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Sample records for major waste constituents

  1. Thermal denitration and mineralization of waste constituents

    Nenni, J.A.; Boardman, R.D.

    1997-08-01

    In order to produce a quality grout from LLW using hydraulic cements, proper conditioning of the waste is essential for complete cement curing. Several technologies were investigated as options for conditions. Since the LLW is dilute, removal of all, or most, of the water will significantly reduce the final waste volume. Neutralization of the LLW is also desirable since acidic liquids to not allow cement to cure properly. The nitrate compounds are very soluble and easily leached from solid waste forms; therefore, denitration is desirable. Thermal and chemical denitration technologies have the advantages of water removal, neutralization, and denitration. The inclusion of additives during thermal treatment were investigated as a method of forming insoluable waste conditions.

  2. Thermal denitration and mineralization of waste constituents

    Nenni, J.A.; Boardman, R.D.

    1997-01-01

    In order to produce a quality grout from LLW using hydraulic cements, proper conditioning of the waste is essential for complete cement curing. Several technologies were investigated as options for conditions. Since the LLW is dilute, removal of all, or most, of the water will significantly reduce the final waste volume. Neutralization of the LLW is also desirable since acidic liquids to not allow cement to cure properly. The nitrate compounds are very soluble and easily leached from solid waste forms; therefore, denitration is desirable. Thermal and chemical denitration technologies have the advantages of water removal, neutralization, and denitration. The inclusion of additives during thermal treatment were investigated as a method of forming insoluable waste conditions

  3. Hydrothermal treatment of Hanford waste constituents

    Dell'Orco, P.C.

    1992-01-01

    The destruction of nitrates, organics, and ferrocyanides contained in underground storage tanks at the Department of Energy Hanford site in Washington state would significantly reduce the volume, hazard, and toxicity of the waste, while meeting pretreatment requirements for vitrification and grouting. The purpose of this study was to investigate the applicability of supercritical water oxidation for the destruction of nitrates organics, and ferrocyanides. Laboratory studies were performed studying oxidation/reduction reactions of nitrate with a simple organic compound, methanol, and with ammonia. Additional studies examined the reaction of nitrate with ferrocyanide. When reacted with methanol above 500 degrees C, greater than 99% of the nitrate was destroyed at the shortest residence times (< 6 seconds). At the same conditions, greater than 80% of the methanol was converted to bicarbonate and carbon dioxide. Studies involving the reaction of nitrate and nitrite with ammonia indicated that the reaction proceeds to completion in short residence times at temperatures above the critical point of water (374.2 degrees C). Ferrocyanide to also reacted rapidly with nitrate above the critical point, to produce carbon dioxide and ammonia

  4. Characterizing cemented TRU waste for RCRA hazardous constituents

    Yeamans, D.R.; Betts, S.E.; Bodenstein, S.A.

    1996-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has characterized drums of solidified transuranic (TRU) waste from four major waste streams. The data will help the State of New Mexico determine whether or not to issue a no-migration variance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) so that WIPP can receive and dispose of waste. The need to characterize TRU waste stored at LANL is driven by two additional factors: (1) the LANL RCRA Waste Analysis Plan for EPA compliant safe storage of hazardous waste; (2) the WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) The LANL characterization program includes headspace gas analysis, radioassay and radiography for all drums and solids sampling on a random selection of drums from each waste stream. Data are presented showing that the only identified non-metal RCRA hazardous component of the waste is methanol

  5. Nonsterol Triterpenoids as Major Constituents of Olea europaea

    Stiti, Naïm; Hartmann, Marie-Andrée

    2012-01-01

    Plant triterpenoids represent a large and structurally diverse class of natural products. A growing interest has been focused on triterpenoids over the past decade due to their beneficial effects on human health. We show here that these bioactive compounds are major constituents of several aerial parts (floral bud, leaf bud, stem, and leaf) of olive tree, a crop exploited so far almost exclusively for its fruit and oil. O. europaea callus cultures were analyzed as well. Twenty sterols and twenty-nine nonsteroidal tetra- and pentacyclic triterpenoids belonging to seven types of carbon skeletons (oleanane, ursane, lupane, taraxerane, taraxastane, euphane, and lanostane) were identified and quantified by GC and GC-MS as free and esterified compounds. The oleanane-type compounds, oleanolic acid and maslinic acid, were largely predominant in all the organs tested, whereas they are practically absent in olive oil. In floral buds, they represented as much as 2.7% of dry matter. In callus cultures, lanostane-type compounds were the most abundant triterpenoids. In all the tissues analyzed, free and esterified triterpene alcohols exhibited different distribution patterns of their carbon skeletons. Taken together, these data provide new insights into largely unknown triterpene secondary metabolism of Olea europaea. PMID:22523691

  6. Effects of storage on the major constituents of raw milk

    Peter Zajác

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Milk testing and quality control should be carried out at all stages of the dairy chain. Milk can be tested for quantity, organoleptic characteristic, compositional characteristic, physical and chemical characteristics, hygienic characteristics, adulteration or drug residues. The content of the major constituents of raw milk is important for milk payment system. Enzymes naturally present in the milk can change the chemical composition of raw milk. Also, enzymes secreted by bacteria or enzymes from somatic cells can degrade the raw milk composition. Products of these degradation reactions can have undesirable effects on milk structure, smell and taste. It is very important that farm-fresh raw milk be cooled immediately to not more than 8 °C in the case of daily collection, or not more than 6 °C if collection is not daily. During transport the cold chain must be maintained. An authorized person, properly trained in the appropriate technique, shall perform sampling of bulk milk in farm. Laboratory samples should be dispatched immediately after sampling to the dairy company and consequently to the testing laboratory. The time for dispatch of the samples to the testing laboratory should be as short as possible, preferably within 24 h. Laboratory samples shall be transported and stored at temperature 1 to 5 °C. Higher temperatures may adversely affect the composition of the laboratory sample and may cause disputes between the farmer, the dairy company and the laboratory. The effect of refrigerated storage at temperature 4 °C during 24 h on the composition of raw milk were investigated in this work, because we wanted to know how the milk composition will be changed and how the laboratory results will be affected. In many cases, the samples are not preserved with chemical preservants like azidiol, bronopol, potassium dichromate or Microtabs. We found, that the composition of raw cows' milk after 24 was changed significantly (p >0.005. We found an

  7. Composition of bracken: some major- and trace-element constituents

    Hunter, J G

    1953-01-01

    Periodic samples of bracken taken during the growing season have shown that the concentration of major elements (except calcium and sodium) decreases with age in fronds, and remains relatively constant in rhizomes, whereas trace-element concentration varies widely. Soil type has little effect on the mineral composition of fronds. Examination of three rhizome types revealed no wide differences in the content of major elements; pinnules generally contained higher concentrations of major and trace elements than fronds. Comparison of results with those published elsewhere for moorland plants grown under similar conditions indicates that bracken contains more potassium and less molybdenum.

  8. Modeling corrosion and constituent release from a metal waste form

    Bauer, T. H.; Fink, J. K.; Abraham, D. P.; Johnson, I.; Johnson, S. G.; Wigeland, R. A.

    2000-01-01

    Several ANL ongoing experimental programs have measured metal waste form (MWF) corrosion and constituent release. Analysis of this data has initiated development of a consistent and quantitative phenomenology of uniform aqueous MWF corrosion. The effort so far has produced a preliminary fission product and actinide release model based on measured corrosion rates and calibrated by immersion test data for a 90 C J-13 and concentrated J-13 solution environment over 1-2 year exposure times. Ongoing immersion tests of irradiated and unirradiated MWF samples using more aggressive test conditions and improved tracking of actinides will serve to further validate, modify, and expand the application base of the preliminary model-including effects of other corrosion mechanisms. Sample examination using both mechanical and spectrographic techniques will better define both the nature and durability of the protective barrier layer. It is particularly important to assess whether the observations made with J-13 solution at 900 C persist under more aggressive conditions. For example, all the multiplicative factors in Table 1 implicitly assume the presence of protective barriers. Under sufficiently aggressive test conditions, such protective barriers may very well be altered or even eliminated

  9. Characterization and modeling of major constituent equilibrium chemistry of a blended cement mortar

    Arnold, J.; Kosson, D. S.; Brown, K. G.; Garrabrants, A. C.; Meeussen, J. C. L.; Van Der Sloot, H. A.

    2013-01-01

    Cementitious materials containing ground granulated iron blast furnace slag and coal combustion fly ash as admixtures are being used extensively for nuclear waste containment applications. Whereas the solid phases of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) have been studied in great detail, the chemistry of cement, fly ash and slag blends has received relatively less study. Given that OPC is generally more reactive than slag and fly ash, the mineralogy of OPC provides a logical starting point for describing the major constituent chemistry of blended cement mortars. To this end, a blended cement mortar containing Portland cement, granulated blast furnace slag, fly ash and quartz sand was modeled using a set of solid phases known to form in hydrated OPC with the geochemical speciation solver LeachXS/ORCHESTRA. Comparison of modeling results to the experimentally determined pH-dependent batch leaching concentrations (USEPA Method 1313) indicates that major constituent concentrations are described reasonably well with the Portland cement mineral set; however, modeled and measured aluminum concentrations differ greatly. Scanning electron microscopic analysis of the mortar reveals the presence of Al-rich phyllosilicate minerals heretofore unreported in similar cementitious blends: kaolinite and potassic phyllosilicates similar in composition to illite and muscovite. Whereas the potassic phyllosilicates are present in the quartz sand aggregate, the formation of kaolinite appears to be authigenic. The inclusion of kaolinite in speciation modeling provides a substantially improved description of the release of Al and therefore, suggests that the behavior of phyllosilicate phases may be important for predicting long-term physico-chemical behavior of such systems. (authors)

  10. Seasonality of major redox constituents in a shallow subterranean estuary

    O'Connor, Alison E.; Krask, Julie L.; Canuel, Elizabeth A.; Beck, Aaron J.

    2018-03-01

    The subterranean estuary (STE), the subsurface mixing zone of outflowing fresh groundwater and infiltrating seawater, is an area of extensive geochemical reactions that determine the composition of groundwater that flows into coastal environments. This study examined the porewater composition of a shallow STE (redox gradients on STE geochemistry. Two freshwater endmembers were identified, between which redox potential and composition varied with depth-a shallow freshwater endmember was oxidizing and high in DOC, whereas a deep freshwater endmember was reducing, lower in DOC, and high in sulfide. Results showed that dissolved Fe, Mn, and sulfide varied along a redox gradient distinct from the salinity gradient, and that three-endmember mixing was required to quantify non-conservative chemical addition/removal in the STE. In addition to salinity, humic carbon was used as a quasi-conservative tracer to quantify mixing according to a three-endmember model. The vertical distributions of DOC and reduced metabolites remained approximately constant over time, but concentrations varied with season. Dissolved organic carbon concentrations were greatest in the summer, and shallow meteoric groundwater supplied the majority of DOC to the STE. In summer, there was additional evidence for shallow non-conservative addition of DOC. Dissolved Fe and Mn were highest in a subsurface plume through the middle of the STE (100-140 cm below sediment surface at the high tide line) which was characterized by higher concentrations and greater non-conservative addition in the winter. In contrast, sulfide was higher in summer at depths within the Fe and Mn plume (100-140 cm). We attribute the contrasting seasonal patterns of dissolved Fe, Mn, and sulfide to differences in microbial response to temperature changes and organic matter availability, and to competition at the ferrous-sulfidic transition zone between dissimilatory metal reduction and sulfate reduction, leading to sulfate

  11. Thermal behavior of the major constituents of some agricultural biomass residues during pyrolysis and combustion

    Yaman, S.; Haykiri-Acma, H. [Istanbul Technical Univ., Istanbul (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering Faculty

    2006-07-01

    The importance of woody agricultural waste as a renewable energy source was discussed with reference to its low cost, abundance, and carbon dioxide neutrality. Direct combustion of biomass waste fuels is not recommended due to its low density, high moisture content and low calorific energy. Rather, thermal conversion processes such as pyrolysis, gasification or carbonization are preferred for biomass. The performance and the energy recovery potentials of these processes depend on the process conditions as well as the physical and chemical properties of the biomass species. Therefore, the structure and components of biomass must be known. In this study, agricultural biomass samples of almond shell, walnut shell, hazelnut shell, rapeseed, olive residue, and tobacco waste were first analytically treated to remove extractive matter to obtain extractive-free samples. Specific analytic procedures were then applied to biomass samples in order to isolate their individual biomass constituents such as lignin and holocellulose. Untreated biomass samples and their isolated constituents were exposed to non-isothermal pyrolysis and combustion processes in a thermogravimetric analyzer. Pyrolysis experiments were conducted under dynamic nitrogen atmospheres of 40 mL-min, while dynamic dry air atmosphere with the same flow rate was applied in the combustion experiments. The study showed that the pyrolysis and combustion characteristics of the biomass samples differed depending on their properties. Aliphatic and oxygen rich holocellulose and cellulose were found to be the reactive components in biomass. Lignin was more stable during thermal processes. When extractive matter from the biomass samples was removed, pyrolysis at lower temperatures was terminated. 10 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs.

  12. 40 CFR 227.7 - Limits established for specific wastes or waste constituents.

    2010-07-01

    ..., shellfish and wildlife by: (1) Extending the range of biological pests, viruses, pathogenic microorganisms... containing biodegradable constituents, or constituents which consume oxygen in any fashion, may be dumped in...

  13. Quantitative analysis of the major constituents of St John's wort with HPLC-ESI-MS.

    Chandrasekera, Dhammitha H; Welham, Kevin J; Ashton, David; Middleton, Richard; Heinrich, Michael

    2005-12-01

    A method was developed to profile the major constituents of St John's wort extracts using high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS). The objective was to simultaneously separate, identify and quantify hyperforin, hypericin, pseudohypericin, rutin, hyperoside, isoquercetrin, quercitrin and chlorogenic acid using HPLC-MS. Quantification was performed using an external standardisation method with reference standards. The method consisted of two protocols: one for the analysis of flavonoids and glycosides and the other for the analysis of the more lipophilic hypericins and hyperforin. Both protocols used a reverse phase Luna phenyl hexyl column. The separation of the flavonoids and glycosides was achieved within 35 min and that of the hypericins and hyperforin within 9 min. The linear response range in ESI-MS was established for each compound and all had linear regression coefficient values greater than 0.97. Both protocols proved to be very specific for the constituents analysed. MS analysis showed no other signals within the analyte peaks. The method was robust and applicable to alcoholic tinctures, tablet/capsule extracts in various solvents and herb extracts. The method was applied to evaluate the phytopharmaceutical quality of St John's wort preparations available in the UK in order to test the method and investigate if they contain at least the main constituents and at what concentrations.

  14. Effect of potential Hanford ferrocyanide waste constituents on the reaction between ferrocyanide and nitrates/nitrites

    Scheele, R.D.; Burger, L.L.; Sell, R.L.

    1993-02-01

    During the 1950s, ferrocyanide- and nitrate-bearing wastes were produced at Hanford. A concern about continued safe storage and future treatment of these wastes has arisen because ferrocyanide and nitrate mixtures can explode when heated. Because of this concern, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory has performed experimental studies to determine the conditions needed to continue storing the wastes safely. In this paper, we present the results of our studies on the effects of other potential ferrocyanide waste constituents on the explosivity of mixtures of sodium nickel ferrocyanide and sodium nitrate and nitrite. In particular, this paper presents the results of investigations on the diluent effects of equimolar sodium nitrate and nitrite, sodium nickel ferrocyanide, and sodium aluminate, and the catalyst or initiator effects of nickel sulfide

  15. Effect of potential waste constituents on the reactivity of Hanford ferrocyanide wastes: Diluent, catalyst, and initiator studies

    Scheele, R.D.; Johnston, J.W.; Tingey, J.M.; Burger, L.L.; Sell, R.L.

    1993-04-01

    During the 1980s, scientists at the Hanford Site began considering disposal options for wastes in underground storage tanks. As a result of safety concerns, it was determined that special consideration should be given to ferrocyanide-bearing wastes to ensure their continued safe storage. In addition, Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) chartered Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to determine the conditions necessary for vigorous reactions to occur in the Hanford Site ferrocyanide wastes. As part of those studies, PNL has evaluated the effects of selected potential waste constituents to determine how they might affect the reactivity of the wastes. The authors' investigations of the diluent, catalytic, or initiating effects of potential waste constituents included studies (1) to determine the effect of the oxidant-to-ferrocyanide ratio, (2) to establish the effect of sodium aluminate concentration, (3) to identify materials that could affect the explosivity of a mixture of sodium nickel ferricyanide (a potential aging product of ferrocyanide) and sodium nitrate and nitrite, (4) and to determine the effect of nickel sulfide concentration. They also conducted a thermal sensitivity study and analyzed the results to determine the relative behaviors of sodium nickel ferrocyanide and ferricyanide. A statistical evaluation of the time-to-explosion (TTX) test results from the catalyst and initiator screening study found that the ferricyanide reacted at a faster rate than did the ferrocyanide analog. The thermal analyses indicated that the ferricyanide form is more thermally sensitive, exhibiting exothermic behavior at a lower temperature than the ferrocyanide form. The increased thermal sensitivity of the ferricyanide, which is a potential oxidation product of ferrocyanide, relative to the ferrocyanide analog, does not support the hypothesis that aging independent of the reaction pathway will necessarily reduce the reaction hazard of ferrocyanide wastes

  16. Prediction of meat spectral patterns based on optical properties and concentrations of the major constituents.

    ElMasry, Gamal; Nakauchi, Shigeki

    2016-03-01

    A simulation method for approximating spectral signatures of minced meat samples was developed depending on concentrations and optical properties of the major chemical constituents. Minced beef samples of different compositions scanned on a near-infrared spectroscopy and on a hyperspectral imaging system were examined. Chemical composition determined heuristically and optical properties collected from authenticated references were simulated to approximate samples' spectral signatures. In short-wave infrared range, the resulting spectrum equals the sum of the absorption of three individual absorbers, that is, water, protein, and fat. By assuming homogeneous distributions of the main chromophores in the mince samples, the obtained absorption spectra are found to be a linear combination of the absorption spectra of the major chromophores present in the sample. Results revealed that developed models were good enough to derive spectral signatures of minced meat samples with a reasonable level of robustness of a high agreement index value more than 0.90 and ratio of performance to deviation more than 1.4.

  17. Identification of rosmarinic acid as the major active constituent in Cordia americana.

    Geller, F; Schmidt, C; Göttert, M; Fronza, M; Schattel, V; Heinzmann, B; Werz, O; Flores, E M M; Merfort, I; Laufer, S

    2010-04-21

    Preparation from leaves of Cordia americana have been widely used in traditional medicine in South Brazil to treat wounds and various inflammations. The objective of this work was to identify the effective compounds in the ethanolic extract prepared from the leaves of Cordia americana, which is used in traditional South Brazilian medicine as anti-inflammatory and wound healing remedy. Isolation and structure elucidation techniques were performed in order to identify the compounds of Cordia americana and HPLC analysis was used for the quantification. The major constituent and the ethanolic extract were investigated for inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase, p38alpha MAPK, TNFalpha release and NF-kappaB as well as in the fibroblast scratch assay. Rosmarinic acid (1) was identified as the major compound with an amount of 8.44% in the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Cordia americana. The ethanolic extract as well as (1) exhibited the highest inhibitory effects on 5-lipoxygenase (IC(50)=0.69 and 0.97microg/mL, resp., IC50 of BWA4C as reference: 0.3microM) and p38alpha (IC50=3.25 and 1.16microg/mL, resp., IC50 of SB203580 as reference: 0.046microM) and moderate inhibitory effects on TNFalpha release. Slight effects were observed in the fibroblast scratch assay. This study increases our knowledge on the effective compound in Cordia americana and supports its use in traditional medicine. We demonstrated for the first time pharmacological effects of Cordia americana and we provide evidences for a crucial role of rosmarinic acid as the major key player. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Methods of chemical analysis for organic waste constituents in radioactive materials: A literature review

    Clauss, S.A.; Bean, R.M.

    1993-02-01

    Most of the waste generated during the production of defense materials at Hanford is presently stored in 177 underground tanks. Because of the many waste treatment processes used at Hanford, the operations conducted to move and consolidate the waste, and the long-term storage conditions at elevated temperatures and radiolytic conditions, little is known about most of the organic constituents in the tanks. Organics are a factor in the production of hydrogen from storage tank 101-SY and represent an unresolved safety question in the case of tanks containing high organic carbon content. In preparation for activities that will lead to the characterization of organic components in Hanford waste storage tanks, a thorough search of the literature has been conducted to identify those procedures that have been found useful for identifying and quantifying organic components in radioactive matrices. The information is to be used in the planning of method development activities needed to characterize the organics in tank wastes and will prevent duplication of effort in the development of needed methods

  19. Turmeric (Curcuma longa) and its major constituent (curcumin) as nontoxic and safe substances: Review.

    Soleimani, Vahid; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2018-02-26

    Curcumin is the major constituent of turmeric (Curcuma longa). Turmeric has been widely used as a spice in foods and for therapeutic applications such as anti-inflammatory, antihyperlipidemic, and antimicrobial activities. Turmeric and curcumin are nonmutagenic and nongenotoxic. Oral use of turmeric and curcumin did not have reproductive toxicity in animals at certain doses. Studies on human did not show toxic effects, and curcumin was safe at the dose of 6 g/day orally for 4-7 weeks. However, some adverse effects such as gastrointestinal upsets may occur. Moreover, oral bioavailable formulations of curcumin were safe for human at the dose of 500 mg two times in a day for 30 days, but there are still few trials and more studies are needed specially on nanoformulations and it should be discussed in a separate article. In addition, curcumin is known as a generally recognized as safe substance. This review discusses the safety and toxicity of turmeric and curcumin in medicine. Turmeric and curcumin are nontoxic for human especially in oral administration. Turmeric and curcumin are also safe in animals. They are nonmutagenic and are safe in pregnancy in animals but more studies in human are needed. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Methodology for determining major constituents of ayahuasca and their metabolites in blood.

    McIlhenny, Ethan H; Riba, Jordi; Barbanoj, Manel J; Strassman, Rick; Barker, Steven A

    2012-03-01

    There is an increasing interest in potential medical applications of ayahuasca, a South American psychotropic plant tea with a long cultural history of indigenous medical and religious use. Clinical research into ayahuasca will require specific, sensitive and comprehensive methods for the characterization and quantitation of these compounds and their metabolites in blood. A combination of two analytical techniques (high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet and/or fluorescence detection and gas chromatography with nitrogen-phosphorus detection) has been used for the analysis of some of the constituents of ayahuasca in blood following its oral consumption. We report here a single methodology for the direct analysis of 14 of the major alkaloid components of ayahuasca, including several known and potential metabolites of N,N-dimethyltryptamine and the harmala alkaloids in blood. The method uses 96-well plate/protein precipitation/filtration for plasma samples, and analysis by HPLC-ion trap-ion trap-mass spectrometry using heated electrospray ionization to reduce matrix effects. The method expands the list of compounds capable of being monitored in blood following ayahuasca administration while providing a simplified approach to their analysis. The method has adequate sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility to make it useful for clinical research with ayahuasca. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Quantitative Analysis of Major Constituents in Green Tea with Different Plucking Periods and Their Antioxidant Activity

    Lan-Sook Lee

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between the plucking periods and the major constituents and the antioxidant activity in green tea. Green tea was prepared from leaves plucked from the end of April 2013 to the end of May 2013 at intervals of one week or longer. The contents of theanine, theobromine, caffeine, catechin (C, and gallocatechin gallate (GCg were significantly decreased, whereas those of epicatechin (EC, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg and epigallocatechin (EGC were significantly increased along with the period of tea leaf plucking. In addition, antioxidant activity of green tea and standard catechins was investigated using ABTS, FRAP and DPPH assays. The highest antioxidant activity was observed in relatively the oldest leaf, regardless of the assay methods used. Additionally, the order of antioxidant activity of standard catechins was as follows: EGCg ³ GCg ³ ECg > EGC ³ GC ³ EC ³ C. Moreover, the cis-catechins contents were the key factor affecting the antioxidant activity of green tea in all assays employed (ABTS, r = 0.731, p < 0.01; FRAP, r = 0.886, p < 0.01; DPPH, r = 0.778, p < 0.01.

  2. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for RCRA Constituent Analysis of Solidified Wastes

    2006-01-01

    The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) constituents distributes test samples for analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs), and metals in solid matrices. Each distribution of test samples is termed a PDP cycle. These evaluation cycles provide an objective measure of the reliability of measurements performed for transuranic (TRU) waste characterization. The primary documents governing the conduct of the PDP are the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD; DOE/CBFO-94-1012) and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Analysis Plan (WAP) contained in the Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (NM4890139088-TSDF) issued by the New Mexico Environment Department. The WAP requires participation in the PDP; the PDP must comply with the QAPD and the WAP. This plan implements the general requirements of the QAPD and the applicable requirements of the WAP for the RCRA PDP. Participating laboratories demonstrate acceptable performance by successfully analyzing single-blind performance evaluation samples (subsequently referred to as PDP samples) according to the criteria established in this plan. PDP samples are used as an independent means to assess laboratory performance regarding compliance with the WAP quality assurance objectives (QAOs). The concentrations of analytes in the PDP samples address levels of regulatory concern and encompass the range of concentrations anticipated in waste characterization samples. The WIPP requires analyses of homogeneous solid wastes to demonstrate compliance with regulatory requirements. These analyses must be performed by laboratories that demonstrate acceptable performance in this PDP. These analyses are referred to as WIPP analyses, and the samples on which they are performed are referred to as WIPP samples. Participating laboratories must analyze PDP samples using the same procedures used for WIPP samples.

  3. Determination of major aromatic constituents in vanilla using an on-line supercritical fluid extraction coupled with supercritical fluid chromatography.

    Liang, Yanshan; Liu, Jiaqi; Zhong, Qisheng; Shen, Lingling; Yao, Jinting; Huang, Taohong; Zhou, Ting

    2018-04-01

    An on-line supercritical fluid extraction coupled with supercritical fluid chromatography method was developed for the determination of four major aromatic constituents in vanilla. The parameters of supercritical fluid extraction were systematically investigated using single factor optimization experiments and response surface methodology by a Box-Behnken design. The modifier ratio, split ratio, and the extraction temperature and pressure were the major parameters which have significant effects on the extraction. While the static extraction time, dynamic extraction time, and recycle time had little influence on the compounds with low polarity. Under the optimized conditions, the relative extraction efficiencies of all the constituents reached 89.0-95.1%. The limits of quantification were in the range of 1.123-4.747 μg. The limits of detection were in the range of 0.3368-1.424 μg. The recoveries of the four analytes were in the range of 76.1-88.9%. The relative standard deviations of intra- and interday precision ranged from 4.2 to 7.6%. Compared with other off-line methods, the present method obtained higher extraction yields for all four aromatic constituents. Finally, this method has been applied to the analysis of vanilla from different sources. On the basis of the results, the on-line supercritical fluid extraction-supercritical fluid chromatography method shows great promise in the analysis of aromatic constituents in natural products. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Solid waste from aluminum recycling process: characterization and reuse of its economically valuable constituents.

    Shinzato, M C; Hypolito, R

    2005-01-01

    Due to economic advantages, many companies in Brazil recover Al from the process of crushing and water-leaching of secondary aluminum dross. Wastes from this process (non-metallic products and salts) are usually landfilled or disposed without treatment, causing many environmental damages. The purpose of this work is to investigate, in a recycling company sited in Sao Paulo metropolitan area (Brazil), the potential use of the non-metallic product (NMP) in the production of concrete blocks and to evaluate the presence of important chemical compounds that may be useful for other applications. Chemical and mineralogical analyses revealed that NMP is composed of refractory and abrasive oxides (alpha-Al2O3, MgAl2O4, SiO2) and an important source of transition alumina: alpha-Al(OH)3. Concrete blocks were made by adding two parts of NMP to one part of cement and four parts of sand. The blocks were tested according to the Brazilian standard (NBR7173/1982) and they passed dimension, humidity and absorption tests but not compressive strength tests. However, particular NMP constituents have accelerated the strength rate development of the blocks, thus decreasing working time. The commercial use of NMP can reduce the amount of discarded wastes contributing to environmental preservation.

  5. Application of multivariate calibration for simultaneous determination of major and minor constituents in U3Si2 by X-ray fluorescence

    Scapin, Marcos A.; Silva, Clayton P.; Cotrim, Marycel E.B.; Pires, Maria Aparecida F.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work is to establish and validate a methodology for a nondestructive quantitative chemical analysis method for simultaneous determination of the major constituents (U total and Si) and impurities (B, Mg, Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, Cd,etc.) present in U 3 Si 2 . The method must also meet the needs of nuclear reactors for the nuclear fuel qualification type,MTR, with low cost and analysis time, while also minimizing waste generation. For this purpose, an X-ray fluorescence technique will be applied. The technique is nondestructive,aside from sample preparation procedures that do not require previous chemical treatments (dissolving, digesting), and allows for fast chemical analysis. The fundamental parameters (FP) method was applied to corrections for spectral and matrix effects. The calibration model was obtained via principal component analysis using orthogonal decomposition by the singular value decomposition method (SVD) in U 3 O 8 and U 3 Si 2 samples. The results were compared by means of statistical tests in accordance with ISO 17025 on CRMs of U 3 O 8 from New Brunswick Laboratory (NBL) and 16 U 3 Si 2 samples provided by CCN of IPEN/CNEN-SP. Multivariate calibration is a promising method for determination of major and minor constituents inU 3 Si 2 and U 3 O 8 nuclear fuel, because the precision and accuracy are statistically equivalent to volumetric analysis (U total determination), gravimetric analysis (Si determination), and ICP-OES methods (impurities determination). (author)

  6. Interlaboratory quality assurance studies: Their use in certifying natural waters for major constituents and trace elements

    Alkema, H.; Simser, J.; Hjelm, L.

    1998-01-01

    Environmental programs throughout North America have demonstrated a strong awareness of the usefulness of interlaboratory studies for disclosing the quality of analytical results. The Ecosystem Interlaboratory Quality Assurance Program offered by the National Water Research Institute has a wide participation base of laboratories. Many of these laboratories are accredited and employ a number of recognized analytical methods. The interlaboratory study data archives contain a wealth of data for natural surface and rain waters from across the continent. These archives have proven to be a reliable means of characterizing a variety of constituents. Data assessments from these studies accurately identify the variability of data and the presence of any outliers. Repeated use of selected samples in a regular QA program confirms their stability. Time charts and statistical techniques are used to illustrate this stability and yield the precision of pooled analyses. The availability of archived data from interlaboratory studies has enabled the Institute to develop and certify natural water and trace element standards. The natural water CRM, ION-911, has been available for several years. Its historical aspects are discussed as well as the processes leading to the certification of TMRain-95, a soft water standard certifying 22 trace elements. This paper focuses on the use of select laboratories in round-robin evaluations to provide accurate values for constituent concentrations. Natural water and fortified trace element CRMs meet a recognized need in the generation of accurate data for environmental programs. (orig.)

  7. Assessment of biochar and hydrochar as minor to major constituents of growing media for containerized tomato production.

    Fornes, Fernando; Belda, Rosa M; Fernández de Córdova, Pascual; Cebolla-Cornejo, Jaime

    2017-08-01

    Chars are emerging materials as constituents of growth media. However, chars of different origin differ in their characteristics and more studies are needed to ratify them for such a role. The characteristics of coir mixed with 0%, 10%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% (v/v) of two biochars, from forest waste (BCH-FW) and from olive mill waste (BCH-OMW), and one hydrochar, from forest waste (HYD-FW), and their effects on growth, yield and fruit quality of two tomato cultivars (Gransol RZ and Cuarenteno) were assessed. Chars negatively affected plant growth and yield but not fruit quality. The effect was related to the char dose and was larger in HYD-FW and BCH-FW than in BCH-OMW, despite the high salinity of the latter, and more acute in Cuarenteno than in Gransol RZ. The results were discussed on the basis of the large particle size of BCH-FW, which could have caused low nutrient solution retention and, hence, reduced plant nutrient uptake, and the high water-holding capacity, poor aeration and large CO 2 emission of HYD-FW, which could lead to root anoxia. BCH-OMW can be used at high proportion in media for tomato cultivation. The use of BCH-FW at a high proportion might be taken into consideration after adjusting particle size, yet this needs additional assays. HYD-FW is inadequate for soilless containerized tomato cultivation. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Major Components of the National TRU Waste System Optimization Project

    Moody, D.C.; Bennington, B.; Sharif, F.

    2002-01-01

    The National Transuranic (TRU) Program (NTP) is being optimized to allow for disposing of the legacy TRU waste at least 10 years earlier than originally planned. This acceleration will save the nation an estimated $713. The Department of Energy's (DOE'S) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) has initiated the National TRU Waste System Optimization Project to propose, and upon approvaI, implement activities that produce significant cost saving by improving efficiency, thereby accelerating the rate of TRU waste disposal without compromising safety. In its role as NTP agent of change, the National TRU Waste System Optimization Project (the Project) (1) interacts closely with all NTP activities. Three of the major components of the Project are the Central Characterization Project (CCP), the Central Confirmation Facility (CCF), and the MobiIe/Modular Deployment Program.

  9. Major constituent quantitative determination in uranium alloys by coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and X ray fluorescence wavelength dispersive spectrometry

    Oliveira, Luis Claudio de; Silva, Adriana Mascarenhas Martins da; Gomide, Ricardo Goncalves; Silva, Ieda de Souza

    2013-01-01

    A wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WD-XRF) spectrometric method for determination of major constituents elements (Zr, Nb, Mo) in Uranium/Zirconium/Niobium and Uranium/Molybdenum alloy samples were developed. The methods use samples taken in the form of chips that were dissolved in hot nitric acid and precipitate particles melted with lithium tetraborate and dissolved in hot nitric acid and finally analyzed as a solution. Studies on the determination by inductively coupled plasma optic emission spectrometry (ICP OES) using matched matrix in calibration curve were developed. The same samples solution were analyzed in both methods. The limits of detection (LOD), linearity of the calibrations curves, recovery study, accuracy and precision of the both techniques were carried out. The results were compared. (author)

  10. Methodology for and the determination of the major constituents and metabolites of the Amazonian botanical medicine ayahuasca in human urine.

    McIlhenny, Ethan H; Riba, Jordi; Barbanoj, Manel J; Strassman, Rick; Barker, Steven A

    2011-09-01

    Ayahuasca, also known as caapi or yage among various South American groups, holds a highly esteemed and millennia-old position in these cultures' medical and religious pharmacopeia. There is now an increasing interest in the potential for modern medical applications of ayahuasca, as well as concerns regarding its increasing potential for abuse. Toxicological and clinical research to address these issues will require information regarding its metabolism and clearance. Thus, a rapid, sensitive and specific method for characterization and quantitation of the major constituents and of the metabolites of ayahuasca in urine is needed. The present research provides a protocol for conducting such analyses. The characteristics of the method, conducted by sample dilution and using HPLC-electrospray ionization (ESI)-selected reaction monitoring (SRM)-tandem mass spectrometry, are presented. The application of the analytical protocol to urine samples collected from three individuals that were administered ayahuasca has also been demonstrated. The data show that the major metabolite of the hallucinogenic component of ayahuasca, N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), is the corresponding N-oxide, the first time this metabolite has been described in in vivo studies in humans. Further, very little DMT was detected in urine, despite the inhibition of monoamine oxidase afforded by the presence of the harmala alkaloids in ayahuasca. The major harmala alkaloid excreted was tetrahydroharmine. Other excretion products and metabolites were also identified and quantified. The method described would be suitable for use in further toxicological and clinical research on ayahuasca. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. A comparison of simultaneous plasma, atomic absorption, and iron colorimetric determinations of major and trace constituents in acid mine waters

    Ball, J.W.; Nordstrom, D. Kirk

    1994-01-01

    Sixty-three water samples collected during June to October 1982 from the Leviathan/Bryant Creek drainage basin were originally analyzed by simultaneous multielement direct-current plasma (DCP) atomic-emission spectrometry, flame atomic-absorption spectrometry, graphite-furnace atomic-absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) (thallium only), ultraviolet-visible spectrometry, and hydride-generation atomic-absorption spectrometry.Determinations were made for the following metallic and semi-metallic constituents: AI, As, B, Ba, Be, Bi, Cd, Ca, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe(11), Fe(total), Li, Pb, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, K, Sb, Se, Si, Na, Sr, TI, V, and Zn. These samples were re-analyzed later by simultaneous multielement inductively coupled plasma (ICP) atomic-emission spectrometry and Zeeman-corrected GFAAS to determine the concentrations of many of the same constituents with improved accuracy, precision, and sensitivity. The result of this analysis has been the generation of comparative concentration values for a significant subset of the solute constituents. Many of the more recently determined values replace less-than-detection values for the trace metals; others constitute duplicate analyses for the major constituents. The multiple determinations have yielded a more complete, accurate, and precise set of analytical data. They also have resulted in an opportunity to compare the performance of the plasma-emission instruments operated in their respective simultaneous multielement modes. Flame atomic-absorption spectrometry was judged best for Na and K and hydride-generation atomic-absorption spectrometry was judged best for As because of their lower detection limit and relative freedom from interelement spectral effects. Colorimetric determination using ferrozine as the color agent was judged most accurate, precise, and sensitive for Fe. Cadmium, lead, and vanadium concentrations were too low in this set of samples to enable a determination of whether ICP or DCP is a more suitable technique. Of

  12. Laboratory Report on Performance Evaluation of Key Constituents during Pre-Treatment of High Level Waste Direct Feed

    Huber, Heinz J.

    2013-06-24

    The analytical capabilities of the 222-S Laboratory are tested against the requirements for an optional start up scenario of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant on the Hanford Site. In this case, washed and in-tank leached sludge would be sent directly to the High Level Melter, bypassing Pretreatment. The sludge samples would need to be analyzed for certain key constituents in terms identifying melter-related issues and adjustment needs. The analyses on original tank waste as well as on washed and leached material were performed using five sludge samples from tanks 241-AY-102, 241-AZ-102, 241-AN-106, 241-AW-105, and 241-SY-102. Additionally, solid phase characterization was applied to determine the changes in mineralogy throughout the pre-treatment steps.

  13. Laboratory Report on Performance Evaluation of Key Constituents during Pre-Treatment of High Level Waste Direct Feed

    Huber, Heinz J.

    2013-01-01

    The analytical capabilities of the 222-S Laboratory are tested against the requirements for an optional start up scenario of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant on the Hanford Site. In this case, washed and in-tank leached sludge would be sent directly to the High Level Melter, bypassing Pretreatment. The sludge samples would need to be analyzed for certain key constituents in terms identifying melter-related issues and adjustment needs. The analyses on original tank waste as well as on washed and leached material were performed using five sludge samples from tanks 241-AY-102, 241-AZ-102, 241-AN-106, 241-AW-105, and 241-SY-102. Additionally, solid phase characterization was applied to determine the changes in mineralogy throughout the pre-treatment steps

  14. Evaluation of antioxidant potential of Artocarpus heterophyllus L. J33 variety fruit waste from different extraction methods and identification of phenolic constituents by LCMS.

    Daud, Mohd Nazrul Hisham; Fatanah, Dian Nashiela; Abdullah, Noriham; Ahmad, Rohaya

    2017-10-01

    Artocarpus heterophyllus J33 (AhJ33) fruit is a popular and valuable jackfruit variety in Malaysia. For export, the pulp has to be separated from the skin which is usually discarded. Hence, the conversion of the fruit waste to food products with economic value needs to be explored utilizing the waste to wealth concept. This paper reports the evaluation of antioxidant potential of AhJ33 fruit waste (rind and rachis) extracts from three different extraction methods (maceration, percolation and Soxhlet). The antioxidant potential was assessed by DPPH radical scavenging, FRAP and β-carotene bleaching assays. The total phenolic and total flavonoid contents were estimated by TPC and the TFC assays. For both rind and rachis, the maceration technique yielded extracts with the strongest antioxidant activities which correlated with the highest TPC and TFC values. TOF LCMS analyses identified two phenolic acids as the major constituents responsible for the antioxidant activity of the active extracts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Performance demonstration program plan for RCRA constituent analysis of solidified wastes

    1995-06-01

    Performance Demonstration Programs (PDPS) are designed to help ensure compliance with the Quality Assurance Objectives (QAOs) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The PDPs are intended for use by the Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Area Office (CAO) to assess and approve the laboratories and other measurement facilities supplying services for the characterization of WIPP TRU waste. The PDPs may also be used by CAO in qualifying laboratories proposing to supply additional analytical services that are required for other than waste characterization, such as WIPP site operations. The purpose of this PDP is to test laboratory performance for the analysis of solidified waste samples for TRU waste characterization. This performance will be demonstrated by the successful analysis of blind audit samples of simulated, solidified TRU waste according to the criteria established in this plan. Blind audit samples (hereinafter referred to as PDP samples) will be used as an independent means to assess laboratory performance regarding compliance with the QAOs. The concentration of analytes in the PDP samples will address levels of regulatory concern and will encompass the range of concentrations anticipated in actual waste characterization samples. Analyses that are required by the WIPP to demonstrate compliance with various regulatory requirements and which are included in the PDP must be performed by laboratories that demonstrate acceptable performance in the PDP. These analyses are referred to as WIPP analyses and the samples on which they are performed are referred to as WIPP samples for the balance of this document

  16. The potential effects of sodium bicarbonate, a major constituent from coalbed natural gas production, on aquatic life

    Farag, Aïda M.; Harper, David D.

    2012-01-01

    The production water from coalbed natural gas (CBNG) extraction contains many constituents. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has established aquatic life criteria for some of these constituents, and it is therefore possible to evaluate their risk to aquatic life. However, of the major ions associated with produced waters, chloride is the only one with an established aquatic life criterion (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1988). The focus of this research was NaHCO3, a compound that is a major constituent of coalbed natural gas produced waters in the Tongue and Powder River Basins. This project included laboratory experiments, field in situ experiments, a field mixing zone study, and a fishery presence/absence assessment. Though this investigation focuses on the Tongue and Powder River Basins, the information is applicable to other watersheds where sodium bicarbonate is a principle component of product water either from CBNG or from traditional or unconventional oil and gas development. These data can also be used to separate effects of saline discharges from those potentially posed by other constituents. Finally, this research effort and the additional collaboration with USGS Water Resources and Mapping, Bureau of Land Management, US Environmental Protection Agency, State of Montana, State of Wyoming, Montana State University, University of Wyoming, and others as part of a Powder River Aquatic Task Group, can be used as a model for successful approaches to studying landscapes with energy development. The laboratory acute toxicity experiments were completed with a suite of organisms, including 7 species of fish, 5 species of invertebrates, and 1 amphibian species. Experiments performed on these multiple species resulted in LC50s that ranged from 1,120 to greater than (>) 8,000 milligrams sodium bicarbonate per liter (mg NaHCO3/L) (also defined as 769 to >8,000 milligrams bicarbonate per liter (mg HCO3-/L) or total alkalinity expressed as 608 to >4

  17. Development of Decontamination Technology for Separating Radioactive Constituents from Contaminated Concrete Waste

    Min, B. Y.; Kim, G. N.; Lee, G. W.; Choi, W. K.; Jung, U. S.

    2010-01-01

    The large amount of contaminated concrete produced during decommissioning procedures and available decontamination. In Korea, more than more than 60 tons of concrete wastes contaminated with uranium compounds have been generated from UCP (Uranium Conversion Plant) by dismantling. A recycling or a volume reduction of the concrete wastes through the application of appropriate treatment technologies have merits from the view point of an increase in a resource recycling as well as a decrease in the amount of wastes to be disposed of resulting in a reduction of a disposal cost and an enhancement of the disposal safety. For unconditional release of building and reduction of radioactive concrete waste, mechanical methods and thermal stress methods have been selected. In the advanced countries, such as France, Japan, Germany, Sweden, and Belgium, techniques for reduction and reuse of the decommissioning concrete wastes have applied to minimize the total radioactive concrete waste volume by thermal and mechanical processes. It was found that volume reduction of contaminated concrete can be achieved by separation of the fine cement stone and coarse gravel. Typically, the contaminated layer is only 1∼10mm thick because cementitious materials are porous media, the penetration of radionuclides may occur up to several centimenters from the surface of a material. Most of the dismantled concrete wastes are slightly contaminated rather than activated. This decontamination can be accomplished during the course of a separation of the concrete wastes contaminated with radioactive materials through a thermal treatment step of the radionuclide (e.g. cesium and strontium), transportation of the radionuclide to fine aggregates through a mechanical treatment step. Concrete is a structural material which generally consists of a binder (cement), water, and aggregate. The interaction between highly charged calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) particles in the presence of divalent calcium

  18. Quantitative analysis of the major constituents in Chinese medicinal preparation SuoQuan formulae by ultra fast high performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry.

    Chen, Feng; Li, Hai-Long; Li, Yong-Hui; Tan, Yin-Feng; Zhang, Jun-Qing

    2013-07-30

    The SuoQuan formulae containing Fructus Alpiniae Oxyphyllae has been used to combat the urinary incontinence symptoms including frequency, urgency and nocturia for hundreds of years in China. However, the chemical information was not well characterized. The quality control marker constituent only focused on one single compound in the current Chinese Pharmacopeia. Hence it is prudent to identify and quantify the main constituents in this herbal product. This study aimed to analyze the main constituents using ultra-fast performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS). Fourteen phytochemicals originated from five chemical classes constituents were identified by comparing the molecular mass, fragmentation pattern and retention time with those of the reference standards. A newly developed UFLC-MS/MS was validated demonstrating that the new assay was valid, reproducible and reliable. This method was successfully applied to simultaneously quantify the fourteen phytochemicals. Notably, the content of these constituents showed significant differences in three pharmaceutical preparations. The major constituent originated from each of chemical class was isolinderalactone, norisoboldine, nootkatone, yakuchinone A and apigenin-4',7-dimethylther, respectively. The variation among these compounds was more than 1000 times. Furthermore, the significant content variation between the two different Suoquan pills was also observed. The proposed method is sensitive and reliable; hence it can be used to analyze a variety of SuoQuan formulae products produced by different pharmaceutical manufacturers.

  19. Corrosion behaviors of a glass-bonded sodalite ceramic waste form and its constituents

    Lewis, M. A.; Ebert, W. L.; Morss, L.

    1999-01-01

    A ceramic waste form (CWF) of glass bonded sodalite is being developed as a waste form for the long-term immobilization of fission products and transuranic elements from the U.S. Department of Energy's activities on spent nuclear fuel conditioning. A durable waste form was prepared by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) a mixture of salt-loaded zeolite powders and glass frit. During HIP the zeolite is converted to sodalite, and the resultant CWF is been completed for durations of up to 182 days. Four dissolution modes were identified: dissolution of free salt, dissolution of the aluminosilicate matrix of sodalite and the accompanying dissolution of occluded salt, dissolution of the boroaluminosilicate matrix of the glass, and ion exchange. Synergies inherent to the CWF were identified by comparing the results of the tests with pure glass and sodalite with those of the composite CWF

  20. Experimental study of zinc-65 transfer mechanisms among the major constituents of a briny ecosystem (Etang de Citis)

    Baudin, Jean-Pierre

    1977-01-01

    experiments, conducted during a 45-month ecological study of the major constituents of a briny ecosystem, have provided significant data concerning both health protection and the mechanisms of zinc-65 metabolism. (author) [fr

  1. Chemical constituents and technological functional properties of acerola (Malpighia emarginata DC. waste flour

    Tamara Rezende Marques

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Acerola is a fruit that can be consumed in the form of juice and pulp. However, during its processing, a large amount of waste is generated (seed and bagasse. Adding value to these by-products is of great interest, since their use can enrich foods with nutrients and fiber. In this study, we performed phytochemical screening, determined the proximate and mineral composition, bioactive compounds and the technological functional properties of acerola seed flour and acerola bagasse flour. Seeds were dried in a ventilated oven at ± 45 °C and the bagasse was lyophilized. Samples were ground, stored in flasks protected from light. Phytochemical screening revealed metabolites of nutritional and pharmacological interest and no potentially toxic substances in the flours. Seed flour and bagasse flour showed high levels (g 100 g- 1 of dry matter - DM of soluble fiber: 4.76 and 8.74; insoluble fiber: 75.76 and 28.58, and phenolic compounds: 4.73 and 10.82, respectively. The flours also showed high absorption of water, oil and emulsion stability, presenting potential for inclusion in meat products and bakery products.

  2. Laboratory Evaluation of Acute Toxicity of the Essential Oil of Allium tuberosum Leaves and Its Selected Major Constituents Against Apolygus lucorum (Hemiptera: Miridae).

    Shi, Jizhe; Liu, Xinchao; Li, Zhen; Zheng, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Qingwen; Liu, Xiaoxia

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate acute toxicity of the essential oil of leaves of Chinese chives, Allium tuberosum Rottler ex Spreng (Asparagales: Alliaceae) and its major constituents against Apolygus lucorum Meyer-Dür (Hemiptera: Miridae). The essential oil of A. tuberosum leaves was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major constituents of the oil were sulfur-containing compounds, including allyl methyl trisulfide (36.24%), diallyl disulfide (27.26%), diallyl trisulfide (18.68%), and dimethyl trisulfide (9.23%). The essential oil of A. tuberosum leaves exhibited acute toxicity against Ap. lucorum with an LD50 value of 20.03 μg per adult. Among the main compounds, diallyl trisulfide (LD50 = 10.13 μg per adult) showed stronger acute toxicity than allyl methyl trisulfide (LD50 = 21.10 μg per adult) and dimethyl trisulfide (LD50 = 21.65 μg per adult). The LD50 value of diallyl disulfide against Ap. lucorum was 28.10 μg per adult. The results indicated that the essential oil of A. tuberosum and its major constituents may have a potential to be developed as botanical insecticides against Ap. lucorum. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  3. Mineral constituents profile of biochar derived from diversified waste biomasses: implications for agricultural applications.

    Zhao, Ling; Cao, Xinde; Wang, Qun; Yang, Fan; Xu, Shi

    2013-01-01

    The wide distribution and high heterogeneity of different elements in biochars derived from diverse feedstocks make it difficult to regulate their application in soil and to evaluate the maximum potential contribution of the nutrients and trace metals as well as the potential risk of toxic metals. This study classified 20 biochars, covering six typical categories, into three clusters according to their similarity and distance on nutrients and minerals using cluster analysis. Four principle components (PC) were extracted using factor analysis to reduce dimension and clearly characterize the mineral profile of these biochars. The contribution of each group of elements in the PCs to every cluster was clarified. PC1 had a high loading for Mg, Cu, Zn, Al, and Fe; PC2 was related to N, K, and Mn; and PC3 and PC4 mainly represented P and Ca. Cluster 1 included bone dregs and eggshell biochars with PC3 and PC4 as the main contributors. Cluster 2 included waterweeds and waste paper biochars, which were close to shrimp hull and chlorella biochars, with the main contributions being from PC2 and PC4. Cluster 3 included biochars with PC1 as the main contributor. At a soil biochar amendment rate of 50 t ha, the soil nutrients were significantly elevated, whereas the rise in toxic metals was negligible compared with Class I of the China Environmental Quality Standards for Soil. Biochar can potentially supply soil nutrients and trace metals, and different cluster biochars can be applied appropriately to different soils so that excessive or deficient nutrient and metal applications can be avoided. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  4. Major unresolved issues preventing a timely resolution to radioactive waste disposal

    1978-01-01

    GAO surveyed a portion of the literature on radioactive waste management and identified those major issues which could impede the timely and comprehensive removal of obstacles to demonstrating a national radioactive waste disposal program. Presently, U.S. radioactive waste policy goals are unclear in that there is no clear differentiation of management, regulation (licensing), and research, development, and demonstration functions. Decisions on such important issues as regulatory responsibility over radioactive wastes, criteria for radioactive waste form and performance, method of final disposition, and repository site locations must be made, and made soon, in order to assure public health and safety and adequate management of these potentially hazardous materials

  5. Development of a validated HPLC method for the determination of sennoside A and B, two major constituents of Cassia obovata Coll.

    Ghassemi-Dehkordi Nasrollah; Ghanadian Mustafa; Arabha Sajjad

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Cassia obovata Coll is the only Senna species which grows wild in Iran. In the present study, an optimised reverse High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) validated method was established for quantification of sennosides A and B, the major constituents of C. obovata with a simple and accurate method. Methods: HPLC analysis was done using Waters 515 pump on a Nova-Pak C18 (3.9 × 150 mm). Millennium software was used for the determination of the sennoside A and B in Cassia s...

  6. Majors soil classes of the metropolitan region of Curitiba (PR, Brazil: II - interaction of Pb with mineral and organic constituents

    Ana Christina Duarte Pires

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between heavy metals and soil constituents is one of the most important factors influencing the potential for ground water pollution. To study Pb behavior, samples of soils were incubated with a salt solution containing this metal. The experimental units consisted of plastic bags, partially opened with 0.1 dm³ of soil with three replications. After incubation, samples were subjected to sequential and selective extractions. Lead retention, measured by the maximum adsorption capacity of the soil, was relatively high with values ranging from 6,439 to 22,148 mg kg-1. The sequential and selective extractions showed that Pb adsorption was stable where the metal was found mainly in organic matter, Fe and Al oxides, and residual forms (specific adsorption. The capacity of the soils to retain Pb, thereby increasing the leaching potential of the metal, was in the sequence of: Histosol - Oxisol - Inceptisol.A interação entre os metais pesados e os constituintes orgânicos e minerais do solo é um dos fatores mais importantes para definir o potencial de contaminação das águas subterrâneas. Para estudar o comportamento do Pb em solos da região metropolitana de Curitiba, estado do Paraná, amostras das classes Organossolo, Latossolo e Cambissolo foram submetidas a análises físicas e químicas, e incubadas com soluções de sais desse metal. A dosagem utilizada correspondeu a 40% da Capacidade Máxima de Adsorção de Pb do solo (CMA. O ensaio foi conduzido na Universidade Federal do Paraná, em condições de casa de vegetação, no período de 29 de outubro a 29 de dezembro de 2003. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com três repetições e as unidades experimentais corresponderam a sacos plásticos parcialmente abertos com 0,1 dm³ de solo. Após o período de incubação (60 dias, as amostras foram submetidas a extrações seqüenciais e seletivas, na seguinte ordem: 1 KCl 0,005 mol L-1; 2 BaCl2 0,1 mol L-1; 3 Na

  7. Antimicrobial activity of Tulsi (Ocimum tenuiflorum essential oil and their major constituents against three species of bacteria

    Hanaa Abbas M Yamani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years scientists worldwide have realized that the effective life span of any antimicrobial agent is limited, due to increasing development of resistance by microorganisms. Consequently, numerous studies have been conducted to find new alternative sources of antimicrobial agents, especially from plants. The aims of this project were to examine the antimicrobial properties of essential oils distilled from Australian-grown Ocimum teniflorum (Tulsi, to quantify the volatile components present in flower spikes, leaves and the essential oil, and to investigate the compounds responsible for any activity. Broth micro-dilution was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of Tulsi essential oil against selected microbial pathogens. The oils, at concentrations of 4.5% and 2.25% completely inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus (including MRSA and Escherichia coli, while the same concentrations only partly inhibited the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Of 54 compounds identified in Tulsi leaves, flower spikes or essential oil, three are proposed to be responsible for this activity; camphor, eucalyptol and eugenol. Since S. aureus (including MRSA, P. aeruginosa and E. coli are major pathogens causing skin and soft tissue infections, Tulsi essential oil could be a valuable topical antimicrobial agent for management of skin infections caused by these organisms.

  8. Identification and determination of the major constituents in traditional Chinese medicine Longdan Xiegan Pill by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS

    Hui Liu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A novel and sensitive HPLC-UV method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of twelve major compounds in Longdan Xiegan Pill. The chemical profile of the twelve compounds, including geniposidic acid (1, geniposide(2, gentiopicroside(3, liquiritin(4, crocin(5, baicalin(6, wogonoside(7, baicalein(8, glycyrrhizic acid (9, wogonin (10, oroxylin A (11 and aristolochic acid A (12, was acquired using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector coupled with an electrospray tandem mass spectrometer (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS. The analysis was performed on a Dikma Platisil ODS C18 column (250 mm × 4. 6 mm, 5 μm with a gradient solvent system of acetonitrile-0. 1% aqueous formic acid. The validation was carried out and the linearities (r > 0. 9996, repeatability (RSD<1. 8%, intra- and inter-day precision (RSD< 1. 3%, and recoveries (ranging from 96. 6% to 103. 4% were acceptable. The limits of detection (LOD of these compounds ranged from 0.29 to 4. 17 ng. Aristolochic acid A, which is the toxic ingredient, was not detected in all the batches of Longdan Xiegan Pill. Furthermore, hierarchical cluster analysis was used to evaluate the variation of the herbal prescription. The proposed method is simple, effective and suitable for the quality control of this traditional Chinese medicine (TCM. Keywords: Longdan Xiegan Pill, high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector coupled with an electrospray tandem mass spectrometer (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS, qualitative evaluation, aristolochic acid A, hierarchical cluster analysis

  9. Andrographis paniculata extracts and major constituent diterpenoids inhibit growth of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma cells by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.

    Suriyo, Tawit; Pholphana, Nanthanit; Rangkadilok, Nuchanart; Thiantanawat, Apinya; Watcharasit, Piyajit; Satayavivad, Jutamaad

    2014-05-01

    Andrographis paniculata is an important herbal medicine widely used in several Asian countries for the treatment of various diseases due to its broad range of pharmacological activities. The present study reports that A. paniculata extracts potently inhibit the growth of liver (HepG2 and SK-Hep1) and bile duct (HuCCA-1 and RMCCA-1) cancer cells. A. paniculata extracts with different contents of major diterpenoids, including andrographolide, 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide, neoandrographolide, and 14-deoxyandrographolide, exhibited a different potency of growth inhibition. The ethanolic extract of A. paniculata at the first true leaf stage, which contained a high amount of 14-deoxyandrographolide but a low amount of andrographolide, showed a cytotoxic effect to cancer cells about 4 times higher than the water extract of A. paniculata at the mature leaf stage, which contained a high amount of andrographolide but a low amount of 14-deoxyandrographolide. Andrographolide, not 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide, neoandrographolide, or 14-deoxyandrographolide, possessed potent cytotoxic activity against the growth of liver and bile duct cancer cells. The cytotoxic effect of the water extract of A. paniculata at the mature leaf stage could be explained by the present amount of andrographolide, while the cytotoxic effect of the ethanolic extract of A. paniculata at the first true leaf stage could not. HuCCA-1 cells showed more sensitivity to A. paniculata extracts and andrographolide than RMCCA-1 cells. Furthermore, the ethanolic extract of A. paniculata at the first true leaf stage increased cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 and G2/M phases, and induced apoptosis in both HuCCA-1 and RMCCA-1 cells. The expressions of cyclin-D1, Bcl-2, and the inactive proenzyme form of caspase-3 were reduced by the ethanolic extract of A. paniculata in the first true leaf stage treatment, while a proapoptotic protein Bax was increased. The cleavage of poly (ADP

  10. Pharmacological properties of traditional medicine (XXXII): protective effects of hangeshashinto and the combinations of its major constituents on gastric lesions in rats.

    Kawashima, Keiko; Fujimura, Yu; Makino, Toshiaki; Kano, Yoshihiro

    2006-09-01

    The protective effect of Hangeshashinto (HST) and its major constituents, baicalin (BA), berberine (BE), saponin fraction of ginseng (GS) and glycyrrhizin (GL) on rat gastric lesion induced by ethanol was examined to clarify its active ingredients and action mechanism. Oral treatment with HST at the doses of 125 and 250 mg/kg suppressed ethanol-induced gastric lesions. The mixture of BA, BE, GL and GS (4M), each of BE, GL and GS at the dosage corresponded to HST (125 mg/kg) also suppressed the ethanol-induced gastric lesion in rats, but BA did not. Treatment of ethanol augmented the activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO) in the stomach, which was significantly suppressed by the administration of HST, BE, GL and GS. These results suggest that the protective effect of HST on ethanol-induced gastric lesion was depended on BE, GL and GS, by, in part, the reduction of MPO activity in stomach.

  11. Identification and Quantification of the Major Constituents in Egyptian Carob Extract by Liquid Chromatography–Electrospray Ionization-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Owis, Asmaa Ibrahim; El-Naggar, El-Motaz Bellah

    2016-01-01

    Background: Carob - Ceratonia siliqua L., commonly known as St John's-bread or locust bean, family Fabaceae - is one of the most useful native Mediterranean trees. There is no data about the chromatography methods performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for determining polyphenols in Egyptian carob pods. Objective: To establish a sensitive and specific liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization (ESI)-tandem mass spectrometry (MSn) methodology for the identification of the major constituents in Egyptian carob extract. Materials and Methods: HPLC with diode array detector and ESI-mass spectrometry (MS) was developed for the identification and quantification of phenolic acids, flavonoid glycosides, and aglycones in the methanolic extract of Egyptian C. siliqua. The MS and MSn data together with HPLC retention time of phenolic components allowed structural characterization of these compounds. Peak integration of ions in the MS scans had been used in the quantification technique. Results: A total of 36 compounds were tentatively identified. Twenty-six compounds were identified in the negative mode corresponding to 85.4% of plant dry weight, while ten compounds were identified in the positive mode representing 16.1% of plant dry weight, with the prevalence of flavonoids (75.4% of plant dry weight) predominantly represented by two methylapigenin-O-pentoside isomers (20.9 and 13.7% of plant dry weight). Conclusion: The identification of various compounds present in carob pods opens a new door to an increased understanding of the different health benefits brought about by the consumption of carob and its products. SUMMARY This research proposed a good example for the rapid identification of major constituents in complex systems such as herbs using sensitive, accurate and specific method coupling HPLC with DAD and MS, which facilitate the clarification of phytochemical composition of herbal medicine for better understanding of their nature and

  12. Recommendations concerning Tennessee's hazardous waste management policies by a task force representing generators, environmentalists, and other key constituencies

    Colglazier, E.W.; English, M.R.

    1987-01-01

    Four recommendations are proposed. 1) A Governor's Roundtable on Hazardous and Solid Wastes should be established to ensure that Tennessee have sound policies and plans for waste management, adequate waste treatment and disposal capacity, and the means to meet the October, 1989 deadline for certification of hazardous waste capacity. 2) Opportunities for early public information and participation in Tennessee's RCRA permitting process should be improved. 3) A Superfund Public Involvement Task Force should be appointed by the Commissioner of Health and Environment to find ways to ensure that a community affected by a Tennessee Superfund site has early and adequate opportunities for information and involvement. 4) Communications about hazardous waste issues should be improved by the appointment of a hazardous waste information officer, the establishment of a Speakers Bureau, the funding of the UT Center for Industrial Services' Hazardous Waste Extension Program, establishment of a crisis situation network of consultants for communities, and exploration of the possibility of Amnesty Days for household hazardous waste and for small-quantity generators waste

  13. Assessment and quantification of plastics waste generation in major 60 cities of India.

    Nalini, R; Srinivasulu, B; Shit, Subhas C; Nigam, Suneel Kumar; Akolkar, A B; Dwivedfi, R K

    2013-04-01

    Polymers or plastics materials registered rapid growth in 1970s, 1980s and 1990s at the rate of 2-2.5 times the GDP growth in India. The demand for plastic raw material got more than doubled from 3.3 Million Metric Ton to 6.8 Million Metric Tons in 2010 attributed mainly to rapid urbanization, spread of retail chains, plastics based packaging from grocery to food and vegetable products to cosmetics and consumer items. Plastics packages have its merits over many of conventional materials in the related sector but unless they are collected back effectively after their use to go into recycling process, they become an eyesore in the stream of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) due to high visibility. As the synthetic and conventional plastics are non-biodegradable in nature, these remain in the dump yards/ landfills for several years, if not collected properly. Due to non- biodegradability, plastics waste remains in the environment for several years, if not collected and disposing plastics wastes at landfills are unsafe since toxic chemicals leach out into the soil and as they contaminate soil and underground water quality. The municipal solid waste also increasing day-by-day due to the inefficient source collection, segregation and transmission of plastics waste for recycling and reusing. In order to find out the realistic plastics waste generation, a study on assessment and quantification of plastics waste has been carried out by CPCB in collaboration with CIPET on selected 60 major cities of India.

  14. Concentrations, loads, and yields of select constituents from major tributaries of the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers in Iowa, water years 2004-2008

    Garrett, Jessica D.

    2012-01-01

    Excess nutrients, suspended-sediment loads, and the presence of pesticides in Iowa rivers can have deleterious effects on water quality in State streams, downstream major rivers, and the Gulf of Mexico. Fertilizer and pesticides are used to support crop growth on Iowa's highly productive agricultural landscape and for household and commercial lawns and gardens. Water quality was characterized near the mouths of 10 major Iowa tributaries to the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers from March 2004 through September 2008. Stream loads were calculated for select ions, nutrients, and sediment using approximately monthly samples, and samples from storm and snowmelt events. Water-quality samples collected using standard streamflow-integrated protocols were analyzed for major ions, nutrients, carbon, pesticides, and suspended sediment. Statistical data summaries of sample data used parametric and nonparametric techniques to address potential bias related to censored data and multiple levels of censoring of data below analytical detection limits. Constituent stream loads were computed using standard pre-defined models in S-LOADEST that include streamflow and time terms plus additional terms for streamflow variability and streamflow anomalies. Streamflow variability terms describe the difference in streamflow from recent average conditions, whereas streamflow anomaly terms account for deviations from average conditions from long- to short-term sequentially. Streamflow variability or anomaly terms were included in 44 of 80 site/constituent individual models, demonstrating the usefulness of these terms in increasing accuracy of the load estimates. Constituent concentrations in Iowa streams exhibit streamflow, seasonal, and spatial patterns related to the landform and climate gradients across the studied basins. The streamflow-concentration relation indicated dilution for ions such as chloride and sulfate. Other constituent concentrations, such as dissolved organic carbon and

  15. Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of the Major Constituents in Chinese Medical Preparation Lianhua-Qingwen Capsule by UPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS

    Weina Jia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lianhua-Qingwen capsule (LQC is a commonly used Chinese medical preparation to treat viral influenza and especially played a very important role in the fight against severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS in 2002-2003 in China. In this paper, a rapid ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with diode-array detector and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS method was established for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the major constituents of LQC. A total of 61 compounds including flavonoids, phenylpropanoids, anthraquinones, triterpenoids, iridoids, and other types of compounds were unambiguously or tentatively identified by comparing the retention times and accurate mass measurement with reference compounds or literature data. Among them, twelve representative compounds were further quantified as chemical markers in quantitative analysis, including salidroside, chlorogenic acid, forsythoside E, cryptochlorogenic acid, amygdalin, sweroside, hyperin, rutin, forsythoside A, phillyrin, rhein, and glycyrrhizic acid. The UPLC-DAD method was evaluated with linearity, limit of detection (LOD, limit of quantification (LOQ, precision, stability, repeatability, and recovery tests. The results showed that the developed quantitative method was linear, sensitive, and precise for the quality control of LQC.

  16. Metabolism of citral, the major constituent of lemongrass oil, in the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, and effects of enzyme inhibitors on toxicity and metabolism.

    Tak, Jun-Hyung; Isman, Murray B

    2016-10-01

    Although screening for new and reliable sources of botanical insecticides remains important, finding ways to improve the efficacy of those already in use through better understanding of their modes-of-action or metabolic pathways, or by improving formulations, deserves greater attention as the latter may present lesser regulation hurdles. Metabolic processing of citral (a combination of the stereoisomers geranial and neral), a main constituent of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) essential oil has not been previously examined in insects. To address this, we investigated insecticidal activities of lemongrass oil and citral, as well as the metabolism of citral in larvae of the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, in associations with well-known enzyme inhibitors. Among the inhibitors tested, piperonyl butoxide showed the highest increase in toxicity followed by triphenyl phosphate, but no synergistic interaction between the inhibitors was observed. Topical application of citral to fifth instar larvae produced mild reductions in food consumption, and frass analysis after 24h revealed geranic acid (99.7%) and neric acid (98.8%) as major metabolites of citral. Neither citral nor any other metabolites were found following in vivo analysis of larvae after 24h, and no significant effect of enzyme inhibitors was observed on diet consumption or citral metabolism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Preliminary conceptual design for the destruction of organic/ferrocyanide constituents in the Hanford tank waste with low-temperature hydrothermal processing

    Schmidt, A.J.; Jones, E.O.; Orth, R.J.; Cox, J.L.; Elmore, M.E.; Neuenschwander, G.G.; Hart, T.R.; Meng, C.D.

    1993-05-01

    Hydrothermal processing (HTP) is a thermal-chemical processing method that can be employed to destroy organic and ferrocyanide constituents in Hanford tank waste by using the abundant existing oxidants in the tank waste such as nitrite and nitrate. Use-temperature HTP effectively destroys organics at temperatures from 250 degree C to 400 degree C to eliminate safety hazards and improve further processing. This proposal describes a conceptual design of a low-temperature HTP system (including a preliminary flow diagram and plot plan, equipment descriptions and sizes, utility requirements, and costs); the experimental work supporting this effort at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL); the reaction chemistry and kinetics; the technical maturity of the process; and a preliminary assessment of maintenance, operation, and safety of a system. Nitrate destruction using organic reductants is also described. The low-temperature hydrothermal program at PNL was initiated in January 1993. It is part of an overall program to develop organic destruction technologies, which was originally funded by Hanford's Tank Waste Remediation System program and then was transferred to the Initial Pretreatment (IPM) project. As described in the document, low-temperature HTP (1) meets or exceeds system requirements in organic, ferrocyanide, and nitrate destruction, and processing rate; (2) is technically mature with little additional technology development required; (3) is a simple process with good operational reliability; (4) is flexible and can be easily integrated in the system; (5) has reasonable costs and utility requirements; and (6) is safe and environmentally-benign

  18. The use of diffusive samplers for collecting organic gaseous constituents in waste gases. Diffusionssammler zur Probenahme von organischen gas- und dampffoermigen Substanzen in Abgasen

    Canela, A.; Gruntz, U.; Muehleisen, H.; Tanner, S. (Sandoz AG, Basel (Switzerland). Umweltschutzlaboratorien)

    1990-01-01

    A relatively simple procedure for sample collection of multicomponent organic emissions is presented. A representative part of the waste gas is taken by means of a sampling probe and flows to the coupled sampling device. The gaseous constituents are collected in several diffusive samplers at the bottom of the device. Influencing parameters such as pressure, temperature, gas velocity etc., which may affect the collection rate and therefore the measured values, were investigated in the laboratory. Depending on the analytical detection limit, the sampling time and the diffusion parameters, the method can be applied for the determination of integrated emission concentrations between 0.1 mg/m{sup 3} and 1 g/m{sup 3}. (orig.).

  19. Mucuna pruriens and its major constituent L-DOPA recover spermatogenic loss by combating ROS, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and apoptosis.

    Akhand Pratap Singh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Ayurvedic medicinal system claims Mucuna pruriens (MP to possess pro-male fertility, aphrodisiac and adaptogenic properties. Some scientific evidence also supports its pro-male fertility properties; however, the mechanism of its action is not yet clear. The present study aimed at demonstrating spermatogenic restorative efficacy of MP and its major constituent L-DOPA (LD, and finding the possible mechanism of action thereof in a rat model. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: Ethinyl estradiol (EE was administered at a rate of 3 mg/kg body weight (BW/day for a period of 14 days to generate a rat model with compromised spermatogenesis. MP and LD were administered in two separate groups of these animals starting 15(th day for a period of 56 days, and the results were compared with an auto-recovery (AR group. Sperm count and motility, testis histo-architecture, level of reactive oxygen species (ROS, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, apoptosis, peripheral hormone levels and testicular germ cell populations were analysed, in all experimental groups. We observed efficient and quick recovery of spermatogenesis in MP and LD groups in comparison to the auto-recovery group. The treatment regulated ROS level, apoptosis, and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, recovered the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and the number of testicular germ cells, ultimately leading to increased sperm count and motility. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: M. pruriens efficiently recovers the spermatogenic loss induced due to EE administration. The recovery is mediated by reduction in ROS level, restoration of MMP, regulation of apoptosis and eventual increase in the number of germ cells and regulation of apoptosis. The present study simplified the complexity of mechanism involved and provided meaningful insights into MP/LD mediated correction of spermatogenic impairment caused by estrogens exposure. This is the first study demonstrating that L-DOPA largely accounts for pro

  20. Development of a validated HPLC method for the determination of sennoside A and B, two major constituents of Cassia obovata Coll.

    Ghassemi-Dehkordi Nasrollah

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cassia obovata Coll is the only Senna species which grows wild in Iran. In the present study, an optimised reverse High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC validated method was established for quantification of sennosides A and B, the major constituents of C. obovata with a simple and accurate method. Methods: HPLC analysis was done using Waters 515 pump on a Nova-Pak C18 (3.9 × 150 mm. Millennium software was used for the determination of the sennoside A and B in Cassia species and processing the information. The method was validated according to USP 32 requirements. Results: The solvent impact on the selectivity factor and partition coefficient parameters evaluated. Using a conventional RP-18 L1 column, 3.9 × 150 mm, the mobile phase was selected after several trials with different mixtures of water and acetonitrile. Sennosides A and B were determined using the external standard calibration method. Using USP 35-NF 30, the LOD and LOQ were calculated. The reliability of the HPLC-method for analysis of sennoside A + B was validated through its linearity, reproducibility, repeatability, and recovery. Fina1ly ethanol:water (1:1 extracts of Cassia obovata and Cassia angustifolia were standardized by assay of sennoside A and B through above HPLC validated method. Conclusion: Through the above method, determination of sennosides in Cassia species are completely possible. Moreover, through comparing the results, even though sennosides are rich in Cassia angustifolia but, the results shows that C. obovata could be considered as an alternative source for sennosides A and B.

  1. Mucuna pruriens and its major constituent L-DOPA recover spermatogenic loss by combating ROS, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and apoptosis.

    Singh, Akhand Pratap; Sarkar, Saumya; Tripathi, Muktanand; Rajender, Singh

    2013-01-01

    The Ayurvedic medicinal system claims Mucuna pruriens (MP) to possess pro-male fertility, aphrodisiac and adaptogenic properties. Some scientific evidence also supports its pro-male fertility properties; however, the mechanism of its action is not yet clear. The present study aimed at demonstrating spermatogenic restorative efficacy of MP and its major constituent L-DOPA (LD), and finding the possible mechanism of action thereof in a rat model. Ethinyl estradiol (EE) was administered at a rate of 3 mg/kg body weight (BW)/day for a period of 14 days to generate a rat model with compromised spermatogenesis. MP and LD were administered in two separate groups of these animals starting 15(th) day for a period of 56 days, and the results were compared with an auto-recovery (AR) group. Sperm count and motility, testis histo-architecture, level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), apoptosis, peripheral hormone levels and testicular germ cell populations were analysed, in all experimental groups. We observed efficient and quick recovery of spermatogenesis in MP and LD groups in comparison to the auto-recovery group. The treatment regulated ROS level, apoptosis, and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), recovered the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and the number of testicular germ cells, ultimately leading to increased sperm count and motility. M. pruriens efficiently recovers the spermatogenic loss induced due to EE administration. The recovery is mediated by reduction in ROS level, restoration of MMP, regulation of apoptosis and eventual increase in the number of germ cells and regulation of apoptosis. The present study simplified the complexity of mechanism involved and provided meaningful insights into MP/LD mediated correction of spermatogenic impairment caused by estrogens exposure. This is the first study demonstrating that L-DOPA largely accounts for pro-spermatogenic properties of M. pruriens. The manuscript bears CDRI

  2. Dietary intake of PBDEs of residents at two major electronic waste recycling sites in China

    Chan, J.K.Y. [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China); School of Biological Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong (China); Man, Y.B. [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China); Wu, S.C. [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China); State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Wong, M.H., E-mail: mhwong@hkbu.edu.hk [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China)

    2013-10-01

    The dietary intake of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) of local residents from 2 major electronic waste (e-waste) processing sites (Guiyu, Guangdong Province and Taizhou, Zhejiang Province) in China was investigated. Seventy-four food items were collected from these sites, divided into 9 food groups (freshwater fish, marine fish, shellfish, pork, poultry, chicken offal, egg, vegetables and cereals), and examined for residual PBDE concentrations. Out of all food items examined, the freshwater bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) contained extremely high (11,400 ± 254 ng/g wet wt.) concentrations of PBDE, the highest concentrations amongst published data concerning PBDE detected in freshwater fish. Food consumption data obtained through semi-quantitative food intake questionnaires showed that Guiyu residents had a PBDE dietary intake of 931 ± 772 ng/kg bw/day, of which BDE-47 (584 ng/kg bw/day) exceeded the US EPA's reference dose (100 ng/kg/day). Taizhou (44.7 ± 26.3 ng/kg bw/day) and Lin'an (1.94 ± 0.86 ng/kg bw/day) residents exhibited lower readings. The main dietary source of PBDEs in Guiyu and Taizhou residents was seafood (88–98%) and pork (41%) in Lin'an. The present results indicated that health risks arising from PBDE dietary exposure are of significance in terms of public health and food safety to local residents of e-waste processing sites. - Highlights: ► Food basket analysis was conducted in 2 major e-waste processing sites in China. ► Different food items were contaminated by PBDE contained in e-waste sites in China. ► Guiyu residents had an potential unsafe level of PBDE dietary exposure.

  3. 40 CFR 264.342 - Principal organic hazardous constituents (POHCs).

    2010-07-01

    ...) Principal Organic Hazardous Constituents (POHCs) in the waste feed must be treated to the extent required by... organic constituents in the waste and on their concentration or mass in the waste feed, considering the... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE...

  4. Waste management and environmental compliance aspects of a major remedial action program

    Devgun, J.S.; Beskid, N.J.

    1991-01-01

    The Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) is one of four major programs undertaken by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to remediate various sites where radiological contamination remained from programs conducted during the nation's early years of research and development in atomic energy. The remedial actions at the 33 sites that are currently in FUSRAP could generate an estimated total volume of about 1.6 million cubic meters of radioactive waste. Waste disposal is currently estimated to represent about one-third of the total estimated $2.1 billion cost for the entire program over its total duration. Waste management aspects within the program are diverse. The sites range in size from small areas used only for storage operations to large-scale decommissioned industrial facilities where uranium processing and other operations were carried out in the past. Currently, four sites are on the National Priorities List for remediation. Remedial actions at FUSRAP sites have to satisfy the requirements of both the National Environmental Policy Act and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, as amended. In addition, a number of federal, state, and local laws as well as Executive Orders and DOE Orders may be applicable or relevant to each site. Several key issues currently face the program, including the mixed waste issue, both from the environmental compliance (with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act) and the disposal technology perspectives. 7 refs., 1 tab

  5. Management of radioactive waste from a major core damage in a BWR power plant

    Elkert, J.; Christensen, H.; Torstenfelt, B.

    1990-01-01

    Large amounts of fission products would be released in case of a major core damage in a nuclear power reactor. In this theoretical study the core damage is caused by a loss of coolant accident followed by a complete loss of all electric power for about 30 minutes resulting in the release of 10% of the core inventory of noble gases. A second case has also been briefly studied, in which the corresponding core damage is supposed to be created merely by the complete loss of electric power during a limited time period. It appears from the study that the radioactive waste generated as a consequence of an accident of the extent can be managed in the reference reactor with only minor modifications required in the waste plant. The detailed results of the study are reactor specific, but many of the findings and recommendations are generally applicable. (author) 28 refs

  6. Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels essential oil and its major constituent α-pinene exhibit anti-Leishmania activity through immunomodulation in vitro.

    Rodrigues, Klinger Antonio da Franca; Amorim, Layane Valéria; Dias, Clarice Noleto; Moraes, Denise Fernandes Coutinho; Carneiro, Sabrina Maria Portela; Carvalho, Fernando Aécio de Amorim

    2015-02-03

    , and the elevated NO levels. ScEO and α-pinene exhibited low cytotoxicity against murine macrophages and human erythrocytes. The 50% cytotoxicity concentration (CC50) values for the macrophages in the MTT assay were 614.1 and 425.2µg/mL for ScEO and α-pinene, respectively, while the corresponding half-maximal hemolytic concentration (HC50) values were 874.3 and 233.3µg/mL. Taken together, the results demonstrate that ScEO and its major constituent α-pinene have significant anti-Leishmania activity, modulated by macrophage activation, with acceptable levels of cytotoxicity in murine macrophages and human erythrocytes. Further work is warranted, involving more in-depth mechanistic studies and in vivo investigations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Demonstration Of LEACHXS(trademark)/Orchestra Capabilities By Simulating Constituent Release From A Cementitious Waste Form In A Reinforced Concrete Vault

    Langton, C.; Meeussen, J.; Sloot, H.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the work described in this report is to demonstrate the capabilities of the current version of LeachXS(trademark)/ORCHESTRA for simulating chemical behavior and constituent release processes in a range of applications that are relevant to the CBP. This report illustrates the use of LeachXS(trademark)/ORCHESTRA for the following applications: (1) Comparing model and experimental results for leaching tests for a range of cementitious materials including cement mortars, grout, stabilized waste, and concrete. The leaching test data includes liquid-solid partitioning as a function of pH and release rates based on laboratory column, monolith, and field testing. (2) Modeling chemical speciation of constituents in cementitious materials, including liquid-solid partitioning and release rates. (3) Evaluating uncertainty in model predictions based on uncertainty in underlying composition, thermodynamic, and transport characteristics. (4) Generating predominance diagrams to evaluate predicted chemical changes as a result of material aging using the example of exposure to atmospheric conditions. (5) Modeling coupled geochemical speciation and diffusion in a three layer system consisting of a layer of Saltstone, a concrete barrier, and a layer of soil in contact with air. The simulations show developing concentration fronts over a time period of 1000 years. (6) Modeling sulfate attack and cracking due to ettringite formation. A detailed example for this case is provided in a separate article by the authors (Sarkar et al. 2010). Finally, based on the computed results, the sensitive input parameters for this type of modeling are identified and discussed. The chemical speciation behavior of substances is calculated for a batch system and also in combination with transport and within a three layer system. This includes release from a barrier to the surrounding soil as a function of time. As input for the simulations, the physical and chemical properties of the

  8. Major and trace elements regulation in natural granitic waters: Application to deep radioactive waste disposals

    Michard, G.; Negrel, G.; Toulhoat, P.; Beaucaire, C.; Ouzounian, G.

    1991-01-01

    In order to forecast the evolution of deep groundwaters in the environment of a radioactive waste disposal, one must be able to understand the behaviour of major and trace elements in natural systems. From granitic geothermal and groundwater systems the authors establish that major elements are controlled by mineral precipitation. Regulation levels depend both on equilibration temperature and mobile anion concentration (mainly C1). From empirical laws, the regulation levels with temperature of some trace elements (alkaline and most divalent) elements can be estimated, although a precise explanation for the regulation mechanism is not yet available. They demonstrate that some transition metals are controlled by sulphide precipitation; that uranium is controlled by uraninite solubility; that trivalent and tetravalent metals are present in association with colloidal particles. Maximum regulation levels can be estimated. Such studies can also be useful to forecast the concentration levels of many elements related to nuclear wastes, mainly fission products, uranium, thorium and by analogy artificial actinide elements, as the behaviour of corresponding natural elements can be evaluated

  9. Radical scavenging and antimicrobial activities of Croton zehntneri, Pterodon emarginatus and Schinopsis brasiliensis essential oils and their major constituents: estragole, trans-anethole, β-caryophyllene and myrcene.

    Donati, Maddalena; Mondin, Andrea; Chen, Zheng; Miranda, Fabricio Mendes; do Nascimento, Baraquizio Braga; Schirato, Giulia; Pastore, Paolo; Froldi, Guglielmina

    2015-01-01

    The essential oils (EOs) from the Brazilian species Croton zehntneri, Pterodon emarginatus and Schinopsis brasiliensis were examined for their chemical constituents, and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. The composition of EOs was determined by using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry analysis, while the antioxidant activity was evaluated through the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays. Furthermore, the antimicrobial activity was investigated against Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (both Gram-negative), Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive) and Candida parapsilosis (fungus). The main components of C. zehntneri, P. emarginatus and S. brasiliensis were identified as estragole, trans-anethole, β-caryophyllene and myrcene. Among the EOs, P. emarginatus showed the highest antioxidant activity, with an IC50 of 7.36 mg/mL and a Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity of 3748 μmol/g determined by DPPH and ORAC assays, respectively. All EOs showed low activities against the bacterial strains tested, whereas the C. zehntneri oil and its main constituent estragole exhibited an appreciable antifungal activity against C. parapsilosis.

  10. Characterization of decontamination and decommissioning wastes expected from the major processing facilities in the 200 Areas

    Amato, L.C.; Franklin, J.D.; Hyre, R.A.; Lowy, R.M.; Millar, J.S.; Pottmeyer, J.A.; Duncan, D.R.

    1994-08-01

    This study was intended to characterize and estimate the amounts of equipment and other materials that are candidates for removal and subsequent processing in a solid waste facility when the major processing and handling facilities in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site are decontaminated and decommissioned. The facilities in this study were selected based on processing history and on the magnitude of the estimated decommissioning cost cited in the Surplus Facilities Program Plan; Fiscal Year 1993 (Winship and Hughes 1992). The facilities chosen for this study include B Plant (221-B), T Plant (221-T), U Plant (221-U), the Uranium Trioxide (UO 3 ) Plant (224-U and 224-UA), the Reduction Oxidation (REDOX) or S Plant (202-S), the Plutonium Concentration Facility for B Plant (224-B), and the Concentration Facility for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) and REDOX (233-S). This information is required to support planning activities for current and future solid waste treatment, storage, and disposal operations and facilities

  11. Characterization of decontamination and decommissioning wastes expected from the major processing facilities in the 200 Areas

    Amato, L.C.; Franklin, J.D.; Hyre, R.A.; Lowy, R.M.; Millar, J.S.; Pottmeyer, J.A. [Los Alamos Technical Associates, Kennewick, WA (United States); Duncan, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-08-01

    This study was intended to characterize and estimate the amounts of equipment and other materials that are candidates for removal and subsequent processing in a solid waste facility when the major processing and handling facilities in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site are decontaminated and decommissioned. The facilities in this study were selected based on processing history and on the magnitude of the estimated decommissioning cost cited in the Surplus Facilities Program Plan; Fiscal Year 1993 (Winship and Hughes 1992). The facilities chosen for this study include B Plant (221-B), T Plant (221-T), U Plant (221-U), the Uranium Trioxide (UO{sub 3}) Plant (224-U and 224-UA), the Reduction Oxidation (REDOX) or S Plant (202-S), the Plutonium Concentration Facility for B Plant (224-B), and the Concentration Facility for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) and REDOX (233-S). This information is required to support planning activities for current and future solid waste treatment, storage, and disposal operations and facilities.

  12. Fate of major radionuclides in the liquid wastes released to coastal waters

    Bhat, I.S.; Verma, P.C.; Iyer, R.S.; Chandramouli, S.

    1980-01-01

    131 I, 134 Cs, 137 Cs and 60 Co have been reported as the major radionuclides in the low level liquid wastes released to coastal waters from atomic power stations. Silt absorption and desorption of the radionuclides were investigated. The exchangeability of the silt absorbed radionuclides and its dependence on particle size were also studied. More than 80% instantaneous absorpt;.on of 60 Co by suspended silt and less than 5% exchangeability of absorbed 60 Co were observed. Biological uptake of the radionuclides by the marine organisms present in sea waters was studied to evaluate radiation exposure pathways. A few benthic and crustacean organisms wnich are consumed by coastal population as fresh sea food, were observed to concentrate the radionuclides to a greater extent than other organisms. (H.K.)

  13. Management of radioactive waste in Belgium: ONDRAF/NIRAS and Belgoprocess as major actors of the waste acceptance system

    Zaelen, Gunter van; Verheyen, Annick

    2007-01-01

    The management of radioactive waste in Belgium is undertaken by the national agency for radioactive waste and enriched fissile materials, ONDRAF/NIRAS, and its industrial partner Belgoprocess. ONDRAF/NIRAS has set up a management system designed to guarantee that the general public and the environment are protected against the potential hazards arising from radioactive waste. Belgoprocess is a private company, founded in 1984 and located in Dessel, Belgium. It is a subsidiary of ONDRAF/NIRAS and its activities focus on the safe processing and storage of radioactive waste. The management system of ONDRAF/NIRAS includes two aspects: a) an integrated system and b) an acceptance system. The integrated system covers all aspects of management ranging from the origin of waste to its transport, processing, interim storage and long-term management. The safety of radioactive waste management not only depends on the quality of the design and construction of the processing, temporary storage or disposal infrastructure, but also on the quality of the waste accepted by ONDRAF/NIRAS. In order to be manage d safely, both in the short and the long term, the waste transferred to ONDRAF/NIRAS must meet certain specific requirements. To that end, ONDRAF/NIRAS has developed an acceptance system. (authors)

  14. Hazardous constituent source term. Revision 2

    1994-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has several facilities that either generate and/or store transuranic (TRU)-waste from weapons program research and production. Much of this waste also contains hazardous waste constituents as regulated under Subtitle C of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Toxicity characteristic metals in the waste principally include lead, occurring in leaded rubber gloves and shielding. Other RCRA metals may occur as contaminants in pyrochemical salt, soil, debris, and sludge and solidified liquids, as well as in equipment resulting from decontamination and decommissioning activities. Volatile organic compounds (VOCS) contaminate many waste forms as a residue adsorbed on surfaces or occur in sludge and solidified liquids. Due to the presence of these hazardous constituents, applicable disposal regulations include land disposal restrictions established by Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA). The DOE plans to dispose of TRU-mixed waste from the weapons program in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) by demonstrating no-migration of hazardous constituents. This paper documents the current technical basis for methodologies proposed to develop a post-closure RCRA hazardous constituent source term. For the purposes of demonstrating no-migration, the hazardous constituent source term is defined as the quantities of hazardous constituents that are available for transport after repository closure. Development of the source term is only one of several activities that will be involved in the no-migration demonstration. The demonstration will also include uncertainty and sensitivity analyses of contaminant transport

  15. Identification and Quantification of Oxidoselina-1,3,7(11-Trien-8-One and Cyanidin-3-Glucoside as One of the Major Volatile and Non-Volatile Low-Molecular-Weight Constituents in Pitanga Pulp.

    Denise Josino Soares

    Full Text Available The pulp of pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L. is used to prepare pitanga juice. However, there are no reports on the identification and quantification of the main constituents in pitanga pulp. The aim of this study was to identify and quantify the major volatile and non-volatile low-molecular-weight constituents of the pulp. Isolation of volatile compounds was performed by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation technique. Characterization of the main volatile and non-volatile constituents was performed by GC-MS, LC-MS and NMR spectroscopy. For quantitative measurements, the main volatile compound needed to be isolated from pitanga pulp to obtain a commercially not available reference standard. Cyanidin-3-glucoside was determined as one of the most abundant non-volatile pulp compound yielding 53.8% of the sum of the intensities of all ions detected by LC-MS. Quantification of cyanidin-3-glucoside in pitanga pulp resulted in a concentration of 344 ± 66.4 μg/mL corresponding to 688 ± 133 μg/g dried pulp and 530 ± 102 μg/g fruit. For the volatile fraction, oxidoselina-1,3,7(11-trien-8-one was identified as the main volatile pulp constituent (27.7% of the sum of the intensities of all ions detected by GC-MS, reaching a concentration of 89.0 ± 16.9 μg/mL corresponding to 1.34 ± 0.25 μg/g fresh pulp and 1.03 ± 0.19 μg/g fruit. The results provide quantitative evidence for the occurrence of an anthocyanin and an oxygenated sesquiterpene as one of the major volatile and non-volatile low-molecular-weight compounds in pitanga pulp.

  16. Identification and Quantification of Oxidoselina-1,3,7(11)-Trien-8-One and Cyanidin-3-Glucoside as One of the Major Volatile and Non-Volatile Low-Molecular-Weight Constituents in Pitanga Pulp.

    Josino Soares, Denise; Pignitter, Marc; Ehrnhöfer-Ressler, Miriam Margit; Walker, Jessica; Montenegro Brasil, Isabella; Somoza, Veronika

    2015-01-01

    The pulp of pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L.) is used to prepare pitanga juice. However, there are no reports on the identification and quantification of the main constituents in pitanga pulp. The aim of this study was to identify and quantify the major volatile and non-volatile low-molecular-weight constituents of the pulp. Isolation of volatile compounds was performed by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation technique. Characterization of the main volatile and non-volatile constituents was performed by GC-MS, LC-MS and NMR spectroscopy. For quantitative measurements, the main volatile compound needed to be isolated from pitanga pulp to obtain a commercially not available reference standard. Cyanidin-3-glucoside was determined as one of the most abundant non-volatile pulp compound yielding 53.8% of the sum of the intensities of all ions detected by LC-MS. Quantification of cyanidin-3-glucoside in pitanga pulp resulted in a concentration of 344 ± 66.4 μg/mL corresponding to 688 ± 133 μg/g dried pulp and 530 ± 102 μg/g fruit. For the volatile fraction, oxidoselina-1,3,7(11)-trien-8-one was identified as the main volatile pulp constituent (27.7% of the sum of the intensities of all ions detected by GC-MS), reaching a concentration of 89.0 ± 16.9 μg/mL corresponding to 1.34 ± 0.25 μg/g fresh pulp and 1.03 ± 0.19 μg/g fruit. The results provide quantitative evidence for the occurrence of an anthocyanin and an oxygenated sesquiterpene as one of the major volatile and non-volatile low-molecular-weight compounds in pitanga pulp.

  17. Evaluation of acute toxicity of essential oil of garlic (Allium sativum) and its selected major constituent compounds against overwintering Cacopsylla chinensis (Hemiptera: Psyllidae).

    Zhao, Na Na; Zhang, Hang; Zhang, Xue Chang; Luan, Xiao Bing; Zhou, Cheng; Liu, Qi Zhi; Shi, Wang Peng; Liu, Zhi Long

    2013-06-01

    In our screening program for insecticidal activity of the essential oils/extracts derived from some Chinese medicinal herbs and spices, garlic (Allium sativum L.) essential oil was found to possess strong insecticidal activity against overwintering adults of Cacopsylla chinensis Yang et Li (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). The commercial essential oil of A. sativum was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Sixteen compounds, accounting for 97.44% of the total oil, were identified, and the main components of the essential oil of A. sativum were diallyl trisulfide (50.43%), diallyl disulfide (25.30%), diallyl sulfide (6.25%), diallyl tetrasulfide (4.03%), 1,2-dithiolane (3.12%), allyl methyl disulfide (3.07%), 1,3-dithiane (2.12%), and allyl methyl trisulfide (2.08%). The essential oil of A. sativum possessed contact toxicity against overwintering C. chinensis, with an LC50 value of 1.42 microg per adult. The two main constituent compounds, diallyl trisulfide and diallyl disulfide, exhibited strong acute toxicity against the overwintering C. chinensis, with LC50 values of 0.64 and 11.04 /g per adult, respectively.

  18. Antimalarial activity and safety assessment of Flueggea virosa leaves and its major constituent with special emphasis on their mode of action.

    Singh, Shiv Vardan; Manhas, Ashan; Kumar, Yogesh; Mishra, Sonali; Shanker, Karuna; Khan, Feroz; Srivastava, Kumkum; Pal, Anirban

    2017-05-01

    A clinical emergency stands due to the appearance of drug resistant Plasmodium strains necessitate novel and effective antimalarial chemotypes, where plants seem as the prime option, especially after the discovery of quinine and artemisinin. The present study was aimed towards bioprospecting leaves of Flueggea virosa for its antimalarial efficacy and active principles. Crude hydro-ethanolic extract along with solvent derived fractions were tested in vitro against Plasmodium falciparum CQ sensitive (3D7) and resistant (K1) strains, where all the fractions exhibited potential activity (IC 50 values active constituent (IC 50, 8.07±2.05μM) of ethyl acetate fraction with the inhibition of heme polymerization pathway of malaria parasite being one of the possible chemotherapeutic target. Furthermore, bergenin exhibited a moderate antimalarial activity against P. berghei and also ameliorated parasite induced systemic inflammation in host (mice). Safe toxicity profile elucidated through in vitro cytotoxicity and in silico ADME/T predications evidently suggest that bergenin possess drug like properties. Hence, the present study validates the traditional usage of F. indica as an antimalarial remedy and also insists for further chemical modifications of bergenin to obtain more effective antimalarial chemotypes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L.) fruit juice and two major constituents thereof exhibit anti-inflammatory properties in human gingival and oral gum epithelial cells.

    Josino Soares, Denise; Walker, Jessica; Pignitter, Marc; Walker, Joel Michael; Imboeck, Julia Maria; Ehrnhoefer-Ressler, Miriam Margit; Montenegro Brasil, Isabella; Somoza, Veronika

    2014-11-01

    Pitanga, Eugenia uniflora L., is a tropical fruit, which may be consumed as juice. While beneficial health effects of Eugenia uniflora L. leaf extracts have extensively been studied, limited data are available on an anti-inflammatory potential of pitanga juice. The aim of the presented study was to investigate anti-inflammatory properties of pitanga juice with regards to a prevention of inflammation-related periodontal diseases. For this purpose, six healthy volunteers swirled pitanga juice, containing 35% pitanga pulp, for 10 min. Thereafter, oral gum epithelial cells were harvested using a sterile brush and stimulated with lipopolysaccharides from Porphyromonas gingivalis (PG-LPS) for 6 h. Furthermore, human gingival fibroblasts (HGF-1) were used to elucidate the anti-inflammatory potential of pitanga juice constituents, cyanidin-3-glucoside and oxidoselina-1,3,7(11)-trien-8-one, in juice representative concentrations of 119 μg ml(-1) and 30 μg ml(-1), respectively. For the first time, an anti-inflammatory impact of pitanga juice on gingival epithelial cells was shown by means of an attenuation of IL-8 release by 55 ± 8.2% and 52 ± 11% in non-stimulated and PG-LPS-stimulated cells, respectively. In addition, both cyanidin-3-glucoside and oxidoselina-1,3,7(11)-trien-8-one reduced the LPS-stimulated CXCL8 mRNA expression by 50 ± 15% and 37 ± 18% and IL-8 release by 52 ± 9.9% and 45 ± 3.7% in HGF-1 cells, when concomitantly incubated with 10 μg ml(-1)PG-LPS for 6 h, revealing an anti-inflammatory potential of the volatile compound oxidoselina-1,3,7(11)-trien-8-one for the first time.

  20. The determination of major and some minor constituents in lead zirconate-titanate compositions by x-ray fluorescence and atomic absorption spectrometry

    van Willigen, J.H.H.G.; Kruidhof, H.; Dahmen, E.A.M.F.

    1972-01-01

    An accurate X-ray fluorescence spectrometric method is described for the determination of lead, zirconium and titanium in lead zirconate-titanate ceramics. Careful matching of samples and standards by a borax fusion method resulted in a relative standard deviation of about 0.2% for the major

  1. Inorganic Constituents in Coal

    Rađenović A.

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Coal contains not only organic matter but also small amounts of inorganic constituents. More thanone hundred different minerals and virtually every element in the periodic table have been foundin coal. Commonly found group minerals in coal are: major (quartz, pyrite, clays and carbonates,minor, and trace minerals. Coal includes a lot of elements of low mass fraction of the orderof w=0.01 or 0.001 %. They are trace elements connected with organic matter or minerals comprisedin coal. The fractions of trace elements usually decrease when the rank of coal increases.Fractions of the inorganic elements are different, depending on the coal bed and basin. A varietyof analytical methods and techniques can be used to determine the mass fractions, mode ofoccurrence, and distribution of organic constituents in coal. There are many different instrumentalmethods for analysis of coal and coal products but atomic absorption spectroscopy – AAS is theone most commonly used. Fraction and mode of occurrence are one of the main factors that haveinfluence on transformation and separation of inorganic constituents during coal conversion.Coal, as an important world energy source and component for non-fuels usage, will be continuouslyand widely used in the future due to its relatively abundant reserves. However, there is aconflict between the requirements for increased use of coal on the one hand and less pollution onthe other. It’s known that the environmental impacts, due to either coal mining or coal usage, canbe: air, water and land pollution. Although, minor components, inorganic constituents can exert asignificant influence on the economic value, utilization, and environmental impact of the coal.

  2. Analgesic effects of an ethanol extract of the fruits of Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal A. Rich (Annonaceae and the major constituent, xylopic acid in murine models

    Eric Woode

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fruit extracts of Xylopia aethiopica are used traditionally in the management of pain disorders including rheumatism, headache, colic pain, and neuralgia. Little pharmacological data exists in scientific literature of the effect of the fruit extract and its major diterpene, xylopic acid, on pain. The present study evaluated the analgesic properties of the ethanol extract of X. aethiopica (XAE and xylopic acid (XA, in murine models. Materials and Methods: XAE and XA were assessed in chemical (acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing and formalin tests, thermal (Tail-flick and Hargreaves thermal hyperalgesia tests, and mechanical (Randall-Selitto paw pressure test pain models. Results: XAE and XA exhibited significant analgesic activity in all the pain models used. XAE (30-300 mg kg -1 , p.o. and XA (10-100 mg kg -1 , p.o. inhibited acetic acid-induced visceral nociception, formalin- induced paw pain (both neurogenic and inflammatory, thermal pain as well as carrageenan-induced mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia in animals. Morphine (1-10 mg kg -1 , i.p. and diclofenac (1-10 mg kg -1 , i.p., used as controls, exhibited similar anti-nociceptive activities. XAE and XA did not induce tolerance to their respective anti-nociceptive effects in the formalin test after chronic administration. Morphine tolerance did not also cross-generalize to the analgesic effects of XAE or XA. Conclusions: These findings establish the analgesic properties of the ethanol fruit extract of X. aethiopica and its major diterpene, xylopic acid.

  3. Major factors contributing to the construction waste generation in building projects of Iraq

    Khaleel Tareq

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the economic growth and improvement of the construction industry witnessed by most countries, there has become a crucial need for employing modern possibilities in the construction sector to build taller, longer and deeper structures. However, one aspect that heads forward with the same intensity is the generation of 100 million tons of construction waste every year. This generation has occurred due to several factors with different levels of importance. Hence, this study reveals 15 factors influencing construction waste generation and categorizes them into 3 groups, (materials management on site, (materials handling, transportation and storage and (site management and practices. A questionnaire survey of 100 respondents was distributed among different engineers to assess the construction waste factors. Results showed that damage of materials on site, double handling of materials and incompetent contractor’s technical staff were the most significant factors of each category with Relative Importance Indexes (RII of 0.866, 0.844 and 0.83, respectively. These findings will help the practitioners to reduce construction waste quantities in sites and improve waste management performance factors to control the construction waste problems.

  4. Hepatoprotective effect of fermented ginseng and its major constituent compound K in a rat model of paracetamol (acetaminophen)-induced liver injury.

    Igami, Kentaro; Shimojo, Yosuke; Ito, Hisatomi; Miyazaki, Toshitsugu; Kashiwada, Yoshiki

    2015-04-01

    This work aimed at evaluating the effect of fermented ginseng (FG) and fermented red ginseng (FRG) against rat liver injury caused by paracetamol (acetaminophen (APAP)). Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in the serum and histopathological changes in the liver were analysed to determine the degree of liver injury. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) microarray analysis was performed to compare gene expression levels altered in the rat livers. Phosphorylated Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells were detected using western blot analysis to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of compound K. Pretreatment with FG, containing compound K at high concentration, attenuated AST as well as ALT levels in rats, while no obvious effect was observed in the group that received FRG, whose content of compound K was lower than that of FG. In addition, the results of our histopathological analysis were consistent with changes in the serum biochemical analysis. DNA microarray analysis indicated that JNK- and glutathione S-transferase (GST)-related genes were involved in the hepatotoxicity. Notably, compound K, a major ginsenoside in FG, inhibited the phosphorylation of JNK in HepG2 cells. FG was shown to possess hepatoprotective activity against paracetamol (APAP)-induced liver injury better than FRG. Compound K might play an important role for an anti-inflammatory activity of FG by inhibiting JNK signalling in the liver. © 2014 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  5. Autoclave reduction of jarosites and other metal sulfates : a new approach to major waste problems

    Hage, J.T.L.

    1999-01-01

    Industrial jarosite is a waste product of the zinc industry. It is considered a serious environmental problem, due to the quantity produced and the mobile hazardous metals it contains. Over 50 million tons are already stored worldwide. The jarosite sludge autoclave treatment process described in

  6. ANCLI: white papers. Major contribution to public debate in France on nuclear waste policy

    Sene, M.

    2006-01-01

    Local Information Commissions (CLI) were first set up in autumn 1981 following the 'Mauroy circular' sent out by then Prime Minister, Pierre Mauroy. To date (2006), 30 CLIs have been set up. The status and funding for these CLIs have lacked consistency, subject to the good will of the political authorities. However, since being set up, the value of these commissions has become more and more apparent: the French now have somewhere where they can express their opinions. It is for this reason that, for almost ten years, the CLIs have called for a legislative framework in recognition of their existence: this has now been achieved, under the provisions of the Nuclear Transparency and Safety Act passed on 13 June 2006. It is a shame, however, that this Act does not explicitly recognize the existence of the National Association of Local Information Commissions (ANCLI), set up in 2000 and grouping together 20 CLIs (2006). When two public debates were announced, one on waste management and the other on the European Pressurized Reactor (EPR), ANCLI set up a working group to investigate the subject of 'Local Governance of nuclear sites' and which published its findings in May 2005. Thanks to the extremely positive reaction this Paper received, both on the part of the CLIs and within political circles, ANCLI initiated a study focused more directly on nuclear waste management. This working group's research has resulted in the publication of the 'Livre Blanc de l'ANCLI - Matieres et dechets radioactifs/territoires' - ANCLI's White Paper on radioactive materials and waste and local communities (June 2006).This Paper was published after the Act of 28 June 2006 relative to 'National policy on sustainable management of radioactive materials and waste' was passed. Members of the French parliament were informed of the key ideas it contains. This 'White Book' is a contribution to public debate on nuclear waste and on EPR. In a first approach, the ANCLI is not considered as a partner

  7. Waste management units - Savannah River Site

    1989-10-01

    This report is a compilation of worksheets from the waste management units of Savannah River Plant. Information is presented on the following: Solid Waste Management Units having received hazardous waste or hazardous constituents with a known release to the environment; Solid Waste Management Units having received hazardous waste or hazardous constituents with no known release to the environment; Solid Waste Management Units having received no hazardous waste or hazardous constituents; Waste Management Units having received source; and special nuclear, or byproduct material only

  8. CHEMICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE VOLATILE CONSTITUENTS ...

    CHEMICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE VOLATILE CONSTITUENTS OF CLEOME VISCOSA FROM NIGERIA. Gabriel Olatunji, Peter Weyerstahl, Stephen Oguntoye. Abstract. The major volatile constituents of the oils from the integral parts of Cleome viscosa L. from Nigeria have been identified by GC, GC/MS and 1H NMR.

  9. Experience and related research and development in applying corrective measures at the major low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    Rose, R.R.; Mahathy, J.M.; Epler, J.S.; Boing, L.E.; Jacobs, D.G.

    1983-07-01

    A review was conducted of experience in responding to problems encountered in shallow land burial of low-level radioactive waste and in research and development related to these problems. The operating histories of eleven major disposal facilities were examined. Based on the review, it was apparent that the most effective corrective measures administered were those developed from an understanding of the site conditions which caused the problems. Accordingly, the information in this document has been organized around the major conditions which have caused problems at existing sites. These include: (1) unstable trench cover, (2) permeable trench cover, (3) subsidence, (4) ground water entering trenches, (5) intrusion by deep-rooted plants, (6) intrusion by burrowing animals, and (7) chemical and physical conditions in trench. Because the burial sites are located in regions that differ in climatologic, geologic, hydrologic, and biologic characteristics, there is variation in the severity of problems among the sites and in the nature of information concerning corrective efforts. Conditions associated with water-related problems have received a great deal of attention. For these, corrective measures have ranged from the creation of diversion systems for reducing the contact of surface water with the trench cover to the installation of seals designed to prevent infiltration from reaching the buried waste. On the other hand, corrective measures for conditions of subsidence or of intrusion by burrowing animals have had limited application and are currently under evaluation or are subjects of research and development activities. 50 references, 20 figures, 10 tables

  10. How citizen advisory boards provide input into major waste policy decisions

    Rogers, E.; Murakami, L.; Hanson, L.

    1995-01-01

    Volunteer citizen boards, such as Site Specific Advisory Boards, can be a very important key to success for the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Waste Management program. These boards can provide informed, independent recommendations reflecting the diversity of the community and its values. A successful volunteer process requires collaboration among regulators, DOE and other Boards; knowing how and when to interface with the broader public; understanding the diversity and representational issues of a citizens group; knowing the open-quotes ins and outsclose quotes of working with volunteers; education and training and most importantly, planning. Volunteers on a citizens board were created to tackle the big picture, policy decisions. The chair of the Rocky Flats Citizens Advisory Board will describe her Board's successes, including the challenges in reaching consensus agreements, as well as the need for integration with other boards and the sites' on-going public involvement programs to provide the input the department is seeking. Finally, one of the greatest challenges for the boards is interfacing with the greater public-at-large, seeing how the CAB has overcome this challenge and integrating broader public input into its decisions

  11. How citizen advisory boards provide input into major waste policy decisions

    Rogers, E.; Murakami, L.; Hanson, L. [Rocky Flats Citizen Advisory Board, Westminster, CO (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Volunteer citizen boards, such as Site Specific Advisory Boards, can be a very important key to success for the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Waste Management program. These boards can provide informed, independent recommendations reflecting the diversity of the community and its values. A successful volunteer process requires collaboration among regulators, DOE and other Boards; knowing how and when to interface with the broader public; understanding the diversity and representational issues of a citizens group; knowing the {open_quotes}ins and outs{close_quotes} of working with volunteers; education and training and most importantly, planning. Volunteers on a citizens board were created to tackle the big picture, policy decisions. The chair of the Rocky Flats Citizens Advisory Board will describe her Board`s successes, including the challenges in reaching consensus agreements, as well as the need for integration with other boards and the sites` on-going public involvement programs to provide the input the department is seeking. Finally, one of the greatest challenges for the boards is interfacing with the greater public-at-large, seeing how the CAB has overcome this challenge and integrating broader public input into its decisions.

  12. Mixed and low-level waste treatment project: Appendix C, Health and safety criteria for the mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Part 2, Chemical constituents

    Neupauer, R.M.; Thurmond, S.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report contains health and safety information relating to the chemicals that have been identified in the mixed waste streams at the Waste Treatment Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Information is summarized in two summary sections--one for health considerations and one for safety considerations. Detailed health and safety information is presented in material safety data sheets (MSDSs) for each chemical.

  13. Co-Production of Fungal Biomass Derived Constituents and Ethanol from Citrus Wastes Free Sugars without Auxiliary Nutrients in Airlift Bioreactor.

    Satari, Behzad; Karimi, Keikhosro; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J; Zamani, Akram

    2016-02-26

    The potential of two zygomycetes fungi, Mucor indicus and Rhizopus oryzae, in assimilating citrus waste free sugars (CWFS) and producing fungal chitosan, oil, and protein as well as ethanol was investigated. Extraction of free sugars from citrus waste can reduce its environmental impact by decreasing the possibility of wild microorganisms growth and formation of bad odors, a typical problem facing the citrus industries. A total sugar concentration of 25.1 g/L was obtained by water extraction of citrus waste at room temperature, used for fungal cultivation in shake flasks and airlift bioreactor with no additional nutrients. In shake flasks cultivations, the fungi were only able to assimilate glucose, while fructose remained almost intact. In contrast, the cultivation of M. indicus and R. oryzae in the four-liter airlift bioreactor resulted in the consumption of almost all sugars and production of 250 and 280 g fungal biomass per kg of consumed sugar, respectively. These biomasses correspondingly contained 40% and 51% protein and 9.8% and 4.4% oil. Furthermore, the fungal cell walls, obtained after removing the alkali soluble fraction of the fungi, contained 0.61 and 0.69 g chitin and chitosan per g of cell wall for M. indicus and R. oryzae, respectively. Moreover, the maximum ethanol yield of 36% and 18% was obtained from M. indicus and R. oryzae, respectively. Furthermore, that M. indicus grew as clump mycelia in the airlift bioreactor, while R. oryzae formed spherical suspended pellets, is a promising feature towards industrialization of the process.

  14. Co-Production of Fungal Biomass Derived Constituents and Ethanol from Citrus Wastes Free Sugars without Auxiliary Nutrients in Airlift Bioreactor

    Behzad Satari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The potential of two zygomycetes fungi, Mucor indicus and Rhizopus oryzae, in assimilating citrus waste free sugars (CWFS and producing fungal chitosan, oil, and protein as well as ethanol was investigated. Extraction of free sugars from citrus waste can reduce its environmental impact by decreasing the possibility of wild microorganisms growth and formation of bad odors, a typical problem facing the citrus industries. A total sugar concentration of 25.1 g/L was obtained by water extraction of citrus waste at room temperature, used for fungal cultivation in shake flasks and airlift bioreactor with no additional nutrients. In shake flasks cultivations, the fungi were only able to assimilate glucose, while fructose remained almost intact. In contrast, the cultivation of M. indicus and R. oryzae in the four-liter airlift bioreactor resulted in the consumption of almost all sugars and production of 250 and 280 g fungal biomass per kg of consumed sugar, respectively. These biomasses correspondingly contained 40% and 51% protein and 9.8% and 4.4% oil. Furthermore, the fungal cell walls, obtained after removing the alkali soluble fraction of the fungi, contained 0.61 and 0.69 g chitin and chitosan per g of cell wall for M. indicus and R. oryzae, respectively. Moreover, the maximum ethanol yield of 36% and 18% was obtained from M. indicus and R. oryzae, respectively. Furthermore, that M. indicus grew as clump mycelia in the airlift bioreactor, while R. oryzae formed spherical suspended pellets, is a promising feature towards industrialization of the process.

  15. Estimating solid waste generation by hospitality industry during major festivals: A quantification model based on multiple regression.

    Abdulredha, Muhammad; Al Khaddar, Rafid; Jordan, David; Kot, Patryk; Abdulridha, Ali; Hashim, Khalid

    2018-04-26

    Major-religious festivals hosted in the city of Kerbala, Iraq, annually generate large quantities of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) which negatively impacts the environment and human health when poorly managed. The hospitality sector, specifically hotels, is one of the major sources of MSW generated during these festivals. Because it is essential to establish a proper waste management system for such festivals, accurate information regarding MSW generation is required. This study therefore investigated the rate of production of MSW from hotels in Kerbala during major festivals. A field questionnaire survey was conducted with 150 hotels during the Arba'een festival, one of the largest festivals in the world, attended by about 18 million participants, to identify how much MSW is produced and what features of hotels impact on this. Hotel managers responded to questions regarding features of the hotel such as size (Hs), expenditure (Hex), area (Ha) and number of staff (Hst). An on-site audit was also carried out with all participating hotels to estimate the mass of MSW generated from these hotels. The results indicate that MSW produced by hotels varies widely. In general, it was found that each hotel guest produces an estimated 0.89 kg of MSW per day. However, this figure varies according to the hotels' rating. Average rates of MSW production from one and four star hotels were 0.83 and 1.22 kg per guest per day, respectively. Statistically, it was found that the relationship between MSW production and hotel features can be modelled with an R 2 of 0.799, where the influence of hotel feature on MSW production followed the order Hs > Hex > Hst. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The dissolution kinetics of major elements in municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash particles

    Bendz, David; Tüchsen, Peter L.; Christensen, Thomas H.

    2007-12-01

    Leaching and tracer experiments in batches at L/S 20 were performed with 3-month-old MSWI bottom ash separated into eight different particle sizes. The time-dependent leaching of major elements (Ca 2+, K +, Na +, Cl - and SO 4- 2 ) was monitored for up to 747 h. Physical properties of the particles, the specific surface (BET), pore volume and pore volume distribution over pore sizes (BJH) were determined for all particle classes by N 2 adsorption/desorption experiments. Some common features of physical pore structure for all particles were revealed. The specific surface and the particle pore volume were found to be negatively correlated with particle size, ranging from 3.2 m 2/g to 25.7 m 2/g for the surface area and from 0.0086 cm 3/g to 0.091 cm 3/g for the pore volume. Not surprisingly, the specific surface area was found to be the major material parameter that governed the leaching behavior for all elements (Ca 2+, K +, Na +, Cl - and SO 4- 2 ) and particle sizes. The diffusion resistance was determined independently by separate tracer (tritium) experiments. Diffusion gave a significant contribution to the apparent leaching kinetics for all elements during the first 10-40 h (depending on the particle size) of leaching and surface reaction was the overall rate controlling mechanism at late times for all particle sizes. For Ca 2+ and SO 4- 2 , the coupled effect of diffusion resistance and the degree of undersaturation in the intra particle pore volume was found to be a major rate limiting dissolution mechanism for both early and late times. The solubility control in the intra particulate porosity may undermine any attempt to treat bottom ash by washing out the sulfate. Even for high liquid/solid ratios, the solubility in the intra-particular porosity will limit the release rate.

  17. 32-Week Holding-Time Study of SUMMA Polished Canisters and Triple Sorbent Traps Used To Sample Organic Constituents in Radioactive Waste Tank Vapor Headspace

    Evans, John C.; Huckaby, James L.; Mitroshkov, Alexandre V.; Julya, Janet L.; Hayes, James C.; Edwards, Jeffrey A.; Sasaki, Leela M.

    1997-01-01

    Two sampling methods[SUMMA polished canisters and triple sorbent traps (TSTs)] were compared for long-term storage of trace organic vapor samples collected from the headspaces of high-level radioactive waste tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Washington State. Because safety, quality assurance, radiological controls, the long-term stability of the sampling media during storage needed to be addressed. Samples were analyzed with a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) using cryogenic reconcentration or thermal desorption sample introduction techniques. SUMMA canister samples were also analyzed for total non-methane organic compounds (TNMOC) by GC/flame ionization detector (FID) using EPA Compendium Method TO-12 . To verify the long-term stability of the sampling media, multiple samples were collected in parallel from a typical passively ventilated radioactive waste tank known to contain moderately high concentrations of both polar and nonpolar organic compounds. Analyses for organic analytes and TNMOC were conducted at increasing intervals over a 32-week period to determine whether any systematic degradation of sample integrity occurred. Analytes collected in the SUMMA polished canisters generally showed good stability over the full 32 weeks with recoveries at the 80% level or better for all compounds studied. The TST data showed some loss (50-80% recovery) for a few high-volatility compounds even in the refrigerated samples; losses for unrefrigerated samples were far more pronounced with recoveries as low as 20% observed in a few cases

  18. Trends in major-ion constituents and properties for selected sampling sites in the Tongue and Powder River watersheds, Montana and Wyoming, based on data collected during water years 1980-2010

    Sando, Steven K.; Vecchia, Aldo V.; Barnhart, Elliott P.; Sando, Thomas R.; Clark, Melanie L.; Lorenz, David L.

    2014-01-01

    The primary purpose of this report is to present information relating to flow-adjusted temporal trends in major-ion constituents and properties for 16 sampling sites in the Tongue and Powder River watersheds based on data collected during 1980–2010. In association with this primary purpose, the report presents background information on major-ion characteristics (including specific conductance, calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium adsorption ratio, sodium, alkalinity, chloride, fluoride, dissolved sulfate, and dissolved solids) of the sampling sites and coal-bed methane (CBM) produced water (groundwater pumped from coal seams) in the site watersheds, trend analysis methods, streamflow conditions, and factors that affect trend results. The Tongue and Powder River watersheds overlie the Powder River structural basin (PRB) in northeastern Wyoming and southeastern Montana. Limited extraction of coal-bed methane (CBM) from the PRB began in the early 1990’s, and increased dramatically during the late 1990’s and early 2000’s. CBM-extraction activities produce discharges of water with high concentrations of dissolved solids (particularly sodium and bicarbonate ions) relative to most stream water in the Tongue and Powder River watersheds. Water-quality of CBM produced water is of concern because of potential effects of sodium on agricultural soils and potential effects of bicarbonate on aquatic biota. Two parametric trend-analysis methods were used in this study: the time-series model (TSM) and ordinary least squares regression (OLS) on time, streamflow, and season. The TSM was used to analyze trends for 11 of the 16 study sites. For five sites, data requirements of the TSM were not met and OLS was used to analyze trends. Two primary 10-year trend-analysis periods were selected. Trend-analysis period 1 (water years 1986–95; hereinafter referred to as period 1) was selected to represent variability in major-ion concentrations in the Tongue and Powder River

  19. Methods of analysis in terms of effects and their application to toxic organic constituents of industrial waste water; Methoden und Anwendung der wirkungsbezogenen Analytik auf toxische organische Inhaltsstoffe in industriellen Abwaessern

    Reemtsma, T.; Putschew, A.; Jekel, M. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Fachgebiet Wasserreinhaltung

    1999-07-01

    Coupling biological action detection with chemical sewage analysis opens up a broad spectrum of methods involving diverse amounts of effort, whose results can range from hints to ways of eliminating a toxic effect to the identification and quantification of individual toxic constituents even in complex waste water. These methods help recognizing problems with effluent quality and enhancing treatment concepts. As possible biological effects of sewage discharges into receiving bodies of water (including sublethal effects) are meeting with increasing attention, the importance of sewage analysis in terms of effects will acquire even greater weight. Automated and miniaturized processes can cut down the involved effort substantially in the future. (orig.) [German] Die Kopplung der biologischen Wirkungsdetektion mit chemischer Abwasseranalytik eroeffnet ein breites Spektrum unterschiedlich aufwendiger Methoden, deren Ergebnisse von Hinweisen auf Methoden zur Entfernung einer toxischen Wirkung bis zur Identifizierung und Quantifizierung einzelner toxischer Inhaltsstoffe auch in komplexer Abwaessern reichten koennen. Diese Methoden helfen beim Erkennen von Problemen in der Ablaufqualitaet und unterstuetzen bei der Verbesserung von Behandlungskonzepten. Mit steigender Beachtung moeglicher biologischer Wirkungen von Abwassereinleitungen im Vorfluter (unter Einbeziehung sublethaler Effekte) wird die Bedeutung der wirkungsbezogenen Abwasseranalytik noch zunehmen. Automatisierte und miniaturisierte Verfahren koennen zukuenftig den dabei zu treibenden Aufwand wesentlich vermindern. (orig.)

  20. Properties of radioactive wastes and waste containers

    Arora, H.S.; Dayal, R.

    1984-01-01

    Major tasks in this NRC-sponsored program include: (1) an evaluation of the acceptability of low-level solidified wastes with respect to minimizing radionuclide releases after burial; and (2) an assessment of the influence of pertinent environmental stresses on the performance of high-integrity radwaste container (HIC) materials. The waste form performance task involves studies on small-scale laboratory specimens to predict and extrapolate: (1) leachability for extended time periods; (2) leach behavior of full-size forms; (3) performance of waste forms under realistic leaching conditions; and (4) leachability of solidified reactor wastes. The results show that leach data derived from testing of small-scale specimens can be extrapolated to estimate leachability of a full-scale specimen and that radionuclide release data derived from testing of simulants can be employed to predict the release behavior of reactor wastes. Leaching under partially saturated conditions exhibits lower releases of radionuclides than those observed under the conventional IAEA-type or ANS 16.1 leach tests. The HIC assessment task includes the characterization of mechanical properties of Marlex CL-100, a candidate radwaste high density polyethylene material. Tensile strength and creep rupture tests have been carried out to determine the influence of specific waste constituents as well as gamma irradiation on material performance. Emphasis in ongoing tests is being placed on studying creep rupture while the specimens are in contact with a variety of chemicals including radiolytic by-products of irradiated resin wastes. 12 references 6 figures, 2 tables

  1. Experience and improved techniques in radiological environmental monitoring at major DOE low-level waste disposal sites

    1986-09-01

    A summary of routine radiological environmental surveillance programs conducted at major active US Department of Energy (DOE) solid low-level waste (LLW) disposal sites is provided. The DOE disposal sites at which monitoring programs were reviewed include those located at Hanford, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Nevada Test Site (NTS), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Savannah River Plant (SRP). The review is limited to activities conducted for the purpose of monitoring disposal site performance. Areas of environmental monitoring reviewed include air monitoring for particulates and gases, monitoring of surface water runoff, surface water bodies, ground water, monitoring of surface soils and the vadose zone, and monitoring of ambient penetrating radiation. Routine environmental surveillance is conducted at major LLW disposal sites at various levels of effort for specific environmental media. In summary, all sites implement a routine monitoring program for penetrating radiation. Four sites (INEL, NTS, LANL, and SRP) monitor particulates in air specifically at LLW disposal sites. Hanford monitors particulates at LLW sites in conjunction with monitoring of other site operations. Particulates are monitored on a reservationwide network at ORNL. Gases are monitored specifically at active LLW sites operated at NTS, LANL, and SRP. Ground water is monitored specifically at LLW sites at INEL, LANL, and SRP, in conjunction with other operations at Hanford, and as part of a reservationwide program at NTS and ORNL. Surface water is monitored at INEL, LANL, and SRP LLW sites. Surface soil is sampled and analyzed on a routine basis at INEL and LANL. Routine monitoring of the vadose zone is conducted at the INEL and SRP. Techniques and equipment in use are described and other aspects of environmental monitoring programs, such as quality assurance and data base management, are reviewed

  2. Overview of mixed waste issues at the Department of Energy defense installations

    Mezga, L.J.; Eisenhower, B.M.

    1988-01-01

    Due to the /open quotes/double hazard/close quotes/ associated with these waste materials, the ability to manage these mixed wastes has been somewhat limited. The unavailability of acceptable and proven treatment and/or disposal systems has forced the Department of Energy (DOE) installations to place these materials in storage. The limited capacity of permitted storage areas and the desire to move forward in the overall waste management cycle have placed an increased emphasis on the need to develop treatment/disposal technologies for mixed wastes. Programs have been initiated by contractors who operate the DOE installations to provide the technical basis for selecting technologies to render these wastes nonhazardous through treatment by destroying the hazardous constituent, to separate the hazardous constituents from the radioactive constituents, to treat the wastes and place them in a form that will meet EPA requirements to be classified as nonhazardous, and to provide facilities for the disposal of wastes which cannot be changed into a nonhazardous form. These wastes include a variety of materials such as chlorinated solvents and waste oils contaminated with uranium or fission products, liquid scintillation wastes, and sludges from wastewater treatment plants contaminated with uranium or fission products. By volume, the largest mixed waste streams are the contaminated wastewater treatment sludges. Plans for the management of the major categories of mixed waste are presented below. More detailed information on plans for specific waste streams is presented in the paper

  3. Resinous constituent extracting process

    Sayer, W F

    1947-10-07

    The method of recovering oily constituents from coal or oil shale comprising the saturation of coal or oil shale in a sealed vessel with an organic solution having a boiling point at atmospheric pressure of not exceeding 220/sup 0/C, elevating the temperature within the vessel to a temperature below the cracking temperature of the constituents and maintaining the pressure within the vessel below 51 pounds, to extract the oily material from the coal or oil shale and subsequently separating the solvent from the oily material.

  4. Nuclei with exotic constituents

    Yamazaki, Toshimitsu.

    1990-08-01

    We discuss various interesting features in the behavior of exotic constituents of nuclei such as hyperons and mesons, in particular, with emphases on the aspect of exotic halos which are formed in general by short-range repulsion and long-range attraction. Specifically, Λ and Σ hypernuclei and pionic nuclei are discussed. (author)

  5. Constituents of Chondria armata

    Govenkar, M.B.; Wahidullah, S.

    A novel long chain fatty ester, pentyl hentriacontanoate 1 and an orange red pigment, caulerpin 2 have been isolated and characterised from a red alga Chondria armata. The pigment caulerpin hitherto known to be a constituent of green algae of genus...

  6. Wastes

    Bovard, Pierre

    The origin of the wastes (power stations, reprocessing, fission products) is determined and the control ensuring the innocuity with respect to man, public acceptance, availability, economics and cost are examined [fr

  7. Pig major acute-phase protein and haptoglobin serum concentrations correlate with PCV2 viremia and the clinical course of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome

    Grau-Roma, Llorenc; Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane

    2009-01-01

    -PMWS affected pigs. In addition, evidence of infection with other pathogens and its relation with variations in APP's concentrations was also assessed. Fourteen independent batches of 100 to 154 pigs were monitored from birth to PMWS outbreak occurrence in 11 PMWS affected farms. Pigs displaying PMWS-like signs......The aim of the present longitudinal study was to assess the evolution of two acute phase proteins (APPs), pig-major acute phase protein (pig-MAP) and haptoglobin (HPT), in serum from pigs that developed postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) in comparison to healthy and wasted non...... and age-matched healthy controls were euthanized during the clinical outbreak. PMWS was diagnosed according to internationally accepted creteria and pigs were classified as: i)PMWS cases, ii) wasted non-PMWS cases and iii) healthy pigs. At the moment of PMWS occurrence, pig-MAP and HPT concentration...

  8. Groundwater Quality Assessment for Waste Management Area U: First Determination

    Hodges, Floyd N.; Chou, Charissa J.

    2000-08-04

    As a result of the most recent recalculation one of the indicator parameters, specific conductance, exceeded its background value in downgradient well 299-W19-41, triggering a change from detection monitoring to groundwater quality assessment program. The major contributors to the higher specific conductance are nonhazardous constituents (i.e., sodium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, sulfate, and bicarbonate). Nitrate, chromium, and technetium-99 are present and are increasing; however, they are significantly below their drinking waster standards. Interpretation of groundwater monitoring data indicates that both the nonhazardous constituents causing elevated specific conductance in groundwater and the tank waste constituents present in groundwater at the waste management area are a result of surface water infiltration in the southern portion of the facility. There is evidence for both upgradient and waste management area sources for observed nitrate concentrations. There is no indication of an upgradient source for the observed chromium and technetium-99.

  9. Chemical constituents of Asparagus

    Negi, J. S.; Singh, P.; Joshi, G. P.; Rawat, M. S.; Bisht, V. K.

    2010-01-01

    Asparagus species (family Liliaceae) are medicinal plants of temperate Himalayas. They possess a variety of biological properties, such as being antioxidants, immunostimulants, anti-inflammatory, antihepatotoxic, antibacterial, antioxytocic, and reproductive agents. The article briefly reviews the isolated chemical constituents and the biological activities of the plant species. The structural formula of isolated compounds and their distribution in the species studied are also given. PMID:22228964

  10. Hydrodynamical model with massless constituents

    Chiu, C.B.; Wang, K.H.

    1974-01-01

    Within the constituent hydrodynamical model, it is shown that the total number of constituents is conserved, if these constituents are massless and satisfy the Fermi-Dirac distribution. A simple scheme for the transition from the constituent-phase to the hadron-phase is suggested, and the hadron inclusive momentum spectra are presented for this case. This phase transition scheme predicts the average transverse momentum of meson resonances which is compatible with the data. (U.S.)

  11. Thermochemical modeling of nuclear waste glass

    Spear, K.E.; Besmann, T.M.; Beahm, E.C.

    1998-06-01

    The development of assessed and consistent phase equilibria and thermodynamic data for major glass constituents used to incorporate high-level nuclear waste is discussed in this paper. The initial research has included the binary Na 2 O-SiO 2 , Na 2 O-Al 2 O 3 , and SiO 2 -Al 2 O 3 systems. The nuclear waste glass is assumed to be a supercooled liquid containing the constituents in the glass at temperatures of interest for nuclear waste storage. Thermodynamic data for the liquid solutions were derived from mathematical comparisons of phase diagram information and the thermodynamic data available for crystalline solid phases. An associate model is used to describe the liquid solution phases. Utilizing phase diagram information provides very stringent limits on the relative thermodynamic stabilities of all phases which exist in a given system

  12. Identification of 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3[2H]-furanone beta-D-glucuronide as the major metabolite of a strawberry flavour constituent in humans.

    Roscher, R; Koch, H; Herderich, M; Schreier, P; Schwab, W

    1997-08-01

    2,5-Dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3[2H]furanone (Furaneol, DMHF) [3658-77-3], an important flavour constituent of strawberry fruit, was administered to four male and two female volunteers using fresh strawberries as a natural DMHF source. The amount excreted was determined by measuring urinary levels of DMHF and DMHF glucuronide. DMHF glucuronide was synthesized and the structure elucidated by mens of 1H, 13C and two dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance, as well as mass spectral data. Identification and quantification of DMHF glucuronide in human urine were achieved after solid phase extraction on XAD-2 using reverse-phase reverse-phase HPLC with either on-line UV/VIS or electrospray tandem mass spectrometry detection. Male and female volunteers excreted 59-69% and 81-94%, respectively, of the DMHF dose (total of free and glycosidically bound DMHF in strawberries) as DMHF glucuronide in urine within 24 hr. The amount of DMHF excretion was independent of the dose size and the ratio of free to glycosidically bound forms of DMHF in strawberry fruit. DMHF, DMHF glucoside and its 6'-O-malonyl derivative, naturally occurring in strawberries, were not detected in human urine.

  13. Surrogate formulations for thermal treatment of low-level mixed waste, Part II: Selected mixed waste treatment project waste streams

    Bostick, W.D.; Hoffmann, D.P.; Chiang, J.M.; Hermes, W.H.; Gibson, L.V. Jr.; Richmond, A.A. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mayberry, J. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Frazier, G. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes the formulation of surrogate waste packages, representing the major bulk constituent compositions for 12 waste stream classifications selected by the US DOE Mixed Waste Treatment Program. These waste groupings include: neutral aqueous wastes; aqueous halogenated organic liquids; ash; high organic content sludges; adsorbed aqueous and organic liquids; cement sludges, ashes, and solids; chloride; sulfate, and nitrate salts; organic matrix solids; heterogeneous debris; bulk combustibles; lab packs; and lead shapes. Insofar as possible, formulation of surrogate waste packages are referenced to authentic wastes in inventory within the DOE; however, the surrogate waste packages are intended to represent generic treatability group compositions. The intent is to specify a nonradiological synthetic mixture, with a minimal number of readily available components, that can be used to represent the significant challenges anticipated for treatment of the specified waste class. Performance testing and evaluation with use of a consistent series of surrogate wastes will provide a means for the initial assessment (and intercomparability) of candidate treatment technology applicability and performance. Originally the surrogate wastes were intended for use with emerging thermal treatment systems, but use may be extended to select nonthermal systems as well.

  14. Surrogate formulations for thermal treatment of low-level mixed waste, Part II: Selected mixed waste treatment project waste streams

    Bostick, W.D.; Hoffmann, D.P.; Chiang, J.M.; Hermes, W.H.; Gibson, L.V. Jr.; Richmond, A.A.; Mayberry, J.; Frazier, G.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes the formulation of surrogate waste packages, representing the major bulk constituent compositions for 12 waste stream classifications selected by the US DOE Mixed Waste Treatment Program. These waste groupings include: neutral aqueous wastes; aqueous halogenated organic liquids; ash; high organic content sludges; adsorbed aqueous and organic liquids; cement sludges, ashes, and solids; chloride; sulfate, and nitrate salts; organic matrix solids; heterogeneous debris; bulk combustibles; lab packs; and lead shapes. Insofar as possible, formulation of surrogate waste packages are referenced to authentic wastes in inventory within the DOE; however, the surrogate waste packages are intended to represent generic treatability group compositions. The intent is to specify a nonradiological synthetic mixture, with a minimal number of readily available components, that can be used to represent the significant challenges anticipated for treatment of the specified waste class. Performance testing and evaluation with use of a consistent series of surrogate wastes will provide a means for the initial assessment (and intercomparability) of candidate treatment technology applicability and performance. Originally the surrogate wastes were intended for use with emerging thermal treatment systems, but use may be extended to select nonthermal systems as well

  15. Process evaluation for treatment of aluminium bearing declad waste

    Banerjee, D.; Rao, Manjula A.; Srinivas, C.; Wattal, P.K.

    2012-01-01

    Declad waste generated by the process of chemical decladding of Al-cladded uranium metal fuel is characterized by highly alkaline, high Al bearing intermediate level waste. It was found that the process developed and adopted in India for plant scale treatment of alkaline intermediate level waste (ILW) is unsuitable for treatment of declad waste. This is mainly due to its exotic characteristics, notably substantial amounts of aluminium in the declad waste. As part of development of treatment scheme for this waste, 137 Cs removal by RFPR has been demonstrated earlier and the present paper reports the results of further processing of the Cs-lean effluent. The waste simulated with respect to the major chemical constituents of stored Al-bearing alkaline ILW after 137 Cs and 90 Sr removal by ion exchange, is used in this study

  16. Organohalogen pollutants in surface particulates from workshop floors of four major e-waste recycling sites in China and implications for emission lists.

    Zeng, Yan-Hong; Tang, Bin; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Zheng, Xiao-Bo; Peng, Ping-An; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2016-11-01

    To examine the environmental pollution associated with e-waste recycling activities, the concentrations of organohologenated pollutants (OHPs), i.e., short- and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs and MCCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and several other halogenated flame retardants (OHFRs), were investigated in surface particulates from the workshop floors of four major e-waste recycling sites (Taizhou, Guiyu, Dali and Qingyuan) in China. The mean levels of SCCPs, MCCPs, PCBs, PBDEs and OHFRs in surface particulates ranged from 30,000-61,000, 170,000-890,000, 2700-27,000, 52,000-240,000, and 62,000-140,000ng/g dry weight (dw), respectively. OHFRs, including decabromodiphenyl ethane, dechlorane plus, 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane, tetrabromobisphenol A, hexabromocyclododecanes, polybrominated biphenyls, hexabromobenzene, pentabromotoluene, and pentabromoethylbenzene, were frequently (>50% detection frequency) detected in surface particulates with mean concentration ranges of 39,000-63,000, 310-2700, 98-16,000, 21,000-56,000, 55-5700, 1700-27,000, 42-1600, 3.2-220, and 5.8-12ng/g dw, respectively. The composition of OHPs varied depend on the e-waste items processing in different regions. Guiyu and Dali were typical sites contaminated by halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) and CPs, respectively, while Qingyuan, and Taizhou were representative PCB-polluted regions. The evidence produced by this preliminary study indicated that electronic devices and plastics may account for the high content of HFRs and the metal products are likely the major source of CPs in these e-waste sites. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Organohalogen pollutants in surface particulates from workshop floors of four major e-waste recycling sites in China and implications for emission lists

    Zeng, Yan-Hong [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry and Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Protection and Resources Utilization, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Tang, Bin [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry and Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Protection and Resources Utilization, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Luo, Xiao-Jun [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry and Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Protection and Resources Utilization, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zheng, Xiao-Bo [College of Natural Resources and Environment, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Peng, Ping-An [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry and Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Protection and Resources Utilization, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Mai, Bi-Xian, E-mail: nancymai@gig.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry and Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Protection and Resources Utilization, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2016-11-01

    To examine the environmental pollution associated with e-waste recycling activities, the concentrations of organohologenated pollutants (OHPs), i.e., short- and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs and MCCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and several other halogenated flame retardants (OHFRs), were investigated in surface particulates from the workshop floors of four major e-waste recycling sites (Taizhou, Guiyu, Dali and Qingyuan) in China. The mean levels of SCCPs, MCCPs, PCBs, PBDEs and OHFRs in surface particulates ranged from 30,000–61,000, 170,000–890,000, 2700–27,000, 52,000–240,000, and 62,000–140,000 ng/g dry weight (dw), respectively. OHFRs, including decabromodiphenyl ethane, dechlorane plus, 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane, tetrabromobisphenol A, hexabromocyclododecanes, polybrominated biphenyls, hexabromobenzene, pentabromotoluene, and pentabromoethylbenzene, were frequently (> 50% detection frequency) detected in surface particulates with mean concentration ranges of 39,000–63,000, 310–2700, 98–16,000, 21,000–56,000, 55–5700, 1700–27,000, 42–1600, 3.2–220, and 5.8–12 ng/g dw, respectively. The composition of OHPs varied depend on the e-waste items processing in different regions. Guiyu and Dali were typical sites contaminated by halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) and CPs, respectively, while Qingyuan, and Taizhou were representative PCB-polluted regions. The evidence produced by this preliminary study indicated that electronic devices and plastics may account for the high content of HFRs and the metal products are likely the major source of CPs in these e-waste sites. - Highlights: • Report of characterizing the types and possible sources of OHPs in e-waste sites • Guiyu was a typical site contaminated by HFRs, while Dali was dominated by CPs. • Qingyuan and Taizhou were representative PCB-polluted regions. • Electronic devices and plastics may account for the

  18. Organohalogen pollutants in surface particulates from workshop floors of four major e-waste recycling sites in China and implications for emission lists

    Zeng, Yan-Hong; Tang, Bin; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Zheng, Xiao-Bo; Peng, Ping-An; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2016-01-01

    To examine the environmental pollution associated with e-waste recycling activities, the concentrations of organohologenated pollutants (OHPs), i.e., short- and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs and MCCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and several other halogenated flame retardants (OHFRs), were investigated in surface particulates from the workshop floors of four major e-waste recycling sites (Taizhou, Guiyu, Dali and Qingyuan) in China. The mean levels of SCCPs, MCCPs, PCBs, PBDEs and OHFRs in surface particulates ranged from 30,000–61,000, 170,000–890,000, 2700–27,000, 52,000–240,000, and 62,000–140,000 ng/g dry weight (dw), respectively. OHFRs, including decabromodiphenyl ethane, dechlorane plus, 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane, tetrabromobisphenol A, hexabromocyclododecanes, polybrominated biphenyls, hexabromobenzene, pentabromotoluene, and pentabromoethylbenzene, were frequently (> 50% detection frequency) detected in surface particulates with mean concentration ranges of 39,000–63,000, 310–2700, 98–16,000, 21,000–56,000, 55–5700, 1700–27,000, 42–1600, 3.2–220, and 5.8–12 ng/g dw, respectively. The composition of OHPs varied depend on the e-waste items processing in different regions. Guiyu and Dali were typical sites contaminated by halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) and CPs, respectively, while Qingyuan, and Taizhou were representative PCB-polluted regions. The evidence produced by this preliminary study indicated that electronic devices and plastics may account for the high content of HFRs and the metal products are likely the major source of CPs in these e-waste sites. - Highlights: • Report of characterizing the types and possible sources of OHPs in e-waste sites • Guiyu was a typical site contaminated by HFRs, while Dali was dominated by CPs. • Qingyuan and Taizhou were representative PCB-polluted regions. • Electronic devices and plastics may account for the

  19. Non-destructive analysis of major components in plant materials by mean of 14-MeV neutrons; Analyse ''non destructrice'' des principaux constituants de la matiere vegetale apres irradiation aux neutrons de 14 MeV

    Garrec, J P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    Although reactors are an important source of neutrons for activation analysis, it is sometimes convenient to have recourse to other, less expensive neutron sources. The Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires at Grenoble has small electrostatic accelerators which generate fast neutrons of 14 MeV energy. These SAMES-type generators are used for directing a deuton beam at 150 kV onto a tritiated target, the resulting flux of monoenergetic neutrons attaining 5 x 10{sup 11} ns{sup -1} in 4 {pi} geometry by the {sup 3}H(d,n){sup 4}He reaction. Numerous elements found in plant material can be activated in this flux, mainly by (n,p), (n,{alpha}) and (n,2n) reactions. Current research is directed towards making use of the entire gamma spectrum of activated plant matter. A computer is used to break down the spectrum into seven main spectral regions by the least-squares method. As a first approximation, these regions are those obtained from aluminium, calcium, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, silicon and chlorine standards in standard activation and radioactive decay conditions. The wanted advantage of this way of analysis is not acute sensibility, but great fastness. Therefore radioactivation with 14 MeV neutrons is particularly well adapted to quick and simultaneous dosages of useful elements in agronomy. (author) [French] Bien que les reacteurs constituent une source de neutrons importante en analyse par activation, il est parfois commode de recourir a d'autres sources neutronigenes exigeant un investissement moindre. Le Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Grenoble dispose de petits accelerateurs electrostatiques generateurs de neutrons rapides de 14 MeV. Ces generateurs, de type SAMES, accelerent un faisceau de deutons sous 150 kV vers une cible tritiee. Celle-ci fournit un flux de neutrons mono-energetiques atteignant 5 x 10{sup 11} n/s/4 {pi} par la reaction {sup 3}H(d,n){sup 4}He. De nombreux elements composant les matieres vegetales s'activent dans ce flux principalement par reactions

  20. Mine waste management

    Hutchinson, I.P.G.; Ellison, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    This book reports on mine waste management. Topics covered include: Performance review of modern mine waste management units; Mine waste management requirements; Prediction of acid generation potential; Attenuation of chemical constituents; Climatic considerations; Liner system design; Closure requirements; Heap leaching; Ground water monitoring; and Economic impact evaluation

  1. SHORT COMMUNICATION CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS AND ...

    CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF THE FRUITS ... alkaloids, phenols, steroids, flavonoids, saponins and terpenoids while tannin ..... Harveer, K.; Jasmeen, S. Synthesis, characterization and radical scavenging ...

  2. Constituency Input into Budget Management.

    Miller, Norman E.

    1995-01-01

    Presents techniques for ensuring constituency involvement in district- and site-level budget management. Outlines four models for securing constituent input and focuses on strategies to orchestrate the more complex model for staff and community participation. Two figures are included. (LMI)

  3. Actividad citotóxica de aceites esenciales de Lippia origanoides H.B.K. y componentes mayoritarios Cytotoxic activity of essencial oils of Lippia origanoides H.B.K and its major constituents

    Bibiana Zapata

    2009-12-01

    is an aromatic plant commonly called as "oregano". Eight essential oils of L. origanoides and some of their main components were evaluated in vitro on tumor cell line HeLa and non-tumor cell line Vero to identify tumoural cytotoxic potential. Materials and methods: Inhibition 50% of cell population (IC50 was determined using the photo-colorimeter technique MTT (3 - (4.5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-difeniltetrazolium bromide. IC50 values were obtained by linear regression analysis. The selectivity index (SI, defined as Vero IC50 on HeLa IC50, it was calculated in order to find oil or major components with selective tumor cytotoxic potential. Results and conclusions: the chemical composition of the oil most cytotoxic was determined by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry GC/MS. The L. origanoides oil identified as chemotype trans-β-caryophyllene/p-cymene showed the highest cytotoxic activity on HeLa cells with IC50 value of 9.1 ± 1 μg/mL and selectivity index of 7.1. The main components were: trans-β-caryophyllene (11.3 ρ-cymene (11.2%, α-phellandrene (9.9%, limonene (7.2%, 1.8-cineol (6.5% and α-humulene (6.0%. The most of the major components did not show cytotoxic activity on HeLa cells, only limonene and β-myrcene showed IS values of 6.97 and 3.01, respectively. However, the IC50 values were higher than active oil. These results suggest that cytotoxic activities of the oils are not only due to their main components, but to a synergism among its components. Salud UIS 2009; 41: 215-222.

  4. Constituency Orientation in Irish Politics

    Kusche, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    The constituency orientation of Irish politicians is a recurring topic in Irish political science. Its analysis has predominantly focused on TDs. This article uses a content analysis of candidate video statements in the general election 2016 in order to assess the strength of constituency...... this pattern, indicated by the weak constituency orientation in Dublin and Cork constituencies. Results also indicate differences between parties and some political statuses, while the gender of the candidates is of no relevance. Although the material does not permit a clear distinction between effects...... of political culture and short-term considerations, taken together the results indicate that localism in Irish politics matters, but in more complicated ways than usually depicted....

  5. Process Knowledge Characterization of Radioactive Waste at the Classified Waste Landfill Remediation Project Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    DOTSON, PATRICK WELLS; GALLOWAY, ROBERT B.; JOHNSON JR, CARL EDWARD

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses the development and application of process knowledge (PK) to the characterization of radioactive wastes generated during the excavation of buried materials at the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) Classified Waste Landfill (CWLF). The CWLF, located in SNL/NM Technical Area II, is a 1.5-acre site that received nuclear weapon components and related materials from about 1950 through 1987. These materials were used in the development and testing of nuclear weapon designs. The CWLF is being remediated by the SNL/NM Environmental Restoration (ER) Project pursuant to regulations of the New Mexico Environment Department. A goal of the CWLF project is to maximize the amount of excavated materials that can be demilitarized and recycled. However, some of these materials are radioactively contaminated and, if they cannot be decontaminated, are destined to require disposal as radioactive waste. Five major radioactive waste streams have been designated on the CWLF project, including: unclassified soft radioactive waste--consists of soft, compatible trash such as paper, plastic, and plywood; unclassified solid radioactive waste--includes scrap metal, other unclassified hardware items, and soil; unclassified mixed waste--contains the same materials as unclassified soft or solid radioactive waste, but also contains one or more Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) constituents; classified radioactive waste--consists of classified artifacts, usually weapons components, that contain only radioactive contaminants; and classified mixed waste--comprises radioactive classified material that also contains RCRA constituents. These waste streams contain a variety of radionuclides that exist both as surface contamination and as sealed sources. To characterize these wastes, the CWLF project's waste management team is relying on data obtained from direct measurement of radionuclide activity content to the maximum extent possible and, in cases where

  6. Mine waste disposal and managements

    Cheong, Young Wook; Min, Jeong Sik; Kwon, Kwang Soo; Kim, Ok Hwan; Kim, In Kee; Song, Won Kyong; Lee, Hyun Joo [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    Acid Rock Drainage (ARD) is the product formed by the atmospheric oxidation of the relatively common pyrite and pyrrhotite. Waste rock dumps and tailings containing sulfide mineral have been reported at toxic materials producing ARD. Mining in sulphide bearing rock is one of activity which may lead to generation and release of ARD. ARD has had some major detrimental affects on mining areas. The purpose of this study was carried out to develop disposal method for preventing contamination of water and soil environment by waste rocks dump and tailings, which could discharge the acid drainage with high level of metals. Scope of this study was as following: environmental impacts by mine wastes, geochemical characteristics such as metal speciation, acid potential and paste pH of mine wastes, interpretation of occurrence of ARD underneath tailings impoundment, analysis of slope stability of tailings dam etc. The following procedures were used as part of ARD evaluation and prediction to determine the nature and quantities of soluble constituents that may be washed from mine wastes under natural precipitation: analysis of water and mine wastes, Acid-Base accounting, sequential extraction technique and measurement of lime requirement etc. In addition, computer modelling was applied for interpretation of slope stability od tailings dam. (author). 44 refs., 33 tabs., 86 figs.

  7. The non-destructive control, a major constituent of quality

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    The number of continuous research and development works about non-destructive control in all sectors of activity is justified by the increasing need for high quality materials without anomalies. This paper gives a overview of the state of the art and of the recent trends in non-destructive testing researches in different sectors: aeronautics, nuclear industry, automotive industry. New studies and techniques are presented: ultrasonic testing of welds on large diameter pipes, automated applications of ultrasonic testing, ultrasound/computer-aided design coupling, pressure vessels inspection using acoustic emission testing (leaks detection, application to composite materials), numerical radiography (image visualisation and processing), magnetic testing (steel damage detection using Barkhausen noise testing), 'shearography' (detection of the loss of thickness in pipes due to corrosion), X-ray tomography (density measurement of sintered steels, fluid flow calculations in automobile parts). (J.S.)

  8. Leachability of radioactive constituents from uranium mine tailings

    Constable, T.W.

    1987-04-01

    A series of long-term studies were conducted both to examine the leachability of major constituents (acidity, TDS) and radioisotopes from uranium mining/milling tailings and settling pond sludges, and to assess the effect of two treatment methods (solidification and vegetation) on leachate characteristics. Four bench-scale experiments were conducted to examine the leachability of: 1) old tailings and those containing a large portion of (Ba,Ra)SO 4 sludges; 2) untreated and solidified (Ba,Ra)SO 4 sludges located at the bottom of settling ponds; 3) new tailings that had been vegetated or solidified; and 4) new tailings subject to varying flow rates. A fifth study was conducted to examine the microbiology of Experiments 2 and 3. In addition, the lysimeter solids remaining in the old tailings at the end of Experiment 1 were characterized through chemical and radionuclide analyses and Scanning Electron Microscope-X-ray Emission and Mossbauer Spectroscopy techniques. This report provides an extensive database of temporal variations in leachate characteristics under both normal and accelerated water application rates. It also presents hypotheses of possible leaching mechanisms in the wastes that could explain the observed data, and conceptual model of tailings leaching processes which integrates the results of all the tailings experiments

  9. About the need for low or very low level radioactive waste disposal in the Republic of Montenegro

    Jovanovic, S.

    2005-01-01

    After the major constitutional changes in 2003, all nuclear related issues in Serbia and Montenegro, including the treatment of radioactive waste, went to the portfolios of the two constituent states, the Republic of Serbia and the Republic of Montenegro. Within the establishing of nuclear regulatory framework, and towards meeting the international requirements (e.g. IAEA's Basic Safety Standards and the Code of Conduct), the need for a low or very low level radioactive waste disposal in Montenegro is discussed. (author)

  10. [Chemical constituents in Buddleja albiflora].

    Tao, Liang; Huang, Jincheng; Zhao, Yanping; Li, Chong

    2009-12-01

    To study the chemical constituents of Buddleja albiflora. The constituents were isolated by column chromatography and their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. Eleven compounds were isolated and identified as luteolin (1), quercetin (2), quercetin-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3), apigenin (4), apigenin-7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (5), apigenin-7-O-neohesperidoside (6), acacetin-7-O-beta-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (7), cranioside A (8), acetylmartynoside B (9), 4"-O-acetylmartynoside (10), isomartynoside (11). All these compounds were obtained from B. albiflora for the first time and compound 8 was obtained from the genus Buddleja for the first time.

  11. Antifungal constituents of Melicope borbonica

    Simonsen, Henrik Toft; Adsersen, Anne; Bremner, Paul

    2004-01-01

    -methoxycoumarin, cedrelopsin and psoralen], two sesquiterpenes (alpha-curcumene and 3,6-epidioxy-1,10-bisaboladiene), eugenol, methyleugenol and a lignan (sesamin) were isolated. None of the isolated constituents exhibited antiin fl ammatory activity in vitro. No alkaloids were detected....

  12. Constituents

    Thrane, Torben

    2004-01-01

    Taking language as a special, second-order representational system, the article explores some consequences of this view for syntactico-semantic analysis, in particular for the notion of argument structure.......Taking language as a special, second-order representational system, the article explores some consequences of this view for syntactico-semantic analysis, in particular for the notion of argument structure....

  13. Major operations and activities

    Black, D.G.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the major operations and activities on the site. These operations and activities include site management, waste management, environmental restoration and corrective actions, and research and technology development.

  14. Major operations and activities

    Black, D.G.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the major operations and activities on the site. These operations and activities include site management, waste management, environmental restoration and corrective actions, and research and technology development

  15. Challenges in development of matrices for vitrification of old legacy waste and high-level radioactive waste generated from reprocessing of AHWR and FBR spent fuel

    Kaushik, C.P.

    2012-01-01

    Majority of radioactivity in entire nuclear fuel cycle is concentrated in HLW. A three step strategy for management of HLW has been adopted in India. This involves immobilization of waste oxides in stable and inert solid matrices, interim retrievable storage of the conditioned waste product under continuous cooling and disposal in deep geological formations. Glass has been accepted as most suitable matrix world-wide for immobilization of HLW, because of its attractive features like ability to accommodate wide range of waste constituents, modest processing temperatures, adequate chemical, thermal and radiation stability. Borosilicate glass matrix developed by BARC in collaboration with CGCRI has been adopted in India for immobilization of HLW. In view of compositional variation of HLW from site to site, tailor make changes in the glass formulations are often necessary to incorporate all the waste constituents and having the product of desirable characteristics. The vitrified waste products made with different glass formulations and simulated waste need to be characterized for chemical durability, thermal stability, homogeneity etc. before finalizing a suitable glass formulation. The present extended abstract summarises the studies carried out for development of glass formulations for vitrification of legacy waste and futuristic waste likely to be generated from AHWR and FBR having wide variations in their compositions. The presently stored HLW at Trombay is characterized by significant concentrations of uranium, sodium and sulphate in addition to fission products, corrosion products and small amount of other actinides

  16. Patch testing with constituents of Compositae mixes.

    Paulsen, Evy; Andersen, Klaus E

    2012-05-01

    The development of mixes containing Compositae plant extracts has improved the diagnosis of Compositae contact allergy, but none of them has fulfilled the criteria for an ideal European plant mix. To evaluate which constituents of two commercial Compositae mixes were most useful as screening agents. These comprised 76 patients testing positive to Compositae mix 6% in petrolatum and 29 patients testing positive to Compositae mix 5% pet., all of whom were tested with constituents of the respective mixes. The majority of patients tested positive to parthenolide or parthenolide-containing extracts, followed by German chamomile, yarrow, and arnica. As German chamomile is a weak sensitizer, the results suggest cross-reactions or reactions to unknown allergens. No one was positive to Roman chamomile. Even though parthenolide seems to be a suitable supplement to the baseline series, the results emphasize that it is important to patch test with extracts of native or locally grown plants, not only because of the geographical variation, but also because of the potential unknown allergens contained in short ether preparations and the variability in the individual patient's exposure and cross-reaction patterns. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. FY 1996 solid waste integrated life-cycle forecast characteristics summary. Volumes 1 and 2

    Templeton, K.J.

    1996-05-23

    For the past six years, a waste volume forecast has been collected annually from onsite and offsite generators that currently ship or are planning to ship solid waste to the Westinghouse Hanford Company`s Central Waste Complex (CWC). This document provides a description of the physical waste forms, hazardous waste constituents, and radionuclides of the waste expected to be shipped to the CWC from 1996 through the remaining life cycle of the Hanford Site (assumed to extend to 2070). In previous years, forecast data has been reported for a 30-year time period; however, the life-cycle approach was adopted this year to maintain consistency with FY 1996 Multi-Year Program Plans. This document is a companion report to two previous reports: the more detailed report on waste volumes, WHC-EP-0900, FY1996 Solid Waste Integrated Life-Cycle Forecast Volume Summary and the report on expected containers, WHC-EP-0903, FY1996 Solid Waste Integrated Life-Cycle Forecast Container Summary. All three documents are based on data gathered during the FY 1995 data call and verified as of January, 1996. These documents are intended to be used in conjunction with other solid waste planning documents as references for short and long-term planning of the WHC Solid Waste Disposal Division`s treatment, storage, and disposal activities over the next several decades. This document focuses on two main characteristics: the physical waste forms and hazardous waste constituents of low-level mixed waste (LLMW) and transuranic waste (both non-mixed and mixed) (TRU(M)). The major generators for each waste category and waste characteristic are also discussed. The characteristics of low-level waste (LLW) are described in Appendix A. In addition, information on radionuclides present in the waste is provided in Appendix B. The FY 1996 forecast data indicate that about 100,900 cubic meters of LLMW and TRU(M) waste is expected to be received at the CWC over the remaining life cycle of the site. Based on

  18. FY 1996 solid waste integrated life-cycle forecast characteristics summary. Volumes 1 and 2

    Templeton, K.J.

    1996-01-01

    For the past six years, a waste volume forecast has been collected annually from onsite and offsite generators that currently ship or are planning to ship solid waste to the Westinghouse Hanford Company's Central Waste Complex (CWC). This document provides a description of the physical waste forms, hazardous waste constituents, and radionuclides of the waste expected to be shipped to the CWC from 1996 through the remaining life cycle of the Hanford Site (assumed to extend to 2070). In previous years, forecast data has been reported for a 30-year time period; however, the life-cycle approach was adopted this year to maintain consistency with FY 1996 Multi-Year Program Plans. This document is a companion report to two previous reports: the more detailed report on waste volumes, WHC-EP-0900, FY1996 Solid Waste Integrated Life-Cycle Forecast Volume Summary and the report on expected containers, WHC-EP-0903, FY1996 Solid Waste Integrated Life-Cycle Forecast Container Summary. All three documents are based on data gathered during the FY 1995 data call and verified as of January, 1996. These documents are intended to be used in conjunction with other solid waste planning documents as references for short and long-term planning of the WHC Solid Waste Disposal Division's treatment, storage, and disposal activities over the next several decades. This document focuses on two main characteristics: the physical waste forms and hazardous waste constituents of low-level mixed waste (LLMW) and transuranic waste (both non-mixed and mixed) (TRU(M)). The major generators for each waste category and waste characteristic are also discussed. The characteristics of low-level waste (LLW) are described in Appendix A. In addition, information on radionuclides present in the waste is provided in Appendix B. The FY 1996 forecast data indicate that about 100,900 cubic meters of LLMW and TRU(M) waste is expected to be received at the CWC over the remaining life cycle of the site. Based on

  19. Solid waste management: an overview

    Ayoub, G.M.

    1995-01-01

    The source, effect and characterization of solid wastes are discussed. Constituents of municipal solid wastes and a comparative compositions of municipal solid waste with some data on Lebanon are given. Collection, transport and processing practices are next introduced. Finally treatment and disposal techniques are presented with emphasis on the solid waste as energy source and as material source. Methods of recycling are evaluated in respect with their environmental impact. 7 refs. 2 tabs

  20. Elemental constituent of food and the daily intake

    Suzuki, Kazumasa

    1976-01-01

    Constituent of element in foods and it's daily intake was discussed. In tables were shown instances of analysed values of major elements in Japanese foods, daily dietary intake of 8 elements in Japan (analysed value of total diet and estimated amounts of daily dietary intake of 32 elements. (J.P.N.)

  1. Materials aspects of nuclear waste management

    Pohl, R.O.

    1984-01-01

    Detailed discussion of the heat flow in granitic rocks is presented because temperature is one of the most important parameters determining the containment of nuclear waste in a geologic repository. This paper focusses on a review of our present understanding of the thermal conductivity of igneous rocks. It is suggested that the low, glass-like thermal conductivity of one of the major constituents of these rocks, namely the plagioclase feldspars, is caused by a disorder intrinsic to these solids. Because of the strong phonon scattering in the plagioclases, it is their presence, and only to a lesser degree the disorder in the other constituent minerals in the igneous rocks, which determines their conductivity

  2. Biochar versus hydrochar as growth media constituents for ornamental plant cultivation

    Fernando Fornes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Biochar and hydrochar have been proposed as novel materials for providing soilless growth media. However, much more knowledge is required before reliable advice can be given on the use of these materials for this purpose. Depending on the material and the technology applied (pyrolysis or hydrothermal carbonization, phytotoxicity and greenhouse gas emissions have been found for certain chars. In this study, our aim was to assess the feasibility of three chars as substrate constituents. We compared two biochars, one from forest waste and the other from olive mill waste, and a hydrochar from forest waste. We studied how chars affected substrate characteristics, plant performance, water economy and respiratory CO2 emission. Substrates containing biochar from forest waste showed the best characteristics, with good air/water relationships and adequate electrical conductivity. Those with biochar from olive mill waste were highly saline and, consequently, low quality. The substrates with hydrochar retained too much water and were poorly aerated, presenting high CO2 concentrations due to high respiratory activity. Plants performed well only when grown in substrates containing a maximum of 25 % biochar from forest waste or hydrochar. After analyzing the char characteristics, we concluded that biochar from forest waste could be safely used as a substrate constituent and is environmentally friendly when applied due to its low salinity and low CO2 emission. However, biochar from olive mill waste and hydrochar need to be improved before they can be used as substrate constituents.

  3. 7 CFR 930.16 - Sales constituency.

    2010-01-01

    ... Definitions § 930.16 Sales constituency. Sales constituency means a common marketing organization or brokerage... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sales constituency. 930.16 Section 930.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements...

  4. Disposal of hazardous wastes

    Barnhart, B.J.

    1978-01-01

    The Fifth Life Sciences Symposium entitled Hazardous Solid Wastes and Their Disposal on October 12 through 14, 1977 was summarized. The topic was the passage of the National Resources Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 will force some type of action on all hazardous solid wastes. Some major points covered were: the formulation of a definition of a hazardous solid waste, assessment of long-term risk, list of specific materials or general criteria to specify the wastes of concern, Bioethics, sources of hazardous waste, industrial and agricultural wastes, coal wastes, radioactive wastes, and disposal of wastes

  5. 40 CFR 268.35 - Waste specific prohibitions-petroleum refining wastes.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Waste specific prohibitions-petroleum refining wastes. 268.35 Section 268.35 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... generator may use knowledge of the waste. If the waste contains constituents in excess of the applicable...

  6. 40 CFR 268.36 - Waste specific prohibitions-inorganic chemical wastes

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Waste specific prohibitions-inorganic chemical wastes 268.36 Section 268.36 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... generator may use knowledge of the waste. If the waste contains regulated constituents in excess of the...

  7. Simulation of construction and demolition waste leachate

    Townsend, T.G.; Jang, Y.; Thurn, L.G.

    1999-11-01

    Solid waste produced from construction and demolition (C and D) activities is typically disposed of in unlined landfills. Knowledge of C{ampersand}D debris landfill leachate is limited in comparison to other types of wastes. A laboratory study was performed to examine leachate resulting from simulated rainfall infiltrating a mixed C and D waste stream consisting of common construction materials (e.g., concrete, wood, drywall). Lysimeters (leaching columns) filled with the mixed C and D waste were operated under flooded and unsaturated conditions. Leachate constituent concentrations in the leachate from specific waste components were also examined. Leachate samples were collected and analyzed for a number of conventional water quality parameters including pH, alkalinity, total organic carbon, total dissolved solids, and sulfate. In experiments with the mixed C and D waste, high concentrations of total dissolved solids (TDS) and sulfate were detected in the leachate. C and D leachates produced as a result of unsaturated conditions exhibited TDS concentrations in the range of 570--2,200 mg/L. The major contributor to the TDS was sulfate, which ranged in concentration between 280 and 930 mg/L. The concentrations of sulfate in the leachate exceeded the sulfate secondary drinking water standard of 250 mg/L.

  8. 2013 Los Alamos National Laboratory Hazardous Waste Minimization Report

    Salzman, Sonja L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); English, Charles J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-08-24

    Waste minimization and pollution prevention are inherent goals within the operating procedures of Los Alamos National Security, LLC (LANS). The US Department of Energy (DOE) and LANS are required to submit an annual hazardous waste minimization report to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) in accordance with the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) Hazardous Waste Facility Permit. The report was prepared pursuant to the requirements of Section 2.9 of the LANL Hazardous Waste Facility Permit. This report describes the hazardous waste minimization program (a component of the overall Waste Minimization/Pollution Prevention [WMin/PP] Program) administered by the Environmental Stewardship Group (ENV-ES). This report also supports the waste minimization and pollution prevention goals of the Environmental Programs Directorate (EP) organizations that are responsible for implementing remediation activities and describes its programs to incorporate waste reduction practices into remediation activities and procedures. LANS was very successful in fiscal year (FY) 2013 (October 1-September 30) in WMin/PP efforts. Staff funded four projects specifically related to reduction of waste with hazardous constituents, and LANS won four national awards for pollution prevention efforts from the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). In FY13, there was no hazardous, mixedtransuranic (MTRU), or mixed low-level (MLLW) remediation waste generated at the Laboratory. More hazardous waste, MTRU waste, and MLLW was generated in FY13 than in FY12, and the majority of the increase was related to MTRU processing or lab cleanouts. These accomplishments and analysis of the waste streams are discussed in much more detail within this report.

  9. [Chemical constituents of Aconitum tanguticum].

    Luo, Ming; Lin, Limei; Li, Chun; Wang, Zhimin; Guo, Wubao

    2012-05-01

    To study the chemical constituents isolated from the whole plant of Aconitum tanguticum. Chemical constituents were isolated and purified from the title plant by using a combination of various chromatographic techniques including column chromatography over silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, ODS and preparative HPLC. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic techniques including 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, 2D-NMR, and ESI-MS. Seven compounds were isolated from this plant and their structures were identified as kaempferol-3-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-galactopyranoside]-7-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyrano-side (1), kaempferol-3-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside]-7-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside (2), kaempferol 7-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside (3), gentiopieroside (4), vomifoliol-9-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (5), dihydrovomifoliol-9-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (6) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl alcohol-beta-D-glucopyranoside (7). All the compounds were isolated from this plant for the first time.

  10. Exhaust constituent emission factors of printed circuit board pyrolysis processes and its exhaust control

    Chiang, Hung-Lung, E-mail: hlchiang@mail.cmu.edu.tw [Department of Health Risk Management, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Lin, Kuo-Hsiung [Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, Fooyin University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Recycling of waste printed circuit boards is an important issue. • Pyrolysis is an emerging technology for PCB treatment. • Emission factors of VOCs are determined for PCB pyrolysis exhaust. • Iron-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst was employed for the exhaust control. -- Abstract: The printed circuit board (PCB) is an important part of electrical and electronic equipment, and its disposal and the recovery of useful materials from waste PCBs (WPCBs) are key issues for waste electrical and electronic equipment. Waste PCB compositions and their pyrolysis characteristics were analyzed in this study. In addition, the volatile organic compound (VOC) exhaust was controlled by an iron-impregnated alumina oxide catalyst. Results indicated that carbon and oxygen were the dominant components (hundreds mg/g) of the raw materials, and other elements such as nitrogen, bromine, and copper were several decades mg/g. Exhaust constituents of CO, H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2}, and NOx, were 60–115, 0.4–4.0, 1.1–10, 30–95, and 0–0.7 mg/g, corresponding to temperatures ranging from 200 to 500 °C. When the pyrolysis temperature was lower than 300 °C, aromatics and paraffins were the major species, contributing 90% of ozone precursor VOCs, and an increase in the pyrolysis temperature corresponded to a decrease in the fraction of aromatic emission factors. Methanol, ethylacetate, acetone, dichloromethane, tetrachloromethane and acrylonitrile were the main species of oxygenated and chlorinated VOCs. The emission factors of some brominated compounds, i.e., bromoform, bromophenol, and dibromophenol, were higher at temperatures over 400 °C. When VOC exhaust was flowed through the bed of Fe-impregnated Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, the emission of ozone precursor VOCs could be reduced by 70–80%.

  11. [Chemical constituents from Vaccinium bracteatum].

    Qu, Jing; Chen, Xia; Niu, Chang-Shan; Yu, Shi-Shan

    2014-02-01

    The chemical constituents of Vaccinium bracteatum were studied by means of macroporous resin, ODS column chromatography and preparative HPLC. Eleven compounds were isolated from this plant. By using ESI-MS and NMR, the structures of the eleven compounds were determined as 10-O-trans-p-coumaroyl-6alpha-hydroxyl-dihydromonotropein (1), 10-O-cis-p-coumaroyl -6alpha-hydroxyl-dihydromonotropein (2), vaccinoside (3), 10-O-cis-p-coumaroyl monotropein (4), isolariciresinol-9-O-beta-D-xyloside (5), tectoridin (6), vicenin-3 (7), quercetin-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnoside (8), quercetin-3-O-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside (9), quercetin-3-O-beta-D-galactopyranoside (10), and quercetin-3-O-beta-D-glucuronide (11), respectively. Compounds 1 and 2 are new, and compounds 4, 6 and 7 are isolated from the genus Vaccinium for the first time.

  12. [Chemical constituents of Rauvolfia verticillata].

    Hong, Bo; Li, Wen-Jing; Zhao, Chun-Jie

    2012-06-01

    The study on the Rauvolfia verticillata (Lour.) Baill., which belongs to Apocynaceae, was carried out to look for its chemical constituents and pharmacological activity. The isolation and purification were performed by chromatography on silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 and ODS (octadecyl silane) open column. The structures of obtained compounds were elucidated on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectral analysis. Three indole alkaloids and one acridone alkaloid were isolated from chloroform layer extract and identified as ajmalicine B (1), sandwicine (2), raunescine (3) and 7-hydroxynoracronycine (4) separately. Ajmalicine B (1) is a new compound belonging to indole alkaloid. Compound 4 as an acridone alkaloid was a new type compound isolated from Rauvolfia genus for the first time. We also did some biological activity research on the new type compound (4) to explore other pharmacological activities in addition to antihypertensive activity.

  13. [Chemical constituents of Swertia macrosperma].

    Wang, Hongling; Geng, Changan; Zhang, Xuemei; Ma, Yunbao; Jiang, Zhiyong; Chen, Jijun

    2010-12-01

    To study the chemical constituents of Swertia macrosperma. The air-dried whole plants of Swertia macrosperma were extracted with boiling water. The extract was concentrated to a small amount of volume and extracted with petroleum ether, EtOAc and n-BuOH, successively. The compounds were isolated and purified by column chromatography from the EtOAc fraction, and identified based on spectral analyses (MS, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR). Thirteen compounds were isolated from S. macrosperma, and were characterized as norbellidifolin (1), 1-hydroxy-3,7, 8-trimethoxy-xanthone (2), norswertianolin (3), swertianolin (4), 1,3,7,8-tetrahydroxyxanthone-8-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (5), swertiamatin (6), decentapicrin (7), coniferl aldehyde (8), sinapaldehyde (9), balanophonin (10), together with beta-sitosterol, daucosterol, and oleanolic acid . Compounds 2, 4-10 were obtained from Swertia macrosperma for the first time.

  14. Public and political issues in radioactive waste management in the Federal Republic of Germany

    Neis, A.

    1993-01-01

    The Federal Government's radioactive waste management concept and regulations governing formal public participation in licensing procedures for radioactive waste management facilities are presented. The paper focuses on public and political issues arising from widely diverging views in different social groups on nuclear energy and on radioactive waste management. The resulting conflict between Federal and Laender (Federal constituent states) authorities and the actual course of public participation in a licensing procedure are illustrated with the example of planned final disposal of radioactive waste in the Konrad mine. Major national efforts to overcome the unsatisfying present situation are presented and the role of international consensus is briefly touched. Concluding remarks will particularly justify admissibility and emphasize the need to discuss and eventually decide on radioactive waste management issues regardless of diverging views on nuclear energy

  15. Material chemistry challenges in vitrification of high level radioactive waste

    Kaushik, C.P.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Nuclear technology with an affective environmental management plan and focused attention on safety measures is a much cleaner source of electricity generation as compared to other sources. With this perspective, India has undertaken nuclear energy program to share substantial part of future need of power. Safe containment and isolation of nuclear waste from human environment is an indispensable part of this programme. Majority of radioactivity in the entire nuclear fuel cycle is high level radioactive liquid waste (HLW), which is getting generated during reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels. A three stage strategy for management of HLW has been adopted in India. This involves (i) immobilization of waste oxides in stable and inert solid matrices, (ii) interim retrievable storage of the conditioned waste product under continuous cooling and (iii) disposal in deep geological formation. Borosilicate glass matrix has been adopted in India for immobilization of HLW. Material issue are very important during the entire process of waste immobilization. Performance of the materials used in nuclear waste management determines its safety/hazards. Material chemistry therefore has a significant bearing on immobilization science and its technological development for management of HLW. The choice of suitable waste form to deploy for nuclear waste immobilization is difficult decision and the durability of the conditioned product is not the sole criterion. In any immobilization process, where radioactive materials are involved, the process and operational conditions play an important role in final selection of a suitable glass formulation. In remotely operated vitrification process, study of chemistry of materials like glass, melter, materials of construction of other equipment under high temperature and hostile corrosive condition assume significance for safe and un-interrupted vitrification of radioactive to ensure its isolation waste from human environment. The present

  16. Estimation of inorganic constituents in the seeds of blue and white ...

    Jane

    2011-10-12

    Oct 12, 2011 ... The major active constituents of S. ... moistened with deionized waster to keep it over night. The ... mostly required for cell division in leaves and roots ... it matters in cancer research and pharmacokinetic studies. Integr. Cancer ...

  17. Foraminiferal constituent in marine sediments - A parameter in some coastal engineering problems

    Setty, M.G.A.P.

    Foraminifera, among other microorganisms, form a major constituent of marine sediments and their composition is directly related to the nature of the substrate in which they are entombed. Past and the present data indicate that the size, test...

  18. Chemical constituents in sediment in Lake Pontchartrain and in street mud and canal sediment in New Orleans, Louisiana, following Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, 2005

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Wilson, Jennifer T.; Horowitz, Arthur J.; Skrobialowski, Stanley C.; Foreman, William T.; Fuller, Christopher C.; Burkhardt, Mark R.; Elrick, Kent A.; Mahler, Barbara J.; Smith, James J.; Zaugg, Steven D.

    2007-01-01

    Samples of street mud, suspended and bottom sediment in canals discharging to Lake Ponchartrain, and suspended and bottom sediment in the lake were collected and analyzed for chemical constituents to help evaluate the effects of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita and the subsequent unwatering of New Orleans, Louisiana. The approach used for sampling and analysis of chemical data for the study is presented herein. Radionuclides, major and trace elements, and numerous organic compounds in sediment were analyzed. The organic compounds include organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, urban waste indicator compounds, and current-use pesticides. Methods for the analysis of urban waste indicator compounds and current-use pesticides in sediment were developed only recently.

  19. Scheil-Gulliver Constituent Diagrams

    Pelton, Arthur D.; Eriksson, Gunnar; Bale, Christopher W.

    2017-06-01

    During solidification of alloys, conditions often approach those of Scheil-Gulliver cooling in which it is assumed that solid phases, once precipitated, remain unchanged. That is, they no longer react with the liquid or with each other. In the case of equilibrium solidification, equilibrium phase diagrams provide a valuable means of visualizing the effects of composition changes upon the final microstructure. In the present study, we propose for the first time the concept of Scheil-Gulliver constituent diagrams which play the same role as that in the case of Scheil-Gulliver cooling. It is shown how these diagrams can be calculated and plotted by the currently available thermodynamic database computing systems that combine Gibbs energy minimization software with large databases of optimized thermodynamic properties of solutions and compounds. Examples calculated using the FactSage system are presented for the Al-Li and Al-Mg-Zn systems, and for the Au-Bi-Sb-Pb system and its binary and ternary subsystems.

  20. [Chemical constituents of Swertia angustifolia].

    He, Kang; Cao, Tuan-wu; Wang, Hong-ling; Geng, Chang-an; Zhang, Xue-mei; Chen, Ji-jun

    2015-09-01

    This present work is to study the chemical constituents of Swertia angustifolia. The whole plants of air-dried Swertia angustifolia was extracted with 90% EtOH. The water extract was suspended in H2O and extracted with petroleum ether, EtOAc and nBuOH, successively. The compounds were isolated and purified by column chromatography from the EtOAc fraction, and identified based on spectral analyses (MS, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR). Fourteen compounds were isolated and characterized as 1, 8-dihydroxy-3, 7-dimethoxyxanthone (1), 1, 8-dihydroxy-3, 5, 7-trimethoxyxanthone (2), 7-hydroxy-3, 8-dimethoxyxanthone-1-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (3), 8-0-[β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-6) -β-D-glucopyranosyl] -1, 7-dihydroxy-3-methoxyxanthone (4), (+) -syringaresinol (5), ferulic acid (6), trans-coniferyl aldehyde (7), sinapaldehyde (8), trans-coniferyl alcohol (9), 3, 4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (10), 2-hydroxybenzoic acid (11), isophthalic acid (12), 2-furoic acid (13), and 2-methyl-4(3H)-quinazolinone(14). Compounds 2-14 were obtained from this plant for the first time.

  1. [Chemical constituents of Halenia elliptica].

    Wang, Hongling; Chen, Hao; Geng, Chang'an; Zhang, Xuemei; Ma, Yunbao; Jiang, Zhiyong; Chen, Jijun

    2011-06-01

    To study the chemical constituents of Halenia elliptica. The air-dried whole plants of Halenia elliptica were extracted with 90% EtOH. The EtOH extract was condensed to a small amount of volume and extracted with petroleum ether, EtOAc and n-BuOH, successively. The compounds were isolated and purified by column chromatography from the EtOAc fraction, and identified based on spectral analyses (MS, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR). 12 compounds were isolated from H. elliptica, and characterized as 8-hydroxy-2-methylchromone (1), 5-methoxy-2-methylchromone (2), 7-epi-vogeloside (3), coniferl aldehyde (4), sinapaldehyde (5), norbellidifolin (6), 1-hydroxyl-2,3,4,6-tetramethoxyxanthone (7), 1-hydroxyl-2,3,4,7-tetramethoxyxanthone (8), 1-hydroxyl-2,3,5-trimethoxyxanthone (9), together with azelaic acid, beta-sitosterol, and oleanolic acid. Compounds 1, 2 were new natural compounds and compounds 3-6, 10 were obtained from H. elliptica for the first time and compound 6 showed inhibitory activities against HBsAg and HBeAg secretion with IC50 value of 0.77 and < 0.62 mmol x L(-1), respectively.

  2. Activation analyses updating the ITER radioactive waste assessment

    Pampin, R.; Zheng, S.; Lilley, S.; Na, B.C.; Loughlin, M.J.; Taylor, N.P.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Comprehensive updated of ITER radwaste assessment. ► Latest coupled neutronics and activation methods. ► Type A waste at shutdown decays to TFA within 100 years. ► Most type B waste at shutdown is still type B after 100 years. - Abstract: A study is reported which computes the radiation transport and activation response throughout the ITER machine and updates the ITER radioactive waste assessment using modern 3D models and up-to-date methods. The latest information on component design, maintenance, replacement schedules and materials is adopted. The radwaste classification is revised for all the major components of ITER, as well as several representative port plugs. Results include categorisation snapshots at different decay times, time histories of radiological quantities throughout the machine, and guidelines on interim decay times for components. All plasma-facing materials except tungsten are found to classify as type B due to the transmutation of their main constituents. Major contributors to the IRAS index of all materials are reported. Elemental concentration limits for type A classification of first wall and divertor materials are obtained; for the steels, only a reduction in service lifetime can reduce the waste class. Comparison of total waste amounts with earlier assessments is limited by the fact that analyses of some components are still preliminary; the trend, however, indicates a potential reduction in the total amount of waste if component segregation is demonstrated.

  3. Presidential Rapid Commercialization Initiative for mixed waste solvent extraction

    Honigford, L.; Dilday, D.; Cook, D.

    1997-01-01

    Recently, the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) has made some major steps in mixed waste treatment which have taken it closer to meeting final remediation goals. However, one major hurdle remains for the FEMP mixed waste treatment program, and that hurdle is tri-mixed waste. Tri-mixed is a term coined to describe low-level waste containing RCRA hazardous constituents along with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). The prescribed method for disposal of PCBs is incineration. In mixed waste treatment plans developed by the FEMP with public input, the FEMP committed to pursue non-thermal treatment methods and avoid the use of incineration. Through the SITE Program, the FEMP identified a non-thermal treatment technology which uses solvents to extract PCBs. The technology belongs to a small company called Terra-Kleen Response Group, Inc. A question arose as to how can this new and innovative technology be implemented by a small company at a Department of Energy (DOE) facility. The answer came in the form of the Rapid Commercialization Initiative (RCI) and the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA). RCI is a program sponsored by the Department of commerce (DOC), DOE, Department of Defense (DOD), US EPA and various state agencies to aid companies to market new and innovative technologies

  4. Mixed Waste Management Facility Groundwater Monitoring Report, Fourth Quarter 1998 and 1998 Summary

    Chase, J.

    1999-01-01

    During fourth quarter 1998, ten constituents exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) in groundwater samples from downgradient monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste Management Facility. No constituents exceeded final PDWS in samples from the upgradient monitoring wells

  5. Goldstone-Boson Dynamics for Constituent Quarks

    Plessas, W.

    2003-07-01

    We address some essential features of the Goldstone-boson-exchange constituent quark model. Starting from its background we discuss the motivation for its construction and show its performance in light and strange baryon spectroscopy. Then we quote results from first applications of this type of constituent quark model in covariant calculations of electroweak nucleon form factors.

  6. Preliminary Investigation on the Phytochemical Constituents of ...

    Demand for honey consumption nowadays is continuously increasing worldwide due to its multiple importance from food to medicine. The medicinal value of honey lies in the bioactive phytochemical constituents that produce health benefits to man. Investigation of the phytochemical constituents of the two honey samples ...

  7. 242-A Evaporator waste analysis plan. Revision 4

    Basra, T.S.; Mulkey, C.H.

    1994-01-01

    This waste analysis plan (WAP) provides the plan for obtaining information needed for proper waste handling and processing in the 242-A Evaporator located on the Hanford Site. Regulatory and safety issues are addressed by establishing boundary conditions for waste received and treated at the 242-A Evaporator. The boundary conditions are set by establishing limits for items such as potential exothermic reactions, waste compatibility, and control of vessel vent organic emissions. Boundary conditions are also set for operational considerations and to ensure waste acceptance at receiving facilities. The issues that are addressed in this plan include prevention of exotherms in the waste, waste compatibility, vessel vent emissions, and compatibility with the liner in the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF). The 242-A Evaporator feed stream is separated into two liquid streams: a concentrated slurry stream and a process condensate. A gaseous exhaust stream is also produced. The slurry contains the majority of the radionuclides and inorganic constituents. This stream is pumped back to the double shell tanks (DSTs) and stored for further treatment after being concentrated to target levels. The process condensate (PC) is primarily water that contains trace amounts of organic material and a greatly reduced concentration of radionuclides. The process condensate is presently stored in the (LERF) until it can be further processed in the Effluent Treatment Facility once it is operational

  8. Technology Summary Advancing Tank Waste Retreival And Processing

    Sams, T.L.

    2010-01-01

    This technology overview provides a high-level summary of technologies being investigated and developed by Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to advance Hanford Site tank waste retrieval and processing. Technology solutions are outlined, along with processes and priorities for selecting and developing them. Hanford's underground waste storage tanks hold approximately 57 million gallons of radiochemical waste from nuclear defense production - more tank waste than any other site in the United States. In addition, the waste is uniquely complicated since it contains constituents from at least six major radiochemical processes and several lesser processes. It is intermixed and complexed more than any other waste collection known to exist in the world. The multi-faceted nature of Hanford's tank waste means that legally binding agreements in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (known as the Tri-Party Agreement) and between the Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors may not be met using current vitrification schedules, plans and methods. WRPS and the DOE are therefore developing, testing, and deploying technologies to ensure that they can meet the necessary commitments and complete the DOE's River Protection Project (RPP) mission within environmentally acceptable requirements. Technology solutions are outlined, along with processes and priorities for selecting and developing them.

  9. Overview of the Flammability of Gases Generated in Hanford Waste Tanks

    Mahoney, L.A.; Huckaby, J.L.; Bryan, S.A.; Johnson, G.D.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents an overview of what is known about the flammability of the gases generated and retained in Hanford waste tanks in terms of the gas composition, the flammability and detonability limits of the gas constituents, and the availability of ignition sources. The intrinsic flammability (or nonflammability) of waste gas mixtures is one major determinant of whether a flammable region develops in the tank headspace; other factors are the rate, surface area, volume of the release, and the tank ventilation rate, which are not covered in this report

  10. Overview of the Flammability of Gases Generated in Hanford Waste Tanks

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Huckaby, James L.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Johnson, Gerald D.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents an overview of what is known about the flammability of the gases generated and retained in Hanford waste tanks in terms of the gas composition, flammability and detonability limits of the gas constituents, and availability of ignition sources. The intrinsic flammability (or non-flammability) of waste gas mixtures is one major determinant of whether a flammable region develops in the tank headspace; other factors are the rate, surface area, and volume of the release and the tank ventilation rate, which are not covered in this report

  11. Effects of tuff waste package components on release from 76-68 simulated waste glass: Final report

    McVay, G.L.; Robinson, G.R.

    1984-04-01

    An experimental matrix has been conducted that will allow evaluation of the effects of waste package constituents on the waste form release behavior in a tuff repository environment. Tuff rock and groundwater were used along with 304L, 316, and 1020M ferrous metals to evaluate release from uranium-doped MCC 76-68 simulated waste glass. One of the major findings was that in the absence of 1020M mild steel, tuff rock powder dominates the system. However, when 1020M mild steel is present, it appears to dominate the system. The rock-dominated system results in suppressed glass-water reaction and leaching while the 1020M-dominated system results in enhanced leaching - but the metal effectively scavenges uranium from solution. The 300-series stainless steels play no significant role in affecting glass leaching characteristics. 6 refs., 28 figs., 5 tabs

  12. Radiation damage to DNA constituents

    Bergene, R.

    1977-01-01

    The molecular changes of the DNA molecule, in various systems exposed to inoizing radiation, have been the subject of a great number of studies. In the present work electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR) has been applied to irradiated crystalline systems, in particular single crystals of DNA subunits and their derivatives. The main conclusions about the molecular damage are based on this technique in combination with molecular orbital calculations. It should be emphasized that the ESR technique is restricted to damage containing unpaired electrons. These unstable intermediates called free radicals seem, however, to be involved in all molecular models describing the action of radiation on DNA. One of the premises for a detailed theory of the radiation induced reactions at the physico-chemical level seems to involve exact knowledge of the induced free radicals as well as the modes of their formation and fate. For DNA, as such, it is hardly possible to arrive at such a level of knowledge since the molecular complexity prevents selective studies of the many different radiation induced products. One possible approach is to study the free radicals formed in the constituents of DNA. In the present work three lines of approach should be mentioned. The first is based on the observation that radical formation in general causes only minor structural alterations to the molecule in question. The use of isotopes with different spin and magnetic moment (in particular deuterium) may also serve a source of information. Deuteration leads to a number of protons, mainly NH - and OH, becoming substituted, and if any of these are involved in interactions with unpaired protons the resonance pattern is influeneed. The third source of information is molecular orbital calculation. The electron spin density distribution is a function in the three dimensional space based on the system's electronic wave functions. This constitutes the basis for the idea that ESR data can be correlated with

  13. Nuclear waste management

    Rodger, W.A.

    1985-01-01

    Most of our activities have always produced waste products of one sort or another. Huxley gives a humorous account of wastes throughout antiquity. So it should come as no surprise that some radioactive materials end up as waste products requiring management and disposal. Public perception of nuclear waste hazards places them much higher on the ''worry scale'' than is justified by the actual hazard involved. While the public perception of these hazards appears to revolve mostly around high-level wastes, there are several other categories of wastes that must also be controlled and managed. The major sources of radioactive wastes are discussed

  14. 75 FR 67919 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Proposed Exclusion for Identifying and Listing Hazardous Waste

    2010-11-04

    ... treatment sludge from the lists of hazardous waste set forth in Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations... treatment sludges generated at its facility located in Owosso, Michigan from the list of hazardous wastes... disposed in a Subtitle D landfill and we considered transport of waste constituents through ground water...

  15. 76 FR 74709 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Final Exclusion

    2011-12-01

    ..., including any sludge, spill residue, ash, emission control dust, or leachate, remains a hazardous waste... water for use as a cleaning agent. The slop oil waste is thereby diluted and hazardous constituents are... separation sludges that are listed as hazardous wastes due to benzene, benzo(a)pyrene, chrysene, lead and...

  16. Evaluation of radionuclide concentrations in high-level radioactive wastes

    Fehringer, D.J.

    1985-10-01

    This report describes a possible approach for development of a numerical definition of the term ''high-level radioactive waste.'' Five wastes are identified which are recognized as being high-level wastes under current, non-numerical definitions. The constituents of these wastes are examined and the most hazardous component radionuclides are identified. This report suggests that other wastes with similar concentrations of these radionuclides could also be defined as high-level wastes. 15 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs

  17. Technology for reuse of contaminated concrete constituents

    Binkhorst, I.P.; Cornelissen, H.A.W.

    1998-01-01

    During decommissioning activities of nuclear installations, large amounts of contaminated concrete will have to be processed. All this concrete has to be treated and stored as radioactive waste, which implies major economical and environmental consequences. It was shown that the contamination is mainly concentrated in the porous cement stone. By separating this cement stone from the clean dense aggregate particles, a considerable volume reduction can be reached. KEMA has developed, designed and constructed a pilot plant scale test installation for separation of aggregate from contaminated concrete. The separation is based on a thermal treatment followed by milling and sieving. The clean aggregate can be re-used in concrete, whereas the (slightly) contaminated cement stone could be upgraded to a binder for concrete used in the nuclear industry. (author)

  18. Major depression

    Depression - major; Depression - clinical; Clinical depression; Unipolar depression; Major depressive disorder ... providers do not know the exact causes of depression. It is believed that chemical changes in the ...

  19. FOCUS AND CONSTITUENT QUESTION FORMATION IN DAGBANI

    Issah

    Key words: SpecFoc, focus marker, clause initial, constituent interrogatives, information ... 1Throughout this work, I use the phrase interrogative words in a general way to refer to the ...... Wh-Questions and extraction asymmetries in Malagasy.

  20. Anaerobic microbial transformations of radioactive wastes in subsurface environments

    Francis, A.J.

    1984-01-01

    Radioactive wastes disposed of in subsurface environments contain a variety of radionuclides and organic compounds. Microorganisms play a major role in the transformation of organic and inorganic constituents of the waste and are partly responsible for the problems encountered at the waste disposal sites. These include microbial degradation of waste forms resulting in trench cover subsidence, migration of radionuclides, and production of radioactive gases such as 14 CO 2 , 14 CH 4 , HT, and CH 3 T. Microbial processes involved in solubilization, mobilization, and immobilization of toxic metals under aerobic and anaerobic conditions are reviewed. Complexing agents and several organic acids produced by microbial action affect mobilization of radionuclides and heavy metals from the wastes. Microorganisms play a significant role in the transformation and cycling of tritium in the environment by (i) oxidation of tritium and tritiated methane under aerobic conditions and (ii) production of tritium and tritiated methane from wastes containing tritiated water and organic compounds under anaerobic conditions. 23 references, 2 figures, 2 tables

  1. Characterization of hazardous constituents in HLW supernate and implications for solid LLW generation

    Georgeton, G.K.

    1994-01-01

    High Level Waste supernates are hazardous due to the presence of small quantities of mercury, chromium, lead, silver and barium. The fate of these components based on process knowledge was evaluated. The supernates were grouped into Traditional (normal storage and evaporation), Dilute (stored in Type IV tanks), and Sludge Processing categories, and a review of the limited quantity of available sample data for each type of supernate was performed. The maximum concentration of each hazardous constituent was determined. The most restrictive hazardous constituent in Traditional and Sludge Processing supernates was determined to be mercury, and the most restrictive component in Dilute supernate was chromium. Containers of solid waste contaminated with these supernates must be manifested as nonhazardous before disposal as Low Level Waste in the engineered vaults in the EAV. A method was developed to screen waste containers in order to identify those containers that are nonhazardous. A criterion for 137 Cs content was arbitrarily set to 0.1 Ci, and the volume of supernate required to deposit 0.1 Ci was calculated. Containers with less than 0.1 Ci of 137 Cs and over 85 lb of solid waste contaminated with supernate from normal storage and evaporation operations are nonhazardous. Containers with less than 0.1 Ci of 137 Cs and over 170 lb of solid waste contaminated with supernate from sludge processing operations are nonhazardous. All containers of waste contaminated with supernate from Type IV tanks were evaluated as being nonhazardous. The screening method is readily applicable in the field - if the 137 Cs content of a container is below 0.1 Ci and the weight of the waste is greater than 85 or 170 lb (depending on waste type), the waste container is nonhazardous. Containers not satisfying both criteria will be segregated for additional evaluation

  2. Groundwater Quality Assessment for Waste Management Area U: First Determination

    FN Hodges; CJ Chou

    2000-01-01

    Waste Management Area U (TWA U) is located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The area includes the U Tank Farm, which contains 16 single-shell tanks and their ancillary equipment and waste systems. WMA U is regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) as stipulated in 40 CFR Part 265, Subpart F, which is incorporated into the Washington State dangerous waste regulations (WAC 173-303400) by reference. Groundwater monitoring at WMA U has been guided by an interim status indicator evaluation program. As a result of changes in the direction of groundwater flow, background values for the WMA have been recalculated several times during its monitoring history. The most recent recalculation revealed that one of the indicator parameters, specific conductance, exceeded its background value in downgradient well 299-W19-41. This triggered a change from detection monitoring to a groundwater quality assessment program. The major contributors to the higher specific conductance are nonhazardous constituents, such as bicarbonate, calcium, chloride, magnesium, sodium and sulfate. Chromium, nitrate, and technetium-99 are present and are increasing; however, they are significantly below their drinking water standards. The objective of this study is to determine whether the increased concentrations of chromium, nitrate, and technetium-99 in groundwater are from WMA U or from an upgradient source. Interpretation of groundwater monitoring data indicates that both the nonhazardous constituents causing elevated specific conductance in groundwater and the tank waste constituents present in groundwater at the WMA are a result of surface water infiltration in the southern portion of the WMA. There is evidence that both upgradient and WMA sources contribute to the nitrate concentrations that were detected. There is no indication of an upgradient source for the chromium and technetium-99 that was detected. Therefore, a source of contamination appears to

  3. Groundwater Quality Assessment for Waste Management Area U: First Determination

    FN Hodges; CJ Chou

    2000-08-04

    Waste Management Area U (TWA U) is located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The area includes the U Tank Farm, which contains 16 single-shell tanks and their ancillary equipment and waste systems. WMA U is regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) as stipulated in 40 CFR Part 265, Subpart F, which is incorporated into the Washington State dangerous waste regulations (WAC 173-303400) by reference. Groundwater monitoring at WMA U has been guided by an interim status indicator evaluation program. As a result of changes in the direction of groundwater flow, background values for the WMA have been recalculated several times during its monitoring history. The most recent recalculation revealed that one of the indicator parameters, specific conductance, exceeded its background value in downgradient well 299-W19-41. This triggered a change from detection monitoring to a groundwater quality assessment program. The major contributors to the higher specific conductance are nonhazardous constituents, such as bicarbonate, calcium, chloride, magnesium, sodium and sulfate. Chromium, nitrate, and technetium-99 are present and are increasing; however, they are significantly below their drinking water standards. The objective of this study is to determine whether the increased concentrations of chromium, nitrate, and technetium-99 in groundwater are from WMA U or from an upgradient source. Interpretation of groundwater monitoring data indicates that both the nonhazardous constituents causing elevated specific conductance in groundwater and the tank waste constituents present in groundwater at the WMA are a result of surface water infiltration in the southern portion of the WMA. There is evidence that both upgradient and WMA sources contribute to the nitrate concentrations that were detected. There is no indication of an upgradient source for the chromium and technetium-99 that was detected. Therefore, a source of contamination appears to

  4. Pathways for Disposal of Commercially-Generated Tritiated Waste

    Halverson, Nancy V. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Environmental Sciences and Biotechnology

    2016-09-26

    From a waste disposal standpoint, tritium is a major challenge. Because it behaves like hydrogen, tritium exchanges readily with hydrogen in the ground water and moves easily through the ground. Land disposal sites must control the tritium activity and mobility of incoming wastes to protect human health and the environment. Consequently, disposal of tritiated low-level wastes is highly regulated and disposal options are limited. The United States has had eight operating commercial facilities licensed for low-level radioactive waste disposal, only four of which are currently receiving waste. Each of these is licensed and regulated by its state. Only two of these sites accept waste from states outside of their specified regional compact. For waste streams that cannot be disposed directly at one of the four active commercial low-level waste disposal facilities, processing facilities offer various forms of tritiated low-level waste processing and treatment, and then transport and dispose of the residuals at a disposal facility. These processing facilities may remove and recycle tritium, reduce waste volume, solidify liquid waste, remove hazardous constituents, or perform a number of additional treatments. Waste brokers also offer many low-level and mixed waste management and transportation services. These services can be especially helpful for small-quantity tritiated-waste generators, such as universities, research institutions, medical facilities, and some industries. The information contained in this report covers general capabilities and requirements for the various disposal/processing facilities and brokerage companies, but is not considered exhaustive. Typically, each facility has extensive waste acceptance criteria and will require a generator to thoroughly characterize their wastes. Then a contractual agreement between the waste generator and the disposal/processing/broker entity must be in place before waste is accepted. Costs for tritiated waste

  5. Pathways for Disposal of Commercially-Generated Tritiated Waste

    Halverson, Nancy V.

    2016-01-01

    From a waste disposal standpoint, tritium is a major challenge. Because it behaves like hydrogen, tritium exchanges readily with hydrogen in the ground water and moves easily through the ground. Land disposal sites must control the tritium activity and mobility of incoming wastes to protect human health and the environment. Consequently, disposal of tritiated low-level wastes is highly regulated and disposal options are limited. The United States has had eight operating commercial facilities licensed for low-level radioactive waste disposal, only four of which are currently receiving waste. Each of these is licensed and regulated by its state. Only two of these sites accept waste from states outside of their specified regional compact. For waste streams that cannot be disposed directly at one of the four active commercial low-level waste disposal facilities, processing facilities offer various forms of tritiated low-level waste processing and treatment, and then transport and dispose of the residuals at a disposal facility. These processing facilities may remove and recycle tritium, reduce waste volume, solidify liquid waste, remove hazardous constituents, or perform a number of additional treatments. Waste brokers also offer many low-level and mixed waste management and transportation services. These services can be especially helpful for small-quantity tritiated-waste generators, such as universities, research institutions, medical facilities, and some industries. The information contained in this report covers general capabilities and requirements for the various disposal/processing facilities and brokerage companies, but is not considered exhaustive. Typically, each facility has extensive waste acceptance criteria and will require a generator to thoroughly characterize their wastes. Then a contractual agreement between the waste generator and the disposal/processing/broker entity must be in place before waste is accepted. Costs for tritiated waste

  6. Mixed waste solidification testing on polymer and cement-based waste forms in support of Hanford's WRAP 2A facility

    Burbank, D.A. Jr.; Weingardt, K.M.

    1993-10-01

    A testing program has been conducted by the Westinghouse Hanford Company to confirm the baseline waste form selection for use in Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Module 2A. WRAP Module 2A will provide treatment required to properly dispose of containerized contact-handled, mixed low-level waste at the US Department of Energy Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. Solidification/stabilization has been chosen as the appropriate treatment for this waste. This work is intended to test cement-based, thermosetting polymer, and thermoplastic polymer solidification media to substantiate the technology approach for WRAP Module 2A. Screening tests were performed using the major chemical constituent of each waste type to measure the gross compatibility with the immobilization media and to determine formulations for more detailed testing. Surrogate materials representing each of the eight waste types were prepared in the laboratory. These surrogates were then solidified with the selected immobilization media and subjected to a battery of standard performance tests. Detailed discussion of the laboratory work and results are contained in this report

  7. FAA Alleged Waste and Mismanagement of Air Route Traffic Control Centers Critical and Essential Power Systems Project

    1996-10-16

    The Office of Inspector General (OIG) reviewed a complaint from Congressman Deal on behalf of a constituent. The constituent alleged waste and mismanagement occurred in the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Air Route Traffic Control Centers Criti...

  8. Multi-satellite ocean tide modelling - the K-1 constituent

    Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Knudsen, Per

    1997-01-01

    All major ocean tide constituents are aliased into signals with periods less than 90 days from TOPEX/POSEIDON altimetry, except the K-1 constituent. The aliased K-1 has a period of 173 days. Consequently, it might be confounded with height variations caused by the semiannual cycle having a period......, where the presence of crossing tracks cannot separate K-1 from the semiannual signal from TOPEX/POSEIDON, the importance of including ERS-1 and GEOSAT observations was demonstrated. A comparison with 29 pelagic and coastal tide gauges in the Southern Ocean south of 50 degrees S gave 5.59 (M-2), 2.27 (S......-2) and 5.04 (K-1) cm RMS agreement for FES95.1 ocean tide model. The same comparison for the best empirical estimated constituents based on TOPEX/POSEIDON + ERS-1 + GEOSAT gave 4.32, 2.21, and 4.29 cm for M-2, S-2 and K-1, respectively....

  9. Analysis of gamma irradiated pepper constituents, 1

    Takagi, Kazuko; Okuyama, Tsuneo

    1988-01-01

    A reversed phase high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was developed for the analysis of many constituents of pepper at the same time. And a extraction method of ultraviolet absorbing constituents from pepper was developed for the HPLC analysis. The Ultraviolet absorbing constituents were extracted by precooled Automatic Air-Hammer from frozen pepper with 20% acetonitrile in water. The process of extraction was achieved under cooling by liquid nitrogen from start to end. The extracted constituents were separated on a reversed phase C 8 (LiChrospher 300 RP - 8 10 μm 0.4 I.D. x 0.4 cm and LiChrosorb RP - 8 SelectB 0.4 I. D. x 25 cm) column with a concave gradient from 0.1% trifluoro acetic acid (TFA) in water to 75% acetonitrile and 0.1% TFA in water for 60 minutes. The eluted constituents were detected 210 nm and 280 nm. The present method permits the detection of about 50 peaks by 280 nm. (author)

  10. Composting of food and yard wastes by locally isolated fungal strains

    PC2094), Lentinus tigrinus M609RQY, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium spp. were used as inocula in source separated organics (food and yard trimmings) from solid waste (SW) to produce biofertilizer and stabilize waste constituents. The results ...

  11. Urban Wood Waste Resource Assessment

    Wiltsee, G.

    1998-11-20

    This study collected and analyzed data on urban wood waste resources in 30 randomly selected metropolitan areas in the United States. Three major categories wood wastes disposed with, or recovered from, the municipal solid waste stream; industrial wood wastes such as wood scraps and sawdust from pallet recycling, woodworking shops, and lumberyards; and wood in construction/demolition and land clearing debris.

  12. Analysis of constituents of earth formations

    Hertzog, R.C.; Grau, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    The composition of an earth formation is investigated by repetitively irradiating the formation with bursts of neutrons from a source and measuring an energy spectrum of the scattering gamma rays resulting from such irradiation e.g. by photomultiplier or solid state detector. The measured spectrum is thereafter analyzed by comparing it with a composite spectrum, made up of standard spectra, measured in a controlled environment, of constituents postulated to comprise the formation. As a result of such analysis, the proportions of the postulated constituents in the formation are determined. Since the measured spectrum is subject to degradation due to changes in the resolution of the detector, a filtering arrangement effects modification of the standard spectra in a manner which compensates for the changes in the detector and thereby provides for a more accurate determination of the constituents of the formation. Temperature is measured by sensor to compensate for temperature dependence of detector resolution. (author)

  13. Radioactive waste processing container

    Ishizaki, Kanjiro; Koyanagi, Naoaki; Sakamoto, Hiroyuki; Uchida, Ikuo.

    1992-01-01

    A radioactive waste processing container used for processing radioactive wastes into solidification products suitable to disposal such as underground burying or ocean discarding is constituted by using cements. As the cements, calcium sulfoaluminate clinker mainly comprising calcium sulfoaluminate compound; 3CaO 3Al 2 O 3 CaSO 4 , Portland cement and aqueous blast furnace slug is used for instance. Calciumhydroxide formed from the Portland cement is consumed for hydration of the calcium sulfoaluminate clinker. According, calcium hydroxide is substantially eliminated in the cement constituent layer of the container. With such a constitution, damages such as crackings and peelings are less caused, to improve durability and safety. (I.N.)

  14. Constituent gluon interpretation of glueballs and gluelumps

    Boulanger, N.; Buisseret, F.; Mathieu, V.; Semay, C.

    2008-01-01

    Arguments are given that support the interpretation of the lattice QCD glueball and gluelump spectra in terms of bound states of massless constituent gluons with helicity 1. In this scheme, we show that the mass hierarchy of the currently known gluelumps and glueballs is mainly due to the number of constituent gluons and can be understood within a simple flux tube model. It is also argued that the lattice QCD 0 +- glueball should be seen as a four-gluon bound state. We finally predict the mass of the 0 - state, not yet computed in lattice QCD. (orig.)

  15. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) Sodium Bearing Waste - Waste Incidental to Reprocessing Determination

    Jacobson, Victor Levon

    2002-01-01

    U.S. Department of Energy Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management, Section I.1.C, requires that all radioactive waste subject to Department of Energy Order 435.1 be managed as high-level radioactive waste, transuranic waste, or low-level radioactive waste. Determining the radiological classification of the sodium-bearing waste currently in the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Tank Farm Facility inventory is important to its proper treatment and disposition. This report presents the technical basis for making the determination that the sodium-bearing waste is waste incidental to spent fuel reprocessing and should be managed as mixed transuranic waste. This report focuses on the radiological characteristics of the sodium-bearing waste. The report does not address characterization of the nonradiological, hazardous constituents of the waste in accordance with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act requirements

  16. Waste classification sampling plan

    Landsman, S.D.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this sampling is to explain the method used to collect and analyze data necessary to verify and/or determine the radionuclide content of the B-Cell decontamination and decommissioning waste stream so that the correct waste classification for the waste stream can be made, and to collect samples for studies of decontamination methods that could be used to remove fixed contamination present on the waste. The scope of this plan is to establish the technical basis for collecting samples and compiling quantitative data on the radioactive constituents present in waste generated during deactivation activities in B-Cell. Sampling and radioisotopic analysis will be performed on the fixed layers of contamination present on structural material and internal surfaces of process piping and tanks. In addition, dose rate measurements on existing waste material will be performed to determine the fraction of dose rate attributable to both removable and fixed contamination. Samples will also be collected to support studies of decontamination methods that are effective in removing the fixed contamination present on the waste. Sampling performed under this plan will meet criteria established in BNF-2596, Data Quality Objectives for the B-Cell Waste Stream Classification Sampling, J. M. Barnett, May 1998

  17. Mixed waste solidification testing on thermosetting polymer and cement based waste forms in support of Hanford's WRAP Module 2A Facility

    Burbank, D.A.; Weingardt, K.M.

    1993-01-01

    A testing program has been conducted by the Westinghouse Hanford Co. to confirm the baseline waste form selection for use in Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Module 2A. WRAP Module 2A will provide treatment required to properly dispose of containerized contact-handled, mixed low-level waste at the US DOE Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. Solidification/stabilization has been chosen as the appropriate treatment for this waste. This work is intended to test cement-based and thermosetting polymer solidification media to confirm the baseline technologies selected for WRAP Module 2A. Screening tests were performed using the major chemical constituent of each waste type to measure the gross compatibility with the immobilization media and to determine formulations for more detailed testing. Surrogate wastes representing each of the eight waste types were prepared for testing. Surrogates for polymer testing were sent to a vendor commissioned for that portion of the test work. Surrogates for the grout testing were used in the Westinghouse Hanford Co. laboratory responsible for the grout performance testing. Detailed discussion of the lab. work and results are contained in this report

  18. 242-A evaporator dangerous waste permit application

    1991-01-01

    The 242-A Evaporator is a waste management unit within the Hanford Facility that consists of process vessels and support systems for heating, evaporating, and condensing double-shell tank (DST) waste generated by Hanford Site operations. Operation of the 242-A Evaporator serves to reduce the volume of waste solutions within the DSTs that do not self-boil, while separating inorganic and radionuclide constituents from organic constituents. This operation reduces the number of underground DSTs required for waste storage and also makes the mixed waste more suitable for future treatment and disposal (i.e., grouting and vitrification). The 242-A Evaporator receives mixed-waste streams from the DSTs that contain organic and inorganic constituents and radionuclides. The waste is a dangerous waste (DW) because of corrosivity, reactivity, and toxicity characteristics, and is an extremely hazardous waste (EHW) as a result of toxicity (state criteria only), carcinogenicity, and persistence under the state mixture rule. The waste also contains spent nonhalogenated solvents

  19. Waste Receiving and Processing Module 2A waste certification strategy

    LeClair, M.D.; Pottmeyer, J.A.; Hyre, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    This document addresses the certification of Mixed Low Level Waste (MLLW) that will be treated in the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 2A (WRAP 2A) and is destined for disposal in the MLLW trench of the Low Level Burial Grounds (LLBG). The MLLW that will be treated in WRAP 2A contains land disposal restricted and radioactive constituents. Certification of the treated waste is dependent on numerous waste management activities conducted throughout the WRAP 2A operation. These activities range from waste treatability testing conducted prior to WRAP 2A waste acceptance to overchecking final waste form quality prior to transferring waste to disposal. This document addresses the high level strategies and methodologies for certifying the final waste form. Integration among all design and verification activities that support final waste form quality assurance is also discussed. The information generated from this effort may directly support other ongoing activities including the WRAP 2A Waste Characterization Study, WRAP 2A Waste Analysis Plan development, Sample Plan development, and the WRAP 2A Data Management System functional requirements definition

  20. In vitro inhibitory effects of major bioactive constituents of Andrographis paniculata, Curcuma longa and Silybum marianum on human liver microsomal morphine glucuronidation: A prediction of potential herb-drug interactions arising from andrographolide, curcumin and silybin inhibition in humans.

    Uchaipichat, Verawan

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the liver microsomal inhibitory effects of silybin, silychristin, andrographolide, and curcumin by using morphine as an in vitro UGT2B7 probe substrate, and predict the magnitude of the herb-drug interaction arising from these herbal constituents' inhibition in vivo. Studies were performed in the incubation with and without bovine serum albumin (BSA). Andrographolide and curcumin showed a marked inhibition on morphine 3- and 6-glucuronidation with IC 50 of 50&87 and 96&111 μM, respectively. In the presence of 2%BSA, andrographolide also showed a strong inhibition on morphine 3- and 6-glucuronidation (IC 50 4.4&21.6 μM) whereas curcumin showed moderate inhibition (IC 50 338&333 μM). In the absence and presence of 2%BSA, morphine 3- and 6-glucuronidation was moderately inhibited by silybin (IC 50 583&862 and 1252&1421 μM, respectively), however was weakly inhibited by silychristin (IC 50 3527&3504 and 1124&1530 μM, respectively). The K i of andrographolide, curcumin and silybin on morphine 3- and 6-glucuronidation were 7.1&9.5, 72.7&65.2, and 224.5&159.7 μM, respectively, while the respective values generated from the system containing 2%BSA were 2.4&3.1, 96.4&108.8, and 366.3&394.5 μM. Using the in vitro and in vivo extrapolation approach, andrographolide was herbal component that may have had a potential interaction in vivo when it was co-administered with morphine. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Society for the Study of Xenobiotics. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. 40 CFR 261.11 - Criteria for listing hazardous waste.

    2010-07-01

    .... (viii) The quantities of the waste generated at individual generation sites or on a regional or national... result of the improper management of wastes containing the constituent. (x) Action taken by other... frequently are hazardous under the definition of hazardous waste found in section 1004(5) of the Act. (c) The...

  2. Organic carbon in Hanford single-shell tank waste

    Toth, J.J.; Willingham, C.E.; Heasler, P.G.; Whitney, P.D.

    1994-04-01

    Safety of Hanford single-shell tanks (SSTs) containing organic carbon is a concern because the carbon in the presence of oxidizers (NO 3 or NO 2 ) is combustible when sufficiently concentrated and exposed to elevated temperatures. A propagating chemical reaction could potentially occur at high temperature (above 200 C). The rapid increase in temperature and pressure within a tank might result in the release of radioactive waste constituents to the environment. The purpose of this study is to gather available laboratory information about the organic carbon waste inventories stored in the Hanford SSTs. Specifically, the major objectives of this investigation are: Review laboratory analytical data and measurements for SST composite core and supernatant samples for available organic data; Assess the correlation of organic carbon estimated utilizing the TRAC computer code compared to laboratory measurements; and From the laboratory analytical data, estimate the TOC content with confidence levels for each of the 149 SSTs

  3. Ozone destruction of Hanford Site tank waste organics

    Colby, S.A.

    1993-04-01

    Ozone processing is one of several technologies being developed to meet the intent of the Secretary of the US Department of Energy, Decision on the Programmatic Approach and Near-Term Actions for Management and Disposal of Hanford Tank Waste Decision Statement, dated December 20, 1991, which emphasizes the need to resolve tank safety issues by destroying or modifying the constituents (e.g., organics) that cause safety concerns. As a result, the major tank treatment objectives on the Hanford Site are to resolve the tank safety issues regarding organic compounds (and accompanying flammable gas generation), which all potentially can react to evolve heat and gases. This report contains scoping test results of an alkaline ozone oxidation process to destroy organic compounds found in the Hanford Site's radioactive waste storage tanks

  4. Aspects regarding the capitalization of the powdery wastes in steelmaking

    Dragna, E. C.; Ioana, A.; Constantin, N.

    2018-01-01

    The metallurgical industry is experiencing major issues which are not related to a crisis of the raw materials and energy resources, but to the stringent requirements for the environmental protection. The small-sized and pulverous wastes, stemming mainly from the steel industry but also from the mining industry, respectively the energy industry, due to their high content of iron, manganese, carbon and various oxides, should be named by-products and be deemed as constituents of natural capital, because they can be capitalized in the steel industry. The optimization of the steelmaking process can have radically different approaches, depending on the specific conditions of a steel plant during a specific period of time. The production of steel is continuously increasing worldwide, due to the development of the machinery industries. The steel manufacturers use furnaces that produce steel form various ferrous wastes, instead of traditional raw materials, because the method is effective, given that it assumes low costs.

  5. Nuclear waste

    1988-01-01

    As required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, the Department of Energy is to annually determine whether the waste disposal fee will produce sufficient revenues to offset the total estimated costs of the waste disposal program. In its June 1987 assessment, DOE recommended that the fee remain unchanged even though its analysis showed that at an inflation rate of 4 percent the current fee would result in end-of-program deficits ranging from $21 billion to $76 billion in 2085. The 1988 assessment calls for reduced total costs because of program changes. Thus, DOE may be able to begin using a realistic inflation rate in determining fee adequacy in 1988 without proposing a major fee increase

  6. Mutations of Electrons as Constituents of Hadrons

    Driscoll, R. B.

    1997-04-01

    Conjecture (C) 1: Coulomb-charged constituents of electron (e) are attracted to its barycentre by lepto-strong force F=K/r^2+f; f is stably perturbative for r Non-fiction Library, Urbana, 1986); R.M. Santilli, Hadronic Mechanics (Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Kiev, 1995 and 1996), 3 volumes.)

  7. Patch testing with constituents of Compositae mixes

    Paulsen, Evy; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2012-01-01

    Background. The development of mixes containing Compositae plant extracts has improved the diagnosis of Compositae contact allergy, but none of them has fulfilled the criteria for an ideal European plant mix. Objective. To evaluate which constituents of two commercial Compositae mixes were most u...

  8. The fragrance mix and its constituents

    Johansen, J D; Menné, T

    1995-01-01

    Results from 14 years of patch testing with the fragrance mix and its constituents are reviewed. From 1979-1992, 8215 consecutive patients were patch tested with the fragrance mix and 449 (5.5%) had a positive reaction. An increase in the frequency of reactions to fragrance mix was seen from the ...

  9. Simultaneous Determination of Seven Constituents in Herbal ...

    Simultaneous Determination of Seven Constituents in Herbal Prescription Jaeumganghwa-Tang Using HPLC-PDA. CS Seo, JH Kim, HK Shin. Abstract. A simple and accurate high-performance liquid chromatographic method was applied to the quantitative analysis of seven components of the traditional herbal prescription ...

  10. CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITY OF THE CONSTITUENTS OF ...

    Crude methanol extracts obtained from the stem, roots and leaves of Anthocleista djalonensis and three natural plant constituents (djalonenol 1, sweroside 3 and djalonensone 9 respectively) isolated from these extracts were evaluated invitro against ST-57 brain tumor transformed fibroblasts. In addition, six semisynthetic ...

  11. Antioxidant and antibacterial constituents of Steganotaenia ...

    GC-MS analysis of the hexane and dichloromethane was carried out to determine their chemical constituents. Results revealed that both extracts contained similar compounds (including cumene, xylene, citronellol and long chain hydrocarbons). In addition the dichloromethane extract contains cadinanol, ar-curcumene and ...

  12. Effects of fine particulate matter and its constituents on low birth weight among full-term infants in California

    Basu, Rupa; Harris, Maria; Sie, Lillian; Malig, Brian; Broadwin, Rachel; Green, Rochelle

    2014-01-01

    Relationships between prenatal exposure to fine particles (PM 2.5 ) and birth weight have been observed previously. Few studies have investigated specific constituents of PM 2.5 , which may identify sources and major contributors of risk. We examined the effects of trimester and full gestational prenatal exposures to PM 2.5 mass and 23 PM 2.5 constituents on birth weight among 646,296 term births in California between 2000 and 2006. We used linear and logistic regression models to assess associations between exposures and birth weight and risk of low birth weight (LBW; 2.5 mass and several PM 2.5 constituents were significantly associated with reductions in term birth weight. The largest reductions in birth weight were associated with exposure to vanadium, sulfur, sulfate, iron, elemental carbon, titanium, manganese, bromine, ammonium, zinc, and copper. Several of these PM 2.5 constituents were associated with increased risk of term LBW. Reductions in birth weight were generally larger among younger mothers and varied by race/ethnicity. Exposure to specific constituents of PM 2.5 , especially traffic-related particles, sulfur constituents, and metals, were associated with decreased birth weight in California. -- Highlights: • Examine full gestational and trimester fine particle and its constituents on term birth weight. • Fine particles and several of its constituents associated with birth weight reductions. • Largest reductions for traffic-related particles, sulfur constituents, and metals. • Greater birth weight reductions for younger mothers, and varied by race/ethnicity

  13. Major Links.

    Henderson, Tona

    1995-01-01

    Provides electronic mail addresses for resources and discussion groups related to the following academic majors: art, biology, business, chemistry, computer science, economics, health sciences, history, literature, math, music, philosophy, political science, psychology, sociology, and theater. (AEF)

  14. Major Roads

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for major roads (interstates and trunk highways) found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. These roadways are current...

  15. Classification and disposal of radioactive wastes

    Kocher, D.C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews the historical development in the U.S. of definitions and requirements for permanent disposal of different classes of radioactive waste. We first consider the descriptions of different waste classes that were developed prior to definitions in laws and regulations. These descriptions usually were not based on requirements for permanent disposal but, rather, on the source of the waste and requirements for safe handling and storage. We then discuss existing laws and regulations for disposal of different waste classes. Current definitions of waste classes are largely qualitative, and thus somewhat ambiguous, and are based primarily on the source of the waste rather than the properties of its radioactive constituents. Furthermore, even though permanent disposal is clearly recognized as the ultimate goal of radioactive water management, current laws and regulations do not associated the definitions of different waste classes with requirement for particular disposal systems. Thus, requirements for waste disposal essentially are unaffected by ambiguities in the present waste classification system

  16. CHARACTERIZATION OF VITRIFIED SAVANNAH RIVER SITE SB4 WASTE SURROGATE PRODUCED IN COLD CRUCIBLE

    Marra, J

    2008-01-01

    Savannah River Site (SRS) sludge batch 4 (SB4) waste surrogate with high aluminum and iron content was vitrified with commercially available Frit 503-R4 (8 wt.% Li 2 O, 16 wt.% B2O3, 76 wt.% SiO 2 ) by cold crucible inductive melting using lab- (56 mm inner diameter), bench- (236 mm) and large-scale (418 mm) cold crucible. The waste loading ranged between 40 and 60 wt.%. The vitrified products obtained in the lab-scale cold crucible were nearly amorphous with traces of unreacted quartz in the product with 40 wt.% waste loading and traces of spinel phase in the product with 50 wt.% waste loading. The glassy products obtained in the bench-scale cold crucible are composed of major vitreous and minor iron-rich spinel phase whose content at ∼60 wt.% waste loading may achieve ∼10 vol.%. The vitrified waste obtained in the large-scale cold crucible was also composed of major vitreous and minor spinel structure phases. No nepheline phase has been found. Average degree of crystallinity was estimated to be ∼12 vol.%. Anionic motif of the glass network is built from rather short metasilicate chains and boron-oxygen constituent based on boron-oxygen triangular units

  17. Solid low-level waste certification strategy

    Smith, M.A.

    1991-08-01

    The purpose of the Solid Low-Level Waste (SLLW) Certification Program is to provide assurance that SLLW generated at the ORNL meets the applicable waste acceptance criteria for those facilities to which the waste is sent for treatment, handling, storage, or disposal. This document describes the strategy to be used for certification of SLLW or ORNL. The SLLW Certification Program applies to all ORNL operations involving the generation, shipment, handling, treatment, storage and disposal of SLLW. Mixed wastes, containing both hazardous and radioactive constituents, and transuranic wastes are not included in the scope of this document. 13 refs., 3 figs

  18. Organic waste treatment with organically modified clays

    Evans, J.C.; Pancoski, S.E.; Alther, G.

    1989-01-01

    The use of organically modified clays in hazardous waste management applications offers a significant new and untapped potential. These clays may be used in the stabilization of organic wastes and organically contaminated soils, for waste water treatment, for oil spill control, for liner systems beneath fuel oil storage tanks, and as a component within liner systems of hazardous waste storage treatment and disposal facilities. Organically modified clays (organophilic clays) may be employed in each of these systems to adsorb organic waste constituents, enhancing the performance of the applications

  19. Modified TCLP test for evaluating the leachability of site-specific wastes

    Pier, J.

    1996-01-01

    The Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) has developed a site-specific test to assess the leachability of wastes that will be placed in its on-site disposal cell. This test is modelled after the TCLP, but examines an expanded list of parameters and uses an extraction solution that is representative of conditions that are expected to exist in the disposal facility. Following the same logic that guided development of TCLP protocols, the WSSRAP developed concentration guidelines for non-TCLP parameters that were contaminants of concern in its wastes. Response actions, specific to the WSSRAP cell and wastes, were also developed to address constituents that failed to meet these guides. From 1955 to 1966, the US Atomic Energy Commission operated a uranium feed materials plant on this site. Nitroaromatic, and later, radiological wastes were disposed of in the quarry from 1945 until 1970. This paper describes testing to determine whether contaminant concentrations in leachates derived from the major waste-types that will be placed in its on-site disposal cell conform with the Department of Energy's (DOE) as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) policy. Although the WSSRAP will continue to use the TCLP test to determine if any waste is classified RCRA-hazardous, the site-specific test described in this paper will be used to further assess whether leachate from any waste-type has the potential to adversely impact groundwater

  20. [Chemical constituents from stems of Ilex pubescens].

    Xing, Xian-dong; Zhang, Qian; Feng, Feng; Liu, Wen-yuan

    2012-09-01

    To study the chemical constituents from the stems of Ilex pubescens Hook. et Am. The chemical constituents were isolated and purified by various column chromatographic methods with diatomite, silica gel, ODS and Sephadex LH-20. Their structures were identified on physical properties and spectroscopic methods. Nine compounds were isolated and determined as luteolin(1), quercetin(2), hyperoside(3), rutin(4), 1, 5-dihydroxy-3-methyl-anthraquinone(5),3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxy-benzoic acid-1-O-beta-D-glucoside(6), hexadecanoic acid(7), stearic acid(8), n-tetratriacontanol(9), respectively. All the compounds are isolated from this plant for the first time, and compounds 5 and 6 are isolated from this genus for the first time.

  1. Constituent models and large transverse momentum reactions

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1975-01-01

    The discussion of constituent models and large transverse momentum reactions includes the structure of hard scattering models, dimensional counting rules for large transverse momentum reactions, dimensional counting and exclusive processes, the deuteron form factor, applications to inclusive reactions, predictions for meson and photon beams, the charge-cubed test for the e/sup +-/p → e/sup +-/γX asymmetry, the quasi-elastic peak in inclusive hadronic reactions, correlations, and the multiplicity bump at large transverse momentum. Also covered are the partition method for bound state calculations, proofs of dimensional counting, minimal neutralization and quark--quark scattering, the development of the constituent interchange model, and the A dependence of high transverse momentum reactions

  2. [Chemical constituents from rhizomes of Illicium henryi].

    Liu, Jifeng; Zhang, Xuemei; Shi, Yao; Jiang, Zhiyong; Ma, Yunbao; Chen, Jijun

    2010-09-01

    To study the chemical constituents of Illicium henryi. Column chromatographic techniques using silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, Rp-8 and Rp-18 as packing materials were applied to isolate constituents. The structures of isolates were determined on the basis of spectroscopic data analyses. Twelve compounds were isolated from the rhizomes of I. henryi, which were characterized as balanophonin (1), aviculin (2), rubriflosides A (3), 1,2-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,3-propanediol (4), jasopyran (5), kaempferol (6), quercetin (7), (2R, 3R)-3, 5, 7, 3', 5'- pentahydroxyflavan (8), 3, 4, 5-trimethoxyphenyl-1-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (9), 3, 4-dimethoxyphenyl-1-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (10), coniferyl aldehyde (11), sinapaldehyde (12), respectively. All the isolates were obtained for the first time from this plant.

  3. Analysis of chemical constituents in Cistanche species.

    Jiang, Yong; Tu, Peng-Fei

    2009-03-13

    Species of the genus of Cistanche (Rou Cong Rong in Chinese) are perennial parasite herbs, and are mainly distributed in arid lands and warm deserts. As a superior tonic for the treatment of kidney deficiency, impotence, female infertility, morbid leucorrhea, profuse metrorrhagia and senile constipation, Cistanche herbs earned the honor of "Ginseng of the desert". Recently, there has been increasing scientific attention on Herba Cistanche for its remarkable bioactivities including antioxidation, neuroprotection, and anti-aging. The chemical constituents of Cistanche plants mainly include volatile oils and non-volatile phenylethanoid glycosides (PhGs), iridoids, lignans, alditols, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides. Pharmacological studies show that PhGs are the main active components for curing kidney deficiency, antioxidation and neuroprotection; galactitol and oligosaccharides are the representatives for the treatment of senile constipation, while polysaccharides are responsible for improving body immunity. In this paper, the advances on the chemical constituents of Cistanche plants and their corresponding analyses are reviewed.

  4. Chemical investigation of the volatile constituents of Cleome viscosa from Nigeria

    Gabriel Olatunji

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The major volatile constituents of the oils from the integral parts of Cleome viscosa L. from Nigeria have been identified by GC, GC/MS and 1H NMR. The main constituents of the non-polar fraction of the oils were monoterpene hydrocarbons (21% in stem/leaves, 15% in seed/fruits, 12% in roots and some oxygenated derivatives (3% in leaves/stem; 1% in seeds/fruits and 1.5% in roots. The monoterpenes occurred frequently in the oils. Fatty acid esters especially ethyl palmitate which constituted a major constituent in the oil from the seeds/fruits was not detected in the oils from the roots.

  5. Separation of the constituents of coal

    Betrand, M F

    1938-12-06

    A process is disclosed of separating, by means of dense aqueous solutions, the constituents of coal, isolated by preliminary crushing from each other and/or from barren and carbonaceous shales, comprising the addition to the washing water before treatment or during any stage of the preparation of the coal before separation, or to the dense separating solution of agents improving the wetting of the coal by water.

  6. Underground storage tanks soft waste dislodging and conveyance

    Wellner, A.F.

    1993-10-01

    Currently 140 million liters (37 million gallons) of waste are stored in the single shell underground storage tanks (SSTs) at Hanford. The wastes contain both hazardous and radioactive constituents. This paper focuses on the Westinghouse Hanford Company's testing program for soft waste dislodging and conveyance technology. This program was initialized to investigate methods of dislodging and conveying soft waste. The main focus was on using air jets, water jets, and/or mechanical blades to dislodge the waste and air conveyance to convey the dislodged waste. These waste dislodging and conveyance technologies would be used in conjunction with a manipulator based retrieval system

  7. Analysis of gamma irradiated pepper constituents, 2

    Takagi, Kazuko; Ochiai, Junko; Okuyama, Tsuneo

    1988-01-01

    Black pepper, white pepper, frozen green pepper and real pink pepper (kept in vinegar) were analyzed by reversed phase IIPLC. The extraction method and HPLC conditions were same as the first report, that is, the extraction from pepper was performed by Automatic Air Hammer and the extracted samples were separated on a reversed phase C 8 column with a concave gradient from 0.1% trifluoro aceticacid (TFA) in water to 75% acetonitrile - 0.1% TFA in water for 60 minutes and detected at 210 nm, 280 nm. The different constituents were observed clearly on chromatogram between black pepper and white pepper. The different constituents were observed between different producing white peppers, and as the result that the analyzed pepper was distinguished its producing district by HPLC chromatogram. In order to investigate of effect of lyophilization on white pepper extracts, lyophilized extraction was analyzed by this HPLC method. Some peaks were decreased by lyophilization. The effect of heat on white pepper constituents was examined. White pepper was heated by electronic oven and thermostat. When the former method was used, decreased peak number (peak height was lower than without heat treatment) was more than latter method. These subtle change was able to be recognized by these HPLC chromatograms. (author)

  8. Distribution of radioactive constituents in river waters

    Herranz, M.; Elejalde, C.; Legarda, F.; Romero, F.

    1994-01-01

    For a research project on the distribution and evaluation of natural and artificial radioactive constituents in ecological segments of Biscay (northeast spain), the amounts of nuclides present in the main river waters were measured. Radioactive procedures include i) total alpha and beta indexes with a gas flow detector, dry residues near to 2 and 10 mg/ cm sup 2, respectively and counting periods of 1000 mn, ii) gamma emitters with a low level gamma spectrometer (Ge-HP detector + 8000 channels analyser) using the dry residue from 8 litres and a counting period of 4 days and iii) statistical treatment of data at 95% confidence.In this paper, ten water samples from the nervion river basin are included. Physical and chemical parameters of samples were also determined by standard procedures, because there is a sharp change in the composition of this river in the first part of the course. Radioactive constituents were identified as follows: a sample has a detectable alpha index, all samples contains beta emitters with a high variability, natural nuclides from uranium and thorium families were detected in some cases. A parallel behaviour is found between samples where K-40 and Cs-137 were found. The paper tries at last to find relations among chemical and radioactive constituents by the application of multivariate statistical methods, specially for the case of Cs-137, the only artificial nuclide identified in this work. 1 tab., 2 figs., 5 refs. (author)

  9. [Advance in chemical constituents of genus Clematis].

    Sun, Feng; Yang, Depo

    2009-10-01

    Progresses in the studies on chemical constituents of Clematis L. (belonging to the family Ranunculaceae) were systematiically reviewed in this article. The plants in this genus have a wide spectrum of constituents as follows: triterpenes, flavonoids, lignans, coumarins, alkaloids, volatile oils, steroids, organic acids, macrocyclic compounds and phenols, etc., among which triterpenoid saponins, flavonoids and lignans are the main components. The triterpenoid saponins are mainly oleanolic type and hederagenin type, most of which are bidesmosidic saponins, substituted with oligosaccharide chains at both C-3 and C-28, and some are substituted with acetyl, caffeoyl, isoferuloyl, p-methoxy cinnamyl and 3,4-dimethoxy cinnamyl groups in the oligosaccharide chains. The flavonoids from Clematis species are mainly flavones, flavonols, flavanones, isoflavones, xanthones and their glucosides (sugar moieties are connected to the aglycone through either the oxygen or the carbon atoms), the aglycones of which are mainly apigenin, kaempferol, luteolin and quercetin. The lignans from Clematis are mainly eupomatene lignans, cyclolignans, monoepoxylignans, bisepoxylignans and lignanolides. Clematis spp. are rich in resources, however, studies on their chemical constituents have only been carried out on twenty or so spp. As a result, it is necessary to expand our study on other spp. from this genus for better utilization of medicinal resources.

  10. Waste acceptance and logistics

    Carlson, James H.

    1992-01-01

    There are three major components which are normally highlighted when the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program is discussed - the repository, the monitored retrievable storage facility, and the transportation system. These are clearly the major physical system elements and they receive the greatest external attention. However, there will not be a successful, operative waste management system without fully operational waste acceptance plans and logistics arrangements. This paper will discuss the importance of developing, on a parallel basis to the normally considered waste management system elements, the waste acceptance and logistics arrangements to enable the timely transfer of spent nuclear fuel from more than one hundred and twenty waste generators to the Federal government. The paper will also describe the specific activities the Program has underway to make the necessary arrangements. (author)

  11. Verifying generator waste certification: NTS waste characterization QA requirements

    Williams, R.E.; Brich, R.F.

    1988-01-01

    Waste management activities managed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) include the disposal of low-level wastes (LLW) and mixed waste (MW), waste which is both radioactive and hazardous. A majority of the packaged LLW is received from offsite DOE generators. Interim status for receipt of MW at the NTS Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) was received from the state of Nevada in 1987. The RWMS Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) is expected to be operational in 1988 for approved DOE MW generators. The Nevada Test Site Defense Waste Acceptance Criteria and Certification Requirements (NVO-185, Revision 5) delineates waste acceptance criteria for waste disposal at the NTS. Regulation of the hazardous component of mixed waste requires the implementation of US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements pursuant to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Waste generators must implement a waste certification program to provide assurance that the disposal site waste acceptance criteria are met. The DOE/Nevada Operations Office (NV) developed guidance for generator waste certification program plans. Periodic technical audits are conducted by DOE/NV to assess performance of the waste certification programs. The audit scope is patterned from the waste certification program plan guidance as it integrates and provides a common format for the applicable criteria. The criteria focus on items and activities critical to processing, characterizing, packaging, certifying, and shipping waste

  12. Defining a metal-based waste form for IFR pyroprocessing wastes

    McDeavitt, S.M.; Park, J.Y.; Ackerman, J.P.

    1994-01-01

    Pyrochemical electrorefining to recover actinides from metal nuclear fuel is a key element of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) fuel cycle. The process separates the radioactive fission products from the long-lived actinides in a molten LiCl-KCl salt, and it generates a lower waste volume with significantly less long-term toxicity as compared to spent nuclear fuel. The process waste forms include a mineral-based waste form that will contain fission products removed from an electrolyte salt and a metal-based waste form that will contain metallic fission products and the fuel cladding and process materials. Two concepts for the metal-based waste form are being investigated: (1) encapsulating the metal constituents in a Cu-Al alloy and (2) alloying the metal constituents into a uniform stainless steel-based waste form. Results are given from our recent studies of these two concepts

  13. Nuclear wastes: overview

    Billard, Isabelle

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear wastes are a major concern for all countries dealing with civil nuclear energy, whatever these countries have decided yet about reprocessing/storage options. In this chapter, a (exact) definition of a (radioactive) waste is given, together with definitions of waste classes and their characteristics (volumes, types etc.). The various options that are currently experienced in the world will be presented but focus will be put on the French case. Envision evolutions will be briefly presented. (author)

  14. Polar constituents isolated from Green River oil shale

    Anders, D.E.; Doolittle, F.G.; Robinson, W.E.

    1975-01-01

    The mass spectrometric, ir absorption, and NMR data were interpreted for 22 compounds obtained from a polar fraction of Green River shale. The major constituents analyzed are believed to be of the following compositional types: C/sub n/H/sub 2n/O (cyclohexanols and chain isoprenoid ketones), C/sub n/H/sub 2n-10/O (tetralones and indanones), C/sub n/H/sub 2n-7/N (tetrahydroquinolines), C/sub n/H/sub 2n-11/N(quinolines), C/sub n/H/sub 2n-1/NO (alkoxypyrrolines), C/sub n/H/sub 2n-5/NO/sub 2/ (maleimides), C/sub n/H/sub 2n-8/ (tetralins), C/sub n/H/sub 2n-12/ (naphthalenes) and C/sub n/H/sub 2n-14/ (benzylbenzenes). This work expands the present information about nitrogen, oxygen and aromatic constituents indigenous to Green River shale.

  15. Chemical constituents and antihistamine activity of Bixa orellana leaf extract

    Yong Yoke Keong

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bixa orellana L. has been traditionally used in Central and South America to treat a number of ailments, including internal inflammation, and in other tropical countries like Malaysia as treatment for gastric ulcers and stomach discomfort. The current study aimed to determine the major chemical constituents of the aqueous extract of B. orellana (AEBO and to evaluate the antihistamine activity of AEBO during acute inflammation induced in rats. Methods Acute inflammation was produced by subplantar injection of 0.1 mL of 0.1% histamine into the right hind paw of each rat in the control and treatment groups. The degree of edema was measured before injection and at the time points of 30, 60, 120, 180, 240 and 300 min after injection. Changes of peritoneal vascular permeability were studied using Evans blue dye as a detector. Vascular permeability was evaluated by the amount of dye leakage into the peritoneal cavity in rats. To evaluate the inhibitory effect of AEBO on biochemical mediators of vascular permeability, the levels of nitric oxide (NO and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF were determined in histamine-treated paw tissues. The major constituents of AEBO were determined by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis. Results AEBO produced a significant inhibition of histamine-induced paw edema starting at 60 min time point, with maximal percentage of inhibition (60.25% achieved with a dose of 150 mg/kg of AEBO at 60 min time point. Up to 99% of increased peritoneal vascular permeability produced by histamine was successfully suppressed by AEBO. The expression of biochemical mediators of vascular permeability, NO and VEGF, was also found to be downregulated in the AEBO treated group. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis revealed that the major constituent in AEBO was acetic acid. Conclusions The experimental findings demonstrated that the anti-inflammatory activity of AEBO was

  16. Volatile constituents of the fruit peel oil of Citrus maxima (J. Burman) Merrill. from Northeast India

    Bordoloi, A.K.; Pathak, M.G.; Sperkova, S.; Leclercq, P.A.

    1999-01-01

    The oil obtained by steam distillation of the fruit peels of cultivated Citrus maxima (T. Burman) Merrill [syn. C. decumana Linn.; syn. C. grandts (1.) Osbeck] was investigated by GC and GC/MS. Thirty-five compounds were identified accounting for 98.90/0 of the oil. The major constituent was

  17. Contribution of different constituents to the toxicity of the essential oil ...

    The lethal toxicity of the major constituent of the essential oils of Vernonia amygdalina and Xylopia aetiopica, and of selected blends of these against Sitophilus zeamais (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) was compared with those of the full blends of the essential oils. The compounds were assayed in amounts and ...

  18. Constituents of the essential oil from the flowers of Chromolaena odorata

    Baruah, R.N.; Leclercq, P.A.

    1993-01-01

    The essential oil obtained after hydrodistn. of the flower tops of C. odorata (yield 0.11%) afforded a-pinene (18.8%), b-cubebene (13%), and b-caryophyllene (10.2%) as the major constituents. The oil exhibited the following phys. properties: nD30: 1.503; [a]D29: -13.55 Deg

  19. Volatile constituents of the seed and fruit skin oils of Catimbium latilabre (Ridl.) Holtt. from Vietnam

    Leclercq, P.A.; Dung, N.X.; Chinh, T.D.; Rang, D.D.

    1994-01-01

    The volatile constituents of the seed and fruit skin oils of C. latilabre from Vietnam were analyzed by a combination of high resoln. GC and GC/MS. More than 55 components were present in the seed oil, of which the major ones were b-caryophyllene (25.8%), camphor (11.2%), caryophyllene oxide (5.7%),

  20. A strategy for analysis of TRU waste characterization needs

    Leigh, C.D.; Chu, M.S.Y.; Arvizu, J.S.; Marcinkiewicz, C.J.

    1994-01-01

    Regulatory compliance and effective management of the nation's TRU waste requires knowledge about the constituents present in the waste. With limited resources, the DOE needs a cost-effective characterization program. In addition, the DOE needs a method for predicting the present and future analytical requirements for waste characterization. Thus, a strategy for predicting the present and future waste characterization needs that uses current knowledge of the TRU inventory and prioritization of the data needs is presented

  1. Mine Waste Disposal and Managements

    Cheong, Young-Wook; Min, Jeong-Sik; Kwon, Kwang-Soo [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (KR)] (and others)

    1999-12-01

    This research project deals with: Analysis and characterization of mine waste piles or tailings impoundment abandoned in mining areas; Survey of mining environmental pollution from mine waste impounds; Modelling of pollutants in groundwater around tailings impoundment; Demonstration of acid rock drainage from coal mine waste rock piles and experiment of seeding on waste rock surface; Development of a liner using tailings. Most of mine wastes are deposited on natural ground without artificial liners and capping for preventing contamination of groundwater around mine waste piles or containments. In case of some mine waste piles or containments, pollutants have been released to the environment, and several constituents in drainage exceed the limit of discharge from landfill site. Metals found in drainage exist in exchangeable fraction in waste rock and tailings. This means that if when it rains to mine waste containments, mine wastes can be pollutant to the environment by release of acidity and metals. As a result of simulation for hydraulic potentials and groundwater flow paths within the tailings, the simulated travel paths correlated well with the observed contaminant distribution. The plum disperse, both longitudinal and transverse dimensions, with time. Therefore liner system is a very important component in tailings containment system. As experimental results of liner development using tailings, tailings mixed with some portion of resin or cement may be used for liner because tailings with some additives have a very low hydraulic conductivity. (author). 39 refs.

  2. Evaluation of waste treatment technologies by LLWDDD [Low-Level Waste Disposal Development and Demonstration] Programs

    Kennerly, J.M.; Williams, L.C.; Dole, L.R.; Genung, R.K.

    1987-01-01

    Waste treatments are divided into four categories: (1) volume reduction; (2) conditioning to improve waste form performance; (3) segregation to achieve waste reduction; and (4) separation to remove radioactive (or hazardous) constituents. Two waste treatment demonstrations are described. In the first, volume reduction by mechanical means was achieved during the supercompaction of 300 55-gal drums of solid waste at ORNL. In the second demonstration, conditioning of waste through immobilization and packaging to improve the performance of the waste form is being evaluated. The final section of this paper describes potential scenarios for the management of uranium-contaminated wastes at the Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge and emphasizes where demonstrations of treatment technology will be needed to implement the scenarios. Separation and thermal treatment are identified as the principal means for treating these wastes. 15 figs

  3. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Part B Permit Application [for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)]. Volume 2, Chapter C, Appendix C1--Chapter C, Appendix C3 (beginning), Revision 3

    1993-03-01

    This volume contains appendices for the following: Rocky Flats Plant and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory waste process information; TRUPACT-II content codes (TRUCON); TRUPACT-II chemical list; chemical compatibility analysis for Rocky Flats Plant waste forms; chemical compatibility analysis for waste forms across all sites; TRU mixed waste characterization database; hazardous constituents of Rocky Flats Transuranic waste; summary of waste components in TRU waste sampling program at INEL; TRU waste sampling program; and waste analysis data.

  4. Recycling of radioactive mineral waste by activity separation

    Schartmann, F.; Cramer, T.; Meier-Kortwig, J.; Diedenhofen, S.; Wotruba, H.

    2005-01-01

    The AST process is a device for the recycling of building rubble originating from the dismantling of nuclear installations. Due to the activity separation in the process, a major part of rubble which would have otherwise been radioactive waste can now be cleared. The AST process has been developed in the course of the combined research project ''Aufbereitung radioaktiver mineralischer Rueckstaede durch Aktivitaetsseparation (Recycling of radioactive mineral waste by activity separation)'' which was sponsored by the BMBF (Federal Ministry for Education and Research). The first step was to investigate the activity distribution between the various constituents of activated heavy concrete (additions: hematite, magnetite, iron cuttings), of contaminated heavy and normal concrete, as well as of composition floor. Heavy concrete with metal additions showed a selective activation of the various constituents. Contaminated rubble often exhibits a selective enrichment of the activity in the cement in contrast to the aggregate. The AST facility for activity separation was designed on the basis of these results. Trial operation with various types of building rubble was carried out using three methods for sorting, screening according to grain size, magnetic separation and radiometric sorting. The use of these three methods was adapted to the material. (orig.)

  5. Effects of time pressure and accountability to constituents on negotiation

    Mosterd, I.; Rutte, C.G.

    2000-01-01

    A laboratory experiment examined the effects of time pressure (high versus low) and accountability to constituents (not-accountable-to-constituents versus accountable-to-constituents) on the competitiveness of negotiators' interaction and on the outcome (i.e., agreement or impasse) of the

  6. Wastes options

    Maes, M.

    1992-01-01

    After a description of the EEC environmental policy, some wastes families are described: bio-contaminant wastes (municipal and industrial), hospitals wastes, toxic wastes in dispersed quantities, nuclear wastes (radioactive and thermal), plastics compounds wastes, volatiles organic compounds, hydrocarbons and used solvents. Sources, quantities and treatments are given. (A.B.). refs., figs., tabs

  7. Two new constituents from Erigeron breviscapus.

    Li, Jing; Yu, De-Quan

    2013-09-01

    Two novel constituents, named erigeronones A (1) and B (2), together with apigenin-7-O-β-galacturonide (3), quercetin-7-O-β-glucuronide (4), quercetin-3-O-β-galacturonide (5), and eriodictyol-7-O-β-glucuronide (6), were isolated from the whole grass of Erigeron breviscapus (Vant) Hand.-Mazz (Compositae). Their structures were established on the basis of spectral analyses and comparison with the literature data. Both new compounds 1 and 2 possess a γ-pyrone moiety that is rare in nature. Compound 1 showed significant protective effect on H2O2-injured human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

  8. Chemical constituents of Salacia elliptica (Celastraceae)

    Duarte, Lucienir Pains; Figueiredo, Rute Cunha; Sousa, Grasiely Faria de; Soares, Debora Barbosa da Silva; Rodrigues, Salomao Bento Vasconcelos; Silva, Fernando Cesar; Silva, Gracia Divina de Fatima; Vieira Filho, Sidney Augusto

    2010-01-01

    The chemical investigation of Salacia elliptica allowed to the isolation of 20 constituents: two polyols, one xanthone, a mixture of long chain hydrocarbons, one carboxylic acid, one polymer, two steroidal compounds, one aromatic ester and eleven pentacyclic triterpenes. These triterpenes include 3β-stearyloxy-oleanane, 3β-stearyloxy-ursane, one seco-friedelane, and eight compounds of the friedelane series. The chemical structure and the relative configuration of a new triterpene 1,3-dioxo-16α-hydroxyfriedelane (15) were established through 1 H and 13 C NMR including 2D experiments (HMBC, HMQC, COSY and NOESY) and herein reported for the first time (author)

  9. Chemical constituents of Salacia elliptica (Celastraceae)

    Duarte, Lucienir Pains; Figueiredo, Rute Cunha; Sousa, Grasiely Faria de; Soares, Debora Barbosa da Silva; Rodrigues, Salomao Bento Vasconcelos; Silva, Fernando Cesar; Silva, Gracia Divina de Fatima, E-mail: lucienir@ufmg.b [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Vieira Filho, Sidney Augusto [Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil). Escola de Farmacia. Dept. de Farmacia

    2010-07-01

    The chemical investigation of Salacia elliptica allowed to the isolation of 20 constituents: two polyols, one xanthone, a mixture of long chain hydrocarbons, one carboxylic acid, one polymer, two steroidal compounds, one aromatic ester and eleven pentacyclic triterpenes. These triterpenes include 3{beta}-stearyloxy-oleanane, 3{beta}-stearyloxy-ursane, one seco-friedelane, and eight compounds of the friedelane series. The chemical structure and the relative configuration of a new triterpene 1,3-dioxo-16alpha-hydroxyfriedelane (15) were established through {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR including 2D experiments (HMBC, HMQC, COSY and NOESY) and herein reported for the first time (author)

  10. Chemical constituents of Salacia elliptica (Celastraceae

    Lucienir Pains Duarte

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical investigation of Salacia elliptica allowed to the isolation of 20 constituents: two polyols, one xanthone, a mixture of long chain hydrocarbons, one carboxylic acid, one polymer, two steroidal compounds, one aromatic ester and eleven pentacyclic triterpenes. These triterpenes include 3β-stearyloxy-oleanane, 3β-stearyloxy-ursane, one seco-friedelane, and eight compounds of the friedelane serie. The chemical structure and the relative configuration of a new triterpene 1,3-dioxo-16α-hydroxyfriedelane (15 were established through ¹H and 13C NMR including 2D experiments (HMBC, HMQC, COSY and NOESY and herein reported for the first time.

  11. Immunomodulatory constituents from an ascomycete, Microascus tardifaciens.

    Fujimoto, H; Fujimaki, T; Okuyama, E; Yamazaki, M

    1999-10-01

    Fractionation guided by the immunosuppressive activity of the defatted AcOEt extract of an Ascomycete, Microascus tardifaciens, afforded eight constituents, questin (emodin 8-O-methylether) (1), rubrocristin (2), 5,7-dihydroxy-4-methylphthalide (3), cladosporin (asperentin) (4), cladosporin 8-O-methylether (5), tradioxopiperazine A [cyclo-L-alanyl-5-isopentenyl-2-(1',1'-dimethylallyl)-L-tryptophan] (6), tradioxopiperazine B [cyclo-L-alanyl-7-isopentenyl-2-(1',1'-dimethylallyl)-L-tryptophan] (7), and asperflavin (8), among which 6 and 7 were new compounds. Compounds 1 and 2 showed considerably high immunosuppressive activity, 6 was moderate and, 3, 4, 5, 7 and 8 showed low activity.

  12. Sivers function in constituent quark models

    Scopetta, S.; Fratini, F.; Vento, V.

    2008-01-01

    A formalism to evaluate the Sivers function, developed for calculations in constituent quark models, is applied to the Isgur-Karl model. A non-vanishing Sivers asymmetry, with opposite signs for the u and d flavor, is found; the Burkardt sum rule is fulfilled up to 2 %. Nuclear effects in the extraction of neutron single spin asymmetries in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering off 3He are also evaluated. In the kinematics of JLab, it is found that the nuclear effects described by an Impulse Approximation approach are under control.

  13. Quality assurance program description: Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant, Part 1

    1992-01-01

    This document describes the Department of Energy's Richland Field Office (DOE-RL) quality assurance (QA) program for the processing of high-level waste as well as the Vitrification Project Quality Assurance Program for the design and construction of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP). It also identifies and describes the planned activities that constitute the required quality assurance program for the HWVP. This program applies to the broad scope of quality-affecting activities associated with the overall HWVP Facility. Quality-affecting activities include designing, purchasing, fabricating, handling, shipping, storing, cleaning, erecting, installing, inspecting, testing, maintaining, repairing, and modifying. Also included are the development, qualification, and production of waste forms which may be safely used to dispose of high-level radioactive waste resulting from national defense activities. The HWVP QA program is made up of many constituent programs that are being implemented by the participating organizations. This Quality Assurance program description is intended to outline and define the scope and application of the major programs that make up the HWVP QA program. It provides a means by which the overall program can be managed and directed to achieve its objectives. Subsequent parts of this description will identify the program's objectives, its scope, application, and structure

  14. Waste Sites - Municipal Waste Operations

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — A Municipal Waste Operation is a DEP primary facility type related to the Waste Management Municipal Waste Program. The sub-facility types related to Municipal Waste...

  15. Involvement of extracellular matrix constituents in breast cancer

    Lochter, Andre; Bissell, Mina J

    1995-06-01

    It has recently been established that the extracellular matrix is required for normal functional differentiation of mammary epithelia not only in culture, but also in vivo. The mechanisms by which extracellular matrix affects differentiation, as well as the nature of extracellular matrix constituents which have major impacts on mammary gland function, have only now begun to be dissected. The intricate variety of extracellular matrix-mediated events and the remarkable degree of plasticity of extracellular matrix structure and composition at virtually all times during ontogeny, make such studies difficult. Similarly, during carcinogenesis, the extracellular matrix undergoes gross alterations, the consequences of which are not yet precisely understood. Nevertheless, an increasing amount of data suggests that the extracellular matrix and extracellular matrix-receptors might participate in the control of most, if not all, of the successive stages of breast tumors, from appearance to progression and metastasis.

  16. Possible effects of volcanic eruptions on stratospheric minor constituent chemistry

    Stolarski, R. S.; Butler, D. M.

    1979-01-01

    Although stratosphere penetrating volcanic eruptions have been infrequent during the last half century, periods have existed in the last several hundred years when such eruptions were significantly more frequent. Several mechanisms exist for these injections to affect stratospheric minor constituent chemistry, both on the long-term average and for short-term perturbations. These mechanisms are reviewed and, because of the sensitivity of current models of stratospheric ozone to chlorine perturbations, quantitative estimates are made of chlorine injection rates. It is found that, if chlorine makes up as much as 0.5 to 1% of the gases released and if the total gases released are about the same magnitude as the fine ash, then a major stratosphere penetrating eruption could deplete the ozone column by several percent. The estimate for the Agung eruption of 1963 is just under 1% an amount not excluded by the ozone record but complicated by the peak in atmospheric nuclear explosions at about the same time.

  17. Analysis of Food Contaminants, Residues, and Chemical Constituents of Concern

    Ismail, Baraem; Reuhs, Bradley L.; Nielsen, S. Suzanne

    The food chain that starts with farmers and ends with consumers can be complex, involving multiple stages of production and distribution (planting, harvesting, breeding, transporting, storing, importing, processing, packaging, distributing to retail markets, and shelf storing) (Fig. 18.1). Various practices can be employed at each stage in the food chain, which may include pesticide treatment, agricultural bioengineering, veterinary drug administration, environmental and storage conditions, processing applications, economic gain practices, use of food additives, choice of packaging material, etc. Each of these practices can play a major role in food quality and safety, due to the possibility of contamination with or introduction (intentionally and nonintentionally) of hazardous substances or constituents. Legislation and regulation to ensure food quality and safety are in place and continue to develop to protect the stakeholders, namely farmers, consumers, and industry. [Refer to reference (1) for information on regulations of food contaminants and residues.

  18. Hazardous Waste Research Center

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES) is playing a major role in development of technologies for cleanup of toxic and hazardous waste in military...

  19. Anti-Hyperglycemic and Insulin Sensitizer Effects of Turmeric and Its Principle Constituent Curcumin

    Ghorbani, Zeinab; Hekmatdoost, Azita; Mirmiran, Parvin

    2014-01-01

    Context: Turmeric is obtained from the plant Curcuma longa L; its major constituent, curcumin, is a polyphenol with multiple effects which can modulate some signaling pathways. Evidence Acquisition: Insulin resistance is a major risk factor for chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes, atherosclerotic, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. In addition, Insulin resistance in peripheral tissue is one of the most important reasons of hyperglycemia which can cause global or systemic effe...

  20. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Project Waste Form Qualification Program Plan

    Randklev, E.H.

    1993-06-01

    The US Department of Energy has created a waste acceptance process to help guide the overall program for the disposal of high-level nuclear waste in a federal repository. This Waste Form Qualification Program Plan describes the hierarchy of strategies used by the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Project to satisfy the waste form qualification obligations of that waste acceptance process. A description of the functional relationship of the participants contributing to completing this objective is provided. The major activities, products, providers, and associated scheduling for implementing the strategies also are presented

  1. Y-12 Plant waste minimization strategy

    Kane, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    The 1984 Amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) mandate that waste minimization be a major element of hazardous waste management. In response to this mandate and the increasing costs for waste treatment, storage, and disposal, the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant developed a waste minimization program to encompass all types of wastes. Thus, waste minimization has become an integral part of the overall waste management program. Unlike traditional approaches, waste minimization focuses on controlling waste at the beginning of production instead of the end. This approach includes: (1) substituting nonhazardous process materials for hazardous ones, (2) recycling or reusing waste effluents, (3) segregating nonhazardous waste from hazardous and radioactive waste, and (4) modifying processes to generate less waste or less toxic waste. An effective waste minimization program must provide the appropriate incentives for generators to reduce their waste and provide the necessary support mechanisms to identify opportunities for waste minimization. This presentation focuses on the Y-12 Plant's strategy to implement a comprehensive waste minimization program. This approach consists of four major program elements: (1) promotional campaign, (2) process evaluation for waste minimization opportunities, (3) waste generation tracking system, and (4) information exchange network. The presentation also examines some of the accomplishments of the program and issues which need to be resolved

  2. Waste-form development

    Neilson, R.M. Jr.; Colombo, P.

    1982-01-01

    Contemporary solidification agents are being investigated relative to their applications to major fuel cycle and non-fuel cycle low-level waste (LLW) streams. Work is being conducted to determine the range of conditions under which these solidification agents can be applied to specific LLW streams. These studies are directed primarily towards defining operating parameters for both improved solidification of problem wastes and solidification of new LLW streams generated from advanced volume reduction technologies. Work is being conducted to measure relevant waste form properties. These data will be compiled and evaluated to demonstrate compliance with waste form performance and shallow land burial acceptance criteria and transportation requirements

  3. Analysis of gamma irradiated pepper constituents, 5

    Takagi, Kazuko; Okuyama, Tsuneo; Ishikawa, Toshihiro.

    1988-01-01

    Gamma irradiated peppers (10 krad, 100 krad, 1 Mrad) were analyzed by HPLC. The extraction method and HPLC conditions were same as the first report, that is, the extraction from pepper was performed by Automatic Air Hammer and the extracted samples were separated on a reversed phase C 8 column with a concave gradient from 0.1% trifluoro aceticacid (TFA) in water to 75% acetonitrile-0.1% TFA in water for 60 minutes and detected at 210 nm, 280 nm. It is difficult to compare with irradiated and unirradiated pepper constituents by their peak height or area. And the method of multi variant statistically analysis was introduced. The 'peak n area/peak n + 1 area' ratio was calculated by computer. Each peak area was accounted by integrator. The value of these ratio were called 'parameter'. Each chromatogram has 741 parameters calculated with 39 chromatographic peaks. And these parameters were abopted to the multi variant statiscally analysis. Comparison of constituents between irradiated pepper and unirradiated pepper was done by 741 parameters. The correlation of parameters between irradiated and unirradiated was investigated by use of computer. Some parameters of irradiated case were selected as which had no correlation with unirradiated case. That is to say these parameters were thought to be changed with gamma spectrum irradiation. By this method, Coumarin was identified as a changed component with gamma irradiation. (author)

  4. Quark solitons as constituents of hadrons

    Ellis, J.; Frishman, Y.; Hanany, A.; Karlinev, M.

    1992-01-01

    We exhibit static solutions of multi-flavour QCD in two dimensions that have the quantum numbers of baryons and mesons, constructed out of quark and anti-quark solitons. In isolation the latter solitons have infinite energy, corresponding to the presence of a string carrying the non-singlet colour flux off to spatial infinity. When N c solitons of this type are combined, a static, finite-energy, colour singlet solution is formed, corresponding to a baryon. Similarly, static meson solutions are formed out of a soliton and an anti-soliton of different flavours. The stability of the mesons against annihilation is ensured by flavour conservation. The static solutions exist only when the fundamental fields of the bosonized lagrangian belong to U(N c xN f ) rather than to SU(N c )xU(N f ). Discussion of flavour-symmetry breaking requires a careful treatment of the normal-ordering ambiguity. Our results can be viewed as a derivation of the constituent quark model in QCD 2 , allowing a detailed study of constituent mass generation and of the heavy-quark symmetry. (orig.)

  5. Support structure for reactor core constituent element

    Aida, Yasuhiko.

    1993-01-01

    A connection pipe having an entrance nozzle inserted therein as a reactor core constituent element is protruded above the upper surface of a reactor core support plate. A through hole is disposed to the protruding portion of the connection pipe. The through hole and a through hole disposed to the reactor core support plate are connected by a communication pipe. A shear rod is disposed in a horizontal portion at the inside of the communication pipe and is supported by a spring horizontally movably. Further, a groove is disposed at a position of the entrance nozzle opposing to the shear rod. The shear rod is urged out of the communication pipe by the pressure of the high pressure plenum and the top end portion of the shear rod is inserted to the groove of the entrance nozzle during operation. Accordingly, the shear rod is positioned in a state where it is extended from the through hole of the communication pipe to the groove of the entrance nozzle. This can mechanically constrain the rising of the reactor core constituent elements by the shear rod upon occurrence of earthquakes. (I.N.)

  6. ASSESSING UNIVERSITY RESEARCH PERFORMANCE WITH MULTIPLE CONSTITUENCIES

    Kuang-Liang Liu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The research performance of the university is critical to the national competitiveness. Previous research has established that research performance is based on scholarly publishing. Several studies suggested that journal ranking is the important research quality indicator. However, unilateral measurement for the research performance will seriously corrode the development of university research work. Assessing university research performance with multiple constituencies is a better to enhance the university research. Although substantial studies have been performed on the critical factors that affect knowledge exploration in the university, those in knowledge exploitation are still lacking. With the multiple constituencies, a fully understanding of research performance can be gained. In the research model, knowledge exploration represents the academic research and knowledge exploitation represents the university–industry collaboration. Data collected from 124 university data in online database. The study shows that knowledge exploration and exploitation both are significant positive predictors of university competitiveness. University resources play important roles to affect both knowledge exploration and exploitation in the university. The study also shows that higher knowledge exploration will enhance knowledge exploitation. Implications for theory and practice and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  7. Treatment of oily wastes by agglomeration techniques to produce an auxiliary carbonaceous fuel with low SO2 emissions

    Majid, A.; Capes, C.E.; Sparks, B.D.

    1992-01-01

    Oily sludges and organic wastes are produced by a number of industries, particularly those related to the recovery of processing of petroleum. Traditional sludge disposal methods, involving concentration by impoundment followed by land filling or land farming, are meeting with increasingly stringent regulations. Further treatment of the wastes and reduction of volume and recycle are being encouraged and legislated. Such treatment may range from separation of constituents into higher value products, such as the separation of oil or other organic components from mineral (ash forming) impurities and water, to stabilization of impurities to prevent leaching or to reduce emissions during combustion. This paper reports on liquid phase agglomeration (LPA) which has the potential to play a major role in oily waste treatment processes. It can be adapted to separate finely divided solids or liquids from immiscible liquid suspensions or emulsions

  8. Successes and failures of the constituent quark model

    Lipkin, H.J.

    1982-01-01

    Our approach considers the model as a possible bridge between QCD and the experimental data and examines its predictions to see where these succeed and where they fail. We also attempt to improve the model by looking for additional simple assumptions which give better fits to the experimental data. But we avoid complicated models with too many ad hoc assumptions and too many free parameters; these can fit everything but teach us nothing. We define our constituent quark model by analogy with the constituent electron model of the atom and the constituent nucleon model of the nucleus. In the same way that an atom is assumed to consist only of constituent electrons and a central Coulomb field and a nucleus is assumed to consist only of constituent nucleons hadrons are assumed to consist only of their constituent valence quarks with no bag, no glue, no ocean, nor other constituents. Although these constituent models are oversimplified and neglect other constituents we push them as far as we can. Atomic physics has photons and vacuum polarization as well as constituent electrons, but the constituent model is adequate for calculating most features of the spectrum when finer details like the Lamb shift are neglected. 54 references

  9. Method of removing sodium deposited to constituent element of LMFBR type reactor

    Mitsuta, Susumu; Nakagawa, Tamotsu.

    1989-01-01

    Spent reactor core constituent elements deposited with sodium are vertically embedded in an inactive powder contained in a container. Then, a blower for a gas circulation circuit disposed through the inactive powder from below is driven to supply inactive gases by way of a dispersion plate from blow the container. The inactive gases and/or mechanical vibrations fluidize the inactive powder and keep the inside of the container to 300 - 600degC. Then, sodium deposited to the reactor core constituent elements is deposited to the inactive powdery particles and evaporated. The inactive gases accompanying sodium vapors discharged from the container are cooled and sodium is separated by condensation and recovered. This can outstandingly reduce the amount of radioactive wastes and deposited sodium can be removed efficiently irrespective of the amount of heat generated. (T.M.)

  10. Waste characterization: What's on second?

    Schultz, F.J.; Smith, M.A.

    1989-07-01

    Waste characterization is the process whereby the physical properties and chemical composition of waste are determined. Waste characterization is an important element which is necessary to certify that waste meets the acceptance criteria for storage, treatment, or disposal. Department of Energy (DOE) Orders list and describe the germane waste form, package, and container criteria for the storage of both solid low-level waste package, and container criteria for the storage of both solid low-level waste (SLLW) and transuranic (TRU) waste, including chemical composition and compatibility, hazardous material content (e.g., lead), fissile material content, radioisotopic inventory, particulate content, equivalent alpha activity, thermal heat output, and absence of free liquids, explosives, and compressed gases. At the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the responsibility for waste characterization begins with the individual or individuals who generate the waste. The generator must be able to document the type and estimate the quantity of various materials (e.g., waste forms -- physical characteristics, chemical composition, hazardous materials, major radioisotopes) which have been placed into the waste container. Analyses of process flow sheets and a statistically valid sampling program can provide much of the required information as well as a documented level of confidence in the acquired data. A program is being instituted in which major generator facilities perform radionuclide assay of small packets of waste prior to being placed into a waste drum. 17 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  11. Public attitudes regarding nuclear wastes

    Rankin, W.L.

    1978-01-01

    This paper traces the history of public attitudes regarding nuclear waste issues. A majority of the public has recently developed the attitude that nuclear wastes are a serious problem, and a small percentage of the public opposes nuclear power mainly because of nuclear waste issues. However, a majority of the public has confidence in the ability of technologists to solve the problems associated with nuclear waste disposal. Finally, the attitudes of nuclear technologists regarding waste disposal differed greatly from the attitudes of other groups, especially environmentalists

  12. Solid waste

    1995-01-01

    The article drawn up within the framework of 'the assessment of the state of the environment in Lebanon' provides an overview of solid waste management, and assesses future wastes volume and waste disposal issues.In particular it addresses the following concerns: - Long term projections of solid waste arisings (i.e. domestic, industrial, such commercial wastes, vehicle types, construction waste, waste oils, hazardous toxic wastes and finally hospital and clinical wastes) are described. - Appropriate disposal routes, and strategies for reducing volumes for final disposal - Balance between municipal and industrial solid waste generation and disposal/treatment and - environmental impacts (aesthetics, human health, natural environment )of existing dumps, and the potential impact of government plans for construction of solid waste facilities). Possible policies for institutional reform within the waste management sector are proposed. Tables provides estimations of generation rates and distribution of wastes in different regions of Lebanon. Laws related to solid waste management are summarized

  13. 1995 solid waste 30-year characteristics volume summary

    Templeton, K.J.; DeForest, T.J.; Rice, G.I.; Valero, O.J.

    1995-10-01

    The Hanford Site has been designated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to store, treat, and dispose of solid waste received from both onsite and offsite generators. This waste is currently or planned to be generated from ongoing operations, maintenance and deactivation activities, decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) of facilities, and environmental restoration (ER) activities. This document, prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under the direction of Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), describes the characteristics of the waste to be shipped to Hanford's SWOC. The physical waste forms and hazardous constituents are described for the low-level mixed waste (LLMW) and the transuranic - transuranic mixed waste (TWunderscoreTRUM)

  14. Waste management - sewage - special wastes

    1987-01-01

    The 27 papers represent a cross-section of the subject waste management. Particular attention is paid to the following themes: waste avoidance, waste product utilization, household wastes, dumping technology, sewage sludge treatments, special wastes, seepage from hazardous waste dumps, radioactive wastes, hospital wastes, purification of flue gas from waste combustion plants, flue gas purification and heavy metals, as well as combined sewage sludge and waste product utilization. The examples given relate to plants in Germany and other European countries. 12 papers have been separately recorded in the data base. (DG) [de

  15. Activation/waste management

    Maninger, C.

    1984-10-01

    The selection of materials and the design of the blankets for fusion reactors have significant effects upon the radioactivity generated by neutron activation in the materials. This section considers some aspects of materials selection with respect to waste management. The activation of the materials is key to remote handling requirements for waste, to processing and disposal methods for waste, and to accident severity in waste management operations. In order to realize the desirable evnironmental potentials of fusion power systems, there are at least three major goals for waste management. These are: (a) near-surface burial; (b) disposal on-site of the fusion reactor; (c) acceptable radiation doses at least cost during and after waste management operations

  16. 40 CFR 63.1204 - What are the standards for hazardous waste burning cement kilns that are effective until...

    2010-07-01

    ... Principal Organic Hazardous Constituents (POHCs) in the waste feed that you specify under paragraph (c)(3... in the hazardous waste feed, considering the results of hazardous waste analyses or other data and... waste burning cement kilns that are effective until compliance with the standards under § 63.1220? 63...

  17. Methods for maintaining a record of waste packages during waste processing and storage

    2005-01-01

    During processing, radioactive waste is converted into waste packages, and then sent for storage and ultimately for disposal. A principal condition for acceptance of a waste package is its full compliance with waste acceptance criteria for disposal or storage. These criteria define the radiological, mechanical, physical, chemical and biological properties of radioactive waste that can, in principle, be changed during waste processing. To declare compliance of a waste package with waste acceptance criteria, a system for generating and maintaining records should be established to record and track all relevant information, from raw waste characteristics, through changes related to waste processing, to final checking and verification of waste package parameters. In parallel, records on processing technology and the operational parameters of technological facilities should adhere to established and approved quality assurance systems. A records system for waste management should be in place, defining the data to be collected and stored at each step of waste processing and using a reliable selection process carried over into the individual steps of the waste processing flow stream. The waste management records system must at the same time ensure selection and maintenance of all the main information, not only providing evidence of compliance of waste package parameters with waste acceptance criteria but also serving as an information source in the case of any future operations involving the stored or disposed waste. Records generated during waste processing are a constituent part of the more complex system of waste management record keeping, covering the entire life cycle of radioactive waste from generation to disposal and even the post-closure period of a disposal facility. The IAEA is systematically working on the preparation of a set of publications to assist its Member States in the development and implementation of such a system. This report covers all the principal

  18. Precipitation and Deposition of Aluminum-Containing Species in Tank Wastes

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Hobbs, David T.; Wang, Li-Qiong; Dabbs, Daniel M.; Aksay, Ilhan A.

    2002-01-01

    Aluminum-containing phases represent the most prevalent solids that can appear or disappear during the processing of radioactive tank wastes. Processes such as sludge washing and leaching are designed to dissolve Al-containing phases and thereby minimize the volume of high-level waste glass required to encapsulate radioactive sludges. Unfortunately, waste-processing steps that include evaporation can involve solutions that are supersaturated with respect to cementitious aluminosilicates that result in unwanted precipitation and scale formation. Of all the constituents of tank waste, limited solubility cementitious aluminosilicates have the greatest potential for clogging pipes and transfer lines, fouling highly radioactive components such as ion exchangers, and completely shutting down processing operations. For instance, deposit buildup and clogged drain lines experienced during the tank waste volume-reduction process at the Savannah River Site (SRS) required an evaporator to be shut down in October 1999. The Waste Processing Technology Section of Westinghouse Savannah River Company at SRS now is collaborating with team members from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to verify the thermodynamic stability of aluminosilicate compounds under waste tank conditions in an attempt to solve the deposition and clogging problems. The primary objectives of this study are (1) to understand the major factors controlling precipitation, heterogeneous nucleation, and growth phenomena of relatively insoluble aluminosilicates; (2) to determine the role of organics for inhibiting aluminosilicate formation, and (3) to develop a predictive tool to control precipitation, scale formation, and cementation under tank waste processing conditions. The results of this work will provide crucial information for (1) avoiding problematical sludge processing steps and (2) identifying and developing effective technologies to process retrieved sludges and supernatants before ultimate

  19. Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) groundwater monitoring report

    1993-06-01

    During first quarter 1993, eight constituents exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards in groundwater samples from downgradient monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste anagement Facility, the Old Burial Ground, the E-Area Vaults, and the proposed Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Vaults (HWMWDV). As in previous quarters, tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituents. Tetrachloroethylene, chloroethene, 1,1-dichloroethylene, gross alpha, lead, or nonvolatile beta levels also exceeded standards in one or more wells. The elevated constituents were found primarily in Aquifer Zone IIB 2 (Water Table) and Aquifer Zone IIB 1 , (Barnwell/McBean) wells. However, several Aquifer Unit IIA (Congaree) wells also contained elevated constituent levels. The groundwater flow directions and rates in the three hydrostratigraphic units were similar to previous quarters

  20. Waste management in NUCEF

    Suzuki, Y.; Maeda, A.; Sugikawa, S.; Takeshita, I.

    2000-01-01

    In the NUCEF, the researches on criticality safety have been performed at two critical experiment facilities, STACY and TRACY in addition to the researches on fuel cycle such as advanced reprocessing and partitioning in alpha-gamma concrete cells and glove boxes. Many kinds of radioactive wastes have been generated through the research activities. Furthermore, the waste treatment itself may produce some secondary wastes. In addition, the separation and purification of plutonium of several tens-kg from MOX powder are scheduled in order to supply plutonium nitrate solution fuel for critical experiments at STACY. A large amount of wastes containing plutonium and americium will be generated from the plutonium fuel treatment. From the viewpoint of safety, the proper waste management is one of important works in NUCEF. Many efforts, therefore, have been made for the development of advanced waste treatment techniques to improve the waste management in NUCEF. Especially the reduction of alpha-contaminated wastes is a major interest. For example, the separation of americium is planned from the liquid waste evolved alter plutonium purification by application of tannin gel as an adsorbent of actinide elements. The waste management and the relating technological development in NUCEF are briefly described in this paper. (authors)

  1. Waste management in NUCEF

    Suzuki, Y.; Maeda, A.; Sugikawa, S.; Takeshita, I. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Dept. of Safety Research Technical Support, Tokai-Mura, Naka-Gun, Ibaraki-Ken (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    In the NUCEF, the researches on criticality safety have been performed at two critical experiment facilities, STACY and TRACY in addition to the researches on fuel cycle such as advanced reprocessing and partitioning in alpha-gamma concrete cells and glove boxes. Many kinds of radioactive wastes have been generated through the research activities. Furthermore, the waste treatment itself may produce some secondary wastes. In addition, the separation and purification of plutonium of several tens-kg from MOX powder are scheduled in order to supply plutonium nitrate solution fuel for critical experiments at STACY. A large amount of wastes containing plutonium and americium will be generated from the plutonium fuel treatment. From the viewpoint of safety, the proper waste management is one of important works in NUCEF. Many efforts, therefore, have been made for the development of advanced waste treatment techniques to improve the waste management in NUCEF. Especially the reduction of alpha-contaminated wastes is a major interest. For example, the separation of americium is planned from the liquid waste evolved alter plutonium purification by application of tannin gel as an adsorbent of actinide elements. The waste management and the relating technological development in NUCEF are briefly described in this paper. (authors)

  2. Nuclear waste

    1990-06-01

    DOE estimates that disposing of radioactive waste from civilian nuclear power plants and its defense-related nuclear facilities could eventually end up costing $32 billion. To pay for this, DOE collects fees from utilities on electricity generated by nuclear power plants and makes payments from its defense appropriation. This report states that unless careful attention is given to its financial condition, the nuclear waste program is susceptible to future shortfalls. Without a fee increase, the civilian-waste part of the program may already be underfunded by at least $2.4 billion (in discounted 1988 dollars). Also, DOE has not paid its share of cost-about $480 million-nor has it disclosed this liability in its financial records. Indexing the civilian fee to the inflation rate would address one major cost uncertainty. However, while DOE intends to do this at an appropriate time, it does not use a realistic rate of inflation as its most probable scenario in assessing whether that time has arrived

  3. Constituents of Artemisia gmelinii Weber ex Stechm. from Uttarakhand Himalaya: A Source of Artemisia Ketone

    Haider, S. Z.; Andola, H. C.; Mohan, M.

    2012-01-01

    The essential oils isolated from the aerial parts of two different populations of Artemisia gmelinii growing in Uttarakhand Himalaya region were analysed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in order to determine the variation of concentration in their constituents. Artemisia ketone was detected as a major constituent in both the populations i.e., Niti valley and Jhelum samples. Niti oil was found to have considerably greater amounts of artemesia ketone (53.34%) followed by α-thujone (9.91%) and 1,8-cineole (6.57%), Similarly, the first major compound in Jhelum oil was artemesia ketone (40.87%), whereas ar-curcumene (8.54%) was identified as a second major compound followed by α-thujone (4.04%). Artemisia ketone can be useful for perfumery and fragrance to introduce new and interesting herbaceous notes. PMID:23439844

  4. Chemical Constituents of Caesalpinia decapetala (Roth Alston

    Song Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study targets the chemical constituents of Caesalpinia decapetala (Roth Alston and investigates the bioactivities of the isolated compounds. Fourteen known compounds were isolated using column chromatography, and structural identification was performed by physical and spectral analyses. The biological activities of the compounds were also evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT and 2,2-diphenlyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assays. Emodin (6, baicalein (9, and apigenin (12 displayed antitumor activities against the MGC-803 cell line, while quercetin (2, rutin (5, baicalein (9, and epicatechin (13 showed stronger DPPH scavenging activities compared with ascorbic acid. Andrographolide (1, quercetin (2, bergenin (4, rutin (5, emodin (6, betulin (7, baicalein (9, polydatin (10, salicin (11, and apigenin (12, were obtained from C. decapetala (Roth Alston for the first time.

  5. Constituent gluons and the static quark potential

    Greensite, Jeff [San Francisco State Univ., CA (United States); Szczepaniak, Adam P. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-04-01

    We suggest that Hamiltonian matrix elements between physical states in QCD might be approximated, in Coulomb gauge, by "lattice-improved" tree diagrams; i.e. tree diagram contributions with dressed ghost, transverse gluon, and Coulomb propagators obtained from lattice simulations. Such matrix elements can be applied to a variational treatment of hadronic states which include constituent gluons. As an illustration and first application of this hybrid approach, we derive a variational estimate of the heavy quark potential for distances up to 2.5 fm. The Coulomb string tension in SU(3) gauge theory is about a factor of four times greater than the asymptotic string tension. In our variational approach, using for simplicity a single variational parameter, we can reduce this overshoot by nearly the factor required. The building blocks of our approach are Coulomb gauge propagators, and in this connection we present new lattice results for the ghost and transverse gluon propagators in position space.

  6. Regional differences in constituents of gall stones.

    Ashok, M; Nageshwar Reddy, D; Jayanthi, V; Kalkura, S N; Vijayan, V; Gokulakrishnan, S; Nair, K G M

    2005-01-01

    The pathogenesis of pigment and mixed gall stone formation remains elusive. The elemental constituents of gall stones from southern states of Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Karnataka have been characterized. Our aim was to determine the elemental concentration of representative samples of pigment, mixed and cholesterol gall stones from Andhra Pradesh using proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) using a 3 MV horizontal pelletron accelerator. Pigment gall stones had significantly high concentrations of copper, iron and lead; chromium was absent. Except for iron all these elements were significantly low in cholesterol gall stones and intermediate levels were seen in mixed gall stones. Highest concentrations of chromium was seen in cholesterol and titanium in mixed gall stones respectively; latter similar to other southern states. Arsenic was distinctly absent in cholesterol and mixed gall stones. The study has identified differences in elemental components of the gall stones from Andhra Pradesh.

  7. Antimelanoma and Antityrosinase from Alpinia galangal Constituents

    Chih-Yu Lo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two compounds, 1,7-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl-1,4,6-heptatrien-3-one (BHPHTO and bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC they have been isolated from the rhizomes of Alpinia galangal, and the structures of both pure constituents were determined using spectroscopic analyses. The study examined the bioeffectivenesses of the two compounds on the human melanoma A2058 and showed that significantly inhibited the proliferation of melanoma cells in the cell viability assay. This research was also taken on the tests to B16-F10 cell line and showed minor inhibitory consequences of cellular tyrosinase activities and melanin contents. Our results revealed the anticancer effects of A. galangal compounds, and therefore, the target compounds could be potentially applied in the therapeutic application and the food industry.

  8. Effects of interfering constituents on tritium smears

    Levi, G.D. Jr.; Cheeks, K.E.

    1993-01-01

    Tritium smears are performed by Health Protection Operations (HPO) to assess transferable contamination on work place surfaces, materials for movement outside Radiologically Controlled Areas (RCA), and product containers being shipped between facilities. Historically, gas proportional counters were used to detect transferable tritium contamination collected by smearing. Because tritium is a low-energy beta emitter, gas proportional counters do not provide the sensitivity or the counting efficiency to accurately measure the tritium activity on the smear. Liquid Scintillation Counters (LSC) provide greater counting efficiency for the low-energy beta particles along with greater reliability and reproducibility compared to gas flow proportional counters. The purpose of this technical evaluation was to determine the effects of interfering constituents such as filters, dirt and oil on the counting efficiency and tritium recoveries of tritium smears by LSC

  9. Radioactive Waste Management Program Activities in Croatia

    Matanic, R.

    2000-01-01

    The concept of radioactive waste management in Croatia comprises three major areas: management of low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILRW), spent fuel management and decommissioning. All the work regarding radioactive waste management program is coordinated by Hazardous Waste Management Agency (APO) and Croatian Power Utility (HEP) in cooperation with other relevant institutions. Since the majority of work has been done in developing low and intermediate level radioactive waste management program, the paper will focus on this part of radioactive waste management, mainly on issues of site selection and characterization, repository design, safety assessment and public acceptance. A short description of national radioactive waste management infrastructure will also be presented. (author)

  10. Technology Summary Advancing Tank Waste Retrieval And Processing

    Sams, T.L.; Mendoza, R.E.

    2010-01-01

    This technology overview provides a high-level summary of technologies being investigated and developed by Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to advance Hanford Site tank waste retrieval and processing. Technology solutions are outlined, along with processes and priorities for selecting and developing them. This technology overview provides a high-level summary of technologies being investigated, developed, and deployed by WRPS to advance Hanford Site tank waste retrieval and processing. Transformational technologies are needed to complete Hanford tank waste retrieval and treatment by 12/31/2047. Hanford's underground waste storage tanks hold approximately 57 million gallons of radiochemical waste from nuclear defense production - more tank waste than any other site in the United States. In addition, the waste is uniquely complicated because it contains constituents from at least six major radiochemical processes and several lesser processes. It is intermixed and complexed more than any other waste collection known to exist in the world. The multi-faceted nature of Hanford's tank waste means that legally binding agreements in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (known as the Tri-Party Agreement) and between the Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors may not be met using current vitrification schedules, plans, and methods. WRPS and the DOE are developing, testing, and deploying technologies to meet the necessary commitments and complete the DOE's River Protection Project (RPP) mission within environmentally acceptable requirements. Technology solutions are outlined, along with processes and priorities for selecting and developing them. DOE's Office of Environmental Management (EM) identifies the environmental management technology needs and the activities necessary to address them. The U.S. Congress then funds these activities through EM or the DOE field offices. Finally, an array of entities that include DOE site prime contractors and

  11. Nonradiological groundwater quality at low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    Goode, D.J.

    1986-04-01

    The NRC is investigating appropriate regulatory options for disposal of low-level radioactive waste containing nonradiological hazardous constituents, as defined by EPA regulations. Standard EPA/RCRA procedures to determine hazardous organics, metals, indicator parameters, and general water quality are applied to samples from groundwater monitoring wells at two commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites. At the Sheffield, IL site (nonoperating), several typical organic solvents are identified in elevated concentrations in onsite wells and in an offsite area exhibiting elevated tritium concentrations. At the Barnwell, SC site (operating), only very low concentrations of three organics are found in wells adjacent to disposal units. Hydrocarbons associated with petroleum products are detected at both sites. Hazardous constituents associated with previosuly identified major LLW mixed waste streams, toluene, xylene, chromium, and lead, are at or below detection limits or at background levels in all samples. Review of previously collected data also supports the conclusion that organic solvents are the primary nonradiological contaminants associated with LLW disposal

  12. Organic waste processing using molten salt oxidation

    Adamson, M. G., LLNL

    1998-03-01

    Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) is a thermal means of oxidizing (destroying) the organic constituents of mixed wastes, hazardous wastes, and energetic materials while retaining inorganic and radioactive constituents in the salt. For this reason, MSO is considered a promising alternative to incineration for the treatment of a variety of organic wastes. The U. S. Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Management (DOE/EM) is currently funding research that will identify alternatives to incineration for the treatment of organic-based mixed wastes. (Mixed wastes are defined as waste streams which have both hazardous and radioactive properties.) One such project is Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s Expedited Technology Demonstration of Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO). The goal of this project is to conduct an integrated demonstration of MSO, including off-gas and spent salt treatment, and the preparation of robust solid final forms. Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has constructed an integrated pilot-scale MSO treatment system in which tests and demonstrations are presently being performed under carefully controlled (experimental) conditions. The system consists of a MSO process vessel with dedicated off-gas treatment, a salt recycle system, feed preparation equipment, and equipment for preparing ceramic final waste forms. In this paper we describe the integrated system and discuss its capabilities as well as preliminary process demonstration data. A primary purpose of these demonstrations is to identify the most suitable waste streams and waste types for MSO treatment.

  13. Urban Wood Waste Resource Assessment; TOPICAL

    Wiltsee, G.

    1998-01-01

    This study collected and analyzed data on urban wood waste resources in 30 randomly selected metropolitan areas in the United States. Three major categories wood wastes disposed with, or recovered from, the municipal solid waste stream; industrial wood wastes such as wood scraps and sawdust from pallet recycling, woodworking shops, and lumberyards; and wood in construction/demolition and land clearing debris

  14. The Enactment of Constituent Power in the Arab World

    Asem Khalil

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Most modern states have adopted written and rigid constitutions. The existence of a constitution presupposes a constituent power, distinguished from other constituted powers, created by the constitution itself, and a constituent power presupposes the ability of a society to develop its capacity to act as a collective, in order to gain (or regain an active role in the organization of the lives of individuals and their social relationships with one another. For Pan-Arabism defenders, the (Arab nation exists as a cohesive group with its own unique characteristics, deriving from a common language, history and traditions. The ethnic concept of nation initially helped to justify an Arab revolution against other Muslims, but it was unable to distinguish individual Arab peoples or justify territorial Arab states. It was unavoidable then to switch to narrower concept of nation that covers citizens within defined state borders and living under the same laws. Despite the reference to the principle of popular sovereignty in most Arab Constitutions and the increasing attachment to territorially-defined states, there exists wide popular discontent with Arab regimes that continue to legitimize their authority based on Arab or Islamic nationalist discourses. Constitutions may fill the gap of legitimacy crisis in contemporary Arab States. They are a necessary tool for the nation to express its will but also for the individuals and communities within the state to protect themselves from the nation itself and from its expression, the state. Accordingly, there shall be red lines where the people, or their representatives, shall not transgress. Those red lines may be enumerated in a text, with particular legal inviolability that will be difficult (almost impossible to amend without joining a general consensus, that is not the equivalent to unanimity (difficult to obtain nor majority (easy to realize.

  15. [Research on UPLC-PDA fingerprint of andrographis paniculata and quantitative determination of 4 major constituents].

    Huang, Jing-Yi; Liu, Xiao-Lin; Zhou, Shui-Ping; Tong, Ling; Ding, Li

    2014-11-01

    Andrographis paniculata from different parts and origins were analyzed by UPLC-PDA fingerprint to provide refererice for related preparation technology. Using the peak of andrographolide as reference, 27 common peaks were identified, and digitized UPLC-PDA fingerprints for 23 batches of andrographis paniculata were established in this research. Principal component analysis (PCA) was carried out after feature extraction. The contents of andrographolide, neoandrographolide, deoxyandrographolide, dehydroandrographolide were determined by external standard method. The Plackett-Burman design combined with pareto chart was used to analyze the factors influencing the robustness of the method. It was found that the medicinal part has a more remarkable influence on the quality of andrographis paniculata than the origin. The contents of the 4 lactones the differ greatly in the different parts of andrographis paniculata, and the pH of the mobile phase is an important factor that influenced the robustness of the method.

  16. Bioactive assessment of selected marine red algae against leishmania major and chemical constituents of osmundea pinnatifida

    Haq, T.; Khan, F.A.; Begum, R.; Munshi, A.B.

    2011-01-01

    Present bioconversion studies were carried out to convert drifted seaweed biomass into bioactive organic compost. Chemical analysis of the collected seaweed biomass from the Karachi coast revealed 60.30 % organic matter. Aerobic composting method i.e., windrow composting technique was applied for the conversion of collected seaweed biomass into organic compost. Employing this technique almost 70% biomass was converted into organic compost. On analysis, the compost obtained by the above method showed 2.3% Nitrogen, 0.86% Phosphate and 1.8% Potassium. Results for the analysis of heavy metals showed Mercury 0.05 mg / kg, Arsenic BDL Cadmium 0.080 mg / kg and Copper 7.1 mg / kg. Results for the biological evaluation of seaweed compost showed 78% germabilty while the Biogold and cow dung showed 83 and 60% germabilty. (author)

  17. Lateral gene transfer of an ABC transporter complex between major constituents of the human gut microbiome

    Meehan Conor J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several links have been established between the human gut microbiome and conditions such as obesity and inflammatory bowel syndrome. This highlights the importance of understanding what properties of the gut microbiome can affect the health of the human host. Studies have been undertaken to determine the species composition of this microbiome and infer functional profiles associated with such host properties. However, lateral gene transfer (LGT between community members may result in misleading taxonomic attributions for the recipient organisms, thus making species-function links difficult to establish. Results We identified a peptides/nickel transport complex whose components differed in abundance based upon levels of host obesity, and assigned the encoded proteins to members of the microbial community. Each protein was assigned to several distinct taxonomic groups, with moderate levels of agreement observed among different proteins in the complex. Phylogenetic trees of these proteins produced clusters that differed greatly from taxonomic attributions and indicated that habitat-directed LGT of this complex is likely to have occurred, though not always between the same partners. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that certain membrane transport systems may be an important factor within an obese-associated gut microbiome and that such complexes may be acquired several times by different strains of the same species. Additionally, an example of individual proteins from different organisms being transferred into one operon was observed, potentially demonstrating a functional complex despite the donors of the subunits being taxonomically disparate. Our results also highlight the potential impact of habitat-directed LGT on the resident microbiota.

  18. Inhibitory Effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra and Its Major Constituent Glycyrrhizin on Inflammation-Associated Corneal Neovascularization

    Syed Luqman Shah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Leguminosae is widely used in folk medicines. Glycyrrhizin, an active compound of G. glabra, possesses anti-inflammatory activity. This study investigates the G. glabra methanol extract and glycyrrhizin for the treatment of corneal neovascularization (CNV. G. glabra was extracted in 70% aqueous methanol. Phytochemical tests, thin layer chromatography (TLC, and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC were used for the analysis of chemical composition. The topical solution of G. glabra methanol extract (2% w/v and glycyrrhizin (1% w/v was prepared in normal saline. After corneal burn (1 N NaOH, animals were left untreated for a week so that neovascularization appears in all groups. Treatments started on day 7 and continued for next 21 consecutive days. The animals were treated with 3 drops of various topical solutions thrice a day. Digital photograph analysis and histological studies were used for the evaluation of CNV. Phytochemical analysis of the G. glabra methanol extract showed the presence of saponins, phenols, carbohydrates, flavonoids, and proteins. TLC and HPLC confirmed the presence of glycyrrhizin. Photograph analysis of the extract and glycyrrhizin treated group showed a considerable decrease in CNV. Histological study of G. glabra and glycyrrhizin treated groups showed no blood vessels with properly arranged collagen fibers. This study showed that G. glabra and glycyrrhizin can be used for the treatment of CNV. Bioassay guided isolation can lead to preparation of ophthalmic solutions for the treatment of CNV.

  19. Circulating growth hormone (GH)-binding protein complex: a major constituent of plasma GH in man

    Baumann, G.; Amburn, K.; Shaw, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    The recent discovery of a specific binding protein for human GH (hGH) in human plasma suggests that hGH circulates in part as a complex in association with the binding protein(s). However, the magnitude of the complexed fraction prevailing under physiological conditions is unknown because of 1) dissociation of the complex during analysis and 2) potential differences in the binding characteristics of radiolabeled and native hGH. We conducted experiments designed to minimize dissociation during analysis (gel filtration in prelabeled columns, frontal analysis, and batch molecular sieving) with both native and radioiodinated hGH. All three methods yielded similar estimates for the complexed fraction. In normal plasma the bound fraction for 22 K hGH averaged 50.1% (range, 39-59%), that for 20 K hGH averaged 28.5% (range, 26-31%). Above a hGH level of about 20 ng/ml the bound fraction declines in concentration-dependent manner due to saturation of the binding protein. We conclude that a substantial part of circulating hGH is complexed with carrier proteins. This concept has important implications for the metabolism, distribution, and biological activity of hGH

  20. Radionanalysis in solid waste research and management

    Das, H.A.

    1994-01-01

    Risk assessment of dumping or recycling of solid waste makes part of environmental geochemistry. Radioanalysis provides efficient procedures for the characterization of solid wastes, both granular and as recycled products. Radiotracers are applied to measure the situ values of transport parameters. Activation analysis is used in the determination of trace constituents in solids and leachates. This text summarizes some important applications of radioanalysis in this part of environmental monitoring

  1. Glasses and nuclear waste vitrification

    Ojovan, Michael I.

    2012-01-01

    Glass is an amorphous solid material which behaves like an isotropic crystal. Atomic structure of glass lacks long-range order but possesses short and most probably medium range order. Compared to crystalline materials of the same composition glasses are metastable materials however crystallisation processes are kinetically impeded within times which typically exceed the age of universe. The physical and chemical durability of glasses combined with their high tolerance to compositional changes makes glasses irreplaceable when hazardous waste needs immobilisation for safe long-term storage, transportation and consequent disposal. Immobilisation of radioactive waste in glassy materials using vitrification has been used successfully for several decades. Nuclear waste vitrification is attractive because of its flexibility, the large number of elements which can be incorporated in the glass, its high corrosion durability and the reduced volume of the resulting wasteform. Vitrification involves melting of waste materials with glass-forming additives so that the final vitreous product incorporates the waste contaminants in its macro- and micro-structure. Hazardous waste constituents are immobilised either by direct incorporation into the glass structure or by encapsulation when the final glassy material can be in form of a glass composite material. Both borosilicate and phosphate glasses are currently used to immobilise nuclear wastes. In addition to relatively homogeneous glasses novel glass composite materials are used to immobilise problematic waste streams. (author)

  2. Hydrothermal waste package interactions with methane-containing basalt groundwater

    McGrail, B.P.

    1984-01-01

    Hydrothermal waste package interaction tests were conducted with a mixture of crushed glass, basalt, and steel in methane-containing synthetic basalt groundwater. In the absence of gamma radiolysis, methane was found to have little influence on the corrosion behavior of the waste package constituents. Under gamma radiolysis, methane was found to significantly lower the solution oxidation potential when compared to identical tests without methane. In addition, colloidal hydrocarbon polymers that have been produced under the irradiation conditions of these experiments were not formed. The presence of the waste package constituents apparently inhibited the formation of the polymers. However, the mechanism which prevented their formation was not determined

  3. Waste management

    Chmielewska, E.

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter formation of wastes and basic concepts of non-radioactive waste management are explained. This chapter consists of the following parts: People in Peril; Self-regulation of nature as a guide for minimizing and recycling waste; The current waste management situation in the Slovak Republic; Categorization and determination of the type of waste in legislative of Slovakia; Strategic directions waste management in the Slovak Republic.

  4. Mixed waste characterization reference document

    1997-09-01

    Waste characterization and monitoring are major activities in the management of waste from generation through storage and treatment to disposal. Adequate waste characterization is necessary to ensure safe storage, selection of appropriate and effective treatment, and adherence to disposal standards. For some wastes characterization objectives can be difficult and costly to achieve. The purpose of this document is to evaluate costs of characterizing one such waste type, mixed (hazardous and radioactive) waste. For the purpose of this document, waste characterization includes treatment system monitoring, where monitoring is a supplement or substitute for waste characterization. This document establishes a cost baseline for mixed waste characterization and treatment system monitoring requirements from which to evaluate alternatives. The cost baseline established as part of this work includes costs for a thermal treatment technology (i.e., a rotary kiln incinerator), a nonthermal treatment process (i.e., waste sorting, macronencapsulation, and catalytic wet oxidation), and no treatment (i.e., disposal of waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)). The analysis of improvement over the baseline includes assessment of promising areas for technology development in front-end waste characterization, process equipment, off gas controls, and monitoring. Based on this assessment, an ideal characterization and monitoring configuration is described that minimizes costs and optimizes resources required for waste characterization

  5. Effects of fine particulate matter and its constituents on low birth weight among full-term infants in California

    Basu, Rupa, E-mail: Rupa.Basu@oehha.ca.gov [California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, Air Pollution Epidemiology Section, Oakland, CA (United States); Harris, Maria [School of Public Health, Boston University, Boston, MA (United States); Sie, Lillian [School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Malig, Brian; Broadwin, Rachel; Green, Rochelle [California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, Air Pollution Epidemiology Section, Oakland, CA (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Relationships between prenatal exposure to fine particles (PM{sub 2.5}) and birth weight have been observed previously. Few studies have investigated specific constituents of PM{sub 2.5}, which may identify sources and major contributors of risk. We examined the effects of trimester and full gestational prenatal exposures to PM{sub 2.5} mass and 23 PM{sub 2.5} constituents on birth weight among 646,296 term births in California between 2000 and 2006. We used linear and logistic regression models to assess associations between exposures and birth weight and risk of low birth weight (LBW; <2500 g), respectively. Models were adjusted for individual demographic characteristics, apparent temperature, month and year of birth, region, and socioeconomic indicators. Higher full gestational exposures to PM{sub 2.5} mass and several PM{sub 2.5} constituents were significantly associated with reductions in term birth weight. The largest reductions in birth weight were associated with exposure to vanadium, sulfur, sulfate, iron, elemental carbon, titanium, manganese, bromine, ammonium, zinc, and copper. Several of these PM{sub 2.5} constituents were associated with increased risk of term LBW. Reductions in birth weight were generally larger among younger mothers and varied by race/ethnicity. Exposure to specific constituents of PM{sub 2.5}, especially traffic-related particles, sulfur constituents, and metals, were associated with decreased birth weight in California. -- Highlights: • Examine full gestational and trimester fine particle and its constituents on term birth weight. • Fine particles and several of its constituents associated with birth weight reductions. • Largest reductions for traffic-related particles, sulfur constituents, and metals. • Greater birth weight reductions for younger mothers, and varied by race/ethnicity.

  6. Organic chemical aging mechanisms: An annotated bibliography. Waste Tank Safety Program

    Samuels, W.D.; Camaioni, D.M.; Nelson, D.A.

    1993-09-01

    An annotated bibliography has been compiled of the potential chemical and radiological aging mechanisms of the organic constituents (non-ferrocyanide) that would likely be found in the UST at Hanford. The majority of the work that has been conducted on the aging of organic chemicals used for extraction and processing of nuclear materials has been in conjunction with the acid or PUREX type processes. At Hanford the waste being stored in the UST has been stabilized with caustic. The aging factors that were used in this work were radiolysis, hydrolysis and nitrite/nitrate oxidation. The purpose of this work was two-fold: to determine whether or not research had been or is currently being conducted on the species associated with the Hanford UST waste, either as a mixture or as individual chemicals or chemical functionalities, and to determine what areas of chemical aging need to be addressed by further research.

  7. A perspective of hazardous waste and mixed waste treatment technology at the Savannah River Site

    England, J.L.; Venkatesh, S.; Bailey, L.L.; Langton, C.A.; Hay, M.S.; Stevens, C.B.; Carroll, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    Treatment technologies for the preparation and treatment of heavy metal mixed wastes, contaminated soils, and mixed mercury wastes are being considered at the Savannah River Site (SRS), a DOE nuclear material processing facility operated by Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC). The proposed treatment technologies to be included at the Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Treatment Building at SRS are based on the regulatory requirements, projected waste volumes, existing technology, cost effectiveness, and project schedule. Waste sorting and size reduction are the initial step in the treatment process. After sorting/size reduction the wastes would go to the next applicable treatment module. For solid heavy metal mixed wastes the proposed treatment is macroencapsulation using a thermoplastic polymer. This process reduces the leachability of hazardous constituents from the waste and allows easy verification of the coating integrity. Stabilization and solidification in a cement matrix will treat a wide variety of wastes (i.e. soils, decontamination water). Some pretreatments may be required (i.e. Ph adjustment) before stabilization. Other pretreatments such as soil washing can reduce the amount of waste to be stabilized. Radioactive contaminated mercury waste at the SRS comes in numerous forms (i.e. process equipment, soils, and lab waste) with the required treatment of high mercury wastes being roasting/retorting and recovery. Any unrecyclable radioactive contaminated elemental mercury would be amalgamated, utilizing a batch system, before disposal

  8. Compost versus vermicompost as substrate constituents for rooting shrub cuttings

    Fornes, F.; Mendoza-Hernandez, D.; Belda, R. M.

    2013-06-01

    The feasibility of composted (C), composted plus vermicomposted (V1) and straight vermicomposted (V2) tomato crop waste as component of rooting media for Euonymus japonicus Microphylla and Lavandula angustifolia vegetative propagation was studied. Mixes of C, V1 and V2 with coir fibre (CF) at the proportions 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, 0:100 (v:v) were assayed. Physical, physico-chemical and nutritional characteristics of all materials and mixes were determined and correlated with cutting rooting and growth performances. The compost and the two vermicomposts were markedly different from CF. They had higher bulk density and lower total porosity than CF. Compost had lower water-holding capacity and shrinkage in response to drying than vermicomposts and CF. Compost and vermicomposts were alkaline materials whilst CF was almost neutral. Electrical conductivity (EC) was low in CF and vermicomposts, and high in compost due to the high mineral contents, mainly of K+, SO{sub 4} {sup 2}- and Na+ in this material. EC and the ions contributing to it (K+, SO{sub 4} {sup 2}-, Na+) showed highly significative inverse correlations with rooting percentage for the two species and with root and shoot growth but only for E. japonicus. Due to its high EC, compost C (average rooting = 22.5%) performed worse than vermicomposts V1 (av. rooting = 97%) and V2 (av. rooting = 98%) whilst the latter performed similarly to CF control (av. rooting = 100%). Thus vermicomposts appeared to be more appropriate than compost as rooting media constituent. (Author) 39 refs.

  9. Compost versus vermicompost as substrate constituents for rooting shrub cuttings

    F. Fornes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of composted (C, composted plus vermicomposted (V1 and straight vermicomposted (V2 tomato crop waste as component of rooting media for Euonymus japonicus ‘Microphylla’ and Lavandula angustifolia vegetative propagation was studied. Mixes of C, V1 and V2 with coir fibre (CF at the proportions 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, 0:100 (v:v were assayed. Physical, physico chemical and nutritional characteristics of all materials and mixes were determined and correlated with cutting rooting and growth performances. The compost and the two vermicomposts were markedly different from CF. They had higher bulk density and lower total porosity than CF. Compost had lower water holding capacity and shrinkage in response to drying than vermicomposts and CF. Compost and vermicomposts were alkaline materials whilst CF was almost neutral. Electrical conductivity (EC was low in CF and vermicomposts, and high in compost due to the high mineral contents, mainly of K+, SO42– and Na+ in this material. EC and the ions contributing to it (K+, SO42–, Na+ showed highly significative inverse correlations with rooting percentage for the two species and with root and shoot growth but only for E. japonicus. Due to its high EC, compost C (average rooting = 22.5% performed worse than vermicomposts V1 (av. rooting = 97% and V2 (av. rooting = 98% whilst the latter performed similarly to CF control (av. rooting = 100%. Thus vermicomposts appeared to be more appropriate than compost as rooting media constituent.

  10. Waste Analysis Plan for 241-Z

    HIRZEL, D.R.

    2000-01-01

    The 241-2 waste tanks are used to store, treat, and transfer waste to Tank Farms. The sampling requirements are established to identify the composition of the tank waste. The primary goal is to meet the Tank Farms acceptance criteria. Tank Farms will not accept waste without extensive characterization sample data. Process and lab wastes are sampled for suitability prior to routing to Tk-D8. The samples are helpful in tracking the amount of chemical constituents to determine treatment and are required to maintain Pu inventory and criticality prevention limitations. Likewise, the waste is sampled prior to inter-tank transfers. The revised Waste Analysis Plan for 241-2 (WAP) contains current facility, process and waste descriptions. The WAP lists the Double Shell Tank (DST) system acceptance criteria, sampling parameters and required analyses. The characterization data on historical process wastes was deleted. A section on the Tank Farms waste approval procedural process was added to describe the steps necessary and documentation required to transfer waste to the DST system. Failure to collect proper samples will result in Tank Farms' refusal to accept PFP waste until proper sampling conditions are met. This will use up unnecessary time and resources but not place the plant in a hazardous position

  11. Robotics for mixed waste operations, demonstration description

    Ward, C.R.

    1993-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) is developing technology to aid in the cleanup of DOE sites. Included in the OTD program are the Robotics Technology Development Program and the Mixed Waste Integrated Program. These two programs are working together to provide technology for the cleanup of mixed waste, which is waste that has both radioactive and hazardous constituents. There are over 240,000 cubic meters of mixed low level waste accumulated at DOE sites and the cleanup is expected to generate about 900,000 cubic meters of mixed low level waste over the next five years. This waste must be monitored during storage and then treated and disposed of in a cost effective manner acceptable to regulators and the states involved. The Robotics Technology Development Program is developing robotics technology to make these tasks safer, better, faster and cheaper through the Mixed Waste Operations team. This technology will also apply to treatment of transuranic waste. The demonstration at the Savannah River Site on November 2-4, 1993, showed the progress of this technology by DOE, universities and industry over the previous year. Robotics technology for the handling, characterization and treatment of mixed waste as well robotics technology for monitoring of stored waste was demonstrated. It was shown that robotics technology can make future waste storage and waste treatment facilities better, faster, safer and cheaper

  12. Feed Materials Production Center Waste Management Plan

    Watts, R.E.; Allen, T.; Castle, S.A.; Hopper, J.P.; Oelrich, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    In the process of producing uranium metal products used in Department of Energy (DOE) defense programs at other DOE facilities, various types of wastes are generated at the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC). Process wastes, both generated and stored, are discussed in the Waste Management Plan and include low-level radioactive waste (LLW), mixed hazardous/radioactive waste, and sanitary/industrial waste. Scrap metal waste and wastes requiring special remediation are also addressed in the Plan. The Waste Management Plan identifies the comprehensive programs developed to address safe storage and disposition of all wastes from past, present, and future operations at the FMPC. Waste streams discussed in this Plan are representative of the waste generated and waste types that concern worker and public health and safety. Budgets and schedules for implementation of waste disposition are also addressed. The waste streams receiving the largest amount of funding include LLW approved for shipment by DOE/ORO to the Nevada Test Site (NTS) (MgF 2 , slag leach filter cake, and neutralized raffinate); remedial action wastes (waste pits, K-65 silo waste); thorium; scrap metal (contaminated and noncontaminated ferrous and copper scrap); construction rubble and soil generated from decontamination and decommissioning of outdated facilities; and low-level wastes that will be handled through the Low-Level Waste Processing and Shipping System (LLWPSS). Waste Management milestones are also provided. The Waste Management Plan is divided into eight major sections: Introduction; Site Waste and Waste Generating Process; Strategy; Projects and Operations; Waste Stream Budgets; Milestones; Quality Assurance for Waste Management; and Environmental Monitoring Program

  13. Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Certification Plan

    GREAGER, T.M.

    2000-01-01

    As a generator of transuranic (TRU) and TRU mixed waste destined for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the Hanford Site must ensure that its TRU waste meets the requirements of US. Department of Energy (DOE) 0 435.1, ''Radioactive Waste Management,'' and the Contact-Handled (CH) Transuranic Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP-WAC). WIPP-WAC requirements are derived from the WIPP Technical Safety Requirements, WIPP Safety Analysis Report, TRUPACT-II SARP, WIPP Land Withdrawal Act, WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit, and Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 191/194 Compliance Certification Decision. The WIPP-WAC establishes the specific physical, chemical, radiological, and packaging criteria for acceptance of defense TRU waste shipments at WIPP. The WPP-WAC also requires that participating DOE TRU waste generator/treatment/storage sites produce site-specific documents, including a certification plan, that describe their program for managing TRU waste and TRU waste shipments before transferring waste to WIPP. Waste characterization activities provide much of the data upon which certification decisions are based. Waste characterization requirements for TRU waste and TRU mixed waste that contains constituents regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) are established in the WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit Waste Analysis Plan (WAP). The Hanford Site Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP) (HNF-2599) implements the applicable requirements in the WAP and includes the qualitative and quantitative criteria for making hazardous waste determinations. The Hanford Site must also ensure that its TRU waste destined for disposal at WPP meets requirements for transport in the Transuranic Package Transporter-11 (TRUPACT-11). The US. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) establishes the TRUPACT-11 requirements in the Safety Analysis Report for the TRUPACT-II Shipping Package (TRUPACT-11 SARP). In

  14. Immobilization of aqueous radioactive cesium wastes by conversion to aluminosilicate minerals

    Barney, G.S.

    1975-05-01

    Radioactive cesium (primarily 137 Cs) is a major toxic constituent of liquid wastes from nuclear fuel processing plants. Because of the long half-life, highly penetrating radiation, and mobility of 137 Cs, it is necessary to convert wastes containing this radioisotope into a solid form which will prevent movement to the biosphere during long-term storage. A method for converting cesium wastes to solid, highly insoluble, thermally stable aluminosilicate minerals is described. Aluminum silicate clays (bentonite, kaolin, or pyrophyllite) or hydrous aluminosilicate gels are reacted with basic waste solutions to form pollucite, cesium zeolite (Cs-D), Cs-F, cancrinite, or nepheline. Cesium is trapped in the aluminosilicate crystal lattice of the mineral and is permanently immobilized. The identity of the mineral product is dependent on the waste composition and the SiO 2 /Al 2 O 3 ratio of the clay or gel. The stoichiometry and kinetics of mineral formation reactions are described. The products are evaluated with respect to leachability, thermal stability, and crystal morphology. (U.S.)

  15. Colloidal agglomerates in tank sludge: Impact on waste processing. 1997 annual progress report

    Virden, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    'Disposal of millions of gallons of existing radioactive wastes is a major remediation problem for the Department of Energy (DOE). Although radionuclides are the most hazardous waste constituents. the components of greatest concern from a waste processing standpoint are insoluble sludges consisting of submicron colloidal particles. Depending on processing conditions, these colloidal particles can form agglomerate networks that could clog transfer lines or interfere with solid-liquid separations such as settle-decant operations. Under different conditions, the particles can be dispersed to form very fine suspended particles that will not create sediment in settle- decant steps and that can foul and contaminate downstream treatment components including ion exchangers or filtrations systems. Given the wide range of tank chemistries present at Hanford and other DOE sites, it is impractical to measure the properties of all potential processing conditions to design effective treatment procedures. Instead. a framework needs to be established to allow sludge property trends to be predicted on a sound scientific basis. The scientific principles of greatest utility in characterizing, understanding, and controlling the physical properties of sludge fall in the realm of colloid chemistry. The objectives of this work are to accomplish the following: understand the factors controlling the nature and extent of colloidal agglomeration under expected waste processing conditions determine how agglomeration phenomena influence physical properties relevant to waste processing including rheology, sedimentation. and filtration develop strategies for optimizing processing conditions via control of agglomeration phenomena.'

  16. Waste Characterization Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Environmental Assessment

    1995-02-01

    DOE has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) on the proposed construction and operation of a Waste Characterization Facility (WCF) at INEL. This facility is needed to examine and characterize containers of transuranic (TRU) waste to certify compliance with transport and disposal criteria; to obtain information on waste constituents to support proper packaging, labeling, and storage; and to support development of treatment and disposal plans for waste that cannot be certified. The proposed WCF would be constructed at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). In accordance with the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) requirements in 40 CFR Parts 1500-1508, the EA examined the potential environmental impacts of the proposed WCF and discussed potential alternatives. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, and CEQ regulations at 40 CFR 1508.18 and 1508.27. Therefore, an Environmental Impact Statement is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact

  17. Categorizing operational radioactive wastes

    2007-04-01

    The primary objective of this publication is to improve communications among waste management professionals and Member States relative to the properties and status of radioactive waste. This is accomplished by providing a standardized approach to operational waste categorization using accepted industry practices and experience. It is a secondary objective to draw a distinction between operational waste categorization and waste disposal classification. The approach set forth herein is applicable to waste generation by mature (major, advanced) nuclear programmes, small-to-medium sized nuclear programmes, and programmes with waste from other nuclear applications. It can be used for planning, developing or revising categorization methodologies. For existing categorization programmes, the approach set forth in this publication may be used as a validation and evaluation tool for assessing communication effectiveness among affected organizations or nations. This publication is intended for use by waste management professionals responsible for creating, implementing or communicating effective categorization, processing and disposal strategies. For the users of this publication, it is important to remember that waste categorization is a communication tool. As such, the operational waste categories are not suitable for regulatory purposes nor for use in health and safety evaluations. Following Section 1 (Introduction) Section 2 of this publication defines categorization and its relationship to existing waste classification and management standards, regulations and practices. It also describes the benefits of a comprehensive categorization programme and fundamental record considerations. Section 3 provides an overview of the categorization process, including primary categories and sub-categories. Sections 4 and 5 outline the specific methodology for categorizing unconditioned and conditioned wastes. Finally, Section 6 provides a brief summary of critical considerations that

  18. Plants and chemical constituents with giardicidal activity

    Flavia M.M. Amaral

    Full Text Available Intestinal infection caused by Giardia lamblia represents a serious public health problem, with increased rates of prevalence in numerous countries. Increased resistance of the parasite and the side-effects of the reference drugs employed in the treatment of giardiasis make necessary to seek new therapeutic agents. Natural products, especially of plant origin, represent excellent starting point for research. The objective of this study is to review the literature on plant extracts, fractions and chemical constituents whose giardicidal activity has been investigated in vitro. The review describes 153 (one hundred and fifty-three plant species from 69 (sixty-nine families that were evaluated for their giardicidal activity. The geographical distribution of the plant species, the part used, preparation, strain of Giardia lamblia tested and the results obtained by the authors are also given. One hundred and one compounds isolated from plant species, classified by chemical class, are presented. Recent aspects of research on natural products of plant origin employed in the treatment of giardiasis are also discussed.

  19. Mentha piperita micropropagation and volatil constituents evaluation

    Jorge Ignacio Zapata

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of in vitro plant tissue culture techniques for the propagation of aromatic and medicinal species, could play very promising role for the economy of small farmers, due to the high potential of industrialization of their essential oils. In this work is shown how the tissue culture technique has been used for the propagation of Mentha piperita, as its essential oil is widely used in the flavor and fragrance industry. Mints from different sources were studied, and evaluation of the yield and quality of the essential oil was carry out, before and after the micropropagation by plant tissue culture. Several basal mediums with different proportion of plant growth regulators and vitamins were tested in order to maximize the propagation results. The constituents of the essential oil were quantified by Gas Chromatography. Lin & Staba (1962 basal medium, supplemented with BAP, and some vitamins, was the best for mints species micropropagation. The yield and quality of essential oil produced by plant tissue culture and its mother plant were very similar.

  20. Antimicrobial chemical constituents from endophytic fungus Phomasp.

    Hidayat Hussain; Siegfried Draeger; Barbara Schulz; Karsten Krohn; Ines Kock; Ahmed Al-Harrasi; Ahmed Al-Rawahi; Ghulam Abbas; Ivan R Green; Afzal Shah; Amin Badshah; Muhammad Saleem

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antimicrobial potential of different extracts of the endophytic fungus Phomasp. and the tentative identification of their active constituents.Methods:The extract and compounds were screened for antimicrobial activity using theAgarWellDiffusionMethod. Four compounds were purified using column chromatography and their structures were assigned using1H and13CNMR spectra,DEPT,2DCOSY,HMQC andHMBC experiments.Results:The ethyl acetate fraction ofPhomasp. showed good antifungal, antibacterial, and algicidal properties.One new dihydrofuran derivative, named phomafuranol(1), together with three known compounds, phomalacton(2),(3R)-5-hydroxymellein(3) and emodin(4) were isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction ofPhomasp.Preliminary studies indicated that phomalacton(2) displayed strong antibacterial, good antifungal and antialgal activities.Similarly(3R)-5-hydroxymellein (3) and emodin(4) showed good antifungal, antibacterial and algicidal properties.Conclusions:Antimicrobial activities of the ethyl acetate fraction of the endophytic fungusPhomasp. and isolated compounds clearly demonstrate thatPhomasp. and its active compounds represent a great potential for the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.

  1. [Chemical constituents of leaves of Psidium guajava].

    Shao, Meng; Wang, Ying; Jian, Yu-Qing; Sun, Xue-Gang; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Xiao-Qi; Ye, Wen-Cai

    2014-03-01

    To study the chemical constituents of the 95% ethanol extract of Psidium guajava. Compounds were separated by using a combination of various chromatographic methods including silica gel, D101 macroporous resin, ODS, Sephadex LH-20 and preparative HPLC. Their structures were elucidated by physicochemical properties and spectral data Eighteen compounds were isolated and identified as (+) -globulol (1), clovane-2beta, 9alpha-diol (2), 2beta-acetoxyclovan-9alpha-ol (3), (+) -caryolane-1 ,9beta-diol (4), ent-T-muurolol (5), clov-2-ene-9alpha-ol (6), isophytol (7), tamarixetin (8), gossypetin (9), quercetin (10), kaempferol (11), guajaverin (12), avicularin (13), chrysin 6-C-glucoside (14), 3'-O-methyl-3, 4-methylenedioxyellagic acid 4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (15), p-hydroxy-benzoic acid (16), guavinoside A (17) and guavinoside B (18). Compounds 2-9 and 14-16 were isolated from this plant for the first time. The ethanol extract showed 61.3% inhibition against the proliferation of colon cancer cell line SW480.

  2. Antioxidant Constituents of Cotoneaster melanocarpus Lodd.

    Adelheid H. Brantner

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the evaluation of the antioxidant capacity of Cotoneaster melanocarpus Lodd. and the identification of antioxidant active constituents of this plant. C. melanocarpus Lodd. is a shrub indigenous to Mongolia and used in Traditional Mongolian Medicine as a styptic. Before extraction, the plant material was separated into three parts: young sterile shoots, older stems and leaves. All these parts were extracted with water, methanol, ethyl acetate, dichloromethane and hexane, successively. The methanolic extract of the sterile shoots showed the highest antioxidant activity in the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay (IC50 30.91 ± 2.97 µg/mL. This active extract was further analyzed with chromatographic methods. TLC fingerprinting and HPLC indicated the presence of the flavonol glycosides quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (rutin, quercetin-3-O-galactoside (hyperoside and quercetin-3-O-glucoside (isoquercetin, ursolic acid as well as chlorogenic acid, neochlorogenic acid and cryptochlorogenic acid. The findings were substantiated with LC-MS. All identified compounds have antioxidant properties and therefore contribute to the radical scavenging activity of the whole plant.

  3. Multi-Constituent Simulation of Thrombus Deposition.

    Wu, Wei-Tao; Jamiolkowski, Megan A; Wagner, William R; Aubry, Nadine; Massoudi, Mehrdad; Antaki, James F

    2017-02-20

    In this paper, we present a spatio-temporal mathematical model for simulating the formation and growth of a thrombus. Blood is treated as a multi-constituent mixture comprised of a linear fluid phase and a thrombus (solid) phase. The transport and reactions of 10 chemical and biological species are incorporated using a system of coupled convection-reaction-diffusion (CRD) equations to represent three processes in thrombus formation: initiation, propagation and stabilization. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations using the libraries of OpenFOAM were performed for two illustrative benchmark problems: in vivo thrombus growth in an injured blood vessel and in vitro thrombus deposition in micro-channels (1.5 mm × 1.6 mm × 0.1 mm) with small crevices (125 μm × 75 μm and 125 μm × 137 μm). For both problems, the simulated thrombus deposition agreed very well with experimental observations, both spatially and temporally. Based on the success with these two benchmark problems, which have very different flow conditions and biological environments, we believe that the current model will provide useful insight into the genesis of thrombosis in blood-wetted devices, and provide a tool for the design of less thrombogenic devices.

  4. Multi-Constituent Simulation of Thrombus Deposition

    Wu, Wei-Tao; Jamiolkowski, Megan A.; Wagner, William R.; Aubry, Nadine; Massoudi, Mehrdad; Antaki, James F.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we present a spatio-temporal mathematical model for simulating the formation and growth of a thrombus. Blood is treated as a multi-constituent mixture comprised of a linear fluid phase and a thrombus (solid) phase. The transport and reactions of 10 chemical and biological species are incorporated using a system of coupled convection-reaction-diffusion (CRD) equations to represent three processes in thrombus formation: initiation, propagation and stabilization. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations using the libraries of OpenFOAM were performed for two illustrative benchmark problems: in vivo thrombus growth in an injured blood vessel and in vitro thrombus deposition in micro-channels (1.5 mm × 1.6 mm × 0.1 mm) with small crevices (125 μm × 75 μm and 125 μm × 137 μm). For both problems, the simulated thrombus deposition agreed very well with experimental observations, both spatially and temporally. Based on the success with these two benchmark problems, which have very different flow conditions and biological environments, we believe that the current model will provide useful insight into the genesis of thrombosis in blood-wetted devices, and provide a tool for the design of less thrombogenic devices.

  5. System for measuring engine exhaust constituents

    Carduner, K.R.; Colvin, A.D.; Leong, D.Y.W.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a system for measuring an automotive engine exhaust constituent. It comprises: a meter for determining the mass of air flowing through the engine and for generating an engine airflow signal corresponding to the airflow; sample handling apparatus; diluent adding means; processor means. This patent also describes a method for using an analyzer to determine the amount of lubricating oil consumed by an automotive engine. It comprises: determining the amount of sulfur dioxide within the room air being drawn into the engine; maintaining a constant total flow comprised of a constant fraction of the engine's exhaust gas and a diluent gas through the analyzer, while: determining the amount of sulfur dioxide contained within the engine's exhaust, determining the amount of sulfur dioxide contained within the engine's exhaust, while operating the engine on room air; determining an efficiency factor for the analyzer; and using the efficiency factor and the concentration of sulfur in the engine oil and the amounts of sulfur dioxide determined in steps a and d to determine the amount of lubrication oil leaving the engine through its exhaust

  6. Minimum Additive Waste Stabilization (MAWS)

    1994-02-01

    In the Minimum Additive Waste Stabilization(MAWS) concept, actual waste streams are utilized as additive resources for vitrification, which may contain the basic components (glass formers and fluxes) for making a suitable glass or glassy slag. If too much glass former is present, then the melt viscosity or temperature will be too high for processing; while if there is too much flux, then the durability may suffer. Therefore, there are optimum combinations of these two important classes of constituents depending on the criteria required. The challenge is to combine these resources in such a way that minimizes the use of non-waste additives yet yields a processable and durable final waste form for disposal. The benefit to this approach is that the volume of the final waste form is minimized (waste loading maximized) since little or no additives are used and vitrification itself results in volume reduction through evaporation of water, combustion of organics, and compaction of the solids into a non-porous glass. This implies a significant reduction in disposal costs due to volume reduction alone, and minimizes future risks/costs due to the long term durability and leach resistance of glass. This is accomplished by using integrated systems that are both cost-effective and produce an environmentally sound waste form for disposal. individual component technologies may include: vitrification; thermal destruction; soil washing; gas scrubbing/filtration; and, ion-exchange wastewater treatment. The particular combination of technologies will depend on the waste streams to be treated. At the heart of MAWS is vitrification technology, which incorporates all primary and secondary waste streams into a final, long-term, stabilized glass wasteform. The integrated technology approach, and view of waste streams as resources, is innovative yet practical to cost effectively treat a broad range of DOE mixed and low-level wastes

  7. Sodium Chloride Supplementation Is Not Routinely Performed in the Majority of German and Austrian Infants with Classic Salt-Wasting Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia and Has No Effect on Linear Growth and Hydrocortisone or Fludrocortisone Dose.

    Bonfig, Walter; Roehl, Friedhelm; Riedl, Stefan; Brämswig, Jürgen; Richter-Unruh, Annette; Fricke-Otto, Susanne; Hübner, Angela; Bettendorf, Markus; Schönau, Eckhard; Dörr, Helmut; Holl, Reinhard W; Mohnike, Klaus

    2018-01-01

    Sodium chloride supplementation in salt-wasting congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is generally recommended in infants, but its implementation in routine care is very heterogeneous. To evaluate oral sodium chloride supplementation, growth, and hydrocortisone and fludrocortisone dose in infants with salt-wasting CAH due to 21-hydroxylase in 311 infants from the AQUAPE CAH database. Of 358 patients with classic CAH born between 1999 and 2015, 311 patients had salt-wasting CAH (133 females, 178 males). Of these, 86 patients (27.7%) received oral sodium chloride supplementation in a mean dose of 0.9 ± 1.4 mmol/kg/day (excluding nutritional sodium content) during the first year of life. 225 patients (72.3%) were not treated with sodium chloride. The percentage of sodium chloride-supplemented patients rose from 15.2% in children born 1999-2004 to 37.5% in children born 2011-2015. Sodium chloride-supplemented and -unsupplemented infants did not significantly differ in hydrocortisone and fludrocortisone dose, target height-corrected height-SDS, and BMI-SDS during the first 2 years of life. In the AQUAPE CAH database, approximately one-third of infants with salt-wasting CAH receive sodium chloride supplementation. Sodium chloride supplementation is performed more frequently in recent years. However, salt supplementation had no influence on growth, daily fludrocortisone and hydrocortisone dose, and frequency of adrenal crisis. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Moessbauer, TEM/SAED and XRD investigation on waste dumps of the Valea lui Stan gold mines

    Constantinescu, Serban Grigore, E-mail: sconst@infim.ro [National Institute of Materials Physics, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Udubasa, Sorin S.; Udubasa, Gheorghe [University of Bucharest, Fac. of Geology and Geophysics (Romania); Kuncser, Victor; Popescu-Pogrion, Nicoleta; Mercioniu, Ionel; Feder, Marcel [National Institute of Materials Physics, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)

    2012-03-15

    The complementary investigation techniques, Moessbauer spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy with selected area electron diffraction (TEM/SAED), X-ray diffraction (XRD) have been used to investigate the fate of the Valea lui Stan, Romania, gold-ore nanoscale-minerals during the long time of residence in the waste dumps. The preliminary investigations showed such waste dumps to contain significant amount of metals which cannot be identified by conventional methods. An intense research activity started up in order to evaluate the possibilities to recycle Valea lui Stan waste dumps and to recover metals by chemical or phytoextraction procedures. The waste dumps naturally show different mineral constituents with clay minerals as major phases, observed by XRD-technique. Although the waste dumps materials have whitish-yellowish colours, MOeSSBAUER technique evidences the presence of the finely dispersed iron bearing minerals. The authors are focusing to inspect and analyze Fe-compounds in the samples collected from Valea lui Stan's waste dumps in order to identify the magnetic phases by Moessbauer technique.

  9. Rapid estimation of organic nitrogen in oil shale waste waters

    Jones, B.M.; Daughton, C.G.; Harris, G.J.

    1984-04-01

    Many of the characteristics of oil shale process waste waters (e.g., malodors, color, and resistance to biotreatment) are imparted by numerous nitrogenous heterocycles and aromatic amines. For the frequent performance assessment of waste treatment processes designed to remove these nitrogenous organic compounds, a rapid and colligative measurement of organic nitrogen is essential. Quantification of organic nitrogen in biological and agricultural samples is usually accomplished using the time-consuming, wet-chemical Kjeldahl method. For oil shale waste waters, whose primary inorganic nitorgen constituent is amonia, organic Kjeldahl nitrogen (OKN) is determined by first eliminating the endogenous ammonia by distillation and then digesting the sample in boiling H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. The organic material is oxidized, and most forms of organically bound nitrogen are released as ammonium ion. After the addition of base, the ammonia is separated from the digestate by distillation and quantified by acidimetric titrimetry or colorimetry. The major failings of this method are the loss of volatile species such as aliphatic amines (during predistillation) and the inability to completely recover nitrogen from many nitrogenous heterocycles (during digestion). Within the last decade, a new approach has been developed for the quantification of total nitrogen (TN). The sample is first combusted, a

  10. Sampling and analysis of inactive radioactive waste tanks W-17, W-18, WC-5, WC-6, WC-8, and WC-11 through WC-14 at ORNL

    Sears, M.B.; Giaquinto, J.M.; Griest, W.H.; Pack, R.T.; Ross, T.; Schenley, R.L.

    1995-12-01

    The sampling and analysis of nine inactive liquid low-level waste (LLLW) tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are described-tanks W-17, W-18, WC-5, WC-6, WC-8, and WC-11 through WC-14. Samples of the waste tank liquids and sludges were analyzed to determine (1) the major chemical constituents, (2) the principal radionuclides, (3) metals listed on the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Contract Laboratory Program Inorganic Target Analyte List, (4) organic compounds, and (5) some physical properties. The organic chemical characterization consisted of determinations of the EPA Contract Laboratory Program Target Compound List volatile and semivolatile compounds, pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyis (PCBs). This report provides data (1) to meet requirements under the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) for the Oak Ridge Reservation to characterize the contents of LLLW tanks which have been removed from service and (2) to support planning for the treatment and disposal of the wastes.

  11. Sampling and analysis of inactive radioactive waste tanks W-17, W-18, WC-5, WC-6, WC-8, and WC-11 through WC-14 at ORNL

    Sears, M.B.; Giaquinto, J.M.; Griest, W.H.; Pack, R.T.; Ross, T.; Schenley, R.L.

    1995-12-01

    The sampling and analysis of nine inactive liquid low-level waste (LLLW) tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are described-tanks W-17, W-18, WC-5, WC-6, WC-8, and WC-11 through WC-14. Samples of the waste tank liquids and sludges were analyzed to determine (1) the major chemical constituents, (2) the principal radionuclides, (3) metals listed on the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Contract Laboratory Program Inorganic Target Analyte List, (4) organic compounds, and (5) some physical properties. The organic chemical characterization consisted of determinations of the EPA Contract Laboratory Program Target Compound List volatile and semivolatile compounds, pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyis (PCBs). This report provides data (1) to meet requirements under the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) for the Oak Ridge Reservation to characterize the contents of LLLW tanks which have been removed from service and (2) to support planning for the treatment and disposal of the wastes

  12. Tracking the Key Constituents of Concern of the WTP LAW Stream

    Mabrouki, Ridha B. [The Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States); Matlack, Keith S. [The Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States); Abramowitz, Howard [The Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States); Muller, Isabelle S. [The Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States); Joseph, Innocent [The Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States); Pegg, Ian L. [The Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States)

    2017-05-31

    The testing results presented in the present report were also obtained on a DM10 melter system operated with the primary WTP LAW offgas system components with recycle, as specified in the statement of work (SOW) [6] and detailed in the Test Plan for this work [7]. The primary offgas system components include the SBS, the WESP, and a recycle system that allows recycle of liquid effluents back to the melter, as in the present baseline for the WTP LAW vitrification. The partitioning of technetium and other key constituents between the glass waste form, the offgas system liquid effluents, the offgas stream that exits the WESP, and the liquid condensate from the vacuum evaporator were quantified in this work. The tests employed three different LAW streams spanning a range of waste compositions anticipated for WTP. Modifications to the offgas system and operational strategy were made to expedite the approach to steady state concentrations of key constituents in the glass and offgas effluent solutions during each test.

  13. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant: Preliminary description of waste form and canister

    Mitchell, D.E.

    1986-01-01

    In July 1985, the US Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management established the Waste Acceptance Process as the means by which defense high-level waste producers, such as the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant, will develop waste acceptance requirements with the candidate geologic repositories. A complete description of the Waste Acceptance Process is contained in the Preliminary Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Waste Form Qualification Plan. The Waste Acceptance Process defines three documents that high-level waste producers must prepare as a part of the process of assuming that a high-level waste product will be acceptable for disposal in a geologic repository. These documents are the Description of Waste Form and Canister, Waste Compliance Plan, and Waste Qualification Report. This document is the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Preliminary Description of Waste Form and Canister for disposal of Neutralized Current Acid Waste. The Waste Acceptance Specifications for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant have not yet been developed, therefore, this document has been structured to corresponds to the Waste Acceptance Preliminary Specifications for the Defense Waste Processing Facility High-Level Waste Form. Not all of the information required by these specifications is appropriate for inclusion in this Preliminary Description of Waste Form and Canister. Rather, this description is limited to information that describes the physical and chemical characteristics of the expected high-level waste form. The content of the document covers three major areas: waste form characteristics, canister characteristics, and canistered waste form characteristics. This information will be used by the candidate geologic repository projects as the basis for preliminary repository design activities and waste form testing. Periodic revisions are expected as the Waste Acceptance Process progresses

  14. Waste generator services implementation plan

    Mousseau, J.; Magleby, M.; Litus, M.

    1998-04-01

    Recurring waste management noncompliance problems have spurred a fundamental site-wide process revision to characterize and disposition wastes at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The reengineered method, termed Waste Generator Services, will streamline the waste acceptance process and provide waste generators comprehensive waste management services through a single, accountable organization to manage and disposition wastes in a timely, cost-effective, and compliant manner. This report outlines the strategy for implementing Waste Generator Services across the INEEL. It documents the culmination of efforts worked by the LMITCO Environmental Management Compliance Reengineering project team since October 1997. These efforts have included defining problems associated with the INEEL waste management process; identifying commercial best management practices; completing a review of DOE Complex-wide waste management training requirements; and involving others through an Integrated Process Team approach to provide recommendations on process flow, funding/charging mechanisms, and WGS organization. The report defines the work that will be performed by Waste Generator Services, the organization and resources, the waste acceptance process flow, the funding approach, methods for measuring performance, and the implementation schedule and approach. Field deployment will occur first at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant in June 1998. Beginning in Fiscal Year 1999, Waste Generator Services will be deployed at the other major INEEL facilities in a phased approach, with implementation completed by March 1999.

  15. Waste generator services implementation plan

    Mousseau, J.; Magleby, M.; Litus, M.

    1998-04-01

    Recurring waste management noncompliance problems have spurred a fundamental site-wide process revision to characterize and disposition wastes at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The reengineered method, termed Waste Generator Services, will streamline the waste acceptance process and provide waste generators comprehensive waste management services through a single, accountable organization to manage and disposition wastes in a timely, cost-effective, and compliant manner. This report outlines the strategy for implementing Waste Generator Services across the INEEL. It documents the culmination of efforts worked by the LMITCO Environmental Management Compliance Reengineering project team since October 1997. These efforts have included defining problems associated with the INEEL waste management process; identifying commercial best management practices; completing a review of DOE Complex-wide waste management training requirements; and involving others through an Integrated Process Team approach to provide recommendations on process flow, funding/charging mechanisms, and WGS organization. The report defines the work that will be performed by Waste Generator Services, the organization and resources, the waste acceptance process flow, the funding approach, methods for measuring performance, and the implementation schedule and approach. Field deployment will occur first at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant in June 1998. Beginning in Fiscal Year 1999, Waste Generator Services will be deployed at the other major INEEL facilities in a phased approach, with implementation completed by March 1999

  16. Screening and identification of potential bioactive constituents in a ...

    ... of lung cancer, liver cancer and digestive cancer. Materials and Methods: In this study, the potential bioactive constituents of SCP were isolated and identified by chromatographic and spectroscopic methods. The immunomodulatory and DPPH radical scavenging activities of the constituents were also evaluated in vitro.

  17. [Study on the chemical constituent from Buddleja purdomii].

    Gao, Yan; Li, Chong; Zhang, Chengzhong; Xu, Yourui; Tao, Baoquan

    2004-05-01

    To study the chemical constituents from Buddleja purdomii W. W. Smith. The constituents were isolated and purified by various chromatographic methods and structurally identified by spectral analysis. 4 compounds were identified as vanillin (I), vanillic acid (II), acteoside (III), acteoside isomer (IV). All these compounds were obtained from this plant for the first time.

  18. [Study on the chemical constituents of Buddleja purdomii].

    Zhang, Yinghua; Li, Chong; Zhang, Chengzhong; Tao, Baoquan

    2005-11-01

    To study the chemical constituents of Buddleja purdomii W. W Smith. The constituents were isolated and purified by various chromatographic methods and structurally identified by spectral analysis. 4 compounds were obtained as cryptomeridiol (I), aucubin (II), galactilol (III), daucosterol (IV). All these compounds are obtained from this plant for the first time.

  19. Volatile constituents of Glechoma hirsute Waldst. & Kit. and G ...

    The essential oils of two Glechoma species from Serbia have been analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Eighty eight and two hundred thirty eight constituents identified accounted for 90.6 and 86.6% of the total oils of G. hirsuta Waldst. & Kit. and G. hederacea L., respectively. In both oils the dominant constituent class was the ...

  20. Containment and stabilization technologies for mixed hazardous and radioactive wastes

    Buelt, J.L.

    1993-05-01

    A prevalent approach to the cleanup of waste sites contaminated with hazardous chemicals and radionuclides is to contain and/or stabilize wastes within the site. Stabilization involves treating the wastes in some fashion, either in situ or above ground after retrieval, to reduce the leachability and release rate of waste constituents to the environment. This approach is generally reserved for radionuclide contaminants, inorganic hazardous contaminants such as heavy metals, and nonvolatile organic contaminants. This paper describes the recent developments in the technical options available for containing and stabilizing wastes. A brief description of each technology is given along with a discussion of the most recent developments and examples of useful applications

  1. Waste Collection Vehicle Routing Problem: Literature Review

    Hui Han; Eva Ponce Cueto

    2015-01-01

    Waste generation is an issue which has caused wide public concern in modern societies, not only for the quantitative rise of the amount of waste generated, but also for the increasing complexity of some products and components. Waste collection is a highly relevant activity in the reverse logistics system and how to collect waste in an efficient way is an area that needs to be improved. This paper analyzes the major contribution about Waste Collection Vehicle Routing Problem (WCVRP) in litera...

  2. Scoping evaluation of the technical capabilities of DOE sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste. Examples: Sandia National Laboratories and Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Gruebel, M.R.; Parsons, A.M.; Waters, R.D.

    1996-01-01

    The disposal of mixed low-level waste has become an issue for the U.S. Department of Energy and the States since the inception of the Federal Facilities Compliance Act in 1992. Fifteen sites, including Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), have been evaluated to estimate their technical capabilities for disposal of this type of waste after it has been subjected to treatment processes. The analyses were designed to quantify the maximum permissible concentrations of radioactive and hazardous constituents in mixed low-level waste that could potentially be disposed of in a facility at one of the fifteen sites and meet regulatory requirements. The evaluations provided several major insights about the disposal of mixed low-level waste. All of the fifteen sites have the technical capability for disposal of some waste. Maximum permissible concentrations for the radioactive component of the waste at and sites such as SNL and LANL are almost exclusively determined by pathways other than through groundwater. In general, for the hazardous component of the waste, travel times through groundwater to a point 100 meters from the disposal facility are on the order of thousands of years. The results of the evaluations will be compared to actual treated waste that may be disposed of in a facility at one of these fifteen evaluated sites. These comparisons will indicate which waste streams may exceed the disposal limitations of a site and which component of the waste limits the technical acceptability for disposal. The technical analyses provide only partial input to the decision-making process for determining the disposal sites for mixed low-level waste. Other, less quantitative factors such as social and political issues will also be considered

  3. PM2.5 constituents and hospital emergency-room visits in Shanghai, China.

    Qiao, Liping; Cai, Jing; Wang, Hongli; Wang, Weibing; Zhou, Min; Lou, Shengrong; Chen, Renjie; Dai, Haixia; Chen, Changhong; Kan, Haidong

    2014-09-02

    Although ambient PM2.5 has been linked to adverse health effects, the chemical constituents that cause harm are largely unclear. Few prior studies in a developing country have reported the health impacts of PM2.5 constituents. In this study, we examined the short-term association between PM2.5 constituents and emergency room visits in Shanghai, China. We measured daily concentrations of PM2.5, organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), and eight water-soluble ions between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2012. We analyzed the data using overdispersed generalized linear Poisson models. During our study period, the mean daily average concentration of PM2.5 in Shanghai was 55 μg/m(3). Major contributors to PM2.5 mass included OC, EC, sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium. For a 1-day lag, an interquartile range increment in PM2.5 mass (36.47 μg/m(3)) corresponded to 0.57% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.13%, 1.01%] increase of emergency room visits. In all the three models used, we found significant positive associations of emergency room visits with OC and EC. Our findings suggest that PM2.5 constituents from the combustion of fossil fuel (e.g., OC and EC) may have an appreciable influence on the health impact attributable to PM2.5.

  4. Identification of Repellent and Insecticidal Constituents from Artemisia mongolica Essential Oil against Lasioderma serricorne

    Chunxue You

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research were to determine the chemical composition and insecticidal and repellent activities of the Artemisia mongolica essential oil against Lasioderma serricorne and to isolate active constituents from the essential oil. The essential oil of A. mongolica was obtained by hydrodistillation and 36 components were identified with GC-MS. Eucalyptol (39.88%, (S-cis-verbenol (14.93%, 4-terpineol (7.20%, (−-camphor (6.02%, and α-terpineol (4.20% were found to be major components. With a further isolation process, five constituents obtained from the essential oil were identified as eucalyptol, verbenol, 4-terpineol, camphor, and α-terpineol. In the progress of assay, it showed that L. serricorne adults had different sensitivities to the crude essential oil and isolated constituents. 4-Terpineol exhibited strongest contact activity against L. serricorne, showing the LD50 value of 8.62 μg/adult. Moreover, camphor and α-terpineol showed stronger fumigant activity (LC50=2.91 and 3.27 mg/L air, resp. against L. serricorne than crude essential oil and other constituents. In addition, the essential oil, eucalyptol, verbenol, and α-terpineol showed comparable repellency against L. serricorne adults. The results indicate that the essential oil and isolated compounds have potential to provide more efficient and safer natural insecticides or repellents for control of insects in food and Chinese medicinal materials preservation.

  5. Assessing mixed waste treatment technologies

    Berry, J.B.; Bloom, G.A.; Hart, P.W.

    1994-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for the management and treatment of its mixed low-level wastes (MLLW). As discussed earlier in this conference MLLW are regulated under both the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and various DOE orders. During the next 5 years, DOE will manage over 1,200,000 m 3 of MLLW and mixed transuranic (MTRU) waste at 50 sites in 22 states (see Table 1). The difference between MLLW and MTRU waste is in the concentration of elements that have a higher atomic weight than uranium. Nearly all of this waste will be located at 13 sites. More than 1400 individual mixed waste streams exist with different chemical and physical matrices containing a wide range of both hazardous and radioactive contaminants. Their containment and packaging vary widely (e.g., drums, bins, boxes, and buried waste). This heterogeneity in both packaging and waste stream constituents makes characterization difficult, which results in costly sampling and analytical procedures and increased risk to workers

  6. Cleaner production for solid waste management in leather industry ...

    Cleaner production for solid waste management in leather industry. ... From the processes, wastes are generated which include wastewater effluents, solid wastes, and hazardous wastes. In developing countries including Ethiopia, many ... The solid waste inventory of the factory has been carried out. The major problems ...

  7. Delisting efforts for mixed radioactive and chemically hazardous waste at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    Goodpasture, S.T.

    1987-01-01

    Presently, there are four hazardous wastes at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant that are candidates for the delisting from the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous waste regulations. These candidates are the sludges from K-1407-B and C ponds, Central Neutralization Facility sludges, mixed sludges from Y-12 and the ash generated by the RCRA/Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Incinerator. All of these hazardous wastes contain radioactive constituents as well as hazardous constituents. The delisting will be based upon the nonradioactive constituents. Whether the delisting petition is granted or not, the wastes will be handled according to the Department of Energy guidelines for radioactive wastes. The presentation discusses the methodologies for delisting these wastes and the rationale behind the processes

  8. Radioactive wastes

    Grass, F.

    1982-01-01

    Following a definition of the term 'radioactive waste', including a discussion of possible criteria allowing a delimitation of low-level radioactive against inactive wastes, present techniques of handling high-level, intermediate-level and low-level wastes are described. The factors relevant for the establishment of definitive disposals for high-level wastes are discussed in some detail. Finally, the waste management organization currently operative in Austria is described. (G.G.)

  9. Hanford Central Waste Complex: Radioactive mixed waste storage facility dangerous waste permit application

    1991-10-01

    The Hanford Site is owned by the US Government and operated by the US Department of Energy Field Office, Richland. The Hanford Site manages and produces dangerous waste and mixed waste (containing both radioactive and dangerous components). The dangerous waste is regulated in accordance with the Resource Conversation and Recovery Act of 1976 and the State of Washington Hazardous Waste Management Act of 1976. The radioactive component of mixed waste is interpreted by the US Department of Energy to be regulated under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954; the nonradioactive dangerous component of mixed waste is interpreted to be regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 and Washington Administrative Code 173--303. Westinghouse Hanford Company is a major contractor to the US Department of Energy Field Office, Richland and serves as co-operator of the Hanford Central Waste Complex. The Hanford Central Waste Complex is an existing and planned series of treatment, storage, and/or disposal units that will centralize the management of solid waste operations at a single location on the Hanford facility. The Hanford Central Waste Complex units include the Radioactive Mixed Waste Storage Facility, the unit addressed by this permit application, and the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility. The Waste Receiving and Processing Facility is covered in a separate permit application submittal

  10. Defense waste management plan

    1983-06-01

    Defense high-level waste (HLW) and defense transuranic (TRU) waste are in interim storage at three sites, namely: at the Savannah River Plant, in South Carolina; at the Hanford Reservation, in Washington; and at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, in Idaho. Defense TRU waste is also in interim storage at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, in Tennessee; at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, in New Mexico; and at the Nevada Test Site, in Nevada. (Figure E-2). This document describes a workable approach for the permanent disposal of high-level and transuranic waste from atomic energy defense activities. The plan does not address the disposal of suspect waste which has been conservatively considered to be high-level or transuranic waste but which can be shown to be low-level waste. This material will be processed and disposed of in accordance with low-level waste practices. The primary goal of this program is to utilize or dispose of high-level and transuranic waste routinely, safely, and effectively. This goal will include the disposal of the backlog of stored defense waste. A Reference Plan for each of the sites describes the sequence of steps leading to permanent disposal. No technological breakthroughs are required to implement the reference plan. Not all final decisions concerning the activities described in this document have been made. These decisions will depend on: completion of the National Environmental Policy Act process, authorization and appropriation of funds, agreements with states as appropriate, and in some cases, the results of pilot plant experiments and operational experience. The major elements of the reference plan for permanent disposal of defense high-level and transuranic waste are summarized

  11. Municipal solid waste generation in Kathmandu, Nepal.

    Dangi, Mohan B; Pretz, Christopher R; Urynowicz, Michael A; Gerow, Kenneth G; Reddy, J M

    2011-01-01

    Waste stream characteristics must be understood to tackle waste management problems in Kathmandu Metropolitan City (KMC), Nepal. Three-stage stratified cluster sampling was used to evaluate solid waste data collected from 336 households in KMC. This information was combined with data collected regarding waste from restaurants, hotels, schools and streets. The study found that 497.3 g capita(-1) day(-1) of solid waste was generated from households and 48.5, 113.3 and 26.1 kg facility(-1) day(-1) of waste was generated from restaurants, hotels and schools, respectively. Street litter measured 69.3 metric tons day(-1). The average municipal solid waste generation rate was 523.8 metric tons day(-1) or 0.66 kg capita(-1) day(-1) as compared to the 320 metric tons day(-1) reported by the city. The coefficient of correlation between the number of people and the amount of waste produced was 0.94. Key household waste constituents included 71% organic wastes, 12% plastics, 7.5% paper and paper products, 5% dirt and construction debris and 1% hazardous wastes. Although the waste composition varied depending on the source, the composition analysis of waste from restaurants, hotels, schools and streets showed a high percentage of organic wastes. These numbers suggest a greater potential for recovery of organic wastes via composting and there is an opportunity for recycling. Because there is no previous inquiry of this scale in reporting comprehensive municipal solid waste generation in Nepal, this study can be treated as a baseline for other Nepalese municipalities. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Inorganic constituents in herbal medicine by neutron activation analysis

    Goncalves, Rodolfo D.M.R.; Francisconi, Lucilaine S.; Silva, Paulo S.C. da, E-mail: pscsilva@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN- SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The demand for herbal medicines is growing worldwide. The expansion of interest has required the standardization of the sector with implementation and constant review of technical standards for production and marketing of these medicines in order to ensure the safe use, therapeutic efficacy and quality of the products. According to data from the World Health Organization, approximately 80% of world population has resorted to the benefits of certain herbs with therapeutic action popularly recognized. Despite the vast flora and the extensive use of medicinal plants by the population, it is a consensus that scientific studies on the subject are insufficiency. Therefore, it is necessary to stimulate such studies in view of the importance of the results of both individual and social field. The determination of major, minor and trace elements and the research of metabolic processes and their impacts on human health are of great importance due to the growth of environmental pollution that directly affects the plants and therefore the phytotherapics. Therefore, the objective of this work was to determine the content of inorganic constituents in herbal medicine: moisture, total ash and the elements As, Ba, Br, Ca, Cs, Co, Cr, Fe, Hf, K, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Ta, Th, U, Zn and Zr by neutron activation analysis in order to verify the quality of the products. It was observed that the elemental concentrations varied in a wide range from plant to plant and elements with higher concentrations were Ba, Fe, Cr and Zn. (author)

  13. Inorganic constituents in herbal medicine by neutron activation analysis

    Goncalves, Rodolfo D.M.R.; Francisconi, Lucilaine S.; Silva, Paulo S.C. da

    2011-01-01

    The demand for herbal medicines is growing worldwide. The expansion of interest has required the standardization of the sector with implementation and constant review of technical standards for production and marketing of these medicines in order to ensure the safe use, therapeutic efficacy and quality of the products. According to data from the World Health Organization, approximately 80% of world population has resorted to the benefits of certain herbs with therapeutic action popularly recognized. Despite the vast flora and the extensive use of medicinal plants by the population, it is a consensus that scientific studies on the subject are insufficiency. Therefore, it is necessary to stimulate such studies in view of the importance of the results of both individual and social field. The determination of major, minor and trace elements and the research of metabolic processes and their impacts on human health are of great importance due to the growth of environmental pollution that directly affects the plants and therefore the phytotherapics. Therefore, the objective of this work was to determine the content of inorganic constituents in herbal medicine: moisture, total ash and the elements As, Ba, Br, Ca, Cs, Co, Cr, Fe, Hf, K, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Ta, Th, U, Zn and Zr by neutron activation analysis in order to verify the quality of the products. It was observed that the elemental concentrations varied in a wide range from plant to plant and elements with higher concentrations were Ba, Fe, Cr and Zn. (author)

  14. Safety and side effects of cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent.

    Bergamaschi, Mateus Machado; Queiroz, Regina Helena Costa; Zuardi, Antonio Waldo; Crippa, José Alexandre S

    2011-09-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD), a major nonpsychotropic constituent of Cannabis, has multiple pharmacological actions, including anxiolytic, antipsychotic, antiemetic and anti-inflammatory properties. However, little is known about its safety and side effect profile in animals and humans. This review describes in vivo and in vitro reports of CBD administration across a wide range of concentrations, based on reports retrieved from Web of Science, Scielo and Medline. The keywords searched were "cannabinoids", "cannabidiol" and "side effects". Several studies suggest that CBD is non-toxic in non-transformed cells and does not induce changes on food intake, does not induce catalepsy, does not affect physiological parameters (heart rate, blood pressure and body temperature), does not affect gastrointestinal transit and does not alter psychomotor or psychological functions. Also, chronic use and high doses up to 1,500 mg/day of CBD are reportedly well tolerated in humans. Conversely, some studies reported that this cannabinoid can induce some side effects, including inhibition of hepatic drug metabolism, alterations of in vitro cell viability, decreased fertilization capacity, and decreased activities of p-glycoprotein and other drug transporters. Based on recent advances in cannabinoid administration in humans, controlled CBD may be safe in humans and animals. However, further studies are needed to clarify these reported in vitro and in vivo side effects.

  15. Antioxidant activities of ginger extract and its constituents toward lipids.

    Si, Wenhui; Chen, Yan Ping; Zhang, Jianhao; Chen, Zhen-Yu; Chung, Hau Yin

    2018-01-15

    Lipid oxidation-a major cause of food product deterioration-necessitates the use of food additives to inhibit food oxidation. Ginger extract (GE) has been reported to possess antioxidant properties. However, components isolated from ginger have been rarely reported to inhibit fat oxidation. Herein, antioxidant properties of GE and four pure components derived from it (6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, 10-gingerol, and 6-shogaol) were examined and their properties were compared to those of butylated hydroxytoluene. GE and the constituent components exhibited antioxidant properties that might be attributed to their hydroxyl groups and suitable solubilizing side chains. 6-Shogaol and 10-gingerol exhibited higher activity at 60°C than 6-gingerol and 8-gingerol. Low antioxidant activity was detected at high temperatures (120/180°C). Overall, GE displayed the strongest dose-dependent antioxidant properties, especially at high temperatures, thereby demonstrating that GE can be employed as a natural antioxidant in lipid-containing processed foods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Waste management, waste resource facilities and waste conversion processes

    Demirbas, Ayhan

    2011-01-01

    In this study, waste management concept, waste management system, biomass and bio-waste resources, waste classification, and waste management methods have been reviewed. Waste management is the collection, transport, processing, recycling or disposal, and monitoring of waste materials. A typical waste management system comprises collection, transportation, pre-treatment, processing, and final abatement of residues. The waste management system consists of the whole set of activities related to handling, treating, disposing or recycling the waste materials. General classification of wastes is difficult. Some of the most common sources of wastes are as follows: domestic wastes, commercial wastes, ashes, animal wastes, biomedical wastes, construction wastes, industrial solid wastes, sewer, biodegradable wastes, non-biodegradable wastes, and hazardous wastes.

  17. Status Of The Development Of In-Tank/At-Tank Separations Technologies For High-Level Waste Processing For The U.S. Department Of Energy

    Aaron, G.; Wilmarth, B.

    2011-01-01

    Within the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Technology Innovation and Development, the Office of Waste Processing manages a research and development program related to the treatment and disposition of radioactive waste. At the Savannah River (South Carolina) and Hanford (Washington) Sites, approximately 90 million gallons of waste are distributed among 226 storage tanks (grouped or collocated in 'tank farms'). This waste may be considered to contain mixed and stratified high activity and low activity constituent waste liquids, salts and sludges that are collectively managed as high level waste (HLW). A large majority of these wastes and associated facilities are unique to the DOE, meaning many of the programs to treat these materials are 'first-of-a-kind' and unprecedented in scope and complexity. As a result, the technologies required to disposition these wastes must be developed from basic principles, or require significant re-engineering to adapt to DOE's specific applications. Of particular interest recently, the development of In-tank or At-Tank separation processes have the potential to treat waste with high returns on financial investment. The primary objective associated with In-Tank or At-Tank separation processes is to accelerate waste processing. Insertion of the technologies will (1) maximize available tank space to efficiently support permanent waste disposition including vitrification; (2) treat problematic waste prior to transfer to the primary processing facilities at either site (i.e., Hanford's Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) or Savannah River's Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF)); and (3) create a parallel treatment process to shorten the overall treatment duration. This paper will review the status of several of the R and D projects being developed by the U.S. DOE including insertion of the ion exchange (IX) technologies, such as Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) at Savannah River. This has the potential to align the

  18. Radiological, physical, and chemical characterization of transuranic wastes stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Apel, M.L.; Becker, G.K.; Ragan, Z.K.; Frasure, J.; Raivo, B.D.; Gale, L.G.; Pace, D.P.

    1994-03-01

    This document provides radiological, physical and chemical characterization data for transuranic radioactive wastes and transuranic radioactive and hazardous (i.e., mixed) wastes stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and considered for treatment under the Private Sector Participation Initiative Program (PSPI). Waste characterization data are provided in the form of INEL Waste Profile Sheets. These documents provide, for each content code, information on waste identification, waste description, waste storage configuration, physical/chemical waste composition, radionuclide and associated alpha activity waste characterization data, and hazardous constituents present in the waste. Information is provided for 139 waste streams which represent an estimated total volume of 39,380 3 corresponding to a total mass of approximately 19,000,000 kg. In addition, considerable information concerning alpha, beta, gamma, and neutron source term data specific to Rocky Flats Plant generated waste forms stored at the INEL are provided to assist in facility design specification

  19. Environmental assessment, finding of no significant impact, and response to comments. Radioactive waste storage

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (the Site), formerly known as the Rocky Flats Plant, has generated radioactive, hazardous, and mixed waste (waste with both radioactive and hazardous constituents) since it began operations in 1952. Such wastes were the byproducts of the Site`s original mission to produce nuclear weapons components. Since 1989, when weapons component production ceased, waste has been generated as a result of the Site`s new mission of environmental restoration and deactivation, decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of buildings. It is anticipated that the existing onsite waste storage capacity, which meets the criteria for low-level waste (LL), low-level mixed waste (LLM), transuranic (TRU) waste, and TRU mixed waste (TRUM) would be completely filled in early 1997. At that time, either waste generating activities must cease, waste must be shipped offsite, or new waste storage capacity must be developed.

  20. Environmental assessment, finding of no significant impact, and response to comments. Radioactive waste storage

    1996-04-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (the Site), formerly known as the Rocky Flats Plant, has generated radioactive, hazardous, and mixed waste (waste with both radioactive and hazardous constituents) since it began operations in 1952. Such wastes were the byproducts of the Site's original mission to produce nuclear weapons components. Since 1989, when weapons component production ceased, waste has been generated as a result of the Site's new mission of environmental restoration and deactivation, decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) of buildings. It is anticipated that the existing onsite waste storage capacity, which meets the criteria for low-level waste (LL), low-level mixed waste (LLM), transuranic (TRU) waste, and TRU mixed waste (TRUM) would be completely filled in early 1997. At that time, either waste generating activities must cease, waste must be shipped offsite, or new waste storage capacity must be developed

  1. Observation of Atmospheric Constituents From Space

    Burrows, J. P.

    Remote sensing of the atmosphere from space is a growing research field. Surprisingly but for good physical reasons, the mesosphere and stratosphere are easier to probe from space than the troposphere. GOME (Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment) and SCIAMACHY (Scanning Imaging absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY) are related European instruments, which were proposed and been designed to measure atmospheric constituents (gases, aerosols and clouds) by passive remote sensing of the up-welling solar radiation leaving atmosphere. GOME is a smaller version of SCIAMACHY and was launched as part of the core payload of the second European research satellite (ERS-2) on the 20th April 1995. GOME comprises four spectral channels and measures simultaneously the earthshine radiance or solar extra terrestrial irradiance between 240 and 790 nm. Inversion of GOME measurements using the DOAS (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy) yields the total column of trace gases (e.g. O3, NO2, HCHO, BrO and OClO). Application of the FURM (Full Retrieval Method) enables the profiles of O3 to be retrieved. One of the important achievements of GOME has been the separation of tropopsheirc columns of trace gases using TEM (Tropospheric Excess Method). SCIAMACHY has been developed as Germa n, Dutch and Belgian contribution to ENVISAT. It has significantly enhanced capability compared to GOME, measuring a larger spectral range, 220-2380 nm, and observing in alternate nadir and limb modes as well as solar and lunar occultation. ENVISAT is to be launched into a sun synchronous polar orbit, having an equator crossing time of 10.00 a.m. at the beginning of March 2002. SCIAMACHY is thereby able to measure many more species and vertical profiles than GOME. This facilitates improved tropospheric retrievals. Finally GeoTROPE (Geostationary TROPospheric Explorer) is a new mission, which is proposed for launch within the ESA Earth Explorer Opportunity Mission. It comprises two national

  2. Residential Waste

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde; Matsufuji, Y.

    2011-01-01

    are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing residential waste is faced with the problem that many residences already divert some waste away from the official collection systems, for example performing home composting of vegetable waste and garden waste, having their bundled newspaper picked up by the scouts...... twice a year or bringing their used furniture to the flea markets organized by charity clubs. Thus, much of the data available on residential waste represents collected waste and not necessarily all generated waste. The latter can only be characterized by careful studies directly at the source......, but such studies are very expensive if fair representation of both spatial and temporal variations should be obtained. In addition, onsite studies may affect the waste generation in the residence because of the increased focus on the issue. Residential waste is defined in different ways in different countries...

  3. Updated Liquid Secondary Waste Grout Formulation and Preliminary Waste Form Qualification

    Saslow, Sarah A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Um, Wooyong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Russell, Renee L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Guohui [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Asmussen, Robert M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sahajpal, Rahul [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-07-01

    This report describes the results from liquid secondary waste grout (LSWG) formulation and cementitious waste form qualification tests performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS). New formulations for preparing a cementitious waste form from a high-sulfate liquid secondary waste stream simulant, developed for Effluent Management Facility (EMF) process condensates merged with low activity waste (LAW) caustic scrubber, and the release of key constituents (e.g. 99Tc and 129I) from these monoliths were evaluated. This work supports a technology development program to address the technology needs for Hanford Site Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) liquid secondary waste (LSW) solidification and supports future Direct Feed Low-Activity Waste (DFLAW) operations. High-priority activities included simulant development, LSWG formulation, and waste form qualification. The work contained within this report relates to waste form development and testing and does not directly support the 2017 integrated disposal facility (IDF) performance assessment (PA). However, this work contains valuable information for use in PA maintenance past FY17, and for future waste form development efforts. The provided data should be used by (i) cementitious waste form scientists to further understanding of cementitious dissolution behavior, (ii) IDF PA modelers who use quantified constituent leachability, effective diffusivity, and partitioning coefficients to advance PA modeling efforts, and (iii) the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) contractors and decision makers as they assess the IDF PA program. The results obtained help fill existing data gaps, support final selection of a LSWG waste form, and improve the technical defensibility of long-term waste form performance estimates.

  4. Influence of waste solid on nuclide dispersal

    Seitz, M.G.; Steindler, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    The method most often considered for permanent disposal of radioactive waste is to incorporate the waste into a solid, which is then placed in a geologic formation. The solid is made of waste and nonradioactive additives, with the formulation selected to produce a durable solid that will minimize the potential for dispersal of the radionuclides. Leach rates of radionuclides incorporated in the solid waste indicate the quantity of radioactivity available for dispersal at any time; but leach rates of stable constituents can be just as important to radionuclide dispersal by groundwater. The constituents of the solid will perturb the chemical character of the groundwater and, thereby, profoundly affect the interaction of radionuclides with the geologic medium. An explicit example of how the solid waste can affect radionuclide dispersal is illustrated by the results of experiments that measure cesium adsorption in the presence of rubidium. The experiments were performed with granulated oolitic limestone that absorbed cesium from groundwater solutions to which various concentrations of stable rubidium chloride had been added. The results are expressed as partition coefficients. Large coefficients indicate strong adsorption by the rock and, hence, slow migration. The partition coefficient for cesium decreases as the rubidium concentration in solution is increased. Because the coeficient for cesium depends on the amount of rubidium in solution, it will depend on the leach rate of rubidium from the solid. Rubidium has no radionuclides of concern for long-term isolation of nuclear waste, so its leach rate from a waste solid is rarely ever reported

  5. Mining wastes

    Pradel, J.

    1981-01-01

    In this article mining wastes means wastes obtained during extraction and processing of uranium ores including production of uraniferous concentrates. The hazards for the population are irradiation, ingestion, dust or radon inhalation. The different wastes produced are reviewed. Management of liquid effluents, water treatment, contamined materials, gaseous wastes and tailings are examined. Environmental impact of wastes during and after exploitation is discussed. Monitoring and measurements are made to verify that ICRP recommendations are met. Studies in progress to improve mining waste management are given [fr

  6. Attenuation of heavy metal leaching from hazardous wastes by co-disposal of wastes

    Bae, Wookeun; Shin, Eung Bai [Hanyang Univ., Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kil Chul; Kim, Jae Hyung [National Institute of Environmental Research, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The potential hazard of landfill wastes was previously evaluated by examining the extraction procedures for individual waste, although various wastes were co-disposed of in actual landfills. This paper investigates the reduction of extraction-procedure toxicity by co-disposing various combinations of two wastes. When two wastes are mixed homogeneously, the extraction of heavy metals from the waste mixture is critically affected by the extract pH. Thus, co-disposal wastes will have a resultant pH between the pH values of its constituent. The lower the resultant pH, the lower the concentrations of heavy metals in the extract. When these wastes are extracted sequentially, the latter extracted waste has a stronger influence on the final concentration of heavy metals in the extract. Small-scale lysimeter experiments confirm that when heavy-metal-bearing leachates Generated from hazardous-waste lysimeters are passed through a nonhazardous-waste lysimeter filled with compost, briquette ash, or refuse-incineration ashes, the heavy-metal concentration in the final leachates decreases significantly. Thus, the heavy-metal leaching could be attenuated if a less extraction-procedure-toxic waste were placed at the bottom of a landfill. 3 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Constituent-level pile-up mitigation techniques in ATLAS

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Pile-up of simultaneous proton-proton collisions at the LHC has a significant impact on jet reconstruction. In this note the performance of several pile-up mitigation techniques is evaluated in detailed simulations of the ATLAS experiment. Four algorithms that act on the jet-constituent level are evaluated: SoftKiller, the cluster vertex fraction algorithm and Voronoi and constituent subtraction. We find that application of these constituent-level algorithms improves the resolution of low-transverse-momentum jets. The improvement is significant for collisions with 80-200 simultaneous proton-proton collisions envisaged in future runs of the LHC.

  8. Liquid Secondary Waste Grout Formulation and Waste Form Qualification

    Um, Wooyong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Williams, B. D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Snyder, Michelle M. V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Guohui [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-05-23

    This report describes the results from liquid secondary waste (LSW) grout formulation and waste form qualification tests performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to evaluate new formulations for preparing a grout waste form with high-sulfate secondary waste simulants and the release of key constituents from these grout monoliths. Specific objectives of the LSW grout formulation and waste form qualification tests described in this report focused on five activities: 1.preparing new formulations for the LSW grout waste form with high-sulfate LSW simulants and solid characterization of the cured LSW grout waste form; 2.conducting the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 1313 leach test (EPA 2012) on the grout prepared with the new formulations, which solidify sulfate-rich Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) off-gas condensate secondary waste simulant, using deionized water (DIW); 3.conducting the EPA Method 1315 leach tests (EPA 2013) on the grout monoliths made with the new dry blend formulations and three LSW simulants (242-A evaporator condensate, Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) leachate, and WTP off-gas condensate) using two leachants, DIW and simulated Hanford Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) Site vadose zone pore water (VZPW); 4.estimating the 99Tc desorption Kd (distribution coefficient) values for 99Tc transport in oxidizing conditions to support the IDF performance assessment (PA); 5.estimating the solubility of 99Tc(IV)-bearing solid phases for 99Tc transport in reducing conditions to support the IDF PA.

  9. Solid Waste Management in Jordan

    Aljaradin, Mohammad; Persson, Kenneth M

    2014-01-01

    Solid waste became one of the major environmental problems in Jordan, which has been aggravated over the past 15 years by the sharp increase in the volume of waste generated as well as qualitative changes in its composition. The challenges face solid waste management (SWM) in Jordan are numerous. Financial constraints, shortage of proper equipment and limited availability of trained and skilled manpower together with massive and sudden population increases due to several waves of forced mi...

  10. Solid Waste Management in Jordan

    Mohammad Aljaradin

    2014-01-01

    Solid waste became one of the major environmental problems in Jordan, which has been aggravated over the past 15 years by the sharp increase in the volume of waste generated as well as qualitative changes in its composition. The challenges face solid waste management (SWM) in Jordan are numerous. Financial constraints, shortage of proper equipment and limited availability of trained and skilled manpower together with massive and sudden population increases due to several waves of forced migra...

  11. Radioactive waste management - v. 2

    1987-01-01

    In this second part, the program of waste management of non-military origin of the following countries: USA, United Kingdom, France, Canada, Federal Republic of Germany, and Japan, is presented. For each country, a brief overview on its nuclear program, to identify the reason of the major emphasis done by this country for a specific waste management, is presented. The legislation control, the classification, the treatment and, the options for waste disposal are also presented. (M.C.K.) [pt

  12. The root barks of Morus alba and the flavonoid constituents inhibit airway inflammation.

    Lim, Hun Jai; Jin, Hong-Guang; Woo, Eun-Rhan; Lee, Sang Kook; Kim, Hyun Pyo

    2013-08-26

    The root barks of Morus alba have been used in traditional medicine as an anti-inflammatory drug, especially for treating lung inflammatory disorders. To find new alternative agents against airway inflammation and to establish the scientific rationale of the herbal medicine in clinical use, the root barks of Morus alba and its flavonoid constituents were examined for the first time for their pharmacological activity against lung inflammation. For in vivo evaluation, an animal model of lipopolysaccharide-induced airway inflammation in mice was used. An inhibitory action against the production of proinflammatory molecules in lung epithelial cells and lung macrophages was examined. Against lipopolysaccharide-induced airway inflammation, the ethanol extract of the root barks of Morus alba clearly inhibited bronchitis-like symptoms, as determined by TNF-α production, inflammatory cells infiltration and histological observation at 200-400mg/kg/day by oral administration. In addition, Morus alba and their major flavonoid constituents including kuwanone E, kuwanone G and norartocarpanone significantly inhibited IL-6 production in lung epithelial cells (A549) and NO production in lung macrophages (MH-S). Taken together, it is concluded that Morus alba and the major prenylated flavonoid constituents have a potential for new agents to control lung inflammation including bronchitis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Waste management

    Bruun Hansen, Karsten; Jamison, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    The case study deals with public accountability issues connected to household waste management in the municipality of Copenhagen, Denmark.......The case study deals with public accountability issues connected to household waste management in the municipality of Copenhagen, Denmark....

  14. Metabolism by grasshoppers of volatile chemical constituents from Mangifera indica and Solanum paniculatum leaves.

    Ramos, Clécio S; Ramos, Natália S M; Da Silva, Rodolfo R; Da Câmara, Cláudio A G; Almeida, Argus V

    2012-12-01

    The chemical volatiles from plant leaves and their biological activities have been extensively studied. However, no studies have addressed plant-chemical volatiles after undergoing the digestive process in host insects. Here we describe for the first time chemical profiles of volatile constituents from Solanum paniculatum and Mangifera indica leaves metabolized by grasshoppers. Both profiles were qualitatively and quantitatively different from the profiles of non-metabolized leaves. The amount of nerolidol, the major constituent of S. paniculatum leaves, decreased and other sesquiterpenes, such as spathulenol, were formed during the digestive process of the grasshopper Chromacris speciosa. In M. indica, the presence of phenylpropanoids was observed (dillapiole, Z-asarone, E-asarone and γ-asarone) in the leaves metabolized by the grasshopper Tropidacris collaris, but these compounds were not found in the non-metabolized leaves. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Chemical constituents of Capraria biflora (Scrophulariaceae) and larvicidal activity of essential oil

    Souza, Luciana Gregorio da S.; Almeida, Macia Cleane S.; Monte, Francisco Jose Q.; Santiago, Gilvandete Maria P.; Braz-Filho, Raimundo; Lemos, Telma Leda G.; Gomes, Clerton L.; Nascimento, Ronaldo F. do

    2012-01-01

    . Analysis of essential oil from fresh leaves of Capraria biflora allowed identification of fourteen essential oil constituents among which thirteen are sesquiterpene compounds, and α-humulene (43.0%) the major constituent. The essential oil was tested for larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypyti showing good activity, with LC 50 73.39 μg/mL (2.27 g/mL). Chromatographic studies of extracts from roots and stems allowed the isolation of five compounds: naphthoquinone biflorin, sesquiterpene caprariolide B, the steroid β-sitosterol, the carbohydrate D-mannitol and iridoid myopochlorin first reported in the species C. biflora. The structures of compounds were characterized by spectroscopic data, IR, MS, NMR 13 C, NMR 1 H, NOE, HSQC and HMBC. (author)

  16. Volatile Constituents of Valeriana hardwickii Wall. Root Oil from Arunachal Pradesh, Eastern Himalaya

    Jayashankar Das

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The composition of the essential oil extracted from Valeriana hardwickii Wall. roots growing wild in Talle Valley of Arunachal Pradesh, Eastern Himalaya was analyzed by capillary GC and GC/MS. Thirty-one compounds representing 89.6% of the total oil were identified. The oil was found to be rich in sesquiterpenes from which oxygenated sesquiterpenes (25.7%. Methyl linoleate (21.1% and Valeracetate (11.6% were the major constituents present in the oil. Whereas, Bornyl acetate (11.2% and α-Terpinyl acetate (4.7% were the only oxygenated monoterpenes identified in the investigated sample. Essential oil and its constituents of V. hardwickii may be used as the substitute of highly traded Indian Valerian (V. jatamansi and European V. officinalis.

  17. The evaluation of an analytical protocol for the determination of substances in waste for hazard classification.

    Hennebert, Pierre; Papin, Arnaud; Padox, Jean-Marie; Hasebrouck, Benoît

    2013-07-01

    The classification of waste as hazardous could soon be assessed in Europe using largely the hazard properties of its constituents, according to the the Classification, Labelling and Packaging (CLP) regulation. Comprehensive knowledge of the component constituents of a given waste will therefore be necessary. An analytical protocol for determining waste composition is proposed, which includes using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) screening methods to identify major elements and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) screening techniques to measure organic compounds. The method includes a gross or indicator measure of 'pools' of higher molecular weight organic substances that are taken to be less bioactive and less hazardous, and of unresolved 'mass' during the chromatography of volatile and semi-volatile compounds. The concentration of some elements and specific compounds that are linked to specific hazard properties and are subject to specific regulation (examples include: heavy metals, chromium(VI), cyanides, organo-halogens, and PCBs) are determined by classical quantitative analysis. To check the consistency of the analysis, the sum of the concentrations (including unresolved 'pools') should give a mass balance between 90% and 110%. Thirty-two laboratory samples comprising different industrial wastes (liquids and solids) were tested by two routine service laboratories, to give circa 7000 parameter results. Despite discrepancies in some parameters, a satisfactory sum of estimated or measured concentrations (analytical balance) of 90% was reached for 20 samples (63% of the overall total) during this first test exercise, with identified reasons for most of the unsatisfactory results. Regular use of this protocol (which is now included in the French legislation) has enabled service laboratories to reach a 90% mass balance for nearly all the solid samples tested, and most of liquid samples (difficulties were caused in some samples from polymers in solution and

  18. Analysis of chemical constituents in medicinal plants of selected ...

    Analysis of chemical constituents in medicinal plants of selected districts of Pakhtoonkhwa, Pakistan. I Hussain, R Ullah, J Khan, N Khan, M Zahoor, N Ullah, MuR Khattak, FA Khan, A Baseer, M Khurram ...

  19. hispidulin and other constituents of scoparia dulcis linn

    Administrator

    HIV. INTRODUCTION. Scoparia dulcis Linn. (Scrophulariaceae) has been extensively studied for its flavone and terpene constituents (Ahmed et al., 1990, Ah- san et al., 2003, Chen et al., 1976, Hayashi et al., 1987, 1987b, 1988, 1990, 1991, ...

  20. anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities: chemical constituents of ...

    a

    *Corresponding author. E-mail: bedisag@yahoo.fr. ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ANALGESIC ACTIVITIES: CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF ESSENTIAL OILS OF OCIMUM GRATISSIMUM,. EUCALYPTUS CITRIODORA AND CYMBOPOGON GIGANTEUS INHIBITED. LIPOXYGENASE L-1 AND CYCLOOXYGENASE OF ...

  1. Volatile constituents from Samanae saman (Jacq.) Merr. Fabaceae

    AJB SERVER

    2006-10-16

    Oct 16, 2006 ... Key words: Samanae saman, Fabaceae, volatile oil, fatty acids, terpenoids, palmitic acid, 1,8-cineole. .... Gas chromatography – mass spectrometry analyses (GC/MS) ... this study, is an important constituent of most vegetable.

  2. Tabanone a new phytotoxic constituent of cogongrass (Imperta culindrica)

    Cogongrass [Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.] is a troublesome invasive weedy species with reported allelopathic properties. The phytotoxicity of different constituents isolated from roots and aerial parts of this species was evaluated on Lactuca sativa and Agrostis stolonifera. No significant phytot...

  3. Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids: Testing for Toxic Constituents of Comfrey.

    Vollmer, John J.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the possibilities of toxins present in medicinal herbs. Describes an experiment in which toxic constituents can be selectively detected by thin-layer chromatography and NMR spectroscopy. (TW)

  4. Do quarks play an explicit role as nuclear constituents ?

    Yamazaki, Toshimitsu.

    1986-10-01

    Experimental signatures for explicit roles of quarks as nuclear constituents are looked for. It is stressed that hyperons in nuclei may reveal unique information on nuclear interior and possible quark deconfinement. Future directions of hypernuclear spectroscopy are discussed. (author)

  5. Radioactive wastes

    Devarakonda, M.S.; Melvin, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper is part of the Annual Literature Review issue of Water Environment Research. The review attempts to provide a concise summary of important water-related environmental science and engineering literature of the past year, of which 40 separate topics are discussed. On the topic of radioactive wastes, the present paper deals with the following aspects: national programs; waste repositories; mixed wastes; waste processing and decommissioning; environmental occurrence and transport of radionuclides; and remedial actions and treatment. 178 refs

  6. Waste disposal

    Neerdael, B.; Marivoet, J.; Put, M.; Verstricht, J.; Van Iseghem, P.; Buyens, M.

    1998-01-01

    The primary mission of the Waste Disposal programme at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN is to propose, develop, and assess solutions for the safe disposal of radioactive waste. In Belgium, deep geological burial in clay is the primary option for the disposal of High-Level Waste and spent nuclear fuel. The main achievements during 1997 in the following domains are described: performance assessment, characterization of the geosphere, characterization of the waste, migration processes, underground infrastructure

  7. Waste incineration

    Rumplmayr, A.; Sammer, G.

    2001-01-01

    Waste incineration can be defined as the thermal conversion processing of solid waste by chemical oxidation. The types of wastes range from solid household waste and infectious hospital waste through to toxic solid, liquid and gaseous chemical wastes. End products include hot incineration gases, composed primarily of nitrogen, carbon dioxide, water vapor and to a smaller extend of non-combustible residue (ash) and air pollutants (e. g. NO x ). Energy can be recovered by heat exchange from the hot incineration gases, thus lowering fossil fuel consumption that in turn can reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. Burning of solid waste can fulfil up to four distinctive objectives (Pera, 2000): 1. Volume reduction: volume reduction of about 90 %, weight reduction of about 70 %; 2. Stabilization of waste: oxidation of organic input; 3. Recovery of energy from waste; 4. Sanitization of waste: destruction of pathogens. Waste incineration is not a means to make waste disappear. It does entail emissions into air as well as water and soil. The generated solid residues are the topic of this task force. Unlike other industrial processes discussed in this platform, waste incineration is not a production process, and is therefore not generating by-products, only residues. Residues that are isolated from e. g. flue gas, are concentrated in another place and form (e. g. air pollution control residues). Hence, there are generally two groups of residues that have to be taken into consideration: residues generated in the actual incineration process and others generated in the flue gas cleaning system. Should waste incineration finally gain public acceptance, it will be necessary to find consistent regulations for both sorts of residues. In some countries waste incineration is seen as the best option for the treatment of waste, whereas in other countries it is seen very negative. (author)

  8. Radioactive waste management

    1982-07-01

    In response to the Sixth Report of the Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution, a White Paper was published in 1977, announcing a number of steps to deal with the problems presented by wastes from the nuclear industry and setting out the position of the then government. The present White paper is in four sections. i. A brief description of the nature of radioactive wastes, and the general objectives of waste management. ii. What has been achieved, the role of the Radioactive Waste Management Advisory Committee, the expansion of research, and the conclusions from the review of existing controls. iii. The present position for each major category of waste, including relevant current action and research, transport and decommissioning. iv. The next steps. Research and development must continue; shallow land burial and the carefully controlled disposal of certain wastes to the sea will continue to play a role; and, for some wastes, new disposal facilities are needed at an early date. For others, the appropriate course of action at the moment is properly controlled storage. New developments are also required in organisation. Throughout, the public must be kept fully informed about what is being done, and there must be proper scope for public discussion. (U.K.)

  9. Waste management safety

    Boehm, H.

    1983-01-01

    All studies carried out by competent authors of the safety of a waste management concept on the basis of reprocessing of the spent fuel elements and storage in the deep underground of the radioactive waste show that only a minor technical risk is involved in this step. This also holds true when evaluating the accidents which have occurred in waste management facilities. To explain the risk, first the completely different safety aspects of nuclear power plants, reprocessing plants and repositories are outlined together with the safety related characteristics of these plants. Also this comparison indicates that the risk of waste management facilities is considerably lower than the, already very small, risk of nuclear power plants. For the final storage of waste from reprocessing and for the direct storage of fuel elements, the results of safety analyses show that the radiological exposure following an accident with radioactivity releases, even under conservative assumptions, is considerably below the natural radiation exposure. The very small danger to the environment arising from waste management by reprocessing clearly indicates that aspects of technical safety alone will hardly be a major criterion for the decision in favor of one or the other waste management approach. (orig.) [de

  10. Urban Waste Grease Resource Assessment

    Wiltsee, G.

    1999-03-17

    This study collected and analyzed data on urban waste grease resources in 30 randomly selected metropolitan areas in the United States. Two major categories (yellow grease feedstock collected from restaurants by rendering companies; and grease trap wastes from restaurants, which can either be pumped into tank trucks for disposal or flow through municipal sewage systems into wastewater treatment plants) were considered in this study.

  11. Chemistry and melting characteristics of fireside deposits taken from boiler tubes in waste incinerators

    Otsuka, Nobuo

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We examine tube deposits taken from boilers of municipal solid waste incinerators. → Literature survey is done on the corrosion mechanism of tube steels. → Chemical analyses, X-ray diffraction, DSC, and corrosion test were conducted. → Melting behavior of salt constituents affected the corrosiveness of the deposits. - Abstract: Twenty-three tube deposits taken from seven heat-recovery boilers of municipal solid waste incinerators were examined by chemical analyses and X-ray diffraction. These deposits were measured by Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) in N 2 to investigate their melting characteristics. Sixteen deposits were used to evaluate their corrosiveness to carbon steel by high-temperature corrosion test conducted at 400 o C for 20 h in 1500 ppm HCl - 300 ppm SO 2 - 7.5%O 2 - 7.5%CO 2 - 20%H 2 O - N 2 . Total heat of endothermic reactions of the deposits taking place between 200 and 400 o C can be related to the corrosion rate of carbon steel at 400 o C. Corrosion initiated at temperatures when the deposits started to melt, became severe when fused salt constituents increased, and alleviated when the majority of the deposits became fused. The corrosion can be interpreted as fused salt corrosion caused by chloride and sulfate salts.

  12. Waste form development

    Neilson, R.M. Jr.; Colombo, P.

    1982-01-01

    In this program, contemporary solidification agents are being investigated relative to their applications to major fuel cycle and non-fuel cycle low-level waste (LLW) streams. Work is being conducted to determine the range of conditions under which these solidification agents can be applied to specific LLW streams. These studies are directed primarily towards defining operating parameters for both improved solidification of problem wastes and solidification of new LLW streams generated from advanced volume reduction technologies. Work is being conducted to measure relevant waste form properties. These data will be compiled and evaluated to demonstrate compliance with waste form performance and shallow land burial acceptance criteria and transportation requirements (both as they exist and as they are modified with time). 6 tables

  13. ORNL radioactive waste operations

    Sease, J.D.; King, E.M.; Coobs, J.H.; Row, T.H.

    1982-01-01

    Since its beginning in 1943, ORNL has generated large amounts of solid, liquid, and gaseous radioactive waste material as a by-product of the basic research and development work carried out at the laboratory. The waste system at ORNL has been continually modified and updated to keep pace with the changing release requirements for radioactive wastes. Major upgrading projects are currently in progress. The operating record of ORNL waste operation has been excellent over many years. Recent surveillance of radioactivity in the Oak Ridge environs indicates that atmospheric concentrations of radioactivity were not significantly different from other areas in East Tennesseee. Concentrations of radioactivity in the Clinch River and in fish collected from the river were less than 4% of the permissible concentration and intake guides for individuals in the offsite environment. While some radioactivity was released to the environment from plant operations, the concentrations in all of the media sampled were well below established standards

  14. [Studies on the chemical constituents of Buddleja albiflora (II)].

    Zhang, Hai-Ping; Tao, Liang

    2010-06-01

    To study the chemical constituents of Buddleja albiflora. The constituents were isolated by column chromatography and their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses. seven compounds were isolated and identified as aucubin (1), catalpol (2), acteoside (3), martynoside (4), ursolicacid (5), daucosterol (6), beta-sitosterol-3-0-beta-D-(6'-0-palmitate) glucopyranosisde (7). All these compounds are obtained from Buddleja albiflora for the first time.

  15. [Studies on the chemical constituents of Portulaca oleracea].

    Liu, Ce-jia; Liu, Dian-yu; Xiang, Lan; Zhou, Wen; Shao, Ning-ning

    2009-11-01

    To study the chemical constituents of Portulaca oleracea. The constituents were isolated by column chromatography and identified on the basis of physicochemical and spectral data. Five compounds were isolated from 70% ethanol extract of this plant and their structures were elucidated as cyclo (Phe-Ile) (1), cycle (Tyr-Ala) (2), adenine (3), friedelin (4) and isoselachoceric acid (5). Compounds 1-5 are isolated from Portulaca oleracea for the first time.

  16. Products of Irreducible Characters Having Complex-Valued Constituents

    Lisa R. Hendrixson

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available First, we prove that when a finite solvable group $G$ has a faithful irreducible character $\\chi$ such that $\\chi\\overline{\\chi}$ has two irreducible constituents, both must be real-valued. Then, we study the situation where $\\chi\\overline{\\chi}$ has exactly three distinct nonprincipal irreducible constituents, two of which are complex conjugates. In this case, we prove that $G$ has derived length bounded above by $6$.

  17. Chemical constituents and anticancer effects of the essential oil from leaves of Xylopia laevigata.

    Quintans, Jullyana de S S; Soares, Bruno M; Ferraz, Rosana P C; Oliveira, Allan C A; da Silva, Thanany B; Menezes, Leociley R A; Sampaio, Marília F C; Prata, Ana Paula do N; Moraes, Manoel O; Pessoa, Claudia; Antoniolli, Angelo R; Costa, Emmanoel V; Bezerra, Daniel P

    2013-01-01

    Xylopia laevigata, popularly known as "meiú" and "pindaíba", is a medicinal plant used in the folk medicine of the Brazilian Northeast for several purposes. The chemical constituents of the essential oil from leaves of X. laevigata, collected from wild plants growing at three different sites of the remaining Atlantic forest in Sergipe State (Brazilian Northeast), were analyzed by GC/FID and GC/MS. The effect of the essential oil samples was assessed on tumor cells in culture, as well on tumor growth in vivo. All samples of the essential oil were dominated by sesquiterpene constituents. A total of 44 compounds were identified and quantified. Although some small differences were observed in the chemical composition, the presence of γ-muurolene (0.60-17.99%), δ-cadinene (1.15-13.45%), germacrene B (3.22-7.31%), α-copaene (3.33-5.98%), germacrene D (9.09-60.44%), bicyclogermacrene (7.00-14.63%), and (E)-caryophyllene (5.43-7.98%) were verified as major constituents in all samples of the essential oil. In the in vitro cytotoxic study, the essential oil displayed cytotoxicity to all tumor cell lines tested, with the different samples displaying a similar profile; however, they were not hemolytic or genotoxic. In the in vivo antitumor study, tumor growth inhibition rates were 37.3-42.5%. The treatment with the essential oil did not significantly affect body weight, macroscopy of the organs, or blood leukocyte counts. In conclusion, the essential oil from the leaves of X. laevigata is chemically characterized by the presence of γ-muurolene, δ-cadinene, germacrene B, α-copaene, germacrene D, bicyclogermacrene, and (E)-caryophyllene as major constituents and possesses significant in vitro and in vivo anticancer potential. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Radioactive Waste.

    Blaylock, B. G.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of radioactive waste disposal, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the studies included are: (1) high-level and long-lived wastes, and (2) release and burial of low-level wastes. A list of 42 references is also presented. (HM)

  19. Hazardous Waste

    ... chemicals can still harm human health and the environment. When you throw these substances away, they become hazardous waste. Some hazardous wastes come from products in our homes. Our garbage can include such hazardous wastes as old batteries, bug spray cans and paint thinner. U.S. residents ...

  20. Waste treatment

    Hutson, G.V.

    1996-01-01

    Numerous types of waste are produced by the nuclear industry ranging from high-level radioactive and heat-generating, HLW, to very low-level, LLW and usually very bulky wastes. These may be in solid, liquid or gaseous phases and require different treatments. Waste management practices have evolved within commercial and environmental constraints resulting in considerable reduction in discharges. (UK)

  1. Nuclear wastes

    2004-01-01

    Here is made a general survey of the situation relative to radioactive wastes. The different kinds of radioactive wastes and the different way to store them are detailed. A comparative evaluation of the situation in France and in the world is made. The case of transport of radioactive wastes is tackled. (N.C.)

  2. Radioactive wastes

    Teillac, J.

    1988-01-01

    This study of general interest is an evaluation of the safety of radioactive waste management and consequently the preservation of the environment for the protection of man against ionizing radiations. The following topics were developed: radiation effects on man; radioactive waste inventory; radioactive waste processing, disposal and storage; the present state and future prospects [fr

  3. Processing and certification of defense transuranic waste at the INEL

    Clements, T.L. Jr.; Cargo, C.H.; McKinley, K.B.; Smith, T.H.; Anderson, B.C.

    1984-01-01

    Since 1970, defense-generated transuranic waste has been placed into 20-year retrievable storage at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). A major objective of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Nuclear Waste Management Program is to remove all retrievably stored transuranic waste form the INEL. To support this objective, the Stored Waste Examination Pilot Plant (SWEPP) and the Process Experimental Pilot Plant (PREPP) are currently being constructed. SWEPP will certify waste, using nondestructive examination techniques, for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). PREPP will process uncertifiable waste into a certifiable waste form. 3 references

  4. Compilation of data to estimate groundwater migration potential for constituents in active liquid discharges at the Hanford Site

    Ames, L.L.; Serne, R.J.

    1991-03-01

    A preliminary characterization of the constituents present in the 33 liquid waste streams at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site has been completed by Westinghouse Hanford Company. In addition, Westinghouse Hanford has summarized the soil characteristics based on drill logs collected at each site that receives these liquid wastes. Literature searches were conducted and available Hanford-specific data were tabulated and reviewed. General literature on organic chemicals present in the liquid waste streams was also reviewed. Using all of this information, Pacific Northwest Laboratory has developed a best estimate of the transport characteristics (water solubility and soil adsorption properties) for those radionuclides and inorganic and organic chemicals identified in the various waste streams. We assume that the potential for transport is qualified through the four geochemical parameters: solubility, distribution coefficient, persistence (radiogenic or biochemical half-life), and volatility. Summary tables of these parameters are presented for more than 50 inorganic and radioactive species and more than 50 organic compounds identified in the liquid waste streams. Brief descriptions of the chemical characteristics of Hanford sediments, solubility, and adsorption processes, and of how geochemical parameters are used to estimate migration in groundwater-sediment environments are also presented. Groundwater monitoring data are tabulated for wells neighboring the facilities that receive the liquid wastes. 91 refs., 16 figs., 23 tabs.

  5. Compilation of data to estimate groundwater migration potential for constituents in active liquid discharges at the Hanford Site

    Ames, L.L.; Serne, R.J.

    1991-03-01

    A preliminary characterization of the constituents present in the 33 liquid waste streams at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site has been completed by Westinghouse Hanford Company. In addition, Westinghouse Hanford has summarized the soil characteristics based on drill logs collected at each site that receives these liquid wastes. Literature searches were conducted and available Hanford-specific data were tabulated and reviewed. General literature on organic chemicals present in the liquid waste streams was also reviewed. Using all of this information, Pacific Northwest Laboratory has developed a best estimate of the transport characteristics (water solubility and soil adsorption properties) for those radionuclides and inorganic and organic chemicals identified in the various waste streams. We assume that the potential for transport is qualified through the four geochemical parameters: solubility, distribution coefficient, persistence (radiogenic or biochemical half-life), and volatility. Summary tables of these parameters are presented for more than 50 inorganic and radioactive species and more than 50 organic compounds identified in the liquid waste streams. Brief descriptions of the chemical characteristics of Hanford sediments, solubility, and adsorption processes, and of how geochemical parameters are used to estimate migration in groundwater-sediment environments are also presented. Groundwater monitoring data are tabulated for wells neighboring the facilities that receive the liquid wastes. 91 refs., 16 figs., 23 tabs

  6. Trasax '90: An integrated transportation emergency response exercise program involving transuranic waste shipments

    Kouba, S.; Everitt, J.

    1991-01-01

    Over the last five years, the US Department of Energy (DOE), and several states and numerous local governments have been preparing for the transportation of transuranic (TRU) waste to be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico, near Carlsbad. Seven western states, represented by the Western Governors' Association (WGA), submitted a report to the US Congress that discussed the concerns of their constituents related to the transportation of TRU waste through their communities. One of the three major concerns identified was emergency preparedness. Initial funding to resolve concerns identified in the WGA report to Congress was provided by the US Department of Transportation. Upon receiving funding, lead states were assigned responsibilities to devise programs aimed at increasing public confidence in the areas of most concern. The responsibility for emergency response readiness, as demonstrated through a program of training and responding to simulated accident scenarios, was accepted by the state of Colorado. The state of Colorado laid out an exercise program which expanded upon the DOE training programs already offered to emergency responders along Colorado's designated TRU-waste transportation corridor. The ongoing program included a full-scale field exercise staged in Colorado Springs and dubbed, ''TRANSAX '90.''

  7. Processing constraints on high-level nuclear waste glasses for Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant

    Hrma, P.R.

    1993-09-01

    The work presented in this paper is a part of a major technology program supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in preparation for the planned operation of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP). Because composition of Hanford waste varies greatly, processability is a major concern for successful vitrification. This paper briefly surveys general aspects of waste glass processability and then discusses their ramifications for specific examples of Hanford waste streams

  8. Volatile chemical constituents of Piper aduncum L and Piper gibbilimbum C. DC (Piperaceae) from Papua New Guinea.

    Rali, Topul; Wossa, Stewart W; Leach, David N; Waterman, Peter G

    2007-03-09

    Exhaustive hydro-distillation of the leaves of Piper aduncum and fruits of Piper gibbilimbum (Piperaceae) afforded colorless and pale orange colored oils in 0.35 and 0.30 % yields, respectively. Detailed chemical analysis by GC/MS indicated the volatile constituents of Piper aduncum to be composed of dill apiole (43.3%), beta-caryophyllene (8.2%), piperitione (6.7%) and alpha-humulene (5.1%), whilst the oil of P. gibbilimbum is dominated by the gibbilimbols A-D (74.2%), with the remaining major constituents being the terpenes camphene (13.6%) and alpha-pinene (6.5%).

  9. Volatile Chemical Constituents of Piper aduncum L and Piper gibbilimbum C. DC (Piperaceae from Papua New Guinea

    Peter G Waterman

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Exhaustive hydro-distillation of the leaves of Piper aduncum and fruits of Piper gibbilimbum (Piperaceae afforded colorless and pale orange colored oils in 0.35 and 0.30 % yields, respectively. Detailed chemical analysis by GC/MS indicated the volatile constituents of Piper aduncum to be composed of dill apiole (43.3 %, β-caryophyllene (8.2 %, piperitione (6.7 % and α-humulene (5.1 %, whilst the oil of P. gibbilimbum is dominated by the gibbilimbols A-D (74.2 %, with the remaining major constituents being the terpenes camphene (13.6 % and α-pinene (6.5 %.

  10. Electronic wastes

    Regel-Rosocka, Magdalena

    2018-03-01

    E-waste amount is growing at about 4% annually, and has become the fastest growing waste stream in the industrialized world. Over 50 million tons of e-waste are produced globally each year, and some of them end up in landfills causing danger of toxic chemicals leakage over time. E-waste is also sent to developing countries where informal processing of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) causes serious health and pollution problems. A huge interest in recovery of valuable metals from WEEE is clearly visible in a great number of scientific, popular scientific publications or government and industrial reports.

  11. Energy and solid/hazardous waste

    None

    1981-12-01

    This report addresses the past and potential future solid and hazardous waste impacts from energy development, and summarizes the major environmental, legislation applicable to solid and hazardous waste generation and disposal. A glossary of terms and acronyms used to describe and measure solid waste impacts of energy development is included. (PSB)

  12. Energy and solid/hazardous waste

    1981-12-01

    This report addresses the past and potential future solid and hazardous waste impacts from energy development, and summarizes the major environmental, legislation applicable to solid and hazardous waste generation and disposal. A glossary of terms and acronyms used to describe and measure solid waste impacts of energy development is included

  13. Solid Waste Management in Recreational Forest Areas.

    Spooner, Charles S.

    The Forest Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture, requested the Bureau of Solid Waste Management to conduct a study of National Forest recreation areas to establish waste generation rates for major recreation activities and to determine the cost of solid waste handling for selected Forest Service Districts. This report describes the 1968 solid…

  14. Evaluation of process alternatives for solidification of the West Valley high-level liquid wastes

    Holton, L.K.; Larson, D.E.

    1982-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) established the West Valley Solidification Project (WVSP) in 1980. The project purpose is to demonstrate removal and solidification of the high-level liquid wastes (HLLW) presently stored in tanks at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center (WNYNSC), West Valley, New York. As part of this effort, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted a study to evaluate process alternatives for solidifcation of the WNYNSC wastes. Two process approaches for waste handling before solidification, together with solidification processes for four terminal and four interim waste forms, were considered. The first waste-handling approach, designated the salt/sludge separation process, involves separating the bulk of the nonradioactive nuclear waste constituents from the radioactive waste constituents, and the second waste-handling approach, designated the combined-waste process, involves no waste segregation prior to solidification. The processes were evaluated on the bases of their (1) readiness for plant startup by 1987, (2) relative technical merits, and (3) process cost. The study has shown that, based on these criteria, the salt/sludge separation process with a borosilicate glass waste form is preferred when producing a terminal waste form. It was also concluded that if an interim waste form is to be used, the preferred approach would be the combined waste process with a fused-salt waste form

  15. Preliminary ECLSS waste water model

    Carter, Donald L.; Holder, Donald W., Jr.; Alexander, Kevin; Shaw, R. G.; Hayase, John K.

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary waste water model for input to the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Water Processor (WP) has been generated for design purposes. Data have been compiled from various ECLSS tests and flight sample analyses. A discussion of the characterization of the waste streams comprising the model is presented, along with a discussion of the waste water model and the rationale for the inclusion of contaminants in their respective concentrations. The major objective is to establish a methodology for the development of a waste water model and to present the current state of that model.

  16. Transuranic waste management at Savannah River - past, present, and future

    D'Ambrosia, J.

    1985-01-01

    The major objective of the TRU program at Savannah River is to support the TRU National Program, which is dedicated to preparing waste for, and emplacing waste in, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, (WIPP). Thus, the Savannah River Program also supports WIPP operations. The Savannah River site specific goals to phase out the indefinite storage of TRU waste, which has been the mode of waste management since 1974, and to dispose of Savannah River's Defense TRU waste

  17. Assessment of LANL asbestos waste management documentation

    Davis, K.D.; Hoevemeyer, S.S.; Stirrup, T.S.; Jennrich, E.A.; Lund, D.M.

    1991-04-01

    The intent of this effort is to evaluate the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) for asbestos to determine if it meets applicable DOE, EPA, and OSHA requirements. There are numerous regulations that provide specific guidelines on the management of asbestos waste. An annotated outline for a generic asbestos WAC was developed using the type of information specified by 5820.2A. The outline itself is included in Appendix A. The major elements that should be addressed by the WAC were determined to be as follows: Waste Forms; Waste Content/Concentration; Waste Packaging; and Waste Documentation/Certification

  18. Alternative solidified forms for nuclear wastes

    McElroy, J.L.; Ross, W.A.

    1976-01-01

    Radioactive wastes will occur in various parts of the nuclear fuel cycle. These wastes have been classified in this paper as high-level waste, intermediate and low-level waste, cladding hulls, and residues. Solidification methods for each type of waste are discussed in a multiple barrier context of primary waste form, applicable coatings or films, matrix encapsulation, canister, engineered structures, and geological storage. The four major primary forms which have been most highly developed are glass for HLW, cement for ILW, organics for LLW, and metals for hulls

  19. Two-dimensional numerical modelling of sediment and chemical constituent transport within the lower reaches of the Athabasca River.

    Kashyap, Shalini; Dibike, Yonas; Shakibaeinia, Ahmad; Prowse, Terry; Droppo, Ian

    2017-01-01

    Flows and transport of sediment and associated chemical constituents within the lower reaches of the Athabasca River between Fort McMurray and Embarrass Airport are investigated using a two-dimensional (2D) numerical model called Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC). The river reach is characterized by complex geometry, including vegetated islands, alternating sand bars and an unpredictable thalweg. The models were setup and validated using available observed data in the region before using them to estimate the levels of cohesive sediment and a select set of chemical constituents, consisting of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and metals, within the river system. Different flow scenarios were considered, and the results show that a large proportion of the cohesive sediment that gets deposited within the study domain originates from the main stem upstream inflow boundary, although Ells River may also contribute substantially during peak flow events. The floodplain, back channels and islands in the river system are found to be the major areas of concern for deposition of sediment and associated chemical constituents. Adsorbed chemical constituents also tend to be greater in the main channel water column, which has higher levels of total suspended sediments, compared to in the flood plain. Moreover, the levels of chemical constituents leaving the river system are found to depend very much on the corresponding river bed concentration levels, resulting in higher outflows with increases in their concentration in the bed sediment.

  20. Hazardous chemical and radioactive wastes at Hanford

    Keller, J.F.; Stewart, T.L.

    1991-07-01

    The Hanford Site was established in 1944 to produce plutonium for defense. During the past four decades, a number of reactors, processing facilities, and waste management facilities have been built at Hanford for plutonium production. Generally, Hanford's 100 Area was dedicated to reactor operation; the 200 Area to fuel reprocessing, plutonium recovery, and waste management; and the 300 Area to fuel fabrication and research and development. Wastes generated from these operations included highly radioactive liquid wastes, which were discharged to single- and double-shell tanks; solid wastes, including both transuranic (TRU) and low-level wastes, which were buried or discharged to caissons; and waste water containing low- to intermediate-level radioactivity, which was discharged to the soil column via near-surface liquid disposal units such as cribs, ponds, and retention basins. Virtually all of the wastes contained hazardous chemical as well as radioactive constituents. This paper will focus on the hazardous chemical components of the radioactive mixed waste generated by plutonium production at Hanford. The processes, chemicals used, methods of disposition, fate in the environment, and actions being taken to clean up this legacy are described by location

  1. Hazardous chemical and radioactive wastes at Hanford

    Keller, J.F.; Stewart, T.L.

    1993-01-01

    The Hanford Site was established in 1944 to produce plutonium for defense. During the past four decades, a number of reactors, processing facilities, and waste management facilities were built at Hanford for plutonium production. Generally, Hanford's 100 Area was dedicated to reactor operation; the 200 Areas to fuel reprocessing, plutonium recovery, and waste management; and the 300 Area to fuel fabrication and research and development. Wastes generated from these operations included highly radioactive liquid wastes, which were discharged to single- and double-shell tanks; solid wastes, including both transuranic and low-level wastes, which were buried or discharged to caissons; and waste water containing low- to intermediate-level radioactivity, which was discharged to the soil column via near-surface liquid disposal units such as cribs, ponds, and retention basins. Virtually all of the wastes contained hazardous chemicals as well as radioactive constituents. This paper focuses on the hazardous chemical components of the radioactive mixed waste generated by plutonium production at Hanford. The processes, chemicals used, methods of disposition, fate in the environment, and actions being taken to clean up this legacy are described by location

  2. IMMEDIATE CONSTITUENT ANALYSIS (IC analysis DİREKT BİLEŞENLER ANALİZİ

    Muzaffer MALKOÇ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available IC analysis is a method of sentence analysis first explicitly introduced by American linguist Leonard Bloomfield in his book, Language, in 1933, though the underlying principle is common both to the traditional practice of parsing and to many modern systems of grammatical analysis. In IC analysis, a sentence is divided up into major divisions or immediate constituents, and these constituents are in turn divided into further immediate constituents. This process continues until irreducible constituents are reached, i.e., until each constituent consists of only a word or meaningful part of a word. The important tests used to analyze the sentences are deletion, permutation, transformation, and substitution tests.The end result of an IC analysis is often presented in a visual diagrammatic form that reveals the hierarchical immediate constituent structure of a sentence Direkt bileşenler analiz metodu Amerikalı dil bilimci Leonard Bloomfield tarafından 1933 yılında sentaks alanında başlatılmış, daha sonraki yıllarda fonetik ve morfoloji alanlarında da uygulanmıştır. Bu analiz metodunun amacı tümce veya kelime gruplarının parçalanması ve tasnif edilmesi işleminden ibarettir. Tümcelerin parçalanması en küçük dil birimine kadar kademe kademe yapılmalı ve bileşenlerin sınıflandırılmasında ise ana öbeğe veya ana gövdeye daha yakın olan unsurlar ile ikincil öğeler analizin amacına uygun olarak belirtilmelidir. Bu işlemler yapılırken Yok Etme Testi, Yer Değiştirme Testi, Dönüştürme Testi, Yerine Koyma Testi gibi metotlardan faydalanılır. Bu prensipler çerçevesinde yapılan analizin sonuçları hiyerarşik yapıları göstermek için bir grafikle özetlenir

  3. Volatile constituents of selected Parmeliaceae lichens

    GORDANA S. STOJANOVIĆ

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The acetone soluble fraction of the methanol extracts of Parmeliaceae lichens: Hypogymnia physodes, Evernia prunastri and Parmelia sulcata, growing on the same host tree (Prunus domestica and at the same locality was analyzed for the first time by GC and GC–MS. The major identified components were olivetol (33.5 % of the H. physodes extract, atraric acid (30.1 and 30.3 % of the E. prunastri and P. sulcata extracts, respectively, orcinol (25.0 % of the E. prunastri extract, vitamin E (24.7 % of the P. sulcata extract and olivetonide (15.7 % of the H. physodes extract. Even though all the identified compounds are known, a number of them were found for the first time in the examined lichens, i.e., orcinol monomethyl ether (H. physodes, orcinol, atranol, lichesterol, ergosterol (H. physodes and P. sulcata, methyl haematommate, atraric acid, olivetol, vitamin E (H. physodes and P. sulcata and b-sitosterol (P. sulcata.

  4. Hepatotoxic constituents and toxicological mechanism of Xanthium strumarium L. fruits.

    Xue, Li-Ming; Zhang, Qiao-Yan; Han, Ping; Jiang, Yi-Ping; Yan, Rong-Di; Wang, Yang; Rahman, Khalid; Jia, Min; Han, Ting; Qin, Lu-Ping

    2014-03-14

    -N-oxide (TMAO) was observed. The results demonstrate that the major hepatotoxicity constituents are atractyloside, carboxyatractyloside and 4'-desulphate-atractyloside, and the hepatotoxicity of XSF involves mitochondrial inability, fatty acid metabolism, and some amino acids metabolism. This integrated (1)H NMR -based metabolic profiling approach has been able to capture and probe the metabolic alterations associated with the onset and progression of hepatotoxicity induced by XSF, and permits a comprehensive understanding of systemic toxicity for phytochemicals and other types of xenobiotic agents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Chemical constituents and antioxidant activity of the essential oil from leaves of Annona vepretorum Mart. (Annonaceae).

    Araújo, Camila de Souza; de Oliveira, Ana Paula; Lima, Rafaely Nascimento; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Diniz, Tâmara Coimbra; da Silva Almeida, Jackson Roberto Guedes

    2015-01-01

    Annona vepretorum (AV) is a native tree from Caatinga biome (semiarid region of Brazil) popularly known as "araticum" and "pinha da Caatinga." This study was carried out to evaluate the chemical constituents and antioxidant activity (AA) of the essential oil from the leaves from AV (EO-Av) collected in Petrolina, Pernambuco, Brazil. Fresh leaves of AV were cut into pieces, and subjected to distillation for 2 h in a clevenger-type apparatus. Gas chromatograph (GC) analyses were performed using a mass spectrometry/flame ionization detector. The identification of the constituents was assigned on the basis of comparison of their relative retention indices. The antioxidant ability of the EO was investigated through two in vitro models such as radical scavenging activity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl method and β-carotene-linoleate-model system. The positive controls (ascorbic acid, butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene) were those using the standard solutions. Assays were carried out in triplicate. The oil showed a total of 21 components, and 17 were identified, representing 93.9% of the crude EO. Spathulenol (43.7%), limonene (20.5%), caryophyllene oxide (8.1%) and α-pinene (5.5%) were found to be the major individual constituents. Spathulenol and caryophyllene oxide could be considered chemotaxonomic markers of these genera. The EO demonstrated weak AA.

  6. [Advances in novel carrier systems of chemical constituents from spice volatile oils].

    Zhang, Jia-jia; Zhu, Yuan; Yu, Jiang-nan; Xu, Xi-ming

    2015-10-01

    Recent years, chemical constituents from spice volatile oils have gained worldwide concern owing to its multiple pharmacological effects and safety for using as the natural antibacterial agents. However, their poor dissolution, strong volatility, serious irritation, weak stability, easy oxidation and low bioavailability characteristics are the major obstacle in the preparation of effective oral formulation and practical application. Therefore, there is an urgent need to select a novel carrier system that can delivery the chemical constituents from spice volatile oils more efficiently with improving their stability as well as alleviating the irritation, and develop the functional food, health products and even medicine for exerting their pharmacological effects, which also is the focus and nodus of the research on their application. This review presents recent systematic studies on their novel carrier systems, including cyclodextrin inclusion complex, liposomes, nanoemulsions, nanoparticles, solid dispersion and so on, and summarizes the characteristics, application range and problems of each novel carrier systems, in order to provide some beneficial thoughts in further developing new products of chemical constituents from spice volatile oils.

  7. Volatile constituents of Ocotea sinuata (Mez) Rohwer (Lauraceae) of Costa Rica

    Hernandez, Lorena; Ciccio, Jose F.; Chaverri, Carlos

    2007-01-01

    The chemical composition was determined of the essential oils extracted from twigs, bark and leaves of the tree Ocotea sinuata (Mez) Rohwer (Lauraceae), which grows in wild form in Costa Rica. The analyses were effected by means of the technology of gas chromatography in capillary column, using detectors of ionization at flame (FID) and spectrometry of masses (GC/MS). Eighty eight (88) compounds were identified. The oils were found to be of nature terpenic. The major constituents of the twigs were β-caryophyllene (18,4%), viridiflorol (11,3%), caryophyllene oxide (8,7%), germacrene D (7,7%), camphene (4,5%), and α-pinene (4,4%). The main constituents from bark oil were germacrene D (14.8%), β- caryophyllene(10,5%), camphene (10,3%), α-pinene (10,1%), viridiflorol (8,7%), β-pinene (4,7%) and α-copaene (4,6%). The main constituents from leaf oil were germacrene D (30,6%), β- caryophyllene (30,1%) and viridiflorol (8,9%). (author) [es

  8. Identification of Insecticidal Constituents from the Essential Oil of Valeriana jatamansi Jones against Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel

    Xin Chao Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine chemical composition and insecticidal activities of the essential oil of Valeriana jatamansi Jones roots against booklice, Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel, and to isolate insecticidal constituents from the oil. Essential oil of V. jatamansi was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. A total of 27 components in the essential oil were identified. The major compounds were patchoulol (24.3%, α-bulnesene (13.8%, isovaleric acid (12.9%, α-guaiene (8.7%, and 3-methylvaleric acid (8.4%. Based on bioactivity-guided fractionation, isovaleric acid, 3-methylvaleric acid, and patchoulol were isolated and identified as the active constituents. The essential oil exhibited contact toxicity against L. bostrychophila with an LC50 value of 236.4 μg/cm2. Patchoulol (LC50 = 61.35 μg/cm2 exhibited stronger acute toxicity than 3-methylvaleric acid (LC50 = 210.69 μg/cm2 against the booklice. The essential oil also possessed fumigant toxicity against L. bostrychophila with an LC50 value of 6.0 mg/L, while 3-methylvaleric acid and isovaleric acid had LC50 values of 5.53 mg/L and 5.67 mg/L against the booklice, respectively. The results indicated that the essential oil and its constituent compounds have potential to develop into natural insecticides or fumigants for control of insects in stored grains.

  9. Identification of antibacterial constituents from the indigenous Australian medicinal plant Eremophila duttonii F. Muell. (Myoporaceae).

    Smith, Joshua E; Tucker, David; Watson, Kenneth; Jones, Graham Lloyd

    2007-06-13

    This paper reports on the isolation and identification of antibacterial constituents from the indigenous Australian medicinal plant Eremophila duttonii F. Muell. (Myoporaceae). Preparations derived from this plant are used by indigenous populations in the topical treatment of minor wounds, otitis and ocular complaints, and as a gargle for sore throat. Several authors have reported extracts of this plant to effect rapid bacteriolysis and inhibit growth of a wide range of Gram-positive micro-organisms. In other studies involving screening of native medicinal plants for antibacterial activity, extracts of Eremophila duttonii have been reported to consistently exhibit the highest potency amongst all species included. From a hexane extract, we identified two diterpenes of the serrulatane class, the principal constituents responsible for antibacterial activity and present as major constituents of the resinous leaf cuticle: serrulat-14-en-7,8,20-triol (1) and serrulat-14-en-3,7,8,20-tetraol (2). In addition, a hydroxylated furanosesquiterpene with mild antibacterial activity which appeared to be a novel compound was isolated from the extract and tentatively identified as 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-1-(2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-5-methyl[2,3'-bifuran]-5-yl) pentan-2-one. Minimum inhibitory concentrations for each of the compounds against three Gram-positive bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 29213), Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC 12228) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (ARL 10582), were determined using a micro-titre plate broth dilution assay.

  10. Evaluation of allergenicity of constituents of myoga using the murine local lymph node assay.

    Wei, Q J; Wei, C N; Harada, K; Minamoto, K; Okamoto, Y; Otsuka, M; Ueda, A

    2010-01-01

    Myoga (Zingiber Myoga Roscoe) is a perennial plant with a pungent smell from its flower buds. It is native to East Asia and has been reported to cause allergic contact dermatitis. The purpose of this study is to assess the allergenicity of myoga related to its major chemical components, alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, limonene, limonene oxide and beta-phellandrene, which are supposed to be the causative agents of contact dermatitis among myoga cultivators. We performed a toxicity study of the volatile constituents of myoga using the local lymph node assay (LLNA), in which limonene, limonene oxide and beta-phellandrene had positive responses and the EC3 was 35.8%, 8.22%, and 0.54%, respectively. EC3 for both alpha-pinene and beta-pinene was over 100%. Both chemicals failed to induce positive responses in the LLNA. While the maximization rating of limonene, limonene oxide and phellandrene were evaluated as moderate, extreme, and extreme respectively, alpha-pinene and beta-pinene were evaluated as weak in the previously reported GPMT. The usage of LLNA was also confirmed by comparing with previously reported GPMT results to detect the allergenicity of myoga constituents. The actual risk of humans developing an allergy to myoga constituents depends on many factors. The concentration of the compounds, the frequency and duration of exposure and the condition of the skin are supposed to be important factors.

  11. Seasonality of selected surface water constituents in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida.

    Qian, Y; Migliaccio, K W; Wan, Y; Li, Y C; Chin, D

    2007-01-01

    Seasonality is often the major exogenous effect that must be compensated for or removed to discern trends in water quality. Our objective was to provide a methodological example of trend analysis using water quality data with seasonality. Selected water quality constituents from 1979 to 2004 at three monitoring stations in southern Florida were evaluated for seasonality. The seasonal patterns of flow-weighted and log-transformed concentrations were identified by applying side-by-side boxplots and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test (p turbidity, color, and chloride), except for turbidity at Station C24S49, exhibited significant seasonal patterns. Almost all nutrient species (NO(2)-N, NH(4)-N, total Kjeldahl N, PO(4)-P, and total P) had an identical seasonal pattern of concentrations significantly greater in the wet than in the dry season. Some water quality constituents were observed to exhibit significant annual or seasonal trends. In some cases, the overall annual trend was insignificant while opposing trends were present in different seasons. By evaluating seasonal trends separately from all data, constituents can be assessed providing a more accurate interpretation of water quality trends.

  12. Study of physical properties, gas generation and gas retention in simulated Hanford waste

    Bryan, S.A.; Pederson, L.R.; Scheele, R.D.

    1993-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish the chemical and physical processes responsible for the generation and retention of gases within high-level waste from Tank 101-SY on the Hanford Site. This research, conducted using simulated waste on a laboratory scale, supports the development of mitigation/remediation strategies for Tank 101-SY. Simulated waste formulations are based on actual waste compositions. Selected physical properties of the simulated waste are compared to properties of actual Tank 101-SY waste samples. Laboratory studies using aged simulated waste show that significant gas generation occurs thermally at current tank temperatures (∼60 degrees C). Gas compositions include the same gases produced in actual tank waste, primarily N 2 , N 2 O, and H 2 . Gas stoichiometries have been shown to be greatly influenced by several organic and inorganic constituents within the simulated waste. Retention of gases in the simulated waste is in the form of bubble attachment to solid particles. This attachment phenomenon is related to the presence of organic constituents (HEDTA, EDTA, and citrate) of the simulated waste. A mechanism is discussed that relates the gas bubble/particle interactions to the partially hydrophobic surface produced on the solids by the organic constituents

  13. Low-level waste certification plan

    Greenhalph, W.O.

    1995-01-01

    This plan describes the organization and methodology for the certification of solid low-level waste (LLW) and mixed-waste (MW) generated at any of the facilities or major work activities of the Engineered Process Application (EPA) organization. The primary LLW and MW waste generating facility operated by EPA is the 377 Building. This plan does not cover the handling of hazardous or non-regulated waste, though they are mentioned at times for completeness

  14. Addressing mixed waste in plutonium processing

    Christensen, D.C.; Sohn, C.L.; Reid, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    The overall goal is the minimization of all waste generated in actinide processing facilities. Current emphasis is directed toward reducing and managing mixed waste in plutonium processing facilities. More specifically, the focus is on prioritizing plutonium processing technologies for development that will address major problems in mixed waste management. A five step methodological approach to identify, analyze, solve, and initiate corrective action for mixed waste problems in plutonium processing facilities has been developed

  15. Experience on domestic waste segregation in Ghana

    Osei Bonsu Patterson

    2013-01-01

    Pollution from domestic wastes is a major environmental challenge in Ghana and many developing countries. Most of these countries depend almost entirely on landfills for waste management, which has proved to be expensive, inefficient and unsustainable. A sustainable solution to this problem is productive use of waste such as recycling. The main challenge that may limit recycling in Ghana and some of these countries is that a chunk of the wastes are littered on the environment, and the rest is...

  16. Slurry growth and gas retention in synthetic Hanford waste

    Bryan, S.A.; Pederson, L.R.; Scheele, R.D.

    1992-09-01

    This work seeks to establish chemical and physical processes responsible for the generation and retention of gases within waste from a particular high-level waste tank on the Hanford Site, Tank 101-SY, through the use of synthetic wastes on a laboratory scale. The goal of these activities is to support the development of mitigation/remediation strategies for Tank 101-SY. Laboratory studies of aged synthetic waste have shown that gas generation occurs thermally at a significant level at current tank temperatures. Gas compositions include the same gases produced in actual tank waste, primarily N 2 , N 2 O, and H 2 . Gas stoichiometries have been shown to be greatly influenced by several organic and inorganic constituents within the synthetic waste. Retention of gases in the synthetic waste is in the form of bubble attachment to solid particles

  17. Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility waste acceptance criteria. Revision 1

    Corriveau, C.E.

    1996-01-01

    The Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) is designed to be an isolation structure for low-level radioactive remediation waste, chemically contaminated remediation waste, and remediation waste that contains both chemical and radioactive constituents (i.e., mixed remediation waste) produced during environmental remediation of Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) past-practice units at the Hanford Site. Remedial action wastes, which will become a structural component of the ERDF, include bulk soil, demolition debris, and miscellaneous wastes from burial grounds. These wastes may originate from CERCLA past-practice sites (i.e., operable units) in the 100 Areas, the 200 Areas, and the 300 Area of the Hanford Site

  18. Brain correlates of constituent structure in sign language comprehension.

    Moreno, Antonio; Limousin, Fanny; Dehaene, Stanislas; Pallier, Christophe

    2018-02-15

    During sentence processing, areas of the left superior temporal sulcus, inferior frontal gyrus and left basal ganglia exhibit a systematic increase in brain activity as a function of constituent size, suggesting their involvement in the computation of syntactic and semantic structures. Here, we asked whether these areas play a universal role in language and therefore contribute to the processing of non-spoken sign language. Congenitally deaf adults who acquired French sign language as a first language and written French as a second language were scanned while watching sequences of signs in which the size of syntactic constituents was manipulated. An effect of constituent size was found in the basal ganglia, including the head of the caudate and the putamen. A smaller effect was also detected in temporal and frontal regions previously shown to be sensitive to constituent size in written language in hearing French subjects (Pallier et al., 2011). When the deaf participants read sentences versus word lists, the same network of language areas was observed. While reading and sign language processing yielded identical effects of linguistic structure in the basal ganglia, the effect of structure was stronger in all cortical language areas for written language relative to sign language. Furthermore, cortical activity was partially modulated by age of acquisition and reading proficiency. Our results stress the important role of the basal ganglia, within the language network, in the representation of the constituent structure of language, regardless of the input modality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Waste Management Operations Program

    Sease, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    The major function of the Program is to operate the Laboratory's systems and facilities for collecting and disposing of radioactive gaseous, liquid, and solid wastes. This includes collection and shallow land burial of about 2000 m 3 of β-γ contaminated waste and retrievable storage of about 60 m 3 of transuranium contaminated waste annually; ion-exchange treatment and release to the environment of about 450 x 10 3 m 3 of slightly contaminated water; volume reduction by evaporation of about 5000 m 3 of intermediate-level liquid waste followed by hydrofracture injection of the concentrate; and scrubbing and/or filtration of the gases from radioactive operations prior to release to the atmosphere. In addition, this year disposal of about 350,000 gal of radioactive sludge from the old (no longer in service) gunite tanks began. Operations are in conformance with rules and regulations presently applicable to ORNL. This Program is responsible for planning and for development activities for upgrading the facilities, equipment, and procedures for waste disposal to ensure ORNL work incorporates the latest technology. Major (line-item) new facilities are provided as well as substantial (GPP) upgrading of old facilities. These activities as well as the technical and engineering support to handle them are discussed

  20. Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) groundwater monitoring report. First quarter 1993

    1993-06-01

    During first quarter 1993, eight constituents exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards in groundwater samples from downgradient monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste anagement Facility, the Old Burial Ground, the E-Area Vaults, and the proposed Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Vaults (HWMWDV). As in previous quarters, tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituents. Tetrachloroethylene, chloroethene, 1,1-dichloroethylene, gross alpha, lead, or nonvolatile beta levels also exceeded standards in one or more wells. The elevated constituents were found primarily in Aquifer Zone IIB{sub 2} (Water Table) and Aquifer Zone IIB{sub 1}, (Barnwell/McBean) wells. However, several Aquifer Unit IIA (Congaree) wells also contained elevated constituent levels. The groundwater flow directions and rates in the three hydrostratigraphic units were similar to previous quarters.

  1. Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) groundwater monitoring report: Third quarter 1993

    1993-12-01

    During third quarter 1993, eight constituents exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards in groundwater samples from downgradient monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste Management Facility, the Old Burial Ground, the E-Area Vaults, and the proposed Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Vaults. As in previous quarters, tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituents Chloroethene (vinyl chloride), 1,1-dichloroethylene, dichloromethane (methylene chloride), lead, mercury, or tetrachloroethylene also exceeded standards in one or more wells. The elevated constituents were found in Aquifer Zone IIB{sub 2} (Water Table) and Aquifer Zone IIB{sub 1} (Barnwell/McBean) wells. No elevated constituents were exhibited in Aquifer Unit IIA (Congaree) wells. The groundwater flow directions and rates in the three hydrostratigraphic units were similar to those of previous quarters.

  2. Municipal waste - management and treatment

    Paudel, E.S.R.

    2005-01-01

    Though per capita waste generation in Nepalese urban cities is not so high, the lack of proper waste management is considered one of the severe problems to be faced by urban people in future. With rapid urbanization, life style of people is changing their habits and consuming more materials and producing a large volume of waste in urban areas in Nepal. The nature and amount of waste generated in municipality is dependent of demography and geography. But most common aspect of municipal waste in Nepal is more than 60% of the waste biodegradable. Whatever the nature and amount of waste generated, the most common practice of managing municipal waste is to dispose in the riverside nearby or dumped elsewhere. The involvement of private sector in waste management is a new concept adopted by many municipalities in Nepal. One of the most progress approaches, 4R (reduces, reuse, recycle and refuse) principle is being practiced. The need of awareness progressive like segregation of wastes at collection point also being practiced in Nepal. Finally, Proper formulation of program and legislation and its application is one of the major challenges for local authorities in Nepal. (author)

  3. The radioactive waste management conference

    Fareeduddin, S.; Hirling, J.

    1983-01-01

    The international conference on radioactive waste management was held in Seattle, Washington, from 16 to 20 May 1983. The response was gratifying, reflecting world-wide interest: it was attended by 528 participants from 29 Member States of the IAEA and eight international organizations. The conference programme was structured to permit reviews and presentation of up-to-date information on five major topics: - waste management policy and its implementation: national and international approaches; legal, economic, environmental, and social aspects (four sessions with 27 papers from 16 countries and four international organizations); - handling, treatment, and conditioning of wastes from nuclear facilities, nuclear power plants and reprocessing plants, including the handling and treatment of gaseous wastes and wastes of specific types (five sessions with 35 papers); - storage and underground disposal of radioactive wastes: general, national concepts, underground laboratories, and designs of repositories for high-level, and low- and intermediate-level waste disposal (five sessions with 35 papers); - environmental and safety assessment of waste management systems: goals methodologies, assessments for geological repositories, low- and intermediate-level wastes, and mill tailings (four sessions with 26 papers); - radioactive releases to the environment from nuclear operations: status and perspectives, environmental transport processes, and control of radioactive waste disposal into the environment (three sessions with 23 papers)

  4. Valorization of rice straw waste: production of porcelain tiles

    Álvaro Guzmán A

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The rice industry generates huge amounts of rice straw ashes (RSA. This paper presents the results of an experimental research work about the incorporation of RSA waste as a new alternative raw material for production of porcelain tiles. The RSA replaces, partially or completely, the non-plastic raw materials (quartz (feldspathic sand in this research and feldspar, that together with the clays, constitute the major constituents of formulations of porcelain tiles. A standard industrial composition (0% RSA and two more compositions in which feldspar and feldspathic sand were replaced with two percentages of RSA (12.5% RSA and 60% RSA were formulated, keeping the clay content constant. The mixtures were processed, reproducing industrial porcelain tile manufacturing conditions by the dry route and fired at peak temperatures varying from 1140-1260 ºC. The results showed that additions of 12.5% RSA in replacement of feldspar and feldspathic sand allowed producing porcelain tiles that did not display marked changes in processing behaviour, in addition to obtain a microstructure and the typical mineralogical phases of porcelain tile. Thus, an alternative use of an agricultural waste material is proposed, which can be translated into economic and environmental benefits.

  5. Transuranic waste management program and facilities

    Clements, T.L. Jr.; Cook, L.A.; Stallman, R.M.; Hunter, E.K.

    1986-01-01

    Since 1954, defense-generated transuranic (TRU) waste has been received at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Prior to 1970, approximately 2.2 million cubic feet of transuranic waste were buried in shallow-land trenches and pits at the RWMC. Since 1970, an additional 2.1 million cubic feet of waste have been retrievably stored in aboveground engineered confinement. A major objective of the Department of Energy (DOE) Nuclear Waste Management Program is the proper management of defense-generated transuranic waste. Strategies have been developed for managing INEL stored and buried transuranic waste. These strategies have been incorporated in the Defense Waste Management Plan and are currently being implemented with logistical coordination of transportation systems and schedules for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The Stored Waste Examination Pilot Plant (SWEPP) is providing nondestructive examination and assay of retrievably stored, contact-handled TRU waste. Construction of the Process Experimental Pilot Plant (PREPP) was recently completed, and PREPP is currently undergoing system checkout. The PRFPP will provide processing capabilities for contact-handled waste not meeting WIPP-Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). In addition, ongoing studies and technology development efforts for managing the TRU waste such as remote-handled and buried TRU waste, are being conducted

  6. Transuranic Waste Management Program and Facilities

    Clements, T.L. Jr.; Cook, L.A.; Stallman, R.M.; Hunter, E.K.

    1986-02-01

    Since 1954, defense-generated transuranic (TRU) waste has been received at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Prior to 1970, approximately 2.2 million cubic feet of transuranic waste were buried in shallow-land trenches and pits at the RWMC. Since 1970, an additional 2.1 million cubic feet of waste have been retrievably stored in aboveground engineered confinement. A major objective of the Department of Energy (DOE) Nuclear Waste Management Program is the proper management of defense-generated transuranic waste. Strategies have been developed for managing INEL stored and buried transuranic waste. These strategies have been incorporated in the Defense Waste Management Plan and are currently being implemented with logistical coordination of transportation systems and schedules for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The Stored Waste Examination Pilot Plant (SWEPP) is providing nondestructive examination and assay of retrievably stored, contact-handled TRU waste. Construction of the Process Experimental Pilot Plant (PREPP) was recently completed, and PREPP is currently undergoing system checkout. The PREPP will provide processing capabilities for contact-handled waste not meeting WIPP-Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). In addition, ongoing studies and technology development efforts for managing the TRU waste such as remote-handled and buried TRU waste, are being conducted

  7. WRAP Module 1 sampling strategy and waste characterization alternatives study

    Bergeson, C.L.

    1994-09-30

    The Waste Receiving and Processing Module 1 Facility is designed to examine, process, certify, and ship drums and boxes of solid wastes that have a surface dose equivalent of less than 200 mrem/h. These wastes will include low-level and transuranic wastes that are retrievably stored in the 200 Area burial grounds and facilities in addition to newly generated wastes. Certification of retrievably stored wastes processing in WRAP 1 is required to meet the waste acceptance criteria for onsite treatment and disposal of low-level waste and mixed low-level waste and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Waste Acceptance Criteria for the disposal of TRU waste. In addition, these wastes will need to be certified for packaging in TRUPACT-II shipping containers. Characterization of the retrievably stored waste is needed to support the certification process. Characterization data will be obtained from historical records, process knowledge, nondestructive examination nondestructive assay, visual inspection of the waste, head-gas sampling, and analysis of samples taken from the waste containers. Sample characterization refers to the method or methods that are used to test waste samples for specific analytes. The focus of this study is the sample characterization needed to accurately identify the hazardous and radioactive constituents present in the retrieved wastes that will be processed in WRAP 1. In addition, some sampling and characterization will be required to support NDA calculations and to provide an over-check for the characterization of newly generated wastes. This study results in the baseline definition of WRAP 1 sampling and analysis requirements and identifies alternative methods to meet these requirements in an efficient and economical manner.

  8. WRAP Module 1 sampling strategy and waste characterization alternatives study

    Bergeson, C.L.

    1994-01-01

    The Waste Receiving and Processing Module 1 Facility is designed to examine, process, certify, and ship drums and boxes of solid wastes that have a surface dose equivalent of less than 200 mrem/h. These wastes will include low-level and transuranic wastes that are retrievably stored in the 200 Area burial grounds and facilities in addition to newly generated wastes. Certification of retrievably stored wastes processing in WRAP 1 is required to meet the waste acceptance criteria for onsite treatment and disposal of low-level waste and mixed low-level waste and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Waste Acceptance Criteria for the disposal of TRU waste. In addition, these wastes will need to be certified for packaging in TRUPACT-II shipping containers. Characterization of the retrievably stored waste is needed to support the certification process. Characterization data will be obtained from historical records, process knowledge, nondestructive examination nondestructive assay, visual inspection of the waste, head-gas sampling, and analysis of samples taken from the waste containers. Sample characterization refers to the method or methods that are used to test waste samples for specific analytes. The focus of this study is the sample characterization needed to accurately identify the hazardous and radioactive constituents present in the retrieved wastes that will be processed in WRAP 1. In addition, some sampling and characterization will be required to support NDA calculations and to provide an over-check for the characterization of newly generated wastes. This study results in the baseline definition of WRAP 1 sampling and analysis requirements and identifies alternative methods to meet these requirements in an efficient and economical manner

  9. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Nondestructive Assay of Drummed Wastes for the TRU Waste Characterization Program

    2009-01-01

    Each testing and analytical facility performing waste characterization activities for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) participates in the Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) to comply with the Transuranic Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WAC) (DOE/WIPP-02-3122) and the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD) (CBFO-94-1012). The PDP serves as a quality control check for data generated in the characterization of waste destined for WIPP. Single blind audit samples are prepared and distributed to each of the facilities participating in the PDP. The PDP evaluates analyses of simulated headspace gases, constituents of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and transuranic (TRU) radionuclides using nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques.

  10. Waste -92

    Ekwall, K.

    1992-11-01

    The report gives a review of waste incineration in Sweden today, including environmental and legal aspects. 21 incinerator plants are in use, producing heat to district heating network and, to a minor part, electric power. In 1991 1.31 Mton household waste and 0.35 Mton industrial waste were incinerated producing 4.4 Twh of energy. In a few cities 30-40 percent of the district heat comes from waste incineration. The theoretical and practical potentials for energy production in Sweden are estimated to 7 respective 5 TWh for household waste and 9 respective 5-6 TWh for industrial waste. Landfill gas is extracted at about 35 sites, with a yearly production of 0.3 TWh which corresponds to 3-5 percent of the potentially recoverable quantity. (8 refs., 2 figs., 13 tabs.)

  11. Industrial Waste

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    generation rates and material composition as well as determining factors are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing industrial waste is faced with the problem that often only a part of the waste is handled in the municipal waste system, where information is easily accessible. In addition part...... of the industrial waste may in periods, depending on market opportunities and prices, be traded as secondary rawmaterials. Production-specificwaste from primary production, for example steel slag, is not included in the current presentation. In some countries industries must be approved or licensed and as part...... of the system industry has to inform at the planning stage and afterwards in yearly reports on their waste arising and how the waste is managed. If available such information is very helpful in obtaining information about that specific industry. However, in many countries there is very little information...

  12. Nuclear waste

    1990-01-01

    Each year, nuclear power plants, businesses, hospitals, and universities generate more than 1 million cubic feet of hardware, rags, paper, liquid waste, and protective clothing that have been contaminated with radioactivity. While most of this waste has been disposed of in facilities in Nevada, South Carolina, and Washington state, recent legislation made the states responsible - either individually, or through groups of states called compacts - for developing new disposal facilities. This paper discusses the states' progress and problems in meeting facility development milestones in the law, federal and state efforts to resolve issues related to mixed waste (low-level waste that also contains hazardous chemicals) and waste with very low levels of radioactivity, and the Department of Energy's progress in discharging the federal government's responsibility under the law to manage the most hazardous low-level waste

  13. Synroc tailored waste forms for actinide immobilization

    Gregg, Daniel J.; Vance, Eric R. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Kirrawee (Australia). ANSTOsynroc, Inst. of Materials Engineering

    2017-07-01

    Since the end of the 1970s, Synroc at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) has evolved from a focus on titanate ceramics directed at PUREX waste to a platform waste treatment technology to fabricate tailored glass-ceramic and ceramic waste forms for different types of actinide, high- and intermediate level wastes. The particular emphasis for Synroc is on wastes which are problematic for glass matrices or existing vitrification process technologies. In particular, nuclear wastes containing actinides, notably plutonium, pose a unique set of requirements for a waste form, which Synroc ceramic and glass-ceramic waste forms can be tailored to meet. Key aspects to waste form design include maximising the waste loading, producing a chemically durable product, maintaining flexibility to accommodate waste variations, a proliferation resistance to prevent theft and diversion, and appropriate process technology to produce waste forms that meet requirements for actinide waste streams. Synroc waste forms incorporate the actinides within mineral phases, producing products which are much more durable in water than baseline borosilicate glasses. Further, Synroc waste forms can incorporate neutron absorbers and {sup 238}U which provide criticality control both during processing and whilst within the repository. Synroc waste forms offer proliferation resistance advantages over baseline borosilicate glasses as it is much more difficult to retrieve the actinide and they can reduce the radiation dose to workers compared to borosilicate glasses. Major research and development into Synroc at ANSTO over the past 40 years has included the development of waste forms for excess weapons plutonium immobilization in collaboration with the US and for impure plutonium residues in collaboration with the UK, as examples. With a waste loading of 40-50 wt.%, Synroc would also be considered a strong candidate as an engineered waste form for used nuclear fuel and highly

  14. Waste indicators

    Dall, O.; Lassen, C.; Hansen, E. [Cowi A/S, Lyngby (Denmark)

    2003-07-01

    The Waste Indicator Project focuses on methods to evaluate the efficiency of waste management. The project proposes the use of three indicators for resource consumption, primary energy and landfill requirements, based on the life-cycle principles applied in the EDIP Project. Trial runs are made With the indicators on paper, glass packaging and aluminium, and two models are identified for mapping the Danish waste management, of which the least extensive focuses on real and potential savings. (au)

  15. Waste indicators

    Dall, O.; Lassen, C.; Hansen, E.

    2003-01-01

    The Waste Indicator Project focuses on methods to evaluate the efficiency of waste management. The project proposes the use of three indicators for resource consumption, primary energy and landfill requirements, based on the life-cycle principles applied in the EDIP Project. Trial runs are made With the indicators on paper, glass packaging and aluminium, and two models are identified for mapping the Danish waste management, of which the least extensive focuses on real and potential savings. (au)

  16. Wasting away

    Salzman, L.

    1978-01-01

    The problems of radioactive waste disposal are discussed, with particular reference to the following: radiation hazards from uranium mill tailings; disposal and storage of high-level wastes from spent fuel elements and reprocessing; low-level wastes; decommissioning of aged reactors; underground disposal, such as in salt formations; migration of radioactive isotopes, for example into ground water supplies or into the human food chain. (U.K.)

  17. Waste Incinerator

    1994-05-01

    This book deals with plan and design of waste incinerator, which includes process outline of waste, method of measure, test, analysis, combustion way and classification of incineration facilities, condition of combustion and incineration, combustion calculation and heat calculation, ventilation and flow resistivity, an old body and component materials of supplementary installation, attached device, protection of pollution of incineration ash and waste gas, deodorization, prevention of noise in incineration facility, using heat and electric heat, check order of incineration plan.

  18. Waste Management

    Anonymous

    2006-01-01

    The Productivity Commission’s inquiry report into ‘Waste Management’ was tabled by Government in December 2006. The Australian Government asked the Commission to identify policies that would enable Australia to address market failures and externalities associated with the generation and disposal of waste, and recommend how resource efficiencies can be optimised to improve economic, environmental and social outcomes. In the final report, the Commission maintains that waste management policy sh...

  19. [Chemical Constituents in hypoglycemic active fraction of Celastrus orbiculatus leaf].

    Yu, Xiao-xia; Zhang, Ting-ting; Wang, Ding-yong

    2014-06-01

    To study the chemical constituents in the hypoglycemic active fraction of Celastrus orbiculatus leaf. The constituents were separated and purified by column chromatography and thin layer chromatography, and their structures were elucidated by IR, MS and NMR. Seven compounds were isolated from the active fraction of Celastnrus orbiculatus, which identified as kaempferol( 1) ,quercetin(2), kaempferol-7-0-α-L-rhamnoside (3), kaempferol-3,7-di-O-α-L-rhamnoside (4) , quercetin-3-0-β-D-glucoside(5), myricetrin(6) and kaempferol-3-0-rutinoside(7). Chemical constituents in the hypoglycemic active fraction of Celastrus orbiculatus leaf are reported for the first time,and compounds 5,6 and 7 are firstly obtained from this plant.

  20. Methods of using adsorption media for separating or removing constituents

    Tranter, Troy J [Idaho Falls, ID; Herbst, R Scott [Idaho Falls, ID; Mann, Nicholas R [Blackfoot, ID; Todd, Terry A [Aberdeen, ID

    2011-10-25

    Methods of using an adsorption medium to remove at least one constituent from a feed stream. The method comprises contacting an adsorption medium with a feed stream comprising at least one constituent and removing the at least one constituent from the feed stream. The adsorption medium comprises a polyacrylonitrile (PAN) matrix and at least one metal hydroxide homogenously dispersed therein. The adsorption medium may comprise from approximately 15 wt % to approximately 90 wt % of the PAN and from approximately 10 wt % to approximately 85 wt % of the at least one metal hydroxide. The at least one metal hydroxide may be selected from the group consisting of ferric hydroxide, zirconium hydroxide, lanthanum hydroxide, cerium hydroxide, titanium hydroxide, copper hydroxide, antimony hydroxide, and molybdenum hydroxide.

  1. Towards Verification of Constituent Systems through Automated Proof

    Couto, Luis Diogo Monteiro Duarte; Foster, Simon; Payne, R

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores verification of constituent systems within the context of the Symphony tool platform for Systems of Systems (SoS). Our SoS modelling language, CML, supports various contractual specification elements, such as state invariants and operation preconditions, which can be used...... to specify contractual obligations on the constituent systems of a SoS. To support verification of these obligations we have developed a proof obligation generator and theorem prover plugin for Symphony. The latter uses the Isabelle/HOL theorem prover to automatically discharge the proof obligations arising...... from a CML model. Our hope is that the resulting proofs can then be used to formally verify the conformance of each constituent system, which is turn would result in a dependable SoS....

  2. Characterization recommendations for waste sites at the Savannah River Plant

    Carlton, W.H.; Gordon, D.E.; Johnson, W.F.; Kaback, D.S.; Looney, B.B.; Nichols, R.L.; Shedrow, C.B.

    1987-11-01

    One hundred and sixty six disposal facilities that received or may have received waste materials resulting from operations at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) have been identified. These waste range from innocuous solid and liquid materials (e.g., wood piles) to process effluents that contain hazardous and/or radioactive constituents. The waste sites have been grouped into 45 categories according the the type of waste materials they received. Waste sites are located with SRP coordinates, a local Department of Energy (DOE) grid system whose grid north is 36 degrees 22 minutes west of true north. DOE policy is to close all waste sites at SRP in a manner consistent with protecting human health and environment and complying with applicable environmental regulations (DOE 1984). A uniform, explicit characterization program for SRP waste sites will provide a sound technical basis for developing closure plans. Several elements are summarized in the following individual sections including (1) a review of the history, geohydrology, and available characterization data for each waste site and (2) recommendations for additional characterization necessary to prepare a reasonable closure plan. Many waste sites have been fully characterized, while others have not been investigated at all. The approach used in this report is to evaluate available groundwater quality and site history data. For example, groundwater data are compared to review criteria to help determine what additional information is required. The review criteria are based on regulatory and DOE guidelines for acceptable concentrations of constituents in groundwater and soil

  3. Identification of Repellent and Insecticidal Constituents from Artemisia mongolica Essential Oil against Lasioderma serricorne

    You, Chunxue; Guo, Shanshan; Zhang, Wenjuan; Yang, Kai; Geng, Zhufeng; Du, Shushan; Wang, Chengfang; Deng, Zhiwei

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this research were to determine the chemical composition and insecticidal and repellent activities of the Artemisia mongolica essential oil against Lasioderma serricorne and to isolate active constituents from the essential oil. The essential oil of A. mongolica was obtained by hydrodistillation and 36 components were identified with GC-MS. Eucalyptol (39.88%), (S)-cis-verbenol (14.93%), 4-terpineol (7.20%), (−)-camphor (6.02%), and α-terpineol (4.20%) were found to be major compo...

  4. Chemical constituents variations of essential oils from rhizomes of four Zingiberaceae species

    Sukari, M.A.; Mohd Sharif, N.W.; Yap, A.L.C.; Tang, S.W.; Rahmani, M.; Ee, G.C.L.; Taufiq-Yap, Y.H.; Yusof, U.K.

    2008-01-01

    The essential oils were extracted using the hydrodistillation method from four Zingiberaceae species; Zingiber officinale var.rubrum, Zingiber amaricans, Kaempferia galanga, and Boesenbergia pandurata. Volatile components of all extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques. The major constituents of Zingiber officinale, Zingiber amaricans, Kaempferia galanga, and Boesenbergia pandurata were identified as E-citral (20.98%), zerumbone (40.70%), ethyl p -methoxycinnamate (58.47%) and camphor (57.97%), respectively. Kaempferia galanga and Zingiber amaricans were rich in sesquiterpenes whereas Boesenbergia pandurata and Zingiber officinale var. rubrum contained mostly monoterpenes. (author)

  5. The low-level radioactive waste crisis

    Bord, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    According to the author, the goals of the 1980 Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act have not been met. That act stipulated that regional disposal sites were to be established by 1986. To date, no new sites have been established and none are anywhere near the construction phase. Congress, responding to existing impasse, has extended the deadline to the end of 1992 with the passage of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act. The reasons for the impasse are no mystery: local intransigence regarding waste of any kind, public fears of radiation hazards, and politicians' anxieties about their constituents' fears. The focus of this paper is the viability of ongoing attempts to overcome public intransigence in the case of disposal siting for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW)

  6. Updates to Constituent Subtraction in Heavy Ions at CMS

    CMS Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The latest upgrades and performance of constituent subtraction in 5.02 TeV PbPb collisions is presented. The constituent subtraction is extended through the full tracker acceptance, increasing the rapidity reach of correctly subtracted jets. A modulation in azimuthal angle is added to the subtraction, accounting for flow on an event-by-event basis and improving jet energy resolution. Closure of jet energy scale after corrections and jet energy resolution is shown for R=0.4 and R=0.8 jets, the latter for the first time in CMS Heavy-Ions.

  7. [Chemical constituents of the roots of Vaccinium bracteatum].

    Lv, Xiao-Lan; Mai, Xi; Guo, Hui; Lai, Xiao-Ping

    2012-06-01

    To study the chemical constituents of the roots of Vaccinium bracteatum. The constituents were separated and purified with chromatographic methods (including silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 and RP-18 column chromatography), and their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods (including MS, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR). 10 compounds were isolated from the roots of Vaccinium bracteatu and were elucidated as chlorogenic acid (1), pinoresinol (2), ferulic acid (3), kaempferol (4), trans-caffeic acid (5), beta-sitosterol (6), quercetin (7), oleanolic acid (8), apigenin (9) and luteolin (10). Compounds 1 -3 are obtained from this plant for the first time.

  8. [Study on the chemical constituents of Buddleja davidii].

    Peng, Xue-Jing; Zeng, Yong; Luo, Jian-Jun; Chang, Xiao-Li; Xie, Qin-Jian; Wang, Ting; Li, Chong; Zhao, Lei

    2012-12-01

    To study the chemical constituents of Buddleja davidii. The constituents were isolated and purified by silica gel column chromatography, polyamide column chromatography and macroporous adsorption resin and their structures were identified by spectroscopic analysis. Eight compounds were elucidated as : Cranioside A (1), Eutigoside A (2), 1-O-4-Dimethoxyphenylethyl-4-O-3,4-dimethoxyphenylethy-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3), Isomartynoside (4'), 4"-O-Acetylmartynoside (5), Stigmasterol glueoside (6), beta-Sitosterol (7), Daucosterol (8). All these compounds are obtained from this plant for the first time.

  9. The Chemical Constituents and Pharmacological Actions of Cordyceps sinensis

    Liu, Yi; Wang, Jihui; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Hanyue; Zhang, Xuelan; Han, Chunchao

    2015-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis, also called DongChongXiaCao (winter worm, summer grass) in Chinese, is becoming increasingly popular and important in the public and scientific communities. This study summarizes the chemical constituents and their corresponding pharmacological actions of Cordyceps sinensis. Many bioactive components of Cordyceps sinensis have been extracted including nucleoside, polysaccharide, sterol, protein, amino acid, and polypeptide. In addition, these constituents' corresponding pharmacological actions were also shown in the study such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antitumour, antiapoptosis, and immunomodulatory actions. Therefore can use different effects of C. sinensis against different diseases and provide reference for the study of Cordyceps sinensis in the future. PMID:25960753

  10. The integration of the Constituent Congress in 1917

    Juan Bernardino Sánchez Aguilar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a new perspective around the perception of political legitimacy held by the representatives to one of the most emblematic assemblies in Mexico. Reviewing the credentials of the Querétaro Constituent Congress allows us to observe the first internal disputes within constitutionalism, since plenty has been said about the enactment of the Political Constitution of the Mexican United States, whereas the legislative sessions that gave rise to it are not studied enough.  By presenting the chiaroscuros of the constituent parliamentary work, particularly during the first days of the electoral college, this article aims to complement the existing enormous historiographic production on this Congress.

  11. The problem of wastes in the health sector

    Faysal, Al-Kak

    1998-01-01

    The article presents the management of hospital wastes in Lebanon. Hospital wastes considered as solid wastes, are divided into three main categories: radioactive wastes, contaminated wastes and chemical wastes. The treatment of wastes in the health sector in Lebanon is reduced to the incinerators. This method causes the major air pollution by emitting toxic substances as Dioxin. Advantages and disadvantages of alternate methods of wastes treatment are discussed such as: steam sterilization, bio-conversion, coal-burning, electronic radiation sterilization and chemical sterilization

  12. DOE regulatory reform initiative vitrified mixed waste

    Carroll, S.J.; Holtzscheiter, E.W.

    1997-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is charged with responsibly managing the largest volume of mixed waste in the United States. This responsibility includes managing waste in compliance with all applicable Federal and State laws and regulations, and in a cost-effective, environmentally responsible manner. Managing certain treated mixed wastes in Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permitted storage and disposal units (specifically those mixed wastes that pose low risks from the hazardous component) is unlikely to provide additional protection to human health and the environment beyond that afforded by managing these wastes in storage and disposal units subject to requirements for radiological control. In October, 1995, the DOE submitted a regulatory reform proposal to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) relating to vitrified mixed waste forms. The technical proposal supports a regulatory strategy that would allow vitrified mixed waste forms treated through a permit or other environmental compliance mechanism to be granted an exemption from RCRA hazardous waste regulation, after treatment, based upon the inherent destruction and immobilization capabilities of vitrification technology. The vitrified waste form will meet, or exceed the performance criteria of the Environmental Assessment (EA) glass that has been accepted as an international standard for immobilizing radioactive waste components and the LDR treatment standards for inorganics and metals for controlling hazardous constituents. The proposal further provides that vitrified mixed waste would be responsibly managed under the Atomic Energy Act (AEA) while reducing overall costs. Full regulatory authority by the EPA or a State would be maintained until an acceptable vitrified mixed waste form, protective of human health and the environment, is produced

  13. Upfront Delisting of F006 Mixed Waste

    Poulos, D.G.; Pickett, J.B.; Jantzen, C.M.

    1995-01-01

    The US DOE at the Savannah River Site will petition the US EPA to upfront delist treatment residues generated from the vitrification of approximately 650,000 gallons of a regulated mixed (hazardous and radioactive) waste. The upfront petition, based on bench-scale treatability studies and pilot-scale system data, will exclude the vitrified wasteform from hazardous waste management regulations. The EPA encourages the use of the upfront delisting method as it allows applicants prior knowledge of waste specific treatment standards, which when met will render the waste non-hazardous, before generating the final wasteform. To meet the EPA performance based treatment standards, the waste must be stabilized to control the leaching of hazardous and radioactive constituents from the final wasteform. SRS has contracted a vendor to stabilize the mixed waste in a temporary Vitrification Treatment Facility (VTF). The EPA has declared vitrification as the Best Demonstrated Available Technology for high level radioactive wastes and the DOE Office of Technology Development has taken the position that mixed waste needs to be stabilized to the highest degree possible to ensure that the resulting wasteform meets both current and future regulatory specifications. Treatability studies conducted on a VTF pilot-scale system unit indicates that the mixed waste can be converted into a highly durable glass form, which exceeds the projected EPA performance based criteria. Upfront petitions can be processed by the EPA concurrently during facility construction or permitting activities; therefore, the SRS VTF will be capable of producing wastes which are considered non-hazardous sooner than otherwise expected. At the same time, EPA imposed conditional testing requirements to verify that the delisting levels are achieved by the fully operational VTF, ensures that only non-hazardous wastes are removed from hazardous waste management regulations. Vitrification of the (Abstract Truncated)

  14. Waste management system alternatives for treatment of wastes from spent fuel reprocessing

    McKee, R.W.; Swanson, J.L.; Daling, P.M.

    1986-09-01

    This study was performed to help identify a preferred TRU waste treatment alternative for reprocessing wastes with respect to waste form performance in a geologic repository, near-term waste management system risks, and minimum waste management system costs. The results were intended for use in developing TRU waste acceptance requirements that may be needed to meet regulatory requirements for disposal of TRU wastes in a geologic repository. The waste management system components included in this analysis are waste treatment and packaging, transportation, and disposal. The major features of the TRU waste treatment alternatives examined here include: (1) packaging (as-produced) without treatment (PWOT); (2) compaction of hulls and other compactable wastes; (3) incineration of combustibles with cementation of the ash plus compaction of hulls and filters; (4) melting of hulls and failed equipment plus incineration of combustibles with vitrification of the ash along with the HLW; (5a) decontamination of hulls and failed equipment to produce LLW plus incineration and incorporation of ash and other inert wastes into HLW glass; and (5b) variation of this fifth treatment alternative in which the incineration ash is incorporated into a separate TRU waste glass. The six alternative processing system concepts provide progressively increasing levels of TRU waste consolidation and TRU waste form integrity. Vitrification of HLW and intermediate-level liquid wastes (ILLW) was assumed in all cases

  15. Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility Complex Waste Acceptance Criteria

    W. Mahlon Heileson

    2006-10-01

    The Idaho Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Disposal Facility (ICDF) has been designed to accept CERCLA waste generated within the Idaho National Laboratory. Hazardous, mixed, low-level, and Toxic Substance Control Act waste will be accepted for disposal at the ICDF. The purpose of this document is to provide criteria for the quantities of radioactive and/or hazardous constituents allowable in waste streams designated for disposal at ICDF. This ICDF Complex Waste Acceptance Criteria is divided into four section: (1) ICDF Complex; (2) Landfill; (3) Evaporation Pond: and (4) Staging, Storage, Sizing, and Treatment Facility (SSSTF). The ICDF Complex section contains the compliance details, which are the same for all areas of the ICDF. Corresponding sections contain details specific to the landfill, evaporation pond, and the SSSTF. This document specifies chemical and radiological constituent acceptance criteria for waste that will be disposed of at ICDF. Compliance with the requirements of this document ensures protection of human health and the environment, including the Snake River Plain Aquifer. Waste placed in the ICDF landfill and evaporation pond must not cause groundwater in the Snake River Plain Aquifer to exceed maximum contaminant levels, a hazard index of 1, or 10-4 cumulative risk levels. The defined waste acceptance criteria concentrations are compared to the design inventory concentrations. The purpose of this comparison is to show that there is an acceptable uncertainty margin based on the actual constituent concentrations anticipated for disposal at the ICDF. Implementation of this Waste Acceptance Criteria document will ensure compliance with the Final Report of Decision for the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, Operable Unit 3-13. For waste to be received, it must meet the waste acceptance criteria for the specific disposal/treatment unit (on-Site or off-Site) for which it is destined.

  16. Temporal trends in water-quality constituent concentrations and annual loads of chemical constituents in Michigan watersheds, 1998–2013

    Hoard, Christopher J.; Fogarty, Lisa R.; Duris, Joseph W.

    2018-02-21

    In 1998, the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality and the U.S. Geological Survey began the Water Chemistry Monitoring Program for select streams in the State of Michigan. Objectives of this program were to provide assistance with (1) statewide water-quality assessments, (2) the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permitting process, and (3) water-resource management decisions. As part of this program, water-quality data collected from 1998 to 2013 were analyzed to identify potential trends for select constituents that were sampled. Sixteen water-quality constituents were analyzed at 32 stations throughout Michigan. Trend analysis on the various water-quality data was done using either the uncensored Seasonal Kendall test or through Tobit regression. In total, 79 trends were detected in the constituents analyzed for 32 river stations sampled for the study period—53 downward trends and 26 upward trends were detected. The most prevalent trend detected throughout the State was for ammonia, with 11 downward trends and 1 upward trend estimated.In addition to trends, constituent loads were estimated for 31 stations from 2002 to 2013 for stations that were sampled 12 times per year. Loads were computed using the Autobeale load computation program, which used the Beale ratio estimator approach to estimate an annual load. Constituent loads were the largest in large watershed streams with the highest annual flows such as the Saginaw and Grand Rivers. Likewise, constituent loads were the smallest in smaller tributaries that were sampled as part of this program such as the Boardman and Thunder Bay Rivers.

  17. Recycling waste

    Smith, P I.S.

    1976-01-01

    It is being realized that if environmental quality is to be improved the amount of waste generated by man has to be substantially reduced. There are two ways this can be achieved. First, by conserving materials and energy, and sacrificing economic growth, a solution that is completely unacceptable because it would mean some form of rationing, mass unemployment, and collapse of society as it is known. The second way to reduce the volume of waste is by planned recycling, re-use, and recovery. Already the reclamation industry recovers, processes, and turns back for re-use many products used by industry and thereby reduces the UK's import bill for raw materials. In the book, the author sets out the various ways materials may be recovered from industrial and municipal wastes. The broad technology of waste management is covered and attention is focused on man's new resources lying buried in the mountains of industrial wastes, the emissions from stocks, the effluents and sludges that turn rivers into open sewers, and municipal dumps in seventeen chapters. The final chapter lists terms and concepts used in waste technology, organizations concerned with waste management, and sources of information about recycling waste. (MCW)

  18. Waste management

    Soule, H.F.

    1975-01-01

    Current planning for the management of radioactive wastes, with some emphasis on plutonium contaminated wastes, includes the provision of re-positories from which the waste can be safely removed to permanent disposal. A number of possibilities for permanent disposal are under investigation with the most favorable, at the present time, apparently disposal in a stable geological formation. However, final choice cannot be made until all studies are completed and a pilot phase demonstrates the adequacy of the chosen method. The radioactive wastes which result from all portions of the fuel cycle could comprise an important source of exposure to the public if permitted to do so. The objectives of the AEC waste management program are to provide methods of treating, handling and storing these wastes so that this exposure will not occur. This paper is intended to describe some of the problems and current progress of waste management programs, with emphasis on plutonium-contaminated wastes. Since the technology in this field is advancing at a rapid pace, the descriptions given can be regarded only as a snapshot at one point in time. (author)

  19. Sawmill "Waste"

    Fred C. Simmons; Adna R. Bond

    1955-01-01

    Sawmills have the reputation of being very wasteful in converting logs and bolts into lumber and timbers. Almost everyone has seen the great heaps of sawdust and slabs that collect at sawmills. Frequently the question is asked, "Why doesn't somebody do something about this terrible waste of wood?"

  20. Waste Disposal

    Neerdael, B.; Marivoet, J.; Put, M.; B-Verstricht, J.; Van Iseghem, P.; Buyens, M.

    1998-01-01

    This contribution describes the main activities of the Waste and Disposal Department of the Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK-CEN. Achievements in 1997 in three topical areas are reported on: performance assessments, waste forms/packages and near-and far field studies

  1. Waste - the human factor

    McLaren, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    Waste is a human concept, referring to things that have no use to human beings and arising entirely from human activities. It is the useless residue of any human process that affects the economy or environment. The changes brought about by the industrial revolution are enormous; fossil fuels, not just photosynthesis, now provide energy and wastes at rates far exceeding the capacity of the ecosystem to absorb or recycle. Three major problems face the Planet: accelerated population growth, accelerated use of resources for energy and industry, and the disproportionate use of resources and waste between the northern and southern parts of the Planet. Knowledge and science are in a position to provide both human creativity and the directed technology to take remedial action and rediscover harmony between nature and mankind. Only social and political will is lacking

  2. Nuclear waste

    1992-05-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended in 1987, directed the Secretary of Energy to, among other things, investigate Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as a potential site for permanently disposing of highly radioactive wastes in an underground repository. In April 1991, the authors testified on Yucca Mountain project expenditures before your Subcommittee. Because of the significance of the authors findings regrading DOE's program management and expenditures, you asked the authors to continue reviewing program expenditures in depth. As agreed with your office, the authors reviewed the expenditures of project funds made available to the Department of Energy's (DOE) Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, which is the lead project contractor for developing a nuclear waste package that wold be used for disposing of nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain. This report discusses the laboratory's use of nuclear waste funds to support independent research projects and to manage Yucca Mountain project activities. It also discusses the laboratory's project contracting practices

  3. Nuclear waste

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The NEA Nuclear Waste Bulletin has been prepared by the Radiation Protection and Waste Management Division of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency to provide a means of communication amongst the various technical and policy groups within the waste management community. In particular, it is intended to provide timely and concise information on radioactive waste management activities, policies and programmes in Member countries and at the NEA. It is also intended that the Bulletin assists in the communication of recent developments in a variety of areas contributing to the development of acceptable technology for the management and disposal of nuclear waste (e.g., performance assessment, in-situ investigations, repository engineering, scientific data bases, regulatory developments, etc)

  4. Nuclear waste

    Pligt, J. van der

    1989-01-01

    This chapter present a brief overview of the current situation of siting radioactive wastes. This is followed by an overview of various psychological approaches attempting to analyse public reactions to nuclear facilities. It will be argued that public reactions to nuclear waste factilities must be seen in the context of more general attitudes toward nuclear energy. The latter are not only based upon perceptions of the health and environmental risks but are built on values, and sets of attributes which need not be similar to the representations o the experts and policy-makers. The issue of siting nuclear waste facilities is also embedded in a wider moral and political domain. This is illustrated by the importance of equity issues in siting radioactive wastes. In the last section, the implications of the present line of argument for risk communication and public participation in decisions about siting radioactive wastes will be briefly discussed. (author). 49 refs

  5. Leach tests on grouts made with actual and trace metal-spiked synthetic phosphate/sulfate waste

    Serne, R.J.; Martin, W.J.; LeGore, V.L.; Lindenmeier, C.W.; McLaurine, S.B.; Martin, P.F.C.; Lokken, R.O.

    1989-10-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted experiments to produce empirical leach rate data for phosphate-sulfate waste (PSW) grout. Effective diffusivities were measured for various radionuclides ( 90 Sr, 99 Tc, 14 C, 129 I, 137 Cs, 60 Co, 54 Mn, and U), stable major components (NO 3 - , SO 4 2- , H 3 BO 3 , K and Na) and the trace constituents Ag, As, Cd, Hg, Pb, and Se. Two types of leach tests were used on samples of actual PSW grout and synthetic PSW grout: the American Nuclear Society (ANS) 16.1 intermittent replacement leach test and a static leach test. Grout produced from both synthetic and real PSW showed low leach rates for the trace metal constituents and most of the waste radionuclides. Many of the spiked trace metals and radionuclides were not detected in any leachates. None of the effluents contained measurable quantities of 137 Cs, 60 Co, 54 Mn, 109 Cd, 51 Cr, 210 Pb, 203 Hg, or As. For those trace species with detectable leach rates, 125 I appeared to have the greatest leach rate, followed by 99 Tc, 75 Se, and finally U, 14 C, and 110m Ag. Leach rates for nitrate are between those for I and Tc, but there is much scatter in the nitrate data because of the very low nitrate inventory. 32 refs., 6 figs., 15 tabs

  6. Radioactive Waste Repositories Administration - SURAO

    Kucerka, M.

    1998-01-01

    The Atomic Act specifies, among other things, responsibilities of the government in the field of safe disposal of radioactive wastes. To satisfy this responsibility, the Ministry of Industry and Trade has established the Radioactive Waste Repositories Administration (SURAO). SURAO's major responsibilities include: (a) the preparation, construction, commissioning, operation, and decommissioning of radioactive waste repositories and the monitoring of their environmental impacts; (b) radioactive waste management; (c) spent or irradiated nuclear fuel processing into a form suitable for storage/disposal or reuse; (d) record-keeping of received radioactive wastes and their producers; (e) administration of fund transfers as stipulated by the Atomic Act, Article 27; (f) development of proposals for specification of fees to be paid to the Nuclear Account; (g) responsibility for and coordination of research and development in the field of radioactive waste handling and management; (h) supervision of licensees' margin earmarked for the decommissioning of their facilities; (i) providing services in radioactive waste handling and management; (j) handling and management of radioactive wastes that have been transferred to the Czech Republic from abroad and cannot be sent back; (k) interim administration of radioactive wastes that have become state property. The Statute of the Administration is reproduced in full. (P.A.)

  7. Constituent quark mass and nucleon properties in nuclei

    Beyer, M.; Singh, S.K.

    1986-01-01

    It is shown that the Nolen-Schiffer anomaly, the quenching of gsub(A) and the increase in some electromagnetic properties of nucleons in nuclei can all be explained qualitatively in a constituent quark model if the quark mass is assumed to depend on its confinement size. (author)

  8. Significance of high energy spin effects in constituent pictures

    Chen, C.K.

    1977-01-01

    The spin information about high energy hadronic reactions is important for further understanding of the nature and the behavior of hadronic constituents. The usefulness of the information is discussed in the cases of dilepton production from hadronic collisions, large P/sub T/ inclusive and elastic scatterings, and small angle elastic scattering and quantum number exchanged reactions

  9. Tensor Susceptibilities of the Vacuum from Constituent Quarks

    Broniowski, W.; Polyakov, M.; Goeke, K.; Hyun-Chul Kim

    1998-01-01

    We show that the constituent quark model leads to simple expression for the isoscalar and isovector tensor susceptibilities of the vacuum. The found values are negative and of magnitude compatible with QCD-sum-rule parametrizations of spectral densities in appropriate L=1-meson channels. (author)

  10. Charge radii of octet and decuplet baryons in chiral constituent ...

    in electron–baryon scattering experiments [4,5] giving rp = 0.877 ± 0.007 fm ... breaking of the SU(3) symmetry and a non-vanishing neutron charge mean square radius ... QCD Lagrangian is not invariant under the chiral transformation. ... of a constituent quark GBs [34–37], successfully explains the 'proton spin problem'.

  11. Tensor Susceptibilities of the Vacuum from Constituent Quarks

    Broniowski, W [The H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland); Polyakov, M; Goeke, K [Institute for Theoretical Physics II, Ruhr-Universitaet-Bochum, Bochum (Germany); Kim, Hyun-Chul [Pusan National University, Department of Physics, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-05-15

    We show that the constituent quark model leads to simple expression for the isoscalar and isovector tensor susceptibilities of the vacuum. The found values are negative and of magnitude compatible with QCD-sum-rule parametrizations of spectral densities in appropriate L=1-meson channels. (author)

  12. Scattering Phase Functions of Constituents of Mineral Dust Aerosols ...

    ... Montmorillonte, Hematite, Calcite and Quartz. The behaviour of these constituents as observed by their phase functions provide information on the optical properties and radiative effects of the mineral dust types and is therefore useful on regional and global scales in assessing radiative impacts of dust outbreak events.

  13. Exploring basic biochemical constituents in the body tissues of ...

    Feeding regime did not influence susceptibility to mass loss during export. Animal age influenced the biochemical composition and export performance of abalone. Keywords: abalone; aquaculture; feeds; Haliotis midae; live export; mass loss; tissue biochemical constituents. African Journal of Marine Science 2010, 32(1): ...

  14. Chemical composition of volatile constituents from the leaves of Aloe ...

    AJB SERVER

    2006-09-18

    Sep 18, 2006 ... very helpful enzymes, saponins, hormones and amino acids which can be absorbed into the human skin. One of the constituents of the Aloe pith is ... higher than green tea and grape seed extracts, respectively. It is also well ...

  15. Characterization of Formation Water Constituents and the Effect of ...

    Michael Horsfall

    ABSTRACT: The research work examined the constituents of formation water and fresh water dilution effects from a land location in the Niger Delta Area of Nigeria. Some selected physicochemical and microbiological analyses were determined at ambient temperature (82oF) and formation temperature (185oF). Analysis of ...

  16. Erythrocyte indices and serum biochemical constituents of broiler ...

    One hundred and twenty (120) four weeks old Ross breed broiler finisher birds were used to study the effect of feeding maggot meal as a replacement for fish meal on erythrocyte indices and serum biochemical constituents. The birds were divided into 5 treatment groups identified as T1, T2, T3 , T4 and T5 with 24 birds per ...

  17. Constituent Aspects of Workplace Guidance in Secondary VET

    Swager, Robert; Klarus, Ruud; van Merriënboer, Jeroen J. G.; Nieuwenhuis, Loek F. M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to present an integrated model of workplace guidance to enhance awareness of what constitutes good guidance, to improve workplace guidance practices in vocational education and training. Design/methodology/approach: To identify constituent aspects of workplace guidance, a systematic search of Web of Science was conducted,…

  18. Activity guided isolation of chemical constituents from the ...

    In this study we investigated the chemical constituents of bioactive methanol extract of Euphorbia schimperi C. Presl. For this the methanol extract was fractionated into 20, 40, 60, 80% MeOH in CHCl3, and 100% MeOH fractions respectively by vacuum liquid chromatography. Excision wound surface of the animals were ...

  19. Anti- toxoplasma gondii activity of constituents from Balsamocitrus ...

    Isolation, characterization and anti-Toxoplasma gondii activity of constituents from the CH2Cl2/MeOH (1/1) extract of the roots of the cameroonian plant Balsamocitrus camerunensis L. were investigated in this study. Four known coumarins derivatives were isolated, namely, marmin (1), imperatorin (2), xanthoxyletin (3), ...

  20. Cytotoxic potential of valerian constituents and valerian tinctures

    Bos, R.; Hendriks, H; Scheffer, J.J C; Woerdenbag, H.J.

    Underground parts of three Valeriana species, namely V. officinalis L. s.l., V. wallichii DC. (V. jatamansi Jones), and V. edulis Nutt. ex Torr & Gray ssp. procera (H.B.K.) F. G. Meyer (V. mexicana DC.), are used in phytotherapy because of their mild sedative properties. Characteristic constituents