WorldWideScience

Sample records for major weapon systems

  1. The Mechanisms and Value of Competition for Major Weapon Systems

    2011-04-01

    technology. MUOS is intended to replace the Ultra-High Frequency Follow-On system ( UFO ), which was fielded between 1993 and 2003. Launch of the first......performance on the UFO system was considered an outstanding success. Based on rather limited evidence, Scearce concludes that Boeing’s bid for MUOS was based

  2. 15 CFR Supplement No. 7 to Part 742 - Description of Major Weapons Systems

    2010-01-01

    ... Major Weapons Systems (1) Battle Tanks: Tracked or wheeled self-propelled armored fighting vehicles with...) Armored Combat Vehicles: Tracked, semi-tracked, or wheeled self-propelled vehicles, with armored..., including versions of these aircraft which perform specialized electronic warfare, suppression of air...

  3. Major weapon system environmental life-cycle cost estimating for Conservation, Cleanup, Compliance and Pollution Prevention (C3P2)

    Hammond, Wesley; Thurston, Marland; Hood, Christopher

    1995-01-01

    The Titan 4 Space Launch Vehicle Program is one of many major weapon system programs that have modified acquisition plans and operational procedures to meet new, stringent environmental rules and regulations. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Defense (DOD) mandate to reduce the use of ozone depleting chemicals (ODC's) is just one of the regulatory changes that has affected the program. In the last few years, public environmental awareness, coupled with stricter environmental regulations, has created the need for DOD to produce environmental life-cycle cost estimates (ELCCE) for every major weapon system acquisition program. The environmental impact of the weapon system must be assessed and budgeted, considering all costs, from cradle to grave. The Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) has proposed that organizations consider Conservation, Cleanup, Compliance and Pollution Prevention (C(sup 3)P(sup 2)) issues associated with each acquisition program to assess life-cycle impacts and costs. The Air Force selected the Titan 4 system as the pilot program for estimating life-cycle environmental costs. The estimating task required participants to develop an ELCCE methodology, collect data to test the methodology and produce a credible cost estimate within the DOD C(sup 3)P(sup 2) definition. The estimating methodology included using the Program Office weapon system description and work breakdown structure together with operational site and manufacturing plant visits to identify environmental cost drivers. The results of the Titan IV ELCCE process are discussed and expanded to demonstrate how they can be applied to satisfy any life-cycle environmental cost estimating requirement.

  4. USAF Weapon System Evaluation Program

    1999-01-01

    During this task period, Schafer Corporation provided engineering services and analysis to the USAF at Eglin AFB, Florida in direct support of the USAF Air-to-Surface Weapon System Evaluation Program (WSEP...

  5. Agent-based Modeling Methodology for Analyzing Weapons Systems

    2015-03-26

    technique involve model structure, system representation and the degree of validity, coupled with the simplicity, of the overall model. ABM is best suited... system representation of the air combat system . We feel that a simulation model that combines ABM with equation-based representation of weapons and...AGENT-BASED MODELING METHODOLOGY FOR ANALYZING WEAPONS SYSTEMS THESIS Casey D. Connors, Major, USA

  6. Weapon plutonium in accelerator driven power system

    Shvedov, O.V.; Murin, B.P.; Kochurov, B.P.; Shubin, Yu.M.; Volk, V.I.; Bogdanov, P.V.

    1997-01-01

    Accelerator Driven Systems are planned to be developed for the use (or destruction) of dozens of tons of weapon-grade Plutonium (W-Pu) resulted from the reducing of nuclear weapons. In the paper are compared the parameters of various types of accelerators, the physical properties of various types of targets and blankets, and the results of fuel cycle simulation. Some economical aspects are also discussed

  7. Joint Sustainment of Weapon Systems. Would We Be Better Off?

    Hall, Richard A

    2006-01-01

    .... As depots within the military begin to implement new procedures based on the Lean Six Sigma model, a proposed consolidation of efforts based on major weapon systems could lead to improved cost benefits and decreased maintenance time. Tied with the current Joint Depot Maintenance Program, Lean Six Sigma can continue to improve the Service's depot performance.

  8. Kinematics of Laying an Automated Weapon System

    2017-07-19

    UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED AD-E403 899 Technical Report ARWSE-TR-16024 KINEMATICS OF LAYING AN AUTOMATED WEAPON SYSTEM...information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and...maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of

  9. Vulnerability assessment of a space based weapon platform electronic system exposed to a thermonuclear weapon detonation

    Perez, C. L.; Johnson, J. O.

    Rapidly changing world events, the increased number of nations with inter-continental ballistic missile capability, and the proliferation of nuclear weapon technology will increase the number of nuclear threats facing the world today. Monitoring these nation's activities and providing an early warning and/or intercept system via reconnaissance and surveillance satellites and space based weapon platforms is a viable deterrent against a surprise nuclear attack. However, the deployment of satellite and weapon platform assets in space will subject the sensitive electronic equipment to a variety of natural and man-made radiation environments. These include Van Allen Belt protons and electrons; galactic and solar flare protons; and neutrons, gamma rays, and x-rays from intentionally detonated fission and fusion weapons. In this paper, the MASH vl.0 code system is used to estimate the dose to the critical electronics components of an idealized space based weapon platform from neutron and gamma-ray radiation emitted from a thermonuclear weapon detonation in space. Fluence and dose assessments were performed for the platform fully loaded, and in several stages representing limited engagement scenarios. The results indicate vulnerabilities to the Command, Control, and Communication bay instruments from radiation damage for a nuclear weapon detonation for certain source/platform orientations. The distance at which damage occurs will depend on the weapon yield (n,(gamma)/kiloton) and size (kilotons).

  10. Weapon System Requirements: Detailed Systems Engineering Prior to Product Development Positions Programs for Success

    2016-11-01

    modified, replaced, or sustained by consumers or different manufacturers in addition to the manufacturer that developed the system. It also allows...WEAPON SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS Detailed Systems Engineering Prior to Product Development Positions Programs for Success...Engineering Prior to Product Development Positions Programs for Success Why GAO Did This Study Cost and schedule growth in DOD major defense

  11. BLDC technology and its application in weapon system launching ...

    Due to inherent properties of BLDC Technology BLDC Motors and Drives are profoundly used in military and strategic weapon system applications. In this paper, BLDC Motor and Electromechanical Servo Drive System, operating principle, modeling, characteristics and its application in various weapon system programs are ...

  12. BLDC technology and its application in weapon system launching ...

    In this paper Brushless DC (BLDC) Technology and its Application in Articulation of Weapon System Launching Platform using Electromechanical Servo Drive is presented. ... Due to inherent properties of BLDC Technology BLDC Motors and Drives are profoundly used in military and strategic weapon system applications.

  13. Emerging nuclear energy systems and nuclear weapon proliferation

    Gsponer, A.; Sahin, S.; Jasani, B.

    1983-01-01

    Generally when considering problems of proliferation of nuclear weapons, discussions are focused on horizontal proliferation. However, the emerging nuclear energy systems currently have an impact mainly on vertical proliferation. The paper indicates that technologies connected with emerging nuclear energy systems, such as fusion reactors and accelerators, enhance the knowledge of thermonuclear weapon physics and will enable production of military useful nuclear materials (including some rare elements). At present such technologies are enhancing the arsenal of the nuclear weapon states. But one should not forget the future implications for horizontal proliferation of nuclear weapons as some of the techniques will in the near future be within the technological and economic capabilities of non-nuclear weapon states. Some of these systems are not under any international control. (orig.) [de

  14. Radiocesium Discharges and Subsequent Environmental Transport at the Major U.S. Weapons Production Facilities

    Garten, Jr. C.T.; Hamby, D.M.; Schreckhise, R.G.

    1999-11-14

    Radiocesium is one of the more prevalent radionuclides in the environment as a result of weapons production related atomic projects in the United States and the former Soviet Union. Radiocesium discharges during the 1950's account for a large fraction of the historical releases from U.S. weapons production facilities. Releases of radiocesium to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems during the early ,years of nuclear weapons production provided the opportunity to conduct multidisciplinary studies on the transport mechanisms of this potentially hazardous radionuclide. The major U.S. Department of Energy facilities (Oak Ridge Reservation in Tennessee, Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, and Savannah River Site near Aiken, South Carolina) are located in regions of the country that have different geographical characteristics. The facility siting provided diverse backgrounds for the development of an understanding of environmental factors contributing to the fate and transport of radiocesium. In this paper, we summarize the significant environmental releases of radiocesium in the early -years of weapons production and then discuss the historically significant transport mechanisms for r37Cs at the three facilities that were part of the U.S. nuclear weapons complex.

  15. 75 FR 27854 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-4048, Projected Sales of Major Weapons in...

    2010-05-18

    ... Information Collection: DS-4048, Projected Sales of Major Weapons in Support of Section 25(a)(1) of the Arms... Reduction Act of 1995. Title of Information Collection: Projected Sales of Major Weapons in Support of... automated collection techniques or other forms of technology. Abstract of proposed collection: Section 25(a...

  16. Shipborne Laser Beam Weapon System for Defence against Cruise Missiles

    J.P. Dudeja; G.S. Kalsey

    2000-01-01

    Sea-skim~ing cruise missiles pose the greatest threat to a surface ship in the present-day war scenario. The convenitional close-in-weapon-systems (CIWSs) are becoming less reliable against these new challenges requiring extremely fast reaction time. Naval Forces see a high energy laser as a feasible andjeffective directed energy weapon against sea-skimming antiship cruise missiles becauseof its .ability to deliver destructive energy at the speed of light on to a distant target. The paper com...

  17. Automated Navigation System based on Weapon-Target Assignment

    Mohammad Khairudin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Operating of weapon on the tank is mostly by manually. It is not desired performance for a critical operation. An automatic control system is required to operate the weapon with the target while maintaining the accuracy. In this paper has designed an automatic weapon control system using object image proccessing. Various an image processing methods used to improve the weapon accuracy to obtain the intended target. The method used in digital image processing is the Camshift motion tracking method. This method is compared with the Lucas Canade motion tracking method. This comparison is conducted to found more precise results between the two methods. Results of object image processing are used to control the direction of the weapon that towards the desired goal. The results show that the implementation of the Lucas Canade motion tracking method using fire simulation tools have been successful. The performance of the Lucas Canade motion tracking methods is better than the CamShift method. Using Lucas Canade method for weapon controller is accordance with the purposes.

  18. Economic impact of accelerated cleanup on regions surrounding the US DOE's major nuclear weapons sites

    Greenberg, M.; Solitare, L.; Frisch, M.; Lowrie, K.

    1999-01-01

    The regional economic impacts of the US Department of Energy's accelerated environmental cleanup plan are estimated for the major nuclear weapons sites in Colorado, Idaho, New Mexico, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Washington. The analysis shows that the impact falls heavily on the three relatively rural regions around the Savannah River (SC), Hanford (WA), and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (ID) sites. A less aggressive phase-down of environmental management funds and separate funds to invest in education and infrastructure in the regions helps buffer the impacts on jobs, personal income, and gross regional product. Policy options open to the federal and state and local governments are discussed

  19. Open-area concealed-weapon detection system

    Pati, P.; Mather, P.

    2011-06-01

    Concealed Weapon Detection (CWD) has become a significant challenge to present day security needs; individuals carrying weapons into airplanes, schools, and secured establishments are threat to public security. Although controlled screening, of people for concealed weapons, has been employed in many establishments, procedures and equipment are designed to work in restricted environments like airport passport control, military checkpoints, hospitals, school and university entrance. Furthermore, screening systems do not effectively decipher between threat and non-threat metal objects, thus leading to high rate of false alarms which can become a liability to daily operational needs of establishments. Therefore, the design and development of a new CWD system to operate in a large open area environment with large numbers of people reduced incidences of false alarms and increased location accuracy is essential.

  20. Autonomous Weapon Systems and Risk Management in Hybrid Networks

    Nørgaard, Katrine

    In recent years, the development of autonomous weapon systems and so-called ‘killer robots’, has caused a number of serious legal and ethical concerns in the international community, including questions of compliance with International Humanitarian Law and the Laws of Armed Conflict. On the other...

  1. Autonomous Weapon Systems and Risk Management in Hybrid Networks

    Nørgaard, Katrine

    hand, governments and military services hope to develop game-changing technologies, that are ‘better, faster and cheaper’. In this paper, I wish to show how different and competing regimes of justification shape the technopolitical controversy and risk management of autonomous weapon systems...... of justification and risk management in contemporary conflicts....

  2. Why the United States Must Adopt Lethal Autonomous Weapon Systems

    2017-05-25

    intelligence , Lethal Autonomous Weapon Systems, energy production, energy storage, three-dimensional printing , bandwidth improvements, computer...views on the morality of artificial intelligence (AI) and robotics technology. Eastern culture sees artificial intelligence as an economic savior...capable of improving their society. In contrast, Western culture regards artificial intelligence with paranoia, anxiety, and skepticism. As Eastern

  3. [Prospects in getting accordance between chemical analytic control means and medical technical requirements to safety system concerning chemical weapons destruction].

    Rembovskiĭ, V R; Mogilenkova, L A; Savel'eva, E I

    2005-01-01

    The major unit monitoring chemical weapons destruction objects is a system of chemical analyticcontrol over the technologic process procedures and possibility of environment and workplace pollution withtoxicchemicals and their destruction products. At the same time, physical and chemical control means meet sanitary and hygienic requirements incompletely. To provide efficient control, internationally recognized approaches should be adapted to features of Russian system monitoring pollution of chemical weapons destruction objects with toxic chemicals.

  4. Critical Success Factors and Their Application to DOD Weapon System Acquisition

    Harris, Chad M

    2006-01-01

    Department of Defense weapon systems are growing more complex and expensive and the services are under increasing pressure from Congress to improve the cost schedule and performance of their weapons programs...

  5. Enabling Lead Free Interconnects in DoD Weapon Systems

    2017-09-28

    STATEMENT Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT An enhanced multi-pronged technology transfer approach will be designed to communicate...the needs of the weapon system program managers. Examples of risk will be given and information will be provided on where to access more detailed...Paul Zutter, Janelle Fowler, Holley Wingard, Jon Ahlbin, Charles Peltier, – Air Force • Paul Steiner, Tim Kalt, Gary Dowdy – NAVSEA • Mick Miller

  6. The Morality of Employing Remotely Piloted Weapon Systems in Combat

    2013-03-01

    ethics of remotely piloted weapon systems involve utilitarianism and Just War Theory. Although the other two perspectives, pacifism and realism, do...perspectives of utilitarianism , Just War Theory, pacifism, and realism are evaluated to justify the claim. With the exception of pacifism, each of these...of utilitarianism , Just War Theory, pacifism, and realism are evaluated to justify the claim. With the exception of pacifism, each of these

  7. Weapons Systems, United States Army 1997.

    1997-01-01

    Mexico, Morocco , Philippines, Turkey Co-Production: Korea The Army began fielding the UH-60 in 1978. Between 1978 and 1989 the Army procured UH-60A...Improvement Program ( CSR TEP) to all Area Common User System (ACUS) switch users (except AN/TTC-39-A(V)l). Incorporate Enhanced Switch Operation Program...Finland, Greece, Italy, Kuwait, Morocco , Saudi Arabia National Guard, SHAPE Tech Ctr (NATO), Spain, Special Def Acq Fund (pre-purchased export

  8. United States Army Weapon Systems 2010

    2009-09-18

    equipment, tractor, van, wrecker, 8.8-ton Load Handling System (LHS), 8.8-ton LHS trailer, and 10-ton dump truck models). Three truck variants and...NJ) hydraulic pump and motor: Vickers (Jackson, MS) 131 UnIteD StAteS Army ACqUISItIon phASe InveStment Component High Mobility Engineer Excavator...MEDEVAC and hoist configuration, the UH-72A is also being fielded in a VIP, National Guard Homeland Security (HLS) and a Combined Training Center

  9. Application of image simulation in weapon system development

    Willers, CJ

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available systems. Index Terms—image simulation, scene modelling, weapon eval- uation, infrared I. INTRODUCTION Simulation is used increasingly to support military system development throughout all the product life cycle phases, from concept analysis... the theoretical models. The signature 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 Wavelength [ m]� Tr a n sm itt an ce Path length = 10 000 m Sub-arctic Summer: 14 C ambient, 75% RH, Navy maritime aerosol, 23 km visibility Very high humidity: 35 C...

  10. Implementation of a Cost-Accounting System for Visibility of Weapon Systems Life-Cycle Costs

    Ugone, Mary

    2001-01-01

    .... The DoD Acquisition Reform Goal 10 required DoD to define requirements and establish an implementation plan for a cost-accounting system that provides routine visibility into weapon system life-cycle...

  11. Microelectronic Status Analysis and Secondary Part Procureability Assessment of the HAWK Weapon System

    Maddux, Gary

    2000-01-01

    The MT Division, Engineering Directorate (ED), RDEC, AMCOM has the mission and function of providing microelectronic technology assessments, and producibility and supportability analyses for the HAWK weapon system...

  12. Microelectronic Status Analysis and Secondary Part Procureability Assessment of the HAWK Weapon System

    Maddux, Gary

    1999-01-01

    The Industrial Operations Division (IOD), SEPD, RDEC, AMCOM has the mission and function of providing microelectronic technology assessments, and producibility and supportability analyses for the HAWK weapon system...

  13. Study on combat effectiveness of air defense missile weapon system based on queuing theory

    Zhao, Z. Q.; Hao, J. X.; Li, L. J.

    2017-01-01

    Queuing Theory is a method to analyze the combat effectiveness of air defense missile weapon system. The model of service probability based on the queuing theory was constructed, and applied to analyzing the combat effectiveness of "Sidewinder" and "Tor-M1" air defense missile weapon system. Finally aimed at different targets densities, the combat effectiveness of different combat units of two types' defense missile weapon system is calculated. This method can be used to analyze the usefulness of air defense missile weapon system.

  14. BLDC technology and its application in weapon system launching ...

    user

    Motors and Drives are profoundly used in military and strategic weapon ... electric field by means of a split physical commutator and brushes. ... Figure 3.1: Akash Missile Launching Platform on Wheeled Vehicle (downloaded from internet). 4.

  15. Implementation of a Cost-Accounting System for Visibility of Weapon Systems Life-Cycle Costs

    Ugone, Mary

    2001-01-01

    ... costs through activity-based costing and management. The system must deliver timely, integrated data for management purposes to permit understanding of total weapon costs, provide a basis for estimating costs of future systems, and feed other tools for life-cycle cost management.

  16. Asynchronous data-driven classification of weapon systems

    Jin, Xin; Mukherjee, Kushal; Gupta, Shalabh; Ray, Asok; Phoha, Shashi; Damarla, Thyagaraju

    2009-01-01

    This communication addresses real-time weapon classification by analysis of asynchronous acoustic data, collected from microphones on a sensor network. The weapon classification algorithm consists of two parts: (i) feature extraction from time-series data using symbolic dynamic filtering (SDF), and (ii) pattern classification based on the extracted features using the language measure (LM) and support vector machine (SVM). The proposed algorithm has been tested on field data, generated by firing of two types of rifles. The results of analysis demonstrate high accuracy and fast execution of the pattern classification algorithm with low memory requirements. Potential applications include simultaneous shooter localization and weapon classification with soldier-wearable networked sensors. (rapid communication)

  17. Best Practices. An Integrated Portfolio Management Approach to Weapon System Investments Could Improve DOD's Acquisition Outcomes

    2007-01-01

    .... Specifically, GAO compared DOD's processes for investing in weapon systems to the best practices that successful commercial companies use to achieve a balanced mix of new products, and identified...

  18. Microelectronic Status Analysis and Secondary Part Procureability Assessment of the ATACMS-BAT Weapon System

    Maddux, Gary

    2000-01-01

    The MT Division, Engineering Directorate (ED), RDEC, AMCOM has the mission and function of providing microelectronic technology assessments, and producibility and supportability analyses for the ATACMS-BAT weapon system...

  19. Lipophilic super-absorbent swelling gels as cleaners for use on weapons systems and platforms

    Increasingly stringent environmental regulations on volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) demand the development of disruptive technologies for cleaning weapons systems and platforms. Currently employed techniques such as vapor degreasing, solvent, aqueous, or blast c...

  20. Financial Management: Financial Reporting of Deferred Maintenance Information on Navy Weapon Systems for FY 2002

    Granetto, Paul

    2003-01-01

    .... The Navy reported an estimated $ 1.3 billion of deterred maintenance at the beginning of FY 2002 on its aircraft, ships, missiles, combat vehicles, and other weapon systems national defense property, plant, and equipment (PP&E) commodities...

  1. War Reserve Analysis and Secondary Item Procureability Assessment of the AMCOM Supported Weapon Systems

    Maddux, Gary

    2000-01-01

    .... IOD evaluates the impacts of nonavailability of secondary items on the life cycle supportability of AMCOM weapon systems and evaluates the producibility of secondary items for war reserve requirements...

  2. High Speed Marine Craft Threat: Buoyancy and Stability Requirements for a Sub-Launched Weapon System

    Lowery, John

    1999-01-01

    ...) that would be used for coastal infiltration. The most practical scenario would utilize a torpedo stow for a weapon system that would be tube launched, thus ensuring the maximum cruise missile capability of the submarine with a minimal sacrifice...

  3. US Army Weapon Systems Human-Computer Interface (WSHCI) style guide, Version 1

    Avery, L.W.; O`Mara, P.A.; Shepard, A.P.

    1996-09-30

    A stated goal of the U.S. Army has been the standardization of the human computer interfaces (HCIS) of its system. Some of the tools being used to accomplish this standardization are HCI design guidelines and style guides. Currently, the Army is employing a number of style guides. While these style guides provide good guidance for the command, control, communications, computers, and intelligence (C4I) domain, they do not necessarily represent the more unique requirements of the Army`s real time and near-real time (RT/NRT) weapon systems. The Office of the Director of Information for Command, Control, Communications, and Computers (DISC4), in conjunction with the Weapon Systems Technical Architecture Working Group (WSTAWG), recognized this need as part of their activities to revise the Army Technical Architecture (ATA). To address this need, DISC4 tasked the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to develop an Army weapon systems unique HCI style guide. This document, the U.S. Army Weapon Systems Human-Computer Interface (WSHCI) Style Guide, represents the first version of that style guide. The purpose of this document is to provide HCI design guidance for RT/NRT Army systems across the weapon systems domains of ground, aviation, missile, and soldier systems. Each domain should customize and extend this guidance by developing their domain-specific style guides, which will be used to guide the development of future systems within their domains.

  4. Prioritization Assessment for Capability Gaps in Weapon System of Systems Based on the Conditional Evidential Network

    Dong Pei

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The prioritization of capability gaps for weapon system of systems is the basis for design and capability planning in the system of systems development process. In order to address input information uncertainties, the prioritization of capability gaps is computed in two steps using the conditional evidential network method. First, we evaluated the belief distribution of degree of required satisfaction for capabilities, and then calculated the reverse conditional belief function between capability hierarchies. We also provided verification for the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method through a prioritization of capability gaps calculation using an example of a spatial-navigation-and-positioning system of systems.

  5. The Future of Killing: Ethical and Legal Implications of Fully Autonomous Weapon Systems

    Martin Lark

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Warfare is moving towards full weapon autonomy. Already, there are weapons in service that replace a human at the point of engagement. The remote pilot must adhere to the law and consider the moral and ethical implications of using lethal force. Future fully autonomous weapons will be able to search for, identify and engage targets without human intervention, raising the question of who is responsible for the moral and ethical considerations of using such weapons. In the chaos of war, people are fallible, but they can apply judgement and discretion and identify subtle signals. For example, humans can identify when an enemy wants to surrender, are burying their dead, or are assisting non-combatants. An autonomous weapon may not be so discerning and may not be capable of being programmed to apply discretion, compassion, or mercy, nor can it adapt commanders’ intent or apply initiative. Before fully autonomous weapons use lethal force, it is argued that there needs to be assurances that the ethical implications are understood and that control mechanisms are in place to ensure that oversight of the system is able to prevent incidents that could amount to breaches of the laws of armed conflict.

  6. U.S. Army weapon systems human-computer interface style guide. Version 2

    Avery, L.W.; O`Mara, P.A.; Shepard, A.P.; Donohoo, D.T.

    1997-12-31

    A stated goal of the US Army has been the standardization of the human computer interfaces (HCIs) of its system. Some of the tools being used to accomplish this standardization are HCI design guidelines and style guides. Currently, the Army is employing a number of HCI design guidance documents. While these style guides provide good guidance for the command, control, communications, computers, and intelligence (C4I) domain, they do not necessarily represent the more unique requirements of the Army`s real time and near-real time (RT/NRT) weapon systems. The Office of the Director of Information for Command, Control, Communications, and Computers (DISC4), in conjunction with the Weapon Systems Technical Architecture Working Group (WSTAWG), recognized this need as part of their activities to revise the Army Technical Architecture (ATA), now termed the Joint Technical Architecture-Army (JTA-A). To address this need, DISC4 tasked the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to develop an Army weapon systems unique HCI style guide, which resulted in the US Army Weapon Systems Human-Computer Interface (WSHCI) Style Guide Version 1. Based on feedback from the user community, DISC4 further tasked PNNL to revise Version 1 and publish Version 2. The intent was to update some of the research and incorporate some enhancements. This document provides that revision. The purpose of this document is to provide HCI design guidance for the RT/NRT Army system domain across the weapon systems subdomains of ground, aviation, missile, and soldier systems. Each subdomain should customize and extend this guidance by developing their domain-specific style guides, which will be used to guide the development of future systems within their subdomains.

  7. What transformations in the international system are prerequisites for the complete elimination of nuclear weapons?

    Wheeler, M.

    1993-01-01

    Pointing out that the task presented to the panel is to explore how and when the world might cross the threshold to the post-nuclear-weapon age, the author deals with the topic by first stating several basic assumptions which help frame the discussion in general terms; then constructing a model of a phased approach for dealing practically with nuclear weapons during the next several decades; and finally identifying changes needed in the international system if a program of nuclear disarmament is to have any chance of success over the long term

  8. Warhead politics: Livermore and the competitive system of nuclear weapon design

    Francis, Sybil [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    From the 1950s onward, US evolved a two-laboratory system to design, develop, and test nuclear weapons. LANL (New Mexico) dates from World War II. The founding in 1952 of LLNL in California effectively established the two-laboratory system. Despite essentially identical missions, LANL and LLNL adopted different strategies and approaches to the development of nuclear weapons. This thesis looks to their joint history for an explanation of this and consequent questions (how did the two-laboratory system originate and evolve? how did it function? what impact did it have on nuclear weapons development?) The incentives and constraints that shaped laboratory strategies and outputs was determined by military demand for nuclear weapons, an informal mandate against laboratory duplication, congressional support for competition, and Livermore`s role as the ``second lab.`` This thesis discusses the laboratories` role in the arms race, organizational strategies for coping with changing political environments, dynamics of technological innovation, and the leverage of policymakers over large organizations.

  9. Acquisition Logistics Guidelines for Improving the Argentine Air Force Weapon System Acquisition Process

    1999-03-01

    the Argentine Air Force Academy, in 1979. He earned a degree as an Aeronautical and Mechanical Engineer from Escuela de Ingenieria Aeronäutica in...Independent Assessments Innovative Practices Continuos Improvement Legality of Weapons Under International Law Software Intensive Systems...optimize total system performance and life cycle cost. The term total implies the prime mission equipment -hardware and software -, its operational and

  10. From the lab to the battlefield? Nanotechnology and fourth generation nuclear weapons

    Gsponer, Andre

    2005-01-01

    The paper addresses some major implications of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) engineering and nanotechnology for the improvement of existing types of nuclear weapons, and the development of more robust versions of these weapons, as well as for the development of fourth generations nuclear weapons in which nanotechnology will play an essential role.

  11. Optimizing the Sustainment of U.S. Army Weapon Systems

    2016-03-17

    Dale Carnegie , Fellowship, etc.) NA None of the above OPTIMIZING SUSTAINMENT OF ARMY SYSTEMS 36 Question 11: Army Civilian Education System...Darden, Dale Carnegie , Fellowship, etc.) None of the above 11. Army Civilian Education System (check all that apply) Action Officer Development Course

  12. Experimental Investigations of a Precision Sensor for an Automatic Weapons Stabilizer System

    Igor Korobiichuk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of experimental investigations of a precision sensor for an automatic weapons stabilizer system. It also describes the experimental equipment used and the structure of the developed sensor. A weapons stabilizer is designed for automatic guidance of an armament unit in the horizontal and vertical planes when firing at ground and air targets that are quickly maneuvering, and at lower speeds when firing anti-tank missiles, as well as the bypass of construction elements by the armament unit, and the automatic tracking of moving targets when interacting with a fire control system. The results of experimental investigations have shown that the error of the precision sensor developed on the basis of a piezoelectric element is 6 × 10−10 m/s2 under quasi-static conditions, and ~10−5 m/s2 for mobile use. This paper defines metrological and calibration properties of the developed sensor.

  13. Peo Life Cycle Cost Accountability: Viability Of Foreign Suppliers For Weapon System Development

    2016-02-16

    Germany, South Korea and others. The overarching categories of items the U.S. purchases from these countries are clothing and textiles , electronics...production at the Mountain Pass rare earths plant Oct 20, 2015. However, their plants in Estonia and China are in place to continue providing rare...technologies critical to the production and sustainment of advanced military weapon systems; and maintaining critical design skills to ensure that

  14. Historical Cost Growth of Completed Weapon System Programs

    Arena, Mark V; Leonard, Robert S; Murray, Sheila E; Younossi, Obaid

    2006-01-01

    ...: Cost Risk Analysis for Air Force Systems," and includes a literature review of cost growth studies and a more extensive analysis of the historical cost growth in acquisition programs than appears...

  15. Characterizing noise in the global nuclear weapon monitoring system

    Schultz, Colin

    2013-03-01

    Under the auspices of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization, a worldwide monitoring system designed to detect the illegal testing of nuclear weaponry has been under construction since 1999. The International Monitoring System is composed of a range of sensors, including detectors for hydroacoustic and seismic signals, and when completed, will include 60 infrasound measurement arrays set to detect low-frequency sound waves produced by an atmospheric nuclear detonation.

  16. Engineering Design Handbook. Army Weapon Systems Analysis. Part 2

    1979-10-01

    detecting the target with a given number of looks. Schweitzer (Ref. 21) also studied this same problem of minimum-search policy. In Ref.M21, Schweitzer ...Stephen M. Pollack, "A Simple Model of Search for a Moving Target", Operations Research 18., pp. 883-903 (September.October 1970). 21. Paul J. Schweitzer ... Albert Shapero and Charles Bates, Jr., A Method for Performing Human Engineeriýg Analysis of Wenpoa Systems, WADC Technical Report 59-784, Wright

  17. Identifying Potential Weapon Systems That Can Be Divested

    2016-04-08

    sustainment cost mitigation strategies include reduce supply chain by maximizing multi-role equipment, reduce divestiture obstacles/friction points...question. Extensive search of the internet government websites were used to find government information and open access articles related to the research...they did not use it, and if they use anything thing else to identify these low priority systems. The intent of the survey was not to get into

  18. Weapon system simulation in flight (WaSiF)

    Bartoldus, Klaus H.

    2005-05-01

    The research and technology demonstration program was co-funded by the Ministries of Defence of five European countries under the framework of the "EUropean Cooperation for the Long term in Defence" (EUCLID) MoU to include Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, Portugal and Turkey with considerable financial contribution from the industrial entities. EADS Military Aircraft Munich has led a team of seven industries and research centers, including Aermacchi of Italy, DutchSpace and NLR of The Netherlands, OGMA and INETI of Portugal and Marmara Research Center of Turkey. The purpose of the project was the design, realization and demonstration of an embedded real time simulation system allowing the combat training of operational aircrew in a virtual air defence scenario and threat environment against computer generated forces in the air and on the ground while flying on a real aircraft. The simulated scenario is focused on air-to-air beyond visual range engagements of fighter aircraft. WaSiF represents one of the first demonstrations of an advanced embedded real time training system onboard a fighter/training aircraft. The system is integrated onboard the MB339CX aircraft. The overall flight test activity covered a wide variety of test conditions for a total of 21 test flights; the operational airborne time of the WaSiF amounted to nearly 18 hours. The demonstration and evaluation were quite positive; the five-nation aircrew was very fond of their first encounter with the virtual world in the military flight training. A common view and approach towards Network Centric Warfare is but emerging. WaSiF in a future networked configuration holds lots of promise to serve the needs of Integrated Air Defence: Common training in a virtual environment.

  19. Technical analysis of US Army Weapons Systems and related advanced technologies of military interest. Final report

    NONE

    1991-06-14

    This report summarizes the activities and accomplishments of an US Army technology security project designed to identify and develop effective policy guidelines for militarily critical technologies in specific Army systems and in broad generic technology areas of military interest, Individual systems analyses are documented in separate Weapons Systems Technical Assessments (WSTAs) and the general generic technology areas are evaluated in the Advanced Technology Assessment Reports (ATARs), However, specific details of these assessments are not addressed here, only recommendations regarding aspects of the defined approach, methodology, and format are provided and discussed.

  20. Chemical and Biological Defense: DOD Needs Consistent Policies and Clear Processes to Address the Survivability of Weapon Systems Against Chemical and Biological Threats

    2006-01-01

    DOD, joint, and military service weapon system acquisition policies inconsistently address and do not establish a clear process for considering and testing system chemical and biological survivability...

  1. Dynamic behavioural model for assessing impact of regeneration actions on system availability: Application to weapon systems

    Monnin, Maxime; Iung, Benoit; Senechal, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    Mastering system availability all along the system life cycle is now a critical issue with regards to systems engineering. It is more true for military systems which operate in a battle context. Indeed as they must act in a hostile environment, they can become unavailable due to failures of or damage to the system. In both cases, system regeneration is required to restore its availability. Many approaches based on system modelling have been developed to assess availability. However, very few of them take battlefield damage into account and relevant methods for the model development are missing. In this paper, a modelling method for architecture of weapon system of systems that supports regeneration engineering is proposed. On the one hand, this method relies on a unified failure/damage approach to extend acknowledged availability models. It allows to integrate failures, damages, as well as the possibility of regeneration, into operational availability assessment. Architectures are modelled as a set of operational functions, supported by components that belong to platform (system). Modelling atoms (i.e. elementary units of modelling) for both the architecture components and functions are defined, based on state-space formalism. Monte Carlo method is used to estimate availability through simulation. Availability of the architecture is defined on the basis of the possible states of the required functions for a mission. The states of a function directly depend on the state of the corresponding components (i.e. the components that support the function). Aggregation rules define the state of the function knowing the states of each component. Aggregation is defined by means of combinatorial equations of the component states. The modelling approach is supported by means of stochastic activity network for the models simulation. Results are analysed in terms of graphs of availability for mission's days. Thus, given the simulation results, it is possible to plan combat

  2. Fuel cycle of nuclear power plants and safeguards system of nuclear weapon nonproliferation

    Malek, Z.

    1980-10-01

    The international safeguard system of nuclear weapon nonproliferation and the IAEA safeguard system are briefly described. In Czechoslovakia, a decree was issued in 1977 governing the accounting for and control of nuclear materials. The contents of the decree are presented. Described are computer processing of accounting data, technical criteria for the safeguard system application, containment and inspection in the IAEA safeguard system. The method is shown of the control of and accounting for nuclear materials in nuclear power plants and in fuel manufacturing, reprocessing and enrichment plants. Nondestructive and destructive methods of nuclear materials analysis are discussed. Nondestructive methods used include gamma spectrometry, neutron techniques, X-ray fluores--cence techniques. (J.P.)

  3. Nuclear weapons complex

    Rezendes, V.S.

    1992-04-01

    In addition to long-standing safety and environmental problems plaguing the nuclear weapons complex, this paper reports that the Department of Energy (DOE) faces a major new challenge-how to reconfigure the weapons complex to meet the nation's defense needs in the 21st century. Key decisions still need to be made about the size of the complex; where, if necessary, to relocate various operations; what technologies to use for new tritium production; and what to do with excess weapons-grade material. The choices confronting DOE and Congress are difficult given the conflicting demands for limited resources

  4. Special Weapons

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Supporting Navy special weapons, the division provides an array of engineering services, technical publication support services, logistics support services, safety...

  5. Object Recognition System in Remote Controlled Weapon Station using SIFT and SURF Methods

    Midriem Mirdanies

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Object recognition system using computer vision that is implemented on Remote Controlled Weapon Station (RCWS is discussed. This system will make it easier to identify and shoot targeted object automatically. Algorithm was created to recognize real time multiple objects using two methods i.e. Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT and Speeded Up Robust Features (SURF combined with K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN and Random Sample Consensus (RANSAC for verification. The algorithm is designed to improve object detection to be more robust and to minimize the processing time required. Objects are registered on the system consisting of the armored personnel carrier, tanks, bus, sedan, big foot, and police jeep. In addition, object selection can use mouse to shoot another object that has not been registered on the system. Kinect™ is used to capture RGB images and to find the coordinates x, y, and z of the object. The programming language used is C with visual studio IDE 2010 and opencv libraries. Object recognition program is divided into three parts: 1 reading image from kinect™ and simulation results, 2 object recognition process, and 3 transfer of the object data to the ballistic computer. Communication between programs is performed using shared memory. The detected object data is sent to the ballistic computer via Local Area Network (LAN using winsock for ballistic calculation, and then the motor control system moves the direction of the weapon model to the desired object. The experimental results show that the SIFT method is more suitable because more accurate and faster than SURF with the average processing time to detect one object is 430.2 ms, two object is 618.4 ms, three objects is 682.4 ms, and four objects is 756.2 ms. Object recognition program is able to recognize multi-objects and the data of the identified object can be processed by the ballistic computer in realtime.

  6. A low cost maritime control aircraft-ship-weapons system. [antiship missile defense

    Fluk, H.

    1981-01-01

    It is pointed out that the long-range antiship standoff missile is emerging as the foremost threat on the seas. Delivered by high speed bombers, surface ships, and submarines, a missile attack can be mounted against selected targets from any point on the compass. An investigation is conducted regarding the configuration of a system which could most efficiently identify and destroy standoff threats before they launch their weapons. It is found that by using ships for carrying and launching missiles, and employing aircraft with a powerful radar only for search and missile directing operations, aircraft cost and weight can be greatly reduced. The employment of V/STOL aircraft in preference to other types of aircraft makes it possible to use ships of smaller size for carrying the aircraft. However, in order to obtain an all-weather operational capability for the system, ships are selected which are still big enough to display the required stability in heavy seas.

  7. Mobile Pit verification system design based on passive special nuclear material verification in weapons storage facilities

    Paul, J. N.; Chin, M. R.; Sjoden, G. E. [Nuclear and Radiological Engineering Program, George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 770 State St, Atlanta, GA 30332-0745 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    A mobile 'drive by' passive radiation detection system to be applied in special nuclear materials (SNM) storage facilities for validation and compliance purposes has been designed through the use of computational modeling and new radiation detection methods. This project was the result of work over a 1 year period to create optimal design specifications to include creation of 3D models using both Monte Carlo and deterministic codes to characterize the gamma and neutron leakage out each surface of SNM-bearing canisters. Results were compared and agreement was demonstrated between both models. Container leakages were then used to determine the expected reaction rates using transport theory in the detectors when placed at varying distances from the can. A 'typical' background signature was incorporated to determine the minimum signatures versus the probability of detection to evaluate moving source protocols with collimation. This established the criteria for verification of source presence and time gating at a given vehicle speed. New methods for the passive detection of SNM were employed and shown to give reliable identification of age and material for highly enriched uranium (HEU) and weapons grade plutonium (WGPu). The finalized 'Mobile Pit Verification System' (MPVS) design demonstrated that a 'drive-by' detection system, collimated and operating at nominally 2 mph, is capable of rapidly verifying each and every weapon pit stored in regularly spaced, shelved storage containers, using completely passive gamma and neutron signatures for HEU and WGPu. This system is ready for real evaluation to demonstrate passive total material accountability in storage facilities. (authors)

  8. Man-machine interface in a submarine command and weapon control system: features and design experience

    Johan H. Aas

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Important man-machine interface (MMI issues concerning a submarine command and weapon control system (CWCS such as crew organization, automation level and decision support are discussed in this paper. Generic submarine CWCS functions and operating conditions are outlined. Detailed, dynamic and real-time prototypes were used to support the MMI design. The prototypes are described and experience with detailed prototyping is discussed. Some of the main interaction principles are summarized and a restricted example of the resulting design is given. Our design experience and current work have been used to outline future perspectives of MMI design in naval CWCSs. The need for both formal and experimental approaches is emphasized.

  9. Health consequences and health systems response to the Pacific U.S. Nuclear Weapons Testing Program.

    Palafox, Neal A; Riklon, Sheldon; Alik, Wilfred; Hixon, Allen L

    2007-03-01

    Between 1946 and 1958, the United States detonated 67 thermonuclear devices in the Pacific as part of their U.S. Nuclear Weapons Testing Program (USNWTP). The aggregate explosive power was equal to 7,200 Hiroshima atomic bombs. Recent documents released by the U.S. government suggest that the deleterious effects of the nuclear testing were greater and extended farther than previously known. The Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) government and affected communities have sought refress through diplomatic routes with the U.S. government, however, existing medical programs and financial reparations have not adequately addressed many of the health consequences of the USNWTP. Since radiation-induced cancers may have a long latency, a healthcare infrastructure is needed to address both cancer and related health issues. This article reviews the health consequences of the Pacific USNWTP and the current health systems ability to respond.

  10. Instruments of war weapons and technologies that have changed history

    Tucker, Spencer C

    2015-01-01

    In war, the weapons and technologies employed have direct effects on how battles are waged. When new weapons are introduced, they can dramatically alter the outcomes of warfare-and consequently change the course of history itself. This reference work provides a fascinating overview of the major weapon systems and military technologies that have had a major impact on world history. Addressing weapons as crude as the club used by primitive man to the high-tech weapons of today such as unmanned drones, Instruments of War: Weapons and Technologies That Have Changed History offers nearly 270 profusely illustrated entries that examine the key roles played by specific weapons and identify their success and failures. The book begins with an introductory essay that frames the subject matter of the work and discusses the history of weapons as a whole. The text is concise and accessible to general readers without extensive backgrounds in military history yet provides the detailed information necessary to convey the comp...

  11. Global strike hypersonic weapons

    Lewis, Mark J.

    2017-11-01

    Beginning in the 1940's, the United States has pursued the development of hypersonic technologies, enabling atmospheric flight in excess of five times the speed of sound. Hypersonic flight has application to a range of military and civilian applications, including commercial transport, space access, and various weapons and sensing platforms. A number of flight tests of hypersonic vehicles have been conducted by countries around the world, including the United States, Russia, and China, that could lead the way to future hypersonic global strike weapon systems. These weapons would be especially effective at penetrating conventional defenses, and could pose a significant risk to national security.

  12. Impact of Defense Industry Mergers on The Cost of Military Weapons Systems

    Alfonso, Grisko R

    2007-01-01

    .... The Selected Acquisition Reports (SARs) provided the data for this research. The analysis of the data suggests that the defense industry's consolidation did not result in higher costs for DoD's military weapons in the post-merger period...

  13. What transformations in the international system are prerequisites for the complete elimination of nuclear weapons?

    Tsipis, K.

    1993-01-01

    The author reviews prerequisites for the complete elimination of nuclear weapons (NW), among which are: symmetry of NW possession; stopping the NW tests; establishment of a multinational nuclear deterrent force; common security regional arrangements aimed at denuclearization

  14. The opportunity to limit and reduce inventories of fissionable weapon materials

    Hebel, L.C.

    1991-01-01

    As the United States and the Soviet government agree on major reductions in nuclear weapon delivery systems, they need to address the disposal of the nuclear warheads and bombs for those systems. Such measures could be strongly reinforced if the two nations also institute restraints and reductions in the total amount of fissionable materials available for weapons. Many metric tonnes of such materials would be made surplus by the reductions in strategic nuclear weapons due to the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START-I). Equally large reductions in short-range (theater) nuclear weapons are expected in the wake of the recent Treaty on Conventional Forces in Europe (CFE)

  15. Performance-based service acquisition (PBSA) of TRIDENT strategic weapons systems (SWS) technical engineering support (TES) services

    Arcidiacono, William J.

    2003-01-01

    CIVINS (Civilian Institutions) Thesis document Approved for public release ; distribution is unlimited The objective of this thesis is to determine whether the Strategic Systems Programs (SSP) should apply the concepts of Performance-Based Service Acquisition (PBSA) to Strategic Weapons Systems (SWS) Technical Engineering Support (TES) Services. This thesis provides a Department of Defense (DoD), Department of the Navy (DON), and SSP SWS program acquisition and PBSA history background, ...

  16. TSUNAMI analysis of the applicability of proposed experiments to reactor-grade and weapons-grade mixed-oxide systems

    Rearden, Bradley T.; Hopper, Calvin M.; Elam, Karla R.

    2005-01-01

    The applicability of proposed critical experiments for the criticality code validation of a series of prototypic reactor-grade and weapons-grade mixed-oxide systems has been assessed with the TSUNAMI methodology from SCALE 5. The application systems were proposed by the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Working Party on Nuclear Criticality Safety MOX Experimental Needs Working Group. Forty-eight application systems were conceived to envelope the range of conditions in processing and fabrication of reactor-grade and weapons-grade MOX fuel. The applicability of 303 existing critical benchmarks to each of the 48 applications was assessed, and validation coverage was found to be lacking for certain applications. Two series of proposed critical experiments were also considered in this analysis. The TSUNAMI analysis has revealed that both series of proposed experiments are applicable to numerous configurations of the reactor-grade and weapons-grade systems. A detailed assessment of which experiments were revealed by TSUNAMI to be most applicable to specific prototypic fuel processing systems has been performed. (author)

  17. Antisatellite weapons

    Garwin, R.L.; Gottfried, K.; Hafner, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    The authors take issue with the assessment that the advent of antisatellite weapons implies that the beneficial role of satellites in arms control, confidence building, and conflict resolution has been judged less important than their ability to support actual military operations. They argue that there is still an opportunity to negotiate a militarily significant and verifiable constraint on the growth of antisatellite technology that would be in the security interest of the US and the world as a whole. They base their opinion on an assessment of the roles of the existing military satellites and their vulnerability to antisatellite weapons and the probable impact of antisatellite weapons on various kinds of crisis and conflict. 10 figures, 1 table

  18. Interoperability In Multi-Layered Active Defense:The Need For Commonality And Robustness Between Active Defense Weapon Systems

    2016-02-16

    into areas where there is no access to maritime platforms. Sea-based interceptor platforms have the ability to intercept targets at each stage of the...argues that the most efficient concept for integrating active defense weapon systems is a multi- layered architecture with redundant intercept ...faster data transfer and will prevent data loss. The need for almost 100% interception successes is increasing as the threat becomes more

  19. Majoring in Information Systems: Reasons Why Students Select (or Not) Information Systems as a Major

    Snyder, Johnny; Slauson, Gayla Jo

    2014-01-01

    Filling the pipeline for information systems workers is critical in the information era. Projected growth rates for jobs requiring information systems expertise are significantly higher than the projected growth rates for other jobs. Why then do relatively few students choose to major in information systems? This paper reviews survey results from…

  20. Development of a novel active muzzle brake for an artillery weapon system / Dirk Johannes Downing

    Downing, Dirk Johannes

    2002-01-01

    A conventional muzzle brake is a baffle device located at some distance in front of the muzzle exit of a gun. The purpose of a muzzle brake is to alleviate the force on the weapon platform by diverting a portion of the muzzle gas resulting in a forward impulse being exerted on the recoiling parts of the weapon. A very efficient muzzle brake unfortunately gives rise to an excessive overpressure in the crew environment due to the deflection of the emerging shock waves. The novel ...

  1. Bioterrorism: toxins as weapons.

    Anderson, Peter D

    2012-04-01

    The potential for biological weapons to be used in terrorism is a real possibility. Biological weapons include infectious agents and toxins. Toxins are poisons produced by living organisms. Toxins relevant to bioterrorism include ricin, botulinum, Clostridium perfrigens epsilson toxin, conotoxins, shigatoxins, saxitoxins, tetrodotoxins, mycotoxins, and nicotine. Toxins have properties of biological and chemical weapons. Unlike pathogens, toxins do not produce an infection. Ricin causes multiorgan toxicity by blocking protein synthesis. Botulinum blocks acetylcholine in the peripheral nervous system leading to muscle paralysis. Epsilon toxin damages cell membranes. Conotoxins block potassium and sodium channels in neurons. Shigatoxins inhibit protein synthesis and induce apoptosis. Saxitoxin and tetrodotoxin inhibit sodium channels in neurons. Mycotoxins include aflatoxins and trichothecenes. Aflatoxins are carcinogens. Trichothecenes inhibit protein and nucleic acid synthesis. Nicotine produces numerous nicotinic effects in the nervous system.

  2. How Governmental Policies Regarding Strategic and Critical Materials Affect the Acquisition of Major Weapon Systems.

    1981-09-01

    FRANCE (111 TANTALUM So THAILAND 1311. CANADA (131, MALAYSIA (III. BRAZIL (41 BAUXITE & ALUMINA 93 JAMAICA (331. AUSTRALIA f37). GUINEA (IS). SURINAM...TIn SI........ MALAYSIA (SS). THAILAND (16I, INDONESIA (11)1. BOLIVIA (6) NICKEL 77 CANADA (114). NORWAY (9). NIW CALEDONIA (8). DOMIN. PEP. (61 CADMIUM...Agency (EPA) and Occupational Safety and Health Administra- tion ( OSHA ) requirements. [25:15] Another area restrictive and counterproductive to the

  3. Defense Intelligence: Additional Steps Could Better Integrate Intelligence Input into DODs Acquisition of Major Weapon Systems

    2016-11-01

    into its acquisitions; and (3) efforts to develop tools to integrate intelligence into its acquisitions. GAO compared certification and training to...conduct their business , and that the centers currently were not prioritizing, verifying, or balancing the work related to producing intelligence mission...Force, and we observed briefings from the task force to the Acquisition Intelligence Requirements Executive Steering Group. We also compared the

  4. Integrated systems understanding using bayesian networks: measuring the effectiveness of a weapon system

    de Waal, A

    2006-02-27

    Full Text Available Complex systems can be described as systems-of-systems as they comprise a hierarchy of systems. The links between sub-systems are often obscure and non-linear and this results in a lack of a whole-systems view and appropriate understanding...

  5. Leveraging U.S. nuclear weapons policy to advance U.S. nonproliferation goals : implications of major theories of international relations.

    Walter, Andrew

    2009-06-01

    National policymakers are currently considering a dilemma of critical importance to the continued security of the United States: how can U.S. nuclear weapons policies be leveraged to benefit U.S. nuclear nonproliferation goals in the near-term, without sacrificing U.S. national security? In its role supporting U.S. nuclear weapons policy, Sandia National Laboratories has a responsibility to provide objective technical advice to support policy deliberations on this question. However, to best fulfill this duty Sandia must have a broader understanding of the context of the problem. To help develop this understanding, this paper analyzes the two predominant analytical perspectives of international relations theory to explore their prescriptions for how nuclear weapons and nonproliferation policies interact. As lenses with which to view and make sense of the world, theories of international relations must play a crucial role in framing the trade-offs at the intersection of the nuclear weapons and nonproliferation policy domains. An analysis of what these theories suggest as courses of action to leverage nuclear weapons policies to benefit nonproliferation goals is then offered, with particular emphasis on where the policy prescriptions resulting from the respective theories align to offer near-term policy changes with broad theoretical support. These policy prescriptions are then compared to the 2001 Nuclear Posture Review to understand what the theories indicate policymakers may have gotten right in their dealing with the nuclear dilemma, and where they may have gone wrong. Finally, a brief international relations research agenda is proposed to help address the dilemma between nuclear deterrence and nuclear nonproliferation policies, with particular emphasis on how such an agenda can best support the needs of the policy community and a potential 'all things nuclear' policy deliberation and decision-support framework.

  6. Flexible weapons architecture design

    Pyant, William C.

    2015-01-01

    Present day air-delivered weapons are of a closed architecture, with little to no ability to tailor the weapon for the individual engagement. The closed architectures require weaponeers to make the target fit the weapon instead of fitting the individual weapons to a target. The concept of a flexible weapons aims to modularize weapons design using an open architecture shell into which different modules are inserted to achieve the desired target fractional damage while reducing cost and civilia...

  7. System and method for multi-stage bypass, low operating temperature suppressor for automatic weapons

    Moss, William C.; Anderson, Andrew T.

    2015-06-09

    The present disclosure relates to a suppressor for use with a weapon. The suppressor may be formed to have a body portion having a bore extending concentric with a bore axis of the weapon barrel. An opening in the bore extends at least substantially circumferentially around the bore. A flow path communicates with the opening and defines a channel for redirecting gasses flowing in the bore out from the bore, through the opening, into a rearward direction in the flow path. The flow path raises a pressure at the opening to generate a Mach disk within the bore at a location approximately coincident with the opening. The Mach disk forms as a virtual baffle to divert at least a portion of the gasses into the opening and into the flow path.

  8. Project on Advanced Systems and Concepts for Countering Weapons of Mass Destruction (PASCC)

    2015-09-01

    its website as well as the NPS- sponsored Homeland Security Digital Library (www.hsdl.org). PASCC also facilitates briefings by project performers at...Understanding Chinese Nuclear Thinking • Space, Cyber-space, and Strategic Stability in the Asia- Pacific 8 • U.S.-Singapore- Malaysia -Indonesia...to develop lessons learned and recommendations from past Middle Eastern experiences 2015 PASCC ANNUAL REPORT 7 with chemical weapons. Researchers

  9. Verifying a nuclear weapon`s response to radiation environments

    Dean, F.F.; Barrett, W.H.

    1998-05-01

    The process described in the paper is being applied as part of the design verification of a replacement component designed for a nuclear weapon currently in the active stockpile. This process is an adaptation of the process successfully used in nuclear weapon development programs. The verification process concentrates on evaluating system response to radiation environments, verifying system performance during and after exposure to radiation environments, and assessing system survivability.

  10. A Decision Support System for Evaluating Systems of Undersea Sensors and Weapons

    2015-12-01

    departure from other simulation paradigms is that ABM can simulate and help examine organized complex systems (OCS). This means the ABM paradigm...from other simulation paradigms is that ABM can simulate and help examine organized complex systems (OCS). This means the ABM paradigm can represent...large systems consisting of many subsystem interactions. (Heath et al. 2009) Finally, the ABM technique used in Chapter VI could be used in MBSE

  11. Bugs and gas: Agreements banning chemical and biological weapons

    Mikulak, Robert P.

    2017-11-01

    The use of chemical or biological weapons, whether by a State or terrorists, continues to be a serious security concern. Both types of weapons are prohibited by multilateral treaties that have very broad membership, but both the Biological Weapons Convention and the Chemical Weapons Convention are facing major challenges. In particular, the continued use of chemical weapons in the Syrian civil war by government forces risks eroding the norm against the use of such weapons. This paper briefly explore the recent history of efforts to constrain chemical and biological weapons and outlines challenges for the future.

  12. Verification of Chemical Weapons Destruction

    Lodding, J.

    2010-01-01

    The Chemical Weapons Convention is the only multilateral treaty that bans completely an entire category of weapons of mass destruction under international verification arrangements. Possessor States, i.e. those that have chemical weapons stockpiles at the time of becoming party to the CWC, commit to destroying these. All States undertake never to acquire chemical weapons and not to help other States acquire such weapons. The CWC foresees time-bound chemical disarmament. The deadlines for destruction for early entrants to the CWC are provided in the treaty. For late entrants, the Conference of States Parties intervenes to set destruction deadlines. One of the unique features of the CWC is thus the regime for verifying destruction of chemical weapons. But how can you design a system for verification at military sites, while protecting military restricted information? What degree of assurance is considered sufficient in such circumstances? How do you divide the verification costs? How do you deal with production capability and initial declarations of existing stockpiles? The founders of the CWC had to address these and other challenges in designing the treaty. Further refinement of the verification system has followed since the treaty opened for signature in 1993 and since inspection work was initiated following entry-into-force of the treaty in 1997. Most of this work concerns destruction at the two large possessor States, Russia and the United States. Perhaps some of the lessons learned from the OPCW experience may be instructive in a future verification regime for nuclear weapons. (author)

  13. Weapon System Software Acquisition and Support: A Theory of System Structure and Behavior.

    1982-03-01

    flows VARIABLE between levels NAME SOURCE/SINK Represent levels outside the system C AUXILLARY VARIABLES Provide clarification of the policy VARIABLE...used in this study: levels (L), rates (R), auxillary variables (A), initial values (N), constants (C) and tables (T). Levels, rates, and auxillary ...functions of levels or auxillary variables, but can also be described as a constant value. In the example below, the engineer hiring rate (RHIRE) is equal

  14. Redundant and fault-tolerant algorithms for real-time measurement and control systems for weapon equipment.

    Li, Dan; Hu, Xiaoguang

    2017-03-01

    Because of the high availability requirements from weapon equipment, an in-depth study has been conducted on the real-time fault-tolerance of the widely applied Compact PCI (CPCI) bus measurement and control system. A redundancy design method that uses heartbeat detection to connect the primary and alternate devices has been developed. To address the low successful execution rate and relatively large waste of time slices in the primary version of the task software, an improved algorithm for real-time fault-tolerant scheduling is proposed based on the Basic Checking available time Elimination idle time (BCE) algorithm, applying a single-neuron self-adaptive proportion sum differential (PSD) controller. The experimental validation results indicate that this system has excellent redundancy and fault-tolerance, and the newly developed method can effectively improve the system availability. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of nuclear technologies and conversion of nuclear weapon testing system infrastructure in Kazakhstan

    Cherepnin, Yu.; Takibaev, Zh.

    2000-01-01

    The article gives a brief description of the work done by the National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan in development of nuclear technology and conversion of nuclear weapon testing infrastructure in Kazakhstan. Content and trends of works are as follows: 1. Peaceful use of all physical facilities, created earlier for nuclear tests in Kazakhstan; 2. Development of methods and technologies for safe nuclear reactors use; 3. Examination of different materials in field of great neutron flow for thermonuclear reactor's first wall development; 4. Liquidation of all wells, which were formed in the results of underground nuclear explosions in Degelen mountain massif of former Semipalatinsk test site; 5. Study of consequences of nuclear tests in West Kazakhstan (territory of Azgir test site and Karachaganak oil field); 6. Study of radiological situation on the Semipalatinsk test site and surrounding territories; 7. Search of ways for high-level radioactive wastes disposal; 8. Construction of safe nuclear power plants in Kazakhstan

  16. Research on Inferring ELECTRE-III’s Parameters with Fuzzy information and A Case on Naval Gun Weapon System Integration

    Sun Shi Yan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple attributes decision making (MADM method is an important measure for system integration. Robustness analysis on MADM is a hotspot in these years which wins academe’s great attention, and is supposed to be an effective way when countering imperfect information. Setting parameters in ELECTRE-III’s is a vital and difficult step. In this paper, a method of inferring ELECTRE-III’s parameters with fuzzy information based on robustness analysis is presented. First, ELECTRE-III is transformed into a continuous smooth function of each parameter vector. Then, robustness analysis structure and a parameters inferring algorithm are provided by maximizing robustness margin based on mathematics programming. Moreover, how to resolve the programming problem is also discussed. At last, a illustrative example of Naval Gun Weapon System Integration is put forward.

  17. Flexible weapons architecture design

    Pyant, William C., III

    Present day air-delivered weapons are of a closed architecture, with little to no ability to tailor the weapon for the individual engagement. The closed architectures require weaponeers to make the target fit the weapon instead of fitting the individual weapons to a target. The concept of a flexible weapons aims to modularize weapons design using an open architecture shell into which different modules are inserted to achieve the desired target fractional damage while reducing cost and civilian casualties. This thesis shows that the architecture design factors of damage mechanism, fusing, weapons weight, guidance, and propulsion are significant in enhancing weapon performance objectives, and would benefit from modularization. Additionally, this thesis constructs an algorithm that can be used to design a weapon set for a particular target class based on these modular components.

  18. Nuclear weapons modernizations

    Kristensen, Hans M. [Federation of American Scientists, Washington, DC (United States)

    2014-05-09

    This article reviews the nuclear weapons modernization programs underway in the world's nine nuclear weapons states. It concludes that despite significant reductions in overall weapons inventories since the end of the Cold War, the pace of reductions is slowing - four of the nuclear weapons states are even increasing their arsenals, and all the nuclear weapons states are busy modernizing their remaining arsenals in what appears to be a dynamic and counterproductive nuclear competition. The author questions whether perpetual modernization combined with no specific plan for the elimination of nuclear weapons is consistent with the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and concludes that new limits on nuclear modernizations are needed.

  19. Managing nuclear weapons in a changing world: Proceedings

    1992-01-01

    The Center for Security and Technology Studies was established at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to support long-range technical studies on issues of importance to US national security. An important goal of the Center is to bring together Laboratory staff and the broader outside community through a program of technical studies, visitors, symposia, seminars, workshops, and publications. With this in mind, the Center and LLNL's Defense Systems Program sponsored a conference on Managing Nuclear Weapons in a Changing World held on November 17--18,1992. The first day of the meeting focused on nuclear weapons issues in the major geographical areas of the world. On the second day, the conference participants discussed what could be done to manage, control, and account for nuclear weapons in this changing world. Each of the talks and the concluding panel discussion are being indexed as separate documents

  20. Managing nuclear weapons in a changing world: Proceedings

    1992-12-31

    The Center for Security and Technology Studies was established at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to support long-range technical studies on issues of importance to US national security. An important goal of the Center is to bring together Laboratory staff and the broader outside community through a program of technical studies, visitors, symposia, seminars, workshops, and publications. With this in mind, the Center and LLNL`s Defense Systems Program sponsored a conference on Managing Nuclear Weapons in a Changing World held on November 17--18,1992. The first day of the meeting focused on nuclear weapons issues in the major geographical areas of the world. On the second day, the conference participants discussed what could be done to manage, control, and account for nuclear weapons in this changing world. Each of the talks and the concluding panel discussion are being indexed as separate documents.

  1. New Weapons and the Arms Race

    Tsipis, Kosta

    1983-10-01

    In speaking about technologies that could further animate the weapons competition between the United States and the U.S.S.R., it would be useful to distinguish between technologies that have already been incorporated into specific weapons systems, and new technologies that are of a generic nature, can be used in a variety of applications, adn can best be described by the tasks that they can perform rather than any specific weapons application. Let me begin with the latter class.

  2. Space weapon technology and policy

    Hitchens, Theresa

    2017-11-01

    The military use of space, including in support of nuclear weapons infrastructure, has greatly increased over the past 30 years. In the current era, rising geopolitical tensions between the United States and Russia and China have led to assumptions in all three major space powers that warfighting in space now is inevitable, and possible because of rapid technological advancements. New capabilities for disrupting and destroying satellites include radio-frequency jamming, the use of lasers, maneuverable space objects and more capable direct-ascent anti-satellite weapons. This situation, however, threatens international security and stability among nuclear powers. There is a continuing and necessary role for diplomacy, especially the establishment of normative rules of behavior, to reduce risks of misperceptions and crisis escalation, including up to the use of nuclear weapons. U.S. policy and strategy should seek a balance between traditional military approaches to protecting its space assets and diplomatic tools to create a more secure space environment.

  3. Chemical Weapons Convention

    1997-01-01

    On April 29, 1997, the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling, and Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction, known as the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC...

  4. The weapons effect.

    Benjamin, Arlin James; Bushman, Brad J

    2018-02-01

    In some societies, weapons are plentiful and highly visible. This review examines recent trends in research on the weapons effect, which is the finding that the mere presence of weapons can prime people to behave aggressively. The General Aggression Model provides a theoretical framework to explain why the weapons effect occurs. This model postulates that exposure to weapons increases aggressive thoughts and hostile appraisals, thus explaining why weapons facilitate aggressive behavior. Data from meta-analytic reviews are consistent with the General Aggression Model. These findings have important practical as well as theoretical implications. They suggest that the link between weapons and aggression is very strong in semantic memory, and that merely seeing a weapon can make people more aggressive. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Non-proliferation of nuclear weapons

    Fischer, D.; Haeckel, E.; Haefele, W.; Lauppe, W.D.; Mueller, H.; Ungerer, W.

    1991-01-01

    During the turbulant transitional events in world politics in the nineties, the control of nuclear weapons plays a major role. While the superpowers are reducing their nuclear arsenal, the danger of nuclear anarchy in the world remains virulent. The NPT of 1968 is up for review soon. The falling apart of the former communist sphere of power, and the regions of conflict in the Third World present new risks for the proliferation of nuclear arms. For unified Germany, which explicitly renounced nuclear weapons, this situation presents difficult questions concerning national safety policies and international responsibility. This volume presents contributions which take a new look at topical and long-term problems of nuclear NP politics. The authors evaluate the conditions under which the NP regime came into being, and assess short- and long-term possibilities and risks. The following papers are included: 1.) Basic controversies during the negotiations concerning the Treaty on non-proliferation of nuclear weapons (Ungerer); 2.) Prologation of the NPT 1995 and appropriate problems concerning safety and control (Haefele/Lauppe); 3.) Consequences of the Iraq case for NP policy (Ficher); 4.) Problems of nuclear technology control (Mueller); 5.) Framework conditions of a nuclear world system (Haeckel). (orig./HP) [de

  6. The weapons effect

    Benjamin, Arlin James; Bushman, Brad J.

    In some societies, weapons are plentiful and highly visible. This review examines recent trends in research on the weapons effect, which is the finding that the mere presence of weapons can prime people to behave aggressively. The General Aggression Model provides a theoretical framework to explain

  7. Nuclear weapons industry

    Bertsch, K.A.; Shaw, L.S.

    1984-01-01

    This unique study was written specifically as a reference source for institutional investors concerned about the threat posed to their stock portfolios by the debate over nuclear arms production. The authors focus their analysis on the 26 leading companies in the field. The perspective is neutral and refreshing. Background information on strategic policy, arms control and disarmament, and the influence of the industry on defense policy and the economy is presented rationally. The study also discusses the economic significance of both the conversion from military to civilian production and nuclear freeze initiatives. An appendix contains a fact-filled guide to nuclear weapon systems

  8. High-Energy Laser Weapon Integration with Ground Vehicles

    Hafften, Michael; Stratton, Robert

    2004-01-01

    .... The architecture of an electric, solid-state HEL weapon system would likely be based upon a hybrid electric vehicle that provides a common electrical power source for the propulsion and weapon subsystems...

  9. Analysis of army-wide hearing conservation database for hearing profiles related to crew-served and individual weapon systems

    William A Ahroon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Damage-risk criteria (DRC for noise exposures are designed to protect 95% of the exposed populations from hearing injuries caused by those noise exposures. The current DRC used by the US military follows OSHA guidelines for continuous noise. The current military DRC for impulse exposures follows the recommendations from the National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council Committee on Hearing, Bioacoustics, and Biomechanics (CHABA and are contained in the current military standard, MIL-STD-1474D "Noise Limits." Suggesting that the MIL-STD for impulse exposure is too stringent, various individuals have proposed that the DRC for exposure to high-level impulses be relaxed. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the current hearing status of US Army Soldiers, some of whom can be, by their military occupational specialties (MOS, reasonably expected to be routinely exposed to high-level impulses from weapon systems. The Defense Occupational and Environmental Health Readiness System - Hearing Conservation (DOEHRS-HC was queried for the hearing status of enlisted Soldiers of 32 different MOSs. The results indicated that less than 95% of the Soldiers in the DOEHRS-HC database were classified as having normal hearing. In other words, the goal of the DRC used for limiting noise injuries (from continuous and impulse exposures was not stringent enough to prevent hearing injuries in all but the most susceptible Soldiers. These results suggest that the current military noise DRC should not be relaxed.

  10. The impact of major trauma network triage systems on patients with major burns.

    Nizamoglu, Metin; O'Connor, Edmund Fitzgerald; Bache, Sarah; Theodorakopoulou, Evgenia; Sen, Sankhya; Sherren, Peter; Barnes, David; Dziewulski, Peter

    2016-12-01

    Trauma is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Patients presenting with severe trauma and burns benefit from specifically trained multidisciplinary teams. Regional trauma systems have shown improved outcomes for trauma patients. The aim of this study is to determine whether the development of major trauma systems have improved the management of patients with major burns. A retrospective study was performed over a four-year period reviewing all major burns in adults and children received at a regional burns centre in the UK before and after the implementation of the regional trauma systems and major trauma centres (MTC). Comparisons were drawn between three areas: (1) Patients presenting before the introduction of MTC and after the introduction of MTC. (2) Patients referred from MTC and non-MTC within the region, following the introduction of MTC. (3) Patients referred using the urban trauma protocol and the rural trauma protocol. Following the introduction of regional trauma systems and major trauma centres (MTC), isolated burn patients seen at our regional burns centre did not show any significant improvement in transfer times, admission resuscitation parameters, organ dysfunction or survival when referred from a MTC compared to a non-MTC emergency department. There was also no significant difference in survival when comparing referrals from all hospitals pre and post establishment of the major trauma network. No significant outcome benefit was demonstrated for burns patients referred via MTCs compared to non-MTCs. We suggest further research is needed to ascertain whether burns patients benefit from prolonged transfer times to a MTC compared to those seen at their local hospitals prior to transfer to a regional burns unit for further specialist care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  11. Non-Lethal Weapons Program

    Sheets Frequently Asked Questions Non-Lethal Weapons FAQs Active Denial System FAQs Human Electro -Muscular Incapacitation FAQs Related Links Business Opportunities Contact JNLWD Congressional Engagement , Wednesday, Sept 20, 2017. The Active Denial System, blunt-impact munitions, dazzling lasers, LRAD 100X

  12. Application of a Dynamic Programming Algorithm for Weapon Target Assignment

    2016-02-01

    evaluation and weapon assignment in maritime combat scenarios. Lloyd also acts as a liaison for the Weapons and Combat Systems Division with the ANZAC...positively identified a number of targets as threats, whether they are an enemy ship (i.e., specifically, its weapon launcher systems) or a directed

  13. Why Are Students Not Majoring in Information Systems?

    Walstrom, Kent A.; Schambach, Thomas P.; Jones, Keith T.; Crampton, William J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine some of the factors that influence and impact business students when they select their major and, more particularly, to examine why students are not majoring in information systems. Students in an entry level business class responded that they were more knowledgeable about careers in management, marketing,…

  14. The Majority Wins: a Method for Combining Speaker Diarization Systems

    Huijbregts, M.; Leeuwen, D.A. van; Jong, F.M.G. de

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present a method for combining multiple diarization systems into one single system by applying a majority voting scheme. The voting scheme selects the best segmentation purely on basis of the output of each system. On our development set of NIST Rich Transcription evaluation

  15. Weapons material and the commercial fuel cycle

    Steyn, J.J.

    1993-01-01

    In 1991, the United States and the former USSR had arsenals of ∼18,000 and 27,200 nuclear weapons, respectively. Approximately 10,000 of the US and 13,000 of the former USSR weapons were in the strategic category, and the remainder were tactical weapons. The dramatic changes in the political climate between the United States and the republics of the former USSR have resulted in the signing of the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START I and II), agreements to substantially reduce nuclear weapons arsenals. Tactical weapons have already been collected in Russia, and strategic weapons are to be collected by the end of 1994. The major issues in accomplishing the treaty reductions appear to be funding, transport safety, storage capacity, and political issues between Russia and Ukraine because the latter seems to be using its weapons for political leverage on other matters. Collectively, the US and former USSR warhead stockpiles contain tremendous inventories of high-enriched uranium and weapons-grade plutonium which if converted to light water reactor fuel would equate to an enormous economic supply of natural uranium, conversion services, and enrichment separative work. The potential for this material entering the light water reactor fuel marketplace was enhanced in July 1992, when the two US industrial companies, Nuclear Fuel Services and Allied-Signal, announced that they had reached a preliminary agreement with the Russian ministry, Minatom, and the Russian Academay of Sciences to convert Russian high-enriched uranium to low-enriched uranium

  16. Viable Short-Term Directed Energy Weapon Naval Solutions: A Systems Analysis of Current Prototypes

    2013-06-01

    control/missile seeker radars  IO 2.3 Conduct electronic jamming of communications/data link/ identification systems o NTA 3.2.5 Conduct Electronic...IO 2.3 Conduct electronic jamming of communications/data link/ identification systems o NTA 3.2.9 Conduct Non-Lethal Engagement  ATFP CCR 12...this requirement for a single LaWS system during normal electrical plant lineup , but would most likely come to full power in the event the system

  17. Pakistan's national legislation entitled: 'Export Control on Goods, Technologies, Material and Equipment related to Nuclear and Biological Weapons and their Delivery Systems Act, 2004'

    2004-01-01

    The Director General has received a letter from the Permanent Mission of Pakistan, dated 4 November 2004, concerning Pakistan's national legislation entitled 'Export Control on Goods, Technologies, Material and Equipment related to Nuclear and Biological Weapons and their Delivery Systems Act, 2004'. As requested by the Permanent Mission of Pakistan, the letter and the Export Control Act of 2004, are reproduced herein for the information of the Member States

  18. Critical Success Factors and Their Application to DOD Weapon System Acquisition

    Harris, Chad M

    2006-01-01

    .... The purpose of this project was to investigate and provide an overview of issues within the DoD acquisition system and provide information to assist program managers in dealing with some of the challenges they face...

  19. Weapon and Sighting System Compatibility Assessment for Prototype Maxillofacial Protection Devices

    2013-03-01

    system was employed during ingress and egress maneuvers. This was necessary for visibility of hand and foot positioning during ingress, egress...well as combat vehicle-specific operators as expert research participants (mounted assessment), all of which will incorporate anthropometric

  20. A Modernization Plan for the Technical Data Department of the Naval Ships Weapon Systems Engineering Station

    1976-09-01

    intergration plan showing the relationship of all phases to the end objective. 17 c. A timing plan to coordinate milestones within each phase as they...per system, horizontally rotated between two read/record units contained in the laser recorder unit. Each read/record unit is independent, which

  1. A Program Manager’s Methodology for Developing Structured Design in Embedded Weapons Systems.

    1983-12-01

    conversion among various data types and provide interfacing with existing sensor and ship’s equipment. The WCIP provides visual status information to -he...the new concept. A rather simple way of viewing this requires one to visualize the principle to be added as needing a set of prerequisite traits. For...system specifications from their totally graphic fcrm into a short narrativa form. This trans.tion is a necessary first step toward using an SDL, an

  2. A decontamination system for chemical weapons agents using a liquid solution on a solid sorbent.

    Waysbort, Daniel; McGarvey, David J; Creasy, William R; Morrissey, Kevin M; Hendrickson, David M; Durst, H Dupont

    2009-01-30

    A decontamination system for chemical warfare agents was developed and tested that combines a liquid decontamination reagent solution with solid sorbent particles. The components have fewer safety and environmental concerns than traditional chlorine bleach-based products or highly caustic solutions. The liquid solution, based on Decon Greentrade mark, has hydrogen peroxide and a carbonate buffer as active ingredients. The best solid sorbents were found to be a copolymer of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate and n-lauryl methacrylate (Polytrap 6603 Adsorber); or an allyl methacrylate cross-linked polymer (Poly-Pore E200 Adsorber). These solids are human and environmentally friendly and are commonly used in cosmetics. The decontaminant system was tested for reactivity with pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate (Soman, GD), bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide (Mustard, HD), and S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) O-ethyl methylphosphonothioate (VX) by using NMR Spectroscopy. Molybdate ion (MoO(4)(-2)) was added to the decontaminant to catalyze the oxidation of HD. The molybdate ion provided a color change from pink to white when the oxidizing capacity of the system was exhausted. The decontaminant was effective for ratios of agent to decontaminant of up to 1:50 for VX (t(1/2) decontamination solution were measured to show that the sorbent decreased the vapor concentration of GD. The E200 sorbent had the additional advantage of absorbing aqueous decontamination solution without the addition of an organic co-solvent such as isopropanol, but the rate depended strongly on mixing for HD.

  3. Identification of nuclear weapons

    Mihalczo, J.T.; King, W.T.

    1987-04-10

    A method and apparatus for non-invasively indentifying different types of nuclear weapons is disclosed. A neutron generator is placed against the weapon to generate a stream of neutrons causing fissioning within the weapon. A first detects the generation of the neutrons and produces a signal indicative thereof. A second particle detector located on the opposite side of the weapon detects the fission particles and produces signals indicative thereof. The signals are converted into a detected pattern and a computer compares the detected pattern with known patterns of weapons and indicates which known weapon has a substantially similar pattern. Either a time distribution pattern or noise analysis pattern, or both, is used. Gamma-neutron discrimination and a third particle detector for fission particles adjacent the second particle detector are preferably used. The neutrons are generated by either a decay neutron source or a pulled neutron particle accelerator.

  4. A decontamination system for chemical weapons agents using a liquid solution on a solid sorbent

    Waysbort, Daniel [Israel Institute for Biological Research, PO Box 19, Ness-Ziona 74100 (Israel); McGarvey, David J. [R and T Directorate, Edgewood Chemical and Biological Center (ECBC), Aberdeen Proving Ground-Edgewood Area, MD 21010 (United States)], E-mail: david.mcgarvey@us.army.mil; Creasy, William R.; Morrissey, Kevin M.; Hendrickson, David M. [SAIC, P.O. Box 68, Gunpowder Branch, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010 (United States); Durst, H. Dupont [R and T Directorate, Edgewood Chemical and Biological Center (ECBC), Aberdeen Proving Ground-Edgewood Area, MD 21010 (United States)

    2009-01-30

    A decontamination system for chemical warfare agents was developed and tested that combines a liquid decontamination reagent solution with solid sorbent particles. The components have fewer safety and environmental concerns than traditional chlorine bleach-based products or highly caustic solutions. The liquid solution, based on Decon Green{sup TM}, has hydrogen peroxide and a carbonate buffer as active ingredients. The best solid sorbents were found to be a copolymer of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate and n-lauryl methacrylate (Polytrap 6603 Adsorber); or an allyl methacrylate cross-linked polymer (Poly-Pore E200 Adsorber). These solids are human and environmentally friendly and are commonly used in cosmetics. The decontaminant system was tested for reactivity with pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate (Soman, GD), bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide (Mustard, HD), and S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) O-ethyl methylphosphonothioate (VX) by using NMR Spectroscopy. Molybdate ion (MoO{sub 4}{sup -2}) was added to the decontaminant to catalyze the oxidation of HD. The molybdate ion provided a color change from pink to white when the oxidizing capacity of the system was exhausted. The decontaminant was effective for ratios of agent to decontaminant of up to 1:50 for VX (t{sub 1/2} {<=} 4 min), 1:10 for HD (t{sub 1/2} < 2 min with molybdate), and 1:10 for GD (t{sub 1/2} < 2 min). The vapor concentrations of GD above the dry sorbent and the sorbent with decontamination solution were measured to show that the sorbent decreased the vapor concentration of GD. The E200 sorbent had the additional advantage of absorbing aqueous decontamination solution without the addition of an organic co-solvent such as isopropanol, but the rate depended strongly on mixing for HD.

  5. A decontamination system for chemical weapons agents using a liquid solution on a solid sorbent

    Waysbort, Daniel; McGarvey, David J.; Creasy, William R.; Morrissey, Kevin M.; Hendrickson, David M.; Durst, H. Dupont

    2009-01-01

    A decontamination system for chemical warfare agents was developed and tested that combines a liquid decontamination reagent solution with solid sorbent particles. The components have fewer safety and environmental concerns than traditional chlorine bleach-based products or highly caustic solutions. The liquid solution, based on Decon Green TM , has hydrogen peroxide and a carbonate buffer as active ingredients. The best solid sorbents were found to be a copolymer of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate and n-lauryl methacrylate (Polytrap 6603 Adsorber); or an allyl methacrylate cross-linked polymer (Poly-Pore E200 Adsorber). These solids are human and environmentally friendly and are commonly used in cosmetics. The decontaminant system was tested for reactivity with pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate (Soman, GD), bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide (Mustard, HD), and S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) O-ethyl methylphosphonothioate (VX) by using NMR Spectroscopy. Molybdate ion (MoO 4 -2 ) was added to the decontaminant to catalyze the oxidation of HD. The molybdate ion provided a color change from pink to white when the oxidizing capacity of the system was exhausted. The decontaminant was effective for ratios of agent to decontaminant of up to 1:50 for VX (t 1/2 ≤ 4 min), 1:10 for HD (t 1/2 1/2 < 2 min). The vapor concentrations of GD above the dry sorbent and the sorbent with decontamination solution were measured to show that the sorbent decreased the vapor concentration of GD. The E200 sorbent had the additional advantage of absorbing aqueous decontamination solution without the addition of an organic co-solvent such as isopropanol, but the rate depended strongly on mixing for HD

  6. Logistics: Implementation of Performance - Based Logistics for the Javelin Weapon System

    2005-03-07

    the c.ontext of each lice within the Automated Cost 24 Batimating-hTasgraled Tools ( ACEIT ) mode], the Army’s standard cost model, containing the EA was...fully validated the EA, The Javelin E.A was valihdted through an extensive review of the EA cost documentation in (te ACEIT file in coordination with... ACEIT file of the system cost estimate- This documentation was conndered to be suflicienT by the CEAC Director once the EA was determinmd to be valid

  7. Nonstrategic Nuclear Weapons

    2017-02-21

    of their nonstrategic nuclear weapons and eliminate many of them. These 1991 announcements, coming after the abortive coup in Moscow in July 1991...of these weapons. The abortive coup in Moscow in August 1991 had also caused alarms about the strength of central control over nuclear weapons...assure other allies of the U.S. commitment to their security, but these assurances do not necessarily include legally binding commitments to retaliate

  8. Chemical and biological weapons

    Harris, E.D.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the prospects of the multilateral negotiations aimed at achieving a complete and total ban on chemical weapons the Chemical Weapons convention (CWC). The control of the proliferation of chemical weapons is no longer just on East-West issue; it is also an issue of concern in Third World Countries, and in some of the wealthier middle eastern nations, such as Kuwait

  9. Reconversion of nuclear weapons

    Kapitza, Sergei P

    1992-01-01

    The nuclear predicament or nuclear option. Synopsis of three lectures : 1- The physical basis of nuclear technology. Physics of fission. Chain reaction in reactors and weapons. Fission fragments. Separration of isotopes. Radiochemistry.2- Nuclear reactors with slow and fast neutrons. Power, size, fuel and waste. Plutonium production. Dose rate, shielding and health hazard. The lessons of Chernobyl3- Nuclear weapons. Types, energy, blast and fallout. Fusion and hydrogen bombs. What to do with nuclear weapons when you cannot use them? Testing. Nonmilittary use. Can we get rid of the nuclear weapon? Nuclear proliferation. Is there a nuclear future?

  10. Security with nuclear weapons

    Karp, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    Recent improvements in East-West relations and the process of dramatic political change in Europe may result in unprecedented opportunities to reduce the global arsenal of nuclear weapons. Despite these welcome developments, the prospects for effectively controlling the spread of nuclear capability in the Third World have remained much less encouraging. The possibility of large reductions in nuclear weapons poses fundamental questions about their purpose. Why have some states chosen to acquire nuclear weapons? How and why have these decisions been maintained over time? Why have some states elected to approach, but not cross, the nuclear threshold? This book examines the commonalities and differences in political approaches to nuclear weapons both within and between three groups of states: nuclear, non-nuclear and threshold. The chapters explore the evolution of thinking about nuclear weapons and the role these weapons play in national security planning, and question the official security rationales offered by the nuclear weapon states for the maintenance of nuclear capabilities. For the non-nuclear weapon states, the book presents an analysis of alternative ways of assuring security and foreign policy effectiveness. For the threshold states, it examines the regional contexts within which these states maintain their threshold status. This book transcends traditional East-West approaches to analysis of nuclear issues by giving equal prominence to the issues of nuclear proliferation and non-nuclearism. The book also provides a comprehensive analysis of how current approaches to nuclear weapons have evolved both within and among the groups of countries under study

  11. Weapons to widgets: Organic systems and public policy for tech transfer

    Cargo, Russell A.

    1994-01-01

    Large cuts in defense spending cause serious repercussions throughout the American economy. One means to counter the negative effects of defense reductions is to redirect federal dollars to temporarily prop up defense industries and, over the longer-term, stimulate growth of new nondefense industries. The creation of non-defense products and industries by channeling ideas from public laboratories into the private sector manufacturing facilities, known as technology transfer, is being undertaken in a massive program that has high visibility, large amounts of money, and broad federal agency involvement. How effectively federal money can be directed toward stimulating the creation of non-defense products will define the strength of the economy, (i.e., tax base, employment level, trade balance, capital investments, etc.), over the next decade. Key functions of the tech transfer process are technology and market assessment, capital formation, manufacturing feasibility, sales and distribution, and business organization creation. Those, however, are not functions typically associated with the federal government. Is the government prepared to provide leadership in those areas? This paper suggests organic systems theory as a means to structure the public sector's actions to provide leadership in functional areas normally outside their scope of expertise. By applying new ideas in organization theory, can we design government action to efficiently and effectively transfer technologies?

  12. Characterising the online weapons trafficking on cryptomarkets.

    Rhumorbarbe, Damien; Werner, Denis; Gilliéron, Quentin; Staehli, Ludovic; Broséus, Julian; Rossy, Quentin

    2018-02-01

    Weapons related webpages from nine cryptomarkets were manually duplicated in February 2016. Information about the listings (i.e. sales proposals) and vendors' profiles were extracted to draw an overview of the actual online trafficking of weapons. Relationships between vendors were also inferred through the analysis of online digital traces and content similarities. Weapons trafficking is mainly concentrated on two major cryptomarkets. Besides, it accounts for a very small proportion of the illicit trafficking on cryptomarkets compared to the illicit drugs trafficking. Among all weapon related listings (n=386), firearms only account for approximately 25% of sales proposal since the proportion of non-lethal and melee weapons is important (around 46%). Based on the recorded pseudonyms, a total of 96 vendor profiles were highlighted. Some pseudonyms were encountered on several cryptomarkets, suggesting that some vendors may manage accounts on different markets. This hypothesis was strengthened by comparing pseudonyms to online traces such as PGP keys, images and profiles descriptions. Such a method allowed to estimate more accurately the number of vendors offering weapons across cryptomarkets. Finally, according to the gathered data, the extent of the weapons trafficking on the cryptomarkets appear to be limited compared to other illicit goods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Tritium Systems Test Assembly: design for major device fabrication review

    Anderson, J.L.; Sherman, R.H.

    1977-06-01

    This document has been prepared for the Major Device Fabrication Review for the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA). The TSTA is dedicated to the development, demonstration, and interfacing of technologies related to the deuterium-tritium fuel cycle for fusion reactor systems. The principal objectives for TSTA are: (a) demonstrate the fuel cycle for fusion reactor systems; (b) develop test and qualify equipment for tritium service in the fusion program; (c) develop and test environmental and personnel protective systems; (d) evaluate long-term reliability of components; (e) demonstrate long-term safe handling of tritium with no major releases or incidents; and (f) investigate and evaluate the response of the fuel cycle and environmental packages to normal, off-normal, and emergency situations. This document presents the current status of a conceptual design and cost estimate for TSTA. The total cost to design, construct, and operate TSTA through FY-1981 is estimated to be approximately $12.2 M

  14. Atomic Weapons Establishment Bill

    Clark, Alan; Dalyell, Tam; Haynes, Frank

    1990-01-01

    The Bill debated concerns the government's proposal for the future organisations of the atomic weapons establishment in the United Kingdom. The proposals arise from a full review carried out in 1989 and include points raised by the Select Committee on the Trident programme. Studies of productivity, pay and conditions, information systems and long term manufacturing strategy have been started to enable recommendations of the reorganisation of the establishments to be made. The details of the Bill were debated for just over two hours. The debate is reported verbatim. The main issues were over the principle of contractorisation, possible staff redundancies, conditions of employment, safety and security. The proposal that the Bill be read a second time was carried. (UK)

  15. An investigation on the deployments of major computer system ...

    This paper investigated the capabilities and limitations of major operating systems with reference to issues of usability, stability, availability, portability, security, flexibility and cost effectiveness; with other attendant inherent and external considerations, like, no licensing, activation, robustness, high scalability and GUI ...

  16. 48 CFR 207.106 - Additional requirements for major systems.

    2010-10-01

    .... (vi) Use of build-to-print approaches to enable production through multiple sources. (vii) Acquisition...(d)(4)(A) from requiring offers for development or production of major systems that would enable the... analysis of the total value, in terms of innovative design, life-cycle costs, and other pertinent factors...

  17. Fresh fish ( Clarias gariepinus ) marketing system in major towns of ...

    This study was carried out to investigate marketing system, market channel, nature of costs, market margins and the factors determining the marketing profit of fresh fish (Clarias gariepinus) in major towns in Ibarapa Zone, Oyo state. Data were collected through the use of questionnaire administered to the fish traders.

  18. Improving Project Management of Complex or Major Systems

    2016-05-05

    Major Automated Information Systems (MAIS) 3 1 Joint Program; Army-Led 2 Joint Program; USMC Led 3 Over 90% expended; non-reporting 4 Limited...funding available through vehicle Mod-lines --- shared across various motor transport programs PB-17 $M (including OCO) Program ACAT FYDP (FY17

  19. Optimistic Selection Rule Better Than Majority Voting System

    Sugiyama, Takuya; Obata, Takuya; Hoki, Kunihito; Ito, Takeshi

    A recently proposed ensemble approach to game-tree search has attracted a great deal of attention. The ensemble system consists of M computer players, where each player uses a different series of pseudo-random numbers. A combination of multiple players under the majority voting system would improve the performance of a Shogi-playing computer. We present a new strategy of move selection based on the search values of a number of players. The move decision is made by selecting one player from all M players. Each move is selected by referring to the evaluation value of the tree search of each player. The performance and mechanism of the strategy are examined. We show that the optimistic selection rule, which selects the player that yields the highest evaluation value, outperforms the majority voting system. By grouping 16 or more computer players straightforwardly, the winning rates of the strongest Shogi programs increase from 50 to 60% or even higher.

  20. Marketing System and Efficiency of Indian Major Carps in India

    Kumar, B. Ganesh; Datta, K.K.; Reddy, G. Vidya Sagar; Menon, Muktha

    2010-01-01

    The Kolleru Lake area (KLA) in Andhra Pradesh being a predominant centre for carp culture is known as the ‘Carp Pocket of India’. This paper has described the highly efficient fish marketing system prevalent in the KLA and has compared it with the marketing of Indian Major Carps (IMC) in other major aquaculture states like West Bengal and Orissa and marine states like Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu. The marketing channels, market intermediaries, price spread and marketing efficiency have been...

  1. OIL AS POLITICAL WEAPON

    Mariana, BUICAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil (called by some black gold has not always been as coveted and used, but only in the last hundred years has established itself as a highly sought after as an indispensable proper functioning of modern economic activity that an important factor in international politics. International oil regime has changed in the last decades. In 1960, oil regime was a private oligopol which had links with governments main consuming countries. By then the price of a barrel of oil was two U.S. dollars and seven major transnational oil companies decided the amount of oil that will be produced. Meanwhile the world region with the largest oil exports were more strongly expressed nationalism and decolonization. Result, it was so in the late 60s in the region occur independent states. They have created an organization aim of this resource to their advantage - OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. Thus since 1973 there have been changes in the international regime governing oil field, namely producing countries were fixed production rate and price. After this time the oil weapon has become increasingly important in the management of international relations. Oil influenced the great powers to Middle East conflicts that occurred in the last century, but their attitude about the emergence of new sources of oil outside OPEC. In the late 90's, Russia has become a major supplier of oil to the West.

  2. Vulnerability of populations and the urban health care systems to nuclear weapon attack – examples from four American cities

    Dallas Cham E

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The threat posed by the use of weapons of mass destruction (WMD within the United States has grown significantly in recent years, focusing attention on the medical and public health disaster capabilities of the nation in a large scale crisis. While the hundreds of thousands or millions of casualties resulting from a nuclear weapon would, in and of itself, overwhelm our current medical response capabilities, the response dilemma is further exacerbated in that these resources themselves would be significantly at risk. There are many limitations on the resources needed for mass casualty management, such as access to sufficient hospital beds including specialized beds for burn victims, respiration and supportive therapy, pharmaceutical intervention, and mass decontamination. Results The effects of 20 kiloton and 550 kiloton nuclear detonations on high priority target cities are presented for New York City, Chicago, Washington D.C. and Atlanta. Thermal, blast and radiation effects are described, and affected populations are calculated using 2000 block level census data. Weapons of 100 Kts and up are primarily incendiary or radiation weapons, able to cause burns and start fires at distances greater than they can significantly damage buildings, and to poison populations through radiation injuries well downwind in the case of surface detonations. With weapons below 100 Kts, blast effects tend to be stronger than primary thermal effects from surface bursts. From the point of view of medical casualty treatment and administrative response, there is an ominous pattern where these fatalities and casualties geographically fall in relation to the location of hospital and administrative facilities. It is demonstrated that a staggering number of the main hospitals, trauma centers, and other medical assets are likely to be in the fatality plume, rendering them essentially inoperable in a crisis. Conclusion Among the consequences of this

  3. Nuclear weapons free zones

    Stahl, K.

    1990-01-01

    The article analyses the concept and problems of the two nuclear weapons free zones in Latin America and in the South Pacific established by the Treaty of Tlatelolco and the Treaty of Rarotonga. So far the nuclear weapons states except China have refused to sign the additional protocols of the Treaties or have signed them only with considerable provisos. Therefore they don't fully recognize the nuclear weapons free status of those zones, or they don't recognize it at all. Both Treaties contain no provisions to regulate the transit of nuclear weapons through the zones. This allows de facto the stationing of nuclear weapons in the military bases of the US which are located within the nuclear weapons free zone of Latin America. The Treaty of Tlatelolco contains also the right of the states, party to the Treaty, to explode nuclear devices for peaceful purposes. Since peaceful and military nuclear explosions cannot be distinguished technically, this right could also undermine the nuclear weapons free status of the region. Important nuclear threshold countries like Argentina and Brazil have furthermore refrained from putting the Treaty into force. (orig.) [de

  4. RTO Meeting Proceedings 16, Aircraft Weapon System Compatibility and Integration held in Chester, United Kingdom, 28-30 September, 1998

    1999-04-01

    explanation for the difference is that aircraft motion same incremental pitching moment coefficient, based in reaction to the weapon ejection was not...operations at gramme with the delivery of the first production aircraft extended ranges to permit quick reaction to, and attack of, achieved in 1996, and the... typographie << norniale ) et b. Mse djour deladsignation de Lobjectif pr~c~d 1 d’un " 0>’) sont regroup~es par "origine de b. r Mis Ao ioure de larm

  5. Virtual nuclear weapons

    Pilat, J.F.

    1997-08-01

    The term virtual nuclear weapons proliferation and arsenals, as opposed to actual weapons and arsenals, has entered in recent years the American lexicon of nuclear strategy, arms control, and nonproliferation. While the term seems to have an intuitive appeal, largely due to its cyberspace imagery, its current use is still vague and loose. The author believes, however, that if the term is clearly delineated, it might offer a promising approach to conceptualizing certain current problems of proliferation. The first use is in a reference to an old problem that has resurfaced recently: the problem of growing availability of weapon-usable nuclear materials in civilian nuclear programs along with materials made `excess` to defense needs by current arms reduction and dismantlement. It is argued that the availability of these vast materials, either by declared nuclear-weapon states or by technologically advanced nonweapon states, makes it possible for those states to rapidly assemble and deploy nuclear weapons. The second use has quite a different set of connotations. It is derived conceptually from the imagery of computer-generated reality. In this use, one thinks of virtual proliferation and arsenals not in terms of the physical hardware required to make the bomb but rather in terms of the knowledge/experience required to design, assemble, and deploy the arsenal. Virtual weapons are a physics reality and cannot be ignored in a world where knowledge, experience, materials, and other requirements to make nuclear weapons are widespread, and where dramatic army reductions and, in some cases, disarmament are realities. These concepts are useful in defining a continuum of virtual capabilities, ranging from those at the low end that derive from general technology diffusion and the existence of nuclear energy programs to those at the high end that involve conscious decisions to develop or maintain militarily significant nuclear-weapon capabilities.

  6. Reframing the debate against nuclear weapons

    Tyson, Rhianna

    2005-01-01

    recent years has been all but negated; consensus-based agreements are rejected just a few years after being reached. Despite the threats posed by State or non-State proliferation, an increasing likelihood of a return to nuclear testing and the development of new nuclear weapons, a handful of powerful people continue to view these weapons as a legitimate source of security. All States Parties and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) should approach the seventh NPT Review Conference in May 2005 as a major opportunity to reinvigorate the nuclear disarmament regime and transform it into an effective tool by which a true collective security can be ensured. First, however, we must reclaim the ground that has been eroded in recent years by the vertical and horizontal proliferation threats stemming from various corners of the globe

  7. Defining Weapons of Mass Destruction

    2012-01-01

    Cyprus, Liberia, Malta, Marshall Islands , Mongolia, Panama, and St. Vin- cent and the Grenadines, according to a State Department summary available...1972 Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention, and the 1993 Chemical Weapons Convention. As such, NBC weapons represent a group of weapons that the...Development, Produc- tion and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on Their Destruction contains two references to WMD

  8. Oil and influence: the oil weapon examined

    Maull, H

    1975-01-01

    The term ''oil weapon'' as used here signifies any manipulation of the price and/or supply of oil by exporting nations with the intention of changing the political behavior of the consumer nations. The political potential of the oil price is fairly restricted so, in effect, the supply interruptions are of prime concern. Manipulating price does, in principle, offer the possibilities of both conferring rewards and inflicting sanctions. Oil could be sold on preferential prices and terms. A precondition for using the oil weapon successfully would be the ability to cause real and serious damage to the consumer countries. Four damaging potentials for using the oil weapon could include its application by: (1) one producer against one consumer; (2) one producer against all consumers; (3) a group of producers against one consumer; and (4) by a group of producers against all consumers. It is concluded that the oil weapon will continue to be a force in the international system. (MCW)

  9. Application of Life Support Cost, Provisioning, and Repair/Discard Models to Weapon System Procurement Decisions by Small Countries.

    1981-12-01

    the LCC for use in system evaluation was motivated by the fact that the major part of user budgets are spent on operations and support activities...Furthermore, it was recognized that these ownership costs ex- ceed systems procurement costs by up to several times. The main motivation behind the LCC...8217 󈧄 4 ~ ~ ~ ( CL f %AO 09*. 𔃾.𔃺 𔄃 0 4 . -~4 4C4 - CL44 N 10 z3 w 4 . - 4)..LIP 4 .J~272 .0co A pF 1 PS4 ~~~~m a0~-eN ON~ - .q r N0 .. ~ ~ 7O N#04

  10. Report on the bill project related to the struggle against proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and their delivery systems

    2010-01-01

    In a first part presenting the various forms of proliferations, the author first gives a quantitative overview of illegal activities concerning nuclear materials, and then discusses the existence and activities of proliferation networks, explaining how international trade liberalization creates a favourable context for proliferations of any kind, and describing how a typical network is organised. He also discusses the example of Iraq and the case of the network created by the Pakistani scientist Abdul Q. Khan. The risk created by the hypothetical relationship between terrorism and nuclear weapon of mass destruction is also questioned. Then, after having recalled the existing international texts and the present national legislation, the author comments the contribution on the bill project and outlines aspects which are not dealt with by this bill project: radiological devices and cybernetic attacks. Then he reports the comments made by the commission on the bill project articles which define interdictions, sanctions and sentences, or procedures against people or organisations involved in the financing or the use of weapons of mass destruction (biological and chemical). A table gives a comparison between the bill project text and the commission's propositions

  11. Major Components of the National TRU Waste System Optimization Project

    Moody, D.C.; Bennington, B.; Sharif, F.

    2002-01-01

    The National Transuranic (TRU) Program (NTP) is being optimized to allow for disposing of the legacy TRU waste at least 10 years earlier than originally planned. This acceleration will save the nation an estimated $713. The Department of Energy's (DOE'S) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) has initiated the National TRU Waste System Optimization Project to propose, and upon approvaI, implement activities that produce significant cost saving by improving efficiency, thereby accelerating the rate of TRU waste disposal without compromising safety. In its role as NTP agent of change, the National TRU Waste System Optimization Project (the Project) (1) interacts closely with all NTP activities. Three of the major components of the Project are the Central Characterization Project (CCP), the Central Confirmation Facility (CCF), and the MobiIe/Modular Deployment Program.

  12. [Chemical weapons and chemical terrorism].

    Nakamura, Katsumi

    2005-10-01

    Chemical Weapons are kind of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD). They were used large quantities in WWI. Historically, large quantities usage like WWI was not recorded, but small usage has appeared now and then. Chemical weapons are so called "Nuclear weapon for poor countrys" because it's very easy to produce/possession being possible. They are categorized (1) Nerve Agents, (2) Blister Agents, (3) Cyanide (blood) Agents, (4) Pulmonary Agents, (5) Incapacitating Agents (6) Tear Agents from the viewpoint of human body interaction. In 1997 the Chemical Weapons Convention has taken effect. It prohibits chemical weapons development/production, and Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) verification regime contributes to the chemical weapons disposal. But possibility of possession/use of weapons of mass destruction by terrorist group represented in one by Matsumoto and Tokyo Subway Sarin Attack, So new chemical terrorism countermeasures are necessary.

  13. 48 CFR 225.7005 - Restriction on certain chemical weapons antidote.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restriction on certain chemical weapons antidote. 225.7005 Section 225.7005 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... on certain chemical weapons antidote. ...

  14. Some think of all rises on efficiency and performance for antisubmarine weapon

    Wan Qian

    2003-01-01

    The integrated antisubmarine weapon system is new antisubmarine weapon system studied by our country. The efficiency and performance of the system was not put into fullplay in the trying on. The reason for thus is much, such as: personnel, training, management, use, arm system and son on. The author presented some think of all rises on efficiency and performance for integrated antisubmarine weapon

  15. Making weapons, talking peace

    York, H.F.

    1987-01-01

    The memoirs of the author traces his life from his first-year graduate studies in physics at the University of Rochester in 1942 to his present position as Director of the University of California's Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation. The part of his life involved in making weapons extends from 1942 to 1961. During this period, he worked with E.O. Lawrence on the Manhattan Project and served as director of Livermore after it became the Atomic Energy Commission's second nuclear weapons laboratory. He also served on many government advisory boards and commissions dealing with nuclear and other weapons. In 1961, the combination of a heart attack and changes in administration in Washington led York too return to the University of California for the talking peace portion of his life. He has since become a public exponent of arms control and disarmament and the futility of seeking increased security through more and better nuclear weapons. York's explanation of his move from making weapons to talking peace leaves the reader with a puzzle

  16. Wounds and weapons

    Vogel, H. [Asklepios Klinik St. Georg, Roentgenabteilung, Lohmuehlenstrasse 5, 20099 Hamburg (Germany)], E-mail: Hermann.vogel@ak-stgeorg.lbk-hh.de; Dootz, B. [Asklepios Klinik St. Georg, Roentgenabteilung, Lohmuehlenstrasse 5, 20099 Hamburg (Germany)

    2007-08-15

    Purpose: X-ray findings are described, which are typical for injuries due to conventional weapons. It is intended to demonstrate that radiographs can show findings characteristic for weapons. Material and method: The radiograms have been collected in Vietnam, Croatia, Serbia, Bosnia, Chad, Iran, Afghanistan, USA, Great Britain, France, Israel, Palestine, and Germany. Results: Radiograms of injuries due to hand grenades show their content (globes) and cover fragments. The globes are localized regionally in the victim's body. Survivors of cluster bombs show singular or few globes; having been hit by many globes would have been lethal. Shotguns produce characteristic distributions of the pallets and depth of penetration different from those of hand grenades and cluster bombs; cover fragments are lacking. Gunshot wounds (GSW) can be differentiated in those to low velocity bullets, high velocity projectiles, and projectiles, which disintegrate on impact. The radiogram furnishes the information about a dangerous shock and helps to recognize the weapon. Radiograms of victims of explosion show fragments and injuries due to the blast, information valid for therapy planning and prognosis. The radiogram shows details which can be used in therapy, forensic medicine and in war propaganda - examples could be findings typical for cluster bombs and for dumdum bullets; it shows the cruelty of the employment of weapons against humans and the conflict between the goal of medical care and those of military actions. Conclusion: Radiographs may show, which weapon has been employed; they can be read as war reports.

  17. Wounds and weapons

    Vogel, H.; Dootz, B.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: X-ray findings are described, which are typical for injuries due to conventional weapons. It is intended to demonstrate that radiographs can show findings characteristic for weapons. Material and method: The radiograms have been collected in Vietnam, Croatia, Serbia, Bosnia, Chad, Iran, Afghanistan, USA, Great Britain, France, Israel, Palestine, and Germany. Results: Radiograms of injuries due to hand grenades show their content (globes) and cover fragments. The globes are localized regionally in the victim's body. Survivors of cluster bombs show singular or few globes; having been hit by many globes would have been lethal. Shotguns produce characteristic distributions of the pallets and depth of penetration different from those of hand grenades and cluster bombs; cover fragments are lacking. Gunshot wounds (GSW) can be differentiated in those to low velocity bullets, high velocity projectiles, and projectiles, which disintegrate on impact. The radiogram furnishes the information about a dangerous shock and helps to recognize the weapon. Radiograms of victims of explosion show fragments and injuries due to the blast, information valid for therapy planning and prognosis. The radiogram shows details which can be used in therapy, forensic medicine and in war propaganda - examples could be findings typical for cluster bombs and for dumdum bullets; it shows the cruelty of the employment of weapons against humans and the conflict between the goal of medical care and those of military actions. Conclusion: Radiographs may show, which weapon has been employed; they can be read as war reports

  18. Weapons of mass destruction - current security threat

    Durdiak, J.; Gafrik, A.; Pulis, P.; Susko, M.

    2005-01-01

    This publication brings a complex and comprehensive view of the weapons of mass destruction phenomenon in the context of present military and political situation. It emphasizes the threat posed by proliferation of these destructive devices and their carriers as well as the threat present in their possession by unpredictable totalitarian regimes or terrorist groups. The publication is structured into four basic parts: Introduction Into The Topic, Nuclear Weapons, Chemical Weapons and Biological Weapons. The Introduction reflects the latest developments on the field of military technologies, which lead to the development of new destructive devices with characteristics comparable to basic types of WMDs - nuclear, chemical and biological. Based on the definition of WMD as 'weapon systems with enormous impact causing mass destruction, population, equipment and material losses', the modern mass destruction devices are assorted here, such as ecological, radiological and beam weapons, aerosol and container intelligent ammunition, the outburst of dangerous chemical substances from infrastructure, non-conventional weapons and military devices. The Nuclear Weapons part depicts the most destructive device of mass destruction mankind ever invented in close detail. It maps the history of most significant discoveries in nuclear physics, development and construction of the first nuclear weapons, accumulation of nuclear warheads and their carriers in the Cold war era, attempts of nuclear disarmament and reducing the number of nuclear weapons in possession of superpowers and their proliferation in the world's crisis regions including North Korea and Iran. The chapters devoted to theoretical grounds and physical principles of nuclear and thermonuclear weapons' functioning, the main categories and types, as well as destructive effects and consequences of use contain an adequate mathematical apparatus. This chapter's conclusion brings the overview of nuclear armament of states that

  19. Nuclear weapons in the India-Pakistan context

    Sanjay Badri-Maharaj

    2002-01-01

    This thesis deals with the possible employment of nuclear weapons in the ongoing confrontation between India and Pakistan. After reviewing the nuclear capabilities of both Indian and Pakistan and assessing their possible delivery systems, this dissertation explores the emerging picture regarding the Indian and Pakistani nuclear doctrines. It is argued that, after exploring the current structure of the armed forces in both countries and after analyzing the theatres of operations, it is highly unlikely that either country seeks to employ nuclear weapons in a tactical, battlefield role. It is also argued that neither India or Pakistan is making an effort to evolve a nuclear war-fighting doctrine. Moreover, it is shown that nuclear weapons have simply led to a re-thinking of military tactics on the part of India so as to minimize the chance of a nuclear strike by limiting the aims and objectives of any Indian military action. In stark contrast, it is shown that South Asian cities present far more lucrative targets for nuclear strikes. As a result of this and the geographic and tactical limitations of South Asian battlefields, it is argued that both India and Pakistan have based their fledgling nuclear strategies around a 'city-busting' concept. The existing command and control systems in both countries are examined and found to be adequate if both countries adopt a strict 'second-strike' approach to the employment of nuclear weapons. It is further argued that nuclear weapons, while limiting the scale of any future India-Pakistan war, will not play a major role in preventing a conflict between the two countries. Rather, the basic operational parity that exists between the two countries in terms of their conventional forces is responsible for preventing the outbreak of war. The thesis also briefly explores the rationale behind the acquisition of nuclear weapons in both countries and on their basic security perceptions. The issue of confidence building measures and the

  20. What Happens to Deterrence as Nuclear Weapons Decrease Toward Zero?

    Drell, Sidney

    2011-04-01

    Steps reducing reliance on deployed nuclear weapons en route to zero will be discussed. They include broadly enhancing cooperation and transparency agreements beyond the provisions for verifying limits on deployed strategic nuclear warheads and delivery systems in the New START treaty. Two questions that will be addressed are: What conditions would have to be established in order to maintain strategic stability among nations as nuclear weapons recede in importance? What would nuclear deterrence be like in a world without nuclear weapons?

  1. Weapons and hope

    Dyson, F.

    1984-01-01

    The British-born physicist presents a full-blown critique of US weapons policy. His careful evaluation of opposing views leads him to endorse a live-and-let-live concept of arms control, which would reject both assured destruction and first use of nuclear weapons in favor of abolishing them. Dyson's faith in the humane progress of military technology and his tolerance of dangerous conventional weapons will not please dovish readers, while his denunciation of military idolatry and his support of a nuclear freeze will disappoint some hawks. Along with moving personal memories of war and pacifism, the most original sections of the book are the author's insightful comments about the Soviet Union and the issue of verification

  2. Nuclear weapon testing and the monkey business

    Murthy, M.S.S.

    1978-01-01

    Reasons for India's total ban on the export of rhesus monkeys to U.S. have been explained. The major reason is that some of the animals were used in nuclear weapon related radiation experiments. This was a clear violation of a stricture in the agreement about supply of monkeys. The stricture prohibited the use of animals for research concerning military operations, including nuclear weapon testing. It is pleaded that a strict enforcement of strictures rather than a total ban on the export of monkeys would be better in the interest of advancement of knowledge in human medicine and disease control. (M.G.B.)

  3. Nuclear weapons in Europe

    Pierre, A.J.

    1984-01-01

    In this introduction to ''Nuclear Weapons in Europe'', the author summarized the views of two Americans and two Europeans, whose articles make up the volume. The introduction explains the different assumptions of the four authors before discussing their views on the military and political rationales for a nuclear force in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and the debate over battlefield nuclear weapons, conventional defense, and arms control proposals and talks. The four contributors whose views are analyzed are William G. Hyland, Lawrence D. Freeman, Paul C. Warnke, and Karstan D. Voight. The introduction notes that the agreements and differences do not fall strictly on American versus European dividing lines

  4. Beyond the nuclear weapon

    Quinlan, M.

    2001-01-01

    Since the end of the cold war, many people called for the elimination of nuclear weapons. That this decision seems difficult to realize because of the world political environment. Meanwhile the reduction of the nuclear weapons costs and risks believes more than ever a challenge of the international relations and more particularly in the proliferation domain. In this perspective the proliferation fight strategies need to be studied with a special interest in the domain of the alternatives and the possibilities of synergy. (A.L.B.)

  5. Dismantlement and destruction of chemical, nuclear and conventional weapons

    Schulte, N.T.

    1997-01-01

    The safe destruction and dismantling of chemical, nuclear and conventional weapons is of fundamental importance to the security of all countries represented in this volume. Expertise in the field is not confined to one country or organisation: all can benefit from each other. There is an ever present danger of proliferation of weapons of mass destruction: approximately two dozen countries have ongoing programmes to develop or acquire such weapons, and many are also gaining the capability to build air-surface delivery systems. But much can be done to prevent proliferation by reducing leakage of materials and know-how and by solving the problems of the destruction of surplus weapons systems, which has now come to be a key issue. In 13 sessions of the workshop attention was paid to (1) Dismantlement and Destruction of Chemical, Nuclear and Conventional Weapons; (2) Status of Implementation of Arms Control Treaties and Voluntary Commitments; (3) National Perspectives on Cooperation in Disarmament; (4) Stocktaking of National and Bilateral Disposal/Destruction Programmes: Chemical Weapons; (5) Stocktaking of National and Bilateral Disposal/Destruction Programmes: Nuclear Weapons; (6) Stocktaking of National and Bilateral Disposal/Destruction Programmes: Conventional Weapons. Session; (7) Experience with Currently Employed Chemical Destruction Technologies; (8) Alternative Chemical Destruction Technologies; (9) Deactivation, Dismantlement and Destruction of Delivery Systems and Infrastructure for Nuclear Weapons; (10) Storage, Safeguarding and Disposition of Fissile Materials; (11) Technologies for Conversion and Civil Use of Demilitarized Materials; (12) International Organizations; and (13) Environmental Challenges Posed by Chemical and Nuclear Disarmament

  6. Public perspectives of nuclear weapons in the post-cold war environment

    Jenkins-Smith, H.C.; Herron, K.G. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Institute for Public Policy; Barke, R.P. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Public Policy

    1994-04-01

    This report summarizes the findings of a nationwide survey of public perceptions of nuclear weapons in the post-cold war environment. Participants included 1,301 members of the general public, 1,155 randomly selected members of the Union of Concerned Scientists, and 1,226 employees randomly selected from the technical staffs of four DOE national laboratories. A majority of respondents from all three samples perceived the post-cold war security environment to pose increased likelihood of nuclear war, nuclear proliferation, and nuclear terrorism. Public perceptions of nuclear weapons threats, risks, utilities, and benefits were found to systematically affect nuclear weapons policy preferences in predictable ways. Highly significant relationships were also found between public trust and nuclear weapons policy preferences. As public trust and official government information about nuclear weapons increased, perceptions of nuclear weapons management risks decreased and perceptions of nuclear weapons utilities and benefits increased. A majority of respondents favored decreasing funding for: (1) developing and testing new nuclear weapons; (2) maintaining existing nuclear weapons, and (3) maintaining the ability to develop and improve nuclear weapons. Substantial support was found among all three groups for increasing funding for: (1) enhancing nuclear weapons safety; (2) training nuclear weapons personnel; (3) preventing nuclear proliferation; and (4) preventing nuclear terrorism. Most respondents considered nuclear weapons to be a persistent feature of the post-cold war security environment.

  7. Nuclear power and nuclear weapons

    Vaughen, V.C.A.

    1983-01-01

    The proliferation of nuclear weapons and the expanded use of nuclear energy for the production of electricity and other peaceful uses are compared. The difference in technologies associated with nuclear weapons and nuclear power plants are described

  8. Applying Agile MethodstoWeapon/Weapon-Related Software

    Adams, D; Armendariz, M; Blackledge, M; Campbell, F; Cloninger, M; Cox, L; Davis, J; Elliott, M; Granger, K; Hans, S; Kuhn, C; Lackner, M; Loo, P; Matthews, S; Morrell, K; Owens, C; Peercy, D; Pope, G; Quirk, R; Schilling, D; Stewart, A; Tran, A; Ward, R; Williamson, M

    2007-05-02

    This white paper provides information and guidance to the Department of Energy (DOE) sites on Agile software development methods and the impact of their application on weapon/weapon-related software development. The purpose of this white paper is to provide an overview of Agile methods, examine the accepted interpretations/uses/practices of these methodologies, and discuss the applicability of Agile methods with respect to Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC) Technical Business Practices (TBPs). It also provides recommendations on the application of Agile methods to the development of weapon/weapon-related software.

  9. Prions: the danger of biochemical weapons

    Eric Almeida Xavier

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of biotechnology increases the risk of using biochemical weapons for mass destruction. Prions are unprecedented infectious pathogens that cause a group of fatal neurodegenerative diseases by a novel mechanism. They are transmissible particles that are devoid of nucleic acid. Due to their singular characteristics, Prions emerge as potential danger since they can be used in the development of such weapons. Prions cause fatal infectious diseases, and to date there is no therapeutic or prophylactic approach against these diseases. Furthermore, Prions are resistant to food-preparation treatments such as high heat and can find their way from the digestive system into the nervous system; recombinant Prions are infectious either bound to soil particles or in aerosols. Therefore, lethal Prions can be developed by malicious researchers who could use it to attack political enemies since such weapons cause diseases that could be above suspicion.

  10. Does Britain need nuclear weapons?

    Hill, C.R.; Pease, R.S.; Peierls, R.E.; Rotblat, J.

    1995-01-01

    This report from the British Pugwash Group follows up a detailed international study of the desirability and feasibility of a world free from nuclear weapons with an analysis of issues particular to British nuclear weapons and the associated defense policies. United Kingdom nuclear weapons are reviewed historically, as are the nuclear weapons policies of other countries. A critique of present government policy is presented, with alternative uses for nuclear weapons in the post-Cold war world. The document concludes with a summary of the text and suggests how a British government could move towards global nuclear disarmament. (UK)

  11. Safeguarding nuclear weapon: Usable materials in Russia

    Cochran, T.

    1998-01-01

    Both the United States and Russia are retaining as strategic reserves more plutonium and HEU for potential reuse as weapons, than is legitimately needed. Both have engaged in discussions and have programs in various stages of development to dispose of excess plutonium and HEU. These fissile material disposition programs will take decades to complete. In the interim there will be, as there is now, hundreds of tons of separated weapon-usable fissile material stored in tens of thousands of transportable canisters, each containing from a few to several tons of kgs of weapon-usable fissile material. This material must be secured against theft and unauthorized use. To have high confidence that the material is secure, one must establish criteria against which the adequacy of the protective systems can be judged. For example, one finds such criteria in US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) regulations for the protection of special nuclear materials

  12. Ionitriding of Weapon Components

    1974-01-01

    and documented tho production sequences required for the case- hardening of AISI 4140 and Nitralloy 13514 steels. Determination of processina...depths were established experimentally for Nitralloy 135M and for AISI 4140 steels. These steels are commonly used for the manufacture of nitrlded...weapons components. A temperature of 050F, upper limit for lonitrlding, was selected for the Nitralloy 135M to keep treatment times short. Since AISI 4140

  13. Terror weapons. Ridding the world of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons - Commission on mass destruction weapons

    Blix, H.; Journe, V.

    2010-01-01

    This book approaches in 8 chapters the ambitious challenge of ridding the world of all mass destruction weapons: 1 - re-launching disarmament; 2 - terror weapons: nature of threats and answers (weakness of traditional answers, counter-proliferation); 3 - nuclear weapons: preventing proliferation and terrorism, reducing threat and nuclear weapons number, from regulation to banning); 4 - biological or toxin weapons; 5 - chemical weapons; 6 - vectors, anti-missile defenses and space weapons; 7 - exports control, international assistance and non-governmental actors; 8 - respect, verification, enforcement and role of the United Nations. The recommendations and works of the Commission are presented in appendix together with the declaration adopted on April 30, 2009. (J.S.)

  14. Cable Television: Technical Considerations in Franchising Major Market Systems.

    Pilnick, Carl

    The 1972 Federal Communications Commission's (FCC) regulations on cable television were intended to assist the penetration of cable television into the large metropolitan regions of the United States. In these major market areas, the task for developing an appropriate franchise is complicated by the changing functional nature of the cable systems…

  15. Non proliferation of nuclear weapons?

    Le Guelte, Georges

    2015-10-01

    After having evoked the behaviour of nuclear countries regarding the development of nuclear weapons and uranium procurement, or nuclear programmes after the Second World War until nowadays, the author presents the non proliferation Treaty (NPT) as a construction at the service of super-powers. He comments and discusses the role of the IAEA control system and its evolutions: a control limited to declared installations, an export control with the spectre of plutonium, a control system thwarted by some technological innovations, information systems coming in, and an additional protocol related to the application of guarantees. He comments the evolution of the context from a bipolar world to a world without pole which raises the issue of how to have commitments respected: description of the role and practice of non proliferation during the Cold War, after the Cold War, and in a world without governance

  16. Regulatory Coordination between Two Major Intracellular Homeostatic Systems

    Dokladny, Karol; Zuhl, Micah Nathaniel; Mandell, Michael

    2013-01-01

    whether there are interactions between these homeostatic systems, one universally operational in all prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, and the other one (autophagy) is limited to eukaryotes. We found that heat shock response regulates autophagy. The interaction between the two systems was demonstrated......The eukaryotic cell depends on multitiered homeostatic systems ensuring maintenance of proteostasis, organellar integrity, function and turnover, and overall cellular viability. At the two opposite ends of the homeostatic system spectrum are heat shock response and autophagy. Here, we tested...... of the homeostatic systems in the eukaryotic cell....

  17. The risk of nuclear weapons proliferation

    Oelgaard, P.L.

    1994-01-01

    During the later years the risks of nuclear proliferation have again become a major topic of interest. This is primarily due to the acute problems caused by Iraq, North Korea, and the 3 new states of the former USSR, Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Belarus. Analysis shows that security problems and prestige are the two most important motives, when the risks of proliferation are considered. But motives are not enough. To produce nuclear weapons a number of technological requirements must also be fulfilled. The country must be able to produce almost pure fissile material, i.e. 235 U or 239 Pu. It must also be able to solve a number of metallurgical, explosive, ignition, physics and other problems. These are in particular non-trivial, if a implosion weapon is to be designed. A review is made of the nuclear facilities in a number of the countries which have been suggested as possible future nuclear weapons countries. In particular facilities which can produce almost pure fissile materials, 235 U and 239 Pu, are considered. The possibility of nuclear terrorists have often been discussed in the media. However, it seems very unlikely that even a major terrorist or mafia organization will be able to solve all the weapons design problems, even if they could steal the fissile material. It is finally discussed what can be done to reduce the risk of further nuclear proliferation. Political pressure can be brought to bear on countries outside the NPT to join it, but it can be counter-productive, and sometimes the countries that are able to exert such pressure, are not willing to do so for other political reasons. The problem of countries which are party to the NPT, but which are believed to acquire nuclear weapons capability in violation of the treaty, can be countered by unannounced inspections of non-declared facilities. However, such inspections can only be meaningfully performed if the necessary intelligence is available. (EG)

  18. The Regulation of the Possession of Weapons at Gatherings

    Pieter du Toit

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Dangerous Weapons Act 15 of 2013 provides for certain prohibitions and restrictions in respect of the possession of a dangerous weapon and it repeals the Dangerous Weapons Act 71 of 1968 as well as the different Dangerous Weapons Acts in operation in the erstwhile TBVC States. The Act also amends the Regulation of Gatherings Act 205 of 1993 to prohibit the possession of any dangerous weapon at a gathering or demonstration. The Dangerous Weapons Act provides for a uniform system of law governing the use of dangerous weapons for the whole of South Africa and it furthermore no longer places the onus on the individual charged with the offence of the possession of a dangerous weapon to show that he or she did not have any intention of using the firearm for an unlawful purpose. The Act also defines the meaning of a dangerous weapon. According to our court’s interpretation of the Dangerous Weapons Act 71 of 1968 a dangerous weapon was regarded as an object used or intended to be used as a weapon even if it had not been designed for use as a weapon. The Act, however, requires the object to be capable of causing death or inflicting serious bodily harm if it were used for an unlawful purpose. The possession of a dangerous weapon, in circumstances which may raise a reasonable suspicion that the person intends to use it for an unlawful purpose, attracts criminal liability. The Act also provides a useful set of guidelines to assist courts to determine if a person charged with the offence of the possession of a dangerous weapon had indeed intended to use the weapon for an unlawful purpose. It seems, however, that the Act prohibits the possession of a dangerous weapon at gatherings, even if the person carrying the weapon does not intend to use it for an unlawful purpose. The state will, however, have to prove that the accused had the necessary control over the object and the intention to exercise such control, as well as that the object is capable of

  19. Major Trends in the Development of the Marketing Information System

    Gheorghe Orzan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Marketing data base is a very useful instrument through whitch you can use the marketing information from the internal system of the firm and any other information from the outside environment in order to reach the marketing objectives and functions. The development of a modern marketing information system using the systems of the unique data bases offer the possibility of stocking and using of an incredible volume of marketing information of numerical nature, text, graphic, sounds, voice and video images, simple and easy to access through automatic procedures delivered by the host systems of data bases administration (SGBD, locally or at distance.

  20. Managing a major security system installation: Practical lessons learned

    Roehrig, S.C.

    1986-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has been heavily involved for over a decade in aiding a number of DOE facilities in defining and implementing upgraded security safeguards systems. Because security system definition, design, and installation is still a relatively new field to the commercial world, effective project management must pay special attention to first understanding and then interpreting the unique aspects of a security system for all concerned parties. Experiences from an actual security system installation are used to illustrate some project management approaches which have been found to be effective

  1. Tool, weapon, or white elephant? A realist analysis of the five phases of a twenty-year programme of occupational health information system implementation in the health sector.

    Spiegel, Jerry M; Lockhart, Karen; Dyck, Carmen; Wilson, Andrea; O'Hara, Lyndsay; Yassi, Annalee

    2012-08-06

    , including technological support and software licensing models, can also affect outcome and sustainability - especially in the North-south context. Careful attention must be given to power relations between the various stakeholders at macro, meso and micro levels when implementing IS. North-South-South collaborations should be encouraged. Governance as well as technological issues are crucial determinants of IS application, and ultimately whether the system is seen as a tool, weapon, or white elephant by the various involved parties."You may call me a fool, But was there a rule The weapon should be turned into a tool? And what do we see? The first tool I step on Turned into a weapon. - Robert Frost"White (albino) elephants were regarded as holy in ancient times in Thailand and other Asian countries. Keeping a white elephant was a very expensive undertaking, since the owner had to provide the elephant with special food and provide access for people who wanted to worship it. If a Thai King became dissatisfied with a subordinate, he would give him a white elephant. The gift would, in most cases, ruin the recipient. - The Phrase Finder"

  2. Tool, weapon, or white elephant? A realist analysis of the five phases of a twenty-year programme of occupational health information system implementation in the health sector

    Spiegel Jerry M

    2012-08-01

    outcomes of interest to all parties. Issues specific to IS development, including technological support and software licensing models, can also affect outcome and sustainability – especially in the North–south context. Careful attention must be given to power relations between the various stakeholders at macro, meso and micro levels when implementing IS. North–South-South collaborations should be encouraged. Governance as well as technological issues are crucial determinants of IS application, and ultimately whether the system is seen as a tool, weapon, or white elephant by the various involved parties. "You may call me a fool, But was there a rule The weapon should be turned into a tool? And what do we see? The first tool I step on Turned into a weapon. - Robert Frost" "White (albino elephants were regarded as holy in ancient times in Thailand and other Asian countries. Keeping a white elephant was a very expensive undertaking, since the owner had to provide the elephant with special food and provide access for people who wanted to worship it. If a Thai King became dissatisfied with a subordinate, he would give him a white elephant. The gift would, in most cases, ruin the recipient. - The Phrase Finder"

  3. Development and Application of Computational/In Vitro Toxicological Methods for Chemical Hazard Risk Reduction of New Materials for Advanced Weapon Systems

    Frazier, John M.; Mattie, D. R.; Hussain, Saber; Pachter, Ruth; Boatz, Jerry; Hawkins, T. W.

    2000-01-01

    The development of quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) is essential for reducing the chemical hazards of new weapon systems. The current collaboration between HEST (toxicology research and testing), MLPJ (computational chemistry) and PRS (computational chemistry, new propellant synthesis) is focusing R&D efforts on basic research goals that will rapidly transition to useful products for propellant development. Computational methods are being investigated that will assist in forecasting cellular toxicological end-points. Models developed from these chemical structure-toxicity relationships are useful for the prediction of the toxicological endpoints of new related compounds. Research is focusing on the evaluation tools to be used for the discovery of such relationships and the development of models of the mechanisms of action. Combinations of computational chemistry techniques, in vitro toxicity methods, and statistical correlations, will be employed to develop and explore potential predictive relationships; results for series of molecular systems that demonstrate the viability of this approach are reported. A number of hydrazine salts have been synthesized for evaluation. Computational chemistry methods are being used to elucidate the mechanism of action of these salts. Toxicity endpoints such as viability (LDH) and changes in enzyme activity (glutahoione peroxidase and catalase) are being experimentally measured as indicators of cellular damage. Extrapolation from computational/in vitro studies to human toxicity, is the ultimate goal. The product of this program will be a predictive tool to assist in the development of new, less toxic propellants.

  4. The morality of weapons research.

    Forge, John

    2004-07-01

    I ask whether weapons research is ever justified. Weapons research is identified as the business of the engineer. It is argued that the engineer has responsibility for the uses to which the tools that he designs can be put, and that responsibility extends to the use of weapons. It is maintained that there are no inherently defensive weapons, and hence there is no such thing as 'defensive' weapons research. The issue then is what responsibilities as a professional the engineer has in regard to such research. An account is given to ground the injunction not to provide the means to harm as a duty for the engineers. This account is not, however, absolutist, and as such it allows justifiable exceptions. The answer to my question is thus not that weapons research is never justified but there must be a strong assurance that the results will only be used as a just means in a just cause.

  5. Changing the Army’s Weapon Training Strategies to Meet Operational Requirements More Efficiently and Effectively

    2014-01-01

    psycho -motor skills. Other major weapon systems are more supported by technology and require crews or units collectively applying procedures rapidly and...Army can take to improve its train- ing and leader development management processes and architectures . The directions for improvement outlined in this...activity; (4) enhance ATLD and Army-wide information technology architectures to improve data collection and analysis; and (5) evolve emerging ATLD

  6. Exploring the Possible Use of Information Barriers for future Biological Weapons Verification Regimes

    Luke, S.J.

    2011-01-01

    This report describes a path forward for implementing information barriers in a future generic biological arms-control verification regime. Information barriers have become a staple of discussion in the area of arms control verification approaches for nuclear weapons and components. Information barriers when used with a measurement system allow for the determination that an item has sensitive characteristics without releasing any of the sensitive information. Over the last 15 years the United States (with the Russian Federation) has led on the development of information barriers in the area of the verification of nuclear weapons and nuclear components. The work of the US and the Russian Federation has prompted other states (e.g., UK and Norway) to consider the merits of information barriers for possible verification regimes. In the context of a biological weapons control verification regime, the dual-use nature of the biotechnology will require protection of sensitive information while allowing for the verification of treaty commitments. A major question that has arisen is whether - in a biological weapons verification regime - the presence or absence of a weapon pathogen can be determined without revealing any information about possible sensitive or proprietary information contained in the genetic materials being declared under a verification regime. This study indicates that a verification regime could be constructed using a small number of pathogens that spans the range of known biological weapons agents. Since the number of possible pathogens is small it is possible and prudent to treat these pathogens as analogies to attributes in a nuclear verification regime. This study has determined that there may be some information that needs to be protected in a biological weapons control verification regime. To protect this information, the study concludes that the Lawrence Livermore Microbial Detection Array may be a suitable technology for the detection of the

  7. Exploring the Possible Use of Information Barriers for future Biological Weapons Verification Regimes

    Luke, S J

    2011-12-20

    This report describes a path forward for implementing information barriers in a future generic biological arms-control verification regime. Information barriers have become a staple of discussion in the area of arms control verification approaches for nuclear weapons and components. Information barriers when used with a measurement system allow for the determination that an item has sensitive characteristics without releasing any of the sensitive information. Over the last 15 years the United States (with the Russian Federation) has led on the development of information barriers in the area of the verification of nuclear weapons and nuclear components. The work of the US and the Russian Federation has prompted other states (e.g., UK and Norway) to consider the merits of information barriers for possible verification regimes. In the context of a biological weapons control verification regime, the dual-use nature of the biotechnology will require protection of sensitive information while allowing for the verification of treaty commitments. A major question that has arisen is whether - in a biological weapons verification regime - the presence or absence of a weapon pathogen can be determined without revealing any information about possible sensitive or proprietary information contained in the genetic materials being declared under a verification regime. This study indicates that a verification regime could be constructed using a small number of pathogens that spans the range of known biological weapons agents. Since the number of possible pathogens is small it is possible and prudent to treat these pathogens as analogies to attributes in a nuclear verification regime. This study has determined that there may be some information that needs to be protected in a biological weapons control verification regime. To protect this information, the study concludes that the Lawrence Livermore Microbial Detection Array may be a suitable technology for the detection of the

  8. Nuclear power and weapons proliferation

    Greenwood, T.; Rathjens, C.W.; Ruina, J.

    1977-01-01

    The relationship between nuclear weapons development and nuclear electric power is examined. A brief description of nuclear weapons design is first given. This is then followed by a discussion of various aspects of nuclear power technology and of how they affect a nuclear weapon programme. These include fuel cycles, chemical reprocessing of spent fuel, uranium enrichment, and the control of dissemination of nuclear technology. In conclusion there is a discussion of possible political and institutional controls for limiting nuclear proliferation. (U.K.)

  9. Audit of the Reporting Requirements for Major Automated Information System Programs

    2000-01-01

    .... There are 71 Major Automated Information System programs with total program costs of $26 billion. To qualify as a Major Automated Information System, the program must meet the following critena...

  10. Fresh fish (Clarias gariepinus) marketing system in major towns of ...

    IJAAAR

    The study showed that women (85%) formed the highest number of fish traders in Ibarapa zone, women of age ... Marketing system is one of the main .... study area that marketing is a business activity ... important factor in the performance and.

  11. Major trends in the development of electrical power systems

    Syromyatnikov, I A

    1965-01-01

    The comparison is made between the USA and the USSR electrical systems and their growth. The author states that USSR is about 35 years behind in the construction of power transmission lines of 22 kV and above. Various graphs of economic developments are presented. It is stated that the work in the near future should be concentrated on 750 kV network and on combining the USSR electric power distribution into a single power system.

  12. Political accountability and autonomous weapons

    James Igoe Walsh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous weapons would have the capacity to select and attack targets without direct human input. One important objection to the introduction of such weapons is that they will make it more difficult to identify and hold accountable those responsible for undesirable outcomes such as mission failures and civilian casualties. I hypothesize that individuals can modify their attribution of responsibility in predicable ways to accommodate this new technology. The results of a survey experiment are consistent with this; subjects continue to find responsible and hold accountable political and military leaders when autonomous weapons are used, but also attribute responsibility to the designers and programmers of such weapons.

  13. Nuclear weapons complex

    Rezendes, V.S.

    1991-03-01

    In this book, GAO characterizes DOE's January 1991 Nuclear Weapons Complex Reconfiguration Study as a starting point for reaching agreement on solutions to many of the complex's safety and environmental problems. Key decisions still need to be made about the size of the complex, where to relocate plutonium operations, what technologies to use for new tritium production, and what to do with excess plutonium. The total cost for reconfiguring and modernizing the complex is still uncertain, and some management issues remain unresolved. Congress faces a difficult task in making test decisions given the conflicting demands for scarce resources in a time of growing budget deficits and war in the Persian Gulf

  14. Defending majority voting systems against a strategic attacker

    Levitin, Gregory; Hausken, Kjell; Ben Haim, Hanoch

    2013-01-01

    Voting systems used in technical and tactical decision making in pattern recognition and target detection, data handling, signal processing, distributed and secure computing etc. are considered. A maxmin two period game is analyzed where the defender first protects and chooses units for participation in voting. The attacker thereafter attacks a subset of units. It is shown that when the defender protects all the voting units, the optimal number of units chosen for voting is either one or the maximal possible odd number. When the defender protects only the units chosen for voting, the optimal number of chosen units increases with the defender resource superiority (i.e., more resources than the attacker) and with probability of providing correct output by any unit. The system success probability always increases in the total number of voting units, the defender–attacker resource ratio, and the probability that each voting unit produces a correct output. The system success probability increases in the attacker–defender contest intensity if the defender achieves per-unit resource superiority, and otherwise decreases in the contest intensity. The presented model and enumerative algorithm allow obtaining optimal voting system defense strategy for any combination of parameters: total number of units, attack and defense resources, unit success probability and contest intensity.

  15. A Prototype HTML Training System for Graphic Communication Majors

    Runquist, Roger L.

    2010-01-01

    This design research demonstrates a prototype content management system capable of training graphic communication students in the creation of basic HTML web pages. The prototype serve as a method of helping students learn basic HTML structure and commands earlier in their academic careers. Exposure to the concepts of web page creation early in…

  16. The US nuclear weapon infrastructure and a stable global nuclear weapon regime

    Immele, John D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wagner, Richard L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    US nuclear weapons capabilities -- extant force structure and nuclear weapons infrastructure as well as declared policy -- influence other nations' nuclear weapons postures, at least to some extent. This influence can be desirable or undesirable, and is, of course, a mixture of both. How strong the influence is, and its nature, are complicated, controversial, and -- in our view -- not well understood but often overstated. Divergent views about this influence and how it might shape the future global nuclear weapons regime seem to us to be the most serious impediment to reaching a national consensus on US weapons policy, force structure and supporting infrastructure. We believe that a paradigm shift to capability-based deterrence and dissuasion is not only consistent with the realities of the world and how it has changed, but also a desirable way for nuclear weapon postures and infrastructures to evolve. The US and other nuclear states could not get to zero nor even reduce nuclear arms and the nuclear profile much further without learning to manage latent capability. This paper has defined three principles for designing NW infrastructure both at the 'next plateau' and 'near zero.' The US can be a leader in reducing weapons and infrastructure and in creating an international regime in which capability gradually substitutes for weapons in being and is transparent. The current 'strategy' of not having policy or a Congressionally-approved plan for transforming the weapons complex is not leadership. If we can conform the US infrastructure to the next plateau and architect it in such a way that it is aligned with further arms reductions, it will have these benefits: The extant stockpile can be reduced in size, while the smaller stockpile still deters attack on the US and Allies. The capabilities of the infrastructure will dissuade emergence of new challenges/threats; if they emerge, nevertheless, the US will be able to deal with them in

  17. Evolution of biomolecular loadings along a major river system

    Freymond, Chantal V.; Kündig, Nicole; Stark, Courcelle; Peterse, Francien; Buggle, Björn; Lupker, Maarten; Plötze, Michael; Blattmann, Thomas M.; Filip, Florin; Giosan, Liviu; Eglinton, Timothy I.

    2018-02-01

    Understanding the transport history and fate of organic carbon (OC) within river systems is crucial in order to constrain the dynamics and significance of land-ocean interactions as a component of the global carbon cycle. Fluvial export and burial of terrestrial OC in marine sediments influences atmospheric CO2 over a range of timescales, while river-dominated sedimentary sequences can provide valuable archives of paleoenvironmental information. While there is abundant evidence that the association of organic matter (OM) with minerals exerts an important influence on its stability as well as hydrodynamic behavior in aquatic systems, there is a paucity of information on where such associations form and how they evolve during fluvial transport. Here, we track total organic carbon (TOC) and terrestrial biomarker concentrations (plant wax-derived long-chain fatty acids (FA), branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) and lignin-derived phenols) in sediments collected along the entire course of the Danube River system in the context of sedimentological parameters. Mineral-specific surface area-normalized biomarker and TOC concentrations show a systematic decrease from the upper to the lower Danube basin. Changes in OM loading of the available mineral phase correspond to a net decrease of 70-80% of different biomolecular components. Ranges for biomarker loadings on Danube River sediments, corresponding to 0.4-1.5 μgFA/m2 for long-chain (n-C24-32) fatty acids and 17-71 ngbrGDGT/m2 for brGDGTs, are proposed as a benchmark for comparison with other systems. We propose that normalizing TOC as well as biomarker concentrations to mineral surface area provides valuable quantitative constraints on OM dynamics and organo-mineral interactions during fluvial transport from terrigenous source to oceanic sink.

  18. Major factors in critical equipment reliability - Auxiliary systems; The development of an auxiliary system

    Forsthoffer, W.E.

    1992-01-01

    In this article, the author details the development of an actual auxiliary system in order to fully understand the function of each major component and how it contributes to the total operation and reliability of the system. Only after the function of an auxiliary system is thoroughly understood, can one proceed to discuss specifications, design audits, testing, operation and preventive maintenance. The application selected will be to develop a pressurized lubrication and steam turbine control oil system for the critical equipment unit. This example was selected since many readers will be familiar with this type and because it provides a good foundation towards understanding fluid sealing systems. In the exercise that follow, he will define the system requirements and determine the system parameters. This information will then be used for component sizing

  19. Effects of the use of ABC weapons

    Karl-Rueckert, E.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of ABC-weapons are presented. The various classes of chemical weapons and their effects are discussed. It is pointed out that there is hardly a means of protection against these weapons. (MG) [de

  20. Weapons barrel life cycle determination

    Nebojša Pene Hristov

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the dynamic processes within the gun barrel during the firing process in exploitation. It generally defines the basic principles of constructing tube elements, and shows the distortion of the basic geometry of the tube interior due to wear as well as the impact it causes during exploitation. The article also defines basic empirical models as well as a model based on fracture mechanics for the calculation of a use-life of the barrel, and other elements essential for the safe use of the barrel as the basic weapon element. Erosion causes are analysed in order to control and reduce wear and prolong the lifetime of the gun barrel. It gives directions for the reparation of barrels with wasted resources. In conclusion, the most influential elements of tube wear are given as well as possible modifications of existing systems, primarily propellant charges, with a purpose of prolonging lifetime of gun barrels. The guidelines for a proper determination of the lifetime based on the barrel condition assessment are given as well. INTRODUCTION The barrel as the basic element of each weapon is described as well as the processes occurring during the firing that have impulsive character and are accompanied by large amounts of energy. The basic elements of barrel and itheir constructive characteristics are descibed. The relation between Internal ballistics, ie calculation of the propellant gas pressure in the firing process, and structural elements defined by the barrel material resistance is shown. In general, this part of the study explains the methodology of the gun barrel structural elements calculation, ie. barrel geometry, taking into account the degrees of safety in accordance with Military Standards.   TUBE WEAR AND DEFORMATIONS The weapon barrel gradually wears out during exploitation due to which it no longer satisfies the set requirements. It is considered that the barrel has experienced a lifetime when it fails to fulfill the

  1. Human Resources Data in Weapon System Design: An Initial Plan for Development of a Unified Data Base.

    1980-11-01

    tems such as D-195, D-220, etc. 11. Provides a standardized methodology for the selection of systems, subsystems to be used as the historical baseline...Graham, R. S., & Hilgeman, .1. B. A methodological approach to the analysis and automatic handling of task information for systems in the conceptual phase...AMRL- TR-63-78 AD-419 018, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio: Aerospace Medical Reserach Laboratories, August 1963. 46. Reed, L. E., Snyder, M. T., Baran, H

  2. Pakistan's Nuclear Weapons: Proliferation and Security Issues

    Kerr, Paul; Nikitin, Mary B

    2007-01-01

    Pakistan's nuclear arsenal consists of approximately 60 nuclear warheads. Pakistan continues fissile material production for weapons, and is adding to its weapons production facilities and delivery vehicles...

  3. Rays as weapons

    Vogel, H.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Ionizing radiation is being regarded as life threatening. Therefore, accidents in nuclear power plants are considered equal threatening as nuclear bomb explosions, and attacks with dirty bombs are thought as dangerous as nuclear weapon explosions. However, there are differences between a nuclear bomb explosion, the largest imaginable accident in a nuclear power plant, and an attack with a dirty bomb. It is intended to point them out. Method: The processes are described, which damage in a nuclear bomb explosion, in the largest imaginable accident in a nuclear power plant, and in an attack with a dirty bomb. Their effects are compared with each other, i.e. explosion, heat, shock wave (blast), ionizing radiation, and fallout. Results: In the center of the explosion of a nuclear bomb, the temperature rises to 100 Mio deg.C, this induces damaging heat radiation and shock wave. In the largest imaginable accident in a nuclear power plant and in the conventional explosion of a dirty bomb, the temperature may rise up to 3000 deg. C, heat radiation and blast are limited to a short distance. In nuclear power plants, explosions due to oxyhydrogen gas or steam may occur. In nuclear explosions the dispersed radioactive material (fall out) consists mainly of isotopes with short half-life, in nuclear power plants and in dirty bomb attacks with longer half-life. The amount of fall out is comparable in nuclear bomb explosions with that in the largest imaginable accident in a nuclear power plant, it is smaller in attacks with dirty bombs. An explosion in a nuclear power plant even in the largest imaginable accident is not a nuclear explosion. In Hiroshima and Nagasaki, there were 200,000 victims nearly all by heat and blast, some 300 died by ionizing radiation. In Chernobyl, there have been less than 100 victims due to ionizing radiation up till now. A dirty bomb kills possibly with the explosion of conventional explosive, the dispersed radioactive material may damage

  4. Nuclear weapons complex

    Peach, J.D.

    1991-02-01

    In this paper, GAO provides its views on DOE's January 1991 Nuclear Weapons Complex Reconfiguration Study. GAO believes that DOE's new reconfiguration study provides a starting point for reaching agreement on solutions to many of the complex's problems. Key decisions still need to be made about the size of the complex, where to relocate plutonium operations, what technologies should be used for new tritium production, and what to do with excess plutonium. The total cost for reconfiguring and modernizing is still uncertain and some management issues remain unresolved. Congress faces a difficult task in making these decisions given the conflicting demands for scare resources in a time of growing budget deficits and war in the Persian Gulf

  5. Weapon of the Weak?

    Amber, Van der Graaf; Otjes, Simon; Rasmussen, Anne

    2016-01-01

    able to reinvigorate democratic processes by changing inequalities in the landscape of political representation among interest groups. The level of resources held by the interest groups acts as the single most consistent predictor of both the range and volume of their social media use. Interest groups......Social media have the potential to offset existing inequalities in representation among interest groups and act as a ‘weapon of the weak’ by providing a technological infrastructure that allows even groups with limited resources to create content and interact across the globe. We expand...... on the sparse existing literature on interest groups and social media in a quantitative, structural analysis of both the range and volume of social media use examining a data set of groups active in European Union lobbying. Despite the positive expectations, we find limited evidence that social media have been...

  6. Why we must abolish nuclear weapons after the end of the Cold War

    Ohnishi, Hitoshi

    1997-01-01

    The end of the Cold War has offered a great opportunity to reduce or even abolish nuclear weapons, but the international community seemed to lose interest in nuclear weapons issues. Today, however, there are a lot of other major menaces to the survival of the mankind: pollution, hunger, poverty, ethnic conflicts. So the nuclear weapons issue is merely one of the most pressing threats to survival

  7. Western Option - Disarmament of Russian Weapon Plutonium

    Tveiten, B.; Petroll, M.R.

    2002-01-01

    The Western Option concept describes an approach to the conversion of weapon-grade plutonium from Russian nuclear warheads under the special aspects of meeting the criteria of irreversible utilization. Putting this concept of plutonium conversion into non-weapon-grade material into effect would make a major contribution to improving security worldwide. This study is based on an agreement between the Russian Federation and the United States of America concluded in September 2000. It provides for the conversion of 34 t of weapon-grade plutonium in each of the two states. This goal is also supported by other G8 countries. While the United States performs its part of the agreement under its sole national responsibility, the Russian program needs financial support by Western states. Expert groups have pointed out several options as a so-called basic scenario. The funds of approx. US Dollar 2 billion required to put them into effect have not so far been raised. The Western Option approach described in this contribution combines results of the basic scenario with other existing experience and with technical solutions available for plutonium conversion. One of the attractions of the Western Option lies in its financial advantages, which are estimated to amount to approx. US Dollar 1 billion. (orig.) [de

  8. Youths Carrying a Weapon or Using a Weapon in a Fight: What Makes the Difference?

    Thurnherr, Judit; Michaud, Pierre-Andre; Berchtold, Andre; Akre, Christina; Suris, Joan-Carles

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize weapon-carrying adolescents and to assess whether weapon carriers differ from weapon users. Data were drawn from a cross-sectional school-based survey of 7548 adolescents aged 16-20 years in Switzerland. Youths carrying a weapon were compared with those who do not. Subsequently, weapon carriers were…

  9. Non-Lethal Chemical Weapons

    Weilacher, Lester A

    2003-01-01

    Little more than a month after terrorists took control of four passenger aircraft in the United States and unleashed the horror of 9/11, 50 Chechen terrorists armed with automatic weapons and carrying...

  10. Islamic State and Chemical Weapons

    Lukáš Rafay

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with topic of Islamic State and chemical weapons. The issue is analysed in three dimensions: origin of used chemical weapons and possibility of independent production; known chemical attacks and tactical regularities in their execution; and traits of future chemical terrorist attacks. By providing a thorough examination of the problem, the article aims at predicting the future development of the group’s chemical program as well as describing any prospective chemical terrorist attacks in Europe

  11. Safeguards for a nuclear weapon convention

    Fischer, D.

    1999-01-01

    An NDT presupposes a fundamental commitment by all parties to its final objective and hence requires a high and sustained level of confidence amongst all states concerned. The appropriate format for an Nuclear Disarmament Treaty (NDT) would probably be a multilateral treaty open to all states. The treaty must necessarily include the five nuclear weapon states and a procedure would have to be found for securing the ratification of the threshold states without conferring upon them the status of nuclear weapon states. While the IAEA may well be able to carry out the safeguards tasks required by an NDT it would probably be necessary to establish a new international organization to verify the elimination of all nuclear weapons. The experience of UNSCOM and the IAEA in Iraq, and of the IAEA in the DPRK, have shown how difficult the verification of international obligations is in the absence of a commitment to disarm, while the experience of the INF and START treaties, and of the IAEA in South Africa have shown how much simpler it is when the parties concerned are fully committed to the process. Verifying and safeguarding an NDT would be largely an extrapolation of activities already carried out by the nuclear weapon states under the INF and START treaties and by the IAEA in the routine application of safeguards as well as in its less routine work in Iraq, South Africa and the DPRK. Both the verification and safeguarding tasks would be made very much easier if it were possible to bring down to a few hundred the number of nuclear warheads remaining in the hands of any avowed nuclear weapon state, and to conclude a cutoff convention. Experience is needed to show whether the additional safeguards authority accorded to the IAEA by 'programme 93+2' will enable it to effectively safeguard the facilities that would be decommissioned as a result of an NDT and those that would remain in operation to satisfy civilian needs. Subject to this rider and on condition that the IAEA

  12. 2007-2008 Weapon Systems

    2007-01-01

    240 Tactical Operations Center ( TOC ) .......................................................................242 Tactical Unmanned Aerial...4QFY06: CHS-3 contract transferred from AMCOM Acq Ctr to CECOM Acq Ctr as a result of the PD CHS move from PM TOCs /AMDCCS to PM TRCS in FY06...SALES None CONTRACTORS IRB Bays manufacturer: General Dynamics Santa Barbara Sistemas (Kaiserslautern, Germany) Logistic support: AM General (Livonia, MI

  13. The return of nuclear weapons

    Calvez, Jean-Yves

    2005-01-01

    Written after the 2005 NPT review conference, this article first recalls the early stages of nuclear proliferation: acquisition of nuclear weapons by Great-Britain, USSR, France and China, and creation of the NPT in 1970. The author briefly evokes some weaknesses and violations of this treaty: emergence of new nuclear powers (India, Pakistan, Israel) and of nuclear weapon programmes (Iran, North Korea). He outlines the lack of true rules to impede countries to develop nuclear weapons, and then states that the only solution seems to be a simple abolition of these weapons. This option is notably supported by the Catholic Church as outlined and recalled here. The author discusses the situation of this abolition option, and notices that, even though NPT members committed themselves on this way, some also decided to develop new and smaller weapons. Then, it becomes always more difficult to persuade countries not to possess these weapons. The author finally discusses the issues of terrorism threat in relationship to the miniaturisation process, and regrets the lack of commitment in an abolition process

  14. Nuclear power and atomic weapons. Chapter 7

    1978-01-01

    Following a brief historical introduction the concept of proliferation, vertical horizontal and subnational, is presented, and its relationship to nuclear power discussed. The risk of nuclear weapon proliferation, based on political decision, motivation and costs, is related to access to enriched uranium, plutonium and uranium 233. The possibilities for diversion and theft from nuclear facilities are discussed. International measures to prevent proliferation, the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT)and the IAEA safeguards system, are described and discussed. Measures which may be enacted against countries which break the NPT are discussed. Restrictions on international nuclear trude, both multilateral and unilateral, are also discussed, especially those at present, or shortly to be, enforced by USA, Canada and Australia. The International Nuclear Feel Cycle Evaluation (INFCE) is briefly presented. The physical protection of nuclear materials is also discussed. Finally the basc principles of nuclear weapons are briefly presented. (JIW)

  15. Nuclear power and atomic weapons. Chapter 7

    1978-01-01

    Following a brief historical introduction the concept of proliferation, vertical and horizontal and subnational, is presented, and its relationship to nuclear power discussed. The risk of nuclear weapon proliferation, based on political decision motivation and costs, is related to access to enriched uranium, plutonium and uranium 233. The possibilities for diversion and theft from nuclear facilities are discussed. International measures to prevent proliferation, the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and the IAEA safeguards system, are described and discussed. Measures which may be enacted against countries which break the NPT are discussed. Restrictions on international nuclear trade, both multilateral and unilateral, are also discussed, especially those at present, or shortly to be, enforced by USA, Canada and Australia. The International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation (INFCE) is briefly presented. The physical protection of nuclear materials is also discussed. Finally the basic principles of nuclear weapons are briefly presented. (JIW)

  16. Application of inertial confinement fusion to weapon technology

    Toepfer, A.J.; Posey, L.D.

    1978-12-01

    This report reviews aspects of the military applications of the inertial confinement fusion (ICF) program at Sandia Laboratories. These applications exist in the areas of: (1) weapon physics research, and (2) weapon effects simulation. In the area of weapon physics research, ICF source technology can be used to study: (1) equations-of-state at high energy densities, (2) implosion dynamics, and (3) laboratory simulation of exoatmospheric burst phenomena. In the area of weapon effects simulation, ICF technology and facilities have direct near, intermediate, and far term applications. In the near term, short pulse x-ray simulation capabilities exist for electronic component effects testing. In the intermediate term, capabilities can be developed for high energy neutron exposures and bremsstrahlung x-ray exposures of components. In the far term, system level exposures of full reentry vehicles will be possible if sufficiently high pellet gains are achieved

  17. Differences in Males and Females in When and Why They Become Interested in Information Systems Majors

    Snyder, Johnny; Slauson, Gayla Jo

    2016-01-01

    Determining when and why students become interested in careers in information systems is a critical step in filling the pipeline of majors to become information systems workers. Although students who have chosen a particular major may find it difficult to indicate or even understand all of the reasons for their choice, it is possible to tease out…

  18. Imaging of Nuclear Weapon Trainers

    Schwellenbach, David [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States)

    2017-12-06

    The Configurable Muon Tracker (CMT) is an adaptation of the existing drift tube detector commercially available from Decision Sciences International Corporation (DSIC). NSTec engineered the CMT around commercially available drift tube assemblies to make a detector that is more versatile than previous drift tube assemblies. The CMT became operational in February 2013. Traditionally, cosmic-ray muon trackers rely on near-vertical trajectory muons for imaging. Since there are scenarios where imaging using vertical trajectory muons is not practical, NSTec designed the CMT specifically for quick configurability to track muons from any trajectory. The CMT was originally designed to be changed from vertical imaging mode to horizontal imaging mode in a few hours with access to a crane or other lifting equipment. In FY14, locations for imaging weapon trainers and SNM were identified and it was determined that lifting equipment would not typically be available in experimental areas. The CMT was further modified and a portable lifting system was developed to allow reconfiguration of the CMT without access to lifting equipment at the facility. This system was first deployed at Los Alamos National Laboratory’s W-division, where several trainers were imaged in both horizontal and vertical modes. Real-time images have been compared in both modes showing that imaging can be done in both modes with the expected longer integration time for horizontal mode. Further imaging and post processing of the data is expected to continue into early FY15.

  19. Nuclear power without nuclear weapons

    Kaiser, K.; Klein, F.J.

    1982-01-01

    In this study leading experts summarize the work of a working group meeting during several years, and they represent the state of the art of the international discussion about the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons. The technical basis of proliferation, the relations between energy policy and nuclear energy, as well as the development of the non-proliferation system up to the present are thoroughly studied. Special attention is paid to the further development of the instruments of the non-proliferation policy, and approaches and ways to improving the control of the fuel cycle, e.g. by means of multinational methods or by improving the control requirements are analyzed. Also the field of positive inducements and negative sanctions to prevent the proliferation as well as the question of ensured supply are elucidated in detail. A further section then analyzes the functions of the international organizations active in this field and the nuclear policy of the most important western industrial nations, the RGW-states and the threshold countries of the Third World. This volume pays special attention to the nuclear policy of the Federal Republic of Germany and to the possibilities and necessities of a further development of the non-proliferation policy. (orig.) [de

  20. Weapons workers: Ruin or revival?

    Ustinov, A.

    1995-01-01

    The formidable task of restructuring the former Soviet Union's economic system depends largely on it success in converting a defense industry that once employed 11 million Soviet workers to peaceful pursuits, says Artiom Ustinov, a researcher in the U.S. and Canada Institute in Moscow. open-quotes Governments could convert defense facilities into those that develop and manufacture products that people desperately need and want,close quotes says Ustinov. Unfortunately, such a transformation cannot happen quickly because the former Soviet Union lacks a high-tech sector into which former weapons workers can migrate. An even more serious problem stems from a traditional isolation from world markets. Civilian manufacturing in the former Soviet Union, which was never forced to meet international standards for quality and performance, has been marked by inferior products. open-quotes With financial support, a well-defined program, incentives, and retraining, the military research labs could find themselves in a better position to release their huge potential for creative rather than destructive purposes,close quotes Ustinov concludes

  1. The Chemical Weapons Convention -- Legal issues

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) offers a unique challenge to the US system of constitutional law. Its promise of eliminating what is the most purely genocidal type of weapon from the world`s arsenals as well as of destroying the facilities for producing these weapons, brings with it a set of novel legal issues. The reservations about the CWC expressed by US business people are rooted in concern about safeguarding confidential business information and protecting the constitutional right to privacy. The chief worry is that international verification inspectors will misuse their power to enter commercial property and that trade secrets or other private information will be compromised as a result. It has been charged that the Convention is probably unconstitutional. The author categorically disagrees with that view and is aware of no scholarly writing that supports it. The purpose of this presentation is to show that CWC verification activities can be implemented in the US consistently with the traditional constitutional regard for commercial and individual privacy. First, he very briefly reviews the types of verification inspections that the CWC permits, as well as some of its specific privacy protections. Second, he explains how the Fourth Amendment right to privacy works in the context of CWC verification inspections. Finally, he reviews how verification inspections can be integrated into these constitutional requirements in the SU through a federal implementing statute.

  2. Detection and treatment of chemical weapons and/or biological pathogens

    Mariella Jr., Raymond P.

    2004-09-07

    A system for detection and treatment of chemical weapons and/or biological pathogens uses a detector system, an electrostatic precipitator or scrubber, a circulation system, and a control. The precipitator or scrubber is activated in response to a signal from the detector upon the detection of chemical weapons and/or biological pathogens.

  3. Conceptual design of small-sized HTGR system (1). Major specifications and system designs

    Ohashi, Hirofumi; Sato, Hiroyuki; Tazawa, Yujiro; Yan, Xing L.; Tachibana, Yukio

    2011-06-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has started a conceptual design of a 50MWt small-sized high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) for steam supply and electricity generation (HTR50S), which is a first-of-kind of the commercial plant or a demonstration plant of a small-sized HTGR system for steam supply to the industries and district heating and electricity generation by a steam turbine, to deploy in developing countries in the 2030s. The design philosophy is that the HTR50S is a high advanced reactor, which is reducing the R and D risk based on the HTTR design, upgrading the performance and reducing the cost for commercialization by utilizing the knowledge obtained by the HTTR operation and the GTHTR300 design. The major specifications of the HTR50S were determined and targets of the technology demonstration using the HTR50S (e.g., the increasing the power density, reduction of the number of uranium enrichment in the fuel, increasing the burn up, side-by-side arrangement between the reactor pressure vessel and the steam generator) were identified. In addition, the system design of HTR50S, which offers the capability of electricity generation, cogeneration of electricity and steam for a district heating and industries, was performed. Furthermore, a market size of small-sized HTGR systems was investigated. (author)

  4. Salient Beliefs in Majoring in Management Information Systems: An Elicitation Study

    Chipidza, Wallace; Green, Gina; Riemenschneider, Cindy

    2016-01-01

    Research utilizing the Theory of Planned Behavior to understand behavior should first elicit beliefs about the phenomenon from the target population. In order to understand the reasons why students choose to major or not major in Management Information Systems (MIS), we elicited beliefs from 136 students attending university in the United States…

  5. The Effects of Nuclear Weapons

    Glasstone, Samuel

    1964-02-01

    This book is a revision of "The Effects of Nuclear Weapons" which was issued in 1957. It was prepared by the Defense Atomic Support Agency of the Department of Defense in coordination with other cognizant governmental agencies and was published by the U.S. Atomc Energy Commission. Although the complex nature of nuclear weapons effects does not always allow exact evaluation, the conclusions reached herein represent the combined judgment of a number of the most competent scientists working the problem. There is a need for widespread public understanding of the best information available on the effects of nuclear weapons. The purpose of this book is to present as accurately as possible, within the limits of national security, a comprehensive summary of this information.

  6. User Guide for Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) Operations on the National Ranges

    2007-11-01

    WARFARE CENTER WEAPONS DIVISION, PT. MUGU NAVAL AIR WARFARE CENTER WEAPONS DIVISION, CHINA LAKE NAVAL AIR WARFARE CENTER AIRCRAFT DIVISION, PATUXENT...with IFR Instrument Flight Rules MRTFB Major Range and Test Facility Base NAS National Airspace System NM nautical mile NTIA National...sectional charts, Instrument Flight Rules ( IFR ) enroute charts, and terminal area charts. The floor and ceiling, operating hours, and controlling

  7. The Effects of Nuclear Weapons

    Glasstone, Samuel

    1957-06-01

    This handbook prepared by the Armed Forces Special Weapons Project of the Department of Defense in coordination with other cognizant government agencies and published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission, is a comprehensive summary of current knowledge on the effects of nuclear weapons. The effects information contained herein is calculated for yields up to 20 megatons and the scaling laws for hypothetically extending the calculations beyond this limit are given. The figure of 20 megatons however is not be taken as an indication of capabilities or developments.

  8. A Situational-Awareness System For Networked Infantry Including An Accelerometer-Based Shot-Identification Algorithm For Direct-Fire Weapons

    2016-09-01

    combine my love of shooting with my education. Dr. Xiaoping Yun graciously provided me with his wealth of technical knowledge. Dr. James Calusdian’s...expanding gasses forcing the projectile down the barrel restarting the process [10]. The major internal components of an AR15 are shown in Figure 1 with...of the three-plate system does not change, regardless of the movement of the middle plate, resulting in the relationship (2.11) Expanding

  9. Los Alamos National Laboratory Weapons Neutron Research Facility

    Woods, R.

    1981-01-01

    The Weapons Neutron Research (WNR) spallation neutron source utilizes 800-MeV protons from the Los Alamos Meson Physics linac. The proton beam transport system, the target systems, and the data acquisition and control system are described. Operating experience, present status, and planned improvements are discussed

  10. Hazards of chemical weapons release during war: new perspectives.

    Reutter, S

    1999-01-01

    The two major threat classes of chemical weapons are mustard gas and the nerve agents, and this has not changed in over 50 years. Both types are commonly called gases, but they are actually liquids that are not remarkably volatile. These agents were designed specifically to harm people by any route of exposure and to be effective at low doses. Mustard gas was used in World War I, and the nerve agents were developed shortly before, during, and after World War II. Our perception of the potency of chemical weapons has changed, as well as our concern over potential effects of prolonged exposures to low doses and potential target populations that include women and children. Many of the toxicologic studies and human toxicity estimates for both mustard and nerve agents were designed for the purpose of quickly developing maximal casualties in the least sensitive male soldier. The "toxicity" of the chemical weapons has not changed, but our perception of "toxicity" has. PMID:10585902

  11. Environmental Restoration Strategic Plan. Remediating the nuclear weapons complex

    1995-08-01

    With the end of the cold war, the US has a reduced need for nuclear weapons production. In response, the Department of Energy has redirected resources from weapons production to weapons dismantlement and environmental remediation. To this end, in November 1989, the US Department of Energy (DOE) established the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (renamed the Office of Environmental Management in 1994). It was created to bring under a central authority the management of radioactive and hazardous wastes at DOE sites and inactive or shut down facilities. The Environmental Restoration Program, a major component of DOE's Environmental Management Program, is responsible for the remediation and management of contaminated environmental media (e.g., soil, groundwater, sediments) and the decommissioning of facilities and structures at 130 sites in over 30 states and territories

  12. Scientific and technical development and the chemical weapon convention

    Siddiqui, P.H.

    2008-01-01

    The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) was drafted with the recognition that it is impossible to envision every way in which toxic chemicals might be used for aggressive purposes. As terrorist organizations and rogue states replace the major powers as the most likely candidates to employ chemical weapons, the agents of choice may differ from those developed for battlefield use. Twenty- first century chemical warfare may target civilians or agricultural production, and clandestine production-facilities may manufacture toxic agents from chemical precursors, not monitored under the CWC control regime. The effects (on CWC implementation) of changing industrial technologies, including ongoing developments in chemical process technology, dual-use industrial chemicals, and rapid methods for discovering biologically active chemicals, are considerable Also considered is how commercial technologies could be misused for the development of novel chemical weapons, and how such abuses might be detected and monitored. (author)

  13. Civil Defense, U. S. A.: A Programmed Orientation to Civil Defense. Unit 2. Nuclear Weapons Effects and Shelter.

    Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DOD), Battle Creek, MI.

    Basic information about nuclear weapons is presented so that their effects can be meaningfully related to the defensive countermeasures which will be most effective against them. Major topics include: (1) Explosive power of nuclear weapons, (2) Major effects of nuclear explosions, (3) Two basic types of nuclear explosions, (4) Contrast between air…

  14. Weapons engineering tritium facility overview

    Najera, Larry [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-20

    Materials provide an overview of the Weapons Engineering Tritium Facility (WETF) as introductory material for January 2011 visit to SRS. Purpose of the visit is to discuss Safety Basis, Conduct of Engineering, and Conduct of Operations. WETF general description and general GTS program capabilities are presented in an unclassified format.

  15. Biological effects of nuclear weapons

    Frischauf, H.

    1983-01-01

    Prompt and delayed biological effects of nuclear weapons are discussed. The response to excess pressure on man is estimated, the acute radiation syndrome caused by different radiation doses and cancerogenous and genetic effects are described. Medical care after a nuclear explosion would be difficult and imperfect. (M.J.)

  16. Agriculture production as a major driver of the Earth system exceeding planetary boundaries

    Bruce M. Campbell

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We explore the role of agriculture in destabilizing the Earth system at the planetary scale, through examining nine planetary boundaries, or "safe limits": land-system change, freshwater use, biogeochemical flows, biosphere integrity, climate change, ocean acidification, stratospheric ozone depletion, atmospheric aerosol loading, and introduction of novel entities. Two planetary boundaries have been fully transgressed, i.e., are at high risk, biosphere integrity and biogeochemical flows, and agriculture has been the major driver of the transgression. Three are in a zone of uncertainty i.e., at increasing risk, with agriculture the major driver of two of those, land-system change and freshwater use, and a significant contributor to the third, climate change. Agriculture is also a significant or major contributor to change for many of those planetary boundaries still in the safe zone. To reduce the role of agriculture in transgressing planetary boundaries, many interventions will be needed, including those in broader food systems.

  17. Why are U.S. nuclear weapon modernization efforts controversial?

    Acton, James

    2016-03-01

    U.S. nuclear weapon modernization programs are focused on extending the lives of existing warheads and developing new delivery vehicles to replace ageing bombers, intercontinental ballistic missiles, and ballistic missile submarines. These efforts are contested and controversial. Some critics argue that they are largely unnecessary, financially wasteful and potentially destabilizing. Other critics posit that they do not go far enough and that nuclear weapons with new military capabilities are required. At its core, this debate centers on three strategic questions. First, what roles should nuclear weapons be assigned? Second, what military capabilities do nuclear weapons need to fulfill these roles? Third, how severe are the unintended escalation risks associated with particular systems? Proponents of scaled-down modernization efforts generally argue for reducing the role of nuclear weapons but also that, even under existing policy, new military capabilities are not required. They also tend to stress the escalation risks of new--and even some existing--capabilities. Proponents of enhanced modernization efforts tend to advocate for a more expansive role for nuclear weapons in national security strategy. They also often argue that nuclear deterrence would be enhanced by lower yield weapons and/or so called bunker busters able to destroy more deeply buried targets. The debate is further fueled by technical disagreements over many aspects of ongoing and proposed modernization efforts. Some of these disagreements--such as the need for warhead life extension programs and their necessary scope--are essentially impossible to resolve at the unclassified level. By contrast, unclassified analysis can help elucidate--though not answer--other questions, such as the potential value of bunker busters.

  18. [Thinking of study on secondary development of major traditional Chinese medicine varieties based on system theory].

    Cheng, Xu-Dong; Jia, Xiao-Bin; Feng, Liang; Jiang, Jun

    2013-12-01

    The secondary development of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) is an important content of TCM modernization process, as well as an important path for developing new TCM drugs. Under the guidance of the system theory, in response to the lack of the overall guideline and practical methods for the secondary development of TCMs at present, we introduced the overall thought of the secondary development of major TCM varieties, as well as the roles and contents of clinical research, pharmacology and pharmaceutics in the process of the secondary development of major TCM varieties, so as to provide systematic strategies and methods for the development of major TCM varieties.

  19. A multiobjective approach towards weapon assignment in a ground ...

    A typical ground-based air defence (GBAD) environment comprises defended assets on the ground which require protection from enemy aircraft entering the defended airspace. ... of computerised threat evaluation and weapon assignment (TEWA) decision support systems (DSSs) within the context of a GBAD system.

  20. Disposal of Surplus Weapons Grade Plutonium

    Alsaed, H.; Gottlieb, P.

    2000-01-01

    The Office of Fissile Materials Disposition is responsible for disposing of inventories of surplus US weapons-usable plutonium and highly enriched uranium as well as providing, technical support for, and ultimate implementation of, efforts to obtain reciprocal disposition of surplus Russian plutonium. On January 4, 2000, the Department of Energy issued a Record of Decision to dispose of up to 50 metric tons of surplus weapons-grade plutonium using two methods. Up to 17 metric tons of surplus plutonium will be immobilized in a ceramic form, placed in cans and embedded in large canisters containing high-level vitrified waste for ultimate disposal in a geologic repository. Approximately 33 metric tons of surplus plutonium will be used to fabricate MOX fuel (mixed oxide fuel, having less than 5% plutonium-239 as the primary fissile material in a uranium-235 carrier matrix). The MOX fuel will be used to produce electricity in existing domestic commercial nuclear reactors. This paper reports the major waste-package-related, long-term disposal impacts of the two waste forms that would be used to accomplish this mission. Particular emphasis is placed on the possibility of criticality. These results are taken from a summary report published earlier this year

  1. Nuclear weapons complex: What went wrong?

    Martin, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    The nuclear weapons complex has generated significant volumes of radioactive wastes dating back to the 1940s. Such wastes included transuranic radioisotopes-for example, plutonium-generated as byproducts of the operations. Most of these wastes at the major disposal site were not classified in the same way nuclear wastes are classified today; the definitions of high- and low-level wastes have changed over time, and, in the case of the latter, different classes have been established that determine methods for disposal and handling. Waste disposal was not a high priority during World War II. After the war, however; resources were not committed to either waste-disposal research or the development of a national waste management policy. AEC's failure to develop a national policy on radioactive waste disposal is easier to understand than to excuse. The disposal problem parallels the chemical waste disposal situation, where there were no federal and few state laws regulating chemical waste disposal until 1976, following publicity about Love Canal. This same story has been repeated for radioactive and mixed wastes and facility safety at the nation's nuclear weapon sites

  2. Development of an Interdisciplinary Undergraduate Major in The Earth System, Environment and Society

    Wuebbles, D. J.

    2003-12-01

    Humanity faces great challenges in the 21st Century to understand and limit our impact on the Earth System. To address these challenges, it is essential to understand the nature and implications of environmental change, and the complexity of the Earth system. We need to educate citizens that have the background to make new developments in understanding technical aspects of the Earth System, and to develop an understanding the interactions between society and the Earth System sufficient to make informed policy choices. Traditional disciplinary departments and majors don't fully address this; teaching and research talent in the study of the Earth System is spread over many disciplinary-oriented departments. At the University of Illinois, we are currently developing a new cross-disciplinary undergraduate major being called The Earth system, environment and Society. This development is co-sponsored by a number of departments centered in the College of Liberal Arts & Sciences (but including other departments throughout the university). Our intention is that this major will be a catalyst for bringing together the many disciplines involved in Earth System Science education. The curriculum and course for study will focus on the science and human dimensions of the Earth system, with special emphasis on the processes and issues related to the environment across a range of spatial scales from local and regional to global. Along with meeting the requirements expected of all students in a liberal arts and sciences major, students in The Earth System, Environment and Society major will be required to complete a core set of courses designed to introduce students to all of the different components of the Earth System (students will choose from course options in both the sciences and the social sciences). After completing the core courses, students will then focus their studies on one of the two options within the major, Science of the Earth System (this option will emphasize the

  3. Prerequisites for a nuclear weapons convention

    Liebert, W.

    1999-01-01

    A Nuclear Weapons Convention (NWC) would prohibit the research, development, production, testing, stockpiling, transfer, use and threat of use of nuclear weapons and would serve their total elimination.' In this fashion it follows the model laid out by the biological and chemical weapons conventions. The NWC would encompass a few other treaties and while replacing them should learn from their experiences. The Nuclear Weapons Convention should at some given point in the future replace the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and so resolve its contradictions and shortcomings. The main objectives of an NWC Would be: reduction of the nuclear arsenals of the 'five' nuclear weapons powers down to zero within a set of fixed periods of time; elimination of stockpiles of weapons-usable materials and, where existent, nuclear warheads in de-facto nuclear weapon and threshold states; providing assurance that all states will retain their non-nuclear status forever

  4. Civil nuclear energy and the proliferation of nuclear weapons

    1990-04-01

    The issue of whether civil nuclear programmes contribute to the risk of proliferation of nuclear weapons has been discussed since civil programmes were first considered, and has always complicated public attitudes to civil nuclear energy. This paper seeks to define the extent to which there is such ''linkage''. It does not deal with the linkages that exist between nuclear weapons and other industries and activities - for example, those involved in weapons delivery systems -since these are not within the Uranium Institute's area of competence. Linkage concerns regarding civil nuclear programmes arise primarily over the possibility of their being used to produce highly enriched uranium or plutonium for use in weapons. The technologies which can give rise directly to these materials are therefore ''sensitive'' in proliferation terms. Linkage may also arise through the relevant experience of the trained workforce. Such linkage is, however, limited by institutional, technical and economic factors. First, important institutional constraints on using a civil programme for military purposes exist in the form of a network of bilateral agreements and international treaties - most particularly the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty - and the international safeguards inspections. Secondly, without access to the technologies of enrichment or reprocessing, the fissile material needed for an explosive cannot be obtained from any plant or process used to produce electricity. Finally, establishing a civil programme - with equipment whose design is optimized for electricity production - in order to develop weapons is an expensive route compared to specialized facilities. (author)

  5. Disposition of excess weapons plutonium from dismantled weapons

    Jardine, L.J.

    1997-01-01

    With the end of the Cold War and the implementation of various nuclear arms reduction agreements, US and Russia have been actively dismantling tens of thousands of nuclear weapons. As a result,large quantities of fissile materials, including more than 100 (tonnes?) of weapons-grade Pu, have become excess to both countries' military needs. To meet nonproliferation goals and to ensure the irreversibility of nuclear arms reductions, this excess weapons Pu must be placed in secure storage and then, in timely manner, either used in nuclear reactors as fuel or discarded in geologic repositories as solid waste. This disposition in US and Russia must be accomplished in a safe, secure manner and as quickly as practical. Storage of this Pu is a prerequisite to any disposition process, but the length of storage time is unknown. Whether by use as fuel or discard as solid waste, disposition of that amount of Pu will require decades--and perhaps longer, if disposition operations encounter delays. Neither US nor Russia believes that long-term secure storage is a substitute for timely disposition of excess Pu, but long-term, safe, secure storage is a critical element of all excess Pu disposition activities

  6. Prime Contract Awards Over $25,000 by Major System, Contractor and State, FY83.

    1983-01-01

    EQUIPMENT 100 EP3CO INC ILLIN 6130 CONVERTERS ELECTRICAL NON ROTATING 201 EQUUS TOOL CORP OHIO 2540 VEHICULAR FURNITURE AND ACCESSORIES 74 Ea 4710 PIPE...LOUISVILLE UNIVERSITY OF KENTU 1095 MISCELLANEOUS WEAPONS MARCONI INSTRUMENTS NEW J 6115 GENERATORS AND GENERATOR SETS ELECTRICAL OLIN CORP ILLIN 1305...AMOUNT FSF ARMY CARTRI DOE--------------------- 50 CAL 4 BALL I TRACER OLIN CORP FLORI 1376 BULK EXPLOSIVES S 17,633 FUK ARMY CARTRIDE

  7. Major Automated Information Systems: Selected Defense Programs Need to Implement Key Acquisition Practices

    2014-03-01

    ledger accounting, payroll , and supply chain management. 4During our review, one of these programs—Air Force’s Air and Space Operations Center- Weapon...intended to provide an Army tactical biometric collection capability to capture an adversary or neutral person’s biometric data (e.g., fingerprint, iris...image, and facial image) and enroll them into DOD’s enterprise authoritative biometric database to positively identify and verify the identity of

  8. A consideration about major business control system for independent administrative institution

    Abe, Shinya; Nakata, Yutaka; Iitsuka, Tomoaki; Yamagishi, Kojiro

    2003-10-01

    Japanese government is carrying out the administrative reform aiming to promote decentralization of authority, to magnify the field of private sectors, etc. in order to corresponds appropriately to matured economy, internationalized market, etc. As one of the reforms, Japanese government decided that JAERI and JNC would unite into an independent administrative agency. The aims of the independent administrative agency institution include realization of effective and transparent system and management. The aim of the present investigation is to be useful for the new agency to develop a major business control system, which manages financial affairs and accounts not only efficiently but also in correspondence with open information to the public and promoting research activities effectively. First of all, the authors examined Japanese laws and standards relating to the independent administrative agency. They investigated the financial affairs and accounts systems of the preceding independent administrative agencies for research and development and also the development trends of work-flow systems in private enterprises in Japan. They considered expected problems and solutions for developing and making use of the major business control system. On the basis of the above investigations, the authors revealed the total concept of the best major business control system of the new unified agency besides the necessary conditions of the system for an independent administrative agency. Additionally, the above mentioned laws and standards are collected in an appendix. (author)

  9. International agreements on nuclear weapons

    Dombey, N.

    1982-01-01

    The satellite detection of a nuclear explosion in the South Atlantic and Israel's destruction of a research reactor in Iraq make it essential to strengthen existing monitoring and enforcement programs to prevent proliferation. While there was no reliable evidence that either South Africa or Iraq was violating non-proliferation agreements, worst case scenarios can demonstrate to unfriendly countries that South Africa had diverted fuel to test a nuclear weapon and that Iraq is intending to produce weapons-grade plutonium 239. The situation can be improved by formulating better terms and conditions for internationalizing access to materials. Nuclear suppliers need to agree on terms that will assure their customers that contracts for civil programs will be honored. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), which includes both nuclear suppliers and customers, could achieve stronger agreements that take into account recent technological advances that will expand enrichment and reprocessing activities. 23 references, 1 figure

  10. Atomic Weapons Establishment Bill [Money

    Bennett, A.F.; Cryer, Bob; Carlisle, Kenneth; Dean, Paul.

    1990-01-01

    The debate concerns the authorisation of payment of the money required to reorganise the atomic weapons establishment in the United Kingdom provided for in the Atomic Weapons Establishment Bill in progress through Parliament. In the Bill the contractorisation of the establishment is recommended and some sort of Government owned company operated scheme set up. The debate lasted about half an hour and is reported verbatim. The issues raised concerned the actual sums likely to be incurred in the formation of a Company to carry out the designated activities of the Bill. These are connected with the research, development, production or maintenance of nuclear devices and the premises needed. The government spokesman suggested the sums required to support the Bill would not be large and the resolution was agreed to without a vote. (UK)

  11. Weaponizing Wireless Networks

    Giannetsos, Athanasios; Tassos, Dimitriou; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2010-01-01

    of a sensor network. Results show that our tool can be flexibly applied to different sensor network operating systems and protocol stacks giving an adversary privileges to which she is not entitled to. We hope that our tool will be used proactively, to study the weaknesses of new security protocols, and......, hopefully, to enhance the level of security provided by these solutions even further....

  12. Directed Energy Weapons

    2007-12-01

    future business . In defense systems, the key to future business is the existence of funded programs. Military commanders understand the lethality and...directed energp capabilities that can provide visibiliy into the likey futur business case for sustaining directed energy industry capabilities...the USD (I) staff to be afocalpointfor advocating improvement in all dimensions of directed energy intelligence. - The Director, Defense Inteligence

  13. Effects of Directed Energy Weapons

    1994-01-01

    S. Feld, Ronald E. McNair, and Stephen R. Wilk, “The Physics of Karate,” Scientific American 240, 150 (April, 1979). 103. See Kittel (note 18...References 1. Figure 4–1 was adapted from Stephen Cheung and Frederic H. Levien, Microwaves Made Simple: Principles and Applications. (Dedham, MA: Artech...Physics (New York: MC- Graw Hill, 1965). Effects of Directed Energy Weapons 258 16. The physical meaning of this integral is that the propagation path

  14. Physical effects of thermonuclear weapons

    Rotblat, J.

    1984-01-01

    The detonation of nuclear weapons gives rise to the following: blast wave; thermal wave; initial radiation (neutrons and gamma-rays); local radioactive fallout; global radioactive fallout; electromagnetic pulse; atmospheric disturbances. Some of these phenomena became known only as a result of the use or testing of bombs and are not as yet fully understood. They produce physical or biological effects or both, almost all of which are directly detrimental to human health. Some are likely to damage the environment

  15. Analysis of System Training Impact for Major Defense Acquisition Programs (MDAPs): Training Systems Acquisition

    2012-07-01

    Training Systems Acquisition IDA Document D-4648 Log: H 12-001032 July 2012 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited...Background The Patriot system began because of the need to replace an aging and limited air defense system in the 1970s, the Nike -Hercules, and...simulation technology, embedded training and distributed learning (DoD Instruction 1322.26), and instrumentation systems that provide “anytime, anyplace

  16. Nuclear Security Systems and Measures for Major Public Events. Implementing Guide (French Edition)

    2017-01-01

    This publication provides an overview, based on practical experience and lessons learned, for establishing nuclear security systems and measures for major public events. It covers technical and administrative nuclear security measures for developing the necessary organizational structure, developing plans, strategies and concepts of operations, and making arrangements for implementing the developed plans, strategies and concepts.

  17. A benefit-risk review of systemic haemostatic agents - Part 1 : In major surgery

    Fraser, Ian S.; Porte, Robert J.; Kouides, Peter A.; Lukes, Andrea S.

    2008-01-01

    Systemic haemostatic agents play an important role in the management of blood loss during major surgery where significant blood loss is likely and their use has increased in recent times as a consequence of demand for blood products outstripping supply and the risks associated with transfusions.

  18. Russia: the energy weapon?

    Bensebaa, F.; Du Castel, V.

    2008-01-01

    A few weeks ahead of the Russian presidential elections and in the current context of hydrocarbon prices rises, Futuribles is publishing an article this month on the return of the state to the heart of the Russian energy sector. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Russian government has carried out an important restructuring of the national energy sector around major public and private companies. The main objectives of this reorganization were to sustain the economic growth of Russia and also - increasingly, in the view of Faouzi Bensebaa and Viviane du Castel - gain the country greater influence on the international scene. In this article, the authors present an assessment of the Russian energy sector and turn the spotlight on a number of projects (Sakhalin 1 and 2, Khariaga) which particularly illustrate the Russian strategy of controlling hydrocarbon resources for economic and geopolitical ends. They show, in this way, how the state is gradually taking over control of national energy resources (including by going back on agreements struck with foreign partner companies) and using that control for political ends (particularly towards 'nearby foreign countries'). At the end of their article, they nevertheless stress the factors militating against this renewed control of the energy sector: contradictions internal to the Russian regime, technological backwardness, international financial inter-linkages... (authors)

  19. Alternative majority-voting methods for real-time computing systems

    Shin, Kang G.; Dolter, James W.

    1989-01-01

    Two techniques that provide a compromise between the high time overhead in maintaining synchronous voting and the difficulty of combining results in asynchronous voting are proposed. These techniques are specifically suited for real-time applications with a single-source/single-sink structure that need instantaneous error masking. They provide a compromise between a tightly synchronized system in which the synchronization overhead can be quite high, and an asynchronous system which lacks suitable algorithms for combining the output data. Both quorum-majority voting (QMV) and compare-majority voting (CMV) are most applicable to distributed real-time systems with single-source/single-sink tasks. All real-time systems eventually have to resolve their outputs into a single action at some stage. The development of the advanced information processing system (AIPS) and other similar systems serve to emphasize the importance of these techniques. Time bounds suggest that it is possible to reduce the overhead for quorum-majority voting to below that for synchronous voting. All the bounds assume that the computation phase is nonpreemptive and that there is no multitasking.

  20. Nuclear Security Systems and Measures for Major Public Events. Implementing Guide

    2012-01-01

    Terrorism remains a threat to international stability and security. High profile international and national major public events occur regularly, capturing great public interest and receiving intense media coverage. It is widely acknowledged that there is a substantial threat of a terrorist attack on major public events such as high profile political or economic summit meetings or major sporting contests. The threat of nuclear and radiological terrorism remains on the international security agenda. Nevertheless, to reduce this risk, the international community has made great progress in securing nuclear and other radioactive material that could otherwise be used in a terrorist act. This progress is contingent on the efforts of all States to adopt strong nuclear security systems and measures. There are large quantities of diverse radioactive material in existence, which are used in areas such as health, the environment, agriculture and industry. The hazards of this material vary according to composition and intensity. Additionally, the use of explosives in combination with this material can drastically enhance the impact of a criminal or terrorist act. If a criminal or terrorist group managed to detonate a so-called 'dirty' bomb in an urban area, the result could be mass panic, widespread radioactive contamination and major economic and social disruption. Major public events are seldom held in the same State or at the same location or even at the same venue. At the national level, the hosting of major public events with proper nuclear security arrangements can provide a foundation on which to build an enduring national framework for nuclear security; one that can exist long after the event. The organization of a major public event in which large numbers of people congregate presents complex security challenges for the State hosting such an event. Criminal or terrorist acts involving nuclear or other radioactive material at any major public event could result in

  1. Nuclear Security Systems and Measures for Major Public Events. Implementing Guide (Russian Edition)

    2014-01-01

    Terrorism remains a threat to international stability and security. High profile international and national major public events occur regularly, capturing great public interest and receiving intense media coverage. It is widely acknowledged that there is a substantial threat of a terrorist attack on major public events such as high profile political or economic summit meetings or major sporting contests. The threat of nuclear and radiological terrorism remains on the international security agenda. Nevertheless, to reduce this risk, the international community has made great progress in securing nuclear and other radioactive material that could otherwise be used in a terrorist act. This progress is contingent on the efforts of all States to adopt strong nuclear security systems and measures. There are large quantities of diverse radioactive material in existence, which are used in areas such as health, the environment, agriculture and industry. The hazards of this material vary according to composition and intensity. Additionally, the use of explosives in combination with this material can drastically enhance the impact of a criminal or terrorist act. If a criminal or terrorist group managed to detonate a so-called 'dirty' bomb in an urban area, the result could be mass panic, widespread radioactive contamination and major economic and social disruption. Major public events are seldom held in the same State or at the same location or even at the same venue. At the national level, the hosting of major public events with proper nuclear security arrangements can provide a foundation on which to build an enduring national framework for nuclear security; one that can exist long after the event. The organization of a major public event in which large numbers of people congregate presents complex security challenges for the State hosting such an event. Criminal or terrorist acts involving nuclear or other radioactive material at any major public event could result in

  2. Threat evaluation and weapon assignment decision support: A ...

    ... stands within the context of a ground based air defence system (GBADS) at the turn of the twenty first century. However, much of the contents of the paper maye generalized to military environments other than a GBADS one. Keywords: Threat evaluation, weapon assignment, decision support. ORiON Vol. 23 (2) 2007: pp.

  3. DoD Nuclear Weapons Personnel Reliability Assurance

    2016-04-27

    systems, positive control material (PCM) and equipment, and special nuclear material (SNM) and subject to a nuclear weapons personnel reliability...assurance implementation guidance for consistency and compliance with this issuance. c. Conducts programmatic reviews, manages audits , and directs...personnel reliability assurance education and training materials . 2.4. ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF DEFENSE FOR HEALTH AFFAIRS (ASD(HA)). Under the authority

  4. Risk factors of major noncommunicable diseases in Bahrain. The need for a surveillance system.

    Hamadeh, Randah R

    2004-09-01

    Noncommunicable diseases NCDs are the major cause of morbidity and mortality in Bahrain. The review examines the prevalence of risk factors of major NCDs from the available literature and determines the impact of the rapid socio economic changes on their burden. It further recommends ways of improving their reporting and monitoring. Smoking, obesity, diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, physical activity and nutrition are considered. The review points out that data on some of the factors is available but deficient for others. The call for the establishment of an integrated surveillance system using the World Health Organization STEPwise approach is stressed.

  5. 10 CFR 830 Major Modification Determination for Emergency Firewater Injection System Replacement

    Duckwitz, Noel

    2011-01-01

    The continued safe and reliable operation of the ATR is critical to the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) mission. While ATR is safely fulfilling current mission requirements, a variety of aging and obsolescence issues challenge ATR engineering and maintenance personnel's capability to sustain ATR over the long term. First documented in a series of independent assessments, beginning with an OA Environmental Safety and Health Assessment conducted in 2003, the issues were validated in a detailed Material Condition Assessment (MCA) conducted as a part of the ATR Life Extension Program in 2007. Accordingly, near term replacement of aging and obsolescent original ATR equipment has become important to ensure ATR capability in support of NE's long term national missions. To that end, a mission needs statement has been prepared for a non-major system acquisition which is comprised of three interdependent sub-projects. The first project will replace the existent diesel-electrical bus (E-3), switchgear, and the fifty year old antiquated marine diesels with commercial power that is backed with safety-related emergency diesel generators (EDGs), switchgear, and uninterruptible power supply. The second project will replace the four, obsolete, original primary coolant pumps and motors. The third project, the subject of this major modification determination, will replace the current emergency firewater injection system (EFIS). The replacement water injection system will function as the primary emergency water injection system with the EFIS being retained as a defense-in-depth backup. Completion of this and the two other age-related projects (replacement of the ATR diesel bus (E-3) and switchgear and replacement of the existent aged primary coolant pumps and motors) will resolve major age-related operational issues plus make a significant contribution in sustaining the ATR safety and reliability profile. The major modification criteria evaluation of the

  6. Market system infrastructure: a major issue for the power system reliability

    Passelergue, J.Ch.

    2005-01-01

    The restructuring and opening of the electricity market made more complex the power system operation. While the system operator does not own anymore the generation assets, a perfect coordination with the market players is critical to guarantee the power system operation reliability. The market platforms, which are the main links between the system operator and the market players, must include communication means guaranteeing an uninterrupted service. The data-processing infrastructure must thus be designed to ensure the market system accessibility, as well as the effective exchange of data. Moreover, the market systems must facilitate the market operation and monitoring. They must allow the definition of a business process that, on the one hand, allows sequencing the users' actions, and that, on the other hand, provides the errors detected during the data-processing. Lastly, the market systems must facilitate the putting in place and follow-up by the market operator of operational procedures covering all the situations the operator can have to face. (author)

  7. Joseph A. Burton Forum Award: Some Nuclear Weapons Dilemmas

    May, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Nuclear weapons pose a combination of political and ethical dilemmas the solution to which has not been found. On one hand, in the view of both US government leaders and US allies, nuclear deterrence continues to play an essential part in the US role as the ultimate source of military strength for the alliances among the major democratic countries. It also continues to be in demand by countries that believe themselves to be isolated and threatened. On the other hand, nuclear weapons, besides being effective deterrents, can cause unprecedented loss of life and risk the demise of civilizations. No ban or technical precaution could prevent the rebuilding of nuclear weapons in a crisis. No diplomatic arrangement to date has erased the threat of invasion and war in the world. Only the abandonment of war and the threat of war as instruments of policy can make nuclear weapons obsolete. The slow, halting, risky road to that end remains the only hope for a world in which lasting solutions to the nuclear dilemmas are possible.

  8. For a convention for nuclear weapon elimination

    2008-03-01

    This document contains two texts linked with the project of an international convention for the elimination of nuclear weapons (the text of this project has been sent to the UN General Secretary and is part of an international campaign to abolish nuclear weapons, ICAN). These two texts are contributions presented in London at the Global Summit for a Nuclear Weapon-free World. The first one calls into question the deterrence principle and the idea of a nuclear weapon-based security. It calls for different forms of action to promote a nuclear weapon-free world. The second text stresses the role and the responsibility of states with nuclear weapons in nuclear disarmament and in the reinforcement of the nuclear non proliferation treaty (NPT)

  9. Implementing the chemical weapons convention

    Kellman, B.; Tanzman, E. A.

    1999-12-07

    In 1993, as the CWC ratification process was beginning, concerns arose that the complexity of integrating the CWC with national law could cause each nation to implement the Convention without regard to what other nations were doing, thereby causing inconsistencies among States as to how the CWC would be carried out. As a result, the author's colleagues and the author prepared the Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention and presented it to each national delegation at the December 1993 meeting of the Preparatory Commission in The Hague. During its preparation, the Committee of CWC Legal Experts, a group of distinguished international jurists, law professors, legally-trained diplomats, government officials, and Parliamentarians from every region of the world, including Central Europe, reviewed the Manual. In February 1998, they finished the second edition of the Manual in order to update it in light of developments since the CWC entered into force on 29 April 1997. The Manual tries to increase understanding of the Convention by identifying its obligations and suggesting methods of meeting them. Education about CWC obligations and available alternatives to comply with these requirements can facilitate national response that are consistent among States Parties. Thus, the Manual offers options that can strengthen international realization of the Convention's goals if States Parties act compatibly in implementing them. Equally important, it is intended to build confidence that the legal issues raised by the Convention are finite and addressable. They are now nearing competition of an internet version of this document so that interested persons can access it electronically and can view the full text of all of the national implementing legislation it cites. The internet address, or URL, for the internet version of the Manual is http: //www.cwc.ard.gov. This paper draws from the Manual. It comparatively addresses approximately thirty

  10. Implementing the chemical weapons convention

    Kellman, B.; Tanzman, E. A.

    1999-01-01

    In 1993, as the CWC ratification process was beginning, concerns arose that the complexity of integrating the CWC with national law could cause each nation to implement the Convention without regard to what other nations were doing, thereby causing inconsistencies among States as to how the CWC would be carried out. As a result, the author's colleagues and the author prepared the Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention and presented it to each national delegation at the December 1993 meeting of the Preparatory Commission in The Hague. During its preparation, the Committee of CWC Legal Experts, a group of distinguished international jurists, law professors, legally-trained diplomats, government officials, and Parliamentarians from every region of the world, including Central Europe, reviewed the Manual. In February 1998, they finished the second edition of the Manual in order to update it in light of developments since the CWC entered into force on 29 April 1997. The Manual tries to increase understanding of the Convention by identifying its obligations and suggesting methods of meeting them. Education about CWC obligations and available alternatives to comply with these requirements can facilitate national response that are consistent among States Parties. Thus, the Manual offers options that can strengthen international realization of the Convention's goals if States Parties act compatibly in implementing them. Equally important, it is intended to build confidence that the legal issues raised by the Convention are finite and addressable. They are now nearing competition of an internet version of this document so that interested persons can access it electronically and can view the full text of all of the national implementing legislation it cites. The internet address, or URL, for the internet version of the Manual is http: //www.cwc.ard.gov. This paper draws from the Manual. It comparatively addresses approximately thirty

  11. Defense Special Weapons Agency Advisory Panel on the Nuclear Weapon Effects Program

    1998-01-01

    We performed the audit in response to allegations made to the Defense Hotline concerning conflicts of interest among members of the Defense Special Weapons Agency Advisory Panel on the Nuclear Weapon Effects Program...

  12. Neutron weapons. War prevention by credible deterrence

    1981-11-01

    The neutron bomb has prompted fierce and controversial public discussions which are more emotional than based on facts. Unaware of the factual repercussions this weapon has, it has been described as the most inhumane weapon ever. By saying so, the public is wrongly informed and is made feel insecure. The following contributions made by competent authorities may be used for getting to the point, pointing out that the neutron bomb is primarily a defensive weapon. (orig.) [de

  13. Study of the dynamic operational characteristics of the Taiwan Power Company system - a nuclear majority system

    Yu, I.H.

    1982-01-01

    All conclusions drawn in this dissertation are based on the results of about six hundred study cases. The dynamic characteristics of the present Taiwan Power Company system are very different not only from the characteristics of any other power system in the world but also from Taipower's own history characteristics. Based on the engineers' knowledge, this dissertation takes a calculation risk approach to deal with the problems in the energy systems. Chapter I introduces the information related with the stability of the present Taipower system. Taipower operating engineers are facing the problem of committing a large amount of nuclear generation at a low base load level. The general introduction of the stability program developed for this study is described in Chapter II. In Chapter III, the processes of performing the transient stability study are explained to show how this study was performed. Critical tie flows were suggested in Chapter IV, which might help balance the nuclear generation and thermal generation at the base load level and plan the unit maintenance schedule. Several operation modes which may increase the degree of stability or minimize the number unit trippings were discussed in Chapter V. In Chapter VI, how to adjust the load shedding policy to improve the stability are discussed. The remote tripping scheme which is effective in preventing massive system blackout was studied in Chapter VII. Some broader concepts in load management are presented in Chapter VII for Taipower's management decision

  14. Cooperative Security: A New Paradigm For A World Without Nuclear Weapons?

    Marc Finaud

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available If there is a loose consensus on aiming at a world free of nuclear weapons in the future, there are clear oppositions as to the timeframe as well as the means for achieving this goal. The approach to nuclear disarmament followed to date has only yielded limited success because it has been conceived in isolation from global and regional security environments and threat perceptions. A new paradigm should thus be sought in order to reconcile nuclear powers’ security doctrines with global aspirations for a safer world, and ensure that nuclear powers derive their security less from others’ insecurity but from mutually beneficial cooperative security. This should not become a pretext for preserving nuclear weapons for ever. It will on the contrary require parallel tracks addressing the initial motivations for acquiring nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction (WMD, in particular in the context of regional conflicts, as well as dealing with the current issues necessarily related to nuclear disarmament (missile defence, weaponization of space, conventional imbalances and future weapon systems. Ultimately, in a globalised nuclear-weapon free world, state security will not require nuclear weapons because it will be inserted into a broader network encompass­ing all aspects of security addressed in cooperative and multilateral approaches.

  15. Monitoring VET Systems of Major EU Competitor Countries - The Cases of China, India, Russia and Korea

    Ruth, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    The study on VET systems of major EU competitor countries is based on the objective of the (revised) Lisbon agenda to become the most competitive region of the world based on a knowledge driven production and social cohesion. Building on experts opinion and literature research this study aims at monitoring VET policies in China, India, Russia and Korea. The study analyses five themes which are assumed to be of outstanding importance for understanding the current performance and the developing...

  16. Armas estratégicas e poder no sistema internacional: o advento das armas de energia direta e seu impacto potencial sobre a guerra e a distribuição multipolar de capacidades Strategic weapons and power in international system: the arise of direct energy weapons and their potential impact over the war and multipolar distribution of capabilities

    Fabrício Schiavo Ávila

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O pós-Guerra Fria (1991-2006 apresenta uma mudança significativa no cenário estratégico: a maior acessibilidade da tecnologia militar e o surgimento de novas armas capazes de modificar o poder coercitivo dos países - como as armas de energia direta - acabam pondo em xeque a ideia de que a primazia nuclear é condição suficiente para garantir a unipolaridade. Focando-se no atual recrudescimento das tensões entre EUA e Rússia - especialmente com a proposta norte-americana de implementação do Escudo Antimíssil no Leste Europeu - e analisando as relações de poder entre os três países, procuramos revelar que tipo de competição ocorrerá no sistema internacional nas próximas décadas. O presente artigo analisa as reais possibilidades de que a primazia nuclear norte-americana se torne efetiva, uma vez que, para tanto, é necessário o desarmamento estratégico das demais potências. Como uma guerra nuclear entre os três países possui um custo político muito elevado, as disputas tendem a ser decididas na esfera das operações. Para ilustrar esta última afirmação, usamos um cenário contrafactual de guerra nuclear limitada entre Estados Unidos, Rússia e China, por meio do qual tentamos evidenciar as precondições táticas e operacionais para uma eventual vitória da coalizão sino-russa.The evolution of the Post-Cold War (1991-2006 international system shows a significant amount of change regarding the strategic capabilities of United States, Russia, and China. The rise of a new class of strategic weapons called directed energy weapons (lasers and high power microwaves, as well as the great costs associated with the quest for nuclear primacy, demand closer examination of the current assumption about the links between nuclear primacy and unipolar distribution of power in the International System. Starting with the current tensions between US and Russia, we try to reveal in this article what kind of competition might be observed

  17. Simulation for transient stability study of the Taiwan power system - a nuclear majority system

    Huang, J.C.C.

    1984-01-01

    A transient stability program was developed for the Taiwan Power Company, which has a high proportion of nuclear generation in its power system. This program offers a new territory to investigate nuclear plant effects on the power system transient stability. This program also provides a high speed tool for the Taipower system operational planning. A generalized procedure of synchronous machine modeling for a large-scale stability study is presented. The merits and weaknesses of machine modeling can be comprehended through each item of this procedure. Three types of nonlinear synchronous machine modeling implemented into this stability program are derived by following this procedure. A robust subroutine was derived to perform the fourth order Runge-Kutta integration method, making the software programming neat and systematical. For simulating the nuclear plant influence on the system, this program implemented an additional four functions: load-limit operation simulated by a low-value gate in the governor model, bypass valve capacity monitored by sending out a warning message, rotor overspeed protection relay, and generator anti-motoring relay

  18. History of the US weapons-usable plutonium disposition program leading to DOE's record of decision

    Spellman, D.J.; Thomas, J.F.; Bugos, R.G.

    1997-04-01

    This report highlights important events and studies concerning surplus weapons-usable plutonium disposition in the United States. Included are major events that led to the creation of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fissile Materials Disposition in 1994 and to that DOE office issuing the January 1997 Record of Decision for the Storage and Disposition of Weapons-Useable Fissile Materials Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement. Emphasis has been given to reactor-based plutonium disposition alternatives

  19. CANDU physics considerations for the disposition of weapons-grade plutonium

    Pitre, J.; Chan, P.; Dastur, A.

    1995-01-01

    At the request of the US Department of Energy AECL has examined the feasibility of using CANDU for the disposition of weapons grade plutonium. Utilizing existing CANDU technology, the feasibility of using MOX (mixed oxide) fuel in an existing CANDU reactor was studied. The results of this study indicate that the target disposition for disposal of weapons grade plutonium can be met without the requirement of any major modifications to existing plant design. (author). 3 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs

  20. CANDU physics considerations for the disposition of weapons-grade plutonium

    Pitre, J; Chan, P; Dastur, A [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Mississauga, ON (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    At the request of the US Department of Energy AECL has examined the feasibility of using CANDU for the disposition of weapons grade plutonium. Utilizing existing CANDU technology, the feasibility of using MOX (mixed oxide) fuel in an existing CANDU reactor was studied. The results of this study indicate that the target disposition for disposal of weapons grade plutonium can be met without the requirement of any major modifications to existing plant design. (author). 3 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs.

  1. Do Weapons Facilitate Adolescent Delinquency? An Examination of Weapon Carrying and Delinquency Among Adolescents.

    Emmert, Amanda D; Hall, Gina Penly; Lizotte, Alan J

    2018-03-01

    This article examines whether weapon carrying influences the frequency and variety of violent, property, and drug delinquency adolescents commit through fixed-effects analyses of data from the Rochester Youth Development Study (RYDS). We conclude that weapon carrying contributes to violent, substance, and property delinquency, and delinquent behaviors learned during weapon carrying continue to affect substance and property delinquency long after carrying has ceased.

  2. Statistical evaluation of major human errors during the development of new technological systems

    Campbell, G; Ott, K.O.

    1979-01-01

    Statistical procedures are presented to evaluate major human errors during the development of a new system, errors that have led or can lead to accidents or major failures. The first procedure aims at estimating the average residual occurrence rate for s or major failures after several have occurred. The procedure is solely based on the historical record. Certain idealizations are introduced that allow the application of a sound statistical evaluation procedure. These idealizations are practically realized to a sufficient degree such that the proposed estimation procedure yields meaningful results, even for situations with a sparse data base, represented by very few accidents. Under the assumption that the possible human-error-related failure times have exponential distributions, the statistical technique of isotonic regression is proposed to estimate the failure rates due to human design error at the failure times of the system. The last value in the sequence of estimates gives the residual accident chance. In addition, theactual situation is tested against the hypothesis that the failure rate of the system remains constant over time. This test determines the chance for a decreasing failure rate being incidental, rather than an indication of an actual learning process. Both techniques can be applied not merely to a single system but to an entire series of similar systems that a technology would generate, enabling the assessment of technological improvement. For the purpose of illustration, the nuclear decay of isotopes was chosen as an example, since the assumptions of the model are rigorously satisfied in this case. This application shows satisfactory agreement of the estimated and actual failure rates (which are exactly known in this example), although the estimation was deliberately based on a sparse historical record

  3. The New Dogs of War: The Future of Weaponized Artificial Intelligence

    2017-09-13

    access into local industry systems. An entire shipment of contaminated food passes through the system and is moved through the Southwest. People start...shipment of contaminated food passes through the system and is moved through the Southwest. People start dying and they trace the cause back to the food ...AI Weapons Factory Traditional munitions factories that manufactured weapons for warfighting have until now been easily defined, identified, and

  4. Regional cerebral glucose metabolism in systemic lupus erythematosus patients with major depressive disorder.

    Saito, Tomoyuki; Tamura, Maasa; Chiba, Yuhei; Katsuse, Omi; Suda, Akira; Kamada, Ayuko; Ikura, Takahiro; Abe, Kie; Ogawa, Matsuyoshi; Minegishi, Kaoru; Yoshimi, Ryusuke; Kirino, Yohei; Ihata, Atsushi; Hirayasu, Yoshio

    2017-08-15

    Depression is frequently observed in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Neuropsychiatric SLE (NPSLE) patients often exhibit cerebral hypometabolism, but the association between cerebral metabolism and depression remains unclear. To elucidate the features of cerebral metabolism in SLE patients with depression, we performed brain 18F-fluoro-d-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) on SLE patients with and without major depressive disorder. We performed brain FDG-PET on 20 SLE subjects (5 male, 15 female). The subjects were divided into two groups: subjects with major depressive disorder (DSLE) and subjects without major depressive disorder (non-DSLE). Cerebral glucose metabolism was analyzed using the three-dimensional stereotactic surface projection (3D-SSP) program. Regional metabolism was evaluated by stereotactic extraction estimation (SEE), in which the whole brain was divided into segments. Every SLE subject exhibited cerebral hypometabolism, in contrast to the normal healthy subjects. Regional analysis revealed a significantly lower ER in the left medial frontal gyrus (p=0.0055) and the right medial frontal gyrus (p=0.0022) in the DSLE group than in the non-DSLE group. Hypometabolism in the medial frontal gyrus may be related to major depressive disorder in SLE. Larger studies are needed to clarify this relationship. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Status and functioning of the European Commission's major accident reporting system

    Kirchsteiger, C.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the background, functioning and status of the European Commission's Major Accident Reporting System (MARS), dedicated to collect, in a consistent way, data on major industrial accidents involving dangerous substances from the Member States of the European Union, to analyse and statistically process them, and to create subsets of all non-confidential accidents data and analysis results for export to all Member States. This modern information exchange and analysis tool is made up of two connected parts: one for each local unit (i.e., for the Competent Authority of each EU Member State), and one central part for the European Commission. The local, as well as the central parts of this information network, can serve both as data logging systems and, on different levels of complexity, as data analysis tools. The central database allows complex cluster and pattern analysis, identifying and analysing the succession of the disruptive factors leading to an accident. On this basis, 'lessons learned' can be formulated for the industry for the purposes of further accident prevention. Further, results from analysing data of major industrial accidents reported to MARS are presented. It can be shown that some of the main assumptions in the new 'Seveso II Directive' can directly be validated from MARS data. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  6. Nuclear weapons non proliferation treaty

    1969-01-01

    Taking into account the devastation that a nuclear war would inflict upon mankind, and the resulting need to do all that is in our power to keep such a tragedy from occuring, as well as to implement measures to safeguard all the peoples' safety, each State that owns nuclear weapons and that is a part of the Treaty pledges not to trade nuclear weapons, other explosive devices nor the control over such instruments to any other entity whatsoever, wether directly or indirectly. Likewise, all States that does not posses any nuclear weaponry and that are part of the Treaty, in turn pledge not to receive from any other entity nuclear weaponry or other explosive devices in trade, wether directly or indirectly; not to manufacture or otherwise acquire this fashion of weaponry and not to request or accept any help whatsoever in the manufacturing of nuclear weaponry or related devices. The present Treaty remains open to the subscription of other countries, on July 26, 1968, with Mexico as one of the signatory countries

  7. Weapons of mass destruction, WMD

    Vogel, H.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Since the invasion into Iraq in 2003, weapons of mass destruction (WMD), have come to general notice; they include today chemical, biological, and atomic/nuclear weapons, (CW, BW, and AW). Radiological findings shall be described. Material and methods: X-ray findings of victims of WMD are described. From CW, own observations are reported. Examples of (possible) X-ray findings of victims of BW are described. AW may induce radiation disease. Results: Exposure to sulfur-lost induces severe bronchitis; if the radiograph shows pulmonary infiltrations, the prognosis is bad; a late consequence maybe bronchiectasis. BW can be based on bacteria, virus or toxins. An approach of the X-ray findings for BW victims is based on the assumption that the disease induced by BW has the same (or a similar) clinic and radiology as that induced by the original microorganism or by the unchanged toxism. This approximation may have its limits, if the germ or toxin has been modified. In survivors of AW, the radiology is probably that of victims of thermal radiation and blast. Conclusion: WMD seem to be a real or a possible threat. They can be used in war, in terrorist attacks, in crime, and in action of secret services. In case that WMD are employed, X-ray diagnostic will be used to evaluate the prognosis (triage) and the risk of infection

  8. Weapons of mass destruction, WMD

    Vogel, H. [Asklepios Klinik St. Georg, Roentgenabteilung, Lohmuehlenstrasse 5, D-20099 Hamburg (Germany)], E-mail: Hermann.vogel@ak-stgeorg.lbk-hh.de

    2007-08-15

    Purpose: Since the invasion into Iraq in 2003, weapons of mass destruction (WMD), have come to general notice; they include today chemical, biological, and atomic/nuclear weapons, (CW, BW, and AW). Radiological findings shall be described. Material and methods: X-ray findings of victims of WMD are described. From CW, own observations are reported. Examples of (possible) X-ray findings of victims of BW are described. AW may induce radiation disease. Results: Exposure to sulfur-lost induces severe bronchitis; if the radiograph shows pulmonary infiltrations, the prognosis is bad; a late consequence maybe bronchiectasis. BW can be based on bacteria, virus or toxins. An approach of the X-ray findings for BW victims is based on the assumption that the disease induced by BW has the same (or a similar) clinic and radiology as that induced by the original microorganism or by the unchanged toxism. This approximation may have its limits, if the germ or toxin has been modified. In survivors of AW, the radiology is probably that of victims of thermal radiation and blast. Conclusion: WMD seem to be a real or a possible threat. They can be used in war, in terrorist attacks, in crime, and in action of secret services. In case that WMD are employed, X-ray diagnostic will be used to evaluate the prognosis (triage) and the risk of infection.

  9. The Development of the Model for the Park and Ride System in the Major Lithuanian Cities

    Vytautas Palevičius

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Park and Ride (P&R is the original transport system of public passengers, acting as a traditional supplement of public transport. The system is becoming widely popular in European cities. The central core of this system is composed of parking facilities in the specified parking areas at the approaches to the city with connections to public transport or special buses that allow people reach the city centre. The P&R system is based on a reduction in car density in the city centre as well as on a decrease in traffic noise, air and visual pollution. Furthermore, the P&R system is an economical and time-saving way to travel. This article has been prepared according to structural support provided by the European Union (EU for the purpose of developing the P&R system in five major Lithuanian cities – Vilnius, Kaunas, Klaipeda, Siauliai and Panevezys. Therefore, this paper is aimed at the development and application of the theoretical model of the P&R system to Lithuanian cities according to external good and bad practice.

  10. Design and practice of a comprehensively functional integrated management information system for major construction

    Liu, Yuling; Wang, Xiaoping; Zhu, Yuhui; Fei, Lanlan

    2017-08-01

    This paper introduces a Comprehensively Functional Integrated Management Information System designed for the Optical Engineering Major by the College of Optical Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, which combines the functions of teaching, students learning, educational assessment and management. The system consists of 5 modules, major overview, online curriculum, experiment teaching management, graduation project management and teaching quality feedback. The major overview module introduces the development history, training program, curriculums and experiment syllabus and teaching achievements of optical engineering major in Zhejiang University. The Management Information System is convenient for students to learn in a mobile and personalized way. The online curriculum module makes it very easy for teachers to setup a website for new curriculums. On the website, teachers can help students on their problems about the curriculums in time and collect their homework online. The experiment teaching management module and the graduation project management module enables the students to fulfill their experiment process and graduation thesis under the help of their supervisors. Before students take an experiment in the lab, they must pass the pre-experiment quiz on the corresponding module. After the experiment, students need to submit the experiment report to the web server. Moreover, the module contains experiment process video recordings, which are very helpful to improve the effect of the experiment education. The management of the entire process of a student's graduation program, including the project selection, mid-term inspection, progress report of every two weeks, final thesis, et al, is completed by the graduation project management module. The teaching quality feedback module is not only helpful for teachers to know whether the education effect of curriculum is good or not, but also helpful for the administrators of the college to know whether the

  11. Between Allies and Rivals: Turkey, Nuclear Weapons, and BMD

    Kibaroglu, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses Turkey's attitudes vis-a-vis nuclear weapons and Ballistic Missile Defense in the light of recent developments in the Iranian nuclear program and NATO's evolving concept of extended deterrence. On the one hand, the long-standing forward deployment of US tactical nuclear weapons in Turkey and the country's role in the US Phased Adaptive Approach BMD architecture are still considered to be key elements of national security. On the other, security guarantees offered to Turkey by NATO and the US appear less and less credible in the face of rising regional threats. As this paper shows, there is a growing gap between official policy and public perceptions inside Turkey vis-a-vis the US, Iran, and nuclear weapons, as well as a growing Turkish aspiration to autonomy in its security and defense policy. While one should not expect Turkey to develop nuclear weapons anytime soon, an unchecked Iranian regional power could bring Ankara to hedge its bets in the long term. Turkey's controversial recent decision to buy a Chinese system for its national air and missile defense rather than European or US equipment should be seen in the light of this search for autonomy. (author)

  12. Overview of surplus weapons plutonium disposition

    Rudy, G.

    1996-05-01

    The safe disposition of surplus weapons useable plutonium is a very important and urgent task. While the functions of long term storage and disposition directly relate to the Department`s weapons program and the environmental management program, the focus of this effort is particularly national security and nonproliferation.

  13. Color image fusion for concealed weapon detection

    Toet, A.

    2003-01-01

    Recent advances in passive and active imaging sensor technology offer the potential to detect weapons that are concealed underneath a person's clothing or carried along in bags. Although the concealed weapons can sometimes easily be detected, it can be difficult to perceive their context, due to the

  14. Application of X-ray NDE in treating with chemical weapons abandoned by Japan

    Wang Bairong; Zhang Guohua; Jiang Yishan

    2006-01-01

    According as need of treating with CW abandoned by Japan, this paper designs a X-ray NDE system for chemical weapons. It consist of X-ray shooting unit, control and identification unit and some assistant equipment. (authors)

  15. The application of X-ray NDE in treating with chemical weapons abandoned by Japan

    Wang Bairong; Jiang Yishan; Zhang Guohua

    2003-01-01

    According as need of treating with CW abandoned by Japan, this paper designs a X-ray NDE system for chemical weapons, it consist of X-ray shooting unit, control and identification unit and some assistant equipments

  16. Food system consequences of a fungal disease epidemic in a major crop.

    Godfray, H Charles J; Mason-D'Croz, Daniel; Robinson, Sherman

    2016-12-05

    Fungal diseases are major threats to the most important crops upon which humanity depends. Were there to be a major epidemic that severely reduced yields, its effects would spread throughout the globalized food system. To explore these ramifications, we use a partial equilibrium economic model of the global food system (IMPACT) to study a hypothetical severe but short-lived epidemic that reduces rice yields in the countries affected by 80%. We modelled a succession of epidemic scenarios of increasing severity, starting with the disease in a single country in southeast Asia and ending with the pathogen present in most of eastern Asia. The epidemic and subsequent crop losses led to substantially increased global rice prices. However, as long as global commodity trade was unrestricted and able to respond fast enough, the effects on individual calorie consumption were, to a large part, mitigated. Some of the worse effects were projected to be experienced by poor net-rice importing countries in sub-Saharan Africa, which were not affected directly by the disease but suffered because of higher rice prices. We critique the assumptions of our models and explore political economic pressures to restrict trade at times of crisis. We finish by arguing for the importance of 'stress-testing' the resilience of the global food system to crop disease and other shocks.This article is part of the themed issue 'Tackling emerging fungal threats to animal health, food security and ecosystem resilience'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  17. Consequences of the Use of Neutron Weapons

    Ilijas, B.

    1998-01-01

    In modern conceptions of the use of nuclear weapons there is a significant role of so called enhanced radiation weapons, also known as neutron weapons. Its most important feature is that all other effects (blast, thermal) are minimized in favour of neutron radiation. Because of the great penetrative capability and biological efficiency, neutron beam is ideal weapon against people in shelters and armoured vehicles. Material goods stay saved and also there is no significant long- term radioactive contamination. After the use of this weapons, which is possible even for tactical tasks on limited area, one must count with great number of people irradiated with doses in wide range - from those enough for instantaneous incapacitation to those which cause only long-term effects. For the purpose of maximal efficiency in this situation, it is necessary to work out plans for dosimetric control, first aid, transport and medical treatment of irradiated people (soldiers and civilians) in war conditions. (author)

  18. Nuclear experts and nuclear weapons proliferation

    Mueller, H.

    1979-01-01

    In Germany the issue of nuclear weapons proliferation has attracted scant attention. Most potential nuclear weapon states are important trade partners of the FRG and, since further proliferation of nuclear weapons could worsen conflicts involving these, it should be in the FRG's interest to limit proliferation. The security of the FRG is also dependent on the common interest of the great powers to avoid nuclear war. The contradictory positions of Usa and the USSR on nuclear weapons policy regarding themselves and non-nuclear weapon states encourages less developed countries to see nuclear weaponry as useful. The NPT and IAEA safeguards have only limited inhibiting effect. The nuclear export policy of the FRG has been dominated by short term economic advantage, neglecting the negative long term effects of decreased political stability. The FRG should formulate a policy based on self-restraint, positive stimuli and extension of controls, using its economic strength to deter proliferation. (JIW)

  19. Knowledge based systems: A critical survey of major concepts, issues and techniques. Visuals

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Kavi, Srinu

    1984-01-01

    This Working Paper Series entry represents a collection of presentation visuals associated with the companion report entitled, Knowledge Based Systems: A Critical Survey of Major Concepts, Issues, and Techniques, USL/DBMS NASA/RECON Working Paper Series report number DBMS.NASA/RECON-9. The objectives of the report are to: examine various techniques used to build the KBS; to examine at least one KBS in detail, i.e., a case study; to list and identify limitations and problems with the KBS; to suggest future areas of research; and to provide extensive reference materials.

  20. The threat of nuclear terrorism: Nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices

    Maerli, Morten Bremer

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Conventional weaponry and tactics are likely to remain the primary terrorist means for a definitive majority of sub-national groups. No non-state actors have ever deployed or used a nuclear device. However, recent developments in international terrorism may point in the direction of future terrorist uses of weapons of mass destruction, including nuclear devices. Some terrorist groups with a high international profile have showed disturbing interests in acquiring nuclear weapon capabilities. As the 'terrorist nuclear weapon standards' are likely to be lower than the strict requirements for traditional state nuclear weapons, technical barriers should not be considered sufficient to avoid future nuclear terrorist violence. Preventing any extremist group from achieving their goals of large-scale nuclear killing is likely best done by preventing the access to fissile materials through state compliances to rigorous standards of Material Protection, Control and Accountability (MPC and A). (author)

  1. Major power system failures (Europe, USA) and deregulation of electricity markets

    Merlin, A.

    2004-01-01

    The year 2003 was marked by several electric power blackouts which affected major power systems in the world, and gave rise to many opinions about possible links with developments brought by the opening of the electricity markets. At first the paper presents the outages experienced by North America or August 14 and by Switzerland and Italy on September 28, 2003. Feedback on previous electric power blackouts makes possible to find out already known lessons, then to bring out how the latest blackouts may reveal similarities or differences towards developments brought by the opening of the electricity markets occurred ire the last ten years. Finally, seen from the transmission system operator of a european country within the context of continued institutional developments, the paper points out significant items which must be considered to prevent possible further blackouts. (author)

  2. Design and development of major balance of plant components in solid oxide fuel cell system

    Hong, Wen-Tang; Huang, Cheng-Nan; Tan, Hsueh-I; Chao, Yu [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research Atomic Energy Council, Taoyuan County 32546 (Taiwan, Province of China); Yen, Tzu-Hsiang [Green Technology Research Institute, CPC Corporation, Chia-Yi City 60036 (Taiwan, Province of China)

    2013-07-01

    The balance of plant (BOP) of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) system with a 2 kW stack and an electric efficiency of 40% is optimized using commercial GCTool software. The simulation results provide a detailed understanding of the optimal operating temperature, pressure and mass flow rate in all of the major BOP components, i.e., the gas distributor, the afterburner, the reformer and the heat exchanger. A series of experimental trials are performed to validate the simulation results. Overall, the results presented in this study not only indicate an appropriate set of operating conditions for the SOFC power system, but also suggest potential design improvements for several of the BOP components.

  3. Nuclear energy and nuclear weapons

    Robertson, J.A.L.

    1983-06-01

    We all want to prevent the use of nuclear weapons. The issue before us is how best to achieve this objective; more specifically, whether the peaceful applications of nuclear energy help or hinder, and to what extent. Many of us in the nuclear industry are working on these applications from a conviction that without peaceful nuclear energy the risk of nuclear war would be appreciably greater. Others, however, hold the opposite view. In discussing the subject, a necessary step in allaying fears is understanding some facts, and indeed facing up to some unpalatable facts. When the facts are assessed, and a balance struck, the conclusion is that peaceful nuclear energy is much more part of the solution to preventing nuclear war than it is part of the problem

  4. AWRE: Atomic Weapons Research Establishment

    1983-01-01

    This reviews the work of AWRE at Aldermaston and Foulness. The main programme is nuclear and is concerned with the design and development of warheads for strategic and tactical nuclear weapons for the British nuclear deterrent, including those for the Royal Navy's missile carrying submarine fleet. The work is described grouped as design physics, development and materials. Services to these groups and to the whole establishment are provided by Engineering, Safety and Administration. The work ranges from long-term fundamental research, the development of technology, design, prototype development to the environmental testing of engineered products. In materials research the emphasis is on plutonium, uranium and beryllium, on high explosives and a wide range of inorganic and organic materials. The physics of the earth's crust is studied to aid detection of underground nuclear explosions. Reactor research facilities include the two reactors, Herald and Viper. (U.K.)

  5. Elimination of ballistic missiles: An important step towards a nuclear-weapon-free world

    Scheffran, J.

    1997-01-01

    Although the Non-Proliferation Treaty preamble emphasises 'the elimination from national arsenals of nuclear weapons and the means of their delivery pursuant to a Treaty on general and complete disarmament under strict and effective international control', the Non-Proliferation Treaty does not further specify how this ultimate goal could be achieved for delivery systems. Delivery systems are an important and costly part of nuclear weapons which should be sophisticated, therefore the control of nuclear-capable delivery systems would be an important step to make nuclear weapons useless and reduce the threat od their use. This is especially true for ballistic missiles, which represent effective and powerful means to deploy nuclear weapons

  6. US and Russia face urgent decisions on weapons plutonium

    Hileman, B.

    1994-01-01

    Surplus plutonium poses a ''clear and present danger to national and international security,'' warns a National Academy of Sciences (NAS) study released in January, titled ''The Management and Disposition of Excess Weapons Plutonium.'' Over the past few years, many different methods of disposing of plutonium have been proposed. They range from shooting it into the Sun with missiles, to deep-seabed disposal, to fissioning it within a new generation of nuclear reactors. The NAS report rejects most of the methods suggested so far, but does recommend pursuing two of the options. One is to incorporate the plutonium in mixed-oxide fuel, a mixture of plutonium and uranium oxides, and use it to fuel commercial nuclear reactors. The other is to mix the plutonium with high-level waste and molten glass and mold the resulting material into large glass logs for eventual geologic disposal. Both are discussed here. The panel that wrote the NAS study is a standing committee called the Committee on International Security ampersand Arms Control. It suggests steps that should be taken now to guard supplies of plutonium removed from weapons. One step is bilateral US-Russian monitoring of warhead dismantlement. Others include setting up secure interim storage for the fissile materials and establishing an international monitoring system to verify the stockpiles and ensure that materials are not withdrawn for use in new weapons. The panel also urges Russia to stop producing fissile weapons materials and both countries to commit a very large fraction of their plutonium and highly enriched uranium from dismantled weapons to nonaggressive uses. The US and Russia have already made initial moves to accomplish these goals but have not fully implemented any of them

  7. The fight against the weapons of mass destruction proliferation; La lutte contre la proliferation des armes de destruction massive

    Boutherin, G. [Centre d' Etudes et de Recherches Internationales et Communautaires (CERIC), 13 - Aix-en-Provence (France)

    2007-07-01

    The author provides a stimulating analysis of the increasing risk of nuclear weapons proliferation, a major concern of the international community. This analysis is applied on juridical, strategical and political examinations. (A.L.B.)

  8. The SIPRI report. The wars of the world. The Soviet heritage. The proliferation of mass destruction weapons

    Raschke, M.

    1993-12-01

    This book is an extract from the SIPRI yearbook 1993 which discusses and analyzes the year's major political topics, i.e. the U.N. peace-making diplomacy, the consequences of the CSCE process, the major armed conflicts, new fronts, the wars in Bosnia-Herzegovina, in the former Soviet republics, in Cambodia, and in southern Africa, the Soviet conflict heritage, ethnonationalism, the availability and the risks of the availability of nuclear weapons, the development and proliferation of nuclear weapons, the new nuclear powers, the U.N. Iraq committee of inquiry, and the Iraqi potential of weapons. (orig./HSCH) [de

  9. Immigrant Health Inequalities in the United States: Use of Eight Major National Data Systems

    Gopal K. Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Eight major federal data systems, including the National Vital Statistics System (NVSS, National Health Interview Survey (NHIS, National Survey of Children’s Health, National Longitudinal Mortality Study, and American Community Survey, were used to examine health differentials between immigrants and the US-born across the life course. Survival and logistic regression, prevalence, and age-adjusted death rates were used to examine differentials. Although these data systems vary considerably in their coverage of health and behavioral characteristics, ethnic-immigrant groups, and time periods, they all serve as important research databases for understanding the health of US immigrants. The NVSS and NHIS, the two most important data systems, include a wide range of health variables and many racial/ethnic and immigrant groups. Immigrants live 3.4 years longer than the US-born, with a life expectancy ranging from 83.0 years for Asian/Pacific Islander immigrants to 69.2 years for US-born blacks. Overall, immigrants have better infant, child, and adult health and lower disability and mortality rates than the US-born, with immigrant health patterns varying across racial/ethnic groups. Immigrant children and adults, however, fare substantially worse than the US-born in health insurance coverage and access to preventive health services. Suggestions and new directions are offered for improvements in health monitoring and for strengthening and developing databases for immigrant health assessment in the USA.

  10. A remotely piloted aircraft system in major incident management: concept and pilot, feasibility study.

    Abrahamsen, Håkon B

    2015-06-10

    Major incidents are complex, dynamic and bewildering task environments characterised by simultaneous, rapidly changing events, uncertainty and ill-structured problems. Efficient management, communication, decision-making and allocation of scarce medical resources at the chaotic scene of a major incident is challenging and often relies on sparse information and data. Communication and information sharing is primarily voice-to-voice through phone or radio on specified radio frequencies. Visual cues are abundant and difficult to communicate between teams and team members that are not co-located. The aim was to assess the concept and feasibility of using a remotely piloted aircraft (RPA) system to support remote sensing in simulated major incident exercises. We carried out an experimental, pilot feasibility study. A custom-made, remotely controlled, multirotor unmanned aerial vehicle with vertical take-off and landing was equipped with digital colour- and thermal imaging cameras, a laser beam, a mechanical gripper arm and an avalanche transceiver. We collected data in five simulated exercises: 1) mass casualty traffic accident, 2) mountain rescue, 3) avalanche with buried victims, 4) fisherman through thin ice and 5) search for casualties in the dark. The unmanned aerial vehicle was remotely controlled, with high precision, in close proximity to air space obstacles at very low levels without compromising work on the ground. Payload capacity and tolerance to wind and turbulence were limited. Aerial video, shot from different altitudes, and remote aerial avalanche beacon search were streamed wirelessly in real time to a monitor at a ground base. Electromagnetic interference disturbed signal reception in the ground monitor. A small remotely piloted aircraft can be used as an effective tool carrier, although limited by its payload capacity, wind speed and flight endurance. Remote sensing using already existing remotely piloted aircraft technology in pre

  11. Simulated ICJ Judgment : Revisiting the Lawfulness of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons

    Winston P. Nagan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The author prepared this simulated judgment at the request of Cadmus editors to demonstrate that there is ample ground for revisiting and revising the landmark 1996 advisory opinion of the ICJ on the legality of nuclear weapons. The ICJ failed to anticipate the proliferation of nuclear weapons, which expands the evolution of the concept of sovereignty, the potential cataclysmic impact of nuclear war on climate change, the multiplication of nuclear-weapon-free zones as evidence of a widespread rejection, mounting evidence regarding the physical and psychological harm, and unwillingness of the nuclear weapons states to fulfill their obligations under the NPT. This article challenges the notion that a few sovereign states should be the sole arbiters of international law and affirms the legitimate claim of the global community of protection from the existential threat posed by nuclear weapons. The use or threat of use undermines foundational values of the international legal system and the specific rules of self-defense and humanitarian law. The contribution seeks to give an accentuated role for the explicit use of the fundamental values of international legal order, in crafting an innovative methodology for the formulation of the judgment. The very existence of these weapons undermines the rights of all of humanity. The ICJ should be moved to categorically declare the use and possession of nuclear weapons a crime against humanity.

  12. Feasibility of real-time location systems in monitoring recovery after major abdominal surgery.

    Dorrell, Robert D; Vermillion, Sarah A; Clark, Clancy J

    2017-12-01

    Early mobilization after major abdominal surgery decreases postoperative complications and length of stay, and has become a key component of enhanced recovery pathways. However, objective measures of patient movement after surgery are limited. Real-time location systems (RTLS), typically used for asset tracking, provide a novel approach to monitoring in-hospital patient activity. The current study investigates the feasibility of using RTLS to objectively track postoperative patient mobilization. The real-time location system employs a meshed network of infrared and RFID sensors and detectors that sample device locations every 3 s resulting in over 1 million data points per day. RTLS tracking was evaluated systematically in three phases: (1) sensitivity and specificity of the tracking device using simulated patient scenarios, (2) retrospective passive movement analysis of patient-linked equipment, and (3) prospective observational analysis of a patient-attached tracking device. RTLS tracking detected a simulated movement out of a room with sensitivity of 91% and specificity 100%. Specificity decreased to 75% if time out of room was less than 3 min. All RTLS-tagged patient-linked equipment was identified for 18 patients, but measurable patient movement associated with equipment was detected for only 2 patients (11%) with 1-8 out-of-room walks per day. Ten patients were prospectively monitored using RTLS badges following major abdominal surgery. Patient movement was recorded using patient diaries, direct observation, and an accelerometer. Sensitivity and specificity of RTLS patient tracking were both 100% in detecting out-of-room ambulation and correlated well with direct observation and patient-reported ambulation. Real-time location systems are a novel technology capable of objectively and accurately monitoring patient movement and provide an innovative approach to promoting early mobilization after surgery.

  13. Earthquake geology and paleoseismology of major strands of the San Andreas fault system: Chapter 38

    Rockwell, Thomas; Scharer, Katherine M.; Dawson, Timothy E.

    2016-01-01

    The San Andreas fault system in California is one of the best-studied faults in the world, both in terms of the long-term geologic history and paleoseismic study of past surface ruptures. In this paper, we focus on the Quaternary to historic data that have been collected from the major strands of the San Andreas fault system, both on the San Andreas Fault itself, and the major subparallel strands that comprise the plate boundary, including the Calaveras-Hayward- Rogers Creek-Maacama fault zone and the Concord-Green Valley-Bartlett Springs fault zone in northern California, and the San Jacinto and Elsinore faults in southern California. The majority of the relative motion between the Pacific and North American lithospheric plates is accommodated by these faults, with the San Andreas slipping at about 34 mm/yr in central California, decreasing to about 20 mm/yr in northern California north of its juncture with the Calaveras and Concord faults. The Calaveras-Hayward-Rogers Creek-Maacama fault zone exhibits a slip rate of 10-15 mm/yr, whereas the rate along the Concord-Green Valley-Bartlett Springs fault zone is lower at about 5 mm/yr. In southern California, the San Andreas exhibits a slip rate of about 35 mm/yr along the Mojave section, decreasing to as low as 10-15 mm/yr along its juncture with the San Jacinto fault, and about 20 mm/yr in the Coachella Valley. The San Jacinto and Elsinore fault zones exhibit rates of about 15 and 5 mm/yr, respectively. The average recurrence interval for surface-rupturing earthquakes along individual elements of the San Andreas fault system range from 100-500 years and is consistent with slip rate at those sites: higher slip rates produce more frequent or larger earthquakes. There is also evidence of short-term variations in strain release (slip rate) along various fault sections, as expressed as “flurries” or clusters of earthquakes as well as periods of relatively fewer surface ruptures in these relatively short records. This

  14. Weapon container catalog. Volumes 1 & 2

    Brown, L.A.; Higuera, M.C.

    1998-02-01

    The Weapon Container Catalog describes H-gear (shipping and storage containers, bomb hand trucks and the ancillary equipment required for loading) used for weapon programs and for special use containers. When completed, the catalog will contain five volumes. Volume 1 for enduring stockpile programs (B53, B61, B83, W62, W76, W78, W80, W84, W87, and W88) and Volume 2, Special Use Containers, are being released. The catalog is intended as a source of information for weapon program engineers and also provides historical information. The catalog also will be published on the SNL Internal Web and will undergo periodic updates.

  15. Stability of transition to a world without nuclear weapons: Technical problems of verification

    Zhigalov, V.

    1998-01-01

    A serious psychological barrier to acceptance of the concept for achieving the nuclear-weapon-free world is fear of facing the prospect that one or more nations or extremist political groups might develop their own nuclear weapons. Actually this is a question of stability of the nuclear-weapon-free world. From this point of view the most effective system of verification is an absolute necessity. This system must ensure detection of so called undeclared nuclear activity at early stage. Scientists of Russian nuclear centers are working today on solving this problem. This paper is considered to be a comprehensive attempt to analyze the technical and organizational aspects of the problems of transition to a nuclear-weapons-free world, setting aside the difficulties of resolving purely political problems

  16. Physical security technologies for weapons complex reconfiguration facilities

    Jaeger, C.D.

    1994-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories was a member of the Weapons Complex Reconfiguration (WCR) Safeguards and Security (S ampersand S) team providing assistance to the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Weapons Complex Reconfiguration. The physical security systems in the new and upgraded facilities being considered for the WCR had to meet DOE orders and other requirements set forth in the WCR Programmatic Design Criteria (PDC), incorporate the latest physical security technologies using proven state-of-the-art systems and meet fundamental security principles. The outcome was to avoid costly retrofits and provide effective and comprehensive protection against current and projected threats with minimal impact on operations, costs and schedule. Physical security requirements for WCR facilities include: (1) reducing S ampersand S life-cycle costs, (2) where feasible automating S ampersand S functions to minimize operational costs, access to critical assets and exposure of people to hazardous environments, (3) increasing the amount of delay to outsider adversary attack, (4) compartmentalizing the facility to minimize the number of personnel requiring access to critical areas and (5) having reliable and maintainable systems. To be most effective against threats physical security must be integrated with facility operations, safety and other S ampersand S activities, such as material control and accountability, nuclear measurements and computer and information security. This paper will discuss the S ampersand S issues, requirements, technology opportunities and needs. Physical security technologies and systems considered in the design effort of the Weapons Complex Reconfiguration facilities will be reviewed

  17. Technical evaluation of major candidate blanket systems for fusion power reactor

    Tone, Tatsuzo; Seki, Masahiro; Minato, Akio

    1987-03-01

    The key functions required for tritium breeding blankets for a fusion power reactor are: (1) self-sufficient tritium breeding, (2) in-situ tritium recovery and low tritium inventory, (3) high temperature cooling giving a high efficiency of electricity generation and (4) thermo-mechanical reliability and simplified remote maintenance to obtain high plant availability. Blanket performance is substantially governed by materials selection. Major options of structure/breeder/coolant/neutron multiplier materials considered for the present design study are PCA/Li 2 O/H 2 O/Be, Mo-alloy/Li 2 O/He/Be, Mo-alloy/LiAlO 2 /He/Be, V-alloy/Li/Li/none, and Mo-alloy/Li/He/none. In addition, remote maintenance of blankets, tritium recovery system, heat transport and energy conversion have been investigated. In this report, technological problems and critical R and D issues for power reactor blanket development are identified and a comparison of major candidate blanket concepts is discussed in terms of the present materials data base, economic performance, prospects for future improvements, and engineering feasibility and difficulties based on the results obtained from individual design studies. (author)

  18. Depression as a systemic syndrome: mapping the feedback loops of major depressive disorder.

    Wittenborn, A K; Rahmandad, H; Rick, J; Hosseinichimeh, N

    2016-02-01

    Depression is a complex public health problem with considerable variation in treatment response. The systemic complexity of depression, or the feedback processes among diverse drivers of the disorder, contribute to the persistence of depression. This paper extends prior attempts to understand the complex causal feedback mechanisms that underlie depression by presenting the first broad boundary causal loop diagram of depression dynamics. We applied qualitative system dynamics methods to map the broad feedback mechanisms of depression. We used a structured approach to identify candidate causal mechanisms of depression in the literature. We assessed the strength of empirical support for each mechanism and prioritized those with support from validation studies. Through an iterative process, we synthesized the empirical literature and created a conceptual model of major depressive disorder. The literature review and synthesis resulted in the development of the first causal loop diagram of reinforcing feedback processes of depression. It proposes candidate drivers of illness, or inertial factors, and their temporal functioning, as well as the interactions among drivers of depression. The final causal loop diagram defines 13 key reinforcing feedback loops that involve nine candidate drivers of depression. Future research is needed to expand upon this initial model of depression dynamics. Quantitative extensions may result in a better understanding of the systemic syndrome of depression and contribute to personalized methods of evaluation, prevention and intervention.

  19. Experiences and performance of the Harshaw dosimetry system at two major processing centres

    Tawil, R.A.; Olhalber, T.; Rathbone, B.

    1996-01-01

    The installations, operating practice, dose algorithms and results and maintenance experience at two major dosimetry processing centres are described. System selection considerations and a comprehensive quality programme are described in the light of the publication of testing requirements by various dosimetry regulatory organisations. Reported information from Siemens Dosimetry Services comprises their selection of dosemeters and processing equipment including service history, a description of their dose computation algorithm, and detailed results of their testing against DOELAP standards. Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) provides a description of their dosemeters and equipment with service history; in addition, a discussion of their new neural network approach to a dose computation algorithm and test results from that algorithm are presented. (Author)

  20. Release and transport of artificial radionuclides from nuclear weapons related activities in the Ob River, Siberia over the course of the nuclear age

    Sayles, F.L.; Kenna, T.C.; Livingston, H.D.

    1999-01-01

    Studies of sediment cores from lakes on the flood plain of the Ob River, Siberia have been used to develop a history of the release, transport, and deposition of artificial radionuclides related to the development and testing of nuclear weapons over the duration of the nuclear age (∼1950 to the present) in this major Arctic river system. The Ob is of particular importance in this regard as two of the former Soviet Union's major weapons production plants, Mayak and Tomsk-7, and the Semipalatinsk test site are located within the Ob drainage basin. Accidents and intentional releases of radionuclides at both plants have been substantial, raising the issue of transport throughout this extensive river system as well as delivery to the Arctic Ocean. Our studies have included determining sediment profiles of 239,240 Pu, 137 Cs, and the natural nuclide 210 Pb and its parent 226 Ra in a number of cores from the Ob delta, as well as analysis of 239 Pu, 240 Pu, and 237 Np. The latter provide sensitive measures of the presence of non-fallout materials derived from weapons production activities

  1. North Korea's nuclear weapons development. Implications for future policy

    Pollack, J.D.

    2010-01-01

    This essay assesses North Korea's long-standing quest for nuclear weapons; alternative strategies for inhibiting Pyongyang's weapons development; and the potential implications for regional security and nonproliferation should the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) retain and enhance its weapons programs. North Korea's pursuit of a nuclear weapons capability has long provoked heated debate among policy makers and research analysts about the purposes of engagement with the North, reflecting the repeated frustrations in efforts to negotiate Korean denuclearization. These debates reflect widely divergent views of the North Korean regime; its sustainability as an autonomous political, economic, and military system; and the potential consequences of continued nuclear development in this isolated, highly idiosyncratic state. These questions assume additional salience as North Korea approaches a leadership succession for only the second time in its six-decade history. The effort to inhibit North Korea's pursuit of nuclear weapons is among the longest running and least successful sagas in international security and non-proliferation policy of the past quarter century. In early 2010, Pyongyang claims a rudimentary nuclear capability by possession of weaponized plutonium, the conduct of two nuclear tests, and advances in the production of enriched uranium as an alternative means of fissile material production, though the latter step is nominally justified as a source for reactor fuel. North Korea defends its pursuit of a nuclear deterrent to counter what Pyongyang deems existential threats posed by the United States.Despite the resumption of high-level diplomatic contact between Washington and Pyongyang in late 2009, realization of a non-nuclear Korean Peninsula remains a very remote prospect. The DPRK insists that a peace agreement between the U.S. and North Korea and hence the cessation of 'hostile DPRK-U.S. relations' are necessary before any consideration of

  2. Summary of indicators of Nth country weapon development programs

    Dougherty, J.E.

    1978-01-01

    A discussion of indicators that various phases of weapon development programs are being carried out is presented. An attempt is made to answer the question ''what observations can be made that would help in deciding whether country X is developing nuclear explosive devices.'' The indicators themselves are accompanied by some general discussions of what is likely to be going on in the areas of nuclear materials ''manufacture,'' nuclear materials chemistry, development and testing, scientific personnel, delivery systems, and evasion of safeguards

  3. Accelerator-based conversion (ABC) of reactor and weapons plutonium

    Jensen, R.J.; Trapp, T.J.; Arthur, E.D.; Bowman, C.D.; Davidson, J.W.; Linford, R.K.

    1993-01-01

    An accelerator-based conversion (ABC) system is presented that is capable of rapidly burning plutonium in a low-inventory sub-critical system. The system also returns fission power to the grid and transmutes troublesome long-lived fission products to short lived or stable products. Higher actinides are totally fissioned. The system is suited not only to controlled, rapid burning of excess weapons plutonium, but to the long range application of eliminating or drastically reducing the world total inventory of plutonium. Deployment of the system will require the successful resolution of a broad range of technical issues introduced in the paper

  4. Accelerator-based conversion (ABC) of reactor and weapons plutonium

    Jensen, R.J.; Trapp, T.J.; Arthur, E.D.; Bowman, C.D.; Davidson, J.W.; Linford, R.K.

    1993-06-01

    An accelerator-based conversion (ABC) system is presented that is capable of rapidly burning plutonium in a low-inventory sub-critical system. The system also returns fission power to the grid and transmutes troublesome long-lived fission products to short lived or stable products. Higher actinides are totally fissioned. The system is suited not only to controlled, rapid burning of excess weapons plutonium, but to the long range application of eliminating or drastically reducing the world total inventory of plutonium. Deployment of the system will require the successful resolution of a broad range of technical issues introduced in the paper.

  5. Virtualization of AEGIS: A Study of the Feasibility of Applying Open Architecture Technology to the Surface Navy’s Most Complex Automated Weapon System

    2011-09-01

    diagnostics system. Aerospace and Electronic Systems Magazine, IEEE , 9(2), 40–45. Current version released August 2002 in IEEE Xplore . doi: 10.1109...Cramming more components onto integrated circuits. Electronics, 114–117. Reprinted January 1998 in Proceedings of the IEEE , 86(1), 82–85. doi: S 0018

  6. Homicide-suicide cases in Switzerland and their impact on the Swiss Weapon Law.

    Grabherr, Silke; Johner, Stephan; Dilitz, Carine; Buck, Ursula; Killias, Martin; Mangin, Patrice; Plattner, Thomas

    2010-12-01

    Homicide followed by the suicide of the offender is a well-known phenomenon. In most cases, it takes place in the context of the so-called "family tragedies." A recent series of such family tragedies in Switzerland prompted an intensive debate in the media and the Swiss government concerning the Swiss Weapon Law, in particular the requirement to keep personal army weapons at home. The present study of Homicide-Suicide cases in Switzerland, thus focuses on the role played by guns, especially military weapons, in such crimes. We investigated retrospectively 75 cases of Homicide-Suicide, comprising 172 individuals and spanning a period of 23 years in western and central Switzerland. Our results show that if guns were used in 76% of the cases, army weapons were the cause of death in 25% of the total. In 28% of the deaths caused by a gunshot, the exact type of the gun and its origin could not be determined. Thus, the majority of Homicide-Suicide cases in Switzerland involve the use of guns. The exact percentage of cases were military weapons were involved could not be defined. In our opinion, a stricter weapons law, restricting access to firearms, would be a factor of prevention of Homicide- Suicide cases in Switzerland.

  7. Democracy, public opinion, and nuclear weapons

    Russett, B.

    1989-01-01

    To the degree that people's fears of nuclear war are deep and pervasive, they become subject to manipulation by cynical or politically utopian promises, whether those promises be to abolish nuclear weapons from the earth or to create a leakproof peace shield (SDI). But the basic yearning for protection could also be mobilized to support serious arms reduction and arms control agreements. Nuclear weapons provide the basis for a vivid form of symbolic politics, perhaps equivalent in foreign policy considerations to the Korean and Vietnam wars during their durations, and in similar ways (although not necessarily as severe) as unemployment does among domestic policy issues. This paper presents survey research directed specifically at the role of public opinion on nuclear imagery (difference between expectation of nuclear war versus any kind of weapon war; willingness to spend on nuclear weapons versus conventional ones or general defense spending) can help in understanding these phenomena

  8. North Korea's Nuclear Weapons: Latest Developments

    Nikitin, Mary B

    2007-01-01

    .... The Six-Party Talks include the United States, South Korea, Japan, China, Russia, and North Korea, and were begun in August 2003 to attempt to resolve the current crisis over North Korean nuclear weapons...

  9. Directed-Energy Weapons: Invisible and Invincible?

    Deveci, Bayram M

    2007-01-01

    ... capacity, low operational cost, reduced logistic support, a nearly unlimited magazine, and wide area coverage for offensive and defensive purposes, seem to be at the forefront of the next revolution in military weapons...

  10. Health and environmental effects of nuclear weapons

    1993-01-01

    This report briefly reviews previous WHO work on the health consequences of nuclear war and concentrates on current information about the effects of nuclear weapons on health, and related environmental problems. 15 refs

  11. Peaceful uses of nuclear weapon plutonium

    Burtak, F.

    1996-01-01

    In 1993, the U.S.A. and the CIS signed Start 2 (the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty) in which they committed themselves the reduce their nuclear weapon arsenals to a fraction of that of 1991. For forty-five years the antagonism between the superpowers had been a dominating factor in world history, determining large areas of social life. When Start 2 will have been completed in 2003, some 200 t of weapon grade plutonium and some 2000 t of highly enriched uranium (Heu) will arise from dismantling nuclear weapons. In the absence of the ideological ballast of the debate about Communism versus Capitalism of the past few decades there is a chance of the grave worldwide problem of safe disposal and utilization of this former nuclear weapon material being solved. Under the heading of 'swords turned into plowshares', plutonium and uranium could be used for peaceful electricity generation. (orig.) [de

  12. Weapons dismantlement issues in independent Ukraine

    Zack, N.R.

    1995-01-01

    The American Association for the Advancement of Science sponsored a seminar during September 1993 in Kiev, Ukraine, titled, ''Toward a Nuclear-Free Future--Barriers and Problems.'' It brought together Ukrainians, Belarusians and Americans to discuss the legal, political, economic, technical, and safeguards and security dimensions of nuclear weapons dismantlement and destruction. US representatives initiated discussions on legal and treaty requirements and constraints, safeguards and security issues surrounding dismantlement, storage and disposition of nuclear materials, warhead transportation, and economic considerations. Ukrainians gave presentations on arguments for and against the Ukraine keeping nuclear weapons, the Ukrainian Parliament's nonapproval of START 1, alternative strategies for dismantling silos and launchers, and economic and security implications of nuclear weapons removal from the Ukraine. Participants from Belarus discussed proliferation and control regime issues. This paper will highlight and detail the issues, concerns and possible impacts of the Ukraine's dismantlement of its nuclear weapons

  13. Perceived popularity of adolescents who use weapons in violence and adolescents who only carry weapons.

    Wallace, Lacey N

    2017-01-01

    Prior research has found that persistently delinquent youth or more violent youth were less popular than their less delinquent peers (Young, 2013). However, recent research has also found that weapon carrying is associated with being more popular in adolescence (Dijkstra et al., 2010). The present paper examines the perceived popularity of adolescents who carry weapons in comparison to those who both carry and use weapons in acts of violence or threatened violence. Data consist of two waves from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. Analyses use OLS regression with lagged predictors. This paper found no differences in number of friends between weapon carriers and weapon users. However, among both male and female gang members, those who did not use or carry weapons (abstainers) named significantly fewer friends than weapon users. Among females, weapon abstainers both named and were named by significantly more people than weapon users. These differences were not observed for males. Implications of these results and directions for future research are discussed.

  14. Evaluation of Autonomic Nervous System, Saliva Cortisol Levels, and Cognitive Function in Major Depressive Disorder Patients

    Sukonthar Ngampramuan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Major depressive disorder (MDD is associated with changes in autonomic nervous system (ANS and cognitive impairment. Heart rate variability (HRV and Pulse pressure (PP parameters reflect influences of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system. Cortisol exerts its greatest effect on the hippocampus, a brain area closely related to cognitive function. This study aims to examine the effect of HRV, PPG, salivary cortisol levels, and cognitive function in MDD patients by using noninvasive techniques. We have recruited MDD patients, diagnosed based on DSM-V-TR criteria compared with healthy control subjects. Their HRV and PP were measured by electrocardiogram (ECG and photoplethysmography (PPG. Salivary cortisol levels were collected and measured on the same day. MDD patients exhibited elevated values of mean HR, standard deviation of HR (SDHR, low frequency (LF power, low frequency/high frequency (LF/HF ratio, mean PP, standard deviation of pulse pressure (SDPP, and salivary cortisol levels. Simultaneously, they displayed lower values of mean of R-R intervals (mean NN, standard deviation of R-R intervals (SDNN, high frequency (HF power, and WCST scores. Results have shown that the ANS of MDD patients were dominated by the sympathetic activity and that they have cognitive deficits especially in the domain of executive functioning.

  15. Comparative calculations on selected two-phase flow phenomena using major PWR system codes

    1990-01-01

    In 1988 a comparative study on important features and models in six major best estimate thermal hydraulic codes for PWR systems was implemented (Comparison of thermal hydraulic safety codes for PWR Graham, Trotman, London, EUR 11522). It was a limitation of that study that the source codes themselves were not available but the comparison had to be based on the available documentation. In the present study, the source codes were available and the capability of four system codes to predict complex two-phase flow phenomena has been assessed. Two areas of investigation were selected: (a) pressurized spray phenomena; (b) boil-up phenomena in rod bundles. As regards the first area, experimental data obtained in 1972 on the Neptunus Facility (Delft University of Technology) were compared with the results of the calculations using Athlet, Cathare, Relap 5 and TRAC-PT1 and, concerning the second area, the results of two experimental facilities obtained in 1980 and 1985 on Thetis (UKEA) and Pericles (CEA-Grenoble) were considered

  16. Gene-environment interaction in Major Depression: focus on experience-dependent biological systems

    Nicola eLopizzo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Major Depressive Disorder (MDD is a multifactorial and polygenic disorder, where multiple and partially overlapping sets of susceptibility genes interact each other and with the environment, predisposing individuals to the development of the illness. Thus, MDD results from a complex interplay of vulnerability genes and environmental factors that act cumulatively throughout individual's lifetime. Among these environmental factors, stressful life experiences, especially those occurring early in life, have been suggested to exert a crucial impact on brain development, leading to permanent functional changes that may contribute to life long risk for mental health outcomes. In this review we will discuss how genetic variants (polymorphisms, SNPs within genes operating in neurobiological systems that mediate stress response and synaptic plasticity, can impact, by themselves, the vulnerability risk for MDD; we will also consider how this MDD risk can be further modulated when gene X environment interaction is taken into account. Finally, we will discuss the role of epigenetic mechanisms, and in particular of DNA methylation and miRNAs expression changes, in mediating the effect of the stress on the vulnerability risk to develop MDD. Taken together, in this review we aim to underlie the role of genetic and epigenetic processes involved in stress and neuroplasticity related biological systems on development of MDD after exposure to early life stress, thereby building the basis for future research and clinical interventions.

  17. Major and Trace Element Analysis of Natural and Experimental Igneous Systems using LA-ICP-MS

    Jenner, Frances E.; Arevalo, Ricardo D., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    Major- and trace-element compositions of minerals provide valuable information on a variety of global Earth-system processes, including melting of distinct mantle reservoirs, the growth and evolution of the Earths crust and the formation of economically viable ore deposits. In the mid-1980s and early 1990s, attempts were made to couple laser ablation (LA) systems to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) instruments (e.g. Fryer et al. 1995; Jackson et al. 1992). The goal was to develop a rapid, highly sensitive in situ analytical technique to measure abundances and spatial distributions of trace elements in minerals and other geological samples. Elemental analysis using LAICPMS was envisaged as a quicker and less destructive means of chemical analysis (requiring only g quantities) than labour-intensive sample digestion and solution analysis (requiring mg-levels of material); and it would be a more cost-effective method than secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) for the routine analysis of trace elements from solid samples. Furthermore, it would have lower limits-of-detection than electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) (e.g. Jackson et al. 1992; Eggins 2003).

  18. The Uncertain Consequences of Nuclear Weapons Use

    2015-04-15

    this genre is the venerable, and classified, official “bible” of nuclear weapons effects, Capabilities of Nuclear Weapons. Widely referred to by...weekly comic Shukan Shonen Jampu and was later made into several film versions, a television drama series, and ten books, which follow Gen’s...civilized behavior. The film , distributed internationally and shown on Soviet television, was widely discussed in the United States and both depressed

  19. Responsibilities of the nuclear-weapon states

    Wang Jun

    1994-01-01

    The responsibilities of Nuclear Weapon States are presented by a straightforward analysis together with the ways in which they could fulfill them. The complete undertaking of all the commitments by the Nuclear Weapon States may take a long time. However they do not have a single excuse to neglect such a historic opportunity to do their best to provide a genuinely secure world environment for the international community, of which they too are members

  20. Defense Acquisitions: Assessments of Selected Weapon Programs

    2017-03-01

    Figure 17: Examples of Knowledge Scorecards 61 Page vi GAO-17-333SP Assessments of Selected Weapon Programs...programs. Page 61 GAO-17-333SP Assessments of Selected Weapon Programs Figure 17: Examples of Knowledge Scorecards Pursuant to a...had direct access to the USD AT&L and other senior acquisition officials, and some approval authorities were delegated to lower levels. For example

  1. ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION FROM WEAPON TESTS

    none

    1958-10-01

    The program of the Atomic Energy Commission on environmental contamination from weapons tests is designed for the overall evaluation of the hazard to humans from test operations. It is limited to studies of the deposition of activity at long range rather than the problems associated with immediate, close-in fallout. The program has largely been a study of Sr{sup 90}, since considerations based on experience and measurement indicate that it is the isotope of greatest potential hazard. Data are presented pertinent to the monitoring of long-range fallout, particularly Sr{sup 90} and Cs{sup 137}. Values are tabulated for the fallout deposition, air concentrations, water concentrations, and the amounts in foods and human bone. In addition, results are given for some experimental investigations. The report of these results is not interpretative although certain papers that do attempt to interpret the present situation with respect to Sr{sup 90} in particular are reprinted. Bibliographies are presented covering the period since the 1957 hearings before the Joint Committee on Atomic Energy concerning the nature of radioactive fallout and its effects on man. A document list of submissions to the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation is given to illustrate the work done in other countries. Several papers on the subject, which have not been generally available, are reprinted.

  2. Electroshock weapons can be lethal!

    Lundquist, Marjorie

    2008-03-01

    Electroshock weapons (EWs)-stun guns, tasers, riot shields-are electroconductive devices designed to safely incapacitate healthy men neuromuscularly, so they are called nonlethal or less-lethal. EW firms seeking large nonmilitary markets targeted law enforcement and corrections personnel, who began using EWs in prisons/jails and on public patrol in 1980 in the USA. This shifted the EW-shocked population from healthy soldiers to a heterogeneous mix of both sexes, ages 6-92, in a wide variety of health conditions! An EW operates by disrupting normal physiological processes, producing transient effects in healthy people. But if a person's health is sufficiently compromised, the margin of safety can be lost, resulting in death or permanent health problems. 325 people have died after EW shock since 1980. Did the EW cause these deaths? Evidence indicates that EWs do play a causal role in most such deaths. EWs can be lethal for people in diabetic shock^1 (hypoglycemia), which may be why Robert Dziekanski-a Polish immigrant to Canada-died so quickly after he was tasered at Vancouver Airport: not having eaten for over 10 hours, he likely was severely hypoglycemic. The EW death rate in North America is 30 times higher than need be, because EW users have not been properly trained to use EWs on a heterogeneous population safely! ^1J. Clinical Engineering 30(3):111(2005).

  3. Health Systems Research in a Complex and Rapidly Changing Context: Ethical Implications of Major Health Systems Change at Scale.

    MacGregor, Hayley; Bloom, Gerald

    2016-12-01

    This paper discusses health policy and systems research in complex and rapidly changing contexts. It focuses on ethical issues at stake for researchers working with government policy makers to provide evidence to inform major health systems change at scale, particularly when the dynamic nature of the context and ongoing challenges to the health system can result in unpredictable outcomes. We focus on situations where 'country ownership' of HSR is relatively well established and where there is significant involvement of local researchers and close ties and relationships with policy makers are often present. We frame our discussion around two country case studies with which we are familiar, namely China and South Africa and discuss the implications for conducting 'embedded' research. We suggest that reflexivity is an important concept for health system researchers who need to think carefully about positionality and their normative stance and to use such reflection to ensure that they can negotiate to retain autonomy, whilst also contributing evidence for health system change. A research process informed by the notion of reflexive practice and iterative learning will require a longitudinal review at key points in the research timeline. Such review should include the convening of a deliberative process and should involve a range of stakeholders, including those most likely to be affected by the intended and unintended consequences of change. © 2016 The Authors Developing World Bioethics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Genes of the major histocompatibility complex highlight interactions of the innate and adaptive immune system

    Barbara Lukasch

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background A well-functioning immune defence is crucial for fitness, but our knowledge about the immune system and its complex interactions is still limited. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC molecules are involved in T-cell mediated adaptive immune responses, but MHC is also highly upregulated during the initial innate immune response. The aim of our study was therefore to determine to what extent the highly polymorphic MHC is involved in interactions of the innate and adaptive immune defence and if specific functional MHC alleles (FA or heterozygosity at the MHC are more important. Methods To do this we used captive house sparrows (Passer domesticus to survey MHC diversity and immune function controlling for several environmental factors. MHC class I alleles were identified using parallel amplicon sequencing and to mirror immune function, several immunological tests that correspond to the innate and adaptive immunity were conducted. Results Our results reveal that MHC was linked to all immune tests, highlighting its importance for the immune defence. While all innate responses were associated with one single FA, adaptive responses (cell-mediated and humoral were associated with several different alleles. Discussion We found that repeated injections of an antibody in nestlings and adults were linked to different FA and hence might affect different areas of the immune system. Also, individuals with a higher number of different FA produced a smaller secondary response, indicating a disadvantage of having numerous MHC alleles. These results demonstrate the complexity of the immune system in relation to the MHC and lay the foundation for other studies to further investigate this topic.

  5. Genes of the major histocompatibility complex highlight interactions of the innate and adaptive immune system.

    Lukasch, Barbara; Westerdahl, Helena; Strandh, Maria; Winkler, Hans; Moodley, Yoshan; Knauer, Felix; Hoi, Herbert

    2017-01-01

    A well-functioning immune defence is crucial for fitness, but our knowledge about the immune system and its complex interactions is still limited. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules are involved in T-cell mediated adaptive immune responses, but MHC is also highly upregulated during the initial innate immune response. The aim of our study was therefore to determine to what extent the highly polymorphic MHC is involved in interactions of the innate and adaptive immune defence and if specific functional MHC alleles (FA) or heterozygosity at the MHC are more important. To do this we used captive house sparrows ( Passer domesticus ) to survey MHC diversity and immune function controlling for several environmental factors. MHC class I alleles were identified using parallel amplicon sequencing and to mirror immune function, several immunological tests that correspond to the innate and adaptive immunity were conducted. Our results reveal that MHC was linked to all immune tests, highlighting its importance for the immune defence. While all innate responses were associated with one single FA, adaptive responses (cell-mediated and humoral) were associated with several different alleles. We found that repeated injections of an antibody in nestlings and adults were linked to different FA and hence might affect different areas of the immune system. Also, individuals with a higher number of different FA produced a smaller secondary response, indicating a disadvantage of having numerous MHC alleles. These results demonstrate the complexity of the immune system in relation to the MHC and lay the foundation for other studies to further investigate this topic.

  6. Stakeholder participation within the public environmental system in Chile: major gaps between theory and practice.

    Lostarnau, Carla; Oyarzún, Jorge; Maturana, Hugo; Soto, Guido; Señoret, Michelle; Soto, Manuel; Rötting, Tobias S; Amezaga, Jaime M; Oyarzún, Ricardo

    2011-10-01

    The main objective of this paper is to present a critical analysis of the stakeholder participation process within the Environmental Impact Assessment System in Chile, after ca. 14 years of being enforced. This analysis is sustained by the description and analysis of the stakeholder participation possibilities in a representative rural area of North-Central Chile. The Environmental Basis Act 19300, enacted in 1994, considers the participation of the local community in the environmental impact assessment of new projects. However, this possibility is very limited and difficult to exert, often resulting in frustration for the participants. This is due to a number of reasons, such as the imbalance of resources and knowledge among the majority of participating communities and project proponents, the complexity and administrative and legal constraints to participation, and the dominant interest of the Central Government in approving investments, specifically in energy and natural resources related projects, which generate wealth and jobs. Also, the State's rush to develop Internet-based communication and management systems has built a barrier for poor, traditional communities. This factor is clearly reflected in the case study considered. Results show that there is generally a significant lack of knowledge about institutions and participation tools. From this base, we intend to raise concern on these selected aspects that could be addressed to improve the effectiveness of the existing framework, both in Chile and in other developing countries, where immature environmental impact assessment and public management systems face similar pressures in relation to the sustainable use of their natural resources. Finally, some basic steps are proposed in order to make the community participation an effective tool for sustainable development. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Maintaining non-nuclear weapon status

    Muller, H.

    1991-01-01

    Among the some 170 sovereign states in the world, five are legally recognized as nuclear weapon states (NWS) under the terms of the 1968 Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). Six countries (Argentina, Brazil, India, Israel, Pakistan, and South Africa) are counted as threshold states: they possess sizeable unsafeguarded nuclear facilities or have passed the brink of a nuclear test or of clandestine weapon production. Six other countries (Iran, Iraq, Libya, Taiwan, and North and South Korea) have been suspected periodically of either considering the nuclear weapon option or of working secretly on the development of weapons. Thus, about 150 non-nuclear weapon states (NNWS) remain which neither possess nuclear weapons nor strive to acquire them. These states are distributed throughout the globe and encompass highly industrialized as well as underdeveloped countries, liberal democracies, socialist states, sheikdoms and dictatorships. Some NNWS face acute military threats; other are far removed from the quarrels of the world, as in the case of some remote fortunate islands. Furthermore, NNWS may be members of nuclear-umbrella alliances or may have opted for a policy of neutrality or non-alignment

  8. Overall view of chemical and biochemical weapons.

    Pitschmann, Vladimír

    2014-06-04

    This article describes a brief history of chemical warfare, which culminated in the signing of the Chemical Weapons Convention. It describes the current level of chemical weapons and the risk of using them. Furthermore, some traditional technology for the development of chemical weapons, such as increasing toxicity, methods of overcoming chemical protection, research on natural toxins or the introduction of binary technology, has been described. In accordance with many parameters, chemical weapons based on traditional technologies have achieved the limit of their development. There is, however, a big potential of their further development based on the most recent knowledge of modern scientific and technical disciplines, particularly at the boundary of chemistry and biology. The risk is even higher due to the fact that already, today, there is a general acceptance of the development of non-lethal chemical weapons at a technologically higher level. In the future, the chemical arsenal will be based on the accumulation of important information from the fields of chemical, biological and toxin weapons. Data banks obtained in this way will be hardly accessible and the risk of their materialization will persist.

  9. China's mixed signals on nuclear weapons

    Fieldhouse, R.

    1991-01-01

    Ultimately, it is nuclear whether the Chinese leadership has made up its collective mind on practical nuclear weapons. It is known from Chinese official sources, including articles in Communist Party and military publications and histories of the Chinese nuclear program, that an internal debate has proceeded for more than two decades, punctuated by occasional nuclear exercises or low-yield warhead tests. But China presumably has less reason now to pursue development of tactical nuclear weapons than in previous decades: relations with the Soviet Union have improved and military confrontation has eased; China's relations with India and Vietnam are also improving. The decision may already have been made, however, and the weapons built. The mystery surrounding Chinese tactical nuclear weapons is itself interesting, but it is also symbolic of the difficulty of understanding China's nuclear weapons program and policies. The West has accumulated a considerable body of knowledge about China's nuclear forces, especially historical material. But important aspects of China's nuclear behavior and its future as a nuclear power are hard to discern. A key question is China's future role in the spread of nuclear-capable weapons to other countries. China might add to international efforts to stem the proliferation of nuclear related technology, or it might become the world's missile merchant. It could make a constructive contribution to arms control efforts in general, or it could act as a spoiler

  10. Overall View of Chemical and Biochemical Weapons

    Vladimír Pitschmann

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a brief history of chemical warfare, which culminated in the signing of the Chemical Weapons Convention. It describes the current level of chemical weapons and the risk of using them. Furthermore, some traditional technology for the development of chemical weapons, such as increasing toxicity, methods of overcoming chemical protection, research on natural toxins or the introduction of binary technology, has been described. In accordance with many parameters, chemical weapons based on traditional technologies have achieved the limit of their development. There is, however, a big potential of their further development based on the most recent knowledge of modern scientific and technical disciplines, particularly at the boundary of chemistry and biology. The risk is even higher due to the fact that already, today, there is a general acceptance of the development of non-lethal chemical weapons at a technologically higher level. In the future, the chemical arsenal will be based on the accumulation of important information from the fields of chemical, biological and toxin weapons. Data banks obtained in this way will be hardly accessible and the risk of their materialization will persist.

  11. Small Arms - Hand and Shoulder Weapons and Machine Guns

    2016-06-24

    weapon barrels between firing trials is permitted. A locally fabricated rack can be used for barrels that are detached from the weapon; the air should...Lubricating oil, weapons MIL-L-14107 (LAW) 19. Hydraulic fluid, petroleum base MIL-H-5606 20. Hydraulic fluid, fire - resistant MIL-H-46170...weapon from the test environment to perform maintenance. 4.20.8 Smoke . a. Background. The smoke cloud accumulated during weapon firing can

  12. You've asked us about nuclear weapons

    Robins, S.

    1987-11-01

    Judging from its name alone, the Atomic Energy Control Board would seem a logical place to get information on nuclear weapons. If we are involved in the control of atomic energy, we must know something about its military uses. In actual fact, however, our regulatory activities are restricted to the development and use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes, and our safeguards - an international audit system to discourage the diversion of nuclear materials and equipment from peaceful applications to the production of explosive devices. Not being the best source of information on the subject of weapons, we have prepared this fact sheet to assist your research. Simply look for the topic heading that interests you, to find out where to go for more information. The publications listed under the various headings are available to the public free of charge, upon request. A bibliography of books and periodicals is also attached for your reference

  13. IAEA verification of weapon-origin fissile material in the Russian Federation and the United States

    2001-01-01

    The Secretary of Energy of the United States, Spencer Abraham, Minister of the Russian Federation on Atomic Energy, Alexander Rumyantsev, and Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Mohamed ElBaradei, met in Vienna on 18 September 2001 to review progress on the Trilateral Initiative. The Initiative was launched in 1996 to develop a new IAEA verification system for weapon-origin material designated by the United States and the Russian Federation as released from their defence programmes. The removal of weapon-origin fissile material from the defence programmes of the Russian Federation and the United States is in furtherance of the commitment to disarmament undertaken by the two States pursuant to Article VI of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). IAEA verification under this Initiative is intended to promote international confidence that fissile material made subject by either of the two States to Agency verification remains irreversibly removed from nuclear weapon programmes

  14. Confidence in Nuclear Weapons as Numbers Decrease and Time Since Testing Increases

    Adams, Marvin

    2011-04-01

    As numbers and types of nuclear weapons are reduced, the U.S. objective is to maintain a safe, secure and effective nuclear deterrent without nuclear-explosive testing. A host of issues combine to make this a challenge. An evolving threat environment may prompt changes to security systems. Aging of weapons has led to ``life extension programs'' that produce weapons that differ in some ways from the originals. Outdated and changing facilities pose difficulties for life-extension, surveillance, and dismantlement efforts. A variety of factors can make it a challenge to recruit, develop, and retain outstanding people with the skills and experience that are needed to form the foundation of a credible deterrent. These and other issues will be discussed in the framework of proposals to reduce and perhaps eliminate nuclear weapons.

  15. Manual for national implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention

    Kellman, B. [DePaul Univ., Chicago, IL (United States); Tanzman, E.A.; Gualtieri, D.S.; Grimes, S.W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The Convention on the Prohibition on the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on their Destruction, opened for signature, January 13, 1993, in Paris, France (CWC), is an unprecedented multilateral effort to eradicate an entire category of weapons of mass destruction and assure their continued absence through international verification. The CWC has been signed by over 150 nations, and is expected to enter into force in 1995. With its far-reaching system to verify compliance, the CWC presages a new foundation for international security based neither on fear nor on trust, but on the rule of law. A central feature of the CWC is that it requires each State Party to take implementing measures to make the Convention operative. The CWC goes beyond all prior arms control treaties in this regard. For this approach to succeed, and to inspire the eradication of other categories of mass destruction weaponry, coordination and planning are vital to harmonize CWC national implementation among States Parties. This Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention is designed to assist States Parties, duly taking into account the distinctive aspects of their legal systems, in maximizing CWC enforcement consistent with their national legal obligations.

  16. The bioscience revolution & the biological weapons threat: levers & interventions

    Martin Greg

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In December 2008, the US Commission on the Prevention of Weapons of Mass Destruction Proliferation and Terrorism, released a report, World At Risk. The Report points to the fact that, not only is the use of a weapon of mass destruction in a terrorist attack before the end of 2013, more likely than not, but also to the fact that terrorists are more likely to be able to obtain and use biological weapons than nuclear. This paper examines the recommendations of the report in the context of the historic and geopolitical changes, in particular globalization. The authors highlight the "dual-use" dilemma, as described in the report, as the paradoxical use of technology developed for the benefit of mankind being used for sinister purposes. The mitigation of such a threat lies in broad stakeholder involvement and cooperation, including non-state actors, governments and the bio-tech industry itself. The importance of vigilance measures within the life science community is emphasized and, the authors propose, could include a web-based didactic course in bioterrorism and weapons of mass destruction identification. The site could outline safety protocols, have detailed disaster management tutorials, and could be specifically tailored for different subsets of industry and health professionals. The paper concludes with an endorsement of a multi-pronged approach including strong international guidelines and intelligence cooperation and preparatory measures such as the wide-spread use of detection systems as well as diagnostic decision support systems for bioterrorism detection at the local level.

  17. 50 kW laser weapon demonstrator of Rheinmetall Waffe munition

    Ludewigt, K.; Riesbeck, Th.; Graf, A.; Jung, M.

    2013-10-01

    We will present the setup of a 50 kW Laser Weapon Demonstrator (LWD) and results achieved with this system. The LWD is a ground based Air Defence system consisting of a Skyguard sensor unit for target acquisition and two laser equipped weapon turrets. The weapon turrets used are standard air defence turrets of Rheinmetall Air Defence which were equipped with several 10 kW Laser Weapon Modules (LWM). Each LWM consists of one 10 kW fiber laser and a beam forming unit (BFU). Commercial of the shelf fiber laser were modified for our defence applications. The BFU providing diffraction limited beam focusing, target imaging and fine tracking of the target was developed. The LWD was tested in a firing campaign at Rheinmetall test ground in Switzerland. All laser beams of both weapon turrets were superimposed on stationary and dynamic targets. Test results of the LWD for the scenarios Air Defence and C-RAMM (counter rockets, artillery, mortar and missiles) will be presented. An outlook for the next development stage towards a 100 kW class laser weapon on RWM will be given.

  18. Nuclear Weapons in Russia's approach to conflict

    Johnson, Dave

    2016-11-01

    President Putin has moved nuclear weapons to the foreground of the European security landscape. New risks and dangers arise from the apparent coupling of nuclear weapons capabilities with Moscow's revanchist and irredentist foreign and defence policies toward its neighbours. Nuclear weapons are the central feature and capstone capability in Russia's evolving concept of strategic deterrence and are important tools for achieving Russia's geopolitical aims. Russian thinking on the role and place of nuclear weapons in upholding national security and in achieving strategic aims is reflected in military policy, force structure and posture, and exercises and operations. Russia's political and military leaders are not only re-conceptualising the role of nuclear weapons. They are also building the military capabilities that can credibly threaten the calibrated employment of nuclear weapons for deterrence, de-escalation and war-fighting from the regional to large-scale and global levels of conflict. New and still developing concepts for the employment of conventional long-range precision weapons in tandem with nuclear weapons for regional deterrence and containment of local and regional conflicts add volatility to the regional tensions and uncertainties created by recent Russian aggression. Russia's reliance upon integrated conventional and nuclear capabilities in reasserting its influence in its perceived sphere of special interest, intended to contain conflicts at a manageable level, could actually increase the risk of the potential employment of nuclear weapons. NATO nations collectively, and the three NATO nuclear powers (Great Britain, France, and the United States) individually, have recognized this new reality and have begun to adapt to it. In that context, the aim of this paper is to elaborate a clearer understanding of the place and role of nuclear weapons in Russia's approach to conflict, based on nuclear-related policy statements and military-theoretical writing

  19. Earth Systems Science in an Integrated Science Content and Methods Course for Elementary Education Majors

    Madsen, J. A.; Allen, D. E.; Donham, R. S.; Fifield, S. J.; Shipman, H. L.; Ford, D. J.; Dagher, Z. R.

    2004-12-01

    With funding from the National Science Foundation, we have designed an integrated science content and methods course for sophomore-level elementary teacher education (ETE) majors. This course, the Science Semester, is a 15-credit sequence that consists of three science content courses (Earth, Life, and Physical Science) and a science teaching methods course. The goal of this integrated science and education methods curriculum is to foster holistic understandings of science and pedagogy that future elementary teachers need to effectively use inquiry-based approaches in teaching science in their classrooms. During the Science Semester, traditional subject matter boundaries are crossed to stress shared themes that teachers must understand to teach standards-based elementary science. Exemplary approaches that support both learning science and learning how to teach science are used. In the science courses, students work collaboratively on multidisciplinary problem-based learning (PBL) activities that place science concepts in authentic contexts and build learning skills. In the methods course, students critically explore the theory and practice of elementary science teaching, drawing on their shared experiences of inquiry learning in the science courses. An earth system science approach is ideally adapted for the integrated, inquiry-based learning that takes place during the Science Semester. The PBL investigations that are the hallmark of the Science Semester provide the backdrop through which fundamental earth system interactions can be studied. For example in the PBL investigation that focuses on energy, the carbon cycle is examined as it relates to fossil fuels. In another PBL investigation centered on kids, cancer, and the environment, the hydrologic cycle with emphasis on surface runoff and ground water contamination is studied. In a PBL investigation that has students learning about the Delaware Bay ecosystem through the story of the horseshoe crab and the biome

  20. Chronic infection with Helicobacter pylori does not provoke major systemic inflammation in healthy adults

    Brenner, H; Berg, Gabriele; Fröhlich, M

    1999-01-01

    It has been suggested that chronic infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), in particular infection with virulent strains producing the cytotoxin-associated protein CagA, may increase the risk of coronary heart disease by generation of a persistent low-grade inflammatory stimulus. We...... assessed the relation between serological markers of H. pylori infection and various markers of systemic inflammation in a population-based sample of 1834 men and women aged 18-88. A total of 39.3% of the sample had a positive IgG response, and among these a slight majority was CagA positive. Infection...... with H. pylori was unrelated to C-reactive protein and the leukocyte count, regardless of CagA status. There was an inverse relation between H. pylori infection and serum albumin. The adjusted OR (95% CI) of an albumin level in the bottom versus the top third were 2.2 (1.5-3.1) and 2.0 (1...

  1. Multi-platform assessment of turbidity plumes during dredging operations in a major estuarine system

    Caballero, Isabel; Navarro, Gabriel; Ruiz, Javier

    2018-06-01

    Dredging activities in estuaries frequently cause deleterious environmental effects on the water quality which can impact flora, fauna, and hydrodynamics, among others. A medium- and high-resolution satellite-based procedure is used in this study to monitor turbidity plumes generated during the dredging operations in the Guadalquivir estuary, a major estuarine system providing important ecosystem services in southwest Europe. A multi-sensor scheme is evaluated using a combination of five public and commercial medium- and high-resolution satellites, including Landsat-8, Sentinel-2A, WorldView-2, WorldView-3, and GeoEye-1, with pixel sizes ranging from 30 m to 0.3 m. Applying a multi-conditional algorithm after the atmospheric correction of the optical imagery with ACOLITE, Sen2Cor and QUAC processors, it is demonstrated the feasibility to monitoring suspended solids during dredging operations at a spatial resolution unachievable with traditional satellite-based ocean color sensors (>300 m). The frame work can be used to map on-going, post and pre-dredging activities and asses Total Suspended Solids (TSS) anomalies caused by natural and anthropogenic processes in coastal and inland waters. These promising results are suitable to effectively improve the assessment of features relevant to environmental policies for the challenging coastal management and might serve as a notable contribution to the Earth Observation Program.

  2. Using Modeling and Simulation to Complement Testing for Increased Understanding of Weapon Subassembly Response.

    Wong, Michael K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Davidson, Megan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    As part of Sandia’s nuclear deterrence mission, the B61-12 Life Extension Program (LEP) aims to modernize the aging weapon system. Modernization requires requalification and Sandia is using high performance computing to perform advanced computational simulations to better understand, evaluate, and verify weapon system performance in conjunction with limited physical testing. The Nose Bomb Subassembly (NBSA) of the B61-12 is responsible for producing a fuzing signal upon ground impact. The fuzing signal is dependent upon electromechanical impact sensors producing valid electrical fuzing signals at impact. Computer generated models were used to assess the timing between the impact sensor’s response to the deceleration of impact and damage to major components and system subassemblies. The modeling and simulation team worked alongside the physical test team to design a large-scale reverse ballistic test to not only assess system performance, but to also validate their computational models. The reverse ballistic test conducted at Sandia’s sled test facility sent a rocket sled with a representative target into a stationary B61-12 (NBSA) to characterize the nose crush and functional response of NBSA components. Data obtained from data recorders and high-speed photometrics were integrated with previously generated computer models in order to refine and validate the model’s ability to reliably simulate real-world effects. Large-scale tests are impractical to conduct for every single impact scenario. By creating reliable computer models, we can perform simulations that identify trends and produce estimates of outcomes over the entire range of required impact conditions. Sandia’s HPCs enable geometric resolution that was unachievable before, allowing for more fidelity and detail, and creating simulations that can provide insight to support evaluation of requirements and performance margins. As computing resources continue to improve, researchers at Sandia are hoping

  3. INFORMATION MODEL OF MAJOR DEPRESSION TREATMENT COST - RELEVANCE OF QUALITY MANAGEMENT OF HEALTH SYSTEM

    Danijela Tadić

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops multirelational data base for major depression costs. It lists how data are collected and stored into the fact base and dimension base. Uncertain data is described linguistically and modelled by fuzzy sets. Linguistic expressions are stored in dimension base. Models of major depression treatment costs are developed for each patient and all population. On the basis of this model and multirelational data base MD-OLAP a model for major depression treatment costs is developed.

  4. Combating the terrorist use of mass destruction weapons, particularly nuclear weapons

    Barakat, M.

    2008-01-01

    The risks of mass destruction weapons vary and also forms of damages resulting therefrom. While the effects of nuclear weapons are focused, sudden and comprehensive, the chemical weapons have limited impacts relatively unless used intensively severe prejudice to the element of surprise, and thus impaired the efficacy of their influences,especially that they affect exceptionally the individuals in the area of injury and biological weapons do not announce themselves except through their effect that appears later than the time of use as they affect exceptionally the organisms in the area of injury.The mass destruction weapons have turned from being a purely military means in the early twentieth century and have now become the means of violence against governments and countries that they should prepare themselves for and respond in ways of successful and effective countermeasures. Despite the fact that the acquisition of mass destruction weapons can be considered as a priority objective, which terrorist groups and organizations steadily seek but their accessibility is flanked by a lot of difficulties. Addressing the risk of further spread of nuclear weapons, and especially after doubling the power of those high-risk weapons, the international community has an approach to take a number of arrangements that complement each other to control and resist nuclear proliferation, either for the states or for terrorist groups.

  5. LSI development for microcomputer application to weapon control

    Huen, T.

    1975-01-01

    The concept of the secure PAL (permissive-action link) system has been proposed for the control of nuclear weapons. Essential to the successful application of this system is the design of a miniature, all-LSI (large-scale-integration), secure PAL coded switch (SPCS). Two prototypes have been constructed to demonstrate the feasibility of a coded switch that occupies a volume of less than 0.5 cm 3 . Engineering development work on this system since 1972 is discussed, as is current activity. (auth)

  6. Aum Shinrikyo's Chemical and Biological Weapons: More Than Sarin.

    Tu, A T

    2014-07-01

    The radical religious group Aum Shinrikyo was founded in Japan in the 1980s and grew rapidly in the 1990s. Aum members perpetrated a mass murder in Matsumoto City in 1994, where they used sarin as a chemical weapon to poison approximately 500 civilians. On March 20, 1995, Aum deployed sarin in an even larger terrorist attack on the Tokyo Subway System, which poisoned some 6,000 people. After the Tokyo Subway attack, the Japanese Police arrested the sect's senior members. From 2005 through 2011, 13 of these senior members were sentenced to death. In this article, aspects of Aum's chemical and biological terrorism are reviewed. Sarin production efforts by the sect are described, including how the degradation product of sarin in soil, methylphosphonic acid, enabled the detection of sarin production sites. Also, Aum's chemical-warfare agents other than sarin are described, as are its biological weapons. The author was permitted by the Japanese government to interview Dr. Tomomasa Nakagawa, one of the senior members of Aum Shinrikyo. From Dr. Nakagawa the author obtained valuable inside information about Aum's chemical and biological weapons programs. Copyright © 2014 Central Police University.

  7. The chemical and biological weapon terrorism by the Aum Shnirikyo

    Furukawa, K.

    2009-01-01

    The Aum Shinrikyo, an obscure cult religious group, attacked the Tokyo subways employing sarin gas in March 1995, which was viewed as a mark of a new era in terrorism. The Aum Shinrikyo remains the one empirical example of a religiously motivated cult with an affluent amount of financial and human resources and motivations to use unconventional weapons. The Aum Shinrikyo's leaders included the scientific elite of a young generation as well as former Yakuza members who had close ties with organized crime networks. Aum succeeded in establishing an extensive network to procure weapons, material, and drug, primarily in Russia but also other countries including the United States and even North Korea. Despite the fact that the law enforcement authority had already obtained various pieces of information that reasonably indicated that Aum was producing sarin by late 1994, the law enforcement authority became too cautious to advance its investigation to arrest Aum members until it was too late. Japan's experience with the Aum Shinrikyo's threats provides valuable insights for democratic governments seeking to thwart the deadly plans of religiously motivated non-state actors. It reveals the tremendous difficulties for a democratic society to confront the terrorists who were willing to pursue their deadly 'divine' objectives, especially when the society had no experience to encounter such a threat. This presentation will explain the chemical and biological weapon programs of the Aum Shinrikyo, especially focusing on the following elements: Intention and capability of the Aum Shinrikyo; Weapon systems and mode of attacks, including their target selections; The lessons learned from this case for the prevention and crisis/consequence management n the event of CBW terrorism. The views expressed here are those of the author and do not represent those of the Research Institute for Science and Technology for Society or its research sponsors.(author)

  8. Responses of antioxidant systems after exposition to rare earths and their role in chilling stress in common duckweed (Lemna minor L.): a defensive weapon or a boomerang?

    Ippolito, M P; Fasciano, C; d'Aquino, L; Morgana, M; Tommasi, F

    2010-01-01

    Extensive agriculture application of rare earth elements (REEs) in Far East countries might cause spreading of these metals in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, thus inducing a growing concern about their environmental impact. In this work the effects of a mix of different REE nitrate (RE) and of lanthanum nitrate (LA) on catalase and antioxidant systems involved in the ascorbate-glutathione cycle were investigated in common duckweed Lemna minor L. The results indicated that L. minor shows an overall good tolerance to the presence of REEs in the media. Treatments at concentrations up to 5 mM RE and 5 mM LA did not cause either visible symptoms on plants or significant effects on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, chlorophyll content, and lipid peroxidation. Toxic effects were observed after 5 days of exposition to 10 mM RE and 10 mM LA. A remarkable increase in glutathione content as well as in enzymatic antioxidants was observed before the appearance of the stress symptoms in treated plants. Duckweed plants pretreated with RE and LA were also exposed to chilling stress to verify whether antioxidants variations induced by RE and LA improve plant resistance to the chilling stress. In pretreated plants, a decrease in ascorbate and glutathione redox state and in chlorophyll content and an increase in lipid peroxidation and ROS production levels were observed. The use of antioxidant levels as a stress marker for monitoring REE toxicity in aquatic ecosystems by means of common duckweed is discussed.

  9. Iran's nuclear program - for power generation or nuclear weapons?

    Kippe, Halvor

    2008-11-01

    This report addresses the development of a nuclear infrastructure in Iran, and assessments are made on the near-term potential this infrastructure might yield of either nuclear power or nuclear arms production. The most significant facilities are treated in a more elaborate fashion, as these are assumed to have key roles in either a true civilian programme, or in the prospect of weapons-grade fissile material production. The future potential capacity for the latter is calculated under certain presumptions, both in the case that Iran focuses its efforts on uranium-based nuclear weapons, and in the case that it should choose the plutonium path to nuclear weapons. All the conclusions and findings in this report are based on technological considerations. This means that social or political assessments have not prevailed, rather the picture of Iran's nuclear programme is drawn through descriptions and assessments of facilities and systems, and their role in the bigger context. Definite conclusions have not been made as to whether Iran's nuclear programme currently is aimed towards nuclear arms or nuclear power. The secrecy surrounding some of the most prominent nuclear sites together with more or less credible allegations of purely weapons-related activities in the past, make it hard not to conclude that Iran until the disclosures in 2002 made as great an effort as it could on its way on developing nuclear weapons covertly. The scope of today's nuclear programme seems, on the other hand, most likely to be in part to help relieve the ever-increasing need for energy, although considerable deficits to this strategy are identified, at the same time as the Iranian people are united in a giant, high-prestige project in defiance of massive international pressure. Adding to this is a much-feared ability to rapidly being able to redirect their nuclear efforts, and develop nuclear arms in perhaps as little as one year. This so-called break-out scenario, where Iran presumably

  10. Climate Impact of a Regional Nuclear Weapons Exchange: An Improved Assessment Based On Detailed Source Calculations

    Reisner, Jon; D'Angelo, Gennaro; Koo, Eunmo; Even, Wesley; Hecht, Matthew; Hunke, Elizabeth; Comeau, Darin; Bos, Randall; Cooley, James

    2018-03-01

    We present a multiscale study examining the impact of a regional exchange of nuclear weapons on global climate. Our models investigate multiple phases of the effects of nuclear weapons usage, including growth and rise of the nuclear fireball, ignition and spread of the induced firestorm, and comprehensive Earth system modeling of the oceans, land, ice, and atmosphere. This study follows from the scenario originally envisioned by Robock, Oman, Stenchikov, et al. (2007, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-7-2003-2007), based on the analysis of Toon et al. (2007, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-7-1973-2007), which assumes a regional exchange between India and Pakistan of fifty 15 kt weapons detonated by each side. We expand this scenario by modeling the processes that lead to production of black carbon, in order to refine the black carbon forcing estimates of these previous studies. When the Earth system model is initiated with 5 × 109 kg of black carbon in the upper troposphere (approximately from 9 to 13 km), the impact on climate variables such as global temperature and precipitation in our simulations is similar to that predicted by previously published work. However, while our thorough simulations of the firestorm produce about 3.7 × 109 kg of black carbon, we find that the vast majority of the black carbon never reaches an altitude above weather systems (approximately 12 km). Therefore, our Earth system model simulations conducted with model-informed atmospheric distributions of black carbon produce significantly lower global climatic impacts than assessed in prior studies, as the carbon at lower altitudes is more quickly removed from the atmosphere. In addition, our model ensembles indicate that statistically significant effects on global surface temperatures are limited to the first 5 years and are much smaller in magnitude than those shown in earlier works. None of the simulations produced a nuclear winter effect. We find that the effects on global surface temperatures

  11. Does nuclear power lead to nuclear weapons

    Prawitz, J.

    1977-01-01

    It is pointed out that 'reactor grade' plutonium usually contains about 30 % Pu240 and is unsuitable for weapons. While it is possible to obtain an explosion, it is more difficult to initiate one and its effect, which will be considerably less than with bomb grade plutonium, is difficult to predict. The critical mass will be larger and more cooling required. The proliferation problem is then discussed and the four aspects, vertical, horizontal, sub-national and revolutionary, mentioned. In connection with nuclear power it is the second and third aspects which are of interest. In discussing the possibility of terrorist groups obtaining plutonium, a study by the Swedish Defence Research Institute is quoted as estimating that 10-20 qualified specialists and several years secret preparation would be necessary to make a nuclear weapon. Other authors, e.g. Ted Taylor, have maintained that it would be much easier, but examples of 'student designs' are primitive and unlikely to detonate. Even so, it is emphasised that safeguards and physical security are necessary. Horizontal proliferation is a more real problem and the NPT and IAEA safeguards are discussed in this connection. In conclusion the question of whether the proliferation of nuclear weapons via nuclear power can be prevented cannot be answered with a clear yes or no. Certain states may use nuclear weapon potential as a bargaining factor. However the decision to acquire nuclear weapons is political and while a nuclear power industry would be of help, it would not be decisively so. (JIW)

  12. National Certification Methodology for the Nuclear Weapons Stockpile

    Goodwin, B T; Juzaitis, R J

    2006-01-01

    Lawrence Livermore and Los Alamos National Laboratories have developed a common framework and key elements of a national certification methodology called Quantification of Margins and Uncertainties (QMU). A spectrum from senior managers to weapons designers has been engaged in this activity at the two laboratories for on the order of a year to codify this methodology in an overarching and integrated paper. Following is the certification paper that has evolved. In the process of writing this paper, an important outcome has been the realization that a joint Livermore/Los Alamos workshop on QMU, focusing on clearly identifying and quantifying differences between approaches between the two labs plus developing an even stronger technical foundation on methodology, will be valuable. Later in FY03, such a joint laboratory workshop will be held. One of the outcomes of this workshop will be a new version of this certification paper. A comprehensive approach to certification must include specification of problem scope, development of system baseline models, formulation of standards of performance assessment, and effective procedures for peer review and documentation. This document concentrates on the assessment and peer review aspects of the problem. In addressing these points, a central role is played by a 'watch list' for weapons derived from credible failure modes and performance gate analyses. The watch list must reflect our best assessment of factors that are critical to weapons performance. High fidelity experiments and calculations as well as full exploitation of archival test data are essential to this process. Peer review, advisory groups and red teams play an important role in confirming the validity of the watch list. The framework for certification developed by the Laboratories has many basic features in common, but some significant differences in the detailed technical implementation of the overall methodology remain. Joint certification workshops held in June

  13. Anatomy and Physiology. Module Set II: Major Body Systems. Teacher Edition [and] Student Edition. Surgical Technology.

    Hilley, Robert

    This document, which is the second part of a two-part set of modules on anatomy and physiology for future surgical technicians, contains the teacher and student editions of an introduction to anatomy and physiology that consists of modules on the following body systems: integumentary system; skeletal system; muscular system; nervous system;…

  14. Sea-dumped chemical weapons: environmental risk, occupational hazard.

    Greenberg, M I; Sexton, K J; Vearrier, D

    2016-01-01

    for decades. Rates of solubility and hydrolysis and levels of innate toxicity of a chemical agent are used to predict the risk to the marine environments. The organoarsenicals eventually breakdown into arsenic, and thus present an indefinite timeline for contamination. Generally, studies assaying sediment and water levels of parent chemical agents and breakdown products at dumpsites have found minimal amounts of relevant chemicals, although arsenic levels are typically higher in dumpsites than reference areas. Studies of marine organisms have not shown concerning amounts of chemical agents or breakdown products in tissue, but have shown evidence of chronic toxicity. There is believed to be minimal risk posed by seafood consumption. Microbiota assays of dumpsites are significantly altered in species composition compared to reference sites, which may imply unseen but significant changes to ecosystems of dumpsites. Human health concerns: The major human health risk at this time appears to arise from acute exposure to an agent by either accidental recovery of a chemical weapon on a fishing vessel, or by munitions washed ashore onto beaches. Improving technology continues to make the deep sea more accessible, thus increasing the risk of disturbing munitions lying on or buried in the seabed. Pipe laying, cable burying, drilling, scuba diving, trawling, and undersea scientific research are the activities posing the most risk. The long-term threat to the benthic habitat via increased arsenic concentrations, shifts in microbiota speciation, and chronic toxicity to vertebrates and invertebrates is not currently understood. The risk to the environment of massive release via disturbance remains a distinct possibility. Terrorist recovery and re-weaponization of chemical agents is a remote possibility.

  15. Nuclear weapons complex. Weaknesses in DOE's nonnuclear consolidation plan

    Wells, James E. Jr.; Fenzel, William F.; Schulze, John R.; Gaffigan, Mark E.

    1992-11-01

    Nuclear weapons contain a wide variety of nonnuclear components - items that are not made from nuclear materials. These components comprise the majority of parts in nuclear weapons, including the ones needed to guide weapons to their targets, initiate the nuclear explosion, increase the weapons' explosive yield, and ensure the weapons' safety and security. DOE has three facilities, the Kansas City Plant in Missouri, the Mound Plant in Ohio, and the Pinellas Plant in Florida, that are dedicated primarily to nonnuclear activities and have unique manufacturing responsibilities. Some additional nonnuclear manufacturing activities are performed at the Rocky Flats Plant in Colorado, the Y-12 Plant in Tennessee, and the Pantex Plant in Texas. Descriptions of each plant and the activities they conduct are contained in appendix I of this report. In 1991, DOE began planning to reconfigure the nuclear weapons complex into one that is smaller, less diverse, and less expensive to operate. More specifically, DOE issued a reconfiguration study in January 1991 that set forth a detailed framework for making the complex smaller and more efficient. The study will lead to a complex-wide Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) on how best to reconfigure the complex. This statement is planned to be completed in late 1993. As part of the effort to analyze the reconfiguration, DOE's Assistant Secretary for Defense Programs directed the Albuquerque Operations Office in April 1991 to develop a nonnuclear consolidation plan to serve as input to the PEIS. There are a number of weaknesses in DOE's NCP. First, because the NCP's scope was limited to examining single-site consolidation alternatives, the decision to select Kansas City as the preferred option was made without analyzing other nonnuclear options. These options included down sizing and modernizing all facilities in place or maximizing consolidation by eliminating all nonnuclear sites and relocating their functions to a

  16. Nuclear weapons headed for the trash

    Arkin, W.M.; Durrant, D.; Kristensen, H.

    1991-01-01

    Whether he intended it or not, Bush has taken steps that mean the beginning of the end for nuclear weapons. His proposals significantly reduce the numbers of nuclear weapons and the burdens associated with deploying and controlling them. And although he retains many of the options for continuing and regenerating the nuclear arsenal, he has exposed the fact that there are no longer any grand justifications or doctrinal needs for nuclear weapons - and that the nuclear machine is choking on its economic, political, environmental, and human contradictions. The initiatives fundamentally altered the nuclear stance of both nations. Yet, as momentous as the changes were, they were set in motion in an almost businesslike manner. Neither leader truly framed the moves as an end to the nuclear age. But they didn't need to. The steps they have taken practically guarantee it

  17. The medical consequences of nuclear weapons

    Humphrey, J.; Hartog, M.; Middleton, H.

    1982-01-01

    A pamphlet has been produced by the Medical Campaign Against Nuclear Weapons (MCANW) and by the Medical Association for the Prevention of War (MAPW) to bring the catastrophic effects that the use of nuclear weapons would entail to the attention of the general public, politicians and members of the medical profession. It describes the medical consequences of the effects of blast, heat and ionizing radiation from nuclear weapons, including details from the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombings. The medical consequences of a nuclear attack including consideration of the casualties, care of the injured, psychological effects and the outcome are also discussed. It is concluded that if for none other than purely medical reasons, nuclear warfare must never be allowed to happen. (UK)

  18. Analysis of the matrix structure of the Nuclear Weapons Complex waste minimization and hazard reduction program

    Churnetski, S.R.

    1991-01-01

    Two of the primary goals of this program in waste minimization that the major waste problems facing the Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC) are being addressed systematically and to prevent duplication of effort by forming an integrated approach across the complex. Production, disposal, and the hazards of both the wastes and the in-process chemicals used were to be studied. The eight waste streams chosen (electroplating, miscellaneous, mixed, plutonium, polymers, solvents, tritium, and uranium) were deemed to be the most serious problems facing the Nuclear Weapons Complex

  19. Australia - a nuclear weapons testing ground

    Dobbs, Michael.

    1993-01-01

    Between 1952 and 1958 Britain conducted five separate nuclear weapons trials in Australia. Australia had the uninhabited wide open spaces and the facilities which such tests need and Britain was able to use its special relationship with Australia to get agreement to conduct atomic tests in Australia and establish a permanent test site at Maralinga. Other non-nuclear tests were conducted between 1953-1963. The story of Britain's involvement in atomic weapons testing in Australia is told through its postal history. Both official and private covers are used to show how the postal communications were established and maintained throughout the test years. (UK)

  20. A nuclear-weapon-free Middle East

    Jortner, Joshua

    1986-01-01

    The paper examines the issue of nuclear-weapon States involvement in regional conflicts, and whether such a conflict in the Middle East could trigger a nuclear war between the Super-Powers. Comments on the Middle Eastern situation are given, along with a discussion of the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and the Middle East, Israel and the NPT, and the nuclear potential in Arab countries. The proposal, by Israel, of a nuclear weapon-free zone in the Middle East is outlined. (UK)

  1. Engineering Design Handbook: Recoilless Rifle Weapon Systems.

    1976-01-15

    rifles also creates danger of physiological damage also exists. psychological factors which may be signifi- The extent and nature of the damage caused...the intensity of the bla&st, its disruption often cause psychological effects impulse, the position of the subject with of extreme lethargy and...General. 6. AD 3S 1 905, Capt. L. R. Creelman , A 2. David E. Walters and Edith F. Reilly, Parameiric Study of the Probability of Hit Hitting

  2. Weapon System Implications of RLPG Technology

    2000-01-01

    the extreme emphasis placed on minimizing volume under armor . For an RLPG, the space required is further reduced because, unlike the case with an SPG...ensuring that all the on-board missiles can be launched from under armor . Currently, vehicle-launched missiles are fired from racks of four launch...reload is not done under armor . External, manual reload for the direct-fire role is simply not feasible operationally. It is possible to design a

  3. Superior Weapons Systems Through Castings (SWC)

    2012-11-30

    matrix and the ceramic particles. As the loading of the ceramic increases, there is a balance between the increases in thermal conductivity that...Final Report November 30, 2012 Relative X-Ray Intensity Vs. 2G for Alloy 1 (7.9Zn-4.9Mg) .JLi — Data —TPhase Matrix (FCC Aluminum) Wii -i. i...SFSA Board of Directors, and national meetings. The research committees and national meetings provided industry with direct access to the researchers

  4. Controlling weapons of mass destruction through the rule of law

    Tanzman, E.A.

    1995-08-08

    Many who speak of the end of the Cold War emphasize the improvement in international relations when they speak of the momentous consequences of this event. According to this image, the half century since Trinity has been a period of sparse international communication during which the Eastern and Western blocs hibernated in their isolated dens of security alliances. The emphasis in the phrase ``Cold War`` was on the word ``cold,`` and relations with the former Communist regimes are now ``warm`` by comparison. It is equally valid to consider what has happened to the word ``was` in this highly descriptive phrase. While meaningful international dialogue was in a state of relative lethargy during much of the last fifty years, the military establishments of the Great Powers were actively engaged in using as much force as possible in their efforts to control world affairs, short of triggering a nuclear holocaust. Out of these military postures a tense peace ironically emerged, but the terms by which decisions were made about controlling weapons of mass destruction (i.e., nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons) were the terms of war. The thesis of this paper is that the end of the Cold War marks a shift away from reliance on military might toward an international commitment to controlling weapons,of mass destruction through the ``rule of law.`` Rawls wrote that ``legal system is a coercive order of public rules addressed to rational persons for the purpose of regulating their conduct and providing the framework for social cooperation. The regular and impartial administration of public rules, becomes the rule of law when applied to the legal system.`` Inparticular, Rawls identifies as part of this system of public rules those laws that aim to prevent free riders on the economic system and those that aim to correct such externalities as environmental pollution.``

  5. Pole-weapons in the Sagas of Icelanders: a comparison of literary and archaeological sources

    Orkisz Jan H.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Icelandic sagas are a major source of information on the Vikings and their fighting prowess. In these stories, several mysterious pole-weapons appear, which are often called “halberds”, for lack of a better word. In order to better identify what these weapons could have been, and to provide a better understanding of how the sagas relate to the Viking-age events they describe, we confront textual and archaeological evidence for several of these weapons (the höggspjót, the atgeirr, the kesja, the krókspjót, the bryntroll and the fleinn, keeping in mind the contextualisation of their appearances in sagas. The description of the use of each weapon allows to pick several candidates likely to correspond to the studied word. Without a perfect knowledge of what context the authors of the sagas wanted to describe, it appears to be impossible to give a final answer. However, we show that some specific types of spears are good candidates for some of the studied weapons.

  6. Plutonium: key issue in nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation of nuclear weapons

    Yoshisaki, M.B.

    1993-01-01

    The technical report is a 1993 update on weapons-grade plutonium, a key issue in nuclear disarmament. Its vital significance would again be discussed during the fifth and the last Review Conference on the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) for Nuclear Weapons which would end in 1995. Member States shall decide whether an indefinite or conditional extension of NPT is necessary for world peace and international security. Two Non-NPT States, Russia and U.S.A. are in the forefront working for the reduction of nuclear weapons through nuclear disarmament. Their major effort is focused on the implementation of the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty I and II or START I and II for world peace. The eventual implementation of START I and II would lead to the dismantling of plutonium from nuclear warheads proposed to be eliminated by both countries. This report gives three technical options to be derived from nuclear disarmament issues for the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons: (a) indefinite storage - there is no guarantee that these will not be used in the future (b) disposal as wastes - possible only in principle, because of lack of experience in mixing plutonium with high level wastes, and (c) source of energy - best option in managing stored weapons materials, because it satisfies non-proliferation objectives. It means fuel for energy in Light Water Reactors (LWR) or Fast Breeder Reactors (FBR). (author). 8 refs

  7. Hazards ahead: Managing cleanup worker health and safety at the nuclear weapons complex. Background paper

    1993-02-01

    Cold War nuclear weapons production has left a legacy of environmental contamination that is unprecented in scope and complexity. The Department of Energy has begun cleaning up pollution at the Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC)--an expensive, decades-long task that will require a workforce numbering tens of thousands of scientists, technicians, and laborers. Protecting their health and safety must be a major goal of the cleanup effort. Achieving the goal will require DOE to successfully confront significant technical and managerial challenges, but it also poses a unique opportunity to advance state-of-the-art occupational health and safety technologies and practices. The report provides an evaluation of environmental restoration and waste management at the DOE Nuclear Weapons Complex. It examines risks workers might face in cleaning up contamination at the complex and evaluates the effectiveness of DOE's occupational safety and health programs for cleanup workers

  8. Nuclear Weapons Enterprise Transformation - A Sustainable Approach

    O'Brien, K H

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear weapons play an essential role in United States (U.S.) National Security Policy and a succession of official reviews has concluded that nuclear weapons will continue to have a role for the foreseeable future. Under the evolving U.S. government policy, it is clear that role will be quite different from what it was during the Cold War. The nuclear-weapons stockpile as well as the nuclear-weapons enterprise needs to continue to change to reflect this evolving role. Stockpile reductions in the early 1990s and the Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP), established after the cessation of nuclear testing in 1992, began this process of change. Further evolution is needed to address changing security environments, to enable further reductions in the number of stockpiled weapons, and to create a nuclear enterprise that is cost effective and sustainable for the long term. The SSP has successfully maintained the U.S. nuclear stockpile for more than a decade, since the end of nuclear testing. Current plans foresee maintaining warheads produced in the 1980s until about 2040. These warheads continue to age and they are expensive to refurbish. The current Life Extension Program plans for these legacy warheads are straining both the nuclear-weapons production and certification infrastructure making it difficult to respond rapidly to problems or changes in requirements. Furthermore, refurbishing and preserving Cold-War-era nuclear weapons requires refurbishing and preserving an infrastructure geared to support old technology. Stockpile Stewardship could continue this refurbishment approach, but an alternative approach could be considered that is more focused on sustainable technologies, and developing a more responsive nuclear weapons infrastructure. Guided by what we have learned from SSP during the last decade, the stewardship program can be evolved to address this increasing challenge using its computational and experimental tools and capabilities. This approach must start

  9. Decision support systems for major accident prevention in the chemical process industry : A developers' survey

    Reniers, Genserik L L; Ale, B. J.M.; Dullaert, W.; Foubert, B.

    2006-01-01

    Solid major accident prevention management is characterized by efficient and effective risk assessments. As a means of addressing the efficiency aspect, decision support analysis software is becoming increasingly available. This paper discusses the results of a survey of decision support tools for

  10. Biological and Chemical Weapons: Criminal Sanctions and Federal Regulations

    Garcia, Michael J

    2004-01-01

    The Biological Weapons Convention and the Chemical Weapons Convention, both of which have been signed and ratified by the United States, obligate signatory parties to enact legislation or otherwise...

  11. Events that lead university students to change their major to Information Systems: A retroductive South African case

    Lisa Florence Seymour

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Shortage of computing skills is a global concern as it affects national development and business success. Yet, despite high job availability and high salaries in computing professions, insufficient numbers of students are choosing to study the various computing disciplines. This South African study looks at the Information Systems (IS major which is misunderstood by high school students. This retroductive case study identifies the events which lead students to change their major to IS. The study confirms the importance of interest in a major as well as the perceived high value of a major, which feature as dominant factors in the literature. Yet these are not the initial events that lead to students changing their major to IS. Events that initiate the process include losing passion for a previous major, experiencing difficulty in a previous major as well as enjoying the introductory IS course. The paper has practical advice for IS Departments and argues for a generic first year for students as well as a focus on enjoyment and skills aligned to IS professional practice in introductory IS courses. These findings can be generalised to other majors and, hence, the theoretical contribution adds to the literature on career choice in general.

  12. The future of nuclear weapons in Europe workshop summary

    Larsen, J.A.; Garrity, P.J.

    1991-12-01

    A summary is presented of a workshop that addressed the future of nuclear weapons in Europe. The workshop topics included the evolving European security environment; the Soviet Union, Eastern Europe, and nuclear weapons; the United States, NATO, and nuclear weapons; and Western Europe and nuclear weapons. The workshop, held at Los Alamos July 26, 1991, was sponsored by the Center for National Security Studies of the Los Alamos National Laboratory

  13. Atomic Energy Authority (Weapons Group) Act 1973

    1973-01-01

    This Act, which came into force on 6th March 1973 and modified Section 2 of the Atomic Energy Authority Act 1954 in respect of the Authority's power to do work on explosive nuclear devices, made provision for the transfer to the Secretary of State for Defence of the Weapons Group of the Atomic Energy Authority. (NEA) [fr

  14. Foreign trade legislation, war weapons control legislation

    Hucko, E.M.

    1993-01-01

    The volume contains, in addition to an introduction into the matter, the texts of the Foreign Trade Act (FTA), the War Weapons Control Act and all relevant ordinances. Foreign trade transactions of the Federal Republic of Germany are essentially, but not exclusively, governed by the FTA. They are strongly influenced by the legislation of the European Communities which in the form of directives are immediately effective here, and in the form of guidelines oblige the German lawgiver or ordinance giver to translate them into practice, mostly by appropriate modifications of the foreign trade ordinance, the import and export lists. It is not the war weapons which are the problem, but the so-called dual-use goods, namely articles, technologies and knowledge which, as a rule, serve civil purposes, which, however, may be used also to produce weapons, in particular ABC weapons or rockets. Nowadays we are concerned about several third-world states which are obsessed by the wish to build their own atomic bomb. (orig./HSCH) [de

  15. Health and environmental effects of nuclear weapons

    1995-08-01

    Since 1981 WHO has been studying and reporting on the effects of nuclear war on health and health services. This report provides information on the subject and refers to earlier related work of WHO. It forms the basis for a request from WHO to the International Court of Justice regarding the legality of the use of nuclear weapons. 15 refs

  16. The Control of Chemical and Biological Weapons.

    Alexander, Archibald S.; And Others

    This book is composed of four papers prepared to illuminate the problem areas which might arise if the policies of the 1925 Geneva Protocol and other measures to limit chemical and biological weapons are ratified by the United States Senate. The papers included are: Legal Aspects of the Geneva Protocol of 1925; The Use of Herbicides in War: A…

  17. Europium-155 in Debris from Nuclear Weapons

    Aarkrog, Asker; Lippert, Jørgen Emil

    1967-01-01

    The lithium-drifted germanium detector enables determination of europium-155 on a routine basis in environmental samples contaminated with debris from nuclear weapons. From measurements of europium-155, cesium-144, and strontium-90 in air filters collected between 1961 and 1966, the yield...

  18. The monitoring and verification of nuclear weapons

    Garwin, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper partially reviews and updates the potential for monitoring and verification of nuclear weapons, including verification of their destruction. Cooperative monitoring with templates of the gamma-ray spectrum are an important tool, dependent on the use of information barriers

  19. The Spear: An Effective Weapon Since Antiquity

    Robert E. Dohrenwend

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The spear is perhaps man’s oldest weapon, and may even be his oldest tool. Over the hundreds of thousands of years of the weapon’s existence, it evolved from a pointed stick into an efficient hunting missile, and then became the most effective hand-held bladed weapon humans ever devised. The spear and its use is the only martial art originally devised for use against species other than our own, and more than any other weapon, the spear emphasizes the relationship between hunting and warfare. Virtually without exception, the spear is present wherever there are humans. The spear may claim to be the senior martial art, and the weapon is still in use today. Early techniques are preserved by the small number of Japanese sojutsu schools, and modern Chinese martial artists have developed elegant and impressive gymnastic routines for the spear. The javelin throw is a modern Olympic track and field event, and there are people who have resurrected the Aztec atlatl for sporting competition. Today, the spear is still used in Europe for hunting wild boar, and the continued issue of the obsolete bayonet to modern soldiers testifies to a deep, almost instinctive respect still possessed by the military for the spear.

  20. Burning weapons-grade plutonium in reactors

    Newman, D.F.

    1993-06-01

    As a result of massive reductions in deployed nuclear warheads, and their subsequent dismantlement, large quantities of surplus weapons- grade plutonium will be stored until its ultimate disposition is achieved in both the US and Russia. Ultimate disposition has the following minimum requirements: (1) preclude return of plutonium to the US and Russian stockpiles, (2) prevent environmental damage by precluding release of plutonium contamination, and (3) prevent proliferation by precluding plutonium diversion to sub-national groups or nonweapons states. The most efficient and effective way to dispose of surplus weapons-grade plutonium is to fabricate it into fuel and use it for generation of electrical energy in commercial nuclear power plants. Weapons-grade plutonium can be used as fuel in existing commercial nuclear power plants, such as those in the US and Russia. This recovers energy and economic value from weapons-grade plutonium, which otherwise represents a large cost liability to maintain in safeguarded and secure storage. The plutonium remaining in spent MOX fuel is reactor-grade, essentially the same as that being discharged in spent UO 2 fuels. MOX fuels are well developed and are currently used in a number of LWRs in Europe. Plutonium-bearing fuels without uranium (non-fertile fuels) would require some development. However, such non-fertile fuels are attractive from a nonproliferation perspective because they avoid the insitu production of additional plutonium and enhance the annihilation of the plutonium inventory on a once-through fuel cycle

  1. Find and neutralize clandestine nuclear weapons

    Canavan, G.H.

    1997-09-01

    The objective of finding nuclear material at entry portals is to provide a secure perimeter as large as a weapon damage radius so that operations could be conducted within it relatively unencumbered. The objective of wide area search for nuclear material to provide a safe zone of similar dimensions in an area in which it is not possible to maintain a secure perimeter, to provide assurance for civilians living at an area at risk, or to provide rapid, wide area search of regions that could conceal nuclear threats to forces in the field. This rapid, wide-area, and confident detection of nuclear materials is the essential first step in developing the ability to negate terrorist nuclear assemblies or weapons. The ability to detect and negate nuclear materials are necessary to prevent the forced, massive evacuation of urban populations or the disruption of military operations in response to terrorist threats. This paper describes the limitations to current sensors used for nuclear weapon detection and discusses a novel approach to nuclear weapon detection using a combination of directional information (imaging) and gamma ray energy (color) to produce a gamma ray color camera

  2. Stability issues in reconstitution by weapon addition

    Canavan, G.H.

    1997-08-01

    Reconstitution of strategic forces by the unilateral uploading of additional weapons from initially symmetric modest force levels reduces first strike stability. These changes are quantified and traced to changes in first and second strike costs in a model of missile exchanges in which both strikes are optimized analytically.

  3. The spread of nuclear weapons among nations: militarization or development

    Khan, A.Q.

    1986-01-01

    The paper reviews nuclear proliferation among nations. Nuclear weapons promotion and proliferation are discussed, including both motivation and lack of motivation to manufacture nuclear weapons. The failure of the Non-Proliferation Treaty is examined with respect to vertical and horizontal proliferation, and the containment of horizontal proliferation. Risks of nuclear war by accident are outlined, as well as nuclear weapon development. (UK)

  4. Nuclear Weapons and U.S. National Security: A Need for Weapons Programs?

    Woolf, Amy F

    2003-01-01

    .... nuclear weapons that goes beyond the concept of deterrence from the Cold War. It also identified a new targeting strategy that would seek to threaten specific capabilities in adversary nations...

  5. Doctor of Philosophy Thesis in Military Informatics : Lethal Autonomy of Weapons is Designed and/or Recessive

    Nyagudi, Nyagudi Musandu

    2016-01-01

    p { margin-bottom: 0.1in; line-height: 120%; } My original contribution to knowledge is : Any weapon that exhibits intended and/or untended lethal autonomy in targeting and interdiction – does so by way of design and/or recessive flaw(s) in its systems of control – any such weapon is capable of war-fighting and other battle-space interaction in a manner that its Human Commander does not anticipate. A lethal autonomous weapons is therefore independently capable of ex...

  6. Fourth and Fifth Amendment issues raised by Chemical Weapons Convention inspections

    Tanzman, E.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Economics and Law Section

    1994-10-21

    The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) offers a unique challenge to the United States system of constitutional law. This discussion is about the Fourth and Fifth Amendment issues raised by the CWC and about how federal implementing legislation can allow verification inspections to take place in the United States under the Chemical Weapons Convention while remaining in compliance with the Constitution. By implementing legislation, the author means a federal statute that would be enacted separately from Senate approval of the Convention itself. Although implementing legislation is a relatively unusual accompaniment to a treaty, it will be necessary to the CWC, and the Administration has submitted a bill that was under consideration in the last Congress and presumably will be reintroduced early next year. The Fourth and Fifth Amendment problems posed by the CWC arise from the verification inspection scheme embodied in the treaty. The CWC depends heavily on on-site inspections to verify compliance with its key requirements. These include destroying all chemicals weapons stockpiles and bringing potential chemical weapons precursors under international control. The Convention contains four distinct kinds of inspections: systematic inspections of chemical weapons storage and destruction facilities, routine inspections of various declared facilities, challenge inspections, and a variant on challenge inspections in cases of alleged use of chemical weapons. All inspections are supposed to be only as intrusive as necessary to carry out the Convention. These inspections will be carried out by inspectors employed by the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), located in The Hague, which is responsible for enforcing the Convention. Generally, the inspected State Party is permitted to assign observers to accompany the inspectors.

  7. Igniting the Light Elements: The Los Alamos Thermonuclear Weapon Project, 1942-1952

    Fitzpatrick, Anne C. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    1999-07-01

    The American system of nuclear weapons research and development was conceived and developed not as a result of technological determinism, but by a number of individual architects who promoted the growth of this large technologically-based complex. While some of the technological artifacts of this system, such as the fission weapons used in World War II, have been the subject of many historical studies, their technical successors--fusion (or hydrogen) devices--are representative of the largely unstudied highly secret realms of nuclear weapons science and engineering. In the postwar period a small number of Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory's staff and affiliates were responsible for theoretical work on fusion weapons, yet the program was subject to both the provisions and constraints of the US Atomic Energy Commission, of which Los Alamos was a part. The Commission leadership's struggle to establish a mission for its network of laboratories, least of all to keep them operating, affected Los Alamos's leaders' decisions as to the course of weapons design and development projects. Adapting Thomas P. Hughes's ''large technological systems'' thesis, I focus on the technical, social, political, and human problems that nuclear weapons scientists faced while pursuing the thermonuclear project, demonstrating why the early American thermonuclear bomb project was an immensely complicated scientific and technological undertaking. I concentrate mainly on Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory's Theoretical, or T, Division, and its members' attempts to complete an accurate mathematical treatment of the ''Super''--the most difficult problem in physics in the postwar period--and other fusion weapon theories. Although tackling a theoretical problem, theoreticians had to address technical and engineering issues as well. I demonstrate the relative value and importance of H-bomb research over time in the postwar era to

  8. Agriculture production as a major driver of the earth system exceeding planetary boundaries

    Campbell, Bruce Morgan; Beare, Douglas J.; Bennett, Elena M.

    2017-01-01

    We explore the role of agriculture in destabilizing the Earth system at the planetary scale, through examining nine planetary boundaries, or “safe limits”: land-system change, freshwater use, biogeochemical flows, biosphere integrity, climate change, ocean acidification, stratospheric ozone...

  9. Major trends in party system in Ukraine for 1998-2014 years

    D. K. Nosenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The current party system of Ukraine, defined its main features and trends with regard of parliamentary elections 2014 was investigated. The classification, which distinguish the parliamentary system was determined. It is established that the party system has undergone significant changes compared to previous years. Thus, according to classification Mayra Ukrainian party system evolved from a secondary party system to a system of small parties because the two largest parties have 47.5% of votes in parliament. Meyer’s Index fell by almost a factor of 2, indicating that the party system became more competitive, the process of forming a coalition will be longer, and the stability of the government will be lower than in previous years. The calculated effective indices of the number of parties suggested Laakso, Taagepera and Golosov also show that the party system became more fragmented. Based on the analyzed results of parliamentary elections for 1998­2014 years, it has found that increasing or decreasing the percentage threshold of 1%, not significantly affected by the number of parties represented in Parliament; none of the parties could not be present in every convocation; there is uncertainty in electoral preferences.

  10. Diffusivity database (DDB) system for major rocks (Version of 2006/specification and CD-ROM)

    Tochigi, Yoshikatsu; Sasamoto, Hirosi; Shibata, Masahiro; Sato, Haruo; Yui, Mikazu

    2006-03-01

    The development of the database system has been started to manage with the generally used. The database system has been constructed based on datasheets of the effective diffusion coefficient of the nuclides in the rock matrix in order to be applied on the 'H12: Project to Establish the Scientific and Technical Basis for HLW Disposal in Japan'. In this document, the examination and expansion of the datasheet structure and the process of construction of the database system and conversion of all data existing on datasheets are described. As the first step of the development of the database, this database system and its data will continue to be updated and the interface will be revised to improve the availability. The developed database system is attached on the CD-ROM as the file format of Microsoft Access. (author)

  11. Communication of 7 August 2007 from the Permanent Mission of Pakistan to the IAEA concerning the establishment of the oversight Board to monitor the implementation of Pakistan's export control on goods, technologies, materials and equipment related to nuclear and biological weapons and their Delivery Systems Act (Act No.V) 2004

    2007-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a Note Verbale dated 7 August 2007 from the Permanent Mission of Pakistan enclosing a copy of the Gazette of Pakistan S.R.O. No.693(I)/2007, dated 11 July 2007, regarding the establishment of the Oversight Board to monitor the implementation of Pakistan's Export Control on Goods, Technologies, Materials and Equipment related to Nuclear and Biological Weapons and their Delivery Systems Act (Act No.V) 2004, including the formation and functioning of Strategic Export Control Division. As requested in the Note Verbale, the Note Verbale and the enclosure thereto are circulated for the information of Member States

  12. 2007 Joint Chemical Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) Conference and Exhibition - Combating Weapons of Mass Destruction

    2007-06-27

    Selected CB Defense Systems SHAPESENSE Joint Warning and Reporting Network JSLIST CB Protected Shelter Joint Vaccine Acquisition Program Joint Effects...military can operate in any environment, unconstrained by chemical or biological weapons. 21 SHIELD SUSTAIN Selected CB Defense Systems SHAPESENSE Joint...28070625_JCBRN_Conference_Reeves UNCLASSIFIED Decontamination Vision Strippable Barriers Self-Decontaminating Fabrics/Coatings Reduce Logistics Burden

  13. [Biological weapons--an old menace in new circumstances].

    Bartůnĕk, P

    2001-12-06

    Biological weapons were conceived for years by the world community only as a potential evil. A fundamental change of opinions regarding their real menace occurred only after the premeditated criminal attack on the USA on September 11, 2001. It was logical that publicists for mall types of media demanded from representatives of the state administration of the Czech Republic information how out country is prepared for this type of danger. Their reactions were hesitant and in a way reflect a certain chaos associated with the reorganization of the army and at the same time unpreparedness of civil defence. To a certain extent all this can be conceived as the consequence of the fundamental transformation of our society and thus it may be excused to a certain extent. Nevertheless it is obvious that not even the most advanced countries are quite clear as regards defence against the horror of biological weapons. Evidence to this effect is the following document, devoted to the problem in the USA, major parts of which we reproduce from the prestigious periodical The England Journal of Medicine.

  14. Combating the spread of weapons of mass destruction: Some reflections. Essay, published in Le Monde

    ElBaradei, M.

    2003-01-01

    With all the changes in international relations since the end of the Cold War, nuclear weapons have continued to have a position of prominence as the currency of ultimate power. And although a number of countries such as South Africa have given up their nuclear weapons or nuclear weapons ambitions, the nuclear umbrellas of NATO and other alliances continue to expand. More importantly, the objectives embodied in the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), developed in the early 1970s to control the spread of nuclear weapons and to move us towards nuclear disarmament, are under growing stress. Several thousands of nuclear weapons continue to exist in the five nuclear weapon States party to the NPT (China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States). And of the three countries that remain outside the NPT, two India and Pakistan have in the last few years demonstrated their nuclear weapons capability, while the third Israel is generally presumed to have such weapons. Most recently North Korea, a party to the NPT, has decided to walk away from the Treaty and, not unlike some other parties to the Treaty, is suspected of working to acquire nuclear weapons. Other States, on the other hand, have opted for the 'poor man's alternative' by pursuing the acquisition of chemical and biological weapons. And in the aftermath of the events of 11 September 2001, the threat of Weapons of mass destruction (WMD) proliferation gained a new dimension: the prospect of sub-national groups seeking to acquire and use these weapons. Faced with this reality, one must conclude that it is futile to try to combat the spread of WMD through a collective, rule-based system of international security and that people have to acquiesce to living in a world plagued with the constant threat of a nuclear holocaust or other disasters? But reliance on a system of collective security to curb the proliferation of WMD will require bold thinking, a willingness to work together

  15. Future of clip-on weapon sights: pros and cons from an applications perspective

    Knight, C. Reed; Greenslade, Ken; Francisco, Glen

    2015-05-01

    US Domestic, International, allied Foreign National Warfighters and Para-Military First Responders (Police, SWAT, Special Operations, Law Enforcement, Government, Security and more) are put in harm's way all the time. To successfully complete their missions and return home safely are the primary goals of these professionals. Tactical product improvements that affect mission effectiveness and solider survivability are pivotal to understanding the past, present and future of Clip-On in-line weapon sights. Clip-On Weapon Sight (WS) technology was deemed an interim solution by the US Government for use until integrated and fused (day/night multi-sensor) Weapon Sights (WSs) were developed/fielded. Clip-On has now become the solution of choice by Users, Warriors, Soldiers and the US Government. SWaP-C (size, weight and power -cost) has been improved through progressive advances in Clip-On Image Intensified (I2), passive thermal, LL-CMOS and fused technology. Clip-On Weapon Sights are now no longer mounting position sensitive. Now they maintain aim point boresight, so they can be used for longer ranges with increased capabilities while utilizing the existing zeroed weapon and daysight optic. Active illuminated low-light level (both analog I2 and digital LL-CMOS) imaging is rightfully a real-world technology, proven to deliver daytime and low-light level identification confidence. Passive thermal imaging is also a real-world technology, proven to deliver daytime, nighttime and all-weather (including dirty battlefield) target detection confidence. Image processing detection algorithms with intelligent analytics provide documented promise to improve confidence by reducing Users, Warriors and Soldiers' work-loads and improving overall system engagement solution outcomes. In order to understand the future of Clip-On in-line weapon sights, addressing pros and cons, this paper starts with an overview of historical weapon sight applications, technologies and stakeholder decisions

  16. Health and environmental threats associated with the destruction of chemical weapons.

    Matousek, Jirí

    2006-09-01

    Still existing arsenals of chemical weapons (CW) pose not only security threats for possible use in hostilities by state actors or misuse by terrorists but also safety threats to humans and biota due to leakages and possible accidents. The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) commits the States Parties (SPs) to destroy CW using technologies taking into consideration human health and environmental protection. It does not allow methods, routinely used up to the 1970s, such as earth burial, open-pit burning, and sea dumping. Long-term health and environmental threats and some accidents that have already occurred in the known localities of the sea-dumped and earth-buried arsenals of Nazi-German armed forces in the Baltic Region and of Imperial Japanese forces in the Far East Region are analyzed according to the impact of major CW and ammunition types (i.e., sulfur mustard--HD, tabun--GA, arsenicals--DA, DC, DM, arsine oil, and chloroacetophenone--CN). Any possible operations and handling with CW envisaged by the CWC as well as their verification are summarized taking into account the health threat they pose. CW and toxic armament waste to be destroyed and applied technologies (both developed and under current use in operational CW destruction facilities [CWDF]) are reviewed as are systems of health safety and environmental protection of the destruction/demilitarization stems from the extraordinary high toxicity of supertoxic lethal agents in man and biota. Problems of currently used Russian and U.S. standards for maximum allowable workplace concentrations and general population limits and possibilities of their determination by available analytical instrumentation are discussed.

  17. Technology and effects of a war with nuclear weapons

    Broda, E.

    1981-01-01

    The development and the status of the nuclear weapons systems and of the systems for their delivery are explained. It will be shown, that all these systems have made tremendous progress since the 1960s. Technical progress has had, especially through the MIRV principle and the cruise missile, a destabilizing influence and threatens the equilibrium of terror. New strategic doctrines for winning rather than preventing nuclear war have come to the foreground. Plans for the tactical first-use of nuclear weapons have been accepted. Alternatively, the retaliation capacity of the opponent could be destroyed by surprise attack - The First Strike. In a nuclear conflict, the commanders-in-chief are overburdened by the need for ultra-urgent decisions. This applies especially to a First Strike situation. As a consequence tendencies in the direction of increasing automatization become ever more conspicuous. The increasing automatization leads to further escalation of insecurity for the whole world. Solutions for the principal problem of the world, war or peace, cannot be found On the level of technology, but only on that of practical policy of detente, disarmament, collaboration and reconciliation. (nowak) [de

  18. Lack of circadian variation in the activity of the autonomic nervous system after major abdominal operations

    Gögenur, Ismail; Rosenberg-Adamsen, Susan; Lie, Claus

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Most sudden postoperative deaths occur during the night and we conjectured that this was associated with circadian variations in the autonomic nervous tone, reflected in heart rate variability. DESIGN: Prospective clinical study. SETTINGS: University hospital, Denmark. SUBJECTS: 44...... OUTCOME MEASURES: Heart rate and heart rate variability. RESULTS: Circadian variation calculated from the SDNN (p = 0.43) the pNN50 (p = 0.11), the RMSSD (p = 0.47), and mean NN:SDNN ratio (p = 0.13) was absent postoperatively. Circadian variation in the heart rate was present but was set on a higher...... level compared with reference values. CONCLUSION: After major abdominal operations there was a lack of circadian variation in the autonomic nervous tone....

  19. Safety issues in robotic handling of nuclear weapon parts

    Drotning, W.; Wapman, W.; Fahrenholtz, J.

    1993-01-01

    Robotic systems are being developed by the Intelligent Systems and Robotics Center at Sandia National Laboratories to perform automated handling tasks with radioactive weapon parts. These systems will reduce the occupational radiation exposure to workers by automating operations that are currently performed manually. The robotic systems at Sandia incorporate several levels of mechanical, electrical, and software safety for handling hazardous materials. For example, tooling used by the robot to handle radioactive parts has been designed with mechanical features that allow the robot to release its payload only at designated locations in the robotic workspace. In addition, software processes check for expected and unexpected situations throughout the operations. Incorporation of features such as these provides multiple levels of safety for handling hazardous or valuable payloads with automated intelligent systems

  20. Diffusivity database (DDB) system for major rocks and buffer materials (Released on 2007/specification)

    Tochigi, Yoshikatsu; Shibata, Masahiro; Sato, Haruo; Kitamura, Akira

    2007-03-01

    The Diffusivity Database (DDB) System developed on early 2006 was upgraded to apply the data of effective diffusion coefficient of the nuclides in the rock matrix for the 'H12: Project to Establish the Scientific and Technical Basis for HLW Disposal in Japan', and the data in the buffer materials from literature survey was newly added. Some functions of data search and selection were reformed to improve the level of convenience. This DDB system (work on MS-Access TM ) is released to the public through Web server managed by JAEA. (author)

  1. Major Electrocardiographic Abnormalities According to the Minnesota Coding System Among Brazilian Adults (from the ELSA-Brasil Cohort Study).

    Pinto-Filho, Marcelo M; Brant, Luisa C C; Foppa, Murilo; Garcia-Silva, Kaiser B; Mendes de Oliveira, Rackel Aguiar; de Jesus Mendes da Fonseca, Maria; Alvim, Sheila; Lotufo, Paulo A; Mill, José G; Barreto, Sandhi M; Macfarlane, Peter W; Ribeiro, Antonio L P

    2017-06-15

    The electrocardiogram is a simple and useful clinical tool; nevertheless, few studies have evaluated the prevalence of electrocardiographic abnormalities in the Latin American population. This study aims to evaluate the major electrocardiographic abnormalities according to the Minnesota coding system in Brazilian adults, stratified by gender, age, race, and cardiovascular risk factors. Data from 14,424 adults (45.8% men, age 35 to 74 years) were obtained at baseline of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), according to standardized protocol. The electrocardiogram were obtained with the Burdick Atria 6100 machine, stored on Pyramis System, automatically coded according to the Minnesota coding system by the Glasgow University software and then manually revised. Major abnormalities were more prevalent in men than women (11.3% and 7.9%, p <0.001). These differences were consistent through the different age groups, race, and number of cardiovascular risk factors. Electrocardiographic major abnormalities were more prevalent in black participants for both men (black: 15.1%, mixed: 10.4%, white: 11.1%, p = 0.001) and women (black: 10%, mixed: 7.6%, white: 7.2%, p = 0.004). In conclusion, in this large sample of Brazilian adults, the prevalence of major electrocardiographic abnormalities was higher among men, the elderly, black, and among people with more cardiovascular risk factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Influence of the Intermediary System of Cognition on Vocabulary Acquisition for Chinese English-Majors

    Luo, Yanyan

    2009-01-01

    In the article, the author tries to find out the main factors that affect the subject's vocabulary acquisition by an investigation. It is concluded that vocabulary acquisition models and strategies are something external, what really works upon vocabulary acquisition is the intermediary system of cognition including the knowledge structure and…

  3. Promoting Information Systems Major to Undergraduate Students--A Comprehensive Investigation

    Li, Lei; Zhang, Chi; Zheng, Guangzhi

    2014-01-01

    Weak enrollment growth has been a concern for many Information Systems (IS) programs in recent years although the IT/IS job market remains strong. Stimulating undergraduate students' interest to IS programs have been a challenge. In this paper, the researchers took a comprehensive approach to study how to effectively promote a Management…

  4. SYSTEM ANALYSIS OF MAJOR TRENDS IN DEVELOPMENT OF ADAPTIVE TRAFFIC FLOW MANAGEMENT METHODS

    A. N. Klimovich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive algorithms, which current traffic systems are based on, exist for many decades. Information technologies have developed significantly over this period and it makes more relevant their application in the field of transport. This paper analyses modern trends in the development of adaptive traffic flow control methods. Reviewed the most perspective directions in the field of intelligent transport systems, such as high-speed wireless communication between vehicles and road infrastructure based on such technologies as DSRC and WAVE, traffic jams prediction having such features as traffic flow information, congestion, velocity of vehicles using machine learning, fuzzy logic rules and genetic algorithms, application of driver assistance systems to increase vehicle’s autonomy. Advantages of such technologies in safety, efficiency and usability of transport are shown. Described multi-agent approach, which uses V2I-communication between vehicles and intersection controller to improve efficiency of control due to more complete traffic flow information and possibility to give orders to separate vehicles. Presented number of algorithms which use such approach to create new generation of adaptive transport systems.

  5. A Sm-Nd isotopic study of atmospheric dusts and particulates from major river systems

    Goldstein, S.L.; Cambridge Univ.; O'Nions, R.K.; Hamilton, P.J.

    1984-01-01

    143 Nd/ 144 Nd ratios, and Sm and Nd abundances, are reported for particulates from major and minor rivers of the Earth, continental sediments, and aeolian dusts collected over the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. Overall, Sm/Nd ratios and Nd isotopic compositions in contemporary continental erosion products vary within the small ranges of 147 Sm/ 144 Nd=0.115 +- 0.01 and 143 Nd/ 144 Nd=0.51204 +- 0.0002 (epsilonsub(Nd)=-11.4 +- 4). The average period of residence in the continental crust is estimated to be 1.70 +- 0.35 Ga. These results combined with data from the literature have implications for the age, history, and composition of the sedimentary mass and the continental crust: (1) The average 'crustal residence age' of the whole sedimentary mass is about 1.9 Ga. (2) The range of Nd isotope compositions in the continent derived particulate input to the oceans is the same as Atlantic sediments and seawater, but lower than those of the Pacific, demonstrating the importance of Pacific volcanism to Pacific Nd chemistry. (3) The average ratio of Sm/Nd is about 0.19 in the upper continental crust, and has remained so since the early Archean. This precludes the likelihood of major mafic to felsic or felsic to mafic trends in the overall composition of the upper continental crust through Earth history. (4) Sediments appear to be formed primarily by erosion of continental crust having similar Sm/Nd ratios, rather than by mixing of mafic and felsic compositions. (5) The average ratio of 143 Nd/ 144 Nd approx.= 0.5117 (epsilonsub(Nd) approx.= -17) in the upper continental crust, assuming its mean age is about 2 Ga. (6) The uniformity of the Sm-Nd isotopic systematics in river and aeolian particulates primarily reflects efficient recycling of old sediment by sedimentary processes on a short time scale compared to the amount of time the material has resided in the crust. (orig.)

  6. Auditory evoked potentials in patients with major depressive disorder measured by Emotiv system.

    Wang, Dongcui; Mo, Fongming; Zhang, Yangde; Yang, Chao; Liu, Jun; Chen, Zhencheng; Zhao, Jinfeng

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study (unpublished), Emotiv headset was validated for capturing event-related potentials (ERPs) from normal subjects. In the present follow-up study, the signal quality of Emotiv headset was tested by the accuracy rate of discriminating Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) patients from the normal subjects. ERPs of 22 MDD patients and 15 normal subjects were induced by an auditory oddball task and the amplitude of N1, N2 and P3 of ERP components were specifically analyzed. The features of ERPs were statistically investigated. It is found that Emotiv headset is capable of discriminating the abnormal N1, N2 and P3 components in MDD patients. Relief-F algorithm was applied to all features for feature selection. The selected features were then input to a linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classifier with leave-one-out cross-validation to characterize the ERP features of MDD. 127 possible combinations out of the selected 7 ERP features were classified using LDA. The best classification accuracy was achieved to be 89.66%. These results suggest that MDD patients are identifiable from normal subjects by ERPs measured by Emotiv headset.

  7. The Norwegian system for wild reindeer management — major development since the 19th century

    Hans Olav Bråta

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available In the 19th century the hunting of wild reindeer was relatively unrestricted in Norway. This, combined with a more efficient hunting, caused a severe reduction in the number of wild reindeer at the turn of the century. The national authorities responded by stricter hunting control, and in 1930 hunting quotas related to the size of the wild reindeer areas were introduced. The Ministry of Agriculture decided the number of licences, and the number of wild reindeer increased. During the 1950s a major controversy between the Ministry and local people arose in the Snøhetta area. People there increased their power over the wild reindeer management by organising a "Wild Reindeer Board" (WRB. This inspired people in other districts to organise similar boards. These WRBs had no formal power according to the law, but became important managers of the herds. An official organisation for each wild reindeer area, the Wild Reindeer Committee (WRC, was introduced in 1988. Since the WRCs are official institutions, legal power is decentralised to them.

  8. Numerical simulation of extraction behavior of major components in the CMPO-TBP-HNO3 system

    Takanashi, M.; Koma, Y.; Koyama, T.; Funasaka, H.

    2000-01-01

    A numerical simulation code was developed in order to find the optimum condition for separation and the recovery of TRU (TRansUranium) elements in the octyl(phenyl)-N,N-di-isobutyl-carbamoyl-methyl-phosphine oxide (CMPO) - tri-butyl phosphate (TBP) - HNO 3 solvent extraction system. This code is able to predict the extraction behavior of americium and europium in the system containing many components. Calculations of concentration profiles of americium and lanthanides were carried out for a counter current experiment with laboratory scale mixer-settlers. The calculated profiles were in agreement with the experimental ones. The effect of oxalic acid was also included in the calculation and was discussed. (authors)

  9. Major activities of the association ''Arbeitsgemeinschaft Solar NRW''. Decentralized energy systems development, trial and qualification

    Meliss, M.

    1996-01-01

    In North-Rhine Westphalia, the Ministry for Science and Research and the Ministry for Economic Affairs, Medium-Sized Companies and Technology (MWF) in 1991 decided to jointly establish a research and technology association called AG Solar NRW, intended to function as a central body for promotion and coordination of existing but dispersed projects and activities in North-Rhine Westphalia for research into and development of solar technology and energy systems, and for promotion of demonstration projects and training programmes supporting enhanced use of solar energy. The total budget made available for activities of the AG Solar in phase 1 (1991 - 1995) was approx. DM 60 million. The article in hand summarizes the main activities and results achieved in this first phase which was committed to decentralized energy systems, performance testing and qualification. (orig.) [de

  10. Major upgrade of the articulated inspection arm control system to fulfill daily operation requirements

    Pastor, P., E-mail: patrick.pastor@cea.fr [CEA, IRFM, Institut de Recherche sur la Fusion par confinement Magnétique (France); Villedieu, E.; Allegretti, L.; Vincent, B.; Barbuti, A.; Bruno, V.; Coquillat, P.; Dechelle, C.; Gargiulo, L.; Le, R.; Malard, P.; Martinez, A.; Nouailletas, R. [CEA, IRFM, Institut de Recherche sur la Fusion par confinement Magnétique (France); Yuntao, Song; Yong, Cheng; Chen, Liu; Hansheng, Feng; Shanshuang, Shi [ASIPP, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui (China)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • We propose an overview of the work which has been done to upgrade the control system of the AIA robot (articulated inspection arm) to fulfill daily operation requirements for tokamak inspection. • The control system is based on the use of new position sensors, new electronics design and new supervisor software. • Final tests are ongoing in the EAST scale 1 tokamak mock-up. Routine operation of the robot at EAST will start in the beginning of 2015. - Abstract: An articulated inspection arm (AIA) has been developed by CEA for visual inspection between pulses inside the Tore Supra tokamak vacuum vessel without breaking temperature and vacuum conditions. The eight meters length robot is composed of a shuttle and six articulated segments with a video camera at its end. A demonstration prototype has been achieved in 2008 at Tore Supra (Gargiulo, 2007; Houry, 2008; Perrot, 2003). A project to upgrade the AIA into a fully operational robot has been undertaken by IRFM and ASIPP in an Associated Laboratory. It will be in operation first in the EAST machine and afterwards in Tore Supra in its WEST (W/Tungsten Environment in Steady-state Tokamak) configuration where it is of paramount importance to survey possible degradation of W component surface. The control system of the robot has been extensively upgraded. The effort has been focused on three areas: (1) improvement of the arm position accuracy, (2) increase of the operational robustness, (3) use of a powerful graphical user interface including simulation of trajectories and robot deployment capabilities in a 3D viewer environment. The aim of this paper is to detail the architecture of the AIA control system.

  11. Nuclear weapons proliferation and the new world order

    Krause, J.

    1994-01-01

    The proliferation of nuclear weapons has become the priority safety problem since the end of the cold war. The danger that new nuclear states may arise from the former Soviet Union, the limited effectiveness of existing control systems, the increased attractiveness of nuclear weapons for countries in which a 'safety vacuum' has developed since the withdrawal of American and Russian forces, as well as the danger that additional nuclear states (China, India, Pakistan) may become unstable or disintegrate, make it necessary to explore and show the ensuing risks. The study contains analyses from well-respected experts from Germany, Russia, Japan and the USA. They show how the changes in regional security situations could lead to nuclear risks under certain circumstances, and the likely international consequences. A second point of emphasis consens the feasibility of new approaches or instruments in international non-proliferatic policy. New possibilities for the improvement of excisting control systems and the extension of international consensus on an intensification of the non-proliferation regime are offered by the changes in world politics. (orig.) [de

  12. Cleaning up DOE's weapons sites: Issues of organization and management

    Morzinski, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    Many Department of Energy facilities across the United States are seriously contaminated with radioactive and other hazardous wastes. Decades of focus on weapons production and inadequate attention to long-term solutions for dealing with those wastes have resulted in tremendous problems. The Department of Energy recognizes the seriousness of those problems and is addressing them. In some cases existing management systems are being used to accomplish the new mission of environmental cleanup, and in other cases new systems have been created to help carry out that mission. Widespread criticism of those efforts to data are evidence that the management systems being used may not be appropriate for the job. In particular, it appears that some management systems aren't producing desired results because they are not well aligned with the people and tasks for whom they are intended, and these issues are discussed in this report

  13. DOE/LLNL verification symposium on technologies for monitoring nuclear tests related to weapons proliferation

    Nakanishi, K.K.

    1993-01-01

    The rapidly changing world situation has raised concerns regarding the proliferation of nuclear weapons and the ability to monitor a possible clandestine nuclear testing program. To address these issues, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Treaty Verification Program sponsored a symposium funded by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Arms Control, Division of Systems and Technology. The DOE/LLNL Symposium on Technologies for Monitoring Nuclear Tests Related to Weapons Proliferation was held at the DOE's Nevada Operations Office in Las Vegas, May 6--7,1992. This volume is a collection of several papers presented at the symposium. Several experts in monitoring technology presented invited talks assessing the status of monitoring technology with emphasis on the deficient areas requiring more attention in the future. In addition, several speakers discussed proliferation monitoring technologies being developed by the DOE's weapons laboratories

  14. Making Weapons for the Terracotta Army

    Marcos Martinón-Torres

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Terracotta Army of the First Emperor of China is one of the most emblematic archaeological sites in the world. Many questions remain about the logistics of technology, standardisation and labour organisation behind the creation of such a colossal construction in just a few decades over 2,000 years ago. An ongoing research project co-ordinated between the UCL Institute of Archaeology and the Emperor Qin Shihang's Terracotta Army Museum is beginning to address some of these questions. This paper outlines some results of the typological, metric, microscopic, chemical and spatial analyses of the 40,000 bronze weapons recovered with the Terracotta Warriors. Thanks to a holistic approach developed specifically for this project, it is possible to reveal remarkable aspects of the organisation of the Qin workforce in production cells, of the standardisation, efficiency and quality-control procedures employed, and of the sophisticated technical knowledge of the weapon-makers.

  15. Emergency management of chemical weapons injuries.

    Anderson, Peter D

    2012-02-01

    The potential for chemical weapons to be used in terrorism is a real possibility. Classes of chemical weapons include nerve agents, vesicants (blister agents), choking agents, incapacitating agents, riot control agents, blood agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The nerve agents work by blocking the actions of acetylcholinesterase leading to a cholinergic syndrome. Nerve agents include sarin, tabun, VX, cyclosarin, and soman. The vesicants include sulfur mustard and lewisite. The vesicants produce blisters and also damage the upper airways. Choking agents include phosgene and chlorine gas. Choking agents cause pulmonary edema. Incapacitating agents include fentanyl and its derivatives and adamsite. Riot control agents include Mace and pepper spray. Blood agents include cyanide. The mechanism of toxicity for cyanide is blocking oxidative phosphorylation. Toxic industrial chemicals include agents such as formaldehyde, hydrofluoric acid, and ammonia.

  16. Low yield nuclear weapons and nuclear terrorism

    Rodionov, S.

    1999-01-01

    It is unlikely that anybody would imagine the route to a nuclear-weapon-free world as a straight and unimpeded one. At the moment, there is a fading interest in the possibility of the concerted bilateral reduction of the US and Russian nuclear weapon stockpiles. The reason is evident: these powers demonstrate quite different approaches to two large political campaigns initiated in American political circles, namely NATO expansion to the East, and the attack on Anti-Ballistic-Missile (ABM) Treaty. Russia considers these initiatives as provocative in content and high-handed in the form. The West argues that Russian response is unjustified and insists on the peaceful nature of its plans?

  17. Is there any future for nuclear weapons?

    Heisbourg, F.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear weapons occupy a paradoxal place both in the collective imagination and in the historical reality: on the one hand everybody dreads the apocalypse horror, and on the other hand, dissuasion appears as an unchanging and quite comfortable situation. However, the world has become multipolar in this domain as well. The geopolitical map is reconstructing. Doctrinal revisions, initiatives against nuclear weapons proliferation, and nuclear disarmament measures are now on the agenda. The best foreign and French experts examine for the first time the consequences of these evolutions. They analyse in particular the split up risks and the potential consequences of a nuclear conflict in regions where atomic arms have become a key-component of the strategic landscape: Middle-Est, Far-East, Southern Asia. The choices France and its allies will have to face are examined as well. (J.S.)

  18. #TheWeaponizationOfSocialMedia

    Nissen, Thomas Elkjer

    In today’s conflict environment, transformed by information technology and of who can communicate and how, states, non-state actors, ad hoc activist networks and individuals create effect(s) in and through social network media in support of their objectives. #TheWeaponizationOfSocialMedia develops...... a framework for understanding how social network media shapes global politics and contemporary conflicts by examining their role as a platform for conduction intelligence collection, targeting, cyber-operations, psychological warfare and command and control activities. Through these, the weaponization...... of social media shows both the possibilities and the limitations of social network media in contemporary conflicts and makes a contribution to theorizing and studying contemporary conflicts....

  19. Nuclear power and nuclear weapon proliferation

    Apold, A.

    1978-01-01

    The theme of Dr. Marshall's lecture was that it is, from the viewpoint of prevention of proliferation of nuclear weapons,preferable to use plutonium as a fuel in FBR reactors rather than store it in what, in effect, would be plutonium mines. The true threat of proliferation lies in uranium enrichment. The FBR reactor is misunderstood and the US policy is not against breeders as such. Safeguards against the misuse of plutonium by leaving a residue of radioactivity after reprocessing is quite feasible, despite certain practical problems and extra costs. Weapon proliferation is subject to political objectives and intentions. Definite proposals are, (a) a limited number of reprocessing centres, (b) an accelerated development of FBR reactors, (c) a new FBR fuel cycle, (d) stop storage of spent thermal reactor fuel, (e) reinforced safeguards. (JIW)

  20. Nuclear weapons Latin American Proscription Treaty

    1967-01-01

    Military descentralization of Latin America will constitute a measure that will keep its peoples from squandering in nuclear weapons out of their limited resources and will protect them from eventually being attacked in such fashion within their territories. This constitutes a considerable contribution award avoiding proliferation of nuclear weapons as well as a giant step towards general and complete disarmament. It will also constitute evidence that Latin America, faithful to its universalist tradition, not only must make a greater effort towards proscribing from its territories the treat of a nuclear war, but also must use all its resources to persevere in its struggle for welfare and progress of its peoples, cooperating along with the rest of the world to achieve the ideals of mankind as a whole

  1. The Effects of Nuclear Weapons. Third edition

    Glasstone, S; Dolan, P J

    1977-01-01

    Since the last edition of ''The Effects of Nuclear Weapons'' in 1962 much new information has become available concerning nuclear weapon effects. This has come in part from the series of atmospheric tests, including several at very high altitudes, conducted in the Pacific Ocean area in 1962. In addition, laboratory studies, theoretical calculations, and computer simulations have provided a better understanding of the various effects. A new chapter has been added on the electromagnetic pulse. The chapter titles are as follows: general principles of nuclear explosions; descriptions of nuclear explosions; air blast phenomena in air and surface bursts; air blast loading; structural damage from air blast; shock effects of surface and subsurface bursts; thermal radiation and its effects; initial nuclear radiation; residual nuclear radiation and fallout; radio and radar effects; the electromagnetic pulse and its effects; and biological effects. (LTN)

  2. Monitoring aquatic environment pollution: a major component of environment management systems

    Khan, I.H.; Khan, M.H.; Sheikh, I.M.

    1999-01-01

    The paper is based on the international experiences mostly of the UK (United Kingdom) and Europe on monitoring aquatic pollution and controlling water pollution which have a long history of the legislation involved. The U.K. control of water pollution and regulatory laws are very effective as in shown by the fact that 96 percent of rivers in England and Wales are suitable for potable supplies with conventional water treatment. Current British legislation is basically contained n the 1951, 1960 and 1974 acts of parliament in the U.K. A common feature of all this environment legislation is the high level of consultation which has taken place between government and all concerned and al those concerned in the development of legislation and drawing up regulations etc. and involved in implementation of them. Similarly considerable discussion takes place with the controlling authorities by dischargers over the detailed implementation of legislation in the U.K. Consequently these harmonious attitudes have been responsible for the effectiveness of the U.K. legislation. In the U.K. control of discharges of industrial effluents to sewers and to all natural waters including underground water is vested in the regional water authorities, which on application, issue consent permitting discharges of industrial effluents to sewers and to all natural waters including underground waters in vested in the regional water authorities, which on application, issue consent permitting discharges to be made subject to conditions and limitations in the consent/authorisation/approval. The paper critically reviews major aspects of the philosophy of aquatic pollution control and monitoring, as statistics reveal deadly state of liquid effluent contamination water bodies in Pakistan. Without prompt installation of treatment plants we may face a tragedy of catastrophic magnitude. (author)

  3. Reliability Evaluation for the Surface to Air Missile Weapon Based on Cloud Model

    Deng Jianjun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The fuzziness and randomness is integrated by using digital characteristics, such as Expected value, Entropy and Hyper entropy. The cloud model adapted to reliability evaluation is put forward based on the concept of the surface to air missile weapon. The cloud scale of the qualitative evaluation is constructed, and the quantitative variable and the qualitative variable in the system reliability evaluation are corresponded. The practical calculation result shows that it is more effective to analyze the reliability of the surface to air missile weapon by this way. The practical calculation result also reflects the model expressed by cloud theory is more consistent with the human thinking style of uncertainty.

  4. Review of the flood risk management system in Germany after the major flood in 2013

    Annegret H. Thieken

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Widespread flooding in June 2013 caused damage costs of €6 to 8 billion in Germany, and awoke many memories of the floods in August 2002, which resulted in total damage of €11.6 billion and hence was the most expensive natural hazard event in Germany up to now. The event of 2002 does, however, also mark a reorientation toward an integrated flood risk management system in Germany. Therefore, the flood of 2013 offered the opportunity to review how the measures that politics, administration, and civil society have implemented since 2002 helped to cope with the flood and what still needs to be done to achieve effective and more integrated flood risk management. The review highlights considerable improvements on many levels, in particular (1 an increased consideration of flood hazards in spatial planning and urban development, (2 comprehensive property-level mitigation and preparedness measures, (3 more effective flood warnings and improved coordination of disaster response, and (4 a more targeted maintenance of flood defense systems. In 2013, this led to more effective flood management and to a reduction of damage. Nevertheless, important aspects remain unclear and need to be clarified. This particularly holds for balanced and coordinated strategies for reducing and overcoming the impacts of flooding in large catchments, cross-border and interdisciplinary cooperation, the role of the general public in the different phases of flood risk management, as well as a transparent risk transfer system. Recurring flood events reveal that flood risk management is a continuous task. Hence, risk drivers, such as climate change, land-use changes, economic developments, or demographic change and the resultant risks must be investigated at regular intervals, and risk reduction strategies and processes must be reassessed as well as adapted and implemented in a dialogue with all stakeholders.

  5. Imprecise Probability Methods for Weapons UQ

    Picard, Richard Roy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Vander Wiel, Scott Alan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-13

    Building on recent work in uncertainty quanti cation, we examine the use of imprecise probability methods to better characterize expert knowledge and to improve on misleading aspects of Bayesian analysis with informative prior distributions. Quantitative approaches to incorporate uncertainties in weapons certi cation are subject to rigorous external peer review, and in this regard, certain imprecise probability methods are well established in the literature and attractive. These methods are illustrated using experimental data from LANL detonator impact testing.

  6. Environmental problems in the nuclear weapons complex

    Fultz, K.O.

    1989-04-01

    This paper provide the authors' views on the environmental problems facing the Department of Energy. Testimony is based on a large body of work, over 50 reports and testimonies since 1981, on environmental, safety, and health aspects of DOE's nuclear weapons complex. This work has shown that the complex faces a wide variety of serious problem areas including aging facilities, safety concerns which have shut down DOE's production reactors, and environmental cleanup

  7. Polonium-210 as Weapon for Mass Destruction

    Koteng, A.O.

    2010-01-01

    Properties of Po-210 make it possible for its use as weapon of mass destruction. Po-210 occurs naturally in minute quantities in the human body, in Uranium ore (< 0.1 mg Po-210 / ton ) and as a product of Radon-222 gas decay chain. Po-210 also occurs as deposition on vegetation (tobacco leaves). Po-210 is produced by bombardment of Bi-209 with neutrons in a nuclear reactor. Russia produces 8 grams per year for export to USA market

  8. The big shadow of the nuclear weapon

    Hubert-Rodier, J.

    2006-01-01

    While civil nuclear industry shows a revival, the military side comes back to the front of the scene too. The end of the cold war has not buried the nuclear weapon. In front of the threats shown by Iran and Northern Korea and despite the quasi-universal nonproliferation treaty, the world is now again threaten by a wave of proliferation encouraged by the political tensions in the Middle-East and Asia. (J.S.)

  9. Recoil Considerations for Shoulder-Fired Weapons

    2012-05-01

    than would be deduced from the force levels defined by the pressure-time curve of the cartridge. Further and just like a large-caliber weapon mounted...force. If each of the force curves over the time interval were integrated, the result should be the same as that derived from a ballistic pendulum...Kathe, E.; Dillon, R. Sonic Rarefaction Wave Low Recoil Gun; Report ARCCB-TR-2001; U.S. Army Armament Research, Development, and Engineering Center

  10. Kazakhstan: there are no nuclear weapons

    Golev, A.

    2000-01-01

    In the article it is noted, that in 1992 Kazakhstan, Russian Federation and Ukraine signed Strategic Attack Weapon-1 Treaty, and actually refuse from nuclear bases on theirs territories. On the whole Kazakhstan had in technical capability two missile basis and one basis of strategic bombardment aviation. During 1996-1999 in period of nuclear objects liquidation in Kazakhstan 96 S S-18 missiles and 18,000 tones components of missile fuel were taken out to Russia

  11. Nuclear energy and nuclear weapons proliferation

    1989-01-01

    A summary of the report dispatched in the middle of 1978 by the Atlantic Council of United States, organized by North American citizens, is presented. The report considers the relation between the production of nucleoelectric energy and the capacity of proliferation of nuclear weapons. The factors which affect the grade of proliferation risk represented by the use of nuclear energy in the world comparing this risk with the proliferation risks independently of nuclear energy, are examined. (M.C.K.) [pt

  12. Defense against nuclear weapons: a decision analysis

    Orient, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Response to the public health threat posed by nuclear weapons is a medical imperative. The United States, in contrast to other nations, has chosen a course that assures maximal casualties in the event of a nuclear attack, on the theory that prevention of the attack is incompatible with preventive measures against its consequences, such as blast injuries and radiation sickness. A decision analysis approach clarifies the risks and benefits of a change to a strategy of preparedness

  13. Major depression

    Depression - major; Depression - clinical; Clinical depression; Unipolar depression; Major depressive disorder ... providers do not know the exact causes of depression. It is believed that chemical changes in the ...

  14. Chinese perceptions of the utility of nuclear weapons. Prospects and potential problems in disarmament

    Jing-dong, Yuan

    2010-07-01

    The Obama administration is putting nuclear disarmament back on the agenda. In a major speech in Prague in April 2009, he envisioned a world free of nuclear weapons and called on nations to work toward that end. Reversing years of setbacks and stagnation, Washington and Moscow agreed on renewing negotiation on extending the START I Treaty last year and concluded the New START treaty in March 2010. The 2010 Nuclear Posture Review indicates a shift in U.S. nuclear doctrine in that Washington pledges not to use nuclear weapons against non-nuclear weapons states that abide by the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty. The prospects of nuclear disarmament look much promising as the momentum generated could also exert pressure on the second-tier nuclear-weapon States: Britain, France, and China. Beijing's responses to these developments have been favorable, viewing them as positive contribution to international nuclear disarmament and nonproliferation. In particular China endorses President Obama's call for securing global nuclear materials and safeguarding vulnerable nuclear facilities to prevent nuclear terrorism. However, Chinese perspectives and policies on important international nuclear arms control and disarmament, and on the role of nuclear weapons and nuclear deterrence remain largely declaratory and less specific on its own commitments and participation. Chinese analyses, at the same time, point out the difficulties ahead on the road toward a nuclear weapons free world. Indeed, rhetoric notwithstanding, Beijing continues to modernize its nuclear arsenal to develop a secure and reliable second-strike deterrence capability. This paper takes a careful look at China's perceptions of the role of nuclear weapons in its national security policy and defense posture. This is important because China is perceived to be the only country among the five original nuclear-weapon States that is actually expanding its nuclear arsenal, as indicated by the recent

  15. Chinese perceptions of the utility of nuclear weapons. Prospects and potential problems in disarmament

    Jing-dong, Yuan

    2010-01-01

    The Obama administration is putting nuclear disarmament back on the agenda. In a major speech in Prague in April 2009, he envisioned a world free of nuclear weapons and called on nations to work toward that end. Reversing years of setbacks and stagnation, Washington and Moscow agreed on renewing negotiation on extending the START I Treaty last year and concluded the New START treaty in March 2010. The 2010 Nuclear Posture Review indicates a shift in U.S. nuclear doctrine in that Washington pledges not to use nuclear weapons against non-nuclear weapons states that abide by the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty. The prospects of nuclear disarmament look much promising as the momentum generated could also exert pressure on the second-tier nuclear-weapon States: Britain, France, and China. Beijing's responses to these developments have been favorable, viewing them as positive contribution to international nuclear disarmament and nonproliferation. In particular China endorses President Obama's call for securing global nuclear materials and safeguarding vulnerable nuclear facilities to prevent nuclear terrorism. However, Chinese perspectives and policies on important international nuclear arms control and disarmament, and on the role of nuclear weapons and nuclear deterrence remain largely declaratory and less specific on its own commitments and participation. Chinese analyses, at the same time, point out the difficulties ahead on the road toward a nuclear weapons free world. Indeed, rhetoric notwithstanding, Beijing continues to modernize its nuclear arsenal to develop a secure and reliable second-strike deterrence capability. This paper takes a careful look at China's perceptions of the role of nuclear weapons in its national security policy and defense posture. This is important because China is perceived to be the only country among the five original nuclear-weapon States that is actually expanding its nuclear arsenal, as indicated by the recent deployment of the long

  16. Nuclear weapons and the World Court ruling

    Singh, J.

    1998-01-01

    based on the initiatives by non-governmental organizations, the World Health Organisation (WHO) Assembly asked the International Court of Justice for an advisory opinion in 1993 whether, considering the environmental and health consequences, the use of nuclear weapons by a state in war or other armed conflict would be a breach of its obligations under international law. The World Court decided that it was not able to give an advisory opinion as requested, because of the fact that questions of use of force and such like were beyond the scope of specialized agencies like the WHO. The Court has ruled that the international community, especially the five nuclear weapon states have not only an obligation to negotiate a treaty for total nuclear disarmament, but also have an obligation to conclude such treaty. We may expect that the nuclear weapon states will cynically disregard the ruling of the World Court as they have been doing to the basic obligation itself in pursuit of nuclear hegemony. But the remaining 150 countries or so also bear a responsibility to keep nudging the recalcitrant states into implementing their commitments to disarm

  17. The German Debate on Tactical Nuclear Weapons

    Meier, Olivier

    2008-01-01

    This report analyses the debate in Germany about tactical nuclear weapons deployments in Europe. It is mainly based on interviews conducted with senior officials from the German Federal Foreign Ministry, the Federal Ministry of Defence, senior members of Parliament as well as experts from research institutes and think-tanks. The interviews focused on the more recent past in the German debate as well as the future of tactical nuclear weapon deployments in Germany and Europe. The report concludes that while a change of Germany's position on tactical nuclear weapons is unlikely to change in the short-term, several developments will make it unlikely that the continued involvement of Germany in NATO nuclear sharing will have to be debated in the medium term. Should the next Parliamentary elections, which will take place in 2009 at the latest, result in a Social Democrat-led government, a push for a reduction of Germany's involvement in NATO nuclear sharing appears possible. A conservative-led government is likely to maintain the nuclear status quo within NATO

  18. Indonesian perceptions on the implementation of the chemical weapons convention in relation with biosecurity and biosafety

    Isroil, S.

    2009-01-01

    April 29, 2007 was marked the 10 year anniversary of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) entry into force and the creation of the OPCW. Many nations throughout the last year were celebrated its commemoration. Compared to the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) which is now entering the 33rd year of its entry into force, the progress of CWC is running far beyond that convention because CWC is considered the most complete convention which is equipped with a comprehensive verification system. In contrast, up till now there is no formal verification regime to monitor compliance of the BWC. So the national legislation as well as biosafety and biosecurity procedures will be the best regime to prohibit the misuse of biological agents. To some extent, the strategy and method on implementing the provision of CWC are coincident with biosecurity and biosafety procedure due to their dual use characteristics. Concerning CWC, Indonesia which was ratified it in 30 September 1998 has always active in any multilateral meeting and as well as national activities on prohibiting the misuse of chemical weapons. Several courses have also been done in cooperation with OPCW such as Development of Response System Against Chemical Weapons, Basic Training Course for Response Team, National Industry Awareness Workshop, Advance Training for Response Team, National Emergency Response Workshop, as well as setting up 20 sets of individual protective equipment. There have already 7 inspections done by OPCW in Indonesia during 2004-2007 which proved that there were no indications of misuse of chemical processes and its facilities for hostile purposes. However, it does not mean that there is no threat from the possible misuse of chemical and biological agents due to its dual use characteristics. Learnt from Indonesian experiences, there are several constraints on implementing the CWC as well as biosafety and biosecurity. First is the different perception on the biological and chemical threats. For

  19. Natural radionuclides in major aquifer systems of the Parana sedimentary basin, Brazil

    Bonotto, Daniel Marcos

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the natural radioactivity of groundwater occurring in sedimentary (Bauru and Guarani) and fractured rock (Serra Geral) aquifer systems in the Parana sedimentary basin, South America that is extensively used for drinking purposes, among others. The measurements of gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity as well the activity concentration of the natural dissolved radionuclides 40 K, 238 U, 234 U, 226 Ra, 222 Rn, 210 Po and 210 Pb were held in 80 tubular wells drilled in 21 municipalities located at Sao Paulo State and its border with Mato Grosso do Sul State in Brazil. Most of the gross alpha radioactivity data were below 1 mBq/L, whereas values exceeding the gross beta radioactivity detection limit of 30 mBq/L were found. The radioelement solubility in the studied systems varied according to the sequence radon>radium>other radionuclides and the higher porosity of sandstones relatively to basalts and diabases could justify the enhanced presence of dissolved radon in the porous aquifer. The implications of the data obtained in terms of standards established for defining the drinking water quality have also been discussed. The population-weighted average activity concentration for these radionuclides was compared to the guideline value of 0.1 mSv/yr for the total effective dose and discussed in terms of the choice of the dose conversion factors. - Highlights: → Integration of distinct radiometric data acquired in groundwaters. → Radiation dose in important hydrological resources in South America. → Contribution of 226 Ra for the more accentuated radiation dose in aquifers. → Dose factors for Rn and generation of values exceeding the maximum of 0.1 mSv/yr.

  20. Natural radionuclides in major aquifer systems of the Parana sedimentary basin, Brazil

    Bonotto, Daniel Marcos, E-mail: danielbonotto@yahoo.com.br [Departamento de Petrologia e Metalogenia, IGCE-Instituto de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas, UNESP-Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho, Av. 24-A, No. 1515 - CP 178, CEP 13506-900-Rio Claro, SP (Brazil)

    2011-10-15

    This paper describes the natural radioactivity of groundwater occurring in sedimentary (Bauru and Guarani) and fractured rock (Serra Geral) aquifer systems in the Parana sedimentary basin, South America that is extensively used for drinking purposes, among others. The measurements of gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity as well the activity concentration of the natural dissolved radionuclides {sup 40}K, {sup 238}U, {sup 234}U, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 222}Rn, {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb were held in 80 tubular wells drilled in 21 municipalities located at Sao Paulo State and its border with Mato Grosso do Sul State in Brazil. Most of the gross alpha radioactivity data were below 1 mBq/L, whereas values exceeding the gross beta radioactivity detection limit of 30 mBq/L were found. The radioelement solubility in the studied systems varied according to the sequence radon>radium>other radionuclides and the higher porosity of sandstones relatively to basalts and diabases could justify the enhanced presence of dissolved radon in the porous aquifer. The implications of the data obtained in terms of standards established for defining the drinking water quality have also been discussed. The population-weighted average activity concentration for these radionuclides was compared to the guideline value of 0.1 mSv/yr for the total effective dose and discussed in terms of the choice of the dose conversion factors. - Highlights: > Integration of distinct radiometric data acquired in groundwaters. > Radiation dose in important hydrological resources in South America. > Contribution of {sup 226}Ra for the more accentuated radiation dose in aquifers. > Dose factors for Rn and generation of values exceeding the maximum of 0.1 mSv/yr.

  1. Monitoring VET Systems of Major EU Competitor Countries - The Cases of Australia, Canada, U.S.A. and Japan

    Ruth, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    The study on VET systems of major EU competitor countries is based on the objective of the (revised) Lisbon agenda to become the most competitive region of the world based on a knowledge driven production and social cohesion. Building on experts opinion and literature research this study aims at monitoring VET policies in Australia, Canada, the U.S. and Japan. The study analyses five themes which are assumed to be of outstanding importance for understanding the current performance and the dev...

  2. Why are sexually selected weapons almost absent in females?

    Anders BERGLUND

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In sex role reversed species, predominantly females evolve sexually selected traits, such as ornaments and/or weapons. Female ornaments are common and their function well documented in many species, whether sex role reversed or not. However, sexually selected female weapons seem totally absent except for small wing spurs in three jacana species, present in both males and females. This poor female weaponry is in sharp contrast to the situation in species with conventional sex roles: males commonly have evolved sexually selected weapons as well as ornaments. At the same time, females in many taxa have naturally selected weapons, used in competition over resources or in predator defence. Why are sexually selected weapons then so rare, almost absent, in females? Here I briefly review weaponry in females and the function of these weapons, conclude that the near absence of sexually selected weapons begs an explanation, and suggest that costs of sexually selected weapons may exceed costs of ornaments. Females are more constrained when evolving sexually selected traits compared to males, at least compared to those males that do not provide direct benefits, as trait costs reduce a female’s fecundity. I suggest that this constraining trade-off between trait and fecundity restricts females to evolve ornaments but rarely weapons. The same may apply to paternally investing males. Whether sexually selected weapons actually are more costly than sexually selected ornaments remains to be investigated [Current Zoology 59 (4: 564–568, 2013].

  3. The Major Stratospheric Sudden Warming of January 2013: Analyses and Forecasts in the GEOS-5 Data Assimilation System

    Coy, Lawrence; Pawson, Steven

    2014-01-01

    We examine the major stratosphere sudden warming (SSW) that occurred on 6 January 2013, using output from the NASA Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) GEOS-5 (Goddard Earth Observing System) near-real-time data assimilation system (DAS). Results show that the major SSW of January 2013 falls into the vortex splitting type of SSW, with the initial planetary wave breaking occurring near 10 hPa. The vertical flux of wave activity at the tropopause responsible for the SSW occurred mainly in the Pacific Hemisphere, including the a pulse associated with the preconditioning of the polar vortex by wave 1 identified on 23 December 2012. While most of the vertical wave activity flux was in the Pacific Hemisphere, a rapidly developing tropospheric weather system over the North Atlantic on 28 December is shown to have produced a strong transient upward wave activity flux into the lower stratosphere coinciding with the peak of the SSW event. In addition, the GEOS-5 5-day forecasts accurately predicted the major SSW of January 2013 as well as the upper tropospheric disturbances responsible for the warming. The overall success of the 5-day forecasts provides motivation to produce regular 10-day forecasts with GEOS-5, to better support studies of stratosphere-troposphere interaction.

  4. Managing the risk of extreme climate events in Australian major wheat production systems

    Luo, Qunying; Trethowan, Richard; Tan, Daniel K. Y.

    2018-06-01

    Extreme climate events (ECEs) such as drought, frost risk and heat stress cause significant economic losses in Australia. The risk posed by ECEs in the wheat production systems of Australia could be better managed through the identification of safe flowering (SFW) and optimal time of sowing (TOS) windows. To address this issue, three locations (Narrabri, Roseworthy and Merredin), three cultivars (Suntop and Gregory for Narrabri, Mace for both Roseworthy and Merredin) and 20 TOS at 1-week intervals between 1 April and 12 August for the period from 1957 to 2007 were evaluated using the Agricultural Production System sIMulator (APSIM)-Wheat model. Simulation results show that (1) the average frequency of frost events decreased with TOS from 8 to 0 days (d) across the four cases (the combination of locations and cultivars), (2) the average frequency of heat stress events increased with TOS across all cases from 0 to 10 d, (3) soil moisture stress (SMS) increased with earlier TOS before reaching a plateau and then slightly decreasing for Suntop and Gregory at Narrabri and Mace at Roseworthy while SMS increased with TOS for Mace at Merredin from 0.1 to 0.8, (4) Mace at Merredin had the earliest and widest SFW (216-260) while Mace at Roseworthy had latest SFW (257-280), (5) frost risk and heat stress determine SFW at wetter sites (i.e. Narrabri and Roseworthy) while frost risk and SMS determine SFW at drier site (i.e. Merredin) and (6) the optimal TOS (window) to maximise wheat yield are 6-20 May, 13-27 May and 15 April at Narrabri, Roseworthy and Merredin, respectively. These findings provide important and specific information for wheat growers about the management of ECE risk on farm. Furthermore, the coupling of the APSIM crop models with state-of-the-art seasonal and intra-seasonal climate forecast information provides an important tool for improved management of the risk of ECEs in economically important cropping industries in the foreseeable future.

  5. Ranking system for national regulatory jurisdictions based on pesticide standard values in major exposures

    Zijian Li

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available To control the risk of human exposure to pesticides, about 50 nations have promulgated pesticide soil regulatory guidance values (RGVs, and 104 nations have provided pesticide drinking water maximum concentration levels (MCLs. In addition, 90 nations have regulated pesticide agricultural commodity maximum residue limits (MRLs. Pesticide standard values (PSVs for one single pesticide varied in a range of six, seven, or even eight orders of magnitude. Some PSVs are too large to prevent the impact of pesticides on human health. Many nations have not provided PSVs for some commonly used pesticides until now. This research has introduced several completeness values and numerical values methods to evaluate the national jurisdiction’s performance on PSVs on a nation base. The national jurisdiction ranking system developed by these methods will be beneficial to the environmental regulation makers in the management of PSVs. Results also indicate that European countries perform better in the regulation of pesticide soil RGVs, drinking water MCLs, and agricultural commodity MRLs.

  6. A decision support system for emergency response to major nuclear accidents

    Papazoglou, I.A.; Christou, M.D.

    1997-01-01

    A methodology for the optimization of the short-term emergency response in the event of a nuclear accident is presented. The method seeks an optimum combination of protective actions in the presence of a multitude of conflicting objectives and under uncertainty. Conflicting objectives arise in the attempt to minimize simultaneously the potential adverse effects of an accident and the associated socioeconomic impacts. Additional conflicting objectives arise whenever an emergency plan tends to decrease a particular health effect, such as acute deaths, while it increases another, such as latent deaths. The uncertainty is due to the multitude of possible accident scenarios and their respective probability of occurrence, the stochastic variability in the weather conditions, and the variability and/or lack of knowledge of the parameters of the risk assessment models. A multiobjective optimization approach is adopted. An emergency protection plan consists of defining a protective action at each spatial cell around the plant. Three criteria are used as the objective functions of the problem, namely, acute fatalities, latent effects, and socioeconomic cost. The optimization procedure defines the efficient frontier, i.e., all emergency plans that are not dominated by another in all three criteria. No value trade-offs are necessary up to this point. The most preferred emergency plan is then chosen among the set of efficient plans. Finally, the methodology is integrated into a computerized decision support system, and its use is demonstrated in a realistic application

  7. Advances in Remote Sensing of Agriculture: Context Description, Existing Operational Monitoring Systems and Major Information Needs

    Clement Atzberger

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Many remote sensing applications are devoted to the agricultural sector. Representative case studies are presented in the special issue “Advances in Remote Sensing of Agriculture”. To complement the examples published within the special issue, a few main applications with regional to global focus were selected for this review, where remote sensing contributions are traditionally strong. The selected applications are put in the context of the global challenges the agricultural sector is facing: minimizing the environmental impact, while increasing production and productivity. Five different applications have been selected, which are illustrated and described: (1 biomass and yield estimation, (2 vegetation vigor and drought stress monitoring, (3 assessment of crop phenological development, (4 crop acreage estimation and cropland mapping and (5 mapping of disturbances and land use/land cover (LULC changes. Many other applications exist, such as precision agriculture and irrigation management (see other special issues of this journal, but were not included to keep the paper concise. The paper starts with an overview of the main agricultural challenges. This section is followed by a brief overview of existing operational monitoring systems. Finally, in the main part of the paper, the mentioned applications are described and illustrated. The review concludes with some key recommendations.

  8. The China Motor Systems Energy Conservation Program: A major national initiative to reduce motor system energy use in China

    Nadel, Steven; Wang, Wanxing; Liu, Peter; McKane, Aimee T.

    2001-05-31

    Electric motor systems are widely used in China to power fans, pumps, blowers, air compressors, refrigeration compressors, conveyers, machinery, and many other types of equipment. Overall, electric motor systems consume more than 600 billion kWh annually, accounting for more than 50 percent of China's electricity use. There are large opportunities to improve the efficiency of motor systems. Electric motors in China are approximately 2-4 percent less efficient on average than motors in the U.S. and Canada. Fans and pumps in China are approximately 3-5 percent less efficient than in developed countries. Even more importantly, motors, fans, pumps, air compressors and other motor-driven equipment are frequently applied with little attention to system efficiency. More optimized design, including appropriate sizing and use of speed control strategies, can reduce energy use by 20 percent or more in many applications. Unfortunately, few Chinese enterprises use or even know about these energy-saving practices. Opportunities for motor system improvements are probably greater in China than in the U.S. In order to begin capturing these savings, China is establishing a China Motor Systems Energy Conservation Program. Elements of this program include work to develop minimum efficiency standards for motors, a voluntary ''green motor'' labeling program for high-efficiency motors, efforts to develop and promote motor system management guidelines, and a training, technical assistance and financing program to promote optimization of key motor systems.

  9. Measures to implement the Chemical Weapons Convention

    Tanzman, E.; Kellman, B.

    1999-11-05

    This seminar is another excellent opportunity for those involved in preventing chemical weapons production and use to learn from each other about how the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) can become a foundation of arms control in Africa and around the world. The author is grateful to the staff of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) for inviting him to address this distinguished seminar. The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors alone, and do not represent the position of the government of the US nor or of any other institution. In 1993, as the process of CWC ratification was beginning, concerns arose that the complexity of integrating the treaty with national law would cause each nation to implement the Convention without regard to what other nations were doing, thereby causing inconsistencies among States Parties in how the Convention would be carried out. As a result the Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention was prepared and presented it to each national delegation at the December 1993 meeting of the Preparatory Commission in The Hague. During its preparation, the Manual was reviewed by the Committee of Legal Experts on National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention, a group of distinguished international jurists, law professors, legally-trained diplomats, government officials, and Parliamentarians from every region of the world, including Mica. In February 1998, the second edition of the Manual was published in order to update it in light of developments since the CWC entered into force on 29 April 1997. The second edition 1998 clarified the national implementation options to reflect post-entry-into-force thinking, added extensive references to national implementing measures that had been enacted by various States Parties, and included a prototype national implementing statute developed by the authors to provide a starting point for those whose national implementing

  10. Measures to implement the Chemical Weapons Convention

    Tanzman, E.; Kellman, B.

    1999-01-01

    This seminar is another excellent opportunity for those involved in preventing chemical weapons production and use to learn from each other about how the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) can become a foundation of arms control in Africa and around the world. The author is grateful to the staff of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) for inviting him to address this distinguished seminar. The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors alone, and do not represent the position of the government of the US nor or of any other institution. In 1993, as the process of CWC ratification was beginning, concerns arose that the complexity of integrating the treaty with national law would cause each nation to implement the Convention without regard to what other nations were doing, thereby causing inconsistencies among States Parties in how the Convention would be carried out. As a result the Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention was prepared and presented it to each national delegation at the December 1993 meeting of the Preparatory Commission in The Hague. During its preparation, the Manual was reviewed by the Committee of Legal Experts on National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention, a group of distinguished international jurists, law professors, legally-trained diplomats, government officials, and Parliamentarians from every region of the world, including Mica. In February 1998, the second edition of the Manual was published in order to update it in light of developments since the CWC entered into force on 29 April 1997. The second edition 1998 clarified the national implementation options to reflect post-entry-into-force thinking, added extensive references to national implementing measures that had been enacted by various States Parties, and included a prototype national implementing statute developed by the authors to provide a starting point for those whose national implementing

  11. Differences in net global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity between major rice-based cropping systems in China.

    Xiong, Zhengqin; Liu, Yinglie; Wu, Zhen; Zhang, Xiaolin; Liu, Pingli; Huang, Taiqing

    2015-12-02

    Double rice (DR) and upland crop-single rice (UR) systems are the major rice-based cropping systems in China, yet differences in net global warming potential (NGWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) between the two systems are poorly documented. Accordingly, a 3-year field experiment was conducted to simultaneously measure methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) in oil rape-rice-rice and wheat-rice (representing DR and UR, respectively) systems with straw incorporation (0, 3 and 6 t/ha) during the rice-growing seasons. Compared with the UR system, the annual CH4, N2O, grain yield and NGWP were significantly increased in the DR system, though little effect on SOC sequestration or GHGI was observed without straw incorporation. Straw incorporation increased CH4 emission and SOC sequestration but had no significant effect on N2O emission in both systems. Averaged over the three study years, straw incorporation had no significant effect on NGWP and GHGI in the UR system, whereas these parameters were greatly increased in the DR system, i.e., by 108% (3 t/ha) and 180% (6 t/ha) for NGWP and 103% (3 t/ha) and 168% (6 t/ha) for GHGI.

  12. Differences in net global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity between major rice-based cropping systems in China

    Xiong, Zhengqin; Liu, Yinglie; Wu, Zhen; Zhang, Xiaolin; Liu, Pingli; Huang, Taiqing

    2015-01-01

    Double rice (DR) and upland crop-single rice (UR) systems are the major rice-based cropping systems in China, yet differences in net global warming potential (NGWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) between the two systems are poorly documented. Accordingly, a 3-year field experiment was conducted to simultaneously measure methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) in oil rape-rice-rice and wheat-rice (representing DR and UR, respectively) systems with straw incorporation (0, 3 and 6 t/ha) during the rice-growing seasons. Compared with the UR system, the annual CH4, N2O, grain yield and NGWP were significantly increased in the DR system, though little effect on SOC sequestration or GHGI was observed without straw incorporation. Straw incorporation increased CH4 emission and SOC sequestration but had no significant effect on N2O emission in both systems. Averaged over the three study years, straw incorporation had no significant effect on NGWP and GHGI in the UR system, whereas these parameters were greatly increased in the DR system, i.e., by 108% (3 t/ha) and 180% (6 t/ha) for NGWP and 103% (3 t/ha) and 168% (6 t/ha) for GHGI. PMID:26626733

  13. Development of the nuclear weapons complex EP architecture

    Murray, C.; Halbleib, L.

    1996-07-01

    The Nuclear Weapons Guidance Team is an interagency committee led by Earl Whiteman, DOE that chartered the generation of EP40100, Concurrent Qualification and its successor EP401099, Concurrent Engineering and Qualification. As this new philosophy of concurrent operations has evolved and as implementation has been initiated, conflicts and insufficiencies in the remaining Engineering Procedures (EPs) have become more apparent. At the Guidance Team meeting in November 1995, this issue was explored and several approaches were considered. It was concluded at this meeting, that a smaller set of interagency EPs described in a hierarchical system could provide the necessary interagency direction to support complex-wide implementation. This set consolidates many existing EP processes where consistency and commonality are critical to success of the extended enterprise. The Guidance Team subsequently chartered an interagency team to initiate development activity associated with the envisioned new EP set. This team had participation from seven Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC) sites as well as DOE/AL and DP-14 (team members are acknowledged later in this report). Per the Guidance Team, this team, referred to as the Architecture Subcommittee, was to map out and define an EP Architecture for the interagency EPs, make recommendations regarding a more agile process for EP approval and suggest an aggressive timeline to develop the combined EPs. The Architecture Subcommittee was asked to brief their output at the February Guidance Team meeting. This SAND report documents the results of the Architecture Subcommittee`s recommendations.

  14. Seaborne Delivery Interdiction of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)

    Glauser, H

    2011-03-03

    Over the next 10-20 years, the probability of a terrorist attack using a weapon of mass destruction (WMD) on the United States is projected to increase. At some point over the next few decades, it may be inevitable that a terrorist group will have access to a WMD. The economic and social impact of an attack using a WMD anywhere in the world would be catastrophic. For weapons developed overseas, the routes of entry are air and sea with the maritime vector as the most porous. Providing a system to track, perform a risk assessment and inspect all inbound marine traffic before it reaches US coastal cities thereby mitigating the threat has long been a goal for our government. The challenge is to do so effectively without crippling the US economy. The Portunus Project addresses only the maritime threat and builds on a robust maritime domain awareness capability. It is a process to develop the technologies, policies and practices that will enable the US to establish a waypoint for the inspection of international marine traffic, screen 100% of containerized and bulk cargo prior to entry into the US if deemed necessary, provide a palatable economic model for transshipping, grow the US economy, and improve US environmental quality. The implementation strategy is based on security risk, and the political and economic constraints of implementation. This article is meant to provide a basic understanding of how and why this may be accomplished.

  15. Psychological characteristics of systemic sclerosis patients and their correlation with major organ involvement and disease activity.

    Golemati, Christina V; Moutsopoulos, Haralampos M; Vlachoyiannopoulos, Panayiotis G

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the psychological characteristics of personality, depression, anxiety, social support and coping strategies of systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients, their inter-correlations and their association with clinical symptoms. Patients with SSc (n=85) were interviewed and compared to rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients (n=120) and healthy controls (HCs [n=125]). Psychological characteristics were assessed by the following psychometric scales: centre of epidemiological studies of depression (CES-D), hospital anxiety and depression scale (HAD), Eysenck personality questionnaire (EPQ), short form of social support (SSq), life experiences survey (LES) and ways of coping (WoC). Clinical data were collected at the same time of the interview. Both control groups were matched to SSc patients in terms of gender, age and educational status. Data were analysed with SPSS software. Compared to control groups, SSc patients expressed more symptoms of depression and anxiety, showed less extraversion and reported more negative life events. They coped less often with positive reappraisal, problem solving, seeking of support and assertiveness, while they sought more often divine help, and they expressed wishing and denial. Inactive disease was associated with a lower probability of reporting depressive symptoms and negative life events and with a higher probability of positively reevaluating a problem. Lung dysfunction, skin involvement, esophageal problems and oral aperture correlated with psychological features. Complications in psychological well-being characterise patients with SSc. This finding, as well as that of psychological characteristics correlating with organic factors, is an indication for designing supportive psycho-educational programmes as complementary therapies.

  16. Selection on the Major Color Gene Melanocortin-1-Receptor Shaped the Evolution of the Melanocortin System Genes

    Linda Dib

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Modular genetic systems and networks have complex evolutionary histories shaped by selection acting on single genes as well as on their integrated function within the network. However, uncovering molecular coevolution requires the detection of coevolving sites in sequences. Detailed knowledge of the functions of each gene in the system is also necessary to identify the selective agents driving coevolution. Using recently developed computational tools, we investigated the effect of positive selection on the coevolution of ten major genes in the melanocortin system, responsible for multiple physiological functions and human diseases. Substitutions driven by positive selection at the melanocortin-1-receptor (MC1R induced more coevolutionary changes on the system than positive selection on other genes in the system. Contrarily, selection on the highly pleiotropic POMC gene, which orchestrates the activation of the different melanocortin receptors, had the lowest coevolutionary influence. MC1R and possibly its main function, melanin pigmentation, seems to have influenced the evolution of the melanocortin system more than functions regulated by MC2-5Rs such as energy homeostasis, glucocorticoid-dependent stress and anti-inflammatory responses. Although replication in other regulatory systems is needed, this suggests that single functional aspects of a genetic network or system can be of higher importance than others in shaping coevolution among the genes that integrate it.

  17. The real value of nuclear-weapon-free zones

    Carasales, J.

    1998-01-01

    The international community has greeted the establishment of two new nuclear weapon-free zones with praise. Africa and South Asia are the regions which will join, once the respective treaties are ratified and in force, Latin America and the South Pacific to ensure that extensive areas of the earth remain free of nuclear weapons. The usual reaction to these accomplishments is to hail them as important contributions to international peace and security, and as meaningful steps towards a world free of nuclear weapons. The nuclear weapon-free zones have their value but this value relates mainly to the countries within the zone. The interest of nuclear-weapon states are not really affected, or, if they are, the influence is not significant. One should bear in mind that the really important and meaningful nuclear weapon-free zones have yet to be achieved

  18. Structural adaptations to diverse fighting styles in sexually selected weapons.

    McCullough, Erin L; Tobalske, Bret W; Emlen, Douglas J

    2014-10-07

    The shapes of sexually selected weapons differ widely among species, but the drivers of this diversity remain poorly understood. Existing explanations suggest weapon shapes reflect structural adaptations to different fighting styles, yet explicit tests of this hypothesis are lacking. We constructed finite element models of the horns of different rhinoceros beetle species to test whether functional specializations for increased performance under species-specific fighting styles could have contributed to the diversification of weapon form. We find that horns are both stronger and stiffer in response to species-typical fighting loads and that they perform more poorly under atypical fighting loads, which suggests weapons are structurally adapted to meet the functional demands of fighting. Our research establishes a critical link between weapon form and function, revealing one way male-male competition can drive the diversification of animal weapons.

  19. Virtual nuclear capabilities and deterrence in a world without nuclear weapons. VERTIC research report no. 3

    Paloczi-Horvath, G.

    1998-01-01

    items specific to nuclear weapons. The nuclear disarmament treaty need not take specific account of implicit VND. It would entail only a tacit intellectual understanding that, in the early years after complete and timetabled nuclear disarmament, an NWS or DFNWS might retain the de facto capability to re-arm. An explicit VND regime would require intrusive and effective verification and enforcement measures and clearly defined regulations concerning their application. Implicit VND would not have such a 'regime' and would be verified in the same manner as a nuclear disarmament treaty and would hence not require separate arrangements. This report suggests that an implicit VND posture might help guarantee observance of a nuclear disarmament treaty during the early years after going to 'zero', by representing the ability of treaty signatories to re-arm in response to nuclear weapon 'break out'. Any form of VND risks becoming a permanent state of affairs after arsenals are reduced to 'zero'. For this reason, a fully-implemented nuclear disarmament treaty cannot be regarded as the end of efforts to contain, and eventually eliminate, states parties' ability to recreate their arsenals. It would be necessary for a nuclear disarmament treaty to include a codicil on restraint in official public statements about nuclear and delivery system capabilities in order not to undermine an implicit VND posture. The objective would be to move beyond implicit VND to unambiguous nuclear disarmament over a defined period, so that this form of assumed deterrence is no longer needed. In any case, VNC would remain a permanent fact of life in a nuclear weapon-free world after going to 'zero'. Therefore, a time-limited security architecture should be part of the nuclear disarmament treaty, specifying exactly how long states can retain the nuclear weapons-related capabilities underpinning any VND posture

  20. Secondary School Business Educators' Perceptions of the Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities Needed by Information Systems Majors Relative to Other Business Majors

    Berry, Kevin; O'Bryan, David; Cummings, Maeve

    2004-01-01

    The demand for information technology (IT) or information systems (IS) personnel remains strong, despite the cyclical downturn in the technology industry. The field continues to offer good salaries, challenge, and high levels of job satisfaction. The IS profession needs to attract the best and brightest students to the field to satisfy the needs…

  1. Conflict Without Casualties: Non-Lethal Weapons in Irregular Warfare

    2007-09-01

    the body,” and the Geneva Protocol of 1925, bans the use of chemical and biological weapons .11 On 8 April 1975, President Ford issued Executive...E Funding – PE 63851M) (accessed 15 December 2006). The American Journal of Bioethics . “Medical Ethics and Non-Lethal Weapons .” Bioethics.net...CASUALTIES: NON-LETHAL WEAPONS IN IRREGULAR WARFARE by Richard L. Scott September 2007 Thesis Advisor: Robert McNab Second Reader

  2. Recovery of weapon plutonium as feed material for reactor fuel

    Armantrout, G.A.; Bronson, M.A.; Choi, Jor-Shan

    1994-01-01

    This report presents preliminary considerations for recovering and converting weapon plutonium from various US weapon forms into feed material for fabrication of reactor fuel elements. An ongoing DOE study addresses the disposition of excess weapon plutonium through its use as fuel for nuclear power reactors and subsequent disposal as spent fuel. The spent fuel would have characteristics similar to those of commercial power spent fuel and could be similarly disposed of in a geologic repository

  3. Safeguards against use of nuclear material for weapons

    Sanders, B.; Rometsch, R.

    1975-01-01

    The history of safeguards is traced from the first session of the United Nations Atomic Energy Commission in 1946, through the various stages of the IAEA safeguard system for nuclear materials and to the initiation of the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons in 1968. The role of the IAEA under the treaty is discussed. The structure and content of safeguards agreements in connection with the treaty were laid down and the objective of safeguards clearly defined. The methods of verification by the IAEA of the facility operator's material accountancy through inspection and statistical analysis and evaluation of 'material unaccounted for' are explained. The extent to which the IAEA may make use of the State's system of accounting and control of nuclear materials is considered. Reference is also made to the question of protection against theft and sabotage. Finally the scope of safeguards work for the next 15 years is forecast. (U.K.)

  4. Nuclear weapons modernization: Plans, programs, and issues for Congress

    Woolf, Amy F.

    2017-11-01

    The United States is currently recapitalizing each delivery system in its "nuclear triad" and refurbishing many of the warheads carried by those systems. The plans for these modernization programs have raised a number of questions, both within Congress and among analysts in the nuclear weapons and arms control communities, about the costs associated with the programs and the need to recapitalize each leg of the triad at the same time. This paper covers four distinct issues. It begins with a brief review of the planned modernization programs, then addresses questions about why the United States is pursuing all of these modernization programs at this time. It then reviews the debate about how much these modernization programs are likely to cost in the next decade and considers possible changes that might reduce the cost. It concludes with some comments about congressional views on the modernization programs and prospects for continuing congressional support in the coming years.

  5. The Impact that Defense Reform had on Procurement of Major Weapons Systems: A Case Study of the V-22 and the Effect of the Goldwater-Nichols Act on its Procurement

    2013-12-13

    costs, production, and may have led to unforeseen program challenges. This thesis will provide historical insight to future leaders and policy makers...acquisition shortcomings that led to the passing of the GNA. Other works will address the control of runaway acquisition costs, and the DoD insisting that the...dissatisfaction with the perceived stubbornness of U.S. military leaders ’ refusal to deal with long-festering problems.”81 Congress was also annoyed at the

  6. Nuclear weapons in Europe: Why zero is better

    Daalder, I.H.

    1993-01-01

    Given the fundamental changes in the political context and NATO's perception of nuclear weapons, what role remains for US nuclear weapons in preserving security in Europe? Are US nuclear deployments on the continent still necessary? Is there a requirement for extended deterrence and, if so, does its credibility depend on the continued basing of US nuclear weapons in Europe? And what is the role of arms control in effecting any desirable restructuring in nuclear force postures? In addressing these questions, it becomes clear that US nuclear weapons can now be removed from Europe - they no longer serve the political and military functions they once did

  7. Biological and Chemical Weapons: Criminal Sanctions and Federal Regulations

    Garcia, Michael J

    2004-01-01

    .... In accordance with these obligations, the United States has enacted various federal requirements and criminal sanctions applying to biological and chemical weapons, Re cent anti4errorisrn legislation...

  8. ON THE OFFENSE: USING CYBER WEAPONS TO INFLUENCE COGNITIVE BEHAVIOR

    Mary Fendley

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing recognition that cyber warfare is an important area of development for targeting and weaponeering, with far-reaching effects in national defense and economic security. The ability to conduct effective operations in cyberspace relies on a robust situational awareness of events occurring in both the physical and information domains, with an understanding of how they affect the cognitive domain of friendly, neutral, and adversary population sets. The dynamic nature of the battlefield complicates efforts to understand shifting adversary motivations and intentions. There are very few approaches, to date, that systematically evaluate the effects of the repertoire of cyber weapons on the cognitive, perceptual, and behavioral characteristics of the adversary. In this paper, we describe a software environment called Cognitive Cyber Weapon Selection Tool (CCWST that simulates a scenario involving cyber weaponry.This tool provides the capabilities to test weapons which may induce behavioral state changes in the adversaries. CCWST provides the required situational awareness to the Cyber Information Operations (IO planner to conduct intelligent weapon selection during weapon activation in order to induce the desired behavioral change in the perception of the adversary. Weapons designed to induce the cognitive state changes of deception, distraction, distrust and confusion were then tested empirically to evaluate the capabilities and expected cognitive state changes induced by these weapons. The results demonstrated that CCWST is a powerful environment within which to test and evaluate the impact of cyber weapons on influencing cognitive behavioral states during information processing.

  9. Strategies for denaturing the weapons-grade plutonium stockpile

    Buckner, M.R.; Parks, P.B.

    1992-10-01

    In the next few years, approximately 50 metric tons of weapons-grade plutonium and 150 metric tons of highly-enriched uranium (HEU) may be removed from nuclear weapons in the US and declared excess. These materials represent a significant energy resource that could substantially contribute to our national energy requirements. HEU can be used as fuel in naval reactors, or diluted with depleted uranium for use as fuel in commercial reactors. This paper proposes to use the weapons-grade plutonium as fuel in light water reactors. The first such reactor would demonstrate the dual objectives of producing electrical power and denaturing the plutonium to prevent use in nuclear weapons

  10. Military Technology and Conventional Weapons Export Controls: The Wassenaar Arrangement

    Grimmett, Richard F

    2006-01-01

    This report provides background on the Wassenaar Arrangement, which was formally established in July 1996 as a multilateral arrangement aimed at controlling exports of conventional weapons and related...

  11. The Belgium debate on tactical nuclear weapons

    Dumoulin, Andre

    2008-01-01

    This publication proposes a discussion about the opinions and positions of the various Belgium political actors and authorities regarding nuclear weapons. After a synthesis of several interviews with different actors, the author analyses the debate content, and more precisely the positions of peace movements, of the government, and of political parties. Several documents are proposed in appendix: a presentation of the evolution on Belgium nuclear missions, a government's answer to parliamentary resolutions regarding non-proliferation and nuclear disarmament, and a working paper submitted by Belgium, Norway and the Netherlands in the perspective of the 2005 Conference of Parties on the Non-Proliferation Treaty

  12. Nuclear weapons, a danger for our world

    Broda, E.

    1977-01-01

    This report is about an exhibition about the danger of the increasing amount of nuclear-weapons and was presented in the occasion of the second special meeting of the UN General Assembly (1982). This report describes the causes of a nuclear-war and analyses the causes of the bomb-drop of Hiroshima and Nagasaki as well as possible causes of a bombing of New York City and long-term-consequences of nuclear radiation. Furthermore it lists problems with a higher priority than the armament of nuclear-arms. (kancsar)

  13. History of Nuclear Weapons Design and Production

    Oelrich, Ivan

    2007-04-01

    The nuclear build-up of the United States and the Soviet Union during the Cold War is often portrayed as an arms race. Some part was indeed a bilateral competition, but much was the result of automatic application of technical advances as they became available, without careful consideration of strategic implications. Thus, the history of nuclear weapon design is partly designers responding to stated military needs and partly the world responding to constant innovations in nuclear capability. Today, plans for a new nuclear warhead are motivated primarily by the desire to maintain a nuclear design and production capability for the foreseeable future.

  14. Considerations for the Distribution of Antiarmor Weapons.

    1985-05-20

    German tank, used in mass formations, had been the decisive factor weapon.- The German Threat - "Blitzkrieg" The first German Tiger tank was not...also needed flank or rear shots to penetrate the armor of Panther and Tiger tanks at all but the closest ranges. A third self propelled antitank gun...Armored Threat In June 1944, the German Western Connand had 99 obsolete Pz III, 587 Pz IV, 290 Pz V (Panther) and only 63 Pz VI ( Tiger ) tanks available.20

  15. Nuclear weapons decision-making; an application of organization theory to the mini-nuke case

    Kangas, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the problem of constructing and developing normative theory responsive to the need for improving the quality of decision-making in the nuclear weapons policy-making. Against the background of a critical evaluation of various paradigms in the literature (systems analysis and opposed-systems designed, the bureaucratic politics model, and the cybernetic theory of decision) an attempt is made to design an alternative analytic framework based on the writings of numerous organization theorists such as Herbert Simon and Kenneth Arrow. The framework is applied to the case of mini-nukes, i.e., proposals in the mid-1970s to develop and deploy tens of thousands of very low-yield (sub-kiloton), miniaturized fission weapons in NATO. Heuristic case study identifies the type of study undertaken in the dissertation in contrast to the more familiar paradigmatic studies identified, for example, with the Harvard Weapons Project. Application of the analytic framework developed in the dissertation of the mini-nuke case resulted in an empirical understanding of why decision making concerning tactical nuclear weapons has been such a complex task and why force modernization issues in particular have been so controversial and lacking in policy resolution

  16. The disposition of weapon grade plutonium: costs and tradeoffs

    Weida, W.J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper explores some of the economic issues surrounding a major area of expenditures now facing the nuclear powers: the disposition of weapon-grade plutonium either through 'burning' in nuclear reactors for power generation or by other means. Under the current budgeting philosophy in the United States, programs managed by the Department of Energy (DOE) tend to compete with one another for the total funds assigned to that agency. For example, in the FY1995 DOE budget a tradeoff was made between increased funding for nuclear weapons and reduced funding for site cleanup. No matter which disposition alternative is chosen, if disposition funds are controlled by the DOE in the US or by a government agency in any other country, disposition is likely to compete directly or indirectly with other alternatives for energy funding. And if they are subsidized by any government, research into plutonium as reactor fuel or the operations associated with such use are likely to consume funds that might otherwise be available to support sustainable energy alternatives. When all costs are considered, final waste disposal costs will be incurred whatever disposal option is taken. These costs could potentially be offset by doing something profitable with the plutonium prior to final storage, but this paper has shown that finding a profitable use for plutonium is unlikely. Thus, the more probable case is one where the costs of basic waste storage are increased by whatever costs are associated with the disposition option chosen. The factors most likely to significantly increase costs appear to arise from four areas: (1) The level of subsidization in the 'profitable' parts of the disposition program. (2) Those items (such as reprocessing) that increase the volume of waste and thus, the cost of waste disposal. (3) The cost of security and its direct relationship to the number of times plutonium is handled or moved. (4) The cost of research and development of new and unproven methods of

  17. Is the nuclear weapon taboo? The nuclear weapon is useless and expensive. Let us not leave the nuclear weapon as an inheritance

    Gauchet, Nathalie; Norlain, Bernard; Beach, Hugh; Beckett, Margaret; Quiles, Paul; Rocard, Michel; Ramsbotham, David

    2012-03-01

    Starting with the definition of the word taboo as stated in a dictionary (a topic it would be unbecoming to evoke, under social and moral proprieties), the author of the first article discusses the status of the nuclear weapon, outlining that it is expensive, useless and monstrous. She notices that conventions on chemical weapons seem to be more efficient than the NPT, that, even if the reasons for abolition are known as well as ways to reach it, it seems difficult to actually address this issue. She evokes different voices coming from different countries or international bodies calling for this abolition. She also states that the nuclear weapon is not a deterrent weapon but a weapon of domination, and calls for the mobilisation of the civil society throughout the world. A second article states that the nuclear weapon is useless and expensive, and that we have to get rid of this hazard for the sake of the planet. Former ministers, Prime ministers, and generals consider that we can and must give up nuclear weapons, notably because the strategic context has completely changed since the fall of the Berlin wall, and support the action of Global Zero

  18. Acute and Long-Term Impact of Chemical Weapons: Lessons from the Iran-Iraq War.

    Haines, D D; Fox, S C

    2014-07-01

    Chemical weapons have given the human experience of warfare a uniquely terrifying quality that has inspired a general repugnance and led to periodic attempts to ban their use. Nevertheless, since ancient times, toxic agents have been consistently employed to kill and terrorize target populations. The evolution of these weapons is examined here in ways that may allow military, law enforcement, and scientific professionals to gain a perspective on conditions that, in the past, have motivated their use - both criminally and as a matter of national policy during military campaigns. Special emphasis is placed on the genocidal use of chemical weapons by the regime of Saddam Hussein, both against Iranians and on Kurdish citizens of his own country, during the Iran-Iraq War of 1980-88. The historical development of chemical weapons use is summarized to show how progressively better insight into biochemistry and physiology was adapted to this form of warfare. Major attributes of the most frequently used chemical agents and a description of how they affected military campaigns are explained. Portions of this review describing chemical-casualty care devote particular focus to Iranian management of neurotoxic (nerve) agent casualties due to the unique nature of this experience. Both nerve and blistering "mustard" agents were used extensively against Iranian forces. However, Iran is the only nation in history to have sustained large-scale attacks with neurotoxic weapons. For this reason, an understanding of the successes and failures of countermeasures to nerve-agent use developed by the Iranian military are particularly valuable for future civil defense and military planning. A detailed consideration of these strategies is therefore considered. Finally, the outcomes of clinical research into severe chronic disease triggered by mustard-agent exposure are examined in the context of the potential of these outcomes to determine the etiology of illness among US and Allied veterans

  19. How to Make Historical Surveys of Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    Jonter, Thomas [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Economic History

    2003-05-01

    In 1998 SKI initiated a project in order to make a historical survey of the Swedish nuclear weapons research during the period 1945-2000. The survey is now fulfilled and contains of three reports. IAEA became interested in the project and accepted it in 2000 as a support program to increase transparency and to support the implementation of the Additional Protocol in Sweden. In the eyes of IAEA, the most important aim is to create knowledge and refine tools to enhance the means to strengthen the Safeguard System within the Additional Protocol. Other countries have now showed interest to follow the Swedish example and to make their own reviews of the nuclear energy and nuclear weapons research of their pasts. A co-operation between Sweden, Estonia, Finland, Lithuania and Latvia has now been initiated in order to make such historical reviews. The Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate is the initiator and financial supporter of the project. The cooperation project has three comprehensive goals: a. to create transparency in the nuclear energy field of the past. The intention is that the results of the conducted studies could be attached to the State Declaration according to the Additional Protocol in order to enhance transparency b. to account for the nuclear material traffic of the past and; c. to develop the competence in nuclear energy matters in general, and in particular, to extend the knowledge regarding each participating State's nuclear experience in the past. The first purpose of this paper is to describe the project and its aims. The second purpose is to present a general model of how a historical review of a State's nuclear related activities and nuclear weapons research can be designed. The model has been created in order to serve as a guide for other countries strengthening of their safeguards systems in the framework of the Additional Protocol. The third purpose is to present the pedagogy that has been used as a teaching method in order to train

  20. Management Control in Major Brazilian Multiple Banks: the Impact of Internationalization and Convergence of Accounting Standards on the Control Systems

    João Carlos Damasceno Reis

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study verifies the impact caused by the processes of globalization and convergence to international accounting standards on the managerial control systems of the largest multiple banks that operate in Brazil. The study was exploratory in nature, with the use of the case study method and the application of questionnaires containing mostly open questions to upper tier executives of four major Brazilian banks. The analysis showed that globalization has resulted in improved control systems and widespread use of information technology. It was also found that the convergence to international accounting standards occurred properly, thanks to the steps taken by the Central Bank that aimed at an agile updating of the Brazilian accounting standards laid down for banks operating in Brazil, in line with international standards. In general, the researched banks did not report a significant impact of convergence to the IFRS on their management control systems; adherence to the international accounting standards has had more significant impacts on information systems, especially regarding the new reporting and transparency standards, rather than on management controls. This result signals that the management control systems of the four banks in the sample are in line with Anthony (1965’s vision, that is, that flexibility to adapt to every change in the external environment might actually increase risks of failure.