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Sample records for making blooms slabs

  1. Making Culture Bloom

    Iain McCalman

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available On 16 June 1904, exactly one hundred years before the establishment of CHASS, an Irish Jew of Hungarian extraction called Leopold Bloom set off on a twenty-four hour perambulation around the streets and bars of Dublin. This fictional incident is the basis of James Joyce’s Ulysses, the greatest novel of modern times. It has also given rise to Bloomsday, a kind of Irish literary holy day celebrated in cities all around the world. It was a specially appropriate moment for us to celebrate the birth of our new peak body, because Bloomsday provides a perfect parable for why the Australian public and government should cherish our sector.

  2. Making horticulture networks bloom

    Man, de A.P.; Raaij, van E.M.; Man, de A.P.

    2008-01-01

    Dutch horticulture, and especially the growth of flowers and plants, has a dominant position in world markets. The vast majority of flowers and a oonsiderable part of lhe market for plants are in the hands of Dutch producers. This is remarkable because most growers of flowers and plants are

  3. Slab replacement maturity guidelines : [summary].

    2014-04-01

    Concrete sets in hours at moderate temperatures, : but the bonds that make concrete strong continue : to mature over days to years. However, for : replacement concrete slabs on highways, it is : crucial that concrete develop enough strength : within ...

  4. Dinoflagellate blooms in upwelling systems: Seeding, variability, and contrasts with diatom bloom behaviour

    Smayda, T. J.; Trainer, V. L.

    2010-04-01

    The influence of diatom bloom behaviour, dinoflagellate life cycles, propagule type and upwelling bloom cycles on the seeding of dinoflagellate blooms in eastern boundary current upwelling systems is evaluated. Winter-spring diatom bloom behaviour is contrasted with upwelling bloom behaviour because their phenology impacts dinoflagellate blooms. The winter-spring diatom bloom is usually sustained, whereas the classical upwelling diatom bloom occurs as a series of separate, recurrent mini-blooms intercalated by upwelling-relaxation periods, during which dinoflagellates often bloom. Four sequential wind-regulated phases characterize upwelling cycles, with each phase having different effects on diatom and dinoflagellate bloom behaviour: bloom “spin up”, bloom maximum, bloom “spin down”, and upwelling relaxation. The spin up - bloom maximum is the period of heightened diatom growth; the spin down - upwelling-relaxation phases are the periods when dinoflagellates often bloom. The duration, intensity and ratio of the upwelling and relaxation periods making up upwelling cycles determine the potential for dinoflagellate blooms to develop within a given upwelling cycle and prior to the subsequent “spin up” of upwelling that favours diatom blooms. Upwelling diatoms and meroplanktonic dinoflagellates have three types of propagules available to seed blooms: vegetative cells, resting cells and resting cysts. However, most upwelling dinoflagellates are holoplanktonic, which indicates that the capacity to form resting cysts is not an absolute requirement for growth and survival in upwelling systems. The long-term (decadal) gaps in bloom behaviour of Gymnodinium catenatum and Lingulodinium polyedrum, and the unpredictable bloom behaviour of dinoflagellates generally, are examined from the perspective of seeding strategies. Mismatches between observed and expected in situ bloom behaviour and resting cyst dynamics are common among upwelling dinoflagellates. This

  5. Harmful Algal Blooms

    Graham, Jennifer L.

    2007-01-01

    What are Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs)? Freshwater and marine harmful algal blooms (HABs) can occur anytime water use is impaired due to excessive accumulations of algae. HAB occurrence is affected by a complex set of physical, chemical, biological, hydrological, and meteorological conditions making it difficult to isolate specific causative environmental factors. Potential impairments include reduction in water quality, accumulation of malodorous scums in beach areas, algal production of toxins potent enough to poison both aquatic and terrestrial organisms, and algal production of taste-and-odor compounds that cause unpalatable drinking water and fish. HABs are a global problem, and toxic freshwater and (or) marine algae have been implicated in human and animal illness and death in over 45 countries worldwide and in at least 27 U.S. States (Yoo and others, 1995; Chorus and Bartram, 1999; Huisman and others, 2005).

  6. Harmful algal blooms

    Bhat, S.R.; PrabhaDevi; DeSouza, L.; Verlecar, X.N.; Naik, C.G.

    as harmful algal bloom. Bloom formation is a natural process and it enhances biological productivity, but turns worrisome when caused by toxic species, leading to massive fish mortalities and hazards to human health. Incidences of'red tide' are increasing...

  7. Slab replacement maturity guidelines.

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated the use of maturity method to determine early age strength of concrete in slab : replacement application. Specific objectives were (1) to evaluate effects of various factors on the compressive : maturity-strength relationship ...

  8. Studi Komparasi Antara Pracetak Masif Dan Fly Slab Studi Kasus : Struktur Gedung Rusunawa Surakarta

    Wirawan, Aria; Wicaksono, Budi; Nuroji, Nuroji; Partono, Windu

    2013-01-01

    Fly slab is one of the precast concrete slab technological development that has been researched and patented by Ir . Sulistyana in 2011. The concept is how to reduce the mass of precast concrete slab with makes ribs on the concrete slab. To minimize the volume of concrete plate and while maintaining tensile area to makes the style transfer mechanism of concrete to reinforcement or otherwise, are expected to reduce the mass of the structure without reducing strength.Comparative study will be c...

  9. Radon Sub-slab Suctioning System Integrated in Insulating Layer

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2013-01-01

    This poster presents a new radon sub-slab suctioning system. This system makes use of a grid of horizontal pressurised air ducts located within the lower part of the rigid insulation layer of the ground floor slab. For this purpose a new system of prefabricated lightweight elements is introduced...

  10. Byatt versus Bloom

    Børch, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Antonia Byatt's Possession takes issue with Harold Bloom's famous claim that creation - including an author's creative reading of an intertext - entails a violent encounter. Byatt's book suggests a more positive Construction of the process by which tradition is transformed in transmission....

  11. Reliability of Plastic Slabs

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    1989-01-01

    In the paper it is shown how upper and lower bounds for the reliability of plastic slabs can be determined. For the fundamental case it is shown that optimal bounds of a deterministic and a stochastic analysis are obtained on the basis of the same failure mechanisms and the same stress fields....

  12. Optics of turbid slabs

    Kokhanovsky, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper is devoted to an alternative derivation of the asymptotic equations for the reflection and transmission functions of turbid slabs. The derivation is based on the reciprocity principle and the law of conservation of energy. Thus it is very general. This allows us to apply the obtained equations even in cases where the foundations of the radiative transfer theory are in question (e.g. for highly concentrated suspensions and pastes). (author)

  13. Rewetting of composite slab

    Satapathy, A.K.; Singh, K.C.

    1996-01-01

    The process of re-establishment of wetting of hot surface is of practical importance in chemical, metallurgical and nuclear industries. Rewetting is considered in emergency core cooling in nuclear reactors in the event of postulated loss of coolant accident (LOCA). This paper deals with numerical solution of the two-dimensional quasi-static conduction controlled rewetting of an infinite parallel sided composite slab assuming perfect contact is maintained at the interface. On the wetted side upstream of the quench front, a constant heat transfer coefficient is assumed. The downstream of quench front and unwetted side of slab are supposed to be adiabatic. The solution gives the quench front temperature as a function of various model parameters such as Peclet number, wet side Blot number, dimensionless thickness of slab and cladding to fuel ratio of thermal conductivities. The results show that for large values of rewetting velocities, the dimensionless rewetting temperature is unaffected by fuel properties for all values of Blot numbers. (author). 7 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  14. Shear strength of end slabs of prestressed concrete reactor vessels

    Cheung, K.C.; Gotschall, H.L.; Liu, T.C.

    1975-01-01

    Prestressed concrete reactor vessels (PCRV's) have been adopted for primary containments in most large high-temperature gas-cooled reactor installations. The most common configuration for PCRVs is a right-vertical cylinder with thick end slabs. In order to assess the integrity of a PCRV it is necessary to predict the ultimate strength of the end slabs. The complexity of the basic mechanism of shear failure in the PCRV end slabs has thus far prohibited the development of a completely analytical solution. However, many experimental investigations of PCRV end slabs have been conducted over the past decade. This information makes it possible to establish empirical formulae for the ultimate strength of PCRV end slabs. The basis and development of an empirical shear-flexure interaction expression is presented. (Auth.)

  15. Using the Alaska Ocean Observing System to Inform Decision Making for Coastal Resiliency Relating to Inundation, Ocean Acidification, Harmful Algal Blooms, Navigation Safety and Impacts of Vessel Traffic

    McCammon, M.

    2017-12-01

    State and federal agencies, coastal communities and Alaska Native residents, and non-governmental organizations are increasingly turning to the Alaska Ocean Observing System (AOOS) as a major source of ocean and coastal data and information products to inform decision making relating to a changing Arctic. AOOS implements its mission to provide ocean observing data and information to meet stakeholder needs by ensuring that all programs are "science based, stakeholder driven and policy neutral." Priority goals are to increase access to existing coastal and ocean data; package information and data in useful ways to meet stakeholder needs; and increase observing and forecasting capacity in all regions of the state. Recently certified by NOAA, the AOOS Data Assembly Center houses the largest collection of real-time ocean and coastal data, environmental models, and biological data in Alaska, and develops tools and applications to make it more publicly accessible and useful. Given the paucity of observations in the Alaska Arctic, the challenge is how to make decisions with little data compared to other areas of the U.S. coastline. AOOS addresses this issue by: integrating and visualizing existing data; developing data and information products and tools to make data more useful; serving as a convener role in areas such as coastal inundation and flooding, impacts of warming temperatures on food security, ocean acidification, observing technologies and capacity; and facilitating planning efforts to increase observations. In this presentation, I will give examples of each of these efforts, lessons learned, and suggestions for future actions.

  16. Phytoplankton dynamics in contrasting early stage North Atlantic spring blooms: composition, succession, and potential drivers

    Daniels, C.J.; Poulton, A. J.; Esposito, M.

    2015-01-01

    The spring bloom is a key annual event in the phenology of pelagic ecosystems, making a major contribution to the oceanic biological carbon pump through the production and export of organic carbon. However, there is little consensus as to the main drivers of spring bloom formation, exacerbated......) of the 2012 North Atlantic spring bloom. The plankton composition and characteristics of the initial stages of the bloom were markedly different between the two basins. The Iceland Basin (ICB) appeared well mixed to > 400 m, yet surface chlorophyll a (0.27–2.2 mg m–3) and primary production (0.06–0.66 mmol C...... suggest micro-zooplankton grazing, potentially coupled with the lack of a seed population of bloom forming diatoms, was restricting diatom growth in the NWB, and that large diatoms may be absent in NWB spring blooms. Despite both phytoplankton communities being in the early stages of bloom formation...

  17. Untangling Slab Dynamics Using 3-D Numerical and Analytical Models

    Holt, A. F.; Royden, L.; Becker, T. W.

    2016-12-01

    Increasingly sophisticated numerical models have enabled us to make significant strides in identifying the key controls on how subducting slabs deform. For example, 3-D models have demonstrated that subducting plate width, and the related strength of toroidal flow around the plate edge, exerts a strong control on both the curvature and the rate of migration of the trench. However, the results of numerical subduction models can be difficult to interpret, and many first order dynamics issues remain at least partially unresolved. Such issues include the dominant controls on trench migration, the interdependence of asthenospheric pressure and slab dynamics, and how nearby slabs influence each other's dynamics. We augment 3-D, dynamically evolving finite element models with simple, analytical force-balance models to distill the physics associated with subduction into more manageable parts. We demonstrate that for single, isolated subducting slabs much of the complexity of our fully numerical models can be encapsulated by simple analytical expressions. Rates of subduction and slab dip correlate strongly with the asthenospheric pressure difference across the subducting slab. For double subduction, an additional slab gives rise to more complex mantle pressure and flow fields, and significantly extends the range of plate kinematics (e.g., convergence rate, trench migration rate) beyond those present in single slab models. Despite these additional complexities, we show that much of the dynamics of such multi-slab systems can be understood using the physics illuminated by our single slab study, and that a force-balance method can be used to relate intra-plate stress to viscous pressure in the asthenosphere and coupling forces at plate boundaries. This method has promise for rapid modeling of large systems of subduction zones on a global scale.

  18. A New Bloom: Transforming Learning

    Cochran, David; Conklin, Jack

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses a new design for the classic Bloom's Taxonomy developed by Anderson, L. W. & Krathwohl, D. (2001), which can be used to evaluate learners' technology-enhanced experience in more powerful and critical ways. The New Bloom's Taxonomy incorporates contemporary research on learning and human cognition into its model. The…

  19. Long-life slab replacement concrete.

    2015-03-01

    This research was initiated following reports of high incidence of cracking on FDOT concrete pavement replacement : slab projects. Field slabs were instrumented for data acquisition from high-early-strength concrete pavement : replacement slabs place...

  20. Topological Susceptibility from Slabs

    Bietenholz, Wolfgang; Gerber, Urs

    2015-01-01

    In quantum field theories with topological sectors, a non-perturbative quantity of interest is the topological susceptibility chi_t. In principle it seems straightforward to measure chi_t by means of Monte Carlo simulations. However, for local update algorithms and fine lattice spacings, this tends to be difficult, since the Monte Carlo history rarely changes the topological sector. Here we test a method to measure chi_t even if data from only one sector are available. It is based on the topological charges in sub-volumes, which we denote as slabs. Assuming a Gaussian distribution of these charges, this method enables the evaluation of chi_t, as we demonstrate with numerical results for non-linear sigma-models.

  1. Topological susceptibility from slabs

    Bietenholz, Wolfgang [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 70-543, Distrito Federal, C.P. 04510 (Mexico); Forcrand, Philippe de [Institute for Theoretical Physics, ETH Zürich,CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland); CERN, Physics Department, TH Unit, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Gerber, Urs [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 70-543, Distrito Federal, C.P. 04510 (Mexico); Instituto de Física y Matemáticas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo,Edificio C-3, Apdo. Postal 2-82, Morelia, Michoacán, C.P. 58040 (Mexico)

    2015-12-14

    In quantum field theories with topological sectors, a non-perturbative quantity of interest is the topological susceptibility χ{sub t}. In principle it seems straightforward to measure χ{sub t} by means of Monte Carlo simulations. However, for local update algorithms and fine lattice spacings, this tends to be difficult, since the Monte Carlo history rarely changes the topological sector. Here we test a method to measure χ{sub t} even if data from only one sector are available. It is based on the topological charges in sub-volumes, which we denote as slabs. Assuming a Gaussian distribution of these charges, this method enables the evaluation of χ{sub t}, as we demonstrate with numerical results for non-linear σ-models.

  2. Requalification analysis of a circular composite slab for seismic load

    Srinivasan, M.G.; Kot, C.A.

    1993-01-01

    The circular roof slab of an existing facility was analyzed to requalify the structure for supporting a significant seismic load that it was not originally designed for. The slab has a clear span of 66 ft and consists of a 48 in. thick reinforced concrete member and a steel liner plate. Besides a number of smaller penetrations, the slab contains two significant cutouts. The dominant load for the slab came from seismic excitation. It was characterized by a response spectrum with a peak spectral acceleration of 0.72 g in the vertical direction. The first part of the analysis showed that the nature of attachment between the liner plate and the reinforced concrete (RC) slab would justify assuming composite action between the two. A finite clement analysis, with the ANSYS code, was made to investigate the region surrounding the openings. As the reinforcement in the slab was quite inhomogeneous, it was necessary to determine the stresses in other areas of the slab also. These were obtained with closed form expressions. Finally it is shown that the strength design provisions of the Code Requirements for Nuclear Safety Related Concrete Structures were met by the reinforced concrete slab and the allowable stress provisions of the American National Standard for safety related steel structures in nuclear facilities were met by the liner plate. The composite action between the RC slab and the liner plate provides for the additional strength required to support the enhanced seismic load. The issues that complicated the analysis of this nontypical structure, i.e., composite action and nonlinear stiffness of RC sections, are discussed. It was possible to circumvent the difficulties by making conservative and simplifying assumptions. If design codes incorporate guidelines on practical methods for dynamic analysis of RC structures, some of the unneeded conservatism could be eliminated in future designs

  3. Novel Radon Sub-Slab Suctioning System

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2013-01-01

    A new principle for radon protection is currently presented which makes use of a system of horizontal pressurised air ducts located within the lower part of the rigid insulation layer of the ground-floor slab. The function of this system is based on the principles of pressure reduction within...... a grid of horizontal air ducts with low pressure which are able to remove air and radon from the ground. Results showed the system to be effective in preventing radon infiltrating from the ground through the ground-floor slab, avoiding high concentrations of radon being accumulated inside houses....... For the system to be effective, the pressure within the ducts must be lower than the pressure inside the house. The new principle was shown to be effective in preventing radon from polluting the indoor air by introducing low pressure in the horizontal grid of air ducts. A lower pressure than the pressure inside...

  4. Novel variational approach for analysis of photonic crystal slabs

    Aram, Mohammad Hasan; Khorasani, Sina

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new method, based on variational principle, for the analysis of photonic crystal (PC) slabs. Most of the methods used today treat PC slabs as three-dimensional (3D) crystal, and this makes these methods very time and/or memory consuming. In our proposed method, we use the Bloch theorem to expand the field on infinite plane waves, whose amplitudes depend on the component perpendicular to the slab surface. By approximating these amplitudes with appropriate functions, we can find modes of PC slabs almost as fast as we can find modes of two-dimensional crystals. In addition to this advantage, we can also calculate radiation modes with this method, which is not feasible with the 3D plane wave expansion method. (paper)

  5. The paradox of algal blooms in oligotrophic waters

    Sundareshwar, P. V.; Upadhyay, S.; Abessa, M. B.; Honomichl, S.; Berdanier, B.; Spaulding, S.; Sandvik, C.; Trennepohl, A.

    2010-12-01

    Nutrient inputs to streams and lakes, primarily from anthropogenic sources, lead to eutrophic conditions that favor algal blooms with undesirable consequences. In contrast, low nutrient or oligotrophic waters rarely support algal blooms; such ecosystems are typically lower in productivity. Since the mid-1980’s however, the diatom Didymosphenia geminata has dramatically expanded its range colonizing oligotrophic rivers worldwide with blooms appearing as thick benthic mats. This recent global occurrence of Didymosphenia geminata blooms in temperate rivers has been perplexing in its pace of spread and the paradoxical nature of the nuisance growths. The blooms occur primarily in oligotrophic flowing waters, where phosphorus (P) availability often limits primary production. We present a biogeochemical process by which D. geminata mats adsorb both P and iron (Fe) from flowing waters and make P available for cellular uptake. The adsorbed P becomes bioavailable through biogeochemical processes that occur within the mat. The biogeochemical processes observed here while well accepted in benthic systems are novel for algal blooms in lotic habits. Enzymatic and bacterial processes such as Fe and sulfate reduction can release the adsorbed P and increase its bioavailability, creating a positive feedback between total stalk biomass and nutrient availability. Stalk affinity for Fe, Fe-P biogeochemistry, and interaction between watershed processes and climatic setting explain the paradoxical blooms, and the recent global spread of this invasive aquatic species. At a broader scale the study also implies that such algal blooms in oligotrophic environments can fundamentally alter the retention and longitudinal transfer of important nutrients such as P in streams and rivers.

  6. New Coccolithophore Bloom in Bering Sea

    2002-01-01

    For the fourth year in a row it appears as if there is a bloom of coccolithophores-marine single-celled plants with calcite scales-in the Bering Sea off the coast of Alaska. Similar blooms were rare before 1997, but they have appeared every year since then. Scientists believe the coccolithophore blooms are the result of changing wind patterns in the region. Weaker than normal winds fail to mix the water of the Bering Sea, resulting in the growth of coccolithophores instead of other types of phytoplankton. Seabird populations have also been changing as a result of this climate change. The Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS), flying aboard the OrbView-2 satellite, saw the coccolith-brightened waters of the Bering Sea in 1997, 1998, and 1999. The waters have looked fairly bright again this winter and spring, as seen in this SeaWiFS image acquired April 29, 2000. But scientists are unsure whether this year's phenomenon is caused by living coccolithophorids, re-suspended coccoliths, or something else. Like all phytoplankton, coccolithophores contain chlorophyll and have the tendency to multiply rapidly near the surface. Yet, in large numbers, coccolithophores periodically shed their tiny scales, called 'coccoliths,' by the bucketful into the surrounding waters. The calcium-rich coccoliths turn the normally dark water a bright, milky aquamarine, making coccolithophore blooms easy to spot in satellite imagery. The edge of the whitish cloud in the water seen in this image is roughly 50 kilometers off the West Coast of Alaska. For more information see: SeaWiFS home page Changing Currents Color the Bering Sea a New Shade of Blue Image courtesy SeaWiFS project

  7. Algal Bloom: Boon or Bane?

    LokaBharathi, P.A.

    Algal blooms occur in response to nutrient deplete or replete conditions. Nitrogen fixing forms proliferate under oligotrophic conditions when nutrient levels are low. Replete conditions in response to upwelling creates the most biologically...

  8. OSU MODIS FLH Bloom Product

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Two bloom products were developed for the Oregon coast based on the observed change between running 8-day composite chlorophyll-a (CHL) and fluorescence line-height...

  9. Deceased Slabs Drive Oil

    Stein, H. J.; Hannah, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    The application of Re-Os isotope geochemistry to dating single oils is a nascent field [1,2]. Challenges include dissection of oils into asphaltene-maltene (ASPH-MALT) components in a way that preserves meaningful chronologic and source information. Significantly, oil-water mixing rapidly transfers Os to the oil, while Re exchange is sluggish [3]. The Os initial ratio of the oil is shifted in the direction of Os carried in the aqueous fluid, whereas the Re-Os isotopic age is preserved. We show that this phenomenon is operative in natural systems. Further, we show that deserpentinization of old oceanic slabs [4], may be linked to expulsion of Os-enriched waters into overlying sedimentary sections - a process that may be of fundamental importance for oil generation. This conclusion does not diminish the role of traditional organic-rich shales as source rocks for the hydrocarbon, but shows that external fluids are essential to petroleum generation. Moreover, the external fluids may be an important driver for expulsion and migration of oils. We have taken apart several petroleum systems from source rock, to residual oil, to tar mat development, to in situ live oil, through to produced oil. In many cases, a fluid with low 187Os/188Os - unlike that of normal basinal brines - provides a critical component to the oil-water mixture. Funding - CHRONOS project supported by Norwegian petroleum industry (Eni-Norge, Lundin, Aker BP) Acknowledgement - Christine Fichler [4], who first queried us on old slabs and oil, and stimulated ideas. [1] Georgiev, S.V., Stein, H.J., Hannah, J.L., Galimberti, R., Nali, M., Yang, G., and Zimmerman, A. (2016) Re-Os dating of maltenes and asphaltenes within single samples of crude oil: Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 179: 53-75. [doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2016.01.016] [2] DiMarzio, J., Georgiev, S.V., Stein, H.J., and Hannah, J.L. (in press) Residency of rhenium and osmium in a heavy crude oil: Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta. [3] Hurtig, N.C., Georgiev, S

  10. Health risk assessment standards of cyanobacteria bloom occurrence in bathing sites

    Agnieszka Stankiewicz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Threat for human health appears during a massive cyanobacteria bloom in potable water used for human consumption or in basins used for recreational purposes. General health risk assessment standards and preventive measures to be taken by sanitation service were presented in scope of: – evaluation of cyanobacteria bloom occurrence in bathing sites / water bodies, – procedures in case of cyanobacteria bloom, including health risk assessment and decision making process to protect users’ health at bathing sites, – preventive measures, to be taken in case of cyanobacteria bloom occurrence in bathing sites and basins, where bathing sites are located.

  11. New Packaging for Amplifier Slabs

    Riley, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Thorsness, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Suratwala, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Steele, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rogowski, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-03-18

    The following memo provides a discussion and detailed procedure for a new finished amplifier slab shipping and storage container. The new package is designed to maintain an environment of <5% RH to minimize weathering.

  12. The Unfortunate Consequences of Bloom's Taxonomy

    Case, Roland

    2013-01-01

    The sequenced levels of thinking articulated in Bloom's original taxonomy (or in the multitude of subsequent variations) is the most widely known list in education. In addition to enduring popularity, it is arguably one of the most destructive theories in education. In this article, the author explains what makes it so damaging and how…

  13. MODOS GUIADOS EM SLABS METAMATERIAIS GUIDED MODES IN METAMATERIAL SLABS

    Leonardo André Ambrosio

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta um estudo de revisão de modos propagantes em um guia-de-onda slab constituído de materiais com índices de refração negativo, os chamados metamateriais, Mostra-se que os modos guiados em um slab metamaterial possuem algumas propriedades particulares, tais como a propagação de ondas lentas simétricas ou anti-simétricas, a ausência de modos fundamentais para ondas rápidas e a possibilidade de propagação de ondas guiadas em um meio menos denso. A análise é baseada em expansões de campo no guia e nos espaços superior e inferior ao mesmo.This paper presents a review of the propagation modes in a slab waveguide consisting of negative refraction index materials, known as metamaterials. Some particular properties of guided modes in a metamaterial slab, such as slow symmetric or antisymmetric slow wave propagation, the absence of fundamental modes for fast waves and the possibility of guided waves in a less dense medium. The analysis is based on field expansions in the guide and the upper and lower spaces of it.

  14. The dynamics of double slab subduction

    Holt, A. F.; Royden, L. H.; Becker, T. W.

    2017-04-01

    We use numerical models to investigate the dynamics of two interacting slabs with parallel trenches. Cases considered are: a single slab reference, outward dipping slabs (out-dip), inward dipping slabs (in-dip) and slabs dipping in the same direction (same-dip). Where trenches converge over time (same-dip and out-dip systems), large positive dynamic pressures in the asthenosphere are generated beneath the middle plate and large trench-normal extensional forces are transmitted through the middle plate. This results in slabs that dip away from the middle plate at depth, independent of trench geometry. The single slab, the front slab in the same-dip case and both out-dip slabs undergo trench retreat and exhibit stable subduction. However, slabs within the other double subduction systems tend to completely overturn at the base of the upper mantle, and exhibit either trench advance (rear slab in same-dip), or near-stationary trenches (in-dip). For all slabs, the net slab-normal dynamic pressure at 330 km depth is nearly equal to the slab-normal force induced by slab buoyancy. For double subduction, the net outward force on the slabs due to dynamic pressure from the asthenosphere is effectively counterbalanced by the net extensional force transmitted through the middle plate. Thus, dynamic pressure at depth, interplate coupling and lithospheric stresses are closely linked and their effects cannot be isolated. Our results provide insights into both the temporal evolution of double slab systems on Earth and, more generally, how the various components of subduction systems, from mantle flow/pressure to interplate coupling, are dynamically linked.

  15. Allan Bloom, America, and Education.

    West, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    Refutes the claims of Allan Bloom that the source of the problem with today's universities is modern philosophy, that the writings and ideas of Hobbes and Locke planted the seeds of relativism in American culture, and that the cure is Great Books education. Suggests instead that America's founding principles are the only solution to the failure of…

  16. Service discovery using Bloom filters

    Goering, P.T.H.; Heijenk, Geert; Lelieveldt, B.P.F.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.; de Laat, C.T.A.M.; Heijnsdijk, J.W.J.

    A protocol to perform service discovery in adhoc networks is introduced in this paper. Attenuated Bloom filters are used to distribute services to nodes in the neighborhood and thus enable local service discovery. The protocol has been implemented in a discrete event simulator to investigate the

  17. Long-life slab replacement concrete : [summary].

    2015-04-01

    Concrete slab replacement projects in Florida have demonstrated a high incidence of : replacement slab cracking. Causes of cracking have not been reliably determined. University of South Florida researchers : sought to identify the factors or : param...

  18. Generating Atomistic Slab Surfaces with Adsorbates

    2017-12-01

    slabs of various thickness and with various vacuum spacing need be calculated. This can occur in serial or simultaneously . If performed in serial, the...the user. Although the optimization of the slab thickness and vacuum padding can be done simultaneously , it is more computationally conservative to...monolayer is a slab (True if slab), the type of mesh desired (adsorbates.py was written for “Gamma”), how detailed the mesh should be (in units of inverse

  19. Processing and properties of large-sized ceramic slabs

    Raimondo, M.; Dondi, M.; Zanelli, C.; Guarini, G.; Gozzi, A.; Marani, F.; Fossa, L.

    2010-07-01

    Large-sized ceramic slabs with dimensions up to 360x120 cm{sup 2} and thickness down to 2 mm are manufactured through an innovative ceramic process, starting from porcelain stoneware formulations and involving wet ball milling, spray drying, die-less slow-rate pressing, a single stage of fast drying-firing, and finishing (trimming, assembling of ceramic-fiberglass composites). Fired and unfired industrial slabs were selected and characterized from the technological, compositional (XRF, XRD) and microstructural (SEM) viewpoints. Semi-finished products exhibit a remarkable microstructural uniformity and stability in a rather wide window of firing schedules. The phase composition and compact microstructure of fired slabs are very similar to those of porcelain stoneware tiles. The values of water absorption, bulk density, closed porosity, functional performances as well as mechanical and tribological properties conform to the top quality range of porcelain stoneware tiles. However, the large size coupled with low thickness bestow on the slab a certain degree of flexibility, which is emphasized in ceramic-fiberglass composites. These outstanding performances make the large-sized slabs suitable to be used in novel applications: building and construction (new floorings without dismantling the previous paving, ventilated facades, tunnel coverings, insulating panelling), indoor furnitures (table tops, doors), support for photovoltaic ceramic panels. (Author) 24 refs.

  20. Processing and properties of large-sized ceramic slabs

    Raimondo, M.; Dondi, M.; Zanelli, C.; Guarini, G.; Gozzi, A.; Marani, F.; Fossa, L.

    2010-01-01

    Large-sized ceramic slabs with dimensions up to 360x120 cm 2 and thickness down to 2 mm are manufactured through an innovative ceramic process, starting from porcelain stoneware formulations and involving wet ball milling, spray drying, die-less slow-rate pressing, a single stage of fast drying-firing, and finishing (trimming, assembling of ceramic-fiberglass composites). Fired and unfired industrial slabs were selected and characterized from the technological, compositional (XRF, XRD) and microstructural (SEM) viewpoints. Semi-finished products exhibit a remarkable microstructural uniformity and stability in a rather wide window of firing schedules. The phase composition and compact microstructure of fired slabs are very similar to those of porcelain stoneware tiles. The values of water absorption, bulk density, closed porosity, functional performances as well as mechanical and tribological properties conform to the top quality range of porcelain stoneware tiles. However, the large size coupled with low thickness bestow on the slab a certain degree of flexibility, which is emphasized in ceramic-fiberglass composites. These outstanding performances make the large-sized slabs suitable to be used in novel applications: building and construction (new floorings without dismantling the previous paving, ventilated facades, tunnel coverings, insulating panelling), indoor furnitures (table tops, doors), support for photovoltaic ceramic panels. (Author) 24 refs.

  1. Spread prestressed concrete slab beam bridges.

    2015-04-01

    TxDOT uses prestressed slab beam bridges for short-span bridges ranging from approximately 3050 ft in : length. These bridges have precast, pretensioned slab beams placed immediately adjacent to one another : with a cast-in-place slab made composi...

  2. The costs of respiratory illnesses arising from Florida gulf coast Karenia brevis blooms.

    Hoagland, Porter; Jin, Di; Polansky, Lara Y; Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Kirkpatrick, Gary; Fleming, Lora E; Reich, Andrew; Watkins, Sharon M; Ullmann, Steven G; Backer, Lorraine C

    2009-08-01

    Algal blooms of Karenia brevis, a harmful marine algae, occur almost annually off the west coast of Florida. At high concentrations, K. brevis blooms can cause harm through the release of potent toxins, known as brevetoxins, to the atmosphere. Epidemiologic studies suggest that aerosolized brevetoxins are linked to respiratory illnesses in humans. We hypothesized a relationship between K. brevis blooms and respiratory illness visits to hospital emergency departments (EDs) while controlling for environmental factors, disease, and tourism. We sought to use this relationship to estimate the costs of illness associated with aerosolized brevetoxins. We developed a statistical exposure-response model to express hypotheses about the relationship between respiratory illnesses and bloom events. We estimated the model with data on ED visits, K. brevis cell densities, and measures of pollen, pollutants, respiratory disease, and intra-annual population changes. We found that lagged K. brevis cell counts, low air temperatures, influenza outbreaks, high pollen counts, and tourist visits helped explain the number of respiratory-specific ED diagnoses. The capitalized estimated marginal costs of illness for ED respiratory illnesses associated with K. brevis blooms in Sarasota County, Florida, alone ranged from $0.5 to $4 million, depending on bloom severity. Blooms of K. brevis lead to significant economic impacts. The costs of illness of ED visits are a conservative estimate of the total economic impacts. It will become increasingly necessary to understand the scale of the economic losses associated with K. brevis blooms to make rational choices about appropriate mitigation.

  3. Modeling radon entry into Florida slab-on-grade houses

    Revzan, K.L.; Fisk, W.J.; Sextro, R.G.

    1993-01-01

    Radon entry into a Florida house whose concrete slab is supported by a permeable concrete-block stem wall and a concrete footer is modeled. The slab rests on backfill material; the same material is used to fill the footer trench. A region of undisturbed soil is assumed to extend 10 m beyond and below the footer. The soil is assumed homogeneous and isotropic except for certain simulations in which soil layers of high permeability or radium content are introduced. Depressurization of the house induces a pressure field in the soil and backfill. The Laplace equation, resulting from Darcy's law and the continuity equation, is solved using a steady-state finite-difference model to determine this field. The mass-transport equation is then solved to obtain the diffusive and advective radon entry rates through the slab; the permeable stem wall; gaps at the intersections of the slab, stem wall, and footer; and gaps in the slab. These rates are determined for variable soil, backfill, and stem-wall permeability and radium content, slab-opening width and position, slab and stem-wall diffusivity, and water table depth. The variations in soil permeability and radium content include cases of horizontally stratified soil. We also consider the effect of a gap between the edge of the slab and the stem wall that restricts the passage of soil gas from the stem wall into the house. Calculations indicate that the total radon entry rate is relatively low unless the soil or backfill permeability or radium content is high. Variations in most of the factors, other than the soil permeability and radium content, have only a small effect on the total radon entry rate. However, for a fixed soil permeability, the total radon entry rate may be reduced by a factor of 2 or more by decreasing the backfill permeability, by making the stem wall impermeable and gap-free, (possibly by constructing a one-piece slab/stem-wall/footer), or by increasing the pressure in the interior of the stem wall

  4. Method for Bubbledeck Concrete Slab with Gaps

    Sergiu Călin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The composite slabs are made of BubbleDeck type slab elements with spherical gaps, poured in place on transversal and longitudinal directions. By introducing the gaps leads to a 30...50\\% lighter slab which reduces the loads on the columns, walls and foundations, and of course of the entire building. BubbleDeck slab elements are plates with ribs on two directions made of reinforced concrete or precast concrete with spherical shaped bubbles. These slab elements have a bottom and an upper concrete part connected with vertical ribs that go around the gaps.

  5. Seasonal cooling and blooming in tropical oceans

    Longhurst, Alan

    1993-11-01

    The relative importance of tropical pelagic algal blooms in not yet fully appreciated and the way they are induced not well understood. The tropical Atlantic supports pelagic blooms together equivalent to the North Atlantic spring bloom. These blooms are driven by thermocline tilting, curl of wind stress and eddy upwelling as the ocean responds to intensified basin-scale winds in boreal summer. The dimensions of the Pacific Ocean are such that seasonal thermocline tilting does not occur, and nutrient conditions are such that tilting might not induce bloom, in any case. Divergence at the equator is a separate process that strengthens the Atlantic bloom, is more prominent in the eastern Pacific, and in the Indian Ocean induces a bloom only in the western part of the ocean. Where western jet currents are retroflected from the coast off Somalia and Brazil, eddy upwelling induces prominent blooms. In the eastward flow of the northern equatorial countercurrents, positive wind curl stress induces Ekman pumping and the induction of algal blooms aligned with the currents. Some apparent algal bloom, such as that seen frequently in CZCS images westwards from Senegal, must be due to interference from airborne dust.

  6. Why and Where do Large Shallow Slab Earthquakes Occur?

    Seno, T.; Yoshida, M.

    2001-12-01

    Within a shallow portion (20-60 km depth) of subducting slabs, it has been believed that large earthquakes seldom occur because the differential stress is generally expected to be low between bending at the trench-outer rise and unbending at the intermediate-depth. However, there are several regions in which large ( M>=7.0 ) earthquakes, including three events early in this year, have occurred in this portion. Searching such events from published individual studies and Harvard University centroid moment tensor catalogue, we find nineteen events in eastern Hokkaido, Kyushu-SW Japan, Mariana, Manila, Sumatra, Vanuatu, Chile, Peru, El Salvador, Mexico, and Cascadia. Slab stresses revealed from the mechanism solutions of those large events and smaller events are tensional in a slab dip direction. However, ages of the subducting oceanic plates are generally young, which denies a possibility that the slab pull works as a cause. Except for Manila and Sumatra, the stresses in the overriding plates are characterized by the change in {σ }Hmax direction from arc-parallel in the back-arc to arc-perpendicular in the fore-arc, which implies that a horizontal stress gradient exists in the across-arc direction. Peru and Chile, where the back-arc is compressional, can be categorized into this type, because a horizontal stress gradient exists over the continent from tension in east to compression in the west. In these regions, it is expected that mantle drag forces are operating beneath the upper plates, which drive the upper plates to the trenchward overriding the subducting oceanic plates. Assuming that the mantle drag forces beneath the upper plates originate from the mantle convection currents or upwelling plumes, we infer that the upper plates driven by the convection suck the oceanic plates, making the shallow portion of the slabs in extra-tension, thus resulting in the large shallow slab earthquakes in this tectonic regime.

  7. Climate Change and Algal Blooms =

    Lin, Shengpan

    Algal blooms are new emerging hazards that have had important social impacts in recent years. However, it was not very clear whether future climate change causing warming waters and stronger storm events would exacerbate the algal bloom problem. The goal of this dissertation was to evaluate the sensitivity of algal biomass to climate change in the continental United States. Long-term large-scale observations of algal biomass in inland lakes are challenging, but are necessary to relate climate change to algal blooms. To get observations at this scale, this dissertation applied machine-learning algorithms including boosted regression trees (BRT) in remote sensing of chlorophyll-a with Landsat TM/ETM+. The results show that the BRT algorithm improved model accuracy by 15%, compared to traditional linear regression. The remote sensing model explained 46% of the total variance of the ground-measured chlorophyll- a in the first National Lake Assessment conducted by the US Environmental Protection Agency. That accuracy was ecologically meaningful to study climate change impacts on algal blooms. Moreover, the BRT algorithm for chlorophyll- a would not have systematic bias that is introduced by sediments and colored dissolved organic matter, both of which might change concurrently with climate change and algal blooms. This dissertation shows that the existing atmospheric corrections for Landsat TM/ETM+ imagery might not be good enough to improve the remote sensing of chlorophyll-a in inland lakes. After deriving long-term algal biomass estimates from Landsat TM/ETM+, time series analysis was used to study the relations of climate change and algal biomass in four Missouri reservoirs. The results show that neither temperature nor precipitation was the only factor that controlled temporal variation of algal biomass. Different reservoirs, even different zones within the same reservoir, responded differently to temperature and precipitation changes. These findings were further

  8. SICS. A Sensor-Based In-Line Control System for the Surfaces of Continuously Cast Slabs

    Chang, Tzyy-Shuh [OG Technologies, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2013-09-23

    The Phase II project has been carried out in accordance to the proposed tasks and budget, based on the original and extended schedule. The R&D team designed and implemented the test unit for the full width coverage, installed the unit in a caster. The development work further included enhanced image processing, in-depth defect study and process control models. The function, operation, and maintenance of the SICS was thoroughly studied during the Phase II research. The experience indicates additional hardware and procedures are required to make the SICS a commercially ready product in operation and maintenance aspect. Such developments have been finished and the team is contacting potential customers for the first commercial installation of SICS. Additionally, OGT is exploring the possibility to team up with a US company that specializes in surface cleaning for slabs/blooms/billets such that the in-line surface inspection can be integrated with in-line surface clean up for the maximum benefit to the steel industry.

  9. Preface: Deep Slab and Mantle Dynamics

    Suetsugu, Daisuke; Bina, Craig R.; Inoue, Toru; Wiens, Douglas A.

    2010-11-01

    We are pleased to publish this special issue of the journal Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors entitled "Deep Slab and Mantle Dynamics". This issue is an outgrowth of the international symposium "Deep Slab and Mantle Dynamics", which was held on February 25-27, 2009, in Kyoto, Japan. This symposium was organized by the "Stagnant Slab Project" (SSP) research group to present the results of the 5-year project and to facilitate intensive discussion with well-known international researchers in related fields. The SSP and the symposium were supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (16075101) from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of the Japanese Government. In the symposium, key issues discussed by participants included: transportation of water into the deep mantle and its role in slab-related dynamics; observational and experimental constraints on deep slab properties and the slab environment; modeling of slab stagnation to constrain its mechanisms in comparison with observational and experimental data; observational, experimental and modeling constraints on the fate of stagnant slabs; eventual accumulation of stagnant slabs on the core-mantle boundary and its geodynamic implications. This special issue is a collection of papers presented in the symposium and other papers related to the subject of the symposium. The collected papers provide an overview of the wide range of multidisciplinary studies of mantle dynamics, particularly in the context of subduction, stagnation, and the fate of deep slabs.

  10. Algae Bloom in a Lake

    David Sanabria

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to determine the likelihood of an algae bloom in a particular lake located in upstate New York. The growth of algae in this lake is caused by a high concentration of phosphorous that diffuses to the surface of the lake. Our calculations, based on Fick's Law, are used to create a mathematical model of the driving force of diffusion for phosphorous. Empirical observations are also used to predict whether the concentration of phosphorous will diffuse to the surface of this lake within a specified time and under specified conditions.

  11. Studies of imaging characteristics for a slab of a lossy left-handed material

    Shen Linfang; He Sailing

    2003-01-01

    The characteristics of an imaging system formed by a slab of a lossy left-handed material (LHM) are studied. The transfer function of the LHM imaging system is written in an appropriate product form with each term having a clear physical interpretation. A tiny loss of the LHM may suppress the transmission of evanescent waves through the LHM slab and this is explained physically. An analytical expression for the resolution of the imaging system is derived. It is shown that it is impossible to make a subwavelength imaging by using a realistic LHM imaging system unless the LHM slab is much thinner than the wavelength

  12. Bridge approach slabs for Missouri DOT field evaluation of alternative and cost efficient bridge approach slabs.

    2013-05-01

    Based on a recent study on cost efficient alternative bridge approach slab (BAS) designs (Thiagarajan et : al. 2010) has recommended three new BAS designs for possible implementation by MoDOT namely a) 20 feet cast-inplace : slab with sleeper slab (C...

  13. Summer heatwaves promote blooms of harmful cyanobacteria

    K.D Joehnk; J. Huisman; J. Sharples; B.P. Sommeijer (Ben); P.M. Visser (Petra); J.M. Stroom

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractDense surface blooms of toxic cyanobacteria in eutrophic lakes may lead to mass mortalities of fish and birds, and provide a serious health threat for cattle, pets, and humans. It has been argued that global warming may increase the incidence of harmful algal blooms. Here, we report on a

  14. Summer heatwaves promote blooms of harmful cyanobacteria

    Jöhnk, K.D.; Huisman, J.; Sharples, J.; Sommeijer, B.; Visser, P.M.; Stroom, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Dense surface blooms of toxic cyanobacteria in eutrophic lakes may lead to mass mortalities of fish and birds, and provide a serious health threat for cattle, pets, and humans. It has been argued that global warming may increase the incidence of harmful algal blooms. Here, we report on a lake

  15. Distance Sensitive Bloom Filters Without False Negatives

    Goswami, Mayank; Pagh, Rasmus; Silvestri, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    A Bloom filter is a widely used data-structure for representing a set S and answering queries of the form “Is x in S?”. By allowing some false positive answers (saying ‘yes’ when the answer is in fact ‘no’) Bloom filters use space significantly below what is required for storing S. In the distanc...

  16. Slab Penetration vs. Slab Stagnation: Mantle Reflectors as an Indicator

    Okeler, A.; Gu, Y. J.; Schultz, R.; Contenti, S. M.

    2011-12-01

    Subducting oceanic lithosphere along convergent margins may stagnate near the base of the upper mantle or penetrate into the lower mantle. These dynamic processes cause extensive thermal and compositional variations, which can be observed in terms of impedance contrast (reflectivity) and topography of mantle transition zone (MTZ) discontinuities, i.e., 410- and 660-km discontinuities. In this study, we utilize ~ 15000 surface-reflected shear waves (SS) and their precursory arrivals (S410S and S660S) to analyze subduction related deformations on mantle reflectivity structure. We apply pre-stack, time-to-depth migration technique to SS precursors, and move weak underside reflections using PREM-predicted travel-time curves. Common Mid-point gathers are formed to investigate structure under the western Pacific, south America, and Mediterranean convergent boundaries. In general, mantle reflectivity structures are consistent with previous seismic tomography models. In regions of slab penetration (e.g., southern Kurile arc, Aegean Sea), our results show 1) a substantial decrease in S660S amplitude, and 2) strong lower mantle reflector(s) at ~ 900 km depth. These reflective structures are supported by zones of high P and S velocities extending into the lower mantle. Our 1-D synthetic simulations suggest that the decreasing S660S amplitudes are, at least partially, associated with shear wave defocusing due to changes in reflector depth (by ±20 km) within averaging bin. Assuming a ~500 km wide averaging area, a dipping reflector with 6-8 % slope can reduce the amplitude of a SS precursor by ~50%. On the other hand, broad depressions with strong impedance contrast at the base of the MTZ characterize the regions of slab stagnation, such as beneath the Tyrrhenian Sea and northeastern China. For the latter region, substantial topography on the 660-km discontinuity west of the Wadati-Benioff zone suggests that the stagnant part of the Pacific plate across Honshu arc is not

  17. Contribution to the study of slab thickness

    Moraitis, G.A.; Rorris, G.P.

    1978-01-01

    A method is proposed for calculating the time-independent values of the equivalent slab thickness of the ionosphere, defined as the ratio of the total electron content to the corresponding maximum electron density of the F region. Periodic variations of slab thickness are studied and are correlated to relative changes in exospheric temperature, deduced from the OGO-6 model

  18. Photon transport in thin disordered slabs

    We examine using Monte Carlo simulations, photon transport in optically `thin' slabs whose thickness is only a few times the transport mean free path *, with particles of different scattering anisotropies. The confined geometry causes an auto-selection of only photons with looping paths to remain within the slab.

  19. Repairing reinforced concrete slabs using composite layers

    Naghibdehi, M. Ghasemi; Sharbatdar, M.K.; Mastali, M.

    2014-01-01

    There are several strengthening methods for rehabilitation of RC structural elements. The efficiency of these methods has been demonstrated by many researchers. Due to their mechanical properties, using fibrous materials in rehabilitation applications is growing fast. Therefore, this study presents rehabilitation of slabs in such a way that plain concrete layers on top, on bottom, on the entire cross section are replaced by reinforced concrete layers. In order to reinforce the concrete, Polypropylene (PP) and steel fibers were used by 0.5%, 1% and 2% fiber volume fractions. Nineteen slabs were studied under flexural loadings and fibrous material effects on the initial crack force, the maximum loading carrying capacity, absorbed energy and ductility were investigated. The obtained results demonstrated that increasing the fiber volume fraction or using reinforced concrete layer on top, bottom, or at the entire cross section of the slabs not only always leads to improvement in the slab performance, but also sometimes debilitates the slab performance. Hence, this study will propose the best positioning of reinforced concrete layer, fiber volume fraction and fiber type to achieve the best flexural performance of slabs. - Highlights: • Using PP fibers at the bottom layer led to the best slab performance in bending. • Using steel fiber at the top layer and entire cross-section led to the best slab performance. • Maximum increase in the initial crack force and loading were obtained at 2% steel fiber. • Maximum increase in the initial crack force and loading were obtained at 1% PP fiber

  20. 0-6722 : spread prestressed concrete slab beam bridges.

    2014-08-01

    The Texas Department of Transportation uses : precast prestressed concrete slab beam bridges for : shorter-span bridges of approximately 3050 ft in : length. Conventional slab beam bridges have slab : beams placed immediately adjacent to one anoth...

  1. A cryogenic slab CO laser

    Ionin, Andrei A; Kozlov, A Yu; Seleznev, L V; Sinitsyn, D V

    2009-01-01

    A compact capacitive transverse RF-discharge-pumped slab CO laser with cryogenically cooled electrodes, which operates both in the cw and repetitively pulsed regimes, is fabricated. The laser operation is studied in the free running multifrequency regime at the vibrational - rotational transitions of the fundamental (V + 1 → V) vibrational bands of the CO molecule in the spectral region from 5.1 to 5.4 μm. Optimal operation conditions (gas mixture composition and pressure, RF pump parameters) are determined. It is shown that only gas mixtures with a high content of oxygen (up to 20% with respect to the concentration of CO molecules) can be used as an active medium of this laser. It is demonstrated that repetitively pulsed pumping is more efficient compared to cw pumping. In this case, quasi-cw lasing regime can be obtained. The maximum average output power of ∼12 W was obtained for this laser operating on fundamental bands and its efficiency achieved ∼14 %. The frequency-selective operation regime of the slab RF-discharge-pumped CO laser was realised at ∼ 100 laser lines in the spectral region from 5.0 to 6.5 μm with the average output power of up to several tens of milliwatts in each line. Lasing at the transitions of the first vibrational overtone (V + 2 → V) of the CO molecule is obtained in the spectral region from 2.5 to 3.9 μm. The average output power of the overtone laser achieved 0.3 W. All the results were obtained without the forced gas mixture exchange in the discharge chamber. Under fixed experimental conditions, repetitively pulsed lasing (with fluctuations of the output characteristics no more than ±10 %) was stable for more than an hour. (lasers)

  2. Make

    Frauenfelder, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The first magazine devoted entirely to do-it-yourself technology projects presents its 29th quarterly edition for people who like to tweak, disassemble, recreate, and invent cool new uses for technology. MAKE Volume 29 takes bio-hacking to a new level. Get introduced to DIY tracking devices before they hit the consumer electronics marketplace. Learn how to build an EKG machine to study your heartbeat, and put together a DIY bio lab to study athletic motion using consumer grade hardware.

  3. Dynamics of a cyanobacterial bloom in a hypereutrophic reservoir ...

    Blooming and non-blooming periods between 2004 and 2006 in a hypereutrophic reservoir, where cyanobacterial blooms have previously been reported to be permanent, presented an opportunity to characterise factors that may favour cyanobacterial dominance. As a bloom developed in May 2004, a shift to dominance by ...

  4. Estimation of the Reliability of Plastic Slabs

    Pirzada, G. B. : Ph.D.

    In this thesis, work related to fundamental conditions has been extended to non-fundamental or the general case of probabilistic analysis. Finally, using the ss-unzipping technique a door has been opened to system reliability analysis of plastic slabs. An attempt has been made in this thesis...... to give a probabilistic treatment of plastic slabs which is parallel to the deterministic and systematic treatment of plastic slabs by Nielsen (3). The fundamental reason is that in Nielsen (3) the treatment is based on a deterministic modelling of the basic material properties for the reinforced...

  5. Climate Adaptation and Harmful Algal Blooms

    EPA supports local, state and tribal efforts to maintain water quality. A key element of its efforts is to reduce excess nutrient pollution and the resulting adverse impacts, including harmful algal blooms.

  6. Detecting the Killer Toxin (Harmful Algal Blooms)

    Quevenco, Rodolfo

    2011-01-01

    IAEA is stepping up efforts to help countries understand the phenomenon and use more reliable methods for early detection and monitoring so as to limit harmful algal blooms (HABs) adverse effects on coastal communities everywhere.

  7. Analysis of Double Skin Composite Slabs

    Husain M. Husain

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with finite element modeling of the ultimate load behavior of double skin composite (DSC slabs. In a DSC slab, shear connectors in the form of nut bolt technique studs are used to transfer shear between the outer skin made of steel plates and the concrete core. The current study is based on finite element analysis using ANSYS Version 11 APDL release computer program. Experimental programmes were carried out by the others, two simply supported DSC beams were tested until failure under a concentrated load applied at the center. These test specimens were analyzed by the finite element method and the analyses have shown that these slabs displayed a high degree of flexural characteristics, ultimate strength, and ductility. The close agreement has been observed between the finite element and experimental results for ultimate loads and load–deflection responses. The finite element model was thus found to be capable of predicting the behavior of DSC slabs accurately.

  8. Calculating seismic of slabs ITA NNP Garona

    Ezeberry, J. I.; Guerrero, A.; Gamarra, J.; Beltran, F.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the methodology that Idom has employed to perform the seismic evaluation of slabs within the ITA project of the NPP Santa Maria de Garona. Seismic calculations that have been conducted include consideration of the effects of the interaction of soil structure as well as the possible take-off containers with respect to slab during the earthquake. Therefore, the main contribution of the work is the study of the coupling of rolling containers with the flexibility of the whole ground-slab For calculations has been used ABAQUS/Explicit program, allowing to solve effectively the nonlinearities listed above using explicit integration algorithms over time. The results of the calculations reflect the importance of jointly analyse the seismic responses of slab and containers. (Author)

  9. Experimental sensitivity analysis of subsoil-slab behaviour regarding degree of fibre-concrete slab reinforcement

    Hrubesova, E.; Lahuta, H.; Mohyla, M.; Quang, T. B.; Phi, N. D.

    2018-04-01

    The paper is focused on the sensitivity analysis of behaviour of the subsoil – foundation system as regards the variant properties of fibre-concrete slab resulting into different relative stiffness of the whole cooperating system. The character of slab and its properties are very important for the character of external load transfer, but the character of subsoil cannot be neglected either because it determines the stress-strain behaviour of the all system and consequently the bearing capacity of structure. The sensitivity analysis was carried out based on experimental results, which include both the stress values in soil below the foundation structure and settlements of structure, characterized by different quantity of fibres in it. Flat dynamometers GEOKON were used for the stress measurements below the observed slab, the strains inside slab were registered by tensometers, the settlements were monitored geodetically. The paper is focused on the comparison of soil stresses below the slab for different quantity of fibres in structure. The results obtained from the experimental stand can contribute to more objective knowledge of soil – slab interaction, to the evaluation of real carrying capacity of the slab, to the calibration of corresponding numerical models, to the optimization of quantity of fibres in the slab, and finally, to higher safety and more economical design of slab.

  10. Mantle wedge serpentinization effects on slab dips

    Eh Tan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical coupling between a subducting slab and the overlying mantle wedge is an important factor in controlling the subduction dip angle and the flow in mantel wedge. This paper investigates the role of the amount of mantle serpentinization on the subduction zone evolution. With numerical thermos-mechanical models with elasto-visco-plastic rheology, we vary the thickness and depth extent of mantle serpentinization in the mantle wedge to control the degree of coupling between the slab and mantle wedge. A thin serpentinized mantle layer is required for stable subduction. For models with stable subduction, we find that the slab dip is affected by the down-dip extent and the mantle serpentinization thickness. A critical down-dip extent exists in mantle serpentinization, determined by the thickness of the overriding lithosphere. If the down-dip extent does not exceed the critical depth, the slab is partially coupled to the overriding lithosphere and has a constant dip angle regardless of the mantle serpentinization thickness. However, if the down-dip extent exceeds the critical depth, the slab and the base of the overriding lithosphere would be separated and decoupled by a thick layer of serpentinized peridotite. This allows further slab bending and results in steeper slab dip. Increasing mantle serpentinization thickness will also result in larger slab dip. We also find that with weak mantle wedge, there is no material flowing from the asthenosphere into the serpentinized mantle wedge. All of these results indicate that serpentinization is an important ingredient when studying the subduction dynamics in the mantle wedge.

  11. Influence of slab connection in case of expanded concrete pavements

    Deluka-Tibljaš, Aleksandra; Prager, Andrija; Rukavina, Tatjana

    2002-01-01

    Load transfer from the stressed slab to the neighboring unstressed slab is analyzed in order to establish possibilities for stress reduction in concrete. The contact between slabs is established by means of reinforcing steel shear studs while the influence of friction in the concrete to concrete contact is neglected. The influence of slab thickness, slab cross-section and spacing of shear studs is analyzed, and the expansion joint movement due to change in temperature is studied. Conditions e...

  12. Bloom: A Relationship Visualization Tool for Complex Networks

    Frank Horsfall

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Faced with an ever-increasing capacity to collect and store data, organizations must find a way to make sense of it to their advantage. Methods are required to simplify the data so that it can inform strategic decisions and help solve problems. Visualization tools are becoming increasingly popular since they can display complex relationships in a simple, visual format. This article describes Bloom, a project at Carleton University to develop an open source visualization tool for complex networks and business ecosystems. It provides an overview of the visualization technology used in the project and demonstrates its potential impact through a case study using real-world data.

  13. Accidents due to falls from roof slabs.

    Rudelli, Bruno Alves; Silva, Marcelo Valerio Alabarce da; Akkari, Miguel; Santili, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE Falls from the roof slabs of houses are accidents of high potential severity that occur in large Brazilian cities and often affect children and adolescents. The aims of this study were to characterize the factors that predispose towards this type of fall involving children and adolescents, quantify the severity of associated lesions and suggest preventive measures. DESIGN AND SETTING Descriptive observational prospective longitudinal study in two hospitals in the metropolitan region of São Paulo. METHODS Data were collected from 29 cases of falls from roof slabs involving children and adolescents between October 2008 and October 2009. RESULTS Cases involving males were more prevalent, accounting for 84%. The predominant age group was schoolchildren (7 to 12 years old; 44%). Leisure activities were most frequently being practiced on the roof slab at the time of the fall (86%), and flying a kite was the most prevalent game (37.9%). In 72% of the cases, the children were unaccompanied by an adult responsible for them. Severe conditions such as multiple trauma and traumatic brain injuries resulted from 79% of the accidents. CONCLUSION Falls from roof slabs are accidents of high potential severity, and preventive measures aimed towards informing parents and guardians about the dangers and risk factors associated with this type of accident are needed, along with physical protective measures, such as low walls around the slab and gates with locks to restrict free access to these places.

  14. Accidents due to falls from roof slabs

    Bruno Alves Rudelli

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE Falls from the roof slabs of houses are accidents of high potential severity that occur in large Brazilian cities and often affect children and adolescents. The aims of this study were to characterize the factors that predispose towards this type of fall involving children and adolescents, quantify the severity of associated lesions and suggest preventive measures. DESIGN AND SETTING Descriptive observational prospective longitudinal study in two hospitals in the metropolitan region of São Paulo. METHODS Data were collected from 29 cases of falls from roof slabs involving children and adolescents between October 2008 and October 2009. RESULTS Cases involving males were more prevalent, accounting for 84%. The predominant age group was schoolchildren (7 to 12 years old; 44%. Leisure activities were most frequently being practiced on the roof slab at the time of the fall (86%, and flying a kite was the most prevalent game (37.9%. In 72% of the cases, the children were unaccompanied by an adult responsible for them. Severe conditions such as multiple trauma and traumatic brain injuries resulted from 79% of the accidents. CONCLUSION Falls from roof slabs are accidents of high potential severity, and preventive measures aimed towards informing parents and guardians about the dangers and risk factors associated with this type of accident are needed, along with physical protective measures, such as low walls around the slab and gates with locks to restrict free access to these places.

  15. Hydrodynamic control of microphytoplankton bloom in a coastal sea

    Hydrodynamic control of microphytoplankton bloom in a coastal sea ... many times more than what could be accounted for by solar insolation and nutrient levels. ... and stable water column and weak winds left undisturbed, the transient bloom.

  16. Slab tears and intermediate-depth seismicity

    Meighan, Hallie E.; ten Brink, Uri S.; Pulliam, Jay

    2013-01-01

    Active tectonic regions where plate boundaries transition from subduction to strike slip can take several forms, such as triple junctions, acute, and obtuse corners. Well-documented slab tears that are associated with high rates of intermediate-depth seismicity are considered here: Gibraltar arc, the southern and northern ends of the Lesser Antilles arc, and the northern end of Tonga trench. Seismicity at each of these locations occurs, at times, in the form of swarms or clusters, and various authors have proposed that each marks an active locus of tear propagation. The swarms and clusters start at the top of the slab below the asthenospheric wedge and extend 30–60 km vertically downward within the slab. We propose that these swarms and clusters are generated by fluid-related embrittlement of mantle rocks. Focal mechanisms of these swarms generally fit the shear motion that is thought to be associated with the tearing process.

  17. Behaviour of a stiffened circular slab

    Kulkarni, M.G.; Subramanian, K.V.

    1975-01-01

    Configuration of intake structure for cooling water system for Madras Atomic Power Project was studied on a hydraulic model and it was recommended to provide a circular slab in the structure to give directional property to the inflow and reduce air entrainment. This slab, as indicated by hydraulic model tests was required to withstand hydrodynamic pressures of the order of 10T/m 2 due to breaking waves of about 6 m height. Analysis of this circular cover slab, Stiffened by radial and circumferential beams, carried with the help of an analysis based on grid idealisation is presented. Results of approximate design analysis to assess behaviour of radial stiffener have been compared. Actual design is based on judgement of actual degree of fixity possessed by the supports or restraints. (author)

  18. Fire resistance of prefabricated monolithic slab

    Gravit Marina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A prefabricated monolithic slab (PMS has a number of valuable advantages, they allow to significantly decrease the weight of construction keeping the necessary structural-load capacity, to speed up and cheapen work conduction, to increase the heat isolating properties of an enclosure structure [1]. In order to create a design method of prefabricated monolithic slab fire-resistance, it's necessary to perform a series of PMS testing, one of which is being described in this article. Subjected to the test is a fragment of prefabricated monolithic slab with polystyrene concrete inserts along the beams with bent metal profile 250 mm thick, with a 2.7 m span loaded with evenly spread load equal to 600 kg/m2. After 3 hour testing for fire-resistance [2] no signs of construction ultimate behavior were detected.

  19. Influence of slab length on dynamic characteristics of subway train-steel spring floating slab track-tunnel coupled system

    Qing-yuan Xu

    Full Text Available A subway train-steel spring floating slab track-tunnel coupling dynamic model, considering short and middle-long wavelength random track irregularities, and longitudinal connection between adjacent slabs of steel spring floating slab track, was developed. And the influence of slab length on dynamic characteristics of the system under different track conditions and train speeds are theoretically studied. The calculated results show: (1 In general, the acceleration of each component of the coupled system decreases with the increase of slab length under the perfectly smooth track condition; (2 Slab length has different influence laws on acceleration of each component of subway train-steel spring floating slab track-tunnel coupled system under random irregularity of track condition. The lower the dominant frequency distribution of vibration acceleration is, the higher influence slab length has; (3 With the increase of slab length, the force of rail, fastener and steel spring also decreases significantly, which helps to lengthen the service life of these components; (4 With the increase of slab length, the longitudinal bending moment of slab increases sharply at first, then it begins to drop slightly. When slab length exceeds the distance between two bogies of a vehicle, the longitudinal bending moment of slab changes little; (5 Slab length has significant influence on the dynamic force and displacement of the coupled system when train speed is higher.

  20. Active isotropic slabs: conditions for amplified reflection

    Perez, Liliana I.; Matteo, Claudia L.; Etcheverry, Javier; Duplaá, María Celeste

    2012-12-01

    We analyse in detail the necessary conditions to obtain amplified reflection (AR) in isotropic interfaces when a plane wave propagates from a transparent medium towards an active one. First, we demonstrate analytically that AR is not possible if a single interface is involved. Then, we study the conditions for AR in a very simple configuration: normal incidence on an active slab immersed in transparent media. Finally, we develop an analysis in the complex plane in order to establish a geometrical method that not only describes the behaviour of active slabs but also helps to simplify the calculus.

  1. Active isotropic slabs: conditions for amplified reflection

    Perez, Liliana I; Duplaá, María Celeste; Matteo, Claudia L; Etcheverry, Javier

    2012-01-01

    We analyse in detail the necessary conditions to obtain amplified reflection (AR) in isotropic interfaces when a plane wave propagates from a transparent medium towards an active one. First, we demonstrate analytically that AR is not possible if a single interface is involved. Then, we study the conditions for AR in a very simple configuration: normal incidence on an active slab immersed in transparent media. Finally, we develop an analysis in the complex plane in order to establish a geometrical method that not only describes the behaviour of active slabs but also helps to simplify the calculus. (paper)

  2. Moisture transfer in a concrete slab

    Huang, C.L.D.; Siang, H.H.; Kirmser, P.G.

    1979-01-01

    A diffusion theory with a linear or a nonlinear coefficient of diffusivity is insufficient for the characterization of the drying behaviour of hydrated concrete slabs. A general mathematical model, based on nonequilibrium, irreversible flows of heat and mass, yields a set of nonlinear partial differential equations of parabolic type. Implicit finite difference calculations for a concrete slab yield moisture, temperature, and pressure histories as well as global average drying rates. Graphs show that during the pendular state of dessication, diffusion, capillary, and evaporation-condensation processes are the governing mechanisms in drying. (orig.)

  3. Algal blooms: a perspective from the coasts of India

    DeSilva, M.S.; Anil, A.C.; Naik, R.K.; DeCosta, P.M.

    Algal blooms have been documented along the west and east coasts of India. A review of bloom occurrences in Indian waters from 1908 to 2009 points out that a total of 101 cases have been reported. A comparison of the bloom cases reported before...

  4. Behaviour of reinforced concrete slabs with steel fibers

    Baarimah, A. O.; Syed Mohsin, S. M.

    2017-11-01

    This paper investigates the potential effect of steel fiber added into reinforced concrete slabs. Four-point bending test is conducted on six slabs to investigate the structural behaviour of the slabs by considering two different parameters; (i) thickness of slab (ii) volume fraction of steel fiber. The experimental work consists of six slabs, in which three slabs are designed in accordance to Eurocode 2 to fulfil shear capacity characteristic, whereas, the other three slabs are designed with 17% less thickness, intended to fail in shear. Both series of slabs are added with steel fiber with a volume fraction of Vf = 0%, Vf = 1% and Vf = 2% in order to study the effect and potential of fiber to compensate the loss in shear capacity. The slab with Vf = 0% steel fiber and no reduction in thickness is taken as the control slab. The experimental result suggests promising improvement of the load carrying capacity (up to 32%) and ductility (up to 87%) as well as delayed in crack propagation for the slabs with Vf = 2%. In addition, it is observed that addition of fibers compensates the reduction in the slab thickness as well as changes the failure mode of the slab from brittle to a more ductile manner.

  5. Cyanobacterial blooms in lake Atitlan, Guatemala

    Rejmánková, E.; Komárek, Jiří; Dix, M.; Komárková, Jaroslava; Girón, N.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 4 (2011), s. 296-302 ISSN 0075-9511 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516; CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : water blooms * plancton * Guatemala Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.527, year: 2011

  6. Plankton bloom controlled by horizontal stirring

    McKiver, W.; Neufeld, Z.; Scheuring, I.

    2009-10-01

    Here we show a simple mechanism in which changes in the rate of horizontal stirring by mesoscale ocean eddies can trigger or suppress plankton blooms and can lead to an abrupt change in the average plankton density. We consider a single species phytoplankton model with logistic growth, grazing and a spatially non-uniform carrying capacity. The local dynamics have multiple steady states for some values of the carrying capacity that can lead to localized blooms as fluid moves across the regions with different properties. We show that for this model even small changes in the ratio of biological timescales relative to the flow timescales can greatly enhance or reduce the global plankton productivity. Thus, this may be a possible mechanism in which changes in horizontal mixing can trigger plankton blooms or cause regime shifts in some oceanic regions. Comparison between the spatially distributed model and Lagrangian simulations considering temporal fluctuations along fluid trajectories, demonstrates that small scale transport processes also play an important role in the development of plankton blooms with a significant influence on global biomass.

  7. Detection of surface algal blooms using the newly developed algorithm surface algal bloom index SABI)

    Alawadi, Fahad

    2010-01-01

    Quantifying ocean colour properties has evolved over the past two decades from being able to merely detect their biological activity to the ability to estimate chlorophyll concentration using optical satellite sensors like MODIS and MERIS. The production of chlorophyll spatial distribution maps is a good indicator of plankton biomass (primary production) and is useful for the tracing of oceanographic currents, jets and blooms, including harmful algal blooms (HABs). Depending on the type of HA...

  8. Foundation Design for a High Bay Warehouse with a Steel Fibre Reinforced Concrete Slab

    Kasper, T.; Sørensen, Carsten Steen; Nielsen, J. B.

    2008-01-01

    . The SFRC slab is cast in 6 panels divided by free-movement joints with shear dowels. It has to be designed for closely spaced 250 kN characteristic long-term loads for complete filling of the racks. The design has been based on a German SFRC design guideline and makes use of 3D finite element soil...

  9. Lifetime Reliability Assessment of Concrete Slab Bridges

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    A procedure for lifetime assesment of the reliability of short concrete slab bridges is presented in the paper. Corrosion of the reinforcement is the deterioration mechanism used for estimating the reliability profiles for such bridges. The importance of using sensitivity measures is stressed....... Finally the produce is illustrated on 6 existing UK bridges....

  10. All-polymer photonic crystal slab sensor

    Hermannsson, Pétur Gordon; Sørensen, Kristian Tølbøl; Vannahme, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    An all-polymer photonic crystal slab sensor is presented, and shown to exhibit narrow resonant reflection with a FWHM of less than 1 nm and a sensitivity of 31 nm/RIU when sensing media with refractive indices around that of water. This results in a detection limit of 4.5x10-6 RIU when measured...

  11. Slab cooling system design using computer simulation

    Lain, M.; Zmrhal, V.; Drkal, F.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    2007-01-01

    For a new technical library building in Prague computer simulations were carried out to help design of slab cooling system and optimize capacity of chillers. In the paper is presented concept of new technical library HVAC system, the model of the building, results of the energy simulations for

  12. Reinforcement of the concrete base slab of the ATLAS cavern

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    Photo 02: UX15 cavern, preparation for concreting of base slab first lift. Photo 05: UX15 cavern, placing of reinforcement for base slab first lift. Photo 07: UX15 cavern, preparation for concreting of base slab first lift. Photo 09: UX15 cavern, placing of reinforcement for base slab first lift. Photo 10: UX15 cavern, view into PX14 shaft above. Photo 12: UX15 cavern, temporary access platform of RB16 tunnel. Photo 15: UJ17 chamber, invert excavation.

  13. Cost analysis of reinforced concrete slabs and columns

    Spuś, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    The construction industry is increasingly looking for solutions that are both simple and effective and that provide cost savings, speed and flexibility of execution. Two-way slabs are a form of construction unique to reinforced concrete comparing with the other major structural materials. It is an efficient, economical, and widely used structural system. The present dissertation aims to analyze and compare costs between four types of slabs: waffle slab with recuperate molds, flat slabs wit...

  14. Development Length for Headed Bars in Slab-Column Joints of RC Slab Bridges

    2015-12-04

    In accordance with the Caltrans Seismic Design Criteria, the superstructure in a slab bridge should remain essentially elastic and only the pile extensions/columns are permitted to develop inelastic deformations during a seismic event. Hence, the lon...

  15. Modified bond model for shear in slabs under concentrated loads

    Lantsoght, E.O.L.; Van der Veen, C.; De Boer, A.

    2015-01-01

    Slabs subjected to concentrated loads close to supports, as occurring for truck loads on slab bridges, are less studied than beams in shear or slab-column connections in punching. To predict the shear capacity for this case, the Bond Model for concentric punching shear was studied initially.

  16. Nonimaging concentrators for diode-pumped slab lasers

    Lacovara, Philip; Gleckman, Philip L.; Holman, Robert L.; Winston, Roland

    1991-10-01

    Diode-pumped slab lasers require concentrators for high-average power operation. We detail the properties of diode lasers and slab lasers which set the concentration requirements and the concentrator design methodologies that are used, and describe some concentrator designs used in high-average power slab lasers at Lincoln Laboratory.

  17. Control of exceptional points in photonic crystal slabs

    Kaminski, Piotr Marek; Taghizadeh, Alireza; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2017-01-01

    Various ways of controlling the extent of the ring of exceptional points in photonic crystal slabs are investigated. The extent of the ring in photonic crystal slabs is found to vary with the thickness of the slab. This enables recovery of Dirac cones in open, non-Hermitian systems, such as a pho...

  18. Subsurface phytoplankton blooms fuel pelagic production in the North Sea

    Richardson, Kathrine; Visser, Andre; Pedersen, Flemming

    2000-01-01

    The seasonal phytoplankton biomass distribution pattern in stratified temperate marine waters is traditionally depicted as consisting of spring and autumn blooms. The energy source supporting pelagic summer production is believed to be the spring bloom. However, the spring bloom disappears...... relatively quickly from the water column and a large proportion of the material sedimenting to the bottom following the spring bloom is often comprised of intact phytoplankton cells. Thus, it is easy to argue that the spring bloom is fueling the energy demands of the benthos, but more difficult to argue...... convincingly that energy fixed during the spring bloom is fueling the pelagic production occurring during summer months. We argue here that periodic phytoplankton blooms are occurring during the summer in the North Sea at depths of >25 m and that the accumulated new production [sensu (Dugdale and Goering...

  19. Jellyfish blooms in China: Dominant species, causes and consequences

    Dong Zhijun; Liu Dongyan; Keesing, John K.

    2010-01-01

    Three jellyfish species, Aurelia aurita, Cyanea nozakii and Nemopilema nomurai, form large blooms in Chinese seas. We report on the distribution and increasing incidence of jellyfish blooms and their consequences in Chinese coastal seas and analyze their relationship to anthropogenically derived changes to the environment in order to determine the possible causes. A. aurita, C. nozakii and N. nomurai form blooms in the temperate Chinese seas including the northern East China Sea, Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea. N. nomurai forms offshore blooms while the other two species bloom mainly in inshore areas. Eutrophication, overfishing, habitat modification for aquaculture and climate change are all possible contributory factors facilitating plausible mechanisms for the proliferation of jellyfish blooms. In the absence of improvement in coastal marine ecosystem health, jellyfish blooms could be sustained and may even spread from the locations in which they now occur.

  20. Wind-driven marine phytoplank blooms: Satellite observation and analysis

    Tang, DanLing

    2016-07-01

    Algal bloom is defined as a rapid increase or accumulation in biomass in an aquatic system. It not only can increase the primary production but also could result in negative ecological consequence, e.g.,Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs). According to the classic theory for the formation of algal blooms "critical depth" and "eutrophication", oligotrophic sea area is usually difficult to form a large area of algal blooms, and actuallythe traditional observation is only sporadic capture to the existence of algal blooms.Taking full advantage of multiple data of satellite remote sensing , this study introduces "Wind-driven algal blooms in open oceans: observation and mechanisms" It explained except classic coastal Ekman transport, the wind through a variety of mechanisms affecting the formation of algal blooms. Proposed a conceptual model of "Strong wind -upwelling-nutrient-phytoplankton blooms" in Western South China Sea (SCS) to assess role of wind-induced advection transport in phytoplankton bloom formation. It illustrates the nutrient resources that support long-term offshore phytoplankton blooms in the western SCS; (2)Proposal of the theory that "typhoons cause vertical mixing, induce phytoplankton blooms", and quantify their important contribution to marine primary production; Proposal a new ecological index for typhoon. Proposed remote sensing inversion models. (3)Finding of the spatial and temporaldistributions pattern of harmful algal bloom (HAB)and species variations of HAB in the South Yellow Sea and East China Sea, and in the Pearl River estuary, and their oceanic dynamic mechanisms related with monsoon; The project developed new techniques and generated new knowledge, which significantly improved understanding of the formation mechanisms of algal blooms. The proposed "wind-pump" mechanism integrates theoretical system combined "ocean dynamics, development of algal blooms, and impact on primary production", which will benefit fisheries management. These

  1. Siderophores: The special ingredient to cyanobacterial blooms

    Du, Xue; Creed, Irena; Trick, Charles

    2013-04-01

    Freshwater lakes provide a number of significant ecological services including clean drinking water, habitat for aquatic biota, and economic benefits. The provision of these ecological services, as well as the health of these aquatic systems, is threatened by the excessive growth of algae, specifically, cyanobacteria. Historically, blooms have been linked to eutrophication but recent occurrences indicate that there are less dramatic changes that induce these blooms. Iron is an essential micronutrient required for specific essential metabolic pathways; however, the amount of biologically available iron in naturally occurring lake ranges from saturation to much lower than cell transport affinities. To assist in the modulation of iron availabilities, cyanobacteria in culture produce low molecular weight compounds that function in an iron binding and acquisition system; nevertheless, this has yet to be confirmed in naturally occurring lakes. This project explored the relationship of P, N and in particular, Fe, in the promotion of cyanobacteria harmful algal blooms in 30 natural freshwater lakes located in and around the Elk Island National Park, Alberta. It is hypothesized that cyanobacteria produce and utilize iron chelators called siderophores in low Fe and nitrogen (N) conditions, creating a competitive advantage over other algae in freshwater lakes. Lakes were selected to represent a range of iron availability to explore the nutrient composition of lakes that propagated cyanobacteria harmful algal blooms (cHABs) compared to lakes that did not. Lake water was analyzed for nutrients, microbial composition, siderophore concentration, and toxin concentration. Modifications were made to optimize the Czaky and Arnow tests for hydroxamate- and catecholate-type siderophores, respectively, for field conditions. Preliminary results indicate the presence of iron-binding ligands (0.11-2.34 mg/L) in freshwater lakes characterized by widely ranging Fe regimes (0.04-2.74 mg

  2. Flowing Air-Water Cooled Slab Nd: Glass Laser

    Lu, Baida; Cai, Bangwei; Liao, Y.; Xu, Shifa; Xin, Z.

    1989-03-01

    A zig-zag optical path slab geometry Nd: glass laser cooled through flowing air-water is developed by us. Theoretical studies on temperature distribution of slab and rod configurations in the unsteady state clarify the advantages of the slab geometry laser. The slab design and processing are also reported. In our experiments main laser output characteristics, e. g. laser efficiency, polarization, far-field divergence angle as well as resonator misalignment are investigated. The slab phosphate glass laser in combination with a crossed Porro-prism resonator demonstrates a good laser performance.

  3. Detonation Propagation in Slabs and Axisymmetric Rate Sticks

    Romick, Christopher; Aslam, Tariq

    Insensitive high explosives (IHE) have many benefits; however, these IHEs exhibit longer reaction zones than more conventional high explosives (HE). This makes IHEs less ideal explosives and more susceptible to edge effects as well as other performance degradation issues. Thus, there is a resulting reduction in the detonation speed within the explosive. Many HE computational models, e. g. WSD, SURF, CREST, have shock-dependent reaction rates. This dependency places a high value on having an accurate shock speed. In the common practice of shock-capturing, there is ambiguity in the shock-state due to smoothing of the shock-front. Moreover, obtaining an accurate shock speed with shock-capturing becomes prohibitively computationally expensive in multiple dimensions. The use of shock-fitting removes the ambiguity of the shock-state as it is one of the boundaries. As such, the required resolution for a given error in the detonation speed is less than with shock-capturing. This allows for further insight into performance degradation. A two-dimensional shock-fitting scheme has been developed for unconfined slabs and rate sticks of HE. The HE modeling is accomplished by Euler equations utilizing several models with single-step irreversible kinetics in slab and rate stick geometries. Department of Energy - LANL.

  4. Evidence of fire resistance of hollow-core slabs

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl; Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt; Giuliani, Luisa

    is therefore going on in the Netherlands about the fire resistance of hollow-core slabs. In 2014 the producers of hollow-core slabs have published a report of a project called Holcofire containing a collection of 162 fire tests on hollow-core slabs giving for the first time an overview of the fire tests made....... The present paper analyses the evidence now available for assessment of the fire resistance of extruded hollow-core slabs. The 162 fire tests from the Holcofire report are compared against the requirements for testing from the product standard for hollow-core slabs EN1168 and knowledge about the possible......Hollow-core slabs have during the past 50 years comprised a variety of different structures with different cross-sections and reinforcement. At present the extruded hollow-core slabs without cross-reinforcement in the bottom flange and usually round or oval longitudinal channels (holes...

  5. Upstand Finite Element Analysis of Slab Bridges

    O'Brien, Eugene J.; Keogh, D.L.

    1998-01-01

    For slab bridge decks with wide transverse edge cantilevers, the plane grillage analogy is shown to be an inaccurate method of linear elastic analysis due to variations in the vertical position of the neutral axis. The upstand grillage analogy is also shown to give inaccurate results, this time due to inappropriate modelling of in-plane distortions. An alternative method, known as upstand finite element analysis, is proposed which is sufficiently simple to be used on an everyday basis in the ...

  6. Convection in Slab and Spheroidal Geometries

    Porter, David H.; Woodward, Paul R.; Jacobs, Michael L.

    2000-01-01

    Three-dimensional numerical simulations of compressible turbulent thermally driven convection, in both slab and spheroidal geometries, are reviewed and analyzed in terms of velocity spectra and mixing-length theory. The same ideal gas model is used in both geometries, and resulting flows are compared. The piecewise-parabolic method (PPM), with either thermal conductivity or photospheric boundary conditions, is used to solve the fluid equations of motion. Fluid motions in both geometries exhibit a Kolmogorov-like k(sup -5/3) range in their velocity spectra. The longest wavelength modes are energetically dominant in both geometries, typically leading to one convection cell dominating the flow. In spheroidal geometry, a dipolar flow dominates the largest scale convective motions. Downflows are intensely turbulent and up drafts are relatively laminar in both geometries. In slab geometry, correlations between temperature and velocity fluctuations, which lead to the enthalpy flux, are fairly independent of depth. In spheroidal geometry this same correlation increases linearly with radius over the inner 70 percent by radius, in which the local pressure scale heights are a sizable fraction of the radius. The effects from the impenetrable boundary conditions in the slab geometry models are confused with the effects from non-local convection. In spheroidal geometry nonlocal effects, due to coherent plumes, are seen as far as several pressure scale heights from the lower boundary and are clearly distinguishable from boundary effects.

  7. Blooming Artifact Reduction in Coronary Artery Calcification by A New De-blooming Algorithm: Initial Study.

    Li, Ping; Xu, Lei; Yang, Lin; Wang, Rui; Hsieh, Jiang; Sun, Zhonghua; Fan, Zhanming; Leipsic, Jonathon A

    2018-05-02

    The aim of this study was to investigate the use of de-blooming algorithm in coronary CT angiography (CCTA) for optimal evaluation of calcified plaques. Calcified plaques were simulated on a coronary vessel phantom and a cardiac motion phantom. Two convolution kernels, standard (STND) and high-definition standard (HD STND), were used for imaging reconstruction. A dedicated de-blooming algorithm was used for imaging processing. We found a smaller bias towards measurement of stenosis using the de-blooming algorithm (STND: bias 24.6% vs 15.0%, range 10.2% to 39.0% vs 4.0% to 25.9%; HD STND: bias 17.9% vs 11.0%, range 8.9% to 30.6% vs 0.5% to 21.5%). With use of de-blooming algorithm, specificity for diagnosing significant stenosis increased from 45.8% to 75.0% (STND), from 62.5% to 83.3% (HD STND); while positive predictive value (PPV) increased from 69.8% to 83.3% (STND), from 76.9% to 88.2% (HD STND). In the patient group, reduction in calcification volume was 48.1 ± 10.3%, reduction in coronary diameter stenosis over calcified plaque was 52.4 ± 24.2%. Our results suggest that the novel de-blooming algorithm could effectively decrease the blooming artifacts caused by coronary calcified plaques, and consequently improve diagnostic accuracy of CCTA in assessing coronary stenosis.

  8. Experimental and theoretical investigation of column - flat slab joint ductility

    Iskhakov, I.; Ribakov, Y.; Shah, A.

    2009-01-01

    Most modern seismic codes use ductility as one of the basic design parameters. Actually, ductility defines the ability of a structure or its elements to absorb energy by plastic deformations. Until the end of the previous century ductility was defined qualitatively. Most research works related to ductility are focused on structural elements' sections. This study was aimed at complex experimental and theoretical investigation of flat slab-column joints ductility. It is one of the first attempts to obtain quantitative values of joint's ductility for the case of high strength concrete columns and normal strength concrete slabs. It was shown that the flat slab-column joint is a three-dimension (3D) element and its ductility in horizontal and vertical directions are different. This is the main difference between ductility of elements and joint ductility. In case of flat slab-column joints, essential contribution to joint's ductility can be obtained due to the slab's confining effect. Based on experimental data, the authors demonstrate that flat slab-column joint's ductility depends on the joint's confining effect in two horizontal and vertical directions. Furthermore, the influence of slab load intensity and slab reinforcement ratio on the joint's ductility is performed in this study. It is also demonstrated that the effect of the ratio between the slab thickness and the column's section dimension on the ductility parameter is significant. Equations for obtaining a quantitative value of a flat slab-column joint's ductility parameter were developed.

  9. Phytoplankton-Associated Bacterial Community Composition and Succession during Toxic Diatom Bloom and Non-Bloom Events.

    Sison-Mangus, Marilou P; Jiang, Sunny; Kudela, Raphael M; Mehic, Sanjin

    2016-01-01

    Pseudo-nitzschia blooms often occur in coastal and open ocean environments, sometimes leading to the production of the neurotoxin domoic acid that can cause severe negative impacts to higher trophic levels. Increasing evidence suggests a close relationship between phytoplankton bloom and bacterial assemblages, however, the microbial composition and succession during a bloom process is unknown. Here, we investigate the bacterial assemblages before, during and after toxic and non-toxic Pseudo-nitzschia blooms to determine the patterns of bacterial succession in a natural bloom setting. Opportunistic sampling of bacterial community profiles were determined weekly at Santa Cruz Municipal Wharf by 454 pyrosequencing and analyzed together with domoic acid levels, phytoplankton community and biomass, nutrients and temperature. We asked if the bacterial communities are similar between bloom and non-bloom events and if domoic acid or the presence of toxic algal species acts as a driving force that can significantly structure phytoplankton-associated bacterial communities. We found that bacterial diversity generally increases when Pseudo-nitzschia numbers decline. Furthermore, bacterial diversity is higher when the low-DA producing P. fraudulenta dominates the algal bloom while bacterial diversity is lower when high-DA producing P. australis dominates the algal bloom, suggesting that the presence of algal toxin can structure bacterial community. We also found bloom-related succession patterns among associated bacterial groups; Gamma-proteobacteria, were dominant during low toxic P. fraudulenta blooms comprising mostly of Vibrio spp., which increased in relative abundance (6-65%) as the bloom progresses. On the other hand, Firmicutes bacteria comprising mostly of Planococcus spp. (12-86%) dominate during high toxic P. australis blooms, with the bacterial assemblage showing the same bloom-related successional patterns in three independent bloom events. Other environmental

  10. Phytoplankton-associated bacterial community composition and succession during toxic diatom bloom and non-bloom events

    Marilou P. Sison-Mangus

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Pseudo-nitzschia blooms often occur in coastal and open ocean environments, sometimes leading to the production of the neurotoxin domoic acid that can cause severe negative impacts to higher trophic levels. Increasing evidence suggests a close relationship between phytoplankton bloom and bacterial assemblages, however, the microbial composition and succession during a bloom process is unknown. Here, we investigate the bacterial assemblages before, during and after toxic and non-toxic Pseudo-nitzschia blooms to determine the patterns of bacterial succession in a natural bloom setting. Opportunistic sampling of bacterial community profiles were determined weekly at Santa Cruz Municipal Wharf by 454 pyrosequencing and analyzed together with domoic acid levels, phytoplankton community and biomass, nutrients and temperature. We asked if the bacterial communities are similar between bloom and non-bloom events and if domoic acid or the presence of toxic algal species acts as a driving force that can significantly structure phytoplankton-associated bacterial communities. We found that bacterial diversity generally increases when Pseudo-nitzschia numbers decline. Furthermore, bacterial diversity is higher when the low-DA producing P. fraudulenta dominates the algal bloom while bacterial diversity is lower when high-DA producing P. australis dominates the algal bloom, suggesting that the presence of algal toxin can structure bacterial community. We also found bloom-related succession patterns among associated bacterial groups; Gamma-proteobacteria, were dominant during low toxic P. fraudulenta blooms comprising mostly of Vibrio spp., which increased in relative abundance (6%-65% as the bloom progresses. On the other hand, Firmicutes bacteria comprising mostly of Planococcus spp. (12%- 86% dominate during high toxic P. australis blooms, with the bacterial assemblage showing the same bloom-related successional patterns in 3 independent bloom events. Other

  11. Processing and properties of large-sized ceramic slabs

    Fossa, L.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Large-sized ceramic slabs – with dimensions up to 360x120 cm2 and thickness down to 2 mm – are manufactured through an innovative ceramic process, starting from porcelain stoneware formulations and involving wet ball milling, spray drying, die-less slow-rate pressing, a single stage of fast drying-firing, and finishing (trimming, assembling of ceramic-fiberglass composites. Fired and unfired industrial slabs were selected and characterized from the technological, compositional (XRF, XRD and microstructural (SEM viewpoints. Semi-finished products exhibit a remarkable microstructural uniformity and stability in a rather wide window of firing schedules. The phase composition and compact microstructure of fired slabs are very similar to those of porcelain stoneware tiles. The values of water absorption, bulk density, closed porosity, functional performances as well as mechanical and tribological properties conform to the top quality range of porcelain stoneware tiles. However, the large size coupled with low thickness bestow on the slab a certain degree of flexibility, which is emphasized in ceramic-fiberglass composites. These outstanding performances make the large-sized slabs suitable to be used in novel applications: building and construction (new floorings without dismantling the previous paving, ventilated façades, tunnel coverings, insulating panelling, indoor furnitures (table tops, doors, support for photovoltaic ceramic panels.

    Se han fabricado piezas de gran formato, con dimensiones de hasta 360x120 cm, y menos de 2 mm, de espesor, empleando métodos innovadores de fabricación, partiendo de composiciones de gres porcelánico y utilizando, molienda con bolas por vía húmeda, atomización, prensado a baja velocidad sin boquilla de extrusión, secado y cocción rápido en una sola etapa, y un acabado que incluye la adhesión de fibra de vidrio al soporte cerámico y el rectificado de la pieza final. Se han

  12. Unsteady thermal blooming of intense laser beams

    Ulrich, J. T.; Ulrich, P. B.

    1980-01-01

    A four dimensional (three space plus time) computer program has been written to compute the nonlinear heating of a gas by an intense laser beam. Unsteady, transient cases are capable of solution and no assumption of a steady state need be made. The transient results are shown to asymptotically approach the steady-state results calculated by the standard three dimensional thermal blooming computer codes. The report discusses the physics of the laser-absorber interaction, the numerical approximation used, and comparisons with experimental data. A flowchart is supplied in the appendix to the report.

  13. Imaging performance of an isotropic negative dielectric constant slab.

    Shivanand; Liu, Huikan; Webb, Kevin J

    2008-11-01

    The influence of material and thickness on the subwavelength imaging performance of a negative dielectric constant slab is studied. Resonance in the plane-wave transfer function produces a high spatial frequency ripple that could be useful in fabricating periodic structures. A cost function based on the plane-wave transfer function provides a useful metric to evaluate the planar slab lens performance, and using this, the optimal slab dielectric constant can be determined.

  14. Unstable drift eigenmode in slab geometry

    Tsotsonis, S.; Hirose, A.

    1986-01-01

    The unstable Pearlstein-Berk mode of drift waves in plane, sheared slab geometry has later been shown to be stable when electron Landau resonance is rigorously treated. Based on the variational method previously developed the authors have found that in addition to the absolutely stable Pearlstein-Berk mode, there exists an absolutely unstable eigenfunction characterized by ω ≤ ω/sub chemical bonde/, and weak ''radial'' dependence. Also, the growth rate, only weakly depends on the magnetic shear and ion/electron temperature ratio

  15. Monoenergetic Critical Parameters and Decay Constants for Small Spheres and Thin Slabs

    Carlvik, I

    1967-04-15

    A method has been developed for the solution of the monoenergetic critical problem for a slab or a sphere. The method utilizes an expansion of the flux density in Legendre polynomials of the coordinate. It is equivalent to the usual variational method using powers of the coordinate, but the use of Legendre polynomials makes it possible to calculate most of the elements of the resulting matrix by means of recurrence formulae. A series of calculations has been performed for slabs and spheres with d {<=} 5, where d is the thickness of the slab or the diameter of the sphere measured in mean free paths. The critical problem is equivalent to the problem of determining the decay constant of a subcritical system with an exponentially decaying flux density. In consequence the calculations also give a series of decay constants for subcritical slabs and spheres. Comparisons with diffusion theory show that large errors can result from uncritical application of diffusion theory to small assemblies. The author would recommend that measurements on small pulsed assemblies be analyzed by means of more accurate methods, for example the present method extended to multi-group treatment of the energy dependence. The results of the calculations show clearly the interesting fact that the exponentially decaying flux of very small spheres has a minimum at the center.

  16. Structural Test and Analysis of RC Slab After Fire Loading

    Chung, Chulhun; Im, Cho Rong; Park, Jaegyun

    2013-01-01

    In the present study the behavior of fire and the residual strength of fire-ignited RC slabs are investigated by experimental tests and numerical simulations. The fire tests of RC slabs were carried out in a furnace using the ISO 834 standard fire. The load capacity of the cooled RC slabs that were not loaded during the fire tests was evaluated by additional 3 point bending tests. The influence of the proportion of PP (polypropylene) fibers in the RC slabs on the structural behavior of the RC slabs after the fire loading was investigated. The results of the fire tests showed that the maximum temperature of concrete with PP fiber was lower than that of concrete without PP fiber. As the concrete was heated, the ultimate compressive strength decreased and the ultimate strain increased. The load-deflection relations of RC slabs after fire loading were compared by using existing stress-strain-temperature models. The comparison between the numerical analysis and the experimental tests showed that some numerical analyses were reliable and therefore, can be applied to evaluate the ultimate load of RC slabs after fire loading. The ultimate load capacity after cooling down the RC slabs without PP fiber showed a considerable reduction from that of the RC slabs with PP fiber

  17. Structural Test and Analysis of RC Slab After Fire Loading

    Chung, Chulhun; Im, Cho Rong; Park, Jaegyun [Dankook Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    In the present study the behavior of fire and the residual strength of fire-ignited RC slabs are investigated by experimental tests and numerical simulations. The fire tests of RC slabs were carried out in a furnace using the ISO 834 standard fire. The load capacity of the cooled RC slabs that were not loaded during the fire tests was evaluated by additional 3 point bending tests. The influence of the proportion of PP (polypropylene) fibers in the RC slabs on the structural behavior of the RC slabs after the fire loading was investigated. The results of the fire tests showed that the maximum temperature of concrete with PP fiber was lower than that of concrete without PP fiber. As the concrete was heated, the ultimate compressive strength decreased and the ultimate strain increased. The load-deflection relations of RC slabs after fire loading were compared by using existing stress-strain-temperature models. The comparison between the numerical analysis and the experimental tests showed that some numerical analyses were reliable and therefore, can be applied to evaluate the ultimate load of RC slabs after fire loading. The ultimate load capacity after cooling down the RC slabs without PP fiber showed a considerable reduction from that of the RC slabs with PP fiber.

  18. Selection for intramuscular fat and lean meat yield will improve the bloomed colour of Australian lamb loin meat.

    Calnan, H B; Jacob, R H; Pethick, D W; Gardner, G E

    2017-09-01

    The colour of bloomed m. longissimus was measured 24h post slaughter for 8165 lamb carcasses produced over 5years across 8 sites in Australia. Intramuscular fat across a 2 to 8% range and shortloin fat weight were positively associated with meat lightness (L*), redness (a*), yellowness (b*), hue and chroma (Pmeat colour parameters (Pmeat yield will have neutral or positive effects on meat colour, while selection for increased intramuscular fat will make the bloomed colour of lamb meat lighter and redder. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Coffered slabs as a perspective type of the reinforced concrete structures

    Kibkalo Anton; Volkov Mikhail; Vodolagina Anna; Murgul Vera

    2016-01-01

    The article discusses coffered slabs. In this paper considered the technology of arrangement of this slabs. Cast-in-place and precast ways of construction of coffered slab are reviewed. Сast-in-place and precast coffered slabs has been analysed in this article. Among other things construction of coffered slabs has an economical and technical advantages.

  20. Coffered slabs as a perspective type of the reinforced concrete structures

    Kibkalo Anton

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses coffered slabs. In this paper considered the technology of arrangement of this slabs. Cast-in-place and precast ways of construction of coffered slab are reviewed. Сast-in-place and precast coffered slabs has been analysed in this article. Among other things construction of coffered slabs has an economical and technical advantages.

  1. Margalef's mandala and phytoplankton bloom strategies

    Wyatt, Timothy

    2014-03-01

    Margalef's mandala maps phytoplankton species into a phase space defined by turbulence (A) and nutrient concentrations (Ni); these are the hard axes. The permutations of high and low A and high and low Ni divide the space into four domains. Soft axes indicate some ecological dynamics. A main sequence shows the normal course of phytoplankton succession; the r-K axis of MacArthur and Wilson runs parallel to it. An alternative successional sequence leads to the low A-high Ni domain into which many red tide species are mapped. Astronomical and biological time are implicit. A mathematical transformation of the mandala (rotation) links it to the classical bloom models of Sverdrup (time) and Kierstead and Slobodkin (space). Both rarity and the propensity to form red tides are considered to be species characters, meaning that maximum population abundance can be a target of natural selection. Equally, both the unpredictable appearance of bloom species and their short-lived appearances may be species characters. There may be a correlation too between these features and long-lived dormant stages in the life-cycle; then the vegetative planktonic phase is the 'weak link' in the life-cycle. Red tides are thus due to species which have evolved suites of traits which result in specific demographic strategies.

  2. Use of Bloom's Taxonomy in Developing Reading Comprehension Specifications

    Luebke, Stephen; Lorie, James

    2013-01-01

    This article is a brief account of the use of Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives (Bloom, Engelhart, Furst, Hill, & Krathwohl, 1956) by staff of the Law School Admission Council in the 1990 development of redesigned specifications for the Reading Comprehension section of the Law School Admission Test. Summary item statistics for the…

  3. Salmon mortalities associated with a bloom of Alexandrium ...

    Blue mussels Mytilus edulis analysed from areas affected by the bloom reached levels of 18 000ìg STX equivalents 100g–1 of tissue. As a result of the salmon mortalities, a project was initiated to establish a monitoring approach for harmful algal blooms to provide an early warning of potential events and to act as a tool for ...

  4. Bacterial community transcription patterns during a marine phytoplankton bloom.

    Rinta-Kanto, Johanna M; Sun, Shulei; Sharma, Shalabh; Kiene, Ronald P; Moran, Mary Ann

    2012-01-01

    Bacterioplankton consume a large proportion of photosynthetically fixed carbon in the ocean and control its biogeochemical fate. We used an experimental metatranscriptomics approach to compare bacterial activities that route energy and nutrients during a phytoplankton bloom compared with non-bloom conditions. mRNAs were sequenced from duplicate bloom and control microcosms 1 day after a phytoplankton biomass peak, and transcript copies per litre of seawater were calculated using an internal mRNA standard. Transcriptome analysis revealed a potential novel mechanism for enhanced efficiency during carbon-limited growth, mediated through membrane-bound pyrophosphatases [V-type H(+)-translocating; hppA]; bloom bacterioplankton participated less in this metabolic energy scavenging than non-bloom bacterioplankton, with possible implications for differences in growth yields on organic substrates. Bloom bacterioplankton transcribed more copies of genes predicted to increase cell surface adhesiveness, mediated by changes in bacterial signalling molecules related to biofilm formation and motility; these may be important in microbial aggregate formation. Bloom bacterioplankton also transcribed more copies of genes for organic acid utilization, suggesting an increased importance of this compound class in the bioreactive organic matter released during phytoplankton blooms. Transcription patterns were surprisingly faithful within a taxon regardless of treatment, suggesting that phylogeny broadly predicts the ecological roles of bacterial groups across 'boom' and 'bust' environmental backgrounds. © 2011 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Harmful algal blooms of the Southern Benguela current: A review ...

    Harmful algal blooms of the Southern Benguela current: A review and appraisal of monitoring from 1989 to 1997. ... The Benguela upwelling system is subjected to blooms of harmful and toxic algae, the incidence and consequences of which are documented here. Red tides are common and usually attributed to members of ...

  6. WATER BLOOM OF BLUEGREEN ALGE IN CARP FISHPOUNDS

    Melita Mihaljević

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available The massive development of bluegreen algae (Cyanophyta/Cyanobacteria, the so--called water bloom, is a frequent phenomenon in fishpond ecosystems. This study analyses water bloom development in three carp fishponds owned by a fishbreeding company at Donji Miholjac (Croatia, where one-year-old carps (Cyprinus carpio , were bred in defferent fishstock densities. Analyses of physicallychemical properties of water and phytoplankton biomass were per- formed in fortnight intervals from May till October, 1992. In all there investigated fishponds the water bloom of bluegreen algae developed, but at a different time and showing a different qualitative composition. In the fishpond with fishstock density of 250 kg/ha water bloom consisted of the species Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, and the biggest biomass (131.92 mg/I was found in August. In the fishpond with fishstock density of 437 kg/ha a water bloom consisting of species from the genues Anabaena and species Aphanizomenon flos-aquae developed at the end of July. In the fishpond with the so--called intensive breeding (fishstock density of 750 kg/ha water bloom of the species Microcystis aeruginosa developed as late as September. The beginning of water bloom development was caused by the low value (lower than 7 of the ratio between the quantities of total phosphorus and total nitrogen. However, the qualitative composition of water bloom was influenced by one-year-old carp fingerlings density.

  7. Rethinking Bloom's Taxonomy: Implications for Testing and Assessment.

    Anderson, Lorin W.

    This paper describes a work in progress on a second edition of "Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, The Classification of Educational Goals, Handbook I: Cognitive Domain," also known as "Bloom's Taxonomy" (B. Bloom and others, Eds., 1956). The new edition will be grounded in the collective wisdom of the original…

  8. Radiative transfer model for contaminated rough slabs.

    Andrieu, François; Douté, Sylvain; Schmidt, Frédéric; Schmitt, Bernard

    2015-11-01

    We present a semi-analytical model to simulate the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) of a rough slab layer containing impurities. This model has been optimized for fast computation in order to analyze massive hyperspectral data by a Bayesian approach. We designed it for planetary surface ice studies but it could be used for other purposes. It estimates the bidirectional reflectance of a rough slab of material containing inclusions, overlaying an optically thick media (semi-infinite media or stratified media, for instance granular material). The inclusions are assumed to be close to spherical and constituted of any type of material other than the ice matrix. It can be any other type of ice, mineral, or even bubbles defined by their optical constants. We assume a low roughness and we consider the geometrical optics conditions. This model is thus applicable for inclusions larger than the considered wavelength. The scattering on the inclusions is assumed to be isotropic. This model has a fast computation implementation and thus is suitable for high-resolution hyperspectral data analysis.

  9. Deep-Learning-Based Approach for Prediction of Algal Blooms

    Feng Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Algal blooms have recently become a critical global environmental concern which might put economic development and sustainability at risk. However, the accurate prediction of algal blooms remains a challenging scientific problem. In this study, a novel prediction approach for algal blooms based on deep learning is presented—a powerful tool to represent and predict highly dynamic and complex phenomena. The proposed approach constructs a five-layered model to extract detailed relationships between the density of phytoplankton cells and various environmental parameters. The algal blooms can be predicted by the phytoplankton density obtained from the output layer. A case study is conducted in coastal waters of East China using both our model and a traditional back-propagation neural network for comparison. The results show that the deep-learning-based model yields better generalization and greater accuracy in predicting algal blooms than a traditional shallow neural network does.

  10. Developing Predictive Models for Algal Bloom Occurrence and Identifying Factors Controlling their Occurrence in the Charlotte County and Surroundings

    Karki, S.; Sultan, M.; Elkadiri, R.; Chouinard, K.

    2017-12-01

    Numerous occurrences of harmful algal blooms (Karenia Brevis) were reported from Southwest Florida along the coast of Charlotte County, Florida. We are developing data-driven (remote sensing, field, and meteorological data) models to accomplish the following: (1) identify the factors controlling bloom development, (2) forecast bloom occurrences, and (3) make recommendations for monitoring variables that are found to be most indicative of algal bloom occurrences and for identifying optimum locations for monitoring stations. To accomplish these three tasks we completed/are working on the following steps. Firstly, we developed an automatic system for downloading and processing of ocean color data acquired through MODIS Terra and MODIS Aqua products using SeaDAS ocean color processing software. Examples of extracted variables include: chlorophyll a (OC3M), chlorophyll a Generalized Inherent Optical Property (GIOP), chlorophyll a Garver-Siegel- Maritorena (GSM), sea surface temperature (SST), Secchi disk depth, euphotic depth, turbidity index, wind direction and speed, colored dissolved organic material (CDOM). Secondly we are developing a GIS database and a web-based GIS to host the generated remote sensing-based products in addition to relevant meteorological and field data. Examples of the meteorological and field inputs include: precipitation amount and rates, concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorous, fecal coliform and Dissolved Oxygen (DO). Thirdly, we are constructing and validating a multivariate regression model and an artificial neural network model to simulate past algal bloom occurrences using the compiled archival remote sensing, meteorological, and field data. The validated model will then be used to predict the timing and location of algal bloom occurrences. The developed system, upon completion, could enhance the decision making process, improve the citizen's quality of life, and strengthen the local economy.

  11. Three-Dimensional Shear Wave Velocity Structure of the Peru Flat Slab Subduction Segment

    Knezevic Antonijevic, S.; Wagner, L. S.; Beck, S. L.; Zandt, G.; Long, M. D.

    2012-12-01

    Recent studies focused on flat slab subduction segments in central Chile (L. S. Wagner, 2006) and Alaska (B. R. Hacker and G. A. Aber, 2012) suggest significant differences in seismic velocity structures, and hence, composition in the mantle wedge between flat and normal "steep" subducting slabs. Instead of finding the low velocities and high Vp/Vs ratios common in normal subduction zones, these studies find low Vp, high Vs, and very low Vp/Vs above flat slabs. This may indicate the presence of dry, cold material in the mantle wedge. In order to investigate the seismic velocities of the upper mantle above the Peruvian flat segment, we have inverted for 2D Rayleigh wave phase velocity maps using data from the currently deployed 40 station PULSE seismic network and some adjacent stations from the CAUGHT seismic network. We then used the sensitivity of surface waves to shear wave velocity structure with depth to develop a 3D shear wave velocity model. This model will allow us to determine the nature of the mantle lithosphere above the flat slab, and how this may have influenced the development of local topography. For example, dry conditions (high Vs velocities) above the flat slab would imply greater strength of this material, possibly making it capable of causing further inland overthrusting, while wet conditions (low Vs) would imply weaker material. This could provide some insight into the ongoing debate over whether the Fitzcarrald arch (along the northern most flank of the Altiplano) could be a topographical response to the subducted Nazca ridge hundred kilometers away from the trench (N. Espurt, 2012, P. Baby, 2005, V. A. Ramos, 2012) or not (J. Martinod, 2005, M. Wipf, 2008, T. Gerya, 2008).

  12. Heterosigma bloom and associated fish kill

    Hershberger, P.K.; Rensel, J.E.; Postel, J.R.; Taub, F.B.

    1997-01-01

    A bloom of the harmful marine phytoplankton, Heterosigma carterae occurred in upper Case Inlet, south Puget Sound, Washington in late September, 1994, correlating with the presence of at least 35 dead salmon. This marks the first time that this alga has been closely correlated with a wild fish kill; in the past it was thought to be associated with kills of penned fish at fish farms only. We were informed of the presence of a possible harmful algal bloom and dead salinois Ilear the town of Allyn on 27 September and a team was formed to investigate. We arrived at the Allyn waterfront at 17:30 hours the same day. Prior to our arrival, state agency personnel walked approximatcly two miles of shoreline from the powerlines north of the dock, to the mouth of Sherwood Creek and conducted the only official count of dead fish present along the shore consisting of 12 coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), 11 chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta), 12 chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha), one flat fish, and one sculpin on the morning of 9/27. Since previous harmful blooms of Heterosigma have resultedin the majority of net penreared salmon sinking to the bottom of pens, and only approximately two miles of shoreline were sampled, it is suspected that many more exposed fish may have succumbed than were counted. Witnesses who explored the east side of the bay reported seeing many dead salmon there as well, but no counts were made. State agency personnel who observed the fish kill reported seeing “dying fish coming to the beach, gulping at the surface, trying to get out of the water” Scavengers were seen consuming the salmon carcasses; these included two harbor seals, a house cat, and Hymenopteran insects. None suffered any noticeable acute ill effects. Although precise cause of death has not been ascertained, visual inspection of the reproductive organs from a deceased male chum salmon found on the shore at Allyn confirmed that the fish was not yet reproductively mature and

  13. Ultimate deformation capacity of reinforced concrete slabs underblast load

    Doormaal, J.C.A.M. van; Weerheijm, J.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper a test method to determine the deformation capacity and the resistance-deformation curve of blast-loaded slabs is described. This method was developed at TNO-PML. The method has been used to determine the ultimate deformation capacity of some simply supported reinforced concrete slabs

  14. On Early Age Crack Formation in FRC Slabs

    Olesen, John Forbes; Stang, Henrik

    1997-01-01

    The problem of early age crack formation in FRC slabs due to restrained temperature and shrinkage deformations, is given an analytical treatment. A model taking into account the ageing properties of the tensile softening curve and the continued development in the temperature and shrinkage...... deformations after crack initiation, is presented. Based on this model a design strategy for FRC slabs is outlined....

  15. Surface Waves Propagating on Grounded Anisotropic Dielectric Slab

    Zhuozhu Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the characteristics of surface waves propagating on a grounded anisotropic dielectric slab. Distinct from the existing analyses that generally assume that the fields of surface wave uniformly distribute along the transverse direction of the infinitely large grounded slab, our method takes into account the field variations along the transverse direction of a finite-width slab. By solving Maxwell’s equations in closed-form, it is revealed that no pure transverse magnetic (TM or transverse electric (TE mode exists if the fields are non-uniformly distributed along the transverse direction of the grounded slab. Instead, two hybrid modes, namely quasi-TM and quasi-TE modes, are supported. In addition, the propagation characteristics of two hybrid modes supported by the grounded anisotropic slab are analyzed in terms of the slab thickness, slab width, as well as the relative permittivity tensor of the anisotropic slab. Furthermore, different methods are employed to compare the analyses, as well as to validate our derivations. The proposed method is very suitable for practical engineering applications.

  16. Evolution and diversity of subduction zones controlled by slab width

    Schellart, W. P.; Freeman, J.A.; Stegman, D. R.; Moresi, L.; May, D.

    2007-01-01

    Subducting slabs provide the main driving force for plate motion and flow in the Earth's mantle, and geodynamic, seismic and geochemical studies offer insight into slab dynamics and subduction-induced flow. Most previous geodynamic studies treat subduction zones as either infinite in trench-parallel

  17. Storm-time slab thickness at low latitudes

    Chauhan, N.S.; Gurm, H.S.

    1981-01-01

    The ATS-6 data for a period of 1975-76 is used for the study of slab thickness during two moderate storms (Ksub(p) - ) around the crest of the anomaly, Ahmedabad and a very great (Ksub(p) + ) outside the equatorial anomaly region, Delhi. While at Ahmedabad, on the average, the slab thickness is found to be above the frequency. Comparison of slab thickness with foF2 and the equatorial magnetic record (for Ahmedabad only) shows that the foF2 changes alone cannot be held responsible for the slab thickness variation and thus entry of the plasma flux from the plasmasphere cannot be ruled out. The pressure variation effect of storm-time heating on the slab thickness at Ahmedabad is that even for Ksub(p)=8, the thermal expansion and the contraction effects are unable to explain complete quantitative and qualitative features of the observations

  18. Harmful Algal Blooms and Public Health.

    Grattan, Lynn M; Holobaugh, Sailor; Morris, J Glenn

    2016-07-01

    The five most commonly recognized Harmful Algal Bloom related illnesses include Ciguatera poisoning, Paralytic Shellfish poisoning, Neurotoxin Shellfish poisoning, Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning and Amnesic Shellfish poisoning. Although they are each the product of different toxins, toxin assemblages or HAB precursors these clinical syndromes have much in common. Exposure occurs through the consumption of fish or shellfish; routine clinical tests are not available for diagnosis; there is no known antidote for exposure; and the risk of these illnesses can negatively impact local fishing and tourism industries. Thus, illness prevention is of paramount importance to minimize human and public health risks. To accomplish this, close communication and collaboration is needed among HAB scientists, public health researchers and local, state and tribal health departments at academic, community outreach, and policy levels.

  19. Harmful Algal Blooms and Public Health

    Grattan, Lynn M.; Holobaugh, Sailor; Morris, J. Glenn

    2015-01-01

    The five most commonly recognized Harmful Algal Bloom related illnesses include Ciguatera poisoning, Paralytic Shellfish poisoning, Neurotoxin Shellfish poisoning, Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning and Amnesic Shellfish poisoning. Although they are each the product of different toxins, toxin assemblages or HAB precursors these clinical syndromes have much in common. Exposure occurs through the consumption of fish or shellfish; routine clinical tests are not available for diagnosis; there is no known antidote for exposure; and the risk of these illnesses can negatively impact local fishing and tourism industries. Thus, illness prevention is of paramount importance to minimize human and public health risks. To accomplish this, close communication and collaboration is needed among HAB scientists, public health researchers and local, state and tribal health departments at academic, community outreach, and policy levels. PMID:27616971

  20. Fast lossless compression via cascading Bloom filters.

    Rozov, Roye; Shamir, Ron; Halperin, Eran

    2014-01-01

    Data from large Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) experiments present challenges both in terms of costs associated with storage and in time required for file transfer. It is sometimes possible to store only a summary relevant to particular applications, but generally it is desirable to keep all information needed to revisit experimental results in the future. Thus, the need for efficient lossless compression methods for NGS reads arises. It has been shown that NGS-specific compression schemes can improve results over generic compression methods, such as the Lempel-Ziv algorithm, Burrows-Wheeler transform, or Arithmetic Coding. When a reference genome is available, effective compression can be achieved by first aligning the reads to the reference genome, and then encoding each read using the alignment position combined with the differences in the read relative to the reference. These reference-based methods have been shown to compress better than reference-free schemes, but the alignment step they require demands several hours of CPU time on a typical dataset, whereas reference-free methods can usually compress in minutes. We present a new approach that achieves highly efficient compression by using a reference genome, but completely circumvents the need for alignment, affording a great reduction in the time needed to compress. In contrast to reference-based methods that first align reads to the genome, we hash all reads into Bloom filters to encode, and decode by querying the same Bloom filters using read-length subsequences of the reference genome. Further compression is achieved by using a cascade of such filters. Our method, called BARCODE, runs an order of magnitude faster than reference-based methods, while compressing an order of magnitude better than reference-free methods, over a broad range of sequencing coverage. In high coverage (50-100 fold), compared to the best tested compressors, BARCODE saves 80-90% of the running time while only increasing space

  1. Infinite slab-shield dose calculations

    Russell, G.J.

    1989-01-01

    I calculated neutron and gamma-ray equivalent doses leaking through a variety of infinite (laminate) slab-shields. In the shield computations, I used, as the incident neutron spectrum, the leakage spectrum (<20 MeV) calculated for the LANSCE tungsten production target at 90 degree to the target axis. The shield thickness was fixed at 60 cm. The results of the shield calculations show a minimum in the total leakage equivalent dose if the shield is 40-45 cm of iron followed by 20-15 cm of borated (5% B) polyethylene. High-performance shields can be attained by using multiple laminations. The calculated dose at the shield surface is very dependent on shield material. 4 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  2. Microcystin in cyanobacterial blooms in a Chilean lake.

    Campos, V; Cantarero, S; Urrutia, H; Heinze, R; Wirsing, B; Neumann, U; Weckesser, J

    1999-05-01

    Cyanobacterial blooms dominated by Microcystis sp. occurred in lake Rocuant ("marisma", near Concepción/Chile) in February 1995 and 1996. In the bloom samples collected in both years the hepatotoxin microcystin was detected by RP-HPLC in both samples and in the sample of 1995 also by a toxicity assay using primary rat hepatocytes. In the bloom of 1995, the microcystin content of the dry bloom biomass was determined to be 130 micrograms/g on the basis of the RP-HPLC peak area and 800 micrograms/g on the basis of the rat hepatotoxicity assay, respectively. In the bloom of 1996, RP-HPLC analysis revealed a microcystin content of 8.13 micrograms/g bloom material dry weight. In this year no hepatotoxicity was measured using a concentration range up to 0.8 mg (d. w.) of bloom material per ml in the rat hepatotoxicity assay. This is the first report on the detection of microcystins in Chilean water bodies.

  3. LASERS: A cryogenic slab CO laser

    Ionin, Andrei A.; Kozlov, A. Yu; Seleznev, L. V.; Sinitsyn, D. V.

    2009-03-01

    A compact capacitive transverse RF-discharge-pumped slab CO laser with cryogenically cooled electrodes, which operates both in the cw and repetitively pulsed regimes, is fabricated. The laser operation is studied in the free running multifrequency regime at the vibrational - rotational transitions of the fundamental (V + 1 → V) vibrational bands of the CO molecule in the spectral region from 5.1 to 5.4 μm. Optimal operation conditions (gas mixture composition and pressure, RF pump parameters) are determined. It is shown that only gas mixtures with a high content of oxygen (up to 20% with respect to the concentration of CO molecules) can be used as an active medium of this laser. It is demonstrated that repetitively pulsed pumping is more efficient compared to cw pumping. In this case, quasi-cw lasing regime can be obtained. The maximum average output power of ~12 W was obtained for this laser operating on fundamental bands and its efficiency achieved ~14 %. The frequency-selective operation regime of the slab RF-discharge-pumped CO laser was realised at ~ 100 laser lines in the spectral region from 5.0 to 6.5 μm with the average output power of up to several tens of milliwatts in each line. Lasing at the transitions of the first vibrational overtone (V + 2 → V) of the CO molecule is obtained in the spectral region from 2.5 to 3.9 μm. The average output power of the overtone laser achieved 0.3 W. All the results were obtained without the forced gas mixture exchange in the discharge chamber. Under fixed experimental conditions, repetitively pulsed lasing (with fluctuations of the output characteristics no more than ±10 %) was stable for more than an hour.

  4. Aerial Images and Convolutional Neural Network for Cotton Bloom Detection.

    Xu, Rui; Li, Changying; Paterson, Andrew H; Jiang, Yu; Sun, Shangpeng; Robertson, Jon S

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring flower development can provide useful information for production management, estimating yield and selecting specific genotypes of crops. The main goal of this study was to develop a methodology to detect and count cotton flowers, or blooms, using color images acquired by an unmanned aerial system. The aerial images were collected from two test fields in 4 days. A convolutional neural network (CNN) was designed and trained to detect cotton blooms in raw images, and their 3D locations were calculated using the dense point cloud constructed from the aerial images with the structure from motion method. The quality of the dense point cloud was analyzed and plots with poor quality were excluded from data analysis. A constrained clustering algorithm was developed to register the same bloom detected from different images based on the 3D location of the bloom. The accuracy and incompleteness of the dense point cloud were analyzed because they affected the accuracy of the 3D location of the blooms and thus the accuracy of the bloom registration result. The constrained clustering algorithm was validated using simulated data, showing good efficiency and accuracy. The bloom count from the proposed method was comparable with the number counted manually with an error of -4 to 3 blooms for the field with a single plant per plot. However, more plots were underestimated in the field with multiple plants per plot due to hidden blooms that were not captured by the aerial images. The proposed methodology provides a high-throughput method to continuously monitor the flowering progress of cotton.

  5. Optical researches for cyanobacteria bloom monitoring in Curonian Lagoon

    Shirshin, Evgeny A.; Budylin, Gleb B.; Yakimov, Boris P.; Voloshina, Olga V.; Karabashev, Genrik S.; Evdoshenko, Marina A.; Fadeev, Victor V.

    2016-04-01

    Cyanobacteria bloom is a great ecological problem of Curonian Lagoon and Baltic Sea. The development of novel methods for the on-line control of cyanobacteria concentration and, moreover, for prediction of bloom spreading is of interest for monitoring the state of ecosystem. Here, we report the results of the joint application of hyperspectral measurements and remote sensing of Curonian Lagoon in July 2015 aimed at the assessment of cyanobacteria communities. We show that hyperspectral data allow on-line detection and qualitative estimation of cyanobacteria concentration, while the remote sensing data indicate the possibility of cyanobacteria bloom detection using the spectral features of upwelling irradiation.

  6. Optical Intensity Modulation in an LiNbO3 Slab-Coupled Waveguide

    Yalin Lu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical intensity modulation has been demonstrated through switching the optical beam between the main core waveguide and a closely attached leaky slab waveguide by applying a low-voltage electrical field. Theory for simulating such an LiNbO3 slab-coupled waveguide structure was suggested, and the result indicates the possibility of making the spatial guiding mode large, circular and symmetric, which further allows the potential to significantly reduce the coupling losses with adjacent lasers and optical networks. Optical intensity modulation using electro-optic effect was experimentally demonstrated in a 5 cm long waveguide fabricated by using a procedure of soft proton exchange and then an overgrowth of thin LN film on top of a c-cut LiNbO3 wafer.

  7. Effect of kenaf fiber in reinforced concrete slab

    Syed Mohsin, S. M.; Baarimah, A. O.; Jokhio, G. A.

    2018-04-01

    The effect of kenaf fibers in reinforced concrete slab with different thickness is discusses and presented in this paper. Kenaf fiber is a type of natural fiber and is added in the reinforced concrete slab to improve the structure strength and ductility. For this study, three types of mixtures were prepared with fiber volume fraction of 0%, 1% and 2%, respectively. The design compressive strength considered was 20 MPa. Six cubes were prepared to be tested at 7th and 28th day. A total of six reinforced concrete slab with two variances of thickness were also prepared and tested under four-point bending test. The differences in the thickness is to study the potential of kenaf fiber to serve as part of shear reinforcement in reinforced concrete slab that was design to fail in shear. It was observed that, addition of kenaf fiber in reinforced concrete slab improves the flexural strength and ductility of the reinforced concrete slab. In the slab with reduction in thickness, the mode of failure change from brittle to ductile with the inclusion of kenaf fiber.

  8. Plant growth stage-specific injury and economic injury level for verde plant bug, Creontiades signatus (Hemiptera: Miridae), on cotton: effect of bloom period of infestation.

    Brewer, Michael J; Anderson, Darwin J; Armstrong, J Scott

    2013-10-01

    Verde plant bugs, Creontiades signatus Distant (Hemiptera: Miridae), were released onto caged cotton, Cossypium hirsutum L., for a 1-wk period to characterize the effects of insect density and bloom period of infestation on cotton injury and yield in 2011 and 2012, Corpus Christi, TX. When plants were infested during early bloom (10-11 nodes above first white flower), a linear decline in fruit retention and boll load and a linear increase in boll injury were detected as verde plant bug infestation levels increased from an average of 0.5 to 4 bugs per plant. Lint and seed yield per plant showed a corresponding decline. Fruit retention, boll load, and yield were not affected on plants infested 1 wk later at peak bloom (8-9 nodes above first white flower), even though boll injury increased as infestation levels increased. Second-year testing verified boll injury but not yield loss, when infestations occurred at peak bloom. Incidence of cotton boll rot, known to be associated with verde plant bug feeding, was low to modest (verde plant bug were important contributors to yield decline, damage potential was greatest during the early bloom period of infestation, and a simple linear response best described the yield response-insect density relationship at early bloom. Confirmation that cotton after peak bloom was less prone to verde plant bug injury and an early bloom-specific economic injury level were key findings that can improve integrated pest management decision-making for dryland cotton, at least under low-rainfall growing conditions.

  9. Public Perception of Blue-Algae Bloom Risk in Hongze Lake of China

    Huang, Lei; Sun, Kai; Ban, Jie; Bi, Jun

    2010-05-01

    In this work we characterize the public perception of one kind of ecological risk—blue-algae bloom in Hongze Lake, China, based on the psychometric paradigm method. In the first survey of May 2008, 300 respondents of Sihong County adjacent to Hongze Lake were investigated, with a total of 156 questionnaires returned. Then in a second survey of July 2008, 500 respondents from the same research area were investigated, with 318 questionnaires collected. This research firstly attempted to explore the local respondents’ degree of concern regarding ecological changes to Hongze Lake in the last ten years. Secondly, to explore the public perception of blue-algae bloom compared to three typical kinds of hazards including earthquake, nuclear power and public traffic. T-test was used to examine the difference of risk perception in these four hazards over time. The third part of this research, with demographic analysis and nonparametric statistical test, predicted the different groups of respondents’ willingness to accept (WTA) risk of blue-algae bloom in two surveys. Using multiple linear regression analysis, the risk perception model explained 28.3% of variance in the WTA blue-algae bloom risk. The variables of Knowledge, Social effect, Benefit, Controllability and Trust in government were significantly correlated with WTA, which implied that these variables were the main influencing factors explaining the respondents’ willingness to accept risk. The results would help the Chinese government to comprehend the public’s risk perception of the lake ecosystem, inducing well designed communication of risks with public and making effective mitigation policies to improve people’s rational risk judgment.

  10. A major seasonal phytoplankton bloom in the Madagascar Basin

    Longhurst, Alan

    2001-11-01

    A hitherto-unnoticed phytoplankton bloom, of dimension 3000×1500 km, occupies the Madagascar Basin in late austral summer, being a prominent feature in SeaWiFS images. A first-order interpretation of the bloom mechanism invokes the seasonal deepening of the mixed layer within a strong mesoscale eddy-field and the consequent entrainment of nutrients into the photic zone. Features of the bloom correspond closely and appropriately with features of the eddy-field as observed by TOPEX-POSEIDON sea level anomalies. The bloom failed to develop in 1998, the second year of a two-year ENSO episode, when anomalously weak Southeast Trades will have failed to deepen the mixed layer as in other years.

  11. Spatial analysis of freshwater lake cyanobacteria blooms, 2008-2011

    Background/Question/Methods Cyanobacteria and associated harmful algal blooms cause significant social, economic, and environmental impacts. Cyanobacteria synthesize hepatotoxins, neurotoxins, and dermatotoxins, affecting the health of humans and other species. The Cyanobacteria ...

  12. Nutrient control of cyanobacterial blooms in the Baltic Sea

    Stal, L.J.; Staal, M.J.; Villbrandt, M.

    1999-01-01

    Cyanobacterial blooms in the Baltic Sea were investigated with respect to growth Limitation and nitrogen fixation. The community was composed predominantly of Synechococcus spp., and large, heterocystous, nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria (Aphanizomenon spp, and Nodularia spp.), that usually formed

  13. Algal blooms: an emerging threat to seawater reverse osmosis desalination

    Villacorte, Loreen O.

    2014-08-04

    Seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination technology has been rapidly growing in terms of installed capacity and global application over the last decade. An emerging threat to SWRO application is the seasonal proliferation of microscopic algae in seawater known as algal blooms. Such blooms have caused operational problems in SWRO plants due to clogging and poor effluent quality of the pre-treatment system which eventually forced the shutdown of various desalination plants to avoid irreversible fouling of downstream SWRO membranes. This article summarizes the current state of SWRO technology and the emerging threat of algal blooms to its application. It also highlights the importance of studying the algal bloom phenomena in the perspective of seawater desalination, so proper mitigation and preventive strategies can be developed in the near future. © 2014 © 2014 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  14. A review of carbon blooms on JET and TFTR

    Ulrickson, M.

    1990-01-01

    Operation of JET and TFTR at high auxiliary heating power has resulted in the occurrence of phenomena called carbon blooms. The carbon bloom is characterized by a rapid increases in the emission of carbon spectral lines, the Z eff , the radiated power, and the plasma density. There is also a concurrent decrease in the neutron emission rate, stored energy, and plasma pressure. On both machines the source of the carbon is observed to be at localized (both toroidally and polidally) hot spots on either the divertor plates or limiters. The localized hot spots are due to one or more of the following: disruption damage spots, misalignment of tiles, and/or exposed edges of tiles. The occurrence of carbon blooms limits the performance of the highest input power plasmas on both machines. This paper reviews the carbon bloom phenomenon as it occurs on both JET and TFTR. (orig.)

  15. Bacterial and protist community changes during a phytoplankton bloom

    Pearman, John K.; Casas, Laura; Merle, Tony; Michell, Craig; Irigoien, Xabier

    2015-01-01

    )] as well as a control. This approach allowed us to discriminate the changes in species composition across a broad range of phylogenetic groups using a common taxonomic level. Diatoms dominated the bloom in the NPSc treatment while dinoflagellates were

  16. Algal blooms: an emerging threat to seawater reverse osmosis desalination

    Villacorte, Loreen O.; Tabatabai, S. Assiyeh Alizadeh; Dhakal, N.; Amy, Gary L.; Schippers, Jan Cornelis; Kennedy, Maria Dolores

    2014-01-01

    Seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination technology has been rapidly growing in terms of installed capacity and global application over the last decade. An emerging threat to SWRO application is the seasonal proliferation of microscopic algae in seawater known as algal blooms. Such blooms have caused operational problems in SWRO plants due to clogging and poor effluent quality of the pre-treatment system which eventually forced the shutdown of various desalination plants to avoid irreversible fouling of downstream SWRO membranes. This article summarizes the current state of SWRO technology and the emerging threat of algal blooms to its application. It also highlights the importance of studying the algal bloom phenomena in the perspective of seawater desalination, so proper mitigation and preventive strategies can be developed in the near future. © 2014 © 2014 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  17. Benjamin Bloom: His Research and Influence on Education.

    Anderson, Lorin W.

    1988-01-01

    A student of the University of Chicago's Measurement, Evaluation, and Statistical Analysis Program reflects upon Benjamin S. Bloom's professional and personal educational contributions, including mastery learning, educational equity, and educational excellence. (CB)

  18. Eddy-driven stratification initiates North Atlantic spring phytoplankton blooms.

    Mahadevan, Amala; D'Asaro, Eric; Lee, Craig; Perry, Mary Jane

    2012-07-06

    Springtime phytoplankton blooms photosynthetically fix carbon and export it from the surface ocean at globally important rates. These blooms are triggered by increased light exposure of the phytoplankton due to both seasonal light increase and the development of a near-surface vertical density gradient (stratification) that inhibits vertical mixing of the phytoplankton. Classically and in current climate models, that stratification is ascribed to a springtime warming of the sea surface. Here, using observations from the subpolar North Atlantic and a three-dimensional biophysical model, we show that the initial stratification and resulting bloom are instead caused by eddy-driven slumping of the basin-scale north-south density gradient, resulting in a patchy bloom beginning 20 to 30 days earlier than would occur by warming.

  19. Rayleigh-Taylor instability in accelerated elastic-solid slabs

    Piriz, S. A.; Piriz, A. R.; Tahir, N. A.

    2017-12-01

    We develop the linear theory for the asymptotic growth of the incompressible Rayleigh-Taylor instability of an accelerated solid slab of density ρ2, shear modulus G , and thickness h , placed over a semi-infinite ideal fluid of density ρ110.1007/s000330050121] to arbitrary values of AT and unveil the singular feature of an instability threshold below which the slab is stable for any perturbation wavelength. As a consequence, an accelerated elastic-solid slab is stable if ρ2g h /G ≤2 (1 -AT) /AT .

  20. Interaction of an ion bunch with a plasma slab

    Krasovitskiy, V. B., E-mail: krasovit@mail.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics (Russian Federation); Turikov, V. A. [Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-15

    Charge neutralization of a short ion bunch passing through a plasma slab is studied by means of numerical simulation. It is shown that a fraction of plasma electrons are trapped by the bunch under the action of the collective charge separation field. The accelerated electrons generated in this process excite beam−plasma instability, thereby violating the trapping conditions. The process of electron trapping is also strongly affected by the high-frequency electric field caused by plasma oscillations at the slab boundaries. It is examined how the degree of charge neutralization depends on the parameters of the bunch and plasma slab.

  1. Light-assisted templated self assembly using photonic crystal slabs.

    Mejia, Camilo A; Dutt, Avik; Povinelli, Michelle L

    2011-06-06

    We explore a technique which we term light-assisted templated self-assembly. We calculate the optical forces on colloidal particles over a photonic crystal slab. We show that exciting a guided resonance mode of the slab yields a resonantly-enhanced, attractive optical force. We calculate the lateral optical forces above the slab and predict that stably trapped periodic patterns of particles are dependent on wavelength and polarization. Tuning the wavelength or polarization of the light source may thus allow the formation and reconfiguration of patterns. We expect that this technique may be used to design all-optically reconfigurable photonic devices.

  2. Novel biometric flow slab design for improvement of PEMFC performance

    Wang, Chin-Tsan; Hu, Yuh-Chung; Zheng, Pei-Lun [Department of Mechanical and Electro-Mechanical Engineering, Center of Green Technology, National I Lan University, I Lan 26047 (China)

    2010-04-15

    Designing a better flow slab is important to cell performance because of its significant influence on the total pressure drop and flow uniformity. Two novel biometric flow slabs, BFF1 and BFF2, which are addressed in this study, are believed to enhance the capability of oxygen transportation and promote the liquid water removal. Hence, its possession of a higher flow uniformity and lower pressure drop would produce a better power performance than the serpentine and parallel flow. These findings with respect to the design of biometric flow slab could be useful to promote the cell performance of PEMFC, and could even be expanded to other cell types. (author)

  3. Dynamic Eigenvalue Problem of Concrete Slab Road Surface

    Pawlak, Urszula; Szczecina, Michał

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents an analysis of the dynamic eigenvalue problem of concrete slab road surface. A sample concrete slab was modelled using Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis software and calculated with Finite Element Method. The slab was set on a one-parameter elastic subsoil, for which the modulus of elasticity was separately calculated. The eigen frequencies and eigenvectors (as maximal vertical nodal displacements) were presented. On the basis of the results of calculations, some basic recommendations for designers of concrete road surfaces were offered.

  4. State of knowledge and concerns on cyanobacterial blooms and cyanotoxins.

    Merel , Sylvain; Walker , David; Chicana , Ruth; Snyder , Shane; Baurès , Estelle; Thomas , Olivier

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Cyanobacteria are ubiquitous microorganisms considered as important contributors to the formation of Earth's atmosphere and nitrogen fixation. However, they are also frequently associated with toxic blooms. Indeed, the wide range of hepatotoxins, neurotoxins and dermatotoxins synthesized by these bacteria is a growing environmental and public health concern. This paper provides a state of the art on the occurrence and management of harmful cyanobacterial blooms in surf...

  5. Peculiarities of the Woody Plants Re-Bloom

    Opalko Olga Anatolievna; Opalko Anatoly Ivanovich

    2015-01-01

    The data of literary sources concerning the bloom of angiosperm plants and deviation in the development of a flower and inflorescence, in particular untimely flowering, was generalized; our observation results of some peculiarities of re-bloom of woody plants in the National Dendrological Park “Sofiyivka” of NAS of Ukraine (NDP “Sofiyivka”) were discussed. The flowering process was formed during a long-term evolution of a propagation system of angiosperm plants as a basis of fertilization and...

  6. Harmful algal bloom smart device application: using image analysis and machine learning techniques for early classification of harmful algal blooms (SETAC presentation)

    Reports of toxic cyanobacterial blooms, also known as Harmful Algal Blooms (HABS) have increased drastically in recent years. HABS impact human health from causing mild allergies to liver damage and death. The Ecological Stewardship Institute (ESI) at Northern Kentucky Universi...

  7. Effects of fertilizers used in agricultural fields on algal blooms

    Chakraborty, Subhendu; Tiwari, P. K.; Sasmal, S. K.; Misra, A. K.; Chattopadhyay, Joydev

    2017-06-01

    The increasing occurrence of algal blooms and their negative ecological impacts have led to intensified monitoring activities. This needs the proper identification of the most responsible factor/factors for the bloom formation. However, in natural systems, algal blooms result from a combination of factors and from observation it is difficult to identify the most important one. In the present paper, using a mathematical model we compare the effects of three human induced factors (fertilizer input in agricultural field, eutrophication due to other sources than fertilizers, and overfishing) on the bloom dynamics and DO level. By applying a sophisticated sensitivity analysis technique, we found that the increasing use of fertilizers in agricultural field causes more rapid algal growth and decreases DO level much faster than eutrophication from other sources and overfishing. We also look at the mechanisms how fertilizer input rate affects the algal bloom dynamics and DO level. The model can be helpful for the policy makers in determining the influential factors responsible for the bloom formation.

  8. Evaluation of Harmful Algal Bloom Outreach Activities

    Richard Weisman

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available With an apparent increase of harmful algal blooms (HABs worldwide,healthcare providers, public health personnel and coastal managers are struggling toprovide scientifically-based appropriately-targeted HAB outreach and education. Since1998, the Florida Poison Information Center-Miami, with its 24 hour/365 day/year freeAquatic Toxins Hotline (1-888-232-8635 available in several languages, has received over 25,000 HAB-related calls. As part of HAB surveillance, all possible cases of HAB-relatedillness among callers are reported to the Florida Health Department. This pilot studyevaluated an automated call processing menu system that allows callers to access bilingualHAB information, and to speak directly with a trained Poison Information Specialist. Themajority (68% of callers reported satisfaction with the information, and many provided specific suggestions for improvement. This pilot study, the first known evaluation of use and satisfaction with HAB educational outreach materials, demonstrated that the automated system provided useful HAB-related information for the majority of callers, and decreased the routine informational call workload for the Poison Information Specialists, allowing them to focus on callers needing immediate assistance and their healthcare providers. These results will lead to improvement of this valuable HAB outreach, education and surveillance tool. Formal evaluation is recommended for future HAB outreach and educational materials.

  9. Satellite monitoring of cyanobacterial harmful algal bloom ...

    Cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (cyanoHABs) cause extensive problems in lakes worldwide, including human and ecological health risks, anoxia and fish kills, and taste and odor problems. CyanoHABs are a particular concern because of their dense biomass and the risk of exposure to toxins in both recreational waters and drinking source waters. Successful cyanoHAB assessment by satellites may provide a first-line of defense indicator for human and ecological health protection. In this study, assessment methods were developed to determine the utility of satellite technology for detecting cyanoHAB occurrence frequency at locations of potential management interest. The European Space Agency's MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) was evaluated to prepare for the equivalent Sentinel-3 Ocean and Land Colour Imager (OLCI) launched in 2016. Based on the 2012 National Lakes Assessment site evaluation guidelines and National Hydrography Dataset, there were 275,897 lakes and reservoirs greater than 1 hectare in the 48 U.S. states. Results from this evaluation show that 5.6 % of waterbodies were resolvable by satellites with 300 m single pixel resolution and 0.7 % of waterbodies were resolvable when a 3x3 pixel array was applied based on minimum Euclidian distance from shore. Satellite data was also spatially joined to US public water surface intake (PWSI) locations, where single pixel resolution resolved 57% of PWSI and a 3x3 pixel array resolved 33% of

  10. Photonic slab heterostructures based on opals

    Palacios-Lidon, Elisa; Galisteo-Lopez, Juan F.; Juarez, Beatriz H.; Lopez, Cefe

    2004-09-01

    In this paper the fabrication of photonic slab heterostructures based on artificial opals is presented. The innovated method combines high-quality thin-films growing of opals and silica infiltration by Chemical Vapor Deposition through a multi-step process. By varying structure parameters, such as lattice constant, sample thickness or refractive index, different heterostructures have been obtained. The optical study of these systems, carried out by reflectance and transmittance measurements, shows that the prepared samples are of high quality further confirmed by Scanning Electron Microscopy micrographs. The proposed novel method for sample preparation allows a high control of the involved structure parameters, giving the possibility of tunning their photonic behavior. Special attention in the optical response of these materials has been addressed to the study of planar defects embedded in opals, due to their importance in different photonic fields and future technological applications. Reflectance and transmission measurements show a sharp resonance due to localized states associated with the presence of planar defects. A detailed study of the defect mode position and its dependance on defect thickness and on the surrounding photonic crystal is presented as well as evidence showing the scalability of the problem. Finally, it is also concluded that the proposed method is cheap and versatile allowing the preparation of opal-based complex structures.

  11. The heterogeneous response method in slab geometry

    Villarino, E.A.; Stamm'ler, R.J.J.

    1984-01-01

    The heterogeneous response method (HRM) has been developed to calculate the multigroup flux in a heterogeneous system, e.g. a fuel assembly, without having to resort to dubious homogenization recipes. Here, the method is described in slab geometry in a manner that facilitates its computerization. By dividing the system into subsystems or nodes, say pin cells, two levels of calculation are created, which define a set of local problems and a global problem, respectively. In the local problem, collision probabilities are used to obtain for a node in vacuum, its response fluxes caused by sources and in-currents. They preserve the heterogeneous character of the node. In the global problem, the nodes are coupled by cosine currents. A suitable transformation reduces the number of two unknown currents per interface to one unknown per node, its total transmitted in-current. The global equation system thus becomes a set of three-point relations, which can be solved efficiently. In cases typical of fuel-assembly situations, the HRM produces fluxes that compare very well with the direct solution of the entire system by collision probabilities, though at a fraction of the computer cost. Extension of the method to 2- and 3-D systems is discussed. (author)

  12. Hybrid Heat Capacity - Moving Slab Laser Concept

    Stappaerts, E A

    2002-01-01

    A hybrid configuration of a heat capacity laser (HCL) and a moving slab laser (MSL) has been studied. Multiple volumes of solid-state laser material are sequentially diode-pumped and their energy extracted. When a volume reaches a maximum temperature after a ''sub-magazine depth'', it is moved out of the pumping region into a cooling region, and a new volume is introduced. The total magazine depth equals the submagazine depth times the number of volumes. The design parameters are chosen to provide high duty factor operation, resulting in effective use of the diode arrays. The concept significantly reduces diode array cost over conventional heat capacity lasers, and it is considered enabling for many potential applications. A conceptual design study of the hybrid configuration has been carried out. Three concepts were evaluated using CAD tools. The concepts are described and their relative merits discussed. Because of reduced disk size and diode cost, the hybrid concept may allow scaling to average powers on the order of 0.5 MW/module

  13. Rotational flow in tapered slab rocket motors

    Saad, Tony; Sams, Oliver C.; Majdalani, Joseph

    2006-10-01

    Internal flow modeling is a requisite for obtaining critical parameters in the design and fabrication of modern solid rocket motors. In this work, the analytical formulation of internal flows particular to motors with tapered sidewalls is pursued. The analysis employs the vorticity-streamfunction approach to treat this problem assuming steady, incompressible, inviscid, and nonreactive flow conditions. The resulting solution is rotational following the analyses presented by Culick for a cylindrical motor. In an extension to Culick's work, Clayton has recently managed to incorporate the effect of tapered walls. Here, an approach similar to that of Clayton is applied to a slab motor in which the chamber is modeled as a rectangular channel with tapered sidewalls. The solutions are shown to be reducible, at leading order, to Taylor's inviscid profile in a porous channel. The analysis also captures the generation of vorticity at the surface of the propellant and its transport along the streamlines. It is from the axial pressure gradient that the proper form of the vorticity is ascertained. Regular perturbations are then used to solve the vorticity equation that prescribes the mean flow motion. Subsequently, numerical simulations via a finite volume solver are carried out to gain further confidence in the analytical approximations. In illustrating the effects of the taper on flow conditions, comparisons of total pressure and velocity profiles in tapered and nontapered chambers are entertained. Finally, a comparison with the axisymmetric flow analog is presented.

  14. Evaluation of precast concrete slabs using a heavy vehicle simulator

    Kohler, E

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Precast slabs are considered an attractive pavement option for rehabilitation or reconstruction cases where traffic closures of less than eight hours are required. Benefits include long life expectancy of concrete cast in factory...

  15. Fire resistance of extruded hollow-core slabs

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl; Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt; Giuliani, Luisa

    2017-01-01

    to the structural codes with data derived from a standard fire test and from a thorough examination of the comprehensive test documentation available on fire exposed hollow-core slabs. Findings – Mechanisms for loss of load-bearing capacity are clarified, and evidence of the fire resistance is found. Originality......Purpose – Prefabricated extruded hollow-core slabs are preferred building components for floor structures in several countries. It is therefore important to be able to document the fire resistance of these slabs proving fulfilment of standard fire resistance requirements of 60 and 120 min found...... in most national building regulations. The paper aims to present a detailed analysis of the mechanisms responsible for the loss of loadbearing capacity of hollow-core slabs when exposed to fire. Design/methodology/approach – Furthermore, it compares theoretica calculation and assessment according...

  16. General analysis of slab lasers using geometrical optics.

    Chung, Te-yuan; Bass, Michael

    2007-02-01

    A thorough and general geometrical optics analysis of a slab-shaped laser gain medium is presented. The length and thickness ratio is critical if one is to achieve the maximum utilization of absorbed pump power by the laser light in such a medium; e.g., the fill factor inside the slab is to be maximized. We point out that the conditions for a fill factor equal to 1, laser light entering and exiting parallel to the length of the slab, and Brewster angle incidence on the entrance and exit faces cannot all be satisfied at the same time. Deformed slabs are also studied. Deformation along the width direction of the largest surfaces is shown to significantly reduce the fill factor that is possible.

  17. Radon exhalation study from cement, cement slabs and concrete slabs with variation in fly ash

    Sharma, Nisha; Singh, Jaspal

    2012-01-01

    Fly ash is a waste product from coal-fired power plants. Fly ash has become a subject of world-wide interest in recent years because of its diverse uses, e.g. in the manufacture of concrete for building purposes, for the filling of underground cavities, or as a component of building material. The fly ash may contain enhanced levels of the natural radionuclides in the uranium and thorium series and by using the fly ash in building materials, the radiation levels in houses may thus be technologically enhanced. Because of its relatively high radionuclide contents (including 226 Ra), fly ash may, however, present a potential hazard to the population through its radon emanation, which would be highly undesirable. Since fly ash is frequently used as a building material, the idea of the experiment was to mix fly ash in different proportions in the cement in the powder form, cemented slabs and concrete slabs to study the combined behaviors. Alpha sensitive LR-115 type II plastic track detector, commonly known as Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs), were used to measure the radon concentration. The alpha particles emitted from the radon causes the radiation damaged tracks. The chemical etching in NaOH at 60°C for about 90 minutes was done to reveal these latent tracks, which were then scanned and counted by an optical microscope of suitable magnification. By calculating the track density of registered tracks, the radon concentrations were determined. In case of cement in the powder form and in cemented slab, starting from the pure cement, fly ash was added up to 70% by weight. In this case the radon exhalation rate has increased by addition of fly ash in the cement and in case of concrete slabs by the addition of fly ash in the cement the radon exhalation increases up to 60% and then decreases. Therefore, on the basis of our investigations we concluded that in general radon exhalation rate increases with the addition of fly ash. (author)

  18. Calculation of shear strength of prestressed hollow core slabs by use of plastic theory

    Hoang, Linh Cao; Jørgensen, H.G.; Nielsen, Mogens Peter

    2014-01-01

    Th is paper deals with calculations of the shear capacity of precast, prestressed hollow core slabs. Such slabs are often used as floor systems in building structures. A common way to produce hollow core slabs is to use the extrusion technique where long strips of slabs are extruded and thereafter...

  19. Optimising the Slab Yard Planning and Crane Scheduling Problem using a two-stage heuristic

    Hansen, Anders Dohn; Clausen, Jens

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present the Slab Yard Planning and Crane Scheduling Problem. The problem has its origin in steel production facilities with a large throughput. A slab yard is used as a buffer for slabs that are needed in the upcoming production. Slabs are transported by cranes and the problem...

  20. The Blooming Anatomy Tool (BAT): A Discipline-Specific Rubric for Utilizing Bloom's Taxonomy in the Design and Evaluation of Assessments in the Anatomical Sciences

    Thompson, Andrew R.; O'Loughlin, Valerie D.

    2015-01-01

    Bloom's taxonomy is a resource commonly used to assess the cognitive level associated with course assignments and examination questions. Although widely utilized in educational research, Bloom's taxonomy has received limited attention as an analytical tool in the anatomical sciences. Building on previous research, the Blooming Anatomy Tool (BAT)…

  1. Slab2 - Updated Subduction Zone Geometries and Modeling Tools

    Moore, G.; Hayes, G. P.; Portner, D. E.; Furtney, M.; Flamme, H. E.; Hearne, M. G.

    2017-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey database of global subduction zone geometries (Slab1.0), is a highly utilized dataset that has been applied to a wide range of geophysical problems. In 2017, these models have been improved and expanded upon as part of the Slab2 modeling effort. With a new data driven approach that can be applied to a broader range of tectonic settings and geophysical data sets, we have generated a model set that will serve as a more comprehensive, reliable, and reproducible resource for three-dimensional slab geometries at all of the world's convergent margins. The newly developed framework of Slab2 is guided by: (1) a large integrated dataset, consisting of a variety of geophysical sources (e.g., earthquake hypocenters, moment tensors, active-source seismic survey images of the shallow slab, tomography models, receiver functions, bathymetry, trench ages, and sediment thickness information); (2) a dynamic filtering scheme aimed at constraining incorporated seismicity to only slab related events; (3) a 3-D data interpolation approach which captures both high resolution shallow geometries and instances of slab rollback and overlap at depth; and (4) an algorithm which incorporates uncertainties of contributing datasets to identify the most probable surface depth over the extent of each subduction zone. Further layers will also be added to the base geometry dataset, such as historic moment release, earthquake tectonic providence, and interface coupling. Along with access to several queryable data formats, all components have been wrapped into an open source library in Python, such that suites of updated models can be released as further data becomes available. This presentation will discuss the extent of Slab2 development, as well as the current availability of the model and modeling tools.

  2. Performance and damages of R.C. slabs in fire

    Giuliani, Luisa; Gentili, Filippo

    2015-01-01

    Contrary to a common misconception, concrete structures are particularly vulnerable to fire, as witnesses by several cases of fire-induced collapses of buildings with a primary concrete structural system. Even when no collapse occurs, concrete elements are permanently damaged by the fire and may...... on the vulnerability of the slab to the fire action and can be used for optimizing the design on the basis of the required class of resistance or for choosing between different slab alternatives....

  3. Topological superfluids confined in a regular nano-scale slab geometry

    Saunders, John; Bennett, Robert; Levitin, Lev; Casey, Andrew; Cowan, Brian [Department of Physics, Royal Holloway University of London, Egham, Surrey, TW20 0EX (United Kingdom); Parpia, Jeevak [Department of Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Drung, Dietmar; Schurig, Thomas [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Abbestrasse 2-12, D-19587, Berlin (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Superfluid 3He confined in a regular nano-fabricated slab geometry provides a model system for the investigation of surface and thin film effects in a p-wave superfluid. We have fabricated and cooled such samples to well below 1 mK for the first time, and investigated their NMR response, exploiting a SQUID NMR spectrometer of exquisite sensitivity. We have used NMR on a 650 nm thick superfluid slab to identify the profound effect of confinement on the relative stability of the A and B phases and to make quantitative measurements of the suppression and surface induced distortion of the order parameter. In these systems the effective confinement length scale (slab thickness/superfluid coherence length) is the new tuning parameter. Increasing confinement should stabilize new p-wave superfluid states of matter, such as the quasi-2D gapped A phase or the planar phase. Nanofluidic samples of superfluid 3He promise a route to explore topological superfluids and their surface, edge and defect-bound excitations under well controlled conditions.

  4. Recent progress in high-power slab lasers in Japan

    Fujii, Y.

    1988-01-01

    Recently, many solid-state lasers have been widely employed in Japanese industries, especially in the electronics industries for precise and reliable processing. To expand the use of solid-state lasers and to achieve higher processing speed, the authors are developing slab lasers of high power, high repetition rate, and high beam quality. Metal processing systems with optical fibers for large and complex 3-D work, multiwork station systems linked to only one laser with optical fibers, and compact x-ray sources for lithography are promising areas for such lasers. Surnitomo Metal Mining is growing Nd:GGG and Nd:YAG crystals 60 mm in diameter and 200 mm long. From 2 at.% Nd-doped GGG crystals without central core regions. The authors obtained two slab materials with dimensions of 35 X 9 X 192 and 55 X 15 X 213 mm/sup 3/. By using the smaller slab, they constructed a slab laser and obtained 370-W laser output power at 24-kW lamp input power and 10-pps repetition rate. Now they are constructing a 1-kW slab laser using the other larger size slab

  5. Strengthening of RC bridge slabs using CFRP sheets

    Fahmy A. Fathelbab

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Many old structures became structurally insufficient to carry the new loading conditions requirements. Moreover, they suffer from structural degradation, reinforcement steel bars corrosion, bad weather conditions…etc. Many official authorities in several countries had recognized many old bridges and buildings as structurally deficient by today’s standards. Due to these reasons, structural strengthening became an essential requirement and different strengthening techniques appeared in market. Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP strengthening techniques established a good position among all other techniques, giving excellent structural results, low time required and moderate cost compared with the other techniques. The main purpose of this research is to study analytically the strengthening of a reinforced concrete bridge slabs due to excessive loads, using externally bonded FRP sheets technique. A commercial finite element program ANSYS was used to perform a structural linear and non-linear analysis for strengthened slab models using several schemes of FRP sheets. A parametric study was performed to evaluate analytically the effect of changing both FRP stiffness and FRP schemes in strengthening RC slabs. Comparing the results with control slab (reinforced concrete slab without strengthening it is obvious that attaching FRP sheets to the RC slab increases its capacity and enhances the ductility/toughness.

  6. Seismic Evidence for Possible Slab Melting from Strong Scattering Waves

    Cheng-Horng Lin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Slab melting in young and hot subduction zones has been studied using geochemical observations and thermal modelling, but there are few data from seismic studies to confirm slab melting. Also the detailed geometry in the deep part of the melting slab is often ambiguous in that the intraslab earthquakes within the Wadati-Benioff zone are only limited to shallower depths. To improve our understanding of both the seismic features and geometry found in a young and hot subducted slab, I analyzed anomalous moonquake-like seismograms that were generated by an intermediate-depth earthquake recorded in central Japan. For this study, possible reflected (or scattered sources were examined using detailed analyses of particle motions and a grid search for travel-time differences between the direct and later P-waves. The results show that using strong seismic scattering, slab melting is likely occurring in the deeper, flexing part of the subducted Philippine Sea plate. Because the subducted Philippine Sea plate in central Japan is young and therefore hot, partial melting might have taken place to produce abundant melting spots in the subducted slab. Melting spots, identified as ¡§bright spots,¡¨ could efficiently reflect or scatter seismic energy and generate many later phases with large amplitudes.

  7. A multiomics approach to study the microbiome response to phytoplankton blooms.

    Song, Liyan

    2017-06-01

    Phytoplankton blooms are predictable features of marine and freshwater habitats. Despite a good knowledge base of the environmental factors controlling blooms, complex interactions between the bacterial and archaeal communities and phytoplankton bloom taxa are only now emerging. Here, the current research on bacterial community's structural and functional response to phytoplankton blooms is reviewed and discussed and further research is proposed. More attention should be paid on structure and function of autotrophic bacteria and archaea during phytoplankton blooms. A multiomics integration approach is needed to investigate bacterial and archaeal communities' diversity, metabolic diversity, and biogeochemical functions of microbial interactions during phytoplankton blooms.

  8. Harmful Freshwater Algal Blooms, With an Emphasis on Cyanobacteria

    Hans W. Paerl

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Suspended algae, or phytoplankton, are the prime source of organic matter supporting food webs in freshwater ecosystems. Phytoplankton productivity is reliant on adequate nutrient supplies; however, increasing rates of nutrient supply, much of it manmade, fuels accelerating primary production or eutrophication. An obvious and problematic symptom of eutrophication is rapid growth and accumulations of phytoplankton, leading to discoloration of affected waters. These events are termed blooms. Blooms are a prime agent of water quality deterioration, including foul odors and tastes, deoxygenation of bottom waters (hypoxia and anoxia, toxicity, fish kills, and food web alterations. Toxins produced by blooms can adversely affect animal (including human health in waters used for recreational and drinking purposes. Numerous freshwater genera within the diverse phyla comprising the phytoplankton are capable of forming blooms; however, the blue-green algae (or cyanobacteria are the most notorious bloom formers. This is especially true for harmful toxic, surface-dwelling, scum-forming genera (e.g., Anabaena, Aphanizomenon, Nodularia, Microcystis and some subsurface bloom-formers (Cylindrospermopsis, Oscillatoria that are adept at exploiting nutrient-enriched conditions. They thrive in highly productive waters by being able to rapidly migrate between radiance-rich surface waters and nutrient-rich bottom waters. Furthermore, many harmful species are tolerant of extreme environmental conditions, including very high light levels, high temperatures, various degrees of desiccation, and periodic nutrient deprivation. Some of the most noxious cyanobacterial bloom genera (e.g., Anabaena, Aphanizomenon, Cylindrospermopsis, Nodularia are capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen (N2, enabling them to periodically dominate under nitrogen-limited conditions. Cyanobacteria produce a range of organic compounds, including those that are toxic to higher-ranked consumers, from

  9. Physical and biological data collected along the Texas, Mississippi, and Florida Gulf coasts in the Gulf of Mexico as part of the Harmful Algal BloomS Observing System from 19 Aug 1953 to 11 July 2014 (NODC Accession 0120767)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — HABSOS (Harmful Algal BloomS Observing System) is a data collection and distribution system for harmful algal bloom (HAB) information in the Gulf of Mexico. The goal...

  10. Optical detection of Prorocentrum donghaiense blooms based on multispectral reflectance

    TAO Bangyi; PAN Delu; MAO Zhihua; SHEN Yuzhang; ZHU Qiankun; CHEN Jianyu

    2013-01-01

    Prorocentrum donghaiense is one of the most common red tide causative dinoflagellates in the Changjiang (Yangtze) River Estuary and the adjacent area of the East China Sea. It causes large-scale blooms in late spring and early summer that lead to widespread ecologic and economic damage. A means for distinguish-ing dinoflagellate blooms from diatom (Skeletonema costatum) blooms is desired. On the basis of measure-ments of remote sensing reflectance [Rrs(λ)] and inherent optical parameters, the potential of using a mul-tispectral approach is assessed for discriminating the algal blooms due to P. donghaiense from those due to S. costatum. The behavior of two reflectance ratios [R1 =Rrs(560)/Rrs(532) and R2 =Rrs(708)/Rrs(665)], suggests that differentiation of P. donghaiense blooms from diatom bloom types is possible from the current band setup of ocean color sensors. It is found that there are two reflectance ratio regimes that indicate a bloom is dominated by P. donghaiense: (1) R1 >1.55 and R2 1.75 and R2 ?1.0. Various sensitivity analyses are conducted to investigate the effects of the variation in varying levels of chlorophyll concentration and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) as well as changes in the backscattering ratio (bbp/bp) on the efficacy of this multispectral approach. Results indicate that the intensity and inherent op-tical properties of the algal species explain much of the behavior of the two ratios. Although backscattering influences the amplitude of Rrs(λ), especially in the 530 and 560 nm bands, the discrimination between P. donghaiense and diatoms is not significantly affected by the variation of bbp/bp. Since a CDOM(440) in coastal areas of the ECS is typically lower than 1.0 m−1 in most situations, the presence of CDOM does not interfere with this discrimination, even as SCDOM varies from 0.01 to 0.026 nm−1. Despite all of these effects, the dis-crimination of P. donghaiense blooms from diatom blooms based on multispectral

  11. Climbing Bloom's taxonomy pyramid: Lessons from a graduate histology course.

    Zaidi, Nikki B; Hwang, Charles; Scott, Sara; Stallard, Stefanie; Purkiss, Joel; Hortsch, Michael

    2017-09-01

    Bloom's taxonomy was adopted to create a subject-specific scoring tool for histology multiple-choice questions (MCQs). This Bloom's Taxonomy Histology Tool (BTHT) was used to analyze teacher- and student-generated quiz and examination questions from a graduate level histology course. Multiple-choice questions using histological images were generally assigned a higher BTHT level than simple text questions. The type of microscopy technique (light or electron microscopy) used for these image-based questions did not result in any significant differences in their Bloom's taxonomy scores. The BTHT levels for teacher-generated MCQs correlated positively with higher discrimination indices and inversely with the percent of students answering these questions correctly (difficulty index), suggesting that higher-level Bloom's taxonomy questions differentiate well between higher- and lower-performing students. When examining BTHT scores for MCQs that were written by students in a Multiple-Choice Item Development Assignment (MCIDA) there was no significant correlation between these scores and the students' ability to answer teacher-generated MCQs. This suggests that the ability to answer histology MCQs relies on a different skill set than the aptitude to construct higher-level Bloom's taxonomy questions. However, students significantly improved their average BTHT scores from the midterm to the final MCIDA task, which indicates that practice, experience and feedback increased their MCQ writing proficiency. Anat Sci Educ 10: 456-464. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.

  12. Detection of surface algal blooms using the newly developed algorithm surface algal bloom index (SABI)

    Alawadi, Fahad

    2010-10-01

    Quantifying ocean colour properties has evolved over the past two decades from being able to merely detect their biological activity to the ability to estimate chlorophyll concentration using optical satellite sensors like MODIS and MERIS. The production of chlorophyll spatial distribution maps is a good indicator of plankton biomass (primary production) and is useful for the tracing of oceanographic currents, jets and blooms, including harmful algal blooms (HABs). Depending on the type of HABs involved and the environmental conditions, if their concentration rises above a critical threshold, it can impact the flora and fauna of the aquatic habitat through the introduction of the so called "red tide" phenomenon. The estimation of chlorophyll concentration is derived from quantifying the spectral relationship between the blue and the green bands reflected from the water column. This spectral relationship is employed in the standard ocean colour chlorophyll-a (Chlor-a) product, but is incapable of detecting certain macro-algal species that float near to or at the water surface in the form of dense filaments or mats. The ability to accurately identify algal formations that sometimes appear as oil spill look-alikes in satellite imagery, contributes towards the reduction of false-positive incidents arising from oil spill monitoring operations. Such algal formations that occur in relatively high concentrations may experience, as in land vegetation, what is known as the "red-edge" effect. This phenomena occurs at the highest reflectance slope between the maximum absorption in the red due to the surrounding ocean water and the maximum reflectance in the infra-red due to the photosynthetic pigments present in the surface algae. A new algorithm termed the surface algal bloom index (SABI), has been proposed to delineate the spatial distributions of floating micro-algal species like for example cyanobacteria or exposed inter-tidal vegetation like seagrass. This algorithm was

  13. Properties of light absorption in a highly coloured estuarine system in south-east Australia which is prone to blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum

    Clementson, Lesley A.; Parslow, John S.; Turnbull, Alison R.; Bonham, Pru I.

    2004-05-01

    The Huon Estuary in south-east Tasmania is an important site in Australia's aquaculture and finfish industries. Atlantic salmon and shellfish are farmed in the Huon River Estuary, which drains a catchment that includes both areas of pristine wilderness and agriculture. The estuary experiences algal blooms, including blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum, which can cause considerable problems for the aquaculture industry. The freshwater input is highly coloured due to high levels of humic material and this combined with intrusions of clearer oceanic water and the occurrence of algal blooms makes this estuary optically complex. Between November 1996 and September 1998 samples for pigment and optical analyses were collected weekly from five sites within the mid to lower regions of the estuary. In addition, every three months (beginning July 1996), samples were collected from 30 sites within the full river/estuary system. Early in December 1997 a bloom of Gymnodinium catenatum occurred throughout the estuary and persisted until June 1998. Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) was found to dominate the total absorption of the water throughout the entire estuary and over the two-year duration of the study. The occurrence of algal blooms showed no correlation with the optical characteristics of the estuary, suggesting that optical parameters cannot be used to predict the occurrence of algal blooms in this estuary. Blooms of different algal species, such as diatoms and dinoflagellates, may be able to be distinguished by their absorption spectra in the UV region rather than the visible region. To date, this study is the most detailed spatial and temporal study of the characteristics of light absorption in an estuarine system within Australia.

  14. Fluid Sensor Based on Transmission Dip Caused by Mini Stop-Band in Photonic Crystal Slab

    Lei, Cao; Yi-Dong, Huang; Xiao-Yu, Mao; Fei, Li; Wei, Zhang; Jiang-De, Peng

    2008-01-01

    We propose a fluid sensor based on transmission dip caused by mini stop-band in photonic crystal slabs. Simulation results show that this novel type of sensors has large detective range (more than 1.5) and relative high-sensitivity (4.3 × 10 −5 in certain conditions). The central frequency and bandwidth of the mini stop-bands depend on the structure parameters of PC waveguides, which makes it possible to optimize the detective range and detective sensitivity. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))

  15. Oblique Propagation of Fast Surface Waves in a Low-Beta Hall-Magnetohydrodynamics Plasma Slab

    Zhelyazkov, I.; Mann, G.

    1999-01-01

    The oblique propagation of fast sausage and kink magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) surface waves in an ideal magnetized plasma slab in the low-beta plasma limit is studied considering the Hall term in the generalized Ohm's law. It is found that the combined action of the Hall effect and oblique wave propagation makes possible the existence of multivalued solutions to the wave dispersion relations - some of them corresponding to positive values of the transfer wave number, k y , undergo a 'propagation stop' at specific (numerically found) full wave numbers. It is also shown that with growing wave number the waves change their nature - from bulk modes to pseudosurface or pure surface waves. (author)

  16. Useful Solutions for Plane Wave Diffraction by Dielectric Slabs and Wedges

    Gianluca Gennarelli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an overview of available uniform asymptotic physical optics solutions for evaluating the plane wave diffraction by some canonical geometries of large interest: dielectric slabs and wedges. Such solutions are based on a physical optics approximation of the electric and magnetic equivalent surface currents in the involved scattering integrals. The resulting diffraction coefficients are expressed in terms of the geometrical optics response of the considered structure and the standard transition function of the Uniform Geometrical Theory of Diffraction. Numerical tests and comparisons make evident the effectiveness and reliability of the presented solutions.

  17. Effects of fertilizers used in agricultural fields on algal blooms

    Chakraborty, Subhendu; Tiwari, P. K.; Sasmal, S. K.

    2017-01-01

    of factors and from observation it is difficult to identify the most important one. In the present paper, using a mathematical model we compare the effects of three human induced factors (fertilizer input in agricultural field, eutrophication due to other sources than fertilizers, and overfishing......) on the bloom dynamics and DO level. By applying a sophisticated sensitivity analysis technique, we found that the increasing use of fertilizers in agricultural field causes more rapid algal growth and decreases DO level much faster than eutrophication from other sources and overfishing. We also look...... at the mechanisms how fertilizer input rate affects the algal bloom dynamics and DO level. The model can be helpful for the policy makers in determining the influential factors responsible for the bloom formation....

  18. Hydrodynamic control of microphytoplankton bloom in a coastal sea

    Murty, K. Narasimha; Sarma, Nittala S.; Pandi, Sudarsana Rao; Chiranjeevulu, Gundala; Kiran, Rayaprolu; Muralikrishna, R.

    2017-08-01

    The influence of hydrodynamics on phytoplankton bloom occurrence/formation has not been adequately reported. Here, we document diurnal observations in the tropical Bay of Bengal's mid-western shelf region which reveal microphytoplankton cell density maxima in association with neap tide many times more than what could be accounted for by solar insolation and nutrient levels. When in summer, phytoplankton cells were abundant and the cell density of Guinardia delicatula reached critical value by tide caused zonation, aggregation happened to an intense bloom. Mucilaginous exudates from the alga due to heat and silicate stress likely promoted and stable water column and weak winds left undisturbed, the transient bloom. The phytoplankton aggregates have implication as food resource in the benthic region implying higher fishery potential, in carbon dioxide sequestration (carbon burial) and in efforts towards improving remote sensing algorithms for chlorophyll in the coastal region.

  19. Roof slab cooling device in a FBR type reactor

    Tarutani, Kohei

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain a roof slab cooling device capable of retaining cooling performance even in a case of electric power supply stop or failure and effective from economical point of view. Constitution: Atmospheric air is introduced into the cooling chamber of a proof slab and spontaneously passed to a exit pipeway connected to a stack thereby cooling the roof slab. Specifically, atmospheric air entered from the inlet pipeway is introduced to the cooling chamber and absorbs heat generate from the inside of the reactor container. Warmed air is sucked from the exit pipeway and then released into the atmosphere passing through the stack. The air cools the roof slab during circulation due to spontaneous passage and keeps the slab at a low temperature. Since the air is passed spontaneously, no power such as for a blower is required at all and, if the electric power supply should be lost, the cooling power can be maintained as it is to provide a high reliability. Further, since no electric power is required for the blowing power, it has high economical merit. (Horiuchi, T.)

  20. Investigation on the performance of bridge approach slab

    Abdelrahman Amr

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In Egypt, where highway bridges are to be constructed on soft cohesive soils, the bridge abutments are usually founded on rigid piles, whereas the earth embankments for the bridge approaches are directly founded on the natural soft ground. Consequently, excessive differential settlement frequently occurs between the bridge deck and the bridge approaches resulting in a “bump” at both ends of the bridge deck. Such a bump not only creates a rough and uncomfortable ride but also represents a hazardous condition to traffic. One effective technique to cope with the bump problem is to use a reinforced concrete approach slab to provide a smooth grade transition between the bridge deck and the approach pavement. Investigating the geotechnical and structural performance of approach slabs and revealing the fundamental affecting factors have become mandatory. In this paper, a 2-D finite element model is employed to investigate the performance of approach slabs. Moreover, an extensive parametric study is carried out to appraise the relatively optimum geometries of approach slab, i.e. slab length, thickness, embedded depth and slope, that can yield permissible bumps. Different geo-mechanical conditions of the cohesive foundation soil and the fill material of the bridge embankment are examined.

  1. Analysis and design of composite slab by varying different parameters

    Lambe, Kedar; Siddh, Sharda

    2018-03-01

    Composite deck slabs are in demand because of its faster, lighter and economical construction work. Composite slab consists of cold formed deck profiled sheet and concrete either lightweight or normal. Investigation of shear behaviour of the composite slab is very complex. Shear bond strength depends on the various parameter such as a shape of sheeting, a thickness of the sheet, type of embossment and its frequency of use, shear stiffener or intermediate stiffener, type of load, an arrangement of load, length of shear span, the thickness of concrete and support friction etc. In present study finite element analysis is carried out with ABAQUS 6.13, a simply supported composite slab is considered for the investigation of the shear bond behaviour of the composite slab by considering variation in three different parameters, the shape of a sheet, thickness of sheet and shear span. Different shear spans of two different shape of cold formed deck profiled sheet i.e. with intermediate stiffeners and without intermediate stiffeners are considered with two different thicknesses (0.8 mm and 1.2 mm) for simulation. In present work, simulation of models has done for static loading with 20 mm mesh size is considered.

  2. Sub-wavelength grating mode transformers in silicon slab waveguides.

    Bock, Przemek J; Cheben, Pavel; Schmid, Jens H; Delâge, André; Xu, Dan-Xia; Janz, Siegfried; Hall, Trevor J

    2009-10-12

    We report on several new types of sub-wavelength grating (SWG) gradient index structures for efficient mode coupling in high index contrast slab waveguides. Using a SWG, an adiabatic transition is achieved at the interface between silicon-on-insulator waveguides of different geometries. The SWG transition region minimizes both fundamental mode mismatch loss and coupling to higher order modes. By creating the gradient effective index region in the direction of propagation, we demonstrate that efficient vertical mode transformation can be achieved between slab waveguides of different core thickness. The structures which we propose can be fabricated by a single etch step. Using 3D finite-difference time-domain simulations we study the loss, polarization dependence and the higher order mode excitation for two types (triangular and triangular-transverse) of SWG transition regions between silicon-on-insulator slab waveguides of different core thicknesses. We demonstrate two solutions to reduce the polarization dependent loss of these structures. Finally, we propose an implementation of SWG structures to reduce loss and higher order mode excitation between a slab waveguide and a phase array of an array waveguide grating (AWG). Compared to a conventional AWG, the loss is reduced from -1.4 dB to < -0.2 dB at the slab-array interface.

  3. A novel earth observation based ecological indicator for cyanobacterial blooms

    Anttila, Saku; Fleming-Lehtinen, Vivi; Attila, Jenni; Junttila, Sofia; Alasalmi, Hanna; Hällfors, Heidi; Kervinen, Mikko; Koponen, Sampsa

    2018-02-01

    Cyanobacteria form spectacular mass occurrences almost annually in the Baltic Sea. These harmful algal blooms are the most visible consequences of marine eutrophication, driven by a surplus of nutrients from anthropogenic sources and internal processes of the ecosystem. We present a novel Cyanobacterial Bloom Indicator (CyaBI) targeted for the ecosystem assessment of eutrophication in marine areas. The method measures the current cyanobacterial bloom situation (an average condition of recent 5 years) and compares this to the estimated target level for 'good environmental status' (GES). The current status is derived with an index combining indicative bloom event variables. As such we used seasonal information from the duration, volume and severity of algal blooms derived from earth observation (EO) data. The target level for GES was set by using a remote sensing based data set named Fraction with Cyanobacterial Accumulations (FCA; Kahru & Elmgren, 2014) covering years 1979-2014. Here a shift-detection algorithm for time series was applied to detect time-periods in the FCA data where the level of blooms remained low several consecutive years. The average conditions from these time periods were transformed into respective CyaBI target values to represent target level for GES. The indicator is shown to pass the three critical factors set for marine indicator development, namely it measures the current status accurately, the target setting can be scientifically proven and it can be connected to the ecosystem management goal. An advantage of the CyaBI method is that it's not restricted to the data used in the development work, but can be complemented, or fully applied, by using different types of data sources providing information on cyanobacterial accumulations.

  4. Retrieved bacteria from Noctiluca miliaris (green) bloom of the northeastern Arabian Sea

    Basu, S.; Matondkar, S.G.P.; Furtado, I.

    In recent years, seasonal blooms of the dinoflagellate Noctiluca miliaris have appeared in the open-waters of the northern Arabian Sea (NAS). This study provides the first characterization of bacteria from a seasonal bloom of green Noctiluca of NAS...

  5. Deep carbon export from a Southern Ocean iron-fertilized diatom bloom

    Smetacek, V.; Klaas, C.; Strass, V.H.; Assmy, P.; Montresor, M.; Cisewski, B.; Savoye, N.; Webb, A.; d’Ovidio, F.; Arrieta, J.M.; Bathmann, U.; Bellerby, R.; Berg, G.M.; Croot, P.; Gonzalez, S.; Henjes, J.; Herndl, G.J.; Hoffmann, L.J.; Leach, H.; Losch, M.; Mills, M.M.; Neill, C.; Peeken, I.; Rottgers, R.; Sachs, O.; Sauter, E.; Schmidt, M.M.; Schwarz, J.; Terbruggen, A.; Wolf-Gladrow, D.

    Fertilization of the ocean by adding iron compounds has induced diatom-dominated phytoplankton blooms accompanied by considerable carbon dioxide drawdown in the ocean surface layer. However, because the fate of bloom biomass could not be adequately...

  6. Construction of foundation slab of Temelin reactor building

    Lebr, P.; Vyleta, M.

    1988-01-01

    The concreting is described of the foundation slab under the WWER-1000 reactor in the Temelin nuclear power plant. The slab area is 68x68 m and thickness 2.4 m. For ease of concreting, the slab was divided in 12 blocks with vertical partition walls of steel mesh. The total thickness was concreted in three stages in which the partial thicknesses slightly differed for operating reasons. The first two partial thicknesses were concreted in layers of 0.45 m each, the third thickness consisted of two layers of 0.30 m each. The reinforcement was completely cleaned of the concrete residues from the previous stages in the break between the second and the third stages. Totally, 11,050 m 3 concrete were used. Briefly described is quality control during concreting and experiences and recommendations are summed up for other concreting jobs. (Z.M.). 19 figs

  7. Transport of radon through cracks in a concrete slab

    Landman, K A; Cohen, D S

    1983-03-01

    A model involving the use of line sources is developed to describe the transport of radon through the cracks or gaps which appear in concrete slabs used in building foundations. The strength of these sources is determined from the results of the diffusion model proposed by Landman in a previous work. Once the strength of the source is known, additional transport mechanisms can be treated in a simple manner. Pressure differences across the slab and in the underlying soil are discussed. The rate of exhalation through a portion of the cracked slab is determined and compared to the rate of exhalation from the same surface area of bare soil. In typical cases, their ratios vary from 0.25 to 0.50. Therefore, these transport mechanisms account for a larger portion of the levels of radon found in many houses than do previous models.

  8. Criticality of neutron transport in a slab with finite reflectors

    Pao, C.V.

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the subcriticality and the supercriticality for the neutron transport in a slab which is surrounded by two finite reflectors. The mathematical problem is to determine when the coupled boundary-value problem has or has no positive solution. It is shown under some explicit conditions on the material properties of the transport mediums and the size of the slab length that the coupled problem has a unique solution which insures the subcriticality of the system. It is also shown under some different conditions on the same physical quantities that the system cannot have a nonnegative solution when there is an external source, and it only has the trivial solution when there is no source in the system. This conclusion leads to the supercriticality of the system. Both upper and lower bounds for the critical length of the slab are explicitly given

  9. IMPROVEMENT OF SLAB REHEATING PROCESS AT USIMINAS THROUGH MATHEMATICAL SIMULATION

    Antônio Adel dos Santos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Basic characteristics and application examples of the mathematical simulator for reheating process in walking-beam type furnaces, that has been developed and applied to Usiminas plate mill line at Ipatinga, are shown in this paper. This is a bi-dimensional mathematical model solved by the finite volume method, validated by temperature measurements inside the slab during heating and coded as a visual tool. Among these applications, the following can be highlighted: (i determination of suitable furnace zone temperatures and residence times for processing steels by accelerated cooling technology; (ii determination of slab average temperature at discharging as well as at each zone exit, supplying data to be fed to the automation system at the comissioning stage; (iii analyses of slab thermal distribution through the reheating process, enabling operational optimization

  10. Optimal Material Layout - Applied on Reinforced Concrete Slabs

    Dollerup, Niels; Jepsen, Michael S.; Damkilde, Lars

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a general, finite-element-based optimisation tool for improving the material layout of concrete structures. The application presented is general and exemplified by material optimisation of reinforced concrete slabs. By utilising the optimisation tool, it is possible to deter......This paper introduces a general, finite-element-based optimisation tool for improving the material layout of concrete structures. The application presented is general and exemplified by material optimisation of reinforced concrete slabs. By utilising the optimisation tool, it is possible...... to determine the optimal material layout of a slab in the ultimate load state, based on simple inputs such as outer geometry, boundary conditions, multiple load cases and design domains. The material layout of the optimal design can either be fully orthotropic or isotropic, or a combination with a predefined...

  11. Fire resistance of extruded hollow-core slabs

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl; Giuliani, Luisa; Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt

    2016-01-01

    Prefabricated extruded hollow-core slabs are preferred building components for floor structures in several countries. It is therefore important to be able to document the fire resistance of these slabs proving fulfilment of standard fire resistance requirements of 60- and 120 minutes found in most...... a standard fire test and from a thorough examination of the comprehensive test documentation available on fire exposed hollow-core slabs. Mechanisms for loss of load-bearing capacity are clarified, and evidence of the fire resistance is found. For the first time the mechanisms responsible for loss of load......-bearing capacity are identified and test results and calculation approach are for the first time Applied in accordance with each other for assessment of fire resistance of the structure....

  12. Microinstabilities in a radially contracting inhomogeneous cylindrical plasma slab

    Deutsch, R.; Kaeppeler, H.J.

    1980-07-01

    In order to study the development of microinstabilities in a collapsing cylindrical plasma sheath, corresponding to the situations in a z-pinch or a plasma focus, the dispersion relation for electromagnetic perturbations is derived with the aid of a newly established slab-model for an inhomogeneous, radially contracting plasma. In contrast to previously used slab-models, the orientation of the electric field is in direction of the cylinder axis and the azimuthal magnetic field is induced by the current flowing through the cylindrical plasma slab. The Vlasov equation is used together with the Krook collision term in order to include the influence of collisions. The results of this theory presented in this report will be used to calculate the growth of drift instabilities in the compression phase of a plasma focus, and shall serve as a basis for further development of a more general dispersion relation including runaway-effects. (orig.)

  13. Cost Effectiveness of Precast Reinforced Concrete Roof Slabs

    Parskiy, N. D.; Molodtsov, M. V.; Molodtsova, V. E.

    2017-11-01

    Engineers always seek to free interior space from intermediate supporting elements. Nowadays plants, being at the forefront of technology, produce a new generation of exclusive patented prefabricated reinforced concrete elements with a high load-bearing capacity, excellent heat resistance characteristics combined with the aesthetics and beauty. It is a system of Seagull Gabbiano prestressed roof slabs for the spans of 12m - 40m. The article shows the advantages of the Seagull slabs over conventional precast reinforced concrete and metal roof trusses. It also gives the analysis of the technical and economic indices of design and construction of a building with the Seagull slabs depending on the size of spans to cover. The use of structural systems with increased spans allows for the modern buildings and structures of prefabricated reinforced concrete with enhanced functionality and aesthetics alongside with a wide range of planning solutions.

  14. First-principles approach for superconducting slabs and heterostructures

    Csire, Gabor [Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Budapest (Hungary)

    2016-07-01

    We present a fully ab-initio method to calculate the transition temperature for superconducting slabs and heterostructures. In the case of thin superconductor layers the electron-phonon interaction may change significantly. Therefore we calculate the layer dependent phonon spectrum to determine the layer dependence of the electron-phonon coupling for such systems. The phonon spectrum is than coupled to the Kohn-Sham-Bogoliubov-de Gennes equation via the McMillan-Hopfield parameter, and it is solved self-consistently. The theory is applied to niobium slabs and niobium-gold heterostructures. Based on these calculations we investigate both the dependence of the superconducting transition temperature on the thickness of superconducting slabs and the inverse proximity effect observed in thin superconducting heterostructures.

  15. A reading list for Bill Gates--and you. A conversation with literary critic Harold Bloom. Interview by Diane L. Coutu.

    Bloom, H

    2001-05-01

    In today's technology-driven world, who has time to pick up a 400-page novel? Most executives don't--they have urgent e-mails to answer, training seminars to attend, meetings to lead, and trade publications to scan. But according to Harold Bloom, one of America's most influential scholars, they should make time in their hectic schedules to read great works. In a wide-ranging conversation with HBR senior editor Diane Coutu, Bloom discusses the importance of literature: every individual--regardless of profession--needs to stretch his or her mind and reflect now and again on the human condition. "By reading great imaginative literature, you can prepare yourself for surprise and even get a kind of strength that welcomes and exploits the unexpected," he says. Because there are so many great works and there is so little time, Bloom presents a reading list for busy executives. Shakespeare's King Lear can teach businesspeople about change. Ralph Waldo Emerson's essays capture the ethos of the American spirit--individualism and inventiveness. Bloom says Sigmund Freud's conceptions "form the only Western mythology that contemporary intellectuals have in common." And people will never fully understand some aspects of themselves until they read Miguel de Cervantes's Don Quixote. In short, Bloom believes the humanities have much to offer businesspeople: great books broaden their awareness and their range of sensibility, he says. But reading literature will not make businesspeople more moral, he cautions. Bloom also discusses other topics such as how to read well, the state of popular fiction, the role of irony, and the subject of change.

  16. First wall fusion blanket temperature variation - slab geometry

    Fillo, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    The first wall of a fusion blanket is approximated by a slab, with the surface facing the plasma subjected to an applied heat flux, while the rear surface is convectively cooled. The relevant parameters affecting the heat transfer during the early phases of heating as well as for large times are established. Analytical solutions for the temperature variation with time and space are derived. Numerical calculations for an aluminum and stainless steel slab are performed for a wall loading of 1 MW(th)/m 2 . Both helium and water cooling are considered. (Auth.)

  17. Simulation of curing of a slab of rubber

    Abhilash, P.M.; Kannan, K.; Varkey, Bijo

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present work is to predict the degree of curing for a rectangular slab of rubber, which was subjected to non-uniform thermal history. As the thermal conductivity of rubber is very low, the temperature gradient across a slab is quite large, which leads to non-uniform vulcanization, and hence non-uniform mechanical properties-an inhomogeneous material. Since curing is an exothermic reaction, heat transfer and chemical reactions are solved in a coupled manner. The effect of heat generation on curing is also discussed.

  18. Concrete mixtures with high-workability for ballastless slab tracks

    Olga Smirnova

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The concrete track-supporting layer and the monolithic concrete slab of ballastless track systems are made in-situ. For this reason the concrete mixtures of high workability should be used. Influence of the sand kind, the quartz microfiller fineness and quantity as well as quantity of superplasticizer on workability of fresh concrete and durability of hardened concrete is shown. The compositions of the high-workability concrete mixtures with lower consumption of superplasticizer are developed. The results of the research can be recommended for high performance concrete of ballastless slab track.

  19. Seismic Behaviour of Masonry Vault-Slab Structures

    Chesi, Claudio; Butti, Ferdinando; Ferrari, Marco

    2008-01-01

    Spandrel walls typically play a structural role in masonry buildings, transferring load from a slab to the supporting vault. Some indications are given in the literature on the behaviour of spandrels under the effect of vertical loads, but little attention is given to the effect coming from lateral forces acting on the building. An opportunity to investigate this problem has come from the need of analyzing a monumental building which was damaged by the Nov. 24, 2004 Val Sabbia earthquake in the north of Italy. The finite element model set up for the analysis of the vault-spandrel-slab system is presented and the structural role resulting for the spandrels is discussed

  20. Simulation of curing of a slab of rubber

    Abhilash, P.M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, IIT Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Kannan, K., E-mail: krishnakannan@iitm.ac.i [Department of Mechanical Engineering, IIT Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Varkey, Bijo [Advanced Design Department, MRF Ltd., Chennai 600019 (India)

    2010-04-15

    The objective of the present work is to predict the degree of curing for a rectangular slab of rubber, which was subjected to non-uniform thermal history. As the thermal conductivity of rubber is very low, the temperature gradient across a slab is quite large, which leads to non-uniform vulcanization, and hence non-uniform mechanical properties-an inhomogeneous material. Since curing is an exothermic reaction, heat transfer and chemical reactions are solved in a coupled manner. The effect of heat generation on curing is also discussed.

  1. Resonance-enhanced optical forces between coupled photonic crystal slabs.

    Liu, Victor; Povinelli, Michelle; Fan, Shanhui

    2009-11-23

    The behaviors of lateral and normal optical forces between coupled photonic crystal slabs are analyzed. We show that the optical force is periodic with displacement, resulting in stable and unstable equilibrium positions. Moreover, the forces are strongly enhanced by guided resonances of the coupled slabs. Such enhancement is particularly prominent near dark states of the system, and the enhancement effect is strongly dependent on the types of guided resonances involved. These structures lead to enhancement of light-induced pressure over larger areas, in a configuration that is directly accessible to externally incident, free-space optical beams.

  2. Geometrical optics of dense aerosols: forming dense plasma slabs.

    Hay, Michael J; Valeo, Ernest J; Fisch, Nathaniel J

    2013-11-01

    Assembling a freestanding, sharp-edged slab of homogeneous material that is much denser than gas, but much more rarefied than a solid, is an outstanding technological challenge. The solution may lie in focusing a dense aerosol to assume this geometry. However, whereas the geometrical optics of dilute aerosols is a well-developed field, the dense aerosol limit is mostly unexplored. Yet controlling the geometrical optics of dense aerosols is necessary in preparing such a material slab. Focusing dense aerosols is shown here to be possible, but the finite particle density reduces the effective Stokes number of the flow, a critical result for controlled focusing.

  3. Bloom's Taxonomy: Improving Assessment and Teaching-Learning Process

    Chandio, Muhammad Tufail; Pandhiani, Saima Murtaza; Iqbal, Rabia

    2016-01-01

    This research study critically analyzes the scope and contribution of Bloom's Taxonomy in both assessment and teaching-learning process. Bloom's Taxonomy consists of six stages, namely; remembering, understanding, applying, analyzing, evaluating and creating and moves from lower degree to the higher degree. The study applies Bloom's Taxonomy to…

  4. A Preliminary Bloom's Taxonomy Assessment of End-of-Chapter Problems in Business School Textbooks

    Marshall, Jennings B.; Carson, Charles M.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines textbook problems used in a sampling of some of the most common core courses found in schools of business to ascertain what level of learning, as defined by Bloom's Taxonomy, is required to provide a correct answer. A set of working definitions based on Bloom's Taxonomy (Bloom & Krathwohl, 1956) was developed for the six…

  5. Then the Wilderness Shall Bloom like a Rosy Bower

    Nielsen, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    intertextual connections to the rest of the book. In my article, I have analysed how the Danish poet N.F.S. Grundtvig reworks Isa 35 in his hymn “Then the wilderness shall bloom like a rosy bower”, and how he reinterprets the wild animals as the Enemy (the Devil). In my view, the animals in Isa 35 have...

  6. Physical processes contributing to harmful algal blooms in Saldanha ...

    Since 1994, disruption of harvesting as a result of the presence of harmful algal species has been a regular late-summer phenomenon. Toxic blooms that are ultimately advected into the bay develop on the continental shelf to the north between 32°S and St Helena Bay, a region characterized by favourable conditions for ...

  7. Detection of macroalgae blooms by complex SAR imagery

    Shen, Hui; Perrie, William; Liu, Qingrong; He, Yijun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Complex SAR imagery enables better recognition of macroalgae patches. • Combination of different information in SAR matrix forms new index factors. • Proposed index factors contribute to unsupervised recognition of macroalgae. -- Abstract: Increased frequency and enhanced damage to the marine environment and to human society caused by green macroalgae blooms demand improved high-resolution early detection methods. Conventional satellite remote sensing methods via spectra radiometers do not work in cloud-covered areas, and therefore cannot meet these demands for operational applications. We present a methodology for green macroalgae bloom detection based on RADARSAT-2 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. Green macroalgae patches exhibit different polarimetric characteristics compared to the open ocean surface, in both the amplitude and phase domains of SAR-measured complex radar backscatter returns. In this study, new index factors are defined which have opposite signs in green macroalgae-covered areas, compared to the open water surface. These index factors enable unsupervised detection from SAR images, providing a high-resolution new tool for detection of green macroalgae blooms, which can potentially contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms related to outbreaks of green macroalgae blooms in coastal areas throughout the world ocean

  8. Context discovery using attenuated Bloom codes: model description and validation

    Liu, F.; Heijenk, Geert

    A novel approach to performing context discovery in ad-hoc networks based on the use of attenuated Bloom filters is proposed in this report. In order to investigate the performance of this approach, a model has been developed. This document describes the model and its validation. The model has been

  9. Developing Learning Objectives for Accounting Ethics Using Bloom's Taxonomy

    Kidwell, Linda A.; Fisher, Dann G.; Braun, Robert L.; Swanson, Diane L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of our article is to offer a set of core knowledge learning objectives for accounting ethics education. Using Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives, we develop learning objectives in six content areas: codes of ethical conduct, corporate governance, the accounting profession, moral development, classical ethics theories, and…

  10. Apples, Bloom, and Creativity: The ABC's of Reading Alphabet Books.

    Taylor, Mary Agnes

    Benjamin Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives (knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation) combined with commonly accepted steps of the creative process (gathering material, reflection, inspiration, first draft or model, and evaluation) can be used to explore some of the possibilities of working with alphabet…

  11. Fungal parasitism: life cycle, dynamics and impact on cyanobacterial blooms.

    Mélanie Gerphagnon

    Full Text Available Many species of phytoplankton are susceptible to parasitism by fungi from the phylum Chytridiomycota (i.e. chytrids. However, few studies have reported the effects of fungal parasites on filamentous cyanobacterial blooms. To investigate the missing components of bloom ecosystems, we examined an entire field bloom of the cyanobacterium Anabaena macrospora for evidence of chytrid infection in a productive freshwater lake, using a high resolution sampling strategy. A. macrospora was infected by two species of the genus Rhizosiphon which have similar life cycles but differed in their infective regimes depending on the cellular niches offered by their host. R. crassum infected both vegetative cells and akinetes while R. akinetum infected only akinetes. A tentative reconstruction of the developmental stages suggested that the life cycle of R. crassum was completed in about 3 days. The infection affected 6% of total cells (and 4% of akinètes, spread over a maximum of 17% of the filaments of cyanobacteria, in which 60% of the cells could be parasitized. Furthermore, chytrids may reduce the length of filaments of Anabaena macrospora significantly by "mechanistic fragmentation" following infection. All these results suggest that chytrid parasitism is one of the driving factors involved in the decline of a cyanobacteria blooms, by direct mortality of parasitized cells and indirectly by the mechanistic fragmentation, which could weaken the resistance of A. macrospora to grazing.

  12. Monitoring of harmful algal blooms along the Norwegian coast using ...

    A Norwegian monitoring system for harmful algal blooms, consisting of an Observer Network, the State Food Hygiene Control Agency, the Oceanographic Company of Norway, the Institute of Marine Research and the Directorate for Fisheries, is reviewed. Potentially harmful algae on the Norwegian coast are found primarily ...

  13. Hydrodynamic control of microphytoplankton bloom in a coastal sea

    K Narasimha Murty

    2017-08-31

    Aug 31, 2017 ... surface water to depths in regions where there is no barrier layer at the ... ent availability (and light) alone does not give place to blooms in the ...... ics in a coastal upwelling system off southwestern Africa;. Deep Sea Res.

  14. Termination of a toxic Alexandrium bloom with hydrogen peroxide

    Burson, A.; Matthijs, H.C.P.; Bruijne, de W.; Talens, R.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Gerssen, A.; Visser, P.M.; Stomp, M.; Steur, K.; Scheppingen, van Y.; Huisman, J.

    2014-01-01

    The dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii is a well-known harmful algal species that can potentially cause paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP). Usually A. ostenfeldii occurs in low background concentrations only, but in August of 2012 an exceptionally dense bloom of more than 1 million cells L-1

  15. Georges Bank: a leaky incubator of Alexandrium fundyense blooms.

    McGillicuddy, D J; Townsend, D W; Keafer, B A; Thomas, M A; Anderson, D M

    2014-05-01

    A series of oceanographic surveys on Georges Bank document variability of populations of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense on time scales ranging from synoptic to seasonal to interannual. Blooms of A. fundyense on Georges Bank can reach concentrations on the order of 10 4 cells l -1 , and are generally bank-wide in extent. Georges Bank populations of A. fundyense appear to be quasi-independent of those in the adjacent coastal Gulf of Maine, insofar as they occupy a hydrographic niche that is colder and saltier than their coastal counterparts. In contrast to coastal populations that rely on abundant resting cysts for bloom initiation, very few cysts are present in the sediments on Georges Bank. Bloom dynamics must therefore be largely controlled by the balance between growth and mortality processes, which are at present largely unknown for this population. Based on correlations between cell abundance and nutrient distributions, ammonium appears to be an important source of nitrogen for A. fundyense blooms on Georges Bank.

  16. Biological control of Microcystis dominated harmful algal blooms ...

    Freshwater resources are now threatened by the presence and increase of harmful algal blooms (HAB) all over the world. The HABs are sometimes a direct result of anthropogenic pollution entering water bodies, such as partially treated nutrient-rich effluents and the leaching of fertilisers and animal wastes. The impact of ...

  17. Conception of Learning Outcomes in the Bloom's Taxonomy Affective Domain

    Savickiene, Izabela

    2010-01-01

    The article raises a problematic issue regarding an insufficient base of the conception of learning outcomes in the Bloom's taxonomy affective domain. The search for solutions introduces the conception of teaching and learning in the affective domain as well as presents validity criteria of learning outcomes in the affective domain. The…

  18. Mitigating cyanobacterial blooms: how effective are 'effective microorganisms'?

    Lürling, M.F.L.L.W.; Tolman, Y.; Euwe, M.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effects of 'Effective Microorganisms (EM)' on the growth of cyanobacteria, and their ability to terminate cyanobacterial blooms. The EM was tested in the form of 'mudballs' or 'Bokashi-balls', and as a suspension (EM-A) in laboratory experiments. No growth inhibition was

  19. Tropical cyanobacterial blooms: a review of prevalence, problem taxa, toxins and influencing environmental factors

    Maxine A.D. Mowe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxic cyanobacterial blooms are a major issue in freshwater systems in many countries. The potentially toxic species and their ecological causes are likely to be different in tropical zones from those in temperate water bodies; however, studies on tropical toxic cyanobacterial blooms are sporadic and currently there is no global synthesis. In this review, we examined published information on tropical cyanobacterial bloom occurrence and toxin production to investigate patterns in their growth and distribution. Microcystis was the most frequently occurring bloom genus throughout tropical Asia, Africa and Central America, while Cylindrospermopsis and Anabaena blooms occurred in various locations in tropical Australia, America and Africa. Microcystis blooms were more prevalent during the wet season while Cylindrospermopsis blooms were more prevalent during the dry period. Microcystin was the most encountered toxin throughout the tropics. A meta-analysis of tropical cyanobacterial blooms showed that Microcystis blooms were more associated with higher total nitrogen concentrations, while Cylindrospermopsis blooms were more associated with higher maximum temperatures. Meta-analysis also showed a positive linear relationship between levels of microcystin and N:P (nitrate:phosphate ratio. Tropical African Microcystis blooms were found to have the lowest microcystin levels in relation to biomass and N:P (nitrate:phosphate compared to tropical Asian, Australian and American blooms. There was also no significant correlation between microcystin concentration and cell concentration for tropical African blooms as opposed to tropical Asian and American blooms. Our review illustrates that some cyanobacteria and toxins are more prevalent in tropical areas. While some tropical countries have considerable information regarding toxic blooms, others have few or no reported studies. 

  20. Terrain Classification of Norwegian Slab Avalanche Accidents

    Hallandvik, Linda; Aadland, Eivind; Vikene, Odd Lennart

    2016-01-01

    It is difficult to rely on snow conditions, weather, and human factors when making judgments about avalanche risk because these variables are dynamic and complex; terrain, however, is more easily observed and interpreted. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate (1) the type of terrain in which historical fatal snow avalanche accidents in Norway…

  1. Under Sea Ice phytoplankton bloom detection and contamination in Antarctica

    Zeng, C.; Zeng, T.; Xu, H.

    2017-12-01

    Previous researches reported compelling sea ice phytoplankton bloom in Arctic, while seldom reports studied about Antarctic. Here, lab experiment showed sea ice increased the visible light albedo of the water leaving radiance. Even a new formed sea ice of 10cm thickness increased water leaving radiance up to 4 times of its original bare water. Given that phytoplankton preferred growing and accumulating under the sea ice with thickness of 10cm-1m, our results showed that the changing rate of OC4 estimated [Chl-a] varied from 0.01-0.5mg/m3 to 0.2-0.3mg/m3, if the water covered by 10cm sea ice. Going further, varying thickness of sea ice modulated the changing rate of estimating [Chl-a] non-linearly, thus current routine OC4 model cannot estimate under sea ice [Chl-a] appropriately. Besides, marginal sea ice zone has a large amount of mixture regions containing sea ice, water and snow, where is favorable for phytoplankton. We applied 6S model to estimate the sea ice/snow contamination on sub-pixel water leaving radiance of 4.25km spatial resolution ocean color products. Results showed that sea ice/snow scale effectiveness overestimated [Chl-a] concentration based on routine band ratio OC4 model, which contamination increased with the rising fraction of sea ice/snow within one pixel. Finally, we analyzed the under sea ice bloom in Antarctica based on the [Chl-a] concentration trends during 21 days after sea ice retreating. Regardless of those overestimation caused by sea ice/snow sub scale contamination, we still did not see significant under sea ice blooms in Antarctica in 2012-2017 compared with Arctic. This research found that Southern Ocean is not favorable for under sea ice blooms and the phytoplankton bloom preferred to occur in at least 3 weeks after sea ice retreating.

  2. State of knowledge and concerns on cyanobacterial blooms and cyanotoxins.

    Merel, Sylvain; Walker, David; Chicana, Ruth; Snyder, Shane; Baurès, Estelle; Thomas, Olivier

    2013-09-01

    Cyanobacteria are ubiquitous microorganisms considered as important contributors to the formation of Earth's atmosphere and nitrogen fixation. However, they are also frequently associated with toxic blooms. Indeed, the wide range of hepatotoxins, neurotoxins and dermatotoxins synthesized by these bacteria is a growing environmental and public health concern. This paper provides a state of the art on the occurrence and management of harmful cyanobacterial blooms in surface and drinking water, including economic impacts and research needs. Cyanobacterial blooms usually occur according to a combination of environmental factors e.g., nutrient concentration, water temperature, light intensity, salinity, water movement, stagnation and residence time, as well as several other variables. These environmental variables, in turn, have promoted the evolution and biosynthesis of strain-specific, gene-controlled metabolites (cyanotoxins) that are often harmful to aquatic and terrestrial life, including humans. Cyanotoxins are primarily produced intracellularly during the exponential growth phase. Release of toxins into water can occur during cell death or senescence but can also be due to evolutionary-derived or environmentally-mediated circumstances such as allelopathy or relatively sudden nutrient limitation. Consequently, when cyanobacterial blooms occur in drinking water resources, treatment has to remove both cyanobacteria (avoiding cell lysis and subsequent toxin release) and aqueous cyanotoxins previously released. Cells are usually removed with limited lysis by physical processes such as clarification or membrane filtration. However, aqueous toxins are usually removed by both physical retention, through adsorption on activated carbon or reverse osmosis, and chemical oxidation, through ozonation or chlorination. While the efficient oxidation of the more common cyanotoxins (microcystin, cylindrospermopsin, anatoxin and saxitoxin) has been extensively reported, the chemical

  3. An Artificial Neural Network Based Short-term Dynamic Prediction of Algae Bloom

    Yao Junyang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method of short-term prediction of algae bloom based on artificial neural network. Firstly, principal component analysis is applied to water environmental factors in algae bloom raceway ponds to get main factors that influence the formation of algae blooms. Then, a model of short-term dynamic prediction based on neural network is built with the current chlorophyll_a values as input and the chlorophyll_a values in the next moment as output to realize short-term dynamic prediction of algae bloom. Simulation results show that the model can realize short-term prediction of algae bloom effectively.

  4. Study of global stability of tall buildings with prestressed slabs

    L. A. Feitosa

    Full Text Available The use of prestressed concrete flat slabs in buildings has been increasing in recent years in the Brazilian market. Since the implementation of tall and slender buildings a trend in civil engineering and architecture fields, arises from the use of prestressed slabs a difficulty in ensuring the overall stability of a building without beams. In order to evaluate the efficiency of the main bracing systems used in this type of building, namely pillars in formed "U" in elevator shafts and stairs, and pillars in which the lengths are significantly larger than their widths, was elaborated a computational models of fictional buildings, which were processed and analyzed using the software CAD/TQS. From the variation of parameters such as: geometry of the pillars, thick slabs, characteristic strength of the concrete, reduceofthe coefficient of inertia for consideration of non-linearities of the physical elements, stiffness of the connections between slabs and pillars, among others, to analyze the influence of these variables on the overall stability of the building from the facing of instability parameter Gama Z, under Brazilian standard NBR 6118, in addition to performing the processing of building using the P-Delta iterative calculation method for the same purpose.

  5. Parametric excitation of drift waves in a sheared slab geometry

    Vranjes, J.; Weiland, J.

    1992-01-01

    The threshold for parametric excitation of drift waves in a sheared slab geometry is calculated for a pump wave that is a standing wave along the magnetic field, using the Hasegawa-Mima nonlinearity. The shear damping is counteracted by the parametric coupling and the eigenvalue problem is solved analytically using Taylor's strong coupling approximation. (au)

  6. Criticality Benchmark Analysis of Water-Reflected Uranium Oxyfluoride Slabs

    Marshall, Margaret A.; Bess, John D.

    2009-01-01

    A series of twelve experiments were conducted in the mid 1950's at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Critical Experiments Facility to determine the critical conditions of a semi-infinite water-reflected slab of aqueous uranium oxyfluoride (UO2F2). A different slab thickness was used for each experiment. Results from the twelve experiment recorded in the laboratory notebook were published in Reference 1. Seven of the twelve experiments were determined to be acceptable benchmark experiments for the inclusion in the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments. This evaluation will not only be available to handbook users for the validation of computer codes and integral cross-section data, but also for the reevaluation of experimental data used in the ANSI/ANS-8.1 standard. This evaluation is important as part of the technical basis of the subcritical slab limits in ANSI/ANS-8.1. The original publication of the experimental results was used for the determination of bias and bias uncertainties for subcritical slab limits, as documented by Hugh Clark's paper 'Subcritical Limits for Uranium-235 Systems'.

  7. Bayesian Inference for Structured Spike and Slab Priors

    Andersen, Michael Riis; Winther, Ole; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2014-01-01

    Sparse signal recovery addresses the problem of solving underdetermined linear inverse problems subject to a sparsity constraint. We propose a novel prior formulation, the structured spike and slab prior, which allows to incorporate a priori knowledge of the sparsity pattern by imposing a spatial...

  8. Empirical Strengths of Concrete Roof Slabs After 34 Years Service ...

    The results were compared with those from standard compressive strength machine in the laboratory, and subjected to statistical analysis. The final results showed that the lowest slab compressive strength was 14 N/mm2 below the minimum concrete grade of 25N/mm2; and percentage defective was 29.5% more than the ...

  9. Tensor-guided fitting of subduction slab depths

    Bazargani, Farhad; Hayes, Gavin P.

    2013-01-01

    Geophysical measurements are often acquired at scattered locations in space. Therefore, interpolating or fitting the sparsely sampled data as a uniform function of space (a procedure commonly known as gridding) is a ubiquitous problem in geophysics. Most gridding methods require a model of spatial correlation for data. This spatial correlation model can often be inferred from some sort of secondary information, which may also be sparsely sampled in space. In this paper, we present a new method to model the geometry of a subducting slab in which we use a data‐fitting approach to address the problem. Earthquakes and active‐source seismic surveys provide estimates of depths of subducting slabs but only at scattered locations. In addition to estimates of depths from earthquake locations, focal mechanisms of subduction zone earthquakes also provide estimates of the strikes of the subducting slab on which they occur. We use these spatially sparse strike samples and the Earth’s curved surface geometry to infer a model for spatial correlation that guides a blended neighbor interpolation of slab depths. We then modify the interpolation method to account for the uncertainties associated with the depth estimates.

  10. Some consequences of the subduction of young slabs

    England, P.; Wortel, R.

    The negative buoyancy force exerted by a subducting oceanic slab depends on its descent velocity, and strongly on its age. For lithosphere close to thermal equilibrium, this force dominates by a large margin the resisting forces arising from friction on the plate boundary and compositional buoyancy.

  11. Fringe integral equation method for a truncated grounded dielectric slab

    Jørgensen, Erik; Maci, S.; Toccafondi, A.

    2001-01-01

    The problem of scattering by a semi-infinite grounded dielectric slab illuminated by an arbitrary incident TMz polarized electric field is studied by solving a new set of “fringe” integral equations (F-IEs), whose functional unknowns are physically associated to the wave diffraction processes...

  12. Use of fiber reinforced concrete for concrete pavement slab replacement.

    2014-03-01

    Unlike ordinary concrete pavement, replacement concrete slabs need to be open to traffic within 24 hours (sooner in : some cases). Thus, high early-strength concrete is used; however, it frequently cracks prematurely as a result of high : heat of hyd...

  13. Behavior of the equivalent slab thickness over three European stations

    Mosert, M.; Magdaleno, S.; Burešová, Dalia; Altadill, D.; Gende, M.; Gularte, E.; Scida, L.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 4 (2013), s. 677-682 ISSN 0273-1177 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : Ionospheric slab thickness * F2-layer peak * TEC * European stations Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.238, year: 2013 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0273117712003754

  14. Neutron flux in a periodical slab geometry (1960)

    Lamare, J. de; Mathelot, P.; Cadhilac, M.

    1960-01-01

    In the present report, we explain an original method to perform exact calculations of neutron flux in either of two geometries: a slab surrounded by an infinite multiplying medium or a periodical, one dimensional array of two different media. (author) [fr

  15. Alternative and cost-effective bridge approach slabs.

    2010-10-01

    The primary objectives of the proposed project are to investigate the causes for any bumps at the end of the bridge approach slab : and to develop remedial measures or alternative designs for a replacement. It is clear that the problem stems from geo...

  16. A differentiated plane wave: its passage through a slab

    Hannay, J H; Nye, J F

    2013-01-01

    Differentiating a monochromatic uniform plane electromagnetic wavefield with respect to its direction produces, from a field that is completely lacking in localized specific features, one that contains a straight vortex-like line, a ‘C-line’ of defined circular polarization. There is also a second separate C-line of opposite handedness; indeed, in a sense, a straight line of every polarization is realized. Because of its primitive construction it is analytically simple to study the passage of a differentiated wave obliquely through a plane interface into a medium of different refractive index, to trace its C-line. This was done in an earlier paper. Here we extend the method to passage through a parallel-sided transparent slab. There are multiple reflections within the slab, as in a Fabry–Pérot interferometer. The exiting wave, as a single differentiated plane wave, has a straight oblique C-line. Inside the slab, and in front of it, there is wave interference. The result is a coiled, helix-like, C-line in front of the slab and another inside it. The two coils wrap around separate hyperboloids of one sheet, like cooling towers. The emerging straight C-line is shifted (with respect to a C-line in a notional undisturbed incident plane wave) both in the plane of incidence and transversely to it, and the second C-line behaves similarly. The analysis is exact and could be extended in a straightforward way to a general stratified medium. (paper)

  17. Structural response of reinforced concrete slabs to impulsive loads

    Florence, A.L.

    1977-01-01

    The structure treated here is a clamped circular slab of reinforced concrete. The loading is a rectangular pulse uniformly distributed over a central area. The practical value of this problem is that it probably represents a most severe loading case for bending response among more realistic cases, because it replaces the local loaded area with a circular area at the slab center, and because it replaces the pulse with a rectangular pulse of the same peak pressure and impulse. In the theoretical treatment the pulse is assumed to produce plastic deformations large enough to neglect elastic deformation but small enough to neglect membrane action. Yielding of the reinforced concrete slab is assumed to be governed by the Johansen criterion and the associated flow rule. For simplicity, the analysis is restricted to isotropic slabs with top and bottom steel reinforcement arranged to provide the same yield moment magnitude for positive and negative curvature changes. A consequence of the assumed rigid-perfectly plastic behavior is that the deformation modes may be considered as simple mechanism governed by a yield circle. Moreover, the yield circle is stationary while the constant pressure is being applied and expands to the support once the pressure is removed. After the yield circle has arrived at the support, the remaining deformation occurs in the static collapse mode. The principal results are explicit simple formulas for permanent central deflection in terms of pressure, duration, loaded area radius, and plate properties (radius, density, yield moment)

  18. Harmful algal bloom smart device application: using image analysis and machine learning techniques for classification of harmful algal blooms

    Northern Kentucky University and the U.S. EPA Office of Research Development in Cincinnati Agency are collaborating to develop a harmful algal bloom detection algorithm that estimates the presence of cyanobacteria in freshwater systems by image analysis. Green and blue-green alg...

  19. Field Enhancement in a Grounded Dielectric Slab by Using a Single Superstrate Layer

    Valagiannopoulos, Constantinos A.; Tsitsas, Nikolaos L.

    2012-01-01

    The addition of a dielectric layer on a slab configuration is frequently utilized in various electromagnetic devices in order to give them certain desired operational characteristics. In this work, we consider a grounded dielectric film-slab, which is externally excited by a normally-incident Gaussian beam. On top of the film-slab, we use an additional suitably selected single isotropic superstrate layer in order to increase the field concentration inside the slab and hence achieve optimal po...

  20. Self-shielding for thick slabs in a converging neutron beam

    Mildner, D F R

    1999-01-01

    We have previously given a correction to the neutron self-shielding for a thin slab to account for the increased average path length through the slab when irradiated in a converging neutron beam. This expression overstates the case for the self-shielding for a thick (or highly absorbing) slab. We give a better approximation to the increase in effective shielding correction for a slab placed in a converging neutron beam. It is negligible at large absorption mean free paths. (author)

  1. Slab melting and magma formation beneath the southern Cascade arc

    Walowski, Kristina J.; Wallace, Paul J.; Clynne, Michael A.; Rasmussen, D.J.; Weis, D.

    2016-01-01

    The processes that drive magma formation beneath the Cascade arc and other warm-slab subduction zones have been debated because young oceanic crust is predicted to largely dehydrate beneath the forearc during subduction. In addition, geochemical variability along strike in the Cascades has led to contrasting interpretations about the role of volatiles in magma generation. Here, we focus on the Lassen segment of the Cascade arc, where previous work has demonstrated across-arc geochemical variations related to subduction enrichment, and H-isotope data suggest that H2O in basaltic magmas is derived from the final breakdown of chlorite in the mantle portion of the slab. We use naturally glassy, olivine-hosted melt inclusions (MI) from the tephra deposits of eight primitive (MgO>7 wt%) basaltic cinder cones to quantify the pre-eruptive volatile contents of mantle-derived melts in this region. The melt inclusions have B concentrations and isotope ratios that are similar to mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB), suggesting extensive dehydration of the downgoing plate prior to reaching sub-arc depths and little input of slab-derived B into the mantle wedge. However, correlations of volatile and trace element ratios (H2O/Ce, Cl/Nb, Sr/Nd) in the melt inclusions demonstrate that geochemical variability is the result of variable addition of a hydrous subduction component to the mantle wedge. Furthermore, correlations between subduction component tracers and radiogenic isotope ratios show that the subduction component has less radiogenic Sr and Pb than the Lassen sub-arc mantle, which can be explained by melting of subducted Gorda MORB beneath the arc. Agreement between pMELTS melting models and melt inclusion volatile, major, and trace element data suggests that hydrous slab melt addition to the mantle wedge can produce the range in primitive compositions erupted in the Lassen region. Our results provide further evidence that chlorite-derived fluids from the mantle portion of the

  2. A Multiscale Mapping Assessment of Lake Champlain Cyanobacterial Harmful Algal Blooms

    Nathan Torbick

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Lake Champlain has bays undergoing chronic cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms that pose a public health threat. Monitoring and assessment tools need to be developed to support risk decision making and to gain a thorough understanding of bloom scales and intensities. In this research application, Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI, Rapid Eye, and Proba Compact High Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (CHRIS images were obtained while a corresponding field campaign collected in situ measurements of water quality. Models including empirical band ratio regressions were applied to map chlorophylla and phycocyanin concentrations; all sensors performed well with R2 and root-mean-square error (RMSE ranging from 0.76 to 0.88 and 0.42 to 1.51, respectively. The outcomes showed spatial patterns across the lake with problematic bays having phycocyanin concentrations >25 μg/L. An alert status metric tuned to the current monitoring protocol was generated using modeled water quality to illustrate how the remote sensing tools can inform a public health monitoring system. Among the sensors utilized in this study, Landsat 8 OLI holds the most promise for providing exposure information across a wide area given the resolutions, systematic observation strategy and free cost.

  3. Seismicity Structure of the Downgoing Nazca Slab in Northern Chile

    Sippl, C.; Schurr, B.

    2017-12-01

    We applied an automatized earthquake detection and location algorithm to 8 years of continuous seismic data from the IPOC network in Northern Chile, located in the forearc between about 18.5°S and 24°S. The resulting seismicity catalog contains more than 113k double-difference relocated earthquake hypocenters and features a completeness magnitude around 2.8. Despite the occurrence of two megathrust earthquakes with vigorous aftershock seismicity in the studied time period (the 2007 Tocopilla and the 2014 Iquique earthquakes), >60% of the retrieved seismicity is located in a highly active band of intermediate-depth earthquakes (80-120 km deep) within the downgoing Nazca slab.We obtain a triple seismic zone in the updip part of the slab, with the three parallel dipping planes corresponding to the plate interface, the oceanic Moho (ca. 8 km below the interface) and a third band in the mantle lithosphere 26-28 km beneath the slab top. The plate interface seismicity terminates abruptly at a depth of 55 km. At about 80-90 km depth, the remaining two planes of seismicity then merge into the single, 20 km thick cluster of vigorous seismicity mentioned above, which terminates at 120 km depth. This cluster is located directly beneath the volcanic arc and shows a pronounced kink in the slab dipping angle. Intra-slab seismicity is most likely related to metamorphic dehydration reactions, hence our high-resolution earthquake distribution can be considered a map of metamorphic reactions (although a possibly incomplete one, since not all reactions necessarily invoke seismicity). By correlating this distribution with isotherms from thermal models as well as geophysical imaging results from previous studies, we attempt to get a glimpse at the processes that produce the different patches of intraslab seismicity at intermediate depths.

  4. Analisis Perbandingan Material Slab Beton Pada Perkerasan Apron Dengan Menggunakan Program Bantu Elemen Hingga

    Hendrawan Setyo Warsito

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Kekuatan slab beton sangat dipengaruhi oleh jenis material yang dipakai. Jenis material yang dimaksud adalah material beton dengan menggunakan PC (Portland Cement dan penggunaan geopolimer dalam komposisi campuran slab beton. Beton geopolimer merupakan beton yang ramah lingkungan. Permasalahan lain yang timbul adalah letak roda pesawat tidak selalu berada pada titik yang sama disuatu permukaan slab beton apron. Pada tugas akhir ini dimaksudkan untuk menganalisis suatu slab beton yang dibebani roda pesawat dengan campuran variasi material beton dan variasi letak roda pesawat pada slab beton dengan program bantu metode elemen hingga. Dengan data pergerakan pesawat, spesifikasi apron bandara Juanda kondisi eksisting. Dilakukan perhitungan tebal slab beton menggunakan software FAARFIELD dan diperoleh tebal slab beton sebesar 442,5 mm. Dari analisis program bantu elemen hingga dapat diperoleh tegangan pada slab beton yang ditimbulkan oleh pembebanan roda pesawat. Hasil validasi dari analisis tegangan menggunakan program bantu elemen hingga dengan analisis Westergaard yaitu memiliki nilai tegangan yang hampir sama pada ketebalan slab beton 450mm. Nilai tegangan tiap-tiap material beton menunjukan nilai tebal slab beton yang diijinkan untuk tipe pesawat tertentu. Dari analisis menggunakan program bantu elemen hingga tebal slab beton yang diijinkan untuk material slab beton PC yaitu sebesar 425mm. Sedangkan untuk material beton geopolimer yaitu sebesar  415 mm.

  5. Numerical Investigation of Slab-Column Connection by Finite Element Method

    Akram, T.; Shaikh, M.A.; Memon, A.A.

    2007-01-01

    The flat slab-on-column construction subjected to high transverse stresses concentrated at the slab-column connection can lead to a non-ductile, sudden and brittle punching failure and results in the accidental collapse of flat slab buildings. The major parameters affecting the slab-column connection are the concrete strength, slab thickness, slab reinforcement and aspect ratio of column. The application of numerical methods based on the finite element theory for solving practical tasks allow to perform virtual testing of structures and explore their behavior under load and other effects in different conditions taking into account the elastic and plastic behavior of materials, appearance and development of cracks and other damages (disintegrations), and finally to simulate the failure mechanism and its consequences. In this study, the models are developed to carry out the finite element analysis of slab- column connection using ADINA (Automatic Dynamic Incremental Nonlinear Analysis) by varying the slab thickness and slab confining reinforcement and to investigate their effect on the deflection and load carrying capacity. Test results indicate that by increasing the slab thickness, the deflection and the load carrying capacity of slab-column connection increases, more over, by increasing the slab confining reinforcement, the deflection decreases where as the load carrying capacity increases. (author)

  6. Analyzing Beach Recreationists’ Preferences for the Reduction of Jellyfish Blooms: Economic Results from a Stated-Choice Experiment in Catalonia, Spain

    Nunes, Paulo A. L. D.; Loureiro, Maria L.; Piñol, Laia; Sastre, Sergio; Voltaire, Louinord; Canepa, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Jellyfish outbreaks and their consequences appear to be on the increase around the world, and are becoming particularly relevant in the Mediterranean. No previous studies have quantified tourism losses caused by jellyfish outbreaks. We used a stated-choice questionnaire and a Random Utility Model to estimate the amount of time respondents would be willing to add to their journey, in terms of reported extra travel time, in order to reduce the risk of encountering jellyfish blooms in the Catalan coast. The estimation results indicated that the respondents were willing to spend on average an additional 23.8% of their travel time to enjoy beach recreation in areas with a lower risk of jellyfish blooms. Using as a reference the opportunity cost of time, we found that the subsample of individuals who made a trade-off between the disutility generated by travelling longer in order to lower the risk of jellyfish blooms, and the utility gained from reducing this risk, are willing to pay on average €3.20 per beach visit. This estimate, combined with the respondents’ mean income, yielded annual economic gains associated with reduction of jellyfish blooms on the Catalan coast around €422.57 million, or about 11.95% of the tourism expenditures in 2012. From a policy-making perspective, this study confirms the importance of the economic impacts of jellyfish blooms and the need for mitigation strategies. In particular, providing daily information using social media applications or other technical devices may reduce these social costs. The current lack of knowledge about jellyfish suggests that providing this information to beach recreationists may be a substantially effective policy instrument for minimising the impact of jellyfish blooms. PMID:26053674

  7. Analyzing Beach Recreationists' Preferences for the Reduction of Jellyfish Blooms: Economic Results from a Stated-Choice Experiment in Catalonia, Spain.

    Nunes, Paulo A L D; Loureiro, Maria L; Piñol, Laia; Sastre, Sergio; Voltaire, Louinord; Canepa, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Jellyfish outbreaks and their consequences appear to be on the increase around the world, and are becoming particularly relevant in the Mediterranean. No previous studies have quantified tourism losses caused by jellyfish outbreaks. We used a stated-choice questionnaire and a Random Utility Model to estimate the amount of time respondents would be willing to add to their journey, in terms of reported extra travel time, in order to reduce the risk of encountering jellyfish blooms in the Catalan coast. The estimation results indicated that the respondents were willing to spend on average an additional 23.8% of their travel time to enjoy beach recreation in areas with a lower risk of jellyfish blooms. Using as a reference the opportunity cost of time, we found that the subsample of individuals who made a trade-off between the disutility generated by travelling longer in order to lower the risk of jellyfish blooms, and the utility gained from reducing this risk, are willing to pay on average €3.20 per beach visit. This estimate, combined with the respondents' mean income, yielded annual economic gains associated with reduction of jellyfish blooms on the Catalan coast around €422.57 million, or about 11.95% of the tourism expenditures in 2012. From a policy-making perspective, this study confirms the importance of the economic impacts of jellyfish blooms and the need for mitigation strategies. In particular, providing daily information using social media applications or other technical devices may reduce these social costs. The current lack of knowledge about jellyfish suggests that providing this information to beach recreationists may be a substantially effective policy instrument for minimising the impact of jellyfish blooms.

  8. Analyzing Beach Recreationists' Preferences for the Reduction of Jellyfish Blooms: Economic Results from a Stated-Choice Experiment in Catalonia, Spain.

    Paulo A L D Nunes

    Full Text Available Jellyfish outbreaks and their consequences appear to be on the increase around the world, and are becoming particularly relevant in the Mediterranean. No previous studies have quantified tourism losses caused by jellyfish outbreaks. We used a stated-choice questionnaire and a Random Utility Model to estimate the amount of time respondents would be willing to add to their journey, in terms of reported extra travel time, in order to reduce the risk of encountering jellyfish blooms in the Catalan coast. The estimation results indicated that the respondents were willing to spend on average an additional 23.8% of their travel time to enjoy beach recreation in areas with a lower risk of jellyfish blooms. Using as a reference the opportunity cost of time, we found that the subsample of individuals who made a trade-off between the disutility generated by travelling longer in order to lower the risk of jellyfish blooms, and the utility gained from reducing this risk, are willing to pay on average €3.20 per beach visit. This estimate, combined with the respondents' mean income, yielded annual economic gains associated with reduction of jellyfish blooms on the Catalan coast around €422.57 million, or about 11.95% of the tourism expenditures in 2012. From a policy-making perspective, this study confirms the importance of the economic impacts of jellyfish blooms and the need for mitigation strategies. In particular, providing daily information using social media applications or other technical devices may reduce these social costs. The current lack of knowledge about jellyfish suggests that providing this information to beach recreationists may be a substantially effective policy instrument for minimising the impact of jellyfish blooms.

  9. Phytoplankton blooms in estuarine and coastal waters: Seasonal patterns and key species

    Carstensen, Jacob; Klais, Riina; Cloern, James E.

    2015-01-01

    Phytoplankton blooms are dynamic phenomena of great importance to the functioning of estuarine and coastal ecosystems. We analysed a unique (large) collection of phytoplankton monitoring data covering 86 coastal sites distributed over eight regions in North America and Europe, with the aim of investigating common patterns in the seasonal timing and species composition of the blooms. The spring bloom was the most common seasonal pattern across all regions, typically occurring early (February–March) at lower latitudes and later (April–May) at higher latitudes. Bloom frequency, defined as the probability of unusually high biomass, ranged from 5 to 35% between sites and followed no consistent patterns across gradients of latitude, temperature, salinity, water depth, stratification, tidal amplitude or nutrient concentrations. Blooms were mostly dominated by a single species, typically diatoms (58% of the blooms) and dinoflagellates (19%). Diatom-dominated spring blooms were a common feature in most systems, although dinoflagellate spring blooms were also observed in the Baltic Sea. Blooms dominated by chlorophytes and cyanobacteria were only common in low salinity waters and occurred mostly at higher temperatures. Key bloom species across the eight regions included the diatoms Cerataulina pelagica and Dactyliosolen fragilissimus and dinoflagellates Heterocapsa triquetra and Prorocentrum cordatum. Other frequent bloom-forming taxa were diatom genera Chaetoceros, Coscinodiscus, Skeletonema, and Thalassiosira. Our meta-analysis shows that these 86 estuarine-coastal sites function as diatom-producing systems, the timing of that production varies widely, and that bloom frequency is not associated with environmental factors measured in monitoring programs. We end with a perspective on the limitations of conclusions derived from meta-analyses of phytoplankton time series, and the grand challenges remaining to understand the wide range of bloom patterns and

  10. Photonic Crystal Slab Sensors in Microfluidics

    Sørensen, Kristian Tølbøl

    refractive index. The underlying phenomenon is called guidedmode resonance (GMR), which responds to changes in the refractive index of fluids only within the first few hundred nanometers from the sensor surface. PCS sensors can be fabricated entirely out of polymers, and read out using instrumentation...... to provide adaptive resolution. This algorithm can routinely make GMR simulations more than 100 times faster. The second manuscript, submitted to Optics Express, describes the practical application of polymeric PCS sensors. As with any refractive index sensor, the devices are highly sensitive to temperature...

  11. A Numerical Modeling Study of Mesodinium Bloom Formation and Retention in a River-Dominated Mesotidal Estuary

    Spitz, Y. H.; Cervantes, B.

    2016-02-01

    The Columbia River estuary experiences extensive seasonal red-colored blooms caused by a mixotrophic ciliate of the genus Mesodinium. Although the blooms are non-toxic, they have a significant influence on the levels of nutrients, light and oxygen in the estuary. Mesodinium spp. displays very particular physiology that makes it one of few planktonic species able to thrive in a highly flushed system: a high growth rate due to its ability to photosynthesize using the photosynthetic organelles of its preys, and complex vertical migration patterns. Knowledge of the migration pattern is based on limited observations of Mesodinium behavior in culture and recent in-situ measurements collected in the Columbia River estuary. A more comprehensive understanding is needed of the mechanisms allowing Mesodinium spp. to be retained and experience rapid growth. To this end, we extended the finite element circulation model SELFE to include a 5-component behavioral model that simulates the relationships between nutrients, detritus, Mesodinium spp. and its cryptophyte prey. We then used the model to investigate various migration patterns and growth scenarios to determine their role in the formation and retention of the Mesodinium spp. bloom in the brackish water of the estuary.

  12. Reservoir Operation Rules for Controlling Algal Blooms in a Tributary to the Impoundment of Three Gorges Dam

    Jijian Lian

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the first impoundment of Three Gorges Dam in 2003, algal blooms occur frequently in the near-dam tributaries. It is widely recognized that the impoundment-induced change in hydrodynamic condition with the lower current velocity will make the eutrophication problem even more severe when an excessive amount of nutrients is already loaded into a reservoir and/or its tributaries. Operation tests carried out by Three Gorges Corporation in 2010 point to some feasible reservoir operation schemes that may have positive impacts on reducing the algal bloom level. In our study, an attempt is made to obtain, through a numerical hydrodynamic and water quality modeling and analysis, the reservoir operation rules that would reduce the level of algal blooms in the Xiangxi River (XXR, a near-dam tributary. Water movements and algal blooms in XXR are simulated and analyzed under different scenarios of one-day water discharge fluctuation or two-week water level variation. The model results demonstrate that the reservoir operations can further increase the water exchange between the mainstream of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR and the XXR tributary and thus move a larger amount of algae into the deep water where it will die. Analysis of the model results indicate that the water discharge fluctuation constituted of a lower valley-load flow and a larger flow difference for the short-term operation (within a day, the rise in water level for the medium-term operation (e.g., over weeks, and the combination of the above two for the long-term operation (e.g., over months can be the feasible reservoir operation rules in the non-flood season for TGR.

  13. A new bio-optical algorithm for the remote sensing of algal blooms in complex ocean waters

    Shanmugam, Palanisamy

    2011-04-01

    A new bio-optical algorithm has been developed to provide accurate assessments of chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentration for detection and mapping of algal blooms from satellite data in optically complex waters, where the presence of suspended sediments and dissolved substances can interfere with phytoplankton signal and thus confound conventional band ratio algorithms. A global data set of concurrent measurements of pigment concentration and radiometric reflectance was compiled and used to develop this algorithm that uses the normalized water-leaving radiance ratios along with an algal bloom index (ABI) between three visible bands to determine Chl a concentrations. The algorithm is derived using Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor bands, and it is subsequently tuned to be applicable to Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)/Aqua data. When compared with large in situ data sets and satellite matchups in a variety of coastal and ocean waters the present algorithm makes good retrievals of the Chl a concentration and shows statistically significant improvement over current global algorithms (e.g., OC3 and OC4v4). An examination of the performance of these algorithms on several MODIS/Aqua images in complex waters of the Arabian Sea and west Florida shelf shows that the new algorithm provides a better means for detecting and differentiating algal blooms from other turbid features, whereas the OC3 algorithm has significant errors although yielding relatively consistent results in clear waters. These findings imply that, provided that an accurate atmospheric correction scheme is available to deal with complex waters, the current MODIS/Aqua, MERIS and OCM data could be extensively used for quantitative and operational monitoring of algal blooms in various regional and global waters.

  14. Relativistic magnetic reconnection driven by a moderately intense laser interacting with a micro-plasma-slab

    Yi, Longqing; Shen, Baifei; Pukhov, Alexander; Fülöp, Tünde

    2017-10-01

    Magnetic reconnection (MR) in the relativistic regime is generally thought to be responsible for powering rapid bursts of non-thermal radiation in astrophysical events. It is therefore of significant importance to study how the field energy is transferred to the plasma to power the observed emission. However, due to the difficulty in making direct measurements in astrophysical systems or achieving relativistic MR in laboratory environments, the particle acceleration is usually studied using fully kinetic PIC simulations. Here we present a numerical study of a readily available (TW-mJ-class) laser interacting with a micro-scale plasma slab. The simulations show when the electron beams excited on both sides of the slab approach the end of the plasma structure, ultrafast relativistic MR occurs. As the field topology changes, the explosive release of magnetic energy results in emission of relativistic electron jets with cut-off energy 12 MeV. The proposed novel scenario can be straightforwardly implemented in experiments, and might significantly improve the understanding of fundamental questions such as field dissipation and particle acceleration in relativistic MR. This work is supported by the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation and the European Research Council (ERC-2014-CoG Grant 64712).

  15. Fish Kill Incidents and Harmful Algal Blooms in Omani Waters

    Hamed Mohammed Al Gheilani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Red tide, one of the harmful algal blooms (HABs is a natural ecological phenomenon and often this event is accompanied by severe impacts on coastal resources, local economies, and public health. The occurrence of red tides has become more frequent in Omani waters in recent years. Some of them caused fish kill, damaged fishery resources and mariculture, threatened the marine environment and the osmosis membranes of desalination plants. However, a number of them have been harmless. The most common dinoflagellate Noctiluca scintillans is associated with the red tide events in Omani waters. Toxic species like Karenia selliformis, Prorocentrum arabianum, and Trichodesmium erythraeum have also been reported recently. Although red tides in Oman have been considered a consequence of upwelling in the summer season (May to September, recent phytoplankton outbreaks in Oman are not restricted to summer. Frequent algal blooms have been reported during winter (December to March. HABs may have contributed to hypoxia and/or other negative ecological impacts.

  16. Oceans and Human Health: Microplastics and Harmful Algal Bloom

    Sombrito, Elvira Z.

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally the focus of research and concern of environmental studies in the marine system is the impact of human activities in the ocean: the sources, distribution and fate of pollutants resulting from human activities. More recently, there has been recognition of the potential direct impact health can come from eating contaminated seafood, swimming in polluted water, and exposure to toxins from harmful algal blooms. This paper will present two areas of concern that illustrates the fact that the health of the oceans and the health of humans go hand in hand: chemical pollution from plastics in the ocean and harmful alga bloom. The nuclear methodologies than can be useful in these areas will also be introduced. It is hoped that through the recognition of the inter-dependence of the health of both humans and the oceans, efforts will be made to restore and preserve the oceans. (author)

  17. Didymosphenia geminata: Algal blooms in oligotrophic streams and rivers

    Sundareshwar, P. V.; Upadhayay, S.; Abessa, M.; Honomichl, S.; Berdanier, B.; Spaulding, S. A.; Sandvik, C.; Trennepohl, A.

    2011-05-01

    In recent decades, the diatom Didymosphenia geminata has emerged as nuisance species in river systems around the world. This periphytic alga forms large “blooms” in temperate streams, presenting a counterintuitive result: the blooms occur primarily in oligotrophic streams and rivers, where phosphorus (P) availability typically limits primary production. The goal of this study is to examine how high algal biomass is formed under low P conditions. We reveal a biogeochemical process by which D. geminata mats concentrate P from flowing waters. First, the mucopolysaccaride stalks of D. geminata adsorb both iron (Fe) and P. Second, enzymatic and bacterial processes interact with Fe to increase the biological availability of P. We propose that a positive feedback between total stalk biomass and high growth rate is created, which results in abundant P for cell division. The affinity of stalks for Fe in association with iron-phosphorus biogeochemistry suggest a resolution to the paradox of algal blooms in oliogotrophic streams and rivers.

  18. Sedimentation of phytoplankton during a diatom bloom : Rates and mechanisms

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Hansen, J.L.S.; Alldredge, A.L.

    1996-01-01

    Phytoplankton blooms are uncoupled from grazing and are normally terminated by sedimentation. There are several potential mechanisms by which phytoplankton cells may settle out of the photic zone: sinking of individual cells or chains, coagulation of cells into aggregates with high settling...... velocities, settling of cells attached to marine snow aggregates formed from discarded larvacean houses or pteropod feeding webs, and packaging of cells into rapidly falling zooplankton fecal pellets. We quantified the relative significance of these different mechanisms during a diatom bloom in a temperate...... to marine snow aggregates formed from discarded larvacean houses, whereas settling of unaggregated cells was insignificant. Formation rates of phytoplankton aggregates by physical coagulation was very low, and losses by this mechanism were much less than 0.07 d(-1); phytoplankton aggregates were neither...

  19. Evaluation of fatty acids as biomarkers for a natural plankton community. A field study of a spring bloom and a post-bloom period off West Greenland

    Reuss, N.; Poulsen, Louise K.

    2002-01-01

    community were taken at the depth of fluorescence maximum. High biomass and diatom dominance during the spring bloom and low biomass and flagellate dominance in the post-bloom period were reflected by the fatty acid profiles. The total amount of fatty acid ranged from 55 to 132 mug 1(-1) during the spring...

  20. Reduced river discharge intensifies phytoplankton bloom in Godavari estuary, India

    Acharyya, T.; Sarma, V.V.S.S.; Sridevi, B.; Venkataramana, V.; Bharathi, M.D.; Naidu, S.A.; Kumar, B.S.K.; Prasad, V.R.; Bandyopadhyay, D.; Reddy, N.P.C.; DileepKumar, M.

    et al., 2009; Sarma et al., 2011), behaviour of different 3 elements (Sarma et al., 1993) and heavy metals (Somayajulu et al., 1993).Virtually no systematic studies have been undertaken so far in these estuaries focussing on spatial and... their class specific marker pigment fucoxanthin (Jeffry et al., 1997; Mantoura and Llewellyn, 1983; Wright et al., 1991). To confirm the influence of SPM and flushing time on phytoplankton bloom a laboratory- based incubation experiment was conducted...

  1. Marine harmful algal blooms, human health and wellbeing

    Berdalet, Elisa; Fleming, Lora E.; Gowen, Richard

    2016-01-01

    cause harm to humans and other organisms. These harmful algal blooms (HABs) have direct impacts on human health and negative influences on human wellbeing, mainly through their consequences to coastal ecosystem services (fisheries, tourism and recreation) and other marine organisms and environments...... maintaining intensive, multidisciplinary and collaborative scientific research, and strengthening the coordination with stakeholders, policymakers and the general public. Here we provide an overview of different aspects of the HABs phenomena, an important element of the intrinsic links between oceans...

  2. Unusual Bloom of Tetraselmis sp. in the Valparaiso Bay, Chile

    2012-01-01

    de Valparaíso, Centro de Investigación y Gestión de los Recursos Naturales , Facultad de Ciencias , Gran Bretaña 1111, Valparaíso, Chile. 2University...RESPONSIBLE PERSON 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code) 31-05-2013 Journal Article Unusual Bloom of Tetraselmis sp. in the Valparasiso Bay...Invited speaker Classification X U c (X I Journal article (refereed) ( I Oral Presentation, published Journal article (not refereed) Oral Presentation

  3. Evaluating ILI Advanced Series through Bloom's Revised Taxonomy

    MAHDIPOUR, Nasim; SADEGHI, Bahador

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. This study investigated Iran Language Institute Advanced Series in terms of learning objectives based on Bloom's Revised Taxonomy. It examined the cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains to see how the critical thinking skills are used and to what extent these books are different from each other. For these purposes, the frequencies, percentages and Standard Residual were analyzed. Results revealed that the lower-order cognitive skills (i.e. remembering, understanding and applyi...

  4. The 1987–1989 Phytoplankton Bloom in Kaneohe Bay

    Edward Laws

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available A remarkable bloom of phytoplankton occurred in the southeast sector (SE of Kaneohe Bay from 1987 through 1989. During the bloom, concentrations of chlorophyll a at the former site of the Kaneohe municipal wastewater treatment plant outfall averaged a little more than 2 mg m–3 for a period of 40 months. The increase of chl a was accompanied by a roughly twofold increase in the percentage of chl a accounted for by cells retained on a 35-micron filter, a drawdown of silicate concentrations from roughly 10 μM to 3–4 μM, an increase of nitrate concentrations from roughly 0.5 to more than 3 μM, and an increase of phosphate concentrations from roughly 0.2 to 0.5 μM. Extraordinarily heavy rains on 31 December 1987 led to flooding and land runoff that briefly raised chl a concentrations in the bay to as high as 17 mg m–3, but the bloom in question developed more than one year before the 1987 New Year’s Eve flood. It was not caused by unusually heavy rainfall: the average rainfall during 1987–1989 was only 10% above the long-term average. Instead, the bloom appears to have been caused by a leak in the sanitary sewer line that was previously used to discharge secondary treated sewage into Kaneohe Bay. Ultimately, leaks in the sanitary sewer lines maintained by the City and County of Honolulu led to legal action and a consent decree that required upgrading and the renovation of the wastewater collection system.

  5. Environmental Chemistry and Chemical Ecology of "Green Tide" Seaweed Blooms.

    Van Alstyne, Kathryn L; Nelson, Timothy A; Ridgway, Richard L

    2015-09-01

    Green tides are large growths or accumulations of green seaweeds that have been increasing in magnitude and frequency around the world. Because green tides consist of vast biomasses of algae in a limited area and are often seasonal or episodic, they go through periods of rapid growth in which they take up large amounts of nutrients and dissolved gases and generate bioactive natural products that may be stored in the plants, released into the environment, or broken down during decomposition. As a result of the use and production of inorganic and organic compounds, the algae in these blooms can have detrimental impacts on other organisms. Here, we review some of the effects that green tides have on the chemistry of seawater and the effects of the natural products that they produce. As blooms are developing and expanding, algae in green tides take up inorganic nutrients, such as nitrate and ortho-phosphate, which can limit their availability to other photosynthetic organisms. Their uptake of dissolved inorganic carbon for use in photosynthesis can cause localized spikes in the pH of seawater during the day with concomitant drops in the pH at night when the algae are respiring. Many of the algae that form green-tide blooms produce allelopathic compounds, which are metabolites that affect other species. The best documented allelopathic compounds include dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), dopamine, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) and their breakdown products. DMSP and dopamine are involved in defenses against herbivores. Dopamine and ROS are released into seawater where they can be allelopathic or toxic to other organisms. Thus, these macroalgal blooms can have harmful effects on nearby organisms by altering concentrations of nutrients and dissolved gas in seawater and by producing and releasing allelopathic or toxic compounds. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved

  6. Modelling the production of dimethylsulfide during a phytoplankton bloom

    Gabric, Albert; Murray, Nicholas; Stone, Lewi; Kohl, Manfred

    1993-12-01

    Dimethylsulfide (DMS) is an important sulfur-containing atmospheric trace gas of marine biogenic origin. DMS emitted from the oceans may be a precursor of tropospheric aerosols and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), thereby affecting the Earth's radiative balance and possibly constituting a negative feedback to global warming, although this hypothesis is still somewhat controversial. The revised conceptual model of the marine pelagic food web gives a central role to planktonic bacteria. Recent experiments have shown that consumption of dissolved DMS by microbial metabolism may be more important than atmospheric exchange in controlling its concentration in surface waters and hence its ventilation to the atmosphere. In this paper we investigate the effect of the marine food web on cycling of dissolved DMS in surface waters during a phytoplankton bloom episode. A nitrogen-based flow network simulation model has been used to analyze the relative importance of the various biological and chemical processes involved. The model predictions suggest that the concentration of DMS in marine surface waters is indeed governed by bacterial metabolism. Environmental factors that affect the bacterial compartment are thus likely to have a relatively large influence on dissolved DMS concentrations. The ecological succession is particularly sensitive to the ratio of phytoplankton to bacterial nutrient uptake rates as well the interaction between herbivore food chain and the microbial loop. Importantly for the design of field studies, the model predicts that peak DMS concentrations are achieved during the decline of the phytoplankton bloom with a typical time lag between peak DMS and peak phytoplankton biomass of 1 to 2 days. Significantly, the model predicts a relatively high DMS concentration persisting after the phytoplankton bloom due to excretion from large protozoa and zooplankton, which may be an additional explanation for the lack of correlation between DMS and chlorophyll a

  7. Effect of Zeolite Treatment on the Blooming Behavior of Paraffin Wax in Natural Rubber Composites

    Bryan B. Pajarito

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The blooming behavior of paraffin wax in natural rubber (NR composites was studied as function of zeolite treatment. Three types of zeolite treatment were treated as factors: acid activation using hydrochloric acid (HCl solution, ion exchange using tetradecyldimethyl amine (TDA chloride salt, and organic modification using glycerol monostearate (GMS. The zeolite was treated according to a 23 full factorial design of experiment. Attenuated total reflectance – Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR spectroscopy was used to characterize the chemical structure of treated zeolite. Treated zeolite was applied as filler to NR composites deliberately compounded with high amount of paraff in wax. The amount of bloomed wax in surface of NR composite sheets was monitored with time at 50oC. Results show the bloom amount to be linear with the square root of time. NR composites reinforced with untreated, acid-activated, and ion-exchanged zeolite fillers indicate reduction in wax blooming as compared to unfilled NR. The bloom rate (slope and initial bloom (y-intercept were determined from the experimental plots. Analysis of variance (ANOVA shows the bloom rate to be signif icantly increased when zeolite fillers are treated with GMS. Meanwhile, initial bloom was significantly enhanced when zeolite fillers are treated with TDA chloride salt and GMS. The significant increase in bloom rate and initial bloom can be attributed to the softening of the NR matrix at high amounts of TDA chloride salt and GMS.

  8. Characteristics of picoplankton abundances during a Thalassiosira diporocyclus bloom in the Taiwan Bank in late winter.

    Jiang, Xin; Li, Jiajun; Ke, Zhixin; Xiang, Chenhui; Tan, Yehui; Huang, Liangmin

    2017-04-15

    To understand the variations of picoplankton (Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus, picoeukaryotes, and heterotrophic bacteria) abundances during diatom bloom, the distribution of picoplankton in the Taiwan Bank, South China Sea was investigated using flow cytometry during a Thalassiosira diporocyclus bloom in March 2016. The results indicated an abrupt abundance decrease for Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus, and picoeukaryotes within the bloom area while the abundance of heterotrophic bacteria showed no significant difference between the bloom and non-bloom areas. We found two sub-groups of heterotrophic bacteria: high- and low-nucleic acid content (HNA and LNA) bacteria with HNA dominated in the bloom area whereas LNA dominated in the non-bloom area. Among the picoplankton components, HNA represented the highest (61.1%) carbon biomass in the bloom area while picoeukaryotes represented the highest (37.6%) in the non-bloom area. Our findings implied that heterotrophic bacteria, especially HNA, played an essential role during the diatom bloom. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Production of High Quality Die Steels from Large ESR Slab Ingots

    Geng, Xin; Jiang, Zhou-hua; Li, Hua-bing; Liu, Fu-bin; Li, Xing

    With the rapid development of manufacture industry in China, die steels are in great need of large slab ingot of high quality and large tonnage, such as P20, WSM718R and so on. Solidification structure and size of large slab ingots produced with conventional methods are not satisfied. However, large slab ingots manufactured by ESR process have a good solidification structure and enough section size. In the present research, the new slab ESR process was used to produce the die steels large slab ingots with the maximum size of 980×2000×3200mm. The compact and sound ingot can be manufactured by the slab ESR process. The ultra-heavy plates with the maximum thickness of 410 mm can be obtained after rolling the 49 tons ingots. Due to reducing the cogging and forging process, the ESR for large slab ingots process can increase greatly the yield and production efficiency, and evidently cut off product costs.

  10. Analysis of the Behaviour of Composite Steel and Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete Slabs

    Mindaugas Petkevičius

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available There was a pending influence of steel fiber on the strength and stiffness of composite steel–concrete slabs under statical short–time load. Steel profiled sheeting and steel fiber reinforced concrete were used for specimens. Four composite slabs were made. Experimental investigations into the behaviour and influence of steel fiber reinforced concrete in composite slabs were conducted. Transverse, longitudinal, shear deformation and deflection of the slab were measured. The results indicated that the use of steel fiber in composite slabs was effective: strength was 20–24 % higher and the meanings of deflections under the action of the bending moment were 0,6MR (where MR is the bending moment at failure of the slabs and were 16–18 % lower for slabs with usual concrete. Article in Lithuanian

  11. Distribution and recurrence of phytoplankton blooms around South Georgia, Southern Ocean

    I. Borrione

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available South Georgia phytoplankton blooms are amongst the largest of the Southern Ocean and are associated with a rich ecosystem and strong atmospheric carbon drawdown. Both aspects depend on the intensity of blooms, but also on their regularity. Here we use data from 12 yr of SeaWiFS (Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor ocean colour imagery and calculate the frequency of bloom occurrence (FBO to re-examine spatial and temporal bloom distributions. We find that upstream of the island and outside the borders of the Georgia Basin, blooms occurred in less than 4 out of the 12 yr (FBO < 4. In contrast, FBO was mostly greater than 8 downstream of the island, i.e., to the north and northwest, and in places equal to 12, indicating that blooms occurred every year. The typical bloom area, defined as the region where blooms occurred in at least 8 out of the 12 yr, covers the entire Georgia Basin and the northern shelf of the island. The time series of surface chlorophyll a (Chl a concentrations averaged over the typical bloom area shows that phytoplankton blooms occurred in every year between September 1997 and September 2010, and that Chl a values followed a clear seasonal cycle, with concentration peaks around December followed in many years by a second peak during late austral summer or early autumn, suggesting a bi-modal bloom pattern. The bloom regularity we describe here is in contrast with results of Park et al. (2010 who used a significantly different study area including regions that almost never exhibit bloom conditions.

  12. The history of cyanobacterial blooms in the Baltic Sea.

    Finni, T; Kononen, K; Olsonen, R; Wallström, K

    2001-08-01

    Long-term information on possible changes in cyanobacterial blooms in the Baltic Sea, formed mainly by Nodularia spumigena and Aphanizomenon sp., was sought in published records in historical (years 1887-1938) and modern (years 1974-1998) phytoplankton data sets. Old and new sampling methods and fixatives were tested to improve the comparison of data that had been collected and analyzed in different ways. A hundred years ago, plankton was mainly of interest as a source of fish food; eutrophication problems were only locally reported from the coast, mainly in southern haffs and the receiving waters of larger cities. There were few recordings of open-sea blooms before World War II. Abundances of Nodularia spumigena and Aphanizomenon sp. were low in the old material, and 137 summer samples from 1887-1938 showed no peak abundance. High abundances are common in the new material, and the range of the numbers of both taxa has increased markedly relative to the old material. Since the 1960s, cyanobacterial blooms have been common in the open sea in both the Baltic proper and the Gulf of Finland, indicating high availability of nutrients.

  13. Weather during bloom affects pollination and yield of highbush blueberry.

    Tuell, Julianna K; Isaacs, Rufus

    2010-06-01

    Weather plays an important role in spring-blooming fruit crops due to the combined effects on bee activity, flower opening, pollen germination, and fertilization. To determine the effects of weather on highbush blueberry, Vaccinium corymbosum L., productivity, we monitored bee activity and compared fruit set, weight, and seed number in a field stocked with honey bees, Apis mellifera L., and common eastern bumble bees, Bombus impatiens (Cresson). Flowers were subjected to one of five treatments during bloom: enclosed, open, open during poor weather only, open during good weather only, or open during poor and good weather. Fewer bees of all types were observed foraging and fewer pollen foragers returned to colonies during poor weather than during good weather. There were also changes in foraging community composition: honey bees dominated during good weather, whereas bumble bees dominated during poor weather. Berries from flowers exposed only during poor weather had higher fruit set in 1 yr and higher berry weight in the other year compared with enclosed clusters. In both years, clusters exposed only during good weather had > 5 times as many mature seeds, weighed twice as much, and had double the fruit set of those not exposed. No significant increase over flowers exposed during good weather was observed when clusters were exposed during good and poor weather. Our results are discussed in terms of the role of weather during bloom on the contribution of bees adapted to foraging during cool conditions.

  14. Cyanobacterial bloom in the world largest freshwater lake Baikal

    Namsaraev, Zorigto; Melnikova, Anna; Ivanov, Vasiliy; Komova, Anastasia; Teslyuk, Anton

    2018-02-01

    Lake Baikal is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and holds 20% of the world’s freshwater reserves. On July 26, 2016, a cyanobacterial bloom of a green colour a few kilometers in size with a bad odor was discovered by local people in the Barguzinsky Bay on the eastern shore of Lake Baikal. Our study showed very high concentration of chlorophyll a (41.7 g/m3) in the sample of bloom. We found that the bloom was dominated by a nitrogen-fixing heterocystous cyanobacteria of the genus Dolichospermum. The mass accumulation of cyanobacteria in the lake water with an extremely high chlorophyll a concentration can be explained by a combination of several factors: the discharge of biologicaly-available nutrients, including phosphorus, into the water of Lake Baikal; low wind speed and weak water mixing; buoyant cyanobacterial cells on the lake surface, which drifted towards the eastern coast, where the maximum concentration of chlorophyll a was recorded. In the center of the Barguzinsky Bay and in the open part of Lake Baikal, according to satellite data, the chlorophyll a concentration is several orders of magnitude lower than at the shoreline.

  15. Petal Thicknesses and Shape Transformations in Blooming Lilies

    Portet, Thomas; Holmes, Peter N.; Bowden, Mark E.; Stephens, Sean A.; Varga, Tamas; Keller, Sarah L.

    2013-01-29

    During blooming, flower petals undergo significant shape changes. For lilies, various different mechanisms responsible for the change have been suggested [1,2]. One is that cell growth along the edge of a petal, or, more generally, a tepal, drives a transition from a cup shape (within a bud) to a saddle shape (within a bloom). This mechanism has been previously considered for tepals modeled as shallow elliptical shells whose thickness from the center, t, falls off at least as fast as t = t0 (1 - x2/a2 - y2/b2 ) [1]. Here t0 is the maximum thickness of the shell, a and b are the semimajor and semiminoraxes, x and y are the coordinates along the longitudinal and lateral axes. By measuring tepal thicknesses from images collected by x-ray tomography of intact buds and by photography of microtomed buds, we find that this condition is indeed met for both Lilium casablanca and Lilium lancifolium. [1] Liang and Mahadevan. Growth, geometry, and mechanics of a blooming lily.

  16. Combined conduction and radiation with phase change in teflon slabs

    Shih, T.M.; Hsu, I.C.; Cunnington, G.R. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A new approach to investigate, numerically, an one-dimensional Stefan problem with combined radiation and conduction has been developed. This numerical scheme is a modified version of the heat flux method and the scheme tracks the moving phase changing interface by coordinate transformation. The physical problem involves the radiative heating on one side of a Teflon slab; causing the material to melt and sublime as the melt-solid interface recedes. The other side of the Teflon slab is insulated. The results of this numerical scheme has been compared with results reported in the literature; before attempting to use this scheme to predict the experimental data. Satisfactory agreement between numerical results and the results in the literature as well as the experimental data has been obtained in both comparisons

  17. Negotiating Multicollinearity with Spike-and-Slab Priors.

    Ročková, Veronika; George, Edward I

    2014-08-01

    In multiple regression under the normal linear model, the presence of multicollinearity is well known to lead to unreliable and unstable maximum likelihood estimates. This can be particularly troublesome for the problem of variable selection where it becomes more difficult to distinguish between subset models. Here we show how adding a spike-and-slab prior mitigates this difficulty by filtering the likelihood surface into a posterior distribution that allocates the relevant likelihood information to each of the subset model modes. For identification of promising high posterior models in this setting, we consider three EM algorithms, the fast closed form EMVS version of Rockova and George (2014) and two new versions designed for variants of the spike-and-slab formulation. For a multimodal posterior under multicollinearity, we compare the regions of convergence of these three algorithms. Deterministic annealing versions of the EMVS algorithm are seen to substantially mitigate this multimodality. A single simple running example is used for illustration throughout.

  18. Nonlocal microscopic theory of quantum friction between parallel metallic slabs

    Despoja, Vito; Echenique, Pedro M.; Sunjic, Marijan

    2011-01-01

    We present a new derivation of the friction force between two metallic slabs moving with constant relative parallel velocity, based on T=0 quantum-field theory formalism. By including a fully nonlocal description of dynamically screened electron fluctuations in the slab, and avoiding the usual matching-condition procedure, we generalize previous expressions for the friction force, to which our results reduce in the local limit. Analyzing the friction force calculated in the two local models and in the nonlocal theory, we show that for physically relevant velocities local theories using the plasmon and Drude models of dielectric response are inappropriate to describe friction, which is due to excitation of low-energy electron-hole pairs, which are properly included in nonlocal theory. We also show that inclusion of dissipation in the nonlocal electronic response has negligible influence on friction.

  19. Minimization of heat slab nodes with higher order boundary conditions

    Solbrig, C.W.

    1992-01-01

    The accuracy of a numerical solution can be limited by the numerical approximation to the boundary conditions rather than the accuracy of the equations which describe the interior. The study presented in this paper compares the results from two different numerical formulations of the convective boundary condition on the face of a heat transfer slab. The standard representation of the boundary condition in a test problem yielded an unacceptable error even when the heat transfer slab was partitioned into over 300 nodes. A higher order boundary condition representation was obtained by using a second order approximation for the first derivative at the boundary and combining it with the general equation used for inner nodes. This latter formulation produced reasonable results when as few as ten nodes were used

  20. Watertightness in anti-flotation slabs: MIS-RJ case

    C. Britez

    Full Text Available It is common in coastal cities as Rio de Janeiro, that buildings located close to the shoreline have their basements below water table level. In most cases, the engineering solution for these buildings is to design a massive anti-flotation slab to satisfy, principally, the issues related to structural dimensioning and calculation hypothesis. On the other hand, the execution of this solution imply in significant construction problems related to reinforced concrete watertightness and durability. This paper presents a case study about challenges and solutions devised to execute an anti-flotation, 1m thick, 1200m³ reinforced concrete slab for the new Museu de Imagem e Som (MIS - Sound and Image Museum, located at 50m from the seashore, at Copacabana in Rio de Janeiro, RJ. The results show that concrete proportions, concreting plan and pouring method adopted were decisive in obtaining a watertight structure, avoiding thus the employment of traditional waterproofing alternatives.

  1. The temperature pulse propagation in interacting nuclear slabs

    Kozlowski, M.; Zurich Univ.

    1989-01-01

    Following the method developed by R.J. Swenson a non-Fourier equation for heat transfer in nuclear matter is obtained. The velocity of heat propagation is calculated and the value υ s = υ F /√3 is obtained. For two interacting nuclear slabs the temperature as a function of time is calculated. For a nucleon mean free path λ ≅ 3 fm the temperature saturation time is calculated and the value ≅ 160 fm/c is obtained. (orig.)

  2. Investigation on reinforced concrete slabs subjeted to impact loading

    Freiman, M.; Krutzik, N.J.; Tropp, R.; Zorn, N.F.

    1984-01-01

    A comparison of experimental and computational results for tests of reinforced concrete slabs subjected to soft missile impact is presented. Numerical simulation techniques were employed to predict the target response. The objective of the calculations was to validate the material model for reinforced concrete implemented in a finite difference code. The computational results regarding displacements or strains in the reinforcement conform satisfactorily with the experimental values. (Author) [pt

  3. Concrete mixtures with high-workability for ballastless slab tracks

    Olga Smirnova

    2017-01-01

    The concrete track-supporting layer and the monolithic concrete slab of ballastless track systems are made in-situ. For this reason the concrete mixtures of high workability should be used. Influence of the sand kind, the quartz microfiller fineness and quantity as well as quantity of superplasticizer on workability of fresh concrete and durability of hardened concrete is shown. The compositions of the high-workability concrete mixtures with lower consumption of superplasticizer are developed...

  4. DIGA/NSL new calculational model in slab geometry

    Makai, M.; Gado, J.; Kereszturi, A.

    1987-04-01

    A new calculational model is presented based on a modified finite-difference algorithm, in which the coefficients are determined by means of the so-called gamma matrices. The DIGA program determines the gamma matrices and the NSL program realizes the modified finite difference model. Both programs assume slab cell geometry, DIGA assumes 2 energy groups and 3 diffusive regions. The DIGA/NSL programs serve to study the new calculational model. (author)

  5. New Transition Wedge Design Composed by Prefabricated Reinforced Concrete Slabs

    Real-Herráiz, Julia; Zamorano-Martín, Clara; Real-Herráiz, Teresa; Morales-Ivorra, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    [EN] Important track degradation occurs in structure-embankment transitions, in which an abrupt change in track vertical stiffness arises, leading to a reduction in passengers comfort and safety. Although granular wedges are suggested by different railroad administrations as a solution to avoid these problems, they present some disadvantages which may affect track long-term performance. In this paper, a new solution designed with prefabricated reinforced concrete slabs is proposed. The aim of...

  6. New data on painted stone slabs from Southern Peru

    Faron-Bartels, Renata

    2011-01-01

    After analysing museum collections, studying bibliographical sources and undertaking two surface prospections at Pampacolca the author carried out the archaeological project “Lajas Pintadas de Pampacolca” (painted stone slabs from Pampacolca) in August and September 2001 with the objective of investigating these stones or rather the painted ceramic boards in more detail. The essential task set for this project consisted in obtaining artefacts from preferably undisturbed contexts at various ar...

  7. Characteristics of Recycled Concrete Aggregates from Precast Slab Block Buildings

    Venkrbec, Václav; Nováková, Iveta; Henková, Svatava

    2017-10-01

    Precast slab block buildings (PSBB) typically and frequently occur in Central and Eastern Europe, as well as elsewhere in the world. Some of these buildings are currently used beyond their service life capacity. The utilization of recycled materials from these buildings with regard to applying the principles of sustainable construction and using recycled materials will probably be significant in the following years. Documentation from the manufacturing processes of prefabricated blocks for precast slab block buildings is not available, and also it is difficult to declare technological discipline during the construction of these buildings. Therefore, properties of recycled concrete aggregates (RCA) produced from construction and demolition waste (C&DW) of precast slab block buildings build between 1950s to 1990s are not sufficiently known. The demolition of these buildings is very rare today, but it can be assumed an increase in demolitions of these buildings in the future. The use of RCA in new concrete requires verification/testing of the geometrical and physical properties of RCA according to the EN 12 620+A1 standard. The aim of the contribution is to present a case study of the demolition of slab block building with emphasis on RCA usage. The paper presents the results of the tests according to European standards for determining selected geometrical and physical properties of the RCA. The paper describes and evaluates tests such as determination of particle size distribution - Sieve Analysis, content of fine particles, determination of density and water absorption. The results of the properties testing of RCA are compared with the properties of natural aggregate. The general boundary conditions of RCA particular tests are presented.

  8. Analytical theory of Doppler reflectometry in slab plasma model

    Gusakov, E.Z.; Surkov, A.V. [Ioffe Institute, Politekhnicheskaya 26, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    Doppler reflectometry is considered in slab plasma model in the frameworks of analytical theory. The diagnostics locality is analyzed for both regimes: linear and nonlinear in turbulence amplitude. The toroidal antenna focusing of probing beam to the cut-off is proposed and discussed as a method to increase diagnostics spatial resolution. It is shown that even in the case of nonlinear regime of multiple scattering, the diagnostics can be used for an estimation (with certain accuracy) of plasma poloidal rotation profile. (authors)

  9. Behaviour of fiber reinforced concrete slabs under impact loading

    Huelsewig, M.; Stilp, A.; Pahl, H.

    1982-01-01

    The behaviour of steel fiber reinforced concrete slabs under impact loads has been investigated. The results obtained show that fracturing and spallation effects are reduced to a large extend due to the high energy absorption and the increased yield strength of this material. Crater depths are comparable to those obtained using normal concrete targets. Systematic tests using different fiber types and dimensions show that the terminal ballistic behaviour is strongly dependent on these parameters. (orig.) [de

  10. Surface correlation effects in two-band strongly correlated slabs.

    Esfahani, D Nasr; Covaci, L; Peeters, F M

    2014-02-19

    Using an extension of the Gutzwiller approximation for an inhomogeneous system, we study the two-band Hubbard model with unequal band widths for a slab geometry. The aim is to investigate the mutual effect of individual bands on the spatial distribution of quasi-particle weight and charge density, especially near the surface of the slab. The main effect of the difference in band width is the presence of two different length scales corresponding to the quasi-particle profile of each band. This is enhanced in the vicinity of the critical interaction of the narrow band where an orbitally selective Mott transition occurs and a surface dead layer forms for the narrow band. For the doped case, two different regimes of charge transfer between the surface and the bulk of the slab are revealed. The charge transfer from surface/center to center/surface depends on both the doping level and the average relative charge accumulated in each band. Such effects could also be of importance when describing the accumulation of charges at the interface between structures made of multi-band strongly correlated materials.

  11. From stripe to slab confinement for DNA linearization in nanochannels

    Cifra, Peter; Benkova, Zuzana; Namer, Pavol

    We investigate suggested advantageous analysis in the linearization experiments with macromolecules confined in a stripe-like channel using Monte Carlo simulations. The enhanced chain extension in a stripe that is due to significant excluded volume interactions between monomers in two dimensions weakens on transition to experimentally feasible slit-like channel. Based on the chain extension-confinement strength dependence and the structure factor behavior for the chain in stripe we infer the excluded volume regime typical for two-dimensional systems. On transition to the slab geometry, the advantageous chain extension decreases and the Gaussian regime is observed for not very long semiflexible chains. The evidence for pseudo-ideality in confined chains is based on indicators such as the extension curves, variation of the extension with the persistence length or the structure factor. The slab behavior is observed when the stripe (originally of monomer thickness) reaches the thickness larger than cca 10nm in the third dimension. This maximum height of the slab to retain the advantage of the stripe is very low and this have implication for DNA linearization experiments. The presented analysis, however, has a broader relevance for confined polymers. Support from Slovak R&D Agency (SRDA-0451-11) is acknowledged.

  12. High Performance Slab-on-Grade Foundation Insulation Retrofits

    Goldberg, Louise F. [NorthernSTAR, St. Paul, MN (United States); Mosiman, Garrett E. [NorthernSTAR, St. Paul, MN (United States)

    2015-09-01

    ?A more accurate assessment of SOG foundation insulation energy savings than traditionally possible is now feasible. This has been enabled by advances in whole building energy simulation with 3-dimensional foundation modelling integration at each time step together with an experimental measurement of the site energy savings of SOG foundation insulation. Ten SOG insulation strategies were evaluated on a test building to identify an optimum retrofit insulation strategy in a zone 6 climate (Minneapolis, MN). The optimum insulation strategy in terms of energy savings and cost effectiveness consisted of two components: (a) R-20 XPS insulation above grade, and, (b) R-20 insulation at grade (comprising an outer layer of R-10 insulation and an interior layer of R-12 poured polyurethane insulation) tapering to R-10 XPS insulation at half the below-grade wall height (the lower half of the stem wall was uninsulated). The optimum insulation strategy was applied to single and multi-family residential buildings in climate zone 4 - 7. The highest site energy savings of 5% was realized for a single family home in Duluth, MN, and the lowest savings of 1.4 % for a 4-unit townhouse in Richmond, VA. SOG foundation insulation retrofit simple paybacks ranged from 18 to 47 years. There are other benefits of SOG foundation insulation resulting from the increase in the slab surface temperatures. These include increased occupant thermal comfort, and a decrease in slab surface condensation particularly around the slab perimeter.

  13. The Green's function method for critical heterogeneous slabs

    Kornreich, D.E.

    1996-01-01

    Recently, the Green's Function Method (GFM) has been employed to obtain benchmark-quality results for nuclear engineering and radiative transfer calculations. This was possible because of fast and accurate calculations of the Green's function and the associated Fourier and Laplace transform inversions. Calculations have been provided in one-dimensional slab geometries for both homogeneous and heterogeneous media. A heterogeneous medium is analyzed as a series of homogeneous slabs, and Placzek's lemma is used to extend each slab to infinity. This allows use of the infinite medium Green's function (the anisotropic plane source in an infinite homogeneous medium) in the solution. To this point, a drawback of the GFM has been the limitation to media with c 1; however, mathematical solutions exist which result in oscillating Green's functions. Such calculations are briefly discussing. The limitation to media with c < 1 has been relaxed so that the Green's function may also be calculated for media with c ≥ 1. Thus, materials that contain fissionable isotopes may be modeled

  14. Electromagnetic and ultrasonic investigations on a roman marble slab

    Capizzi, Patrizia; Cosentino, Pietro L.

    2010-05-01

    The archaeological Museum of Rome (Museo delle Terme di Diocleziano) asked our group about the physical consistency of a marble slab (II - III century AD) that has recently fallen down during the transportation for an exhibition. In fact, due to insurance conflict, it was necessary to control the new fractures due to the recent accident and distinguish them from the ancient ones. The sculptured slab (today's size is 1280 x 70 x 9 cm), cut at the ends for a re-use as an inscription in the rear face, was restored (assemblage of different broken parts and cleaning) in contemporary times. We used different methodologies to investigate the slab: namely a pacometer (Protovale Elcometer) to individuate internal coupling pins, GPR (2000 MHz) and Ultrasonic (55 kHz) tomographic high-density surveys to investigate the internal extension of all the visible fractures and to search for the unknown internal ones. For every methodology used the quality of the acquired data was relatively high. They have been processed and compared to give a set of information useful for the bureaucratic problems of the Museum. Later on, the data have been processed in depth, for studying how to improve the data processing and for extracting all the information contained in the whole set of experimental data. Finally, the results of such a study in depth are exposed in detail.

  15. Calibrating a large slab vessel: A battle of the bulge

    Thomas, I.R.

    1993-01-01

    Slab tanks (critically-safe-by-geometry vessels) were proposed for the storage of concentrated, highly-enriched uranium solution in the design of the Fuel Processing Restoration (FPR) Facility at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). Currently, measurements of bulk mass in ICPP annular vessels have standard deviations on the order of 0.2%, or less. ICPP personnel felt that their inexperience with the aforementioned expansions would prevent them from attaining comparable precision with slab tanks. To help assess the measurement accuracy of slab vessels, a full-scale mockup of those proposed for the FPR Facility was installed for test calibrations. These calibrations were designed to detect vessel expansion under differing conditions. This paper will compare the base-line, water calibrations with those of the higher-density aluminum nitrate, and any observed deflection will be described using vessel calibration techniques. The calibration using water at an elevated temperature was not performed due to the difficulty of maintaining the elevated temperature. This calibration probably will not be conducted because the construction of the FPR Facility has been halted

  16. Peculiarities of the Woody Plants Re-Bloom

    Opalko Olga Anatolievna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The data of literary sources concerning the bloom of angiosperm plants and deviation in the development of a flower and inflorescence, in particular untimely flowering, was generalized; our observation results of some peculiarities of re-bloom of woody plants in the National Dendrological Park “Sofiyivka” of NAS of Ukraine (NDP “Sofiyivka” were discussed. The flowering process was formed during a long-term evolution of a propagation system of angiosperm plants as a basis of fertilization and further fruit and seed development. As a result of vernalization and photoperiodism reactions, flowering (under regular conditions occurs in the most favorable period for pollination and fertilization of every plant. However, various deviations, in particular, the untimely (most frequently double, sometimes three- and four-fold flowering occurs in this perfect process of generative organ formation of angiosperm plants. An increased number of reports about re-bloom (at the end of summer – at the beginning of fall of the representatives of various woody plant species whose flowers usually blossom in May-June prompts the analysis of the available information concerning the mechanisms of flowering and the causes which lead to deviation of flowering processes. Flowering of the woody plant representatives of the collection fund of the NDP “Sofiyivka” was studied; statistics about re-bloom in different cities of Ukraine were monitored. The classification of re-bloom facts was carried out according to V.L. Vitkovskiy (1984. Although this classification has mostly a stated nature, it was good enough when being formulated and, with certain conditions, it can be applied nowadays. Accordingly, using this classification, abnormal cases can include facts of early summer-fall flowering and early winter flowering. A late spring flowering can be adaptive response of damaged plants to exogenous stresses, due to which the probability of sexual propagation remains

  17. Building America Case Study: Impact of Slab-Foundation Heat Transfer on Space-Conditioning Energy Use in Florida, Cocoa, Florida

    2016-12-01

    Heat transfer to slab foundations has remained an area of building science with poor understanding over the last three decades of energy efficiency research. This is somewhat surprising since the area of floors in single family homes is generally equal to wall, or windows or attics which have been extensively evaluated. Research that has been done has focused in the impact of slab on grade foundations and insulation schemes on heat losses associated with heating in predominantly heating dominated climates. Slab on grade construction is very popular in cooling-dominated southern states where it accounts for 77 percent of new home floors according to U.S. Census data in 2014. There is a widespread conception that tile flooring, as opposed to carpet, makes for a cooler home interior in warm climates. Empirical research is needed as building energy simulations such as DOE-2 and EnergyPlus rely on simplified models to evaluate these influences. BA-PIRC performed experiments over an entire year from 2014-2015 in FSEC's Flexible Residential Test Facilities (FRTF) intended to assess for the first time 1) slab on grade influence in a cooling dominated climate, and 2) how the difference in a carpeted vs. uncarpeted building might influence heating and cooling. Two identical side by side residential buildings were evaluated, the East with pad and carpet and the west with a bare slab floor. A highly detailed grid of temperature measurements were taken on the slab surface at various locations as well as at depths of 1, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 feet.

  18. Bistable near field and bistable transmittance in 2D composite slab consisting of nonlocal core-Kerr shell inclusions.

    Huang, Yang; Wu, Ya Min; Gao, Lei

    2017-01-23

    We carry out a theoretical study on optical bistability of near field intensity and transmittance in two-dimensional nonlinear composite slab. This kind of 2D composite is composed of nonlocal metal/Kerr-type dielectric core-shell inclusions randomly embedded in the host medium, and we derivate the nonlinear relation between the field intensity in the shell of inclusions and the incident field intensity with self-consistent mean field approximation. Numerical demonstration has been performed to show the viable parameter space for the bistable near field. We show that nonlocality can provide broader region in geometric parameter space for bistable near field as well as bistable transmittance of the nonlocal composite slab compared to local case. Furthermore, we investigate the bistable transmittance in wavelength spectrum, and find that besides the input intensity, the wavelength operation could as well make the transmittance jump from a high value to a low one. This kind of self-tunable nano-composite slab might have potential application in optical switching devices.

  19. Defect inspection in hot slab surface: multi-source CCD imaging based fuzzy-rough sets method

    Zhao, Liming; Zhang, Yi; Xu, Xiaodong; Xiao, Hong; Huang, Chao

    2016-09-01

    To provide an accurate surface defects inspection method and make the automation of robust image region of interests(ROI) delineation strategy a reality in production line, a multi-source CCD imaging based fuzzy-rough sets method is proposed for hot slab surface quality assessment. The applicability of the presented method and the devised system are mainly tied to the surface quality inspection for strip, billet and slab surface etcetera. In this work we take into account the complementary advantages in two common machine vision (MV) systems(line array CCD traditional scanning imaging (LS-imaging) and area array CCD laser three-dimensional (3D) scanning imaging (AL-imaging)), and through establishing the model of fuzzy-rough sets in the detection system the seeds for relative fuzzy connectedness(RFC) delineation for ROI can placed adaptively, which introduces the upper and lower approximation sets for RIO definition, and by which the boundary region can be delineated by RFC region competitive classification mechanism. For the first time, a Multi-source CCD imaging based fuzzy-rough sets strategy is attempted for CC-slab surface defects inspection that allows an automatic way of AI algorithms and powerful ROI delineation strategies to be applied to the MV inspection field.

  20. Succession and fate of the spring diatom bloom in Disko Bay, western Greenland

    Dünweber, Michael; Swalethorp, Rasmus; Kjellerup, Sanne

    2010-01-01

    Phytoplankton and copepod succession was investigated in Disko Bay, western Greenland from February to July 2008. The spring phytoplankton bloom developed immediately after the breakup of sea ice and reached a peak concentration of 24 mg chl a m–3 2 wk later. The bloom was analyzed during 3 phases...... from the initiation of the bloom but only had a small grazing impact on the phytoplankton. Consequently, there was a close coupling between the spring phytoplankton bloom and sedimentation of particulate organic carbon (POC). Out of 1836 ± 180 mg C m–2 d–1 leaving the upper 50 m, 60% was phytoplankton...... and fate of the phytoplankton spring bloom was controlled by nitrogen limitation and subsequent sedimentation, while grazing-mediated flux by the Calanus-dominated copepod community played a minor role in the termination of the spring bloom of Disko Bay....

  1. Design of energy efficient building with radiant slab cooling

    Tian, Zhen

    2007-12-01

    Air-conditioning comprises a substantial fraction of commercial building energy use because of compressor-driven refrigeration and fan-driven air circulation. Core regions of large buildings require year-round cooling due to heat gains from people, lights and equipment. Negative environmental impacts include CO2 emissions from electric generation and leakage of ozone-depleting refrigerants. Some argue that radiant cooling simultaneously improves building efficiency and occupant thermal comfort, and that current thermal comfort models fail to reflect occupant experience with radiant thermal control systems. There is little field evidence to test these claims. The University of Calgary's Information and Communications Technology (ICT) Building, is a pioneering radiant slab cooling installation in North America. Thermal comfort and energy performance were evaluated. Measurements included: (1) heating and cooling energy use, (2) electrical energy use for lighting and equipment, and (3) indoor temperatures. Accuracy of a whole building energy simulation model was evaluated with these data. Simulation was then used to compare the radiant slab design with a conventional (variable air volume) system. The radiant system energy performance was found to be poorer mainly due to: (1) simultaneous cooling by the slab and heating by other systems, (2) omission of low-exergy (e.g., groundwater) cooling possible with the high cooling water temperatures possible with radiant slabs and (3) excessive solar gain and conductive heat loss due to the wall and fenestration design. Occupant thermal comfort was evaluated through questionnaires and concurrent measurement of workstation comfort parameters. Analysis of 116 sets of data from 82 occupants showed that occupant assessment was consistent with estimates based on current thermal comfort models. The main thermal comfort improvements were reductions in (1) local discomfort from draft and (2) vertical air temperature stratification. The

  2. Analysis of algal bloom risk with uncertainties in lakes by integrating self-organizing map and fuzzy information theory

    Chen, Qiuwen, E-mail: qchen@rcees.ac.cn [RCEES, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shuangqinglu 18, Beijing 10085 (China); China Three Gorges University, Daxuelu 8, Yichang 443002 (China); CEER, Nanjing Hydraulics Research Institute, Guangzhoulu 223, Nanjing 210029 (China); Rui, Han; Li, Weifeng; Zhang, Yanhui [RCEES, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shuangqinglu 18, Beijing 10085 (China)

    2014-06-01

    Algal blooms are a serious problem in waters, which damage aquatic ecosystems and threaten drinking water safety. However, the outbreak mechanism of algal blooms is very complex with great uncertainty, especially for large water bodies where environmental conditions have obvious variation in both space and time. This study developed an innovative method which integrated a self-organizing map (SOM) and fuzzy information diffusion theory to comprehensively analyze algal bloom risks with uncertainties. The Lake Taihu was taken as study case and the long-term (2004–2010) on-site monitoring data were used. The results showed that algal blooms in Taihu Lake were classified into four categories and exhibited obvious spatial–temporal patterns. The lake was mainly characterized by moderate bloom but had high uncertainty, whereas severe blooms with low uncertainty were observed in the northwest part of the lake. The study gives insight on the spatial–temporal dynamics of algal blooms, and should help government and decision-makers outline policies and practices on bloom monitoring and prevention. The developed method provides a promising approach to estimate algal bloom risks under uncertainties. - Highlights: • An innovative method is developed to analyze algal bloom risks with uncertainties. • The algal blooms in Taihu Lake showed obvious spatial and temporal patterns. • The lake is mainly characterized as moderate bloom but with high uncertainty. • Severe bloom with low uncertainty appeared occasionally in the northwest part. • The results provide important information to bloom monitoring and management.

  3. Oceanic and atmospheric influences on the variability of phytoplankton bloom in the southwestern Indian Ocean

    Raj, R.P.; Peter, B.N.; Pushpadas, D.

    in the Mozambique Basin and inside the Mozambique Channel (MC). For a detailed inspection, we characterized the entire process of the development of this large dendritic bloom into two stages, early stage... period was in March. During 2001 and 2003, traces of the bloom (low concentration of chl-a) are observed in the MC and Mozambique Basin but not in the Madagascar basin. A weak bloom developed in the Madagascar Basin, Mozambique Basin and inside the MC...

  4. Damage detection in concrete precast slabs: a quick assessment through modal tests

    Leal Pimentel Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of modal tests for detecting damage in reinforced concrete precast slabs is evaluated. A set of eight slabs were tested, each belonging to flats constructed for residential use. Two groups of slabs were identified and, in each group, both cracked and uncracked slabs were found. This made it possible to compare the responses of the slabs when subjected to modal tests. The tests were carried out employing an instrumented hammer and heel drops as excitation sources. Responses were measured using an accelerometer. The lowest natural frequencies of the slabs could be identified and after filtering the results, plots indicating the variation of the lowest natural frequency versus the number of cycles of free decay were obtained for each slab. Such a plot is of more general use than the value of the natural frequency by itself, as it does not depend on slab configuration. It was observed that the cracked slabs presented a similar pattern of variation of the natural frequencies throughout the decay, being distinctive from the pattern observed for their uncracked counterparts. This provided evidence that a quick assessment of the structural condition of such slabs through the use of the tests were feasible.

  5. Post-Tensioned Concrete Long-Span Slabs in Projects of Modern Building Construction

    Szydlowski, Rafal; Labuzek, Barbara

    2017-10-01

    Nowadays, design of modern an architectural building structures requires the use of slender and free from numerous supports slabs. The most suitable solution for above requirements are the post-tensioned slabs with unbounded tendons. Slabs prestressed by unbounded tendons are successfully used worldwide for several decades. During that time many recommendations dealing with the forming of geometry and prestressing, dimensioning and erection technology were issued. During the recent years prestressed slabs characterized by span and slenderness substantially exceeding recommended limitations were designed and erected with success in Poland. During the slabs erection and in two years of their using, the deflection of three oversized slabs were monitoring. In spite of designed the slabs significantly larger and slenderer than the recommended maximum value of span and span to depth ratio, the deflection of the slabs is definitely far from the limit value. The paper shows the geometry, characteristic and deflection of erected slabs and conclusion. Description of a very large span slab (21.3m), that was designed regarded to the information obtained from the previous realisation, is presented in this paper.

  6. ORNL instrumentation performance for Slab Core Test Facility (SCTF)-Core I Reflood Test Facility

    Hardy, J.E.; Hess, R.A.; Hylton, J.O.

    1983-11-01

    Instrumentation was developed for making measurements in experimental refill-reflood test facilities. These unique instrumentation systems were designed to survive the severe environmental conditions that exist during a simulated pressurized water reactor loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). Measurement of in-vessel fluid phenomena such as two-phase flow velocity and void fraction and film thickness and film velocity are required for better understanding of reactor behavior during LOCAs. The Advanced Instrumentation for Reflood Studies (AIRS) Program fabricated and delivered instrumentation systems and data reduction software algorithms that allowed the above measurements to be made. Data produced by AIRS sensors during three experimental runs in the Japanese Slab Core Test Facility are presented. Although many of the sensors failed before any useful data could be obtained, the remaining probes gave encouraging and useful results. These results are the first of their kind produced during simulated refill-reflood stage of a LOCA near actual thermohydrodynamic conditions

  7. Technology and Bloom's Taxonomy: Tools to Facilitate Higher-Level Learning in Chemistry

    Morgan, Matthew

    1997-01-01

    This research project ties together chemistry data acquisition technology, introductory chemistry laboratory experiments, and Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives into a unified learning model...

  8. Phytoplankton bloom and subpolar gyre induced dynamics in the North Atlantic

    Ferreira, Ana Sofia; Hátún, H.; Counillon, F.

    Several hypotheses have been promoted for phytoplankton bloom onset in the North Atlantic. First we show that the bloom dynamics in the northeastern corner stand out from the rest of the subpolar Atlantic, and thus warrants focused attention. We hypothesized that, for this region, late and weak...... blooms are expected in years of a strong subpolar gyre, i.e. strong atmospheric forcing, and cold and low saline conditions. We apply novel phenology algorithms to satellite ocean colour data, and analyse the outcome together with the subpolar gyre index. We find that the relationship between the bloom...

  9. The plankton community on Sukkertop and Fylla Banks off West Greenland during a spring bloom and post-bloom period: Hydrography, phytoplankton and protozooplankton

    Poulsen, Louise K.; Reuss, N.

    2002-01-01

    The plankton community structure was investigated on Sukkertop and Fylla Banks off West Greenland during the spring bloom in May 2000 and the post-bloom period in June 1999. In May a small change in density, clearly illustrated by the profile of potential energy, was sufficient to support a spring...... the phytoplankton community. Heterotrophic biomass was low (5 +/- 1 mg C m(-3)) and an important part was comprised by heterotrophic nanoflagellates (24 +/- 1%). Protozooplankters (heterotrophic dinoflagellates and ciliates) were important grazers of the phytoplankton community in the post-bloom period (estimated...

  10. Peran Pt.bloom Agro Dalam Implementasi Prinsip Fair Trade Di Indonesia (Studi Kasus: Ekspor Beras Organik Pt.bloom Agro Ke Mancanegara Tahun 2008-2015)

    Yealta, Den; Ikhsani, Munadia

    2016-01-01

    This research describes the role of PT.Bloom Agro to do Fair Teade implementation in Indonesia in the case study is the export of PT.Bloom Agros€™s organic rice to foreign country. Fair Trade is the kind of Alternatives trade which populer as donatian movement in 1940. But now in the globalitation era that causes of free trade, fair trade is more popular as alternatives trade movement and as a certification to mark a product has fair tarde guarantee. And in Indonesia PT.Bloom Agro which an ex...

  11. Blooming Trees: Substructures and Surrounding Groups of Galaxy Clusters

    Yu, Heng; Diaferio, Antonaldo; Serra, Ana Laura; Baldi, Marco

    2018-06-01

    We develop the Blooming Tree Algorithm, a new technique that uses spectroscopic redshift data alone to identify the substructures and the surrounding groups of galaxy clusters, along with their member galaxies. Based on the estimated binding energy of galaxy pairs, the algorithm builds a binary tree that hierarchically arranges all of the galaxies in the field of view. The algorithm searches for buds, corresponding to gravitational potential minima on the binary tree branches; for each bud, the algorithm combines the number of galaxies, their velocity dispersion, and their average pairwise distance into a parameter that discriminates between the buds that do not correspond to any substructure or group, and thus eventually die, and the buds that correspond to substructures and groups, and thus bloom into the identified structures. We test our new algorithm with a sample of 300 mock redshift surveys of clusters in different dynamical states; the clusters are extracted from a large cosmological N-body simulation of a ΛCDM model. We limit our analysis to substructures and surrounding groups identified in the simulation with mass larger than 1013 h ‑1 M ⊙. With mock redshift surveys with 200 galaxies within 6 h ‑1 Mpc from the cluster center, the technique recovers 80% of the real substructures and 60% of the surrounding groups; in 57% of the identified structures, at least 60% of the member galaxies of the substructures and groups belong to the same real structure. These results improve by roughly a factor of two the performance of the best substructure identification algorithm currently available, the σ plateau algorithm, and suggest that our Blooming Tree Algorithm can be an invaluable tool for detecting substructures of galaxy clusters and investigating their complex dynamics.

  12. Flexural strength and behaviour of SFRSCC ribbed slab under four point bending

    Ahmad, Hazrina; Hashim, Mohd Hisbany Mohd; Bakar, Afidah Abu; Hamzah, Siti Hawa; Rahman, Fadhillah Abdul

    2017-11-01

    An experimental investigation was carried out to study the ultimate strength and behaviour of SFRSCC ribbed slab under four point bending. Comparison was been made between ribbed slab that was fully reinforced with steel fibres (SFWS) with conventionally reinforced concrete ribbed slab (CS and CRC). The volume fraction of the 35 mm hooked end steel fibres used in the mix was 1% (80 kg/m3) with the aspect ratio of 65. Three full scale slab samples with the dimension of 2.8 x 1.2 m with 0.2 m thickness was constructed for the purpose of this study. The slab samples was loaded until failure in a four point bending test. As a whole, based on the results, it can be concluded that the performance of the steel fiber reinforced samples (SFWS) was found to be almost equivalent to the conventionally reinforced concrete ribbed slab sample (CRC).

  13. The Bloom-Gilman duality and leading logarithms

    Carlson, C.E.; Mukhopadhyay, N.C.

    1994-01-01

    The existing inclusive electroproduction data base allows the authors a look at the issue of the relative behaviors of background and resonance excitations, a part of the Bloom-Gilman duality. These data lack accuracy at high Q 2 but establish PQCD scaling in the resonance region and even allow the authors a glimpse at the leading logarithmic corrections due to the gluon radiation and its possible quenching at large W and x. These should inspire better quality experimental tests at facilities like CEBAF II

  14. The Bloom-Gilman duality and leading logarithms

    Carlson, C.E. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Mukhopadhyay, N.C. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)

    1994-04-01

    The existing inclusive electroproduction data base allows the authors a look at the issue of the relative behaviors of background and resonance excitations, a part of the Bloom-Gilman duality. These data lack accuracy at high Q{sup 2} but establish PQCD scaling in the resonance region and even allow the authors a glimpse at the leading logarithmic corrections due to the gluon radiation and its possible quenching at large W and x. These should inspire better quality experimental tests at facilities like CEBAF II.

  15. The extended Kalman filter for forecast of algal bloom dynamics.

    Mao, J Q; Lee, Joseph H W; Choi, K W

    2009-09-01

    A deterministic ecosystem model is combined with an extended Kalman filter (EKF) to produce short term forecasts of algal bloom and dissolved oxygen dynamics in a marine fish culture zone (FCZ). The weakly flushed FCZ is modelled as a well-mixed system; the tidal exchange with the outer bay is lumped into a flushing rate that is numerically determined from a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model. The ecosystem model incorporates phytoplankton growth kinetics, nutrient uptake, photosynthetic production, nutrient sources from organic fish farm loads, and nutrient exchange with a sediment bed layer. High frequency field observations of chlorophyll, dissolved oxygen (DO) and hydro-meteorological parameters (sampling interval Deltat=1 day, 2h, 1h, respectively) and bi-weekly nutrient data are assimilated into the model to produce the combined state estimate accounting for the uncertainties. In addition to the water quality state variables, the EKF incorporates dynamic estimation of algal growth rate and settling velocity. The effectiveness of the EKF data assimilation is studied for a wide range of sampling intervals and prediction lead-times. The chlorophyll and dissolved oxygen estimated by the EKF are compared with field data of seven algal bloom events observed at Lamma Island, Hong Kong. The results show that the EKF estimate well captures the nonlinear error evolution in time; the chlorophyll level can be satisfactorily predicted by the filtered model estimate with a mean absolute error of around 1-2 microg/L. Predictions with 1-2 day lead-time are highly correlated with the observations (r=0.7-0.9); the correlation stays at a high level for a lead-time of 3 days (r=0.6-0.7). Estimated algal growth and settling rates are in accord with field observations; the more frequent DO data can compensate for less frequent algal biomass measurements. The present study is the first time the EKF is successfully applied to forecast an entire algal bloom cycle, suggesting the

  16. Control of toxic marine dinoflagellate blooms by serial parasitic killers.

    Chambouvet, Aurelie; Morin, Pascal; Marie, Dominique; Guillou, Laure

    2008-11-21

    The marine dinoflagellates commonly responsible for toxic red tides are parasitized by other dinoflagellate species. Using culture-independent environmental ribosomal RNA sequences and fluorescence markers, we identified host-specific infections among several species. Each parasitoid produces 60 to 400 offspring, leading to extraordinarily rapid control of the host's population. During 3 consecutive years of observation in a natural estuary, all dinoflagellates observed were chronically infected, and a given host species was infected by a single genetically distinct parasite year after year. Our observations in natural ecosystems suggest that although bloom-forming dinoflagellates may escape control by grazing organisms, they eventually succumb to parasite attack.

  17. The Haber Bosch–harmful algal bloom (HB–HAB) link

    Glibert, Patricia M; Maranger, Roxane; Sobota, Daniel J; Bouwman, Lex

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale commercialization of the Haber–Bosch (HB) process is resulting in intensification of nitrogen (N) fertilizer use worldwide. Globally N fertilizer use is far outpacing that of phosphorus (P) fertilizer. Much of the increase in N fertilizers is also now in the form of urea, a reduced form of N. Incorporation of these fertilizers into agricultural products is inefficient leading to significant environmental pollution and aquatic eutrophication. Of particular concern is the increased occurrence of harmful algal blooms (HABs) in waters receiving nutrient enriched runoff. Many phytoplankton causing HABs have physiological adaptive strategies that make them favored under conditions of elevated N : P conditions and supply of chemically reduced N (ammonium, urea). We propose that the HB-HAB link is a function of (1) the inefficiency of incorporation of N fertilizers in the food supply chain, the leakiness of the N cycle from crop to table, and the fate of lost N relative to P to the environment; and (2) adaptive physiology of many HABs to thrive in environments in which there is excess N relative to classic nutrient stoichiometric proportions and where chemically reduced forms of N dominate. The rate of HAB expansion is particularly pronounced in China where N fertilizer use has escalated very rapidly, where soil retention is declining, and where blooms have had large economic and ecological impacts. There, in addition to increased use of urea and high N : P based fertilizers overall, escalating aquaculture production adds to the availability of reduced forms of N, as does atmospheric deposition of ammonia. HABs in both freshwaters and marginal seas in China are highly related to these overall changing N loads and ratios. Without more aggressive N control the future outlook in terms of HABs is likely to include more events, more often, and they may also be more toxic. (paper)

  18. Controlling harmful cyanobacterial blooms in a world experiencing anthropogenic and climatic-induced change

    Paerl, Hans W., E-mail: hpaerl@email.unc.edu; Hall, Nathan S.; Calandrino, Elizabeth S.

    2011-04-15

    Harmful (toxic, food web altering, hypoxia generating) cyanobacterial algal blooms (CyanoHABs) are proliferating world-wide due to anthropogenic nutrient enrichment, and they represent a serious threat to the use and sustainability of our freshwater resources. Traditionally, phosphorus (P) input reductions have been prescribed to control CyanoHABs, because P limitation is widespread and some CyanoHABs can fix atmospheric nitrogen (N{sub 2}) to satisfy their nitrogen (N) requirements. However, eutrophying systems are increasingly plagued with non N{sub 2} fixing CyanoHABs that are N and P co-limited or even N limited. In many of these systems N loads are increasing faster than P loads. Therefore N and P input constraints are likely needed for long-term CyanoHAB control in such systems. Climatic changes, specifically warming, increased vertical stratification, salinization, and intensification of storms and droughts play additional, interactive roles in modulating CyanoHAB frequency, intensity, geographic distribution and duration. In addition to having to consider reductions in N and P inputs, water quality managers are in dire need of effective tools to break the synergy between nutrient loading and hydrologic regimes made more favorable for CyanoHABs by climate change. The more promising of these tools make affected waters less hospitable for CyanoHABs by 1) altering the hydrology to enhance vertical mixing and/or flushing and 2) decreasing nutrient fluxes from organic rich sediments by physically removing the sediments or capping sediments with clay. Effective future CyanoHAB management approaches must incorporate both N and P loading dynamics within the context of altered thermal and hydrologic regimes associated with climate change. - Research Highlights: {yields} Toxic cyanobacterial blooms (CyanoHABs) increasingly threaten global water supplies. {yields} Human (nutrient) and climate (hydrology, temperature) changes synergistically promote CyanoHABs. {yields

  19. From intermittent to persistent cyanobacterial blooms: identifying the main drivers in an urban tropical reservoir

    Cleber C. Figueredo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Eutrophication has impacted water bodies around the world. Knowledge on how to manage and restore these systems is urgently needed in order to maintain adequate water quality. However, causes and consequences of eutrophication may differ among lakes located in tropical and temperate regions. The eutrophication process is better understood for temperate lakes due to the availability of a larger number of studies and longer time-series of data sets. In tropical regions, long-term studies are rare, but could exemplify the particularities of eutrophication speed under conditions of higher temperatures. The purpose of this work was to analyze the evolution of the eutrophication process in an urban tropical reservoir, using a 15-year time series (with occasional interruptions. The dataset comprised monthly sampling of several environmental variables and the phytoplankton community. We found a continuous process of water quality deterioration, mainly related to increasing levels of nutrient and phytoplankton biomass, as well as decreasing water transparency, even after the installation of a municipal wastewater treatment plant. The ongoing eutrophication resulted in a steep trend of increasing cyanobacteria biomass that turned from a seasonal appearance into more persistent blooms in the most recent decades, while the relative contribution of other algal phyla to total phytoplankton biomass declined, which resulted in a loss of phytoplankton diversity. Phosphorus was the major determinant of the persistent blooms. Even though nitrogen concentrations were very high in this system, they were not significantly correlated with phytoplankton or cyanobacteria biomass. Total-P concentrations increased about three times during the study period, indicating that the reservoir did not respond to recent restoration efforts. The average water temperature, always sufficiently high to allow phytoplankton growth all year round, is an additional factor that makes

  20. The Haber Bosch-harmful algal bloom (HB-HAB) link

    Glibert, Patricia M.; Maranger, Roxane; Sobota, Daniel J.; Bouwman, Lex

    2014-10-01

    Large-scale commercialization of the Haber-Bosch (HB) process is resulting in intensification of nitrogen (N) fertilizer use worldwide. Globally N fertilizer use is far outpacing that of phosphorus (P) fertilizer. Much of the increase in N fertilizers is also now in the form of urea, a reduced form of N. Incorporation of these fertilizers into agricultural products is inefficient leading to significant environmental pollution and aquatic eutrophication. Of particular concern is the increased occurrence of harmful algal blooms (HABs) in waters receiving nutrient enriched runoff. Many phytoplankton causing HABs have physiological adaptive strategies that make them favored under conditions of elevated N : P conditions and supply of chemically reduced N (ammonium, urea). We propose that the HB-HAB link is a function of (1) the inefficiency of incorporation of N fertilizers in the food supply chain, the leakiness of the N cycle from crop to table, and the fate of lost N relative to P to the environment; and (2) adaptive physiology of many HABs to thrive in environments in which there is excess N relative to classic nutrient stoichiometric proportions and where chemically reduced forms of N dominate. The rate of HAB expansion is particularly pronounced in China where N fertilizer use has escalated very rapidly, where soil retention is declining, and where blooms have had large economic and ecological impacts. There, in addition to increased use of urea and high N : P based fertilizers overall, escalating aquaculture production adds to the availability of reduced forms of N, as does atmospheric deposition of ammonia. HABs in both freshwaters and marginal seas in China are highly related to these overall changing N loads and ratios. Without more aggressive N control the future outlook in terms of HABs is likely to include more events, more often, and they may also be more toxic.

  1. Controlling harmful cyanobacterial blooms in a world experiencing anthropogenic and climatic-induced change

    Paerl, Hans W.; Hall, Nathan S.; Calandrino, Elizabeth S.

    2011-01-01

    Harmful (toxic, food web altering, hypoxia generating) cyanobacterial algal blooms (CyanoHABs) are proliferating world-wide due to anthropogenic nutrient enrichment, and they represent a serious threat to the use and sustainability of our freshwater resources. Traditionally, phosphorus (P) input reductions have been prescribed to control CyanoHABs, because P limitation is widespread and some CyanoHABs can fix atmospheric nitrogen (N 2 ) to satisfy their nitrogen (N) requirements. However, eutrophying systems are increasingly plagued with non N 2 fixing CyanoHABs that are N and P co-limited or even N limited. In many of these systems N loads are increasing faster than P loads. Therefore N and P input constraints are likely needed for long-term CyanoHAB control in such systems. Climatic changes, specifically warming, increased vertical stratification, salinization, and intensification of storms and droughts play additional, interactive roles in modulating CyanoHAB frequency, intensity, geographic distribution and duration. In addition to having to consider reductions in N and P inputs, water quality managers are in dire need of effective tools to break the synergy between nutrient loading and hydrologic regimes made more favorable for CyanoHABs by climate change. The more promising of these tools make affected waters less hospitable for CyanoHABs by 1) altering the hydrology to enhance vertical mixing and/or flushing and 2) decreasing nutrient fluxes from organic rich sediments by physically removing the sediments or capping sediments with clay. Effective future CyanoHAB management approaches must incorporate both N and P loading dynamics within the context of altered thermal and hydrologic regimes associated with climate change. - Research Highlights: → Toxic cyanobacterial blooms (CyanoHABs) increasingly threaten global water supplies. → Human (nutrient) and climate (hydrology, temperature) changes synergistically promote CyanoHABs. → CyanoHAB control

  2. Lateral force resisting mechanisms in slab-column connections: An analytical approach

    Drakatos, Iaonnis; Beyer, Katrin; Muttoni, Aurelio

    2014-01-01

    In many countries reinforced concrete (RC) flat slabs supported on columns is one of the most commonly used structural systems for office and industrial buildings. To increase the lateral stiffness and strength of the structure, RC walls are typically added and carry the largest portion of the horizontal loads generated during earthquakes. While the slab-column system is typically not relevant with regard to the lateral stiffness and strength of the structure, each slab-column connection has ...

  3. An Analysis of Saturated Film Boiling Heat Transfer from a Vertical Slab with Horizontal Bottom Surface

    茂地, 徹; 山田, たかし

    1997-01-01

    The film boiling heat transfer from a vertical slab with horizontal bottom surface to saturated liquids was analyzed theoretically. Bromley's solution for the vertical surface was modified to accommodate the continuity of the vapor mass flow rate around the lower corner of the vertical slab. The thickness of the vapor film covering the vertical surface of the slab was increased owing to the inflow of vapor generated under the horizontal bottom surface and resulted in a decrease in the heat tr...

  4. Failure analysis of edge flat-slab column connections with shear reinforcement

    Bompa, Dan V.; Muttoni, Aurelio

    2013-01-01

    Flat-slab column connections are susceptible to brittle failure, which lead to the necessity of improving ductility and ultimate strength. In case of edge connections, the behaviour at ultimate state is highly influenced by nonsymmetrical distribution of stresses originated by a moment transfer between the slab and the column. The paper presents the test results of three full-scale reinforced concrete flat-slab edge connections with stud-rail shear reinforcement subjected to concentrated load...

  5. Analytical model for shear strength of end slabs of prestressed concrete nuclear reactor vessels

    Abdulrahman, H.O.; Sozen, M.A.; Schnobrich, W.C.

    1979-04-01

    The results are presented of an investigation of the behavior and strength of flat end slabs of cylindrical prestressed concrete nuclear reactor vessels. The investigation included tests of ten small-scale pressure vessels and development of a nonlinear finite-element model to simulate the deformation response and strength of the end slabs. Because earlier experimental studies had shown that the flexural strength of the end slab could be calculated using intelligible procedures, the emphasis of this investigation was on shear strength

  6. Disorders influences on the focusing effect of all-dielectric photonic crystal slab superlens

    Hu Xiaoyong; Xin Cheng [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics and Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Gong Qihuang [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics and Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)], E-mail: qhgong@pku.edu.cn

    2009-04-13

    The influences of structure disorders on the subwavelength focusing properties of an all-dielectric photonic crystal slab superlens are theoretically studied. The structure disorders are considered as randomly perturbing the position or diameter of air holes of the photonic crystal slab. The results show that the photonic crystal slab superlens can tolerate within 10% degree of positional disorder or 15% degree of diameter disorder without destroying the focusing function.

  7. Disorders influences on the focusing effect of all-dielectric photonic crystal slab superlens

    Hu Xiaoyong; Xin Cheng; Gong Qihuang

    2009-01-01

    The influences of structure disorders on the subwavelength focusing properties of an all-dielectric photonic crystal slab superlens are theoretically studied. The structure disorders are considered as randomly perturbing the position or diameter of air holes of the photonic crystal slab. The results show that the photonic crystal slab superlens can tolerate within 10% degree of positional disorder or 15% degree of diameter disorder without destroying the focusing function.

  8. Experimental Study on the Structural Behavior of HSC Slab under out of plane load

    Ham, K. W.; Lee, K. J.; Park, D. S.

    2009-01-01

    HSC(Half Steel plate Concrete) Slab is a kind of SC(Steel plate Concrete) structure, so it has a similar advantage of SC structures (short construction period, lower cost and good quality control compared to RC). To apply HSC to the slab of containment building of NPP, several test with different test condition (shear span ratio, shear bar, loading type) were conducted to verify structural behavior of HSC slab structure under out of plane loading

  9. Imaging subducted slabs using seismic arrays in the Western Pacific

    Bentham, H. L.; Rost, S.

    2010-12-01

    In recent years array seismology has been used extensively to image the small scale structure of the Earth. Such structure likely represents chemical heterogeneity and is therefore essential in our understanding of mantle convection and the composition of the Earth’s deep interior. As subduction is the main source of (re)introducing slab material into the Earth, it is of particular interest to track these heterogeneities. Resolving details of the composition and deformation of subducted lithosphere can help provide constraints on the subduction process, the composition of the mantle and mantle convection. This study uses seismic array techniques to map seismic heterogeneities associated with western Pacfic subduction zones, where a variety of slab geometries have been previously observed. Seismic energy arriving prior to the PP arrival was analysed at Eielson Array (ILAR), Alaska. More than 200 earthquakes were selected with Mw ≥ 6 and with epicentral distances of 90-110deg, giving a good coverage of the PP precursor (P*P) wavefield. Initial findings indicate that the observed P*P arrive out of plane and are likely a result of scattering. These scatterers are linked to the subduction of the Pacific Plate under the Philippine Sea in the Izu-Bonin and Mariana subduction zones. To enable efficient processing of large datasets, a robust automatic coherent (but unpredicted) arrival detector algorithm has been developed to select suitable precursors. Slowness and backazimuth were calculated for each precursor and were used in conjunction with P*P arrival times to back-raytrace the energy from the array to the scatterer location. Processing of the full dataset will help refine models regarding slab deformation as they descend into the mantle as well as unveiling the depth of their descent.

  10. The fate of carbonates along a subducting slab

    Bouilhol, P.; Debret, B.; Inglis, E.

    2017-12-01

    Carbon long-term cycling is a subject of recent controversy as new mass balance calculations suggest that most carbon is transferred from the slab to the mantle wedge by fluids during subduction, limiting the efficiency of carbon recycling to the deep mantle. Here, we examine the mobility of carbon at large scale during subduction through field, petrographic and geochemical studies on exhumed portion of the alpine slab that have recorded different metamorphic conditions during subduction. We studied serpentinite samples, metasomatic horizon between serpentinites and sediments, as well as veins hosted in serpentinites. Samples are from the Western Alps (Queyras and Zermatt) and have recorded a prograde metamorphic history from low temperature blueshist to eclogite facies P-T conditions. We show that during subduction there are several stages of carbonate precipitation and dissolution at metasomatic interfaces between metasedimentary and ultramafic rocks in the slab, as well as within the serpentinites. The early stage of subduction sees carbonate precipitation from the sediment derived fluids into the serpentnites. At higher temperature, when the dehydration shift from sediment to serpentinite dominated, the carbonates are dissolved, inducing the release of CO2 rich fluids. This occurs before the eclogite facies is attained, providing strong evidence for the mobility of carbon in fluids during the early stages of subduction. These fluids are a potential metasomatic agent for the fore-arc mantle wedge, corroborating the observation of carbonate bearing veins in sub-arc mantle ultramafic rocks. In eclogite facies conditions, olivine and carbonate veins within the serpentinites witness the mobility of CO2 during serpentinite dehydration, and may provide clues about the large scale recycling of CO2 within the deep mantle, as well as secondary precipitation associated with exhumation. Trace elements, Fe and Zn isotopic composition of the different samples provides

  11. Air slab-correction for Γ-ray attenuation measurements

    Mann, Kulwinder Singh

    2017-12-01

    Gamma (γ)-ray shielding behaviour (GSB) of a material can be ascertained from its linear attenuation coefficient (μ, cm-1). Narrow-beam transmission geometry is required for μ-measurement. In such measurements, a thin slab of the material has to insert between point-isotropic γ-ray source and detector assembly. The accuracy in measurements requires that sample's optical thickness (OT) remain below 0.5 mean free path (mfp). Sometimes it is very difficult to produce thin slab of sample (absorber), on the other hand for thick absorber, i.e. OT >0.5 mfp, the influence of the air displaced by it cannot be ignored during μ-measurements. Thus, for a thick sample, correction factor has been suggested which compensates the air present in the transmission geometry. The correction factor has been named as an air slab-correction (ASC). Six samples of low-Z engineering materials (cement-black, clay, red-mud, lime-stone, cement-white and plaster-of-paris) have been selected for investigating the effect of ASC on μ-measurements at three γ-ray energies (661.66, 1173.24, 1332.50 keV). The measurements have been made using point-isotropic γ-ray sources (Cs-137 and Co-60), NaI(Tl) detector and multi-channel-analyser coupled with a personal computer. Theoretical values of μ have been computed using a GRIC2-toolkit (standardized computer programme). Elemental compositions of the samples were measured with Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (WDXRF) analyser. Inter-comparison of measured and computed μ-values, suggested that the application of ASC helps in precise μ-measurement for thick samples of low-Z materials. Thus, this hitherto widely ignored ASC factor is recommended to use in similar γ-ray measurements.

  12. Oscillating Casimir force between two slabs in a Fermi sea

    Li-Wei, Chen; Guo-Zhen, Su; Jin-Can, Chen

    2012-01-01

    that the Casimir force decreases monotonically with the increase of the separation L between two slabs in an electromagnetic field and a massive Bose gas, the Casimir force in a Fermi gas oscillates as a function of L. The Casimir force can be either attractive or repulsive, depending sensitively on the magnitude...... of L. In addition, it is found that the amplitude of the Casimir force in a Fermi gas decreases with the increase of the temperature, which also is contrary to the case in a Bose gas, since the bosonic Casimir force increases linearly with the increase of the temperature in the region T

  13. Surfaces and slabs of fractional topological insulator heterostructures

    Sahoo, Sharmistha; Sirota, Alexander; Cho, Gil Young; Teo, Jeffrey C. Y.

    2017-10-01

    Fractional topological insulators (FTIs) are electronic topological phases in (3 +1 ) dimensions enriched by time reversal (TR) and charge U (1 ) conservation symmetries. We focus on the simplest series of fermionic FTIs, whose bulk quasiparticles consist of deconfined partons that carry fractional electric charges in integral units of e*=e /(2 n +1 ) and couple to a discrete Z2 n +1 gauge theory. We propose massive symmetry preserving or breaking FTI surface states. Combining the long-ranged entangled bulk with these topological surface states, we deduce the novel topological order of quasi-(2 +1 ) -dimensional FTI slabs as well as their corresponding edge conformal field theories.

  14. Radiative flux emitted by a burning PMMA slab

    Parent, G; Acem, Z; Collin, A; Berfroi, R; Boulet, P; Pizzo, Y; Mindykowski, P; Kaiss, A; Porterie, B

    2012-01-01

    The degradation of a PMMA sample has been studied based on experimental results obtained for the radiation emission by a burning slab. Observations of the infrared emission perpendicular to the plate, in the range where the optically thin flame is weakly emitting, indicate a plate temperature close to 680 K which is an indication on the surface temperature during the degradation process. Observations from the side allow a flame characterization without the plate emission superimposition. This is a promising way for evaluating data regarding the flame characteristics: temperature, gaz concentration and soot volumetric fraction.

  15. Lower bound limit analysis of slabs with nonlinear yield criteria

    Krabbenhøft, Kristian; Damkilde, Lars

    2002-01-01

    A finite element formulation of the limit analysis of perfectly plastic slabs is given. An element with linear moment fields for which equilibrium is satisfied exactly is used in connection with an optimization algorithm taking into account the full nonlinearity of the yield criteria. Both load...... and material optimization problems are formulated and by means of the duality theory of linear programming the displacements are extracted from the dual variables. Numerical examples demonstrating the capabilities of the method and the effects of using a more refined representation of the yield criteria...

  16. Slab-diffusion approximation from time-constant-like calculations

    Johnson, R.W.

    1976-12-01

    Two equations were derived which describe the quantity and any fluid diffused from a slab as a function of time. One equation is applicable to the initial stage of the process; the other to the final stage. Accuracy is 0.2 percent at the one point where both approximations apply and where accuracy of either approximation is the poorest. Characterizing other rate processes might be facilitated by the use of the concept of NOLOR (normal of the logarithm of the rate) and its time dependence

  17. The Slab Method to Measure the Topological Susceptibility

    Bietenholz, Wolfgang; de Forcrand, Philippe; Dromard, Arthur; Gerber, Urs

    2016-10-11

    In simulations of a model with topological sectors, algorithms which proceed in small update steps tend to get stuck in one sector, especially on fine lattices. This distorts the numerical results, in particular it is not straightforward to measure the topological susceptibility chi_t. We test a method to measure chi_t even if configurations from only one sector are available. It is based on the topological charges in sub-volumes, which we denote as "slabs". This enables the evaluation of chi_t, as we demonstrate with numerical results for non-linear sigma-models and for 2-flavour QCD.

  18. CONCRETE PROPERTIES IMPROVEMENT OF SLAB TRACKS USING CHEMICAL ADDITIVES

    V. V. Pristinskaya

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. On the Railways of Ukraine a very large number of slab tracks are operated with cracks. Many scientific works of previous years are dedicated to improving the design of slab tracks. The main causes of defects are: poor exploitation of the track; insufficient physic-mechanical characteristics of concrete; poor quality of initial materials. It is therefore necessary to develop an optimum concrete mix for the manufacture of these concrete products. Methodology. To assess the impact of individual factors and effects of their interactions on properties of concrete mix and concrete method of experimental and statistical modeling was used. At this, methodological fundamentals of mathematical experiment planning in concrete technology and modern methods of optimization of composite materials were taking into account. Based on the obtained data during the planned experiment conducting, including15 studies and using the computer program MathCad, were obtained the regression equations, which describe the relevant physical and mechanical properties of concrete. On the basis of the equations with the help of computer program MATLAB R2012b the graphs were drawn, illustrating the dependences of system response from the changes of two factors at a fixed value of the third factor. Findings. Firstly was the analysis of cracks that occur in the process of operation in the constructions of slab tracks. Further reasons of possible occurrence of these cracks were presented. In the process of the conducted research the author has concluded that for rational concrete mix development it is necessary to conduct the planned experiment with the use of quality materials. It was established that to increase the strength, chemical additives should be added in to concrete mix, it will let reduce cement amount. Originality. Experiments proved the usage of modern chemical additives in order to improve the properties of concrete. Models were developed, reflecting

  19. Effect of Rotation in an Orthotropic Elastic Slab

    Santra S.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental equations of the two dimensional generalized thermoelasticity (L-S model with one relaxation time parameter in orthotropic elastic slab has been considered under effect of rotation. The normal mode analysis is used to the basic equations of motion and heat conduction equation. Finally, the resulting equations are written in the form of a vector-matrix differential equation which is then solved by the eigenvalue approach. The field variables in the space time domain are obtained numerically. The results corresponding to the cases of conventional thermoelasticity CTE, extended thermoelasticity (ETE and temperature rate dependent thermoelasticity (TRDTE are compared by means of graphs.

  20. Linear kinetic enlightenment of a slab of nonuniform plasma

    Revenchuk, S.M.

    1996-01-01

    A phenomenon of linear kinetic regeneration of a harmonic electric-field perturbation beyond the nonuniform opacity barrier due to electrons trapped by a potential well is investigated. Such electrons are reflected by the well walls without loss of phase memory about the external perturbation, which is rehabilitated on the other side of the barrier. The incidence of the electromagnetic wave polarized in the plane of incidence on a plasma slab. Analytic expressions for the regenerated electric field and regeneration coefficient are obtained in the ballistic approximation. The dependence of the regeneration coefficient on shape of the electrostatic potential confining the wave barrier is discussed

  1. Tomography of the subducting Pacific slab and the 2015 Bonin deepest earthquake (Mw 7.9)

    Zhao, Dapeng; Fujisawa, Moeto; Toyokuni, Genti

    2017-03-01

    On 30 May 2015 an isolated deep earthquake (~670 km, Mw 7.9) occurred to the west of the Bonin Islands. To clarify its causal mechanism and its relationship to the subducting Pacific slab, we determined a detailed P-wave tomography of the deep earthquake source zone using a large number of arrival-time data. Our results show that this large deep event occurred within the subducting Pacific slab which is penetrating into the lower mantle. In the Izu-Bonin region, the Pacific slab is split at ~28° north latitude, i.e., slightly north of the 2015 deep event hypocenter. In the north the slab becomes stagnant in the mantle transition zone, whereas in the south the slab is directly penetrating into the lower mantle. This deep earthquake was caused by joint effects of several factors, including the Pacific slab’s fast deep subduction, slab tearing, slab thermal variation, stress changes and phase transformations in the slab, and complex interactions between the slab and the ambient mantle.

  2. Quality factor enhancement in photonic crystal slabs by manipulation of the ring of exceptional points

    Kaminski, Piotr Marek; Taghizadeh, Alireza; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2017-01-01

    Presently, we investigate the influence of the extent of a ring of exceptional points on the Q-factor of three-dimensional photonic crystal slabs. By changing the thickness of the slab, the extent of the ring of exceptional points is varied, allowing us to recover the Dirac cones in open, non......-Hermitian systems. In this case, three bound states in the continuum are exhibited close to the Gamma-point. For an optimized thickness of the slab, the associated Q-factors are found to grow rapidly with the size of the slab. The present results may lead to novel, small area and high Q-factor photonic crystal...

  3. Evaluation of the possibility to use thick slabs of reconstructed outer breast tomosynthesis slice images

    Petersson, Hannie; Dustler, Magnus; Tingberg, Anders; Timberg, Pontus

    2016-03-01

    The large image volumes in breast tomosynthesis (BT) have led to large amounts of data and a heavy workload for breast radiologists. The number of slice images can be decreased by combining adjacent image planes (slabbing) but the decrease in depth resolution can considerably affect the detection of lesions. The aim of this work was to assess if thicker slabbing of the outer slice images (where lesions seldom are present) could be a viable alternative in order to reduce the number of slice images in BT image volumes. The suggested slabbing (an image volume with thick outer slabs and thin slices between) were evaluated in two steps. Firstly, a survey of the depth of 65 cancer lesions within the breast was performed to estimate how many lesions would be affected by outer slabs of different thicknesses. Secondly, a selection of 24 lesions was reconstructed with 2, 6 and 10 mm slab thickness to evaluate how the appearance of lesions located in the thicker slabs would be affected. The results show that few malignant breast lesions are located at a depth less than 10 mm from the surface (especially for breast thicknesses of 50 mm and above). Reconstruction of BT volumes with 6 mm slab thickness yields an image quality that is sufficient for lesion detection for a majority of the investigated cases. Together, this indicates that thicker slabbing of the outer slice images is a promising option in order to reduce the number of slice images in BT image volumes.

  4. Usage of prestressed vertical bolts for retrofitting flat slabs damaged due to punching shear

    Hamed S. Askar

    2015-09-01

    An experimental investigation with the objective of retrofitting flat slabs damaged due to punching shear using prestressed vertical bolts is presented in this paper. The parameters examined in this study are vertical prestressed bolts with different ratios within the slab thickness, slab thickness and central column size. Through the experimental tests the load carrying capacity, deformation characteristics and the cracking behavior have been investigated. A comparison between the behavior of retrofitted slabs and their references showed that the proposed system of repair is effective and could be used in practice. A comparison between the experimental results and calculated punching failure load based on the formulas adopted by different codes, showed a reasonable agreement.

  5. Flexural Strengthening of RC Slabs Using a Hybrid FRP-UHPC System Including Shear Connector

    Jiho Moon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A polymeric hybrid composite system made of UHPC and CFRP was proposed as a retrofit system to enhance flexural strength and ductility of RC slabs. While the effectiveness of the proposed system was confirmed previously through testing three full-scale one-way slabs having two continuous spans, the slabs retrofitted with the hybrid system failed in shear. This sudden shear failure would stem from the excessive enhancement of the flexural strength over the shear strength. In this study, shear connectors were installed between the hybrid system and a RC slab. Using simple beam, only positive moment section was examined. Two full-scale RC slabs were cast and tested to failure: the first as a control and the second using this new strengthening technique. The proposed strengthening system increased the ultimate load carrying capacity of the slab by 70%, the stiffness by 60%, and toughness by 128%. The efficiency of shear connectors on ductile behavior of the retrofitted slab was also confirmed. After the UHPC top is separated from the slab, the shear connector transfer shear load and the slab system were in force equilibrium by compression in UHPC and tension in CFRP.

  6. CAISSON TYPE HOLLOW FLOOR SLABS OF MONOLITHIC MULTI-STOREYED BUILDINGS

    Malakhova Anna Nikolaevna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the disadvantages of building structures made of reinforced concrete is their considerable weight. One of the trends to decrease the weight of concrete structures, including floor slabs, is the arrangement of voids in the cross-sectional building structures. In Russian and foreign practice paper, cardboard and plastic tubes has been used for creation of voids in the construction of monolithic floor slabs. Lightweight concretes were also used for production of precast hollow core floor slabs. The article provides constructive solutions of precast hollow core floor slabs and solid monolithic slabs that were used in the construction of buildings before wide use of large precast hollow core floor slabs. The article considers the application of caisson hollow core floor slabs for modern monolithic multi-storeyed buildings. The design solutions of such floor slabs, experimental investigations and computer modeling of their operation under load were described in this article. The comparative analysis of the calculation results of computer models of a hollow slabs formed of rod or plastic elements showed the similarity of calculation results.

  7. A device for heat-proofing the closing slab of a fast neutron nuclear reactor

    Lemercier, Guy.

    1973-01-01

    A device proofing the closing-slab comprising a metal-shoe against which is applied said device, the latter being constituted by a plurality of panels, each of which is formed by a padding of superimposed metal-cloths arranged in parallel relationship to the slab to be heat-proofed. Said device is characterized in that each panel is contained in a casing applied against the slab, constituted by two metal half-boxes of parallelepipedic shape embedded into each other. This can be applied to high-power reactors for protecting the slab against the aerosols of the coolant liquid-metal [fr

  8. Bacterial and protist community changes during a phytoplankton bloom

    Pearman, John K.

    2015-10-01

    The present study aims to characterize the change in the composition and structure of the bacterial and microzooplankton planktonic communities in relation to the phytoplankton community composition during a bloom. High-throughput amplicon sequencing of regions of the 16S and 18S rRNA gene was undertaken on samples collected during a 20 day (d) mesocosm experiment incorporating two different nutrient addition treatments [Nitrate and Phosphate (NPc) and Nitrate, Phosphate and Silicate (NPSc)] as well as a control. This approach allowed us to discriminate the changes in species composition across a broad range of phylogenetic groups using a common taxonomic level. Diatoms dominated the bloom in the NPSc treatment while dinoflagellates were the dominant phytoplankton in the control and NPc treatment. Network correlations highlighted significant interactions between OTUs within each treatment including changes in the composition of Paraphysomonas OTUs when the dominant Chaetoceros OTU switched. The microzooplankton community composition responded to changes in the phytoplankton composition while the prokaryotic community responded more to changes in ammonia concentration.

  9. Allelopathic and Bloom-Forming Picocyanobacteria in a Changing World

    Sylwia Śliwińska-Wilczewska

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Picocyanobacteria are extremely important organisms in the world’s oceans and freshwater ecosystems. They play an essential role in primary production and their domination in phytoplankton biomass is common in both oligotrophic and eutrophic waters. Their role is expected to become even more relevant with the effect of climate change. However, this group of photoautotrophic organisms still remains insufficiently recognized. Only a few works have focused in detail on the occurrence of massive blooms of picocyanobacteria, their toxicity and allelopathic activity. Filling the gap in our knowledge about the mechanisms involved in the proliferation of these organisms could provide a better understanding of aquatic environments. In this review, we gathered and described recent information about allelopathic activity of picocyanobacteria and occurrence of their massive blooms in many aquatic ecosystems. We also examined the relationships between climate change and representative picocyanobacterial genera from freshwater, brackish and marine ecosystems. This work emphasizes the importance of studying the smallest picoplanktonic fractions of cyanobacteria.

  10. Algal Blooms and Cyanotoxins in Jordan Lake, North Carolina

    Daniel Wiltsie

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The eutrophication of waterways has led to a rise in cyanobacterial, harmful algal blooms (CyanoHABs worldwide. The deterioration of water quality due to excess algal biomass in lakes has been well documented (e.g., water clarity, hypoxic conditions, but health risks associated with cyanotoxins remain largely unexplored in the absence of toxin information. This study is the first to document the presence of dissolved microcystin, anatoxin-a, cylindrospermopsin, and β-N-methylamino-l-alanine in Jordan Lake, a major drinking water reservoir in North Carolina. Saxitoxin presence was not confirmed. Multiple toxins were detected at 86% of the tested sites and during 44% of the sampling events between 2014 and 2016. Although concentrations were low, continued exposure of organisms to multiple toxins raises some concerns. A combination of discrete sampling and in-situ tracking (Solid Phase Adsorption Toxin Tracking [SPATT] revealed that microcystin and anatoxin were the most pervasive year-round. Between 2011 and 2016, summer and fall blooms were dominated by the same cyanobacterial genera, all of which are suggested producers of single or multiple cyanotoxins. The study’s findings provide further evidence of the ubiquitous nature of cyanotoxins, and the challenges involved in linking CyanoHAB dynamics to specific environmental forcing factors are discussed.

  11. Algal Blooms and Cyanotoxins in Jordan Lake, North Carolina.

    Wiltsie, Daniel; Schnetzer, Astrid; Green, Jason; Vander Borgh, Mark; Fensin, Elizabeth

    2018-02-24

    The eutrophication of waterways has led to a rise in cyanobacterial, harmful algal blooms (CyanoHABs) worldwide. The deterioration of water quality due to excess algal biomass in lakes has been well documented (e.g., water clarity, hypoxic conditions), but health risks associated with cyanotoxins remain largely unexplored in the absence of toxin information. This study is the first to document the presence of dissolved microcystin, anatoxin-a, cylindrospermopsin, and β- N -methylamino-l-alanine in Jordan Lake, a major drinking water reservoir in North Carolina. Saxitoxin presence was not confirmed. Multiple toxins were detected at 86% of the tested sites and during 44% of the sampling events between 2014 and 2016. Although concentrations were low, continued exposure of organisms to multiple toxins raises some concerns. A combination of discrete sampling and in-situ tracking (Solid Phase Adsorption Toxin Tracking [SPATT]) revealed that microcystin and anatoxin were the most pervasive year-round. Between 2011 and 2016, summer and fall blooms were dominated by the same cyanobacterial genera, all of which are suggested producers of single or multiple cyanotoxins. The study's findings provide further evidence of the ubiquitous nature of cyanotoxins, and the challenges involved in linking CyanoHAB dynamics to specific environmental forcing factors are discussed.

  12. Is iron a limiting factor of Nodularia spumigena blooms?

    Lidia Paczuska

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that a deficiency of iron, a trace element essential to every living organism, limits the growth of algae and cyanobacteria. Nodularia spumigena Mertens is a blue-green algae species inhabiting the Baltic region that often forms toxic blooms.     The aim of the study was to assess the growth of the toxic cyanobacteria with respect to iron bioavailability. The measured growth parameters were the numbers of cells (optical density, chlorophyll a and pheopigment a concentrations. The iron concentrations used ranged from 10-7 to 10-4 mol dm-3. Under iron stress conditions (<5 × 10-7 mol dm-3, growth inhibition, gradual pigment decay and cell mortality were observed. However, enriching the medium with complexing factors like citric acid and EDTA significantly stimulated the growth rate and chlorophyll a production. The citric acid - EDTA - Fe (5 × 10-7 mol dm-3 complex was demonstrably effective in stimulating the rate of cell division. Starting with 10-6 mol dm-3, the higher the iron(III concentration used in the media, the more intensive the growth of the cyanobacteria populations. This was most rapid in the presence of high iron concentrations (10-4 mol dm-3, regardless of the presence of complexing agents.     It appears that the growth of toxic cyanobacteria N. spumigena, and thus also its ability to form blooms, may well depend on iron availability in the environment.

  13. Lake level fluctuations boost toxic cyanobacterial "oligotrophic blooms".

    Cristiana Callieri

    Full Text Available Global warming has been shown to strongly influence inland water systems, producing noticeable increases in water temperatures. Rising temperatures, especially when combined with widespread nutrient pollution, directly favour the growth of toxic cyanobacteria. Climate changes have also altered natural water level fluctuations increasing the probability of extreme events as dry periods followed by heavy rains. The massive appearance of Dolichospermum lemmermannii ( = planktonic Anabaena, a toxic species absent from the pelagic zone of the subalpine oligotrophic Lake Maggiore before 2005, could be a consequence of the unusual fluctuations of lake level in recent years. We hypothesized that these fluctuations may favour the cyanobacterium as result of nutrient pulses from the biofilms formed in the littoral zone when the lake level is high. To help verify this, we exposed artificial substrates in the lake, and evaluated their nutrient enrichment and release after desiccation, together with measurements of fluctuations in lake level, precipitation and D. lemmermannii population. The highest percentage of P release and the lowest C:P molar ratio of released nutrients coincided with the summer appearance of the D. lemmermannii bloom. The P pulse indicates that fluctuations in level counteract nutrient limitation in this lake and it is suggested that this may apply more widely to other oligotrophic lakes. In view of the predicted increase in water level fluctuations due to climate change, it is important to try to minimize such fluctuations in order to mitigate the occurrence of cyanobacterial blooms.

  14. Seawater reverse osmosis desalination and (harmful) algal blooms

    Villacorte, Loreen O.; Tabatabai, S. Assiyeh Alizadeh; Anderson, Donald M.; Amy, Gary L.; Schippers, Jan Cornelis; Kennedy, Maria Dolores

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the occurrence of HABs in seawater, their effects on the operation of seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) plants, the indicators for quantifying/predicting these effects, and the pretreatment strategies for mitigating operational issues during algal blooms. The potential issues in SWRO plants during HABs are particulate/organic fouling of pretreatment systems and biological fouling of RO membranes, mainly due to accumulation of algal organic matter (AOM). The presence of HAB toxins in desalinated water is also a potential concern but only at very low concentrations. Monitoring algal cell density, AOM concentrations and membrane fouling indices is a promising approach to assess the quality of SWRO feedwater and performance of the pretreatment system. When geological condition is favourable, subsurface intake can be a robust pretreatment for SWRO during HABs. Existing SWRO plants with open intake and are fitted with granular media filtration can improve performance in terms of capacity and product water quality, if preceded by dissolved air flotation or sedimentation. However, the application of advanced pretreatment using ultrafiltration membrane with in-line coagulation is often a better option as it is capable of maintaining stable operation and better RO feed water quality during algal bloom periods with significantly lower chemical consumption.

  15. Catchment-fed cyanobacterial blooms in brownified temperate lakes

    Senar, O.; Creed, I. F.

    2017-12-01

    One of the most significant impacts of global atmospheric change is the alteration of hydrological regimes and the associated disruption of hydrological connectivity within watersheds. We show how changes in the frequency, magnitude, and duration of hydrological connectivity and disconnectivity is compromising the capacity of forest soils to store organic carbon, and increasing its export to both aquatic and atmospheric systems. Increases in dissolved organic matter (DOM) loads from forested landscapes to aquatic systems and the shift of the DOM pool to a more refractory mixture of organic compounds, a process known as brownification, alters the physical and chemical characteristics of lake environments. Furthermore, by characterizing the stages of brownification (from low to high concentrations of refractory DOM), we show a shift in the limiting factors for phytoplankton growth from macronutrients (nitrogen -N- and phosphorus -P) to micronutrients (iron -Fe) and light availability. This shift is driven by the low concentrations of DOM supplying N and P in early stages of brownification, to the strong Fe-binding capacity of refractory DOM in brownified lakes. As lakes undergo brownification, cyanobacteria adapted to scavenge Fe from DOM-Fe complexes have a competitive advantage leading to the formation of cyanobacterial blooms. Our findings provide evidence that brownification is a driving force leading to cyanobacterial blooms in lakes on forested landscapes, with expected cascading consequences to lake food webs.

  16. Natural and anthropogenic nitrogen uptake by bloom-forming macroalgae

    Thornber, Carol S.; DiMilla, Peter; Nixon, Scott W.; McKinney, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    The frequency and duration of macroalgal blooms have increased in many coastal waters over the past several decades. We used field surveys and laboratory culturing experiments to examine the nitrogen content and δ 15 N values of Ulva and Gracilaria, two bloom-forming algal genera in Narragansett Bay, RI (USA). The northern end of this bay is densely populated with large sewage treatment plant nitrogen inputs; the southern end is more lightly populated and opens to the Atlantic Ocean. Field-collected Ulva varied in δ 15 N among sites, but with two exceptions had δ 15 N above 10 per mille , reflecting a significant component of heavy anthropogenic N. This variation was not correlated with a north-south gradient. Both Ulva and Gracilaria cultured in water from across Narragansett Bay also had high signals (δ 15 N = ∼14-17 per mille and 8-12 per mille , respectively). These results indicate that inputs of anthropogenic N can have far-reaching impacts throughout estuaries

  17. Natural and anthropogenic nitrogen uptake by bloom-forming macroalgae

    Thornber, Carol S. [Department of Biological Sciences, 100 Flagg Road, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI 02881 (United States)], E-mail: thornber@uri.edu; DiMilla, Peter; Nixon, Scott W. [Graduate School of Oceanography, University of Rhode Island, South Ferry Road, Narragansett, RI 02881 (United States); McKinney, Richard A. [US Environmental Protection Agency, Atlantic Ecology Division, 27 Tarzwell Drive, Narragansett, RI 02882 (United States)

    2008-02-15

    The frequency and duration of macroalgal blooms have increased in many coastal waters over the past several decades. We used field surveys and laboratory culturing experiments to examine the nitrogen content and {delta}{sup 15}N values of Ulva and Gracilaria, two bloom-forming algal genera in Narragansett Bay, RI (USA). The northern end of this bay is densely populated with large sewage treatment plant nitrogen inputs; the southern end is more lightly populated and opens to the Atlantic Ocean. Field-collected Ulva varied in {delta}{sup 15}N among sites, but with two exceptions had {delta}{sup 15}N above 10 per mille , reflecting a significant component of heavy anthropogenic N. This variation was not correlated with a north-south gradient. Both Ulva and Gracilaria cultured in water from across Narragansett Bay also had high signals ({delta}{sup 15}N = {approx}14-17 per mille and 8-12 per mille , respectively). These results indicate that inputs of anthropogenic N can have far-reaching impacts throughout estuaries.

  18. Natural and anthropogenic nitrogen uptake by bloom-forming macroalgae.

    Thornber, Carol S; DiMilla, Peter; Nixon, Scott W; McKinney, Richard A

    2008-02-01

    The frequency and duration of macroalgal blooms have increased in many coastal waters over the past several decades. We used field surveys and laboratory culturing experiments to examine the nitrogen content and delta(15)N values of Ulva and Gracilaria, two bloom-forming algal genera in Narragansett Bay, RI (USA). The northern end of this bay is densely populated with large sewage treatment plant nitrogen inputs; the southern end is more lightly populated and opens to the Atlantic Ocean. Field-collected Ulva varied in delta(15)N among sites, but with two exceptions had delta(15)N above 10 per thousand, reflecting a significant component of heavy anthropogenic N. This variation was not correlated with a north-south gradient. Both Ulva and Gracilaria cultured in water from across Narragansett Bay also had high signals (delta(15)N= approximately 14-17 per thousand and 8-12 per thousand, respectively). These results indicate that inputs of anthropogenic N can have far-reaching impacts throughout estuaries.

  19. Algal Blooms and Cyanotoxins in Jordan Lake, North Carolina

    Wiltsie, Daniel; Schnetzer, Astrid; Green, Jason; Vander Borgh, Mark; Fensin, Elizabeth

    2018-01-01

    The eutrophication of waterways has led to a rise in cyanobacterial, harmful algal blooms (CyanoHABs) worldwide. The deterioration of water quality due to excess algal biomass in lakes has been well documented (e.g., water clarity, hypoxic conditions), but health risks associated with cyanotoxins remain largely unexplored in the absence of toxin information. This study is the first to document the presence of dissolved microcystin, anatoxin-a, cylindrospermopsin, and β-N-methylamino-l-alanine in Jordan Lake, a major drinking water reservoir in North Carolina. Saxitoxin presence was not confirmed. Multiple toxins were detected at 86% of the tested sites and during 44% of the sampling events between 2014 and 2016. Although concentrations were low, continued exposure of organisms to multiple toxins raises some concerns. A combination of discrete sampling and in-situ tracking (Solid Phase Adsorption Toxin Tracking [SPATT]) revealed that microcystin and anatoxin were the most pervasive year-round. Between 2011 and 2016, summer and fall blooms were dominated by the same cyanobacterial genera, all of which are suggested producers of single or multiple cyanotoxins. The study’s findings provide further evidence of the ubiquitous nature of cyanotoxins, and the challenges involved in linking CyanoHAB dynamics to specific environmental forcing factors are discussed. PMID:29495289

  20. Aerosol Emissions from Great Lakes Harmful Algal Blooms

    May, Nathaniel W. [Department; Olson, Nicole E. [Department; Panas, Mark [Department; Axson, Jessica L. [Department; Tirella, Peter S. [Department; Kirpes, Rachel M. [Department; Craig, Rebecca L. [Department; Gunsch, Matthew J. [Department; China, Swarup [William; Laskin, Alexander [William; Ault, Andrew P. [Department; Department; Pratt, Kerri A. [Department; Department

    2017-12-20

    In freshwater lakes, harmful algal blooms (HABs) of Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) produce toxins that impact human health. However, little is known about the chemical species present in lake spray aerosol (LSA) produced from wave-breaking in freshwater HABs. In this study, a laboratory LSA generator produced aerosols from freshwater samples collected from Lake Michigan and Lake Erie during HAB and non-bloom conditions. Particles were analyzed for size and chemical composition by single particle mass spectrometry, electron microscopy, and fluorescence microscopy, with three distinct types of LSA identified with varying levels of organic carbon and biological material associated with calcium salts. LSA autofluorescence increases with blue-green algae concentration, showing that organic molecules of biological origin are incorporated in LSA from HABs. The number fraction of LSA with biological mass spectral markers also increases with particle diameter (greater than 0.5 μm), showing that HABs have size-dependent impacts on aerosol composition. The highest number fraction of LSA enriched in organic carbon were observed in particles less than 0.5 μm in diameter. Understanding the transfer of organic and biogenic material from freshwater to the atmosphere via LSA particles is crucial for determining health and climate effects due to HABs.

  1. Seawater reverse osmosis desalination and (harmful) algal blooms

    Villacorte, Loreen O.

    2015-03-01

    This article reviews the occurrence of HABs in seawater, their effects on the operation of seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) plants, the indicators for quantifying/predicting these effects, and the pretreatment strategies for mitigating operational issues during algal blooms. The potential issues in SWRO plants during HABs are particulate/organic fouling of pretreatment systems and biological fouling of RO membranes, mainly due to accumulation of algal organic matter (AOM). The presence of HAB toxins in desalinated water is also a potential concern but only at very low concentrations. Monitoring algal cell density, AOM concentrations and membrane fouling indices is a promising approach to assess the quality of SWRO feedwater and performance of the pretreatment system. When geological condition is favourable, subsurface intake can be a robust pretreatment for SWRO during HABs. Existing SWRO plants with open intake and are fitted with granular media filtration can improve performance in terms of capacity and product water quality, if preceded by dissolved air flotation or sedimentation. However, the application of advanced pretreatment using ultrafiltration membrane with in-line coagulation is often a better option as it is capable of maintaining stable operation and better RO feed water quality during algal bloom periods with significantly lower chemical consumption.

  2. Unpacking the Revised Bloom's Taxonomy: Developing Case-Based Learning Activities

    Nkhoma, Mathews Zanda; Lam, Tri Khai; Sriratanaviriyakul, Narumon; Richardson, Joan; Kam, Booi; Lau, Kwok Hung

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to propose the use of case studies in teaching an undergraduate course of Internet for Business in class, based on the revised Bloom's taxonomy. The study provides the empirical evidence about the effect of case-based teaching method integrated the revised Bloom's taxonomy on students' incremental learning,…

  3. Biomanipulation with quagga mussels (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis) to control harmful algal blooms in eutrophic urban ponds

    Waajen, Guido W.A.M.; Bruggen, Van Niek C.B.; Pires, Miguel Dionisio L.; Lengkeek, Wouter; Lurling, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Many urban ponds in The Netherlands and other countries suffer from eutrophication, resulting in harmful algal blooms which are often dominated by cyanobacteria. A sufficient reduction of nutrients, as prerequisite to mitigate cyanobacterial blooms in urban ponds, is not always feasible. Water

  4. Timing of migratory baleen whales at the Azores in relation to the North Atlantic spring bloom

    Visser, F.; Hartman, K.L.; Pierce, G.J.; Valavanis, V.D.; Huisman, J.

    2011-01-01

    Each year, a phytoplankton spring bloom starts just north of the North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre, and then expands northwards across the entire North Atlantic. Here, we investigate whether the timing of the spring migration of baleen whales is related to the timing of the phytoplankton spring bloom,

  5. Differential response of coral communities to Caulerpa spp. bloom in the reefs of Indian Ocean

    Manikandan, B.; Ravindran, J.

    of this study suggested that the recovery of a coral reef after a macroalgal bloom largely depends on coral species composition and the frequency of stress events. A further study linking macroalgal bloom to its specific cause is essential for the successful...

  6. Biomanipulation with quagga mussels (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis) to control harmful algal blooms in eutrophic urban ponds

    Waajen, Guido W. A. M.; Van Bruggen, Niek C. B.; Pires, L. Miguel Dionisio; Lengkeek, Wouter; Lurling, Miquel

    Many urban ponds in The Netherlands and other countries suffer from eutrophication, resulting in harmful algal blooms which are often dominated by cyanobacteria. A sufficient reduction of nutrients, as prerequisite to mitigate cyanobacterial blooms in urban ponds, is not always feasible. Water

  7. The Internationalization of Bloom's Learning for Mastery: A 25-Year Retrospective-Prospective View.

    Hymel, Glenn M.; Dyck, Walter E.

    Twenty-five years have elapsed since the publication of Benjamin S. Bloom's article titled "Learning for Mastery." With approximately 2,000 master learning/testing citations in the ERIC data base alone, Bloom's 1968 piece is indeed one of the most generative works to appear in the educational psychology literature in decades. At this…

  8. Nitrogen utilization during spring phytoplankton bloom development in the southeast Bering Sea

    Sambrotto, R.N.

    1983-01-01

    Interactions beween a high latitude, continental shelf, spring phytoplankton bloom and water column physics and chemistry were studied using 15 N measured rates of nitrogen uptake. Peak bloom conditions commenced when the mixed layer shallowed and minimized respirational losses. Integrative light-mixing growth models were accurate during early bloom stages. An advection-diffusion model associated peak bloom nitrate uptake with pycnocline mixing rates of 2.1 m d -1 in an 18 m mixed layer. Maximum nitrogen specific uptake rates (hr -1 ), unlike those of carbon, coincided with peak bloom conditions. Although species compositions among peak bloom periods were similar, particulate C/N ratios were not. Apparently, both intercellular factors and prevailing mixing conditions influence specific uptake rates and cell composition. A large proportion of new (nitrate) to total productivity was associated with the dominance of the early bloom forming diatoms in the mixed layer. In the absence of these net plankton the residual nanoplankton dominated community exhibited a greater dependence on regenerated nitrogen. Nitrate uptake averaged 700 mg-at m -2 during the spring bloom and 1 g-at m -2 year -1 . The yearly f factor was 0.40. Nitrogen uptake based carbon productivity was 188 g C m -2 year -1

  9. Monitoring of ocean surface algal blooms in coastal and oceanic waters around India.

    Tholkapiyan, M.; Shanmugam, P.; Suresh, T.

    of the MODIS-Aqua-derived OSABI (ocean surface algal bloom index) and its seasonal composite images report new information and comprehensive pictures of these blooms and their evolution stages in a wide variety of events occurred at different times of the years...

  10. Phytoplankton ice-edge blooms in the marginal ice zone at Princess Astrid Coast in Antarctica

    Verlecar, X.N.; Dhargalkar, V.K.; Goswami, S.C.; Mhamal, N.P.

    dominated the bloom conditions and nannoplankton (5 to 20 mu m) prevail the non-bloom periods while the picoplankton (less than 5 mu m) constituted a minor fraction during most of the period. Weekly changes in phytoplankton showed inverse relationship...

  11. The Cyanobacteria Assessment Network - Recent Success in Harmful Algal Bloom Detection

    Cyanobacteria blooms, which can become harmful algal blooms (HABs), are a huge environmental problem across the United States. They are capable of producing dangerous toxins that threaten the health of humans and animals, quality of drinking water supplies, and the ecosystem in w...

  12. Importance of deep mixing for initiating the North Atlantic spring bloom

    Riisgaard, Karen; Paulsen, Maria Lund; Thingstad, T. Frede

    The phytoplankton spring bloom is one of the most important recurrent events in the sup-polar part of the Atlantic Ocean. The classical idea is that the bloom is controlled by nutrients and light, but recent observations challenge this hypothesis. During repeated visits to stations in the deep...

  13. HIGH BREVETOXIN CONCENTRATIONS IN GYMNODINIUM BREVE BLOOMS ALONG THE NORTHWEST FLORIDA COAST DURING 1999.

    Blooms of the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium breve (i.e. red tides) produce brevetoxins (PbTx) that negatively impact the Gulf of Mexico ecosystem, human health, and local economics. Characterizing and predicting bloom events and their impacts requires knowledge of G. breve abundance...

  14. Calibrating the Difficulty of an Assessment Tool: The Blooming of a Statistics Examination

    Dunham, Bruce; Yapa, Gaitri; Yu, Eugenia

    2015-01-01

    Bloom's taxonomy is proposed as a tool by which to assess the level of complexity of assessment tasks in statistics. Guidelines are provided for how to locate tasks at each level of the taxonomy, along with descriptions and examples of suggested test questions. Through the "Blooming" of an examination--that is, locating its constituent…

  15. Intense blooms of Trichodesmium erythraeum (Cyanophyta) in the open waters along east coast of India

    Jyothibabu, R.; Madhu, N.V.; Murukesh, N.; Haridas, P.; Nair, K.K.C.; Venugopal, P.

    ° 44'N, 89° 04'), both along east coast of India. Nutrients (nitrate, phosphate, silicate) concentration in the upper 30 m of the water column showed very low values. High-integrated primary production (Bloom 1- 2160 mgC m-2 d-1, Bloom 2-1740 mgC m-2 d...

  16. Critical review of actually available chemical compounds for prevention and management of cyanobacterial blooms

    Jančula, Daniel; Maršálek, Blahoslav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 85, č. 9 (2011), s. 1415-1422 ISSN 0045-6535 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0571 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : algicide * bloom management * cyanobacterial blooms Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.206, year: 2011

  17. The impacts of a massive harmful algal bloom along the US west coast in 2015

    Kudela, R. M.; Trainer, V. L.; McCabe, R. M.; Hickey, B. M.; Negrey, K.

    2016-02-01

    In 2015, a massive bloom of the marine diatom Pseudo-nitzschia, stretching from southern California to southern Alaska, resulted in significant impacts to coastal resources and marine life. This bloom was first detected in early May 2015, when Washington closed its scheduled razor clam digs on coastal beaches. It is the largest and longest-lasting bloom in at least the past 15 years, and concentrations of domoic acid in seawater, some forage fish, and crab samples have been among the highest ever reported for this region. By mid-May, domoic acid concentrations in Monterey Bay, California were 10 to 30 times the level that would be considered high for a normal Pseudo-nitzschia bloom. Impacts to coastal communities and marine life include shellfish and Dungeness crab closures in multiple states, impacting commercial, recreational and subsistence harvesters, anchovy and sardine fishery health advisories in some areas of California, and sea lion strandings in California and Washington. Other marine mammal and bird mortalities have been reported in multiple states, and domoic acid poisoning is a suspected cause. In addition to the spatial extent and toxicity, the bloom has also lasted for many months (ongoing as of September 2015). While the exact causes of the bloom's severity and early onset are not yet known, unusually warm surface water in the Pacific Ocean may be a contributing factor. Here we present an overview of the bloom dynamics and impacts, and preliminary analysis about the bloom initiation and relationship to unusual ocean conditions in 2014-2015.

  18. Nitrogen and phosphorus requirements of an Alexandrium minutum bloom in the Penze' Estuary, France

    Maguer, J.-F.; Wafar, M.V.M.; Madec, C.; Morin, P.; Denn, E.E.

    . The role of NO3 was restricted to sustenance of the bloom, whereas warm conditions resulting in a water column stability seem to have triggered the bloom, and a self-shading, probably coupled with a phosphorus limitation, caused its decline...

  19. Predicting potentially toxigenic Pseudo-nitzschia blooms in the Chesapeake Bay

    Anderson, Clarissa R.; Sapiano, Mathew R. P.; Prasad, M. Bala Krishna; Long, Wen; Tango, Peter J.; Brown, Christopher W.; Murtugudde, Raghu

    2010-11-01

    Harmful algal blooms are now recognized as a significant threat to the Chesapeake Bay as they can severely compromise the economic viability of important recreational and commercial fisheries in the largest estuary of the United States. This study describes the development of empirical models for the potentially domoic acid-producing Pseudo-nitzschia species complex present in the Bay, developed from a 22-year time series of cell abundance and concurrent measurements of hydrographic and chemical properties. Using a logistic Generalized Linear Model (GLM) approach, model parameters and performance were compared over a range of Pseudo-nitzschia bloom thresholds relevant to toxin production by different species. Small-threshold blooms (≥10 cells mL -1) are explained by time of year, location, and variability in surface values of phosphate, temperature, nitrate plus nitrite, and freshwater discharge. Medium- (100 cells mL -1) to large- threshold (1000 cells mL -1) blooms are further explained by salinity, silicic acid, dissolved organic carbon, and light attenuation (Secchi) depth. These predictors are similar to other models for Pseudo-nitzschia blooms on the west coast, suggesting commonalities across ecosystems. Hindcasts of bloom probabilities at a 19% bloom prediction point yield a Heidke Skill Score of ~53%, a Probability of Detection ˜ 75%, a False Alarm Ratio of ˜ 52%, and a Probability of False Detection ˜9%. The implication of possible future changes in Baywide nutrient stoichiometry on Pseudo-nitzschia blooms is discussed.

  20. Climbing Bloom's Taxonomy Pyramid: Lessons from a Graduate Histology Course

    Zaidi, Nikki B.; Hwang, Charles; Scott, Sara; Stallard, Stefanie; Purkiss, Joel; Hortsch, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Bloom's taxonomy was adopted to create a subject-specific scoring tool for histology multiple-choice questions (MCQs). This Bloom's Taxonomy Histology Tool (BTHT) was used to analyze teacher- and student-generated quiz and examination questions from a graduate level histology course. Multiple-choice questions using histological images were…

  1. Dynamic Changes in Bacterial Population and Corresponding Exoenzyme Activity in Response to a Tropical Phytoplankton Bloom Chattonella marina

    Anit M. Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The raphidophyte Chattonella marina (Subrahmanyan Hara & Chihara bloom which causes lethal effects on marine ecosystem has been reported intermittently from Indian waters. In the present study, periodic samplings were made in a Chattonella marina bloom area, off Mahe, on 27 and 29 October and 1 November 2011 (in different phases of the bloom to assess the associated bacterial population and their exoenzyme activity. Microbial community composition of Chattonella marina bloom revealed a twentyfold increase in bacterial load over the nonbloom area. The bacterial genera, Micrococcus, Flavobacterium, Vibrio, and Pseudomonas, increased significantly during the declining phase of the bloom. An assessment of the extracellular enzyme production also showed a marked increase in percentage of bacterial strains, potent in protease production, suggesting the possible role of proteolytic bacteria in bloom crash. This study reveals the bacterial community succession during the bloom and indicates that bacteria play an important role in bloom regulation.

  2. A method for examining temporal changes in cyanobacterial harmful algal bloom spatial extent using satellite remote sensing..

    Cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (CyanoHAB) are thought to be increasing globally over the past few decades, but relatively little quantitative information is available about the spatial extent of blooms. Satellite remote sensing provides a potential technology for identifying...

  3. Blooms of phytoplankton along the west coast of India associated with nutrient enrichment and the response of zooplankton

    Nair, S.R.S.; Devassy, V.P.; Madhupratap, M.

    and dinoflagellates are also common Spectacular bloom formations of Trichodesmium is a regular phenomenon during the later part of the NE monsoon season At times, these blooms cover hundreds of kilometres Very often successions of phyto- and zooplankton communities...

  4. MODELING OF TRANSIENT HEAT TRANSFER IN FOAMED CONCRETE SLAB

    MD AZREE OTHUMAN MYDIN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the basis of one-dimensional Finite Difference method to obtain thermal properties of foamed concrete in order to solve transient heat conduction problems in multi-layer panels. In addition, this paper also incorporates the implementation of the method and the validation of thermal properties model of foamed concrete. A one-dimensional finite difference heat conduction programme has been developed to envisage the temperature development through the thickness of the foamed concrete slab, based on an initial estimate of the thermal conductivity-temperature relationship as a function of porosity and radiation within the voids. The accuracy of the model was evaluated by comparing predicted and experimental temperature profiles obtained from small scale heat transfer test on foamed concrete slabs, so that the temperature history of the specimen calculated by the programme closely matches those recorded during the experiment. Using the thermal properties of foamed concrete, the validated heat transfer program predicts foamed concrete temperatures in close agreement with experimental results obtained from a number of high temperature tests. The proposed numerical and thermal properties are simple yet efficient and can be utilised to aid manufacturers to develop their products without having to conduct numerous large-scale fire tests.

  5. Embodied Energy Optimization of Prestressed Concrete Slab Bridge Decks

    Julián Alcalá

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents one approach to the analysis and design of post-tensioned cast-in-place concrete slab bridge decks. A Simulated Annealing algorithm is applied to two objective functions: (i the economic cost; and (ii the embodied energy at different stages of production materials, transport, and construction. The problem involved 33 discrete design variables: five geometrical ones dealing with the thickness of the slab, the inner and exterior web width, and two flange thicknesses; concrete type; prestressing cables, and 26 variables for the reinforcement set-up. The comparison of the results obtained shows two different optimum families, which indicates that the traditional criteria of economic optimization leads to inefficient designs considering the embodied energy. The results indicate that the objectives are not competing functions, and that optimum energy designs are close to the optimum cost designs. The analysis also showed that the savings of each kW h of energy consumed carries an extra cost of 0.49€. The best cost solution presents 5.3% more embodied energy. The best energy solution is 9.7% more expensive than that of minor cost. In addition, the results have showed that the best cost solutions are not the best energy solutions.

  6. Analysis of the assembling phase of lattice slabs

    A. L. Sartorti

    Full Text Available Lattice slabs are usual in Brazil. They are formed by precast joists with latticed bars on a base of concrete, and a cover of concrete placed at the jobsite. The assembly of the joists and the filling elements is simple and do not require manpower with great skill, presenting low cost-benefit ratio. However, it is precisely in assembling phase that arise questions related to the scaffold support distance. A mistake in the proper positioning can lead to two undesirable situations. In one of them, a small space between the support lines increases the cost of scaffold, and in other an excessive space can generate exaggerated displacements, and even the collapse of the slab in the stage of concreting. The objective of this work is to analyze the bearing capacity of lattice joists in assembling phase, looking for information that is useful in defining the scaffold support distance. Several joists were tested to define the failure modes and their load bearing capacities. The results allowed to determine equations for calculating the appropriate distance between the support lines of the joists.

  7. IMPROVING THE EFFICIENCY OF MINERAL WOOL SLABS TECHNOLOGY

    Perfilov Vladimir Aleksandrovich

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of thermal insulation materials is an effective method to create an insulating envelope of a building, as well as to reduce energy costs and increase the durability of building structures. The properties of stone wool products and their operational durability is largely determined by the conditions of formation of the mineral wool carpet, uniform distribution of binder and its curing and the heat treatment conditions. Most domestic technologies are aimed at the production of mineral wool products with volume-oriented structure, which is formed using special units: spreader and corrugator placed in a production line. The next step to obtain the optimum structures is the production of dual density slabs. The denser upper layer receives mechanical loads caused by the operating conditions; the lower, less dense, but more thick layer performs the main function - insulation. The dual density slabs are produced on standard lines supplemented with a special unit, which is located in front of the heat treatment camera. Optimization of heat treatment parameters and prediction of the properties of materials is performed using software package.

  8. Selective grazing of Temora longicornis in different stages of a Phaeocystis globosa bloom - a mesocosm study

    Koski, Marja; Dutz, Jörg; Breteler, W.C.M.K.

    2005-01-01

    changes during the initiation, maintenance, collapse and decay of a P. globosa bloom and (3) if P. globosa dominated food assemblage provides a good diet for copepod egg production. Our results show low but constant feeding on small colonies of P. globosa, irrespective of the type or concentration...... of alternative food sources. In contrast, feeding on single cells was never significant, and the total contribution of P globosa to carbon ingestion of T longicornis was minor. T longicornis fed most actively on the decaying colonies, whereas during the peak of the bloom copepods selected against P globosa....... Mostly, T longicornis fed unselectively on different food particles: before the bloom, the major part of the diet consisted of diatoms, whereas during and after the bloom copepod diet was dominated by dinoflagellates and ciliates. Egg production was highest during the decay of the bloom, coinciding...

  9. Mesoscale Eddies Control the Timing of Spring Phytoplankton Blooms: A Case Study in the Japan Sea

    Maúre, E. R.; Ishizaka, J.; Sukigara, C.; Mino, Y.; Aiki, H.; Matsuno, T.; Tomita, H.; Goes, J. I.; Gomes, H. R.

    2017-11-01

    Satellite Chlorophyll a (CHL) data were used to investigate the influence of mesoscale anticyclonic eddies (AEs) and cyclonic eddies (CEs) on the timing of spring phytoplankton bloom initiation around the Yamato Basin (133-139°E and 35-39.5°N) in the Japan Sea, for the period 2002-2011. The results showed significant differences between AEs and CEs in the timing and initiation mechanism of the spring phytoplankton bloom. Blooms were initiated earlier in CEs which were characterized by shallow mixed-layer depths (mixed-layer depth. Conversely, blooms appeared in the AEs despite deeper mixed-layer depth (> 100 m) but close to the commencement of positive Q0. This suggests that the relaxation of turbulent mixing is crucial for the bloom initiation in AEs.

  10. Extensive Chaetoceros curvisetus bloom in relation to water quality in Port Blair Bay, Andaman Islands.

    Begum, Mehmuna; Sahu, Biraja Kumar; Das, Apurba Kumar; Vinithkumar, Nambali Valsalan; Kirubagaran, Ramalingam

    2015-05-01

    Blooming of diatom species Chaetoceros curvisetus (Cleve, 1889) was observed in Junglighat Bay and Haddo Harbour of Port Blair Bay of Andaman and Nicobar Islands during June 2010. Physico-chemical parameters, nutrient concentrations and phytoplankton composition data collected from five stations during 2010 were classified as bloom area (BA) and non-bloom area (NBA) and compared. Elevated values of dissolved oxygen were recorded in the BA, and it significantly varied (p NBA. Among the nutrient parameters studied, nitrate concentration indicated significant variation in BA and NBA (p NBA, indicating its utilization. In Junglighat Bay, the C. curvisetus species constituted 93.4 and 69.2% composition of total phytoplankton population during day 1 and day 2, respectively. The bloom forming stations separated out from the non-bloom forming station in non-parametric multidimensional scaling (nMDS) ordinations; cluster analysis powered by SIMPROF test also grouped the stations as BA and NBA.

  11. After effects of a dinoflagellate bloom on the hard bottom community in Kalpakkam coastal waters

    Sasikumar, N.; Azariah, J.; Venugopalan, V.P.; Nair, K.V.K.

    1989-01-01

    A bloom of the dinoflagellate, Noctiluca scintillans (Macartney) was observed in Kalpakkam coastal waters during the second and third week of October, 1988. Associated with the incidence of the bloom, signficant variations in the distribution of intertidal hard bottom communities were observed. Considerable difference in the dissolved oxygen content was also recorded during the bloom period. A sudden disapperance of grazers like limpets was observed after the onset of the bloom. Subsequent to this, there was a recolonization process, which showed a regular succession. Following limpet disappearance there was a rapid 'greening' of the surface by Enteromorpha Later, Dictyota dichotoma excluded Enteromorpha. Experimental teak wood panels also showed a decline in cy prid settlement during the bloom. (author). 3 tabs., 19 refs

  12. Challenges in modeling spatiotemporally varying phytoplankton blooms in the Northwestern Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman

    Sedigh Marvasti, S.; Gnanadesikan, A.; Bidokhti, A. A.; Dunne, J. P.; Ghader, S.

    2016-02-01

    Recent years have shown an increase in harmful algal blooms in the Northwest Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman, raising the question of whether climate change will accelerate this trend. This has led us to examine whether the Earth System Models used to simulate phytoplankton productivity accurately capture bloom dynamics in this region - both in terms of the annual cycle and interannual variability. Satellite data (SeaWIFS ocean color) show two climatological blooms in this region, a wintertime bloom peaking in February and a summertime bloom peaking in September. On a regional scale, interannual variability of the wintertime bloom is dominated by cyclonic eddies which vary in location from one year to another. Two coarse (1°) models with the relatively complex biogeochemistry (TOPAZ) capture the annual cycle but neither eddies nor the interannual variability. An eddy-resolving model (GFDL CM2.6) with a simpler biogeochemistry (miniBLING) displays larger interannual variability, but overestimates the wintertime bloom and captures eddy-bloom coupling in the south but not in the north. The models fail to capture both the magnitude of the wintertime bloom and its modulation by eddies in part because of their failure to capture the observed sharp thermocline and/or nutricline in this region. When CM2.6 is able to capture such features in the Southern part of the basin, eddies modulate diffusive nutrient supply to the surface (a mechanism not previously emphasized in the literature). For the model to simulate the observed wintertime blooms within cyclones, it will be necessary to represent this relatively unusual nutrient structure as well as the cyclonic eddies. This is a challenge in the Northern Arabian Sea as it requires capturing the details of the outflow from the Persian Gulf - something that is poorly done in global models.

  13. Contributions of meteorology to the phenology of cyanobacterial blooms: implications for future climate change.

    Zhang, Min; Duan, Hongtao; Shi, Xiaoli; Yu, Yang; Kong, Fanxiang

    2012-02-01

    Cyanobacterial blooms are often a result of eutrophication. Recently, however, their expansion has also been found to be associated with changes in climate. To elucidate the effects of climatic variables on the expansion of cyanobacterial blooms in Taihu, China, we analyzed the relationships between climatic variables and bloom events which were retrieved by satellite images. We then assessed the contribution of each climate variable to the phenology of blooms using multiple regression models. Our study demonstrates that retrieving ecological information from satellite images is meritorious for large-scale and long-term ecological research in freshwater ecosystems. Our results show that the phenological changes of blooms at an inter-annual scale are strongly linked to climate in Taihu during the past 23 yr. Cyanobacterial blooms occur earlier and last longer with the increase of temperature, sunshine hours, and global radiation and the decrease of wind speed. Furthermore, the duration increases when the daily averages of maximum, mean, and minimum temperature each exceed 20.3 °C, 16.7 °C, and 13.7 °C, respectively. Among these factors, sunshine hours and wind speed are the primary contributors to the onset of the blooms, explaining 84.6% of their variability over the past 23 yr. These factors are also good predictors of the variability in the duration of annual blooms and determined 58.9% of the variability in this parameter. Our results indicate that when nutrients are in sufficiently high quantities to sustain the formation of cyanobacterial blooms, climatic variables become crucial in predicting cyanobacterial bloom events. Climate changes should be considered when we evaluate how much the amount of nutrients should be reduced in Taihu for lake management. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The bloom of the dinoflagellate (Noctiluca miliaris) in the North Eastern Arabian Sea: Ship and Satellite study

    Matondkar, S.G.P.; Basu, S.; Parab, S.G.; Pednekar, S.; Dwivedi, R.M.; Raman, M.; Goes, J.I.; Gomes, H.

    The bloom of Noctiluca miliaris (a dinoflagellate) which appears in the form of a green tide was studied from 2003-2011. This bloom covered a large area of the Arabian Sea from the west coast of India to the coast of Oman. The bloom was easily...

  15. Identification of Phytoplankton Blooms under the Index of Inherent Optical Properties (IOP Index in Optically Complex Waters

    Jesús A. Aguilar-Maldonado

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton blooms are sporadic events in time and are isolated in space. This complex phenomenon is produced by a variety of both natural and anthropogenic causes. Early detection of this phenomenon, as well as the classification of a water body under conditions of bloom or non-bloom, remains an unresolved problem. This research proposes the use of Inherent Optical Properties (IOPs in optically complex waters to detect the bloom or non-bloom state of the phytoplankton community. An IOP index is calculated from the absorption coefficients of the colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM, the phytoplankton (phy and the detritus (d, using the wavelength (λ 443 nm. The effectiveness of this index is tested in five bloom events in different places and with different characteristics from Mexican seas: 1. Dzilam (Caribbean Sea, Atlantic Ocean, a diatom bloom (Rhizosolenia hebetata; 2. Holbox (Caribbean Sea, Atlantic Ocean, a mixed bloom of dinoflagellates (Scrippsiella sp. and diatoms (Chaetoceros sp.; 3. Campeche Bay in the Gulf of Mexico (Atlantic Ocean, a bloom of dinoflagellates (Karenia brevis; 4. Upper Gulf of California (UGC (Pacific Ocean, a diatom bloom (Coscinodiscus and Pseudo-nitzschia and 5. Todos Santos Bay, Ensenada (Pacific Ocean, a dinoflagellate bloom (Lingulodinium polyedrum. The diversity of sites show that the IOP index is a suitable method to determine the phytoplankton bloom conditions.

  16. Cohesive cracked-hinge model for simulation of fracture in one-way slabs on grade

    Skar, Asmus; Poulsen, Peter Noe; Olesen, John Forbes

    2017-01-01

    Numerical analysis of slab on grade structures subjected to mechanical loads is a complex matter often requiring computationally expensive models. In order to develop a simplified and general concept for non-linear analysis of slab on grade structures, this paper presents a cohesive cracked-hinge...

  17. Preliminary performance analysis of a transverse flow spectrally selective two-slab packed bed volumetric receiver

    Roos, TH

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available for the transparent slab 1 and SiC for the opaque slab 2 – which are ordered in a hexagonally close-packed bed. The flow direction has been changed from parallel to the incident radiation and perpendicular to the window, to parallel to the window and perpendicular...

  18. Quality of Slab Track Construction – Track Alignment Design and Track Geometry

    Šestáková Janka

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The slab track superstructure design (without ballast is a perspective construction especially for building tunnels and bridges in the modernized sections of railway tracks in Slovakia. Monitoring of the structure described in this article is focused on the transition areas between standard structure with ballast and slab track construction.

  19. Quality of Slab Track Construction - Track Alignment Design and Track Geometry

    Šestáková, Janka

    2015-05-01

    The slab track superstructure design (without ballast) is a perspective construction especially for building tunnels and bridges in the modernized sections of railway tracks in Slovakia. Monitoring of the structure described in this article is focused on the transition areas between standard structure with ballast and slab track construction.

  20. Strong suppression of radiation states in a slab waveguide sandwiched between omnidirectional mirrors

    Hoekstra, Hugo; Yudistira, D.; Stoffer, Remco

    2005-01-01

    Structures in channel or slab waveguides, applied deliberately or due to imperfections, may lead to strong modal losses, corresponding to the excitation of radiation modes. As an example, losses are generally very large in slab photonic crystal (PhC) impurity waveguides (WGs) due to the combined

  1. Juan de Fuca slab geometry and its relation to Wadati-Benioff zone seismicity

    McCrory, Patricia A.; Blair, J. Luke; Waldhause, Felix; Oppenheimer, David H.

    2012-01-01

    A new model of the subducted Juan de Fuca plate beneath western North America allows first-order correlations between the occurrence of Wadati-Benioff zone earthquakes and slab geometry, temperature, and hydration state. The geo-referenced 3D model, constructed from weighted control points, integrates depth information from earthquake locations and regional seismic velocity studies. We use the model to separate earthquakes that occur in the Cascadia forearc from those that occur within the underlying Juan de Fuca plate and thereby reveal previously obscured details regarding the spatial distribution of earthquakes. Seismicity within the slab is most prevalent where the slab is warped beneath northwestern California and western Washington suggesting that slab flexure, in addition to expected metamorphic dehydration processes, promotes earthquake occurrence within the subducted oceanic plate. Earthquake patterns beneath western Vancouver Island are consistent with slab dehydration processes. Conversely, the lack of slab earthquakes beneath western Oregon is consistent with an anhydrous slab. Double-differenced relocated seismicity resolves a double seismic zone within the slab beneath northwestern California that strongly constrains the location of the plate interface and delineates a cluster of seismicity 10 km above the surface that includes the 1992 M7.1 Mendocino earthquake. We infer that this earthquake ruptured a surface within the Cascadia accretionary margin above the Juan de Fuca plate. We further speculate that this earthquake is associated with a detached fragment of former Farallon plate. Other subsurface tectonic elements within the forearc may have the potential to generate similar damaging earthquakes.

  2. Integral equation solution for truncated slab structures by using a fringe current formulation

    Jørgensen, Erik; Toccafondi, A.; Maci, S.

    1999-01-01

    Full-wave solutions of truncated dielectric slab problems are interesting for a variety of engineering applications, in particular patch antennas on finite ground planes. For this application a canonical reference solution is that of a semi-infinite slab illuminated by a line source. Standard int...

  3. An approximate solution of the two-group critical problem for reflected slabs

    Ishiguro, Y.; Garcia, R.D.M.

    1977-01-01

    A new approximation is developed to solve two group slab problems involving two media where one of the media is infinite. The method consists in combining the P sub(L) approximation with invariance principles. Several numerical results are reported for the critical slab problem [pt

  4. Flexural performance of steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC) ribbed slab with various topping thicknesses

    Rahman, Fadhillah Abdul; Bakar, Afidah Abu; Hashim, Mohd Hisbany Mohd; Ahmad, Hazrina

    2017-11-01

    Ribbed slab provides lighter slab than an equivalent solid slab which helps in reducing the weight with its voids. However, in order to overcome the drawbacks in the construction process, the application of steel fibre reinforcement concrete (SFRC) is seen as an alternative material to be used in the slab. This study is performed to investigate the behaviour of SFRC as the main material in ribbed slab, omitting the conventional reinforcements, under four-point bending test. Three equivalent samples of ribbed slabs were prepared for this study with variations in the topping thickness of 100, 75 and 50 mm. The flexural strength of ribbed slab with 100 mm topping shows similar loading carrying capacity with the 75mm topping while 50 mm gave the lowest ultimate loading. First cracks for all slabs occurred at the topping. The cracks began from the external ribs and propagates toward the internal rib. Incorporation of steel fibres help in giving a longer deflection softening than a sudden brittle failure, thus proves its ability to increase energy absorption capacity and improving cracking behaviour.

  5. Near-field imaging of out-of-plane light scattering in photonic crystal slabs

    Volkov, Valentyn; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey; Taillaert, Dirk

    2003-01-01

    A collection scanning near-field optical microscope (SNOM) is used to image the propagating of light at telecommunication wavelengths (1520-1570 nm) along photonic crystal (PC) slabs, which combine slab waveguides with in-plane PCs consisting of one- and two-dimensional gratings. The efficient out...

  6. An overview of cyanobacterial bloom occurrences and research in Africa over the last decade.

    Ndlela, L L; Oberholster, P J; Van Wyk, J H; Cheng, P H

    2016-12-01

    Cyanobacterial blooms are a current cause for concern globally, with vital water sources experiencing frequent and increasingly toxic blooms in the past decade. These increases are resultant of both anthropogenic and natural factors, with climate change being the central concern. Of the more affected parts of the world, Africa has been considered particularly vulnerable due to its historical predisposition and lag in social economic development. This review collectively assesses the available information on cyanobacterial blooms in Africa as well as any visible trends associated with reported occurrences over the last decade. Of the 54 countries in Africa, only 21 have notable research information in the area of cyanobacterial blooms within the last decade, although there is substantial reason to attribute these blooms as some of the major water quality threats in Africa collectively. The collected information suggests that civil wars, disease outbreaks and inadequate infrastructure are at the core of Africa's delayed advancement. This is even more so in the area of cyanobacteria related research, with 11 out of 21 countries having recorded toxicity and physicochemical parameters related to cyanobacterial blooms. Compared to the rest of the continent, peripheral countries are at the forefront of research related to cyanobacteria, with countries such as Angola having sufficient rainfall, but poor water quality with limited information on bloom occurrences. An assessment of the reported blooms found nitrogen concentrations to be higher in the water column of more toxic blooms, validating recent global studies and indicating that phosphorous is not the only factor to be monitored in bloom mitigation. Blooms occurred at low TN: TP ratios and at temperatures above 12°C. Nitrogen was linked to toxicity and temperature also had a positive effect on bloom occurrence and toxicity. Microcystis was the most ubiquitous of the cyanobacterial strains reported in Africa and the

  7. Study on the electromagnetic waves propagation characteristics in partially ionized plasma slabs

    Zhi-Bin Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Propagation characteristics of electromagnetic (EM waves in partially ionized plasma slabs are studied in this paper. Such features are significant to applications in plasma antennas, blackout of re-entry flying vehicles, wave energy injection to plasmas, and etc. We in this paper developed a theoretical model of EM wave propagation perpendicular to a plasma slab with a one-dimensional density inhomogeneity along propagation direction to investigate essential characteristics of EM wave propagation in nonuniform plasmas. Particularly, the EM wave propagation in sub-wavelength plasma slabs, where the geometric optics approximation fails, is studied and in comparison with thicker slabs where the geometric optics approximation applies. The influences of both plasma and collisional frequencies, as well as the width of the plasma slab, on the EM wave propagation characteristics are discussed. The results can help the further understanding of propagation behaviours of EM waves in nonuniform plasma, and applications of the interactions between EM waves and plasmas.

  8. The study of carrying capacity of timber slabs with use the finite elements method

    Demeshok Vitalii

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the results of the study of behavior of timber slab under influence of fire with the standard “time-temperature” curve are presented. The finite element method was used for it. For the calculation we constructed a grid models of timber slabs. As a result of solution of the thermal problem was obtained temperature distribution and the graphs of maximum deflection of timber slabs and its slew rate depending on the time of the test. The obtained graphs allow to obtain data on the occurrence of the limit state of loss of bearing capacity by comparing current values of displacements and velocities with the maximum allowable. Analysis of the graphs shows that the criteria limit state of loss of bearing capacity does not occur. Calculation method of evaluating the fire resistance of timber slabs was developed. For it use database about strain-stress state of this slabs in conditions of influence of the fire.

  9. Analysis of instability of tall buildings with prestressed and waffle slabs

    V. M. Passos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The construction system of prestressed flat slabs has been gaining market in Brazil, since it eliminates the use of beams, allows you to perform structures under coluns by area and reduces the cycle of concrete slabs. Thus the analysis of global stability of buildings, takes into account the effects of 2nd order, and these additional effects to the structure obtained from the deformation thereof, calculated by the iterative method P-Delta. The Brazilian ABNT NBR 6118: 2014 [2] assesses the overall stability of reinforced concrete structures through practical parameters, which are the parameter a (Alpha and gz (Gamma z coefficient. In this research we seek to study the global stability of slender buildings consist of flat slabs, with slenderness (ratio of the smaller width with the height of the building approximately one to six, from the modeling of a building with prestressed slabs nonadherent and waffle slabs. To model will use the commercial software CAD / TQS.

  10. Bloom syndrome and maternal uniparental disomy for chromosome 15

    Woodage, T.; Prasad, M.; Trent, R.J.; Smith, A. (Children' s Hospital, Camperdown, New South Wales (New Zealand)); Dixon, J.W.; Romain, D.R.; Columbano-Green, L.M.; Selby, R.E. (Wellington Hospital (New Zealand)); Graham, D. (Waikato Hospital, Hamilton (New Zealand)); Rogan, P.K. (Pennsylvania State Univ., Hershey, PA (United States)) (and others)

    1994-07-01

    Bloom syndrome (BS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by increases in the frequency of sister-chromatid exchange and in the incidence of malignancy. Chromosome-transfer studies have shown the BS locus to map to chromosome 15q. This report describes a subject with features of both BS and Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). Molecular analysis showed maternal uniparental disomy for chromosome 15. Meiotic recombination between the two disomic chromosomes 15 has resulted in heterodisomy for proximal 15q and isodisomy for distal 15q. In this individual BS is probably due to homozygosity for a gene that is telomeric to D15S95 (15q25), rather than to genetic imprinting, the mechanism responsible for the development of PWS. This report represents the first application of disomy analysis to the regional localization of a disease gene. This strategy promises to be useful in the genetic mapping of other uncommon autosomal recessive conditions. 37 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. United States Air Force Research on Airfield Pavement Repairs Using Precast Portland Cement Concrete (PCC) Slabs (BRIEFING SLIDES)

    Saeed, Athar

    2008-01-01

    ...) slab repairs using precast PCC slab panels. AFRL is leading the technology development by critically reviewing the research conducted to date in this arena by the Air Force and the highway and civil aviation agencies and adopting...

  12. METAMITRON REPLACING CARBARYL IN POST BLOOM THINNING OF APPLE TREES

    JOSÉ LUIZ PETRI

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Carbaryl or the mixture of carbaryl with NAA (naphthalene acetic acid or BA (benzyladenine are the post-bloom chemical thinners most widely used in apple thinning in Brazil. The marketing restriction of carbaryl demands new options of apple post-bloom thinners, requiring the evaluation of others compounds for this purpose. Metamitron is one of the substances that may be used in chemical thinning of apples. Metamitron was evaluated at two concentrations, alone or in mixture with BA, in ‘MaxiGala’, ‘Fuji Suprema’ and ‘Fred Hough’ apple cultivars. Applications of metamitron at 384 mg L-1 and at 768 mg L-1 in a mixture with BA, ranging from 40 mg L-1 to 80 mg L-1, sprayed on fruits with diameter ranging from 5 to 25 mm were compared with the standard treatment and hand thinning. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with 4-6 repetitions of a single plant. The variables analyzed were: fruit set (%; percentage of floral clusters with 1, 2, 3, 4 or more fruits; fruit yield (kg; average fruit fresh mass (g and percentage of dropped fruit after thinning. Metamitron alone or in combination with BA reduced production per plant and significantly increased the fresh weight of fruits in all cultivars tested. Metamitron at 800 mg L-1 resulted in excessive fruit thinning, especially in ‘MaxiGala’ cultivar. Metamitron or metamitron + BA have potential to compose the program of chemical thinning of apple trees to replace carbaryl.

  13. Environmental controls, oceanography and population dynamics of pathogens and harmful algal blooms: connecting sources to human exposure

    Minnett Peter

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Coupled physical-biological models are capable of linking the complex interactions between environmental factors and physical hydrodynamics to simulate the growth, toxicity and transport of infectious pathogens and harmful algal blooms (HABs. Such simulations can be used to assess and predict the impact of pathogens and HABs on human health. Given the widespread and increasing reliance of coastal communities on aquatic systems for drinking water, seafood and recreation, such predictions are critical for making informed resource management decisions. Here we identify three challenges to making this connection between pathogens/HABs and human health: predicting concentrations and toxicity; identifying the spatial and temporal scales of population and ecosystem interactions; and applying the understanding of population dynamics of pathogens/HABs to management strategies. We elaborate on the need to meet each of these challenges, describe how modeling approaches can be used and discuss strategies for moving forward in addressing these challenges.

  14. Unusually deep Bonin earthquake of 30 May 2015: A precursory signal to slab penetration?

    Obayashi, Masayuki; Fukao, Yoshio; Yoshimitsu, Junko

    2017-02-01

    An M7.9 earthquake occurred on 30 May 2015 at an unusual depth of 680 km downward and away from the well-defined Wadati-Benioff (WB) zone of the southern Bonin arc. To the north (northern Bonin), the subducted slab is stagnant above the upper-lower mantle boundary at 660-km depth, where the WB zone bends forward to sub-horizontal. To the south (northern Mariana), it penetrates the boundary, where the WB zone extends near-vertically down to the boundary. Thus, the southern Bonin slab can be regarded as being in a transitional state from slab stagnation to penetration. The transition is shown to happen rapidly within the northern half of the southern Bonin slab where the heel part of the shoe-like configured stagnant slab hits the significantly depressed 660-km discontinuity. The mainshock and aftershocks took place in this heel part where they are sub-vertically aligned in approximate parallel to their maximum compressional axes. Here, the dips of the compressional axes of WB zone earthquakes change rapidly across the thickness of the slab from the eastern to western side and along the strike of the slab from the northern to southern side, suggesting rapid switching of the downdip compression axis in the shoe-shaped slab. Elastic deformation associated with the WB zone seismicity is calculated by viewing it as an integral part of the slab deformation process. With this deformation, the heel part is deepened relative to the arch part and is compressed sub-vertically and stretched sub-horizontally, a tendency consistent with the idea of progressive decent of the heel part in which near-vertical compressional stress is progressively accumulated to generate isolated shocks like the 2015 event and eventually to initiate slab penetration.

  15. Prevention of Cyanobacterial Blooms Using Nanosilica: A Biomineralization-Inspired Strategy.

    Xiong, Wei; Tang, Yiming; Shao, Changyu; Zhao, Yueqi; Jin, Biao; Huang, Tingting; Miao, Ya'nan; Shu, Lei; Ma, Weimin; Xu, Xurong; Tang, Ruikang

    2017-11-07

    Cyanobacterial blooms represent a significant threat to global water resources because blooming cyanobacteria deplete oxygen and release cyanotoxins, which cause the mass death of aquatic organisms. In nature, a large biomass volume of cyanobacteria is a precondition for a bloom, and the cyanobacteria buoyancy is a key parameter for inducing the dense accumulation of cells on the water surface. Therefore, blooms will likely be curtailed if buoyancy is inhibited. Inspired by diatoms with naturally generated silica shells, we found that silica nanoparticles can be spontaneously incorporated onto cyanobacteria in the presence of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride), a cationic polyelectrolyte that can simulate biosilicification proteins. The resulting cyanobacteria-SiO 2 complexes can remain sedimentary in water. This strategy significantly inhibited the photoautotrophic growth of the cyanobacteria and decreased their biomass accumulation, which could effectively suppress harmful bloom events. Consequently, several of the adverse consequences of cyanobacteria blooms in water bodies, including oxygen consumption and microcystin release, were significantly alleviated. Based on the above results, we propose that the silica nanoparticle treatment has the potential for use as an efficient strategy for preventing cyanobacteria blooms.

  16. Physical control of interannual variations of the winter chlorophyll bloom in the northern Arabian Sea

    M. G. Keerthi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The northern Arabian Sea hosts a winter chlorophyll bloom, triggered by convective overturning in response to cold and dry northeasterly monsoon winds. Previous studies of interannual variations of this bloom only relied on a couple of years of data and reached no consensus on the associated processes. The current study aims at identifying these processes using both  ∼  10 years of observations (including remotely sensed chlorophyll data and physical parameters derived from Argo data and a 20-year-long coupled biophysical ocean model simulation. Despite discrepancies in the estimated bloom amplitude, the six different remotely sensed chlorophyll products analysed in this study display a good phase agreement at seasonal and interannual timescales. The model and observations both indicate that the interannual winter bloom fluctuations are strongly tied to interannual mixed layer depth anomalies ( ∼  0.6 to 0.7 correlation, which are themselves controlled by the net heat flux at the air–sea interface. Our modelling results suggest that the mixed layer depth control of the bloom amplitude ensues from the modulation of nutrient entrainment into the euphotic layer. In contrast, the model and observations both display insignificant correlations between the bloom amplitude and thermocline depth, which precludes a control of the bloom amplitude by daily dilution down to the thermocline depth, as suggested in a previous study.

  17. Slab geometry spatial discretization schemes with infinite-order convergence

    Adams, M.L.; Martin, W.R.

    1985-01-01

    Spatial discretization schemes for the slab geometry discrete ordinates transport equation have received considerable attention in the past several years, with particular interest shown in developing methods that are more computationally efficient that standard schemes. Here the authors apply to the discrete ordinates equations a spectral method that is significantly more efficient than previously proposed schemes for high-accuracy calculations of homogeneous problems. This is a direct consequence of the exponential (infinite-order) convergence of spectral methods for problems with every smooth solutions. For heterogeneous problems where smooth solutions do not exist and exponential convergence is not observed with spectral methods, a spectral element method is proposed which does exhibit exponential convergence

  18. Hybrid SN Laplace Transform Method For Slab Lattice Calculations

    Segatto, Cynthia F.; Vilhena, Marco T.; Zani, Jose H.; Barros, Ricardo C.

    2008-01-01

    In typical lattice cells where a highly absorbing, small fuel element is embedded in the moderator, a large weakly absorbing medium, high-order transport methods become unnecessary. In this paper we describe a hybrid discrete ordinates (S N ) method for slab lattice calculations. This hybrid S N method combines the convenience of a low-order S N method in the moderator with a high-order S N method in the fuel. We use special fuel-moderator interface conditions based on an approximate angular flux interpolation analytical method and the Laplace transform (LTS N ) numerical method to calculate the neutron flux distribution and the thermal disadvantage factor. We present numerical results for a range of typical model problems. (authors)

  19. Impact sound insulation improvement of wooden floors on concrete slabs

    Rasmussen, Birgit; Hoffmeyer, Dan; Hansen, Rói

    2014-01-01

    renovating housing. In Denmark, there are about 1 million dwellings in multi-storey housing. About half of the dwellings are built with timber floors, and the other half with wooden floors on concrete slabs, either in-situ cast or prefabricated hollow-core elements. In a project including mapping of sound......Improvement of impact sound insulation is one of the major challenges, when renovating housing. In Denmark, building regulations for impact sound in new-build were strengthened 5 dB in 2008, implying a main requirement L’n,w ≤ 53 dB between dwellings. The same value should also be a goal, when...... insulation in the Danish housing stock and investigation of improvement possibilities, a pilot laboratory study of wooden floors on concrete was carried out. The laboratory study included impact sound improvement measurements of full-scale samples (10 m2) fulfilling the conditions in EN ISO 10140...

  20. One-group transport theory calculation for three slabs cells

    Maia, C.R.M.

    1979-01-01

    As an idealized model of plate type fuel assemblies for nuclear reactors, three-slab cells are analysed numerically based on the exact solution of the transport equation in the one-group isotropic scattering model. From the equations describing the interface conditions, a set of regular integral equations for the coefficients of the singular eigenfunctions expansions is derived using the half-range orthogonality relations of the eigenfunctions and the recently developed method of regularization. Numerical solutions are obtained by solving this set of equations iteratively. The thermal utilization factor and thermal disadvantage factors as well as flux and current distributions are reported for the first time for various sets of parameters. The accuracy of the P sub(N) approximations is also analysed compared to the exact results. (Author) [pt

  1. High-Performance Slab-on-Grade Foundation Insulation Retrofits

    Goldberg, Louise F. [NorthernSTAR, St. Paul, MN (United States); Mosiman, Garrett E. [NorthernSTAR, St. Paul, MN (United States)

    2015-09-01

    A more accurate assessment of slab-on-grade foundation insulation energy savings than traditionally possible is now feasible. This has been enabled by advances in whole building energy simulation with 3-dimensional foundation modelling integration at each time step together with an experimental measurement of the site energy savings of SOG foundation insulation. Ten SOG insulation strategies were evaluated on a test building to identify an optimum retrofit insulation strategy in a zone 6 climate (Minneapolis, MN). The optimum insulation strategy in terms of energy savings and cost effectiveness consisted of two components: (a) R-20 XPS insulation above grade, and, (b) R-20 insulation at grade (comprising an outer layer of R-10 insulation and an interior layer of R-12 poured polyurethane insulation) tapering to R-10 XPS insulation at half the below-grade wall height (the lower half of the stem wall was uninsulated).

  2. New Transition Wedge Design Composed by Prefabricated Reinforced Concrete Slabs

    Julia Real-Herráiz

    Full Text Available Abstract Important track degradation occurs in structure-embankment transitions, in which an abrupt change in track vertical stiffness arises, leading to a reduction in passengers comfort and safety. Although granular wedges are suggested by different railroad administrations as a solution to avoid these problems, they present some disadvantages which may affect track long-term performance. In this paper, a new solution designed with prefabricated reinforced concrete slabs is proposed. The aim of this solution is to guarantee a continuous and gradual track vertical stiffness transition in the vicinity of structures, overcoming granular wedges disadvantages. The aim of this study is to assess the performance of the novel wedge design by means of a 3-D FEM model and to compare it with the current solution.

  3. Markov chain solution of photon multiple scattering through turbid slabs.

    Lin, Ying; Northrop, William F; Li, Xuesong

    2016-11-14

    This work introduces a Markov Chain solution to model photon multiple scattering through turbid slabs via anisotropic scattering process, i.e., Mie scattering. Results show that the proposed Markov Chain model agree with commonly used Monte Carlo simulation for various mediums such as medium with non-uniform phase functions and absorbing medium. The proposed Markov Chain solution method successfully converts the complex multiple scattering problem with practical phase functions into a matrix form and solves transmitted/reflected photon angular distributions by matrix multiplications. Such characteristics would potentially allow practical inversions by matrix manipulation or stochastic algorithms where widely applied stochastic methods such as Monte Carlo simulations usually fail, and thus enable practical diagnostics reconstructions such as medical diagnosis, spray analysis, and atmosphere sciences.

  4. Environmental Impact Optimization of Reinforced Concrete Slab Frame Bridges

    Yavari, Majid Solat; Du, Guangli; Pacoste, Costin

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of this research is to integrate environmental impact optimization in the structural design of reinforced concrete slab frame bridges in order to determine the most environmental-friendly design. The case study bridge used in this work was also investigated in a previous paper...... focusing on the optimization of the investment cost, while the present study focuses on environmental impact optimization and comparing the results of both of these studies. Optimization technique based on the pattern search method was implemented. Moreover, a comprehensive Life Cycle Assessment (LCA......) methodology of ReCiPe and two monetary weighting systems were used to convert environmental impacts into monetary costs. The analysis showed that both monetary weighting systems led to the same results. Furthermore, optimization based on environmental impact generated models with thinner construction elements...

  5. Profiled Deck Composite Slab Strength Verification: A Review

    K. Mohammed

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to present an overview on alternate profiled deck composite slab (PDCS strength verification devoid of the expensive and complex laboratory procedures in establishing its longitudinal shear capacity. Despite the several deterministic research findings leading to the development of proposals and modifications on the complex shear characteristics of PDCS that defines its strength behaviour, the laboratory performance testing stands to be the only accurate means for the PDCS strength assessment. The issue is critical and warrants much further thoughts from different perspective other than the deterministic approach that are rather expensive and time consuming. Hence, the development of a rational-based numerical test load function from longitudinal shear capacity consideration is a necessity in augmenting the previous futile attempts for strength determination of PDCS devoid of the costlier and expensive laboratory procedure.

  6. Development of Flexible Link Slabs using Ductile Fiber Reinforced Concrete

    Lárusson, Lárus Helgi

    Civil engineering structures with large dimensions, such as multi-span bridges, overpasses and viaducts, are typically equipped with mechanical expansion joints. These joints allow the individual spans of the structure to undergo unrestrained deformations due to thermal expansions and load......-deformation response and crack development of representative sections of the reinforced composites, and iv) detailing, designing and testing of large scale prefabricated link slab elements. In addition, an application of ductile Engineered Cementitious Composite (ECC) in prefabricated floor panels is presented...... crack widths and crack spacing measurements are obtained, which can characterize the tensile behavior of ECC. In chapter 3 on interfacial bond, the bond slip behavior and crack development, between the reinforcement and surrounding cementitious matrix is investigated in a unique test setup with special...

  7. 3-D Transient Heat Transfer Analysis of Slab Heating Characteristics in a Reheating Furnace in Hot Strip Mills

    J. Y. Jang; Y. W. Lee; C. N. Lin; C. H. Wang

    2015-01-01

    The reheating furnace is used to reheat the steel slabs before the hot-rolling process. The supported system includes the stationary/moving beams, and the skid buttons which block some thermal radiation transmitted to the bottom of the slabs. Therefore, it is important to analyze the steel slab temperature distribution during the heating period. A three-dimensional mathematical transient heat transfer model for the prediction of temperature distribution within the slab ha...

  8. Challenges in modelling spatiotemporally varying phytoplankton blooms in the Northwestern Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman

    Sedigh Marvasti, S.; Gnanadesikan, A.; Bidokhti, A. A.; Dunne, J. P.; Ghader, S.

    2015-07-01

    We examine interannual variability of phytoplankton blooms in northwestern Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman. Satellite data (SeaWIFS ocean color) shows two climatological blooms in this region, a wintertime bloom peaking in February and a summertime bloom peaking in September. A pronounced anti-correlation between the AVISO sea surface height anomaly (SSHA) and chlorophyll is found during the wintertime bloom. On a regional scale, interannual variability of the wintertime bloom is thus dominated by cyclonic eddies which vary in location from one year to another. These results were compared against the outputs from three different 3-D Earth System models. We show that two coarse (1°) models with the relatively complex biogeochemistry (TOPAZ) capture the annual cycle but neither eddies nor the interannual variability. An eddy-resolving model (GFDL CM2.6) with a simpler biogeochemistry (miniBLING) displays larger interannual variability, but overestimates the wintertime bloom and captures eddy-bloom coupling in the south but not in the north. The southern part of the domain is a region with a much sharper thermocline and nutricline relatively close to the surface, in which eddies modulate diffusive nutrient supply to the surface (a mechanism not previously emphasized in the literature). We suggest that for the model to simulate the observed wintertime blooms within cyclones, it will be necessary to represent this relatively unusual nutrient structure as well as the cyclonic eddies. This is a challenge in the Northern Arabian Sea as it requires capturing the details of the outflow from the Persian Gulf.

  9. Rising CO2 levels will intensify phytoplankton blooms in eutrophic and hypertrophic lakes.

    Jolanda M H Verspagen

    Full Text Available Harmful algal blooms threaten the water quality of many eutrophic and hypertrophic lakes and cause severe ecological and economic damage worldwide. Dense blooms often deplete the dissolved CO2 concentration and raise pH. Yet, quantitative prediction of the feedbacks between phytoplankton growth, CO2 drawdown and the inorganic carbon chemistry of aquatic ecosystems has received surprisingly little attention. Here, we develop a mathematical model to predict dynamic changes in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC, pH and alkalinity during phytoplankton bloom development. We tested the model in chemostat experiments with the freshwater cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa at different CO2 levels. The experiments showed that dense blooms sequestered large amounts of atmospheric CO2, not only by their own biomass production but also by inducing a high pH and alkalinity that enhanced the capacity for DIC storage in the system. We used the model to explore how phytoplankton blooms of eutrophic waters will respond to rising CO2 levels. The model predicts that (1 dense phytoplankton blooms in low- and moderately alkaline waters can deplete the dissolved CO2 concentration to limiting levels and raise the pH over a relatively wide range of atmospheric CO2 conditions, (2 rising atmospheric CO2 levels will enhance phytoplankton blooms in low- and moderately alkaline waters with high nutrient loads, and (3 above some threshold, rising atmospheric CO2 will alleviate phytoplankton blooms from carbon limitation, resulting in less intense CO2 depletion and a lesser increase in pH. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the model predictions were qualitatively robust. Quantitatively, the predictions were sensitive to variation in lake depth, DIC input and CO2 gas transfer across the air-water interface, but relatively robust to variation in the carbon uptake mechanisms of phytoplankton. In total, these findings warn that rising CO2 levels may result in a marked

  10. Importance of a winter dinoflagellate-microflagellate bloom in the Patuxent River estuary

    Sellner, K. G.; Lacouture, R. V.; Cibik, S. J.; Brindley, A.; Brownlee, S. G.

    1991-01-01

    A dense bloom of Katodinium rotundatum was observed in the Patuxent River estuary from December to February 1989. The dinoflagellate dominated phytoplankton densities reaching 10 8 cells l -1 and contributed up to 1900 μgC l -1 in near-surface depths. The bloom maintained a distinct patch extending over 10-25 km of the estuary or approximately one-third to one-half of the total estuary (salinities from 5-13 ppt) and was restricted to regions immediately upriver of the transition between the shallow upriver (3-4 m) and deeper lower estuary (10 m). Daily measurements collected in the primary bloom area at the same time each day in the study area indicated 80- and 120-fold variations in chlorophyll and cell densities from day to day. Densities of potential grazers in the region were high with rotifers, primarily Synchaeta baltica, reaching densities of 1000 l -1 in early winter, and the copepod Eurytemora affinis reaching levels exceeding 1·15 × 10 5 m -3 in February. Estimates of grazing pressure by these planktonic herbivores indicated substantial grazing losses for the bloom, with up to 67% of bloom biomass consumed day -1 in February. Nutrient concentrations and ratios of N/P during the bloom suggested potentially N-limited conditions; bloom demise was coincident with a shift to high N/P ratios and high river flows. These data as well as other historical data suggest that dinoflagellate blooms in the lower Patuxent River estuary could be the primary source of carbon to the system during the winter and supply a large reservoir of labile organic matter to planktonic secondary producers prior to annual spring diatom blooms in the region.

  11. Rising CO2 Levels Will Intensify Phytoplankton Blooms in Eutrophic and Hypertrophic Lakes

    Verspagen, Jolanda M. H.; Van de Waal, Dedmer B.; Finke, Jan F.; Visser, Petra M.; Van Donk, Ellen; Huisman, Jef

    2014-01-01

    Harmful algal blooms threaten the water quality of many eutrophic and hypertrophic lakes and cause severe ecological and economic damage worldwide. Dense blooms often deplete the dissolved CO2 concentration and raise pH. Yet, quantitative prediction of the feedbacks between phytoplankton growth, CO2 drawdown and the inorganic carbon chemistry of aquatic ecosystems has received surprisingly little attention. Here, we develop a mathematical model to predict dynamic changes in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), pH and alkalinity during phytoplankton bloom development. We tested the model in chemostat experiments with the freshwater cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa at different CO2 levels. The experiments showed that dense blooms sequestered large amounts of atmospheric CO2, not only by their own biomass production but also by inducing a high pH and alkalinity that enhanced the capacity for DIC storage in the system. We used the model to explore how phytoplankton blooms of eutrophic waters will respond to rising CO2 levels. The model predicts that (1) dense phytoplankton blooms in low- and moderately alkaline waters can deplete the dissolved CO2 concentration to limiting levels and raise the pH over a relatively wide range of atmospheric CO2 conditions, (2) rising atmospheric CO2 levels will enhance phytoplankton blooms in low- and moderately alkaline waters with high nutrient loads, and (3) above some threshold, rising atmospheric CO2 will alleviate phytoplankton blooms from carbon limitation, resulting in less intense CO2 depletion and a lesser increase in pH. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the model predictions were qualitatively robust. Quantitatively, the predictions were sensitive to variation in lake depth, DIC input and CO2 gas transfer across the air-water interface, but relatively robust to variation in the carbon uptake mechanisms of phytoplankton. In total, these findings warn that rising CO2 levels may result in a marked intensification of

  12. Trophic linkage of a temperate intertidal macrobenthic food web under opportunistic macroalgal blooms: A stable isotope approach

    Park, Hyun Je; Han, Eunah; Lee, Young-Jae; Kang, Chang-Keun

    2016-01-01

    The effects of blooms of opportunistic green macroalgae, Ulva prolifera, on the trophic structure of the macrobenthic food web in a temperate intertidal zone on the western coast of Korea were evaluated using carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes. Biomasses of Ulva and microphytobenthos (MPB) increased significantly at the macroalgae-bloom and the non-bloom sites, respectively, from March to September 2011. The δ 13 C values of most the consumers were arrayed between those of MPB and Ulva at both sites, and differed according to feeding strategies at the macroalgae-bloom site. Seasonally increasing magnitudes in δ 13 C and δ 15 N values of consumers were much steeper at the macroalgae-bloom site than at the non-bloom site. Our findings provide evidence that blooming green macroalgae play a significant role as a basal resource supporting the intertidal macrobenthic food web and their significance varies with feeding strategies of consumers as well as the resource availability. - Highlights: • Trophic effects of Ulva blooms on intertidal macrobenthic food web were evaluated. • Biomasses of Ulva increased at the macroalgae-bloom from March to September. • δ 13 C and δ 15 N values of consumers differed with feeding strategy and season. • Trophic significance of blooming macroalgae varies with feeding strategies of consumers. • Ulva blooms play a significant role as a basal resource supporting the intertidal food web.

  13. Toxin composition of the 2016 Microcystis aeruginosa bloom in the St. Lucie Estuary, Florida.

    Oehrle, Stuart; Rodriguez-Matos, Marliette; Cartamil, Michael; Zavala, Cristian; Rein, Kathleen S

    2017-11-01

    A bloom of the cyanobacteria, Microcystis aeruginosa occurred in the St. Lucie Estuary during the summer of 2016, stimulated by the release of waters from Lake Okeechobee. This cyanobacterium produces the microcystins, a suite of heptapeptide hepatotoxins. The toxin composition of the bloom was analyzed and was compared to an archived bloom sample from 2005. Microcystin-LR was the most abundant toxin with lesser amounts of microcystin variants. Nodularin, cylindrospermopsin and anatoxin-a were not detected. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Economic Cost of an Algae Bloom Cleanup in China's 2008 Olympic Sailing Venue

    Wang, X. H.; Li, L.; Bao, X.; Zhao, L. D.

    2009-07-01

    In the summer of 2008, an algae bloom struck the coast of Qingdao, China, where the 2008 Olympic sailing events were to be held. The bloom was caused by the drift and proliferation of the green algae Enteromorpha (see http://precedings.nature.com/documents/2352/version/1). It lasted for more than 1 month and covered nearly the entire sailing venue. The Enteromorpha bloom was so intense that national and local governments invested a tremendous amount of labor and resources in a cleanup effort in order to achieve Olympic Games standards [Hu and He, 2008].

  15. Remote Sensing Marine Ecology: Wind-driven algal blooms in the open oceans and their ecological impacts

    Tang, DanLing

    2016-07-01

    Algal bloom not only can increase the primary production but also could result in negative ecological consequence, e.g., Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs). According to the classic theory for the formation of algal blooms "critical depth" and "eutrophication", oligotrophic sea area is usually difficult to form a large area of algal blooms, and actually the traditional observation is only sporadic capture to the existence of algal blooms. Taking full advantage of multiple data of satellite remote sensing, this study: 1), introduces "Wind-driven algal blooms in open oceans: observation and mechanisms" It explained except classic coastal Ekman transport, the wind through a variety of mechanisms affecting the formation of algal blooms. Proposed a conceptual model of "Strong wind -upwelling-nutrient-phytoplankton blooms" in Western South China Sea (SCS) to assess role of wind-induced advection transport in phytoplankton bloom formation. It illustrates the nutrient resources that support long-term offshore phytoplankton blooms in the western SCS; 2), Proposal of the theory that "typhoons cause vertical mixing, induce phytoplankton blooms", and quantify their important contribution to marine primary production; Proposal a new ecological index for typhoon. Proposed remote sensing inversion models. 3), Finding of the spatial and temporaldistributions pattern of harmful algal bloom (HAB)and species variations of HAB in the South Yellow Sea and East China Sea, and in the Pearl River estuary, and their oceanic dynamic mechanisms related with monsoon; The project developed new techniques and generated new knowledge, which significantly improved understanding of the formation mechanisms of algal blooms. 1), It proposed "wind-pump" mechanism integrates theoretical system combing "ocean dynamics, development of algal blooms, and impact on primary production", which will benefit fisheries management. 2), A new interdisciplinary subject "Remote Sensing Marine Ecology"(RSME) has been

  16. Field Enhancement in a Grounded Dielectric Slab by Using a Single Superstrate Layer

    Constantinos A. Valagiannopoulos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The addition of a dielectric layer on a slab configuration is frequently utilized in various electromagnetic devices in order to give them certain desired operational characteristics. In this work, we consider a grounded dielectric film-slab, which is externally excited by a normally-incident Gaussian beam. On top of the film-slab, we use an additional suitably selected single isotropic superstrate layer in order to increase the field concentration inside the slab and hence achieve optimal power transfer from the external source to the internal region. We define a quantity of interest, called “enhancement factor,” expressing the increase of the field concentration in the film-slab when the superstrate is present compared to the case that it is absent. It is shown that large enhancement factor values may be achieved by choosing properly the permittivity, the permeability, and the thickness of the superstrate. In particular, it is demonstrated that the field in the film-slab is significantly enhanced when the slab is composed by an ϵ-near-zero (ENZ or low-index metamaterial.

  17. Effects of Metamaterial Slabs Applied to Wireless Power Transfer at 13.56 MHz

    Gunyoung Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the effects of a metamaterial slab (or a practical “perfect lens” with negative permeability applied to a two loop magnetically coupled wireless power transfer (WPT system at 13.56 MHz, based on theory, full-wave electromagnetic- (EM- simulations, and measurements. When using lossless slabs with ideal negative permeability in EM-simulations, the WPT efficiencies have been found to be enhanced close to 100% due to the magnetic field focusing. For the case of using a realistic slab made of ring resonators (RR μr=-1-j0.23 with s/d=0.5 (s: slab width, d: distance between the transmitting and receiving loops, the WPT efficiency has been found to significantly decrease to about 20%, even lower than that of a free space case (32% due to the heavy power absorption in the slab. However, some efficiency enhancement can be achieved when s/d is optimized between 0.1 and 0.3. Overall, the significant enhancement of efficiencies when using a lossless slab becomes moderate or only marginal when employing a realistic slab.

  18. Closure behavior of spherical void in slab during hot rolling process

    Cheng, Rong; Zhang, Jiongming; Wang, Bo

    2018-04-01

    The mechanical properties of steels are heavily deteriorated by voids. The influence of voids on the product quality should be eliminated through rolling processes. The study on the void closure during hot rolling processes is necessary. In present work, the closure behavior of voids at the center of a slab at 800 °C during hot rolling processes has been simulated with a 3D finite element model. The shape of the void and the plastic strain distribution of the slab are obtained by this model. The void decreases along the slab thickness direction and spreads along the rolling direction but hardly changes along the strip width direction. The relationship between closure behavior of voids and the plastic strain at the center of the slab is analyzed. The effects of rolling reduction, slab thickness and roller diameter on the closure behavior of voids are discussed. The larger reduction, thinner slab and larger roller diameter all improve the closure of voids during hot rolling processes. Experimental results of the closure behavior of a void in the slab during hot rolling process mostly agree with the simulation results..

  19. Extraordinary wavelength reduction in terahertz graphene-cladded photonic crystal slabs

    Williamson, Ian A. D.; Mousavi, S. Hossein; Wang, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Photonic crystal slabs have been widely used in nanophotonics for light confinement, dispersion engineering, nonlinearity enhancement, and other unusual effects arising from their structural periodicity. Sub-micron device sizes and mode volumes are routine for silicon-based photonic crystal slabs, however spectrally they are limited to operate in the near infrared. Here, we show that two single-layer graphene sheets allow silicon photonic crystal slabs with submicron periodicity to operate in the terahertz regime, with an extreme 100× wavelength reduction from graphene’s large kinetic inductance. The atomically thin graphene further leads to excellent out-of-plane confinement, and consequently photonic-crystal-slab band structures that closely resemble those of ideal two-dimensional photonic crystals, with broad band gaps even when the slab thickness approaches zero. The overall photonic band structure not only scales with the graphene Fermi level, but more importantly scales to lower frequencies with reduced slab thickness. Just like ideal 2D photonic crystals, graphene-cladded photonic crystal slabs confine light along line defects, forming waveguides with the propagation lengths on the order of tens of lattice constants. The proposed structure opens up the possibility to dramatically reduce the size of terahertz photonic systems by orders of magnitude. PMID:27143314

  20. Review of Punching Shear Behaviour of Flat Slabs Reinforced with FRP Bars

    Mohamed, Osama A.; Khattab, Rania

    2017-10-01

    Using Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP) bars to reinforce two-way concrete slabs can extend the service life, reduce maintenance cost and improve-life cycle cost efficiency. FRP reinforcing bars are more environmentally friendly alternatives to traditional reinforcing steel. Shear behaviour of reinforced concrete structural members is a complex phenomenon that relies on the development of internal load-carrying mechanisms, the magnitude and combination of which is still a subject of research. Many building codes and design standards provide design formulas for estimation of punching shear capacity of FRP reinforced flat slabs. Building code formulas take into account the effects of the axial stiffness of main reinforcement bars, the ratio of the perimeter of the critical section to the slab effective depth, and the slab thickness on the punching shear capacity of two-way slabs reinforced with FRP bars or grids. The goal of this paper is to compare experimental data published in the literature to the equations offered by building codes for the estimation of punching shear capacity of concrete flat slabs reinforced with FRP bars. Emphasis in this paper is on two North American codes, namely, ACI 440.1R-15 and CSA S806-12. The experimental data covered in this paper include flat slabs reinforced with GFRP, BFRP, and CFRP bars. Both ACI 440.1R-15 and CSA S806-12 are shown to be in good agreement with test results in terms of predicting the punching shear capacity.

  1. Estimation of RC slab-column joints effective strength using neural networks

    A. A. Shah

    Full Text Available The nominal strength of slab-column joints made of highstrength concrete (HSC columns and normal strength concrete (NSC slabs is of great importance in structural design and construction of concrete buildings. This topic has been intensively studied during the last decades. Different types of column-slab joints have been investigated experimentally providing a basis for developing design provisions. However, available data does not cover all classes of concretes, reinforcements, and possible loading cases for the proper calculation of joint stresses necessary for design purposes. New numerical methods based on modern software seem to be effective and may allow reliable prediction of column-slab joint strength. The current research is focused on analysis of available experimental data on different slab-to-column joints with the aim of predicting the nominal strength of slabcolumn joint. Neural networks technique is proposed herein using MATLAB routines developed to analyze available experimental data. The obtained results allow prediction of the effective strength of column-slab joints with accuracy and good correlation coefficients when compared to regression based models. The proposed method enables the user to predict the effective design of column-slab joints without the need for conservative safety coefficients generally promoted and used by most construction codes.

  2. Vibration Analysis of Beam and Block Precast Slab System due to Human Vibrations

    Chik, T. N. T.; Kamil, M. R. H.; Yusoff, N. A.

    2018-04-01

    Beam and block precast slabs system are very efficient which generally give maximum structural performance where their voids based on the design of the unit soffit block allow a significant reduction of the whole slab self-weight. Initially for some combinations of components or the joint connection of the structural slab, this structural system may be susceptible to excessive vibrations that could effects the performance and also serviceability. Dynamic forces are excited from people walking and jumping which produced vibrations to the slab system in the buildings. Few studies concluded that human induced vibration on precast slabs system may be harmful to structural performance and mitigate the human comfort level. This study will investigate the vibration analysis of beam and block precast slab by using finite element method at the school building. Human activities which are excited from jumping and walking will induce the vibrations signal to the building. Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV) was used to measure the dynamic responses of slab towards the vibration sources. Five different points were assigned specifically where each of location will determine the behaviour of the entire slabs. The finite element analyses were developed in ABAQUS software and the data was further processed in MATLAB ModalV to assess the vibration criteria. The results indicated that the beam and block precast systems adequate enough to the vibration serviceability and human comfort criteria. The overall vibration level obtained was fell under VC-E curve which it is generally under the maximum permissible level of vibrations. The vibration level on the slab is acceptable within the limit that have been used by Gordon.

  3. Prediction of punching shear capacities of two-way concrete slabs reinforced with FRP bars

    Ibrahim M. Metwally

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Where corrosion of steel reinforcement is a concern, fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP reinforcing bar or grid reinforcement provides an alternative reinforcement for concrete flat slabs. The existing provisions for punching of slabs in most international design standards for reinforced concrete are based on tests of steel reinforced slabs. The elastic stiffness and bonding characteristics of FRP reinforcement are sufficiently different from those of steel to affect punching strength [1]. This paper evaluates the punching shear strength of concrete flat slabs reinforced with different types of fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP. A total of 59 full-size slabs were constructed and tested collected from the literature of FRP bars reinforced concrete slabs. The test parameters were the amount of FRP reinforcing bars, Young’s modulus of FRP bars, slab thickness, loaded areas and concrete compressive strength. The experimental punching shear strengths were compared with the available theoretical predictions, including the ACI 318 Code, BS 8110 Code, ACI 440 design guidelines, and a number of models proposed by some researchers in the literature. Two approaches for predicting the punching strength of FRP-reinforced slabs are examined. The first is an empirical new model which is considered as a modification of El-Gamal et al. [2] model. The second is a Neural Networks Technique; which has been developed to predict the punching shear capacity of FRP reinforced concrete slabs. The accuracies of both methods were evaluated against the experimental test data. They attained excellent agreement with available test results compared to the existing design formulas.

  4. Satellite remote sensing of harmful algal blooms: A new multi-algorithm method for detecting the Florida Red Tide (Karenia brevis)

    Carvalho, Gustavo A.; Minnett, Peter J.; Fleming, Lora E.; Banzon, Viva F.; Baringer, Warner

    2010-01-01

    In a continuing effort to develop suitable methods for the surveillance of Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) of Karenia brevis using satellite radiometers, a new multi-algorithm method was developed to explore whether improvements in the remote sensing detection of the Florida Red Tide was possible. A Hybrid Scheme was introduced that sequentially applies the optimized versions of two pre-existing satellite-based algorithms: an Empirical Approach (using water-leaving radiance as a function of chlorophyll concentration) and a Bio-optical Technique (using particulate backscatter along with chlorophyll concentration). The long-term evaluation of the new multi-algorithm method was performed using a multi-year MODIS dataset (2002 to 2006; during the boreal Summer-Fall periods – July to December) along the Central West Florida Shelf between 25.75°N and 28.25°N. Algorithm validation was done with in situ measurements of the abundances of K. brevis; cell counts ≥1.5×104 cells l−1 defined a detectable HAB. Encouraging statistical results were derived when either or both algorithms correctly flagged known samples. The majority of the valid match-ups were correctly identified (~80% of both HABs and non-blooming conditions) and few false negatives or false positives were produced (~20% of each). Additionally, most of the HAB-positive identifications in the satellite data were indeed HAB samples (positive predictive value: ~70%) and those classified as HAB-negative were almost all non-bloom cases (negative predictive value: ~86%). These results demonstrate an excellent detection capability, on average ~10% more accurate than the individual algorithms used separately. Thus, the new Hybrid Scheme could become a powerful tool for environmental monitoring of K. brevis blooms, with valuable consequences including leading to the more rapid and efficient use of ships to make in situ measurements of HABs. PMID:21037979

  5. West Coast DA Event data - West Coast Toxic Pseudo-nitzschia bloom

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Beginning in the spring of 2015 the US West Coast began to experience the most wide-spread toxic Pseudo-nitzschia bloom to date, after approximately eight years...

  6. THE TRPV1 RECEPTOR: THE INTERAGENCY, INTERNATION SYMPOSIUM ON CYANOBACTERIAL HARMFUL ALGAL BLOOMS.

    Background and Significance Evidence indicates that the frequency of occurrence of cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (CHABs) is increasing in spatial and temporal extent in the US and worldwide. Cyanotoxins are among the most potent toxins known, causing death through ...

  7. Satellite Evidence that E. huxleyi Phytoplankton Blooms Weaken Marine Carbon Sinks

    Kondrik, D. V.; Pozdnyakov, D. V.; Johannessen, O. M.

    2018-01-01

    Phytoplankton blooms of the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi are known to produce CO2, causing less uptake of atmospheric CO2 by the ocean, but a global assessment of this phenomenon has so far not been quantified. Therefore, here we quantify the increase in CO2 partial pressure (ΔpCO2) at the ocean surface within E. huxleyi blooms for polar and subpolar seas using an 18 year ocean color time series (1998-2015). When normalized to pCO2 in the absence of bloom, the mean and maximum ΔpCO2 values within the bloom areas varied between 21.0%-43.3% and 31.6%-62.5%, respectively. These results might have appreciable implications for climatology, marine chemistry, and ecology.

  8. Characterisation of transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) produced during algal bloom: A membrane treatment perspective

    Villacorte, Loreen O.; Ekowati, Yuli; Winters, Harvey; Amy, Gary L.; Schippers, Jan Cornelis; Kennedy, D.

    2013-01-01

    Algal blooms are currently a major concern of the membrane industry as it generates massive concentrations of organic matter (e.g. transparent exopolymer particles [TEP]), which can adversely affect the operation of membrane filtration systems

  9. Massive outbreaks of Noctiluca scintillans blooms in the Arabian Sea due to spread of hypoxia.

    Gomes, H.R.; Goes, J.I.; Matondkar, S.G.P.; Buskey, E.J.; Basu, S.; Parab, S.G.; Thoppil, P.G.

    In the last decade, the northern Arabian Sea has witnessed a radical shift in the composition of winter phytoplankton blooms, which previously comprised mainly of diatoms, the unicellular, siliceous photosynthetic organisms favoured by nutrient...

  10. Insights on short–term blooms of planktonic ciliates, provided by an easily recognised genus: Cyrtostrombidium

    Bulit, C.; Macek, Miroslav; Montagnes, D. J. S.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 1 (2013), s. 1-12 ISSN 0065-1583 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : bloom * conjugation * parasitism * patch * population dynamics * lagoon Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.179, year: 2013

  11. A first report on a bloom of the marine prymnesiophycean, Phaeocystis globosa from the Arabian Sea

    Madhupratap, M.; Sawant, S.S.; Gauns, M.

    A thick bloom of the marine prymnesiophycean, Phaeocystis globosa was observed in the central Arabian Sea during the summer monsoon period (July-August, 1996). The cells were mostly in colonial form, embedded in gelatinous matrics. The cell diameter...

  12. "Wax bloom" on beeswax cultural heritage objects: exploring the causes of the phenomenon

    Bartl, B.; Kobera, Libor; Drábková, K.; Ďurovič, M.; Brus, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 7 (2015), s. 509-513 ISSN 0749-1581 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : 13-C NMR * wax bloom * efflorescence Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.226, year: 2015

  13. Swarming of pelagic tunicates associated with phytoplankton bloom in the Bay of Bengal

    Madhupratap, M.; Devassy, V.P.; Nair, S.R.S.; Rao, T.S.S.

    During the 40th cruise of R V Gaveshani, a large swarm pelagic tunicates associated with a bloom of diatoms and blue green algae was observed off Nagapattinam. The doliolid Dolioletta gegenbauri, Uljanin, the salp Thalia democratica Forskal...

  14. BIOMARKER LIPIDS IN RED TIDE (GYMNODINIUM BREVE) BLOOMS ALONG THE NORTHWEST FLORIDA COAST

    The ability to characterize phytoplankton communities and algal blooms using lipids as biomarkers requires knowledge of their distribution and taxonomic significance. Such an approach would have application, for example, in distinguishing and tracking certain dinoflagellates suc...

  15. Study of Under-ice Blooms In the Chukchi Ecosystem (SUBICE) (HLY1401, EM122)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The primary objectives of SUBICE were to determine the spatial distribution of large under-ice phytoplankton blooms on the Chukchi Shelf and the physical mechanisms...

  16. Harmful algal blooms discovered during the Mote Monthly transect cruises, 1998 and 1999 (NODC Accession 0000532)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Harmful algal blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis, have caused massive fish kills in the Gulf of Mexico since the 1500's, with most occurrences on the...

  17. Experimental and numerical investigation of slabs on ground subjected to concentrated loads

    Øverli, Jan

    2014-09-01

    An experimental program is presented where a slab on ground is subjected to concentrated loading at the centre, the edges and at the corners. Analytical solutions for the ultimate load capacity fit well with the results obtained in the tests. The non-linear behaviour of the slab is captured by performing nonlinear finite element analyses. The soil is modelled as a no-tension bedding and a smeared crack approach is employed for the concrete. Through a parametric study, the finite element model has been used to assess the influence of subgrade stiffness and shrinkage. The results indicate that drying shrinkage can cause severe cracking in slabs on grade.

  18. Causes of the fissure formation with shrinkage of metal on low carbon steel slabs

    Ksenzuk, F.A.; Khudas, A.L.; Zelenskaya, D.P.

    1977-01-01

    The causes have been investigated underlying the formation of fissures with spread of metal on low-carbon steel slabs during hot rolling. Metallographic investigations of templates from various sections of work pieces from 15-ton ingots of 08 ps (kp) steels have indicated that the fissures on the slabs are formed after the metal spreads along the small plane and the work piece thins out in the course of rolling because of the opening of large thin-walled honeycomb bubbles. The phenomenon was confirmed schematically on a model in the form of a slab-shaped lead specimen with longitudinal hole of a variable diameter close to one of the edges

  19. EVALUATION OF SHEAR STRENGTH FOR UPPER SLABS OF CAISSON FOUNDATION BASED ON LOAD CARRYING MECHANISM

    Hattori, Hisamichi; Tadokoro, Toshiya; Tanimura, Yukihiro; Nishioka, Hidetoshi; Watanabe, Tadatomo; Maruyama, Osamu

    In upper slabs of caisson foundation, a seismic desi gn is difficult with an incr ease in earthquake load. So we carried out loading tests and FEM analysis for upper slabs of caisson foundation. As a result, we proposed a new design method which takes into co nsideration the effective width on the pull out side based on crack pattern of test specimens, which is not considered in the existing design method. Moreover, we proposed a rational design method based on load carrying mechanism for upper slabs of caisson foundation.

  20. Consortial brown tide - picocyanobacteria blooms in Guantánamo Bay, Cuba.

    Hall, Nathan S; Litaker, R Wayne; Kenworthy, W Judson; Vandersea, Mark W; Sunda, William G; Reid, James P; Slone, Daniel H; Butler, Susan

    2018-03-01

    A brown tide bloom of Aureoumbra lagunensis developed in Guantánamo Bay, Cuba during a period of drought in 2013 that followed heavy winds and rainfall from Hurricane Sandy in late October 2012. Based on satellite images and water turbidity measurements, the bloom appeared to initiate in January 2013. The causative species (A. lagunensis) was confirmed by microscopic observation, and pigment and genetic analyses of bloom samples collected on May 28 of that year. During that time, A. lagunensis reached concentrations of 900,000 cells ml -1 (28 ppm by biovolume) in the middle portion of the Bay. Samples could not be collected from the northern (Cuban) half of the Bay because of political considerations. Subsequent sampling of the southern half of the Bay in November 2013, April 2014, and October 2014 showed persistent lower concentrations of A. lagunensis, with dominance shifting to the cyanobacterium Synechococcus (up to 33 ppm in April), an algal group that comprised a minor bloom component on May 28. Thus, unlike the brown tide bloom in Laguna Madre, which lasted 8 years, the bloom in Guantánamo Bay was short-lived, much like recent blooms in the Indian River, Florida. Although hypersaline conditions have been linked to brown tide development in the lagoons of Texas and Florida, observed euhaline conditions in Guantánamo Bay (salinity 35-36) indicate that strong hypersalinity is not a requirement for A. lagunensis bloom formation. Microzooplankton biomass dominated by ciliates was high during the observed peak of the brown tide, and ciliate abundance was high compared to other systems not impacted by brown tide. Preferential grazing by zooplankton on non-brown tide species, as shown in A. lagunensis blooms in Texas and Florida, may have been a factor in the development of the Cuban brown tide bloom. However, subsequent selection of microzooplankton capable of utilizing A. lagunensis as a primary food source may have contributed to the short-lived duration

  1. Consortial brown tide − picocyanobacteria blooms in Guantánamo Bay, Cuba

    Hall, Nathan S; Litaker, R. Wayne; Kenworthy, W. Judson; Vandersea, Mark W.; Sunda, William G.; Reid, James P.; Slone, Daniel H.; Butler, Susan M.

    2018-01-01

    A brown tide bloom of Aureoumbra lagunensis developed in Guantánamo Bay, Cuba during a period of drought in 2013 that followed heavy winds and rainfall from Hurricane Sandy in late October 2012. Based on satellite images and water turbidity measurements, the bloom appeared to initiate in January 2013. The causative species (A. lagunensis) was confirmed by microscopic observation, and pigment and genetic analyses of bloom samples collected on May 28 of that year. During that time, A. lagunensis reached concentrations of 900,000 cells ml−1 (28 ppm by biovolume) in the middle portion of the Bay. Samples could not be collected from the northern (Cuban) half of the Bay because of political considerations. Subsequent sampling of the southern half of the Bay in November 2013, April 2014, and October 2014 showed persistent lower concentrations of A. lagunensis, with dominance shifting to the cyanobacterium Synechococcus (up to 33 ppm in April), an algal group that comprised a minor bloom component on May 28. Thus, unlike the brown tide bloom in Laguna Madre, which lasted 8 years, the bloom in Guantánamo Bay was short-lived, much like recent blooms in the Indian River, Florida. Although hypersaline conditions have been linked to brown tide development in the lagoons of Texas and Florida, observed euhaline conditions in Guantánamo Bay (salinity 35–36) indicate that strong hypersalinity is not a requirement for A. lagunensis bloom formation. Microzooplankton biomass dominated by ciliates was high during the observed peak of the brown tide, and ciliate abundance was high compared to other systems not impacted by brown tide. Preferential grazing by zooplankton on non-brown tide species, as shown in A. lagunensis blooms in Texas and Florida, may have been a factor in the development of the Cuban brown tide bloom. However, subsequent selection of microzooplankton capable of utilizing A. lagunensis as a primary food source may have contributed to the

  2. Freshwater Algal Bloom Prediction by Support Vector Machine in Macau Storage Reservoirs

    Zhengchao Xie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding and predicting dynamic change of algae population in freshwater reservoirs is particularly important, as algae-releasing cyanotoxins are carcinogens that would affect the health of public. However, the high complex nonlinearity of water variables and their interactions makes it difficult to model the growth of algae species. Recently, support vector machine (SVM was reported to have advantages of only requiring a small amount of samples, high degree of prediction accuracy, and long prediction period to solve the nonlinear problems. In this study, the SVM-based prediction and forecast models for phytoplankton abundance in Macau Storage Reservoir (MSR are proposed, in which the water parameters of pH, SiO2, alkalinity, bicarbonate (HCO3 -, dissolved oxygen (DO, total nitrogen (TN, UV254, turbidity, conductivity, nitrate, total nitrogen (TN, orthophosphate (PO4 3−, total phosphorus (TP, suspended solid (SS and total organic carbon (TOC selected from the correlation analysis of the 23 monthly water variables were included, with 8-year (2001–2008 data for training and the most recent 3 years (2009–2011 for testing. The modeling results showed that the prediction and forecast powers were estimated as approximately 0.76 and 0.86, respectively, showing that the SVM is an effective new way that can be used for monitoring algal bloom in drinking water storage reservoir.

  3. Monitoring of radionuclides in carbon steel blooms produced by EAF process

    Sofilić T.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Because natural and artificial isotopes in steel might originate from steel scrap or from the residue of the material that was used in the technological process, thus monitoring especially artificial radionuclides 60Co, 137Cs and 192Ir deserve special attention. The analysis by g-spectrometry has been applied to determine the presence of natural isotopes 40K, 226Ra, 232Th and 238U as well as of the artificial isotope 60Co, 137Cs and 192Ir and their activity in the produced steel round blooms in the Steel Mill of CMC Sisak d.o.o. At the same time the content of radionuclides in the other materials (ferroalloys, bauxite, fluorite, lime, coke, graphite electrodes, refractory blocks used in the same steel making process was investigated. The measured values regarding the presence of individual isotopes and their activity in steel were as follows: 40K all values were less than 1.6 Bqkg-1; 232Th all activities values were less than 0.02 Bqkg-1; 226Ra all activities values were less than 0.01 Bqkg-1; 238U all activities values were less than 1.10 Bqkg-1; 60Co all activities values were less than 0.02 Bqkg-1; 192Ir all activities values were less than 0.02 Bqkg-1 and 137Cs all activities values were less than 0.30 Bqkg-1.

  4. Cellular neural networks (CNN) simulation for the TN approximation of the time dependent neutron transport equation in slab geometry

    Hadad, Kamal; Pirouzmand, Ahmad; Ayoobian, Navid

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the application of a multilayer cellular neural network (CNN) to model and solve the time dependent one-speed neutron transport equation in slab geometry. We use a neutron angular flux in terms of the Chebyshev polynomials (T N ) of the first kind and then we attempt to implement the equations in an equivalent electrical circuit. We apply this equivalent circuit to analyze the T N moments equation in a uniform finite slab using Marshak type vacuum boundary condition. The validity of the CNN results is evaluated with numerical solution of the steady state T N moments equations by MATLAB. Steady state, as well as transient simulations, shows a very good comparison between the two methods. We used our CNN model to simulate space-time response of total flux and its moments for various c (where c is the mean number of secondary neutrons per collision). The complete algorithm could be implemented using very large-scale integrated circuit (VLSI) circuitry. The efficiency of the calculation method makes it useful for neutron transport calculations

  5. The sedimentary record of dinoflagellate cysts: looking back into the future of phytoplankton blooms

    Barrie Dale

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Marine systems are not as well understood as terrestrial systems, and there is still a great need for more primary observations, in the tradition of the old-time naturalists, before newer methods such as molecular genetics and modeling can be fully utilized. The scientific process whereby the smaller, detailed building blocks of observation are ultimately linked towards better understanding natural systems is illustrated from my own career experience, especially with regard to the dinoflagellates and plankton blooms. Some dinoflagellates produce a fossilizable resting stage (cyst in their life cycle, and dinoflagellate cysts have become one of the most important groups of microfossils used in geological exploration (e.g. oil and gas. This has stimulated both paleontological and biological research producing detailed building blocks of information, currently scattered throughout the respective literature. Here, I attempt to bring together the present day perspective, from biology, with the past, from paleontology, as the most comprehensive basis for future work on the group. This shows the cysts to be the critical link needed for focusing future molecular genetics studies towards a more verifiable view of evolutionary pathways, and it also suggests new integrated methods for studying past, present, and future blooms. The large, rapidly growing field of harmful algal bloom studies is producing many different building blocks, but plankton blooms as episodic phenomena are still poorly understood. This is largely due to the general lack of long-term datasets allowing identification of the changing environmental factors that permit certain species to bloom at unpredictable intervals of time. Cysts in sediments are useful environmental indicators today, e.g. reflecting aspects of climate and pollution, and provide information directly relevant to some dinoflagellate blooms. They therefore may be used for obtaining retrospective information from the

  6. An Improved Thermal Blooming Model for the Laser Performance Code Anchor

    2016-06-01

    over which a laser beam can maintain transverse coherence throughout its propagation distance. Typical values of ro are on the order of a few...G. Gebhardt, “Twenty-five years of thermal blooming: An overview,” in Proceedings of SPIE 1221 Propagation of High-Energy Laser Beams Through the...TERMS thermal blooming, atmospheric propagation , laser , scaling code, Strehl ratio, ANCHOR, COAMPS, NAVSLaM, LEEDR 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 77 16

  7. The Role of Bloom Index of Gelatin on the Interaction with Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells

    Jui Yang Lai

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Biocompatible materials are of considerable interest in the development of cell/drug delivery carriers for therapeutic applications. This paper investigates the effects of the Bloom index of gelatin on its interaction with retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cells. Following two days of culture of ARPE-19 cells with gelatin samples G75-100, G175, and G300, the in vitro biocompatibility was determined by cell proliferation and viability assays, and glutamate uptake measurements, as well as cytokine expression analyses. The mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity in the G300 groups was significantly lower than that of G75-100 and G175 groups. The Live/Dead assays also showed that the gelatin samples G300 induced mild cytotoxicity. In comparison with the treatment of gelatins with low Bloom index, the exposure to high Bloom strength gelatins markedly reduced the glutamate uptake capacity of ARPE-19 cells. One possible explanation for these observations is that the presence of gelatin samples G300 with high viscosity in the medium may affect the nutrient availability to cultured cells. The analyses of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 expression at both mRNA and protein levels showed that the gelatins with low Bloom index caused less cellular inflammatory reaction and had more acceptable biocompatibility than their high Bloom strength counterparts. These findings suggest that the Bloom index gives influence on cellular responses to gelatin materials.

  8. Cyanotoxin mixtures and taste-and-odor compounds in cyanobacterial blooms from the midwestern united states

    Graham, J.L.; Loftin, K.A.; Meyer, M.T.; Ziegler, A.C.

    2010-01-01

    The mixtures of toxins and taste-and-odor compounds present during cyanobacterial blooms are not well characterized and of particular concern when evaluating potential human health risks. Cyanobacterial blooms were sampled in twenty-three Midwestern United States lakes and analyzed for community composition, thirteen cyanotoxins by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and immunoassay, and two taste-and-odor compounds by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Aphanizomenon, Cylindrospermopsis and/or Microcystis were dominant in most (96%) blooms, but community composition was not strongly correlated with toxin and taste-and-odor occurrence. Microcystins occurred in all blooms. Total microcystin concentrations measured by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and immunoassay were linearly related (rs = 0.76, p cyanotoxins occurred in 48% of blooms and 95% had multiple microcystin variants. Toxins and taste-and-odor compounds frequently co-occurred (91% of blooms), indicating odor may serve as a warning that cyanotoxins likely are present. However, toxins occurred more frequently than taste-and-odor compounds, so odor alone does not provide sufficient warning to ensure human-health protection. ?? This article not subject to U.S. Copyright. Published 2010 by the American Chemical Society.

  9. Factors affecting outbreaks of Cochlodinium polykrikoides blooms in coastal areas of Korea

    Lee, Young Sik . E-mail leeyodk@hanmail.net; Lee, Sang Yong

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the causes of the first outbreak of Cochlodinium polykrikoides blooms in Narodo and the Southern coast of Namhaedo on the South Sea, as well as the outbreak of C. polykrikoides blooms in the East Sea and around Wando. From the results of AGP tests using diverse seawater types, we identified seawaters in which C. polykrikoides grow well and those in which they do not, depending on the sampling time and location. The reason for C. polykrikoides blooms initially occurring in Narodo, Namhaedo, and Gujaedo seems to be because the seawater that promotes the growth of C. polykrikoides is transported to the areas of primary generation, such as these three areas, by the influence of the Tsushima Warm Current. The reason that C. polykrikoides blooms occur in the coastal area of Wando and the East Sea is because after the seawater promoting the growth of C. polykrikoides is transported to these areas, the amount of sun radiation increases, and abundant nutrients flow in from heavy rains, resulting in mass propagation of C. polykrikoides. The origin of the seawater that promotes the growth of C. polykrikoides is assumed to be the southern section of the southern coastal area of Narodo, Namhaedo, and Gujaedo, in which C. polykrikoides blooms were initially discovered. The components of the f/2 medium (N, P, Fe, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, Mo, B12, biotin, thiamine) do not seem to trigger the occurrence of C. polykrikoides blooms

  10. Potentially harmful microalgae and algal blooms in a eutrophic estuary in Turkey

    S. TAS

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Distribution of potentially harmful microalgae and algal blooms were investigated at monthly and weekly time scales between October 2009 and September 2010 in the Golden Horn, a eutrophic estuary in the Sea of Marmara (Turkey. Several physical and chemical parameters were analysed together with phytoplankton composition and abundance. A total number of 23 potentially harmful and/or bloom-forming microalgae (14 dinoflagellates, 4 diatoms and 5 phytoflagellates were identified throughout this study period, of which nine taxa have been confirmed to be toxic elsewhere in the world. Most harmful species and algal blooms were observed in late spring and summer particularly in the middle and upper estuaries, and nine taxa formed dense and successive algal blooms causing water discoloration. Nutrient concentrations increased significantly from the lower to the upper estuary. Additionally, high organic matter loads in the upper estuary could also have benefited by mixotrophic species. The increasing number of potentially harmful and bloom-forming species and algal blooms indicated that the GHE is a potential risk area for future HABs.

  11. Diversity and dynamics of a widespread bloom of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense.

    Deana L Erdner

    Full Text Available Historically, cosmopolitan phytoplankton species were presumed to represent largely unstructured populations. However, the recent development of molecular tools to examine genetic diversity have revealed differences in phytoplankton taxa across geographic scales and provided insight into the physiology and ecology of blooms. Here we describe the genetic analysis of an extensive bloom of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense that occurred in the Gulf of Maine in 2005. This bloom was notable for its intensity and duration, covering hundreds of kilometers and persisting for almost two months. Genotypic analyses based on microsatellite marker data indicate that the open waters of the northeastern U.S. harbor a single regional population of A. fundyense comprising two genetically distinct sub-populations. These subpopulations were characteristic of early- and late-bloom samples and were derived from the northern and southern areas of the bloom, respectively. The temporal changes observed during this study provide clear evidence of succession during a continuous bloom and show that selection can act on the timescale of weeks to significantly alter the representation of genotypes within a population. The effects of selection on population composition and turnover would be magnified if sexual reproduction were likewise influenced by environmental conditions. We hypothesize that the combined effects of differential growth and reproduction rates serves to reduce gene flow between the sub-populations, reinforcing population structure while maintaining the diversity of the overall regional population.

  12. Síndrome de Bloom: relato de dois casos

    Aline Salmito Frota

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Síndrome de Bloom é uma doença autossômica recessiva caracterizada por eritema telangiectásico em face, fotossensibilidade e retardo de crescimento pré e pós-natal. A mutação do gene BLM, traz uma instabilidade cromossômica importante, responsável pelas manifestações da síndrome e pela maior susceptibilidade a neoplasias. Há um registro mundial de pacientes com um total de 255 casos, sendo 16 do Brasil. Diante da raridade da síndrome, apresentamos o caso de duas irmãs, filhas de pais consanguíneos, ambas com baixa estatura, apresentando máculas eritematosas com telangiectasias em nariz e região perioral, micrognatismo, dolicocefalia, hipoplasia malar, face triangular, nariz proeminente, máculas hipocrômicas e manchas café com leite em tronco e membros inferiores. O diagnóstico é clínico e pode ser confirmado por citogenética. Os portadores apresentam fenótipo típico com telangiectasias em áreas fotoexpostas. Ainda não há tratamento específico, porém, deve-se oferecer suporte clínico e melhoria da qualidade de vida e diminuição de estigmas.

  13. The interaction of an electromagnetic wave with an inhomogeneous plasma slab

    Lacina, J.; Preinhaelter, J.

    1982-07-01

    In connection with the problem of plasma heating by high-frequency waves a numerical code was developed which makes it possible to study the incidence of an electromagnetic wave on an inhomogeneous plasma slab. Using a one-dimensional model, non-magnetized plasma is described by means of two-fluid equations with finite electron pressure and with the adiabatic condition for all processes. It is shown that at normal incidence of a wave on a cold plasma, the wave is reflected from the region of plasma resonance. A standing wave arises which generates an electrostatic standing wave of a double frequency. At the same time the density gradient sharply rises in this region. In a warm plasma the incident wave again creates a standing wave but nonlinear perturbations propagate from the region of plasma resonance at ion acoustic velocity to the whole plasma volume. In this case the density gradient does not change very much. In the region of plasma resonance ion acoustic waves are also generated. (author)

  14. Correlations between nuclear data and results of integral slab experiments. Case of hafnium

    Palau, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to evaluate how much integral slab experiments can both reduce discrepancies between experimental results and calculations, and improve the knowledge of hafnium isotopes neutronic parameters by an adapted sensitivity and uncertainty method. A statistical approach, based on the generalized least squares method and perturbation theory, has been incorporated into our calculation system in order to deduce microscopic cross-section adjustments from observed integral measurements on this particular 'mock-up' reactor. In this study it has been established that the correlations between integral parameters and hafnium capture cross-sections enable specific variations in the region of resolved resonances at the level of multigroup and punctual cross-sections recommended data (JEF-2.2 evaluation) to be highlighted. The use of determinist methods (APOLLO2 code) together with Monte Carlo- type simulations (TRIPOLI4 code) enabled a depth analysis of the modelling approximations to be carried out. Furthermore, the sensitivity coefficient validation technique employed leads to a reliable assessment of the quality of the new basic nuclear data. In this instance, the adjustments proposed for certain isotope 177 Hf resonance parameters reduce, after error propagation, by 3 to 5 per cent the difference between experimental results and calculations related to this absorbent's efficiency. Beyond this particular application, the qualification methodology integrated in our calculation system should enable other basic sizing parameters to be treated (chemical / geometric data or other unexplored nuclear data) to make technological requirements less stringent. (author)

  15. Correlations between nuclear data and integral slab experiments: the case of hafnium

    Palau, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate how much integral slab experiments can both reduce discrepancies between experimental results and calculations, and improve the knowledge of hafnium isotopes neutronic parameters by an adapted sensitivity and uncertainty method. A statistical approach, based on the generalized least squares method and perturbation theory, has been incorporated into our calculation system in order to deduce microscopic cross-section adjustments from observed integral measurements on this particular 'mock-up' reactor.In this study it has been established that the correlations between integral parameters and hafnium capture cross-sections enable specific variations in the region of resolved resonances at the level of multigroup and punctual cross-sections recommended data (JEF-2.2 evaluation) to be highlighted. The use of determinist methods together with Monte Carlo- type simulations enabled a depth analysis of the modelling approximations to be carried out. Furthermore, the sensitivity coefficient validation technique employed leads to a reliable assessment of the quality of the new basic nuclear data. In this instance, the adjustments proposed for certain isotope 177 Hf resonance parameters reduce, after error propagation, by 3 to 5 per cent the difference between experimental results and calculations related to this absorbent's efficiency. Beyond this particular application, the qualification methodology integrated in our calculation system should enable other basic sizing parameters to be treated (chemical / geometric data or other unexplored nuclear data) to make technological requirements less stringent. (author)

  16. Thin slab processing of acicular ferrite steels with high toughness

    Reip, Carl-Peter; Hennig, Wolfgang; Hagmann, Rolf [SMS Demag Aktiengesellschaft, Duesseldorf (Germany); Sabrudin, Bin Mohamad Suren; Susanta, Ghosh; Lee, Weng Lan [Megasteel Sdn Bhd, Banting (Malaysia)

    2005-07-01

    Near-net-shape casting processes today represent an important option in steelmaking. High productivity and low production cost as well as the variety of steel grades that can be produced plus an excellent product quality are key factors for the acceptance of such processes in markets all over the world. Today's research focuses on the production of pipe steel with special requirements in terms of toughness at low temperatures. The subject article describes the production of hot strip made from acicular ferritic / bainitic steel grades using the CSP thin-slab technology. In addition, the resulting strength and toughness levels as a function of the alloying concepts are discussed. Optimal control of the CSP process allows the production of higher-strength hot-rolled steel grades with a fine-grain acicular-ferritic/bainitic microstructure. Hot strip produced in this way is characterized by a high toughness at low temperatures. In a drop weight tear test, transition temperatures of up to -50 deg C can be achieved with a shear-fracture share of 85%. (author)

  17. Thermal management in inertial fusion energy slab amplifiers

    Sutton, S.B.; Albrecht, G.F.

    1995-01-01

    As the technology associated with the development of solid-state drivers for inertial fusion energy (IFE) has evolved, increased emphasis has been placed on the development of an efficient approach for managing the waste heat generated in the laser media. This paper addresses the technical issues associated with the gas cooling of large aperture slabs, where the laser beam propagates through the cooling fluid. It is shown that the major consequence of proper thermal management is the introduction of simple wedge, or beam steering, into the system. Achieving proper thermal management requires careful consideration of the geometry, cooling fluid characteristics, cooling flow characteristics, as well as the thermal/mechanical/optical characteristics of the laser media. Particularly important are the effects of cooling rate variation and turbulent scattering on the system optical performance. Helium is shown to have an overwhelming advantage with respect to turbulent scattering losses. To mitigate cooling rate variations, the authors introduce the concept of flow conditioning. Finally, optical path length variations across the aperture are calculated. A comparison of two laser materials (S-FAP and YAG) shows the benefit of a nearly a-thermal material on optical variations in the system

  18. Three-dimensional simulations of magnetic reconnection in slab geometry

    Onofri, M.; Primavera, L.; Malara, F.; Veltri, P.

    2004-01-01

    Magnetic reconnection in an incompressible plasma in three-dimensional slab geometry has been studied through magnetohydrodynamics numerical simulations. Particular attention has been paid to the case in which several unstable modes that correspond to resonant surfaces in different positions of the simulation domain, are excited at the beginning of the simulation. The dynamical evolution of such a system leads to a behavior different than what is expected from the linear theory. In particular the effects of the equilibrium field dissipation and the fact that several resonant surfaces are initially excited both concur in modifying the initial growth rates of the instability. In the nonlinear phase two basic phenomena are observed: first, the rapid transfer of energy to large wave numbers, corresponding to a direct cascade of the energy in the spectrum, which approaches, with increasing time, a power law; second, an energy transfer towards smaller wave numbers, which corresponds in the physical space to a coalescence of magnetic islands. Finally, the spectra in the periodic directions exhibit a strongly anisotropic behavior

  19. Subsidence of the pit slab at SLC experimental hall

    Inaba, J.; Himeno, Yoichi; Katsura, Yutaka

    1992-01-01

    Detectors installed at particle accelerator facilities are quite heavy, weighing thousands of tons. On the other hand, ground subsidence caused by the installation of a detector adversely affects the beam line alignment of the collider. It becomes, therefore, very important to figure out the expected amount of ground settlement by means of adequate evaluation methods in advance. At Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), a 1700 mT (metric tons) Mark II detector was replaced with a 4000 mT SLD detector in Stanford Linear Collider (SLC). The exchange started in December 1990 and lasted until March 1991, and the amount of ground settlement was measured by SLAC during that period. We performed simulation studies to evaluate the subsidence of the pit slab using several analysis methods. Parameters used for the analyses were decided based on the information of the SLC structure and the ground conditions at the SLAC area. The objective of this study is to verify the applicability of several simulation methods by comparing the analytical results with the actual subsidence data obtained by SLAC

  20. Identification of Delamination in Concrete Slabs by SIBIE Procedure

    Yamada, M.; Yagi, Y.; Ohtsu, M.

    2017-01-01

    The Impact-Echo method is known as a non-destructive testing for concrete structures. The technique is based on the use of low-frequency elastic waves that propagate in concrete to determine the thickness and to detect internal flaws in concrete. The presence and locations of defects in concrete are estimated from identifying peak frequencies in the frequency spectra, which are responsible for the resonance due to time-of-flight from the defects. In practical applications, however, obtained spectra include so many peak frequencies that it is fairly difficult to identify the defects correctly. In order to improve the Impact-Echo method, Stack Imaging of spectral amplitudes Based on Impact-Echo (SIBIE) procedure is developed as an imaging technique applied to the Impact-Echo data, where defects in concrete are identified visually at the cross-section. In this study, the SIBIE procedure is applied to identify the delamination in a concrete slab. It is demonstrated that the delamination can be identified with reasonable accuracy. (paper)