prostate cancer: conversations, cognitive processing, and coping.

    Christie, Kysa M; Meyerowitz, Beth E; Giedzinska-Simons, Antoinette; Gross, Mitchell; Agus, David B

    2009-05-01

    Research suggests that cancer patients who are more involved in treatment decision-making (TDM) report better quality of life following treatment. This study examines the association and possible mechanisms between prostate cancer patient's discussions about TDM and affect following treatment. We predicted that the length of time patients spent discussing treatment options with social networks and physicians prior to treatment would predict emotional adjustment after treatment. We further predicted that cognitive processing, coping, and patient understanding of treatment options would mediate this association. Fifty-seven patients completed questionnaires prior to treatment and at 1 and 6 months following treatment completion. Findings from the present study suggest that discussing treatment options with others, prior to beginning treatment for prostate cancer, significantly contributed to improvements in affect 1 and 6 months following treatment. Residualized regression analyses indicated that discussing treatment options with patient's social networks predicted a decrease in negative affect 1 and 6 months following treatment, while discussions with physicians predicted an increase in positive affect 1 month following treatment. Patients who spent more time discussing treatment options with family and friends also reported greater pre-treatment social support and emotional expression. Mediation analyses indicated that these coping strategies facilitated cognitive processing (as measured by a decrease in intrusive thoughts) and that cognitive processing predicted improvement in affect. Greater time spent talking with family and friends about treatment options may provide opportunities for patients to cope with their cancer diagnosis and facilitate cognitive processing, which may improve patient distress over time. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. A voice from the high wire: Public involvement in a co-operative siting process

    Oates, D.J.L.

    1995-01-01

    The author is a public consultation and communications consultant to the Siting Task Force (STF), Low level Radioactive Waste Management. The STF is a Canadian government-appointed yet independent body implementing a voluntary, co-operative siting process for a long term storage or disposal facility for 1 million cubic metres of LLRW. The presentation will document the experiences of and lessons learned by the author during her role developing and implementing a public involvement program for the process. The Co-operative Siting Process is a new approach to siting controversial facilities. It is based on the belief that communities should accept such a facility in their backyard and not be forced against their will on technical or political grounds. A formal 'ground rules-up-front' process was developed and is now being carried out, with completion slated for April, 1995. Putting these rules and theories into practice has resulted in significant changes being made to the work plan for technical activities, and in a sober second look at the intricacies involved in planning and carrying out a thorough and efficient public involvement program that remain practical and cost-effective. There is a delicate balancing act between meaningful public participation that lays the foundation for trust, confidence and consensus, and public involvement that can result in the process being side-tracked and legitimate solutions and technical activities becoming mired in political and personal agendas

  10. Judicial Decision and Rethinking the Constitutional Principles Concerning Treaty Making Power and Process of Thailand

    Umpai, Kiarttiphorn

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims to examine the treaty making power and process in recent constitutional provisions reforms in Thailand. It aims to analyze whether the constitutional provision has affected the treaty-making crisis. This study relied on the theory of the sovereignty of state exercised by the executive branch in compliance with the treaty making power concept, the separation of powers, and the checks and balances doctrine. The findings revealed that Thailand’s constitutional amendment related t...

  11. Linking Effective Project Management to Business Strategy in Oil and Gas Industry through Decision-making Processes

    Adeleke, Adeyinka

    The construction project in the oil and gas industry covers the entire spectrum of hydrocarbon production from the wellhead (upstream) to downstream facilities. In each of these establishments, the activities in a construction project include: consulting, studies, front-end engineering, detail engineering, procurement, program management, construction, installation, commissioning and start-up. Efficient management of each of the activities involved in construction projects is one of the driving forces for the successful completion of the project. Optimizing the crucial factors in project management during each phase of a project in an oil and gas industry can assist managers to maximize the use of available resources and drive the project to successful conclusions. One of these factors is the decision-making process in the construction project. Current research effort investigated the relationship between decision-making processes and business strategy in oil and gas industry using employee surveys. I recruited employees of different races, age group, genders, and years of experience in order understand their influence on the implementation of the decision-making process in oil and gas industry through a quantitative survey. Decision-making was assessed using five decision measures: (a) rational, (b) intuitive, (c) dependent, (d) avoidant, and (e) spontaneous. The findings indicated gender, age, years of work experience and job titles as primary variables with a negative relationship with decision-making approach for employees working in a major oil and gas industry. The study results revealed that the two most likely decision-making methods in oil and gas industry include: making a decision in a logical and systematic way and seek assistance from others when making a decision. Additionally, the two leading management approaches to decision-making in the oil and gas industry include: decision analysis is part of organization culture and management is committed to

  12. Collaborative Educational Leadership: The Emergence of Human Interactional Sense-Making Process as a Complex System

    Jäppinen, Aini-Kristiina

    2014-01-01

    The article aims at explicating the emergence of human interactional sense-making process within educational leadership as a complex system. The kind of leadership is understood as a holistic entity called collaborative leadership. There, sense-making emerges across interdependent domains, called attributes of collaborative leadership. The…

  13. Free-Choice Learning Suited to Women's Participation Needs in Environmental Decision-Making Processes

    Skanavis, Constantina; Sakellari, Maria

    2012-01-01

    United Nations mandates recognize the need to promote the full participation of women in environmental decision-making processes on the basis of gender equality. But, there remains a profound lack of effective women's participation in some sectors of environmental decision-making. Free-choice environmental learning offers an effective educational…

  14. Examination of Children Decision Making Using Clues during the Logical Reasoning Process

    Çelik, Meryem

    2017-01-01

    Logical reasoning is the process of thinking about a problem and finding the most effective solution. Children's decision-making skills are part of their cognitive development and are also indicative. The purpose of this study was to examine children's decision-making skills using clues in logical reasoning based on various variables. The study…

  15. Disciplined Decision Making in an Interdisciplinary Environment: Some Implications for Clinical Applications of Statistical Process Control.

    Hantula, Donald A.

    1995-01-01

    Clinical applications of statistical process control (SPC) in human service organizations are considered. SPC is seen as providing a standard set of criteria that serves as a common interface for data-based decision making, which may bring decision making under the control of established contingencies rather than the immediate contingencies of…

  16. People, Processes, and Policy-Making in Canadian Post-secondary Education, 1990-2000

    Axelrod, Paul; Desai-Trilokekar, Roopa; Shanahan, Theresa; Wellen, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Policy-making in Canadian post-secondary education is rarely the subject of intensive, systematic study. This paper seeks to identify the distinctive ways in which Canadian post-secondary education policy decisions were constructed and implemented, and to posit an analytical framework for interpreting policy-making process in post-secondary…

  17. The Use of Art in the Medical Decision-Making Process of Oncology Patients

    Czamanski-Cohen, Johanna

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of written informed consent in the 1970s created expectations of shared decision making between doctors and patients that has led to decisional conflict for some patients. This study utilized a collaborative, intrinsic case study approach to the decision-making process of oncology patients who participated in an open art therapy…

  18. Development of an instrument to understand the child protective services decision-making process, with a focus on placement decisions.

    Dettlaff, Alan J; Christopher Graham, J; Holzman, Jesse; Baumann, Donald J; Fluke, John D

    2015-11-01

    When children come to the attention of the child welfare system, they become involved in a decision-making process in which decisions are made that have a significant effect on their future and well-being. The decision to remove children from their families is particularly complex; yet surprisingly little is understood about this decision-making process. This paper presents the results of a study to develop an instrument to explore, at the caseworker level, the context of the removal decision, with the objective of understanding the influence of the individual and organizational factors on this decision, drawing from the Decision Making Ecology as the underlying rationale for obtaining the measures. The instrument was based on the development of decision-making scales used in prior decision-making studies and administered to child protection caseworkers in several states. Analyses included reliability analyses, principal components analyses, and inter-correlations among the resulting scales. For one scale regarding removal decisions, a principal components analysis resulted in the extraction of two components, jointly identified as caseworkers' decision-making orientation, described as (1) an internal reference to decision-making and (2) an external reference to decision-making. Reliability analyses demonstrated acceptable to high internal consistency for 9 of the 11 scales. Full details of the reliability analyses, principal components analyses, and inter-correlations among the seven scales are discussed, along with implications for practice and the utility of this instrument to support the understanding of decision-making in child welfare. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Early print-tuned ERP response with minimal involvement of linguistic processing in Japanese Hiragana strings.

    Okumura, Yasuko; Kasai, Tetsuko; Murohashi, Harumitsu

    2014-04-16

    The act of reading leads to the development of specific neural responses for print, the most frequently reported of which is the left occipitotemporal N170 component of event-related potentials. However, it remains unclear whether this electrophysiological response solely involves print-tuned neural activities. The present study examined an early print-tuned event-related potential response with minimal involvement of linguistic processing in a nonalphabetic language. Japanese Hiragana words, nonwords, and alphanumeric symbol strings were presented rapidly and the task was to detect the change in color of a fixation cross to restrict linguistic processing. As a result, Hiragana words and nonwords elicited a larger posterior N1 than alphanumeric symbol strings bilaterally, irrespective of intercharacter spacing. The fact that this N1 was enhanced specifically for rapidly presented Hiragana strings suggests the existence of print-tuned neural processes that are relatively independent of the influence of linguistic processing.

  20. Properly Applying the Military Decision Making Process in Low Intensity Conflict and Small Scale Contingencies

    Wilson, Todd

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to demonstrate that current doctrine, applied effectively through the Military Decision Making Process, is more than adequate to the task of providing military planners...

  1. The Needs of Hybrid Systems Configuration for Real - Time Decision - Making Process in Surgery

    Tritto, G

    2001-01-01

    ...: sensors, actuators, mechatronic systems and tools in Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) and Microsurgery require nonlinear interpretation and control systems to interface with the computer-assisted decision making process of the surgeon at work...

  2. The Military Decision-Making Process (MDMP): A Prototype Training Product

    Wampler, Richard

    1998-01-01

    ...): A Prototype Training Product. The MDMP product is a computer-based, stand alone training support package to assist individuals and staffs of light infantry brigades in learning to participate in the military decision-making process...

  3. Evolving the multiple roles of 'patients' in health-care research: reflections after involvement in a trial of shared decision-making.

    Thornton, Hazel; Edwards, Adrian; Elwyn, Glyn

    2003-09-01

    This paper offers 'consumer-led' reflections by steering group members of a patient-centred research study involving consumer advocates, patients' associations and patients, throughout the whole study, from pre- to post-study phases. ORIGINAL STUDY DESIGN: The study: 'Shared decision making and risk communication in general practice' incorporated systematic reviews, psychometric evaluation of outcome measures, and quantitative, qualitative and health economic analyses of a cluster randomized trial of professional skill development, all informed by consumer and patient engagement. The work was produced by a wide collaboration led by researchers from the Department of General Practice, University of Wales College of Medicine, Cardiff, including a consumers' advisory group and a patients' association. The study participants were 20 general practitioners from Gwent, their practice staff, and almost 800 patients at these practices. Consumers and patients contributed to several stages of the research from inception and design, securing of funding, implementation of the protocol, and interpretation and dissemination of the findings. 'Patient involvement' research initiatives that include an equally wide variety of 'user' participants as 'health-professional' participants, accountable to a 'Health in Partnership' funded project, require a user-led viewpoint to be presented and disseminated. This paper presents reflections on the processes of the research, the interpretations of study findings by the involved parties, and notes how this model is fundamental to effective research in the field of patient-centred health care if future practice, policy and research are to change.

  4. Linking neuroscientific research on decision making to the educational context of novice students assigned to a multiple-choice scientific task involving common misconceptions about electrical circuits

    Patrice ePotvin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to identify the brain-based mechanisms of uncertainty and certainty associated with answers to multiple-choice questions involving common misconceptions about electric circuits. Twenty-two (22 scientifically novice participants (humanities and arts college students were asked, in an fMRI study, whether or not they thought the light bulbs in images presenting electric circuits were lighted up correctly, and if they were certain or uncertain of their answers. When participants reported that they were unsure of their responses, analyses revealed significant activations in brain areas typically involved in uncertainty (anterior cingulate cortex, anterior insula cortex, and superior/dorsomedial frontal cortex and in the left middle/superior temporal lobe. Certainty was associated with large bilateral activations in the occipital and parietal regions usually involved in visuospatial processing. Correct-and-certain answers were associated with activations that suggest a stronger mobilization of visual attention resources when compared to incorrect-and-certain answers. These findings provide insights into brain-based mechanisms of uncertainty that are activated when common misconceptions, identified as such by science education research literature, interfere in decision making in a school-like task. We also discuss the implications of these results from an educational perspective.

  5. Steel making

    Chakrabarti, A K

    2014-01-01

    "Steel Making" is designed to give students a strong grounding in the theory and state-of-the-art practice of production of steels. This book is primarily focused to meet the needs of undergraduate metallurgical students and candidates for associate membership examinations of professional bodies (AMIIM, AMIE). Besides, for all engineering professionals working in steel plants who need to understand the basic principles of steel making, the text provides a sound introduction to the subject.Beginning with a brief introduction to the historical perspective and current status of steel making together with the reasons for obsolescence of Bessemer converter and open hearth processes, the book moves on to: elaborate the physiochemical principles involved in steel making; explain the operational principles and practices of the modern processes of primary steel making (LD converter, Q-BOP process, and electric furnace process); provide a summary of the developments in secondary refining of steels; discuss principles a...

  6. PROCESSING THE INFORMATION CONTENT ON THE BASIS OF FUZZY NEURAL MODEL OF DECISION MAKING

    Nina V. Komleva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the issues of mathematical modeling of the decision-making process of information content processing based on the fuzzy neural network TSK. Integral rating assessment of the content, which is necessary for taking a decision about its further usage, is made depended on varying characteristics. Mechanism for building individual trajectory and forming individual competence is provided to make the intellectual content search.

  7. Increasing a large petrochemical company efficiency by improvement of decision making process

    Kirin Snežana D.; Nešić Lela G.

    2010-01-01

    The paper shows the results of a research conducted in a large petrochemical company, in a state under transition, with the aim to "shed light" on the decision making process from the aspect of personal characteristics of the employees, in order to use the results to improve decision making process and increase company efficiency. The research was conducted by a survey, i.e. by filling out a questionnaire specially made for this purpose, in real conditions, during working hours. The sample of...

  8. TRAINING DURING ISO 9001 IMPLEMENTATION AND WORKERS INVOLVEMENT INTO THE QUALITY MANAGEMENT PROCESS IN MONTENEGRO

    Marc-Arthur Diaye

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available According to several researchers, workers involvement into the implementation of a quality system in a firm is a key of its success. Since training can improve workers involvement during the implementation of a quality system in a firm, we try in this paper to evaluate quantitatively in the case of Montenegro, the impact of training of workers' involvement. Using an original data set about two leading firms from Montenegro, we show that the coefficient associated with the training variable is on average about -1.44 and is significant at a level of 1%. That is workers who are not trained during the ISO 9001 implementation are strongly less involved into the quality management process of their firms.

  9. HOSPITAL SITE SELECTION USING TWO-STAGE FUZZY MULTI-CRITERIA DECISION MAKING PROCESS

    Ali Soltani

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Site selection for sitting of urban activities/facilities is one of the crucial policy-related decisions taken by urban planners and policy makers. The process of site selection is inherently complicated. A careless site imposes exorbitant costs on city budget and damages the environment inevitably. Nowadays, multi-attributes decision making approaches are suggested to use to improve precision of decision making and reduce surplus side effects. Two well-known techniques, analytical hierarchal process and analytical network process are among multi-criteria decision making systems which can easily be consistent with both quantitative and qualitative criteria. These are also developed to be fuzzy analytical hierarchal process and fuzzy analytical network process systems which are capable of accommodating inherent uncertainty and vagueness in multi-criteria decision-making. This paper reports the process and results of a hospital site selection within the Region 5 of Shiraz metropolitan area, Iran using integrated fuzzy analytical network process systems with Geographic Information System (GIS. The weights of the alternatives were calculated using fuzzy analytical network process. Then a sensitivity analysis was conducted to measure the elasticity of a decision in regards to different criteria. This study contributes to planning practice by suggesting a more comprehensive decision making tool for site selection.

  10. HOSPITAL SITE SELECTION USING TWO-STAGE FUZZY MULTI-CRITERIA DECISION MAKING PROCESS

    Ali Soltani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Site selection for sitting of urban activities/facilities is one of the crucial policy-related decisions taken by urban planners and policy makers. The process of site selection is inherently complicated. A careless site imposes exorbitant costs on city budget and damages the environment inevitably. Nowadays, multi-attributes decision making approaches are suggested to use to improve precision of decision making and reduce surplus side effects. Two well-known techniques, analytical hierarchal process and analytical network process are among multi-criteria decision making systems which can easily be consistent with both quantitative and qualitative criteria. These are also developed to be fuzzy analytical hierarchal process and fuzzy analytical network process systems which are capable of accommodating inherent uncertainty and vagueness in multi-criteria decision-making. This paper reports the process and results of a hospital site selection within the Region 5 of Shiraz metropolitan area, Iran using integrated fuzzy analytical network process systems with Geographic Information System (GIS. The weights of the alternatives were calculated using fuzzy analytical network process. Then a sensitivity analysis was conducted to measure the elasticity of a decision in regards to different criteria. This study contributes to planning practice by suggesting a more comprehensive decision making tool for site selection.

  11. Links between social information processing in middle childhood and involvement in bullying. [IF 0.95

    Camodeca, M.; Goossens, F.A.; Schuengel, C.; Meerum Terwogt, M.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the way in which bullies, victims, bully/victims, and those not involved process social information. A peer nomination measure of bullying and victimization was administered twice over an interval of one year. The sample consisted of 236 (126 girls and 110

  12. Reflections on Practical Approaches to Involving Children and Young People in the Data Analysis Process

    Coad, Jane; Evans, Ruth

    2008-01-01

    This article reflects on key methodological issues emerging from children and young people's involvement in data analysis processes. We outline a pragmatic framework illustrating different approaches to engaging children, using two case studies of children's experiences of participating in data analysis. The article highlights methods of…

  13. Perceptions of legally mandated public involvement processes in the U.S. Forest Service

    S. Andrew Predmore; Marc J. Stern; Michael J. Mortimer; David N. Seesholtz

    2011-01-01

    Results from an agency-wide survey of U.S. Forest Service personnel indicate that respondents in our sample engage in National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) public involvement processes primarily to accomplish two goals. The most commonly supported goal was to inform and disclose as mandated by the act. The other goal reflected interests in managing agency...

  14. ADHD Coaching with College Students: Exploring the Processes Involved in Motivation and Goal Completion

    Prevatt, Frances; Smith, Shannon M.; Diers, Sarah; Marshall, Diana; Coleman, Jennifer; Valler, Emilee; Miller, Nathan

    2017-01-01

    College students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often experience increased academic difficulties, which can negatively impact graduation rates, employment, self-esteem, and mental health. ADHD coaching assists students with ADHD to reduce such difficulties. The present study evaluated the processes involved in ADHD coaching…

  15. Sol-Gel Process for Making Pt-Ru Fuel-Cell Catalysts

    Narayanan, Sekharipuram; Valdez, Thomas; Kumta, Prashant; Kim, Y.

    2005-01-01

    A sol-gel process has been developed as a superior alternative to a prior process for making platinum-ruthenium alloy catalysts for electro-oxidation of methanol in fuel cells. The starting materials in the prior process are chloride salts of platinum and ruthenium. The process involves multiple steps, is time-consuming, and yields a Pt-Ru product that has relatively low specific surface area and contains some chloride residue. Low specific surface area translates to incomplete utilization of the catalytic activity that might otherwise be available, while chloride residue further reduces catalytic activity ("poisons" the catalyst). In contrast, the sol-gel process involves fewer steps and less time, does not leave chloride residue, and yields a product of greater specific area and, hence, greater catalytic activity. In this sol-gel process (see figure), the starting materials are platinum(II) acetylacetonate [Pt(C5H7O2)2, also denoted Pt-acac] and ruthenium(III) acetylacetonate [Ru(C5H7O2)3, also denoted Ru-acac]. First, Pt-acac and Ru-acac are dissolved in acetone at the desired concentrations (typically, 0.00338 moles of each salt per 100 mL of acetone) at a temperature of 50 C. A solution of 25 percent tetramethylammonium hydroxide [(CH3)4NOH, also denoted TMAH] in methanol is added to the Pt-acac/Ruacac/ acetone solution to act as a high-molecular-weight hydrolyzing agent. The addition of the TMAH counteracts the undesired tendency of Pt-acac and Ru-acac to precipitate as separate phases during the subsequent evaporation of the solvent, thereby helping to yield a desired homogeneous amorphous gel. The solution is stirred for 10 minutes, then the solvent is evaporated until the solution becomes viscous, eventually transforming into a gel. The viscous gel is dried in air at a temperature of 170 C for about 10 hours. The dried gel is crushed to make a powder that is the immediate precursor of the final catalytic product. The precursor powder is converted to the

  16. Making sense of intercultural interaction processes in international joint venture settings

    Dao, Li

    , i.e. competence building interaction, decision making interaction, and socializing interaction, which is consistent with the three major processes of learning, power bargaining, and relationship building as suggested by IJV literature. Second, interaction processes appear to be shaped by individual...... approach toward decision making, a mutual learning attitude, the appreciation and strategic utilization of emergent ties between individual members put together in work settings, the proper implementation of consensus-facilitating mechanisms like ISO standards, and a holistic view of knowledge transfer...... in terms of core skills as well as non-core yet critically supporting skills like decision making and project/ time management....

  17. Breaking the sound barrier: exploring parents' decision-making process of cochlear implants for their children.

    Chang, Pamara F

    2017-08-01

    To understand the dynamic experiences of parents undergoing the decision-making process regarding cochlear implants for their child(ren). Thirty-three parents of d/Deaf children participated in semi-structured interviews. Interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed, and coded using iterative and thematic coding. The results from this study reveal four salient topics related to parents' decision-making process regarding cochlear implantation: 1) factors parents considered when making the decision to get the cochlear implant for their child (e.g., desire to acculturate child into one community), 2) the extent to which parents' communities influence their decision-making (e.g., norms), 3) information sources parents seek and value when decision-making (e.g., parents value other parent's experiences the most compared to medical or online sources), and 4) personal experiences with stigma affecting their decision to not get the cochlear implant for their child. This study provides insights into values and perspectives that can be utilized to improve informed decision-making, when making risky medical decisions with long-term implications. With thorough information provisions, delineation of addressing parents' concerns and encompassing all aspects of the decision (i.e., medical, social and cultural), health professional teams could reduce the uncertainty and anxiety for parents in this decision-making process for cochlear implantation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Career Decision-Making Processes of Young Adults With First-Episode Psychosis.

    Boychuk, Christa; Lysaght, Rosemary; Stuart, Heather

    2018-05-01

    The first episode of psychosis often emerges during young adulthood, when individuals are pursuing important educational and career goals that can become derailed because of the development of major impairments. Past research has neglected the developmental nature of employment and education decisions that young adults with first-episode psychosis make within the context of their lives. The purpose of this grounded theory study was to advance a model of the career decision-making processes of young adults with first-episode psychosis, and the influences that affect their career decision-making. The career decision-making of young adults with first-episode psychosis emerged as a multistaged, iterative process that unfolded over three phases of illness, and was affected by several internal and environmental influences. These findings suggest the phase of illness and career decision-making stage should be considered in future vocational programming for young adults with first-episode psychosis.

  19. The lived experience of art making as a companion to the mental health recovery process.

    Van Lith, Theresa; Fenner, Patricia; Schofield, Margot

    2011-01-01

    Art making is a common activity provided for consumers in mental health psychosocial rehabilitation services, yet there is little evidence available which examines its role in the recovery process. The current study inquires into mental health consumers' lived experiences of art making within psychosocial rehabilitation services and their views on how art making supports mental health recovery. This research used qualitative in-depth interviews to explore the role of art making in the mental health recovery journey. The sample comprised 18 consumer participants who attended art-based programs in two psychosocial services in Victoria, Australia. The 60-90 min interviews were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. A total of 11 major themes were identified and organised into three areas: qualities conducive to the art making context, how the art making process benefits mental health recovery, and how the image or art product benefits mental health recovery. The 11 themes are described and illustrated from participant interviews. Consumers described art making as a transformative activity which enabled them to take greater control of their lives, resulting in feeling stronger, more confident, and more capable of driving their journey of recovery. The art product also served valuable roles in supporting their recovery. Art making is a highly valued activity by consumers, who suggest that innovative and strengths-based methods, such as art making, can facilitate recovery and self-expression. A key challenge for the field is to determine how such methods can be better integrated into mental health service delivery.

  20. Students' Reasoning Processes in Making Decisions about an Authentic, Local Socio-Scientific Issue: Bat Conservation

    Lee, Yeung Chung; Grace, Marcus

    2010-01-01

    Education for scientific literacy entails the development of scientific knowledge and the ability to apply this knowledge and value judgments to decisions about real-life issues. This paper reports an attempt to involve secondary level biology students in making decisions about an authentic socio-scientific issue--that of bat conservation--through…

  1. Mobility of persons who are blind: How the attentional processes and working memory are involved?

    PIGEON, Caroline; MARIN-LAMELLET, Claude

    2015-01-01

    Although navigation without vision seems to strongly mobilize the attentional processes and the working memory, few studies seem to be conducted about the link between these processes and the mobility of people who are blind. The main aim of this PhD work is to consider the attentional and working memory capacities of people who are blind and investigate the attentional processes involved during the navigation activity. In the first part of this PhD work, blind participants (early and late) p...

  2. Role of centralized review processes for making reimbursement decisions on new health technologies in Europe

    Stafinski T

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Tania Stafinski1, Devidas Menon2, Caroline Davis1, Christopher McCabe31Health Technology and Policy Unit, 2Health Policy and Management, School of Public Health, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada; 3Academic Unit of Health Economics, Leeds Institute for Health Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds, UKBackground: The purpose of this study was to compare centralized reimbursement/coverage decision-making processes for health technologies in 23 European countries, according to: mandate, authority, structure, and policy options; mechanisms for identifying, selecting, and evaluating technologies; clinical and economic evidence expectations; committee composition, procedures, and factors considered; available conditional reimbursement options for promising new technologies; and the manufacturers' roles in the process.Methods: A comprehensive review of publicly available information from peer-reviewed literature (using a variety of bibliographic databases and gray literature (eg, working papers, committee reports, presentations, and government documents was conducted. Policy experts in each of the 23 countries were also contacted. All information collected was reviewed by two independent researchers.Results: Most European countries have established centralized reimbursement systems for making decisions on health technologies. However, the scope of technologies considered, as well as processes for identifying, selecting, and reviewing them varies. All systems include an assessment of clinical evidence, compiled in accordance with their own guidelines or internationally recognized published ones. In addition, most systems require an economic evaluation. The quality of such information is typically assessed by content and methodological experts. Committees responsible for formulating recommendations or decisions are multidisciplinary. While criteria used by committees appear transparent, how they are operationalized during deliberations

  3. Statistical process control charts for attribute data involving very large sample sizes: a review of problems and solutions.

    Mohammed, Mohammed A; Panesar, Jagdeep S; Laney, David B; Wilson, Richard

    2013-04-01

    The use of statistical process control (SPC) charts in healthcare is increasing. The primary purpose of SPC is to distinguish between common-cause variation which is attributable to the underlying process, and special-cause variation which is extrinsic to the underlying process. This is important because improvement under common-cause variation requires action on the process, whereas special-cause variation merits an investigation to first find the cause. Nonetheless, when dealing with attribute or count data (eg, number of emergency admissions) involving very large sample sizes, traditional SPC charts often produce tight control limits with most of the data points appearing outside the control limits. This can give a false impression of common and special-cause variation, and potentially misguide the user into taking the wrong actions. Given the growing availability of large datasets from routinely collected databases in healthcare, there is a need to present a review of this problem (which arises because traditional attribute charts only consider within-subgroup variation) and its solutions (which consider within and between-subgroup variation), which involve the use of the well-established measurements chart and the more recently developed attribute charts based on Laney's innovative approach. We close by making some suggestions for practice.

  4. How Are Distributed Groups Affected by an Imposed Structuring of their Decision-Making Process?

    Lundell, Anders Lorentz; Hertzum, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Groups often suffer from ineffective communication and decision making. This experimental study compares distributed groups solving a preference task with support from either a communication system or a system providing both communication and a structuring of the decision-making process. Results...... show that groups using the latter system spend more time solving the task, spend more of their time on solution analysis, spend less of their time on disorganized activity, and arrive at task solutions with less extreme preferences. Thus, the type of system affects the decision-making process as well...... as its outcome. Notably, the task solutions arrived at by the groups using the system that imposes a structuring of the decision-making process show limited correlation with the task solutions suggested by the system on the basis of the groups’ explicitly stated criteria. We find no differences in group...

  5. Caregiving decision making by older mothers and adult children: process and expected outcome.

    Cicirelli, Victor G

    2006-06-01

    Dyadic caregiving decision making was studied in 30 mother-son and 29 mother-daughter pairs (mother's age=65-94 years) who responded to a vignette depicting a caregiving decision situation. The observed decision-making process of mother-child pairs was largely naturalistic, with few alternatives proposed and quick convergence to a decision followed by a postdecision justification; a degree of more rational decision making was seen in some pairs. Among significant findings, adult children, especially sons, dominated the decision process, doing more talking and introducing more alternatives than did their mothers, who played a more subordinate role. Mother-son pairs expected more negative outcomes and greater regrets regarding their decisions than mother-daughter pairs. Closeness of the parent-child relationship influenced the decision-making process, expected outcomes, and regrets. Copyright (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Factors in the dispersant use decision-making process : historical overview and look to the future

    Etkin, D.S.

    1998-01-01

    The history of chemical dispersant use in response to marine oil spills was reviewed. A series of case histories were presented to show the political, technical, and financial issues that have influenced the decision-making process and which are likely to influence dispersant use in the future. It was shown that response coordinators must consider the potential effectiveness of dispersant treatment and also the potential for environmental benefit or environmental damage. The safety and effectiveness of dispersant use were shown to depend on: (1) the type of oil or product spilled, (2) the amount of oil spilled, (3) the proximity to the shore and to sensitive habitats, (4) the weather and sea conditions at the time of the spill and during the response, (5) the types of dispersant chemicals on the market at the time of the spill, and (6) the potential efficiency of other cleanup methodologies available. It was noted that more than 37 per cent of the marine oil spills recorded in the Oil Spill Intelligence Report's international oil spill database involve the use of dispersants during the cleanup operations. 21 refs., 4 tabs

  7. Fostering shared decision making by occupational therapists and workers involved in accidents resulting in persistent musculoskeletal disorders: A study protocol

    Stacey Dawn

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background From many empirical and theoretical points of view, the implementation of shared decision making (SDM in work rehabilitation for pain due to a musculoskeletal disorder (MSD is justified but typically the SDM model applies to a one on one encounter between a healthcare provider and a patient and not to an interdisciplinary team. Objectives To adapt and implement an SDM program adapted to the realities of work rehabilitation for pain associated with a MSD. More specific objectives are to adapt an SDM program applicable to existing rehabilitation programs, and to evaluate the extent of implementation of the SDM program in four rehabilitation centres. Method For objective one, we will use a mixed perspective combining a theory-based development program/intervention and a user-based perspective. The users are the occupational therapists (OTs and clinical coordinators. The strategies for developing an SDM program will include consulting the scientific literature and group consensus with clinicians-experts. A sample of convenience of eight OTs, four clinical coordinators and four psychologists all of whom have been working full-time in MSD rehabilitation for more than two years will be recruited from four collaborating rehabilitation centres. For objective two, using the same criteria as for objective one, we will first train eight OTs in SDM. Second, using a descriptive design, the extent to which the SDM program has been implemented will be assessed through observations of the SDM process. The observation data will be triangulated with the dyadic working alliance questionnaire, and findings from a final individual interview with each OT. A total of five patients per trained OT will be recruited, for a total of 40 patients. Patients will be eligible if they have a work-related disability for more than 12 weeks due to musculoskeletal pain and plan to start their work rehabilitation programs. Discussion This study will be the first

  8. Decision making, procedural compliance, and outcomes definition in U.S. forest service planning processes

    Stern, Marc J.; Predmore, S. Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) dictates a process of analyzing and disclosing the likely impacts of proposed agency actions on the human environment. This study addresses two key questions related to NEPA implementation in the U.S. Forest Service: 1) how do Interdisciplinary (ID) team leaders and decision makers conceptualize the outcomes of NEPA processes? And 2), how does NEPA relate to agency decision making? We address these questions through two separate online surveys that posed questions about recently completed NEPA processes - the first with the ID team leaders tasked with carrying out the processes, and the second with the line officers responsible for making the processes' final decisions. Outcomes of NEPA processes include impacts on public relations, on employee morale and team functioning, on the achievement of agency goals, and on the achievement of NEPA's procedural requirements (disclosure) and substantive intent (minimizing negative environmental impacts). Although both tended to view public relations outcomes as important, decision makers' perceptions of favorable outcomes were more closely linked to the achievement of agency goals and process efficiency than was the case for ID team leaders. While ID team leaders' responses suggest that they see decision making closely integrated with the NEPA process, decision makers more commonly decoupled decision making from the NEPA process. These findings suggest a philosophical difference between ID team leaders and decision makers that may pose challenges for both the implementation and the evaluation of agency NEPA. We discuss the pros and cons of integrating NEPA with decision making or separating the two. We conclude that detaching NEPA from decision making poses greater risks than integrating them.

  9. Multi-criteria decision making in product-driven process synthesis

    Ridder, de K.; Almeida-Rivera, C.; Bongers, P.M.M.; Bruin, S.; Flapper, S.D.P.; Braunschweig, B.; Joulia, X.

    2008-01-01

    Current efforts in the development of a Product-driven Process Synthesis methodology have been focusing on broadening the design scope to consumer preferences, product attributes, process variables and supply chain considerations. The methodology embraces a decision making activity to be performed

  10. Using the ACT-R architecture to specify 39 quantitative process models of decision making

    Marewski, Julian N.; Mehlhorn, Katja

    Hypotheses about decision processes are often formulated qualitatively and remain silent about the interplay of decision, memorial, and other cognitive processes. At the same time, existing decision models are specified at varying levels of detail, making it difficult to compare them. We provide a

  11. Utilising Benchmarking to Inform Decision-Making at the Institutional Level: A Research-Informed Process

    Booth, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Benchmarking has traditionally been viewed as a way to compare data only; however, its utilisation as a more investigative, research-informed process to add rigor to decision-making processes at the institutional level is gaining momentum in the higher education sector. Indeed, with recent changes in the Australian quality environment from the…

  12. Decision Making Model for Business Process Outsourcing of Enterprise Content Management

    Zhuojun Yi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Business process outsourcing (BPO in enterprise content management (ECM is a growing though immature market. BPO in ECM focuses on pursuing market transactions in the process of managing all types of content being used in organizations. However, inadequate sourcing decisions lead to organizational sensitive content exposure, high transaction cost, poor outsourcer performance, low flexibility. ECM BPO in general is rarely discussed in the literature and no discussion was found on decision making strategies in ECM BPO. In this paper, we present a decision making model for ECM BPO that will fill the literature gap and guide industry practitioners with ECM sourcing decision making strategies. Our proposed decision making model includes two parts. Part one is an ECM functional framework that shows what functionality component or functionality combinations can be outsourced. Part two is a decision making model that provides guidance for decision making in ECM BPO. We apply the model in two case studies, and the results indicate that the model can guide the sourcing decision making process for organizations, and determine the factors when considering sourcing alternatives in ECM.

  13. Health technology funding decision-making processes around the world: the same, yet different.

    Stafinski, Tania; Menon, Devidas; Philippon, Donald J; McCabe, Christopher

    2011-06-01

    All healthcare systems routinely make resource allocation decisions that trade off potential health gains to different patient populations. However, when such trade-offs relate to the introduction of new, promising health technologies, perceived 'winners' and 'losers' are more apparent. In recent years, public scrutiny over such decisions has intensified, raising the need to better understand how they are currently made and how they might be improved. The objective of this paper is to critically review and compare current processes for making health technology funding decisions at the regional, state/provincial and national level in 20 countries. A comprehensive search for published, peer-reviewed and grey literature describing actual national, state/provincial and regional/institutional technology decision-making processes was conducted. Information was extracted by two independent reviewers and tabulated to facilitate qualitative comparative analyses. To identify strengths and weaknesses of processes identified, websites of corresponding organizations were searched for commissioned reviews/evaluations, which were subsequently analysed using standard qualitative methods. A total of 21 national, four provincial/state and six regional/institutional-level processes were found. Although information on each one varied, they could be grouped into four sequential categories: (i) identification of the decision problem; (ii) information inputs; (iii) elements of the decision-making process; and (iv) public accountability and decision implementation. While information requirements of all processes appeared substantial and decision-making factors comprehensive, the way in which they were utilized was often unclear, as were approaches used to incorporate social values or equity arguments into decisions. A comprehensive inventory of approaches to implementing the four main components of all technology funding decision-making processes was compiled, from which areas for future

  14. Data quality and processing for decision making: divergence between corporate strategy and manufacturing processes

    McNeil, Ronald D.; Miele, Renato; Shaul, Dennis

    2000-10-01

    Information technology is driving improvements in manufacturing systems. Results are higher productivity and quality. However, corporate strategy is driven by a number of factors and includes data and pressure from multiple stakeholders, which includes employees, managers, executives, stockholders, boards, suppliers and customers. It is also driven by information about competitors and emerging technology. Much information is based on processing of data and the resulting biases of the processors. Thus, stakeholders can base inputs on faulty perceptions, which are not reality based. Prior to processing, data used may be inaccurate. Sources of data and information may include demographic reports, statistical analyses, intelligence reports (e.g., marketing data), technology and primary data collection. The reliability and validity of data as well as the management of sources and information is critical element to strategy formulation. The paper explores data collection, processing and analyses from secondary and primary sources, information generation and report presentation for strategy formulation and contrast this with data and information utilized to drive internal process such as manufacturing. The hypothesis is that internal process, such as manufacturing, are subordinate to corporate strategies. The impact of possible divergence in quality of decisions at the corporate level on IT driven, quality-manufacturing processes based on measurable outcomes is significant. Recommendations for IT improvements at the corporate strategy level are given.

  15. Societal rationality; towards an understanding of decision making processes in society

    Wahlstroem, Bjoern

    2001-01-01

    In a search for new ways to structure decision making on complex and controversial issues it is necessary to build an understanding of why traditional decision making processes break down. One reason is connected to the issues themselves. They represent steps into the unknown and decisions should therefore be made with prudence. A second reason is connected to a track record according to which new technologies are seen as generating more problems than solutions. A third and more fundamental reason is connected to the decision making processes themselves and a need to find better ways to approach difficult questions in the society. One way to approach societal decision making processes is to investigate their hidden rationality in an attempt to understand causes of observed difficulties. The paper is based mainly on observations from the nuclear industry, but it builds also on controversies experienced in attempts to agree on global efforts towards sustainable approaches to development. It builds on an earlier paper, which discussed the basis of rationality both on an individual and a societal level. Research in societal decision making has to rely on a true multi-disciplinary approach. It is nor enough to understand the technical and scientific models by which outcomes are predicted, but it is also necessary to understand how people make sense of their environment and how they co-operate. Rationality is in this connection one of the key concepts, with an understanding that people always are rational in their own frame of action. The challenge in this connection is to understand how this subjective rationality is formed. Societal rationality has to do with the allocation of resources. There are decisions in which several conflicting views have to be considered. Spending time and resources ex ante may support a consensus ex post, but unfortunately there is no panacea for approaching difficult decisions. Decisions with an uncertain future have to be more robust than

  16. Societal rationality; towards an understanding of decision making processes in society

    Wahlstroem, Bjoern [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    2001-07-01

    In a search for new ways to structure decision making on complex and controversial issues it is necessary to build an understanding of why traditional decision making processes break down. One reason is connected to the issues themselves. They represent steps into the unknown and decisions should therefore be made with prudence. A second reason is connected to a track record according to which new technologies are seen as generating more problems than solutions. A third and more fundamental reason is connected to the decision making processes themselves and a need to find better ways to approach difficult questions in the society. One way to approach societal decision making processes is to investigate their hidden rationality in an attempt to understand causes of observed difficulties. The paper is based mainly on observations from the nuclear industry, but it builds also on controversies experienced in attempts to agree on global efforts towards sustainable approaches to development. It builds on an earlier paper, which discussed the basis of rationality both on an individual and a societal level. Research in societal decision making has to rely on a true multi-disciplinary approach. It is nor enough to understand the technical and scientific models by which outcomes are predicted, but it is also necessary to understand how people make sense of their environment and how they co-operate. Rationality is in this connection one of the key concepts, with an understanding that people always are rational in their own frame of action. The challenge in this connection is to understand how this subjective rationality is formed. Societal rationality has to do with the allocation of resources. There are decisions in which several conflicting views have to be considered. Spending time and resources ex ante may support a consensus ex post, but unfortunately there is no panacea for approaching difficult decisions. Decisions with an uncertain future have to be more robust than

  17. Decision Making and Ratio Processing in Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Pertl, Marie-Theres; Benke, Thomas; Zamarian, Laura; Delazer, Margarete

    2015-01-01

    Making advantageous decisions is important in everyday life. This study aimed at assessing how patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) make decisions under risk. Additionally, it investigated the relationship between decision making, ratio processing, basic numerical abilities, and executive functions. Patients with MCI (n = 22) were compared with healthy controls (n = 29) on a complex task of decision making under risk (Game of Dice Task-Double, GDT-D), on two tasks evaluating basic decision making under risk, on a task of ratio processing, and on several neuropsychological background tests. Patients performed significantly lower than controls on the GDT-D and on ratio processing, whereas groups performed comparably on basic decision tasks. Specifically, in the GDT-D, patients obtained lower net scores and lower mean expected values, which indicate a less advantageous performance relative to that of controls. Performance on the GDT-D correlated significantly with performance in basic decision tasks, ratio processing, and executive-function measures when the analysis was performed on the whole sample. Patients with MCI make sub-optimal decisions in complex risk situations, whereas they perform at the same level as healthy adults in simple decision situations. Ratio processing and executive functions have an impact on the decision-making performance of both patients and healthy older adults. In order to facilitate advantageous decisions in complex everyday situations, information should be presented in an easily comprehensible form and cognitive training programs for patients with MCI should focus--among other abilities--on executive functions and ratio processing.

  18. Public participation in the process of decision making related to site selection of low and intermediate radioactive waste repository

    Cerskov Klika, M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the work with public related to the acceptance of low and intermediate radioactive waste disposal facility in the Republic of Croatia. Activities performing in the field of public relations in the Hazardous Waste Management Agency - APO have been described. The fact that all the important decisions on site selections and constructions of different facilities, frequently controversial, were made in the former system without involvement of the public, makes them more significant. Therefore, the public is afraid of being cheated and manipulated again. In order to represent APO not only as the expert ecologically interested actor in the decision-making process on site selection, the study on forming the ecological image of the agency, has been done. In accordance with the results of the study, the activities related to the permanent informing and educating of the public, are being performed. In the end, it has been concluded that it is not enough to inform the public properly, accurately and timely, but it is necessary to educate the public too, because only in the way the public can be thoroughly involved in the decision-making process on site selection of radioactive waste disposal

  19. Making patient and public involvement in cancer and palliative research a reality: academic support is vital for success.

    Collins, Karen; Boote, Jonathan; Ardron, David; Gath, Jacqui; Green, Tracy; Ahmedzai, Sam H

    2015-06-01

    Patient and public involvement (PPI) has become an established theme within the UK health research policy and is recognised as an essential force in the drive to improve the quality of services and research. These developments have been particularly rapid in the cancer field. This paper outlines a model of PPI in research (known as the North Trent Cancer Research Network Consumer Research Panel, NTCRN CRP; comprising 38 cancer and palliative care patients/carers) and the key benefits and challenges to effective PPI in cancer research. The PPI model has become a sustainable, inclusive and effective way of implementing PPI within the cancer context. Challenges include (1) a lack of time and funding available to support the PPI model; (2) tensions between different stakeholder groups when developing and conducting health research; (3) panel members finding it difficult to effectively integrate into research meetings when their role and contribution is not made clear at the outset or when unfamiliar language and jargon are used and not explained; (4) some professionals remain unclear about the role and practical implications of PPI in research. However, notwithstanding its financial and organisational challenges, the way that the NTCRN CRP is supported has provided a solid base for it to flourish. PPI provides considerable opportunities for patients and the public to work collaboratively with professionals to influence the cancer research agenda, with the contribution of PPI to the research process being integral to the entire process from the outset, rather than appended to it. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Functional brain imaging study on brain processes involved in visual awareness

    Kobayashi, Tetsuo; Futakawa, Hiroyuki; Tokita, Shohko; Jung, Jiuk

    2003-01-01

    Recently, there has been great interest in visual awareness because it is thought that it may provide valuable information in understanding aspects of consciousness. An important but still controversial issue is what region in the brain is involved in visual awareness. When viewing ambiguous figures, observers can be aware of only one of multiple competing percepts at any given moment, but experience spontaneous alternations among the percepts over time. This phenomenon is known as multistable perceptions and thought to be essential in understanding the brain processes involved in visual awareness. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the brain activities associated with multistable perceptions. Two separate experiments were performed based on two different multistable phenomena known as binocular rivalry and perceptions of ambiguous figures. Significant differential activations in the parietal and prefrontal areas were commonly observed under multistable conditions compared to monostable control conditions in the two separate experiments. These findings suggest that neural processes in the parietal and prefrontal areas may be involved in perceptual alternations in situations involving multistable phenomena. (author)

  1. An Adaptable System to Support Provenance Management for the Public Policy-Making Process in Smart Cities

    Barkha Javed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Government policies aim to address public issues and problems and therefore play a pivotal role in people’s lives. The creation of public policies, however, is complex given the perspective of large and diverse stakeholders’ involvement, considerable human participation, lengthy processes, complex task specification and the non-deterministic nature of the process. The inherent complexities of the policy process impart challenges for designing a computing system that assists in supporting and automating the business process pertaining to policy setup, which also raises concerns for setting up a tracking service in the policy-making environment. A tracking service informs how decisions have been taken during policy creation and can provide useful and intrinsic information regarding the policy process. At present, there exists no computing system that assists in tracking the complete process that has been employed for policy creation. To design such a system, it is important to consider the policy environment challenges; for this a novel network and goal based approach has been framed and is covered in detail in this paper. Furthermore, smart governance objectives that include stakeholders’ participation and citizens’ involvement have been considered. Thus, the proposed approach has been devised by considering smart governance principles and the knowledge environment of policy making where tasks are largely dependent on policy makers’ decisions and on individual policy objectives. Our approach reckons the human dimension for deciding and defining autonomous process activities at run time. Furthermore, with the network-based approach, so-called provenance data tracking is employed which enables the capture of policy process.

  2. Making Meaning of Urban American Indian Identity: A Multistage Integrative Process

    Lucero, Nancy M.

    2010-01-01

    The cultural identity and tribal connectedness of American Indians are commonly believed to have been negatively affected by the urbanization process in which American Indians have been involved during the past half century. This phenomenological study examined the processes through which cultural identity was formed and maintained by a group of…

  3. Individual differences in decision making and reward processing predict changes in cannabis use: a prospective functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Cousijn, Janna; Wiers, Reinout W; Ridderinkhof, K Richard; van den Brink, Wim; Veltman, Dick J; Porrino, Linda J; Goudriaan, Anna E

    2013-11-01

    Decision-making deficits are thought to play an important role in the development and persistence of substance use disorders. Individual differences in decision-making abilities and their underlying neurocircuitry may, therefore, constitute an important predictor for the course of substance use and the development of substance use disorders. Here, we investigate the predictive value of decision making and neural mechanisms underlying decision making for future cannabis use and problem severity in a sample of heavy cannabis users. Brain activity during a monetary decision-making task (Iowa gambling task) was compared between 32 heavy cannabis users and 41 matched non-using controls using functional magnetic resonance imaging. In addition, within the group of heavy cannabis users, associations were examined between task-related brain activations, cannabis use and cannabis use-related problems at baseline, and change in cannabis use and problem severity after a 6-month follow-up. Despite normal task performance, heavy cannabis users compared with controls showed higher activation during wins in core areas associated with decision making. Moreover, within the group of heavy cannabis users, win-related activity and activity anticipating loss outcomes in areas generally involved in executive functions predicted change in cannabis use after 6 months. These findings are consistent with previous studies and point to abnormal processing of motivational information in heavy cannabis users. A new finding is that individuals who are biased toward immediate rewards have a higher probability of increasing drug use, highlighting the importance of the relative balance between motivational processes and regulatory executive processes in the development of substance use disorders. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction Biology © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  4. Diversity for design: A framework for involving neurodiverse children in the technology design process

    Benton, L.; Vasalou, A.; Khaled, R.; Johnson, H.; Gooch, D.

    2014-01-01

    The neurodiversity movement seeks to positively reframe certain neurological conditions, such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and dyslexia, by concentrating on their strengths. In recent years, neurodiverse children have increasingly been involved in the technology design process, but the design approaches adopted have focused mostly on overcoming difficulties of working with these children, leaving their strengths untapped. We present a new participatory design (PD) framework, Diversity f...

  5. Diversity for design : a framework for involving neurodiverse children in the technology design process

    Benton, Laura; Vasalou, Asimina; Khaled, Rilla; Johnson, Hilary; Gooch, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The neurodiversity movement seeks to positively reframe certain neurological conditions, such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and dyslexia, by concentrating on their strengths. In recent years, neurodiverse children have increasingly been involved in the technology design process, but the design approaches adopted have focused mostly on overcoming difficulties of working with these children, leaving their strengths untapped. We present a new participatory design (PD) framework, Diversity f...

  6. Are elderly people with co-morbidities involved adequately in medical decision making when hospitalised? : A cross-sectional survey

    Ekdahl, Anne W; Andersson, Lars; Wiréhn, Ann-Britt; Friedrichsen, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Medical decision making has long been in focus, but little is known of the preferences and conditions for elderly people with co-morbidities to participate in medical decision making. The main objective of the present study was to investigate the preferred and the actual degree of control, i.e. the role elderly people with co-morbidities wish to assume and actually had with regard to information and participation in medical decision making during their last stay in hospita...

  7. The Computational Complexity of Valuation and Motivational Forces in Decision-Making Processes.

    Redish, A David; Schultheiss, Nathan W; Carter, Evan C

    2016-01-01

    The concept of value is fundamental to most theories of motivation and decision making. However, value has to be measured experimentally. Different methods of measuring value produce incompatible valuation hierarchies. Taking the agent's perspective (rather than the experimenter's), we interpret the different valuation measurement methods as accessing different decision-making systems and show how these different systems depend on different information processing algorithms. This identifies the translation from these multiple decision-making systems into a single action taken by a given agent as one of the most important open questions in decision making today. We conclude by looking at how these different valuation measures accessing different decision-making systems can be used to understand and treat decision dysfunction such as in addiction.

  8. Domain general sequence operations contribute to pre-SMA involvement in visuo-spatial processing

    E. Charles eLeek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study used 3T MRI to elucidate the functional role of supplementary motor area (SMA in relation to visuo-spatial processing. A localizer task contrasting sequential number subtraction and repetitive button pressing was used to functionally delineate non-motor sequence processing in pre-SMA, and activity in SMA-proper associated with motor sequencing. Patterns of BOLD responses in these regions were then contrasted to those from two tasks of visuo-spatial processing. In one task participants performed mental rotation in which recognition memory judgments were made to previously memorized 2D novel patterns across image-plane rotations. The other task involved abstract grid navigation in which observers computed a series of imagined location shifts in response to directional (arrow cues around a mental grid. The results showed overlapping activation in pre-SMA for sequential subtraction and both visuo-spatial tasks. These results suggest that visuo-spatial processing is supported by non-motor sequence operations that involve pre-SMA. More broadly, these data further highlight the functional heterogeneity of pre-SMA, and show that its role extends to processes beyond the planning and online control of movement.

  9. Toward a Model of Human Information Processing for Decision-Making and Skill Acquisition in Laparoscopic Colorectal Surgery.

    White, Eoin J; McMahon, Muireann; Walsh, Michael T; Coffey, J Calvin; O Sullivan, Leonard

    To create a human information-processing model for laparoscopic surgery based on already established literature and primary research to enhance laparoscopic surgical education in this context. We reviewed the literature for information-processing models most relevant to laparoscopic surgery. Our review highlighted the necessity for a model that accounts for dynamic environments, perception, allocation of attention resources between the actions of both hands of an operator, and skill acquisition and retention. The results of the literature review were augmented through intraoperative observations of 7 colorectal surgical procedures, supported by laparoscopic video analysis of 12 colorectal procedures. The Wickens human information-processing model was selected as the most relevant theoretical model to which we make adaptions for this specific application. We expanded the perception subsystem of the model to involve all aspects of perception during laparoscopic surgery. We extended the decision-making system to include dynamic decision-making to account for case/patient-specific and surgeon-specific deviations. The response subsystem now includes dual-task performance and nontechnical skills, such as intraoperative communication. The memory subsystem is expanded to include skill acquisition and retention. Surgical decision-making during laparoscopic surgery is the result of a highly complex series of processes influenced not only by the operator's knowledge, but also patient anatomy and interaction with the surgical team. Newer developments in simulation-based education must focus on the theoretically supported elements and events that underpin skill acquisition and affect the cognitive abilities of novice surgeons. The proposed human information-processing model builds on established literature regarding information processing, accounting for a dynamic environment of laparoscopic surgery. This revised model may be used as a foundation for a model describing robotic

  10. The difficulties experienced by nurses and healthcare staff involved in the process of breaking bad news.

    Warnock, Clare; Buchanan, Jean; Tod, Angela Mary

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the difficulties experienced by nurses and healthcare professionals when engaging in the process of breaking bad news. The challenges faced by staff when breaking bad news have previously been researched in relation to particular settings or participants. This study involved staff from diverse settings and roles to develop broader insights into the range of difficulties experienced in clinical practice. The study used a descriptive survey design involving self-reported written accounts and framework analysis. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire containing a free text section that asked participants to describe a difficult experience they had encountered when involved in the process of breaking bad news. Data were collected from healthcare staff from hospital, community, hospice and care home settings attending training days on breaking bad news between April 2011 and April 2014. Multiple inter-related factors presented challenges to staff engaging in activities associated with breaking bad news. Traditional subjects such as diagnostic and treatment information were described but additional topics were identified such as the impact of illness and care at the end of life. A descriptive framework was developed that summarizes the factors that contribute to creating difficult experiences for staff when breaking bad news. The framework provides insights into the scope of the challenges faced by staff when they engage in the process of breaking bad news. This provides the foundation for developing interventions to support staff that more closely matches their experiences in clinical practice. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. A Review of Previous Studies on Information Processing in Career Decision Making among University Students

    池田, 智子; Satoko, Ikeda

    2018-01-01

    This review of the researches of career choice of Japanese university students focused the studies on decision-making theory conducted in Japan. The present review suggested the necessity of examination of the effect of self-efficacy about career information search on the process of career choice. It is also needed to examine the relationship between specific self-efficacy about career information search and career decision-making self-efficacy, moreover, general self-efficacy.

  12. What makes a good process model? Lessons learned from process mining

    Aalst, van der W.M.P.

    2012-01-01

    There seems to be a never ending stream of new process modeling notations. Some of these notations are foundational and have been around for decades (e.g., Petri nets). Other notations are vendor specific, incremental, or are only popular for a short while. Discussions on the various competing

  13. Determinants of judgment and decision making quality: the interplay between information processing style and situational factors.

    Ayal, Shahar; Rusou, Zohar; Zakay, Dan; Hochman, Guy

    2015-01-01

    A framework is presented to better characterize the role of individual differences in information processing style and their interplay with contextual factors in determining decision making quality. In Experiment 1, we show that individual differences in information processing style are flexible and can be modified by situational factors. Specifically, a situational manipulation that induced an analytical mode of thought improved decision quality. In Experiment 2, we show that this improvement in decision quality is highly contingent on the compatibility between the dominant thinking mode and the nature of the task. That is, encouraging an intuitive mode of thought led to better performance on an intuitive task but hampered performance on an analytical task. The reverse pattern was obtained when an analytical mode of thought was encouraged. We discuss the implications of these results for the assessment of decision making competence, and suggest practical directions to help individuals better adjust their information processing style to the situation at hand and make optimal decisions.

  14. Factors Affecting Youth Voice in Decision-Making Processes within Youth Development Programs

    Todd Tarifa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Results of a study aimed at determining the factors affecting the level of inclusiveness of youth voice in the decision-making process of the 4-H youth development program are discussed in this paper. State and field level 4-H professionals identified potential factors which affect youth voice in the decision-making process. The information gathered was utilized to identify the degree to which youth voice was incorporated in the decision-making process, to better understand how to suit youth’s needs, identify promising practices, and diagnose barriers towards fostering youth voice within the 4-H youth development program. This feature article presents the findings of the study, and discusses potential ramifications and remedies.

  15. Advancing in the Career Decision-Making Process: The Role of Coping Strategies and Career Decision-Making Profiles

    Perez, Maya; Gati, Itamar

    2017-01-01

    We tested the associations among the career decision-making difficulties, the career decision status, and either (a) the career decision-making profiles of 575 young adults, or (b) the coping strategies of 379 young adults. As hypothesized, a more advanced decision status was negatively associated with both career decision-making difficulties…

  16. The role of sports in making sense of the process of growing old.

    Eman, Josefin

    2012-12-01

    Drawing on interviews with 22 athletically active old men and women, the study explores whether and how the practice of sports can affect old adults' processes of sense-making about old age and the process of growing old in ways that challenge dominant constructions about old age. Thereto, the study will explore the possible impact of gender in this process. The results show that men and women who continue to practice competitive sports into old age make sense of the process of growing old by focusing primarily on their physical abilities, at least in the context of sports. This focus on capability age allows them partly, although not completely, to challenge the usual thinking about old age and the process of growing old. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The consequences of introducing IT systems for decision-making processes in healthcare institutions

    Marzena Furtak-Niczyporuk

    2017-03-01

      Aim: The aim of the study was the diagnosis of management decision-making in the therapeutic entity, for possible implementation tools in the form of an information system, which could accelerate and support the rational process of making those decisions. In addition, work was to evaluate the role of management decisions and the implications of the information system on the process of rational decision-making in the management entity therapeutic.   Material and Methods: The case study method allowed us to show the practical applications and benefits resulting from the application system to support rational decision-making management, in particular in terms of reducing costs and improving the organization of health services offered.   The results and conclusions: Presented system generates a database to support rational decision-making process in the field of management, minimize their costs while improving the organization of health services. Ability to use various functions of the system allows for multi-segment analysis, thanks to the specially chosen and condensed information, both in the form of text and graphics over any time horizon. Benefits of the implications of the system is the speed and efficiency of the whole process of treatment, as well as the reduction of administrative tasks of medical staff, which increases the time for the patient.

  18. ["Scholar officials": thoughts on the involvement of professional nurses in the political process].

    Wang, Hsiu-Hung

    2014-08-01

    A growing number of nurses are concerned with / participate in public affairs, politics, and policymaking processes. In particular, nursing leaders are actively leveraging their collective power to create interdisciplinary alliances aimed at encouraging the media and government to confront key nursing issues and implement healthcare reform. This article highlights the political participation and policy-making process to address the meaning and essence of politics, politics and nursing, training and strategies of public affairs and political participation, the shift from academia to health policy, and facilitation of important health policies. It is hoped that nurses may appropriately use their status and influence to actively participate in political campaigns and the policymaking process. By using their professional knowledge and skills, nurses may not only protect patient safety and public health but also facilitate nursing professional development and promote the professional image of nursing.

  19. Involving the stakeholders in the curriculum process: a recipe for success?

    Keogh, Johannes J; Fourie, Willem J; Watson, Sheona; Gay, H

    2010-01-01

    The Department of Nursing and Health Studies at the Manukau Institute of Technology (MIT) in Auckland, New Zealand, decided to involve stakeholders from the health care sector in developing a new curriculum. After implementing the new curriculum, the process was evaluated using a content analysis as qualitative research design. Seven individual interviews and one Focus group interview were conducted with the stakeholders to determine their experiences during the process. Ethical permission was sought from the MIT ethical committee. The analyses of the collected data enabled the researchers to identify six main categories. The categories were: "Existing Programme", "The need to change", "The curriculum development process", "The stakeholders", "Personnel", and "Ethnic minorities". From the collected data, it was clear that a new curriculum was necessary to enable the graduates to meet the health care needs of the New Zealand population, especially after the primary health care policy was introduced in New Zealand. It was also clear that the curriculum development process could be a painful process for all concerned, but a strong leadership could cement a feeling of "collegiality" between stakeholders and teaching staff. The importance of considering the rights of ethnic minorities is clearly stated in the Treaty of Waitangi, safeguarding the rights of the Maori People, and therefore applied rigorously in the development process. In this project, the collaborative process was very successful, and the stakeholders actually expressed feelings of "Ownership" of the curriculum.

  20. fMRI evidence for a dual process account of the speed-accuracy tradeoff in decision-making.

    Jason Ivanoff

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The speed and accuracy of decision-making have a well-known trading relationship: hasty decisions are more prone to errors while careful, accurate judgments take more time. Despite the pervasiveness of this speed-accuracy trade-off (SAT in decision-making, its neural basis is still unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI we show that emphasizing the speed of a perceptual decision at the expense of its accuracy lowers the amount of evidence-related activity in lateral prefrontal cortex. Moreover, this speed-accuracy difference in lateral prefrontal cortex activity correlates with the speed-accuracy difference in the decision criterion metric of signal detection theory. We also show that the same instructions increase baseline activity in a dorso-medial cortical area involved in the internal generation of actions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that the SAT is neurally implemented by modulating not only the amount of externally-derived sensory evidence used to make a decision, but also the internal urge to make a response. We propose that these processes combine to control the temporal dynamics of the speed-accuracy trade-off in decision-making.