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Sample records for major structural polysaccharides

  1. Structure of polysaccharide antibiotics

    Matutano, L.

    1966-01-01

    Study of the structure of antibiotics having two or several sugars in their molecule. One may distinguish: the polysaccharide antibiotics themselves, made up of two or several sugars either with or without nitrogen, such as streptomycin, neomycins, paromomycine, kanamycin, chalcomycin; the hetero-polysaccharide antibiotics made up of one saccharide part linked to an aglycone of various type through a glucoside: macrolide, pigment, pyrimidine purine. Amongst these latter are: erythromycin, magnamycin, spiramycin, oleandomycin, cinerubin and amicetin. The sugars can either play a direct role in biochemical reactions or act as a dissolving agent, as far as the anti-microbe power of these antibiotics is concerned. (author) [fr

  2. Chemical Structures and Bioactivities of Sulfated Polysaccharides from Marine Algae

    H. Stephen Ewart

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Sulfated polysaccharides and their lower molecular weight oligosaccharide derivatives from marine macroalgae have been shown to possess a variety of biological activities. The present paper will review the recent progress in research on the structural chemistry and the bioactivities of these marine algal biomaterials. In particular, it will provide an update on the structural chemistry of the major sulfated polysaccharides synthesized by seaweeds including the galactans (e.g., agarans and carrageenans, ulvans, and fucans. It will then review the recent findings on the anticoagulant/antithrombotic, antiviral, immuno-inflammatory, antilipidemic and antioxidant activities of sulfated polysaccharides and their potential for therapeutic application.

  3. Structural Characterization and Enzymatic Modification of Soybean Polysaccharides

    Pierce, Brian; Wichmann, Jesper

    % galacturonic acid, 8% xylose, 3% rhamnose, and 3% fucose. Currently, the majority of this material is disposed of as waste, increasing production costs. Opportunities exist for the develop-ment of novel functional ingredients from this abundant and underutilized ma-terial; however, efforts in this area......The work in this thesis explores the structure of soybean polysaccharides, and examines approaches for the chemical and enzymatic degradation and solu-bilization of this material. Soybean polysaccharides are produced in large quantities globally as a by-product of various soy production processes...... are currently limited by the material’s insol-ubility. A central hypothesis of this work was that by obtaining a more complete understanding of the structure of this material, chemical and enzymatic ap-proaches could be developed to modify the polysaccharides, creating soluble polysaccharide fractions...

  4. Structural analysis of cell wall polysaccharides using PACE

    Mortimer, Jennifer C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Joint BioEnergy Institute

    2017-01-01

    The plant cell wall is composed of many complex polysaccharides. The composition and structure of the polysaccharides affect various cell properties including cell shape, cell function and cell adhesion. Many techniques to characterize polysaccharide structure are complicated, requiring expensive equipment and specialized operators e.g. NMR, MALDI-MS. PACE (Polysaccharide Analysis using Carbohydrate gel Electrophoresis) uses a simple, rapid technique to analyze polysaccharide quantity and structure (Goubet et al. 2002). Whilst the method here describes xylan analysis, it can be applied (by use of the appropriate glycosyl hydrolase) to any cell wall polysaccharide.

  5. Three-Dimensional Structural Aspects of Protein–Polysaccharide Interactions

    Masamichi Nagae

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Linear polysaccharides are typically composed of repeating mono- or disaccharide units and are ubiquitous among living organisms. Polysaccharide diversity arises from chain-length variation, branching, and additional modifications. Structural diversity is associated with various physiological functions, which are often regulated by cognate polysaccharide-binding proteins. Proteins that interact with linear polysaccharides have been identified or developed, such as galectins and polysaccharide-specific antibodies, respectively. Currently, data is accumulating on the three-dimensional structure of polysaccharide-binding proteins. These proteins are classified into two types: exo-type and endo-type. The former group specifically interacts with the terminal units of polysaccharides, whereas the latter with internal units. In this review, we describe the structural aspects of exo-type and endo-type protein-polysaccharide interactions. Further, we discuss the structural basis for affinity and specificity enhancement in the face of inherently weak binding interactions.

  6. Structure of polysaccharide and structural analysis by x-ray

    Yuguchi, Yoshiaki

    2010-01-01

    Polysaccharides occur in plants and the living body in the solid, gel, or liquid. They have a highly structural diversity and possess the potential to be used for development of new materials and energy sources. So it is very important to understand their molecular structure under various conditions. This review introduces the structural characteristics of polysaccharides and the examples of their analysis by the X-ray scattering method. (author)

  7. Structural Features and Healthy Properties of Polysaccharides Occurring in Mushrooms

    Eva Guillamón

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharides from mushrooms have attracted a great deal of attention due to the many healthy benefits they have demonstrated, such as immunomodulation, anticancer activity, prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, antiviral and antimicrobial effects, among others. Isolation and purification of polysaccharides commonly involve several steps, and different techniques are actually available in order to increase extraction yield and purity. Studies have demonstrated that the molecular structure and arrangement significantly influence the biological activity; therefore, there is a wide range of analytical techniques for the elucidation of chemical structures. Different polysaccharides have been isolated from mushrooms, most of them consisting of β-linked glucans, such as lentinan from Lentinus edodes, pleuran from Pleurotus species, schizophyllan from Schizophyllum commune, calocyban from Calocybe indica, or ganoderan and ganopoly from Ganoderma lucidum. This article reviews the main methods of polysaccharide isolation and structural characterization, as well as some of the most important polysaccharides isolated from mushrooms and the healthy benefits they provide.

  8. Recent Advances in Marine Algae Polysaccharides: Isolation, Structure, and Activities.

    Xu, Shu-Ying; Huang, Xuesong; Cheong, Kit-Leong

    2017-12-13

    Marine algae have attracted a great deal of interest as excellent sources of nutrients. Polysaccharides are the main components in marine algae, hence a great deal of attention has been directed at isolation and characterization of marine algae polysaccharides because of their numerous health benefits. In this review, extraction and purification approaches and chemico-physical properties of marine algae polysaccharides (MAPs) are summarized. The biological activities, which include immunomodulatory, antitumor, antiviral, antioxidant, and hypolipidemic, are also discussed. Additionally, structure-function relationships are analyzed and summarized. MAPs' biological activities are closely correlated with their monosaccharide composition, molecular weights, linkage types, and chain conformation. In order to promote further exploitation and utilization of polysaccharides from marine algae for functional food and pharmaceutical areas, high efficiency, and low-cost polysaccharide extraction and purification methods, quality control, structure-function activity relationships, and specific mechanisms of MAPs activation need to be extensively investigated.

  9. Structural modification of polysaccharides: A biochemical-genetic approach

    Kern, Roger G.; Petersen, Gene R.

    1991-01-01

    Polysaccharides have a wide range of industrial and biomedical applications. An industry trend is underway towards the increased use of bacteria to produce polysaccharides. Long term goals of this work are the adaptation and enhancement of saccharide properties for electronic and optic applications. In this report we illustrate the application of enzyme-bearing bacteriophage on strains of the enteric bacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae, which produces a polysaccharide with the relatively rare rheological property of drag-reduction. This has resulted in the production of new polysaccharides with enhanced rheological properties. Our laboratory is developing techniques for processing and structurally modifying bacterial polysaccharides and oligosaccharides which comprise their basic polymeric repeat units. Our research has focused on bacteriophage which produce specific polysaccharide degrading enzymes. This has lead to the development of enzymes generated by bacteriophage as tools for polysaccharide modification and purification. These enzymes were used to efficiently convert the native material to uniform-sized high molecular weight polymers, or alternatively into high-purity oligosaccharides. Enzyme-bearing bacteriophage also serve as genetic selection tools for bacteria that produce new families of polysaccharides with modified structures.

  10. Structure of polysaccharide antibiotics; Structure des antibiotiques polysaccharidiques

    Matutano, L. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-07-01

    Study of the structure of antibiotics having two or several sugars in their molecule. One may distinguish: the polysaccharide antibiotics themselves, made up of two or several sugars either with or without nitrogen, such as streptomycin, neomycins, paromomycine, kanamycin, chalcomycin; the hetero-polysaccharide antibiotics made up of one saccharide part linked to an aglycone of various type through a glucoside: macrolide, pigment, pyrimidine purine. Amongst these latter are: erythromycin, magnamycin, spiramycin, oleandomycin, cinerubin and amicetin. The sugars can either play a direct role in biochemical reactions or act as a dissolving agent, as far as the anti-microbe power of these antibiotics is concerned. (author) [French] Etude de la structure des antibiotiques qui possedent dans leur molecule deux ou plusieurs sucres. On distingue: les antibiotiques polysaccharidiques proprement dits, constitues de deux eu plusieurs sucres azotes ou non, tels que streptomycines, neomycines, paromomycines, kanamycine, chalcomycine; les antibiotiques heteropolysaccharidiques formes d'une partie saccharidique liee glycosidiquement a un aglycone de nature diverse: macrolide - pigment - purine pyrimidine. On compte parmi ceux-ci: erythroraycine rnagnamycine, spiromycine, oleandomycine, cinerubine et amicetine. Dans le pouvoir antimicrobien de ces antibiotiques les sucres peuvent jouer soit un role direct dans les reactions biochimiques, soit agir comme solubilisant. (auteur)

  11. Structure of polysaccharide antibiotics; Structure des antibiotiques polysaccharidiques

    Matutano, L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-07-01

    Study of the structure of antibiotics having two or several sugars in their molecule. One may distinguish: the polysaccharide antibiotics themselves, made up of two or several sugars either with or without nitrogen, such as streptomycin, neomycins, paromomycine, kanamycin, chalcomycin; the hetero-polysaccharide antibiotics made up of one saccharide part linked to an aglycone of various type through a glucoside: macrolide, pigment, pyrimidine purine. Amongst these latter are: erythromycin, magnamycin, spiramycin, oleandomycin, cinerubin and amicetin. The sugars can either play a direct role in biochemical reactions or act as a dissolving agent, as far as the anti-microbe power of these antibiotics is concerned. (author) [French] Etude de la structure des antibiotiques qui possedent dans leur molecule deux ou plusieurs sucres. On distingue: les antibiotiques polysaccharidiques proprement dits, constitues de deux eu plusieurs sucres azotes ou non, tels que streptomycines, neomycines, paromomycines, kanamycine, chalcomycine; les antibiotiques heteropolysaccharidiques formes d'une partie saccharidique liee glycosidiquement a un aglycone de nature diverse: macrolide - pigment - purine pyrimidine. On compte parmi ceux-ci: erythroraycine rnagnamycine, spiromycine, oleandomycine, cinerubine et amicetine. Dans le pouvoir antimicrobien de ces antibiotiques les sucres peuvent jouer soit un role direct dans les reactions biochimiques, soit agir comme solubilisant. (auteur)

  12. Structure and immunological activity of a novel polysaccharide from ...

    The water-soluble polysaccharide (GLP) was obtained from the spores of Ganoderma lucidum by hot water extraction and gel chromatography. The molecular weight was estimated to be 143 KD determined by using HPGPC. Structure features of GLP were investigated by a combination of chemical and instrumental ...

  13. Structure of pectic polysaccharides from sunflower salts-soluble fraction

    The manuscript discusses the structural features of pectin polysaccharides extracted from seedless sunflower head residues. The analysis using 1H, 13C and two-dimensional gHSQC NMR showed various numbers of methyl and hydroxyl groups attached to the anomeric carbons in the pectin backbone at differe...

  14. Complete structure of the polysaccharide from Streptococcus sanguis J22

    Abeygunawardana, C.; Bush, C.A.; Cisar, J.O.

    1990-01-01

    The cell wall polysaccharides of certain oral streptococci such as Streptococcus sanguis strains 34 and J22, although immunologically distinct, act as receptors for the fimbrial lectins of Actinomyces viscosus T14V. The authors report the complete covalent structure of the polysaccharide from S. sanguis J22 which is composed of a heptasaccharide subunit linked by phosphodiester bonds. The repeating subunit, which contains α-GalNAc, α-rhamnose, β-rhamnose, β-glucose, and β-galactose all in the pyranoside form and β-galactofuranose, is compared with the previously published structure of the polysaccharide from strain 34. The structure has been determined almost exclusively by high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance methods. The 1 H and 13 C NMR spectra of the polysaccharides from both strains 34 and J22 have been completely assigned. The stereochemistry of pyranosides was assigned from J H-H values determined from phase-sensitive COSY spectra, and acetamido sugars were assigned by correlation of the resonances of the amide 1 H with the sugar ring protons. The 13 C spectra were assigned by 1 H-detected multiple-quantum correlation (HMQC) spectra, and the assignments were confirmed by 1 H-detected multiple-bond correlation (HMBC) spectra. The positions of the glycosidic linkages were assigned by detection of three-bond 1 H- 13 C correlation across the glycosidic linkage in the HMBC spectra. The positions of the phosphodiester linkages were determined by splittings observed in the 13 C resonances due to 31 P coupling and also by 1 H-detected 31 P correlation spectroscopy

  15. Structural analysis of a homogeneous polysaccharide from Achatina fulica.

    Liu, Jie; Shang, Feineng; Yang, Zengming; Wu, Mingyi; Zhao, Jinhua

    2017-05-01

    Edible snails have been widely used as a health food and medicine in many countries. In our study, a water-soluble polysaccharide (AF-1) was isolated and purified from Achatina fulica by papain enzymolysis, alcohol precipitation and strong anion exchange chromatography. Structureof the polysaccharide was analyzed and characterized by chemical and instrumental methods, such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography, analysis of monosaccharide composition, methylation analysis, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy ( 1 H, 13 C, COSY, TOCSY, NOESY, HSQC and HMBC). Chemical composition analysis indicated that AF-1 is composed of glucose (Glc) and its average molecular weight is 1710kDa. Structural analysis suggested that AF-1 is mainly consisted of a linear repeating backbone of (1→4) linked α-d-Glc p residues with one branch, α-d-Glc p, attached to the main chain by (1→6) glycosidic bonds at every five main-chain units. Further studies on biological activities of the polysaccharide are currently in progress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. La relation extraction-structure-propriétés des polysaccharides : cas des galactomannanes et des alginates

    Gillet, Sébastien; Richel, Aurore

    2014-01-01

    Polysaccharides are usually composed of various monosaccharides linked with different glucosidic bonds. Some polysaccharides have hyperbranched structures. Moreover, polysaccharides often have high molecular weights, and tend to form aggregates in solution that can mask the behavior of individual macromolecules. In consequence, to characterize the chemical structures, chain conformations and physical properties of polysaccharides is not an easy task.

  17. Structural studies of the O-specific polysaccharide(s) from the lipopolysaccharide of Azospirillum brasilense type strain Sp7.

    Sigida, Elena N; Fedonenko, Yuliya P; Shashkov, Alexander S; Zdorovenko, Evelina L; Konnova, Svetlana A; Ignatov, Vladimir V; Knirel, Yuriy A

    2013-10-18

    Lipopolysaccharide was obtained by phenol-water extraction from dried bacterial cells of Azospirillum brasilense type strain Sp7. Mild acid hydrolysis of the lipopolysaccharide followed by GPC on Sephadex G-50 resulted in a polysaccharide mixture, which was studied by composition and methylation analyses, Smith degradation and (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. The following polysaccharide structures were established, where italics indicate a non-stoichiometric (∼40%) 2-O-methylation of l-rhamnose. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Structural characterization and immunomodulating activity of polysaccharide from Dendrobium officinale.

    He, Tao-Bin; Huang, Yan-Ping; Yang, Liu; Liu, Ti-Ti; Gong, Wan-Ying; Wang, Xuan-Jun; Sheng, Jun; Hu, Jiang-Miao

    2016-02-01

    A neutral heteropolysaccharide (DOP-1-1) consisted by mannose and glucose (5.9:1) with an average molecular weight at about 1.78×10(5) Da was purified from Dendrobium officinale. Based on Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FT-IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra, it suggested that partial structure of DOP-1-1 is an O-acetylated glucomannan with β-d configuration in pyranose sugar forms. The immunomodulatory activity of DOP-1-1 was evaluated by secretion level of cytokine (interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-10) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in vitro. Our results suggested that DOP-1-1 could stimulate cytokine production (TNF-α, IL-1β) in cells. These findings demonstrated that the purified polysaccharide from D. officinale presented significant immune-modulating activities. Furthermore, by Western-blot we can found that the signaling pathways of DOP-1-1 induced immune activities involving ERK1/2 and NF-кB. As to antioxidant activity, DOP-1-1 hadn't showed remarkable scavenging capacity of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) in contrast with other studies of polysaccharides from D. officinale. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Structures of two cell wall-associated polysaccharides of a Streptococcus mitis biovar 1 strain. A unique teichoic acid-like polysaccharide and the group O antigen which is a C-polysaccharide in common with pneumococci

    Bergström, N; Jansson, P.-E.; Kilian, Mogens

    2000-01-01

    The cell wall of Streptococcus mitis biovar 1 strain SK137 contains the C-polysaccharide known as the common antigen of a closely related species Streptococcus pneumoniae, and a teichoic acid-like polysaccharide with a unique structure. The two polysaccharides are different entities and could...... be partially separated by gel chromatography. The structures of the two polysaccharides were determined by chemical methods and by NMR spectroscopy. The teichoic acid-like polymer has a heptasaccharide phosphate repeating unit with the following structure: The structure neither contains ribitol nor glycerol...... phosphate as classical teichoic acids do, thus we have used the expression teichoic acid-like for this polysaccharide. The following structure of the C-polysaccharide repeating unit was established: where AAT is 2-acetamido-4-amino-2,4, 6-trideoxy-D-galactose. It has a carbohydrate backbone identical...

  20. Structural and conformational study of polysaccharides by nuclear magnetic resonance

    Bossennec, Veronique

    1989-01-01

    As some natural polysaccharides are involved in important biological processes, the use of nuclear magnetic resonance appears to be an adapted mean to determine their structure-activity relationship and is therefore the object of this research thesis. By using bi-dimensional proton-based NMR techniques, it is possible to identify minority saccharide units, to determine their conformation, and to identify units which they are bound to. The author reports the application of these methods to swine mucosa heparin, and to heparins displaying a high and low anticoagulant activity. The dermatan sulphate has also been studied, and the NMR analysis allowed some polymer structure irregularities to be identified. A molecular modelling of dermatan sulphate has been performed [fr

  1. Structure Characterization and Immunomodulating Effects of Polysaccharides Isolated from Dendrobium officinale.

    Wei, Wei; Feng, Lei; Bao, Wan-Rong; Ma, Dik-Lung; Leung, Chung-Hang; Nie, Shao-Ping; Han, Quan-Bin

    2016-02-03

    A crude polysaccharide fraction (cDOP) has been determined to be the characteristic marker of Dendrobium officinale, an expensive tea material in Asia, but its chemistry and bioactivity have not been studied. In work reported here, cDOP was destarched (DOP, 90% yield) and separated into two subfraction polysaccharides, DOPa and DOPb, which were characterized by monosaccharide composition and methylation analyses and spectral analyses (FT-IR and (1)H and (13)C NMR). Both are composed of mannose and glucose at similar ratios and have a similar structure with a backbone of 1,4-linked β-D-mannopyranosyl and β-D-glucopyranosyl residues. Significant differences were observed only in their molecular weights. Bioassay using mouse macrophage cell line RAW264.7 indicated that DOP and its two subfractions enhance cell proliferation, TNF-α secretion, and phagocytosis in a dose-dependent manner. They also induced the proliferation of lymphocytes alone and with mitogens. DOPa and DOPb are thus proven to be major, active polysaccharide markers of D. officinale.

  2. Structure and organization of phospholipid/polysaccharide nanoparticles

    Gerelli, Y; Bari, M T Di; Deriu, A; Cantu, L; Colombo, P; Como, C; Motta, S; Sonvico, F; May, R

    2008-01-01

    In recent years nanoparticles and microparticles composed of polymeric or lipid material have been proposed as drug carriers for improving the efficacy of encapsulated drugs. For the production of these systems different materials have been proposed, among them phospholipids and polysaccharides due to their biocompatibility, biodegradability, low cost and safety. We report here a morphological and structural investigation, performed using cryo-TEM, static light scattering and small angle neutron and x-ray scattering, on phospholipid/saccharide nanoparticles loaded with a lipophilic positively charged drug (tamoxifen citrate) used in breast cancer therapy. The lipid component was soybean lecithin; the saccharide one was chitosan that usually acts as an outer coating increasing vesicle stability. The microscopy and scattering data indicate the presence of two distinct nanoparticle families: uni-lamellar vesicles with average radius 90 A and multi-lamellar vesicles with average radius 440 A. In both families the inner core is occupied by the solvent. The presence of tamoxifen gives rise to a multi-lamellar structure of the lipid outer shell. It also induces a positive surface charge into the vesicles, repelling the positively charged chitosan molecules which therefore do not take part in nanoparticle formation

  3. Structure and organization of phospholipid/polysaccharide nanoparticles

    Gerelli, Y; Bari, M T Di; Deriu, A [Dipartimento di Fisica and CNISM, Universita degli Studi di Parma and CRS SOFT, INFM-CNR (Italy); Cantu, L [Dipartimento di Chimica, Biochimica e Biotecnologie per la Medicina-LITA, Universita di Milano (Italy); Colombo, P; Como, C; Motta, S; Sonvico, F [Dipartimento Farmaceutico, Universita degli Studi di Parma (Italy); May, R [Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble (France)], E-mail: Antonio.Deriu@fis.unipr.it

    2008-03-12

    In recent years nanoparticles and microparticles composed of polymeric or lipid material have been proposed as drug carriers for improving the efficacy of encapsulated drugs. For the production of these systems different materials have been proposed, among them phospholipids and polysaccharides due to their biocompatibility, biodegradability, low cost and safety. We report here a morphological and structural investigation, performed using cryo-TEM, static light scattering and small angle neutron and x-ray scattering, on phospholipid/saccharide nanoparticles loaded with a lipophilic positively charged drug (tamoxifen citrate) used in breast cancer therapy. The lipid component was soybean lecithin; the saccharide one was chitosan that usually acts as an outer coating increasing vesicle stability. The microscopy and scattering data indicate the presence of two distinct nanoparticle families: uni-lamellar vesicles with average radius 90 A and multi-lamellar vesicles with average radius 440 A. In both families the inner core is occupied by the solvent. The presence of tamoxifen gives rise to a multi-lamellar structure of the lipid outer shell. It also induces a positive surface charge into the vesicles, repelling the positively charged chitosan molecules which therefore do not take part in nanoparticle formation.

  4. Structure and organization of phospholipid/polysaccharide nanoparticles

    Gerelli, Y.; Di Bari, M. T.; Deriu, A.; Cantù, L.; Colombo, P.; Como, C.; Motta, S.; Sonvico, F.; May, R.

    2008-03-01

    In recent years nanoparticles and microparticles composed of polymeric or lipid material have been proposed as drug carriers for improving the efficacy of encapsulated drugs. For the production of these systems different materials have been proposed, among them phospholipids and polysaccharides due to their biocompatibility, biodegradability, low cost and safety. We report here a morphological and structural investigation, performed using cryo-TEM, static light scattering and small angle neutron and x-ray scattering, on phospholipid/saccharide nanoparticles loaded with a lipophilic positively charged drug (tamoxifen citrate) used in breast cancer therapy. The lipid component was soybean lecithin; the saccharide one was chitosan that usually acts as an outer coating increasing vesicle stability. The microscopy and scattering data indicate the presence of two distinct nanoparticle families: uni-lamellar vesicles with average radius 90 Å and multi-lamellar vesicles with average radius 440 Å. In both families the inner core is occupied by the solvent. The presence of tamoxifen gives rise to a multi-lamellar structure of the lipid outer shell. It also induces a positive surface charge into the vesicles, repelling the positively charged chitosan molecules which therefore do not take part in nanoparticle formation.

  5. Flocculation of colloidal clay by bacterial polysaccharides: effect of macromolecule charge and structure.

    Labille, J; Thomas, F; Milas, M; Vanhaverbeke, C

    2005-04-01

    The molecular mechanism of montmorillonite flocculation by bacterial polysaccharides was investigated, with special emphasis on the effect of carboxylic charges in the macromolecules on the mechanisms of interaction with the clay surface. An indirect way to quantify the energy of interaction was used, by comparing the flocculation ability of variously acidic polysaccharides. Data on tensile strength of aggregates in diluted suspension were collected by timed size measurements in the domain 0.1-600 microm, using laser diffraction. The flow behavior of settled aggregates was studied by rheology measurements. Flocculation of colloidal clay suspension by polysaccharides requires cancelling of the electrostatic repulsions by salts, which allows approach of clay surfaces close enough to be bridged by adsorbing macromolecules. The amount of acidic charges of the polysaccharides, and especially their location in the molecular structure, governs the bridging mechanism and the resulting tensile strength of the aggregates. The exposure of carboxylate groups located on side chains strongly promotes flocculation. In turn, charges located on the backbone of the polysaccharide are less accessible to interaction, and the flocculation ability of such polysaccharides is lowered. Measurements at different pH indicate that adsorption of acidic polysaccharides occurs via electrostatic interactions on the amphoteric edge surface of clay platelets, whereas neutral polysaccharides rather adsorb via weak interactions. Increased tensile strength in diluted aggregates due to strong surface interactions results in proportionally increased viscosity of the concentrated aggregates.

  6. [Correlation analysis of major agronomic characters and the polysaccharide contents in Dendrobium officinale].

    Zhang, Lei; Zheng, Xi-Long; Qiu, Dao-Shou; Cai, Shi-Ke; Luo, Huan-Ming; Deng, Rui-Yun; Liu, Xiao-Jin

    2013-10-01

    In order to provide theoretical and technological basis for the germplasm innovation and variety breeding in Dendrobium officinale, a study of the correlation between polysaccharide content and agronomic characters was conducted. Based on the polysaccharide content determination and the agronomic characters investigation of 30 copies (110 individual plants) of Dendrobium officinale germplasm resources, the correlation between polysaccharide content and agronomic characters was analyzed via path and correlation analysis. Correlation analysis results showed that there was a significant negative correlation between average spacing and polysaccharide content, the correlation coefficient was -0.695. And the blade thickness was positively correlated with the polysaccharide content, but the correlation was not significant. The path analysis results showed that the stem length was the maximum influence factor to the polysaccharide, and it was positive effect, the direct path coefficient was 1.568. According to thess results, the polysaccharide content can be easily and intuitively estimated by the agronomic characters investigating data in the germpalsm resources screening and variety breeding. Therefore, it is a visual and practical technology guidance in quality variety breeding of Dendrobium officinale.

  7. Structural characterization of an immunostimulating polysaccharide from the stems of a new medicinal Dendrobium species: Dendrobium Taiseed Tosnobile.

    Yang, Li-Chan; Hsieh, Chang-Chi; Wen, Chi-Luan; Chiu, Chun-Hui; Lin, Wen-Chuan

    2017-10-01

    Dendrobium Taiseed Tosnobile, a new Dendrobium species developed by crossbreeding Dendrobium tosaense and Dendrobium nobile, exhibits the characteristics of high mass production and high polysaccharide content. This study investigated the structural characterization and immunostimulating effects of a polysaccharide isolated from D. Taiseed Tosnobile (DTTPS). DTTPS was fractioned using a DEAE-650M column to obtain the major neutral polysaccharide (DTTPS-N). The structural characteristics of DTTPS-N were investigated through high-performance anion exchange chromatography, high-performance size exclusion chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In the immunostimulating experiment, BALB/c mice were administered DTTPS (100 and 300mg/kg) daily for 3 weeks. The results revealed that DTTPS-N comprised arabinose, galactose, glucose, mannose, and xylose at a ratio of 1:1.5:3.0:29.9:1.3. DTTPS-N comprised (1→3; 1→4)-Man as the backbone, and its average molecular weight was 281kDa. Pharmacological experiments demonstrated that DTTPS substantially increased the population of splenic natural killer (NK) cells, NK cytotoxicity, macrophage phagocytosis, and cytokine induction. This is the first study to demonstrate the structural characteristics and immunopharmacological effects of an active polysaccharide derived from D. Taiseed Tosnobile. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Polysaccharides in Lentinus edodes: isolation, structure, immunomodulating activity and future prospective.

    Xu, Xiaofei; Yan, Huidan; Tang, Jian; Chen, Jian; Zhang, Xuewu

    2014-01-01

    Lentinus edodes has been valued as edible and medical resources. Polysaccharides have been known to be the most potent antitumor and immunomodulating substance in Lentinus edodes. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of the polysaccharides isolated from Lentinus edodes, including extraction and purification methods, chemical structure and chain conformation, the effects on innate and adaptive immunity and their mechanism, relationship between structure and function, and the future prospects.

  9. Structure of the polysaccharides from the lipopolysaccharide of Azospirillum brasilense Jm125A2.

    Sigida, Elena N; Fedonenko, Yuliya P; Shashkov, Alexander S; Zdorovenko, Evelina L; Konnova, Svetlana A; Ignatov, Vladimir V; Knirel, Yuriy A

    2015-10-30

    Two polysaccharides were obtained by mild acid degradation of the lipopolysaccharide of associative nitrogen-fixing bacteria Azospirillum brasilense Jm125A2 isolated from the rhizosphere of a pearl millet. The following structures of the polysaccharides were established by sugar and methylation analyses, Smith degradation, and (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy: [Formula: see text] Structure 1 has been reported earlier for a polysaccharide from A. brasilense S17 (Fedonenko YP, Konnova ON, Zdorovenko EL, Konnova SA, Zatonsky GV, Shaskov AS, Ignatov VV, Knirel YA. Carbohydr Res 2008;343:810-6), whereas to our knowledge structure 2 has not been hitherto found in bacterial polysaccharides. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Structure and genetics of the O-specific polysaccharide of Escherichia coli O27.

    Perepelov, Andrei V; Chen, Tingting; Senchenkova, Sofya N; Filatov, Andrei V; Song, Jingjie; Shashkov, Alexander S; Liu, Bin; Knirel, Yuriy A

    2018-02-01

    The O-specific polysaccharide (O-antigen) is a part of the lipopolysaccharide on the cell surface of Gram-negative bacteria. The O-polysaccharide was obtained by mild acid hydrolysis of the lipopolysaccharide of Escherichia coli O27 and studied by sugar analysis and Smith degradation along with 1 H and 13 C NMR spectroscopy. The following structure of the branched hexasaccharide repeating unit was established, which is unique among known structures of bacterial polysaccharides:where GlcA is non-stoichiometrically O-acetylated at position 3 (∼22%) or 4 (∼37%). Functions of genes in the O-antigen gene cluster of E. coli O27 were tentatively assigned by comparison with sequences in the available databases and found to be consistent with the O-polysaccharide structure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. PolySac3DB: an annotated data base of 3 dimensional structures of polysaccharides

    Sarkar Anita

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polysaccharides are ubiquitously present in the living world. Their structural versatility makes them important and interesting components in numerous biological and technological processes ranging from structural stabilization to a variety of immunologically important molecular recognition events. The knowledge of polysaccharide three-dimensional (3D structure is important in studying carbohydrate-mediated host-pathogen interactions, interactions with other bio-macromolecules, drug design and vaccine development as well as material science applications or production of bio-ethanol. Description PolySac3DB is an annotated database that contains the 3D structural information of 157 polysaccharide entries that have been collected from an extensive screening of scientific literature. They have been systematically organized using standard names in the field of carbohydrate research into 18 categories representing polysaccharide families. Structure-related information includes the saccharides making up the repeat unit(s and their glycosidic linkages, the expanded 3D representation of the repeat unit, unit cell dimensions and space group, helix type, diffraction diagram(s (when applicable, experimental and/or simulation methods used for structure description, link to the abstract of the publication, reference and the atomic coordinate files for visualization and download. The database is accompanied by a user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI. It features interactive displays of polysaccharide structures and customized search options for beginners and experts, respectively. The site also serves as an information portal for polysaccharide structure determination techniques. The web-interface also references external links where other carbohydrate-related resources are available. Conclusion PolySac3DB is established to maintain information on the detailed 3D structures of polysaccharides. All the data and features are available

  12. Extraction, Structural Characterization, and Potential Antioxidant Activity of the Polysaccharides from Four Seaweeds

    He, Jinzhe; Xu, Yaoyang; Chen, Hongbo; Sun, Peilong

    2016-01-01

    Four seaweed polysaccharides were extracted from Sarcodia ceylonensis, Ulva lactuca L., Gracilaria lemaneiformis, and Durvillaea antarctica, respectively, by microwave-assisted extraction. The effect of three significant variables (extraction time, extraction temperature, and the ratio of water to raw material) on the process for extracting polysaccharides was investigated, along with the optimization of the extraction using the response surface method (RSM) with a Box–Behnken design. The polysaccharide structure, monosaccharide composition, degree of sulfation, and molecular weight (MW) distribution were analyzed by infrared (IR) spectrometry, gas chromatography (GC), and high-performance gel permeation chromatography (HPGPC). IR spectrometry showed that Sarcodia ceylonensis polysaccharide (SCP), Ulva lactuca L. polysaccharide (ULLP), and Durvillaea antarctica polysaccharide (DAP) were all sulfated polysaccharides and, except Gracilaria lemaneiformis polysaccharide (GLP), all belong to β-pyranosidic polysaccharides. The average molecular weight (MW) of SCP, ULLP, GLP, and DAP was 466, 404, 591, and 482 kDa, respectively. The quantitative and comparative results with external standards indicated that the main monosaccharide in SCP and ULLP was mannose; and GLP and DAP were mainly composed of galactose and glucose, respectively. Then the in vitro antioxidant activity of all of the polysaccharides was evaluated using different assays—2,2–azino –bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6- sulfonate) (ABTS), hydroxyl radical, nitrite scavenging capacity, and reducing power—and the relationship between their antioxidant activity and chemical characteristics were also examined. ULLP presented the highest ABTS radical scavenging activity; ULLP, SCP and DAP also showed a strong effect on the ABTS radical scavenging activity. SCP and ULLP exhibited excellent hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, about 83.33% ± 2.31% and 80.07% ± 2.17%, respectively, at 4 mg/mL. The

  13. Extraction, Structural Characterization, and Potential Antioxidant Activity of the Polysaccharides from Four Seaweeds

    Jinzhe He

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Four seaweed polysaccharides were extracted from Sarcodia ceylonensis, Ulva lactuca L., Gracilaria lemaneiformis, and Durvillaea antarctica, respectively, by microwave-assisted extraction. The effect of three significant variables (extraction time, extraction temperature, and the ratio of water to raw material on the process for extracting polysaccharides was investigated, along with the optimization of the extraction using the response surface method (RSM with a Box–Behnken design. The polysaccharide structure, monosaccharide composition, degree of sulfation, and molecular weight (MW distribution were analyzed by infrared (IR spectrometry, gas chromatography (GC, and high-performance gel permeation chromatography (HPGPC. IR spectrometry showed that Sarcodia ceylonensis polysaccharide (SCP, Ulva lactuca L. polysaccharide (ULLP, and Durvillaea antarctica polysaccharide (DAP were all sulfated polysaccharides and, except Gracilaria lemaneiformis polysaccharide (GLP, all belong to β-pyranosidic polysaccharides. The average molecular weight (MW of SCP, ULLP, GLP, and DAP was 466, 404, 591, and 482 kDa, respectively. The quantitative and comparative results with external standards indicated that the main monosaccharide in SCP and ULLP was mannose; and GLP and DAP were mainly composed of galactose and glucose, respectively. Then the in vitro antioxidant activity of all of the polysaccharides was evaluated using different assays—2,2–azino –bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6- sulfonate (ABTS, hydroxyl radical, nitrite scavenging capacity, and reducing power—and the relationship between their antioxidant activity and chemical characteristics were also examined. ULLP presented the highest ABTS radical scavenging activity; ULLP, SCP and DAP also showed a strong effect on the ABTS radical scavenging activity. SCP and ULLP exhibited excellent hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, about 83.33% ± 2.31% and 80.07% ± 2.17%, respectively, at 4 mg/mL. The

  14. Antigenic polysaccharides of bacteria. 14. Structure of the O-specific polysaccharide chain of the lipopolysaccharide of pseudomonas aeruginosa O12 (Lanyi)

    Knirel', Y.A.; Shashkov, A.S.; Dmitriev, B.A.; Kochetkov, N.K.; Stanislavskii, E.S.; Mashilova, G.M.

    1986-01-01

    The mild-alkaline hydrolysis of the lipopolysaccharide of Pseudomonas aeruginosa O12 (Lanyi classification) has given the O-specific polysaccharide, which is constructed of D-ribose and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine residues. The disaccharide structure for the repeating unit of this polysaccharide has been established by a nondestructive method as the result of the complete deciphering of its 1 H and 13 C NMR spectra using homonuclear and selective heteronuclear 13 C { 1 H} double resonance

  15. Optimization of polysaccharides extraction from watermelon rinds: Structure, functional and biological activities.

    Romdhane, Molka Ben; Haddar, Anissa; Ghazala, Imen; Jeddou, Khawla Ben; Helbert, Claire Boisset; Ellouz-Chaabouni, Semia

    2017-02-01

    In the present work, optimization of hot water extraction, structural characteristics, functional properties, and biological activities of polysaccharides extracted from watermelon rinds (WMRP) were investigated. The physicochemical characteristics and the monosaccharide composition of these polysaccharides were then determined using chemical composition analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID). SEM images showed that extracted polysaccharides had a rough surface with many cavities. GC-FID results proved that galactose was the dominant sugar in the extracted polysaccharides, followed by arabinose, glucose, galacturonic acid, rhamnose, mannose, xylose and traces of glucuronic acid. The findings revealed that WMRP displayed excellent antihypertensive and antioxidant activities. Those polysaccharides had also a protection effect against hydroxyl radical-induced DNA damage. Functional properties of extracted polysaccharides were also evaluated. WMRP showed good interfacial dose-dependent proprieties. Overall, the results suggested that WMRP presents a promising natural source of antioxidants and antihypertensive agents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Structural characterization of Astragalus polysaccharides using partial acid hydrolysis-hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry].

    Liang, Tu; Fu, Qing; Xin, Huaxia; Li, Fangbing; Jin, Yu; Liang, Xinmiao

    2014-12-01

    Water-soluble polysaccharides from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) have properties of broad-spectrum treatment and low toxicity, making them as important components in natural medicines and health products. In order to solve the problem of polysaccharides characterization caused by their complex structures, a "bottom-up" approach was developed to complete the characterization of polysaccharides from Astragalus. Firstly, Astragalus pieces were extracted with hot water and then were precipitated by ethanol to obtain Astragalus polysaccharides. Secondly, a partial acid hydrolysis method was carried out and the effects of time, acid concentration and temperature on hydrolysis were investigated. The degree of hydrolysis increased along with the increase of hydrolysis time and acid concentration. The temperature played a great role in the hydrolysis process. No hydrolysis of the polysaccharides occurred at low temperature, while the polysaccharides were almost hydrolyzed to monosaccharide at high temperature. Under the optimum hydrolysis conditions (4 h, 1.5 mol/L trifluoroacetic acid, and 80 °C), Astragalus polysaccharides were hydrolyzed to characteristic oligosaccharide fragments. At last, a hydrophilic liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method was used for the separation and structural characterization of the polysaccharide hydrolysates. The results showed that the resulting polysaccharides were mainly 1--> 4 linear glucan, and gluco-oligosaccharides with the degrees of polymerization (DP) of 4 - 11 were obtained after partial acid hydrolysis. The significance of this study is that it is the guidance for the characterization of other TCM polysaccharides.

  17. Structure of an extracellular polysaccharide produced by Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain C83

    Vanhaverbeke, C.; Bosso, C.; Colin-Morel, P.; Gey, C.; Heyraud, A. [Centre de Recherches sur les Macromolecules Vegetales, CNRS and Universite Joseph Fourier, B.P.53, F-38041 Grenoble (France); Gamar-Nourani, L.; Blondeau, K.; Simonet, J.-M. [Institut de Genetique et Microbiologie, Laboratoire de Genetique Moleculaire des Bacteries d' Interet Industriel, CNRS URA 2225, Batiment 360, Universite de Paris Sud, F-91405 Orsay (France)

    1998-12-31

    The extracellular polysaccharide produced by Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain C83 was found to be composed of d-glucose and d-galactose in a molar ratio of 2:3. The primary structure of the polysaccharide was shown by sugar analysis, methylation analysis, FABMS, partial acid hydrolysis and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to consist of a pentasaccharide repeating unit having the following structure:-3)-{alpha}-d-Glcp-(1-2)-{beta}-d-Galf-(1-6)-{alpha}-d-Galp-(1-6) -{alpha}-d-Glcp-(1-3)-{beta}-d-Galf-(1-. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  18. Structure of an extracellular polysaccharide produced by Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain C83

    Vanhaverbeke, C.; Bosso, C.; Colin-Morel, P.; Gey, C.; Heyraud, A.; Gamar-Nourani, L.; Blondeau, K.; Simonet, J.-M.

    1998-01-01

    The extracellular polysaccharide produced by Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain C83 was found to be composed of d-glucose and d-galactose in a molar ratio of 2:3. The primary structure of the polysaccharide was shown by sugar analysis, methylation analysis, FABMS, partial acid hydrolysis and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to consist of a pentasaccharide repeating unit having the following structure:-3)-α-d-Glcp-(1-2)-β-d-Galf-(1-6)-α-d-Galp-(1-6) -α-d-Glcp-(1-3)-β-d-Galf-(1-. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  19. Isolation, structural characterization and bioactivities of naturally occurring polysaccharide-polyphenolic conjugates from medicinal plants-A reivew.

    Liu, Jun; Bai, Ruyu; Liu, Yunpeng; Zhang, Xin; Kan, Juan; Jin, Changhai

    2018-02-01

    In recent years, several medicinal plants have been demonstrated as valuable resources of naturally occurring polysaccharide-polyphenolic conjugates. For the first time, this article introduces recent advances of polysaccharide-polyphenolic conjugates isolated from different medicinal plants. The isolation, purification, structural characterization and biological activities of polysaccharide-polyphenolic conjugates are introduced in details. In general, polysaccharide-polyphenolic conjugates can be isolated by hot water or alkaline extraction followed by purification through anion exchange chromatography or gel filtration chromatography. The structures of conjugates are usually characterized by chemical composition analysis, UV-vis, Fourier-transform infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Moreover, polysaccharide-polyphenolic conjugates exhibit several biological activities including anticoagulant, antioxidant, radioprotective, anti-platelet, antitussive and bronchodilatory effects. Therefore, polysaccharide-polyphenolic conjugates isolated from medicinal plants are certain to have a bright prospect in the field of food and pharmaceutics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Polysaccharides from Arctium lappa L.: Chemical structure and biological activity.

    Carlotto, Juliane; de Souza, Lauro M; Baggio, Cristiane H; Werner, Maria Fernanda de P; Maria-Ferreira, Daniele; Sassaki, Guilherme L; Iacomini, Marcello; Cipriani, Thales R

    2016-10-01

    The plant Arctium lappa L. is popularly used to relieve symptoms of inflammatory disorders. A crude polysaccharide fraction (SAA) resulting of aqueous extraction of A. lappa leaves showed a dose dependent anti-edematogenic activity on carrageenan-induced paw edema, which persisted for up to 48h. Sequential fractionation by ultrafiltration at 50kDa and 30kDa cut-off membranes yielded three fractions, namely RF50, RF30, and EF30. All these maintained the anti-edematogenic effect, but RF30 showed a more potent action, inhibiting 57% of the paw edema at a dose of 4.9mg/kg. The polysaccharide RF30 contained galacturonic acid, galactose, arabinose, rhamnose, glucose, and mannose in a 7:4:2:1:2:1 ratio and had a Mw of 91,000g/mol. Methylation analysis and NMR spectroscopy indicated that RF30 is mainly constituted by a type I rhamnogalacturonan branched by side chains of types I and II arabinogalactans, and arabinan. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Structure of the oligosaccharides isolated from Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC. seed polysaccharide.

    Bhatia, Himani; Gupta, P K; Soni, P L

    2014-01-30

    A water soluble polysaccharide isolated from Prosopis juliflora seed was purified and major homogenous fraction obtained by GPC. Complete hydrolysis of the polysaccharide followed by paper chromatography and GLC analysis indicated the presence of d-galactose and d-mannose in the ratio 1:1.10, respectively. Partial hydrolysis of the polysaccharide furnished one hepta-(I), one octa-(II) and nona-(III) saccharides. Hydrolysis of oligosaccharide I, II and III followed by GLC analysis furnished d-galactose and d-mannose in the ratio 3:4, 3:5 and 5:4, respectively. Methylation analysis, periodate oxidation and (1)H NMR spectral studies of oligosaccharides indicated the presence of (1→4) mannose units linked to (1→6) galactose units. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Polysaccharide components from the scape of Musa paradisiaca: main structural features of water-soluble polysaccharide component.

    Anjaneyalu, Y V; Jagadish, R L; Raju, T S

    1997-06-01

    Polysaccharide components present in the pseudo-stem (scape) of M. paradisiaca were purified from acetone powder of the scape by delignification followed by extraction with aqueous solvents into water soluble polysaccharide (WSP), EDTA-soluble polysaccharide (EDTA-SP), alkali-soluble polysaccharide (ASP) and alkali-insoluble polysaccharide (AISP) fractions. Sugar compositional analysis showed that WSP and EDTA-SP contained only D-Glc whereas ASP contained D-Glc, L-Ara and D-Xyl in approximately 1:1:10 ratio, respectively, and AISP contained D-Glc, L-Ara and D-Xyl in approximately 10:1:2 ratio, respectively. WSP was further purified by complexation with iso-amylalcohol and characterized by specific rotation, IR spectroscopy, Iodine affinity, ferricyanide number, blue value, hydrolysis with alpha-amylase and glucoamylase, and methylation linkage analysis, and shown to be a amylopectin type alpha-D-glucan.

  3. Structural determination of Streptococcus pneumoniae repeat units in serotype 41A and 41F capsular polysaccharides to probe gene functions in the corresponding capsular biosynthetic loci

    Petersen, Bent O.; Skovsted, Ian C.; Paulsen, Berit Smestad

    2014-01-01

    (1) by anambitionto help close the remaining gaps in S. pneumoniaecapsular polysaccharide structures, and (2)by the attempt to derive functional annotationsof carbohydrate active enzymes in the biosynthesis of bacterial polysaccharides from the determined structures. Anactivitypresent in 41F...

  4. Structural analysis and anticoagulant activities of two sulfated polysaccharides from the sea cucumber Holothuria coluber.

    Yang, Wenjiao; Cai, Ying; Yin, Ronghua; Lin, Lisha; Li, Zhongkun; Wu, Mingyi; Zhao, Jinhua

    2018-05-01

    Sulfated polysaccharides such as fucosylated glycosaminoglycan and fucan sulfate from echinoderm possess complex chemical structure and various biological activities. The two sulfated polysaccharides were purified from the low-value sea cucumber Holothuria coluber. Their physicochemical properties and chemical structures were analyzed and characterized by chemical and instrumental methods. Structural analysis clarified that the sea cucumber fucosylated glycosaminoglycan contains a chondroitin sulfate-like backbone and fucosyl branches with four various sulfation patterns. The fucan sulfate with molecular weight of 64.6 kDa comprises a central core of regular α(1 → 4)-linked tetrasaccharide repeating units, each of which is linked by a 4-O-sulfated fucose residue. Anticoagulant assays indicated that these sulfated polysaccharides possessed strong APTT prolonging activities and intrinsic factor Xase inhibitory activities, both of which decreased with the reduction of their molecular weights. Our results expand knowledge on the structural types of sulfated polysaccharides from sea cucumbers and further illustrate their functionality. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Structural investigation of an extracellular polysaccharide produced by the cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans strain UA159

    Li, Bo; Dobruchowska, Justyna M.; Hoogenkamp, Michel A.; Gerwig, Gerrit J.

    2012-01-01

    The structure of an extracellular polysaccharide EPS159 produced from sucrose by Streptococcus mutans UA159 was investigated through the main oligosaccharides obtained from partial acid hydrolysis, monosaccharide/methylation analysis, and 1D/2D H-1 NMR spectroscopy. The results showed that EPS159

  6. Structural investigation of water-soluble polysaccharides extracted from the fruit bodies of Coprinus comatus

    Li, Bo; Dobruchowska, Justyna M.; Gerwig, Gerrit J.; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert; Kamerling, Johannis P.

    2013-01-01

    Water-soluble polysaccharide material, extracted from the stipes of the fruit bodies of Coprinus comatus by hot water, was fractionated by sequential weak anion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography. The relevant fractions were subjected to structural analysis, including (D/L)

  7. Structural studies of a polysaccharide from Vibrio parahaemolyticus strain AN-16000.

    Fontana, Carolina; Zaccheus, Mona; Weintraub, Andrej; Ansaruzzaman, Mohammad; Widmalm, Göran

    2016-09-02

    The structure of a polysaccharide from Vibrio parahaemolyticus strain AN-16000 has been investigated. The sugar and absolute configuration analysis revealed d-Glc, d-GalN, d-QuiN and l-FucN as major components. The PS was subjected to dephosphorylation with aqueous 40% HF to obtain an oligosaccharide that was analyzed by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. The HR-MS spectrum of the oligosaccharide revealed a pentasaccharide composed of two Glc residues, one QuiNAc and one GalNAc, one FucNAc, as well as a glycerol moiety. The structure of the PS was determined using (1)H, (13)C, (15)N and (31)P NMR spectroscopy; inter-residue correlations were identified by (1)H,(13)C-heteronuclear multiple-bond correlation, (1)H,(1)H-NOESY and (1)H,(31)P-hetero-TOCSY experiments. The PS backbone has the following teichoic acid-like structure: →3)-d-Gro-(1-P-6)-β-d-Glcp-(1→4)-α-l-FucpNAc-(1→3)-β-d-QuipNAc-(1→ with a side-chain consisting of α-d-Glcp-(1→6)-α-d-GalpNAc-(1→ linked to the O3 position of the FucNAc residue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Chemical Constituents and Structural Characterization of Polysaccharides from Four Typical Bamboo Species Leaves

    Cheng-Zhang Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to find bamboo leaves with high contents of bioactive polysaccharides, 32 samples were chosen to analyze their polysaccharide content by GC and sulfuric acid-anthrone colorimetric assays. Purified polysaccharides (BLPS were separated from the four varieties P. nigra (Lodd. Munro (PN, P. vivax McClure (PV, Chimonobambusa quadrangularis (Fenzi Makino (CQ, and P. bambussoides cv. Tanakae (PB by ultrasound extraction, solution precipitation, ion exchange resin, DEAE-52 and Sephadex G-100 chromatography. BLPS structural characterization was accomplished by HPLC-GPC, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR and NaIO4-HIO4 oxidation reactions. The results showed that the total polysaccharides of the bamboo leaves in samples 1–32 ranged between 1.4% and 5.4%, Samples No. 29–No. 32 (PN, PV, CQ, and PB contained 2–3 fold more polysaccharides than No. 1~No. 28 among the 32 different species, particularly the content of galactose was in a range of 21.5%–34.1% for these four typical bamboo species leaves, which was also more than 2–3 fold higher than in No. 1–No. 28. Sugar analysis indicated that PN-PBLPS-1, PV-PBLPS-1, CQ-PBLPS-1 and PB-PBLPS-1 from the four varieties were homogeneous polysaccharides with molecular weights of 2.04 × 104, 1.15 × 104, 8.75 × 104 and 1.48 × 104 Da, respectively. PB-PBLPS-1 was a mixture of α-galactopyranose and β-d-glucopyranose linkages with α-(1→6 or β-(1→6glycosidic bonds, while PN-PBLPS-1, PV-PBLPS-1, and CQ-PBLPS-1 had α galactopyranose linkages with α-(1→6 glycosidic bonds.

  9. Structural investigation of cell wall polysaccharides of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus 17.

    Vinogradov, E; Sadovskaya, I; Cornelissen, A; van Sinderen, D

    2015-09-02

    Lactobacilli are valuable strains for commercial (functional) food fermentations. Their cell surface-associated polysaccharides (sPSs) possess important functional properties, such as acting as receptors for bacteriophages (bacterial viruses), influencing autolytic characteristics and providing protection against antimicrobial peptides. The current report provides an elaborate molecular description of several surface carbohydrates of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus strain 17. The cell surface of this strain was shown to contain short chain poly(glycerophosphate) teichoic acids and at least two different sPSs, designated here as sPS1 and sPS2, whose chemical structures were examined by 2D nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and methylation analysis. Neutral branched sPS1, extracted with n-butanol, was shown to be composed of hexasaccharide repeating units (-[α-d-Glcp-(1-3)-]-4-β-l-Rhap2OAc-4-β-d-Glcp-[α-d-Galp-(1-3)]-4-α-Rhap-3-α-d-Galp-), while the major component of the TCA-extracted sPS2 was demonstrated to be a linear d-galactan with the repeating unit structure being (-[Gro-3P-(1-6)-]-3-β-Galf-3-α-Galp-2-β-Galf-6-β-Galf-3-β-Galp-). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Synthesis, Structural, and Adsorption Properties and Thermal Stability of Nanohydroxyapatite/Polysaccharide Composites.

    Skwarek, Ewa; Goncharuk, Olena; Sternik, Dariusz; Janusz, Wladyslaw; Gdula, Karolina; Gun'ko, Vladimir M

    2017-12-01

    A series of composites based on nanohydroxyapatite (nHAp) and natural polysaccharides (PS) (nHAp/agar, nHAp/chitosan, nHAp/pectin FB300, nHAp/pectin APA103, nHAp/sodium alginate) was synthesized by liquid-phase two-step method and characterized using nitrogen adsorption-desorption, DSC, TG, FTIR spectroscopy, and SEM. The analysis of nitrogen adsorption-desorption data shows that composites with a nHAp: PS ratio of 4:1 exhibit a sufficiently high specific surface area from 49 to 82 m 2 /g. The incremental pore size distributions indicate mainly mesoporosity. The composites with the component ratio 1:1 preferably form a film-like structure, and the value of S BET varies from 0.3 to 43 m 2 /g depending on the nature of a polysaccharide. Adsorption of Sr(II) on the composites from the aqueous solutions has been studied. The thermal properties of polysaccharides alone and in nHAp/PS show the influence of nHAp, since there is a shift of characteristic DSC and DTG peaks. FTIR spectroscopy data confirm the presence of functional groups typical for nHAp as well as polysaccharides in composites. Structure and morphological characteristics of the composites are strongly dependent on the ratio of components, since nHAp/PS at 4:1 have relatively large S BET values and a good ability to adsorb metal ions. The comparison of the adsorption capacity with respect to Sr(II) of nHAp, polysaccharides, and composites shows that it of the latter is higher than that of nHAp (per 1 m 2 of surface).

  11. Effects of Different Temperatures on the Chemical Structure and Antitumor Activities of Polysaccharides from Cordyceps militaris

    Eliyas Nurmamat

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different extraction temperatures (4 and 80 °C on the physicochemical properties and antitumor activity of water soluble polysaccharides (CMPs-4 and CMPs-80 from Cordyceps militaris (C. militaris were evaluated in this study. The results of gas chromatography (GC and high-performance gel permeation chromatography (HPGPC showed that a higher extraction temperature could degrade the polysaccharides with 188 kDa, mainly composed of glucose, and increase the dissolution rate of polysaccharides about 308 kDa, mainly consisting of rhamnose and galactose. In addition, the CMPs displayed the same sugar ring and category of glycosidic linkage based on Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR analysis, however, their invisible structural difference occurred in the specific rotation and conformational characteristics according to the results of specific optical rotation measurement and Congo red test. In vitro antitumor experiments indicated that CMPs-4 possessed stronger inhibitory effects on human esophagus cancer Eca-109 cells by inducing cell apoptosis more than CMPs-80 did. These findings demonstrated that the polysaccharides extracted with cold water (4 °C could be applied as a novel alternative chemotherapeutic agent or dietary supplement with its underlying antitumor property.

  12. Dynamic range majority data structures

    Elmasry, Amr Ahmed Abd Elmoneim; He, Meng; Munro, J. Ian

    2011-01-01

    Given a set P of n coloured points on the real line, we study the problem of answering range α-majority (or "heavy hitter") queries on P. More specifically, for a query range Q, we want to return each colour that is assigned to more than an α-fraction of the points contained in Q. We present a ne...

  13. Structural analysis of acidic oligosaccharides derived from the methylated, acidic polysaccharide associated with coccoliths of Emiliania huxleyi (lohmann) kamptner

    Fichtinger-Schepman, A.M.J.; Kamerling, J.P.; Versluis, C.; Vliegenthart, J.F.G.

    1980-01-01

    A series of acidic oligosaccharides was obtained by graded, acid hydrolysis of the methylated, acidic polysaccharide associated with the coccoliths of the alga Emiliania huxleyi (Lohmann) Kamptner. After fractionation by ion-exchange chromatography, the structures of the oligosaccharides were

  14. Structural studies of the polysaccharides from the lipopolysaccharides of Azospirillum brasilense Sp246 and SpBr14.

    Sigida, Elena N; Fedonenko, Yuliya P; Shashkov, Alexander S; Grinev, Vyacheslav S; Zdorovenko, Evelina L; Konnova, Svetlana A; Ignatov, Vladimir V; Knirel, Yuriy A

    2014-10-29

    Lipopolysaccharides from closely related Azospirillum brasilense strains, Sp246 and SpBr14, were obtained by phenol-water extraction. Mild acid hydrolysis of the lipopolysaccharides followed by GPC on Sephadex G-50 resulted in polysaccharide mixtures. On the basis of sugar and methylation analyses, Smith degradation and (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy data, it was concluded that both bacteria possess the same two distinct polysaccharides having structures 1 and 2: [structure: see text]. Structure 1 has been reported earlier for a polysaccharide of A. brasilense 54 [Fedonenko et al., 2011] whereas to our knowledge structure 2 has not been hitherto found in bacterial polysaccharides. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Structural characteristics of pineapple pulp polysaccharides and their antitumor cell proliferation activities.

    Wang, Ling; Tang, De-Qiang; Kuang, Yu; Lin, Feng-Jiao; Su, Yu

    2015-09-01

    Pineapple has a delicious taste and good health benefits. Bioactive polysaccharides are important components of pineapple that might contribute to its health benefits. Since little structural information on these polysaccharides is currently available, the aim of this study was to investigate their structural characteristics and bioactivities. The polysaccharides of pineapple pulp were fractionated into three fractions (PAPs 1-3) by anion exchange chromatography. Their structural characteristics were first identified, including molecular weights and glycosidic linkages. The monosaccharide compositions were revealed as PAP 1 (Ara, Xyl, Man, Glc and Gal), PAP 2 (Rha, Ara, Xyl, Man, Glc and Gal) and PAP 3 (Rha, Ara, Xyl, Man and Gal). Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra suggested that PAP 2 had a backbone of → 4)-α-d-Manp-(1 → 2,4)-α-d-Manp-(1 → with branches attached to O-4 of Manp. The NMR data of α-l-Araf-(1→, →3)-α-l-Araf-(1→, →4)-β-d-Galp-(1 → and → 4)-α-d-GalpAMe-(1 → were assigned. PAPs 1 and 2 showed significant antitumor cell proliferation activities against breast carcinoma cell line and strong antioxidant activities. The above findings indicated that PAPs 1-3 contributed much to the health benefits of pineapple. They could be used as health-beneficial food additives in functional foods. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Structure and immunological activity of a novel polysaccharide from ...

    Administrator

    2011-09-14

    Sep 14, 2011 ... Gas chromatography (GC) was used for identification and quantification of the ... standards of known molecular mass (T-700, 580, 470, 350, 280,. 50, 25, 12, 10, sigma). .... Bao XF, Wang XS (2002). Structural features of ...

  17. Structure elucidation and antioxidant activity of a novel polysaccharide isolated from Boletus speciosus Forst.

    Ding, Xiang; Hou, Yi-ling; Hou, Wan-ru

    2012-04-01

    In this study, a novel heteropolysaccharide was isolated from the fruiting bodies of Boletus speciosus Forst through DEAE-cellulose column and Sephadex G-200 column. The Boletus speciosus Forst polysaccharide (BSFP-1) had a molecular weight of 1.33×10(4) Da and was mainly composed of l-Man and d-Gal which ratios were 2:1. Structural features of Boletus speciosus Forst polysaccharide (BSFP-1) were investigated by a combination of total hydrolysis, methylation analysis, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), infrared (IR) spectra and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The results indicated that Boletus speciosus Forst polysaccharide (BSFP-1) had a backbone of (1→4)-α-l-mannopyranose residues which branches at O-6 based on the experimental results. The branches were mainly composed of one with →1)-α-d-galactopyranose residue. The antioxidant activity of BSFP-1 was evaluated with two biochemical methods, including 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(-)) radical scavenging, scavenging activity of 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-suphonic acid)diammonium (ABTS(+)) radical. The results indicated that BSFP-1 showed strong antioxidant. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Anticoagulant Activity and Structural Characterization of Polysaccharide from Abalone (Haliotis discus hannai Ino Gonad

    Jun Zhao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed at characterizing the structure and the anticoagulant activity of a polysaccharide fraction (AGP33 isolated from the gonads of Haliotis discus hannai Ino. AGP33 was extracted by enzymatic hydrolysis and purified by ion-exchange and gel-filtration chromatography. The backbone fraction of AGP33 (BAGP33, which appeared to contain of mannose, glucose and galactose, was prepared by partial acid hydrolysis. According to methylation and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy, the backbone of AGP33 was identified as mainly consisting of 1→3-linked, 1→4-linked, and 1→6-linked monosaccharides. AGP33 is a sulfated polysaccharide with sulfates occur at 3-O- and 4-O-positions. It prolonged thromboplastin time (APTT, thrombin time (TT and prothrombin time (PT compared to a saline control solution in a dosage-dependent manner. AGP33 exhibited an extension (p < 0.01 of APTT compared to the saline group at concentrations higher than 5 μg/mL. AGP33 exhibited higher anticoagulant activity than its desulfated product (AGP33-des and BAGP33. The results showed that polysaccharide with higher molecular weight and sulfate content demonstrated greater anticoagulant activity.

  19. Structural characterization and evaluation of the antioxidant activities of polysaccharides extracted from Qingzhuan brick tea.

    Yang, Xinhe; Huang, Mingjun; Qin, Caiqin; Lv, Bangyu; Mao, Qingli; Liu, Zhonghua

    2017-08-01

    The crude tea polysaccharides (CTPS) from Qingzhuan brick tea(QZBT) were extracted and fractionated to afford two fractions, namely TPS-1 and TPS-2. Analyses were conducted concerning the structural characterization and antioxidant activities of these samples. Component analysis revealed that the carbohydrate, uronic acid, protein and polyphenol contents of these samples differed significantly. Fourier transform infrared analysis showed that these samples showed similar characteristic absorption peaks for polysaccharides. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, circular dichroism, scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analyses indicated that there were considerable differences in the presence of protein, surface features, conformational characteristics and thermodynamic behaviors. For antioxidant activities in vitro, CTPS, TPS-1 and TPS-2 exhibited concentration-dependent antioxidant activities, with TPS-2 showing significantly higher antioxidant activity than CTPS and TPS-1. These results provide a scientific and strong foundation for the use of tea polysaccharides(TPS) from QZBT and further research towards the relationships between the characteristics and antioxidant activities of TPS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Structure characterization and antioxidant activity of polysaccharides from Chinese quince seed meal.

    Wang, Li; Liu, Hua-Min; Qin, Guang-Yong

    2017-11-01

    In the present study, three polysaccharide fractions, QSMP-1, QSMP-2, and QSMP-3, were isolated and purified from the seed meal of Chinese quince. These fractions' structures were investigated by high performance anion exchange chromatography (HPAEC), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and their antioxidant activities were assessed. The results showed that QSMP-1 is a novel polysaccharide with a backbone mainly composed of →4)-Glcp-(1→, →6)-Glcp-(1→, →6)-Galp-(1→, →2, 3, 4)-Xylp-(1→. The side chains consist of →4)-Arap-(1→, →3, 4)-Arap-(1→, →2)-Galp-(1→, →4)-Manp-(1→, →3)-Galp-(1→, and →3, 6)-Glcp-(1→ with the non-reducing terminals Glcp and Galp. QSMP-1 exhibited effective antioxidant activities by ferrous ion chelation and superoxide anion-scavenging in a dose-dependent manner. These investigations of the polysaccharides from the seed meal of Chinese quince provide a scientific basis for the use of the by-products of quince seed oil processing, particularly as an ingredient in functional foods and medicines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Maca polysaccharides: A review of compositions, isolation, therapeutics and prospects.

    Li, Yujuan; Xu, Fangxue; Zheng, Mengmeng; Xi, Xiaozhi; Cui, Xiaowei; Han, Chunchao

    2018-05-01

    Maca polysaccharides, some of the major bioactive substances in Lepidium meyenii (Walp.) (Maca), have various biological properties, including anti-oxidant, anti-fatigue, anti-tumor, and immunomodulatory effects, as well as hepatoprotective activity and regulation function. Although many therapeutics depend on multiple structures of maca polysaccharides in addition to providing sufficient foundations for maca polysaccharide products in industrial applications, the relationships between the pharmacological effects and structures have not been established. Therefore, this article summarizes the extraction and purification methods, compositions, pharmacological effects, prospects and industrial applications of maca polysaccharides. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Purification, structure and immunobiological activity of an arabinan-rich pectic polysaccharide from the cell walls of Prunus dulcis seeds.

    Dourado, Fernando; Madureira, Pedro; Carvalho, Vera; Coelho, Ricardo; Coimbra, Manuel A; Vilanova, Manuel; Mota, Manuel; Gama, Francisco M

    2004-10-20

    The structure and bioactivity of a polysaccharide extracted and purified from a 4M KOH + H3BO3 solution from Prunus dulcis seed cell wall material was studied. Anion-exchange chromatography of the crude extract yielded two sugar-rich fractions: one neutral (A), the other acidic (E). These fractions contain a very similar monosaccharide composition: 5:2:1 for arabinose, uronic acids and xylose, respectively, rhamnose and galactose being present in smaller amounts. As estimated by size-exclusion chromatography, the acidic fraction had an apparent molecular mass of 762 kDa. Methylation analysis (from the crude and fractions A and E), suggests that the polysaccharide is an arabinan-rich pectin. In all cases, the polysaccharides bear the same type of structural Ara moieties with highly branched arabinan-rich pectic polysaccharides. The average relative proportions of the arabinosyl linkages is 3:2:1:1 for T-Araf:(1-->5)-Araf:(1-->3,5)-Araf:(1-->2,3,5)-Araf. The crude polysaccharide extract and fractions A and E induced a murine lymphocyte stimulatory effect, as evaluated by the in vitro and in vivo expression of lymphocyte activation markers and spleen mononuclear cells culture proliferation. The lymphocyte stimulatory effect was stronger on B- than on T-cells. No evidence of cytotoxic effects induced by the polysaccharide fractions was found.

  3. Salinity-induced anti-angiogenesis activities and structural changes of the polysaccharides from cultured Cordyceps Militaris.

    Yangyang Zeng

    Full Text Available Cordyceps is a rare and exotic mushroom that grows out of the head of a mummified caterpillar. Many companies are cultivating Cordyceps to meet the increased demand for its medicinal applications. However, the structures and functions of polysaccharides, one of the pharmaceutical active ingredients in Cordyceps, are difficult to reproduce in vitro. We hypothesized that mimicking the salty environment inside caterpillar bodies might make the cultured fungus synthesize polysaccharides with similar structures and functions to that of wild Cordyceps. By adding either sodium sulfate or sodium chloride into growth media, we observed the salinity-induced anti-angiogenesis activities of the polysaccharides purified from the cultured C. Militaris. To correlate the activities with the polysaccharide structures, we performed the (13C-NMR analysis and observed profound structural changes including different proportions of α and β glycosidic bonds and appearances of uronic acid signals in the polysaccharides purified from the culture after the salts were added. By coupling the techniques of stable (34S-sulfate isotope labeling, aniline- and D5-aniline tagging, and stable isotope facilitated uronic acid-reduction with LC-MS analysis, our data revealed for the first time the existence of covalently linked sulfate and the presence of polygalacuronic acids in the polysaccharides purified from the salt added C. Militaris culture. Our data showed that culturing C. Militaris with added salts changed the biosynthetic scheme and resulted in novel polysaccharide structures and functions. These findings might be insightful in terms of how to make C. Militaris cultures to reach or to exceed the potency of wild Cordyceps in future.

  4. Microwave-Assisted Extraction, Chemical Structures, and Chain Conformation of Polysaccharides from a Novel Cordyceps Sinensis Fungus UM01.

    Cheong, Kit-Leong; Wang, Lan-Ying; Wu, Ding-Tao; Hu, De-Jun; Zhao, Jing; Li, Shao-Ping

    2016-09-01

    Cordyceps sinensis is a well-known tonic food with broad medicinal properties. The aim of the present study was to investigate the optimization of microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and characterize chemical structures and chain conformation of polysaccharides from a novel C. sinensis fungus UM01. Ion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography were used to purify the polysaccharides. The chemical structure of purified polysaccharide was determined through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Moreover, high performance size exclusion chromatography combined with refractive index detector and multiangle laser light scattering were conducted to analyze the molecular weight (Mw ) and chain conformation of purified polysaccharide. Based on the orthogonal design L9 , optimal MAE conditions could be obtained through 1300 W of microwave power, with a 5-min irradiation time at a solid to water ratio of 1:60, generating the highest extraction yield of 6.20%. Subsequently, the polysaccharide UM01-S1 was purified. The UM01-S1 is a glucan-type polysaccharide with a (1→4)-β-d-glucosyl backbone and branching points located at O-3 of Glcp with a terminal-d-Glcp. The Mw , radius of gyration (Rg ) and hydrodynamic radius (Rh ) of UM01-S1 were determined as 5.442 × 10(6)  Da, 21.8 and 20.2 nm, respectively. Using the polymer solution theory, the exponent (ν) value of the power law function was calculated as 0.38, and the shape factor (ρ = Rg /Rh ) was 1.079, indicating that UM01-S1 has a sphere-like conformation with a branched structure in an aqueous solution. These results provide fundamental information for the future application of polysaccharides from cultured C. sinensis in health and functional food area. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. Structure, cell wall elasticity and polysaccharide properties of living yeast cells, as probed by AFM

    Alsteens, David; Dupres, Vincent; Evoy, Kevin Mc; Dufrene, Yves F; Wildling, Linda; Gruber, Hermann J

    2008-01-01

    Although the chemical composition of yeast cell walls is known, the organization, assembly, and interactions of the various macromolecules remain poorly understood. Here, we used in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) in three different modes to probe the ultrastructure, cell wall elasticity and polymer properties of two brewing yeast strains, i.e. Saccharomyces carlsbergensis and S. cerevisiae. Topographic images of the two strains revealed smooth and homogeneous cell surfaces, and the presence of circular bud scars on dividing cells. Nanomechanical measurements demonstrated that the cell wall elasticity of S. carlsbergensis is homogeneous. By contrast, the bud scar of S. cerevisiae was found to be stiffer than the cell wall, presumably due to the accumulation of chitin. Notably, single molecule force spectroscopy with lectin-modified tips revealed major differences in polysaccharide properties of the two strains. Polysaccharides were clearly more extended on S. cerevisiae, suggesting that not only oligosaccharides, but also polypeptide chains of the mannoproteins were stretched. Consistent with earlier cell surface analyses, these findings may explain the very different aggregation properties of the two organisms. This study demonstrates the power of using multiple complementary AFM modalities for probing the organization and interactions of the various macromolecules of microbial cell walls

  6. Studies of polysaccharides from three edible species of Nostoc (cyanobacteria) with different colony morphologies : structural characterization and effect on the complement system of polysaccharides from Nostoc commune

    Brüll, L.P.; Huang, Z.; Thomas-Oates, J.E.; Smestad-Paulsen, B.; Cohen, E.H.; Michaelsen, T.E.

    2000-01-01

    The cyanobacterium Nostoc commune Vaucher produces quite complex extracellular polysaccharides. The cyanobacterium is nitrogen fixing, and on growing the cyanobacterium in media with and without nitrogen, different types of extracellular polysaccharides were obtained. These were also different from

  7. Structural Features of Alkaline Extracted Polysaccharide from the Seeds of Plantago asiatica L. and Its Rheological Properties

    Jun-Yi Yin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharide from the seeds of Plantago asiatica L. has many bioactivities, but few papers report on the structural and rheological characteristics of the alkaline extract. The alkaline extracted polysaccharide was prepared from seeds of P. asiatica L. and named herein as alkaline extracted polysaccharide from seeds of P. asiatica L. (PLAP. Its structural and rheological properties were characterized by monosaccharide composition, methylation, GC-MS and rheometry. PLAP, as an acidic arabinoxylan, was mainly composed of 1,2,4-linked Xylp and 1,3,4-linked Xylp residues. PLAP solution showed pseudoplastic behavior, and weak gelling properties at high concentration. Sodium and especially calcium ions played a significant role in increasing the apparent viscosity and gel strength.

  8. Isolation and structure elucidation of pectic polysaccharide from rose hip fruits (Rosa canina L.).

    Ognyanov, Manol; Remoroza, Connie; Schols, Henk A; Georgiev, Yordan; Kratchanova, Maria; Kratchanov, Christo

    2016-10-20

    A pectic polysaccharide from rose hip (RH) fruits has been obtained by extraction with 1% aqueous citric acid. It was found that the polysaccharide fraction mainly consisted of galacturonic acid (45.5%) next to galactose (5.5%) and arabinose (4.7%). RH pectin is having a relatively high degree of methylesterification (62%) and acetylation (10%) and consists of different molecular weight populations in the range of 10-100kDa. Enzymatic fingerprinting was performed using a combination of pectin lyase (PL) and endo-polygalacturonase. Detailed information about the structure and level of galacturonic acid oligomers released was obtained using LC-HILIC-MS/ELSD and HPAEC. Predominantly, unsaturated and methyl-esterified oligomers (DP 3-5) were released indicating that high proportions of methylesterified 'PL degradable' areas were present within the pectin. The data revealed that homogalacturonan is the main building block of the extracted pectin and consists of long methylesterified/acetylated GalA sequences interspersed with small blocks of non-methyl-esterified GalA units. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Structural characterization and immunomodulatory activity of a pectic polysaccharide (CALB-4) from Fructus aurantii.

    Shu, Zunpeng; Yang, Yanni; Xing, Na; Wang, Yi; Wang, Qiuhong; Kuang, Haixue

    2018-02-01

    A purified polysaccharide, designated CALB-4, was acquired from Fructus aurantii that is the traditional edible/medicina plant in China. The present study was performed to characterize the CALB-4 and to evaluate its immunomodulatory activities on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The structure of CALB-4 was characterized by partial acid hydrolysis, periodate oxidation, Smith degradation, and methylation analysis combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), Infrared Spectroscopy (IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results indicated that CALB-4 was elucidated as a pectic polysaccharide and its main chain is composed of Man, Gal UA and Gal, interspersed with Ara, Rha, Man and Gal. Furthermore, immunological tests showed that CALB-4 exhibits the immunoenhancement effects. The mechanism for this action might be attributed to the increase of the cytoplasmic concentration of pro-IL-1 via the up-regulation of several mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and the nuclear translocation of p65. This study clarified that CALB-4 could be as an efficacious biological response modifier in immunotherapy. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. The Structure-Activity Relationship between Marine Algae Polysaccharides and Anti-Complement Activity

    Jin, Weihua; Zhang, Wenjing; Liang, Hongze; Zhang, Quanbin

    2015-01-01

    In this study, 33 different polysaccharides were prepared to investigate the structure-activity relationships between the polysaccharides, mainly from marine algae, and anti-complement activity in the classical pathway. Factors considered included extraction methods, fractionations, molecular weight, molar ratio of galactose to fucose, sulfate, uronic acid (UA) content, linkage, branching, and the type of monosaccharide. It was shown that the larger the molecular weights, the better the activities. The molar ratio of galactose (Gal) to fucose (Fuc) was a positive factor at a concentration lower than 10 µg/mL, while it had no effect at a concentration more than 10 µg/mL. In addition, sulfate was necessary; however, the sulfate content, the sulfate pattern, linkage and branching had no effect at a concentration of more than 10 µg/mL. Moreover, the type of monosaccharide had no effect. Laminaran and UA fractions had no activity; however, they could reduce the activity by decreasing the effective concentration of the active composition when they were mixed with the active compositions. The effect of the extraction methods could not be determined. Finally, it was observed that sulfated galactofucan showed good anti-complement activity after separation. PMID:26712768

  11. Structural characterization of the extracellular polysaccharide from Vibrio cholerae O1 El-Tor.

    Fitnat Yildiz

    Full Text Available The ability to form biofilms is important for environmental survival, transmission, and infectivity of Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera in humans. To form biofilms, V. cholerae produces an extracellular matrix composed of proteins, nucleic acids and a glycoconjugate, termed Vibrio exopolysaccharide (VPS. Here, we present the data on isolation and characterization of the polysaccharide part of the VPS (VPS-PS, which has the following structure: -4-α-GulpNAcAGly3OAc-(1-4-β-D-Glcp-(1-4-α-Glcp-(1-4-α-D-Galp-(1- where α-D-Glc is partially (∼20% replaced with α-D-GlcNAc. α-GulNAcAGly is an amide between 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-α-guluronic acid and glycine. Apparently, the polysaccharide is bound to a yet unidentified component, which gives it high viscosity and completely suppresses any NMR signals belonging to the sugar chains of the VPS. The only reliable method to remove this component at present is a treatment of the whole glycoconjugate with concentrated hydrochloric acid.

  12. Polysaccharide-producing microalgae

    Braud, J.P.; Chaumont, D.; Gudin, C.; Thepenier, C.; Chassin, P.; Lemaire, C.

    1982-11-01

    The production of extracellular polysaccharides is studied with Nostoc sp (cyanophycus), Porphiridium cruentum, Rhodosorus marinus, Rhodella maculata (rhodophyci) and Chlamydomonas mexicana (chlorophycus). The polysaccharides produced are separated by centrifugation of the culture then precipitation with alcohol. Their chemical structure was studied by infrared spectrometry and acid hydrolysis. By their rheological properties and especially their insensitivity to temperatrure and pH variations the polysaccharides produced by Porphryridium cruentum and Rhodella maculata appear as suitable candidates for industrial applications.

  13. Pectic polysaccharide from the green fruits of Momordica charantia (Karela): structural characterization and study of immunoenhancing and antioxidant properties.

    Panda, Bibhash C; Mondal, Soumitra; Devi, K Sanjana P; Maiti, Tapas K; Khatua, Somanjana; Acharya, Krishnendu; Islam, Syed S

    2015-01-12

    A water soluble pectic polysaccharide (PS) isolated from the aqueous extract of the green fruits of Momordica charantia contains D-galactose and D-methyl galacturonate in a molar ratio of nearly 1:4. It showed splenocyte, thymocyte as well as macrophage activations. Moreover, it exhibited potent antioxidant activities. On the basis of total acid hydrolysis, methylation analysis, periodate oxidation, and 1D and 2D NMR studies, the structure of the repeating unit of the pectic polysaccharide was established as: [Formula: see text]. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Diatom-Specific Oligosaccharide and Polysaccharide Structures Help to Unravel Biosynthetic Capabilities in Diatoms

    Bruno Gügi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Diatoms are marine organisms that represent one of the most important sources of biomass in the ocean, accounting for about 40% of marine primary production, and in the biosphere, contributing up to 20% of global CO2 fixation. There has been a recent surge in developing the use of diatoms as a source of bioactive compounds in the food and cosmetic industries. In addition, the potential of diatoms such as Phaeodactylum tricornutum as cell factories for the production of biopharmaceuticals is currently under evaluation. These biotechnological applications require a comprehensive understanding of the sugar biosynthesis pathways that operate in diatoms. Here, we review diatom glycan and polysaccharide structures, thus revealing their sugar biosynthesis capabilities.

  15. Structural analysis and anti-obesity effect of a pectic polysaccharide isolated from Korean mulberry fruit Oddi (Morus alba L.)

    Choi, J. W.; Synytsya, A.; Capek, P.; Bleha, R.; Pohl, Radek; Park, Y. I.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 146, Aug 1 (2016), s. 187-196 ISSN 0144-8617 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : mulberry fruit * pectic polysaccharide * structure * pre-adipocytes * apoptosis Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.811, year: 2016

  16. Structure Characterization of Honey-Processed Astragalus Polysaccharides and Its Anti-Inflammatory Activity In Vitro

    Jingzhu Liao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Honey-processed Astragalus is a dosage form of Radix Astragalus mixed with honey by a traditional Chinese medicine processing method which strengthens the tonic effect. Astragalus polysaccharide (APS, perform its immunomodulatory effects by relying on the tonic effect of Radix Astragalus, therefore, the improved pharmacological activity of honey-processed Astragalus polysaccharide (HAPS might be due to structural changes during processing. The molecular weights of HAPS and APS were 1,695,788 Da, 2,047,756 Da, respectively, as determined by high performance gel filtration chromatography combined with evaporative light scattering detection (HPGFC-ELSD. The monosaccharide composition was determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatogram quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/ESI-Q-TOF-MS after pre-column derivatization with 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (PMP. The results showed that the essential components were mannose, glucose, xylose, arabinose, glucuronic acid and rhamnose, is molar ratios of 0.06:28.34:0.58:0.24:0.33:0.21 and 0.27:12.83:1.63:0.71:1.04:0.56, respectively. FT-IR and NMR analysis of HAPS results showed the presence of uronic acid and acetyl groups. The anti-inflammatory activities of HAPS were more effective than those of APS according to the NO contents and the expression of IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-22 and TNF-α in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells. This findings suggest that the anti-inflammatory and bioactivity improvement might be associated with molecular structure changes, bearing on the potential immunomodulatory action.

  17. Structure Characterization of Honey-Processed Astragalus Polysaccharides and Its Anti-Inflammatory Activity In Vitro.

    Liao, Jingzhu; Li, Chanyi; Huang, Jing; Liu, Wuping; Chen, Hongce; Liao, Shuangye; Chen, Hongyuan; Rui, Wen

    2018-01-15

    Honey-processed Astragalus is a dosage form of Radix Astragalus mixed with honey by a traditional Chinese medicine processing method which strengthens the tonic effect. Astragalus polysaccharide (APS), perform its immunomodulatory effects by relying on the tonic effect of Radix Astragalus , therefore, the improved pharmacological activity of honey-processed Astragalus polysaccharide (HAPS) might be due to structural changes during processing. The molecular weights of HAPS and APS were 1,695,788 Da, 2,047,756 Da, respectively, as determined by high performance gel filtration chromatography combined with evaporative light scattering detection (HPGFC-ELSD). The monosaccharide composition was determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatogram quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/ESI-Q-TOF-MS) after pre-column derivatization with 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (PMP). The results showed that the essential components were mannose, glucose, xylose, arabinose, glucuronic acid and rhamnose, is molar ratios of 0.06:28.34:0.58:0.24:0.33:0.21 and 0.27:12.83:1.63:0.71:1.04:0.56, respectively. FT-IR and NMR analysis of HAPS results showed the presence of uronic acid and acetyl groups. The anti-inflammatory activities of HAPS were more effective than those of APS according to the NO contents and the expression of IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-22 and TNF-α in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW264.7 cells. This findings suggest that the anti-inflammatory and bioactivity improvement might be associated with molecular structure changes, bearing on the potential immunomodulatory action.

  18. Structure and Antitumor and Immunomodulatory Activities of a Water-Soluble Polysaccharide from Dimocarpus longan Pulp

    Meng, Fa-Yan; Ning, Yuan-Ling; Qi, Jia; He, Zhou; Jie, Jiang; Lin, Juan-Juan; Huang, Yan-Jun; Li, Fu-Sen; Li, Xue-Hua

    2014-01-01

    A new water-soluble polysaccharide (longan polysaccharide 1 (LP1)) was extracted and successfully purified from Dimocarpus longan pulp via diethylaminoethyl (DEAE)-cellulose anion-exchange and Sephacryl S-300 HR gel chromatography. The chemical structure was determined using Infrared (IR), gas chromatography (GC) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. The results indicated that the molecular weight of the sample was 1.1 × 105 Da. Monosaccharide composition analysis revealed that LP1 was composed of Glc, GalA, Ara and Gal in a molar ratio of 5.39:1.04:0.74:0.21. Structural analysis indicated that LP1 consisted of a backbone of →4)-α-d-Glcp-(1→4)-α-d-GalpA-(1→4)-α-d-Glcp-(1→4)-β-d-Glcp-(1→ units with poly saccharide side chains composed of →2)-β-d-Fruf-(1→2)-l-sorbose-(1→ attached to the O-6 position of the α-d-Glcp residues. In vitro experiments indicated that LP1 had significantly high antitumor activity against SKOV3 and HO8910 tumor cells, with inhibition percentages of 40% and 50%, respectively. In addition, LP1 significantly stimulated the production of the cytokine interferon-γ (IFN-γ), increased the activity of murine macrophages and enhanced B- and T-lymphocyte proliferation. The results of this study demonstrate that LP1 has potential applications as a natural antitumor agent with immunomodulatory activity. PMID:24663085

  19. Structural, functional and pH sensitive release characteristics of water-soluble polysaccharide from the seeds of Albizia lebbeck L.

    Kumar Varma, Chekuri Ashok; Jayaram Kumar, K

    2017-11-01

    Plant polysaccharides, generally regarded as safe (GRAS), are gaining importance as excipients in drug delivery. Therefore, the current paper presents the studies on structural, functional and drug release study of water soluble polysaccharide (ALPS) from seeds of Albizia lebbeck L. High swelling, water holding capacity, foam stability and lower moisture content suggests its use as additive in food preparations. The apparent molecular weight of polysaccharide was found to be 1.98×10 2 kDa. Monosaccharide composition analysis indicated that ALPS consists of mannose (4.06%), rhamnose (22.79%), glucose (38.9%), galactose (17.84%) and xylose (16.42%). Micromeritic properties revealed that the polysaccharide possess potential for pharmaceutical applications. From the surface charge analysis, ALPS was found to be non-ionic polysaccharide. Morphological study reveals the polysaccharide with irregular particle shape and rough surface. Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) study confirms the carbohydrate nature of polysaccharide. From the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) data, the second mass loss (243-340°C) attributed to polysaccharide degradation. The drug release profile reveals the use of polysaccharide for the preparation of pH sensitive pharmaceutical dosage forms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Structure of a Bacterial ABC Transporter Involved in the Import of an Acidic Polysaccharide Alginate.

    Maruyama, Yukie; Itoh, Takafumi; Kaneko, Ai; Nishitani, Yu; Mikami, Bunzo; Hashimoto, Wataru; Murata, Kousaku

    2015-09-01

    The acidic polysaccharide alginate represents a promising marine biomass for the microbial production of biofuels, although the molecular and structural characteristics of alginate transporters remain to be clarified. In Sphingomonas sp. A1, the ATP-binding cassette transporter AlgM1M2SS is responsible for the import of alginate across the cytoplasmic membrane. Here, we present the substrate-transport characteristics and quaternary structure of AlgM1M2SS. The addition of poly- or oligoalginate enhanced the ATPase activity of reconstituted AlgM1M2SS coupled with one of the periplasmic solute-binding proteins, AlgQ1 or AlgQ2. External fluorescence-labeled oligoalginates were specifically imported into AlgM1M2SS-containing proteoliposomes in the presence of AlgQ2, ATP, and Mg(2+). The crystal structure of AlgQ2-bound AlgM1M2SS adopts an inward-facing conformation. The interaction between AlgQ2 and AlgM1M2SS induces the formation of an alginate-binding tunnel-like structure accessible to the solvent. The translocation route inside the transmembrane domains contains charged residues suitable for the import of acidic saccharides. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Mechanical components: fabrication of major reactor structures

    Nicholson, S.

    1985-01-01

    The paper examines the validity of criticisms of quality assurance of mechanical plant and welded products within major reactor structures, taking into account experience gained on the AGR's. Various constructive recommendations are made aimed at furthering the objectives of quality assurance in the nuclear industry and making it more cost-effective. Current levels of quality related costs in the fabrication industry are provided as a basis for discussion. (U.K.)

  2. Effects of extraction methods on the yield, chemical structure and anti-tumor activity of polysaccharides from Cordyceps gunnii mycelia.

    Zhu, Zhen-Yuan; Dong, Fengying; Liu, Xiaocui; Lv, Qian; YingYang; Liu, Fei; Chen, Ling; Wang, Tiantian; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Yongmin

    2016-04-20

    This study was to investigate the effects of different extraction methods on the yield, chemical structure and antitumor activity of polysaccharides from Cordyceps gunnii (C. gunnii) mycelia. Five extraction methods were used to extract crude polysaccharides (CPS), which include room-temperature water extraction (RWE), hot-water extraction (HWE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and cellulase-assisted extraction (CAE). Then Sephadex G-100 was used for purification of CPS. As a result, the antitumor activities of CPS and PPS on S180 cells were evaluated. Five CPS and purified polysaccharides (PPS) were obtained. The yield of CPS by microwave-assisted extraction (CPSMAE) was the highest and its anti-tumor activity was the best and its macromolecular polysaccharide (3000-1000kDa) ratio was the largest. The PPS had the same monosaccharide composition, but their obvious difference was in the antitumor activity and the physicochemical characteristics, such as intrinsic viscosity, specific rotation, scanning electron microscopy and circular dichroism spectra. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Structural elucidation of the polysaccharide moiety of a glycopeptide (GLPCW-II) from Ganoderma lucidum fruiting bodies.

    Ye, LiBin; Zhang, JingSong; Ye, XiJun; Tang, QingJiu; Liu, YanFang; Gong, ChunYu; Du, XiuJui; Pan, YingJie

    2008-03-17

    A water-soluble glycopeptide (GLPCW-II) was isolated from the fruiting bodies of Ganoderma lucidum by DEAE-Sepharose Fast-Flow and Sephacryl S-300 High Resolution Chromatography. The glycopeptide had a molecular weight of 1.2x10(4)Da (determined by HPLC), and consisted of approximately 90% carbohydrate and approximately 8% protein as determined using the phenol-sulfuric acid method and the BCA protein assay reagent kit, respectively. The polysaccharide moiety was composed mainly of D-Glc, L-Fuc, and D-Gal in the ratio of 1.00:1.09:4.09. To facilitate structure-activity studies, the structure of the GLPCW-II polysaccharide moiety was elucidated using 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy including COSY, TOCSY, HMBC, HSQC, and ROESY, combined with GC-MS of methylated derivatives, and shown to consist of repeating units with the following structure: [Formula: see text].

  4. Structure and biological activities of a pectic polysaccharide from Mosla chinensis Maxim. cv. Jiangxiangru.

    Li, Jing-En; Cui, Steve W; Nie, Shao-Ping; Xie, Ming-Yong

    2014-05-25

    A water-soluble pectic polysaccharide (MP-A40) was isolated and purified from Mosla chinensis Maxim. cv. Jiangxiangru for the first time, with a molecular weight of 32,600Da. MP-A40 was comprised of 68.63% galacturonic acid and 13.05% neutral sugar. In addition, arabinose, galactose, rhamnose, mannose and glucose composed the neutral sugar in a relative ratio of 4.94, 3.07, 2.13, 1.62 and 1.29% of the dry weight of MP-A40, respectively. Structural characterization of MP-A40 was investigated by methylation analysis and 1D/2D NMR spectroscopy. From the results, the structure of MP-A40 was revealed as follows: 1,4-linked α-d-GalpA and 1,4-linked α-d-GalpA6Me interspersed with rare t-Araf (0.60%), t-Rhap (1.67%) and t-GalpA (10.15%). Esterification assay showed that about 32% of the carboxylic groups in GalA residues existed as methyl ester. In addition, MP-A40 could inhibit the growth of human leukemic cell line K562 and stimulate nitric oxide production from RAW 264.7 macrophages both in dose-dependent manners. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Structure elucidation of a bioactive polysaccharide from fruiting bodies of Hericium erinaceus in different maturation stages.

    Li, Qiao-Zhen; Wu, Di; Zhou, Shuai; Liu, Yan-Fang; Li, Zheng-Peng; Feng, Jie; Yang, Yan

    2016-06-25

    HPB-3, a heteropolysaccharide, with a mean molecular weight of 1.5×10(4)Da, was obtained from the maturating-stage IV, V and VI fruiting body of Hericium erinaceus, exhibited higher macrophages stimulation activities, was able to upregulate the functional events mediated by activated macrophages, such as production of nitric oxide (NO). Monosaccharide composition analysis showed that HPB-3 comprised l-fucose, d-galactose and d-glucose in the ratio of 5.2:23.9:1. Its chemical structure was characterized by sugar and methylation analysis, along with (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy, including (1)H-(1)H COSY, TOCSY, NOESY, HMQC and HMBC experiments. The results indicated that HPB-3 contained a-(1/6)-linked galactopyranosyl backbone, partially with a side chain composed of α-l-fucopyranose at the O-2 position. The predicted primary structure of the polysaccharide was established as below. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Structural characterization of blackberry wine polysaccharides and immunomodulatory effects on LPS-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    Cordeiro Caillot, Adriana Rute; de Lacerda Bezerra, Iglesias; Palhares, Laís Cristina Gusmão Ferreira; Santana-Filho, Arquimedes Paixão; Chavante, Suely Ferreira; Sassaki, Guilherme Lanzi

    2018-08-15

    Three polysaccharide fractions were isolated from blackberry wine. The crude extract BWPs was obtained with ethanol precipitation and freeze-thawing process, it was then submitted to Fehling treatment, giving soluble BWPFs and insoluble BWPFp fractions. These fractions were characterized by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). Major polysaccharides were identified for each fraction: mannan, type II arabinogalactan and type I rhamnogalacturonan for BWPs, a mannan formed by a major chain of α-Manp(1 → 6)-linked units, O-2 substituted with α-d-Manp(1 → 2)-linked side chains for BWPFp and a AG II formed by a major chain of β-d-Galp(1 → 3)-linked, substituted at O-6 by side chains of the β-d-Galp(1 → 6)-linked, which then are substituted at O-3 by non-reducing units of α-l-Araf and a RG I, formed by [→4)-α-d-GalpA-(1 → 2)-α-l-Rhap-(1→] n for BWPFs. Anti-inflammatory effects of polysaccharide fractions were evaluated in RAW 264.7 cells. Fractions markedly reduced nitric oxide (NO) and pro-inflammatory cytokine production (TNF-α and IL-1β) in LPS-treated cells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Maca polysaccharides: Extraction optimization, structural features and anti-fatigue activities.

    Li, Yujuan; Xin, Yizhou; Xu, Fangxue; Zheng, Mengmeng; Xi, Xiaozhi; Cui, Xiaowei; Cao, Hui; Guo, Hong; Han, Chunchao

    2018-08-01

    The maca polysaccharides optimal extraction conditions were obtained by using response surface methodology (RSM) method and the anti-fatigue activity of maca polysaccharides (MCP) was explored. The maca polysaccharides extract yield of RSM could reach 9.97 mg/g by using the model predicts, and the total sugar and protein purity were 61.00% and 4.46% with the further isolation process, respectively. And the monosaccharide compositions obtained by gas chromatograph (GC) were composed of rhamnose (rha), glucose (glc), galactose (gal) with the ratio of 2.34:10.21:1.00. Furthermore, the anti-fatigue activity was evaluated by the swimming parameter, biochemistry parameters (liver glycogen (LG), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and lactic acid (LD)), the result indicated that the low-dose maca polysaccharides group had the significant anti-fatigue activity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Structural Characterization and Antifatigue Effect In Vivo of Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp) Polysaccharide.

    Tang, Weimin; Jin, Lu; Xie, Lianghua; Huang, Juqing; Wang, Nan; Chu, Bingquan; Dai, Xulin; Liu, Yu; Wang, Rui; Zhang, Ying

    2017-03-01

    Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp) polysaccharides (MP) with purity of 99.2% were obtained to investigate their structural characteristics and antifatigue effect in vivo. The physicochemical properties of MP were analyzed through high-performance gel filtration chromatography, IR, monosaccharide composition, methylation, GC-MS, and NMR analyses. The antifatigue effect of MP was evaluated by using a mouse weight-loaded swimming model. MP is an acidic heteropolysaccharide with an average molecular weight (M w ) of 793.5 kDa. It is composed of D-GalA: D-Glc: L-Ara: D-Man: D-Gal: L-Rha = 35.07:29.98:16.98:13.01:4.21:0.75 (mol, %). The findings revealed that MP contained β-1,3-Galp(A), β-1,3-Glcp, and α-1, 3-Manp linked alternatingly to form a backbone (5:4:1). MP (above mid-dosage 50 mg/kg bw/d) could effectively elongate swimming durations and accelerate average swimming speeds (within the 1st 5 min) of mice (P maca. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  9. Structure characterization of a novel polysaccharide from Hericium erinaceus fruiting bodies and its immunomodulatory activities.

    Wu, Fangfang; Zhou, Chunhui; Zhou, Dandan; Ou, Shiyi; Zhang, Xiaoai; Huang, Huihua

    2018-01-24

    A novel polysaccharide fraction (HEP-S) was extracted and isolated from the fruiting bodies of Hericium erinaceus. Structural characterization revealed that HEP-S had an average molecular weight of 1.83 × 10 4 Da and consisted of rhamnose, fucose, mannose, glucose and galactose at a molar ratio of 1.47 : 0.93 : 1.36 : 8.68 : 4.08. Periodate oxidation-Smith degradation and NMR analysis showed that the main linkage types of HEP-S were composed of (1→)-α-d-Glc, (1→3,4)-α-d-Glc, (1→6)-α-d-Gal, (1→3,4)-β-d-Man, (1→3,6)-α-Rha and (1→2)-β-l-Fuc. The immunomodulatory assay indicated that HEP-S could significantly enhance the pinocytic and phagocytic capacity and promote the secretion of nitric oxide and pro-inflammatory cytokines by activating the corresponding mRNA and protein expression in RAW 264.7 cells involving a toll-like receptor 2 membrane receptor. Besides, HEP-S was also found to improve the adaptive immune function by enhancing T and B lymphocyte proliferation and increasing the interleukin-2, interleukin-4 and interferon-γ secretion in spleen lymphocytes. These results suggested that HEP-S could be used as a potential immunoregulatory agent in functional foods.

  10. Biofilms from Klebsiella pneumoniae: Matrix Polysaccharide Structure and Interactions with Antimicrobial Peptides.

    Benincasa, Monica; Lagatolla, Cristina; Dolzani, Lucilla; Milan, Annalisa; Pacor, Sabrina; Liut, Gianfranco; Tossi, Alessandro; Cescutti, Paola; Rizzo, Roberto

    2016-08-10

    Biofilm matrices of two Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates, KpTs101 and KpTs113, were investigated for their polysaccharide composition and protective effects against antimicrobial peptides. Both strains were good biofilm producers, with KpTs113 forming flocs with very low adhesive properties to supports. Matrix exopolysaccharides were isolated and their monosaccharide composition and glycosidic linkage types were defined. KpTs101 polysaccharide is neutral and composed only of galactose, in both pyranose and furanose ring configurations. Conversely, KpTs113 polysaccharide is anionic due to glucuronic acid units, and also contains glucose and mannose residues. The susceptibility of the two strains to two bovine cathelicidin antimicrobial peptides, BMAP-27 and Bac7(1-35), was assessed using both planktonic cultures and biofilms. Biofilm matrices exerted a relevant protection against both antimicrobials, which act with quite different mechanisms. Similar protection was also detected when antimicrobial peptides were tested against planktonic bacteria in the presence of the polysaccharides extracted from KpTs101 and KpTs113 biofilms, suggesting sequestering adduct formation with antimicrobials. Circular dichroism experiments on BMAP-27 in the presence of increasing amounts of either polysaccharide confirmed their ability to interact with the peptide and induce an α-helical conformation.

  11. Isolation, structure, and surfactant properties of polysaccharides from Ulva lactuca L. from South China Sea.

    Tian, Hua; Yin, Xueqiong; Zeng, Qinghuan; Zhu, Li; Chen, Junhua

    2015-08-01

    Two polysaccharides (ULP1 and ULP2) were isolated through ultrasonic-assisted extraction from green seaweed Ulva lactuca L. which was collected from the South China Sea. The highest yield of 17.57% was obtained under the conditions of 2% NaOH, 90 °C, material/water mass ratio 1:80, liquid extraction 5h and subsequent ultrasound-assisted extraction 1h. The structure of ULPs were characterized with periodate oxidation followed by Smith degradation, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR spectroscopy, FTIR, and GPC. The molecular weights of ULP1 and ULP2 were 189 kDa and 230 kDa, respectively. The structural characteristics of ULP1 and ULP2 were quite similar. They were composed of rhamnose, xylose, glucose, and glucuronic acid. The content of rhamnose, xylose, glucose, glucuronic acid, sulfate was 51.2%, 12.3%, 20.1%, 16.4%, 12.0% for ULP1, respectively, and 60.8%, 14.2%, 8.2%, 16.8%, 26.8%, respectively, for ULP2. Both ULP1 and ULP2 showed good surface activity. 5 mg/mL ULP1 (2.62×10(-2) mmol/L) decreased the water surface tension to 51.63 mN/m. The critical micellar concentration of ULP1 and ULP2 was 1.01 mg/mL (5.3×10(-3) mmol/L) and 1.14 mg/mL (5.0×10(-3) mmol/L), respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Structures, biological activities, and industrial applications of the polysaccharides from Hericium erinaceus (Lion's Mane) mushroom: A review.

    He, Xirui; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Fang, Jiacheng; Chang, Yu; Ning, Ning; Guo, Hao; Huang, Linhong; Huang, Xiaoqiang; Zhao, Zefeng

    2017-04-01

    Hericium erinaceus (Bull.) Pers., also known as Yamabushitake, Houtou and Lion's Mane, is capable of fortifying the spleen and nourishing the stomach, tranquilizing the mind, and fighting cancer. Over the past decade, it has been demonstrated that H. erinaceus polysaccharides possess various promising bioactivities, including antitumor and immunomodulation, anti-gastric ulcer, neuroprotection and neuroregeneration, anti-oxidation and hepatoprotection, anti-hyperlipidemia, anti-hyperglycemia, anti-fatigue and anti-aging. The purpose of the present review is to provide systematically reorganized information on extraction and purification, structure characteristics, biological activities, and industrial applications of H. erinaceus polysaccharides to support their therapeutic potentials and sanitarian functions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Structure of a shear-thickening polysaccharide extracted from the New Zealand black tree fern, Cyathea medullaris.

    Wee, May S M; Matia-Merino, Lara; Carnachan, Susan M; Sims, Ian M; Goh, Kelvin K T

    2014-09-01

    A shear-thickening water-soluble polysaccharide was purified from mucilage extracted from the fronds of the New Zealand black tree fern (Cyathea medullaris or 'mamaku' in Māori) and its structure characterised. Constituent sugar analysis by three complementary methods, combined with linkage analysis (of carboxyl reduced samples) and 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) revealed a glucuronomannan comprising a backbone of 4-linked methylesterified glucopyranosyl uronic acid and 2-linked mannopyranosyl residues, branched at O-3 of 45% and at both O-3 and O-4 of 53% of the mannopyranosyl residues with side chains likely comprising terminal xylopyranosyl, terminal galactopyranosyl, non-methylesterified terminal glucopyranosyl uronic acid and 3-linked glucopyranosyl uronic acid residues. The weight-average molecular weight of the purified polysaccharide was ∼1.9×10(6) Da as determined by size-exclusion chromatography coupled with multi-angle laser light scattering (SEC-MALLS). The distinctive rheological properties of this polysaccharide are discussed in relation to its structure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Rheological Flow Behavior of Structural Polysaccharides from Edible Tender Cladodes of Wild, Semidomesticated and Cultivated 'Nopal' (Opuntia) of Mexican Highlands.

    López-Palacios, C; Peña-Valdivia, C B; Rodríguez-Hernández, A I; Reyes-Agüero, J A

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the content of polysaccharides of edible tender cladodes (nopalitos) of three species of Opuntia and to evaluate the rheological flow behavior of isolated polysaccharides. A completely randomized experimental design was used to characterize a wild (O. streptacantha), a semidomesticated (O. megacantha) and a domesticated (O. ficus-indica) species. Mucilage content was higher (4.93 to 12.43 g 100 g -1 dry matter), tightly bound hemicelluloses were lower (3.32 to 1.81 g 100 g -1 dry matter) and pectins and loosely bound hemicelluloses were not different in wild than in domesticated species. Aqueous solution/suspensions of mucilage, pectins, hemicellulose and cellulose of all species showed non-Newtonian behavior under simple shear flow. The flow behavior of the structural polysaccharides was well described by the Ostwald de-Waele model. Pectins and mucilages exhibited the highest consistency indexes (K values ranged from 0.075 to 0.177 Pas n ) with a moderated shear-thinning behavior (n values ranged from 0.53 to 0.67). Cellulose dispersions exhibited the most shear-thinning behavior (n values ranged from 0.17 to 0.41) and hemicelluloses showed a tendency to Newtonian flow (n values ranged from 0.82 to 0.97). The rheological flow properties of these polysaccharides may be useful to improve the textural and sensory qualities of some foods and pharmaceutical materials. Moreover, they can emerge as functional ingredients mainly due to the nutraceutical properties that have been attributed to nopalitos.

  15. Effects of light intensity on components and topographical structures of extracellular polysaccharides from the cyanobacteria Nostoc sp.

    Ge, Hongmei; Xia, Ling; Zhou, Xuping; Zhang, Delu; Hu, Chunxiang

    2014-02-01

    A study on the effects of light intensity (40 and 80 μE/m(2)/sec) on the components and topographical structures of extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) was carried out in cyanobacteria Nostoc sp.. EPS yield increased with light intensity. However, light intensity did not significantly affect the EPS fractions and monosaccharide composition. Higher light intensity generally resulted in higher protein content of EPS in similar fractions. The topographical structure of EPS, investigated by atomic force microscopy, appeared as spherical lumps, chains and networks. The long chains were observed at higher light intensity. Thus, light intensity affected the yield and nature of EPS.

  16. Structural features and water holding capacities of pressed potato fibre polysaccharides

    Ramasamy, U.; Kabel, M.A.; Schols, H.A.; Gruppen, H.

    2013-01-01

    Pressed potato fibre (PPF) has a high water holding capacity (WHC) affecting its processing as an animal feed. The aim of this study was to characterize cell wall polysaccharides (CWPs) in PPF and investigate their WHC. This was done via sequential extractions. Half of all CWPs were recovered in the

  17. Purification and Partial Structural Characterization of a Complement Fixating Polysaccharide from Rhizomes of Ligusticum chuanxiong

    Yuan-Feng Zou

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Rhizome of Ligusticum chuanxiong is an effective medical plant, which has been extensively applied for centuries in migraine and cardiovascular diseases treatment in China. Polysaccharides from this plant have been shown to have interesting bioactivities, but previous studies have only been performed on the neutral polysaccharides. In this study, LCP-I-I, a pectic polysaccharide fraction, was obtained from the 100 °C water extracts of L. chuangxiong rhizomes and purified by diethylaminethyl (DEAE sepharose anion exchange chromatography and gel filtration. Monosaccharide analysis and linkage determination in addition to Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectrometer and Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectrum, indicated that LCP-I-I is a typical pectic polysaccharide, with homo-galacturonan and rhamnogalacturonan type I regions and arabinogalactan type I and type II (AG-I/AG-II side chains. LCP-I-I exhibited potent complement fixation activity, ICH50 of 26.3 ± 2.2 µg/mL, and thus has potential as a natural immunomodulator.

  18. Structural characteristics of polysaccharides from olive fruit cell walls in relation to ripening and processing

    Vierhuis, E.

    2002-01-01

    Key words: Olive fruit; olive oil; pectic polysaccharides; xyloglucans; xylans;

    enzyme preparations; phenolic compounds; processing; ripening

    Technical enzyme preparations can be used as processing aids in the olive oil industry to obtain a higher yield

  19. Structural and molecular dynamics studies of a C1-oxidizing lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase from Heterobasidion irregulare reveal amino acids important for substrate recognition

    Liu, Bing [Department of Molecular Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala Sweden; Kognole, Abhishek A. [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington KY USA; Wu, Miao [Department of Molecular Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala Sweden; Westereng, Bjørge [Department of Chemistry, Biotechnology, and Food Science, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås Norway; Crowley, Michael F. [Biosciences Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Kim, Seonah [Biosciences Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Dimarogona, Maria [Department of Molecular Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala Sweden; Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Patras, Greece; Payne, Christina M. [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington KY USA; Directorate of Engineering, Division of Chemical, Bioengineering, Environmental, and Transport Systems, National Science Foundation, Alexandria VA USA; Sandgren, Mats [Department of Molecular Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala Sweden

    2018-04-24

    Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) are a group of recently discovered enzymes that play important roles in the decomposition of recalcitrant polysaccharides. Here, we report the biochemical, structural, and computational characterization of an LPMO from the white-rot fungus Heterobasidion irregulare (HiLPMO9B). This enzyme oxidizes cellulose at the C1 carbon of glycosidic linkages. The crystal structure of HiLPMO9B was determined at 2.1 A resolution using X-ray crystallography. Unlike the majority of the currently available C1-specific LPMO structures, the HiLPMO9B structure contains an extended L2 loop, connecting ..beta..-strands ..beta..2 and ..beta..3 of the ..beta..-sandwich structure. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations suggest roles for both aromatic and acidic residues in the substrate binding of HiLPMO9B, with the main contribution from the residues located on the extended region of the L2 loop (Tyr20) and the LC loop (Asp205, Tyr207, and Glu210). Asp205 and Glu210 were found to be involved in the hydrogen bonding with the hydroxyl group of the C6 carbon of glucose moieties directly or via a water molecule. Two different binding orientations were observed over the course of the MD simulations. In each orientation, the active-site copper of this LPMO preferentially skewed toward the pyranose C1 of the glycosidic linkage over the targeted glycosidic bond. This study provides additional insight into cellulose binding by C1-specific LPMOs, giving a molecular-level picture of active site substrate interactions.

  20. Biochemical And Genetic Modification Of Polysaccharides

    Kern, Roger G.; Petersen, Gene R.; Richards, Gil F.

    1993-01-01

    Bacteriophages producing endopolysaccharase-type enzymes used to produce, isolate, and purify high yields of modified polysaccharides from polysaccharides produced by, and incorporated into capsules of, certain bacteria. Bacteriophages used in conversion of native polysaccharide materials into polymers of nearly uniform high molecular weight or, alternatively, into highly pure oligosaccharides. Also used in genetic selection of families of polysaccharides structurally related to native polysaccharide materials, but having altered properties. Resulting new polysaccharides and oligosaccharides prove useful in variety of products, including pharmaceutical chemicals, coating materials, biologically active carbohydrates, and drag-reducing additives for fluids.

  1. Structure characteristics of an acidic polysaccharide purified from banana (Musa nana Lour.) pulp and its enzymatic degradation.

    Liu, Huiling; Jiang, Yueming; Yang, Hongshun; Yang, Bao

    2017-08-01

    Banana is one of the most important fruits over the world. The chemical composition is critical for the organoleptic properties and health benefits. As one of the leading bioactive components in banana pulp, the polysaccharides may contribute to the beneficial health effects. However, their precise structure information remains unknown. A leading acidic polysaccharide (ABPP) of banana pulp was purified and identified by nuclear magnetic resonnance spectroscopy (NMR) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). →4-α-d-GalpA-1→ and →4-α-d-GalpAMe-1→ constituted the backbone. No branch chains were detected. The molecular weight was determined to be 8.9kDa by gel permeation chromatography, which was smaller than previously reported fruit-derived polygalacturonic acids. The precise structure was identified as below. Digestion by enzyme would lead to production of oligogalacturonic acids and quick accumulation of 5000-7000Da fraction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Structure of the neutral capsular polysaccharide of Acinetobacter baumannii NIPH146 that carries the KL37 capsule gene cluster.

    Arbatsky, Nikolay P; Shneider, Mikhail M; Kenyon, Johanna J; Shashkov, Alexander S; Popova, Anastasiya V; Miroshnikov, Konstantin A; Volozhantsev, Nikolay V; Knirel, Yuriy A

    2015-09-02

    Capsular polysaccharide (CPS) was isolated from Acinetobacter baumannii NIPH146, and the following structure of branched pentasaccharide repeating unit was established by sugar analyses along with 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy: In comparison to most other known capsular polysaccharides of A. baumannii, the CPS studied is neutral and lacks any specific monosaccharide component. The synthesis, assembly and export of this structure could be attributed to genes in a novel capsule biosynthesis gene cluster, designated KL37, which was found in the NIPH146 genome. The CPS of A. baumannii NIPH146 shares the α-d-Galp-(1→6)-β-d-Glcp-(1→3)-d-GalpNAc-(1→ trisaccharide fragment with the CPS units of several A. baumannii strains, including ATCC 17978 and LUH 5537 that carry the KL3 and KL22 gene clusters, respectively. KL37 contains two genes for glycosyltransferases that are related to two glycosyltransferase genes present in both KL3 and KL22, and the encoded proteins could be tentatively assigned to linkages between sugars in the CPS repeat. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Full structure and insight into the gene cluster of the O-specific polysaccharide of Yersinia intermedia H9-36/83 (O:17).

    Sizova, Olga V; Shashkov, Alexander S; Kondakova, Anna N; Knirel, Yuriy A; Shaikhutdinova, Rima Z; Ivanov, Sergei A; Kislichkina, Angelina A; Kadnikova, Lidia A; Bogun, Aleksandr G; Dentovskaya, Svetlana V

    2018-05-02

    Lipopolysaccharide was isolated from bacteria Yersinia intermedia H9-36/83 (O:17) and degraded with mild acid to give an O-specific polysaccharide, which was isolated by GPC on Sephadex G-50 and studied by sugar analysis and 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. The polysaccharide was found to contain 3-deoxy-3-[(R)-3-hydroxybutanoylamino]-d-fucose (d-Fuc3NR3Hb) and the following structure of the heptasaccharide repeating unit was established: The structure established is consistent with the gene content of the O-antigen gene cluster. The O-polysaccharide structure and gene cluster of Y. intermedia are related to those of Hafnia alvei 1211 and Escherichia coli O:103. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparative analysis of a large panel of non-starch polysaccharides reveals structures with selective regulatory properties in dendritic cells

    Wismar, René; Pedersen, Susanne Brix; Lærke, Helle Nygaard

    2011-01-01

    -regulate LPS-induced IL-12p70 production. The most potent NSP induced up-regulation of CD86 on DC independently of LPS stimulation. Cereal-based β-glucans showed less potency than β-glucans of microbial origin, but proper molecular weight composition and preparation may improve effectiveness......Scope: Structural-based recognition of foreign molecules is essential for activation of dendritic cells (DCs) that play a key role in regulation of gut mucosal immunity. Orally ingested non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) are ascribed many health-promoting properties, but currently we lack insight...... into the impact of structure and size for their capacity to affect immune responses.Methods and results: This study addresses the importance of chemical structure, size, origin and presence of contaminants for the capacity of both dietary and non-food NSP to modulate DC. Of 28 NSP products, β-glucans of microbial...

  5. Mapping the polysaccharide degradation potential of Aspergillus niger

    2012-01-01

    Background The degradation of plant materials by enzymes is an industry of increasing importance. For sustainable production of second generation biofuels and other products of industrial biotechnology, efficient degradation of non-edible plant polysaccharides such as hemicellulose is required. For each type of hemicellulose, a complex mixture of enzymes is required for complete conversion to fermentable monosaccharides. In plant-biomass degrading fungi, these enzymes are regulated and released by complex regulatory structures. In this study, we present a methodology for evaluating the potential of a given fungus for polysaccharide degradation. Results Through the compilation of information from 203 articles, we have systematized knowledge on the structure and degradation of 16 major types of plant polysaccharides to form a graphical overview. As a case example, we have combined this with a list of 188 genes coding for carbohydrate-active enzymes from Aspergillus niger, thus forming an analysis framework, which can be queried. Combination of this information network with gene expression analysis on mono- and polysaccharide substrates has allowed elucidation of concerted gene expression from this organism. One such example is the identification of a full set of extracellular polysaccharide-acting genes for the degradation of oat spelt xylan. Conclusions The mapping of plant polysaccharide structures along with the corresponding enzymatic activities is a powerful framework for expression analysis of carbohydrate-active enzymes. Applying this network-based approach, we provide the first genome-scale characterization of all genes coding for carbohydrate-active enzymes identified in A. niger. PMID:22799883

  6. Extracellular polysaccharides are involved in the attachment of Azospirillum brasilense and Rhizobium leguminosarum to arbuscular mycorrhizal structures

    V Bianciotto

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi, one of the most important component of the soil microbial community, establish physical interactions with naturally occurring and genetically modified bacterial biofertilizers and biopesticides, commonly referred to as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR. We have used a genetic approach to investigate the bacterial components possibly involved in the attachment of two PGPR (Azospirillum and Rhizobium to AM roots and AM fungal structures. Mutants affected in extracellular polysaccharides (EPS have been tested in in vitro adhesion assays and shown to be strongly impaired in the attachment to both types of surfaces as well as to quartz fibers. Anchoring of rhizobacteria to AM fungal structures may have special ecological and biotechnological significance because it may facilitate colonisation of new rhizospheres by the bacteria, and may be an essential trait for the development of mixed inocula.

  7. Tuning effect of polysaccharide Chitosan on structural, morphological, optical and photoluminescence properties of ZnO nanoparticles

    Magesh, G.; Bhoopathi, G.; Nithya, N.; Arun, A. P.; Ranjith Kumar, E.

    2018-05-01

    Chitosan/ZnO nanocomposites was synthesized by in-situ chemical precipitation method. The effect of polysaccharide Chitosan concentration (0.1 g, 0.5 g, 1 g and 3 g) was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) with Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX), High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM), UV-visible (UV), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and Photoluminescence Spectroscopy (PL). XRD pattern confirms the hexagonal wurtzite structure of the Chitosan/ZnO nanocomposites. The structural morphology and the elemental composition of the samples were analysed by FESEM and EDX respectively. From TEM analysis, it is observed that the particles in spindle shape morphology with average particle size ranges 10-20 nm. UV-Vis analysis reveals that the Chitosan concentration affect the absorption band edge and shift towards lower wavelength. The oxygen vacancy induced photoluminescence of ZnO nanoparticles was observed and its intensity decreases by tuning the Chitosan concentration.

  8. Effects of the ultra-high pressure on structure and α-glucosidase inhibition of polysaccharide from Astragalus.

    Zhu, Zhen-Yuan; Luo, You; Dong, Guo-Ling; Ren, Yuan-Yuan; Chen, Li-Jing; Guo, Ming-Zhu; Wang, Xiao-Ting; Yang, Xue-Ying; Zhang, Yongmin

    2016-06-01

    A novel homogeneous polysaccharide fraction (APS) was extracted from Astragalus by hot water and purified by Sephadex G-100 and G-75 column. Its molecular weight was 693kDa. APS and APS with ultra-high pressure treatment exhibited significant inhibitory abilities on a-glucosidase, inhibition rate from high to low in order was 400MPa-APS, 300MPa-APS, 500MPa-APS and APS. The inhibition ​percentage of 400MPa-APS (1.5mg/mL) was 49% (max.). This suggested that the inhibitory activity of APS on a-glucosidase was improved by ultra-high pressure treatment. FT-IR, SEM, CD spectra, atomic force microscope and Congo red test analysis of APS and 400MPa-APS showed ultra-high pressure treatment didn't change the preliminary structure but had an effect on its advanced structure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Production of bacterial polysaccharides

    Ellwood, D C; Evans, C G.T.; Yeo, R G

    1978-06-01

    A process for the biochemical synthesis of polysaccharides comprises growing polysaccharide-producing bacteria of the genus Xanthomonas in a single stage continuous culture in a chemically-defined medium. The term chemically-defined medium denotes a culture medium wherein nutrients other than carbon are provided as inorganic salts or single organic compounds of known molecular structure rather than as complex naturally-derived mixtures. Normally the only organic component of the chemically-defined medium will be a conventional carbon source such as a carbohydrate, especially glucose, or glycerol. Preferably the medium should contain only one nitrogen source, since the use of multiple nitrogen sources, as present in complex media, appears to promote changes in the nature of the culture resulting in loss of polysaccharide production. 22 claims.

  10. Structural characterization of polysaccharides from Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon and Sauvignon Blanc wines: Anti-inflammatory activity in LPS stimulated RAW 264.7 cells.

    Bezerra, Iglesias de Lacerda; Caillot, Adriana Rute Cordeiro; Palhares, Lais Cristina Gusmão Ferreira; Santana-Filho, Arquimedes Paixão; Chavante, Suely Ferreira; Sassaki, Guilherme Lanzi

    2018-04-15

    The structural characterization of the polysaccharides and in vitro anti-inflammatory properties of Cabernet Franc (WCF), Cabernet Sauvignon (WCS) and Sauvignon Blanc (WSB) wines were studied for the first time in this work. The polysaccharides of wines gave rise to three fractions of polysaccharides, namely (WCF) 0.16%, (WCS) 0.05% and (WSB) 0.02%; the highest one was chosen for isolation of polysaccharides (WCF). It was identified the presence of mannan, formed by a sequence of α-d-Manp (1 → 6)-linked and side chains O-2 substituted for α-d-mannan (1 → 2)-linked; type II arabinogalactan, formed by (1 → 3)-linked β-d-Galp main chain, substituted at O-6 by (1 → 6)-linked β-d-Galp side chains, and nonreducing end-units of arabinose 3-O-substituted; type I rhamnogalacturonan formed by repeating (1 → 4)-α-d-GalpA-(1 → 2)-α-L-Rhap groups; and traces of type II rhamnogalacturonan. The polysaccharide mixture and isolated fractions inhibited the production of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β) and mediator (NO) in RAW 264.7 cells stimulated with LPS. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Structural and electrical characterization of tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP) doped with NH4HCO2

    Premalatha, M.; Mathavan, T.; Selvasekarapandian, S.; Selvalakshmi, S.

    2018-04-01

    In the modern era, development of electrochemical energy devices such as batteries, fuel cells and supercapacitors gain attention due to the deficiency of renewable energy resources. More specifically, proton conducting materials create prime interest in the development of electrochemical devices. In this regards, a novel proton conducting biopolymer electrolyte based on Tamarind Seed Polysaccharide (TSP) was synthesized with different concentration of ammonium formate (NH4HCO2). The amorphous nature of the polymer electrolytes has been identified by XRD technique. The observed ionic conductivity values reveal that the biopolymer containing 1 g TSP: 0.4 g NH4HCO2 has highest ionic conductivity 1.23×10-3 S cm-1.

  12. Structure, chain conformation and antitumor activity of a novel polysaccharide from Lentinus edodes.

    Yu, Zhang; Ming, Gu; Kaiping, Wang; Zhixiang, Chen; Liquan, Dai; Jingyu, Liu; Fang, Zeng

    2010-12-01

    A water-soluble polysaccharide LT1 was isolated from the basidiocarps of Lentinus edodes by hot water extraction and ethanol precipitations, further purified by gel chromatography. The Mw of LT1 was estimated to be 642 kDa by using HPGPC. Chemical and spectroscopic studies illustrated that LT1 has a backbone chain composed of 1 → 4-linked and 1 → 3-linked glucopyranosyl residues and has branches of single glucosyl stubs at C-6 of β-(1 → 4)-linked glucopyranosyl. AFM and Congo-red test revealed that LT1 existed as triple helix chain in 0.10 M NaOH solution or distilled water. Our studies showed that LT1 presented significant antitumor bioactivities on Sarcoma180 solid tumor cell implanted in BALB/c mice, which implies that LT1 could be potentially applied as a natural antitumor drug. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Polysaccharides of algae. Pt. 37. Characterization of hybrid structure of substituted agarose from Polysiphonia morrowii (Rhodophyta, Rhodomelaceae) using. beta. -agarase and /sup 13/C-NMR spectroscopy

    Usov, A.I.; Ivanova, E.G.

    1987-09-01

    Structure of gel-forming galactan from Polysiphonia morrowii was analysed using bacterial ..beta..-agarase and /sup 13/C-nuclear magnetic resonance (/sup 13/C-NMR) spectroscopy. The polysaccharide was shown to contain: a) blocks composed of agarobiose residues, partly 6-O-methylated and 6-sulfated, which are sensitive to enzymolysis; b) extended blocks composed of agarobiose 6-sulfate residues, which are resistant to ..beta..-agarase action. The latter blocks contain also ..beta..-D-galactopyranosyl-(1->4)-..cap alpha..-L-galactopyranose 6.6'-disulfate residues (biogenetic precursors of agarobiose 6-sulfate), which are hardly detectable by /sup 13/C-NMR spectrum of the starting polysaccharide. Action of alkali on the enzyme-resistant fraction afforded a polysaccharide preparation having /sup 13/C-NMR spectrum of agarose 6-sulfate.

  14. A STRUCTURAL OVERVIEW OF GH61 PROTEINS – FUNGAL CELLULOSE DEGRADING POLYSACCHARIDE MONOOXYGENASES

    Leila Lo Leggio

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed a spurt of activities in the elucidation of the molecular function of a class of proteins with great potential in biomass degradation. GH61 proteins are of fungal origin and were originally classified in family 61 of the glycoside hydrolases. From the beginning they were strongly suspected to be involved in cellulose degradation because of their expression profiles, despite very low detectable endoglucanase activities. A major breakthrough came from structure determination of the first members, establishing the presence of a divalent metal binding site and a similarity to bacterial proteins involved in chitin degradation. A second breakthrough came from the identification of cellulase boosting activity dependent on the integrity of the metal binding site. Finally very recently GH61 proteins were demonstrated to oxidatively cleave crystalline cellulose in a Cu and reductant dependant manner. This mini-review in particular focuses on the contribution that structure elucidation has made in the understanding of GH61 molecular function and reviews the currently known structures and the challenges remaining ahead for exploiting this new class of enzymes to the full.

  15. A structural overview of GH61 proteins – fungal cellulose degrading polysaccharide monooxygenases

    Leila Lo Leggio

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed a spurt of activities in the elucidation of the molecular function of a class of proteins with great potential in biomass degradation. GH61 proteins are of fungal origin and were originally classified in family 61 of the glycoside hydrolases. From the beginning they were strongly suspected to be involved in cellulose degradation because of their expression profiles, despite very low detectable endoglucanase activities. A major breakthrough came from structure determination of the first members, establishing the presence of a divalent metal binding site and a similarity to bacterial proteins involved in chitin degradation. A second breakthrough came from the identification of cellulase boosting activity dependent on the integrity of the metal binding site. Finally very recently GH61 proteins were demonstrated to oxidatively cleave crystalline cellulose in a Cu and reductant dependant manner. This mini-review in particular focuses on the contribution that structure elucidation has made in the understanding of GH61 molecular function and reviews the currently known structures and the challenges remaining ahead for exploiting this new class of enzymes to the full.

  16. Immunogold scanning electron microscopy can reveal the polysaccharide architecture of xylem cell walls

    Sun, Yuliang; Juzenas, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Immunofluorescence microscopy (IFM) and immunogold transmission electron microscopy (TEM) are the two main techniques commonly used to detect polysaccharides in plant cell walls. Both are important in localizing cell wall polysaccharides, but both have major limitations, such as low resolution in IFM and restricted sample size for immunogold TEM. In this study, we have developed a robust technique that combines immunocytochemistry with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to study cell wall polysaccharide architecture in xylem cells at high resolution over large areas of sample. Using multiple cell wall monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), this immunogold SEM technique reliably localized groups of hemicellulosic and pectic polysaccharides in the cell walls of five different xylem structures (vessel elements, fibers, axial and ray parenchyma cells, and tyloses). This demonstrates its important advantages over the other two methods for studying cell wall polysaccharide composition and distribution in these structures. In addition, it can show the three-dimensional distribution of a polysaccharide group in the vessel lateral wall and the polysaccharide components in the cell wall of developing tyloses. This technique, therefore, should be valuable for understanding the cell wall polysaccharide composition, architecture and functions of diverse cell types. PMID:28398585

  17. Structural Elements and Cough Suppressing Activity of Polysaccharides from Zingiber officinale Rhizome.

    Bera, K; Nosalova, G; Sivova, V; Ray, B

    2016-01-01

    Zingiber officinale is used for the management of fever, bronchial asthma and cough for thousands of years. While the link to a particular indication has been established in human, the active principle of the formulation remains unknown. Herein, we have investigated a water extracted polysaccharides (WEP) containing fraction from its rhizome. Utilizing a traditional aqueous extraction protocol and using chemical, chromatographic and spectroscopic methods a fraction containing a branched glucan and polygalaturonan in a ratio of 59:1 was characterized. This glucan, which has a molecular mass of 36 kDa, is made up of terminal-, (1,4)- and (1,4,6)-linked α-Glcp residues. Oral administration of WEP in doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg body weight significantly inhibited the number of citric acid-induced cough efforts in guinea pigs. It does not alter the specific airway smooth muscle reactivity significantly. Thus, traditional aqueous extraction method provides molecular entities, which induces antitussive activity without addiction. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Tramesan, a novel polysaccharide from Trametes versicolor. Structural characterization and biological effects.

    Marzia Scarpari

    Full Text Available Mushrooms represent a formidable source of bioactive compounds. Some of these may be considered as biological response modifiers; these include compounds with a specific biological function: antibiotics (e.g. plectasin, immune system stimulator (e,g, lentinan, antitumor agents (e.g. krestin, PSK and hypolipidemic agents (e.g. lovastatin inter alia. In this study, we focused on the Chinese medicinal mushroom "yun zhi", Trametes versicolor, traditionally used for (cit. "replenish essence and qi (vital energy". Previous studies indicated the potential activity of extracts from culture filtrate of asexual mycelia of T. versicolor in controlling the growth and secondary metabolism (e.g. mycotoxins of plant pathogenic fungi. The quest of active principles produced by T. versicolor, allowed us characterising an exo-polysaccharide released in its culture filtrate and naming it Tramesan. Herein we evaluate the biological activity of Tramesan in different organisms: plants, mammals and plant pathogenic fungi. We suggest that the bioactivity of Tramesan relies mostly on its ability to act as pro antioxidant molecule regardless the biological system on which it was applied.

  19. Structural analysis of a sulfated polysaccharidic fraction obtained from the coenocytic green seaweed Caulerpa cupressoides var. lycopodium

    José Ariévilo Gurgel Rodrigues

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Researches on structural chemistry of sulfated polysaccharides (SPs have been mainly focused on red and brown algae. Caulerpa cupressoides var. lycopodium (Chlorophyta contains three SPs fractions (Cc-SP1, Cc-SP2 and Cc-SP3. Cc-SP1 and Cc-SP2 had anticoagulant (in vitro and anti- and prothrombotic, antinociceptive and/or anti-inflammatory (in vivo effects. However, their structural features have not yet been investigated. This study analyzed the chemical composition, elemental microanalysis and structural features by infrared (IR and nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR spectroscopy of Cc-SPs. Fractionation of SPs by DEAE-cellulose yielded Cc-SP1, Cc-SP2 and CcSP3 containing differences among the relative proportions of sulfate (14.67-26.72%, total sugars (34.92-49.73% and uronic acid (7.15-7.22%. Carbon (21.76-29.62%, sulfate (2.16-4.55%, nitrogen (0.85-1.57% and hydrogen (4.57-5.86% contents were obtained using a CHN equipment. Data from IR indicated occurrence of sulfate ester, galactose-6-sulfate, uronic acid and glycoside linkages. For 1H NMR spectrum of the soluble Cc-SP1 fraction, it was mainly found β-galactopyranose residues and CH3 group. The results showed that Cc-SPs fractions have some structural features similar to others studied Caulerpaceae SPs.

  20. Mapping the polysaccharide degradation potential of Aspergillus niger

    Andersen, Mikael Rørdam; Giese, Malene; de Vries, Ronald P.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The degradation of plant materials by enzymes is an industry of increasing importance. For sustainable production of second generation biofuels and other products of industrial biotechnology, efficient degradation of non-edible plant polysaccharides such as hemicellulose is required....... For each type of hemicellulose, a complex mixture of enzymes is required for complete conversion to fermentable monosaccharides. In plant-biomass degrading fungi, these enzymes are regulated and released by complex regulatory structures. In this study, we present a methodology for evaluating the potential...... of a given fungus for polysaccharide degradation. Results: Through the compilation of information from 203 articles, we have systematized knowledge on the structure and degradation of 16 major types of plant polysaccharides to form a graphical overview. As a case example, we have combined this with a list...

  1. Three-dimensional structural analysis of the group B polysaccharide of Neisseria meningitidis 6275 by two-dimensional NMR: The polysaccharide is suggested to exist in helical conformations in solution

    Yamasaki, Ryohei; Bacon, B. (Univ. of California, San Francisco (USA) Veterans Administration Medical Center, San Francisco, CA (USA))

    1991-01-22

    The solution conformations of the group B polysaccharide of Neisseria meningitidis were analyzed by DQF-COSY and pure absorption 2D NOE NMR with three mixing times. The pyranose ring of the sialic acid residue was found to be in the {sup 2}C{sub 5} conformation. The DQF-COSY analysis indicated that the orientations of H6 and H7 and of H7 and H8 are both gauche. In order to overcome the difficulties in analyzing the NOE data due to the two sets of proton overlaps, molecular modeling of {alpha}-2,8-linked sialic acid oligomers was carried out to investigate possible conformers, and theoretical NOE calculations were performed by using CORMA (complete relaxation matrix analysis). The analysis suggests that the polysaccharide adopts helical structures for which the {phi} (defined by O6-C2-O8-C8) and {psi} (C2-O8-C8-C7) angles are in the following ranges: {phi}-60 to 0{degree}, {psi} 115-175{degree} or {phi} 90-120{degree}, {psi}55-175{degree}. The weak affinity of anti-B antibodies for smaller {alpha}-2,8-linked oligosaccharides may be due to the fact that such oligomers are more flexible and may not form an ordered structure as the poly(sialic acid) does.

  2. Multiple rewards from a treasure trove of novel glycoside hydrolase and polysaccharide lyase structures: new folds, mechanistic details, and evolutionary relationships.

    Fushinobu, Shinya; Alves, Victor D; Coutinho, Pedro M

    2013-10-01

    Recent progress in three-dimensional structure analyses of glycoside hydrolases (GHs) and polysaccharide lyases (PLs), the historically relevant enzyme classes involved in the cleavage of glycosidic bonds of carbohydrates and glycoconjugates, is reviewed. To date, about 80% and 95% of the GH and PL families, respectively, have a representative crystal structure. New structures have been determined for enzymes acting on plant cell wall polysaccharides, sphingolipids, blood group antigens, milk oligosaccharides, N-glycans, oral biofilms and dietary seaweeds. Some GH enzymes have very unique catalytic residues such as the Asp-His dyad. New methods such as high-speed atomic force microscopy and computational simulation have opened up a path to investigate both the dynamics and the detailed molecular interactions displayed by these enzymes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Influence of Pea Protein Aggregates on the Structure and Stability of Pea Protein/Soybean Polysaccharide Complex Emulsions

    Baoru Yin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The applications of plant proteins in the food and beverage industry have been hampered by their precipitation in acidic solution. In this study, pea protein isolate (PPI with poor dispersibility in acidic solution was used to form complexes with soybean soluble polysaccharide (SSPS, and the effects of PPI aggregates on the structure and stability of PPI/SSPS complex emulsions were investigated. Under acidic conditions, high pressure homogenization disrupts the PPI aggregates and the electrostatic attraction between PPI and SSPS facilitates the formation of dispersible PPI/SSPS complexes. The PPI/SSPS complex emulsions prepared from the PPI containing aggregates prove to possess similar droplet structure and similar stability compared with the PPI/SSPS emulsions produced from the PPI in which the aggregates have been previously removed by centrifugation. The oil droplets are protected by PPI/SSPS complex interfacial films and SSPS surfaces. The emulsions show long-term stability against pH and NaCl concentration changes. This study demonstrates that PPI aggregates can also be used to produce stable complex emulsions, which may promote the applications of plant proteins in the food and beverage industry.

  4. Influence of pea protein aggregates on the structure and stability of pea protein/soybean polysaccharide complex emulsions.

    Yin, Baoru; Zhang, Rujing; Yao, Ping

    2015-03-20

    The applications of plant proteins in the food and beverage industry have been hampered by their precipitation in acidic solution. In this study, pea protein isolate (PPI) with poor dispersibility in acidic solution was used to form complexes with soybean soluble polysaccharide (SSPS), and the effects of PPI aggregates on the structure and stability of PPI/SSPS complex emulsions were investigated. Under acidic conditions, high pressure homogenization disrupts the PPI aggregates and the electrostatic attraction between PPI and SSPS facilitates the formation of dispersible PPI/SSPS complexes. The PPI/SSPS complex emulsions prepared from the PPI containing aggregates prove to possess similar droplet structure and similar stability compared with the PPI/SSPS emulsions produced from the PPI in which the aggregates have been previously removed by centrifugation. The oil droplets are protected by PPI/SSPS complex interfacial films and SSPS surfaces. The emulsions show long-term stability against pH and NaCl concentration changes. This study demonstrates that PPI aggregates can also be used to produce stable complex emulsions, which may promote the applications of plant proteins in the food and beverage industry.

  5. Three-dimensional structure of Wza, the protein required for translocation of group 1 capsular polysaccharide across the outer membrane of Escherichia coli.

    Beis, Konstantinos; Collins, Richard F; Ford, Robert C; Kamis, Alhaji B; Whitfield, Chris; Naismith, James H

    2004-07-02

    Wza is a highly conserved multimeric outer membrane protein complex required for the surface expression of the serotype K30 group 1 capsular polysaccharide in Escherichia coli. Here we present the first three-dimensional structure of this type of polysaccharide exporter at a 15.5-A resolution obtained using single particle averaging on a dataset of cryo-negatively stained protein. Previous structural studies on purified Wza have revealed a homo-oligomeric ring structure that is most probably composed of eight subunits. Symmetry analysis of the three-dimensional structure combined with biochemical two- and three-dimensional crystallographic data strongly suggest that Wza is an octameric complex with a C4 quasi-rotational symmetry and is organized as a tetramer of dimeric subunits. Wza is best described as a stack of two 4-A high rings with differing diameters providing a mushroom-like aspect from the side. The larger ring has a distinctive square shape with a diameter of 115 A, whereas the smaller is almost circular with a diameter of 90 A. In the center of the complex and enclosed by the four symmetrical arms is a small elliptical cagelike cavity of approximately 40 A in diameter. The central cavity is effectively sealed at the top and bottom of the complex but has small inter-arm holes when viewed from the side. We discuss the structure of this complex and implications in the surface translocation of cell-surface polysaccharide.

  6. Effects of Lytic Polysaccharide Monooxygenase Oxidation on Cellulose Structure and Binding of Oxidized Cellulose Oligomers to Cellulases

    Vermaas, Josh V.; Crowley, Michael F.; Beckham, Gregg T.; Payne, Christina M.

    2015-05-21

    In nature, polysaccharide glycosidic bonds are cleaved by hydrolytic enzymes for a vast array of biological functions. Recently, a new class of enzymes that utilize an oxidative mechanism to cleave glycosidic linkages was discovered; these enzymes are called lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMO). These oxidative enzymes are synergistic with cocktails of hydrolytic enzymes and are thought to act primarily on crystalline regions, in turn providing new sites of productive attachment and detachment for processive hydrolytic enzymes. In the case of cellulose, the homopolymer of ..beta..-1,4-d-glucose, enzymatic oxidation occurs at either the reducing end or the nonreducing end of glucose, depending on enzymatic specificity, and results in the generation of oxidized chemical substituents at polymer chain ends. LPMO oxidation of cellulose is thought to produce either a lactone at the reducing end of glucose that can spontaneously or enzymatically convert to aldonic acid or 4-keto-aldose at the nonreducing end that may further oxidize to a geminal diol. Here, we use molecular simulation to examine the effect of oxidation on the structure of crystalline cellulose. The simulations highlight variations in behaviors depending on the chemical identity of the oxidized species and its location within the cellulose fibril, as different oxidized species introduce steric effects that disrupt local crystallinity and in some cases reduce the work needed for polymer decrystallization. Reducing-end oxidations are easiest to decrystallize when located at the end of the fibril, whereas nonreducing end oxidations readily decrystallize from internal cleavage sites despite their lower solvent accessibility. The differential in decrystallization free energy suggests a molecular mechanism consistent with experimentally observed LPMO/cellobiohydrolase synergy. Additionally, the soluble oxidized cellobiose products released by hydrolytic cellulases may bind to the active sites of cellulases

  7. Analysis of two precipitation methods on the yield, structural features and activity of sulfated polysaccharides from Gracilaria cornea (Rhodophyta

    Ricardo Basto Souza

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The global demand for natural products from seaweeds has increased worldwide; however, no description of the use of isoamly alcohol (IAA for obtaining of sulfated polysaccharides (SPs has been reported. We investigated the efficiency of two precipitation methods (M in obtaining SPs from the red seaweed Gracilaria cornea. SPs enzymatically isolated were concentrated with cetylpyridinium chloride (M I or IAA (M II and extracts were examined with regard to their yield, structural features and in vitro effects on the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT using normal human plasma and standard heparin (193 IU mg-1. Yield difference reached 12.99%. Quantitative determination of sulfate was similar between the two methods (̴ 26%, but extracts revealed different pattern on charge density by agarose gel electrophoresis. Whereas both extracts revealed as agarocolloids, alternative M II was also efficient for lipids, proteins and nucleic acids according to the infrared analysis. Extracts had virtually no effect on APPT (1.95 and 2 IU mg-1 for M I and M II, respectively. The results revealed IAA as an alternative solvent for obtaining SPs from the red seaweed G. cornea, depending on the industry’ usage criterion.

  8. Complete structure of the cell surface polysaccharide of Streptococcus oralis ATCC 10557: A receptor for lectin-mediated interbacterial adherence

    Abeygunawardana, C.; Bush, C.A.; Cisar, J.O.

    1991-01-01

    Lectin-carbohydrate binding is known to play an important role in a number of different cell-cell interactions including those between certain species of oral streptococci and actinomyces that colonize teeth. The cell wall polysaccharides of Streptococcus oralis ATCC 10557, S. oralis 34, and Streptococcus mitis J22, although not identical antigenically, each function as a receptor molecule for the galactose and N-acetylgalactosamine reactive fimbrial lectins of Actinomyces viscosus and Actinomyces naeslundii. Carbohydrate analysis of the receptor polysaccharide isolated from S. oralis ATCC 10557 shows galactose (3 mol), glucose (1 mol), GalNAc (1 mol), and rhamnose (1 mol). 1 H NMR spectra of the polysaccharide show that is partially O-acetylated. Analysis of the 1 H NMR spectrum of the de-O-acetylated polysaccharide shows that it is composed of repeating subunits containing six monosaccharides and that the subunits are joined by a phosphodiester linkage. The 1 H and 13 C NMR spectra were completely assigned by two-dimensional homonuclear correlation methods and by 1 H-detected heteronuclear multiple-quantum correlation ( 1 H[ 13 C]HMQC). The complete 1 H and 13 C assignment of the native polysaccharide was carried out by the same techniques augmented by a 13 C-coupled hybrid HMQC-COSY method, which is shown to be especially useful for carbohydrates in which strong coupling and overlapping peaks in the 1 H spectrum pose difficulties

  9. Two dimensional NMR studies of polysaccharides

    Byrd, R.A.; Egan, W.; Summers, M.F.

    1987-01-01

    Polysaccharides are very important components in the immune response system. Capsular polysaccharides and lipopolysaccharides occupy cell surface sites of bacteria, play key roles in recognition and some have been used to develop vaccines. Consequently, the ability to determine chemical structures of these systems is vital to an understanding of their immunogenic action. The authors have been utilizing recently developed two-dimensional homonuclear and heteronuclear correlation spectroscopy for unambiguous assignment and structure determination of a number of polysaccharides. In particular, the 1 H-detected heteronuclear correlation experiments are essential to the rapid and sensitive determination of these structures. Linkage sites are determined by independent polarization transfer experiments and multiple quantum correlation experiments. These methods permit the complete structure determination on very small amounts of the polysaccharides. They present the results of a number of structural determinations and discuss the limits of these experiments in terms of their applications to polysaccharides

  10. Extraction and structural properties of Acanthophora muscoides (Rhodophyceae extracellular matrix sulfated polysaccharides and their effects on coagulation

    José Ariévilo Gurgel Rodrigues

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Acanthophora muscoides (Rhodophyta contains structurally heterogeneous sulfated polysaccharides (Am-SPs with pharmacological importance; however, its matrix SPs composition has not been still extensively investigated. This study sequentially extracted and compared the structural features and the in vitro anticoagulant effects of the Am-SPs. Papain-extraction sequence yielded Am.E-1, Am.E-2 and Am.E-3 containing differences among the relative proportions of sulfate (26.18-33% and hexoses (42.02-60.67% based on chemical analyses. One- (1H and two-dimensions (1H/13C nuclear magnetic resonance experiments showed very complex Am-SPs composed of alternating 4-linked-α-galactopyranosyl units and 3-linked-β-galactopyranosyl units presenting variable sulfation, CH3 substitutions and3,6-anhydro-α-L-galactose units and pyruvated-D-galactose residues, respectively, typical of agarocolloids. Different chromatographic profiles (DEAE-cellulose were observed, with fractions (Am I, Am II and Am III eluted with 0.5, 0.75 and/or 1 M of NaCl, respectively revealing charge density patterns and distinct mobility to heparin by agarose-electrophoresis and, when analyzed by polyacrylamide-electrophoresis, a dispersive migration and similar mobility as chondroitin-6-sulfate for Am I fractions were noted. Regarding the activated partial thromboplastin time test, fractions had no virtually anticoagulation (1.47→3.07 IU mg-1 in comparison with 193 IU mg-1 heparin. Therefore, Am-SPs show significantly lower anticoagulation than heparin.

  11. Molecular characterization of a Penicillium chrysogenum exo-rhamnogalacturonan lyase that is structurally distinct from other polysaccharide lyase family proteins.

    Iwai, Marin; Kawakami, Takuya; Ikemoto, Takeshi; Fujiwara, Daisuke; Takenaka, Shigeo; Nakazawa, Masami; Ueda, Mitsuhiro; Sakamoto, Tatsuji

    2015-10-01

    We previously described an endo-acting rhamnogalacturonan (RG) lyase, termed PcRGL4A, of Penicillium chrysogenum 31B. Here, we describe a second RG lyase, called PcRGLX. We determined the cDNA sequence of the Pcrglx gene, which encodes PcRGLX. Based on analyses using a BLAST search and a conserved domain search, PcRGLX was found to be structurally distinct from known RG lyases and might belong to a new polysaccharide lyase family together with uncharacterized fungal proteins of Nectria haematococca, Aspergillus oryzae, and Fusarium oxysporum. The Pcrglx cDNA gene product (rPcRGLX) expressed in Escherichia coli demonstrated specific activity against RG but not against homogalacturonan. Divalent cations were not essential for the enzymatic activity of rPcRGLX. rPcRGLX mainly released unsaturated galacturonosyl rhamnose (ΔGR) from RG backbones used as the substrate from the initial stage of the reaction, indicating that the enzyme can be classified as an exo-acting RG lyase (EC 4.2.2.24). This is the first report of an RG lyase with this mode of action in Eukaryota. rPcRGLX acted synergistically with PcRGL4A to degrade soybean RG and released ΔGR. This ΔGR was partially decorated with galactose (Gal) residues, indicating that rPcRGLX preferred oligomeric RGs to polymeric RGs, that the enzyme did not require Gal decoration of RG backbones for degradation, and that the enzyme bypassed the Gal side chains of RG backbones. These characteristics of rPcRGLX might be useful in the determination of complex structures of pectins.

  12. Structural studies of some bacterial capsular polysaccharides from the family enterobacteriaceae: Klebsiella serotypes K79 and K35 and Escherichia coli serotype K44

    Lim, A.V.S.

    1986-01-01

    The techniques of sugar analysis, methylation, chromic acid oxidation, deamination, base-catalyzed uronic acid degradation, Smith degradation and partial hydrolysis were used in the structural elucidation of bacterial capsular polysaccharides. Methods such as gas-liquid chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, gel permeation, ion-exchange and paper-chromatography were used to isolate and characterize oligosaccharides obtained from degradative procedures. N.m.r. spectroscopy (/sup 1/H and /sup 13/C) was widely used in the characterization of the polysaccharides and of derived poly- and oligo-saccharides. In a few instances, n.m.r. spectroscopy and mass spectrometry were used to delineate the sequence of the sugars in the structure of the poly- and oligo-saccharides. The bacteriophage-induced depolymerizations of the capsular polysaccharides of Klebsiella K79 and E. coli K44 are also reported in this thesis. The sum of these experiments demonstrated that the endoglycanase associated with Klebsiella Phi 79 had ..beta..-galactosidase activity. The endoglycanase from E. coli Phi 44 exhibited ..beta..-N-acetyl-galactosaminidase activity which is novel, in that it is the first reported action of this nature in the bacteriophages isolated for the species E. coli.

  13. Botanical polysaccharides: macrophage immunomodulation and therapeutic potential.

    Schepetkin, Igor A; Quinn, Mark T

    2006-03-01

    Botanical polysaccharides exhibit a number of beneficial therapeutic properties, and it is thought that the mechanisms involved in these effects are due to the modulation of innate immunity and, more specifically, macrophage function. In this review, we summarize our current state of understanding of the macrophage modulatory effects of botanical polysaccharides isolated from a wide array of different species of flora, including higher plants, mushrooms, lichens and algae. Overall, the primary effect of botanical polysaccharides is to enhance and/or activate macrophage immune responses, leading to immunomodulation, anti-tumor activity, wound-healing and other therapeutic effects. Furthermore, botanical and microbial polysaccharides bind to common surface receptors and induce similar immunomodulatory responses in macrophages, suggesting that evolutionarily conserved polysaccharide structural features are shared between these organisms. Thus, the evaluation of botanical polysaccharides provides a unique opportunity for the discovery of novel therapeutic agents and adjuvants that exhibit beneficial immunomodulatory properties.

  14. Mapping the polysaccharide degradation potential of Aspergillus niger

    Andersen Mikael R

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The degradation of plant materials by enzymes is an industry of increasing importance. For sustainable production of second generation biofuels and other products of industrial biotechnology, efficient degradation of non-edible plant polysaccharides such as hemicellulose is required. For each type of hemicellulose, a complex mixture of enzymes is required for complete conversion to fermentable monosaccharides. In plant-biomass degrading fungi, these enzymes are regulated and released by complex regulatory structures. In this study, we present a methodology for evaluating the potential of a given fungus for polysaccharide degradation. Results Through the compilation of information from 203 articles, we have systematized knowledge on the structure and degradation of 16 major types of plant polysaccharides to form a graphical overview. As a case example, we have combined this with a list of 188 genes coding for carbohydrate-active enzymes from Aspergillus niger, thus forming an analysis framework, which can be queried. Combination of this information network with gene expression analysis on mono- and polysaccharide substrates has allowed elucidation of concerted gene expression from this organism. One such example is the identification of a full set of extracellular polysaccharide-acting genes for the degradation of oat spelt xylan. Conclusions The mapping of plant polysaccharide structures along with the corresponding enzymatic activities is a powerful framework for expression analysis of carbohydrate-active enzymes. Applying this network-based approach, we provide the first genome-scale characterization of all genes coding for carbohydrate-active enzymes identified in A. niger.

  15. Advances on Bioactive Polysaccharides from Medicinal Plants.

    Xie, Jian-Hua; Jin, Ming-Liang; Morris, Gordon A; Zha, Xue-Qiang; Chen, Han-Qing; Yi, Yang; Li, Jing-En; Wang, Zhi-Jun; Gao, Jie; Nie, Shao-Ping; Shang, Peng; Xie, Ming-Yong

    2016-07-29

    In recent decades, the polysaccharides from the medicinal plants have attracted a lot of attention due to their significant bioactivities, such as anti-tumor activity, antioxidant activity, anticoagulant activity, antidiabetic activity, radioprotection effect, anti-viral activity, hypolipidemic and immunomodulatory activities, which make them suitable for medicinal applications. Previous studies have also shown that medicinal plant polysaccharides are non-toxic and show no side effects. Based on these encouraging observations, most researches have been focusing on the isolation and identification of polysaccharides, as well as their bioactivities. A large number of bioactive polysaccharides with different structural features and biological effects from medicinal plants have been purified and characterized. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the most recent developments in physiochemical, structural features and biological activities of bioactive polysaccharides from a number of important medicinal plants, such as polysaccharides from Astragalus membranaceus, Dendrobium plants, Bupleurum, Cactus fruits, Acanthopanax senticosus, Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels, Aloe barbadensis Miller, and Dimocarpus longan Lour. Moreover, the paper has also been focused on the applications of bioactive polysaccharides for medicinal applications. Recent studies have provided evidence that polysaccharides from medicinal plants can play a vital role in bioactivities. The contents and data will serve as a useful reference material for further investigation, production, and application of these polysaccharides in functional foods and therapeutic agents.

  16. Polysaccharide charge density regulating protein adsorption to air/water interfaces by protein/polysaccharide complex formation

    Ganzevles, R.A.; Kosters, H.; Vliet, T. van; Stuart, M.A.C.; Jongh, H.H.J. de

    2007-01-01

    Because the formation of protein/polysaccharide complexes is dominated by electrostatic interaction, polysaccharide charge density is expected to play a major role in the adsorption behavior of the complexes. In this study, pullulan (a non-charged polysaccharide) carboxylated to four different

  17. A mini-review of chemical and biological properties of polysaccharides from Momordica charantia.

    Zhang, Fan; Lin, Lihua; Xie, Jianhua

    2016-11-01

    Recently, isolation and characterization of bioactive polysaccharides from natural resources have attracted increasing interest. Momordica charantia L. (M. charantia), belongs to the Curcubitaceae family, which is widely distributed in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world, and has been used as herbal medicine and a vegetable for thousands of years. M. charantia polysaccharides, as major active ingredients of M. charantia, have attracted a great deal of attention because of their various biological activities, such as antitumor, immunomodulation, antioxidant, anti-diabetes, radioprotection, and hepatoprotection. The present review provides the most complete summary of the research progress on the polysaccharides isolated from M. charantia, including the extraction, separation, physical-chemical properties, structural characteristics, and bioactivities during the last ten years. This review also provides a foundation for the further development and application in the field of M. charantia polysaccharides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Regulation and diversity of plant polysaccharide utilisation in fungi

    Battaglia, E.

    2011-01-01

    Filamentous fungi obtain their nutrients by degrading dead or living plant material. Plant material consists of different cell wall and storage polysaccharides. Due to the complex structure and the variety of plant polysaccharides, filamentous fungi secrete a wide range of plant polysaccharide

  19. In vitro prebiotic effects of seaweed polysaccharides

    Chen, Xiaolin; Sun, Yuhao; Hu, Linfeng; Liu, Song; Yu, Huahua; Xing, Rong'e.; Li, Rongfeng; Wang, Xueqin; Li, Pengcheng

    2017-09-01

    Although prebiotic activities of alginate and agar oligosaccharides isolated from seaweeds have been reported, it remains unknown whether seaweed polysaccharides have prebiotic activity. In this study, we isolated polysaccharides from four species of seaweeds, such as Grateloupia filicina (GFP), Eucheuma spinosum (ESP), Ulva pertusa (UPP), and Ascophyllum nodosum (ANP), and characterized their structures and prebiotic effects in vitro. The results showed that these polysaccharides were different in total sugar and sulfate contents as well as monosaccharide composition. GFP and ESP significantly promoted bifidobacterium proliferation and 0.1% ESP and 0.4% GFP resulted in the highest proliferation rates of beneficial bacteria, whereas UPP and ANP inhibited the growth of beneficial bacteria at all tested concentrations (0.1%-0.5%). The different behaviors of the four seaweed-originated polysaccharides might be reflected by differences in monosaccharide composition and structure. Therefore, polysaccharides isolated from GFP and ESP could be utilized as prebiotics. However, more studies must be carried out in vivo.

  20. Unliganded and substrate bound structures of the cellooligosaccharide active lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase LsAA9A at low pH

    Frandsen, Kristian Erik Høpfner; Poulsen, Jens-Christian Navarro; Tandrup, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) have been found to be key components in microbial (bacterial and fungal) degradation of biomass. They are copper metalloenzymes that degrade polysaccharides oxidatively and act in synergy with glycoside hydrolases. Recently crystallographic studies...

  1. Structural and biochemical changes induced by pulsed electric field treatments on Cabernet Sauvignon grape berry skins: impact on cell wall total tannins and polysaccharides.

    Cholet, Céline; Delsart, Cristèle; Petrel, Mélina; Gontier, Etienne; Grimi, Nabil; L'hyvernay, Annie; Ghidossi, Remy; Vorobiev, Eugène; Mietton-Peuchot, Martine; Gény, Laurence

    2014-04-02

    Pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment is an emerging technology that is arousing increasing interest in vinification processes for its ability to enhance polyphenol extraction performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of PEF treatment on grape skin histocytological structures and on the organization of skin cell wall polysaccharides and tannins, which, until now, have been little investigated. This study relates to the effects of two PEF treatments on harvested Cabernet Sauvignon berries: PEF1 (medium strength (4 kV/cm); short duration (1 ms)) and PEF2 (low intensity (0.7 kV/cm); longer duration (200 ms)). Histocytological observations and the study of levels of polysaccharidic fractions and total amounts of tannins allowed differentiation between the two treatments. Whereas PEF1 had little effect on the polyphenol structure and pectic fraction, PEF2 profoundly modified the organization of skin cell walls. Depending on the PEF parameters, cell wall structure was differently affected, providing variable performance in terms of polyphenol extraction and wine quality.

  2. Characterization and Comparison of the Structural Features, Immune-Modulatory and Anti-Avian Influenza Virus Activities Conferred by Three Algal Sulfated Polysaccharides

    Song, Lin; Chen, Xiaolin; Liu, Xiaodong; Zhang, Fubo; Hu, Linfeng; Yue, Yang; Li, Kecheng; Li, Pengcheng

    2015-01-01

    Three marine macroalgae, i.e., Grateloupia filicina, Ulva pertusa and Sargassum qingdaoense, were selected as the deputies of Rhodophyta, Chlorophyta and Ochrophyta for comparative analysis of the molecular structures and biological activities of sulfated polysaccharides (SP). The ratio of water-soluble polysaccharides, the monosaccharide composition and the sulfated contents of three extracted SPs were determined, and their structures were characterized by Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy. In addition, biological activity analysis showed that all three SPs had immune-modulatory activity both in vitro and in vivo, and SPs from S. qingdaoense had the best effect. Further bioassays showed that three SPs could not only enhance the immunity level stimulated by inactivated avian influenza virus (AIV) in vivo but also significantly inhibited the activity of activated AIV (H9N2 subtype) in vitro. G. filicina SP exhibited the strongest anti-AIV activity. These results revealed the variations in structural features and bioactivities among three SPs and indicated the potential adjuvants for immune-enhancement and anti-AIV. PMID:26729137

  3. The structures of bacteriophages K1E and K1-5 explain processive degradation of polysaccharide capsules and evolution of new host specificities.

    Leiman, Petr G; Battisti, Anthony J; Bowman, Valorie D; Stummeyer, Katharina; Mühlenhoff, Martina; Gerardy-Schahn, Rita; Scholl, Dean; Molineux, Ian J

    2007-08-17

    External polysaccharides of many pathogenic bacteria form capsules protecting the bacteria from the animal immune system and phage infection. However, some bacteriophages can digest these capsules using glycosidases displayed on the phage particle. We have utilized cryo-electron microscopy to determine the structures of phages K1E and K1-5 and thereby establish the mechanism by which these phages attain and switch their host specificity. Using a specific glycosidase, both phages penetrate the capsule and infect the neuroinvasive human pathogen Escherichia coli K1. In addition to the K1-specific glycosidase, each K1-5 particle carries a second enzyme that allows it to infect E. coli K5, whose capsule is chemically different from that of K1. The enzymes are organized into a multiprotein complex attached via an adapter protein to the virus portal vertex, through which the DNA is ejected during infection. The structure of the complex suggests a mechanism for the apparent processivity of degradation that occurs as the phage drills through the polysaccharide capsule. The enzymes recognize the adapter protein by a conserved N-terminal sequence, providing a mechanism for phages to acquire different enzymes and thus to evolve new host specificities.

  4. Structure of deformed wing virus, a major honey bee pathogen.

    Škubník, Karel; Nováček, Jiří; Füzik, Tibor; Přidal, Antonín; Paxton, Robert J; Plevka, Pavel

    2017-03-21

    The worldwide population of western honey bees ( Apis mellifera ) is under pressure from habitat loss, environmental stress, and pathogens, particularly viruses that cause lethal epidemics. Deformed wing virus (DWV) from the family Iflaviridae , together with its vector, the mite Varroa destructor , is likely the major threat to the world's honey bees. However, lack of knowledge of the atomic structures of iflaviruses has hindered the development of effective treatments against them. Here, we present the virion structures of DWV determined to a resolution of 3.1 Å using cryo-electron microscopy and 3.8 Å by X-ray crystallography. The C-terminal extension of capsid protein VP3 folds into a globular protruding (P) domain, exposed on the virion surface. The P domain contains an Asp-His-Ser catalytic triad that is, together with five residues that are spatially close, conserved among iflaviruses. These residues may participate in receptor binding or provide the protease, lipase, or esterase activity required for entry of the virus into a host cell. Furthermore, nucleotides of the DWV RNA genome interact with VP3 subunits. The capsid protein residues involved in the RNA binding are conserved among honey bee iflaviruses, suggesting a putative role of the genome in stabilizing the virion or facilitating capsid assembly. Identifying the RNA-binding and putative catalytic sites within the DWV virion structure enables future analyses of how DWV and other iflaviruses infect insect cells and also opens up possibilities for the development of antiviral treatments.

  5. Important Determinants for Fucoidan Bioactivity: A Critical Review of Structure-Function Relations and Extraction Methods for Fucose-Containing Sulfated Polysaccharides from Brown Seaweeds

    Ale, Marcel Tutor; Mikkelsen, Jørn Dalgaard; Meyer, Anne S.

    2011-01-01

    Seaweeds—or marine macroalgae—notably brown seaweeds in the class Phaeophyceae, contain fucoidan. Fucoidan designates a group of certain fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharides (FCSPs) that have a backbone built of (1→3)-linked α-l-fucopyranosyl or of alternating (1→3)- and (1→4)-linked α...... for humans. The bioactive properties may vary depending on the source of seaweed, the compositional and structural traits, the content (charge density), distribution, and bonding of the sulfate substitutions, and the purity of the FCSP product. The preservation of the structural integrity of the FCSP...... on the most recent developments in the chemistry of fucoidan/FCSPs emphasizing the significance of different extraction techniques for the structural composition and biological activity with particular focus on sulfate groups....

  6. Polysaccharides from Extremophilic Microorganisms

    Nicolaus, B.; Moriello, V. Schiano; Lama, L.; Poli, A.; Gambacorta, A.

    2004-02-01

    Several marine thermophilic strains were analyzed for exopolysaccharide production. The screening process revealed that a significant number of thermophilic microorganisms were able to produce biopolymers, and some of them also revealed interesting chemical compositions. We have identified four new polysaccharides from thermophilic marine bacteria, with complex primary structures and with different repetitive units: a galacto-mannane type from strain number 4004 and mannane type for the other strains. The thermophilic Bacillus thermantarcticus produces two exocellular polysaccharides (EPS 1, EPS 2) that give the colonies a typical mucous character. The exopolysaccharide fraction was produced with all substrates assayed, although a higher yield 400 mg liter-1 was obtained with mannose as carbon and energy source. NMR spectra confirmed that EPS 1 was a heteropolysaccharide of which the repeating unit was constituted by four different α-D-mannoses and three different β-D-glucoses. It seems to be close to some xantan polymers. EPS 2 was a mannan. Four different α-D-mannoses were found as the repeating unit. Production and chemical studies of biopolymers produced by halophilic archaea, Haloarcula species were also reported.

  7. Why Were Polysaccharides Necessary?

    Tolstoguzov, Vladimir

    2004-12-01

    The main idea of this paper is that the primordial soup may be modelled by food systems whose structure-property relationship is based on non-specific interactions between denatured biopolymers. According to the proposed hypothesis, polysaccharides were the first biopolymers that decreased concentration of salts in the primordial soup, `compatibilised' and drove the joint evolution of proto-biopolymers. Synthesis of macromolecules within the polysaccharide-rich medium could have resulted in phase separation of the primordial soup and concentration of the polypeptides and nucleic acids in the dispersed phase particles. The concentration of proto-biopolymer mixtures favoured their cross-linking in hybrid supermacromolecules of conjugates. The cross-linking of proto-biopolymers could occur by hydrophobic, electrostatic interactions, H-bonds due to freezing aqueous mixed biopolymer dispersions and/or by covalent bonds due to the Maillard reaction. Cross-linking could have increased the local concentration of chemically different proto-biopolymers, fixed their relative positions and made their interactions reproducible. Attractive-repulsive interactions between cross-linked proto-biopolymer chains could develop pairing of the monomer units, improved chemical stability (against hydrolysis) and led to their mutual catalytic activity and coding. Conjugates could probably evolve to the first self-reproduced entities and then to specialized cellular organelles. Phase separation of the primordial soup with concentration of conjugates in the dispersed particles has probably resulted in proto-cells.

  8. Structural analysis and anti-obesity effect of a pectic polysaccharide isolated from Korean mulberry fruit Oddi (Morus alba L.).

    Choi, Ji Won; Synytsya, Andriy; Capek, Peter; Bleha, Roman; Pohl, Radek; Park, Yong Il

    2016-08-01

    A water-soluble polysaccharide JS-MP-1 was isolated from Korean mulberry fruits Oddi (Morus alba L.). Sugar linkage analysis and NMR data confirmed that it is a rhamnogalacturonan type I (RG I) polymer carrying arabinan and arabinogalactan (AG II) side chains. JS-MP-1 reduced dose-dependently the viability of 3T3-L1 pre-adipocyte cells, significantly stimulated the cleavage of caspases 9 and 3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and decreased the ratio of Bcl-2 to Bax expression level that led to mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis in pre-adipocyte cells. The apoptotic death was mediated by stimulation of MAPKs (ERK and p38) signalling pathway. These results suggest that JS-MP-1 is able to reduce the number of fat cells and the mass of adipose tissue via inhibition of pre-adipocyte proliferation and thus JS-MP-1 itself or a crude aqueous Oddi extract containing this polysaccharide can be used as functional ingredient of health-beneficial food supplements for the treatment or prevention of obesity disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Structure, substrate recognition and reactivity of Leishmania major mevalonate kinase

    Hunter William N

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Isoprenoid precursor synthesis via the mevalonate route in humans and pathogenic trypanosomatids is an important metabolic pathway. There is however, only limited information available on the structure and reactivity of the component enzymes in trypanosomatids. Since isoprenoid biosynthesis is essential for trypanosomatid viability and may provide new targets for therapeutic intervention it is important to characterize the pathway components. Results Putative mevalonate kinase encoding genes from Leishmania major (LmMK and Trypanosoma brucei (TbMK have been cloned, over-expressed in and proteins isolated from procyclic-form T. brucei. A highly sensitive radioactive assay was developed and shows ATP-dependent phosphorylation of mevalonate. Apo and (R-mevalonate bound crystal structures of LmMK, from a bacterial expression system, have been determined to high resolution providing, for the first time, information concerning binding of mevalonate to an MK. The mevalonate binds in a deep cavity lined by highly conserved residues. His25 is key for binding and for discrimination of (R- over (S-mevalonate, with the main chain amide interacting with the C3 hydroxyl group of (R-mevalonate, and the side chain contributing, together with Val202 and Thr283, to the construction of a hydrophobic binding site for the C3 methyl substituent. The C5 hydroxyl, where phosphorylation occurs, points towards catalytic residues, Lys18 and Asp155. The activity of LmMK was significantly reduced compared to MK from other species and we were unable to obtain ATP-binding data. Comparisons with the rat MK:ATP complex were used to investigate how this substrate might bind. In LmMK, helix α2 and the preceding polypeptide adopt a conformation, not seen in related kinase structures, impeding access to the nucleotide triphosphate binding site suggesting that a conformational rearrangement is required to allow ATP binding. Conclusion Our new structural

  10. Biochemical Aspects of Non-Starch Polysaccharides

    Rodica Căpriţă

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharides are macromolecules of monosaccharides linked by glycosidic bonds. Non-starch polysaccharides (NSP are principally non-α-glucan polysaccharides of the plant cell wall. They are a heterogeneous group of polysaccharides with varying degrees of water solubility, size, and structure. The water insoluble fiber fraction include cellulose, galactomannans, xylans, xyloglucans, and lignin, while the water-soluble fibers are the pectins, arabinogalactans, arabinoxylans, and β-(1,3(1,4-D-glucans (β-glucans. Knowledge of the chemical structure of NSP has permitted the development of enzyme technology to overcome their antinutritional effects. The physiological effects of NSP on the digestion and absorption of nutrients in human and monogastric animals have been attributed to their physicochemical properties: hydration properties, viscosity, cation exchange capacity and organic compound absorptive properties. This paper reviews and presents information on NSPs chemistry, physicochemical properties and physiological effects on the nutrient entrapment.

  11. Structures of the K35 and K15 capsular polysaccharides of Acinetobacter baumannii LUH5535 and LUH5554 containing amino and diamino uronic acids.

    Shashkov, Alexander S; Liu, Bin; Kenyon, Johanna J; Popova, Anastasiya V; Shneider, Mikhail M; Senchenkova, Sof'ya N; Arbatsky, Nikolay P; Miroshnikov, Konstantin A; Wang, Lei; Knirel, Yuriy A

    2017-08-07

    Capsular polysaccharides were isolated from A. baumannii LUH5535 (K35 CPS) and LUH5554 (K15 CPS) and studied by 1D and 2D 1 H and 13 C NMR spectroscopy. The CPSs were found to consist of linear tetrasaccharide repeats (K units) containing 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-d-galacturonic acid (K35) or 2,3-diacetamido-2,3-deoxy-d-glucuronic acid (K15) and 2,4-diacetamido-2,4,6-trideoxy-d-glucose (both CPSs). The K35 unit includes three O-acetyl groups on different GalNAcA residues. A. baumannii LUH5535 and LUH5554 carry the KL35 and KL15 gene clusters, respectively, and putatively assigned functions of genes in these clusters were consistent with the CPS structures established. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Related structures of neutral capsular polysaccharides of Acinetobacter baumannii isolates that carry related capsule gene clusters KL43, KL47, and KL88.

    Shashkov, Alexander S; Kenyon, Johanna J; Arbatsky, Nikolay P; Shneider, Mikhail M; Popova, Anastasiya V; Miroshnikov, Konstantin A; Hall, Ruth M; Knirel, Yuriy A

    2016-11-29

    Capsular polysaccharides were recovered from four Acinetobacter baumannii isolates, and the following related structures of oligosaccharide repeating units were established by sugar analyses along with 1D and 2D 1 H and 13 C NMR spectroscopy: NIPH 60 and LUH5544 (K43) NIPH 601 (K47) The K locus for capsule biosynthesis in the genome sequences available for NIPH 60 and LUH5544, designated KL43, was found to be related to gene clusters KL47 in NIPH 601 and KL88 in LUH5548. The three clusters share most gene content differing in only a small portion that includes an additional glycosyltransferase genes in KL47 and KL88, as well as genes encoding distinct Wzy polymerases that were found to form the same α-d-GlcpNAc-(1 → 6)-α-d-GlcpNAc linkage in K43 and K47. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Characterization and bioactivities of a novel polysaccharide obtained from Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis

    CHEN-SHAN SHI

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis is a type of red alga that contains seaweed polysaccharide agar. In this study, a novel non-agar seaweed polysaccharide fraction named GCP (short of crude polysaccharide obtained from Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis was isolated from Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis. Structural analysis showed that GCP shows triple helical chain conformation when dissolved in water and has many branches and long side chains. Also, 1→3 linkage is the major linkage and the sugar structures are galactopyranose configurations linked by β-type glycosidic linkages. Two macromolecular substance fractions (GCP-1 and GCP-2 were purified by DEAE Sepharose Fast Flow column chromatography. Moreover, a splenocyte damage assay and splenocyte proliferation assay were used to analyse the bioactivities of GCP, GCP-1 and GCP-2. It was demonstrated that polysaccharides could protect splenocyte damaged by H2O2; GCP-2 shows a greatest protection rate, that is, 92.8%, which significantly enhanced the splenocyte proliferation, and GCP showed the highest proliferation rate, 9.30%. The results suggested that this type of novel non-agar polysaccharide displayed remarkable antioxidant and immunomodulatory activities and early alkali treatment could decrease the activities. It may represent a potential material for health food and clinical medicines.

  14. Important Determinants for Fucoidan Bioactivity: A Critical Review of Structure-Function Relations and Extraction Methods for Fucose-Containing Sulfated Polysaccharides from Brown Seaweeds

    Anne S. Meyer

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Seaweeds—or marine macroalgae—notably brown seaweeds in the class Phaeophyceae, contain fucoidan. Fucoidan designates a group of certain fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharides (FCSPs that have a backbone built of (1→3-linked α-l-fucopyranosyl or of alternating (1→3- and (1→4-linked α-l-fucopyranosyl residues, but also include sulfated galactofucans with backbones built of (1→6-β-d-galacto- and/or (1→2-β-d-mannopyranosyl units with fucose or fuco-oligosaccharide branching, and/or glucuronic acid, xylose or glucose substitutions. These FCSPs offer several potentially beneficial bioactive functions for humans. The bioactive properties may vary depending on the source of seaweed, the compositional and structural traits, the content (charge density, distribution, and bonding of the sulfate substitutions, and the purity of the FCSP product. The preservation of the structural integrity of the FCSP molecules essentially depends on the extraction methodology which has a crucial, but partly overlooked, significance for obtaining the relevant structural features required for specific biological activities and for elucidating structure-function relations. The aim of this review is to provide information on the most recent developments in the chemistry of fucoidan/FCSPs emphasizing the significance of different extraction techniques for the structural composition and biological activity with particular focus on sulfate groups.

  15. Characterization and antioxidant activities of polysaccharides from thirteen boletus mushrooms.

    Zhang, Lan; Hu, Yu; Duan, Xiaoyu; Tang, Tingting; Shen, Yingbin; Hu, Bin; Liu, Aiping; Chen, Hong; Li, Cheng; Liu, Yuntao

    2018-07-01

    Water-soluble polysaccharides were extracted from the caps and stipes of thirteen boletus mushrooms representing five different species collected in Southwest China. Investigations of their structures and antioxidant activities allowed an evaluation of structure-function relationships. The polysaccharides were composed mainly of the monosaccharides arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose and galactose. Most samples displayed a broad molecular weight range, with significant differences observed between the molecular weight ranges of the polysaccharides from the caps and the stipes. FT-IR spectral analysis of the polysaccharides revealed that most of polysaccharides from boletus mushrooms (except Boletus edulis) contained a pyranose ring. The antioxidant activities of the polysaccharides in stipes showed a significant correlation with their monosaccharide composition, and were also related to their molecular weight and anomeric configuration. Suillellus luridus collected in Pingwu, Mianyang, Sichuan, China had remarkably superior antioxidant activity and might be developed as a natural antioxidant. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. [Structural analysis and anti-tumor activity in vivo of polysaccharide APS-2a from Angelica sinensis].

    Cao, Wei; Li, Xiao-Qiang; Hou, Ying; Fan, Hui-Ting; Zhang, Xiao-Nan; Mei, Qi-Bing

    2008-02-01

    The polysaccharide APS-2a was isolated from Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels through water extraction, deprotein, ethanol precipitation and DEAE-sephades A-25 column chromatography respectively,and was further purified by Sephacryl S-400 and Sephadex G-100 column chromatography. The phenol-sulfuric acid assay and Bradford method were used to determine the contents of carbohydrate and protein, respectively. The molecular weight was carried out with high-performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) combined with a differential refractometer detector. The monosaccharide compositions were determined by gas chromatography after complete hydrolysis with acid. The models of mice transplanted sarcoma S-180 were used to study the anti-tumor effects in vivo. Thymus indexes, spleen indexes were determined. The HPSEC result showed the APS-2a was a single homogeneous component and its weight average molecular weight was 7.4 x 10(5) Da. The monosaccharide composition of APS-2a was glucose, galactose, arabinose, rhamnose, galcturonic acid. Furthermore, APS-2a (20.50 mg/kg) could inhibit the proliferation of tumor cells in mice transplanted S-180. The thymus indexes and spleen indexes in the groups treated with APS-2a were higher than control group.

  17. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa PSL polysaccharide is a social but noncheatable trait in biofilms

    Irie, Yasuhiko; Roberts, Aled E.L.; Kragh, Kasper N.

    2017-01-01

    Extracellular polysaccharides are compounds secreted by microorganisms into the surrounding environment, and they are important for surface attachment and maintaining structural integrity within biofilms. The social nature of many extracellular polysaccharides remains unclear, and it has been sug...

  18. Structural Characterization of a Novel Polysaccharide from Lepidium meyenii (Maca) and Analysis of Its Regulatory Function in Macrophage Polarization in Vitro.

    Zhang, Mengmeng; Wu, Wenjia; Ren, Yao; Li, Xiaofeng; Tang, Yuqian; Min, Tian; Lai, Furao; Wu, Hui

    2017-02-15

    In our previous study, three novel polysaccharides, named MC-1, MC-2, and MC-3, were separated from the roots of maca (Lepidium meyenii), which is a food source from the Andes region. The structural information and immunomodulatory activity of MC-1 were then investigated. The structure and activity of MC-2 are still unknown. In this study, structural characterization revealed that MC-2 has an average molecular weight of 9.83 kDa and is composed of arabinose (20.9%), mannose (4.5%), glucose (71.9%), and galactose (2.7%). The main linkage types of MC-2 were proven to be (1→5)-α-l-Ara, (1→3)-α-l-Man, (1→)-α-d-Glc, (1→4)-α-d-Glc, (1→6)-α-d-Glc, and (1→6)-β-d-Gal by methylation and NMR analyses. Congo red assay showed that MC-2 possesses a triple-helix conformation. Immunostimulating assays indicated that MC-2 could induce M1 polarization of original macrophages and convert M2 macrophages into M1 phenotype. Although MC-2 could not shift M1 macrophages into M2, it could still inhibit inflammatory reactions induced by lipopolysaccharide. Furthermore, Toll-like receptor 2, tTll-like receptor 4, complement receptor 3, and mannose receptor were confirmed as the membrane receptors for MC-2 on macrophages. These results indicate that MC-2 could potentially be used toward hypoimmunity and tumor therapies.

  19. Radiation processed polysaccharide products

    Nguyen, Quoc Hien

    2007-01-01

    Radiation crosslinking, degradation and grafting techniques for modification of polymeric materials including natural polysaccharides have been providing many unique products. In this communication, typical products from radiation processed polysaccharides particularly plant growth promoter from alginate, plant protector and elicitor from chitosan, super water absorbent containing starch, hydrogel sheet containing carrageenan/CM-chitosan as burn wound dressing, metal ion adsorbent from partially deacetylated chitin were described. The procedures for producing those above products were also outlined. Future development works on radiation processing of polysaccharides were briefly presented. (author)

  20. Analysis of the Changing Functional Structure of Major Urban ...

    user

    Changes in Urban Functional Structure in Ethiopia. EJBE Vol. ... primary engines of economic growth, social wellbeing, centers of creativity, innovation and ... economic as well as commercial and business activities were confined to the capital ...

  1. Acinetobacter baumannii K27 and K44 capsular polysaccharides have the same K unit but different structures due to the presence of distinct wzy genes in otherwise closely related K gene clusters.

    Shashkov, Alexander S; Kenyon, Johanna J; Senchenkova, Sof'ya N; Shneider, Mikhail M; Popova, Anastasiya V; Arbatsky, Nikolay P; Miroshnikov, Konstantin A; Volozhantsev, Nikolay V; Hall, Ruth M; Knirel, Yuriy A

    2016-05-01

    Capsular polysaccharides (CPSs), from Acinetobacter baumannii isolates 1432, 4190 and NIPH 70, which have related gene content at the K locus, were examined, and the chemical structures established using 2D(1)H and(13)C NMR spectroscopy. The three isolates produce the same pentasaccharide repeat unit, which consists of 5-N-acetyl-7-N-[(S)-3-hydroxybutanoyl] (major) or 5,7-di-N-acetyl (minor) derivatives of 5,7-diamino-3,5,7,9-tetradeoxy-D-glycero-D-galacto-non-2-ulosonic (legionaminic) acid (Leg5Ac7R), D-galactose, N-acetyl-D-galactosamine and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. However, the linkage between repeat units in NIPH 70 was different to that in 1432 and 4190, and this significantly alters the CPS structure. The KL27 gene cluster in 4190 and KL44 gene cluster in NIPH 70 are organized identically and contain lga genes for Leg5Ac7R synthesis, genes for the synthesis of the common sugars, as well as anitrA2 initiating transferase and four glycosyltransferases genes. They share high-level nucleotide sequence identity for corresponding genes, but differ in the wzy gene encoding the Wzy polymerase. The Wzy proteins, which have different lengths and share no similarity, would form the unrelated linkages in the K27 and K44 structures. The linkages formed by the four shared glycosyltransferases were predicted by comparison with gene clusters that synthesize related structures. These findings unambiguously identify the linkages formed by WzyK27 and WzyK44, and show that the presence of different wzy genes in otherwise closely related K gene clusters changes the structure of the CPS. This may affect its capacity as a protective barrier for A. baumannii. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Changes in population structures of the major species in selected ...

    The study was carried out in six satellite lakes by making investigations on fish collected from experimental and artisanal fisheries. The fishes were analysed for length frequencies, weight and numbers caught to determine the population structure of the fishes. Indiscriminate fishing by deploying illegal gears and increased ...

  3. Major dimensions in food-web structure properties

    Vermaat, J.E.; Dunne, J. A.; Gilbert, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    The covariance among a range of 20 network structural properties of food webs plus net primary productivity was assessed for 14 published food webs using principal components analysis. Three primary components explained 84% of the variability in the data sets, suggesting substantial covariance among

  4. Using polysaccharides against cancer

    E. Azarnoosh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Nowadays cancer is one of the most important concerns of the society. The adverse effects of common therapeutics and resistance of some cancerous cells to treatment have brought the necessity of new approaches towards the issue. Polysaccharides are a group of carbohydrates found in natural sources. In the present article, our goal was to show the positive effects of carbohydrates (especially polysaccharides in cancer treatment, based on literature review. Methods: The literature review was carried out between 1990 and 2017 inclusive using the following search terms: cancer, carbohydrate and polysaccharide and was performed with use of Google scholar, Medline, Scopus, PubMed, Elsevier and other similar data banks, related to medicine and pharmaceutical fields. Results: Plants like Lyceum barbarum, Astragalus membrannceous, Panax ginseng, and Antrodia camphorate have been studied with promising effects in combating cancerous cells. The polysaccharides from these plants have benefits with numerous mechanisms such as apoptosis, inhibition of angiogenesis, anti-proliferation, immunomodulation, tumor suppression, and increase in macrophage activity. Other studies showed over 200 mushrooms with anticancer effects, especially basidiomycetes (e.g. Ganoderma lucidum. Sulfated polysaccharides found in sea and animals or even a few bacteria like E. coli showed to be useful in cancer. Conclusion: Scientists are realizing the importance of natural drugs and polysaccharide as good and available sources that could give a bright future for prevention, cure and palliative therapy in cancer.

  5. Characterization of diferuloylated pectic polysaccharides from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa WILLD.).

    Wefers, Daniel; Gmeiner, Bianca M; Tyl, Catrin E; Bunzel, Mirko

    2015-08-01

    In plants belonging to the order of Caryophyllales, pectic neutral side chains can be substituted with ferulic acid. The ability of ferulic acid to form intra- and/or intermolecular polysaccharide cross-links by dimerization was shown by the isolation and characterization of diferulic acid oligosaccharides from monocotyledonous plants. In this study, two diferulic acid oligosaccharides were isolated from the enzymatic hydrolyzate of seeds of the dicotyledonous pseudocereal quinoa by gel permeation chromatography and preparative HPLC and unambiguously identified by LC-MS(2) and 1D/2D NMR spectroscopy. The isolated oligosaccharides are comprised of 5-5- and 8-O-4-diferulic acid linked to the O2-position of the nonreducing residue of two (1→5)-linked arabinobioses. To get insight into the structure and the degree of phenolic acid substitution of the diferuloylated polysaccharides, polymeric sugar composition, glycosidic linkages, and polysaccharide-bound monomeric phenolic acids and diferulic acids were analyzed. This study demonstrates that diferulic acids are involved into intramolecular and/or intermolecular cross-linking of arabinan chains and may have a major impact on cell wall architecture of quinoa and other dicotyledonous plants of the order of Caryophyllales. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Probability of major depression diagnostic classification using semi-structured versus fully structured diagnostic interviews.

    Levis, Brooke; Benedetti, Andrea; Riehm, Kira E; Saadat, Nazanin; Levis, Alexander W; Azar, Marleine; Rice, Danielle B; Chiovitti, Matthew J; Sanchez, Tatiana A; Cuijpers, Pim; Gilbody, Simon; Ioannidis, John P A; Kloda, Lorie A; McMillan, Dean; Patten, Scott B; Shrier, Ian; Steele, Russell J; Ziegelstein, Roy C; Akena, Dickens H; Arroll, Bruce; Ayalon, Liat; Baradaran, Hamid R; Baron, Murray; Beraldi, Anna; Bombardier, Charles H; Butterworth, Peter; Carter, Gregory; Chagas, Marcos H; Chan, Juliana C N; Cholera, Rushina; Chowdhary, Neerja; Clover, Kerrie; Conwell, Yeates; de Man-van Ginkel, Janneke M; Delgadillo, Jaime; Fann, Jesse R; Fischer, Felix H; Fischler, Benjamin; Fung, Daniel; Gelaye, Bizu; Goodyear-Smith, Felicity; Greeno, Catherine G; Hall, Brian J; Hambridge, John; Harrison, Patricia A; Hegerl, Ulrich; Hides, Leanne; Hobfoll, Stevan E; Hudson, Marie; Hyphantis, Thomas; Inagaki, Masatoshi; Ismail, Khalida; Jetté, Nathalie; Khamseh, Mohammad E; Kiely, Kim M; Lamers, Femke; Liu, Shen-Ing; Lotrakul, Manote; Loureiro, Sonia R; Löwe, Bernd; Marsh, Laura; McGuire, Anthony; Mohd Sidik, Sherina; Munhoz, Tiago N; Muramatsu, Kumiko; Osório, Flávia L; Patel, Vikram; Pence, Brian W; Persoons, Philippe; Picardi, Angelo; Rooney, Alasdair G; Santos, Iná S; Shaaban, Juwita; Sidebottom, Abbey; Simning, Adam; Stafford, Lesley; Sung, Sharon; Tan, Pei Lin Lynnette; Turner, Alyna; van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M; van Weert, Henk C; Vöhringer, Paul A; White, Jennifer; Whooley, Mary A; Winkley, Kirsty; Yamada, Mitsuhiko; Zhang, Yuying; Thombs, Brett D

    2018-06-01

    Different diagnostic interviews are used as reference standards for major depression classification in research. Semi-structured interviews involve clinical judgement, whereas fully structured interviews are completely scripted. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), a brief fully structured interview, is also sometimes used. It is not known whether interview method is associated with probability of major depression classification.AimsTo evaluate the association between interview method and odds of major depression classification, controlling for depressive symptom scores and participant characteristics. Data collected for an individual participant data meta-analysis of Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) diagnostic accuracy were analysed and binomial generalised linear mixed models were fit. A total of 17 158 participants (2287 with major depression) from 57 primary studies were analysed. Among fully structured interviews, odds of major depression were higher for the MINI compared with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) (odds ratio (OR) = 2.10; 95% CI = 1.15-3.87). Compared with semi-structured interviews, fully structured interviews (MINI excluded) were non-significantly more likely to classify participants with low-level depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≤6) as having major depression (OR = 3.13; 95% CI = 0.98-10.00), similarly likely for moderate-level symptoms (PHQ-9 scores 7-15) (OR = 0.96; 95% CI = 0.56-1.66) and significantly less likely for high-level symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≥16) (OR = 0.50; 95% CI = 0.26-0.97). The MINI may identify more people as depressed than the CIDI, and semi-structured and fully structured interviews may not be interchangeable methods, but these results should be replicated.Declaration of interestDrs Jetté and Patten declare that they received a grant, outside the submitted work, from the Hotchkiss Brain Institute, which was jointly funded by the Institute and Pfizer. Pfizer was the

  7. Bio-inspired materials engineering using polysaccharide based biotemplates

    Zollfrank, C.

    2007-01-01

    Nano-structured materials with a controlled microstructure and tailored properties at a scale below 100 nm are of interest for applications in micro-mechanical, sensor and biomedical devices. In contrast to top-down manufacturing processes the formation of solid matter structures in nature is templated and directed by biomacromolecules such as polysaccharides and polypeptides. A promising biomimetic route for the directed deposition of ceramic materials is the application of anisotropically structured biomacromolecules as patterned templates. The polysaccharides exhibit a hierarchical multi scale order as well as self-assembly properties. The bio-inspired deposition and formation of ceramic phases on biomolecular polysaccharide templates was investigated. The polysaccharides were used at various structural levels from the molecular scale up to three-dimensional parts in the millimetre range. The versatility of polysaccharide shaping capabilities was explored using dissolved polysaccharide molecules as well as thin films for the or simultaneous or successive formation of inorganic mineral phases. Microalgae with a spherical appearance of 5 micro-m were applied in mineralisation studies. The extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) layers on the microalgae were used as biotemplates for manufacturing of functional ceramics. The obtained results on the mineralisation of inorganic phases on polysaccharides are adapted for novel biomimetic routes used in the fabrication for functional and biomedical ceramics. (author)

  8. Structural Characteristics of the Novel Polysaccharide FVPA1 from Winter Culinary-Medicinal Mushroom, Flammulina velutipes (Agaricomycetes), Capable of Enhancing Natural Killer Cell Activity against K562 Tumor Cells.

    Jia, Wei; Feng, Jie; Zhang, Jing-Song; Lin, Chi-Chung; Wang, Wen-Han; Chen, Hong-Ge

    2017-01-01

    FVPA1, a novel polysaccharide, has been isolated from fruiting bodies of the culinary-medicinal mushroom Flammulina velutipes, a historically popular, widely cultivated and consumed functional food with an attractive taste, beneficial nutraceutical properties such as antitumor and immunomodulatory effects, and a number of essential biological activities. The average molecular weight was estimated to be ~1.8 × 104 Da based on high-performance size exclusion chromatography. Sugar analyses, methylation analyses, and 1H, 13C, and 2-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed the following structure of the repeating units of the FVPA1 polysaccharide Identification of this structure would conceivably lead to better understanding of the nutraceutical functions of this very important edible fungus. Bioactivity tests in vitro indicated that FVPA1 could significantly enhance natural killer cell activity against K562 tumor cells.

  9. Application of gamma irradiation for the enhanced physiological properties of polysaccharides from seaweeds

    Choi, Jong-il; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Kim, Jae-Hun; Byun, Myung-Woo; Soo Chun, Byeong; Hyun Ahn, Dong; Hwang, Young-Jeong; Kim, Duk-Jin; Kim, Gwang Hoon; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2009-01-01

    Polysaccharides from seaweeds, fucoidan and laminarin, were irradiated with gamma rays, and their structural changes and anti-oxidative activities were investigated. The gamma irradiation decreased the average molecular weights of polysaccharides, and UV spectra of irradiated polysaccharides showed increases in the numbers of carboxyl and carbonyl groups and double bonds. DPPH radical scavenging ability and reducing power of the gamma irradiated polysaccharides were significantly higher than those non-irradiated.

  10. Immunomodulatory dietary polysaccharides: a systematic review of the literature

    Nelson Erika D

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large body of literature suggests that certain polysaccharides affect immune system function. Much of this literature, however, consists of in vitro studies or studies in which polysaccharides were injected. Their immunologic effects following oral administration is less clear. The purpose of this systematic review was to consolidate and evaluate the available data regarding the specific immunologic effects of dietary polysaccharides. Methods Studies were identified by conducting PubMed and Google Scholar electronic searches and through reviews of polysaccharide article bibliographies. Only articles published in English were included in this review. Two researchers reviewed data on study design, control, sample size, results, and nature of outcome measures. Subsequent searches were conducted to gather information about polysaccharide safety, structure and composition, and disposition. Results We found 62 publications reporting statistically significant effects of orally ingested glucans, pectins, heteroglycans, glucomannans, fucoidans, galactomannans, arabinogalactans and mixed polysaccharide products in rodents. Fifteen controlled human studies reported that oral glucans, arabinogalactans, heteroglycans, and fucoidans exerted significant effects. Although some studies investigated anti-inflammatory effects, most studies investigated the ability of oral polysaccharides to stimulate the immune system. These studies, as well as safety and toxicity studies, suggest that these polysaccharide products appear to be largely well-tolerated. Conclusions Taken as a whole, the oral polysaccharide literature is highly heterogenous and is not sufficient to support broad product structure/function generalizations. Numerous dietary polysaccharides, particularly glucans, appear to elicit diverse immunomodulatory effects in numerous animal tissues, including the blood, GI tract and spleen. Glucan extracts from the Trametes versicolor

  11. Chromatography in characterization of polysaccharides from medicinal plants and fungi.

    Hu, De-jun; Cheong, Kit-leong; Zhao, Jing; Li, Shao-ping

    2013-01-01

    Polysaccharides isolated from medicinal plants and fungi exhibit multiple pharmacological activities. The biological activities of polysaccharides depend on their chemical characteristics. However, characterization of polysaccahrides is a challenge because of their complicated structure and macromolecular mass. In this review, chromatography in characterization of polysaccharides, including physicochemical characterization (purity, molecular mass, and distribution), structural characterization (constituent monosaccharide composition and the ratio, the features of glycosidic linkages), and fingerprint of polysaccharides (acidic and enzymatic hydrolysates), from medicinal plants and fungi were reviewed and discussed according to the publications collected in Web of Science since 2007. The perspective for characterization of polysaccharides has also been described. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Production of monosaccharides and bio-active compounds derived from marine polysaccharides using subcritical water hydrolysis.

    Meillisa, Aviannie; Woo, Hee-Chul; Chun, Byung-Soo

    2015-03-15

    Polysaccharides are the major components of brown seaweed, accounting for approximately 40-65% of the total mass. The majority of the brown seaweed polysaccharides consists of alginate (40% of dry matter), a linear hetero-polysaccharides commonly developed in fields. However, depolymerisation of alginate is required to recover high-value compounds. In this report, depolymerisation was performed using subcritical water hydrolysis (SWH) at 180-260°C, with a ratio of material to water of 1:25 (w/v) and 1% formic acid as a catalyst. Sugar recovery was higher at low temperatures in the presence of catalyst. The antioxidant properties of Saccharina japonica showed the best activity at 180°C in the presence of a catalyst. The mass spectra produced using MALDI-TOF showed that polysaccharides and oligosaccharides were produced during hydrothermal treatment. Hydrolysis treatment at 180°C in the presence of a catalyst may be useful for modifying the structure of S. japonica and purified alginate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Unusual monosaccharides: components of O-antigenic polysaccharides of microorganisms

    Kochetkov, Nikolai K.

    1996-09-01

    The data on new monosaccharides detected in O-antigenic polysaccharides of Gram-negative bacteria have been surveyed. The results of isolation and structure determination of these unusual monosaccharides have been arranged and described systematically. The NMR spectroscopy techniques are shown to be promising for the O-antigenic polysaccharides structure determination. The information about fine structure of monosaccharides which constitute the base of important class of microbial polysaccharides, is of great significance for applied studies, first of all, the design and synthesis of biologically active substances. The bibliography includes 216 references.

  14. Structural Features and Anti-coagulant Activity of the Sulphated Polysaccharide SPS-CF from a Green Alga Capsosiphon fulvescens

    Synytsya, A.; Choi, D. J.; Pohl, Radek; Na, Y. S.; Capek, P.; Lattová, E.; Taubner, T.; Choi, J. W.; Lee, C. W.; Park, J. K.; Kim, W. J.; Kim, S. M.; Lee, J.; Park, Y. I.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 6 (2015), s. 718-735 ISSN 1436-2228 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : alga Maesaengi (Capsosiphon fulvescens) * ulvan * monosaccharide composition * structure * anti-coagulant activity Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 3.062, year: 2015

  15. Capsular Polysaccharide Expression in Commensal Streptococcus Species

    Skov Sørensen, Uffe B; Yao, Kaihu; Yang, Yonghong

    2016-01-01

    Expression of a capsular polysaccharide is considered a hallmark of most invasive species of bacteria, including Streptococcus pneumoniae, in which the capsule is among the principal virulence factors and is the basis for successful vaccines. Consequently, it was previously assumed that capsule....... pneumoniae evolved by import of cps fragments from commensal Streptococcus species, resulting in a mosaic of genes of different origins. The demonstrated antigenic identity of at least eight of the numerous capsular polysaccharide structures expressed by commensal streptococci with recognized serotypes of S...... of Streptococcus pneumoniae and is the basis for successful vaccines against infections caused by this important pathogen. Contrasting with previous assumptions, this study showed that expression of capsular polysaccharides by the same genetic mechanisms is a general property of closely related species...

  16. Structure elucidation of the O-specific polysaccharide by NMR spectroscopy and selective cleavage and genetic characterization of the O-antigen of Escherichia albertii O5.

    Naumenko, Olesya I; Zheng, Han; Wang, Jianping; Senchenkova, Sof'ya N; Wang, Hong; Shashkov, Alexander S; Chizhov, Alexander O; Li, Qun; Knirel, Yuriy A; Xiong, Yanwen

    2018-03-02

    The O-specific polysaccharide (O-antigen) was obtained by mild acid degradation of the lipopolysaccharide of Escherichia albertii O5 (strain T150248) and studied by sugar analysis, selective cleavages of glycosidic linkages, and 1D and 2D 1 H and 13 C NMR spectroscopy. Partial solvolysis with anh (anhydrous) CF 3 CO 2 H and hydrolysis with 0.05 M CF 3 CO 2 H cleaved predominantly the glycosidic linkage of β-GalpNAc or β-Galf, respectively, whereas the linkages of α-GlcpNAc and β-Galp were stable. Mixtures of the corresponding tri- and tetra-saccharides thus obtained were studied by NMR spectroscopy and high-resolution ESI MS. The following new structure was established for the tetrasaccharide repeat (O-unit) of the O-polysaccharide: →4)-α-d-GlcpNAc-(1 → 4)-β-d-Galp6Ac-(1 → 6)-β-d-Galf-(1 → 3)-β-d-GalpNAc-(1→where the degree of O-acetylation of d-Galp is ∼70%. The O-polysaccharide studied has a β-d-Galp-(1 → 6)-β-d-Galf-(1 → 3)-β-d-GalpNAc trisaccharide fragment in common with the O-polysaccharides of E. albertii O7, Escherichia coli O124 and O164, and Shigella dysenteriae type 3 studied earlier. The orf5-7 in the O-antigen gene cluster of E. albertii O5 are 47%, 78%, and 75% identical on the amino acid level to genes for predicted enzymes of E. albertii O7, including Galp-transferase wfeS, UDP-d-Galp mutase glf, and Galf-transferase wfeT, respectively, which are putatively involved with the synthesis of the shared trisaccharide fragment of the O-polysaccharides. The occurrence upstream of the O-antigen gene cluster of a 4-epimerase gene gnu for conversion of undecaprenyl diphosphate-linked d-GlcNAc (UndPP-d-GlcNAc) into UndPP-d-GalNAc indicates that d-GalNAc is the first monosaccharide of the O-unit, and hence the O-units are interlinked in the O-polysaccharide of E. albertii O5 by the β-d-GalpNAc-(1 → 4)-α-d-GlcpNAc linkage. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Radiation processing of polysaccharides

    2004-11-01

    Radiation processing is a very convenient tool for imparting desirable effects in polymeric materials and it has been an area of enormous interest in the last few decades. The success of radiation technology for processing of synthetic polymers can be attributed to two reasons namely, their ease of processing in various shapes and sizes, and secondly, most of these polymers undergo crosslinking reaction upon exposure to radiation. In recent years, natural polymers are being looked at with renewed interest because of their unique characteristics, such as inherent biocompatibility, biodegradability and easy availability. Traditionally, the commercial exploitation of natural polymers like carrageenans, alginates or starch etc. has been based, to a large extent, on empirical knowledge. But now, the applications of natural polymers are being sought in knowledge - demanding areas such as pharmacy and biotechnology, which is acting as a locomotive for further scientific research in their structure-function relationship. Selected success stories concerning radiation processed natural polymers and application of their derivatives in the health care products industries and agriculture are reported. This publication will be of interest to individuals at nuclear institutions worldwide that have programmes of R and D and applications in radiation processing technologies. New developments in radiation processing of polymers and other natural raw materials give insight into converting them into useful products for every day life, human health and environmental remediation. The book will also be of interest to other field specialists, readers including managers and decision makers in industry (health care, food and agriculture) helping them to understand the important role of radiation processing technology in polysaccharides

  18. Chemical composition and molecular structure of polysaccharide-protein biopolymer from Durio zibethinus seed: extraction and purification process

    Amid Bahareh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The biological functions of natural biopolymers from plant sources depend on their chemical composition and molecular structure. In addition, the extraction and further processing conditions significantly influence the chemical and molecular structure of the plant biopolymer. The main objective of the present study was to characterize the chemical and molecular structure of a natural biopolymer from Durio zibethinus seed. A size-exclusion chromatography coupled to multi angle laser light-scattering (SEC-MALS was applied to analyze the molecular weight (Mw, number average molecular weight (Mn, and polydispersity index (Mw/Mn. Results The most abundant monosaccharide in the carbohydrate composition of durian seed gum were galactose (48.6-59.9%, glucose (37.1-45.1%, arabinose (0.58-3.41%, and xylose (0.3-3.21%. The predominant fatty acid of the lipid fraction from the durian seed gum were palmitic acid (C16:0, palmitoleic acid (C16:1, stearic acid (C18:0, oleic acid (C18:1, linoleic acid (C18:2, and linolenic acid (C18:2. The most abundant amino acids of durian seed gum were: leucine (30.9-37.3%, lysine (6.04-8.36%, aspartic acid (6.10-7.19%, glycine (6.07-7.42%, alanine (5.24-6.14%, glutamic acid (5.57-7.09%, valine (4.5-5.50%, proline (3.87-4.81%, serine (4.39-5.18%, threonine (3.44-6.50%, isoleucine (3.30-4.07%, and phenylalanine (3.11-9.04%. Conclusion The presence of essential amino acids in the chemical structure of durian seed gum reinforces its nutritional value.

  19. Enzymatic production of polysaccharides from gum tragacanth

    2014-01-01

    Plant polysaccharides, relating to the field of natural probiotic components, can comprise structures similar to human milk oligosaccharides. A method for enzymatic hydrolysis of gum tragacanth from the bush-like legumes of the genus Astragalus, using a combination of pectin hydrolases...

  20. Enzymatic production of hyaluronan oligo- and polysaccharides

    Kooy, F.K.

    2010-01-01

    Hyaluronan oligo- and polysaccharides are abundant in the human body. Depending on the chain length, hyaluronan is an important structural component or is involved in influencing cell responses during embryonic development, healing processes, inflammation and cancer. Due to these diverse roles of

  1. Visualization of bacterial polysaccharides by scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    Wolanski, B S; McAleer, W J; Hilleman, M R

    1983-04-01

    Highly purified capsular polysaccharides of Neisseria meningitidis groups A, B, and C have been visualized by high resolution Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM). Spheroidal macromolecules approximately 200 A in diameter are characteristic of the Meningococcus A and C polysaccharides whereas filaments that are 400-600 A in length are found in Meningococcus B polysaccharide preparations. Filaments are occasionally found associated with the spheroidal Meningococcus A and C polysaccharides and it is proposed that these structures are composed of a long (1-4 microns) filament or filaments that are arranged in spheroidal molecules or micelles of high molecular weight. The Meningococcus B polysaccharide, by contrast, is a short flexuous filament or strand of relatively low molecular weight. A relationship between morphology and antigenicity is proposed.

  2. Characterization of polysaccharides from Ganoderma spp. using saccharide mapping.

    Wu, Ding-Tao; Xie, Jing; Hu, De-Jun; Zhao, Jing; Li, Shao-Ping

    2013-09-12

    Polysaccharides from Ganoderma spp. and their adulterants were firstly investigated and compared using saccharide mapping, enzymatic (endo-1,3-β-D-glucanase and pectinase) digestion followed by polysaccharide analysis using carbohydrate gel electrophoresis analysis. The results showed that both 1,3-β-D-glucosidic and 1,4-α-D-galactosiduronic linkages were existed in Lingzhi (Ganoderma lucidum and Ganoderma sinense), and the similarity of polysaccharides from G. lucidum and G. sinense was high, which may contribute to rational use of Lingzhi. Different species of Ganoderma and their adulterants can be differentiated based on the saccharide mapping, which is helpful to well understand the structural characters of polysaccharides from different species of Ganoderma and to improve the quality control of polysaccharides in Lingzhi. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The polysaccharide and low molecular weight components of Opuntia ficus indica cladodes: Structure and skin repairing properties.

    Di Lorenzo, Flaviana; Silipo, Alba; Molinaro, Antonio; Parrilli, Michelangelo; Schiraldi, Chiara; D'Agostino, Antonella; Izzo, Elisabetta; Rizza, Luisa; Bonina, Andrea; Bonina, Francesco; Lanzetta, Rosa

    2017-02-10

    The Opuntia ficus-indica multiple properties are reflected in the increasing interest of chemists in the identification of its natural components having pharmaceutical and/or cosmetical applications. Here we report the structural elucidation of Opuntia ficus-indica mucilage that highlighted the presence of components differing for their chemical nature and the molecular weight distribution. The high molecular weight components were identified as a linear galactan polymer and a highly branched xyloarabinan. The low molecular weight components were identified as lactic acid, D-mannitol, piscidic, eucomic and 2-hydroxy-4-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)-butanoic acids. A wound healing assay was performed in order to test the cicatrizing properties of the various components, highlighting the ability of these latter to fasten dermal regeneration using a simplified in vitro cellular model based on a scratched keratinocytes monolayer. The results showed that the whole Opuntia mucilage and the low molecular weight components are active in the wound repair. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Bond Performance and Structural Characterization of Polysaccharide Wood Adhesive Made from Konjac Glucomannan/Chitosan/Polyvinyl Alcohol

    Rong Gu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The bond performance and bonding mechanism were evaluated for a Konjac glucomannan (KGM, Chitosan (CS, and polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH blended wood adhesive. An optimized experimental strategy was used to investigate the effects of the formula parameters of adhesives on the bonding strength of plywood using a Box-Behnken design and response surface methodology (RSM. The microstructure of the blended adhesives was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. An optimum bonding strength (3.42 ± 0.31 MPa was achieved with concentrations of KGM, CS, and 10% PVOH of 2.3%, 2.3%, and 5.0%, respectively. There was strong hydrogen bonding between the KGM, CS, and 10% PVOH adhesives and the interface. SEM observations indicated that the blended adhesive exhibited a net-like structure that increased the overall bonding strength. These results provided the scientific basis for the continual development of environmentally friendly wood adhesives and the improvement of processing conditions.

  5. Structural Analysis and Immuno-Stimulating Activity of an Acidic Polysaccharide from the Stems of Dendrobium nobile Lindl.

    Wang, Jun-Hui; Zuo, Shu-Rong; Luo, Jian-Ping

    2017-04-10

    Dendrobium nobile Lindl., an epiphytic herb distributed in the Southeast Asia, is used as a tonic and antipyretic herbal medicine in China. In this study, a water-soluble acidic heteropolysaccharide, DNP-W4, containing mannose, glucose, galactose, xylose, rhamnose, and galacturonic acid, in the molar ratios of 1.0:4.9:2.5:0.5:1.0:0.9, was obtained from the stems of Dendrobium nobile Lindl. Using methylation analysis, partial acid hydrolysis, pectolyase treatment, NMR, and ESI-MS, the structure of DNP-W4 was elucidated. The obtained data indicated that DNP-W4 was a complex heteropolysaccharide and possessed a backbone composed of (1→4)-linked β-d-Glcp, (1→6)-linked β-d-Glcp, and (1→6)-linked β-d-Galp, with substitutes at O-4/6 of Glcp residues and O-3 of Galp. The branches of DNP-W4 were composed of terminal Manp, (1→6)-linked β-d-Manp, (1→3)-linked β-d-Glcp, β-d-Glcp, β-d-Galp, (1→4)-linked α-d-GalAp, (1→2)-linked α-L-Rhap, and Xylp. DNP-W4 had little immunological activities, but its derivatives had immuno-stimulating activities to some extent.

  6. Cholesterol and fat lowering with hydrophobic polysaccharide derivatives

    Čopíková, J.; Taubner, T.; Tůma, J.; Synytsya, A.; Dušková, Dagmar; Marounek, Milan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 116, č. 1 (2015), s. 207-214 ISSN 0144-8617 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : hydrophobically modified polysaccharides * structure * thermal analysis Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 4.219, year: 2015

  7. Traditional biomolecular structure determination by NMR spectroscopy allows for major errors

    Nabuurs, S.B.; Spronk, C.A.E.M.; Vuister, G.W.; Vriend, G.

    2006-01-01

    One of the major goals of structural genomics projects is to determine the three-dimensional structure of representative members of as many different fold families as possible. Comparative modeling is expected to fill the remaining gaps by providing structural models of homologs of the

  8. Detection of Inulin, a Prebiotic Polysaccharide, in Maple Syrup.

    Sun, Jiadong; Ma, Hang; Seeram, Navindra P; Rowley, David C

    2016-09-28

    Maple syrup is a widely consumed plant-derived natural sweetener produced by concentrating xylem sap collected from certain maple (Acer) species. During thermal evaporation of water, natural phytochemical components are concentrated in maple syrup. The polymeric components from maple syrup were isolated by ethanol precipitation, dialysis, and anion exchange chromatography and structurally characterized by glycosyl composition analysis, glycosyl linkage analysis, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Among the maple syrup polysaccharides, one neutral polysaccharide was characterized as inulin with a broad molecular weight distribution, representing the first isolation of this prebiotic carbohydrate from a xylem sap. In addition, two acidic polysaccharides with structural similarity were identified as arabinogalactans derived from rhamnogalacturonan type I pectic polysaccharides.

  9. The immunostimulating role of lichen polysaccharides: a review.

    Shrestha, Gajendra; St Clair, Larry L; O'Neill, Kim L

    2015-03-01

    The immune system has capacity to suppress the development or progression of various malignancies including cancer. Research on the immunomodulating properties of polysaccharides obtained from plants, microorganisms, marine organisms, and fungi is growing rapidly. Among the various potential sources, lichens, symbiotic systems involving a fungus and an alga and/or a cyanobacterium, show promise as a potential source of immunomodulating compounds. It is well known that lichens produce an abundance of structurally diverse polysaccharides. However, only a limited number of studies have explored the immunostimulating properties of lichen polysaccharides. Published studies have shown that some lichen polysaccharides enhance production of nitrous oxide (NO) by macrophages and also alter the production levels of various proinflammatory and antiinflammatory cytokines (IL-10, IL-12, IL-1β, TNF-α, and IFN-α/β) by macrophages and dendritic cells. Although there are only a limited number of studies examining the role of lichen polysaccharides, all results suggest that lichen polysaccharides can induce immunomodulatory responses in macrophages and dendritic cells. Thus, a detailed evaluation of immunomodulatory capacity of lichen polysaccharides could provide a unique opportunity for the discovery of novel therapeutic agents. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Structural MRI correlates for vulnerability and resilience to major depressive disorder.

    Amico, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    In major depressive disorder (MDD), it is unclear to what extent structural brain changes are associated with depressive episodes or represent part of the mechanism by which the risk for illness is mediated. The aim of this study was to investigate whether structural abnormalities are related to risk for the development of MDD.

  11. Electrospinning of Xanthan Polysaccharide

    Shekarforoush, Elhamalsadat; Faralli, Adele; Ndoni, Sokol

    2017-01-01

    .5 to 2.5 wt/vol%). The correlation between the concentration and the rheological properties of xanthan solutions, with the morphology of the nanofibers is investigated. At the polysaccharide concentrations where nanofiber formation is observed, an increase of the elastic modulus and first normal stress...... differences is observed. The typical “weak gel-like” and thixotropic properties known for aqueous xanthan solutions, are not observed for the xanthan solutions in formic acid. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic and circular dichroism studies verify that an esterification reaction takes place, where...

  12. Electrospinning of food proteins and polysaccharides

    Mendes, Ana Carina Loureiro; Boutrup Stephansen, Karen; Chronakis, Ioannis S.

    2017-01-01

    Nano-microfibrous structures of biopolymers with a wide range of compositions, morphologies, mechanical properties and bioactivities could be developed using electrospinning technology. This review focuses on the processing, properties, functionalization and potential applications of electrospun ...... biopolymers. Biopolymers include proteins (gelatin, collagen, elastin, silk, soy zein, gliadin, hordein, amaranth, casein, wheat, whey, marine sources proteins), and polysaccharides (chitosan, starch, alginate, cellulose and cellulose derivatives, pullulan, dextran, cyclodextrins)....

  13. Radiation-chemical destruction of cellulose and other polysaccharides

    Ershov, B.G.

    1998-01-01

    The studies concerning the radiation-chemical destruction of cellulose, its ethers and some polysaccharides (xylan, starch, decstrans, chitin, chitosan and geparin) are discussed. Ionising irradiation causes the destruction of these compounds with the decay of pyranose ring, accompanied by the formation of compounds containing carbonyl or carboxyl groups, as well as hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and carbon oxide. The efficiency of radiation degradation increases with increasing the temperature and depends on the structure of polysaccharides and the nature of substituents. The mechanism of radiation-chemical transformations of cellulose and others polysaccharides is proposed. Prospects of the application of radiation-chemical methods of treatment of cellulose and other polysaccharides in industry and agriculture considered [ru

  14. Localization to Chromosomes of Structural Genes for the Major Protease Inhibitors of Barley Grains

    Hejgaard, Jørn; Bjørn, S.E.; Nielsen, Gunnar Gissel

    1984-01-01

    Wheat-barley chromosome addition lines were compared by isoelectric focusing of protein extracts to identify chromosomes carrying loci for the major immunochemically distinct protease inhibitors of barley grains. Structural genes for the following inhibitors were localized: an inhibitor of both...... endogenous α-amylase 2 and subtilisin (ASI) on chromosome 2, two chymotrypsin/subtilisin inhibitors (CI-1 and CI-2) on chromosome 5 (long arm) and the major trypsin inhibitor (TI-1) on chromosome 3....

  15. Self-Referential Processing, Rumination, and Cortical Midline Structures in Major Depression

    Nejad, Ayna Baladi; Fossati, Philippe; Lemogne, Cédric

    2013-01-01

    Major depression is associated with a bias toward negative emotional processing and increased self-focus, i.e., the process by which one engages in self-referential processing. The increased self-focus in depression is suggested to be of a persistent, repetitive and self-critical nature, and is conceptualized as ruminative brooding. The role of the medial prefrontal cortex in self-referential processing has been previously emphasized in acute major depression. There is increasing evidence that self-referential processing as well as the cortical midline structures play a major role in the development, course, and treatment response of major depressive disorder. However, the links between self-referential processing, rumination, and the cortical midline structures in depression are still poorly understood. Here, we reviewed brain imaging studies in depressed patients and healthy subjects that have examined these links. Self-referential processing in major depression seems associated with abnormally increased activity of the anterior cortical midline structures. Abnormal interactions between the lateralized task-positive network, and the midline cortical structures of the default mode network, as well as the emotional response network, may underlie the pervasiveness of ruminative brooding. Furthermore, targeting this maladaptive form of rumination and its underlying neural correlates may be key for effective treatment. PMID:24124416

  16. Self-referential processing, rumination, and cortical midline structures in major depression

    Ayna Baladi Nejad

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Major depression is associated with a bias towards negative emotional processing and increased self-focus, i.e. the process by which one engages in self-referential processing. The increased self-focus in depression is suggested to be of a persistent, repetitive and self-critical nature and is conceptualised as ruminative brooding. The role of the medial prefrontal cortex in self-referential processing has been previously emphasised in acute major depression. There is increasing evidence that self-referential processing as well as the cortical midline structures play a major role in the development, course and treatment response of major depressive disorder. However, the links between self-referential processing, rumination, and the cortical midline structures in depression are still poorly understood. Here, we reviewed brain imaging studies in depressed patients and healthy subjects that have examined these links. The literature suggests that self-referential processing in major depression is associated with increased activity of the anterior cortical midline structures. Abnormal interactions between the lateralised task-positive network, and the midline cortical structures of the default mode network, as well as the emotional response network, may underlie the pervasiveness of ruminative brooding. Furthermore, targeting this maladaptive form of rumination and its underlying neural correlates may be key for effective treatment.

  17. Marine Polysaccharides: A Source of Bioactive Molecules for Cell Therapy and Tissue Engineering

    Anne-Marie Fischer

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The therapeutic potential of natural bioactive compounds such as polysaccharides, especially glycosaminoglycans, is now well documented, and this activity combined with natural biodiversity will allow the development of a new generation of therapeutics. Advances in our understanding of the biosynthesis, structure and function of complex glycans from mammalian origin have shown the crucial role of this class of molecules to modulate disease processes and the importance of a deeper knowledge of structure-activity relationships. Marine environment offers a tremendous biodiversity and original polysaccharides have been discovered presenting a great chemical diversity that is largely species specific. The study of the biological properties of the polysaccharides from marine eukaryotes and marine prokaryotes revealed that the polysaccharides from the marine environment could provide a valid alternative to traditional polysaccharides such as glycosaminoglycans. Marine polysaccharides present a real potential for natural product drug discovery and for the delivery of new marine derived products for therapeutic applications.

  18. Purification and Structural Characterization of a Novel Water-Soluble Neutral Polysaccharide from Cantharellus cibarius and Its Immunostimulating Activity in RAW264.7 Cells

    Long Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharide is one of the important active ingredients of Cantharellus cibarius. The aims of this work were to analyze preliminary characterization and to investigate immunostimulating activity of a novel water-soluble neutral polysaccharide named JP1, which was purified from the fruiting body of Cantharellus cibarius using DEAE-FF chromatography and Sephadex G-100 chromatography. The characteristics of JP1 were determined by HPGPC, FT-IR spectra, gas chromatography, and Congo Red Method. Immunostimulating activity of JP1 was investigated in RAW264.7 cells. Results indicated that JP1 consisted of L-Arabinose, D-Mannose, D-Glucose, and D-Galactose in a molar ratio of 1 : 1.06 : 1.95 : 1.17 with a molecular weight of 336 kDa. JP1 is nontoxic to RAW264.7 cells at this concentration range (62.5–1000 μg/mL. Furthermore, JP1 can promote mouse peritoneal macrophages to secrete NO and enhance the secretion of macrophages’ cytokines IL-6 in RAW264.7 cells. These results suggested that JP1 could have potential immunostimulating activity applications as medicine or functional food.

  19. Structural characterisation of a water-soluble polysaccharide from tissue-cultured Dendrobium huoshanense C.Z. Tang et S.J. Cheng.

    Si, Hua-Yang; Chen, Nai-Fu; Chen, Nai-Dong; Huang, Cheng; Li, Jun; Wang, Hui

    2018-02-01

    A water-soluble polysaccharide TC-DHPA4 with a molecular weight of 8.0 × 10 5  Da was isolated from tissue-cultured Dendrobium huoshanense by anion exchange and gel permeation chromatography. Monosaccharide analysis revealed that the homogeneous polysaccharide was made up of rhamnose, arabinose, mannose, glucose, galactose and glucuronic acid with a molar ratio of 1.28:1:1.67:4.71:10.43:1.42. The sugar residue sequence analysis based on the GC-MS files and NMR spectra indicated that the backbone of TC-DHPA4 consisted of the repeated units:→6)-β-Galp-(1→6)-β-Galp-(1→4)-β-GlcpA-(1→6)-β-Glcp-(1→6)-β-Glcp-(→. The sugar residue sequences β-Glcp-(1→)-α-Rhap-(1→3)-β-Galp-(1→, β-Glcp-(1→4)-α-Rhap-(1→3)-β-Galp-(1→, β-Galp-(1→6)-β-Manp-(1→3)-β-Galp-(1→, and α-l-Araf-(1→2)-β-Manp-(1→3)-β-Galp-(1→ were identified as the branches attached to the C-3 position of (1→6)-linked galactose in the backbone.

  20. Chemical Methods for the Determination of Soluble and Insoluble Non-Starch Polysaccharides - Review

    Rodica Căpriţă; Adrian Căpriţă

    2011-01-01

    Polysaccharides are macromolecules of monosaccharides linked by glycosidic bonds. Non-starch polysaccharides(NSP) are principally non-α-glucan polysaccharides of the plant cell wall. They are a heterogeneous group ofpolysaccharides with varying degrees of water solubility, size, and structure. The water insoluble fiber fractioninclude cellulose, galactomannans, xylans, xyloglucans, and lignin, while the water-soluble fibers are the pectins,arabinogalactans, arabinoxylans, and β-(1,3)(1,4)-D-g...

  1. Methylation analysis of polysaccharides: Technical advice.

    Sims, Ian M; Carnachan, Susan M; Bell, Tracey J; Hinkley, Simon F R

    2018-05-15

    Glycosyl linkage (methylation) analysis is used widely for the structural determination of oligo- and poly-saccharides. The procedure involves derivatisation of the individual component sugars of a polysaccharide to partially methylated alditol acetates which are analysed and quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The linkage positions for each component sugar can be determined by correctly identifying the partially methylated alditol acetates. Although the methods are well established, there are many technical aspects to this procedure and both careful attention to detail and considerable experience are required to achieve a successful methylation analysis and to correctly interpret the data generated. The aim of this article is to provide the technical details and critical procedural steps necessary for a successful methylation analysis and to assist researchers (a) with interpreting data correctly and (b) in providing the comprehensive data required for reviewers to fully assess the work. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Structure of Lmaj006129AAA, a hypothetical protein from Leishmania major

    Arakaki, Tracy; Le Trong, Isolde; Phizicky, Eric; Quartley, Erin; DeTitta, George; Luft, Joseph; Lauricella, Angela; Anderson, Lori; Kalyuzhniy, Oleksandr; Worthey, Elizabeth; Myler, Peter J.; Kim, David; Baker, David; Hol, Wim G. J.; Merritt, Ethan A.

    2006-01-01

    The crystal structure of a conserved hypothetical protein from L. major, Pfam sequence family PF04543, structural genomics target ID Lmaj006129AAA, has been determined at a resolution of 1.6 Å. The gene product of structural genomics target Lmaj006129 from Leishmania major codes for a 164-residue protein of unknown function. When SeMet expression of the full-length gene product failed, several truncation variants were created with the aid of Ginzu, a domain-prediction method. 11 truncations were selected for expression, purification and crystallization based upon secondary-structure elements and disorder. The structure of one of these variants, Lmaj006129AAH, was solved by multiple-wavelength anomalous diffraction (MAD) using ELVES, an automatic protein crystal structure-determination system. This model was then successfully used as a molecular-replacement probe for the parent full-length target, Lmaj006129AAA. The final structure of Lmaj006129AAA was refined to an R value of 0.185 (R free = 0.229) at 1.60 Å resolution. Structure and sequence comparisons based on Lmaj006129AAA suggest that proteins belonging to Pfam sequence families PF04543 and PF01878 may share a common ligand-binding motif

  3. Iron oxyhydroxide mineralization on microbial extracellular polysaccharides

    Chan, Clara S.; Fakra, Sirine C.; Edwards, David C.; Emerson, David; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2010-06-22

    Iron biominerals can form in neutral pH microaerophilic environments where microbes both catalyze iron oxidation and create polymers that localize mineral precipitation. In order to classify the microbial polymers that influence FeOOH mineralogy, we studied the organic and mineral components of biominerals using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM), micro X-ray fluorescence ({mu}XRF) microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). We focused on iron microbial mat samples from a creek and abandoned mine; these samples are dominated by iron oxyhydroxide-coated structures with sheath, stalk, and filament morphologies. In addition, we characterized the mineralized products of an iron-oxidizing, stalk-forming bacterial culture isolated from the mine. In both natural and cultured samples, microbial polymers were found to be acidic polysaccharides with carboxyl functional groups, strongly spatially correlated with iron oxyhydroxide distribution patterns. Organic fibrils collect FeOOH and control its recrystallization, in some cases resulting in oriented crystals with high aspect ratios. The impact of polymers is particularly pronounced as the materials age. Synthesis experiments designed to mimic the biomineralization processes show that the polysaccharide carboxyl groups bind dissolved iron strongly but release it as mineralization proceeds. Our results suggest that carboxyl groups of acidic polysaccharides are produced by different microorganisms to create a wide range of iron oxyhydroxide biomineral structures. The intimate and potentially long-term association controls the crystal growth, phase, and reactivity of iron oxyhydroxide nanoparticles in natural systems.

  4. Functional and structural brain correlates of risk for major depression in children with familial depression

    Xiaoqian J. Chai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite growing evidence for atypical amygdala function and structure in major depression, it remains uncertain as to whether these brain differences reflect the clinical state of depression or neurobiological traits that predispose individuals to major depression. We examined function and structure of the amygdala and associated areas in a group of unaffected children of depressed parents (at-risk group and a group of children of parents without a history of major depression (control group. Compared to the control group, the at-risk group showed increased activation to fearful relative to neutral facial expressions in the amygdala and multiple cortical regions, and decreased activation to happy relative to neutral facial expressions in the anterior cingulate cortex and supramarginal gyrus. At-risk children also exhibited reduced amygdala volume. The extensive hyperactivation to negative facial expressions and hypoactivation to positive facial expressions in at-risk children are consistent with behavioral evidence that risk for major depression involves a bias to attend to negative information. These functional and structural brain differences between at-risk children and controls suggest that there are trait neurobiological underpinnings of risk for major depression.

  5. Structural characterization of dioscorin, the major tuber protein of yams, by near infrared Raman spectroscopy

    Liao, Y-H; Tseng, C-Y; Chen Wenlung

    2006-01-01

    As very little is known about the molecular structure of dioscorin, the major storage protein of yam tuber, we report here FT-Raman spectroscopic investigation of this yam protein isolated from D. alata L., for the first time. According to a series of purification and identification by ion-exchange chromatography, gel chromatography, SDS-PAGE, and MALDI-TOF-MS, it shows that the major storage protein is made up of dioscorin A (M.W. ∼33 kDa) and dioscorin B (M.W. ∼31 kDa). Raman spectral results indicate that the secondary structure of dioscorin A is major in α-helix, while dioscorin B belongs to anti-parallel β- sheet. It also shows that the microenvironment of major amino acids including tyrosine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, and methionine, and cysteine exhibit explicit differences between these two components. The conformation of disulfide bonding in dioscorin A predominates in Gauche-Gauche-Trans form, while Gauche-Gauche-Gauche and Trans-Gauche-Trans share the conformation in dioscorin B. Structural resemblance between dioscorin A and crude yam proteins implies that dioscorin A exhibits structural preference even though its content is lower than dioscorin B

  6. Structural characterization of dioscorin, the major tuber protein of yams, by near infrared Raman spectroscopy

    Liao, Y-H [300 University Road, Department of Food Science, National Chiayi University, Chiayi, Taiwan (China); Tseng, C-Y [300 University Road, Department of Food Science, National Chiayi University, Chiayi, Taiwan (China); Chen Wenlung [Department of Chemistry, National Chiayi University, Chiayi, Taiwan (China)

    2006-01-01

    As very little is known about the molecular structure of dioscorin, the major storage protein of yam tuber, we report here FT-Raman spectroscopic investigation of this yam protein isolated from D. alata L., for the first time. According to a series of purification and identification by ion-exchange chromatography, gel chromatography, SDS-PAGE, and MALDI-TOF-MS, it shows that the major storage protein is made up of dioscorin A (M.W. {approx}33 kDa) and dioscorin B (M.W. {approx}31 kDa). Raman spectral results indicate that the secondary structure of dioscorin A is major in {alpha}-helix, while dioscorin B belongs to anti-parallel {beta}- sheet. It also shows that the microenvironment of major amino acids including tyrosine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, and methionine, and cysteine exhibit explicit differences between these two components. The conformation of disulfide bonding in dioscorin A predominates in Gauche-Gauche-Trans form, while Gauche-Gauche-Gauche and Trans-Gauche-Trans share the conformation in dioscorin B. Structural resemblance between dioscorin A and crude yam proteins implies that dioscorin A exhibits structural preference even though its content is lower than dioscorin B.

  7. Structural characterization of dioscorin, the major tuber protein of yams, by near infrared Raman spectroscopy

    Liao, Yu-Hsiu; Tseng, Chi-Yin; Chen, Wenlung

    2006-01-01

    As very little is known about the molecular structure of dioscorin, the major storage protein of yam tuber, we report here FT-Raman spectroscopic investigation of this yam protein isolated from D. alata L., for the first time. According to a series of purification and identification by ion-exchange chromatography, gel chromatography, SDS-PAGE, and MALDI-TOF-MS, it shows that the major storage protein is made up of dioscorin A (M.W. ~33 kDa) and dioscorin B (M.W. ~31 kDa). Raman spectral results indicate that the secondary structure of dioscorin A is major in α-helix, while dioscorin B belongs to anti-parallel β- sheet. It also shows that the microenvironment of major amino acids including tyrosine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, and methionine, and cysteine exhibit explicit differences between these two components. The conformation of disulfide bonding in dioscorin A predominates in Gauche-Gauche-Trans form, while Gauche-Gauche-Gauche and Trans-Gauche-Trans share the conformation in dioscorin B. Structural resemblance between dioscorin A and crude yam proteins implies that dioscorin A exhibits structural preference even though its content is lower than dioscorin B.

  8. First Trimester Influenza Vaccination and Risks for Major Structural Birth Defects in Offspring.

    Kharbanda, Elyse Olshen; Vazquez-Benitez, Gabriela; Romitti, Paul A; Naleway, Allison L; Cheetham, T Craig; Lipkind, Heather S; Klein, Nicola P; Lee, Grace; Jackson, Michael L; Hambidge, Simon J; McCarthy, Natalie; DeStefano, Frank; Nordin, James D

    2017-08-01

    To examine risks for major structural birth defects in infants after first trimester inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) exposures. In this observational study, we used electronic health data from 7 Vaccine Safety Datalink sites to examine risks for selected major structural defects in infants after maternal IIV exposure. Vaccine exposures for women with continuous insurance enrollment through pregnancy who delivered singleton live births between 2004 and 2013 were identified from standardized files. Infants with continuous insurance enrollment were followed to 1 year of age. We excluded mother-infant pairs with other exposures that potentially increased their background risk for birth defects. Selected cardiac, orofacial or respiratory, neurologic, ophthalmologic or otologic, gastrointestinal, genitourinary and muscular or limb defects were identified from diagnostic codes in infant medical records using validated algorithms. Propensity score adjusted generalized estimating equations were used to estimate prevalence ratios (PRs). We identified 52 856 infants with maternal first trimester IIV exposure and 373 088 infants whose mothers were unexposed to IIV during first trimester. Prevalence (per 100 live births) for selected major structural birth defects was 1.6 among first trimester IIV exposed versus 1.5 among unexposed mothers. The adjusted PR was 1.02 (95% CI 0.94-1.10). Organ system-specific PRs were similar to the overall PR. First trimester maternal IIV exposure was not associated with an increased risk for selected major structural birth defects in this large cohort of singleton live births. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Hybrid Iron Oxide-Graphene Oxide-Polysaccharides Microcapsule: A Micro-Matryoshka for On-demand Drug Release and Antitumor Therapy In Vivo

    Deng, Lin; Li, Qiujin; Al-Rehili, Safa'a; Omar, Haneen; Almalik, Abdulaziz; Alshamsan, Aws; Zhang, Jianfei; Khashab, Niveen M.

    2016-01-01

    microcapsule (h-MC) by a simple layer-by-layer technique comprising polysaccharides (Alg, Chi, HA), iron oxide, and graphene oxide. Electrostatic assembly of the oppositely charged polysaccharides and graphene sheets provided a robust structure to load drugs

  10. Targeted and non-targeted effects in cell wall polysaccharides from transgenetically modified potato tubers

    Huang, J.H.

    2016-01-01

    The plant cell wall is a chemically complex network composed mainly of polysaccharides. Cell wall polysaccharides surround and protect plant cells and are responsible for the stability and rigidity of plant tissue. Pectin is a major component of primary cell wall and the middle lamella of plants.

  11. Analyzing Activities of Lytic Polysaccharide Monooxygenases by Liquid Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry

    Westereng, Bjørge; Arntzen, Magnus Ø.; Wittrup Agger, Jane

    2017-01-01

    Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases perform oxidative cleavage of glycosidic bonds in various polysaccharides. The majority of LMPOs studied so far possess activity on either cellulose or chitin and analysis of these activities is therefore the main focus of this review. Notably, however, the num...

  12. Characterization of active polysaccharides of HemoHIM

    Shin, Kwang Sun; Shin, Myeong Suk; Bae, Beom Seon; Hwang, Yong Cheol [Kyonggi University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Kwang Won [Chungju University, Chungju (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-15

    In this study, we aimed to elucidate the detailed structure and active moiety of polysaccharide, one of the active constituents of immune and hematopoietic modulating activities of HemoHIM. We first isolated the polysaccharide fractions from the hot water extracts of the each ingredient herbs (A. gigas, P. janonica, C. officinale) of HemoHIM and their mixture. These polysaccharides were composed of neutral (85.32-92.73%) and acidic (4.25-7.88%) saccharides, proteins (0.16-4.02%), and polyphenols (2.09-5.37%). The hydrolytic analysis of polysaccharide fractions showed that they commonly showed higher arabinose, galactose, and galacturonic acid contents. These result suggested that these polysaccharides may have higher contents of rhamnogalacturonan among pectic substances and the main active moiety is composed of polysaccharides. The anion exchange chromatography of HemoHIM and each ingredient herb extract using DEAE-Sepharose FF (Cl- form) column resulted in 1 non-adsorption and 8 adsorption fractions. The analysis of immune activity (lymphocyte proliferation) on these fractions showed that the fractions obtained by higher salt concentration carried the higher activity, but all fractions showed considerable immune activity

  13. Characterization of active polysaccharides of HemoHIM

    Shin, Kwang Sun; Shin, Myeong Suk; Bae, Beom Seon; Hwang, Yong Cheol; Ryu, Kwang Won

    2007-07-01

    In this study, we aimed to elucidate the detailed structure and active moiety of polysaccharide, one of the active constituents of immune and hematopoietic modulating activities of HemoHIM. We first isolated the polysaccharide fractions from the hot water extracts of the each ingredient herbs (A. gigas, P. janonica, C. officinale) of HemoHIM and their mixture. These polysaccharides were composed of neutral (85.32-92.73%) and acidic (4.25-7.88%) saccharides, proteins (0.16-4.02%), and polyphenols (2.09-5.37%). The hydrolytic analysis of polysaccharide fractions showed that they commonly showed higher arabinose, galactose, and galacturonic acid contents. These result suggested that these polysaccharides may have higher contents of rhamnogalacturonan among pectic substances and the main active moiety is composed of polysaccharides. The anion exchange chromatography of HemoHIM and each ingredient herb extract using DEAE-Sepharose FF (Cl- form) column resulted in 1 non-adsorption and 8 adsorption fractions. The analysis of immune activity (lymphocyte proliferation) on these fractions showed that the fractions obtained by higher salt concentration carried the higher activity, but all fractions showed considerable immune activity

  14. Beyond BLASTing: Tertiary and Quaternary Structure Analysis Helps Identify Major Vault Proteins

    Daly, Toni K.; Sutherland-Smith, Andrew J.; Penny, David

    2013-01-01

    We examine the advantages of going beyond sequence similarity and use both protein three-dimensional (3D) structure prediction and then quaternary structure (docking) of inferred 3D structures to help evaluate whether comparable sequences can fold into homologous structures with sufficient lateral associations for quaternary structure formation. Our test case is the major vault protein (MVP) that oligomerizes in multiple copies to form barrel-like vault particles and is relatively widespread among eukaryotes. We used the iterative threading assembly refinement server (I-TASSER) to predict whether putative MVP sequences identified by BLASTp and PSI Basic Local Alignment Search Tool are structurally similar to the experimentally determined rodent MVP tertiary structures. Then two identical predicted quaternary structures from I-TASSER are analyzed by RosettaDock to test whether a pair-wise association occurs, and hence whether the oligomeric vault complex is likely to form for a given MVP sequence. Positive controls for the method are the experimentally determined rat (Rattus norvegicus) vault X-ray crystal structure and the purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) MVP sequence that forms experimentally observed vaults. These and two kinetoplast MVP structural homologs were predicted with high confidence value, and RosettaDock predicted that these MVP sequences would dock laterally and therefore could form oligomeric vaults. As the negative control, I-TASSER did not predict an MVP-like structure from a randomized rat MVP sequence, even when constrained to the rat MVP crystal structure (PDB:2ZUO), thus further validating the method. The protocol identified six putative homologous MVP sequences in the heterobolosean Naegleria gruberi within the excavate kingdom. Two of these sequences are predicted to be structurally similar to rat MVP, despite being in excess of 300 residues shorter. The method can be used generally to help test predictions of homology via

  15. Research and Development of Radiation Processing of Polysaccharide for Agricultural Sector in Myanmar

    Lay, K. K.

    2015-01-01

    Myanmar is an agricultural-based country in which rice is the main staple food and present agricultural systems still follow the traditional methods that utilise the available natural resources combined with improved cultural practices. To fulfil the major needs for improving safety agricultural productivity in the country, and to apply radiation technology for useful products in agriculture, current research is based on radiation processing of polysaccharide for production of super water absorbents and plant growth promoter (liquid fertilizer) using Gamma Radiation. Corn starch, Brown seaweed and Rice straw cellulose were used as polysaccharide in this research work. Morphological structures of products super water absorbents from corn starch and rice straw cellulose were analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Fourier Transfer Infrared (FTIR) was used to analyze the changes of chemical structure of the original polysaccharides and products (super water absorbents and plant growth promoter). The effect of radiation dose and monomer concentration on grafting efficiency, gel fraction, crosslink density, and swelling degree were studied for two types of super water absorbent. It was found that the grafting efficiency and gel fraction increased with increasing in radiation dose as well as the higher in crosslink density, which is directly proportional to increasing in radiation dose, led to decreasing in swelling degree. Decreasing molecular weights of the irradiated seaweed liquid fertilizer (SLF) were generally found with increasing radiation doses. To study the water retention properties of super water absorbents and growth promotion effect of seaweed liquid fertilizer (SLF), field tests were done. This research showed that radiation technology is very useful not only for agriculture sector but also for environmental monitoring since the agricultural waste such as rice straw was used as polysaccharide in this research work. (author)

  16. Multi-centre diagnostic classification of individual structural neuroimaging scans from patients with major depressive disorder.

    Mwangi, Benson; Ebmeier, Klaus P; Matthews, Keith; Steele, J Douglas

    2012-05-01

    Quantitative abnormalities of brain structure in patients with major depressive disorder have been reported at a group level for decades. However, these structural differences appear subtle in comparison with conventional radiologically defined abnormalities, with considerable inter-subject variability. Consequently, it has not been possible to readily identify scans from patients with major depressive disorder at an individual level. Recently, machine learning techniques such as relevance vector machines and support vector machines have been applied to predictive classification of individual scans with variable success. Here we describe a novel hybrid method, which combines machine learning with feature selection and characterization, with the latter aimed at maximizing the accuracy of machine learning prediction. The method was tested using a multi-centre dataset of T(1)-weighted 'structural' scans. A total of 62 patients with major depressive disorder and matched controls were recruited from referred secondary care clinical populations in Aberdeen and Edinburgh, UK. The generalization ability and predictive accuracy of the classifiers was tested using data left out of the training process. High prediction accuracy was achieved (~90%). While feature selection was important for maximizing high predictive accuracy with machine learning, feature characterization contributed only a modest improvement to relevance vector machine-based prediction (~5%). Notably, while the only information provided for training the classifiers was T(1)-weighted scans plus a categorical label (major depressive disorder versus controls), both relevance vector machine and support vector machine 'weighting factors' (used for making predictions) correlated strongly with subjective ratings of illness severity. These results indicate that machine learning techniques have the potential to inform clinical practice and research, as they can make accurate predictions about brain scan data from

  17. Salt Effect on the Antioxidant Activity of Red Microalgal Sulfated Polysaccharides in Soy-Bean Formula.

    Burg, Ariela; Oshrat, Levy-Ontman

    2015-10-20

    Sulfated polysaccharides produced by microalgae, which are known to exhibit various biological activities, may potentially serve as natural antioxidant sources. To date, only a few studies have examined the antioxidant bioactivity of red microalgal polysaccharides. In this research, the effect of different salts on the antioxidant activities of two red microalgal sulfated polysaccharides derived from Porphyridium sp. and Porphyridium aerugineum were studied in a soy bean-based infant milk formula. Salt composition and concentration were both shown to affect the polysaccharides' antioxidant activity. It can be postulated that the salt ions intefer with the polysaccharide chains' interactions and alter their structure, leading to a new three-dimensional structure that better exposes antiooxidant sites in comparison to the polysaccharide without salt supplement. Among the cations that were studied, Ca(2+) had the strongest enhancement effect on antioxidant activities of both polysaccharides. Understanding the effect of salts on polysaccharides' stucture, in addition to furthering knowledge on polysaccharide bioactivities, may also shed light on the position of the antioxidant active sites.

  18. Isolation and characterization of soluble sulfated polysaccharide from the red seaweed Glucaric cornea

    Melo, Marcia R.S.; Freitas, Ana L.P.; Feitosa, Judith P.A.; Paula, Regina C.M. de

    2001-01-01

    The composition, structure and rheological properties of soluble sulphated polysaccharide Glucaric cornea from Brazilian red seaweeds were investigated. The main components of polysaccharide were 3,6-anhydrogalactose (24.7%) and galactose (64.6%). In addition, minor components as 6-O-methyl-galactose (8.5%), glucose (1.5%), xylose (0.7%) and sulfated groups (4.8%) were detected. Comparison between sulphates content determined by Ft-IR spectroscopy and micro elemental analysis was made. Data from 13 C NMR and FT-IR provided evidence of sulphation in C-4 and C-6 of galactose. No gelation with 1.5, 2.0 and 3.0 % (w/v) aqueous solution was observed, even cooled up to 4 deg C. GPC indicated two majors polysaccharide fractions of M pk 7.4 x 10 4 and 1.8 x 10 4 g/mol and a minor fraction of M pk 2.1 x 10 6 g/mol. (author)

  19. Solution structure of the major fish allergen parvalbumin Sco j 1 derived from the Pacific mackerel

    Kumeta, Hiroyuki; Nakayama, Haruka; Ogura, Kenji

    2017-01-01

    Although fish is an important part of the human diet, it is also a common source of food allergy. The major allergen in fish is parvalbumin, a well-conserved Ca2+-binding protein found in the white muscle of many fish species. Here, we studied the solution structure of the parvalbumin Sco j 1, derived from the Pacific mackerel, using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. We mapped the IgE-binding epitope proposed in a recent study onto the present structure. Interestingly, three of four re...

  20. Computer simulation and experimental study of the polysaccharide-polysaccharide interaction in the bacteria Azospirillum brasilense Sp245

    Arefeva, Oksana A.; Kuznetsov, Pavel E.; Tolmachev, Sergey A.; Kupadze, Machammad S.; Khlebtsov, Boris N.; Rogacheva, Svetlana M.

    2003-09-01

    We have studied the conformational properties and molecular dynamics of polysaccharides by using molecular modeling methods. Theoretical and experimental results of polysaccharide-polysaccharide interactions are described.

  1. Topology of the correlation networks among major currencies using hierarchical structure methods

    Keskin, Mustafa; Deviren, Bayram; Kocakaplan, Yusuf

    2011-02-01

    We studied the topology of correlation networks among 34 major currencies using the concept of a minimal spanning tree and hierarchical tree for the full years of 2007-2008 when major economic turbulence occurred. We used the USD (US Dollar) and the TL (Turkish Lira) as numeraires in which the USD was the major currency and the TL was the minor currency. We derived a hierarchical organization and constructed minimal spanning trees (MSTs) and hierarchical trees (HTs) for the full years of 2007, 2008 and for the 2007-2008 period. We performed a technique to associate a value of reliability to the links of MSTs and HTs by using bootstrap replicas of data. We also used the average linkage cluster analysis for obtaining the hierarchical trees in the case of the TL as the numeraire. These trees are useful tools for understanding and detecting the global structure, taxonomy and hierarchy in financial data. We illustrated how the minimal spanning trees and their related hierarchical trees developed over a period of time. From these trees we identified different clusters of currencies according to their proximity and economic ties. The clustered structure of the currencies and the key currency in each cluster were obtained and we found that the clusters matched nicely with the geographical regions of corresponding countries in the world such as Asia or Europe. As expected the key currencies were generally those showing major economic activity.

  2. Mg2+ in the major groove modulates B-DNA structure and dynamics.

    Marc Guéroult

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effect of Mg(2+ bound to the DNA major groove on DNA structure and dynamics. The analysis of a comprehensive dataset of B-DNA crystallographic structures shows that divalent cations are preferentially located in the DNA major groove where they interact with successive bases of (A/GpG and the phosphate group of 5'-CpA or TpG. Based on this knowledge, molecular dynamics simulations were carried out on a DNA oligomer without or with Mg(2+ close to an ApG step. These simulations showed that the hydrated Mg(2+ forms a stable intra-strand cross-link between the two purines in solution. ApG generates an electrostatic potential in the major groove that is particularly attractive for cations; its intrinsic conformation is well-adapted to the formation of water-mediated hydrogen bonds with Mg(2+. The binding of Mg(2+ modulates the behavior of the 5'-neighboring step by increasing the BII (ε-ζ>0° population of its phosphate group. Additional electrostatic interactions between the 5'-phosphate group and Mg(2+ strengthen both the DNA-cation binding and the BII character of the 5'-step. Cation binding in the major groove may therefore locally influence the DNA conformational landscape, suggesting a possible avenue for better understanding how strong DNA distortions can be stabilized in protein-DNA complexes.

  3. Role of natural polysaccharides in radiation formation of PVA hydrogel wound dressing

    Varshney, Lalit

    2004-01-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) based radiation processed hydrogel dressing (HDR) are now produced in India. Natural polysaccharides have been observed to bring desirable characteristics to the HDR. Presence of polysaccharides like Agar and Carrageenan in formulations significantly affect mechanical properties and water absorption properties of HDR. These changes have been explained due to variation in degree of crosslinking and network structure during irradiation. (author)

  4. Antioxidant properties of cell wall polysaccharides of Stevia rebaudiana leaves

    Mediesse Kengne Francine

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the total phenolic and protein contents, and the antioxidant activities of cell wall polysaccharide fractions of Stevia rebaudiana leaves. Methods: Three different polysaccharide-enriched fractions, namely FPE (extract with 50 mmol/ L ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid, FPK (extract with 0.05 mol/L KOH and FH (extract with 4 mol/L KOH were extracted from Stevia rebaudiana leaves. The antioxidant activity of these fractions was evaluated based on their ability to scavenge DPPH (1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl free radical, to reduce ferric power, to chelate ferrous ion and to protect human DNA. Results: The results indicated that protein content was found to be higher in FPK polysaccharide enriched fraction (47.48 µg per mg of FPK. Furthermore, the phenolic compound analysis according to the Folin-Ciocalteu method was higher in FPK (17.71 µg ferulic acid. The DPPH maximal inhibition percentage of the three polysaccharide-enriched fractions at 400 µg/mL was 27.66%, 59.90% and 23.21% respectively for FPE, FPK and FH. All the polysaccharide fractions exhibited a ferric reducing power except the FH one. The three fractions also exhibited lipid peroxidation inhibition, and they completely reverted the DNA damage induced by H2O2/FeCl2. FPK showed the strongest scavenging activity against the DPPH radical, the best chelating ability and lipid peroxidation inhibition. Conclusions: Stevia cell wall polysaccharide fractions are potent protective agents against oxidative stress. The analysis revealed major differences in the antioxidant activity in the three polysaccharides fractions. However, the 0.05 mol/L KOH pectin fraction (FPK showed better antioxidant activity.

  5. Solution structure of the major fish allergen parvalbumin Sco j 1 derived from the Pacific mackerel.

    Kumeta, Hiroyuki; Nakayama, Haruka; Ogura, Kenji

    2017-12-07

    Although fish is an important part of the human diet, it is also a common source of food allergy. The major allergen in fish is parvalbumin, a well-conserved Ca 2+ -binding protein found in the white muscle of many fish species. Here, we studied the solution structure of the parvalbumin Sco j 1, derived from the Pacific mackerel, using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. We mapped the IgE-binding epitope proposed in a recent study onto the present structure. Interestingly, three of four residues, which were elucidated as key residues of the IgE-binding epitope, were exposed to solvent, whereas one residue faced the inside of the molecule. We expect that this solution structure can be used in future studies attempting to analyze the various IgE-binding modes of these allergens.

  6. Thermal-structural response of EBR-II major components under reactor operational transients

    Chang, L.K.; Lee, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    Until recently, the LMFBR safety research has been focused primarily on severe but highly unlikely accident, such as hypothetical-core-disruptive accidents (HCDA's), and not enough attention has been given to accident prevention, which is less severe but more likely sequence. The objective of the EBR-II operational reliability testing (ORT) is to demonstrate that the reactor can be designed and operated to prevent accident. A series of mild duty cycles and overpower transients were designed for accident prevention tests. An assessment of the EBR-II major plant components has been performed to assure structural integrity of the reactor plant for the ORT program. In this paper, the thermal-structural response and structural evaluation of the reactor vessel, the reactor-vessel cover, the intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) and the superheater are presented

  7. Plant cell wall polysaccharide analysis during cell elongation

    Guo, Xiaoyuan

    Plant cell walls are complex structures whose composition and architecture are important to various cellular activities. Plant cell elongation requires a high level of rearrangement of the cell wall polymers to enable cell expansion. However, the cell wall polysaccharides dynamics during plant cell...... elongation is poorly understood. This PhD project aims to elucidate the cell wall compositional and structural change during cell elongation by using Comprehensive Microarray Polymer Profiling (CoMPP), microscopic techniques and molecular modifications of cell wall polysaccharide. Developing cotton fibre......, pea and Arabidopsis thaliana were selected as research models to investigate different types of cell elongation, developmental elongation and tropism elongation. A set of comprehensive analysis covering 4 cotton species and 11 time points suggests that non-cellulosic polysaccharides contribute...

  8. Reduction of the Number of Major Representative Allergens: From Clinical Testing to 3-Dimensional Structures

    Ying He

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vast amounts of allergen sequence data have been accumulated, thus complicating the identification of specific allergenic proteins when performing diagnostic allergy tests and immunotherapy. This study aims to rank the importance/potency of the allergens so as to logically reduce the number of allergens and/or allergenic sources. Meta-analysis of 62 allergenic sources used for intradermal testing on 3,335 allergic patients demonstrated that in southern China, mite, sesame, spiny amaranth, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and house dust account for 88.0% to 100% of the observed positive reactions to the 62 types of allergenic sources tested. The Kolmogorov-Smironov Test results of the website-obtained allergen data and allergen family featured peptides suggested that allergen research in laboratories worldwide has been conducted in parallel on many of the same species. The major allergens were reduced to 21 representative allergens, which were further divided into seven structural classes, each of which contains similar structural components. This study therefore has condensed numerous allergenic sources and major allergens into fewer major representative ones, thus allowing for the use of a smaller number of allergens when conducting comprehensive allergen testing and immunotherapy treatments.

  9. Seismic safety margins research program. Phase I final report - Major structure response (Project IV)

    Benda, B.J.; Johnson, J.J.; Lo, T.Y.

    1981-08-01

    The primary task of the Major Structure Response Project within the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) was to develop detailed finite element models of the Zion Nuclear Power Plant's containment building and auxiliary-fuel-turbine (AFT) complex. The resulting models served as input to the seismic methodology analysis chain. The containment shell was modeled as a series of beam elements with the shear and bending characteristics of a circular cylindrical shell. Masses and rotary inertias were lumped at nodal points; thirteen modes were included in the analysis. The internal structure was modeled with three-dimensional finite elements, with masses again lumped at selected nodes; sixty modes were included in the analysis. The model of the AFT complex employed thin plate and shell elements to represent the concrete shear walls and floor diaphragms, and beam and truss elements to model the braced frames. Because of the size and complexity of the model, and the potentially large number of degrees of freedom, masses were lumped at a limited number of node points. These points were selected so as to minimize the effect of the discrete mass distribution on structural response. One hundred and thirteen modes were extracted. A second objective of Project IV was to investigate the effects of uncertainty and variability on structural response. To this end, four side studies were conducted. Three of them, briefly summarized in this volume, addressed themselves respectively to an investigation of sources of random variability in the dynamic response of nuclear power plant structures; formulation of a methodology for modeling and evaluating the effects of structural uncertainty on predicted modal characteristics of major nuclear power plant structures and substructures; and a preliminary evaluation of nonlinear responses in shear-wall structures. A fourth side study, reported in detail in this volume, quantified variations in dynamic characteristics and seismic

  10. Polysaccharides from Probiotics: New Developments as Food Additives

    Philippe Michaud

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbial polysaccharides with nutraceutical potential and bioactive properties have been investigated in detail during the last few decades. There is an increasing demand in food industries for live microbes or polysaccharides produced by them which assert health benefits other than dietetic constituents. Although there are a large number of exopolysaccharide (EPS-producing bacteria, the titers are low for commercialization. This manuscript deals with the polysaccharides produced by probiotic strains, with major emphasis on the EPSs, their properties, applications and some of the strategies adopted which would be helpful in better understanding of the process in the near future. Research on the improved EPS biosynthesis is essential for obtaining high yields. Therefore, to reach commercialization, metabolic engineering must be applied.

  11. Structures of the major capsid proteins of the human Karolinska Institutet and Washington University polyomaviruses.

    Neu, Ursula; Wang, Jianbo; Macejak, Dennis; Garcea, Robert L; Stehle, Thilo

    2011-07-01

    The Karolinska Institutet and Washington University polyomaviruses (KIPyV and WUPyV, respectively) are recently discovered human viruses that infect the respiratory tract. Although they have not yet been linked to disease, they are prevalent in populations worldwide, with initial infection occurring in early childhood. Polyomavirus capsids consist of 72 pentamers of the major capsid protein viral protein 1 (VP1), which determines antigenicity and receptor specificity. The WUPyV and KIPyV VP1 proteins are distant in evolution from VP1 proteins of known structure such as simian virus 40 or murine polyomavirus. We present here the crystal structures of unassembled recombinant WUPyV and KIPyV VP1 pentamers at resolutions of 2.9 and 2.55 Å, respectively. The WUPyV and KIPyV VP1 core structures fold into the same β-sandwich that is a hallmark of all polyomavirus VP1 proteins crystallized to date. However, differences in sequence translate into profoundly different surface loop structures in KIPyV and WUPyV VP1 proteins. Such loop structures have not been observed for other polyomaviruses, and they provide initial clues about the possible interactions of these viruses with cell surface receptors.

  12. Structural, functional and evolutionary characterization of major drought transcription factors families in maize

    Mittal, Shikha; Banduni, Pooja; Mallikarjuna, Mallana G.; Rao, Atmakuri R.; Jain, Prashant A.; Dash, Prasanta K.; Thirunavukkarasu, Nepolean

    2018-05-01

    Drought is one of the major threats to maize production. In order to improve the production and to breed tolerant hybrids, understanding the genes and regulatory mechanisms during drought stress is important. Transcription factors (TFs) play a major role in gene regulation and many TFs have been identified in response to drought stress. In our experiment, a set of 15 major TF families comprising 1436 genes was structurally and functionally characterized using in-silico tools and a gene expression assay. All 1436 genes were mapped on 10 chromosome of maize. The functional annotation indicated the involvement of these genes in ABA signaling, ROS scavenging, photosynthesis, stomatal regulation, and sucrose metabolism. Duplication was identified as the primary force in divergence and expansion of TF families. Phylogenetic relationship was developed individually for each TF family as well as combined TF families. Phylogenetic analysis grouped the TF family of genes into TF-specific and mixed groups. Phylogenetic analysis of genes belonging to various TF families suggested that the origin of TFs occurred in the lineage of maize evolution. Gene structure analysis revealed that more number of genes were intron-rich as compared to intronless genes. Drought-responsive CRE’s such as ABREA, ABREB, DRE1 and DRECRTCOREAT have been identified. Expression and interaction analyses identified leaf-specific bZIP TF, GRMZM2G140355, as a potential contributor toward drought tolerance in maize. We also analyzed protein-protein interaction network of 269 drought-responsive genes belonging to different drought-related TFs. The information generated on structural and functional characteristics, expression and interaction of the drought-related TF families will be useful to decipher the drought tolerance mechanisms and to derive drought-tolerant genotypes in maize.

  13. THE MULTIPHASE STRUCTURE AND POWER SOURCES OF GALACTIC WINDS IN MAJOR MERGERS

    Rupke, David S. N.; Veilleux, Sylvain

    2013-01-01

    Massive, galaxy-scale outflows are known to be ubiquitous in major mergers of disk galaxies in the local universe. In this paper, we explore the multiphase structure and power sources of galactic winds in six ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) at z –1 , and the highest velocities (2000-3000 km s –1 ) are seen only in ionized gas. The outflow energy and momentum in the QSOs are difficult to produce from a starburst alone, but are consistent with the QSO contributing significantly to the driving of the flow. Finally, when all gas phases are accounted for, the outflows are massive enough to provide negative feedback to star formation.

  14. Joint source based analysis of multiple brain structures in studying major depressive disorder

    Ramezani, Mahdi; Rasoulian, Abtin; Hollenstein, Tom; Harkness, Kate; Johnsrude, Ingrid; Abolmaesumi, Purang

    2014-03-01

    We propose a joint Source-Based Analysis (jSBA) framework to identify brain structural variations in patients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). In this framework, features representing position, orientation and size (i.e. pose), shape, and local tissue composition are extracted. Subsequently, simultaneous analysis of these features within a joint analysis method is performed to generate the basis sources that show signi cant di erences between subjects with MDD and those in healthy control. Moreover, in a cross-validation leave- one-out experiment, we use a Fisher Linear Discriminant (FLD) classi er to identify individuals within the MDD group. Results show that we can classify the MDD subjects with an accuracy of 76% solely based on the information gathered from the joint analysis of pose, shape, and tissue composition in multiple brain structures.

  15. Crystal structure of prunin-1, a major component of the almond (Prunus dulcis) allergen amandin.

    Jin, Tengchuan; Albillos, Silvia M; Guo, Feng; Howard, Andrew; Fu, Tong-Jen; Kothary, Mahendra H; Zhang, Yu-Zhu

    2009-09-23

    Seed storage proteins are accumulated during seed development and act as a reserve of nutrition for seed germination and young sprout growth. Plant seeds play an important role in human nutrition by providing a relatively inexpensive source of protein. However, many plant foods contain allergenic proteins, and the number of people suffering from food allergies has increased rapidly in recent years. The 11S globulins are the most widespread seed storage proteins, present in monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous seeds as well as in gymnosperms (conifers) and other spermatophytes. This family of proteins accounts for a number of known major food allergens. They are of interest to both the public and industry due to food safety concerns. Because of the interests in the structural basis of the allergenicity of food allergens, we sought to determine the crystal structure of Pru1, the major component of the 11 S storage protein from almonds. The structure was refined to 2.4 A, and the R/Rfree for the final refined structure is 17.2/22.9. Pru1 is a hexamer made of two trimers. Most of the back-to-back trimer-trimer association was contributed by monomer-monomer interactions. An alpha helix (helix 6) at the C-terminal end of the acidic domain of one of the interacting monomers lies at the cleft of the two protomers. The residues in this helix correspond to a flexible region in the peanut allergen Ara h 3 that encompasses a previously defined linear IgE epitope.

  16. Crystal Structure of Prunin-1, a Major Component of the Almond (Prunus dulcis) Allergen Amandin

    Jin, Tengchuan; Albillos, Silvia M.; Guo, Feng; Howard, Andrew; Fu, Tong-Jen; Kothary, Mahendra H.; Zhang, Yu-Zhu; (IIT); (US-FDA); (IT)

    2010-10-28

    Seed storage proteins are accumulated during seed development and act as a reserve of nutrition for seed germination and young sprout growth. Plant seeds play an important role in human nutrition by providing a relatively inexpensive source of protein. However, many plant foods contain allergenic proteins, and the number of people suffering from food allergies has increased rapidly in recent years. The 11S globulins are the most widespread seed storage proteins, present in monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous seeds as well as in gymnosperms (conifers) and other spermatophytes. This family of proteins accounts for a number of known major food allergens. They are of interest to both the public and industry due to food safety concerns. Because of the interests in the structural basis of the allergenicity of food allergens, we sought to determine the crystal structure of Pru1, the major component of the 11 S storage protein from almonds. The structure was refined to 2.4 {angstrom}, and the R/Rfree for the final refined structure is 17.2/22.9. Pru1 is a hexamer made of two trimers. Most of the back-to-back trimer-trimer association was contributed by monomer-monomer interactions. An {alpha} helix (helix 6) at the C-terminal end of the acidic domain of one of the interacting monomers lies at the cleft of the two protomers. The residues in this helix correspond to a flexible region in the peanut allergen Ara h 3 that encompasses a previously defined linear IgE epitope.

  17. Synthesis of Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles in Presence of a Linear Polysaccharide

    Humberto A. Monreal Romero

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles compounds were synthesized. Natural hydroxyapatite and a linear polysaccharide (1–3 linked   β-D galactopyranose and 1,4 linked 3,6 anhydro-α-L-galactopyranose were used as a precursor in its formation. Our purpose was to produce nanoparticles in the presence of a linear polysaccharide with the use of a gelification method. The powder sample was evaluated by scanning tunneling microscope (STM, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET analysis, X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD, differential thermal analysis (DTA, infrared (IR analysis, and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA. According to the results, it was found that these nanoparticles can successfully be synthesized using a polysaccharide in a solution. On the other hand, the XRD peak intensity corresponds to hydroxyapatite structure in the range of temperature of 810°C. The influence of the polysaccharide on the evolution of the nanoparticles has been demonstrated. This observation opens up new routes for the fabrication of nanoparticles using polysaccharides network. The synthesized nanoparticles have diameters ranging from 10 nm to 11 nm approximately. The elaboration conditions such as pH and concentration were optimized in this solution.

  18. Extraction, purification and elicitor activities of polysaccharides from Chrysanthemum indicum.

    Du, Ningning; Tian, Wei; Zheng, Dongfang; Zhang, Xinyi; Qin, Pinyan

    2016-01-01

    Polysaccharides isolated from Chrysanthemum indicum were studied for their pathogen-derived resistance against Sclerotium rolfsii sacc in Atractylodis maceocephalae koidz. The total sugar content and monosaccharide analysis were determined by phenol-sulfuric acid method and gas chromatography, and infrared spectroscopy performed for simple structure information. The activities of CAT and POD as protective enzymes in A. maceocephalae leaves were evaluated. The purified polysaccharides exhibited strong CAT and POD activities in inoculated with S. rolfsii in A. macrocephala leaves, attained the maximum value 568.3 Ug(-1)min(-1) and 604.4 Ug(-1)min(-1)respectively. Whereas, when compared with the control plants, 20mg/ml purified polysaccharides exhibited the strongest CAT and POD activities. Notably, the treatments of A. macepcephalae seedlings with C. indicum polysaccharides (CIP) decreased disease index development caused by S. rolfsii. The disease index after 10 days was significantly reduced when the seedlings treated with 20mg/ml CIP, 4.41 compared to the control plants 32.00. Given together, these results indicated that purified polysaccharides derived from C. indicum may be useful as a natural inducer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessment of abnormal brain structures and networks in major depressive disorder using morphometric and connectome analyses.

    Chen, Vincent Chin-Hung; Shen, Chao-Yu; Liang, Sophie Hsin-Yi; Li, Zhen-Hui; Tyan, Yeu-Sheng; Liao, Yin-To; Huang, Yin-Chen; Lee, Yena; McIntyre, Roger S; Weng, Jun-Cheng

    2016-11-15

    It is hypothesized that the phenomenology of major depressive disorder (MDD) is subserved by disturbances in the structure and function of brain circuits; however, findings of structural abnormalities using MRI have been inconsistent. Generalized q-sampling imaging (GQI) methodology provides an opportunity to assess the functional integrity of white matter tracts in implicated circuits. The study population was comprised of 16 outpatients with MDD (mean age 44.81±2.2 years) and 30 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (mean age 45.03±1.88 years). We excluded participants with any other primary mental disorder, substance use disorder, or any neurological illnesses. We used T1-weighted 3D MRI with voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and vertex-wise shape analysis, and GQI with voxel-based statistical analysis (VBA), graph theoretical analysis (GTA) and network-based statistical (NBS) analysis to evaluate brain structure and connectivity abnormalities in MDD compared to healthy controls correlates with clinical measures of depressive symptom severity, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale 17-item (HAMD) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Using VBM and vertex-wise shape analyses, we found significant volumetric decreases in the hippocampus and amygdala among subjects with MDD (pdisorder with abnormal circuit structure and connectivity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Abnormalities in the structural covariance of emotion regulation networks in major depressive disorder.

    Wu, Huawang; Sun, Hui; Wang, Chao; Yu, Lin; Li, Yilan; Peng, Hongjun; Lu, Xiaobing; Hu, Qingmao; Ning, Yuping; Jiang, Tianzi; Xu, Jinping; Wang, Jiaojian

    2017-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common psychiatric disorder that is characterized by cognitive deficits and affective symptoms. To date, an increasing number of neuroimaging studies have focused on emotion regulation and have consistently shown that emotion dysregulation is one of the central features and underlying mechanisms of MDD. Although gray matter morphological abnormalities in regions within emotion regulation networks have been identified in MDD, the interactions and relationships between these gray matter structures remain largely unknown. Thus, in this study, we adopted a structural covariance method based on gray matter volume to investigate the brain morphological abnormalities within the emotion regulation networks in a large cohort of 65 MDD patients and 65 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. A permutation test with p covariance connectivity strengths between MDD patients and healthy controls. The structural covariance analysis revealed an increased correlation strength of gray matter volume between the left angular gyrus and the left amygdala and between the right angular gyrus and the right amygdala, as well as a decreased correlation strength of the gray matter volume between the right angular gyrus and the posterior cingulate cortex in MDD. Our findings support the notion that emotion dysregulation is an underlying mechanism of MDD by revealing disrupted structural covariance patterns in the emotion regulation network. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Chemical analysis of a polysaccharide of unripe (green) tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    Chandra, Krishnendu; Ghosh, Kaushik; Ojha, Arnab K; Islam, Syed S

    2009-11-02

    A polysaccharide (PS-I) isolated from the aqueous extract of the unripe (green) tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) consists of D-galactose, D-methyl galacturonate, D-arabinose, L-arabinose, and L-rhamnose. Structural investigation of the polysaccharide was carried out using total acid hydrolysis, methylation analysis, periodate oxidation study, and NMR studies ((1)H, (13)C, DQF-COSY, TOCSY, NOESY, ROESY, HMQC, and HMBC). On the basis of above-mentioned experiments the structure of the repeating unit of the polysaccharide (PS-I) was established as: [structure: see text].

  2. Alternations of White Matter Structural Networks in First Episode Untreated Major Depressive Disorder with Short Duration

    Yi Lu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available It is crucial to explore the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD at the early stage for the better diagnostic and treatment strategies. It was suggested that MDD might be involving in functional or structural alternations at the brain network level. However, at the onset of MDD, whether the whole brain white matter (WM alterations at network level are already evident still remains unclear. In the present study, diffusion MRI scanning was adopt to depict the unique WM structural network topology across the entire brain at the early stage of MDD. Twenty-one first episode, short duration (<1 year and drug-naïve depression patients, and 25 healthy control (HC subjects were recruited. To construct the WM structural network, atlas-based brain regions were used for nodes, and the value of multiplying fiber number by the mean fractional anisotropy along the fiber bundles connected a pair of brain regions were used for edges. The structural network was analyzed by graph theoretic and network-based statistic methods. Pearson partial correlation analysis was also performed to evaluate their correlation with the clinical variables. Compared with HCs, the MDD patients had a significant decrease in the small-worldness (σ. Meanwhile, the MDD patients presented a significantly decreased subnetwork, which mainly involved in the frontal–subcortical and limbic regions. Our results suggested that the abnormal structural network of the orbitofrontal cortex and thalamus, involving the imbalance with the limbic system, might be a key pathology in early stage drug-naive depression. And the structural network analysis might be potential in early detection and diagnosis of MDD.

  3. Revised Mimivirus major capsid protein sequence reveals intron-containing gene structure and extra domain

    Suzan-Monti Marie

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acanthamoebae polyphaga Mimivirus (APM is the largest known dsDNA virus. The viral particle has a nearly icosahedral structure with an internal capsid shell surrounded with a dense layer of fibrils. A Capsid protein sequence, D13L, was deduced from the APM L425 coding gene and was shown to be the most abundant protein found within the viral particle. However this protein remained poorly characterised until now. A revised protein sequence deposited in a database suggested an additional N-terminal stretch of 142 amino acids missing from the original deduced sequence. This result led us to investigate the L425 gene structure and the biochemical properties of the complete APM major Capsid protein. Results This study describes the full length 3430 bp Capsid coding gene and characterises the 593 amino acids long corresponding Capsid protein 1. The recombinant full length protein allowed the production of a specific monoclonal antibody able to detect the Capsid protein 1 within the viral particle. This protein appeared to be post-translationnally modified by glycosylation and phosphorylation. We proposed a secondary structure prediction of APM Capsid protein 1 compared to the Capsid protein structure of Paramecium Bursaria Chlorella Virus 1, another member of the Nucleo-Cytoplasmic Large DNA virus family. Conclusion The characterisation of the full length L425 Capsid coding gene of Acanthamoebae polyphaga Mimivirus provides new insights into the structure of the main Capsid protein. The production of a full length recombinant protein will be useful for further structural studies.

  4. Interspecies radioimmunoassay for the major structural proteins of primate type-D retroviruses

    Colcher, D.; Teramoto, Y.A.; Schlom, J.

    1977-01-01

    A competition radioimmunoassay has been developed in which type-D retroviruses from three primate species compete. The assay utilizes the major structural protein (36,000 daltons) of the endogenous squirrel monkey retrovirus and antisera directed against the major structural protein (27,000 daltons) of the Mason-Pfizer monkey virus isolated from rhesus monkeys. Purified preparations of both viruses grown in heterologous cells, as well as extracts of heterologous cells infected with squirrel monkey retrovirus or Mason-Pfizer monkey virus, compete completely in the assay. Addition of an endogenous virus of the langur monkey also results in complete blocking. No blocking in the assay is observed with type-C baboon viruses, woolly monkey virus, and gibbon virus. Various other type-C and type-B viruses also showed no reactivity. An interspecies assay has thus been developed that recognizes the type-D retroviruses from both Old World monkey (rhesus and langur) and New World monkey (squirrel) species

  5. Origin and structure of major orogen-scale exhumed strike-slip

    Cao, Shuyun; Neubauer, Franz

    2016-04-01

    The formation of major exhumed strike-slip faults represents one of the most important dynamic processes affecting the evolution of the Earth's lithosphere and surface. Detailed models of the potential initiation and properties and architecture of orogen-scale exhumed strike-slip faults and how these relate to exhumation are rare. In this study, we deal with key properties controlling the development of major exhumed strike-slip fault systems, which are equivalent to the deep crustal sections of active across fault zones. We also propose two dominant processes for the initiation of orogen-scale exhumed strike-slip faults: (1) pluton-controlled and (2) metamorphic core complex-controlled strike-slip faults. In these tectonic settings, the initiation of faults occurs by rheological weakening along hot-to-cool contacts and guides the overall displacement and ultimate exhumation. These processes result in a specific thermal and structural architecture of such faults. These types of strike-slip dominated fault zones are often subparallel to mountain ranges and expose a wide variety of mylonitic, cataclastic and non-cohesive fault rocks, which were formed at different structural levels of the crust during various stages of faulting. The high variety of distinctive fault rocks is a potential evidence for recognition of these types of strike-slip faults. Exhumation of mylonitic rocks is, therefore, a common feature of such reverse oblique-slip strike-slip faults, implying major transtensive and/or transpressive processes accompanying pure strike-slip motion during exhumation. Some orogen-scale strike-slip faults nucleate and initiate along rheologically weak zones, e.g. at granite intrusions, zones of low-strength minerals, thermally weakened crust due to ascending fluids, and lateral borders of hot metamorphic core complexes. A further mechanism is the juxtaposition of mechanically strong mantle lithosphere to hot asthenosphere in continental transform faults (e.g., San

  6. Ice nucleation activity of polysaccharides

    Bichler, Magdalena; Felgitsch, Laura; Haeusler, Thomas; Seidl-Seiboth, Verena; Grothe, Hinrich

    2015-04-01

    Heterogeneous ice nucleation is an important process in the atmosphere. It shows direct impact on our climate by triggering ice cloud formation and therefore it has much influence on the radiation balance of our planet (Lohmann et al. 2002; Mishchenko et al. 1996). The process itself is not completely understood so far and many questions remain open. Different substances have been found to exhibit ice nucleation activity (INA). Due to their vast differences in chemistry and morphology it is difficult to predict what substance will make good ice nuclei and which will not. Hence simple model substances must be found and be tested regarding INA. Our work aims at gaining to a deeper understanding of heterogeneous ice nucleation. We intend to find some reference standards with defined chemistry, which may explain the mechanisms of heterogeneous ice nucleation. A particular focus lies on biological carbohydrates in regards to their INA. Biological carbohydrates are widely distributed in all kingdoms of life. Mostly they are specific for certain organisms and have well defined purposes, e.g. structural polysaccharides like chitin (in fungi and insects) and pectin (in plants), which has also water-binding properties. Since they are widely distributed throughout our biosphere and mostly safe to use for nutrition purposes, they are well studied and easily accessible, rendering them ideal candidates as proxies. In our experiments we examined various carbohydrates, like the already mentioned chitin and pectin, as well as their chemical modifications. Lohmann U.; A Glaciation Indirect Aerosol Effect Caused by Soot Aerosols; J. Geoph. Res.; Vol. 24 No.4; pp 11-1 - 11-4; 2002 Mishchenko M.I., Rossow W.B., Macke A., Lacis A. A.; Sensitivity of Cirrus Cloud Albedo, Bidirectional Reflectance and Optical Thickness Retrieval Accuracy to Ice Particle Shape, J. Geoph. Res.; Vol. 101, No D12; pp. 16,973 - 16,985; 1996

  7. Effect of atracylodes rhizome polysaccharide in rats with adenine-induced chronic renal failure.

    Yang, C; Liu, C; Zhou, Q; Xie, Y C; Qiu, X M; Feng, X

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to elucidate the therapeutic effects of Atracylodes rhizome polysaccharide on adenine-induced chronic renal failure in rats. Fifty male Sprague Dawley rats were selected and randomly divided in to 5 groups (n=10 rats per group): The normal control group, the chronic renal failure pathological control group, the dexamethasone treatment group and two Atracylodes rhizome polysaccharide treatment groups, treated with two different concentrations of the polysaccharide, the Atracylodes rhizome polysaccharide high group and the Atracylodes rhizome polysaccharide low group. All the rats, except those in the normal control group were fed adenine-enriched diets, containing 10 g adenine per kg food for 3 weeks. After being fed with adenine, the dexamethasone treatment group, Atracylodes rhizome polysaccharide high group and Atracylodes rhizome polysaccharide low group rats were administered the drug orally for 2 weeks. On day 35, the kidney coefficient of the rats and the serum levels of creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, total protein and hemalbumin were determined. Subsequent to experimentation on a model of chronic renal failure in rats, the preparation was proven to be able to reduce serum levels of creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and hemalbumin levels (Prenal function. Atracylodes rhizome polysaccharide had reversed the majority of the indices of chronic renal failure in rats.

  8. The preliminary study of prebiotic potential of Polish wild mushroom polysaccharides: the stimulation effect on Lactobacillus strains growth.

    Nowak, Renata; Nowacka-Jechalke, Natalia; Juda, Marek; Malm, Anna

    2018-06-01

    According to the vast body of evidence demonstrating that the intestinal microbiota is undoubtedly linked with overall health, including cancer risk, searching for functional foods and novel prebiotic influencing on beneficial bacteria is necessary. The present study aimed to investigate the potential of polysaccharides from 53 wild-growing mushrooms to stimulate the growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus rhamnosus and to determine the digestibility of polysaccharide fractions. Mushroom polysaccharides were precipitated with ethanol from aqueous extracts. Determination of growth promoting activity of polysaccharides was performed in U-shaped 96-plates in an ELISA reader in relation to the reference strain of L. acidophilus and two clinical strains of L. rhamnosus. The digestibility of mushroom polysaccharides was investigated in vitro by exposing them to artificial human gastric juice. Obtained results revealed that fungal polysaccharides stimulate the growth of Lactobacillus strains stronger than commercially available prebiotics like inulin or fructooligosaccharides. Moreover, selected polysaccharides were subjected to artificial human gastric juice and remain undigested in more than 90%. Obtained results indicate that mushroom polysaccharides are able to pass through the stomach unchanged, reaching the colon and stimulating the growth of beneficial bacteria. Majority of 53 polysaccharide fractions were analysed for the first time in our study. Overall, our findings suggest that polysaccharide fractions from edible mushrooms might be useful in producing functional foods and nutraceuticals.

  9. Immunological and biochemical characterization of extracellular polysaccharides of mucoralean moulds

    Ruiter, de G.A.

    1993-01-01

    In this thesis the characterization is described of the antigenic determinants (epitopes) of the extracellular polysaccharides (EPSs) from moulds belonging to the order of Mucorales. Detailed knowledge of the structure of these epitopes allows for further development of a new generation of

  10. Structures of two Arabidopsis thaliana major latex proteins represent novel helix-grip folds

    Lytle, Betsy L.; Song, Jikui; de la Cruz, Norberto B.; Peterson, Francis C.; Johnson, Kenneth A.; Bingman, Craig A.; Phillips, Jr., George N.; Volkman, Brian F.; (MCW); (UW)

    2009-06-02

    Here we report the first structures of two major latex proteins (MLPs) which display unique structural differences from the canonical Bet v 1 fold described earlier. MLP28 (SwissProt/TrEMBL ID Q9SSK9), the product of gene At1g70830.1, and the At1g24000.1 gene product (Swiss- Prot/TrEMBL ID P0C0B0), proteins which share 32% sequence identity, were independently selected as foldspace targets by the Center for Eukaryotic Structural Genomics. The structure of a single domain (residues 17-173) of MLP28 was solved by NMR spectroscopy, while the full-length At1g24000.1 structure was determined by X-ray crystallography. MLP28 displays greater than 30% sequence identity to at least eight MLPs from other species. For example, the MLP28 sequence shares 64% identity to peach Pp-MLP119 and 55% identity to cucumber Csf2.20 In contrast, the At1g24000.1 sequence is highly divergent (see Fig. 1), containing a gap of 33 amino acids when compared with all other known MLPs. Even when the gap is excluded, the sequence identity with MLPs from other species is less than 30%. Unlike some of the MLPs from other species, none of the A. thaliana MLPs have been characterized biochemically. We show by NMR chemical shift mapping that At1g24000.1 binds progesterone, demonstrating that despite its sequence dissimilarity, the hydrophobic binding pocket is conserved and, therefore, may play a role in its biological function and that of the MLP family in general.

  11. Enantioselective potential of polysaccharide-based chiral stationary phases in supercritical fluid chromatography.

    Kucerova, Gabriela; Kalikova, Kveta; Tesarova, Eva

    2017-06-01

    The enantioselective potential of two polysaccharide-based chiral stationary phases for analysis of chiral structurally diverse biologically active compounds was evaluated in supercritical fluid chromatography using a set of 52 analytes. The chiral selectors immobilized on 2.5 μm silica particles were tris-(3,5-dimethylphenylcarmabate) derivatives of cellulose or amylose. The influence of the polysaccharide backbone, different organic modifiers, and different mobile phase additives on retention and enantioseparation was monitored. Conditions for fast baseline enantioseparation were found for the majority of the compounds. The success rate of baseline and partial enantioseparation with cellulose-based chiral stationary phase was 51.9% and 15.4%, respectively. Using amylose-based chiral stationary phase we obtained 76.9% of baseline enantioseparations and 9.6% of partial enantioseparations of the tested compounds. The best results on cellulose-based chiral stationary phase were achieved particularly with propane-2-ol and a mixture of isopropylamine and trifluoroacetic acid as organic modifier and additive to CO 2 , respectively. Methanol and basic additive isopropylamine were preferred on amylose-based chiral stationary phase. The complementary enantioselectivity of the cellulose- and amylose-based chiral stationary phases allows separation of the majority of the tested structurally different compounds. Separation systems were found to be directly applicable for analyses of biologically active compounds of interest. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Structures of three different neutral polysaccharides of Acinetobacter baumannii, NIPH190, NIPH201, and NIPH615, assigned to K30, K45, and K48 capsule types, respectively, based on capsule biosynthesis gene clusters.

    Shashkov, Alexander S; Kenyon, Johanna J; Arbatsky, Nikolay P; Shneider, Mikhail M; Popova, Anastasiya V; Miroshnikov, Konstantin A; Volozhantsev, Nikolay V; Knirel, Yuriy A

    2015-11-19

    Neutral capsular polysaccharides (CPSs) were isolated from Acinetobacter baumannii NIPH190, NIPH201, and NIPH615. The CPSs were found to contain common monosaccharides only and to be branched with a side-chain 1→3-linked β-d-glucopyranose residue. Structures of the oligosaccharide repeat units (K units) of the CPSs were elucidated by 1D and 2D (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. Novel CPS biosynthesis gene clusters, designated KL30, KL45, and KL48, were found at the K locus in the genome sequences of NIPH190, NIPH201, and NIPH615, respectively. The genetic content of each gene cluster correlated with the structure of the CPS unit established, and therefore, the capsular types of the strains studied were designated as K30, K45, and K48, respectively. The initiating sugar of each K unit was predicted, and glycosyltransferases encoded by each gene cluster were assigned to the formation of the linkages between sugars in the corresponding K unit. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Energy intensity developments in 40 major economies: Structural change or technology improvement?

    Voigt, Sebastian; De Cian, Enrica; Schymura, Michael; Verdolini, Elena

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes energy intensity trends and drivers in 40 major economies using the WIOD database, a novel harmonized and consistent dataset of input–output table time series accompanied by environmental satellite data. We use logarithmic mean Divisia index decomposition to (1) attribute efficiency changes to either changes in technology or changes in the structure of the economy, (2) study trends in global energy intensity between 1995 and 2007, and (3) highlight sectoral and regional differences. For the country analysis we apply the traditional two factor index decomposition approach, while for the global analysis we use a three factor decomposition which includes the consideration of regional structural changes in the global economy. We first show that heterogeneity within each sector across countries is high. These general trends within sectors are dominated by large economies, first and foremost the United States. In most cases, heterogeneity is lower within each country across the different sectors. Regarding changes of energy intensity at the country level, improvements between 1995 and 2007 are largely attributable to technological change while structural change is less important in most countries. Notable exceptions are Japan, the United States, Australia, Taiwan, Mexico and Brazil where a change in the industry mix was the main driver behind the observed energy intensity reduction. At the global level we find that despite a shift of the global economy to more energy-intensive countries, aggregate energy efficiency improved mostly due to technological change

  14. Organized polysaccharide fibers as stable drug carriers

    Janaswamy, Srinivas; Gill, Kristin L.; Campanella, Osvaldo H.; Pinal, Rodolfo

    2013-01-01

    Many challenges arise during the development of new drug carrier systems, and paramount among them are safety, solubility and controlled release requirements. Although synthetic polymers are effective, the possibility of side effects imposes restrictions on their acceptable use and dose limits. Thus, a new drug carrier system that is safe to handle and free from side effects is very much in need and food grade polysaccharides stand tall as worthy alternatives. Herein, we demonstrate for the first time the feasibility of sodium iota-carrageenan fibers and their distinctive water pockets to embed and release a wide variety of drug molecules. Structural analysis has revealed the existence of crystalline network in the fibers even after encapsulating the drug molecules, and iota-carrageenan maintains its characteristic and reproducible double helical structure suggesting that the composites thus produced are reminiscent of cocrystals. The melting properties of iota-carrageenan:drug complexes are distinctly different from those of either drug or iota-carrageenan fiber. The encapsulated drugs are released in a sustained manner from the fiber matrix. Overall, our research provides an elegant opportunity for developing effective drug carriers with stable network toward enhancing and/or controlling bioavailability and extending shelf-life of drug molecules using GRAS excipients, food polysaccharides, that are inexpensive and non–toxic. PMID:23544530

  15. Bacterial Extracellular Polysaccharides Involved in Biofilm Formation

    Elena P. Ivanova

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS produced by microorganisms are a complex mixture of biopolymers primarily consisting of polysaccharides, as well as proteins, nucleic acids, lipids and humic substances. EPS make up the intercellular space of microbial aggregates and form the structure and architecture of the biofilm matrix. The key functions of EPS comprise the mediation of the initial attachment of cells to different substrata and protection against environmental stress and dehydration. The aim of this review is to present a summary of the current status of the research into the role of EPS in bacterial attachment followed by biofilm formation. The latter has a profound impact on an array of biomedical, biotechnology and industrial fields including pharmaceutical and surgical applications, food engineering, bioremediation and biohydrometallurgy. The diverse structural variations of EPS produced by bacteria of different taxonomic lineages, together with examples of biotechnological applications, are discussed. Finally, a range of novel techniques that can be used in studies involving biofilm-specific polysaccharides is discussed.

  16. Chemical features of Ganoderma polysaccharides with antioxidant, antitumor and antimicrobial activities.

    Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Heleno, Sandrina A; Reis, Filipa S; Stojkovic, Dejan; Queiroz, Maria João R P; Vasconcelos, M Helena; Sokovic, Marina

    2015-06-01

    Ganoderma genus comprises one of the most commonly studied species worldwide, Ganoderma lucidum. However, other Ganoderma species have been also reported as important sources of bioactive compounds. Polysaccharides are important contributors to the medicinal properties reported for Ganoderma species, as demonstrated by the numerous publications, including reviews, on this matter. Yet, what are the chemical features of Ganoderma polysaccharides that have bioactivity? In the present manuscript, the chemical features of Ganoderma polysaccharides with reported antioxidant, antitumor and antimicrobial activities (the most studied worldwide) are analyzed in detail. The composition of sugars (homo- versus hetero-glucans and other polysaccharides), type of glycosidic linkages, branching patterns, and linkage to proteins are discussed. Methods for extraction, isolation and identification are evaluated and, finally, the bioactivity of polysaccharidic extracts and purified compounds are discussed. The integration of data allows deduction of structure-activity relationships and gives clues to the chemical aspects involved in Ganoderma bioactivity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Polysaccharides in Human Health Care

    Dam, van J.E.G.; Broek, van den L.A.M.; Boeriu, C.G.

    2016-01-01

    Polysaccharides are abundant natural polymers found in plants, animals and microorganisms with exceptional properties and essential roles to sustain life. They are well known for their high nutritive value and the positive effects on our immune and digestive functions and detoxification system. The

  18. Purification, characterization and antioxidant activities in vitro and in vivo of the polysaccharides from Boletus edulis bull.

    Luo, Aoxue; Luo, Aoshuang; Huang, Jiandong; Fan, Yijun

    2012-07-05

    A water-soluble polysaccharide (BEBP) was extracted from Boletus edulis Bull using hot water extraction followed by ethanol precipitation. The polysaccharide BEBP was further purified by chromatography on a DEAE-cellulose column, giving three major polysaccharide fractions termed BEBP-1, BEBP-2 and BEBP-3. In the next experiment, the average molecular weight (Mw), IR and monosaccharide compositional analysis of the three polysaccharide fractions were determined. The evaluation of antioxidant activities both in vitro and in vivo suggested that BEBP-3 had good potential antioxidant activity, and should be explored as a novel potential antioxidant.

  19. Geology and structure of major uranium-bearing zones in India and their exploration

    Nagabhushana, J.C.; Vasudeva Rao, M.; Sahasrabudhe, G.H.; Krishnamoorthy, B.; Suryanarayana Rao, C.; Rama Rao, Y.N.

    1976-01-01

    Radiogeologic, lithostratigraphic, tectonic, and crustal evolutionary considerations have enabled the recognition of three major uranium provinces in India: the Singhbhum Province in the north-east; the Rajasthan Province in the north-west; and the Madhya Pradesh Province in central India. The paper describes the salient features of the three uranium provinces, with particular emphasis on their structural set-up, magmatectonics, and the controls of uranium mineralization, and presents a few recent case histories of individual deposits (Bagjata and Turamdih in Singhbhum, and Dhabi-Dumhat in Madhya Pradesh) discovered by integrated exploration techniques. The three uranium provinces are related to major deep-seated faults: the Singhbhum Province lies at the arcuate north-east end of the deep fault of the Eastern Ghats; the Rajasthan Province parallels the great boundary fault; and the Madhya Pradesh Province aligns with the Mahanadi-Son rift system. Some of the plausible explanations for these remarkable features are: localization of uranium ore during episodes of crustal fracturing in Precambrian times; reactivation and rejuvenation of favourable basement structures; and the role of local 'hot spots' (aided by compressional and vertical tectonics) in crustal zones anomalously enriched in the heat-producing elements. Uranium exploration strategy in India during the last three decades reveals two significant trends - the application of conventional radiometric techniques during the period 1950-65; and introduction of sophisticated methodology comprising non-radiometric geophysical techniques, emanometry, aerial and car-borne gamma-ray spectrometry, geochemical surveys, and photogeological techniques as supplements to conventional radiometry, during the period 1965-75. It is concluded that extension of such integrated exploration techniques to favourable virgin terrains in India would lead to newer and richer uranium ore discoveries. (author)

  20. Halotolerant PGPRs Prevent Major Shifts in Indigenous Microbial Community Structure Under Salinity Stress.

    Bharti, Nidhi; Barnawal, Deepti; Maji, Deepamala; Kalra, Alok

    2015-07-01

    The resilience of soil microbial populations and processes to environmental perturbation is of increasing interest as alteration in rhizosphere microbial community dynamics impacts the combined functions of plant-microbe interactions. The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of inoculation with halotolerant rhizobacteria Bacillus pumilus (STR2), Halomonas desiderata (STR8), and Exiguobacterium oxidotolerans (STR36) on the indigenous root-associated microbial (bacterial and fungal) communities in maize under non-saline and salinity stress. Plants inoculated with halotolerant rhizobacteria recorded improved growth as illustrated by significantly higher shoot and root dry weight and elongation in comparison to un-inoculated control plants under both non-saline and saline conditions. Additive main effect and multiplicative interaction ordination analysis revealed that plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) inoculations as well as salinity are major drivers of microbial community shift in maize rhizosphere. Salinity negatively impacts microbial community as analysed through diversity indices; among the PGPR-inoculated plants, STR2-inoculated plants recorded higher values of diversity indices. As observed in the terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, the inoculation of halotolerant rhizobacteria prevents major shift of the microbial community structure, thus enhancing the resilience capacity of the microbial communities.

  1. Association of obesity with cognitive function and brain structure in patients with major depressive disorder.

    Hidese, Shinsuke; Ota, Miho; Matsuo, Junko; Ishida, Ikki; Hiraishi, Moeko; Yoshida, Sumiko; Noda, Takamasa; Sato, Noriko; Teraishi, Toshiya; Hattori, Kotaro; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2018-01-01

    Obesity has been implicated in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD), which prompted us to examine the possible association of obesity with cognitive function and brain structure in patients with MDD. Three hundred and seven patients with MDD and 294 healthy participants, matched for age, sex, ethnicity (Japanese), and handedness (right) were recruited for the study. Cognitive function was assessed using the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS). Gray and white matter structures were analyzed using voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging in a subsample of patients (n = 114) whose magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data were obtained using a 1.5 T MRI system. Verbal memory, working memory, motor speed, attention, executive function, and BACS composite scores were lower for the MDD patients than for the healthy participants (p function, and BACS composite scores were lower in obese patients (body mass index ≥ 30, n = 17) than in non-obese patients (n = 290, p left optic radiation were reduced in obese patients (n = 7) compared with non-obese patients (n = 107, p function, reduced gray matter volume, and impaired white matter integrity in cognition-related brain areas in patients with MDD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Enzymatic and Structural Characterization of the Major Endopeptidase in the Venus Flytrap Digestion Fluid*

    Risør, Michael W.; Thomsen, Line R.; Sanggaard, Kristian W.; Nielsen, Tania A.; Thøgersen, Ida B.; Lukassen, Marie V.; Rossen, Litten; Garcia-Ferrer, Irene; Guevara, Tibisay; Scavenius, Carsten; Meinjohanns, Ernst; Gomis-Rüth, F. Xavier; Enghild, Jan J.

    2016-01-01

    Carnivorous plants primarily use aspartic proteases during digestion of captured prey. In contrast, the major endopeptidases in the digestive fluid of the Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) are cysteine proteases (dionain-1 to -4). Here, we present the crystal structure of mature dionain-1 in covalent complex with inhibitor E-64 at 1.5 Å resolution. The enzyme exhibits an overall protein fold reminiscent of other plant cysteine proteases. The inactive glycosylated pro-form undergoes autoprocessing and self-activation, optimally at the physiologically relevant pH value of 3.6, at which the protective effect of the pro-domain is lost. The mature enzyme was able to efficiently degrade a Drosophila fly protein extract at pH 4 showing high activity against the abundant Lys- and Arg-rich protein, myosin. The substrate specificity of dionain-1 was largely similar to that of papain with a preference for hydrophobic and aliphatic residues in subsite S2 and for positively charged residues in S1. A tentative structure of the pro-domain was obtained by homology modeling and suggested that a pro-peptide Lys residue intrudes into the S2 pocket, which is more spacious than in papain. This study provides the first analysis of a cysteine protease from the digestive fluid of a carnivorous plant and confirms the close relationship between carnivorous action and plant defense mechanisms. PMID:26627834

  3. Oxygen infrared spectra of oxyhemoglobins and oxymyoglobins. Evidence of two major liganded O2 structures

    Potter, W.T.; Tucker, M.P.; Houtchens, R.A.; Caughey, W.S.

    1987-01-01

    The dioxygen stretch bands in infrared spectra for solutions of oxy species of human hemoglobin A and its separated subunits, human mutant hemoglobin Zurich (β63His to Arg), rabbit hemoglobin, lamprey, hemoglobin, sperm whale myoglobin, bovine myoglobin, and a sea worm chlorocruorin are examined. Each protein exhibits multiple isotope-sensitive bands between 1160 and 1060 cm -1 for the liganded 16 O 2 , 17 O 2 , and 18 O 2 . The O-O stretch bands for each of the mammalian myoglobins and hemoglobins are similar, with frequencies that differ between proteins by only 3-5 cm -1 . The spectra for the lamprey and sea worm hemoglobins exhibit greater diversity. For all proteins an O-O stretch band expected to occur near 1125 cm -1 for 16 O 2 and 17 O 2 , but not 18 O 2 , appears split by ∼25 cm -1 due to an unidentified perturbation. The spectrum for each dioxygen isotope, if unperturbed, would contain two strong bands for the mammalian myoglobins (1150 and 1120 cm -1 ) and hemoglobins (1155 and 1125 cm -1 ). Two strong bands separated by ∼30 cm -1 for each oxy heme protein subunit indicate that two major protein conformations (structure) that differ substantially in O 2 bonding are present. The two dioxygen structures can result from a combination of dynamic distal and proximal effects upon the O 2 ligand bound in a bent-end-on stereochemistry

  4. [Correlation Between Functional Groups and Radical Scavenging Activities of Acidic Polysaccharides from Dendrobium].

    Liao, Ying; Yuan, Wen-yu; Zheng, Wen-ke; Luo, Ao-xue; Fan, Yi-jun

    2015-11-01

    To compare the radical scavenging activity of five different acidic polysaccharides, and to find the correlation with the functional groups. Alkali extraction method and Stepwise ethanol precipitation method were used to extract and concentrate the five Dendrobium polysaccharides, and to determine the contents of sulfuric acid and uronic acid of each kind of acidic polysaccharides, and the scavenging activity to ABTS+ radical and hydroxyl radical. Functional group structures were examined by FTIR Spectrometer. Five kinds of Dendrobium polysaccharides had different ability of scavenging ABTS+ free radical and hydroxyl free radical. Moreover, the study had shown that five kinds of antioxidant activity of acidic polysaccharides had obvious correlation withuronic acid and sulfuric acid. The antioxidant activity of each sample was positively correlated with the content of uronic acid, and negatively correlated with the content of sulfuric acid. Sulfuric acid can inhibit the antioxidant activity of acidic polysaccharide but uronic acid can enhance the free radical scavenging activity. By analyzing the structure characteristics of five acidic polysaccharides, all samples have similar structures, however, Dendrobium denneanum, Dendrobium devonianum and Dendrobium officinale which had β configuration have higher antioxidant activity than Dendrobium nobile and Dendrobium fimbriatum which had a configuration.

  5. Nanoengineering of vaccines using natural polysaccharides.

    Cordeiro, Ana Sara; Alonso, María José; de la Fuente, María

    2015-11-01

    Currently, there are over 70 licensed vaccines, which prevent the pathogenesis of around 30 viruses and bacteria. Nevertheless, there are still important challenges in this area, which include the development of more active, non-invasive, and thermo-resistant vaccines. Important biotechnological advances have led to safer subunit antigens, such as proteins, peptides, and nucleic acids. However, their limited immunogenicity has demanded potent adjuvants that can strengthen the immune response. Particulate nanocarriers hold a high potential as adjuvants in vaccination. Due to their pathogen-like size and structure, they can enhance immune responses by mimicking the natural infection process. Additionally, they can be tailored for non-invasive mucosal administration (needle-free vaccination), and control the delivery of the associated antigens to a specific location and for prolonged times, opening room for single-dose vaccination. Moreover, they allow co-association of immunostimulatory molecules to improve the overall adjuvant capacity. The natural and ubiquitous character of polysaccharides, together with their intrinsic immunomodulating properties, their biocompatibility, and biodegradability, justify their interest in the engineering of nanovaccines. In this review, we aim to provide a state-of-the-art overview regarding the application of nanotechnology in vaccine delivery, with a focus on the most recent advances in the development and application of polysaccharide-based antigen nanocarriers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Structural analysis and magmatism characterization of the Major Gercino shear zone, Santa Catarina State, Brazil

    Passarelli, Claudia Regina

    1996-01-01

    This work describes the geometric and kinematic characteristics of the Major Gercino Shear Zone (MGSZ) in the Canelinha-Garcia area. This shear zone is one of the major lineaments that affect all southern Brazilian precambrian terrains. In Santa Catarina State, it separates, along its whole extension, the supracrustal rocks of the Brusque belt (northern part) from the Granitoid belt (southern). This zone is characterized by a regional NE trend and a dextral sense of movement where ductile-brittle structures predominate. The MGSZ is composed of two mylonitic belts separated by granitoid rocks probably associated to the development of the shear zone. Both shear zones show cataclastic to ultra mylonitic rocks, but mylonites and protomylonites conditions at high strain rate. The calc-alkaline granitoids present in the area can be grouped in two granitoid associations with meta to peraluminous affinities. The Rolador Granitoid Association is characterized by grayish porphyritic biotite-monzogranites and the Fernandes Granitoid Association by coarsed-grained to porphyritic pinkish amphibole-syenogranites. The U-Pb and Rb-Sr ages range from 670 to 590 Ma with the Sr 87 / Sr 86 initial ratios suggesting a crustal contribution in the generation of these rocks. The importance of the pure shear component is also emphasized by the results of the Fry method. Many z axes of the strain ellipses are at high angle to the shear foliation. Symmetric porphyroclasts also corroborate this hypothesis. The micaceous minerals formed during the shear development indicate K-Ar ages around 555 ± 15 Ma. Brittle reactivations of the shear zone have been placed by K-Ar in fine-fraction materials at Triassic time (215 ± 15 Ma.)

  7. Diverse modes of binding in structures of Leishmania majorN-myristoyltransferase with selective inhibitors

    James A. Brannigan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The leishmaniases are a spectrum of global diseases of poverty associated with immune dysfunction and are the cause of high morbidity. Despite the long history of these diseases, no effective vaccine is available and the currently used drugs are variously compromised by moderate efficacy, complex side effects and the emergence of resistance. It is therefore widely accepted that new therapies are needed. N-Myristoyltransferase (NMT has been validated pre-clinically as a target for the treatment of fungal and parasitic infections. In a previously reported high-throughput screening program, a number of hit compounds with activity against NMT from Leishmania donovani have been identified. Here, high-resolution crystal structures of representative compounds from four hit series in ternary complexes with myristoyl-CoA and NMT from the closely related L. major are reported. The structures reveal that the inhibitors associate with the peptide-binding groove at a site adjacent to the bound myristoyl-CoA and the catalytic α-carboxylate of Leu421. Each inhibitor makes extensive apolar contacts as well as a small number of polar contacts with the protein. Remarkably, the compounds exploit different features of the peptide-binding groove and collectively occupy a substantial volume of this pocket, suggesting that there is potential for the design of chimaeric inhibitors with significantly enhanced binding. Despite the high conservation of the active sites of the parasite and human NMTs, the inhibitors act selectively over the host enzyme. The role of conformational flexibility in the side chain of Tyr217 in conferring selectivity is discussed.

  8. Examining the latent structure mechanisms for comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder and major depressive disorder.

    Hurlocker, Margo C; Vidaurri, Desirae N; Cuccurullo, Lisa-Ann J; Maieritsch, Kelly; Franklin, C Laurel

    2018-03-15

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a complex psychiatric illness that can be difficult to diagnose, due in part to its comorbidity with major depressive disorder (MDD). Given that researchers have found no difference in prevalence rates of PTSD and MDD after accounting for overlapping symptoms, the latent structures of PTSD and MDD may account for the high comorbidity. In particular, the PTSD Negative Alterations in Cognition and Mood (NACM) and Hyperarousal factors have been characterized as non-specific to PTSD. Therefore, we compared the factor structures of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5 th edition (DSM-5) PTSD and MDD and examined the mediating role of the PTSD NACM and Hyperarousal factors on the relationship between MDD and PTSD symptom severity. Participants included 598 trauma-exposed veterans (M age = 48.39, 89% male) who completed symptom self-report measures of DSM-5 PTSD and MDD. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated an adequate-fitting four-factor DSM-5 PTSD model and two-factor MDD model. Compared to other PTSD factors, the PTSD NACM factor had the strongest relationship with the MDD Affective factor, and the PTSD NACM and Hyperarousal factors had the strongest association with the MDD Somatic factor. Further, the PTSD NACM factor explained the relationship between MDD factors and PTSD symptom severity. More Affective and Somatic depression was related to more NACM symptoms, which in turn were related to increased severity of PTSD. Limitations include the reliance on self-report measures and the use of a treatment-seeking, trauma-exposed veteran sample which may not generalize to other populations. Implications concerning the shared somatic complaints and psychological distress in the comorbidity of PTSD and MDD are discussed. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Salt Effect on the Antioxidant Activity of Red Microalgal Sulfated Polysaccharides in Soy-Bean Formula

    Ariela Burg

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sulfated polysaccharides produced by microalgae, which are known to exhibit various biological activities, may potentially serve as natural antioxidant sources. To date, only a few studies have examined the antioxidant bioactivity of red microalgal polysaccharides. In this research, the effect of different salts on the antioxidant activities of two red microalgal sulfated polysaccharides derived from Porphyridium sp. and Porphyridium aerugineum were studied in a soy bean-based infant milk formula. Salt composition and concentration were both shown to affect the polysaccharides’ antioxidant activity. It can be postulated that the salt ions intefer with the polysaccharide chains’ interactions and alter their structure, leading to a new three-dimensional structure that better exposes antiooxidant sites in comparison to the polysaccharide without salt supplement. Among the cations that were studied, Ca2+ had the strongest enhancement effect on antioxidant activities of both polysaccharides. Understanding the effect of salts on polysaccharides’ stucture, in addition to furthering knowledge on polysaccharide bioactivities, may also shed light on the position of the antioxidant active sites.

  10. Complexity of major UK companies between 2006 and 2010: Hierarchical structure method approach

    Ulusoy, Tolga; Keskin, Mustafa; Shirvani, Ayoub; Deviren, Bayram; Kantar, Ersin; Çaǧrı Dönmez, Cem

    2012-11-01

    This study reports on topology of the top 40 UK companies that have been analysed for predictive verification of markets for the period 2006-2010, applying the concept of minimal spanning tree and hierarchical tree (HT) analysis. Construction of the minimal spanning tree (MST) and the hierarchical tree (HT) is confined to a brief description of the methodology and a definition of the correlation function between a pair of companies based on the London Stock Exchange (LSE) index in order to quantify synchronization between the companies. A derivation of hierarchical organization and the construction of minimal-spanning and hierarchical trees for the 2006-2008 and 2008-2010 periods have been used and the results validate the predictive verification of applied semantics. The trees are known as useful tools to perceive and detect the global structure, taxonomy and hierarchy in financial data. From these trees, two different clusters of companies in 2006 were detected. They also show three clusters in 2008 and two between 2008 and 2010, according to their proximity. The clusters match each other as regards their common production activities or their strong interrelationship. The key companies are generally given by major economic activities as expected. This work gives a comparative approach between MST and HT methods from statistical physics and information theory with analysis of financial markets that may give new valuable and useful information of the financial market dynamics.

  11. Crystal structure of spinach major light-harvesting complex at 2.72Å resolution

    Liu, Zhenfeng; Yan, Hanchi; Wang, Kebin; Kuang, Tingyun; Zhang, Jiping; Gui, Lulu; An, Xiaomin; Chang, Wenrui

    2004-03-01

    The major light-harvesting complex of photosystem II (LHC-II) serves as the principal solar energy collector in the photosynthesis of green plants and presumably also functions in photoprotection under high-light conditions. Here we report the first X-ray structure of LHC-II in icosahedral proteoliposome assembly at atomic detail. One asymmetric unit of a large R32 unit cell contains ten LHC-II monomers. The 14 chlorophylls (Chl) in each monomer can be unambiguously distinguished as eight Chla and six Chlb molecules. Assignment of the orientation of the transition dipole moment of each chlorophyll has been achieved. All Chlb are located around the interface between adjacent monomers, and together with Chla they are the basis for efficient light harvesting. Four carotenoid-binding sites per monomer have been observed. The xanthophyll-cycle carotenoid at the monomer-monomer interface may be involved in the non-radiative dissipation of excessive energy, one of the photoprotective strategies that have evolved in plants.

  12. Diagnostic radio labelled polysaccharide derivatives

    Milbrath, D.S.; Ferber, R.H.; Barnett, W.E.

    1982-01-01

    A radiopharmaceutical compound for diagnosing blood clots is claimed. It is the reaction product of a compound characterized by a water-soluble polysaccharide moiety having an average of at least 0.25 anionic group per monosaccharide unit, and at least one chelating group derived from the group consisting of amino acids, substituted cyclic acid anhydrides, and carbon disulfide; and a radioactive tracer metal compound selected from In-111, Tc-99m, Cr-51, Ga-68, and a reduced pertechnetate compound

  13. Radiochemistry and radiopolymerization of polysaccharides

    Raffi, J.

    1980-03-01

    The effects of gamma radiation on dry state polysaccharides (example: starch) are presented in an overall manner by order of quantitative importance: recombination of radicals to recover the initial macromolecule (cage effect) or smaller molecules which are chemically identical (radiopolymerization) and evolution of radicals to give secondary reactions (formation of radiolysis products). The effect of the botanical origin of the starch studied is briefly discussed, applications and extensions to the case of radiochemically induced modifications to foodstuffs being envisaged [fr

  14. Polysaccharide-Based Micelles for Drug Delivery

    Nan Zhang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Delivery of hydrophobic molecules and proteins has been an issue due to poor bioavailability following administration. Thus, micelle carrier systems are being investigated to improve drug solubility and stability. Due to problems with toxicity and immunogenicity, natural polysaccharides are being explored as substitutes for synthetic polymers in the development of new micelle systems. By grafting hydrophobic moieties to the polysaccharide backbone, self-assembled micelles can be readily formed in aqueous solution. Many polysaccharides also possess inherent bioactivity that can facilitate mucoadhesion, enhanced targeting of specific tissues, and a reduction in the inflammatory response. Furthermore, the hydrophilic nature of some polysaccharides can be exploited to enhance circulatory stability. This review will highlight the advantages of polysaccharide use in the development of drug delivery systems and will provide an overview of the polysaccharide-based micelles that have been developed to date.

  15. Purification, characterization and immunomodulatory activity of polysaccharides from stem lettuce.

    Nie, Chenzhipeng; Zhu, Peilei; Ma, Shuping; Wang, Mingchun; Hu, Youdong

    2018-05-15

    Stem lettuce has a long history of cultivation in China and possesses high nutritional and medicinal value. In our previous studies, extraction optimization, characterization, and bioactivities of stem lettuce polysaccharides (SLP) were investigated. In this study, SLP were further separated into two purified polysaccharides, SLP-1 and SLP-2, by anion exchange chromatography followed by size exclusion chromatography. SLP-1, with a molecular weight of 90 KDa, was mainly composed of galacturonic acid, galactose and arabinose in a molar ratio of 17.6:41.7:33.9. SLP-2, with a molecular weight of 44 KDa, was mainly composed of mannose, galacturonic acid, galactose and arabinose in a molar ratio of 11.5:69.5:9.3:8.2. In addition, both purified polysaccharides contain sulphate radicals, have triple helical structures and can promote macrophage proliferation without cytotoxicity. SLP-2 was better able to stimulate phagocytic and nitric oxide production than SLP-1. The results suggest that polysaccharides from stem lettuce could be explored as immunomodulatory agents in the field of pharmaceuticals and functional foods. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Enzymatic Modification of Plant Cell Wall Polysaccharides

    Øbro, Jens; Hayashi, Takahisa; Mikkelsen, Jørn Dalgaard

    2011-01-01

    Plant cell walls are intricate structures with remarkable properties, widely used in almost every aspect of our life. Cell walls consist largely of complex polysaccharides and there is often a need for chemical and biochemical processing before industrial use. There is an increasing demand...... for sustainable processes that replace chemical treatments with white biotechnology. Plants can contribute significantly to this sustainable process by producing plant or microbialenzymes in planta that are necessary for plant cell wall modification or total degradation. This will give rise to superior food...... fibres, hydrocolloids, paper,textile, animal feeds or biofuels. Classical microbial-based fermentation systems could in the future face serious competition from plant-based expression systems for enzyme production. Plant expressed enzymes can either be targeted to specific cellular compartments...

  17. Capturing single cell genomes of active polysaccharide degraders: an unexpected contribution of Verrucomicrobia.

    Manuel Martinez-Garcia

    Full Text Available Microbial hydrolysis of polysaccharides is critical to ecosystem functioning and is of great interest in diverse biotechnological applications, such as biofuel production and bioremediation. Here we demonstrate the use of a new, efficient approach to recover genomes of active polysaccharide degraders from natural, complex microbial assemblages, using a combination of fluorescently labeled substrates, fluorescence-activated cell sorting, and single cell genomics. We employed this approach to analyze freshwater and coastal bacterioplankton for degraders of laminarin and xylan, two of the most abundant storage and structural polysaccharides in nature. Our results suggest that a few phylotypes of Verrucomicrobia make a considerable contribution to polysaccharide degradation, although they constituted only a minor fraction of the total microbial community. Genomic sequencing of five cells, representing the most predominant, polysaccharide-active Verrucomicrobia phylotype, revealed significant enrichment in genes encoding a wide spectrum of glycoside hydrolases, sulfatases, peptidases, carbohydrate lyases and esterases, confirming that these organisms were well equipped for the hydrolysis of diverse polysaccharides. Remarkably, this enrichment was on average higher than in the sequenced representatives of Bacteroidetes, which are frequently regarded as highly efficient biopolymer degraders. These findings shed light on the ecological roles of uncultured Verrucomicrobia and suggest specific taxa as promising bioprospecting targets. The employed method offers a powerful tool to rapidly identify and recover discrete genomes of active players in polysaccharide degradation, without the need for cultivation.

  18. Selenylation Modification of Degraded Polysaccharide from Enteromorpha prolifera and Its Biological Activities

    Lv, Haitao; Duan, Ke; Shan, Hu

    2018-04-01

    Polysaccharide extracted from Enteromorpha prolifera possessed excellent biological activities, but its molecular weight was greatly high which influenced the activity. Organic Se had higher biological activities and was safer than inorganic Se species. In the present study, Enteromorpha polysaccharide was degraded to low molecular weight by free-radical degradation method of H2O2 and ascorbic acid. By single factor and orthogonal experiments, the optimal degradation conditions were reaction time of 2 h, reaction temperature of 50°C, H2O2/ascorbic acid (n/n=1:1) concentration of 15 mmol L-1, and solid-liquid ratio of 1:50 (g mL-1). Then, the degraded polysaccharide was chemically modified to obtain its selenide derivatives by nitric acid-sodium selenite method. The selenium content was 1137.29 μg g-1, while the content of sulfate radical had no change. IR spectra indicated that the selenite ester group was formed. Degraded polysaccharide selenide was characterized and evaluated for antioxidant, antifungal and antibacterial activities. The results showed that degraded polysaccharide selenide had strong capacity of scavenging DPPH and ·OH free radical. It had significant antibacterial properties for Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Salmonella spp., and it also had significant antifungal properties for Apple anthrax. The result ascertained degradation and selenylation modification did not change the main structure of polysaccharides. It was possible that free-radical degradation was an effective way for enhancing antioxidant activity to decrease molecular weight of polysaccharides.

  19. Polysaccharide hydrogel combined with mesenchymal stem cells promotes the healing of corneal alkali burn in rats.

    Yifeng Ke

    Full Text Available Corneal chemical burns are common ophthalmic injuries that may result in permanent visual impairment. Although significant advances have been achieved on the treatment of such cases, the structural and functional restoration of a chemical burn-injured cornea remains challenging. The applications of polysaccharide hydrogel and subconjunctival injection of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs have been reported to promote the healing of corneal wounds. In this study, polysaccharide was extracted from Hardy Orchid and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs were derived from Sprague-Dawley rats. Supplementation of the polysaccharide significantly enhanced the migration rate of primarily cultured rat corneal epithelial cells. We examined the therapeutic effects of polysaccharide in conjunction with MSCs application on the healing of corneal alkali burns in rats. Compared with either treatment alone, the combination strategy resulted in significantly better recovery of corneal epithelium and reduction in inflammation, neovascularization and opacity of healed cornea. Polysaccharide and MSCs acted additively to increase the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokine (TGF-β, antiangiogenic cytokine (TSP-1 and decrease those promoting inflammation (TNF-α, chemotaxis (MIP-1α and MCP-1 and angiogenesis (VEGF and MMP-2. This study provided evidence that Hardy Orchid derived polysaccharide and MSCs are safe and effective treatments for corneal alkali burns and that their benefits are additive when used in combination. We concluded that combination therapy with polysaccharide and MSCs is a promising clinical treatment for corneal alkali burns and may be applicable for other types of corneal disorder.

  20. Polysaccharide Hydrogel Combined with Mesenchymal Stem Cells Promotes the Healing of Corneal Alkali Burn in Rats

    Liu, Xun; Yu, Min; Yang, Chunbo; Li, Xiaorong

    2015-01-01

    Corneal chemical burns are common ophthalmic injuries that may result in permanent visual impairment. Although significant advances have been achieved on the treatment of such cases, the structural and functional restoration of a chemical burn-injured cornea remains challenging. The applications of polysaccharide hydrogel and subconjunctival injection of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been reported to promote the healing of corneal wounds. In this study, polysaccharide was extracted from Hardy Orchid and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were derived from Sprague-Dawley rats. Supplementation of the polysaccharide significantly enhanced the migration rate of primarily cultured rat corneal epithelial cells. We examined the therapeutic effects of polysaccharide in conjunction with MSCs application on the healing of corneal alkali burns in rats. Compared with either treatment alone, the combination strategy resulted in significantly better recovery of corneal epithelium and reduction in inflammation, neovascularization and opacity of healed cornea. Polysaccharide and MSCs acted additively to increase the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokine (TGF-β), antiangiogenic cytokine (TSP-1) and decrease those promoting inflammation (TNF-α), chemotaxis (MIP-1α and MCP-1) and angiogenesis (VEGF and MMP-2). This study provided evidence that Hardy Orchid derived polysaccharide and MSCs are safe and effective treatments for corneal alkali burns and that their benefits are additive when used in combination. We concluded that combination therapy with polysaccharide and MSCs is a promising clinical treatment for corneal alkali burns and may be applicable for other types of corneal disorder. PMID:25789487

  1. Combined effects of pectic enzymes on the degradation of pectin polysaccharides of banana fruit

    Jheng, G.; Jiang, Y.; Ghen, Y.; Yang, S.

    2011-01-01

    Pectin polysaccharide is one of the major components of the primary cellular wall in the middle lamella of plant tissues. The degradation of pectin polysaccharide contributes to fruit softening. In this study, water-soluble pectin (WSP) and acid-soluble pectin (ASP) were isolated from pulp tissues of banana fruit at various ripening stages, and combinations of the enzymes such as polygalcturonase (PG), pectin methylesterase (PME) and beta-galactosidase (beta-Gal) were used to investigate the effect on the degradation of WSP and ASP. PG promoted the degradation of pectin polysaccharides, especially in ASP. An enhanced effect of the degradation of WSP and ASP from various ripening banana fruit was observed in the presence of PME. In addition, beta-Gal accelerated slightly the degradation of WSP and ASP in the presence of PG. Overall, PG, PME and beta-Gal can coordinate to promote the degradation of pectin polysaccharides of banana fruit, resulting in fruit softening. (author)

  2. Chemical Characteristics and Antioxidant Properties of Crude Water Soluble Polysaccharides from Four Common Edible Mushrooms

    Pei-Long Sun

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Four crude water soluble polysaccharides, CABP, CAAP, CFVP and CLDP, were isolated from common edible mushrooms, including Agaricus bisporus, Auricularia auricula, Flammulina velutipes and Lentinus edodes, and their chemical characteristics and antioxidant properties were determined. Fourier Transform-infrared analysis showed that the four crude polysaccharides were all composed of β-glycoside linkages. The major monosaccharide compositions were D-galactose, D-glucose and D-mannose for CABP, CAAP and CLDP, while CFVP was found to consist of L-arabinose, D-galactose, D-glucose and D-mannose. The main molecular weight distributions of CABP and the other three polysaccharides were 66.0 × 104 Da, respectively. Antioxidant properties of the four polysaccharides were evaluated in in vitro systems and CABP showed the best antioxidant properties. The studied mushroom species could potentially be used in part of well-balanced diets and as a source of antioxidant compounds.

  3. Size resolved airborne particulate polysaccharides in summer high Arctic

    Leck, C.; Gao, Q.; Mashayekhy Rad, F.; Nilsson, U.

    2013-04-01

    Size-resolved aerosol samples for subsequent determination of polysaccharides (monosaccharides in combined form) were collected in air over the central Arctic Ocean during the biologically most active period between the late summer melt season and into the transition to autumn freeze-up. The analysis was carried out using liquid chromatography coupled with highly selective and sensitive tandem mass spectrometry. Polysaccharides were detected in all sizes ranging from 0.035 to 10 μm in diameter with distinct features of heteropolysaccharides, enriched in xylose, glucose + mannose as well as a substantial fraction of deoxysugars. Polysaccharides containing deoxysugars showed a bimodal structure with about 60% of their mass found in the Aitken mode over the pack ice area. Pentose (xylose) and hexose (glucose + mannose) showed a weaker bimodal character and were largely found in the coarse mode in addition to a minor fraction apportioned in the sub-micrometer size range. The concentration of total hydrolysable neutral sugars (THNS) in the samples collected varied over 3 orders of magnitude (1 to 692 pmol m-3) in the super-micrometer size fraction and to a lesser extent in sub-micrometer particles (4 to 88 pmol m-3). Lowest THNS concentrations were observed in air masses that had spent more than 5 days over the pack ice. Within the pack ice area, about 53% (by mass) of the total mass of polysaccharides were found in sub-micrometer particles. The relative abundance of sub-micrometer polysaccharides was closely related to the length of time that the air mass spent over pack ice, with highest fraction (> 90%) observed for > 7 days of advection. The ambient aerosol particles collected onboard ship showed similar monosaccharide composition, compared to particles generated experimentally in situ at the open lead site. This supports the existence of a primary source of particulate polysaccharides from open leads by bubble bursting at the air-sea interface. We speculate that

  4. Plaque Structural Stress Estimations Improve Prediction of Future Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events After Intracoronary Imaging.

    Brown, Adam J; Teng, Zhongzhao; Calvert, Patrick A; Rajani, Nikil K; Hennessy, Orla; Nerlekar, Nitesh; Obaid, Daniel R; Costopoulos, Charis; Huang, Yuan; Hoole, Stephen P; Goddard, Martin; West, Nick E J; Gillard, Jonathan H; Bennett, Martin R

    2016-06-01

    Although plaque rupture is responsible for most myocardial infarctions, few high-risk plaques identified by intracoronary imaging actually result in future major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). Nonimaging markers of individual plaque behavior are therefore required. Rupture occurs when plaque structural stress (PSS) exceeds material strength. We therefore assessed whether PSS could predict future MACE in high-risk nonculprit lesions identified on virtual-histology intravascular ultrasound. Baseline nonculprit lesion features associated with MACE during long-term follow-up (median: 1115 days) were determined in 170 patients undergoing 3-vessel virtual-histology intravascular ultrasound. MACE was associated with plaque burden ≥70% (hazard ratio: 8.6; 95% confidence interval, 2.5-30.6; P<0.001) and minimal luminal area ≤4 mm(2) (hazard ratio: 6.6; 95% confidence interval, 2.1-20.1; P=0.036), although absolute event rates for high-risk lesions remained <10%. PSS derived from virtual-histology intravascular ultrasound was subsequently estimated in nonculprit lesions responsible for MACE (n=22) versus matched control lesions (n=22). PSS showed marked heterogeneity across and between similar lesions but was significantly increased in MACE lesions at high-risk regions, including plaque burden ≥70% (13.9±11.5 versus 10.2±4.7; P<0.001) and thin-cap fibroatheroma (14.0±8.9 versus 11.6±4.5; P=0.02). Furthermore, PSS improved the ability of virtual-histology intravascular ultrasound to predict MACE in plaques with plaque burden ≥70% (adjusted log-rank, P=0.003) and minimal luminal area ≤4 mm(2) (P=0.002). Plaques responsible for MACE had larger superficial calcium inclusions, which acted to increase PSS (P<0.05). Baseline PSS is increased in plaques responsible for MACE and improves the ability of intracoronary imaging to predict events. Biomechanical modeling may complement plaque imaging for risk stratification of coronary nonculprit lesions. © 2016

  5. Immunomodulating activities of acidic sulphated polysaccharides obtained from the seaweed Ulva rigida C. Agardh.

    Leiro, José M; Castro, Rosario; Arranz, Jon A; Lamas, Jesús

    2007-07-01

    Water-soluble acidic polysaccharides from the cell walls of Ulva rigida are mainly composed of disaccharides that contain glucuronic acid and sulphated rhamnose. The structure of disaccharides resembles that of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) as they both contain glucuronic acid and sulphated sugars. Glycosaminoglycans occur in the extracellular matrix of animal connective tissues but can also be produced by leucocytes at inflammatory sites. Certain types of GAGs can even activate macrophages and therefore the acidic polysaccharides from U. rigida probably modulate macrophage activity. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of U. rigida polysaccharides on several RAW264.7 murine macrophage activities, including expression of inflammatory cytokines and receptors, nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 (PGE(2)) production, and nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS-2) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene expression. U. rigida acidic polysaccharides induced a more than two-fold increase in the expression of several chemokines (chemokine (C motif) ligand 1, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 12, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 22 and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 14 (Cxcl14)) and in the expression of IL6 signal transducer and IL12 receptor beta 1. Incubation of macrophages with U. rigida polysaccharides also induced an increase in nitrite production, although this effect decreased considerably after desulphation of polysaccharides, suggesting that the sulphate group is important for the stimulatory capacity of these molecules. U. rigida polysaccharides also stimulated macrophage secretion of PGE(2) and induced an increase in COX-2 and NOS-2 expression. The results indicate that U. rigida acid polysaccharide can be used as an experimental immunostimulant for analysing inflammatory responses related to macrophage functions. In addition, these polysaccharides may also be of clinical interest for modifying certain macrophage activities in diseases where macrophage function is impaired or needs

  6. Structural insights into the β-xylosidase from Trichoderma reesei

    Rojas, Adriana L.; Fischer, Hannes; Polikarpov, Igor; Craievich, Aldo Felix

    2005-01-01

    Xylan is a major structural polysaccharide in plant cells, and is the second most abundant polysaccharide in nature, accounting for approximately one-third of all renewable organic carbon on earth. Xylan together with cellulose (1,4-β-glucan) and lignin (a complex polyphenolic compound) make up the major polymeric constituents of plant cell walls, recently, there was a significant industrial interest in Xylan and its hydrolytic enzymatic complex, as a supplement in animal feed, for the manufacture of bread, food and drinks, textiles, bleaching of cellulose pulp, ethanol and xylitol production. (author)

  7. Structural insights into the {beta}-xylosidase from Trichoderma reesei

    Rojas, Adriana L.; Fischer, Hannes; Polikarpov, Igor [Sao Paulo Univ. (USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Eneiskaya, Elena V.; Kulminskaya, Anna A.; Shabalin, Konstantin A.; Neustroev, Kirill N.; Golubev, Alexander M. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Inst., Moskow (Russian Federation); Craievich, Aldo Felix [Sao Paulo Univ. (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2005-07-01

    Xylan is a major structural polysaccharide in plant cells, and is the second most abundant polysaccharide in nature, accounting for approximately one-third of all renewable organic carbon on earth. Xylan together with cellulose (1,4-{beta}-glucan) and lignin (a complex polyphenolic compound) make up the major polymeric constituents of plant cell walls, recently, there was a significant industrial interest in Xylan and its hydrolytic enzymatic complex, as a supplement in animal feed, for the manufacture of bread, food and drinks, textiles, bleaching of cellulose pulp, ethanol and xylitol production. (author)

  8. Bioactive polysaccharides and gut microbiome (abstract)

    Many polysaccharides have shown the ability to reduce plasma cholesterol or postprandial glycemia. Viscosity in the small intestine seems to be required to slow glucose uptake. Cereal mixed linkage beta-glucans, psyllium, glucomannans, and other polysaccharides also seem to require higher molecula...

  9. Structural Studies of Complex Carbohydrates of Plant Cell Walls

    Darvill, Alan [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States); Hahn, Michael G. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States); O' Neill, Malcolm A. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States); York, William S. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)

    2015-02-17

    Most of the solar energy captured by land plants is converted into the polysaccharides (cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin) that are the predominant components of the cell wall. These walls, which account for the bulk of plant biomass, have numerous roles in the growth and development of plants. Moreover, these walls have a major impact on human life as they are a renewable source of biomass, a source of diverse commercially useful polymers, a major component of wood, and a source of nutrition for humans and livestock. Thus, understanding the molecular mechanisms that lead to wall assembly and how cell walls and their component polysaccharides contribute to plant growth and development is essential to improve and extend the productivity and value of plant materials. The proposed research will develop and apply advanced analytical and immunological techniques to study specific changes in the structures and interactions of the hemicellulosic and pectic polysaccharides that occur during differentiation and in response to genetic modification and chemical treatments that affect wall biosynthesis. These new techniques will make it possible to accurately characterize minute amounts of cell wall polysaccharides so that subtle changes in structure that occur in individual cell types can be identified and correlated to the physiological or developmental state of the plant. Successful implementation of this research will reveal fundamental relationships between polysaccharide structure, cell wall architecture, and cell wall functions.

  10. Characterization and immunomodulatory activity of polysaccharides derived from Dendrobium tosaense.

    Yang, Li-Chan; Lu, Ting-Jang; Hsieh, Chang-Chi; Lin, Wen-Chuan

    2014-10-13

    Dendrobium tosaense is a medicinal Dendrobium species widely used in traditional medicine. This study demonstrated some structural characterizations and immunomodulatory activity of the water-soluble polysaccharides derived from the stem of D. tosaense (DTP). DTP was fractioned using DEAE-650 M anion-exchange gel filtration chromatography, producing one neutral polysaccharide fraction (DTP-N), which was investigated for its structural characteristics, using HPAEC-PAD, HP-SEC, GC-MS, and NMR spectroscopy. DTP and DTP-N consisted of galactose, glucose, and mannose in ratios of 1:9.1:150.7 and 1:12.2:262.5, respectively. DTP-N comprised (1 → 4)Man as its main backbone, and its average molecular weight was 220 kDa. We also investigated the immunomodulatory effects of DTP administered orally to BALB/c mice for 3 weeks. DTP substantially boosted the population of splenic natural killer (NK) cells, NK cytotoxicity, macrophage phagocytosis, and cytokine induction in splenocytes. This is the first study to demonstrate the structural characteristics of an active polysaccharide derived from D. tosaense and its immunopharmacological effects in vivo. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Combining polysaccharide biosynthesis and transport in a single enzyme: dual-function cell wall glycan synthases.

    Jonathan Kent Davis

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular polysaccharides are synthesized by a wide variety of species, from unicellular bacteria and Archaea to the largest multicellular plants and animals in the biosphere. In every case, the biosynthesis of these polymers requires transport across a membrane, from the cytosol to either the lumen of secretory pathway organelles or directly into the extracellular space. Although some polysaccharide biosynthetic substrates are moved across the membrane to sites of polysaccharide synthesis by separate transporter proteins before being incorporated into polymers by glycosyltransferase proteins, many polysaccharide biosynthetic enzymes appear to have both transporter and transferase activities. In these cases, the biosynthetic enzymes utilize substrate on one side of the membrane and deposit the polymer product on the other side. This review discusses structural characteristics of plant cell wall glycan synthases that couple synthesis with transport, drawing on what is known about such dual-function enzymes in other species.

  12. Polyphenolic, polysaccharide and oligosaccharide composition of Tempranillo red wines and their relationship with the perceived astringency.

    Quijada-Morín, Natalia; Williams, Pascale; Rivas-Gonzalo, Julián C; Doco, Thierry; Escribano-Bailón, M Teresa

    2014-07-01

    The influence of the proanthocyanidic, polysaccharide and oligosaccharide composition on astringency perception of Tempranillo wines has been evaluated. Statistical analyses revealed the existence of relationships between chemical composition and perceived astringency. Proanthocyanidic subunit distribution had the strongest contribution to the multiple linear regression (MLR) model. Polysaccharide families showed clear opposition to astringency perception according to principal component analysis (PCA) results, being stronger for mannoproteins and rhamnogalacturonan-II (RG-II), but only Polysaccharides Rich in Arabinose and Galactose (PRAGs) were considered in the final fitted MLR model, which explained 96.8% of the variability observed in the data. Oligosaccharides did not show a clear opposition, revealing that structure and size of carbohydrates are important for astringency perception. Mannose and galactose residues in the oligosaccharide fraction are positively related to astringency perception, probably because its presence is consequence of the degradation of polysaccharides. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Chemical Methods for the Determination of Soluble and Insoluble Non-Starch Polysaccharides - Review

    Rodica Căpriţă

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharides are macromolecules of monosaccharides linked by glycosidic bonds. Non-starch polysaccharides(NSP are principally non-α-glucan polysaccharides of the plant cell wall. They are a heterogeneous group ofpolysaccharides with varying degrees of water solubility, size, and structure. The water insoluble fiber fractioninclude cellulose, galactomannans, xylans, xyloglucans, and lignin, while the water-soluble fibers are the pectins,arabinogalactans, arabinoxylans, and β-(1,3(1,4-D-glucans (β-glucans. Both the enzymatic-gravimetric andenzymatic-chemical methods used for the determination of soluble and insoluble non-starch polysaccharides haveundergone a number of modifications and improvements, most occurring over the last 20 years.

  14. Optimization for ultrasonic-microwave synergistic extraction of polysaccharides from Cornus officinalis and characterization of polysaccharides.

    Yin, Xiulian; You, Qinghong; Jiang, Zhonghai; Zhou, Xinghai

    2016-02-01

    Ultrasonic-microwave synergistic extraction (UMSE) of polysaccharides from Cornus officinalis was optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). The effect of four different factors on the yield of C. officinalis polysaccharides (COP) was studied. RSM results showed that the optimal conditions were extraction time of 31.49823 min, microwave power of 99.39769 W, and water-to-raw material ratio of 28.16273. The COP yield was 11.38±0.31% using the modified optimal conditions, which was consistent with the value predicted by the model. The crude COP was purified by DEAE-Cellulose 52 chromatography and Sephadex G-100 chromatography. Five fractions, namely, crude COP, COP-1, COP-2, COP-3, and COP-4, were obtained. Monosaccharide composition analysis revealed that the COP was composed of glucose, arabinose, fucose, xylose, mannose, and rhamnose. Preliminary structural characterizations of COP were conducted by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Personality Structure in the Trait Lexicon of Hindi, a Major Language Spoken in India

    Singh, Jitendra K.; Misra, Girishwar; De Raad, Boele

    2013-01-01

    The psycho-lexical approach is extended to Hindi, a major language spoken in India. From both the dictionary and from Hindi novels, a huge set of personality descriptors was put together, ultimately reduced to a manageable set of 295 trait terms. Both self and peer ratings were collected on those

  16. Sulfated Polysaccharides in the Freshwater Green Macroalga Cladophora surera Not Linked to Salinity Adaptation.

    Arata, Paula X; Alberghina, Josefina; Confalonieri, Viviana; Errea, María I; Estevez, José M; Ciancia, Marina

    2017-01-01

    The presence of sulfated polysaccharides in cell walls of seaweeds is considered to be a consequence of the physiological adaptation to the high salinity of the marine environment. Recently, it was found that sulfated polysaccharides were present in certain freshwater Cladophora species and some vascular plants. Cladophora (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta) is one of the largest genera of green algae that are able to grow in both, seas and freshwater courses. Previous studies carried out on the water-soluble polysaccharides of the marine species C. falklandica established the presence of sulfated xylogalactoarabinans constituted by a backbone of 4-linked β-L-arabinopyranose units partially sulfated mainly on C3 and also on C2 with partial glycosylation, mostly on C2, with terminal β-D-xylopyranose or β-D-galactofuranose units. Besides, minor amounts of 3-, 6- and/or 3,6-linked β-D-galactan structures, with galactose in the pyranosic form were detected. In this work, the main water soluble cell wall polysaccharides from the freshwater alga Cladophora surera were characterized. It was found that this green alga biosynthesizes sulfated polysaccharides, with a structure similar to those found in marine species of this genus. Calibration of molecular clock with fossil data suggests that colonization of freshwater environments occurred during the Miocene by its ancestor. Therefore, the presence of sulfated polysaccharides in the freshwater green macroalga C. surera could be, in this case, an adaptation to transient desiccation and changes in ionic strength. Retention of sulfated polysaccharides at the cell walls may represent a snapshot of an evolutionary event, and, thus constitutes an excellent model for further studies on the mechanisms of sulfation on cell wall polysaccharides and environmental stress co-evolution.

  17. Sulfated Polysaccharides in the Freshwater Green Macroalga Cladophora surera Not Linked to Salinity Adaptation

    Paula X. Arata

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The presence of sulfated polysaccharides in cell walls of seaweeds is considered to be a consequence of the physiological adaptation to the high salinity of the marine environment. Recently, it was found that sulfated polysaccharides were present in certain freshwater Cladophora species and some vascular plants. Cladophora (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta is one of the largest genera of green algae that are able to grow in both, seas and freshwater courses. Previous studies carried out on the water-soluble polysaccharides of the marine species C. falklandica established the presence of sulfated xylogalactoarabinans constituted by a backbone of 4-linked β-L-arabinopyranose units partially sulfated mainly on C3 and also on C2 with partial glycosylation, mostly on C2, with terminal β-D-xylopyranose or β-D-galactofuranose units. Besides, minor amounts of 3-, 6- and/or 3,6-linked β-D-galactan structures, with galactose in the pyranosic form were detected. In this work, the main water soluble cell wall polysaccharides from the freshwater alga Cladophora surera were characterized. It was found that this green alga biosynthesizes sulfated polysaccharides, with a structure similar to those found in marine species of this genus. Calibration of molecular clock with fossil data suggests that colonization of freshwater environments occurred during the Miocene by its ancestor. Therefore, the presence of sulfated polysaccharides in the freshwater green macroalga C. surera could be, in this case, an adaptation to transient desiccation and changes in ionic strength. Retention of sulfated polysaccharides at the cell walls may represent a snapshot of an evolutionary event, and, thus constitutes an excellent model for further studies on the mechanisms of sulfation on cell wall polysaccharides and environmental stress co-evolution.

  18. Shakespearean tragedies dynamics: identifying a generic structure in Shakespeare's four major tragedies

    Domínguez-Rué, Emma; Mrotzek, Maximilian

    2012-10-01

    Many interpretations of Shakespearean tragedy have been conducted, mostly following the principles of interpretation in literary study. In our paper, four tragedies by William Shakespeare - Hamlet, King Lear, Othello, and Macbeth - were analysed systemically to find out whether they inhabit a common structure. Using the plot structure as the basis for our analysis, we identified the most important system elements, their connections, and interactive behaviour using causal loop diagrams (CLDs). Our results revealed that all four tragedies basically conform to Senge's archetypal structure 'shifting the burden', adding the action of the heroine or villain and the characters' boundaries of perception. The results suggest that, even though characters and settings vary highly, these tragedies have similar structures and archetypal solutions exist to overcome the problem. Furthermore, we propose that CLDs and systems archetypes are a reasonable hermeneutic tool to analyse not only Shakespearean tragedies but also other literary works.

  19. Organização estrutural da casca de Persea major Kopp (Lauraceae Structural organization of Persea major Kopp bark (Lauraceae

    Leila Teresinha Maranho

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de contribuir ao conhecimento da estrutura da casca de Persea major Kopp (Lauraceae, espécie nativa da América do Sul. No Brasil, é conhecida, popularmente, como "pau de andrade" e utilizada na cultura tradicional na cicatrização dos ferimentos. A análise da casca foi feita usando microscopia de óptica. A casca se distingue, principalmente, pelo tipo e distribuição dos tecidos esclerenquimáticos e a presença de células oleíferas e mucilaginosas. As características encontradas na estrutura da casca desta espécie mostram grande importância para a identificação e servem como parâmetros no controle de qualidade. Estas células oleíferas e mucilaginosas com uma distribuição restrita nas dicotiledôneas constituem uma característica taxonômica e diagnóstica particularmente valiosa.The study was undertaken to increase our knowledge of bark structure of Persea major Kopp (Lauraceae, a native specie from South America. In Brazil, it is known as "pau de andrade" and is used by traditional cultures to heal injuries. This analysis was done by light microscopy. The bark is distinguished mainly by the type and distribution of sclerenchymatic tissues, and the presence of oil and mucilage cells. The characteristics found in the bark anatomy of this species are of great importance for identification purposes and as parameters in quality control. These oil and mucilage cells have a restricted distribution in the dicotyledons and constitute a particularly valuable taxonomic and diagnostic feature.

  20. Structural analysis and magmatism characterization of the Major Gercino shear zone, Santa Catarina State, Brazil; Analise estrutural e caracterizacao do magmatismo da zona de cisalhamento Major Gercino, SC

    Passarelli, Claudia Regina

    1996-12-31

    This work describes the geometric and kinematic characteristics of the Major Gercino Shear Zone (MGSZ) in the Canelinha-Garcia area. This shear zone is one of the major lineaments that affect all southern Brazilian precambrian terrains. In Santa Catarina State, it separates, along its whole extension, the supracrustal rocks of the Brusque belt (northern part) from the Granitoid belt (southern). This zone is characterized by a regional NE trend and a dextral sense of movement where ductile-brittle structures predominate. The MGSZ is composed of two mylonitic belts separated by granitoid rocks probably associated to the development of the shear zone. Both shear zones show cataclastic to ultra mylonitic rocks, but mylonites and protomylonites conditions at high strain rate. The calc-alkaline granitoids present in the area can be grouped in two granitoid associations with meta to peraluminous affinities. The Rolador Granitoid Association is characterized by grayish porphyritic biotite-monzogranites and the Fernandes Granitoid Association by coarsed-grained to porphyritic pinkish amphibole-syenogranites. The U-Pb and Rb-Sr ages range from 670 to 590 Ma with the Sr{sup 87} / Sr{sup 86} initial ratios suggesting a crustal contribution in the generation of these rocks. The importance of the pure shear component is also emphasized by the results of the Fry method. Many z axes of the strain ellipses are at high angle to the shear foliation. Symmetric porphyroclasts also corroborate this hypothesis. The micaceous minerals formed during the shear development indicate K-Ar ages around 555 {+-} 15 Ma. Brittle reactivations of the shear zone have been placed by K-Ar in fine-fraction materials at Triassic time (215 {+-} 15 Ma.) 220 refs., 107 figs., 18 tabs., 4 maps

  1. Dissecting the polysaccharide-rich grape cell wall matrix using recombinant pectinases during winemaking

    Gao, Yu; Fangel, Jonatan Ulrik; Willats, William George Tycho

    2016-01-01

    different combinations of purified recombinant pectinases with cell wall profiling tools to follow the deconstruction process during winemaking. Multivariate data analysis of the glycan microarray (CoMPP) and gas chromatography (GC) results revealed that pectin lyase performed almost as effectively in de......The effectiveness of enzyme-mediated-maceration in red winemaking relies on the use of an optimum combination of specific enzymes. A lack of information on the relevant enzyme activities and the corresponding polysaccharide-rich berry cell wall structure is a major limitation. This study used......-pectination as certain commercial enzyme mixtures. Surprisingly the combination of endo-polygalacturonase and pectin-methyl-esterase only unraveled the cell walls without de-pectination. Datasets from the various combinations used confirmed pectin-rich and xyloglucan-rich layers within the grape pomace. These data...

  2. Advances in Research of Polysaccharides in Cordyceps Species

    Shi Zhong

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cordyceps sinensis (Berk. Sacc. is one of the well-described fungi that has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for over 700 years. Fungal mycelia contain some polysaccharides that are responsible for their biological activity. C. sinensis has traditionally been cultivated on the high Tibetan plateau as a parasitic fungus growing on caterpillars. However, currently it is being cultivated on some insects and in artificial media. This article deals with the advances in the production, isolation and purification of Cordyceps polysaccharide (CP in recent years, as well as the structure elucidation and pharmacological action. The article also aims to provide some references for further application and exploitation in the future.

  3. An exocellular polysaccharide and its interactions with proteins

    Tuinier, R.

    1999-01-01

    In the food industry polysaccharides are used as thickening or gelling agents. Polysaccharides are usually extracted from plants. Micro-organisms are also capable of excreting polysaccharides: exocellular polysaccharides (EPSs). In some cases EPSs are produced in-situ in food products,

  4. Tracing major structures of the inner Galaxy with 6.7-GHz methanol masers

    Pestalozzi M.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Through analysis of correlations within the longitude-velocity distribution of 6.7-GHz methanol masers, we identify density enhancements indicative of large-scale regions of enhanced star formation. In the context of the inner structure of our Galaxy these are interpreted as the starting points of the spiral arms and the interaction of the long Galactic bar with the 3–kpc arms. Signatures of a continuous 3–kpc arm structure are seen including a prominent tangent at –22° Galactic longitude.

  5. Specificity of the trypanothione-dependent Leishmania major glyoxalase I: structure and biochemical comparison with the human enzyme.

    Ariza, Antonio; Vickers, Tim J; Greig, Neil; Armour, Kirsten A; Dixon, Mark J; Eggleston, Ian M; Fairlamb, Alan H; Bond, Charles S

    2006-02-01

    Trypanothione replaces glutathione in defence against cellular damage caused by oxidants, xenobiotics and methylglyoxal in the trypanosomatid parasites, which cause trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis. In Leishmania major, the first step in methylglyoxal detoxification is performed by a trypanothione-dependent glyoxalase I (GLO1) containing a nickel cofactor; all other characterized eukaryotic glyoxalases use zinc. In kinetic studies L. major and human enzymes were active with methylglyoxal derivatives of several thiols, but showed opposite substrate selectivities: N1-glutathionylspermidine hemithioacetal is 40-fold better with L. major GLO1, whereas glutathione hemithioacetal is 300-fold better with human GLO1. Similarly, S-4-bromobenzylglutathionylspermidine is a 24-fold more potent linear competitive inhibitor of L. major than human GLO1 (Kis of 0.54 microM and 12.6 microM, respectively), whereas S-4-bromobenzylglutathione is >4000-fold more active against human than L. major GLO1 (Kis of 0.13 microM and >500 microM respectively). The crystal structure of L. major GLO1 reveals differences in active site architecture to both human GLO1 and the nickel-dependent Escherichia coli GLO1, including increased negative charge and hydrophobic character and truncation of a loop that may regulate catalysis in the human enzyme. These differences correlate with the differential binding of glutathione and trypanothione-based substrates, and thus offer a route to the rational design of L. major-specific GLO1 inhibitors.

  6. Structured health care for subjects with diabetic foot ulcers results in a reduction of major amputation rates

    2013-01-01

    Objective We tested the effects of structured health care for the diabetic foot in one region in Germany aiming to reduce the number of major amputations. Research design and methods In a prospective study we investigated patients with diabetic foot in a structured system of outpatient, in-patient and rehabilitative treatment. Subjects were recruited between January 1st, 2000 and December 31, 2007. All participants underwent a two-year follow-up. The modified University of Texas Wound Classification System (UT) was the basis for documentation and data analysis. We evaluated numbers of major amputations, rates of ulcer healing and mortality. In order to compare the effect of the structured health care program with usual care in patients with diabetic foot we evaluated the same parameters at another regional hospital without interdisciplinary care of diabetic foot (controls). Results 684 patients with diabetic foot and 508 controls were investigated. At discharge from hospital 28.3% (structured health care program, SHC) vs. 23.0% (controls) of all ulcers had healed completely. 51.5% (SHC) vs. 49.8% (controls) were in UT grade 1. Major amputations were performed in 32 subjects of the structured health care program group (4.7%) vs. 110 (21.7%) in controls (p<0.0001). Mortality during hospitalization was 2.5% (SHC) vs. 9.4% in controls (p<0.001). Conclusions With the structured health care program we achieved a significant reduction of major amputation rates by more than 75% as compared to standard care. PMID:23497152

  7. Structural requirements of the major protective antibody to Haemophilus influenzae type b

    Hougs, L; Juul, L; Svejgaard, A

    1999-01-01

    expressed as antigen-binding fragments (Fabs) in Escherichia coli, define amino acids involved in antigen binding and idiotype expression, and propose a three-dimensional structure for the variable domains. We found that canonical Fabs, unlike a noncanonical Fab, bound effectively to HibCP in the absence...

  8. Structural basis of transport function in major facilitator superfamily protein from Trichoderma harzianum.

    Chaudhary, Nitika; Sandhu, Padmani; Ahmed, Mushtaq; Akhter, Yusuf

    2017-02-01

    Trichothecenes are the sesquiterpenes secreted by Trichoderma spp. residing in the rhizosphere. These compounds have been reported to act as plant growth promoters and bio-control agents. The structural knowledge for the transporter proteins of their efflux remained limited. In this study, three-dimensional structure of Thmfs1 protein, a trichothecene transporter from Trichoderma harzianum, was homology modelled and further Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations were used to decipher its mechanism. Fourteen transmembrane helices of Thmfs1 protein are observed contributing to an inward-open conformation. The transport channel and ligand binding sites in Thmfs1 are identified based on heuristic, iterative algorithm and structural alignment with homologous proteins. MD simulations were performed to reveal the differential structural behaviour occurring in the ligand free and ligand bound forms. We found that two discrete trichothecene binding sites are located on either side of the central transport tunnel running from the cytoplasmic side to the extracellular side across the Thmfs1 protein. Detailed analysis of the MD trajectories showed an alternative access mechanism between N and C-terminal domains contributing to its function. These results also demonstrate that the transport of trichodermin occurs via hopping mechanism in which the substrate molecule jumps from one binding site to another lining the transport tunnel. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Structural rehabilitation of a fossil power station after major fire damage

    Freskakis, G.N.; Archer, J.C.; Shipskie, W.P.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the eruption and course of a fire at a fossil power station. Focus is on the damage to the building and the reinforced concrete pedestal, and the assessments and repairs involved in the restoration. Emphasis is given to the pedestal since, both the response to fire and the repair for such a massive structure are of particular interest

  10. Controlling major cellular processes of human mesenchymal stem cells using microwell structures.

    Xu, Xun; Wang, Weiwei; Kratz, Karl; Fang, Liang; Li, Zhengdong; Kurtz, Andreas; Ma, Nan; Lendlein, Andreas

    2014-12-01

    Directing stem cells towards a desired location and function by utilizing the structural cues of biomaterials is a promising approach for inducing effective tissue regeneration. Here, the cellular response of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hADSCs) to structural signals from microstructured substrates comprising arrays of square-shaped or round-shaped microwells is explored as a transitional model between 2D and 3D systems. Microwells with a side length/diameter of 50 μm show advantages over 10 μm and 25 μm microwells for accommodating hADSCs within single microwells rather than in the inter-microwell area. The cell morphologies are three-dimensionally modulated by the microwell structure due to differences in focal adhesion and consequent alterations of the cytoskeleton. In contrast to the substrate with 50 μm round-shaped microwells, the substrate with 50 μm square-shaped microwells promotes the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation potential of hADSCs but reduces the cell migration velocity and distance. Such microwell shape-dependent modulatory effects are highly associated with Rho/ROCK signaling. Following ROCK inhibition, the differences in migration, proliferation, and osteogenesis between cells on different substrates are diminished. These results highlight the possibility to control stem cell functions through the use of structured microwells combined with the manipulation of Rho/ROCK signaling. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. The Latent Symptom Structure of the Beck Depression Inventory-II in Outpatients with Major Depression

    Quilty, Lena C.; Zhang, K. Anne; Bagby, R. Michael

    2010-01-01

    The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) is a self-report instrument frequently used in clinical and research settings to assess depression severity. Although investigators have examined the factor structure of the BDI-II, a clear consensus on the best fitting model has not yet emerged, resulting in different recommendations regarding how to best…

  12. Comparison of Immunomodulatory Effects of Fresh Garlic and Black Garlic Polysaccharides on RAW 264.7 Macrophages.

    Li, Min; Yan, Yi-Xi; Yu, Qing-Tao; Deng, Yong; Wu, Ding-Tao; Wang, Ying; Ge, Ya-Zhong; Li, Shao-Ping; Zhao, Jing

    2017-03-01

    Garlic has a long history to be used for medicine and food purposes. Black garlic, the fermented product of fresh garlic, is considered with better biological activities, such as antioxidant activity, and is developed as an increasingly popular functional food. Polysaccharides are the major components of fresh and black garlic, and immunomodulatory activity is one major pharmacological effect of polysaccharides. Therefore, chemical characteristics and immunomodulatory effects of polysaccharides from fresh and black garlic are investigated and compared in vitro for the 1st time, in order to reveal their molecular and pharmacological differences. It is demonstrated that the molecular weights of polysaccharides from the 2 sources and molar ratios of monosaccharides after acid hydrolysis are greatly variant. The effects of polysaccharides from 2 sources on RAW 264.7 macrophages functions, including promotion of phagocytosis, release of NO, and expressions of several immune-related cytokines (including interleukin [IL]-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and interferon gamma), were different from each other. The results indicated that fresh garlic polysaccharide exhibited stronger immunomodulatory activities than that of black garlic. Moreover, it is revealed that fructan might be the bioactive component in garlic and it is indicated that during the fermentation treatment, fructan constituents of garlic has degraded, and basically no immunomodulatory effect can be found in black garlic polysaccharides. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  13. Delineation of major geologic structures in Turkey using SIR-B data

    Toksoz, M. N.; Pettengill, G. H.; Ford, P.; Gulen, L.

    1984-01-01

    Shuttle Imaging Radar-B (SIR-B) images of well mapped segments of major faults, such as the North Anatolian Fault (NAF) and East Anatolian Fault (EAF) will be studied to identify the prominent signatures that characterize the fault zones for those specific regions. The information will be used to delineate the unmapped fault zones in areas with similar geological and geomorphological properties. The data obtained from SIR-B images will be compared and correlated with the LANDSAT thematic mapper and seismicity alignments based on well constrained earthquake epicenters.

  14. Purification, characterization and anti-aging capacity of mycelia zinc polysaccharide by Lentinus edodes SD-08.

    Wang, Liqin; Wang, Cuiqin; Gao, Xia; Xu, Nuo; Lin, Lin; Zhao, Huajie; Jia, Shouhua; Jia, Le

    2015-04-09

    In the modern society, aging had been a major problem. People may rely on many medicines to delay it. However, lots of medicines were chemosynthetic, and they would do a bad side-effect on human body. Microbial sources could be used as a potential means of producing natural antioxidants. Lentinus edodes, commercial obtained in daily life, had recently become more attractive in physiological research. Zinc was now considered as a major element in assuring the correct functioning of an organism and essential for maintaining coordination of the major homeostatic networks. To investigate the bioconversion of zinc and the physiological effects of their complex (MZPS), the present studies were processed. Mycelia polysaccharides (MPS) and mycelia zinc polysaccharides (MZPS) of Lentinus edodes SD-08 were extracted by hot water leaching and purified by DEAE-52 cellulose anion-exchange column chromatography separately. The zinc content was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The evaluation of monosaccharide compositions and proportions used gas chromatogram. The analysis of molecular weight used HPGPC chromatogram. The typical structure of polysaccharide was evaluated by IR spectrum. The antioxidant activities in vitro measured through reducing power, the scavenging effects on hydroxyl radical and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals. The anti-aging activities in vivo measured through the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), GSH peroxide (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA). MPS and MZPS of Lentinus edodes SD-08 were extracted and purified by DEAE-52 cellulose anion-exchange column chromatography separately, and four fractions (MPS-1, MPS-2, MZPS-1 and MZPS-2) were obtained. In addition, MPS composing of rhamnose, arabinose and mannose (molar proportion = 1.75:1.00:3.02) and MZPS containing rhamnose, arabinose, mannose and glucose (molar proportion = 7.19:2.26:1.00:8.39) were investigated by gas chromatography

  15. Physical, rheological, functional and film properties of a novel emulsifier: Frost grape polysaccharide (FGP) from Vitis riparia Michx

    A novel emulsifier, Frost grape polysaccharide (FGP), isolated from natural exudate of the species Vitis riparia Michx, was physically and rheologically characterized. The determination of the physical, structural, thermodynamic, emulsification, film, and rheological properties of FGP provide essent...

  16. Can the dynamics of the term structure of petroleum futures be forecasted? Evidence from major markets

    Skiadopoulos, George; Chantziara, Thalia

    2008-01-01

    We investigate whether the daily evolution of the term structure of petroleum futures can be forecasted. To this end, the principal components analysis is employed. The retained principal components describe the dynamics of the term structure of futures prices parsimoniously and are used to forecast the subsequent daily changes of futures prices. Data on the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX) crude oil, heating oil, gasoline, and the International Petroleum Exchange (IPE) crude oil futures are used. We find that the retained principal components have small forecasting power both in-sample and out-of-sample. Similar results are obtained from standard univariate and vector autoregression models. Spillover effects between the four petroleum futures markets are also detected. (author)

  17. METHODOLOGICAL BASES OF THE OPTIMIZATION OF ORGANIZATIONAL MANAGEMENT STRUCTURE AT IMPLEMENTING THE MAJOR CONSTRUCTION ENTERPRISE STRATEGY

    Rodionova Svetlana Vladimirovna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Planning and implementation of innovations on the microlevel of management and on the higher levels is a process of innovative projects portfolio implementation. Project management is aimed at some goal; therefore, defining the mission and aims of implementation is of primary importance. These are the part of the notion of development strategy of an enterprise. Creating a strategy for big construction holding companies is complicated by the necessity to account for different factors effecting each business-block and subsidiary companies. The authors specify an algorithm of development and implementation of the activity strategy of a big construction enterprise. A special importance of the correspondence of organizational management structure to the implemented strategy is shown. The innovative character of organizational structure change is justified. The authors offer methods to optimize the organizational management structure based on communication approach with the use of the elements graph theory. The offered methodological provisions are tested on the example of the Russian JSC “RZhDstroy”.

  18. Structural requirements and biological significance of interactions between peptides and the major histocompatibility complex

    Grey, H M; Buus, S; Colon, S

    1989-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that T cells recognize a complex between the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) restriction-element and peptide-antigen fragments. Two aspects of this complex formation are considered in this paper: (1) what is the nature of the specificity of the interactions that a...... of binding to Ia (i.e. determinant selection was operative), we found that about 40% of Ia-binding peptides were not immunogenic (i.e. there were also 'holes in the T-cell repertoire')....... responsiveness, we present data that suggest both mechanisms operate in concert with one another. Thus only about 30% of a collection of peptides that in sum represent the sequence of a protein molecule were found to bind to Ia. Although immunogenicity was restricted to those peptides that were capable...

  19. Antigenic analysis of the major structural protein of the Mason-Pfizer monkey virus

    Schochetman, G.; Boehm-Truitt, M.; Schlom, J.

    1976-01-01

    The major internal protein, p27 (m.w. 27,000 daltons) of the Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (MPMV) was purified by gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography and then used to develop a radioimmunoassay (RIA). This RIA was specific for MPMV because no immunologic cross-reactivity was observed between p27 of MPMV and 13 different RNA tumor viruses of mammalian and avian origin. However, the p27 of MPMV grown in three different primate cells exhibited identical antigenic cross-reactivity. In addition, significant levels of p27 were found only in MPMV-infected cells. These results indicate that synthesis of p27 is induced after virus infection and that p27 represents a viral-coded protein

  20. Contrasting patterns of phylogenetic assemblage structure along the elevational gradient for major hummingbird clades

    Parra, Juan L.; Rahbek, Carsten; McGuire, Jimmy A.

    2011-01-01

    Aim We evaluated the hypothesis that, given niche conservatism, relatedness of co-occurring hummingbird species of a given clade will increase at greater distances from the elevation where it originated. We also used prior knowledge of flight biomechanics and feeding specialization of hummingbird...... specialization (hermits and brilliants) always included a vegetation-related variable as an important predictor of change in phylogenetic structure. Main conclusions We found no overall support for the conservatism and zone of origin hypotheses. Knowledge of each clade’s natural history proved useful...

  1. Major structural response methods used in the seismic safety margins research program

    Chou, C.K.; Lo, T.; Vagliente, V.

    1979-01-01

    In order to evaluate the conservatisms in present nuclear power plant seismic safety requirements, a probabilistic based systems model is being developed. This model will also be used to develop improved requirements. In Phase I of the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP), this methodology will be developed for a specific nuclear power plant and used to perform probabilistic sensitivity studies to gain engineering insights into seismic safety requirements. Random variables in the structural response analysis area, or parameters which cause uncertainty in the response, are discussed and classified into three categories; i.e., material properties, structural dynamic characteristics and related modeling techniques, and analytical methods. The sensitivity studies are grouped into two categories; deterministic and probabilistic. In a system analysis, transfer functions in simple form are needed since there are too many responses which have to be calculated in a Monte Carlo simulation to use the usual straightforward calculation approach. Therefore, the development of these simple transfer functions is one of the important tasks in SSMRP. Simplified as well as classical transfer functions are discussed

  2. Interaction between gut immunity and polysaccharides.

    Huang, Xiaojun; Nie, Shaoping; Xie, Mingyong

    2017-09-22

    The human gut is colonized with a vast and diverse microbial ecosystem, and these bacteria play fundamental roles in the well being of our bodies. Gut-associated lymphoid tissues, the largest mucosal immune system, should never be overlooked for their profound effect in maintaining the host immunity. Therefore, we discussed the relationship between gut immunity and host health, primarily from two aspects: the homeostasis of gut microbiota, and the function of gut-associated lymphoid tissues. Polysaccharides, widely concerned as bioactive macromolecules in recent centuries, have been proved to benefit the intestinal health. Dietary polysaccharides can improve the ratio of probiotics, regulate the intestinal microenvironment like decreasing the gut pH, and stimulate the macrophages or lymphocytes in gut tissues to fight against diseases like cancer. Based on various experimental and clinical evidence, the impacts of dietary polysaccharides on intestinal health are summarized, in order to reveal the possible immunomodulatory mechanisms of polysaccharides.

  3. Extraction optimization and characterization of polysaccharide ...

    Keywords: Pinellia rhizoma, Polysaccharides Optimization extraction, Monosaccharide composition,. Antioxidant ..... mean yield of PRP was 2.47 %. Therefore ... Table 3: Analysis of variance (ANOVA) for the fitted quadratic polynomial model.

  4. APPLICATION OF A POLYSACCHARIDE DERIVED FROM ...

    While Tragacanth was superior to Treculia gum, the latter performed better than sodium carboxymethylcellulose (SCMC) as a sustained release hydrophilic matrix for theophylline hydrate. Key Words: Polysaccharide, Treculia africana, Moreaceae, Hydrophilic matrix, theophylline hydrate and dissolution rate. Nig. J. Nat.

  5. Genetic engineering of grass cell wall polysaccharides for biorefining.

    Bhatia, Rakesh; Gallagher, Joe A; Gomez, Leonardo D; Bosch, Maurice

    2017-09-01

    Grasses represent an abundant and widespread source of lignocellulosic biomass, which has yet to fulfil its potential as a feedstock for biorefining into renewable and sustainable biofuels and commodity chemicals. The inherent recalcitrance of lignocellulosic materials to deconstruction is the most crucial limitation for the commercial viability and economic feasibility of biomass biorefining. Over the last decade, the targeted genetic engineering of grasses has become more proficient, enabling rational approaches to modify lignocellulose with the aim of making it more amenable to bioconversion. In this review, we provide an overview of transgenic strategies and targets to tailor grass cell wall polysaccharides for biorefining applications. The bioengineering efforts and opportunities summarized here rely primarily on (A) reprogramming gene regulatory networks responsible for the biosynthesis of lignocellulose, (B) remodelling the chemical structure and substitution patterns of cell wall polysaccharides and (C) expressing lignocellulose degrading and/or modifying enzymes in planta. It is anticipated that outputs from the rational engineering of grass cell wall polysaccharides by such strategies could help in realizing an economically sustainable, grass-derived lignocellulose processing industry. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Extraction of Opuntia dillenii Haw. Polysaccharides and Their Antioxidant Activities

    Heng Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Use of natural polysaccharides in medicine and food has wide interest in research. In this study, we extracted and purified some polysaccharides from cactus Opuntia dillenii Haw. (ODP. Some preliminary functions of these products were characterized. Under the optimal purification conditions, the yield of ODP extracted from the 2–4 month-old Opuntia dillenii Haw. (T-ODP was 30.60% ± 0.40%, higher than that of ODP from the 5–10 month-old materials (O-ODP (18.97% ± 0.58%. The extracted ODP was purified by DEAE sepharose fast flow anion exchange and Sephacryl S-400 chromatography with four fractions obtained (ODP-Ia, ODP-Ib, ODP-IIa and ODP-IIb. Analysis with UV-vis chromatography indicated that ODP-Ia and ODP-IIa were relatively homogeneous molecules with a molecular weight of 339 kD and 943 kD, respectively. Results of infrared spectroscopy indicated that ODP, ODP-Ia, and ODP-IIa were acidic polysaccharides. Further, the antioxidant activity against DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical, hydroxyl radicals, and superoxide radical in vitro demonstrated that the T-ODP exhibited higher antioxidant activity than the O-ODP, and the purified fraction (ODP-Ia was superior to the ODP. These results will offer a theoretical basis for further research on the structure-function relationship of ODP and the rational utilization of Opuntia dillenii Haw.

  7. Purification, Characterization and Biological Activity of Polysaccharides from Dendrobium officinale

    Kaiwei Huang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharide (DOPA from the stem of D. officinale, as well as two fractions (DOPA-1 and DOPA-2 of it, were isolated and purified by DEAE cellulose-52 and Sephacryl S-300 chromatography, and their structural characteristics and bioactivities were investigated. The average molecular weights of DOPA-1 and DOPA-2 were 394 kDa and 362 kDa, respectively. They were mainly composed of d-mannose, d-glucose, and had a backbone consisting of 1,4-linked β-d-Manp and 1,4-linked β-d-Glcp with O-acetyl groups. Bioactivity studies indicated that both DOPA and its purified fractions (DOPA-1 and DOPA-2 could activate splenocytes and macrophages. The D. officinale polysaccharides had stimulatory effects on splenocytes, T-lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes, promoting the cell viability and NO production of RAW 264.7 macrophages. Furthermore, DOPA, DOPA-1 and DOPA-2 were found to protect RAW 264.7 macrophages against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2-induced oxidative injury by promoting cell viability, suppressing apoptosis and ameliorating oxidative lesions. These results suggested that D. officinale polysaccharides possessed antioxidant activity and mild immunostimulatory activity.

  8. High resolution X-ray structures of mouse major urinary protein nasal isoform in complex with pheromones

    Perez-Miller, Samantha; Zou, Qin; Novotny, Milos V.; Hurley, Thomas D. (Indiana-Med); (Indiana)

    2010-09-07

    In mice, the major urinary proteins (MUP) play a key role in pheromonal communication by binding and transporting semiochemicals. MUP-IV is the only isoform known to be expressed in the vomeronasal mucosa. In comparison with the MUP isoforms that are abundantly excreted in the urine, MUP-IV is highly specific for the male mouse pheromone 2-sec-butyl-4,5-dihydrothiazole (SBT). To examine the structural basis of this ligand preference, we determined the X-ray crystal structure of MUP-IV bound to three mouse pheromones: SBT, 2,5-dimethylpyrazine, and 2-heptanone. We also obtained the structure of MUP-IV with 2-ethylhexanol bound in the cavity. These four structures show that relative to the major excreted MUP isoforms, three amino acid substitutions within the binding calyx impact ligand coordination. The F103 for A along with F54 for L result in a smaller cavity, potentially creating a more closely packed environment for the ligand. The E118 for G substitution introduces a charged group into a hydrophobic environment. The sidechain of E118 is observed to hydrogen bond to polar groups on all four ligands with nearly the same geometry as seen for the water-mediated hydrogen bond network in the MUP-I and MUP-II crystal structures. These differences in cavity size and interactions between the protein and ligand are likely to contribute to the observed specificity of MUP-IV.

  9. Major alternatives for government policies, organizational structures, and actions in civilian nuclear reactor emergency management in the United States

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to identify and assess major alternatives for governmental policies, organizational structures, and actions in civilian nuclear reactor emergency management in the United States. The National Academy of Public Administration agreed to identify and evaluate alternatives for governmental policies, organizational structures, and actions in civilian nuclear reactor emergency management. It agreed to review present policies and practices in civilian nuclear reactor emergency management, to review selected experiences and practices of governmental agencies other than the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and industries other than the nuclear power industry, and to identify alternatives to the present nuclear emergency system

  10. Major episodes of geologic change - Correlations, time structure and possible causes

    Rampino, Michael R.; Caldeira, Ken

    1993-01-01

    Published data sets of major geologic events of the past about 250 Myr (extinction events, sea-level lows, continental flood-basalt eruptions, mountain-building events, abrupt changes in sea-floor spreading, ocean-anoxic and blackshale events and the largest evaporite deposits) have been synthesized (with estimated errors). These events show evidence for a statistically significant periodic component with an underlying periodicity, formally equal to 26.6 Myr, and a recent maximum, close to the present time. The cycle may not be strictly periodic, but a periodicity of about 30 Myr is robust to probable errors in dating of the geologic events. The intervals of geologic change seem to involve jumps in sea-floor spreading associated with episodic continental rifting, volcanism, enhanced orogeny, global sea-level changes and fluctuations in climate. The period may represent a purely internal earth-pulsation, but evidence of planetesimal impacts at several extinction boundaries, and a possible underlying cycle of 28-36 Myr in crater ages, suggests that highly energetic impacts may be affecting global tectonics. A cyclic increase in the flux of planetesimals might result from the passage of the Solar System through the central plane of the Milky Way Galaxy - an event with a periodicity and mean phasing similar to that detected in the geologic changes.

  11. On the structural logic of curriculum system for the optical instrument major

    Yan, Yufeng; Yan, Juncen; Li, Yang; Shi, Lixia

    2017-08-01

    The theories of optical instrument are the Interdisciplinary of Optical Engineering and Instrument Science and Technology. The undergraduates should study the knowledge about the optics, precision machine and electronics. The courses such as Theory of Machine, Engineering Optics, even include some courses about Accuracy Analysis of Instrument are offered in the college. There are a lot of correlatives among these courses. This paper focuses on the structural logic of these courses. The order of these courses is researched, The aims of all the courses are clear completely to avoid the same topics to be taught twice in different courses. Therefore, the undergraduates would get the main line of the knowledge, and the professors would teach efficiently.

  12. The Cerebellum and Its Wrapping Meninge: Developmental Interplay between Two Major Structures.

    Catala, Martin

    2017-10-01

    Meninges have long been considered as a protective and supportive tissue for the central nervous system. Nevertheless, new developmental roles are now attributed to them. The meninges that surround the cerebellum come from the cephalic mesoderm. They are essential for the cerebellum to develop normally. They induce and maintain the basal lamina and glia limitans. In the absence of these structures, the external granular cells of the cerebellum migrate aberrantly and penetrate the subarachnoid space. The molecules involved in the recognition between the cerebellar primordium and the basal lamina belong to two groups in humans: dystroglycan and laminin on the one hand, and GPR56 and collagen III on the other. Finally, molecules secreted by the meninges and acting on the cerebellum begin to be demonstrated; such is the case of SDF1 secreted under the action of FOXC1. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Dealing with completeness, structural hierarchy, and seismic coupling issues: three major challenges for #Fault2SHA

    Valensise, Gianluca; Barba, Salvatore; Basili, Roberto; Bonini, Lorenzo; Burrato, Pierfrancesco; Carafa, Michele; Kastelic, Vanja; Fracassi, Umberto; Maesano, Francesco Emanuele; Tarabusi, Gabriele; Tiberti, Mara Monica; Vannoli, Paola

    2016-04-01

    The vast majority of active faulting studies are performed at the scale of individual, presumably seismogenic faults or fault strands. Most SHA approaches and models, however, require homogeneus information on potential earthquake sources over the entire tectonic domain encompassing the site(s) of interest. Although it is out of question that accurate SHA must rely on robust investigations of individual potential earthquake sources, it is only by gathering this information in regionally extensive databases that one can address some of the most outstanding issues in the use of #Fault2SHA. We will briefly recall three issues that are particularly relevant in the investigation of seismogenic faulting in southern Europe. A fundamental challenge is the completeness of the geologic record of active faulting. In most tectonic environments many potential seismogenic faults are blind or hidden, or deform the lower crust without leaving a discernible signal at the surface, or occur offshore, or slip so slowly that nontectonic erosional-depositional processes easily outpace their surface effects. Investigating only well-expressed faults is scientifically rewarding but also potentially misleading as it draws attention on the least insidious faults, leading to a potential underestimation of the regional earthquake potential. A further issue concerns the hierarchy of fault systems. Most active faults do not comprise seismogenic sources per se but are part of larger systems, and slip only in conjunction with the master fault of each system. In the most insidious cases, only secondary faults are expressed at the surface while the master fault lies hidden beneath them. This may result in an overestimation of the true number of seismogenic sources that occur in each region and in a biased identification of the characteristics of the main player in each system. Recent investigations of geologic and geodetic vs earthquake release budgets have shown that the "seismic coupling", which

  14. Structural and thermodynamic basis of the inhibition of Leishmania major farnesyl diphosphate synthase by nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates

    Aripirala, Srinivas [Johns Hopkins University, 725 North Wolfe Street WBSB 605, Baltimore, MD 21210 (United States); Gonzalez-Pacanowska, Dolores [López-Neyra Institute of Parasitology and Biomedicine, 18001 Granada (Spain); Oldfield, Eric [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Kaiser, Marcel [University of Basel, Petersplatz 1, CH-4003 Basel (Switzerland); Amzel, L. Mario, E-mail: mamzel@jhmi.edu [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 725 N. Wolfe Street WBSB 604, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Gabelli, Sandra B., E-mail: mamzel@jhmi.edu [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 725 N. Wolfe Street WBSB 604, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Johns Hopkins University, 725 North Wolfe Street WBSB 605, Baltimore, MD 21210 (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Structural insights into L. major farnesyl diphosphate synthase, a key enzyme in the mevalonate pathway, are described. Farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPPS) is an essential enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of sterols (cholesterol in humans and ergosterol in yeasts, fungi and trypanosomatid parasites) as well as in protein prenylation. It is inhibited by bisphosphonates, a class of drugs used in humans to treat diverse bone-related diseases. The development of bisphosphonates as antiparasitic compounds targeting ergosterol biosynthesis has become an important route for therapeutic intervention. Here, the X-ray crystallographic structures of complexes of FPPS from Leishmania major (the causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis) with three bisphosphonates determined at resolutions of 1.8, 1.9 and 2.3 Å are reported. Two of the inhibitors, 1-(2-hydroxy-2,2-diphosphonoethyl)-3-phenylpyridinium (300B) and 3-butyl-1-(2,2-diphosphonoethyl)pyridinium (476A), co-crystallize with the homoallylic substrate isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and three Ca{sup 2+} ions. A third inhibitor, 3-fluoro-1-(2-hydroxy-2,2-diphosphonoethyl)pyridinium (46I), was found to bind two Mg{sup 2+} ions but not IPP. Calorimetric studies showed that binding of the inhibitors is entropically driven. Comparison of the structures of L. major FPPS (LmFPPS) and human FPPS provides new information for the design of bisphosphonates that will be more specific for inhibition of LmFPPS. The asymmetric structure of the LmFPPS–46I homodimer indicates that binding of the allylic substrate to both monomers of the dimer results in an asymmetric dimer with one open and one closed homoallylic site. It is proposed that IPP first binds to the open site, which then closes, opening the site on the other monomer, which closes after binding the second IPP, leading to the symmetric fully occupied FPPS dimer observed in other structures.

  15. Characterization of plant polysaccharides from Dendrobium officinale by multiple chromatographic and mass spectrometric techniques.

    Ma, Huiying; Zhang, Keke; Jiang, Qing; Dai, Diya; Li, Hongli; Bi, Wentao; Chen, David Da Yong

    2018-04-27

    Plant polysaccharides have numerous medicinal functions. Due to the differences in their origins, regions of production, and cultivation conditions, the quality and the functions of polysaccharides can vary significantly. They are macromolecules with large molecular weight (MW) and complex structure, and pose great challenge for the analytical technology used. Taking Dendrobium officinale (DO) from various origins and locations as model samples. In this investigation, mechanochemical extraction method was used to successfully extract polysaccharides from DO using water as solvent, the process is simple, fast (40 s) and with high yield. The MWs of the intact saccharides from calibration curve and light scattering measurement were determined and compared after separation with size exclusion chromatography (SEC). The large polysaccharide was acid hydrolyzed to oligosaccharides and the products were efficiently separated and identified using liquid chromatography coupled to a high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS 2 ). Obvious differences were observed among LC-MS 2 chromatograms of digested products, and the chemical structures for the products were proposed based on accurate mass values. More importantly, isomeric digested carbohydrate compounds were explored and characterized. All the chromatographic and mass spectrometric results in this study provided a multi-dimensional characterization, fingerprint analysis, and molecular structure level assessment of plant polysaccharides. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A practical guide for the identification of major sulcogyral structures of the human cortex.

    Destrieux, Christophe; Terrier, Louis Marie; Andersson, Frédéric; Love, Scott A; Cottier, Jean-Philippe; Duvernoy, Henri; Velut, Stéphane; Janot, Kevin; Zemmoura, Ilyess

    2017-05-01

    The precise sulcogyral localization of cortical lesions is mandatory to improve communication between practitioners and to predict and prevent post-operative deficits. This process, which assumes a good knowledge of the cortex anatomy and a systematic analysis of images, is, nevertheless, sometimes neglected in the neurological and neurosurgical training. This didactic paper proposes a brief overview of the sulcogyral anatomy, using conventional MR-slices, and also reconstructions of the cortical surface after a more or less extended inflation process. This method simplifies the cortical anatomy by removing part of the cortical complexity induced by the folding process, and makes it more understandable. We then reviewed several methods for localizing cortical structures, and proposed a three-step identification: after localizing the lateral, medial or ventro-basal aspect of the hemisphere (step 1), the main interlobar sulci were located to limit the lobes (step 2). Finally, intralobar sulci and gyri were identified (step 3) thanks to the same set of rules. This paper does not propose any new identification method but should be regarded as a set of practical guidelines, useful in daily clinical practice, for detecting the main sulci and gyri of the human cortex.

  17. The Enzymatic Conversion of Major Algal and Cyanobacterial Carbohydrates to Bioethanol

    Al Abdallah, Qusai, E-mail: qalabdal@uthsc.edu [Department of Clinical Pharmacy, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN (United States); Nixon, B. Tracy [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States); Fortwendel, Jarrod R. [Department of Clinical Pharmacy, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN (United States)

    2016-11-04

    The production of fuels from biomass is categorized as first-, second-, or third-generation depending upon the source of raw materials, either food crops, lignocellulosic material, or algal biomass, respectively. Thus far, the emphasis has been on using food crops creating several environmental problems. To overcome these problems, there is a shift toward bioenergy production from non-food sources. Algae, which store high amounts of carbohydrates, are a potential producer of raw materials for sustainable production of bioethanol. Algae store their carbohydrates in the form of food storage sugars and structural material. In general, algal food storage polysaccharides are composed of glucose subunits; however, they vary in the glycosidic bond that links the glucose molecules. In starch-type polysaccharides (starch, floridean starch, and glycogen), the glucose subunits are linked together by α-(1→4) and α-(1→6) glycosidic bonds. Laminarin-type polysaccharides (laminarin, chrysolaminarin, and paramylon) are made of glucose subunits that are linked together by β-(1→3) and β-(1→6) glycosidic bonds. In contrast to food storage polysaccharides, structural polysaccharides vary in composition and glycosidic bond. The industrial production of bioethanol from algae requires efficient hydrolysis and fermentation of different algal sugars. However, the hydrolysis of algal polysaccharides employs more enzymatic mixes in comparison to terrestrial plants. Similarly, algal fermentable sugars display more diversity than plants, and therefore more metabolic pathways are required to produce ethanol from these sugars. In general, the fermentation of glucose, galactose, and glucose isomers is carried out by wild-type strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zymomonas mobilis. In these strains, glucose enters glycolysis, where is it converted to pyruvate through either Embden–Meyerhof–Parnas pathway or Entner–Doudoroff pathway. Other monosaccharides must be converted to

  18. The Enzymatic Conversion of Major Algal and Cyanobacterial Carbohydrates to Bioethanol

    Al Abdallah, Qusai; Nixon, B. Tracy; Fortwendel, Jarrod R.

    2016-01-01

    The production of fuels from biomass is categorized as first-, second-, or third-generation depending upon the source of raw materials, either food crops, lignocellulosic material, or algal biomass, respectively. Thus far, the emphasis has been on using food crops creating several environmental problems. To overcome these problems, there is a shift toward bioenergy production from non-food sources. Algae, which store high amounts of carbohydrates, are a potential producer of raw materials for sustainable production of bioethanol. Algae store their carbohydrates in the form of food storage sugars and structural material. In general, algal food storage polysaccharides are composed of glucose subunits; however, they vary in the glycosidic bond that links the glucose molecules. In starch-type polysaccharides (starch, floridean starch, and glycogen), the glucose subunits are linked together by α-(1→4) and α-(1→6) glycosidic bonds. Laminarin-type polysaccharides (laminarin, chrysolaminarin, and paramylon) are made of glucose subunits that are linked together by β-(1→3) and β-(1→6) glycosidic bonds. In contrast to food storage polysaccharides, structural polysaccharides vary in composition and glycosidic bond. The industrial production of bioethanol from algae requires efficient hydrolysis and fermentation of different algal sugars. However, the hydrolysis of algal polysaccharides employs more enzymatic mixes in comparison to terrestrial plants. Similarly, algal fermentable sugars display more diversity than plants, and therefore more metabolic pathways are required to produce ethanol from these sugars. In general, the fermentation of glucose, galactose, and glucose isomers is carried out by wild-type strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zymomonas mobilis. In these strains, glucose enters glycolysis, where is it converted to pyruvate through either Embden–Meyerhof–Parnas pathway or Entner–Doudoroff pathway. Other monosaccharides must be converted to

  19. The enzymatic conversion of major algal and cyanobacterial carbohydrates to bioethanol

    Qusai Al Abdallah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The production of fuels from biomass is categorized as first-, second- or third-generation depending upon the source of raw materials, either food crops, lignocellulosic material, or algal biomass, respectively. Thus far, the emphasis has been on using food crops creating several environmental problems. To overcome these problems, there is a shift toward bioenergy production from non-food sources. Algae, which store high amounts of carbohydrates, are a potential producer of raw materials for sustainable production of bioethanol. Algae store their carbohydrates in the form of food storage sugars and structural material. In general, algal food storage polysaccharides are composed of glucose subunits, however they vary in the glycosidic bond that links the glucose molecules. In starch-type polysaccharides (starch, floridean starch, and glycogen, the glucose subunits are linked together by α-(1→4 and α-(1→6 glycosidic bonds. Laminarin-type polysaccharides (laminarin, chrysolaminarin, and paramylon are made of glucose subunits that are linked together by β-(1→3 and β-(1→6 glycosidic bonds. In contrast to food storage polysaccharides, structural polysaccharides vary in composition and glycosidic bond. The industrial production of bioethanol from algae requires efficient hydrolysis and fermentation of different algal sugars. However, the hydrolysis of algal polysaccharides employs more enzymatic mixes in comparison to terrestrial plants. Similarly, algal fermentable sugars display more diversity than plants, and therefore more metabolic pathways are required to produce ethanol from these sugars. In general, the fermentation of glucose, galactose, and glucose isomers is carried out by wild type strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zymomonas mobilis. In these strains, glucose enters glycolysis, where is it converted to pyruvate through either Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway or Entner-Doudoroff pathway. Other monosaccharides must be

  20. Antioxidant effects of polysaccharides from traditional Chinese medicines.

    Liu, Yang; Huang, Gangliang

    2017-12-07

    Polysaccharides are a kind of biological macromolecules with immune regulation, anti-tumor, anti-radiation, anti-inflammation, anti-fatigue and anti-aging effects. These effects are related to their antioxidant properties. The action mechanisms of antioxidation and scavenging free radicals for polysaccharides were reviewed. The polysaccharides contain plant polysaccharides, animal polysaccharides and microbial polysaccharides. The recent research progresses and our work on antioxidant properties of polysaccharides and their derivatives were summarized. At last, the existing problems of antioxidant polysaccharides were analyzed, and the development prospects were also presented. It is important to study the antioxidant activities of polysaccharides and their derivatives for the development of natural antioxidants. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  1. Structure and calcium binding activity of LipL32, the major surface antigen of pathogenic Leptospira sp

    Hauk, Pricila; Roman-Ramos, Henrique; Ho, Paulo Lee; Guzzo, Cristiane R.; Farah, Chuck S.

    2009-01-01

    Leptospirosis, caused by the spirochaete Leptospira is an important emerging infectious disease. LipL32 is the major exposed outer membrane protein found exclusively in pathogenic leptospira. It is highly immunogenic and has been shown to bind to host extracellular matrix components, including collagens, fibronectin and laminin. In this work we crystallized recombinant LipL32 protein and determined its structure to 2.25 A resolution. Initial phases were determined using the multi-wavelength anomalous dispersion technique with data collected from selenomethionine-containing crystals at the MX2 beamline at the LNLS. The LipL32 monomer is made of a jelly-roll fold core from which protrude several peripheral secondary structures. Some structural features suggested that LipL32 could bind Ca 2+ ions and indeed, spectroscopic data (circular (dichroism. intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence and extrinsic 1-amino-2-anaphthol-4-sulfonic acid fluorescence) confirmed the calcium binding properties of LipL32. (author)

  2. The characteristics of polysaccharides fractions of sunflower obtained in dynamic mode

    Makhkamov, Kh.K.; Gorshkova, R.M.; Khalikova, S.

    2013-01-01

    Present article describes characteristics of polysaccharides fractions of sunflower obtained in dynamic mode. The decomposition of sunflower pectin was studied by means of continuous fractionation method in dynamic regime. It was found that the process is of extreme nature due to heterogeneity of its macromolecule structure. The additional information on macromolecule structure of sunflower pectin was obtained.

  3. Structural Analysis of Major Species Barriers between Humans and Palm Civets for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infections

    Li, Fang (UMM)

    2008-09-23

    It is believed that a novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), was passed from palm civets to humans and caused the epidemic of SARS in 2002 to 2003. The major species barriers between humans and civets for SARS-CoV infections are the specific interactions between a defined receptor-binding domain (RBD) on a viral spike protein and its host receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). In this study a chimeric ACE2 bearing the critical N-terminal helix from civet and the remaining peptidase domain from human was constructed, and it was shown that this construct has the same receptor activity as civet ACE2. In addition, crystal structures of the chimeric ACE2 complexed with RBDs from various human and civet SARS-CoV strains were determined. These structures, combined with a previously determined structure of human ACE2 complexed with the RBD from a human SARS-CoV strain, have revealed a structural basis for understanding the major species barriers between humans and civets for SARS-CoV infections. They show that the major species barriers are determined by interactions between four ACE2 residues (residues 31, 35, 38, and 353) and two RBD residues (residues 479 and 487), that early civet SARS-CoV isolates were prevented from infecting human cells due to imbalanced salt bridges at the hydrophobic virus/receptor interface, and that SARS-CoV has evolved to gain sustained infectivity for human cells by eliminating unfavorable free charges at the interface through stepwise mutations at positions 479 and 487. These results enhance our understanding of host adaptations and cross-species infections of SARS-CoV and other emerging animal viruses.

  4. Extraction, characterisation and antioxidant activity of Allium sativum polysaccharide.

    Cheng, Hao; Huang, Gangliang

    2018-07-15

    Extraction and antioxidant activity of polysaccharide from Allium sativum were investigated. The crude polysaccharide was obtained by the hot-water extraction method. The molecular weight of polysaccharide deproteinized with CaCl 2 was 7.35×10 3 . It indicated that polysaccharide from Allium sativum consisted of three monosaccharides, namely fructose, glucose, and galactose by HPLC. The polysaccharide had the β-glycosidic bond. Moreover, it was proved that the polysaccharide had the potential scavenging ability to superoxide anions and hydroxyl radicals. So, it should be a potential antioxidant. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Xylan utilization in human gut commensal bacteria is orchestrated by unique modular organization of polysaccharide-degrading enzymes.

    Zhang, Meiling; Chekan, Jonathan R; Dodd, Dylan; Hong, Pei-Ying; Radlinski, Lauren; Revindran, Vanessa; Nair, Satish K; Mackie, Roderick I; Cann, Isaac

    2014-09-02

    Enzymes that degrade dietary and host-derived glycans represent the most abundant functional activities encoded by genes unique to the human gut microbiome. However, the biochemical activities of a vast majority of the glycan-degrading enzymes are poorly understood. Here, we use transcriptome sequencing to understand the diversity of genes expressed by the human gut bacteria Bacteroides intestinalis and Bacteroides ovatus grown in monoculture with the abundant dietary polysaccharide xylan. The most highly induced carbohydrate active genes encode a unique glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 10 endoxylanase (BiXyn10A or BACINT_04215 and BACOVA_04390) that is highly conserved in the Bacteroidetes xylan utilization system. The BiXyn10A modular architecture consists of a GH10 catalytic module disrupted by a 250 amino acid sequence of unknown function. Biochemical analysis of BiXyn10A demonstrated that such insertion sequences encode a new family of carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) that binds to xylose-configured oligosaccharide/polysaccharide ligands, the substrate of the BiXyn10A enzymatic activity. The crystal structures of CBM1 from BiXyn10A (1.8 Å), a cocomplex of BiXyn10A CBM1 with xylohexaose (1.14 Å), and the CBM from its homolog in the Prevotella bryantii B14 Xyn10C (1.68 Å) reveal an unanticipated mode for ligand binding. A minimal enzyme mix, composed of the gene products of four of the most highly up-regulated genes during growth on wheat arabinoxylan, depolymerizes the polysaccharide into its component sugars. The combined biochemical and biophysical studies presented here provide a framework for understanding fiber metabolism by an important group within the commensal bacterial population known to influence human health.

  6. Binding of purified and radioiodinated capsular polysaccharides from Cryptococcus neoformans serotype A strains to capsule-free mutants

    Small, J.M.; Mitchell, T.G.

    1986-01-01

    Strains 6, 15, 98, 110, and 145 of Cryptococcus neoformans serotype A vary in capsule size, animal virulence, and susceptibility to in vitro phagocytosis. The isolated capsular polysaccharides (CPSs) differ in monosaccharide composition ratios and molecular size, as determined by gel filtration. The purpose of this investigation was to characterize the binding of CPSs to capsule-free mutants of C. neoformans and to examine CPSs from these strains for differences in their ability to bind, to determine whether such differences might explain the variation in the pathobiology of these strains. CPSs were partially periodate oxidized, tyraminated, iodinated with 125 I, and used in binding studies with two capsule-free mutants of C. neoformans, strain 602 and Cap59. Binding was specific for yeast species and for polysaccharide and was saturable, which is consistent with a receptor-mediated mechanism of attachment. Binding occurred rapidly and was only slowly reversible. Binding was also independent of pH from pH 5.5 to 8, of cation concentrations, and of competition by sugars up to 1.0 M concentrations. Only a portion of CPS was capable of binding, and strains varied in the extent to which their CPS bound. CPS-15-IV (peak IV was the major polysaccharide peak on DEAE-cellulose chromatography of CPS from strain 15) had the highest proportion of binding (40%), followed by CPS from strains 98, 6, 145, 110, and 15-III (peak III was an earlier eluting fraction of CPS from strain 15). The CPSs differed similarly in their ability to competitively inhibit binding. Treatment of CPS, but not yeast cells, with proteinase XIV abolished binding without altering the CPS gross structure. Treatment of yeast cells with proteases, heat, or formaldehyde did not alter binding, and both strain 602 and Cap59 bound CPS similarly. Binding to encapsulated yeast cells was minimal

  7. Xylan utilization in human gut commensal bacteria is orchestrated by unique modular organization of polysaccharide-degrading enzymes

    Zhang, Meiling

    2014-08-18

    Enzymes that degrade dietary and host-derived glycans represent the most abundant functional activities encoded by genes unique to the human gut microbiome. However, the biochemical activities of a vast majority of the glycan-degrading enzymes are poorly understood. Here, we use transcriptome sequencing to understand the diversity of genes expressed by the human gut bacteria Bacteroides intestinalis and Bacteroides ovatus grown in monoculture with the abundant dietary polysaccharide xylan. The most highly induced carbohydrate active genes encode a unique glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 10 endoxylanase (BiXyn10A or BACINT-04215 and BACOVA-04390) that is highly conserved in the Bacteroidetes xylan utilization system. The BiXyn10A modular architecture consists of a GH10 catalytic module disrupted by a 250 amino acid sequence of unknown function. Biochemical analysis of BiXyn10A demonstrated that such insertion sequences encode a new family of carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) that binds to xy-lose- configured oligosaccharide/polysaccharide ligands, the substrate of the BiXyn10A enzymatic activity. The crystal structures of CBM1 from BiXyn10A (1.8 Å), a cocomplex of BiXyn10A CBM1 with xylohexaose (1.14 Å), and the CBM fromits homolog in the Prevotella bryantii B 14 Xyn10C (1.68 Å) reveal an unanticipated mode for ligand binding. Aminimal enzyme mix, composed of the gene products of four of the most highly up-regulated genes during growth on wheat arabinoxylan, depolymerizes the polysaccharide into its component sugars. The combined biochemical and biophysical studies presented here provide a framework for understanding fiber metabolism by an important group within the commensal bacterial population known to influence human health.

  8. Don't Believe the Gripe! Increasing Course Structure in a Large Non-majors Neuroscience Course.

    Nagel, Anastasia; Nicholas, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Active teaching is increasingly accepted as a better option for higher education STEM courses than traditional lecture-based instruction. However, concerns remain regarding student preferences and the impact of increased course structure on teaching evaluations. Undergraduates in a non-majors neuropharmacology course were enrolled in an enriched blended course format, providing online case-based learning opportunities in a large lecture hall setting. Students working in small assigned groups solved weekly case studies developed to teach basic neuropharmacology concepts. All case study assignments were peer reviewed and content was further reinforced with a weekly online quiz. A comparison of scores on equivalent midterm and final exam questions revealed that students enrolled in the High-Structure course scored better than students from the previous year that took a more traditional Low-Structure lecture-based course. Student performance increased significantly for exam questions that required Bloom's level understanding. When surveyed, students in the High-Structure course reported some regret for the lack of traditional lecture and revealed some disapproval towards the extra work required for active teaching and peer review. Yet, we saw no change in quantitative instructor evaluation between sections, challenging the idea that student resistance towards increased work lowers course evaluation scores. Future instructors using active learning strategies may benefit from revealing to students the value of increased course structure on performance outcomes compared with traditional lecture courses.

  9. Studies on Radiation Synthesis of Poly(vinyl alcohol)- Natural Polysaccharides Hydrogel Wound Dressing

    Varshney, L.

    2006-01-01

    Radiation processed PVA-polysaccharides hydrogels have been observed to be suitable for producing transparent, flexible and mechanically strong, biocompatible, effective and economical hydrogel dressings(HD). The dressings were formed in single stage irradiation process achieving gel formation and sterilization at 25-30 kGy gamma radiation dose. No synthetic plasticizers and additives were used. Different formulations containing Poly-vinylalcohol, (PVA) and polysaccharides selected from combinations of agar and carrageenan were used to make the dressings. The selected polysaccharides themselves form thermo-reversible gels and degrade on irradiation. Using concentration of polysaccharides as low as 0.5 -2 % resulted in increase of tensile strength from 45 g/cm 2 to 400 g/cm 2 , elongation from 30 % to 410 % and water uptake from 25 % to 120% with respect to PVA gel without polysaccharides. Besides improving mechanical strength, agar contributes more to elongation and carrageenan to mechanical strength of the gel dressing. The polysaccharides show different pre-gel viscosities behaviour indicating different individual contribution to the PVA network. Increasing the concentration of agar in the formulation to about 2% converts the sheet gel to paste gel useful for filling wound cavities. The polysaccharides also provide desirable plasticizer and humectant effect into the dressing. Formulations containing 7-9% PVA, 0.5- 1.5 % carrageenan and 0.5-1% agar gave highly effective usable hydrogel dressings. Scanning Electron Micrographs show highly porous structure of the gel. Clinical trials of wound dressing on human patients established safety and efficacy of the dressing. The dressing has been observed to be useful in treating burns, non healing ulcers of Diabetes, Leprosy and other external wounds. The dressings are now being marketed in India under different brand names

  10. Rapid End-Group Modification of Polysaccharides for Biomaterial Applications in Regenerative Medicine.

    Bondalapati, Somasekhar; Ruvinov, Emil; Kryukov, Olga; Cohen, Smadar; Brik, Ashraf

    2014-09-15

    Polysaccharides have emerged as important functional materials because of their unique properties such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, and availability of reactive sites for chemical modifications to optimize their properties. The overwhelming majority of the methods to modify polysaccharides employ random chemical modifications, which often improve certain properties while compromising others. On the other hand, the employed methods for selective modifications often require excess of coupling partners, long reaction times and are limited in their scope and wide applicability. To circumvent these drawbacks, aniline-catalyzed oxime formation is developed for selective modification of a variety of polysaccharides through their reducing end. Notably, it is found that for efficient oxime formation, different conditions are required depending on the composition of the specific polysaccharide. It is also shown how our strategy can be applied to improve the physical and functional properties of alginate hydrogels, which are widely used in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. While the randomly and selectively modified alginate exhibits similar viscoelastic properties, the latter forms significantly more stable hydrogel and superior cell adhesive and functional properties. Our results show that the developed conjugation reaction is robust and should open new opportunities for preparing polysaccharide-based functional materials with unique properties. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Seaweed Polysaccharide-Based Nanoparticles: Preparation and Applications for Drug Delivery

    Jayachandran Venkatesan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there have been major advances and increasing amounts of research on the utilization of natural polymeric materials as drug delivery vehicles due to their biocompatibility and biodegradability. Seaweed polysaccharides are abundant resources and have been extensively studied for several biological, biomedical, and functional food applications. The exploration of seaweed polysaccharides for drug delivery applications is still in its infancy. Alginate, carrageenan, fucoidan, ulvan, and laminarin are polysaccharides commonly isolated from seaweed. These natural polymers can be converted into nanoparticles (NPs by different types of methods, such as ionic gelation, emulsion, and polyelectrolyte complexing. Ionic gelation and polyelectrolyte complexing are commonly employed by adding cationic molecules to these anionic polymers to produce NPs of a desired shape, size, and charge. In the present review, we have discussed the preparation of seaweed polysaccharide-based NPs using different types of methods as well as their usage as carriers for the delivery of various therapeutic molecules (e.g., proteins, peptides, anti-cancer drugs, and antibiotics. Seaweed polysaccharide-based NPs exhibit suitable particle size, high drug encapsulation, and sustained drug release with high biocompatibility, thereby demonstrating their high potential for safe and efficient drug delivery.

  12. The Structure and Contents of the English Written Entry Examination as a Major Subject at the Department of Linguistics

    Светлана Евгеньевна Боброва

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The author of the article has been writing English entry examinations for PFUR for over a decade. In this article she analyses the structure and contents of the English language entry examination for prospective students of Linguistics at the Faculty of Philology. The requirements for the entry written test are set by the State standards of complete secondary education for foreign languages at the level of a major subject. The PFUR entry examination has always been written in accordance with recommendations of the Education and Science Ministry and the Federal Institute of Pedagogical Assessment.

  13. Conformational analysis of oligosaccharides and polysaccharides using molecular dynamics simulations.

    Frank, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Complex carbohydrates usually have a large number of rotatable bonds and consequently a large number of theoretically possible conformations can be generated (combinatorial explosion). The application of systematic search methods for conformational analysis of carbohydrates is therefore limited to disaccharides and trisaccharides in a routine analysis. An alternative approach is to use Monte-Carlo methods or (high-temperature) molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to explore the conformational space of complex carbohydrates. This chapter describes how to use MD simulation data to perform a conformational analysis (conformational maps, hydrogen bonds) of oligosaccharides and how to build realistic 3D structures of large polysaccharides using Conformational Analysis Tools (CAT).

  14. Depletion interaction of casein micelles and an exocellular polysaccharide

    Tuinier, R.; Ten Grotenhuis, E.; Holt, C.; Timmins, P. A.; de Kruif, C. G.

    1999-07-01

    Casein micelles become mutually attractive when an exocellular polysaccharide produced by Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris NIZO B40 (hereafter called EPS) is added to skim milk. The attraction can be explained as a depletion interaction between the casein micelles induced by the nonadsorbing EPS. We used three scattering techniques (small-angle neutron scattering, turbidity measurements, and dynamic light scattering) to measure the attraction. In order to connect the theory of depletion interaction with experiment, we calculated structure factors of hard spheres interacting by a depletion pair potential. Theoretical predictions and all the experiments showed that casein micelles became more attractive upon increasing the EPS concentration.

  15. Photochemistry of Fe(Iii)-Carboxylates in Polysaccharide-Based Materials with Tunable Mechanical Properties

    Giammanco, Giuseppe E.

    We present the formulation and study of light-responsive materials based on carboxylate-containing polysaccharides. The functional groups in these natural polymers allow for strong interactions with transition metal ions such as Fe(III). The known photochemistry of hydroxycarboxylic acids in natural waters inspired us in exploring the visible light induced photochemistry of the carboxylates in these polysaccharides when coordinated to Fe(III) ions. Described in this dissertation are the design and characterization of the Fe(III)-polysaccharide materials, specifically the mechanistic aspects of the photochemistry and the effects that these reactions have on the structure of the polymer materials. We present a study of the quantitative photochemistry of different polysaccharide systems, where the presence of uronic acids was important for the photoreaction to take place. Alginate (Alg), pectate (Pec), hyaluronic acid (Hya), xanthan gum (Xan), and a polysaccharide extracted from the Noni fruit (NoniPs), were among the natural uronic acid-containing polysaccharide (UCPS) systems we analyzed. Potato starch, lacking of uronate groups, did not present any photochemistry in the presence of Fe(III); however, we were able to induce a photochemical response in this polysaccharide upon chemical manipulation of its functional groups. Important structure-function relationships were drawn from this study. The uronate moiety present in these polysaccharides is then envisioned as a tool to induce response to light in a variety of materials. Following this approach, we report the formulation of materials for controlled drug release, able to encapsulate and release different drug models only upon illumination with visible light. Furthermore, hybrid hydrogels were prepared from UPCS and non-responsive polymers. Different properties of these materials could be tuned by controlling the irradiation time, intensity and location. These hybrid gels were evaluated as scaffolds for tissue

  16. Biotic and environmental stress induces nitration and changes in structure and function of the sea urchin major yolk protein toposome.

    Castellano, Immacolata; Migliaccio, Oriana; Ferraro, Giarita; Maffioli, Elisa; Marasco, Daniela; Merlino, Antonello; Zingone, Adriana; Tedeschi, Gabriella; Palumbo, Anna

    2018-03-15

    The major yolk protein toposome plays crucial roles during gametogenesis and development of sea urchins. We previously found that nitration of toposome increases in the gonads of a Paracentrotus lividus population living in a marine protected area affected by toxic blooms of Ostreospsis cf. ovata, compared to control populations. This modification is associated with ovatoxin accumulation, high levels of nitric oxide in the gonads, and a remarkable impairment of progeny development. However, nothing is known about the environmental-mediated-regulation of the structure and biological function of toposome. Here, we characterize through wide-ranging biochemical and structural analyses the nitrated toposome of sea urchins exposed to the bloom, and subsequently detoxified. The increased number of nitrated tyrosines in toposome of sea urchins collected during algal bloom induced structural changes and improvement of the Ca 2+ -binding affinity of the protein. After 3 months' detoxification, ovatoxin was undetectable, and the number of nitric oxide-modified tyrosines was reduced. However, the nitration of specific residues was irreversible and occurred also in embryos treated with metals, used as a proxy of environmental pollutants. The structural and functional changes of toposome caused by nitration under adverse environmental conditions may be related to the defective development of sea urchins' progeny.

  17. Inhibitory Effects of Various Ratios of Polysaccharides/Alkaloids from ...

    and increases survival in endotoxemic mice. Acta. Pharmacol Sin ... secretion in hyperthyroid diarrheic rats. Regul Peptides ... effect of Coptis chinensis polysaccharide in high-fat diet ... polysaccharides decrease blood sugar by inhibition of α-.

  18. Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases from Myceliophthora thermophila C1

    Frommhagen, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Current developments aim at the effective enzymatic degradation of plant biomass polysaccharides into fermentable monosaccharides for biofuels and biochemicals. Recently discovered lytic polysaccharide monooxgygenases (LPMOs) boost the hydrolytic breakdown of lignocellulosic biomass, especially

  19. Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A capsular polysaccharide acetyltransferase, methods and compositions

    Stephens, David S [Stone Mountain, GA; Gudlavalleti, Seshu K [Kensington, MD; Tzeng, Yih-Ling [Atlanta, GA; Datta, Anup K [San Diego, CA; Carlson, Russell W [Athens, GA

    2011-02-08

    Provided are methods for recombinant production of an O-acetyltransferase and methods for acetylating capsular polysaccharides, especially those of a Serogroup A Neisseria meningitidis using the recombinant O-acetyltransferase, and immunogenic compositions comprising the acetylated capsular polysaccharide.

  20. Phylogenetic signal and major ecological shifts in the ecomorphological structure of stream fish in two river basins in Brazil

    Camilo Andrés Roa-Fuentes

    Full Text Available We tested the contribution of the phylogenetic and specific components to the ecomorphological structure of stream fish from the upper Paraguai River and upper São Francisco River basins, and identified nodes in the phylogenetic tree at which major ecological shifts occurred. Fish were sampled between June and October of 2008 in 12 streams (six in each basin. In total, 22 species from the upper Paraguai River basin and 12 from the upper São Francisco River were analyzed. The ecomorphological patterns exhibited phylogenetic signal, indicating that the ecomorphological similarity among species is associated with the degree of relatedness. A strong habitat template is most likely to be the primary cause for a high phylogenetic signal. A significant contribution from the specific component was also detected, supporting the idea that the phylogenetic signal occurs in some clades for some traits, but not in others. The major ecological shifts were observed in the basal nodes, suggesting that ecological niche differences appear to accumulate early in the evolutionary history of major clades. This finding reinforces the role of key traits in the diversification of Neotropical fishes. Ecological shifts in recent groups could be related to morphological modifications associated with habitat use.

  1. Autologous albumin enhances the humoral immune response to capsular polysaccharide covalently co-attached to bacteria-sized latex beads

    Colino, Jesus; Duke, Leah; Snapper, Clifford M.

    2014-01-01

    Abundant autologous proteins, like serum albumin, should be immunologically inert. However, individuals with no apparent predisposition to autoimmune disease can develop immune responses to autologous therapeutic proteins. Protein aggregation is a potential major trigger of these responses. Adsorption of proteins to particles provides macromolecular size and may generate structural changes in the protein, resembling aggregation. Using aldehyde/sulfate latex beads coated with murine serum albumin (MSA), we found that mice mounted MSA-specific IgG responses that were dependent on CD4+ T cells. IgG were specific for MSA adsorbed to solid surfaces and non-cross-reactive with human, bovine or pig albumins. T cells induced in response to MSA, augmented the primary and induced boosted secondary IgG and IgM responses specific for the T cell-independent antigen, capsular polysaccharide of Streptococcus pneumoniae type 14 (PPS14), when the latter was attached to the same bead. Similar to the anti-MSA IgG response, the boosted PPS14-specific IgG secondary response was CD4+ T cell-dependent, displayed a typical carrier effect, and was enhanced by, but did not require, Toll-like receptor stimulation. These results provide a potential mechanism for the induction of responses to autoantigens unable to induce specific T cell responses, and provide new insights into polysaccharide-specific immunity. PMID:24481921

  2. Identification of interstellar polysaccharides and related hydrocarbons

    Hoyle, F.; Olavesen, A.H.; Wickramasinghe, N.C.

    1978-01-01

    A discussion is presented on the infrared transmittance spectra of several polysaccharides that may be of interest as possible interstellar candidates. It is stated that a 2.5 to 15 μm spectrum computed from the author's measurements is remarkably close to that required to explain a wide range of astronomical data, except for two points. First the required relative opacity at the 3 μm absorption dip is a factor of about 1.5 lower than was found in laboratory measurements; this difference may arise from the presence of water in terrestrial polysaccharide samples. Secondly, in the 9.5 to 12 μm waveband an additional source of opacity appears to be necessary. Close agreement between the spectrum of this additional opacity and the absorption spectrum of propene, C 3 H 6 , points strongly to the presence of hydrocarbons of this type, which may be associated with polysaccharide grains in interstellar space. (U.K.)

  3. Influence of Polysaccharides from Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller, Liliaceae on Mechanically Induced Cough in Cats

    Martina Šutovská

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Different plants have been reported to be a source of polysaccharides that possess a great variety of biological activities, including cough suppression. The experiments were aimed on the influence of two polysaccharides isolated from the gel (A, HF1-Z and one from the epidermis (SL-1 of Aloe vera leaves, characterized by chemical composition and structural properties, on the cough reflex. The method of mechanically induced cough was used in conscious cats. A nylon fibre directed individually into the mucous area of the laryngopharyngeal and tracheobronchial airways via endotracheal cannula elicited the cough reflex. Statistical evaluation registered cough reflex indicators (number of cough efforts - NE, cough frequency - NE min–1 intensity of cough attacks during expiration and inspiration - IA+ and IA-, intensity of maximal inspiratory and expiratory cough efforts - IME- and IME+ showed that gel polysaccharide HF1-Z possessed higher cough-suppressing activity than dropropizine, a nonnarcotic peripheral cough suppressant. Their antitussive activity was accompanied mainly with a decrease of NE, IA+ and IA- from both laryngopharyngeal and tracheobronchial mucous areas of the airways. Results of the presented study also showed minimal influence of polysaccharide HF1-Z on expectoration predictor, IME- and IME+. New pharmacodynamic property of polysaccharides isolated from Aloe vera was shown during experiments, which could be a base of their possible therapeutic use in this indication in future.

  4. Chemical profile of a polysaccharide from Psidium guajava leaves and it's in vivo antitussive activity.

    Khawas, Sadhana; Sivová, Veronika; Anand, Namrata; Bera, Kaushik; Ray, Bimalendu; Nosáľová, Gabriela; Ray, Sayani

    2018-04-01

    Decoction of Psidium guajava leaves has been used as medication for chronic coughs and breathlessness for ages. Despite demonstration of antitussive activity, the specific molecule responsible for this remains unidentified. Herein, we report chemical profile and antitussive activity of its water extract (WE) and a polysaccharide (F1) present therein. This polysaccharide (F1), purified from WE by precipitation with ethanol and then through Cu(II)acetate, contains Ara, Gal, Rha, Glc and GalA residues, and has a molecular mass of 156 kDa. It comprises of terminal-, (1,5)- and (1,3,5)-linked Araf; (1,3)-, (1,6)- and (1,3,6)-linked Galp alongside (1,2)- and (1,2,4)-linked Rhap residues. Oligosaccharides indicating polysaccharide structure have been generated by Smith degradation and characterized. The WE fraction suppressed citric acid induced cough efforts in guinea pigs in the dose of 50 mg kg -1 . Assessment of antitussive activity of fractions prepared from WE namely F1 (polysaccharide) and F2 (ethanol soluble fraction) revealed that polysaccharide is the active component. Remarkably, tested samples do not alter the specific airway smooth muscle reactivity in animals significantly. The simple extraction method, prominent activity and favorable reactions profile suggest that this macromolecule could be an antitussive drug candidate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Characterization and Antihyperglycemic Activity of a Polysaccharide from Dioscorea opposita Thunb Roots

    Yijun Fan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A polysaccharide DOTP-80 from Dioscorea opposita Thunb was obtained by using the method of acid water-extraction and ethanol-precipitation. After being purified by chromatography, the structure characteristics of DOTP-80 were established. Based on the calibration curve obtained with standard dextrans, the molecular weight of the polysaccharide fraction DOTP-80 was calculated to be 123 kDa. The results of Infrared spectrum (FT-IR indicated that the polysaccharide contained the α-configuration of sugar units. GC-MS analysis revealed that DOTP-80 was mainly composed of mannose and glucose. Alloxan-induced diabetic rats and mice models were developed to evaluate the in vivo hypoglycemic activity of the polysaccharide. The results indicated that a high dose DOTP-80 (400 mg/kg had strong hypoglycemic activity. Moreover, DOTP-80 could increase the level of antioxidant enzymes (SOD activity in alloxan-induced diabetic mice and stimulate an increase in glucose disposal in diabetic rats. Therefore, the polysaccharide DOTP-80 should be evaluated as a candidate for future studies on diabetes mellitus.

  6. Fingerprint analysis of polysaccharides from different Ganoderma by HPLC combined with chemometrics methods.

    Sun, Xiaomei; Wang, Haohao; Han, Xiaofeng; Chen, Shangwei; Zhu, Song; Dai, Jun

    2014-12-19

    A fingerprint analysis method has been developed for characterization and discrimination of polysaccharides from different Ganoderma by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with chemometrics means. The polysaccharides were extracted under ultrasonic-assisted condition, and then partly hydrolyzed with trifluoroacetic acid. Monosaccharides and oligosaccharides in the hydrolyzates were subjected to pre-column derivatization with 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone and HPLC analysis, which will generate unique fingerprint information related to chemical composition and structure of polysaccharides. The peak data were imported to professional software in order to obtain standard fingerprint profiles and evaluate similarity of different samples. Meanwhile, the data were further processed by hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis. Polysaccharides from different parts or species of Ganoderma or polysaccharides from the same parts of Ganoderma but from different geographical regions or different strains could be differentiated clearly. This fingerprint analysis method can be applied to identification and quality control of different Ganoderma and their products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Thermo-mechanical and hydrophilic properties of polysaccharide/gluten-based bioplastics.

    Zárate-Ramírez, L S; Romero, A; Bengoechea, C; Partal, P; Guerrero, A

    2014-11-04

    The influence of adding different polysaccharides (locust bean gum, LBG; methyl cellulose, MC; and carboxymethyl cellulose, CMC) to gluten-based biodegradable polymeric materials was assessed in this work. Gluten/polysaccharide/plasticiser bioplastics were prepared at different polysaccharide concentrations (0-4.5%) and pH values by mixing in a two-blade counter-rotating batch mixer (at 25 °C under adiabatic conditions) and thermomoulding at 9MPa and 130 °C. Bioplastic probes were evaluated through dynamic mechanical thermal analysis, tensile strength and water absorption capacity tests. Results pointed out that a moderate enhancement of the network structure may be achieved by adding polysaccharide at a pH close to the protein isoelectric point (pH 6), which also conferred a further thermosetting capacity to the system. Moreover, the addition of MC and CMC was found to significantly enhance material elongation properties. However, the presence of charges induced by pH leaded to a higher incompatibility between the polysaccharide and protein domains forming the composite. The pH value played a relevant role in the material water absorption, which significantly increased under acidic or basic conditions (particularly at pH 3). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Factor structure and longitudinal measurement invariance of PHQ-9 for specialist mental health care patients with persistent major depressive disorder: Exploratory Structural Equation Modelling.

    Guo, Boliang; Kaylor-Hughes, Catherine; Garland, Anne; Nixon, Neil; Sweeney, Tim; Simpson, Sandra; Dalgleish, Tim; Ramana, Rajini; Yang, Min; Morriss, Richard

    2017-09-01

    The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) is a widely used instrument for measuring levels of depression in patients in clinical practice and academic research; its factor structure has been investigated in various samples, with limited evidence of measurement equivalence/invariance (ME/I) but not in patients with more severe depression of long duration. This study aims to explore the factor structure of the PHQ-9 and the ME/I between treatment groups over time for these patients. 187 secondary care patients with persistent major depressive disorder (PMDD) were recruited to a randomised controlled trial (RCT) with allocation to either a specialist depression team arm or a general mental health arm; their PHQ-9 score was measured at baseline, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. Exploratory Structural Equational Modelling (ESEM) was performed to examine the factor structure for this specific patient group. ME/I between treatment arm at and across follow-up time were further explored by means of multiple-group ESEM approach using the best-fitted factor structure. A two-factor structure was evidenced (somatic and affective factor). This two-factor structure had strong factorial invariance between the treatment groups at and across follow up times. Participants were largely white British in a RCT with 40% attrition potentially limiting the study's generalisability. Not all two-factor modelling criteria were met at every time-point. PHQ-9 has a two-factor structure for PMDD patients, with strong measurement invariance between treatment groups at and across follow-up time, demonstrating its validity for RCTs and prospective longitudinal studies in chronic moderate to severe depression. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Enzyme-Catalyzed Modifications of Polysaccharides and Poly(ethylene glycol

    H. N. Cheng

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharides are used extensively in various industrial applications, such as food, adhesives, coatings, construction, paper, pharmaceuticals, and personal care. Many polysaccharide structures need to be modified in order to improve their end-use properties; this is mostly done through chemical reactions. In the past 20 years many enzyme-catalyzed modifications have been developed to supplement chemical derivatization methods. Typical reactions include enzymatic oxidation, ester formation, amidation, glycosylation, and molecular weight reduction. These reactions are reviewed in this paper, with emphasis placed on the work done by the authors. The polymers covered in this review include cellulosic derivatives, starch, guar, pectin, and poly(ethylene glycol.

  10. Synthesis of Oligosaccharide Fragments of the Pectic Polysaccharide Rhamnogalacturonan I

    Zakharova, Alexandra

    in products such as jams, yoghurts and jellies. Rhamnogalacturonan I is one of the structural classes of pectic polysaccharides, along with homogalacturonan and rhamnogalacturonan II. The chemical structure of rhamnogalacturonan I is complex having a backbone consisting of alternating -linked L......-rhamnose and D-galacturonic acid units with numerous branches of arabinans, galactans or arabinogalactans positioned at C-4 of the rhamnose residues. The structural complexity of pectin together with the wide range of its practical applications and a desire to understand its structure and functions in details...... have inspired many researches to pursuit chemical syntheses of pectic oligosaccharides. Herein, the strategies for chemical synthesis of linear and branched oligosaccharide fragments of rhamnogalacturonan I are presented.The first successful synthesis of a fully unprotected linear hexasaccharide...

  11. Effects of light wavelengths on extracellular and capsular polysaccharide production by Nostoc flagelliforme.

    Han, Pei-pei; Sun, Ying; Jia, Shi-ru; Zhong, Cheng; Tan, Zhi-lei

    2014-05-25

    The influences of different wavelengths of light (red 660nm, yellow 590nm, green 520nm, blue 460nm, purple 400nm) and white light on extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) and capsular polysaccharide (CPS) production by Nostoc flagelliforme in liquid culture were demonstrated in this study. The results showed that, compared with white light, red and blue lights significantly increased both EPS and CPS production while yellow light reduced their production; purple and green lights stimulated EPS production but inhibited CPS formation. Nine constituent monosaccharides and one uronic acid were detected in both EPS and CPS, and their ratios showed significant differences among treatment with different light wavelengths. However, the advanced structure of EPS and CPS from various light conditions did not present obvious difference through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction characterization. These findings establish a basis for development of high-yielding polysaccharide production process and understanding their regulation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Biocatalytic cross-linking of pectic polysaccharides for designed food functionality

    Zaidel, Dayang Norulfairuz Abang; Meyer, Anne S.

    2012-01-01

    the mechanisms of formation of functional pectic polysaccharide cross-links, including covalent cross-links (notably phenolic esters and uronyl ester linkages) and non-covalent, ionic cross-links (which involve calcium and borate ester links). The treatise examines how such cross-links can be designed via......Recent research has demonstrated how cross-linking of pectic polysaccharides to obtain gel formation can be promoted by enzymatic catalysis reactions, and provide opportunities for functional upgrading of pectic polysaccharides present in agro-industrial sidestreams. This review highlights...... specific enzymatic reactions, and highlights the most recent data concerning enzyme catalyzed engineering of cross-links for in situ structural design of functional properties of foods....

  13. A comparative study on immunomodulatory activity of polysaccharides from two official species of Ganoderma (Lingzhi).

    Meng, Lan-Zhen; Xie, Jing; Lv, Guang-Ping; Hu, De-Jun; Zhao, Jing; Duan, Jin-Ao; Li, Shao-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Two Ganoderma species, G. lucidum and G. sinense, are listed as Lingzhi in Chinese Pharmacopoeia and they are considered to have the same therapeutic effects. Polysaccharides were the main immunomodulatory and anticancer components in Ganoderma. In this study, the chemical characters and the effects of polysaccharides from G. lucidum (GLPS) and G. sinense (GSPS) on macrophage functions were investigated and compared. Chemical studies showed that GLPS and GSPS were different, displaying various molecular weight distribution and ratio of monosaccharide components. In vitro pharmacological studies showed that both GLPS and GSPS had potent effects on macrophage functions, such as promoting macrophage phagocytosis, increasing their release of nitric oxide and cytokines interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-6, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor-α. Generally, GLPS was more powerful than GSPS. This study is helpful to elucidate the active components and pharmacological variation between the 2 Ganoderma species. The structure-activity relationship of polysaccharides from Ganoderma needs further study.

  14. Structure and calcium binding activity of LipL32, the major surface antigen of pathogenic Leptospira sp

    Hauk, Pricila; Roman-Ramos, Henrique; Ho, Paulo Lee [Instituto Butantan, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Biotecnologia; Guzzo, Cristiane R.; Farah, Chuck S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Bioquimica

    2009-07-01

    Leptospirosis, caused by the spirochaete Leptospira is an important emerging infectious disease. LipL32 is the major exposed outer membrane protein found exclusively in pathogenic leptospira. It is highly immunogenic and has been shown to bind to host extracellular matrix components, including collagens, fibronectin and laminin. In this work we crystallized recombinant LipL32 protein and determined its structure to 2.25 A resolution. Initial phases were determined using the multi-wavelength anomalous dispersion technique with data collected from selenomethionine-containing crystals at the MX2 beamline at the LNLS. The LipL32 monomer is made of a jelly-roll fold core from which protrude several peripheral secondary structures. Some structural features suggested that LipL32 could bind Ca{sup 2+} ions and indeed, spectroscopic data (circular (dichroism. intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence and extrinsic 1-amino-2-anaphthol-4-sulfonic acid fluorescence) confirmed the calcium binding properties of LipL32. (author)

  15. Studies on the O-polysaccharide of Escherichia albertii O2 characterized by non-stoichiometric O-acetylation and non-stoichiometric side-chain l-fucosylation.

    Naumenko, Olesya I; Zheng, Han; Xiong, Yanwen; Senchenkova, Sof'ya N; Wang, Hong; Shashkov, Alexander S; Li, Qun; Wang, Jianping; Knirel, Yuriy A

    2018-05-22

    An O-polysaccharide was isolated from the lipopolysaccharide of Escherichia albertii O2 and studied by chemical methods and 1D and 2D 1 H and 13 C NMR spectroscopy. The following structure of the O-polysaccharide was established: . The O-polysaccharide is characterized by masked regularity owing to a non-stoichiometric O-acetylation of an l-fucose residue in the main chain and a non-stoichiometric side-chain l-fucosylation of a β-GlcNAc residue. A regular linear polysaccharide was obtained by sequential Smith degradation and alkaline O-deacetylation of the O-polysaccharide. The content of the O-antigen gene cluster of E. albertii O2 was found to be essentially consistent with the O-polysaccharide structure established. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Extracellular polysaccharides as target compounds for the immunological detection of Aspergillus and Penicillium in food

    Kamphuis, H.J.

    1992-01-01

    This thesis is devoted to the immunological detection of Aspergillus and Penicillium in food products. More specifically, the immunogenicity, antigenicity, production and structure of the water-soluble extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) of these

  17. Role of natural polysaccharides in radiation formation of PVA hydrogel wound dressing

    Varshney, Lalit

    2007-02-01

    Radiation processed PVA-polysaccharides hydrogels have been observed to be suitable for producing transparent, flexible, mechanically strong, biocompatible, effective and economical hydrogel dressings. The dressings were formed in single stage irradiation process achieving gel formation and sterilization at 25-30 kGy gamma radiation dose. No synthetic plasticizers and additives were used. Different formulations containing poly-vinylalcohol (PVA) and polysaccharides selected from combinations of agar and carrageenan were used to make the dressings. The selected polysaccharides themselves form thermo-reversible gels and degrade on irradiation. Using concentration of polysaccharides as low as 0.5-2% resulted in increase of tensile strength from 45 g/cm 2 to 411 g/cm 2, elongation from 30% to 410% and water uptake from 25% to 157% with respect to PVA gel without polysaccharides. Besides improving mechanical strength, agar contributes more to elongation and carrageenan to mechanical strength of the gel dressing. PVA formulations containing the polysaccharides show significantly different pre-gel viscosities behaviour. Increasing the concentration of agar in the formulation to about 2% converts the sheet gel to paste gel useful for filling wound cavities. The results indicate that pre irradiation network structure of the formulation plays an important role in determining mechanical properties of the irradiated gel dressing. Formulations containing 7-9% PVA, 0.5-1.5% carrageenan and 0.5-1% agar gave highly effective usable hydrogel dressings. Scanning electron micrographs show highly porous structure of the gel. Clinical trials of wound dressing on human patients established safety and efficacy of the dressing. The dressing has been observed to be useful in treating burns, non-healing ulcers of diabetes, leprosy and other external wounds. The dressings are now being marketed in India under different brand names.

  18. Role of natural polysaccharides in radiation formation of PVA-hydrogel wound dressing

    Varshney, Lalit [ISOMED, Radiation Technology Development Section, Radio-Chemistry and Isotope Group, B.A.R.C, Mumbai 400 085 (India)]. E-mail: lalitv@barc.gov.in

    2007-02-15

    Radiation processed PVA-polysaccharides hydrogels have been observed to be suitable for producing transparent, flexible, mechanically strong, biocompatible, effective and economical hydrogel dressings. The dressings were formed in single stage irradiation process achieving gel formation and sterilization at 25-30 kGy gamma radiation dose. No synthetic plasticizers and additives were used. Different formulations containing poly-vinylalcohol (PVA) and polysaccharides selected from combinations of agar and carrageenan were used to make the dressings. The selected polysaccharides themselves form thermo-reversible gels and degrade on irradiation. Using concentration of polysaccharides as low as 0.5-2% resulted in increase of tensile strength from 45 g/cm{sup 2} to 411 g/cm{sup 2}, elongation from 30% to 410% and water uptake from 25% to 157% with respect to PVA gel without polysaccharides. Besides improving mechanical strength, agar contributes more to elongation and carrageenan to mechanical strength of the gel dressing. PVA formulations containing the polysaccharides show significantly different pre-gel viscosities behaviour. Increasing the concentration of agar in the formulation to about 2% converts the sheet gel to paste gel useful for filling wound cavities. The results indicate that pre irradiation network structure of the formulation plays an important role in determining mechanical properties of the irradiated gel dressing. Formulations containing 7-9% PVA, 0.5-1.5% carrageenan and 0.5-1% agar gave highly effective usable hydrogel dressings. Scanning electron micrographs show highly porous structure of the gel. Clinical trials of wound dressing on human patients established safety and efficacy of the dressing. The dressing has been observed to be useful in treating burns, non-healing ulcers of diabetes, leprosy and other external wounds. The dressings are now being marketed in India under different brand names.

  19. Role of natural polysaccharides in radiation formation of PVA-hydrogel wound dressing

    Varshney, Lalit

    2007-01-01

    Radiation processed PVA-polysaccharides hydrogels have been observed to be suitable for producing transparent, flexible, mechanically strong, biocompatible, effective and economical hydrogel dressings. The dressings were formed in single stage irradiation process achieving gel formation and sterilization at 25-30 kGy gamma radiation dose. No synthetic plasticizers and additives were used. Different formulations containing poly-vinylalcohol (PVA) and polysaccharides selected from combinations of agar and carrageenan were used to make the dressings. The selected polysaccharides themselves form thermo-reversible gels and degrade on irradiation. Using concentration of polysaccharides as low as 0.5-2% resulted in increase of tensile strength from 45 g/cm 2 to 411 g/cm 2 , elongation from 30% to 410% and water uptake from 25% to 157% with respect to PVA gel without polysaccharides. Besides improving mechanical strength, agar contributes more to elongation and carrageenan to mechanical strength of the gel dressing. PVA formulations containing the polysaccharides show significantly different pre-gel viscosities behaviour. Increasing the concentration of agar in the formulation to about 2% converts the sheet gel to paste gel useful for filling wound cavities. The results indicate that pre irradiation network structure of the formulation plays an important role in determining mechanical properties of the irradiated gel dressing. Formulations containing 7-9% PVA, 0.5-1.5% carrageenan and 0.5-1% agar gave highly effective usable hydrogel dressings. Scanning electron micrographs show highly porous structure of the gel. Clinical trials of wound dressing on human patients established safety and efficacy of the dressing. The dressing has been observed to be useful in treating burns, non-healing ulcers of diabetes, leprosy and other external wounds. The dressings are now being marketed in India under different brand names

  20. The impact of nitration on the structure and immunogenicity of the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1.0101.

    Chloé Ackaert

    Full Text Available Allergy prevalence has increased in industrialized countries. One contributing factor could be pollution, which can cause nitration of allergens exogenously (in the air or endogenously (in inflamed lung tissue. We investigated the impact of nitration on both the structural and immunological behavior of the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1.0101 to determine whether nitration might be a factor in the increased incidence of allergy. Bet v 1.0101 was nitrated with tetranitromethane. Immune effects were assessed by measuring the proliferation of specific T-cell lines (TCLs upon stimulation with different concentrations of nitrated and unmodified allergen, and by measurement of cytokine release of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs and primary DCs (primDCs stimulated with nitrated versus unmodified allergen. HPLC-MS, crystallography, gel electrophoresis, amino acid analysis, size exclusion chromatography and molecular dynamics simulation were performed to characterize structural changes after nitration of the allergen. The proliferation of specific TCLs was higher upon stimulation with the nitrated allergen in comparison to the unmodified allergen. An important structural consequence of nitration was oligomerization. Moreover, analysis of the crystal structure of nitrated Bet v 1.0101 showed that amino acid residue Y83, located in the hydrophobic cavity, was nitrated to 100%. Both moDCs and primDCs showed decreased production of TH1-priming cytokines, thus favoring a TH2 response. These results implicate that nitration of Bet v 1.0101 might be a contributing factor to the observed increase in birch pollen allergy, and emphasize the importance of protein modifications in understanding the molecular basis of allergenicity.

  1. Effect of childhood maltreatment on brain structure in adult patients with major depressive disorder and healthy participants.

    Chaney, Aisling

    2013-07-30

    Background: Childhood maltreatment has been found to play a crucial role in the development of psychiatric disorders. However, whether childhood maltreatment is associated with structural brain changes described for major depressive disorder (MDD) is still a matter of debate. The aim of this study was to investigate whether patients with MDD and a history of childhood maltreatment display more structural changes than patients without childhood maltreatment or healthy controls. Methods: Patients with MDD and healthy controls with and without childhood maltreatment experience were investigated using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and data were analyzed using voxel-based morphometry. Results: We studied 37 patients with MDD and 46 controls. Grey matter volume was significantly decreased in the hippocampus and significantly increased in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) and the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in participants who had experienced childhood maltreatment compared with those who had not. Patients displayed smaller left OFC and left DMPFC volumes than controls. No significant difference in hippocampal volume was evident between patients with MDD and healthy controls. In regression analyses, despite effects from depression, age and sex on the DMPFC, OFC and hippocampus, childhood maltreatment was found to independently affect these regions. Limitations: The retrospective assessment of childhood maltreatment; the natural problem that patients experienced more childhood maltreatment than controls; and the restrictions, owing to sample size, to investigating higher order interactions among factors are discussed as limitations. Conclusion: These results suggest that early childhood maltreatment is associated with brain structural changes irrespective of sex, age and a history of depression. Thus, the study highlights the importance of childhood maltreatment when investigating brain structures.

  2. Solution structure, copper binding and backbone dynamics of recombinant Ber e 1-the major allergen from Brazil nut.

    Louise Rundqvist

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The 2S albumin Ber e 1 is the major allergen in Brazil nuts. Previous findings indicated that the protein alone does not cause an allergenic response in mice, but the addition of components from a Brazil nut lipid fraction were required. Structural details of Ber e 1 may contribute to the understanding of the allergenic properties of the protein and its potential interaction partners. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The solution structure of recombinant Ber e 1 was solved using NMR spectroscopy and measurements of the protein back bone dynamics at a residue-specific level were extracted using (15N-spin relaxation. A hydrophobic cavity was identified in the structure of Ber e 1. Using the paramagnetic relaxation enhancement property of Cu(2+ in conjunction with NMR, it was shown that Ber e 1 is able to specifically interact with the divalent copper ion and the binding site was modeled into the structure. The IgE binding region as well as the copper binding site show increased dynamics on both fast ps-ns timescale as well as slower µs-ms timescale. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The overall fold of Ber e 1 is similar to other 2S albumins, but the hydrophobic cavity resembles that of a homologous non-specific lipid transfer protein. Ber e 1 is the first 2S albumin shown to interact with Cu(2+ ions. This Cu(2+ binding has minimal effect on the electrostatic potential on the surface of the protein, but the charge distribution within the hydrophobic cavity is significantly altered. As the hydrophobic cavity is likely to be involved in a putative lipid interaction the Cu(2+ can in turn affect the interaction that is essential to provoke an allergenic response.

  3. Functional bacterial and archaeal community structures of major trophic groups in a full-scale anaerobic sludge digester.

    Ariesyady, Herto Dwi; Ito, Tsukasa; Okabe, Satoshi

    2007-04-01

    Functional Bacteria and Archaea community structures of a full-scale anaerobic sludge digester were investigated by using a full-cycle 16S rRNA approach followed by microautoradiography (MAR)-fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) technique and micromanipulation. FISH analysis with a comprehensive set of 16S and 23S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes based on 16S rRNA clone libraries revealed that the Gram-positive bacteria represented by probe HGC69A-hybridized Actinobacteria (8.5+/-1.4% of total 4', 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI)-stained cells) and probe LGC354-hybridized Firmicutes (3.8+/-0.8%) were the major phylogenetic bacterial phyla, followed by Bacteroidetes (4.0+/-1.2%) and Chloroflexi (3.7+/-0.8%). The probe MX825-hybridized Methanosaeta (7.6+/-0.8%) was the most abundant archaeal group, followed by Methanomicrobiales (2.8+/-0.6%) and Methanobacteriaceae (2.7+/-0.4%). The functional community structures (diversity and relative abundance) of major trophic groups were quantitatively analyzed by MAR-FISH. The results revealed that glucose-degrading microbial community had higher abundance (ca. 10.6+/-4.9% of total DAPI-stained cells) and diversity (at least seven phylogenetic groups) as compared with fatty acid-utilizing microbial communities, which were more specialized to a few phylogenetic groups. Despite the dominance of Betaproteobacteria, members of Chloroflexi, Smithella, Syntrophomonas and Methanosaeta groups dominated the [(14)C]glucose-, [(14)C]propionate-, [(14)C]butyrate- and [(14)C]acetate-utilizing microorganism community, and accounted for 27.7+/-4.3%, 29.6+/-7.0%, 34.5+/-7.6% and 18.2+/-9.5%, respectively. In spite of low abundance (ca. 1%), the hitherto unknown metabolic functions of Spirochaeta and candidate phylum of TM7 as well as Synergistes were found to be glucose and acetate utilization, respectively.

  4. Numerical and experimental study of expiratory flow in the case of major upper airway obstructions with fluid structure interaction

    Chouly, F.; van Hirtum, A.; Lagrée, P.-Y.; Pelorson, X.; Payan, Y.

    2008-02-01

    This study deals with the numerical prediction and experimental description of the flow-induced deformation in a rapidly convergent divergent geometry which stands for a simplified tongue, in interaction with an expiratory airflow. An original in vitro experimental model is proposed, which allows measurement of the deformation of the artificial tongue, in condition of major initial airway obstruction. The experimental model accounts for asymmetries in geometry and tissue properties which are two major physiological upper airway characteristics. The numerical method for prediction of the fluid structure interaction is described. The theory of linear elasticity in small deformations has been chosen to compute the mechanical behaviour of the tongue. The main features of the flow are taken into account using a boundary layer theory. The overall numerical method entails finite element solving of the solid problem and finite differences solving of the fluid problem. First, the numerical method predicts the deformation of the tongue with an overall error of the order of 20%, which can be seen as a preliminary successful validation of the theory and simulations. Moreover, expiratory flow limitation is predicted in this configuration. As a result, both the physical and numerical models could be useful to understand this phenomenon reported in heavy snorers and apneic patients during sleep.

  5. Gut microbiota-involved mechanisms in enhancing systemic exposure of ginsenosides by coexisting polysaccharides in ginseng decoction

    Zhou, Shan-Shan; Xu, Jun; Zhu, He; Wu, Jie; Xu, Jin-Di; Yan, Ru; Li, Xiu-Yang; Liu, Huan-Huan; Duan, Su-Min; Wang, Zhuo; Chen, Hu-Biao; Shen, Hong; Li, Song-Lin

    2016-03-01

    Oral decoctions of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) serve for therapeutic and prophylactic management of diseases for centuries. Small molecules and polysaccharides are the dominant chemicals co-occurred in the TCM decoction. Small molecules are well-studied by multidisciplinary elaborations, whereas the role of polysaccharides remains largely elusive. Here we explore a gut microbiota-involved mechanism by which TCM polysaccharides restore the homeostasis of gut microbiota and consequently promote the systemic exposure of concomitant small molecules in the decoction. As a case study, ginseng polysaccharides and ginsenosides in Du-Shen-Tang, the decoction of ginseng, were investigated on an over-fatigue and acute cold stress model. The results indicated that ginseng polysaccharides improved intestinal metabolism and absorption of certain ginsenosides, meanwhile reinstated the perturbed holistic gut microbiota, and particularly enhanced the growth of Lactobacillus spp. and Bacteroides spp., two major metabolic bacteria of ginsenosides. By exploring the synergistic actions of polysaccharides with small molecules, these findings shed new light on scientization and rationalization of the classic TCM decoctions in human health care.

  6. Polysaccharide coating of human corneal endothelium

    Schroder, H D; Sperling, S

    1977-01-01

    Electron microscopy revealed the presence of a 600-1500 A thick layer of polysaccharide on the surface of human corneal endothelial cells. The surface layer was visualized by combined fixation and staining in a mixture of ruthenium red and osmium tetroxide. The coating material was stable for at ...... for at least 39 h post mortem and was retained on disintegrating cells....

  7. Bacillus subtilis biofilm induction by plant polysaccharides.

    Beauregard, Pascale B; Chai, Yunrong; Vlamakis, Hera; Losick, Richard; Kolter, Roberto

    2013-04-23

    Bacillus subtilis is a plant-beneficial Gram-positive bacterium widely used as a biofertilizer. However, relatively little is known regarding the molecular processes underlying this bacterium's ability to colonize roots. In contrast, much is known about how this bacterium forms matrix-enclosed multicellular communities (biofilms) in vitro. Here, we show that, when B. subtilis colonizes Arabidopsis thaliana roots it forms biofilms that depend on the same matrix genes required in vitro. B. subtilis biofilm formation was triggered by certain plant polysaccharides. These polysaccharides served as a signal for biofilm formation transduced via the kinases controlling the phosphorylation state of the master regulator Spo0A. In addition, plant polysaccharides are used as a source of sugars for the synthesis of the matrix exopolysaccharide. The bacterium's response to plant polysaccharides was observed across several different strains of the species, some of which are known to have beneficial effects on plants. These observations provide evidence that biofilm genes are crucial for Arabidopsis root colonization by B. subtilis and provide insights into how matrix synthesis may be triggered by this plant.

  8. Therapeutic role of glucogalactan polysaccharide extracted from ...

    RACHEL

    2015-06-17

    Jun 17, 2015 ... Neurotransmitters and nitric oxide were significantly increased in the group given GA treatment compared to TMT .... Fractionation was performed by precipitating with ammonium sulfate. ..... deleterious effects of nitrogen reactive species accumula- .... Studies on the production of sulfated polysaccharide by.

  9. Preparation and antidiabetic activity of polysaccharide from ...

    Extraction parameters of polysaccharide from Portulaca oleracea L. (POP) and antidiabetic activity of POP on alloxan induced diabetic mice were studied. Better extraction parameters of POP were obtained by the single factor test, as follows: extraction temperature 95°C, extraction time 5 h, and ratio of solvent to raw ...

  10. Extraction optimization and characterization of polysaccharide ...

    Purpose: To investigate the optimum extraction conditions of polysaccharides from Pinellia Rhizoma (PRP) and their antioxidant activities. Methods: Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize the water extraction conditions of PRP by Box-Benhnken design (BBD). A high performance liquid ...

  11. Modulation of Porphyridium aerugineum polysaccharide rheology ...

    A stock (0.5% w/v) aqueous solution of the polysaccharide of the microalga Porphyridium aerugineum was further diluted using (i) deionized water and (ii) an aqueous (0.2% w/v) solution of a new, garden soil extract. The viscosity of the resultant solution was higher by about 23% (5 samples) where the soil extract was used ...

  12. Plant-Polysaccharide-Degrading Enzymes from Basidiomycetes

    Rytioja, Johanna; Hildén, Kristiina; Yuzon, Jennifer; Hatakka, Annele; de Vries, Ronald P.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Basidiomycete fungi subsist on various types of plant material in diverse environments, from living and dead trees and forest litter to crops and grasses and to decaying plant matter in soils. Due to the variation in their natural carbon sources, basidiomycetes have highly varied plant-polysaccharide-degrading capabilities. This topic is not as well studied for basidiomycetes as for ascomycete fungi, which are the main sources of knowledge on fungal plant polysaccharide degradation. Research on plant-biomass-decaying fungi has focused on isolating enzymes for current and future applications, such as for the production of fuels, the food industry, and waste treatment. More recently, genomic studies of basidiomycete fungi have provided a profound view of the plant-biomass-degrading potential of wood-rotting, litter-decomposing, plant-pathogenic, and ectomycorrhizal (ECM) basidiomycetes. This review summarizes the current knowledge on plant polysaccharide depolymerization by basidiomycete species from diverse habitats. In addition, these data are compared to those for the most broadly studied ascomycete genus, Aspergillus, to provide insight into specific features of basidiomycetes with respect to plant polysaccharide degradation. PMID:25428937

  13. Radiation degradation of marine polysaccharides by low energy electron beam

    Yoshii, Fumio; Nagasawa, Naotsugu; Kume, Tamikazu

    2003-01-01

    The radiation degradations of marine polysaccharides by both gamma Co-60 and electron beam irradiations are investigated. Polysaccharides and oligosaccharides can be produced by degradation of corresponding polysaccharides including marine polysaccharides such as alginates, chitin chitosan and carrageenan. The viscosity of alginate, chitosan and carrageenan solution decreases markedly with increase of the low energy electron beam irradiation time and the beam current. Furthermore, the viscosity is reduced sharply in short time for polysaccharide solution with low concentration, for instance carrageenan solution of 1%. (author)

  14. Improved coupling of bacterial polysaccharides to macromolecules and solid supports

    2013-01-01

    The invention relates to a method of producing a polysaccharide-carrier conjugate comprising coupling a polysaccharide to a carrier, said polysaccharide comprising at least one monosaccharide unit comprising a keto-carboxy group according to the formula -C(=O)COOR, where R is either hydrogen or C1......-alkoxyamine group of the carrier with a keto-carboxy group of said polysaccharide to form a covalent amide bond between the carrier and the polysaccharide. Another aspect of the present invention relates to a compound or solid surface obtained when performing the method of the present invention. A third aspect...

  15. Purification, Characterization and Antioxidant Activities in Vitro and in Vivo of the Polysaccharides from Boletus edulis Bull

    Yijun Fan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A water-soluble polysaccharide (BEBP was extracted from Boletus edulis Bull using hot water extraction followed by ethanol precipitation. The polysaccharide BEBP was further purified by chromatography on a DEAE-cellulose column, giving three major polysaccharide fractions termed BEBP-1, BEBP-2 and BEBP-3. In the next experiment, the average molecular weight (Mw, IR and monosaccharide compositional analysis of the three polysaccharide fractions were determined. The evaluation of antioxidant activities both in vitro and in vivo suggested that BEBP-3 had good potential antioxidant activity, and should be explored as a novel potential antioxidant.

  16. Compositional analysis of sulfated polysaccharides from sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus) released by autolysis reaction.

    Song, Shuang; Wu, Sufeng; Ai, Chunqing; Xu, Xin; Zhu, Zhenjun; Cao, Chunyang; Yang, Jingfeng; Wen, Chengrong

    2018-07-15

    Autolysis is not only a major reason for postharvest quality deterioration of sea cucumber, but also a promising alternative for exogenous protease to produce peptides or polysaccharides. However, little has been known about the effects of autolysis on bioactive polysaccharides of sea cucumber. Concerning the quality and safety of sea cucumber products involved autolysis reaction, the present study focused on the chemical composition of sulfated polysaccharides (SPs) released by autolysis reaction. Chemical analysis indicated that after 3-day autolysis 63% of sulfated polysaccharides were liberated but with protein chains at their reducing ends. Then the composition of SP obtained by autolysis (A-SP) was compared with that of total SPs (T-SP) via a series of analysis techniques, including FTIR, 1 H NMR, HPLC and mass spectroscopy. As indicated by the results, fucan to fucosylated chondroitin sulfate ratio was found high in A-SP compared to T-SP, fucan with a lower molecular weight was the major fraction in A-SP, and the di-sulfated Fuc residue observed in T-SP was absent in A-SP. To conclude, A-SP differed greatly from T-SP in the chemical composition, suggesting possible changes on their bioactivities. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. The influence of stress on neuroinflammation and alterations in brain structure and function in major depressive disorder.

    Kim, Yong-Ku; Won, Eunsoo

    2017-06-30

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a condition which has often been associated with chronic stress. The sympathetic nervous system is continuously activated without the normal counteraction of the parasympathetic nervous system under the influence of chronic stress. As a result, epinephrine and norepinephrine levels are increased, and acetylcholine levels are decreased, which in turn can increase the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Peripheral inflammatory responses can access the brain, with neuroinflammation contributing to the increase in neurotoxic kynurenine pathway metabolites such as 3-hydroxykynurenine, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid and quinolinic acid, and decrease in neuroprotective metabolites such as kynurenic acid. Pro-inflammatory cytokines can also exert direct neurotoxic effects on specific brain regions. Previous imaging studies have reported associations between pro-inflammatory states and alterations in brain regions involved in emotional regulation, including the hippocampus, amygdala and anterior cingulate cortex. Alterations in structure and function of such brain areas due to the neurotoxic effects of increased inflammation may be associated with the pathophysiology of depression. This review focuses the influence of stress on neuroinflammation which may cause alterations in brain structure and function in MDD. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Co-altered functional networks and brain structure in unmedicated patients with bipolar and major depressive disorders.

    He, Hao; Sui, Jing; Du, Yuhui; Yu, Qingbao; Lin, Dongdong; Drevets, Wayne C; Savitz, Jonathan B; Yang, Jian; Victor, Teresa A; Calhoun, Vince D

    2017-12-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) share similar clinical characteristics that often obscure the diagnostic distinctions between their depressive conditions. Both functional and structural brain abnormalities have been reported in these two disorders. However, the direct link between altered functioning and structure in these two diseases is unknown. To elucidate this relationship, we conducted a multimodal fusion analysis on the functional network connectivity (FNC) and gray matter density from MRI data from 13 BD, 40 MDD, and 33 matched healthy controls (HC). A data-driven fusion method called mCCA+jICA was used to identify the co-altered FNC and gray matter components. Comparing to HC, BD exhibited reduced gray matter density in the parietal and occipital cortices, which correlated with attenuated functional connectivity within sensory and motor networks, as well as hyper-connectivity in regions that are putatively engaged in cognitive control. In addition, lower gray matter density was found in MDD in the amygdala and cerebellum. High accuracy in discriminating across groups was also achieved by trained classification models, implying that features extracted from the fusion analysis hold the potential to ultimately serve as diagnostic biomarkers for mood disorders.

  19. Biodegradation of bacterial polysaccharides adsorbed on montmorillonite

    Guckert, A.; Tok, H.H.; Jacquin, F.

    1977-01-01

    In this research, by means of a model, a study was made of the biodegradation of microbial organic compounds adsorbed on clays, with a parallel experiment on Fontainebleau sand serving as the control. During incubation the three classes of organic matter ( 14 C-labelled glucose, 14 C-labelled polysaccharides and 14 C-labelled microbial cells) mineralize more actively in the presence of sand than in the presence of clay, since the latter provides protection against biodegradation. Mineralization of the adsorbed organic compounds, however, is marked by clear-cut differences after three weeks - glucose (55%)>polysaccharides (43%)>microbial organisms (7.3%). After incubation, chemical extraction of the organo-mineral complexes by alkaline solvents shows only water-soluble and alkali-soluble products in the case of sand; conversely, in that of montmorillonite the bulk of the 14 C was found in the non-extractable fraction or humin (18.1% of the initial 14 C for glucose, 27.3% for the polysaccharides, and 67.6% for the microbial organisms). A second incubation carried out after a phase in which there was drying and remoistening of the organo-mineral complexes, brings to light the important part played by climatic alternations during the biodegradation process. A new mineralization phase is observed, affecting more the bacterial organisms (14.1%) than the polysaccharides (6.3%), with the glucose-base complexes occupying an intermediate position (11.2%). The chemical fractioning of the organo-mineral complexes following re-incubation shows the stability of 14 C in humin very clearly, especially in the case of polysaccharides, where the mineralization phase relates primarily to the products extractable with alkalis. (author)

  20. Characteristics and Antitumor Activity of Morchella esculenta Polysaccharide Extracted by Pulsed Electric Field

    Chao Liu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharides from Morchella esculenta have been proven to be functional and helpful for humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate the chemical structure and anti-proliferating and antitumor activities of a Morchella esculenta polysaccharide (MEP extracted by pulsed electric field (PEF in submerged fermentation. The endo-polysaccharide was separated and purified by column chromatography and Gel permeation chromatography, and analyzed by gas chromatography. The MEP with an average molecular weight of 81,835 Da consisted of xylose, glucose, mannose, rhamnose and galactose at the ratio of 5.4:5.0:6.5:7.8:72.3. Structure of MEP was further analyzed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and 1H and 13C liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Apoptosis tests proved that MEP could inhibit the proliferation and growth of human colon cancer HT-29 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner within 48 h. This study provides more information on chemical structure of anti-proliferating polysaccharides isolated from Morchella esculenta.

  1. In vitro antioxidant properties of sulfated polysaccharide from brown marine algae Sargassum tenerrimum

    P. Vijayabaskar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In the present study the physico chemical characteristics, total antioxidant capacity (TAC, reducing power and the free radical scavenging potentials (DPPH radical, ABTS, H2O2 radical of sulfated polysaccharide from marine brown algae Sargassum tenerrimum was investigated. Methods: The Sargassum tenerrimum seaweed, which have wide pharmaceutical application, were collected from the coastal region of Mandapam (Lat 09 ° 17 ’N, Long 79 ° 07 ’E, Tamil Nadu, India and evaluated for In vitro antioxidant properties. Results: The extract showed higher percentage of carbohydrate (8.20暲1.23% followed by sulphate (6.6暲1.42% and protein (0.86暲0.42%. The free radical scavenging potential was found to be higher in ABTS (70.33暲 2.33% followed by DPPH (64.66暲2.08% and H2O2 (61.56暲2.05%. the TAC was found to be 62.55暲 1.40%. The characterization of sulfated polysaccharide by FT-IR spectrum showed the presence of carboxyl, hydroxyl and sulfate groups. The structure of mobility was assed by agarose gel electrophoresis which showed highest mobility at higher pH values especially in buffer carbonate -bicarbonate (pH 10. The molecular weight of the sulfated polysaccharide was determined by gradient polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis which was found to be 40 kDa. Finally, GCMS analysis of sulfated polysaccharide from S. tenerrimum exhibited peaks corresponding to Benzenamine (31.67% and Aminocarb (21.45%. The overall results have established that the sulfated polysaccharide from S. tenerrimum could be used as a promising antioxidant agent. Conclusion: Physico-chemical analysis and elemental analysis of crude seaweed polysaccharide from Sargassum tenerrimum a brown algae elicited the antioxidant activity

  2. Anatomy and cell wall polysaccharides of almond (Prunus dulcis D. A. Webb) seeds.

    Dourado, Fernando; Barros, António; Mota, Manuel; Coimbra, Manuel A; Gama, Francisco M

    2004-03-10

    The anatomy of Prunus dulcis was analyzed by applying several differential staining techniques and light microscopy. Prunus dulcis seed has a thin and structurally complex seed coat, with lignified cellulosic tissue. The embryo has two voluminous cotyledons. Cotyledon cells have a high number of protein and lipid bodies, some of which have phytin. The provascular tissue, located in the cotyledons, is oriented in small bundles perpendicular to the transverse embryonic axis. Prunus dulcis cell wall material is very rich in arabinose (45 mol %). Glucose (23%), uronic acids (12%), and xylose (12%) are also major sugar components. The polymers obtained from the imidazole and Na(2)CO(3) extracts contain mainly pectic substances rich in arabinose, but the sugar content of these extracts was very low. The majority of the pectic substances (also rich in arabinose) was recovered with the KOH extracts. These extracts, with high sugar content, yielded also xyloglucans and acidic xylans. The 4 M KOH + H(3)BO(3) extracts yielded polysaccharides rich in uronic acids and xylose and very rich in arabinose, accounting for 27% of the cell wall material.

  3. Facile synthesis of degradable and electrically conductive polysaccharide hydrogels.

    Guo, Baolin; Finne-Wistrand, Anna; Albertsson, Ann-Christine

    2011-07-11

    Degradable and electrically conductive polysaccharide hydrogels (DECPHs) have been synthesized by functionalizing polysaccharide with conductive aniline oligomers. DECPHs based on chitosan (CS), aniline tetramer (AT), and glutaraldehyde were obtained by a facile one-pot reaction by using the amine group of CS and AT under mild conditions, which avoids the multistep reactions and tedious purification involved in the synthesis of degradable conductive hydrogels in our previous work. Interestingly, these one-pot hydrogels possess good film-forming properties, electrical conductivity, and a pH-sensitive swelling behavior. The chemical structure and morphology before and after swelling of the hydrogels were verified by FT-IR, NMR, and SEM. The conductivity of the hydrogels was tuned by adjusting the content of AT. The swelling ratio of the hydrogels was altered by the content of tetraaniline and cross-linker. The hydrogels underwent slow degradation in a buffer solution. The hydrogels obtained by this facile approach provide new possibilities in biomedical applications, for example, biodegradable conductive hydrogels, films, and scaffolds for cardiovascular tissue engineering and controlled drug delivery.

  4. Scleroglucan: A Versatile Polysaccharide for Modified Drug Delivery

    Franco Alhaique

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Scleroglucan is a natural polysaccharide, produced by fungi of the genus Sclerotium, that has been extensively studied for various commercial applications (secondary oil recovery, ceramic glazes, food, paints, etc. and also shows several interesting pharmacological properties. This review focuses its attention on the use of scleroglucan, and some derivatives, in the field of pharmaceutics and in particular for the formulation of modified-release dosage forms. The reported investigations refer mainly to the following topics: natural scleroglucan suitable for the preparation of sustained release tablets and ocular formulations; oxidized and crosslinked scleroglucan used as a matrix for dosage forms sensitive to environmental conditions; co-crosslinked scleroglucan/gellan whose delivery rate can be affected by calcium ions. Furthermore, a novel hydrogel obtained with this polysaccharide and borate ions is described, and the particular structure of this hydrogel network has been interpreted in terms of conformational analysis and molecular dynamics. Profound attention is devoted to the mechanisms involved in drug release from the tested dosage forms that depend, according to the specific preparation, on swelling and/or diffusion. Experimental data are also discussed on the basis of a mathematical approach that allows a better understanding of the behavior of the tested polymeric materials.

  5. Population genetic structure of the major malaria vector Anopheles darlingi (Diptera: Culicidae from the Brazilian Amazon, using microsatellite markers

    Vera Margarete Scarpassa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The population genetic structure of Anopheles darlingi, the major human malaria vector in the Neotropics, was examined using seven microsatellite loci from nine localities in central and western Amazonian Brazil. High levels of genetic variability were detected (5-25 alleles per locus; H E = 0.519-0.949. There was deviation from Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium for 59.79% of the tests due to heterozygote deficits, while the analysis of linkage disequilibrium was significant for only two of 189 (1.05% tests, most likely caused by null alleles. Genetic differentiation (F ST = 0.001-0.095; Nm = 4.7-363.8 indicates that gene flow is extensive among locations < 152 km apart (with two exceptions and reduced, but not absent, at a larger geographic scale. Genetic and geographic distances were significantly correlated (R² = 0.893, P < 0.0002, supporting the isolation by distance (IBD model. The overall estimate of Ne was 202.4 individuals under the linkage disequilibrium model, and 8 under the heterozygote excess model. Analysis of molecular variance showed that nearly all variation (~ 94% was within sample locations. The UPGMA phenogram clustered the samples geographically, with one branch including 5/6 of the state of Amazonas localities and the other branch the Acre, Rondônia, and remaining Amazonas localities. Taken together, these data suggest little genetic structure for An. darlingi from central and western Amazonian Brazil. These findings also imply that the IBD model explains nearly all of the differentiation detected. In practical terms, populations of An. darlingi at distances < 152 km should respond similarly to vector control measures, because of high gene flow.

  6. Structure determination of glycogen synthase kinase-3 from Leishmania major and comparative inhibitor structure-activity relationships with Trypanosoma brucei GSK-3

    Ojo, Kayode K; Arakaki, Tracy L; Napuli, Alberto J; Inampudi, Krishna K; Keyloun, Katelyn R; Zhang, Li; Hol, Wim G.J.; Verlind, Christophe L.M.J.; Merritt, Ethan A; Van Voorhis, Wesley C [UWASH

    2012-04-24

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a drug target under intense investigation in pharmaceutical companies and constitutes an attractive piggyback target for eukaryotic pathogens. Two different GSKs are found in trypanosomatids, one about 150 residues shorter than the other. GSK-3 short (GeneDB: Tb927.10.13780) has previously been validated genetically as a drug target in Trypanosoma brucei by RNAi induced growth retardation; and chemically by correlation between enzyme and in vitro growth inhibition. Here, we report investigation of the equivalent GSK-3 short enzymes of L. major (LmjF18.0270) and L. infantum (LinJ18_V3.0270, identical in amino acid sequences to LdonGSK-3 short) and a crystal structure of LmajGSK-3 short at 2 Å resolution. The inhibitor structure-activity relationships (SARs) of L. major and L. infantum are virtually identical, suggesting that inhibitors could be useful for both cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. Leishmania spp. GSK-3 short has different inhibitor SARs than TbruGSK-3 short, which can be explained mostly by two variant residues in the ATP-binding pocket. Indeed, mutating these residues in the ATP-binding site of LmajGSK-3 short to the TbruGSK-3 short equivalents results in a mutant LmajGSK-3 short enzyme with SAR more similar to that of TbruGSK-3 short. The differences between human GSK-3β (HsGSK-3β) and LmajGSK-3 short SAR suggest that compounds which selectively inhibit LmajGSK-3 short may be found.

  7. Transport of Streptococcus pneumoniae capsular polysaccharide in MHC Class II tubules.

    Tom Li Stephen

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial capsular polysaccharides are virulence factors and are considered T cell-independent antigens. However, the capsular polysaccharide Sp1 from Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 1 has been shown to activate CD4(+ T cells in a major histocompatibility complex (MHC class II-dependent manner. The mechanism of carbohydrate presentation to CD4(+ T cells is unknown. We show in live murine dendritic cells (DCs that Sp1 translocates from lysosomal compartments to the plasma membrane in MHCII-positive tubules. Sp1 cell surface presentation results in reduction of self-peptide presentation without alteration of the MHCII self peptide repertoire. In DM-deficient mice, retrograde transport of Sp1/MHCII complexes resulting in T cell-dependent immune responses to the polysaccharide in vitro and in vivo is significantly reduced. The results demonstrate the capacity of a bacterial capsular polysaccharide antigen to use DC tubules as a vehicle for its transport as an MHCII/saccharide complex to the cell surface for the induction of T cell activation. Furthermore, retrograde transport requires the functional role of DM in self peptide-carbohydrate exchange. These observations open new opportunities for the design of vaccines against microbial encapsulated pathogens.

  8. Suppressive effect of pectic polysaccharides from Cucurbita pepo L. var. Styriaca on citric acid-induced cough reflex in guinea pigs.

    Nosáľová, Gabriela; Prisenžňáková, Lubica; Košťálová, Zuzana; Ebringerová, Anna; Hromádková, Zdenka

    2011-04-01

    Several water-soluble pectic polysaccharides were isolated from the pumpkin fruit biomass and characterized by composition, structural features and molecular properties. The pectic polysaccharides were tested for antitussive activity by studying the effects of citric acid-induced cough reflex in guinea pigs and reactivity of the airway smooth muscle in vivo conditions in comparison to the narcotic drug codeine. Oral administration of all pectic polysaccharides from pumpkin inhibited the number of coughs induced by citric acid in guinea pigs, but to various extents. The results indicated that the antitussive activity of the pectic polysaccharides is affected by their molecular and structural properties, whereby a synergistic action between the polysaccharide and non-carbohydrate components on the biological response has been suggested as well. The cough depressive efficacy of most of the tested polysaccharides was comparable and even higher than that of codeine. Moreover, the application of these polysaccharides provoked any side effects what is their advantage towards the conventional opioid-derived antitussive agents. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Biodegradability of polyurethane/polysaccharide blends

    Mothe, Cheila G.; Leite, Selma G.

    2001-01-01

    Biodegradable polymers for use in environmental waste-management has been the subject of much discussion over the last few years. Polyurethane mixtures with polysaccharide (80/20 and 90/10 w/w ) have been prepared and films obtained. These films were inoculated, according to ASTM G22-76 rule and analysed by thermogravimetry and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). The results are discussed in terms of thermal degradation and biodegradability. (author)

  10. Immune receptors for polysaccharides from Ganoderma lucidum

    Shao Baomei; Dai Hui; Xu Wen; Lin Zhibin; Gao Xiaoming

    2004-01-01

    This study was designed to identify and characterize the immune receptors for polysaccharides from Ganoderma lucidum, a Chinese medicinal fungus that exhibits anti-tumor activities via enhancing host immunity. We herein demonstrate that G. lucidum polysaccharides (GLPS) activated BALB/c mouse B cells and macrophages, but not T cells, in vitro. However, GLPS was unable to activate splenic B cells from C3H/HeJ mice that have a mutated TLR4 molecule (incapable of signal transduction) in proliferation assays. Rat anti-mouse TLR4 monoclonal antibody (Ab) inhibited the proliferation of BALB/c mouse B cells under GLPS stimulation. Combination of Abs against mouse TLR4 and immunoglobulin (Ig) achieved almost complete inhibition of GLPS-induced B cell proliferation, implying that both membrane Ig and TLR4 are required for GLPS-mediated B cell activation. In addition, GLPS significantly inhibited the binding of mouse peritoneal macrophages with polysaccharides from Astragalus membranaceus, which is known to bind directly with TLR4 on macrophage surface. Moreover, GLPS induced IL-1β production by peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c, but not C3H/HeJ, mice, suggesting that TLR4 is also involved in GLPS-mediated macrophage activation. We Further identified a unique 31 kDa serum protein and two intracellular proteins (ribosomal protein S7 and a transcriptional coactivator) capable of binding with GLPS in co-precipitation experiments. Our results may have important implications for our understanding on the molecular mechanisms of immunopotentiating polysaccharides from traditional Chinese medicine

  11. Marine Origin Polysaccharides in Drug Delivery Systems.

    Cardoso, Matias J; Costa, Rui R; Mano, João F

    2016-02-05

    Oceans are a vast source of natural substances. In them, we find various compounds with wide biotechnological and biomedical applicabilities. The exploitation of the sea as a renewable source of biocompounds can have a positive impact on the development of new systems and devices for biomedical applications. Marine polysaccharides are among the most abundant materials in the seas, which contributes to a decrease of the extraction costs, besides their solubility behavior in aqueous solvents and extraction media, and their interaction with other biocompounds. Polysaccharides such as alginate, carrageenan and fucoidan can be extracted from algae, whereas chitosan and hyaluronan can be obtained from animal sources. Most marine polysaccharides have important biological properties such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, and anti-inflammatory activity, as well as adhesive and antimicrobial actions. Moreover, they can be modified in order to allow processing them into various shapes and sizes and may exhibit response dependence to external stimuli, such as pH and temperature. Due to these properties, these biomaterials have been studied as raw material for the construction of carrier devices for drugs, including particles, capsules and hydrogels. The devices are designed to achieve a controlled release of therapeutic agents in an attempt to fight against serious diseases, and to be used in advanced therapies, such as gene delivery or regenerative medicine.

  12. The diversity of Klebsiella pneumoniae surface polysaccharides.

    Follador, Rainer; Heinz, Eva; Wyres, Kelly L; Ellington, Matthew J; Kowarik, Michael; Holt, Kathryn E; Thomson, Nicholas R

    2016-08-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is considered an urgent health concern due to the emergence of multi-drug-resistant strains for which vaccination offers a potential remedy. Vaccines based on surface polysaccharides are highly promising but need to address the high diversity of surface-exposed polysaccharides, synthesized as O-antigens (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) and K-antigens (capsule polysaccharide, CPS), present in K. pneumoniae . We present a comprehensive and clinically relevant study of the diversity of O- and K-antigen biosynthesis gene clusters across a global collection of over 500 K. pneumoniae whole-genome sequences and the seroepidemiology of human isolates from different infection types. Our study defines the genetic diversity of O- and K-antigen biosynthesis cluster sequences across this collection, identifying sequences for known serotypes as well as identifying novel LPS and CPS gene clusters found in circulating contemporary isolates. Serotypes O1, O2 and O3 were most prevalent in our sample set, accounting for approximately 80 % of all infections. In contrast, K serotypes showed an order of magnitude higher diversity and differ among infection types. In addition we investigated a potential association of O or K serotypes with phylogenetic lineage, infection type and the presence of known virulence genes. K1 and K2 serotypes, which are associated with hypervirulent K. pneumoniae , were associated with a higher abundance of virulence genes and more diverse O serotypes compared to other common K serotypes.

  13. Immunoregulatory activities of polysaccharides from mung bean.

    Yao, Yang; Zhu, Yingying; Ren, Guixing

    2016-03-30

    Ultrasonic treatment was performed on water-extractable polysaccharides from the seed of mung beans. Purified by anion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography, MWP-1' and MWP-2' were obtained. Average molecular weights (Mws) of MWP-1' and MWP-2' were 68.4 kDa, and 52.4 kDa, respectively. Monosaccharides components analysis indicated that MWP-1' was composed of Rha, Ara, Man and Gal in a molar percent of 0.4:2.6:5.3:0.7. MWP-2' was composed of Ara, Man, Gal and Glc in a molar percent of 0.5:1.4:2.1:0.4. In vitro study showed that both polysaccharides samples were able to stimulate the production of secretory molecules (NO, TNF-α and IL-6) of RAW264.7 murine macrophages in a dosage dependent manner. MWP-2' seemed to be the most potent and induced significantly higher the NO production. These findings suggest that the ultrasonic treatment polysaccharides isolated in our study have immune potentiation effects on macrophages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Marine Origin Polysaccharides in Drug Delivery Systems

    Cardoso, Matias J.; Costa, Rui R.; Mano, João F.

    2016-01-01

    Oceans are a vast source of natural substances. In them, we find various compounds with wide biotechnological and biomedical applicabilities. The exploitation of the sea as a renewable source of biocompounds can have a positive impact on the development of new systems and devices for biomedical applications. Marine polysaccharides are among the most abundant materials in the seas, which contributes to a decrease of the extraction costs, besides their solubility behavior in aqueous solvents and extraction media, and their interaction with other biocompounds. Polysaccharides such as alginate, carrageenan and fucoidan can be extracted from algae, whereas chitosan and hyaluronan can be obtained from animal sources. Most marine polysaccharides have important biological properties such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, and anti-inflammatory activity, as well as adhesive and antimicrobial actions. Moreover, they can be modified in order to allow processing them into various shapes and sizes and may exhibit response dependence to external stimuli, such as pH and temperature. Due to these properties, these biomaterials have been studied as raw material for the construction of carrier devices for drugs, including particles, capsules and hydrogels. The devices are designed to achieve a controlled release of therapeutic agents in an attempt to fight against serious diseases, and to be used in advanced therapies, such as gene delivery or regenerative medicine. PMID:26861358

  15. Marine Origin Polysaccharides in Drug Delivery Systems

    Matias J. Cardoso

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Oceans are a vast source of natural substances. In them, we find various compounds with wide biotechnological and biomedical applicabilities. The exploitation of the sea as a renewable source of biocompounds can have a positive impact on the development of new systems and devices for biomedical applications. Marine polysaccharides are among the most abundant materials in the seas, which contributes to a decrease of the extraction costs, besides their solubility behavior in aqueous solvents and extraction media, and their interaction with other biocompounds. Polysaccharides such as alginate, carrageenan and fucoidan can be extracted from algae, whereas chitosan and hyaluronan can be obtained from animal sources. Most marine polysaccharides have important biological properties such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, and anti-inflammatory activity, as well as adhesive and antimicrobial actions. Moreover, they can be modified in order to allow processing them into various shapes and sizes and may exhibit response dependence to external stimuli, such as pH and temperature. Due to these properties, these biomaterials have been studied as raw material for the construction of carrier devices for drugs, including particles, capsules and hydrogels. The devices are designed to achieve a controlled release of therapeutic agents in an attempt to fight against serious diseases, and to be used in advanced therapies, such as gene delivery or regenerative medicine.

  16. Population genetic structure of the major malaria vector Anopheles funestus s.s. and allied species in southern Africa

    Choi Kwang Shik

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles funestus s.s., one of the major malaria vectors in sub-Saharan Africa, belongs to a group of eleven African species that are morphologically similar at the adult stage, most of which do not transmit malaria. The population structure of An. funestus based on mitochondrial DNA data led to the description of two cryptic subdivisions, clade I widespread throughout Africa and clade II known only from Mozambique and Madagascar. In this study, we investigated five common members of the Anopheles funestus group in southern Africa in order to determine relationships within and between species. Methods A total of 155 specimens of An. funestus, An. parensis, An. vaneedeni, An. funestus-like and An. rivulorum from South Africa, Mozambique and Malawi were used for the study. The population genetic structure was assessed within and between populations using mitochondrial DNA. Results The phylogenetic trees revealed three main lineages: 1 An. rivulorum; 2 An. funestus-like clade I and An. parensis clade II; and 3 An. funestus clades I and II, An. funestus-like clade II, An. parensis clade I and An. vaneedeni clades I and II. Within An. funestus, 32 specimens from Mozambique consisted of 40.6% clade I and 59.4% clade II while all 21 individuals from Malawi were clade I. In the analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequences, there were 37 polymorphic sites and 9 fixed different nucleotides for ND5 and 21 polymorphic sites and 6 fixed different nucleotides for COI between the two An. funestus clades. The results for COI supported the ND5 analysis. Conclusion This is the first report comparing An. funestus group species including An. funestus clades I and II and the new species An. funestus-like. Anopheles funestus clade I is separated from the rest of the members of the An. funestus subgroup and An. funestus-like is distinctly distributed from the other species in this study. However, there were two clades for An. funestus-like, An

  17. Structural and functional insights into the catalytic inactivity of the major fraction of buffalo milk xanthine oxidoreductase.

    Kaustubh S Gadave

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR existing in two interconvertible forms, xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH and xanthine oxidase (XO, catabolises xanthine to uric acid that is further broken down to antioxidative agent allantoin. XOR also produces free radicals serving as second messenger and microbicidal agent. Large variation in the XO activity has been observed among various species. Both hypo and hyper activity of XOR leads to pathophysiological conditions. Given the important nutritional role of buffalo milk in human health especially in south Asia, it is crucial to understand the functional properties of buffalo XOR and the underlying structural basis of variations in comparison to other species. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Buffalo XO activity of 0.75 U/mg was almost half of cattle XO activity. Enzymatic efficiency (k cat/K m of 0.11 sec(-1 µM(-1 of buffalo XO was 8-10 times smaller than that of cattle XO. Buffalo XOR also showed lower antibacterial activity than cattle XOR. A CD value (Δε430 nm of 46,000 M(-1 cm(-1 suggested occupancy of 77.4% at Fe/S I centre. Buffalo XOR contained 0.31 molybdenum atom/subunit of which 48% existed in active sulfo form. The active form of XO in buffalo was only 16% in comparison to ∼30% in cattle. Sequencing revealed 97.4% similarity between buffalo and cattle XOR. FAD domain was least conserved, while metal binding domains (Fe/S and Molybdenum were highly conserved. Homology modelling of buffalo XOR showed several variations occurring in clusters, especially close to FAD binding pocket which could affect NAD(+ entry in the FAD centre. The difference in XO activity seems to be originating from cofactor deficiency, especially molybdenum. CONCLUSION: A major fraction of buffalo milk XOR exists in a catalytically inactive form due to high content of demolybdo and desulfo forms. Lower Fe/S content and structural factors might be contributing to lower enzymatic efficiency of buffalo XOR in a minor way.

  18. Comparison of Polysaccharides from Two Species of Ganoderma

    Xie, Jing; Zhao, Jing; Hu, De-Jun; Duan, Jin-Ao; Tang, Yu-Ping; Li, Shao-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Ganoderma lucidum and Ganoderma sinense, known as Lingzhi in Chinese, are commonly used Chinese medicines with excellent beneficial health effects. Triterpenes and polysaccharides are usually considered as their main active components. However, the content of triterpenes differs significantly between the two species of Ganoderma. To date, a careful comparison of polysaccharides from the two species of Ganoderma has not been performed. In this study, polysaccharides from fruiting bodies of two...

  19. Depolymerization of polysaccharides from Opuntia ficus indica: Antioxidant and antiglycated activities.

    Chaouch, Mohamed Aymen; Hafsa, Jawhar; Rihouey, Christophe; Le Cerf, Didier; Majdoub, Hatem

    2015-08-01

    The extraction, purification and degradation of polysaccharides from Opuntia ficus indica cladodes, as well as the evaluation of their antioxidant and antiglycated activities in vitro were investigated. The optimization of the extraction showed that extraction by ultrasound at 40 °C presented the best carbohydrates yield. The degradation of the extracted polysaccharides was achieved by free radical depolymerization with H2O2 in the presence of copper(II) acetate for various reaction times. Sugar contents were determined by colorimetric assays. The macromolecular characteristics of the different isolated and degraded carbohydrates were carried by size exclusion chromatography (SEC/MALS/VD/DRI). These experiments showed that all samples are polysaccharides, which are probably pectins and that molecular weight (Mw) has decreased from 6,800,000 to 14,000 g/mol after 3 h of depolymerization without changing the structure. Preliminary antioxidant and antiglycated tests indicated that degraded polysaccharides for 2 and 3 h showed even better antioxidant and antiglycated activities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Extraction optimization, preliminary characterization and antioxidant activities of polysaccharides from Glycine soja.

    Jing, Changliang; Yuan, Yuan; Tang, Qi; Zou, Ping; Li, Yiqiang; Zhang, Chengsheng

    2017-10-01

    Single-factor experiment and Central Composite Design (CCD) was applied to optimize the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) conditions of polysaccharides from Glycine soja (CGPS), and a preliminary characterization of three polysaccharide fractions (CGPS, GPS-1, and GPS-2) and their antioxidant activities were investigated. Under the optimal conditions: ratio of liquid to solid 42.7mL/g, extraction power 293.7W, extraction temperature 68.9°C, and extraction time 34.7min, the experimental CGPS yield was 6.04mg/g. CGPS was further purified by DEAE-cellulose and Sephadex-100 chromatography to obtain two fractions (GPS-1 and GPS-2), and their monosaccharides compositions were characterized by HPLC. Fourier-transform infrared spectra (FT-IR) indicated the chemical structures of them. Moreover, they exhibited high antioxidant activities in a concentration-dependent manner in vitro. In summary, the present study suggested that UAE was a very effective method to extract polysaccharides from Glycine soja and the polysaccharides could be explored as potential antioxidant agents for medicine and function food. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A unique polysaccharide containing 3-O-methylarabinose and 3-O-methylgalactose from Tinospora sinensis.

    Nagar, Shipra; Hensel, Andreas; Mischnick, Petra; Kumar, Vineet

    2018-08-01

    Tinospora sinensis (Lour.) Merrill is of great therapeutic significance in Indian traditional medicine. Crude polysaccharides were isolated from methanol pre-extracted stems of dried material by successive extractions with cold water, hot water and NaOH (0.25 mol/L) in 0.98, 0.55 and 0.70 % yields respectively. Cold water soluble polysaccharides (CWSP) were purified and fractionated by ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sephacel. Neutral polysaccharides were further fractionated on Sepharose CL6B to yield three fractions TW1, TW2, TW3. The study further focuses on structural elucidation of TW1. TW1 was obtained in 0.8 % yield relative to CWSP, with MW of 1.6 × 10 5  Da. It was composed of 3-O-methyl-arabinose, 3-O-methyl-galactose and galactose in molar ratio of 1.0:6.3:0.9 respectively. Based on per-deuteromethylation, NMR and ESI-MS analyses, TW1 was composed of 1,4-linked 3-O-methyl-β-d-galactopyranose and β-d-galactopyranose backbone with branching at O-6 of 3-O-methyl-β-d-galactosyl residues by 1,5-linked 3-O-methyl-α-l-arabinofuranoside chains. 3-O-methyl-arabinose and 3-O-methyl-galactose have first ever been reported in any polysaccharide and Tinospora genus, respectively. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Ultrasonic extraction of polysaccharides from Laminaria japonica and their antioxidative and glycosidase inhibitory activities

    Wan, Peng; Yang, Xiaoman; Cai, Bingna; Chen, Hua; Sun, Huili; Chen, Deke; Pan, Jianyu

    2015-08-01

    In the present study, ultrasonic extraction technique (UET) is used to improve the yield of polysaccharides from Laminaria japonica (LJPs). And their antioxidative as well as glycosidase inhibitory activities are investigated. Box-Behnken design (BBD) combined with response surface methodology (RSM) is applied to optimize ultrasonic extraction for polysaccharides. The optimized conditions are obtained as extraction time at 54 min, ultrasonic power at 1050 W, extraction temperature at 80°C and ratio of material to solvent at 1:50 (g mL-1). Under these optimal ultrasonic extraction conditions, an actual experimental yield (5.75% ± 0.3%) is close to the predicted result (5.67%) with no significant difference ( P > 0.05). Vitro antioxidative and glycosidase inhibitory activities tests indicate that the crude polysaccharides (LJP) and two major ethanol precipitated fractions (LJP1 and LJP2) are in a concentration-dependent manner. LJP2 (30%-60% ethanol precipitated polysaccharides) possesses the strongest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and moderate scavenging activity against hydroxyl radicals (66.09% ± 2.19%, 3.0 mg mL-1). Also, the inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase (59.08% ± 3.79%, 5.0 mg mL-1) is close to that of acarbose (63.99% ± 3.27%, 5.0 mg mL-1). LJP1 (30% ethanol precipitated polysaccharides) exhibits the strongest scavenging activity against hydroxyl radicals (99.80% ± 0.00%, 3.0 mg mL-1) and moderate α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (47.76% ± 1.92%, 5.0 mg mL-1). LJP shows the most remarkable DPPH scavenging activity (66.20% ± 0.11%, 5.0 mg mL-1) but weakest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (37.77% ± 1.30%, 5.0 mg mL-1). However, all these LJPs exert weak inhibitory effects against α-amylase. These results show that UET is an effective method for extracting bioactive polysaccharides from seaweed materials. LJP1 and LJP2 can be developed as a potential ingredient in hypoglycemic agents or functional food for the management of

  3. Polysaccharides enriched in rare sugars: bacterial sources, production and applications

    Christophe eRoca

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Microbial extracellular polysaccharides (EPS, produced by a wide range of bacteria, are high molecular weight biopolymers, presenting an extreme diversity in terms of chemical structure and composition. They may be used in many applications, depending on their chemical and physical properties. A rather unexplored aspect is the presence of rare sugars in the composition of some EPS. Rare sugars, such as rhamnose or fucose, may provide EPS with additional biological properties compared to those composed of more common sugar monomers.This review gives a brief overview of these specific EPS and their producing bacteria. Cultivation conditions are summarized, demonstrating their impact on the EPS composition, together with downstream processing. Finally, their use in different areas, including cosmetics, food products, pharmaceuticals and biomedical applications, are discussed.

  4. A Potential Adjuvant Agent of Chemotherapy: Sepia Ink Polysaccharides

    Fangping Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Sepia ink polysaccharide (SIP isolated from squid and cuttlefish ink is a kind of acid mucopolysaccharide that has been identified in three types of primary structures from squid (Illex argentinus and Ommastrephes bartrami, cuttlefish Sepiella maindroni, and cuttlefish Sepia esculenta ink. Although SIP has been proved to be multifaceted, most of the reported evidence has illuminated its chemopreventive and antineoplastic activities. As a natural product playing a role in cancer treatment, SIP may be used as chemotherapeutic ancillary agent or functional food. Based on the current findings on SIP, we have summarized four topics in this review, including: chemopreventive, antineoplastic, chemosensitive, and procoagulant and anticoagulant activities, which are correlative closely with the actions of anticancer agents on cancer patients, such as anticancer, toxicity and thrombogenesis, with the latter two actions being common causes of death in cancer cases exposed to chemotherapeutic agents.

  5. Emergency Management Span of Control: Optimizing Organizational Structures to Better Prepare Vermont for the Next Major or Catastrophic Disaster

    Schumacher, Ludwig J

    2008-01-01

    ..., and actionable federal requests for assistance cannot be articulated. Forty-five states have county emergency management structures between municipal and state structures, which regionalize emergency management within those states...

  6. Polysaccharides and their depolymerized fragments from Costaria costata: Molecular weight and sulfation-dependent anticoagulant and FGF/FGFR signal activating activities.

    Hou, Ningning; Zhang, Meng; Xu, Yingjie; Sun, Zhongmin; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Lijuan; Zhang, Quanbin

    2017-12-01

    Crude polysaccharides from Costaria costata were extracted by hot water and further fractionated by anion exchange chromatography into three polysaccharide fractions. Three low molecular weight fragments were then prepared by degradation of the polysaccharides with hydrogen peroxide and ascorbic acid. The structural features of the polysaccharides and their low molecular weight fragments were elucidated for the first time based on the HGPC, FT-IR, NMR, MS, monosaccharide composition, and other chemical analyses. Their anticoagulant and FGF-1, -2, -7, -8, -9, -10/FGFR1c signaling activation activities in BaF3 cells were also examined. Our studies showed that the polysaccharides were sulfated at different positions of galactose and fucose residues. The APTT-, PT- and TT-based anticoagulant assay results indicated that a high molecular weight and a higher degree of sulfation were essential for their anticoagulant activities. In contrast, not only the polysaccharides but also the depolymerized fragments showed significant FGF/FGFR signal activating activities in a FGF-, molecular weight-, and sulfation-dependent manner. The results presented in current study demonstrated the potential use of the polysaccharides and their fragments as anticoagulants and FGF signal regulators. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Identification of polysaccharide hydrolases involved in autolytic degradation of Zea cell walls

    Nock, L.P.; Smith, C.J.

    1987-01-01

    Cell walls of Zea mays (cv L.G.11) seedlings labeled with 14 C were treated with α-amylase from Bacillus subtilis to remove starch and mixed linkage glucans. These walls released arabinose, xylose, galactose, and galacturonic acid in addition to glucose when they were allowed to autolyze. Methylation analysis was performed on samples of wall which had been incubated autolytically and the results indicated that degradation of the major polymer of the wall, the glucoarabinoxylan, had occurred. A number of glycanases could be dissociated from the wall by use of 3 M LiCL. The proteins which were released were found to contain a number of exoglycosidase activities in addition to being effective in degrading the polysaccharide substrates, araban, xylan, galactan, laminarin, mannan, and polygalacturonic acid. The effects of these enzymes on the wall during autolysis appear to result from endo-activity in addition to exo-activity. The structural changes that occurred in the cell walls during autolysis were found to be related to the changes previously found to occur in cell walls during auxin induced extension

  8. Dissecting the polysaccharide-rich grape cell wall matrix using recombinant pectinases during winemaking.

    Gao, Yu; Fangel, Jonatan U; Willats, William G T; Vivier, Melané A; Moore, John P

    2016-11-05

    The effectiveness of enzyme-mediated-maceration in red winemaking relies on the use of an optimum combination of specific enzymes. A lack of information on the relevant enzyme activities and the corresponding polysaccharide-rich berry cell wall structure is a major limitation. This study used different combinations of purified recombinant pectinases with cell wall profiling tools to follow the deconstruction process during winemaking. Multivariate data analysis of the glycan microarray (CoMPP) and gas chromatography (GC) results revealed that pectin lyase performed almost as effectively in de-pectination as certain commercial enzyme mixtures. Surprisingly the combination of endo-polygalacturonase and pectin-methyl-esterase only unraveled the cell walls without de-pectination. Datasets from the various combinations used confirmed pectin-rich and xyloglucan-rich layers within the grape pomace. These data support a proposed grape cell wall model which can serve as a foundation to evaluate testable hypotheses in future studies aimed at developing tailor-made enzymes for winemaking scenarios. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluating the susceptibility of pyrolysis of monosaccharide, disaccharide, and polysaccharide to CO_2

    Lee, Jechan; Tsang, Yiu Fai; Oh, Jeong-Ik; Lee, Sang-Ryong; Kwon, Eilhann E.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Two-stage pyrolyzer gives a deep insight into sensitivity of biomass structure to CO_2. • The influence of CO_2 in pyrolysis of biomass occurs selectively. • Hemicellulose and lignin are highly sensitive to CO_2 in pyrolysis. • Thermal cracking of VOCs can be expedited by using CO_2 in pyrolysis. - Abstract: This study is aiming at exploring the genuine role of CO_2 in pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass by investigating the susceptibility of pyrolysis of monosaccharide (e.g., xylose and glucose), disaccharide (e.g., sucrose), and polysaccharide (e.g., woody biomass) to CO_2. To do this, the thermal degradation of these four biomass samples was characterized in N_2 and CO_2. The thermal characterization results reveal that the physical aspects of biomass decomposition (i.e., thermal degradation rate and residual mass difference) associated with CO_2 were nearly the same; however, the chemical aspects were significantly different. In other words, CO_2 enhanced thermal cracking of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) generated from thermal degradation of biomass. In addition, our experiment results show that xylose (a major constituent of hemicellulose) and lignin exhibited a high sensitivity to CO_2 in pyrolysis.

  10. Polysaccharide rich fractions from barks of Ximenia americana inhibit peripheral inflammatory nociception in mice Antinociceptive effect of Ximenia americana polysaccharide rich fractions

    Kaira E.S. da Silva-Leite

    Full Text Available Abstract Ximenia americana L., Olacaceae, barks are utilized in folk medicine as analgesic and anti-inflammatory. The objective was to evaluate the toxicity and antinociceptive effect of polysaccharides rich fractions from X. americana barks. The fractions were obtained by extraction with NaOH, followed by precipitation with ethanol and fractionation by ion exchange chromatography. They were administered i.v. or p.o. before nociception tests (writhing, formalin, carragenan-induced hypernociception, hot plate, or during 14 days for toxicity assay. The total polysaccharides fraction (TPL-Xa: 8.1% yield presented 43% carbohydrate (21% uronic acid and resulted in two main fractions after chromatography (FI: 12%, FII: 22% yield. FII showed better homogeneity/purity, content of 44% carbohydrate, including 39% uronic acid, arabinose and galactose as major monosaccharides, and infrared spectra with peaks in carbohydrate range for COO- groups of uronic acid. TPL-Xa (10 mg/kg and FII (0.1 and 1 mg/kg presented inhibitory effect in behavior tests that evaluate nociception induced by chemical and mechanical, but not thermal stimuli. TPL-Xa did not alter parameters of systemic toxicity. In conclusion, polysaccharides rich fractions of X. americana barks inhibit peripheral inflammatory nociception, being well tolerated by animals.

  11. Reduced order dynamic model for polysaccharides molecule attached to an atomic force microscope

    Tang Deman; Li Aiqin; Attar, Peter; Dowell, Earl H.

    2004-01-01

    A dynamic analysis and numerical simulation has been conducted of a polysaccharides molecular structure (a ten (10) single-α-D-glucose molecule chain) connected to a moving atomic force microscope (AFM). Sinusoidal base excitation of the AFM cantilevered beam is considered. First a linearized perturbation model is constructed for the complex polysaccharides molecular structure. Then reduced order (dynamic) models based upon a proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) technique are constructed using global modes for both the linearized perturbation model and for the full nonlinear model. The agreement between the original and reduced order models (ROM/POD) is very good even when only a few global modes are included in the ROM for either the linear case or for the nonlinear case. The computational advantage of the reduced order model is clear from the results presented

  12. Polysaccharide composition of raw and cooked chayote (Sechium edule Sw.) fruits and tuberous roots.

    Shiga, Tânia M; Peroni-Okita, Fernanda Helena Gonçalves; Carpita, Nicholas C; Lajolo, Franco Maria; Cordenunsi, Beatriz Rosana

    2015-10-05

    Chayote is a multipurpose table vegetable widely consumed in Latin America countries. Chayote fruits, leaves and tuberous roots contain complex carbohydrates as dietary fiber and starch, vitamins and minerals. The complex polysaccharides (cell walls and starch) were analyzed in the black and green varieties of chayote fruits as well as in green chayote tuberous root before and after a controlled cooking process to assess changes in their composition and structure. The monosaccharide composition and linkage analysis indicated pectins homogalacturonans and rhamnogalacturonan I backbones constitute about 15-20% of the wall mass, but are heavily substituted with, up to 60% neutral arabinans, galactans, arabinogalactans. The remainder is composed of xyloglucan, glucomannans and galactoglucomannans. Chayote cell-wall polysaccharides are highly stable under normal cooking conditions, as confirmed by the optical microscopy of wall structure. We found also that tuberous roots constitute a valuable additional source of quality starch and fiber. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Constant current chronopotentiometric stripping of sulphated polysaccharides

    Strmečki, S.; Plavšić, M.; Ćosović, B.; Ostatná, Veronika; Paleček, Emil

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 10 (2009), s. 2032-2035 ISSN 1388-2481 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA301/07/0490; GA ČR(CZ) GP202/07/P497; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06035 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : sulphated polysaccharides * ióta-carrageenan * catalysis of hydrogen evolution Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 4.243, year: 2009

  14. Methods of saccharification of polysaccharides in plants

    Howard, John; Fake, Gina

    2014-04-29

    Saccharification of polysaccharides of plants is provided, where release of fermentable sugars from cellulose is obtained by adding plant tissue composition. Production of glucose is obtained without the need to add additional .beta.-glucosidase. Adding plant tissue composition to a process using a cellulose degrading composition to degrade cellulose results in an increase in the production of fermentable sugars compared to a process in which plant tissue composition is not added. Using plant tissue composition in a process using a cellulose degrading enzyme composition to degrade cellulose results in decrease in the amount of cellulose degrading enzyme composition or exogenously applied cellulase required to produce fermentable sugars.

  15. Voltammetry of Os(VI)-modified polysaccharides

    Trefulka, Mojmír; Paleček, Emil

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 16 (2010), s. 1837-1845 ISSN 1040-0397 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) GPP301/10/P548; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06035 Grant - others:GA AV ČR(CZ) KAN400310651 Program:KA Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : chemical modification of polysaccharides * electroactive labels * osmium(VI) complexes Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.721, year: 2010

  16. Production of heterologous storage polysaccharides in potato plants

    Huang, X.; Vincken, J.P.; Visser, R.G.F.; Trindade, L.M.

    2011-01-01

    Starch is the most important storage polysaccharide in higher plants. This polysaccharide is used in many industrial applications as it is abundant, renewable and biodegradable and it can be modified into a wide range of products used in food, animal feed, pharmaceuticals and industry. With the

  17. Iodophilic polysaccharide synthesis, acid production and growth in oral streptococci

    Houte, J. van; Winkler, K.C.; Jansen, H.M.

    The relation between iodophilic polysaccharide formation, acid production and growth in α-haemolytic streptococci, isolated from human dental plaque, was studied. In experiments with resting cell suspensions, or with cells growing at a low rate, all strains synthesizing iodophilic polysaccharide

  18. In vitro antioxidant activity of polysaccharide from Gardenia jasminoides ellis

    Fan, Y.; Ge, Z.; Luo, A.

    2011-01-01

    A water-soluble polysaccharide, GP, was isolated from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis through hot water extraction followed by ethanol precipitation. The in vitro free radicals scavenging tests exhibited that GP has significant scavenging abilities especially for ABTS, DPPH, and hydroxyl radicals, which suggests that the polysaccharide GP is a novel antioxidant. ?? 2011 Academic Journals.

  19. Life cycle assessment of polysaccharide materials: a review

    Shen, L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/310872022; Patel, M.K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/18988097X

    2008-01-01

    Apart from conventional uses of polysaccharide materials, such as food, clothing, paper packaging and construction, new polysaccharide products and materials have been developed. This paper reviews life cycle assessment (LCA) studies in order to gain insight of the environmental profiles of

  20. Modulating surface rheology by electrostatic protein/polysaccharide interactions

    Ganzevles, R.A.; Zinoviadou, K.; Vliet, van T.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.; Jongh, de H.H.J.

    2006-01-01

    There is a large interest in mixed protein/polysaccharide layers at air-water and oil-water interfaces because of their ability to stabilize foams and emulsions. Mixed protein/polysaccharide adsorbed layers at air-water interfaces can be prepared either by adsorption of soluble protein/

  1. Perspective on the Use of Sulfated Polysaccharides from Marine Organisms as a Source of New Antithrombotic Drugs

    Paulo A. S. Mourão

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Thromboembolic diseases are increasing worldwide and always require anticoagulant therapy. We still need safer and more secure antithrombotic drugs than those presently available. Sulfated polysaccharides from marine organisms may constitute a new source for the development of such drugs. Investigation of these compounds usually attempts to reproduce the therapeutic effects of heparin. However, we may need to follow different routes, focusing particularly in the following aspects: (1 defining precisely the specific structures required for interaction of these sulfated polysaccharides with proteins of the coagulation system; (2 looking for alternative mechanisms of action, distinct from those of heparin; (3 identifying side effects (mostly pro-coagulant action and hypotension rather than bleeding and preparing derivatives that retain the desired antithrombotic action but are devoid of side effects; (4 considering that sulfated polysaccharides with low anticoagulant action on in vitro assays may display potent effects on animal models of experimental thrombosis; and finally (5 investigating the antithrombotic effect of these sulfated polysaccharides after oral administration or preparing derivatives that may achieve this effect. If these aspects are successfully addressed, sulfated polysaccharides from marine organisms may conquer the frontier of antithrombotic therapy and open new avenues for treatment or prevention of thromboembolic diseases.

  2. THE USE OF POLYSACCHARIDES EXTRACTED FROM SEED OF Persea americana var. Hass ON THE SYNTHESIS OF ACRYLIC HYDROGELS

    Vicente Arturo Lara-Valencia

    Full Text Available This paper reports the use of polysaccharides extracted from seed of Persea americana var. Hass in the synthesis of acrylic hydrogels. The effects of the chemical composition (acrylamide/acrylic acid, the concentration of crosslinking agent (glycerol diacrylate and the type of initiation (redox, photoinitiation of the hydrogels were evaluated with and without polysaccharides. Xerogels were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, while for the swollen hydrogels the swelling kinetic and mechanical properties were evaluated. The kinetic parameters were obtained using the second order equation proposed by Schott, where it is reported that by increasing the concentration of the crosslinking agent, the degree of swelling is reduced because of the greater structural level. The increase of the amount of acrylamide and the amount of polysaccharides causes also a decrease in the swelling degree. The type of initiation also affected the hydrogels swelling kinetic, the photoinitiated hydrogels were the ones that captured less water. Moreover, the increasing of the glass transition temperature and the compression modulus with the crosslinking agent concentration and molar ratio AAm/AAc are observed for hydrogels with and without polysaccharides. The results demonstrate a successful incorporation of polysaccharides into the polymeric network.

  3. Major depression

    Depression - major; Depression - clinical; Clinical depression; Unipolar depression; Major depressive disorder ... providers do not know the exact causes of depression. It is believed that chemical changes in the ...

  4. Immunostimulatory Effects of Polysaccharides Isolated from Makgeolli (Traditional Korean Rice Wine

    Chang-Won Cho

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Makgeolli is a traditional Korean rice wine, reported to have various biological functions. In this study, the immunostimulatory activity of a polysaccharide from makgeolli (PSM was investigated. The polysaccharide fraction was isolated from makgeolli by hot water extraction, ethanol precipitation, dialysis, and lyophilization. The major constituents in PSM were neutral sugars (87.3%. PSM was composed of five different sugars, glucose, mannose, galactose, xylose, and arabinose. In normal mice, PSM treatment increased the spleen index (p < 0.05 as well as splenocyte proliferation (p < 0.05 in combination with concanavalin A or lipopolysaccharide. The immunostimulatory activities of PSM were also examined in cyclophosphamide (CY-induced immunosuppressed mice. Mice treated with PSM exhibited increased splenocyte proliferation (p < 0.05, natural killer cell activity, and white blood cell counts (p < 0.01 compared with immunosuppressed mice. These results indicate that PSM can enhance immune function in normal mice and CY-induced immunosuppressed mice.

  5. Comparison of polysaccharides from two species of Ganoderma.

    Xie, Jing; Zhao, Jing; Hu, De-Jun; Duan, Jin-Ao; Tang, Yu-Ping; Li, Shao-Ping

    2012-01-13

    Ganoderma lucidum and Ganoderma sinense, known as Lingzhi in Chinese, are commonly used Chinese medicines with excellent beneficial health effects. Triterpenes and polysaccharides are usually considered as their main active components. However, the content of triterpenes differs significantly between the two species of Ganoderma. To date, a careful comparison of polysaccharides from the two species of Ganoderma has not been performed. In this study, polysaccharides from fruiting bodies of two species of Lingzhi collected from different regions of China were analyzed and compared based on HPSEC-ELSD and HPSEC-MALLS-RI analyses, as well as enzymatic digestion and HPTLC of acid hydrolysates. The results indicated that both the HPSEC-ELSD profiles and the molecular weights of the polysaccharides were similar. Enzymatic digestion showed that polysaccharides from all samples of Lingzhi could be hydrolyzed by pectinase and dextranase. HPTLC profiles of their TFA hydrolysates colored with different reagents and their monosaccharides composition were also similar.

  6. Modified polysaccharides as alternative binders for foundry industry

    K. Kaczmarska

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharides constitute a wide group of important polymers with many commercial applications, for example food packaging, fibres, coatings, adhesives etc. This review is devoted to the presentation of polysaccharide application in foundry industry. In this paper the selected properties of foundry moulding sand and core sand containing modified polysaccharides as binders are presented according to foreign literature data. Also, author’s own research about effect of using moulding sand binder consisting of modified polysaccharide (modified starch or its composition with non-toxic synthetic polymers are discussed. Based on technologies taken under consideration in this paper, it could be concluded that polysaccharides are suitable as an alternative for use as binder in foundry moulding applications.

  7. Use of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) to study the dissociation and polysaccharide binding of casein micelles and caseins.

    Thompson, Abby K; Singh, Harjinder; Dalgleish, Douglas G

    2010-11-24

    Tests were made to determine whether surface plasmon resonance (SPR) could be used as a technique to study the dissociation properties of bovine casein micelles or of sodium caseinate and the interactions between these protein particles and different polysaccharides. Surfaces of bound micelles or caseinate were made, and the changes in refractive index of these layers were used to define changes in the structures of the chemisorbed material. The technique appears to have some potential for studying details of the dissociation of casein micelles and of the binding of different polysaccharides to caseins.

  8. Membrane-bound conformation of M13 major coat protein : a structure validation through FRET-derived constraints

    Vos, W.L.; Koehorst, R.B.M.; Spruijt, R.B.; Hemminga, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    M13 major coat protein, a 50-amino-acid-long protein, was incorporated into DOPC/DOPG (80/20 molar ratio) unilamellar vesicles. Over 60% of all amino acid residues was replaced with cysteine residues, and the single cysteine mutants were labeled with the fluorescent label I-AEDANS. The coat protein

  9. Role of major surface structures of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in initial attachment to biotic and abiotic surfaces

    Infection by human pathogens through fresh, minimally processed produce and solid plant-derived foods is a major concern of U.S. and global food industry and public health services. The enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a frequent and potent food borne pathogen that causes severe disease...

  10. Influence of Nano-Crystal Metals on Texture and Biological Properties of Water Soluble Polysaccharides of Medicinal Plants

    Churilov, G.; Ivanycheva, J.; Kiryshin, V.

    2015-11-01

    When treating the plants seeds with nano-materials there are some quality and quantity changes of polysaccharides, the molecular mass increase and monosaccharides change that leads to the increase of physiological and pharmacological activity of carbohydrates got from medicinal plants. We have got water soluble polysaccharides and nano-metals combinations containing 0.000165-0.000017 mg/dm3 of the metal. In a case of induced anemia the blood composition has practically restored on the 10th day of the treatment with nanocomposites. The use of pectin polysaccharides (that are attributed to modifiers of biological respond) to get nano-structured materials seems to be actual relative to their physiological activity (radio nuclides persorption, heavy metals ions, bacteria cells and their toxins; lipids metabolism normalization; bowels secreting and motor functions activation and modulation of the endocrine system.

  11. Research of polysaccharide complexes from asteraceae family plants

    Світлана Михайлівна Марчишин

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim of research. Depth study of polysaccharides in some little-known plant species of Asteraceae family is pressing question, considering that polysaccharides are important biologically active compounds widely used in pharmaceutical and medical practice as remedies and preventive medications. The aim of research was to determinate both quantitative content and monomeric composition of polysaccharide complexes from Asteraceae family plant species – Tagetes genus, Arnica genus, and Bellis genus.Materials and methods. Determination of polysaccharides was carried out by the precipitation reaction, using 96 % ethyl alcohol P and Fehling's solution after acid hydrolysis; quantitative content of this group of compounds was determined by gravimetric analysis. On purpose to identify the monomeric composition hydrolysis under sulfuric acid conditions was conducted. Qualitative monomeric composition of polysaccharides after hydrolysis was carried out by paper chromatography method in n-Butanol – Pyridine – Distilled water P (6:4:3 system along with saccharides reference samples.Results. Polysaccharide complexes from Tagetes erecta, Tagetes patula, Tagetes tenuifolia, Arnica montana, Arnica foliosa, wild and cultivated Bellis perennis herbs were studied. Water-soluble polysaccharides and pectin fractions were isolated from studied objects; their quantitative content and monomeric composition were determined.Conclusion. The highest amount of water-soluble polysaccharides was found in cultivated Bellis perennis herb (10,13 %, the highest amount of pectin compounds – in Tagetes tenuifolia herb (13,62 %; the lowest amount of water-soluble polysaccharides and pectin compounds was found in Arnica montana herb (4,61 % and Tagetes patula herb (3,62 %, respectively. It was found that polysaccharide complexes from all studied species include glucose and arabinose

  12. A Taxometric Investigation of "DSM-IV" Major Depression in a Large Outpatient Sample: Interpretable Structural Results Depend on the Mode of Assessment

    Ruscio, John; Brown, Timothy A.; Ruscio, Ayelet Meron

    2009-01-01

    Most taxometric studies of depressive constructs have drawn indicators from self-report instruments that do not bear directly on the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV)" diagnostic construct of major depressive disorder (MDD). The present study examined the latent structure of MDD using indicator sets…

  13. HIV-1 splicing is controlled by local RNA structure and binding of splicing regulatory proteins at the major 5' splice site

    Mueller, Nancy; Berkhout, Ben; Das, Atze T.

    2015-01-01

    The 5' leader region of the human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) RNA genome contains the major 5' splice site (ss) that is used in the production of the many spliced viral RNAs. This splice-donor (SD) region can fold into a stable stem-loop structure and the thermodynamic stability of this RNA

  14. Physiological and molecular aspects of degradation of plant polysaccharides by fungi: What have we learned from Aspergillus?

    Culleton, H.; McKie, V.; de Vries, R.P.

    2013-01-01

    Plant biomass is the most abundant and usable carbon source for many fungal species. Due to its diverse and complex structure, fungi need to produce a large range of enzymes to degrade these polysaccharides into monomeric components. The fine-tuned production of such diverse enzyme sets requires

  15. Simulation of Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC Structure and Peptide Loading into an MHC Binding Pocket with Teachers’Hands

    Mojtaba Sankian

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Molecular understanding of three-dimensional (3D peptide: MHC models require both basic knowledge of computational modeling and skilled visual perception, which are not possessed by all students. The present model aims to simulate MHC molecular structure with the hands and make a profound impression on the students.

  16. Identification of a major non-structural protein in the nuclei of Rift Valley fever virus-infected cells.

    Struthers, J K; Swanepoel, R

    1982-06-01

    A non-structural protein of mol. wt. 34 X 10(3) was demonstrated in the nuclei of Rift Valley fever virus-infected Vero cells by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electro-phoresis. The protein appears to correspond to the virus-induced antigen demonstrated by indirect immunofluorescence in intranuclear inclusions.

  17. Changes in Self-Schema Structure in Cognitive Therapy for Major Depressive Disorder: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Dozois, David J. A.; Bieling, Peter J.; Patelis-Siotis, Irene; Hoar, Lori; Chudzik, Susan; McCabe, Katie; Westra, Henny A.

    2009-01-01

    Negative cognitive structure (particularly for interpersonal content) has been shown in some research to persist past a current episode of depression and potentially to be a stable marker of vulnerability for depression (D. J. A. Dozois, 2007; D. J. A. Dozois & K. S. Dobson, 2001a). Given that cognitive therapy (CT) is highly effective for…

  18. Responsiveness of the major birch allergen Bet v 1 scaffold to the gastric environment: Impact on structure and allergenic activity

    Sancho, Ana I; Wangorsch, Andrea; Jensen, Bettina M

    2011-01-01

    Four Bet v 1 homologous food allergens from celeriac (rApi g 1), apple (rMal d 1), peach (rPru p 1) and hazelnut (rCor a 1), were used to probe the structural responsiveness of the Bet v 1 scaffold to gastric digestion conditions and its impact on allergenicity....

  19. Oxygen barrier of multilayer thin films comprised of polysaccharides and clay.

    Laufer, Galina; Kirkland, Christopher; Cain, Amanda A; Grunlan, Jaime C

    2013-06-05

    Multilayered thin films of chitosan (CH), carrageenan (CR) and montmorillonite (MMT) clay, deposited using the layer-by-layer technique, were studied in an effort to produce fully renewable polysaccharide-based thin films with low oxygen permeability. Ten 'trilayers' of CH/MMT/CR (film reduced its oxygen permeability (1.76×10(-15) cm(3) cm/cm(2) s Pa) by an order of magnitude under dry conditions. By adding an additional layer of CH to the trilayer sequence, a 'quadlayer' film of CH/CR/CH/MMT (barrier is believed to be due to the unique nanostructure of these films, often referred to as a "nanobrick wall" structure, as well as a strong association amongst the oppositely charged polysaccharides. Combining fully renewable and food contact approved ingredients with high gas barrier and optical transparency makes this technology promising as a foil replacement for food packaging. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. New polysaccharide-based polymer electrolytes; Nouveaux electrolytes polymeres a base de polysaccharides

    Velasquez-Morales, P.; Le Nest, J.F.; Gandini, A. [Ecole Francaise de Papeterie et des Industries Graphique, 38 - Saint Martin d`Heres (France)

    1996-12-31

    Polysaccharides like cellulose and chitosan are known for their filmic properties. This paper concerns the synthesis and the study of chitosan-based polymer electrolytes. A preliminary work concerns the study of glucosamine reactivity. The poly-condensation of chitosan ethers (obtained by reaction with ethylene oxide or propylene oxide) with bifunctional and monofunctional oligo-ethers leads to the formation of thin lattices (10 {mu}m) having excellent mechanical properties. The presence of grafted polyether chains along the polysaccharide skeleton allows to modify the vitreous transition temperature and the molecular disorder of the system. Two type of polymer electrolytes have been synthesized: electrolytes carrying a dissolved alkaline metal salt and ionomers. The analysis of their thermal, dynamical mechanical, nuclear magnetic relaxation, electrical, and electrochemical properties shows that this new class of polymer electrolytes has the same performances as ethylene poly-oxide based amorphous lattices plus the advantage of having good filmic properties. Abstract only. (J.S.)

  1. New polysaccharide-based polymer electrolytes; Nouveaux electrolytes polymeres a base de polysaccharides

    Velasquez-Morales, P; Le Nest, J F; Gandini, A [Ecole Francaise de Papeterie et des Industries Graphique, 38 - Saint Martin d` Heres (France)

    1997-12-31

    Polysaccharides like cellulose and chitosan are known for their filmic properties. This paper concerns the synthesis and the study of chitosan-based polymer electrolytes. A preliminary work concerns the study of glucosamine reactivity. The poly-condensation of chitosan ethers (obtained by reaction with ethylene oxide or propylene oxide) with bifunctional and monofunctional oligo-ethers leads to the formation of thin lattices (10 {mu}m) having excellent mechanical properties. The presence of grafted polyether chains along the polysaccharide skeleton allows to modify the vitreous transition temperature and the molecular disorder of the system. Two type of polymer electrolytes have been synthesized: electrolytes carrying a dissolved alkaline metal salt and ionomers. The analysis of their thermal, dynamical mechanical, nuclear magnetic relaxation, electrical, and electrochemical properties shows that this new class of polymer electrolytes has the same performances as ethylene poly-oxide based amorphous lattices plus the advantage of having good filmic properties. Abstract only. (J.S.)

  2. Fractionation, physicochemical property and immunological activity of polysaccharides from Cassia obtusifolia.

    Feng, Lei; Yin, Junyi; Nie, Shaoping; Wan, Yiqun; Xie, Mingyong

    2016-10-01

    The seeds of Cassia obtusifolia are widely used as a drink in Asia and an additive in food industry. Considerable amounts of water-soluble polysaccharides were found in the whole seeds, while conflicting results on structure characteristics have been reported, and few studies have been reported on physicochemical properties and immunomodulatory activities. In the present study, gradient ethanol precipitation was applied to fractionate the water-soluble polysaccharide (CP), and two sub-fractions CP-30 (30% ethanol precipitate) and CP-40 (40% ethanol precipitate) were obtained. Different rheological properties for CP-30 and CP-40 were found, indicating the differences in structure characteristics between CP-30 and CP-40. Chemical properties, including molecular weight, monosaccharide composition, and glycosidic linkage were investigated. Compared with CP-30, CP-40 had lower molecular weight and higher content of xylose. The immunomodulatory effects of CP, CP-30 and CP-40 were assessed. All of them were found to possess significant immunomodulation activities, while varied effects of them on macrophage functions were observed. The aim of the present study was to develop a simple and efficient method to purify cassia polysaccharides, and investigate their physicochemical properties and biological activities, which was meaningful for their potential use in food industry and folk medicine. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Bacterial glycobiology: rhamnose-containing cell wall polysaccharides in Gram-positive bacteria.

    Mistou, Michel-Yves; Sutcliffe, Iain C; van Sorge, Nina M

    2016-07-01

    The composition of the Gram-positive cell wall is typically described as containing peptidoglycan, proteins and essential secondary cell wall structures called teichoic acids, which comprise approximately half of the cell wall mass. The cell walls of many species within the genera Streptococcus, Enterococcus and Lactococcus contain large amounts of the sugar rhamnose, which is incorporated in cell wall-anchored polysaccharides (CWP) that possibly function as homologues of well-studied wall teichoic acids (WTA). The presence and chemical structure of many rhamnose-containing cell wall polysaccharides (RhaCWP) has sometimes been known for decades. In contrast to WTA, insight into the biosynthesis and functional role of RhaCWP has been lacking. Recent studies in human streptococcal and enterococcal pathogens have highlighted critical roles for these complex polysaccharides in bacterial cell wall architecture and pathogenesis. In this review, we provide an overview of the RhaCWP with regards to their biosynthesis, genetics and biological function in species most relevant to human health. We also briefly discuss how increased knowledge in this field can provide interesting leads for new therapeutic compounds and improve biotechnological applications. © FEMS 2016.

  4. Antibiofilm activity of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 capsular polysaccharide.

    Michael T Karwacki

    Full Text Available Cell-free extracts isolated from colony biofilms of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 were found to inhibit biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, but not by A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 itself, in a 96-well microtiter plate assay. Physical and chemical analyses indicated that the antibiofilm activity in the extract was due to high-molecular-weight polysaccharide. Extracts isolated from a mutant strain deficient in the production of serotype 5 capsular polysaccharide did not exhibit antibiofilm activity. A plasmid harboring the serotype 5 capsule genes restored the antibiofilm activity in the mutant extract. Purified serotype 5 capsular polysaccharide also exhibited antibiofilm activity against S. aureus. A. pleuropneumoniae wild-type extracts did not inhibit S. aureus growth, but did inhibit S. aureus intercellular adhesion and binding of S. aureus cells to stainless steel surfaces. Furthermore, polystyrene surfaces coated with A. pleuropneumoniae wild-type extracts, but not with capsule-mutant extracts, resisted S. aureus biofilm formation. Our findings suggest that the A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 capsule inhibits cell-to-cell and cell-to-surface interactions of other bacteria. A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 capsular polysaccharide is one of a growing number of bacterial polysaccharides that exhibit broad-spectrum, nonbiocidal antibiofilm activity. Future studies on these antibiofilm polysaccharides may uncover novel functions for bacterial polysaccharides in nature, and may lead to the development of new classes of antibiofilm agents for industrial and clinical applications.

  5. Intelligent Access to Sequence and Structure Databases (IASSD) - an interface for accessing information from major web databases.

    Ganguli, Sayak; Gupta, Manoj Kumar; Basu, Protip; Banik, Rahul; Singh, Pankaj Kumar; Vishal, Vineet; Bera, Abhisek Ranjan; Chakraborty, Hirak Jyoti; Das, Sasti Gopal

    2014-01-01

    With the advent of age of big data and advances in high throughput technology accessing data has become one of the most important step in the entire knowledge discovery process. Most users are not able to decipher the query result that is obtained when non specific keywords or a combination of keywords are used. Intelligent access to sequence and structure databases (IASSD) is a desktop application for windows operating system. It is written in Java and utilizes the web service description language (wsdl) files and Jar files of E-utilities of various databases such as National Centre for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) and Protein Data Bank (PDB). Apart from that IASSD allows the user to view protein structure using a JMOL application which supports conditional editing. The Jar file is freely available through e-mail from the corresponding author.

  6. Genetic structure and contrasting selection pattern at two major histocompatibility complex genes in wild house mouse populations

    Čížková, Dagmar; Goüy de Bellocq, J.; Baird, S. J. E.; Piálek, Jaroslav; Bryja, Josef

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 106, č. 5 (2011), s. 727-740 ISSN 0018-067X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600930608; GA ČR GA206/08/0640 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : MHC * house mouse * selection * population structure * trans-species polymorphism Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.597, year: 2011

  7. Structural stability of Amandin, a major allergen from almond (Prunus dulcis), and its acidic and basic polypeptides.

    Albillos, Silvia M; Menhart, Nicholas; Fu, Tong-Jen

    2009-06-10

    Information relating to the resistance of food allergens to thermal and/or chemical denaturation is critical if a reduction in protein allergenicity is to be achieved through food-processing means. This study examined the changes in the secondary structure of an almond allergen, amandin, and its acidic and basic polypeptides as a result of thermal and chemical denaturation. Amandin ( approximately 370 kDa) was purified by cryoprecipitation followed by gel filtration chromatography and subjected to thermal (13-96 degrees C) and chemical (urea and dithiothreitol) treatments. Changes in the secondary structure of the protein were followed using circular dichroism spectroscopy. The secondary structure of the hexameric amandin did not undergo remarkable changes at temperatures up to 90 degrees C, although protein aggregation was observed. In the presence of a reducing agent, irreversible denaturation occurred with the following experimental values: T(m) = 72.53 degrees C (transition temperature), DeltaH = 87.40 kcal/mol (unfolding enthalpy), and C(p) = 2.48 kcal/(mol degrees C) (heat capacity). The concentration of urea needed to achieve 50% denaturation was 2.59 M, and the Gibbs free energy of chemical denaturation was calculated to be DeltaG = 3.82 kcal/mol. The basic and acidic polypeptides of amandin had lower thermal stabilities than the multimeric protein.

  8. Enzymatic method for improving the injectability of polysaccharides. [US Patent Application

    Griffith, W.L.; Compere, A.L.; Holleman, J.W.

    A method for enhancing the ability of polysaccharides in aqueous solution to flow through a porous medium comprises contacting the polysaccharides with an endoenzyme capable of hydrolyzing at least one of the linkages of the sugar units of the polysaccharides and maintaining the polysaccharides in contact with the enzyme under hydrolysis conditions for a time sufficient to decrease the tendency of the polysaccharides to plug the porous medium yet insufficient to decrease the viscosity of the aqueous polysaccharides by more than 25%. The partially hydrolyzed polysaccharides are useful as thickening agents for flooding water used to recover oil from oil-containing subterranean formations.

  9. Size-resolved atmospheric particulate polysaccharides in the high summer Arctic

    Leck, C.; Gao, Q.; Mashayekhy Rad, F.; Nilsson, U.

    2013-12-01

    Size-resolved aerosol samples for subsequent quantitative determination of polymer sugars (polysaccharides) after hydrolysis to their subunit monomers (monosaccharides) were collected in surface air over the central Arctic Ocean during the biologically most active summer period. The analysis was carried out by novel use of liquid chromatography coupled with highly selective and sensitive tandem mass spectrometry. Polysaccharides were detected in particle sizes ranging from 0.035 to 10 μm in diameter with distinct features of heteropolysaccharides, enriched in xylose, glucose + mannose as well as a substantial fraction of deoxysugars. Polysaccharides, containing deoxysugar monomers, showed a bimodal size structure with about 70% of their mass found in the Aitken mode over the pack ice area. Pentose (xylose) and hexose (glucose + mannose) had a weaker bimodal character and were largely found with super-micrometer sizes and in addition with a minor sub-micrometer fraction. The concentration of total hydrolysable neutral sugars (THNS) in the samples collected varied over two orders of magnitude (1 to 160 pmol m-3) in the super-micrometer size fraction and to a somewhat lesser extent in sub-micrometer particles (4 to 140 pmol m-3). Lowest THNS concentrations were observed in air masses that had spent more than five days over the pack ice. Within the pack ice area, about 53% of the mass of hydrolyzed polysaccharides was detected in sub-micrometer particles. The relative abundance of sub-micrometer hydrolyzed polysaccharides could be related to the length of time that the air mass spent over pack ice, with the highest fraction (> 90%) observed for > 7 days of advection. The aerosol samples collected onboard ship showed similar monosaccharide composition, compared to particles generated experimentally in situ at the expedition's open lead site. This supports the existence of a primary particle source of polysaccharide containing polymer gels from open leads by bubble

  10. Incorporation of poly-saccharidic derivatives in model biological systems: monolayers, lamellar phases and vesicles

    Deme, Bruno

    1995-01-01

    Our aim is to introduce a soluble polymer in a lyotropic lamellar phase, and to modify the force balance in the case of a collapsed system where no repulsive contribution overcomes the van der Waals attraction, except at very short distances where hydration forces dominate (i.e. a collapsed stack of membranes). Mixed layers of a synthetic lecithin (DMPC) and a hydrophobically modified polysaccharide (cholesteryl-pullulan, CHP) have been investigated at the air-water interface by surface tension experiments and by specular reflection of neutrons. The DMPC/CHP/water ternary phase diagram has been determined by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and small angle neutron scattering (SANS). CHP derivatives are associative polymers bearing lateral cholesterol groups that interact with a polar phases such as phospholipid monolayers and biological membranes. These derivatives are surface active and self-aggregate in solution leading to the formation of soluble micellar type aggregates. The interaction of CHP derivatives with lipidic structures involves the anchoring of the cholesterol groups that yields to the tethering of the poly-saccharidic backbones at lipid/water interfaces. These poly-saccharidic backbones are flexible chains in good solvent in water. Using these derivatives and a new preparation procedure, we show that it is possible to avoid the depletion of the polysaccharide due to its steric exclusion by the collapsed DMPC lamellar phase. We are able to prepare samples at thermodynamic equilibrium with the polysaccharide solubilized in the lamellar phase, a situation opposed to the well known behavior of mixed polysaccharide/lecithin Systems commonly used in osmotic stress experiments. Here, the osmotic pressure of the chains confined in the lamellar lattice acts as a new long range repulsive contribution in the DMPC lyotropic L_α phase and results in the swelling of the lamellar phase at large membrane separations (570 A). Such bilayer separations allow out of

  11. Immunostimulatory and anti-metastatic activity of polysaccharides isolated from byproducts of the corn starch industry.

    Lee, Sue Jung; Lee, Ho Sung; Kim, Sun Young; Shin, Kwang-Soon

    2018-02-01

    Corn steep liquor (CSL) is a major by-product of the corn steeping process that is utilized in the wet milling industry. To develop new physiologically active polysaccharides from CSL, polysaccharides were isolated and their innate immunostimulatory and anti-metastatic activities were investigated. Corn byproduct polysaccharides (CBP) were preferentially isolated from CSL and further separated into supernatant (CBP1S) and precipitate (CBP1P) fractions. The anti-complementary activity of CBP1S was more potent than CBP1P and CBP. In addition, CBP1S enhanced production of macrophage-stimulating cytokines (e.g., IL-6 and IL-12) and natural killer (NK) cell-activating substances (e.g., granzyme and interferon-γ). Further, CBP1S significantly inhibited lung metastasis at a dose of 1000μg per mouse in an experimental lung metastasis model. These results suggest that CBP1S seems to promote the inhibition of lung metastasis through a mechanism leading to stimulation of the innate immune system, and CBP1S could be used as immunostimulating agents and for industrial applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Extraction Optimization, Preliminary Characterization and Bioactivities in Vitro of Ligularia hodgsonii Polysaccharides

    Xueping Song

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The optimization extraction, preliminary characterization and bioactivities of Ligularia hodgsonii polysaccharides were investigated. Based on single-factor experiments and orthogonal array test, the optimum extraction conditions were obtained as follows: extraction time 3 h, temperature 85 °C, water/raw material ratio 36. Further Sevag deproteinization and dialysis yielded the dialyzed Ligularia hodgsonii polysaccharides (DLHP, 19.2 ± 1.4 mg/g crude herb. Compositional analysis, size-exclusion chromatography connected with multi-angle laser light-scattering and refractive index (SEC-MALLS-RI, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy were employed for characterization of the polysaccharides. DLHP was found to have a major component with a weight-average molecular weight of 1.17 × 105 Da, mainly comprising of glucose, galactose, arabinose, mannose, rhamnose, glucuronic acid and galacturonic acid. By in vitro antioxidant activity assays, DLHP presented remarkable scavenging capacities towards 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, 2,2′-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS and hydroxyl radicals, and ferrous ions chelating ability. Moreover, it exhibited appreciable anti-hyperglycemic activity as demonstrated by differential inhibition of α-glucosidase and α-amylase. The results indicated that DLHP could potentially be a resource for antioxidant and hypoglycemic agents.

  13. Utilization of polysaccharides by radiation processing

    Kume, Tamikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2000-03-01

    Radiation treatment has been applied for improvement or pasteurization of agro-resources to recycle the resources and to reduce the pollution of environment. By using the radiation effect for pasteurization, upgrading of cellulosic wastes of oil palm to animal feeds and mushroom has been studied under the bilateral research cooperation between JAERI and MINT (Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research). The necessary dose for pasteurization of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB), which is a main cellulosic by-product of palm oil industry, was determined as 10 kGy. After pasteurization, the EFB substrate was inoculated with Pleurotus sajor-caju and fermented for 1 month. The digestibility and nutritional value of fermented products were evaluated as ruminant feeds and the mushroom can be produced as by-product. For the improvement of resources, radiation effects on polysaccharides such as chitosan, sodium alginate, carrageenan, cellulose, pectin have been investigated to induce the biological activities. These carbohydrates were easily degraded by irradiation and induced various kinds of biological activities. The anti-bacterial activity and elicitor activity of chitosan were induced by irradiation. The induction of phytoalexins was also observed by irradiated pectin but the higher elicitor activity for pisatin was obtained by chitosan than pectin. For the plant growth promotion, alginate derived from brown marine algae, chitosan and ligno-cellulosic extracts show a strong activity. carrageenan derived from red marine algae can promote growth of rice and the highest effect was obtained with kappa carrageenan irradiated at 100 kGy. Furthermore, some radiation degraded polysaccharides suppressed the damage of environmental stress on plants. (author)

  14. Utilization of polysaccharides by radiation processing

    Kume, Tamikazu

    2000-01-01

    Radiation treatment has been applied for improvement or pasteurization of agro-resources to recycle the resources and to reduce the pollution of environment. By using the radiation effect for pasteurization, upgrading of cellulosic wastes of oil palm to animal feeds and mushroom has been studied under the bilateral research cooperation between JAERI and MINT (Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research). The necessary dose for pasteurization of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB), which is a main cellulosic by-product of palm oil industry, was determined as 10 kGy. After pasteurization, the EFB substrate was inoculated with Pleurotus sajor-caju and fermented for 1 month. The digestibility and nutritional value of fermented products were evaluated as ruminant feeds and the mushroom can be produced as by-product. For the improvement of resources, radiation effects on polysaccharides such as chitosan, sodium alginate, carrageenan, cellulose, pectin have been investigated to induce the biological activities. These carbohydrates were easily degraded by irradiation and induced various kinds of biological activities. The anti-bacterial activity and elicitor activity of chitosan were induced by irradiation. The induction of phytoalexins was also observed by irradiated pectin but the higher elicitor activity for pisatin was obtained by chitosan than pectin. For the plant growth promotion, alginate derived from brown marine algae, chitosan and ligno-cellulosic extracts show a strong activity. carrageenan derived from red marine algae can promote growth of rice and the highest effect was obtained with kappa carrageenan irradiated at 100 kGy. Furthermore, some radiation degraded polysaccharides suppressed the damage of environmental stress on plants. (author)

  15. Application of fluorescently labelled lectins for the study of polysaccharides in biofilms with a focus on biofouling of nanofiltration membranes

    Patrick Di Martino

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The biofilm state is the dominant microbial lifestyle in nature. A biofilm can be defined as cells organised as microcolonies embedded in an organic polymer matrix of microbial origin living at an interface between two different liquids, air and liquid, or solid and liquid. The biofilm matrix is made of extracellular polymeric substances, polysaccharides being considered as the major structural components of the matrix. Fluorescently labelled lectins have been widely used to stain microbial extracellular glycoconjugates in natural and artificial environments, and to study specific bacterial species or highly complex environments. Biofilm development at the membrane surface conducting to biofouling is one of the major problems encountered during drinking water production by filtration. Biofouling affects the durability and effectiveness of filtration membranes. Biofouling can be reduced by pretreatments in order to control two key parameters of water, the bioavailable organic matter concentration and the concentration of live bacteria. Nanofiltration (NF is a high technology process particularly suited to the treatment of surface waters to produce drinking water that is highly sensitive to biofouling. The development of strategies for fouling prevention and control requires characterizing the fouling material composition and organisation before and after NF membrane cleaning. The aim of this review is to present basics of biofilm analyses after staining with fluorescently labelled lectins and to focus on the use of fluorescent lectins and confocal laser scanning microscopy to analyse NF membrane biofouling.

  16. Pollination Biology and Spatio-Temporal Structuring of Some Major Acacia Species (Leguminosae) of the Arabian Peninsula

    Adgaba, N.; Alghamidi, A.; Tadesse, Y.; Getachew, A.; Ansari, M. J.

    2016-01-01

    Acacias are the dominant woody plant species distributed over the vast tracts of land throughout the Arabian Peninsula. However, information on spatio-temporal structuring and pollination biology of the species is not precisely available. To determine whether any variations exist among the Acacia species in their temporal distribution, their flowering period was determined through monitoring the commencing, peaking and ending of flowering of each species. Moreover, if any variations exist in release of floral rewards among the different co-existing and co-flowering species as mechanisms of partitioning of pollinators, to minimize competition for pollination, the progress of their anthesis over time was recorded by scoring polyads to anthers ratio at different hours of a day. In addition, the amount and dynamics of nectar sugar per inflorescence (N =225/species) was determined following flower nectar sugar washing technique. Types and frequencies of flower visitors and their preferences were determined by recording the visitors 6 times a day. The current study revealed that the Acacia species of the Arabian Peninsula are spatio-temporally structured: some species co-exist yet have different flowering seasons, whereas others co-exist, flowering concurrently yet exhibit a shift in their time of peak flowering and in the time at which the peak pollen is released during the day. This study demonstrates that all Acacia species examined secrete a considerable amount of nectar (2.24+-1.72 -10.02+-4.0mg/inflorescence) which serves as a floral reward for pollinators. Insects of the Order Hymenoptera are the most prevalent visitors to Acacia species in the region. The variations in spatio-temporal structuring of the Acaciaspecies could be due to their adaptation of reducing competition for pollinators and minimizing hetero-specific pollen transfer. (author)

  17. Isolation, purification and physicochemical properties of polysaccharide from fruiting body of Hericium erinaceus and its effect on colonic health of mice.

    Wang, Xiao-Yin; Yin, Jun-Yi; Nie, Shao-Ping; Xie, Ming-Yong

    2018-02-01

    Hericium erinaceus was extracted with boiling water to obtain the crude polysaccharide (HECP) and refined polysaccharide (HERP). HERP was further purified using gradual ethanol precipitation to obtain five sub-fractions. Their physicochemical properties were evaluated, including chemical components, monosaccharide composition and molecular weight. Meanwhile, the effect of HERP on colonic health of mice was investigated by oral administration at dosages of 100, 200 and 400mg/kg of body weight (mg/kgbw), comparing with that of HECP. Results showed that the gradual ethanol precipitation could remarkably increase polysaccharide purity. HERP, HECP and the five purified fractions had different monosaccharide compositions, while the main monosaccharides were Glc and Gal. They all showed similar structure with amorphous appearance. Short-chain fatty acids productions in colonic and cecum contents, and feces of mice were increased in polysaccharide treated groups. Mice administrated with HERP at 400mg/kgbw showed significant reductions in pH values while obvious increases in moisture amounts. This study suggests that gradual ethanol precipitation is available for purification of polysaccharide from Hericium erinaceus and the extracted polysaccharide could improve colonic health. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. The vertical structure of Jupiter and Saturn zonal winds from nonlinear simulations of major vortices and planetary-scale disturbances

    Garcia-Melendo, E.; Legarreta, J.; Sanchez-Lavega, A.

    2012-12-01

    Direct measurements of the structure of the zonal winds of Jupiter and Saturn below the upper cloud layer are very difficult to retrieve. Except from the vertical profile at a Jupiter hot spot obtained from the Galileo probe in 1995 and measurements from cloud tracking by Cassini instruments just below the upper cloud, no other data are available. We present here our inferences of the vertical structure of Jupiter and Saturn zonal wind across the upper troposphere (deep down to about 10 bar level) obtained from nonlinear simulations using the EPIC code of the stability and interactions of large-scale vortices and planetary-scale disturbances in both planets. Acknowledgements: This work has been funded by Spanish MICIIN AYA2009-10701 with FEDER support, Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT-464-07 and UPV/EHU UFI11/55. [1] García-Melendo E., Sánchez-Lavega A., Dowling T.., Icarus, 176, 272-282 (2005). [2] García-Melendo E., Sánchez-Lavega A., Hueso R., Icarus, 191, 665-677 (2007). [3] Sánchez-Lavega A., et al., Nature, 451, 437- 440 (2008). [4] Sánchez-Lavega A., et al., Nature, 475, 71-74 (2011).

  19. Structural insight into dynamic bypass of the major cisplatin-DNA adduct by Y-family polymerase Dpo4

    Wong, Jimson H.Y.; Brown, Jessica A.; Suo, Zucai; Blum, Paul; Nohmi, Takehiko; Ling, Hong (OSU); (NINA-Japan); (UNL); (UWO)

    2010-08-23

    Y-family DNA polymerases bypass Pt-GG, the cisplatin-DNA double-base lesion, contributing to the cisplatin resistance in tumour cells. To reveal the mechanism, we determined three structures of the Y-family DNA polymerase, Dpo4, in complex with Pt-GG DNA. The crystallographic snapshots show three stages of lesion bypass: the nucleotide insertions opposite the 3{prime}G (first insertion) and 5{prime}G (second insertion) of Pt-GG, and the primer extension beyond the lesion site. We observed a dynamic process, in which the lesion was converted from an open and angular conformation at the first insertion to a depressed and nearly parallel conformation at the subsequent reaction stages to fit into the active site of Dpo4. The DNA translocation-coupled conformational change may account for additional inhibition on the second insertion reaction. The structures illustrate that Pt-GG disturbs the replicating base pair in the active site, which reduces the catalytic efficiency and fidelity. The in vivo relevance of Dpo4-mediated Pt-GG bypass was addressed by a dpo-4 knockout strain of Sulfolobus solfataricus, which exhibits enhanced sensitivity to cisplatin and proteomic alterations consistent with genomic stress.

  20. Effects of high hydrostatic pressure on the structure and potential allergenicity of the major allergen bovine β-lactoglobulin.

    Meng, Xuanyi; Bai, Yuxin; Gao, Jinyan; Li, Xin; Chen, Hongbing

    2017-03-15

    Bovine β-lactoglobulin (β-Lg) is recognized as a significant milk allergen in several countries. In this study, β-Lg was isolated and treated with high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) at 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500MPa. The allergenic properties of the HHP-treated β-Lg were characterized by indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with anti-β-Lg rabbit antibody and the sera of patients allergic to cows' milk. The conformation of the HHP-treated β-Lg was examined with ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy, endogenous fluorescence spectroscopy, exogenous fluorescence spectroscopy, and circular dichroism spectroscopy analyses. The results indicated that IgG binding increased with treatment pressure, and IgE binding was lowest at 200MPa and highest at 400MPa. The tertiary structure of β-Lg changed significantly after HHP, whereas the primary and secondary structures remained stable. Overall, this study suggests that the conformational changes in HHP-treated β-Lg contribute to its altered allergenicity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Isopeptide bonds of the major pilin protein BcpA influence pilus structure and bundle formation on the surface of Bacillus cereus

    Hendrickx, Antoni P.A.; Poor, Catherine B.; Jureller, Justin E.; Budzik, Jonathan M.; He, Chuan; Schneewind, Olaf (UC)

    2012-09-05

    Bacillus cereus strains elaborate pili on their surface using a mechanism of sortase-mediated cross-linking of major and minor pilus components. Here we used a combination of electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy to visualize these structures. Pili occur as single, double or higher order assemblies of filaments formed from monomers of the major pilin, BcpA, capped by the minor pilin, BcpB. Previous studies demonstrated that within assembled pili, four domains of BcpA -- CNA{sub 1}, CNA{sub 2}, XNA and CNA{sub 3} -- each acquire intramolecular lysine-asparagine isopeptide bonds formed via catalytic glutamic acid or aspartic acid residues. Here we showed that mutants unable to form the intramolecular isopeptide bonds in the CNA2 or CNA3 domains retain the ability to form pilus bundles. A mutant lacking the CNA{sub 1} isopeptide bond assembled deformed pilin subunits that failed to associate as bundles. X-ray crystallography revealed that the BcpA variant Asp{sup 312}Ala, lacking an aspartyl catalyst, did not generate the isopeptide bond within the jelly-roll structure of XNA. The Asp{sup 312}Ala mutant was also unable to form bundles and promoted the assembly of deformed pili. Thus, structural integrity of the CNA{sub 1} and XNA domains are determinants for the association of pili into higher order bundle structures and determine native pilus structure.

  2. The structure of tubulin-binding cofactor A from Leishmania major infers a mode of association during the early stages of microtubule assembly

    Barrack, Keri L.; Fyfe, Paul K.; Hunter, William N., E-mail: w.n.hunter@dundee.ac.uk [University of Dundee, Dow Street, Dundee DD1 5EH, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-21

    The structure of a tubulin-binding cofactor from L. major is reported and compared with yeast, plant and human orthologues. Tubulin-binding cofactor A (TBCA) participates in microtubule formation, a key process in eukaryotic biology to create the cytoskeleton. There is little information on how TBCA might interact with β-tubulin en route to microtubule biogenesis. To address this, the protozoan Leishmania major was targeted as a model system. The crystal structure of TBCA and comparisons with three orthologous proteins are presented. The presence of conserved features infers that electrostatic interactions that are likely to involve the C-terminal tail of β-tubulin are key to association. This study provides a reagent and template to support further work in this area.

  3. Development and characterisation of hybrid polysaccharide membranes for dehydration processes.

    Meireles, Inês T; Huertas, Rosa M; Torres, Cristiana A V; Coelhoso, Isabel M; Crespo, João G

    2018-07-01

    The purpose of this work is the development and characterisation of new hybrid polysaccharide (FucoPol) membranes. These membranes were prepared by incorporation of a SiO 2 network homogeneously dispersed by using a sol-gel method with GPTMS as a crosslinker silica precursor. They were further crosslinked with CaCl 2 for reinforcement of mechanical properties and improvement of their permeation performance. They were characterised in terms of their structural, mechanical and thermal properties. They presented a dense and homogeneous structure, resistant to deformation, with a Tg of 43 °C and a thermal decomposition between 240 and 251 °C. The hybrid FucoPol membranes were tested for ethanol dehydration by pervaporation and also for nitrogen dehydration. They exhibited high water selectivity values, similar to PERVAP ® 4101, however they lost their stability when exposed to solutions of 10.0 wt.% water in ethanol. In contrast, these membranes were stable when applied in N 2 dehydration, leading to reproducible performance and very high water selectivities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Insights into cell wall structure of Sida hermaphrodita and its influence on recalcitrance.

    Damm, Tatjana; Pattathil, Sivakumar; Günl, Markus; Jablonowski, Nicolai David; O'Neill, Malcolm; Grün, Katharina Susanne; Grande, Philipp Michael; Leitner, Walter; Schurr, Ulrich; Usadel, Björn; Klose, Holger

    2017-07-15

    The perennial plant Sida hermaphrodita (Sida) is attracting attention as potential energy crop. Here, the first detailed view on non-cellulosic Sida cell wall polysaccharide composition, structure and architecture is given. Cell walls were prepared from Sida stems and sequentially extracted with aqueous buffers and alkali. The structures of the quantitatively predominant polysaccharides present in each fraction were determined by biochemical characterization, glycome profiling and mass spectrometry. The amounts of glucose released by Accellerase-1500 ® treatment of the cell wall and the cell wall residue remaining after each extraction were used to assess the roles of pectin and hemicellulose in the recalcitrance of Sida biomass. 4-O-Methyl glucuronoxylan with a low proportion of side substitutions was identified as the major non-cellulosic glycan component of Sida stem cell walls. Pectic polysaccharides and xylans were found to be associated with lignin, suggesting that these polysaccharides have roles in Sida cell wall recalcitrance to enzymatic hydrolysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Global mtDNA genetic structure and hypothesized invasion history of a major pest of citrus, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae).

    Luo, Yufa; Agnarsson, Ingi

    2018-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama is a key pest of citrus as the vector of the bacterium causing the "huanglongbing" disease (HLB). To assess the global mtDNA population genetic structure, and possible dispersal history of the pest, we investigated genetic variation at the COI gene collating newly collected samples with all previously published data. Our dataset consists of 356 colonies from 106 geographic sites worldwide. High haplotype diversity (H-mean = 0.702 ± 0.017), low nucleotide diversity (π-mean = 0.003), and significant positive selection (Ka/Ks = 32.92) were observed. Forty-four haplotypes (Hap) were identified, clustered into two matrilines: Both occur in southeastern and southern Asia, North and South America, and Africa; lineages A and B also occur in eastern and western Asia, respectively. The most abundant haplotypes were Hap4 in lineage A (35.67%), and Hap9 in lineage B (41.29%). The haplotype network identified them as the ancestral haplotypes within their respective lineages. Analysis of molecular variance showed significant genetic structure ( F ST  = 0.62, p  analysis suggests geographic structuring. We hypothesize a southern and/or southeastern Asia origin, three dispersal routes, and parallel expansions of two lineages. The hypothesized first route involved the expansion of lineage B from southern Asia into North America via West Asia. The second, the expansion of some lineage A individuals from Southeast Asia into East Asia, and the third involved both lineages from Southeast Asia spreading westward into Africa and subsequently into South America. To test these hypotheses and gain a deeper understanding of the global history of D. citri , more data-rich approaches will be necessary from the ample toolkit of next-generation sequencing (NGS). However, this study may serve to guide such sampling and in the development of biological control programs against the global pest D. citri .

  6. Assembly of proteins and 5 S rRNA to transcripts of the major structural domains of 23 S rRNA

    Ostergaard, P; Phan, H; Johansen, L B

    1998-01-01

    The six major structural domains of 23 S rRNA from Escherichia coli, and all combinations thereof, were synthesized as separate T7 transcripts and reconstituted with total 50 S subunit proteins. Analysis by one and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis demonstrated the presence of at least one prim...... approach was used to map the putative binding regions on domain V of protein L9 and the 5 S RNA-L5-L18 complex....

  7. Examination of an aloe vera galacturonate polysaccharide capable of in situ gelation for the controlled release of protein therapeutics

    McConaughy, Shawn David

    A therapeutic delivery platform has been investigated with the ultimate goal of designing a sustained protein release matrix utilizing an in-situ gelling, acidic polysaccharide derived from the Aloe vera plant. The Aloe vera polysaccharide (AvP) has been examined in order to determine how chemical composition, structure, molecular weight and solution behavior affect gelation and protein/peptide delivery. Correlations are drawn between structural characteristics and solution behavior in order to determine the impact of polymer conformation and solvation on gel formation under conditions designed to simulate nasal applications. Steady state and dynamic rheology, classic and dynamic light scattering, zeta potential, pulse field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance and fluorescence spectroscopy have been employed to gain insight into the effects of galacturonic acid content, degree of methylation, entanglement and ionic strength on both solution behavior and the hydrogel state which ultimately governs protein/peptide release. This dissertation is divided into two sections. In the first section, a series of Aloe vera polysaccharides (AvP), from the pectin family have been structurally characterized indicating high galacturonic acid (GalA) content, low degree of methylester substitution (DM), low numbers of rhamnose residues and high molecular weight with respect to pectins extracted from traditional sources. The behavior of AvP was examined utilizing dilute solution, low-shear rheological techniques for specific molecular weight samples at selected conditions of ionic strength. From these dilute aqueous solution studies, the Mark-Houwink-Sakurada (MHS) constants (K and alpha), persistence length (Lp) and inherent chain stiffness (B parameter) were determined, indicating an expanded random coil in aqueous salt solutions. The critical concentration for transition from dilute to concentrated solution, C e, was determined by measuring both the zero shear viscosity and

  8. Comparative sequence analyses of the major quantitative trait locus phosphorus uptake 1 (Pup1) reveal a complex genetic structure.

    Heuer, Sigrid; Lu, Xiaochun; Chin, Joong Hyoun; Tanaka, Juan Pariasca; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Matsumoto, Takashi; De Leon, Teresa; Ulat, Victor Jun; Ismail, Abdelbagi M; Yano, Masahiro; Wissuwa, Matthias

    2009-06-01

    The phosphorus uptake 1 (Pup1) locus was identified as a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) for tolerance of phosphorus deficiency in rice. Near-isogenic lines with the Pup1 region from tolerant donor parent Kasalath typically show threefold higher phosphorus uptake and grain yield in phosphorus-deficient field trials than the intolerant parent Nipponbare. In this study, we report the fine mapping of the Pup1 locus to the long arm of chromosome 12 (15.31-15.47 Mb). Genes in the region were initially identified on the basis of the Nipponbare reference genome, but did not reveal any obvious candidate genes related to phosphorus uptake. Kasalath BAC clones were therefore sequenced and revealed a 278-kbp sequence significantly different from the syntenic regions in Nipponbare (145 kb) and in the indica reference genome of 93-11 (742 kbp). Size differences are caused by large insertions or deletions (INDELs), and an exceptionally large number of retrotransposon and transposon-related elements (TEs) present in all three sequences (45%-54%). About 46 kb of the Kasalath sequence did not align with the entire Nipponbare genome, and only three Nipponbare genes (fatty acid alpha-dioxygenase, dirigent protein and aspartic proteinase) are highly conserved in Kasalath. Two Nipponbare genes (expressed proteins) might have evolved by at least three TE integrations in an ancestor gene that is still present in Kasalath. Several predicted Kasalath genes are novel or unknown genes that are mainly located within INDEL regions. Our results highlight the importance of sequencing QTL regions in the respective donor parent, as important genes might not be present in the current reference genomes.

  9. Separating generalized anxiety disorder from major depression using clinical, hormonal, and structural MRI data: A multimodal machine learning study.

    Hilbert, Kevin; Lueken, Ulrike; Muehlhan, Markus; Beesdo-Baum, Katja

    2017-03-01

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is difficult to recognize and hard to separate from major depression (MD) in clinical settings. Biomarkers might support diagnostic decisions. This study used machine learning on multimodal biobehavioral data from a sample of GAD, MD and healthy subjects to differentiate subjects with a disorder from healthy subjects (case-classification) and to differentiate GAD from MD (disorder-classification). Subjects with GAD ( n  = 19), MD without GAD ( n  = 14), and healthy comparison subjects ( n  = 24) were included. The sample was matched regarding age, sex, handedness and education and free of psychopharmacological medication. Binary support vector machines were used within a nested leave-one-out cross-validation framework. Clinical questionnaires, cortisol release, gray matter (GM), and white matter (WM) volumes were used as input data separately and in combination. Questionnaire data were well-suited for case-classification but not disorder-classification (accuracies: 96.40%, p   .22). The opposite pattern was found for imaging data (case-classification GM/WM: 58.71%, p  = .09/43.18%, p  > .66; disorder-classification GM/WM: 68.05%, p  = .034/58.27%, p  > .15) and for cortisol data (38.02%, p  = .84; 74.60%, p  = .009). All data combined achieved 90.10% accuracy ( p  < .001) for case-classification and 67.46% accuracy ( p  = .0268) for disorder-classification. In line with previous evidence, classification of GAD was difficult using clinical questionnaire data alone. Particularly cortisol and GM volume data were able to provide incremental value for the classification of GAD. Findings suggest that neurobiological biomarkers are a useful target for further research to delineate their potential contribution to diagnostic processes.

  10. Visualization of capsular polysaccharide induction in Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans

    Bellenberg, S.; Leon Morales, C.F.; Sand, W.; Vera, M.

    2012-01-01

    Extracellular Polymeric Substances (EPS) are of fundamental importance for attachment to metal sulfides, biofilm formation and leaching efficiency of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. In this work we have visualized the capsular polysaccharides (CPS) of A. ferrooxidans ATCC 23270 using the

  11. Comparison of Polysaccharides from Two Species of Ganoderma

    Yu-Ping Tang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ganoderma lucidum and Ganoderma sinense, known as Lingzhi in Chinese, are commonly used Chinese medicines with excellent beneficial health effects. Triterpenes and polysaccharides are usually considered as their main active components. However, the content of triterpenes differs significantly between the two species of Ganoderma. To date, a careful comparison of polysaccharides from the two species of Ganoderma has not been performed. In this study, polysaccharides from fruiting bodies of two species of Lingzhi collected from different regions of China were analyzed and compared based on HPSEC-ELSD and HPSEC-MALLS-RI analyses, as well as enzymatic digestion and HPTLC of acid hydrolysates. The results indicated that both the HPSEC-ELSD profiles and the molecular weights of the polysaccharides were similar. Enzymatic digestion showed that polyshaccharides from all samples of Lingzhi could be hydrolyzed by pectinase and dextranase. HPTLC profiles of their TFA hydrolysates colored with different reagents and their monosaccharides composition were also similar.

  12. STUDY OF POLYSACCHARIDE COMPLEX OF SORBARIA SORBIFOLIA LEAVES

    M. E. Guschina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We have isolated polysaccharides and identified monosaccharides after hydrolysis during the work. Gravimetric analysis identifies the prevalence of pectin substances (PS and hemicelluloses A (HC A.

  13. Optimization of polysaccharides extracted from Verbena officinalis L ...

    Keywords: Polysaccharides, Colorectal cancer, Verbena officinalis, SW480 cell lines, Cell invasion,. Metastasis ..... receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) family, is found to be abnormal in many ... invasion of human prostate cancer cells via Caveolin-.

  14. Nitroxide-catalyzed selective oxidation of alcohols and polysaccharides

    Ponedel'kina, I Yu; Khaibrakhmanova, E A; Odinokov, Viktor N

    2010-01-01

    The use of nitroxide radicals in the selective oxidation of alcohols is considered. Attention is focused on the oxidation of polysaccharides as a method of preparation of polyuronic acids, aldehydes and hemiacetals.

  15. Anti-radiation effect of hericium erinaceus polysaccharide

    Liu Shuchen; Zhang Huijuan; Luo Chuanhuan; Wang Bingji

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To study the anti-radiation effect of hericium erinaceus polysaccharide on irradiated mice. Methods: 520 female mice were randomized to several groups and exposed to 6.25-8.5 Gy whole-body γ-rays. The hericium erinaceus polysaccharide was injected i.p before or after irradiation. The 30-day survival rate of mice was determined, and DNA content of bone marrow was observed as well at seventh day after irradiation. Results: It was showed that the 30-day survival rate and DNA content of bone marrow were all significantly higher in 30 mg or 15 mg hericium erinaceus polysaccharide-treated groups than those in the corresponding irradiated controls (P < 0.01). The 30-day survival rate increased from 35% to 97.5%. Conclusion: The hericium erinaceus polysaccharide has marked anti-radiation effect. Further investigation is worthwhile

  16. Impact of Lycium barbarum polysaccharide on apoptosis in ...

    Diseases, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, China ... Keywords: Lycium barbarum polysaccharide, Splenic lymphocytes, ROS, Caspase-3, Bax, Nrf2. Tropical Journal of .... and 5′- TCC ACT GTC TGC TTC AAT ACC -3′.

  17. Quantitative Analysis of Major Factors Affecting Black Carbon Transport and Concentrations in the Unique Atmospheric Structures of Urban Environment

    Liang, Marissa Shuang

    Black carbon (BC) from vehicular emission in transportation is a principal component of particulate matters ≤ 2.5 mum (PM2.5). PM2.5 and other diesel emission pollutants (e.g., NOx) are regulated by the Clean Air Act (CAA) according to the National Ambient Air Quality standards (NAAQS). This doctoral dissertation details a study on transport behaviors of black carbon and PM2.5 from transportation routes, their relations with the atmospheric structure of an urban formation, and their relations with the use of biodiesel fuels. The results have implications to near-road risk assessment and to the development of sustainable transportation solutions in urban centers. The first part of study quantified near-roadside black carbon transport as a function of particulate matter (PM) size and composition, as well as microclimatic variables (temperature and wind fields) at the interstate highway I-75 in northern Cincinnati, Ohio. Among variables examined, wind speed and direction significantly affect the roadside transport of black carbon and hence its effective emission factor. Observed non-Gaussian dispersion occurred during low wind and for wind directions at acute angles or upwind to the receptors, mostly occurring in the morning hours. Meandering of air pollutant mass under thermal inversion is likely the driving force. In contrary, Gaussian distribution predominated in daytime of strong downwinds. The roles of urban atmospheric structure, wind fields, and the urban heat island (UHI) effects were further examined on pollutant dispersion and transport. Spatiotemporal variations of traffic flow, atmospheric structure, ambient temperature and PM2.5 concentration data from 14 EPA-certified NAAQS monitoring stations, were analyzed in relation to land-use in the Cincinnati metropolitan area. The results show a decade-long UHI effects with higher interior temperature than that in exurban, and a prominent nocturnal thermal inversion frequent in urban boundary layer. The

  18. Effect of the molecular weight of a neutral polysaccharide on soy protein gelation.

    Monteiro, Sónia R; Lopes-da-Silva, José A

    2017-12-01

    The effects of galactomannans with different molecular weights on the heat-induced gelation characteristics of soybean protein were investigated using dynamic small-strain rheometry, under conditions where the proteins carry a net negative charge (pH7). Microstructure of the resulting gels was investigated by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Phase-separated systems were obtained with different morphologies and degree of phase separation, depending on both biopolymer concentrations and polysaccharide molecular weight. In general, a gelling enhancing effect on soy proteins was verified, despite extensive phase-separation processes observed at the higher polysaccharide molecular weight. This effect was demonstrated by an increase of the gelation rate, a decrease in the temperature at the onset of gelation, and an increase of gel stiffness and elastic character, with the length of polysaccharide chains. Overall, the results obtained established that the judicious selection of the galactomannan molecular weight may be used to modify the structure and gelation properties of soy proteins, originating a diversity of rheological characteristics and microstructures that will impact on the design of novel food formulations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Modification of Pectin and Hemicellulose Polysaccharides in Relation to Aril Breakdown of Harvested Longan Fruit

    Wang, Duoduo; Zhang, Haiyan; Wu, Fuwang; Li, Taotao; Liang, Yuxiang; Duan, Xuewu

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the modification of cell wall polysaccharides in relation to aril breakdown in harvested longan fruit, three pectin fractions (WSP, water soluble pectin; CSP, CDTA-soluble pectin; ASP, alkali soluble pectin) and one hemicellulose fraction (4 M KOH-SHC, 4 M KOH-soluble hemicellulose) were extracted, and their contents, monosaccharide compositions and molecular weights were evaluated. As aril breakdown intensified, CSP content increased while ASP and 4 M KOH-SHC contents decreased, suggesting the solubilization and conversion of cell wall components. Furthermore, the molar percentage of arabinose (Ara), as the main component of the side-chains, decreased largely in CSP and ASP while that of rhamnose (Rha), as branch point for the attachment of neutral sugar side chains, increased during aril breakdown. Analysis of (Ara + Gal)/Rha ratio showed that the depolymerization of CSP and ASP happened predominantly in side-chains formed of Ara residues. For 4 M KOH-SHC, more backbones were depolymerized during aril breakdown. Moreover, it was found that the molecular weights of CSP, ASP and 4 M KOH-SHC polysaccharides tended to decrease as aril breakdown intensified. These results suggest that both enhanced depolymerization and structural modifications of polysaccharides in the CSP, ASP and 4 M KOH-SHC fractions might be responsible for aril breakdown of harvested longan fruit. PMID:24287911

  20. An accurate coarse-grained model for chitosan polysaccharides in aqueous solution.

    Levan Tsereteli

    Full Text Available Computational models can provide detailed information about molecular conformations and interactions in solution, which is currently inaccessible by other means in many cases. Here we describe an efficient and precise coarse-grained model for long polysaccharides in aqueous solution at different physico-chemical conditions such as pH and ionic strength. The Model is carefully constructed based on all-atom simulations of small saccharides and metadynamics sampling of the dihedral angles in the glycosidic links, which represent the most flexible degrees of freedom of the polysaccharides. The model is validated against experimental data for Chitosan molecules in solution with various degree of deacetylation, and is shown to closely reproduce the available experimental data. For long polymers, subtle differences of the free energy maps of the glycosidic links are found to significantly affect the measurable polymer properties. Therefore, for titratable monomers the free energy maps of the corresponding links are updated according to the current charge of the monomers. We then characterize the microscopic and mesoscopic structural properties of large chitosan polysaccharides in solution for a wide range of solvent pH and ionic strength, and investigate the effect of polymer length and degree and pattern of deacetylation on the polymer properties.