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Sample records for major nutritional components

  1. Characterization of the major nutritional components of Caryocar brasiliense fruit pulp by NMR spectroscopy

    Miranda-Vilela, Ana Luisa; Grisolia, Cesar Koppe; Resck, Ines Sabioni; Mendonca, Marcio Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.), a typical fruit of Brazilian Cerrado, is well known in regional cookery and used in folk medicine to treat various illnesses. Mass spectrometry and chromatographic methods have identified the organic composition of pequi fruit pulp; however, NMR spectroscopy is used for the first time to characterize the nutritional components of organic and aqueous-ethanolic extracts. This spectroscopic technique determined the triacylglycerols in the pequi organic fraction, which is constituted mainly by oleate and palmitate esters, and detected the carbohydrate mixtures as the major components of aqueous and ethanolic fractions, respectively. In this study, presence of phenolic compounds was only evidenced in the ethanolic fraction. (author)

  2. Characterization of the major nutritional components of Caryocar brasiliense fruit pulp by NMR spectroscopy

    Miranda-Vilela, Ana Luisa; Grisolia, Cesar Koppe [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Biologicas. Dept. de Genetica e Morfologia; Resck, Ines Sabioni; Mendonca, Marcio Antonio [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2009-07-01

    Pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.), a typical fruit of Brazilian Cerrado, is well known in regional cookery and used in folk medicine to treat various illnesses. Mass spectrometry and chromatographic methods have identified the organic composition of pequi fruit pulp; however, NMR spectroscopy is used for the first time to characterize the nutritional components of organic and aqueous-ethanolic extracts. This spectroscopic technique determined the triacylglycerols in the pequi organic fraction, which is constituted mainly by oleate and palmitate esters, and detected the carbohydrate mixtures as the major components of aqueous and ethanolic fractions, respectively. In this study, presence of phenolic compounds was only evidenced in the ethanolic fraction. (author)

  3. Analysis of Major Nutritional Components of Pleurotus pulmonarius During the Cultivation in Different Indoor Environmental Conditions on Sawdust

    Tariqul Islam

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Pleurotus pulmonarius was cultivated in three different environmental conditions, in ambient indoor environment (System 1, in humidifying without ventilation (System 2 and in humidifying with ventilation (System 3 to analyse the major nutritional contents. Sawdust was the main substrate for all the cultivation systems. The lowest temperature and the highest optimal humidity were found in System 3. The temperature and humidity had shown statistically significant among the three cultivation Systems. The highest numbers of flushes was found both in System 2 and System 3 but System 1 was produced mushrooms till 3rd flush. About 29.5%, 28.3%, 28.5% protein; 59.0%, 55.8%, 54.3% carbohydrate and 3.8%, 3.5%, 3.3% lipid were found in System 1, System 2 and System 3 respectively. The protein, carbohydrate, and lipid contents were shown statistically insignificant among the cultivation systems. The highest value of protein, carbohydrate and lipid were found for the sample of 1st flush in all the cultivation systems but the values were started to decrease with the increased numbers of flushes significantly. So, this study shown that, although the environmental conditions of the three cultivation systems were varied significantly but the protein, carbohydrate and lipid contents were existed their normal values in all cases but the values were decreased by the increased numbers of flushes.

  4. Major components of metabolic syndrome and nutritional intakes in different genotype of UCP2 -866G/A gene polymorphisms in patients with NAFLD.

    Abbasalizad Farhangi, Mahdieh; Mohseni, Fatemeh; Farajnia, Safar; Jafarabadi, Mohammad-Asghari

    2016-06-14

    It has been suggested that dietary modifications in combination with genetic predisposition play an important role in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. In the current study we aimed to investigate the major components of metabolic syndrome in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nutritional intakes according to different genotype of uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2) -866G/A gene polymorphism in these patients. In this study 151 participants including 75 patients with NAFLD and 76 healthy individuals were enrolled. Dietary intakes were assessed using a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Physical activity was obtained by metabolic equivalent questionnaire. Anthropometric assessments were conducted by a trained researcher and body mass index and waist to hip ratio were calculated. Body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis and biochemical assays including fasting serum glucose, liver enzymes and lipid profiles were measured. Polymorphisms of -866G/A UCP2 gene was determined using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Serum triglyceride concentrations in 53.3 % of NAFLD patients compared with 35.5 % of control group was more than 150 mg/dl (P = 0.034). A significantly higher prevalence of low serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations was also observed in female NAFLD patients (P  0.05). However, according to genotypes patients with AG genotype had significantly higher protein consumption compared with control group (P < 0.05). Significantly higher consumption of dietary iron and copper in NAFLD patients with AG genotype was only observed among patients with NAFLD. However, the comparison of macro and micronutrient intakes in control group sound for stronger differences for AA genotype although these differences did not achieve significant threshold. A high prevalence of metabolic abnormalities was reported among NAFLD patients. Additionally, among NAFLD group

  5. Major advances in applied dairy cattle nutrition.

    Eastridge, M L

    2006-04-01

    Milk yield per cow continues to increase with a slower rate of increase in dry matter intake; thus, efficiency of ruminal fermentation and digestibility of the dietary components are key factors in improving the efficiency of feed use. Over the past 25 yr, at least 2,567 articles relating to ruminant or dairy nutrition have been published in the Journal of Dairy Science. These studies have provided important advancements in improving feed efficiency and animal health by improving quality of feeds, increasing feedstuff and overall diet digestibility, better defining interactions among feedstuffs in diets, identifying alternative feed ingredients, better defining nutrient requirements, and improving efficiency of ruminal fermentation. The publications are vital in continuing to make advancements in providing adequate nutrition to dairy cattle and for facilitating exchange of knowledge among scientists. Forages have been studied more extensively than any other type of feed. Cereal grains continue to be the primary contributors of starch to diets, and thus are very important in meeting the energy needs of dairy cattle. Processing of cereal grains has improved their use. Feeding by-products contributes valuable nutrients to diets and allows feedstuffs to be used that would otherwise be handled as wastes in landfills. Many of these by-products provide a considerable amount of protein, nonforage fiber, fat, and minerals (sometimes a detriment as in the case of P) to diets. The primary feeding system today is the total mixed ration, with still considerable use of the pasture system. Major improvements have occurred in the use of protein, carbohydrates, and fats in diets. Although advancements have been made in feeding practices to minimize the risk of metabolic diseases, the periparturient period continues to present some of the greatest challenges in animal health. Computers are a must today for diet formulation and evaluation, but fewer software programs are developed by

  6. Comparative studies on physical-chemical properties and major nutritional components of rice grain in dwarf mutant resistant to insect pests and its parent

    Cui Hairui; Wu Dianxing; Shen Shengquan; Shu Qingyao

    2004-01-01

    Starch characteristics and key nutritional compositions in the dwarf mutant from transgenic rice with crylAb gene were compared with its original parent, Xiushuill. It was found that peak viscosity, hot paste viscosity and cool paste viscosity of RVA profile between the dwarf mutant and its parent were significantly different at 1% level, but apparent amylose content, gel consistence existed and breakdown viscosity of RVA profile were similar, and no significant differences existed in contents of crude protein, crude fat, total ash, amino acids and mineral compositions. It was suggested that no notable changes occurred in grain quality traits in the dwarf mutant with insect resistance. (authors)

  7. Major advances in fundamental dairy cattle nutrition.

    Drackley, J K; Donkin, S S; Reynolds, C K

    2006-04-01

    Fundamental nutrition seeks to describe the complex biochemical reactions involved in assimilation and processing of nutrients by various tissues and organs, and to quantify nutrient movement (flux) through those processes. Over the last 25 yr, considerable progress has been made in increasing our understanding of metabolism in dairy cattle. Major advances have been made at all levels of biological organization, including the whole animal, organ systems, tissues, cells, and molecules. At the whole-animal level, progress has been made in delineating metabolism during late pregnancy and the transition to lactation, as well as in whole-body use of energy-yielding substrates and amino acids for growth in young calves. An explosion of research using multicatheterization techniques has led to better quantitative descriptions of nutrient use by tissues of the portal-drained viscera (digestive tract, pancreas, and associated adipose tissues) and liver. Isolated tissue preparations have provided important information on the interrelationships among glucose, fatty acid, and amino acid metabolism in liver, adipose tissue, and mammary gland, as well as the regulation of these pathways during different physiological states. Finally, the last 25 yr has witnessed the birth of "molecular biology" approaches to understanding fundamental nutrition. Although measurements of mRNA abundance for proteins of interest already have provided new insights into regulation of metabolism, the next 25 yr will likely see remarkable advances as these techniques continue to be applied to problems of dairy cattle biology. Integration of the "omics" technologies (functional genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics) with measurements of tissue metabolism obtained by other methods is a particularly exciting prospect for the future. The result should be improved animal health and well being, more efficient dairy production, and better models to predict nutritional requirements and provide rations to meet

  8. Combining two major ATLAS inner detector components

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    The semiconductor tracker is inserted into the transition radiation tracker for the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. These make up two of the three major components of the inner detector. They will work together to measure the trajectories produced in the proton-proton collisions at the centre of the detector when the LHC is switched on in 2008.

  9. Improving selenium nutritional value of major crops

    Micronutrient efficiency and development of nutrient-dense crops continue to be one of the most important global challenges. Se is an essential micronutrient to humans and serves as a cancer preventative agent. In order to improve Se nutritional and health promoting values in food crops, a better un...

  10. Sports Nutrition Knowledge among Mid-Major Division I University Student-Athletes

    Ashley Andrews

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Competitive athletes have goals to optimize performance and to maintain healthy body composition. Sports nutrition is a component of training programs often overlooked by student-athletes and their coaches. The purpose of this study was to examine student-athletes’ sports nutrition knowledge across sex, class level, team, and completion of prior nutrition coursework. Participants included 123 mid-major Division I university student-athletes (47 females and 76 males from baseball, softball, men’s soccer, track and field, and tennis. The student-athletes completed a survey questionnaire to determine adequate sports nutrition knowledge (mean ≥ 75%. The overall mean sports nutrition knowledge score for the student-athletes was 56.9% which was considered inadequate sports nutrition knowledge (mean < 75%. Only 12 student-athletes achieved adequate sports nutrition knowledge score of 75% or higher. There were no differences by sex, class level, team, and completion of prior nutrition coursework. Student-athletes’ inadequate sports nutrition knowledge may place them at nutrition risk, lead to impaired performance, and affect their lean body mass and energy levels. Athletics personnel should not assume student-athletes have adequate sports nutrition knowledge. Athletic departments may make available a board certified Sports Dietitian or Registered Dietitian and offer classroom or online courses facilitating student-athletes to optimize nutrition knowledge and behaviors.

  11. A major genetic component of BSE susceptibility

    Juling, Katrin; Schwarzenbacher, Hermann; Williams, John L; Fries, Ruedi

    2006-01-01

    Background Coding variants of the prion protein gene (PRNP) have been shown to be major determinants for the susceptibility to transmitted prion diseases in humans, mice and sheep. However, to date, the effects of polymorphisms in the coding and regulatory regions of bovine PRNP on bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) susceptibility have been considered marginal or non-existent. Here we analysed two insertion/deletion (indel) polymorphisms in the regulatory region of bovine PRNP in BSE affected animals and controls of four independent cattle populations from UK and Germany. Results In the present report, we show that two previously reported 23- and 12-bp insertion/deletion (indel) polymorphisms in the regulatory region of bovine PRNP are strongly associated with BSE incidence in cattle. Genotyping of BSE-affected and control animals of UK Holstein, German Holstein, German Brown and German Fleckvieh breeds revealed a significant overrepresentation of the deletion alleles at both polymorphic sites in diseased animals (P = 2.01 × 10-3 and P = 8.66 × 10-5, respectively). The main effect on susceptibility is associated with the 12-bp indel polymorphism. Compared with non-carriers, heterozygous and homozygous carriers of the 12-bp deletion allele possess relatively higher risks of having BSE, ranging from 1.32 to 4.01 and 1.74 to 3.65 in the different breeds. These values correspond to population attributable risks ranging from 35% to 53%. Conclusion Our results demonstrate a substantial genetic PRNP associated component for BSE susceptibility in cattle. Although the BSE risk conferred by the deletion allele of the 12-bp indel in the regulatory region of PRNP is substantial, the main risk factor for BSE in cattle is environmental, i.e. exposure to feedstuffs contaminated with the infectious agent. PMID:17014722

  12. A major genetic component of BSE susceptibility

    Williams John L

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coding variants of the prion protein gene (PRNP have been shown to be major determinants for the susceptibility to transmitted prion diseases in humans, mice and sheep. However, to date, the effects of polymorphisms in the coding and regulatory regions of bovine PRNP on bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE susceptibility have been considered marginal or non-existent. Here we analysed two insertion/deletion (indel polymorphisms in the regulatory region of bovine PRNP in BSE affected animals and controls of four independent cattle populations from UK and Germany. Results In the present report, we show that two previously reported 23- and 12-bp insertion/deletion (indel polymorphisms in the regulatory region of bovine PRNP are strongly associated with BSE incidence in cattle. Genotyping of BSE-affected and control animals of UK Holstein, German Holstein, German Brown and German Fleckvieh breeds revealed a significant overrepresentation of the deletion alleles at both polymorphic sites in diseased animals (P = 2.01 × 10-3 and P = 8.66 × 10-5, respectively. The main effect on susceptibility is associated with the 12-bp indel polymorphism. Compared with non-carriers, heterozygous and homozygous carriers of the 12-bp deletion allele possess relatively higher risks of having BSE, ranging from 1.32 to 4.01 and 1.74 to 3.65 in the different breeds. These values correspond to population attributable risks ranging from 35% to 53%. Conclusion Our results demonstrate a substantial genetic PRNP associated component for BSE susceptibility in cattle. Although the BSE risk conferred by the deletion allele of the 12-bp indel in the regulatory region of PRNP is substantial, the main risk factor for BSE in cattle is environmental, i.e. exposure to feedstuffs contaminated with the infectious agent.

  13. Mechanical components: fabrication of major reactor structures

    Nicholson, S.

    1985-01-01

    The paper examines the validity of criticisms of quality assurance of mechanical plant and welded products within major reactor structures, taking into account experience gained on the AGR's. Various constructive recommendations are made aimed at furthering the objectives of quality assurance in the nuclear industry and making it more cost-effective. Current levels of quality related costs in the fabrication industry are provided as a basis for discussion. (U.K.)

  14. Major Components of Metabolic Parameters and Nutritional Intakes in Different Genotypes of Adiponectin +276 G>T Gene Polymorphism in Non-Diabetes and Non-Alcoholic Iranian Fatty Liver Patients.

    Mohseni, Fatemeh; Moghbelinejad, Sahar; Najafipour, Reza

    2017-01-01

    Genetic and environmental factors are both involved in the etiology of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD). Among the genetic factors, certain polymorphisms of adiponectin gene are associated with NAFLD. In the current study, we investigated the association between metabolic parameters with different genotypes of adiponectin +276 G>T polymorphism among the Iranian NAFLD patients, and the effect of nutritional intake with development of NAFLD. In this study, 75 patients with NAFLD and 76 healthy individuals were enrolled. Dietary intakes were assessed using a semi-quantitative Food-Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist to Hip Ratio (WHR) were calculated. Biochemical assays including FSG (Fasting Serum Glucose), liver enzymes, lipid profiles, Malondialdehyde, insulin resistance and Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) were measured after 12 hr fasting. Gene polymorphism study was done by using of sequencing method. Although, T allele frequency was more prevalent in patients with NAFLD than control, adiponectin +276 G>T polymorphism was not associated with risk of NAFLD. Among the metabolic parameters, TAC in TT genotype was significantly lower 1.44(0.69 to 2.81) p>0.05, AST in GT, GG genotypes, and ALT in all three genotypes were higher in NAFLD patients in compared to healthy subjects (pconsumption and vitamin E intake as compared to control group with the same genotype (pstudy, we showed the association of different genotypes of +276 G>T polymorphism in adiponectin gene with some metabolic parameters.

  15. Aging and life extension of major light water reactor components

    Shah, V.N.; MacDonald, P.E.

    1993-01-01

    An understanding of the aging degradation of the major pressurized and boiling water reactor structures and components is given. The design and fabrication of each structure or component is briefly described followed by information on the associated stressors. Interactions between the design, materials and various stressors that cause aging degradation are reviewed. In many cases, aging degradation problems have occurred, and the plant experience to date is analyzed. The discussion summarize the available aging-related information and are supported with extensive references, including references to US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) documents, Electric Power Research Institute reports, US and international conference proceedings and other publications

  16. A major protein component of the Bacillus subtilis biofilm matrix.

    Branda, Steven S; Chu, Frances; Kearns, Daniel B; Losick, Richard; Kolter, Roberto

    2006-02-01

    Microbes construct structurally complex multicellular communities (biofilms) through production of an extracellular matrix. Here we present evidence from scanning electron microscopy showing that a wild strain of the Gram positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis builds such a matrix. Genetic, biochemical and cytological evidence indicates that the matrix is composed predominantly of a protein component, TasA, and an exopolysaccharide component. The absence of TasA or the exopolysaccharide resulted in a residual matrix, while the absence of both components led to complete failure to form complex multicellular communities. Extracellular complementation experiments revealed that a functional matrix can be assembled even when TasA and the exopolysaccharide are produced by different cells, reinforcing the view that the components contribute to matrix formation in an extracellular manner. Having defined the major components of the biofilm matrix and the control of their synthesis by the global regulator SinR, we present a working model for how B. subtilis switches between nomadic and sedentary lifestyles.

  17. Education of food irradiation. Study for students majoring in nutrition

    Minami, Ikuko

    2014-01-01

    As the credential for nutrition counselor with professional skills and knowledge for invalids, who also provides the nutrition education for local residence at the administrative organization, the qualification system of registered dietitian has been established in Japan. Additionally, in accordance with the legislation of Basic Act on Food Education and the revision of School Education Law, the Diet and Nutrition Teacher System has established in 2005. Therefore, registered dietitian has been approved to teach at the elementary school or junior high school as a teacher. Since registered dietitian is the educator of the “diet and nutrition,” it is important to provide proper knowledge of food irradiation at the training facility for registered dietitian. This report describes the instruction of food irradiation at the education curriculum of the registered dietitian training course. In addition, questionnaire survey result on the knowledge of food irradiation gathered from newly-enrolled students in the registered dietitian training course will also be reported. (author)

  18. Aging management of major LWR components with nondestructive evaluation

    Shah, V.N.; MacDonald, P.E.; Akers, D.W.; Sellers, C.; Murty, K.L.; Miraglia, P.Q.; Mathew, M.D.; Haggag, F.M.

    1997-01-01

    Nondestructive evaluation of material damage can contribute to continued safe, reliable, and economical operation of nuclear power plants through their current and renewed license period. The aging mechanisms active in the major light water reactor components are radiation embrittlement, thermal aging, stress corrosion cracking, flow-accelerated corrosion, and fatigue, which reduce fracture toughness, structural strength, or fatigue resistance of the components and challenge structural integrity of the pressure boundary. This paper reviews four nondestructive evaluation methods with the potential for in situ assessment of damage caused by these mechanisms: stress-strain microprobe for determining mechanical properties of reactor pressure vessel and cast stainless materials, magnetic methods for estimating thermal aging damage in cast stainless steel, positron annihilation measurements for estimating early fatigue damage in reactor coolant system piping, and ultrasonic guided wave technique for detecting cracks and wall thinning in tubes and pipes and corrosion damage to embedded portion of metal containments

  19. Effect of nutrition support on immunity in paediatric patients with beta-thalassaemia major.

    Tienboon, Prasong

    2003-01-01

    Nutritional deficiencies have been variably observed in thalassaemia and the aetiology of many of the immune abnormalities in thalassaemic children are poorly defined. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that certain immune abnormalities have a nutritional basis. Nutritional status, selective quantitative and functional indices of immunity were studied in twelve children (7 females, 5 males; mean age 28 months, SD 5 and range 19.8-35.5), with thalassaemia major before and after a one month period of intensive nutrition support (the study diet consisted of 'Enfapro' liquid formula (Mead Johnson) with added dextrose and corn oil to achieve a caloric density of 1.1 kcal/cc in addition to vitamins and minerals). Each child was provided approximately 150 kcal/day and 4 g of protein/day. Lymphocyte proliferation to Concanavalin A (Con A) (P = 0.008) and Purified Protein Derivative (PPD) (P = 0.002) was depressed upon entry into the study, however the response to Con A attained normal values by the end of the intervention. Compared to baselines, the proliferative response to Con A (P = 0.005) and Phytohemagglutinin A (PHA) (P = 0.031) both improved after the nutrition support. Although there was no general correlation of zinc status with lymphocyte proliferation, normal baseline zinc status was associated with improvement of proliferation. The %CD4 increased (P = 0.036), primarily because of a decrease in total lymphocytes and to lesser extent a decrease in CD8 lymphocytes. Serum immunoglobulin concentrations were found to be elevated on admission but were not significantly affected by the nutrition intervention. C3 concentrations were uniformly depressed on admission but increased by the end of the study protocol (P = 0.037). C4 and CH50 activity were not significantly influenced by the intervention. In conclusion, children with beta thalassaemia have abnormalities of lymphocyte function as well as key complement components that are responsive to nutrition support. In

  20. Development and verification test of integral reactor major components

    Kim, J. I.; Kim, Y. W.; Kim, J. H. and others

    1999-03-01

    The conceptual designs for SG, MCP, CEDM to be installed in the integral reactor SMART were developed. Three-dimensional CAD models for the major components were developed to visualize the design concepts. Once-through helical steam generator was conceptually designed for SMART. Canned motor pump was adopted in the conceptual design of MCP. Linear pulse motor type and ballscrew type CEDM, which have fine control capabilities were studied for adoption in SMART. In parallel with the structural design, the electro-magnetic design was performed for the sizing motors and electro-magnet. Prototypes for the CEDM and MCP sub-assemblies were developed and tested to verify the performance. The impeller design procedure and the computer program to analyze the dynamic characteristics of MCP rotor shaft were developed. The design concepts of SG, MCP, CEDM were also invetigated for the fabricability.

  1. Development and verification test of integral reactor major components

    Kim, J. I.; Kim, Y. W.; Kim, J. H. and others

    1999-03-01

    The conceptual designs for SG, MCP, CEDM to be installed in the integral reactor SMART were developed. Three-dimensional CAD models for the major components were developed to visualize the design concepts. Once-through helical steam generator was conceptually designed for SMART. Canned motor pump was adopted in the conceptual design of MCP. Linear pulse motor type and ballscrew type CEDM, which have fine control capabilities were studied for adoption in SMART. In parallel with the structural design, the electro-magnetic design was performed for the sizing motors and electro-magnet. Prototypes for the CEDM and MCP sub-assemblies were developed and tested to verify the performance. The impeller design procedure and the computer program to analyze the dynamic characteristics of MCP rotor shaft were developed. The design concepts of SG, MCP, CEDM were also invetigated for the fabricability

  2. Major Components of the National TRU Waste System Optimization Project

    Moody, D.C.; Bennington, B.; Sharif, F.

    2002-01-01

    The National Transuranic (TRU) Program (NTP) is being optimized to allow for disposing of the legacy TRU waste at least 10 years earlier than originally planned. This acceleration will save the nation an estimated $713. The Department of Energy's (DOE'S) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) has initiated the National TRU Waste System Optimization Project to propose, and upon approvaI, implement activities that produce significant cost saving by improving efficiency, thereby accelerating the rate of TRU waste disposal without compromising safety. In its role as NTP agent of change, the National TRU Waste System Optimization Project (the Project) (1) interacts closely with all NTP activities. Three of the major components of the Project are the Central Characterization Project (CCP), the Central Confirmation Facility (CCF), and the MobiIe/Modular Deployment Program.

  3. Quercetin, not caffeine, is a major neuroprotective component in coffee.

    Lee, Moonhee; McGeer, Edith G; McGeer, Patrick L

    2016-10-01

    Epidemiologic studies indicate that coffee consumption reduces the risk of Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. To determine the factors involved, we examined the protective effects of coffee components. The test involved prevention of neurotoxicity to SH-SY5Y cells that was induced by lipopolysaccharide plus interferon-γ or interferon-γ released from activated microglia and astrocytes. We found that quercetin, flavones, chlorogenic acid, and caffeine protected SH-SY5Y cells from these toxins. They also reduced the release of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 from the activated microglia and astrocytes and attenuated the activation of proteins from P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor kappa light chain enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB). After exposure to toxin containing glial-stimulated conditioned medium, we also found that quercetin reduced oxidative/nitrative damage to DNA, as well as to the lipids and proteins of SH-SY5Y cells. There was a resultant increase in [GSH]i in SH-SY5Y cells. The data indicate that quercetin is the major neuroprotective component in coffee against Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Aging management of major light water reactor components

    Shah, V.N.; Sinha, U.P.; Ware, A.G.

    1992-01-01

    Review of technical literature and field experience has identified stress corrosion cracking as one of the major degradation mechanisms for the major light water reactor components. Three of the stress corrosion cracking mechanisms of current concern are (a) primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) in pressurized water reactors, and (b) intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) and (c) irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) in boiling water reactors. Effective aging management of stress corrosion cracking mechanisms includes evaluation of interactions between design, materials, stressors, and environment; identification and ranking of susceptible sites; reliable inspection of any damage; assessment of damage rate; mitigation of damage; and repair and replacement using corrosion-resistant materials. Management of PWSCC includes use of lower operating temperatures, reduction in residual tensile stresses, development of reliable inspection techniques, and use of Alloy 690 as replacement material. Management of IGSCC of nozzle and attachment welds includes use of Alloy 82 as weld material, and potential use of hydrogen water chemistry. Management of IASCC also includes potential use of hydrogen water chemistry

  5. A Study on Major Components of Bee Venom Using Electrophoresis

    Lee, Jin-Seon

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to study on major components of various Bee Venom(Bee Venom by electrical stimulation in Korea; K-BV I, Bee Venom by Microwave stimulation in Korea; K -BV II, 0.5rng/ml, Fu Yu Pharmaceutical Factory, China; C-BV, 1mg /ml, Monmouth Pain Institute, Inc., U.S.A.; A-BV using Electrophoresis. The results were summarized as follows: 1. In 1:4000 Bee Venom solution rate, the band was not displayed distinctly usmg Electrophoresis. But in 1: 1000, the band showed clearly. 2. The results of Electrophoresis at solution rate 1:1000, K-BV I and K-BVII showed similar band. 3. The molecular weight of Phospholipase A2 was known as 19,000 but its band was seen at 17,000 in Electrophoresis. 4. Protein concentration of Bee Venom by Lowry method was different at solution rate 1:4000 ; C-BV was 250μg/ml, K-BV I was 190μg/ml, K-BV Ⅱ was 160μg/ml and C-BV was 45μg/ml. 5. Electrophoresis method was unuseful for analysis of Bee Venom when solution rate is above 1:4000 but Protein concentration of Bee Venom by Lowry method was possible. These data from the study can be applied to establish the standard measurement of Bee Venom and prevent pure bee venom from mixing of another components. I think it is desirable to study more about safety of Bee Venom as time goes by.

  6. Major component analysis of dynamic networks of physiologic organ interactions

    Liu, Kang K L; Ma, Qianli D Y; Ivanov, Plamen Ch; Bartsch, Ronny P

    2015-01-01

    The human organism is a complex network of interconnected organ systems, where the behavior of one system affects the dynamics of other systems. Identifying and quantifying dynamical networks of diverse physiologic systems under varied conditions is a challenge due to the complexity in the output dynamics of the individual systems and the transient and nonlinear characteristics of their coupling. We introduce a novel computational method based on the concept of time delay stability and major component analysis to investigate how organ systems interact as a network to coordinate their functions. We analyze a large database of continuously recorded multi-channel physiologic signals from healthy young subjects during night-time sleep. We identify a network of dynamic interactions between key physiologic systems in the human organism. Further, we find that each physiologic state is characterized by a distinct network structure with different relative contribution from individual organ systems to the global network dynamics. Specifically, we observe a gradual decrease in the strength of coupling of heart and respiration to the rest of the network with transition from wake to deep sleep, and in contrast, an increased relative contribution to network dynamics from chin and leg muscle tone and eye movement, demonstrating a robust association between network topology and physiologic function. (paper)

  7. Major intestinal complications of radiotherapy. Management and nutrition

    Deitel, M.; To, T.B.

    1987-12-01

    Hospitalization was required in 57 patients for intestinal injuries following radiotherapy for carcinoma of the cervix, endometrium, ovary, bladder, rectum, and other primary sites. Intestinal complications included stenosis, perforation, rectal ulcer, and rectovaginal, ileovaginal, and ileovesical fistula; 27 patients had multiple intestinal complications. Operation was necessary in 33 patients, as follows: bowel resections, 18; colostomy alone, five; adhesiolysis, five; ileocolic bypass, three; and Hartmann's procedure for sigmoid perforation, two. Five anastomotic leaks and six postoperative deaths occurred. Causes of death among the remaining patients included residual cancer (ten), de novo bowel cancer (two), radiation injury (four), and unrelated causes (six). Resection to uninvolved bowel, omental wrap of anterior resection anastomosis, avoidance of unnecessary adhesiolysis, and long-tube orientation seemed to contribute to successful operations. Nutritional support was used for repletion, post-operative fistulas, and short-gut syndrome.

  8. Major intestinal complications of radiotherapy. Management and nutrition

    Deitel, M.; To, T.B.

    1987-01-01

    Hospitalization was required in 57 patients for intestinal injuries following radiotherapy for carcinoma of the cervix, endometrium, ovary, bladder, rectum, and other primary sites. Intestinal complications included stenosis, perforation, rectal ulcer, and rectovaginal, ileovaginal, and ileovesical fistula; 27 patients had multiple intestinal complications. Operation was necessary in 33 patients, as follows: bowel resections, 18; colostomy alone, five; adhesiolysis, five; ileocolic bypass, three; and Hartmann's procedure for sigmoid perforation, two. Five anastomotic leaks and six postoperative deaths occurred. Causes of death among the remaining patients included residual cancer (ten), de novo bowel cancer (two), radiation injury (four), and unrelated causes (six). Resection to uninvolved bowel, omental wrap of anterior resection anastomosis, avoidance of unnecessary adhesiolysis, and long-tube orientation seemed to contribute to successful operations. Nutritional support was used for repletion, post-operative fistulas, and short-gut syndrome

  9. NUTRITIONAL ASSESSMENT IN PATIENTS PREDICTED TO MAJOR ABDOMINAL SURGERY AT THE GENERAL HOSPITAL CELJE

    Ernest Novak

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Malnutrition has serious implications for recovery after surgery. Early detection of malnutrition with nutritional support minimizes postoperative complications. Nutritional assessment tools need to be simple and suitable for use in everyday practice. In our study we wanted to determine, how many patients might benefit from nutritional support.Methods. From April to August 1999 fifty consecutively admitted patients predicted to major abdominal surgery have been examined. We used Mini nutritional assessment (MNA, Buzby’s nutrition risk index (NRI, blood albumin level and weight loss in the last 3 months period prior to the examination, to assess nutritional status.Results. We examined 50 patients (27 males and 23 females, age 76.5 ± 16.5 and confirmed malnutrition in 40% of patients with MNA and serum albumin level. The increased risk for nutrition-associated complications was confirmed by NRI and weight loss in 44%.Conclusions. A confident diagnosis of malnutrition and increased risk for nutrition-associated complications can be established by using a combination of simple methods like MNA, NRI, weight loss and serum albumin level. Almost half of the patients admitted for major abdominal surgery in General hospital Celje suffer from malnutrition and they may benefit with early nutritional intervention.

  10. Correlation of major components of ocular astigmatism in myopic patients.

    Mohammadpour, Mehrdad; Heidari, Zahra; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi; Amouzegar, Afsaneh; Hashemi, Hassan

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the correlation of major components of ocular astigmatism in myopic patients in an academic hospital. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 376 eyes of 188 patients who were referred to Farabi Eye Hospital for refractive surgery. Preoperative examinations including refraction and corneal topography were performed for all candidates to measure refractive and corneal astigmatism. Ocular residual astigmatism was calculated using vector analysis. Pearson's correlation and ANOVA analysis were used to evaluate the strength of the association between different types of astigmatism. Both eyes were defined as cluster and the Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) analysis were performed. Mean age of 119 women (63.3%) and 69 men (36.7%) was 27.8 ± 5.7 years. Mean refractive error based on spherical equivalent was -3.59 ± 1.95D (range, -0.54 to -10.22D). Mean refractive and corneal astigmatism was 1.97 ± 1.3D and 1.85 ± 1.01D, respectively. Mean amount of ORA was 0.65 ± 0.36D.There was a significant correlation between ORA and refractive astigmatism(r=0.23, pcorrelation between ORA and corneal astigmatism (r=0.13, p=0.014). There was a significant correlation between J0 and J45 values of ORA and corneal astigmatism (pcorrelation between ORA and refractive astigmatism, refractive and corneal astigmatism and a weak correlation between ORA and corneal astigmatism in refractive surgery candidates. Identifying the type of astigmatism and preoperative measurement of ocular residual astigmatism is highly recommended prior to any refractive surgery, especially in cases with significant astigmatism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Disordered Eating Behaviors and Food Addiction among Nutrition Major College Students.

    Yu, Zhiping; Tan, Michael

    2016-10-26

    Evidence of whether nutrition students are free from food-related issues or at higher risk for eating disorders is inconsistent. This study aimed to assess disordered eating behaviors and food addiction among nutrition and non-nutrition major college students. Students ( n = 967, ages 18-25, female 72.7%, white 74.8%) enrolled at a public university completed online demographic characteristics surveys and validated questionnaires measuring specific disordered eating behaviors. Academic major category differences were compared. Additionally, high risk participants were assessed by weight status and academic year. Overall, 10% of respondents were a high level of concern for developing eating disorders. About 10.3% of respondents met criteria for food addiction. In addition, 4.5% of respondents had co-occurrence of eating disorder risk and food addiction risk out of total respondents. There were no significant differences in level of concern for developing an eating disorder, eating subscales, or food addiction among academic majors. The percentage of high risk participants was lower in the underweight/normal weight group than in the overweight/obese group in health-related non-nutrition major students but not in nutrition students. Early screening, increasing awareness, and promoting healthy eating habits could be potential strategies to help treat and prevent the development of disorders or associated health conditions in nutrition as well as non-nutrition students.

  12. Disordered Eating Behaviors and Food Addiction among Nutrition Major College Students

    Yu, Zhiping; Tan, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Evidence of whether nutrition students are free from food-related issues or at higher risk for eating disorders is inconsistent. This study aimed to assess disordered eating behaviors and food addiction among nutrition and non-nutrition major college students. Students (n = 967, ages 18–25, female 72.7%, white 74.8%) enrolled at a public university completed online demographic characteristics surveys and validated questionnaires measuring specific disordered eating behaviors. Academic major category differences were compared. Additionally, high risk participants were assessed by weight status and academic year. Overall, 10% of respondents were a high level of concern for developing eating disorders. About 10.3% of respondents met criteria for food addiction. In addition, 4.5% of respondents had co-occurrence of eating disorder risk and food addiction risk out of total respondents. There were no significant differences in level of concern for developing an eating disorder, eating subscales, or food addiction among academic majors. The percentage of high risk participants was lower in the underweight/normal weight group than in the overweight/obese group in health-related non-nutrition major students but not in nutrition students. Early screening, increasing awareness, and promoting healthy eating habits could be potential strategies to help treat and prevent the development of disorders or associated health conditions in nutrition as well as non-nutrition students. PMID:27792162

  13. Disordered Eating Behaviors and Food Addiction among Nutrition Major College Students

    Zhiping Yu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Evidence of whether nutrition students are free from food-related issues or at higher risk for eating disorders is inconsistent. This study aimed to assess disordered eating behaviors and food addiction among nutrition and non-nutrition major college students. Students (n = 967, ages 18–25, female 72.7%, white 74.8% enrolled at a public university completed online demographic characteristics surveys and validated questionnaires measuring specific disordered eating behaviors. Academic major category differences were compared. Additionally, high risk participants were assessed by weight status and academic year. Overall, 10% of respondents were a high level of concern for developing eating disorders. About 10.3% of respondents met criteria for food addiction. In addition, 4.5% of respondents had co-occurrence of eating disorder risk and food addiction risk out of total respondents. There were no significant differences in level of concern for developing an eating disorder, eating subscales, or food addiction among academic majors. The percentage of high risk participants was lower in the underweight/normal weight group than in the overweight/obese group in health-related non-nutrition major students but not in nutrition students. Early screening, increasing awareness, and promoting healthy eating habits could be potential strategies to help treat and prevent the development of disorders or associated health conditions in nutrition as well as non-nutrition students.

  14. Manufacturing and testing experience for FFTF major safety related components

    Peckinpaugh, C.L.

    1976-01-01

    Experience with FFTF Heat Transport System components during design, manufacturing, and prototype testing is dscussed. Specifically the special design features and the results of the testing performed to assure that the designs provide for safe operation are outlined. Particular emphasis is placed on the full size prototype testing programs and the valuable experience gained

  15. Nutritional components of the sea cucumber Holothuria scabra

    Morakot Sroyraya

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Holothuria scabrais one of the most commercially important species found in the Pacific region. The sea cucumber extracts have been widely reported to have beneficial health effects.The aim of this study was to determine the nutritional compositions of H. scabra, and compare its important nutritional contents with that of other species.Methods:The sea cucumbers were dissected, sliced into small pieces,and then freeze-dried. The nutritional compositions, including proximate composition, amino acids, fatty acids,collagen, GABA, Vitamin A, C, and E of the whole body and body wall of H. scabra,were analyzed.Results:H. scabra contained a high quantity of protein (22.50% in whole body and 55.18% in body wall and very low lipids (1.55% in whole body and 1.02% in body wall. The three most abundant amino acids found in both the whole body and body wall were glycine, glutamic acid, and proline. The main fatty acids found in the whole body were stearic acid and nervonic acid, and in the body wall were arachidonic acid and stearic acid. The whole body and body wall also contained high levels of essential amino acids, essential fatty acids, and collagen, in addition to moderate amounts of vitamin E and low amounts of GABA and vitamin C.Conclusions:The sea cucumber, H. scabra, contained high quantity of protein and very low lipid. It containedhigh essential amino acids, essential fatty acids, nervonic and arachidonic acids, and collagen, which also contained GABA, vitamin C, and vitamin E.

  16. [Intervention programs in hospital nutrition: actions, design, components and implementation].

    Santana Porben, S; Barreto Penié, J

    2005-01-01

    Metabolic, Nutrient and Feeding Intervention Programs must become the methodological tool for dealing with the health problem posed by disease-associated-malnutrition on one side, and the "Bad Practices" affecting the nutritional status of the patient, on the other one. Programs like these ones should prescribe clear policies and actions in the three domains of contemporary medical practice: assistance, research and education. The fullfillment of these Program's objectives, and the relization of the implicit benefits, will only be possible if a methodological platform that armonically integrates elements of Continuous Education, Cost Analysis, Recording and Documentation, and Quality Control and Assurance, is created. The experience acumulated after the inception and conduction of the Intervention Program at the Clinical-Surgical "Hermanos Ameijeiras" Hospital (Havana City, Cuba) has served to demostrate that it is feasible not only to create a theoretical and practical body to satisfy the aforementioned goals, but, also, to export it to another institutions of the country, in view of the fact that minimal investments for adquiring the resources needed to deploy such Program, as well as for training and capacitation of medic and paramedic personel in the corresponding Recording & Documentation and Feeding & Nutrition Good Practices might result in short-term economical and medical care benefits.

  17. Crystal structure of prunin-1, a major component of the almond (Prunus dulcis) allergen amandin.

    Jin, Tengchuan; Albillos, Silvia M; Guo, Feng; Howard, Andrew; Fu, Tong-Jen; Kothary, Mahendra H; Zhang, Yu-Zhu

    2009-09-23

    Seed storage proteins are accumulated during seed development and act as a reserve of nutrition for seed germination and young sprout growth. Plant seeds play an important role in human nutrition by providing a relatively inexpensive source of protein. However, many plant foods contain allergenic proteins, and the number of people suffering from food allergies has increased rapidly in recent years. The 11S globulins are the most widespread seed storage proteins, present in monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous seeds as well as in gymnosperms (conifers) and other spermatophytes. This family of proteins accounts for a number of known major food allergens. They are of interest to both the public and industry due to food safety concerns. Because of the interests in the structural basis of the allergenicity of food allergens, we sought to determine the crystal structure of Pru1, the major component of the 11 S storage protein from almonds. The structure was refined to 2.4 A, and the R/Rfree for the final refined structure is 17.2/22.9. Pru1 is a hexamer made of two trimers. Most of the back-to-back trimer-trimer association was contributed by monomer-monomer interactions. An alpha helix (helix 6) at the C-terminal end of the acidic domain of one of the interacting monomers lies at the cleft of the two protomers. The residues in this helix correspond to a flexible region in the peanut allergen Ara h 3 that encompasses a previously defined linear IgE epitope.

  18. Crystal Structure of Prunin-1, a Major Component of the Almond (Prunus dulcis) Allergen Amandin

    Jin, Tengchuan; Albillos, Silvia M.; Guo, Feng; Howard, Andrew; Fu, Tong-Jen; Kothary, Mahendra H.; Zhang, Yu-Zhu; (IIT); (US-FDA); (IT)

    2010-10-28

    Seed storage proteins are accumulated during seed development and act as a reserve of nutrition for seed germination and young sprout growth. Plant seeds play an important role in human nutrition by providing a relatively inexpensive source of protein. However, many plant foods contain allergenic proteins, and the number of people suffering from food allergies has increased rapidly in recent years. The 11S globulins are the most widespread seed storage proteins, present in monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous seeds as well as in gymnosperms (conifers) and other spermatophytes. This family of proteins accounts for a number of known major food allergens. They are of interest to both the public and industry due to food safety concerns. Because of the interests in the structural basis of the allergenicity of food allergens, we sought to determine the crystal structure of Pru1, the major component of the 11 S storage protein from almonds. The structure was refined to 2.4 {angstrom}, and the R/Rfree for the final refined structure is 17.2/22.9. Pru1 is a hexamer made of two trimers. Most of the back-to-back trimer-trimer association was contributed by monomer-monomer interactions. An {alpha} helix (helix 6) at the C-terminal end of the acidic domain of one of the interacting monomers lies at the cleft of the two protomers. The residues in this helix correspond to a flexible region in the peanut allergen Ara h 3 that encompasses a previously defined linear IgE epitope.

  19. Evaluation of nutritional components by Plackett- Burman design for ...

    GREGORY

    2011-12-16

    Dec 16, 2011 ... African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. ... A number of medium components influencing lipase production by Penicillium citrinum (ATCC 42799) ... in the field of bioenergy, especially in biodiesel produc- ..... and algal culture.

  20. Major components in oils obtained from Amazonian palm fruits

    Santos, M. F. G.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Native palm trees belong to the Arecaceae family and are among the most useful plant resources in the Amazons. Despite its great diversity and various uses, few species have been study in detail, which makes it necessary to perform more comprehensive studies on the quality and composition of species not yet explored. This study deals with the characterization of the major compounds in the oils obtained from the mesocarp of fruits of the main palm species from the State of Amapá, Brasil, i.e. bacaba (Oenocarpus bacaba, buriti (Mauritia flexuosa, inajá (Maximiliana maripa, pupunha (Bactris gasipaes and tucumã (Astrocaryum vulgare. Physicochemical characteristics, fatty acids and triacylglycerol (TAG contents were analyzed by HPLC and GC. The proximate composition of the fruits was also analyzed. The results relating to acidity, peroxide value and polar compounds indicate good quality of the oils obtained. Oleic acid ranging from 39.2 to 71.6% and palmitic acid ranging from 20.8 to 39.6% were the two major fatty acids in all the samples. The oils from inajá were characterized by the presence of significant amounts of lauric (4.6% and miristic (10.7% acids while in bacaba, buriti, pupunha and tucumã, as in most edible vegetable oils, only the fatty acids of 16 and 18 carbon atoms were present. Accordingly, the major TAG species in all the samples were POP, POO and OOO. The mesocarp of the palm fruit had a high content in lipids ranging from 17.0% for pupunha to 38.3% for bacaba, expressed as dry basis.Las palmeras nativas de la familia Arecaceae constituyen recursos alimentarios de gran importancia en la región amazónica. A pesar de su diversidad y utilidad, muchas especies son poco conocidas por lo que son de interés los estudios dirigidos a conocer la calidad y composición de las especies menos exploradas para evaluar su potencial económico. El objetivo de este estudio fue la caracterización de los aceites obtenidos del mesocarpio

  1. Postprandial ghrelin suppression is exaggerated following major surgery; implications for nutritional recovery

    Bloom Stephen R

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Meeting patients' nutritional requirements and preventing malnutrition is a challenge following major surgical procedures. The role of ghrelin in nutritional recovery after non-gastrointestinal major surgery is unknown. We used coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG as an example of anticipated good recovery post major surgery. Seventeen patients undergoing CABG (mean ± SEM: 70.1 ± 2.2 yrs, BMI 29.1 ± 1.4 kg/m2, 15 male underwent fasting and postprandial (45 mins after standard test breakfast blood sampling pre-operatively (day 0, post-operatively (day 6 and at follow-up (day 40. Changes in food intake, biochemical and anthropometric markers of nutritional status were recorded. A comparison was made to 17 matched healthy controls (70.6 ± 2.3 yrs, BMI 28.4 ± 1.3 kg/m2. We observed significantly increased post-operative and follow-up fasting ghrelin concentrations compared with pre-operatively (pre-op. 402 ± 42 pmol/L vs post-op. 642 ± 97 pmol/L vs follow-up 603 ± 94 pmol/L (ANOVA p p Our data support the hypothesis that prolonged changes in fasting and postprandial plasma ghrelin concentrations are associated with impaired nutritional recovery after CABG. These findings reinforce the need to investigate ghrelin in other patients groups undergoing major surgery.

  2. 41 CFR 102-85.40 - What are the major components of the pricing policy?

    2010-07-01

    ... components of the pricing policy? 102-85.40 Section 102-85.40 Public Contracts and Property Management...-PRICING POLICY FOR OCCUPANCY IN GSA SPACE Pricing Policy-General § 102-85.40 What are the major components of the pricing policy? The major components of the pricing policy are: (a) An OA between a customer...

  3. Essential Nutrition and Food Systems Components for School Curricula: Views from Experts in Iran.

    Sadegholvad, Sanaz; Yeatman, Heather; Omidvar, Nasrin; Parrish, Anne-Maree; Worsley, Anthony

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate food experts' views on important nutrition and food systems knowledge issues for education purposes at schools in Iran. In 2012, semi-structured, face-to-face or telephone interviews were conducted with twenty-eight acknowledged Iranian experts in food and nutrition fields. Participants were selected from four major provinces in Iran (Tehran, Isfahan, Fars and Gilan). Open-ended interview questions were used to identify nutrition and food systems knowledge issues, which experts considered as important to be included in school education programs. Qualitative interviews were analyzed thematically using NVivo. A framework of knowledge that would assist Iranian students and school-leavers to make informed decisions in food-related areas was developed, comprising five major clusters and several sub-clusters. Major knowledge clusters included nutrition basics; food production; every day food-related practices; prevalent nutritional health problems in Iran and improvement of students' ethical attitudes in the food domain. These findings provide a guide to curriculum developers and policy makers to assess current education curricula in order to optimize students' knowledge of nutrition and food systems.

  4. Evaluation of the nutrition counselling component of a fitness programme for children with disabilities.

    Fragala-Pinkham, Maria A; Bradford, Laura; Haley, Stephen M

    2006-01-01

    To describe and evaluate the nutrition counselling component of a fitness programme for children with disabilities. Twenty-eight children with disabilities, ages 6-14 years, participated in a 16-week comprehensive fitness programme consisting of twice weekly exercise sessions, nutrition counselling and physical activity promotion education sessions. Nutrition sessions consisted of three individual and two group sessions. Individual nutrition goals were developed for each child using 3-day food intake diaries and parent interview. Body Mass Index (BMI) and progress towards nutrition goals were documented. No significant BMI changes were recorded for the entire group (n=28) or a sub-group with a goal to decrease BMI (n=8). Most of the children made improvements in individual goals indicating improvements in healthy eating habits. This included eating the daily recommended amount of servings of each food group, trying new foods and limiting foods containing saturated and trans fats, sodium and sugar. Short-term changes were noted in eating habits and behaviours during the 16-week fitness programme, although the effects did not influence overall BMI during the 16-week programme. Children with disabilities are at nutritional risk, and long-term follow-up is needed to determine if initial changes in parent-reported child eating behaviours will impact long-term nutrition, BMI and overall health.

  5. COMPONENTS OF THE HEALTHY EATING INDEX IN NUTRITION OF ADULT FEMALES

    Katarína Fatrcová-Šramková

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available To assess and monitor the nutriton and dietary status, the U.S. Department of Agriculture developed the Healthy Eating Index - HEI. The index consists of 10 components, each representing different aspects of a healthful diet. The aim of the study was to evaluate the nutrition in adult females and to analyze the actual nutrition according to selected four components (no. 6-9 of the Healthy Eating Index. Components 6 and 7 measure total fat and saturated fat consumption, respectively, as a percentage of total food intake (maximal 30 % and 10 % of total energy daily content respectively; in case of 31,3 % and 58,62 % females respectively. Components 8 and 9 measure total cholesterol (daily maximal 300 mg in case of 69,54 % participants and sodium intake (maximal 2400 mg a day in case of 22,99 % probands. doi:10.5219/106

  6. Residual life assessment of major LWR components: NPAR approach and results

    Shah, V.N.; Weidenhamer, G.H.; Vora, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    The nuclear plant aging research (NPAR) program is systematically addressing the technical issues associated with understanding and managing aging of major LWR components. Twenty-one major components have been identified and prioritized according to their relevance to plant safety. Qualitative aging assessment has identified pertinent design features, materials, stressors, environments, aging mechanisms. and failure modes for each of the components. Emerging inspection, surveillance, and monitoring methods to characterize aging damage and mitigation methods to reduce the damage are currently being assessed. The results of all these assessments are used to develop life-assessment procedures for the components and are included in appropriate documents supporting the regulatory requirements for license renewal. (author)

  7. Nutrition quality, body size and two components of mating behavior in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Pavković-Lucić, Sofija; Kekić, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    Two components of mating behavior, mating latency and duration of copulation, were investigated in Drosophila melanogaster males from three different "nutritional" strains, reared for more than 35 generations on banana, tomato and cornmeal-agar-yeast substrates. Males from different strains did not differ according to mating latency and duration of copulation. Also, the sizes of males from different strains did not contribute to these behavioral traits.

  8. [Nutritional components and sub-chronic toxicity of genetically modified rice expressing human lactoferrin].

    Hu, Yichun; Piao, Jianhua; Yang, Xiaoguang

    2012-01-01

    To compare the nutritional components of genetically modified rice expressing human lactoferrin (hLf) with its parental rice, and to observe the sub-chronic toxicity of hLf rice. The nutritional components of hLf rice and its parental rice were determined by the National Standard Methods. Eighty weanling Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups based on their gender and body weight: group A (hLf rice high-dose group with 71.45% rice), group B (hLf rice medium-dose group with 35. 725% rice), group C (parental rice group with 71.01% rice) and group D (AIN-93G diet group), and the latter two groups were used as the control. Body weight, dietary intake, blood routine test, blood biochemical examination, organ coefficient, bone density and the pathology of organs were investigated at the end of a 90-day feeding experiment. Except for human lactoferrin and Fe, there was no difference of main nutritional components, minerals and vitamins between groups. The differences of some indicators of blood routine (WBC, HGB, RBC and MCH), blood biochemistry (AST and GLU), organ coefficient and bone density between group A and B (hLf rice) with group C (parental rice) or group D (AIN-93G) were significant, while no difference of other indicators. Although some differences were observed, all indicators were still in the normal reference range. Therefore, there was no sign of toxic and adverse effects for hLf rice on rats.

  9. Rationale, design and methods of the HEALTHY study nutrition intervention component.

    Gillis, B; Mobley, C; Stadler, D D; Hartstein, J; Virus, A; Volpe, S L; El ghormli, L; Staten, M A; Bridgman, J; McCormick, S

    2009-08-01

    The HEALTHY study was a randomized, controlled, multicenter and middle school-based, multifaceted intervention designed to reduce risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes. The study randomized 42 middle schools to intervention or control, and followed students from the sixth to the eighth grades. Here we describe the design of the HEALTHY nutrition intervention component that was developed to modify the total school food environment, defined to include the following: federal breakfast, lunch, after school snack and supper programs; a la carte venues, including snack bars and school stores; vending machines; fundraisers; and classroom parties and celebrations. Study staff implemented the intervention using core and toolbox strategies to achieve and maintain the following five intervention goals: (1) lower the average fat content of foods, (2) increase the availability and variety of fruits and vegetables, (3) limit the portion sizes and energy content of dessert and snack foods, (4) eliminate whole and 2% milk and all added sugar beverages, with the exception of low fat or nonfat flavored milk, and limit 100% fruit juice to breakfast in small portions and (5) increase the availability of higher fiber grain-based foods and legumes. Other nutrition intervention component elements were taste tests, cafeteria enhancements, cafeteria line messages and other messages about healthy eating, cafeteria learning laboratory (CLL) activities, twice-yearly training of food service staff, weekly meetings with food service managers, incentives for food service departments, and twice yearly local meetings and three national summits with district food service directors. Strengths of the intervention design were the integration of nutrition with the other HEALTHY intervention components (physical education, behavior change and communications), and the collaboration and rapport between the nutrition intervention study staff members and food service personnel at both school

  10. Aging assessment and mitigation for major LWR [light water reactor] components

    Shah, Y.N.; Ware, A.G.; Conley, D.A.; MacDonald, P.E.; Burns, J.J. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    This paper summarizes some of the results of the Aging Assessment and Mitigation Project sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC), Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. The objective of the project is to develop an understanding of the aging degradation of the major light water reactor (LWR) structures and components and to develop methods for predicting the useful life of these components so that the impact of aging on the safe operation of nuclear power plants can be evaluated and addressed. The research effort consists of integrating, evaluating, and updating the available aging-related information. This paper discusses current accomplishments and summarizes the significant degradation processes active in two major components: pressurized water reactor pressurizer surge and spray lines and nozzles, and light water reactor primary coolant pumps. This paper also evaluates the effectiveness of the current inservice inspection programs and presents conclusions and recommendations related to aging of these two major components. 37 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  11. Impact of the components of Mediterranean nutrition regimen on long-term prognosis of diabetic patients with coronary artery disease

    Soheila Mosharraf

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The impact of different nutritional regimens on long-term prognosis and outcome in diabetic patients with coronary artery disease (CAD has been questioned. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to determine the effects of different nutritional components of Mediterranean regimen on long-term cardiovascular events in diabetic patients with CAD in the Iranian population. METHODS: In a prospective cohort study, we recruited 233 consecutive patients with the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus and with at least 6 months of documented CAD. Nutritional assessment was obtained by a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ and the diet score was calculated on the basis of the Mediterranean diet quality index (Med-DQI. For Assessing long-term CAD prognosis, the patients were followed by telephone for one year. The study endpoint was long-term major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular event (MACCE. RESULTS: Death was observed in 19 patients (8.2% during the one-year follow-up. Two patients (0.9% suffered non-fatal myocardial infarction and 14 (6.0% needed revascularization within 1 year after discharge from hospital. Overall MACCE within one year in the study population was 12.4%. There were significant differences between number of deaths and dietary scores of saturated fatty acid, cholesterol, meats, fish, and fruit and vegetables (P < 0.05. Moreover, significant differences were found between MACCE rate and dietary scores of saturated fatty acid, cholesterol, and fruit and vegetables (P < 0.05. Using multivariate logistic regression models, Mediterranean dietary regimen could effectively predict long-term death as well as MACCE adjusted for gender and age variables. CONCLUSION: Mediterranean dietary regimens, including low level of cholesterol and saturated fatty acid, can effectively improve long-term outcome including death and MACCE in diabetic patients with CAD.   Keywords: Diabetes Mellitus, Coronary

  12. Assessment and management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety: Metal components of BWR containment systems

    2000-10-01

    At present, there are over four hundred operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) in IAEA Member States. Operating experience has shown that ineffective control of the ageing degradation of the major NPP components (e.g. caused by unanticipated phenomena and by operating, maintenance or manufacturing errors) can jeopardize plant safety and also plant life. Ageing in these NPPs must therefore be effectively managed to ensure the availability of design functions throughout the plant service life. From the safety perspective, this means controlling within acceptable limits the ageing degradation and wear-out of plant components important to safety so that adequate safety margins remain, i.e. integrity and functional capability in excess of normal operating requirements. This TECDOC is one in a series of reports on the assessment and management of ageing of the major NPP components important to safety. The reports are based on experience and practices of NPP operators, regulators, designers, manufacturers, and technical support organizations and a widely accepted Methodology for the Management of Ageing of NPP Components Important to Safety, which was issued by the IAEA in 1992. The current practices for the assessment of safety margins (fitness for service) and the inspection, monitoring and mitigation of ageing degradation of selected components of Canada deuterium-uranium (CANDU) reactors, boiling water reactors (BWRs), pressurized water reactors (PWRs), and water moderated, water cooled energy reactors (WWERs) are documented in the reports. These practices are intended to help all involved directly and indirectly in ensuring the safe operation of NPPs, and to provide a common technical basis for dialogue between plant operators and regulators when dealing with age related licensing issues. The guidance reports are directed toward technical experts from NPPs and from regulatory, plant design, manufacturing and technical support organizations dealing with specific

  13. Nutritional components regulate the gut immune system and its association with intestinal immune disease development.

    Lamichhane, Aayam; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Kunisawa, Jun

    2013-12-01

    The gut is equipped with a unique immune system for maintaining immunological homeostasis, and its functional immune disruption can result in the development of immune diseases such as food allergy and intestinal inflammation. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that nutritional components play an important role in the regulation of gut immune responses and also in the development of intestinal immune diseases. In this review, we focus on the immunological functions of lipids, vitamins, and nucleotides in the regulation of the intestinal immune system and as potential targets for the control of intestinal immune diseases. © 2013 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. Nutritional Status in Patients with Major Depressive Disorders: A Pilot Study in Tabriz, Iran

    Bahram Pourghassem Gargari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study was conducted to assess the nutritional status in Iranian major depres-sive disorder patients. We also determined the relationship between nutrients intake with depres-sion severity.Methods: Seventy major depressive patients were selected randomly from outpatient depressive subjects, referred to Razi Psychiatry Hospital in Tabriz, Iran in 2007. Dietary intakes were rec-orded and compared with dietary reference intakes (DRIs. Definition of the disease and its se-verity were according to DSM-IV-TR and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, respectively. Nu-tritionist III program, Chi-square, correlation and t-test were used for data analyses. Demo-graphic, clinical and laboratory data were analyzed using SPSS software for windows (ver-sion13.0.Results: According to dietary analysis, 11.4% and 55% of patients had dietary protein and energy deficiency, respectively. 97.1% and 95.7% of patients had less folate and B12 intakes than recom-mended dietary allowances. The mean (Mean ± SD for plasma folate and B12 was 5.18±6.11 ng/ml and 389.05±346.9 pg/ml, respectively. Low plasma folate and B12 was observed in 51.4% and 50.0 % of patients, respectively. There was no significant relationship between blood folate and B12 levels with depression severity. Similarly, nutrients intake had no effect on depression se-verity.Conclusions: Low plasma concentrations and low dietary intakes of folate and B12 are common among Tabrizian depressive patients. It seems that nutritional intervention for increasing folate and vitamin B12 intake must be considered as health promotive and preventative program for pa-tients suffering from depression disorders.

  15. Chemical composition and antiprotozoal activities of Colombian Lippia spp essential oils and their major components

    Patricia Escobar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition and biological activities of 19 essential oils and seven of their major components were tested against free and intracellular forms of Leishmania chagasi and Trypanosoma cruzi parasites as well as Vero and THP-1 mammalian cell lines. The essential oils were obtained from different species of Lippia, a widely distributed genus of Colombian plants. They were extracted by microwave radiation-assisted hydro-distillation and characterised by GC-FID and GC-MS. The major components were geranial, neral, limonene, nerol, carvacrol, p-cymene, γ-terpinene, carvone and thymol. The essential oil of Lippia alba exhibited the highest activity against T. cruzi epimastigotes and intracellular amastigotes with an IC50 of 5.5 μg/mL and 12.2 μg/mL, respectively. The essential oil of Lippia origanoides had an IC50 of 4.4 μg/mL in L. chagasi promastigotes and exhibited no toxicity in mammalian cells. Thymol (IC50 3.2 ± 0.4 μg/mL and S-carvone (IC50 6.1 ± 2.2 μg/mL, two of the major components of the active essential oils, were active on intracellular amastigotes of T. cruziinfected Vero cells, with a selective index greater than 10. None of the essential oils or major components tested in this study was active on amastigotes of L. chagasi infected THP-1 cells.

  16. Eating disorder risk, exercise dependence, and body weight dissatisfaction among female nutrition and exercise science university majors.

    Harris, Natalie; Gee, David; d'Acquisto, Debra; Ogan, Dana; Pritchett, Kelly

    2015-09-01

    Past research has examined eating disorder risk among college students majoring in Nutrition and has suggested an increased risk, while other studies contradict these results. Exercise Science majors, however, have yet to be fully examined regarding their risk for eating disorders and exercise dependence. Based on pressures to fit the image associated with careers related to these two disciplines, research is warranted to examine the potential risk for both eating disorder and exercise dependence. The purpose of this study is to compare eating disorder risk, exercise dependence, and body weight dissatisfaction (BWD) between Nutrition and Exercise Science majors, compared to students outside of these career pathways. Participants (n = 89) were divided into three groups based on major; Nutrition majors (NUTR; n = 31), Exercise Science majors (EXSC; n = 30), and other majors (CON; n = 28). Participants were given the EAT-26 questionnaire and the Exercise Dependence Scale. BWD was calculated as the discrepancy between actual BMI and ideal BMI. The majority of participants expressed a desire to weigh less (83%) and EXSC had significantly (p = .03) greater BWD than NUTR. However, there were no significant differences in eating disorder risk or exercise dependence among majors. This study suggested there was no significant difference in eating disorder risk or exercise dependence between the three groups (NUTR, EXSC, and CON).

  17. [Major nutrition-related risk factors of ischemic heart disease: dyslipoproteinemia, obesity, hypertension, glucose intolerance].

    Pados, G

    1999-07-11

    Of the major risk factors of coronary heart disease dyslipoproteinemia, obesity, hypertension, and diabetes are nutrition related and can be considered of metabolic origin. Dyslipoproteinemia affects 2/3 of the adult population. The risk of coronary heart disease can be decreased 2-5 fold by lowering hypercholesterinemia; atherosclerosis in the coronaries may regress and total mortality may decrease. Atherogenic dyslipidemia (i.e. hypertriglyceridaemia, low HDL cholesterol levels, elevated concentrations of small dense LDL) increases the risk as part of the metabolic syndrome. Obesity is already highly prevalent, and it is affecting ever growing proportions of the adult population. Abdominal obesity furthermore predisposes patients to complications. No effective therapy is available for obesity. 3/4 of hypertensive patients are obese and more than half of them have insulin resistance. By decreasing blood pressure, the risk of stroke decreases by about 40%, that of coronary heart disease by 14-30%. Slimming cures are the most important non-pharmacological way of treating hypertension. 5% of the population has diabetes mellitus, and a further 5% has impaired glucose tolerance. Type 2 diabetes predisposes patients to macrovascular complications. The risk of coronary heart disease can be decreased by controlling diabetes by e.g. metformin.

  18. Foods and nutritional components of diets of black bear in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado

    Baldwin, R.A.; Bender, L.C.

    2009-01-01

    We used scat analysis to determine diets and relative nutritional values of diets for black bears (Ursus americanus Pallas, 1780) in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, from 2003 to 2006, and compared foods consumed and nutritional components to identify important sources of fecal gross energy (GE), crude fat (CF), and fecal nitrogen (FN) in annual and seasonal diets. Patterns of use of food classes followed typical seasonal patterns for bears, although use of animal matter was among the highest reported (>49% annually). Use of animal matter increased after spring, although crude protein levels in bear diets were always >25%. GE was typically lowest for grasses and other herbaceous plants and highest for ants and ungulates; FN was strongly positively related to most animal sources, but negatively correlated with vegetative matter; and CF showed the strongest positive relationship with ungulates and berries, with the latter likely influenced by the presence of seeds. Compared with historic data (1984-1991), contemporary diets included substantially greater prevalence of anthropogenic foods, which likely contributed to increases in size, condition, and productivity of the contemporary bear population. Management strategies are needed to increase quantity and quality of natural foods while minimizing dependence on anthropogenic sources.

  19. Matrix effects in PIXE evaluation of the major components in thick homogeneous samples

    Oystaeyen, B. van; Demortier, G.

    1983-01-01

    Matrix effects on the major component X-ray yields in PIXE measurements are studied in general terms with the Au-Cu-Ag matrix as practical example. Postulating firstly that all the major components may be simultaneously detected through one well-isolated peak for each of them, and secondly that a known reference material is available which contains all the elements of the unknown sample, we propose a direct method to extract the true concentrations of the latter taking into accout the matrix effects. The geometrical parameters describing the target location with respect to ion beam direction and detector position are also studied and a first attempt is made to include them in the data treatment. (orig.)

  20. Melittin, a major peptide component of bee venom, and its conjugates in cancer therapy

    Rady, Islam; Siddiqui, Imtiaz A.; Rady, Mohamad; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2017-01-01

    Melittin (MEL), a major peptide component of bee venom, is an attractive candidate for cancer therapy. This agent has shown a variety of anti-cancer effects in preclinical cell culture and animal model systems. Despite a convincing efficacy data against variety of cancers, its applicability to humans has met with challenges due to several issues including its non-specific cytotoxicity, degradation and hemolytic activity. Several optimization approaches including utilization of nanoparticle ba...

  1. Regulatory instrument review: Management of aging of LWR [light water reactor] major safety-related components

    Werry, E.V.

    1990-10-01

    This report comprises Volume 1 of a review of US nuclear plant regulatory instruments to determine the amount and kind of information they contain on managing the aging of safety-related components in US nuclear power plants. The review was conducted for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under the NRC Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program. Eight selected regulatory instruments, e.g., NRC Regulatory Guides and the Code of Federal Regulations, were reviewed for safety-related information on five selected components: reactor pressure vessels, steam generators, primary piping, pressurizers, and emergency diesel generators. Volume 2 will be concluded in FY 1991 and will also cover selected major safety-related components, e.g., pumps, valves and cables. The focus of the review was on 26 NPAR-defined safety-related aging issues, including examination, inspection, and maintenance and repair; excessive/harsh testing; and irradiation embrittlement. The major conclusion of the review is that safety-related regulatory instruments do provide implicit guidance for aging management, but include little explicit guidance. The major recommendation is that the instruments be revised or augmented to explicitly address the management of aging

  2. (R)-3-hydroxyhexan-2-one is a major pheromone component of Anelaphus inflaticollis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae).

    Ray, A M; Swift, I P; Moreira, J A; Millar, J G; Hanks, L M

    2009-10-01

    We report the identification and field bioassays of a major component of the male-produced aggregation pheromone of Anelaphus inflaticollis Chemsak, an uncommon desert cerambycine beetle. Male A. inflaticollis produced a sex-specific blend of components that included (R)-3-hydroxyhexan-2-one, (S)-2-hydroxyhexan-3-one, 2,3-hexanedione, and (2R,3R)- and (2R,3S)-2,3-hexanediols. Field trials with baited bucket traps determined that the reconstructed synthetic pheromone blend and (R)-3-hydroxyhexan-2-one alone attracted adult A. inflaticollis of both sexes, with significantly more beetles being attracted to the blend. We conclude that (R)-3-hydroxyhexan-2-one is a major pheromone component of A. inflaticollis, and our results suggest that one or more of the minor components may further increase attraction of conspecifics. Scanning electron microscopy showed that male A. inflaticollis have pores on the prothorax that are consistent in structure with sex-specific pheromone gland pores in related species. Males also displayed stereotyped calling behavior similar to that observed in other cerambycine species. This study represents the first report of volatile pheromones for a cerambycine species in the tribe Elaphidiini.

  3. Maintenance service for major component of PWR plant. Replacement of pressurizer safe end weld

    Miyoshi, Yoshiyuki; Kobayashi, Yuki; Yamamoto, Kazuhide; Ueda, Takeshi; Suda, Naoki; Shintani, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    In October 2016, MHI completed the replacement of safe end weld of pressurizer (Pz) of Ringhals unit 3, which was the first maintenance work for main component of pressurized water reactor (PWR) plant in Europe. For higher reliability and longer lifetime of PWR plant, MHI has conducted many kinds of maintenance works of main components of PWR plants in Japan against stress corrosion cracking due to aging degradation. Technical process for replacement of Pz safe end weld were established by MHI. MHI has experienced the work for 21 PWR units in Japan. That of Ringhals unit 3 was planned and conducted based on the experiences. In this work, Alloy 600 used for welds of nozzles of Pz was replaced with Alloy 690. Alloy 690 is more corrosive-resistant than Alloy 600. Specially designed equipment and technical process were developed and established by MHI to replace safe end weld of Pz and applied for the Ringhals unit 3 as a first application in Europe. The application had been performed in success and achieved the planned replacement work duration and total radiation dose by using sophisticated machining and welding equipment designed to meet the requirements to be small, lightweight and remote-controlled and operating by well skilled MHI personnel experienced in maintenance activities for major components of PWR plant in Japan. The success shows that the experience, activities and technology developed in Japan for main components of PWR plant shall be applicable to contribute reliable operations of nuclear power plants in Europe and other countries. (author)

  4. Design and development of major balance of plant components in solid oxide fuel cell system

    Hong, Wen-Tang; Huang, Cheng-Nan; Tan, Hsueh-I; Chao, Yu [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research Atomic Energy Council, Taoyuan County 32546 (Taiwan, Province of China); Yen, Tzu-Hsiang [Green Technology Research Institute, CPC Corporation, Chia-Yi City 60036 (Taiwan, Province of China)

    2013-07-01

    The balance of plant (BOP) of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) system with a 2 kW stack and an electric efficiency of 40% is optimized using commercial GCTool software. The simulation results provide a detailed understanding of the optimal operating temperature, pressure and mass flow rate in all of the major BOP components, i.e., the gas distributor, the afterburner, the reformer and the heat exchanger. A series of experimental trials are performed to validate the simulation results. Overall, the results presented in this study not only indicate an appropriate set of operating conditions for the SOFC power system, but also suggest potential design improvements for several of the BOP components.

  5. Assessment and management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety: Steam generators

    1997-11-01

    This TECDOC is one in a series of reports on the assessment and management of ageing of the major NPP components important to safety. The reports are based on experience and practices of NPP operators, regulators, designers, manufacturers, and technical support organizations and a widely accepted Methodology for the Management of Ageing of NPP Components Important to Safety which was issued by the IAEA in 1992. They have been compiled using contributions from technical experts in typically 10 to 12 countries for each report, a feedback from a September 1994 Technical Committee Meeting attended by 53 technical experts from 21 Member States (who reviewed first drafts in specialized working groups), and review comments from invited specialists

  6. Development of technology on natural flaw fabrication and precise diagnosis for the major components in NPPs

    Han, Jung Ho; Choi, Myung Sik; Lee, Doek Hyun; Hur, Do Haeng

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this research is to develop a fabrication technology of natural flaw specimen of major components in NPPs and a technology of precise diagnosis for failure and degradation of components using natural flaw specimen. 1) Successful development of the natural flaw fabrication technology of SG tube 2) Evaluation of ECT signal and development of precise diagnosis using natural flaws. - Determination of length, depth, width, and multiplicity of fabricated natural flaws. - Informations about detectability and accuracy of ECT evaluation on various kinds of defects are collected when the combination of probe and frequency is changed. - An advanced technology for precise ECT evaluation is established. 3) Application of precise ECT diagnosis to failure analysis of SG tube in operation. - Fretting wear of KSNP SG. - ODSCC at tube expanded region of KSNP SG. - Determination of through/non-through wall of axial crack

  7. Nutrition

    ... of States, Districts, and Schools That Required Teaching Nutrition and Dietary Behavior, by School Level 100 80 60 40 20 0 72. ... no comparable variable existed in both survey years. Nutrition Services • 68.6% of schools offered breakfast to students and 63.0% participated ...

  8. The major types of added sugars and non-nutritive sweeteners in a sample of Australian packaged foods.

    Probst, Yasmine C; Dengate, Alexis; Jacobs, Jenny; Louie, Jimmy Cy; Dunford, Elizabeth K

    2017-12-01

    Limiting the intake of added sugars in the diet remains a key focus of global dietary recommendations. To date there has been no systematic monitoring of the major types of added sugars used in the Australian food supply. The present study aimed to identify the most common added sugars and non-nutritive sweeteners in the Australian packaged food supply. Secondary analysis of data from the Australian FoodSwitch database was undertaken. Forty-six added sugars and eight non-nutritive sweetener types were extracted from the ingredient lists of 5744 foods across seventeen food categories. Australia. Not applicable. Added sugar ingredients were found in 61 % of the sample of foods examined and non-nutritive sweetener ingredients were found in 69 %. Only 31 % of foods contained no added sugar or non-nutritive sweetener. Sugar (as an ingredient), glucose syrup, maple syrup, maltodextrin and glucose/dextrose were the most common sugar ingredient types identified. Most Australian packaged food products had at least one added sugar ingredient, the most common being 'sugar'. The study provides insight into the most common types of added sugars and non-nutritive sweeteners used in the Australian food supply and is a useful baseline to monitor changes in how added sugars are used in Australian packaged foods over time.

  9. Estimation of Th, Cs, Sr, I, Co, Fe, Zn, Ca and K in major food components using neutron activation analysis technique

    Nair, Suma; Bhati, Sharda

    2010-01-01

    The concentration of some radiologically and nutritionally important trace elements: Th, Cs, Sr, I, Co, Fe, Zn, Ca and K were determined in major food components such as cereals, pulses, vegetables, fruits, milk etc. The trace elements in food samples were determined using neutron activation analysis technique which involves instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation analysis. Whereas, the trace elements Th, Cs, K and Sr, are important in radiation protection; Fe and Zn are of importance in nutrition studies and Ca and I have dual importance, both in nutrition and radiation protection. The results of analysis show that among the food materials, higher concentrations of Th, Cs, Sr, K, Fe, Zn and Co were found in cereals and pulses. In case of Ca, the milk appears to be the main contributor towards its dietary intake. The estimated concentrations of the trace elements in food components can be employed in determining the daily dietary intake of these elements which in turn can be used for their biokinetic studies. (author)

  10. Temporal variations of PM1 major components in an urban street canyon.

    Yubero, E; Galindo, N; Nicolás, J F; Crespo, J; Calzolai, G; Lucarelli, F

    2015-09-01

    Seasonal changes in the levels of PM1 and its main components (organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), SO4 (2-), NO3 (-) and NH4 (+)) were studied in an urban street canyon in southeastern Spain. Although PM1 levels did not show an evident seasonal cycle, strong variations in the concentrations of its major components were observed. Ammonium sulfate, the main secondary inorganic compound, was found to be of regional origin. Its formation was favored during summer due to increased photochemical activity. In contrast, the concentrations of particulate ammonium nitrate, which is thermally unstable, were highest in winter. Although traffic emissions are the dominant source of EC in the city, variations in traffic intensity could not explain the seasonal cycle of this component. The higher EC concentrations during the cold months were attributed to the lower dispersion conditions and the increase in EC emissions. Special attention has been given to variations in organic carbon levels since it accounted for about one third of the total PM1 mass. The concentrations of both total OC and secondary OC (SOC) were maxima in winter. The observed seasonal variation in SOC levels is similar to that found in other southern European cities where the frequency of sunny days in winter is high enough to promote photochemical processes.

  11. Does Dietary Fiber Affect the Levels of Nutritional Components after Feed Formulation?

    Seidu Adams

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies on dietary fiber and nutrient bioavailability have gained an increasing interest in both human and animal nutrition. Questions are increasingly being asked regarding the faith of nutrient components such as proteins, minerals, vitamins, and lipids after feed formulation. The aim of this review is to evaluate the evidence with the perspective of fiber usage in feed formulation. The consumption of dietary fiber may affect the absorption of nutrients in different ways. The physicochemical factors of dietary fiber, such as fermentation, bulking ability, binding ability, viscosity and gel formation, water-holding capacity and solubility affect nutrient absorption. The dietary fiber intake influences the different methods in which nutrients are absorbed. The increase in the total fiber content of the diet may delay the glycemic response. Soluble fiber decreased blood glucose content whereas purified insoluble fiber has a little or no effect on the blood glucose levels after a meal. Dietary fiber and prebiotics influence the host animal well-being by regulating blood glucose or insulin levels, stool bulking effects, increasing the acidity of the gut, constructive synthesis of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs, decreasing intestinal transit time, stimulating the growth of intestinal microbes, and increasing blood parameters. Previous studies suggest that fiber affects the bioavailability of nutrients, and maintains the host wellness.

  12. Major multinational food and beverage companies and informal sector contributions to global food consumption: implications for nutrition policy

    Yach Derek; Alexander Eleanore; Mensah George A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background In recent years, 10 major multinational food and beverage companies have worked together within the International Food and Beverage Alliance (IFBA) to increase their commitments to public health. Current IFBA commitments include initiatives to improve the nutrition quality of products and how these products are advertised to children. The impact and magnitude of IFBA member contributions to the total market share of packaged foods and beverages consumed remain incompletely...

  13. Identifying the Learning Styles and Instructional Tool Preferences of Beginning Food Science and Human Nutrition Majors

    Bohn, D. M.; Rasmussen, C. N.; Schmidt, S. J.

    2004-01-01

    Learning styles vary among individuals, and understanding which instructional tools certain learning styles prefer can be utilized to enhance student learning. Students in the introductory Food Science and Human Nutrition course (FSHN 101), taught at the Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, were asked to complete Gregorc's Learning Style…

  14. A procedure for evaluating residual life of major components in light water reactors

    Uchida, S.; Fujimori, H.; Ibe, E.; Kuniya, J.; Hayashi, M.; Fuse, M.; Yamauchi, K.

    1995-01-01

    A computer program for evaluating residual life of major components in boiling water reactors is proposed. It divides the stress corrosion cracking process into two stages; a probabilistic crack generation stage and a deterministic crack propagation one. The minimum period of the crack generation stage is evaluated assuming an exponential distribution of the stage. The crack propagation rate is calculated by the slip-dissolution/film-rupture model. The neutron flux and fluence dependence of the neutron radiation effects on material properties was evaluated by using theoretical models of radiation damage. The computer program works on an engineering work station. Evaluated results are displayed as a map of the residual life, or as graphs of crack length evolution

  15. Melittin, a major peptide component of bee venom, and its conjugates in cancer therapy.

    Rady, Islam; Siddiqui, Imtiaz A; Rady, Mohamad; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2017-08-28

    Melittin (MEL), a major peptide component of bee venom, is an attractive candidate for cancer therapy. This agent has shown a variety of anti-cancer effects in preclinical cell culture and animal model systems. Despite a convincing efficacy data against variety of cancers, its applicability to humans has met with challenges due to several issues including its non-specific cytotoxicity, degradation and hemolytic activity. Several optimization approaches including utilization of nanoparticle based delivery of MEL have been utilized to circumvent the issues. Here, we summarize the current understanding of the anticancer effects of bee venom and MEL on different kinds of cancers. Further, we also present the available information for the possible mechanism of action of bee venom and/or MEL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Pharmacological activity of salvinorin A, the major component of Salvia divinorum.

    Listos, Joanna; Merska, Alicja; Fidecka, Sylwia

    2011-01-01

    The hallucinogenic plant Salvia divinorum (i.e., "magic mint") is a member of the Sage family that has been historically used for divination and shamanism by the Mazatecs. Today, S. divinorum has become increasingly popular as a recreational drug for its hallucinogenic effects. The non-nitrogenous diterpene, salvinorin A, the major active component of S. divinorum, is responsible for the hallucinogenic effect of this plant. Here, we described the behavioral effects of salvinorin A in animals including the addictive, antinociception and antidepressant properties of the drug. The present paper also demonstrates the not well recognized (or unclear) mechanisms of action of salvinorin A. The last part of the paper presents information about the legal status of S. divinorum and its derivatives. Taking into account the increasing popularity and consumption of salvinorin A and S. divinorum today, it is important to collect all data on the pharmacological profile of this plant and its products.

  17. Thermal-structural response of EBR-II major components under reactor operational transients

    Chang, L.K.; Lee, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    Until recently, the LMFBR safety research has been focused primarily on severe but highly unlikely accident, such as hypothetical-core-disruptive accidents (HCDA's), and not enough attention has been given to accident prevention, which is less severe but more likely sequence. The objective of the EBR-II operational reliability testing (ORT) is to demonstrate that the reactor can be designed and operated to prevent accident. A series of mild duty cycles and overpower transients were designed for accident prevention tests. An assessment of the EBR-II major plant components has been performed to assure structural integrity of the reactor plant for the ORT program. In this paper, the thermal-structural response and structural evaluation of the reactor vessel, the reactor-vessel cover, the intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) and the superheater are presented

  18. Comparative study on major bioactive components in natural, artificial and in-vitro cultured Calculus Bovis.

    Yan, Shi-Kai; Wu, Yan-Wen; Liu, Run-Hui; Zhang, Wei-Dong

    2007-01-01

    Major bioactive components in various Calculus Bovis, including natural, artificial and in-vitro cultured Calculus Bovis, were comparatively studied. An approach of high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ultraviolet and evaporative light scattering detections (HPLC/UV/ELSD) was established to simultaneously determinate six bioactive components thereof, including five bile acids (cholic acid, deoxycholic acid, ursodeoxycholic, chenodeoxycholic acid, hyodeoxycholic acid) and bilirubin. ELSD and UV detector were applied to detect bile acids and bilirubin respectively. The assay was performed on a C(18) column with water-acetonitrile gradient elution and the investigated constituents were authenticated by comparing retention times and mass spectra with those of reference compounds. The proposed method was applied to analyze twenty-one Calculus Bovis extraction samples, and produced data with acceptable linearity, precision, repeatability and accuracy. The result indicated the variations among Calculus Bovis samples under different developmental conditions. Artificial and in-vitro cultured Calculus Bovis, especially in-vitro cultured ones, which contain total bioactive constituents no less than natural products and have the best batch-to-batch uniformity, suffice to be used as substitutes of natural Calculus Bovis.

  19. Metabolic syndrome definitions and components in predicting major adverse cardiovascular events after kidney transplantation.

    Prasad, G V Ramesh; Huang, Michael; Silver, Samuel A; Al-Lawati, Ali I; Rapi, Lindita; Nash, Michelle M; Zaltzman, Jeffrey S

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) associates with cardiovascular risk post-kidney transplantation, but its ambiguity impairs understanding of its diagnostic utility relative to components. We compared five MetS definitions and the predictive value of constituent components of significant definitions for major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in a cohort of 1182 kidney transplant recipients. MetS definitions were adjusted for noncomponent traditional Framingham risk factors and relevant transplant-related variables. Kaplan-Meier, logistic regression, and Cox proportional hazards analysis were utilized. There were 143 MACE over 7447 patient-years of follow-up. Only the World Health Organization (WHO) 1998 definition predicted MACE (25.3 vs 15.5 events/1000 patient-years, P = 0.019). Time-to-MACE was 5.5 ± 3.5 years with MetS and 6.8 ± 3.9 years without MetS (P < 0.0001). MetS was independent of pertinent MACE risk factors except age and previous cardiac disease. Among MetS components, dysglycemia provided greatest hazard ratio (HR) for MACE (1.814 [95% confidence interval 1.26-2.60]), increased successively by microalbuminuria (HR 1.946 [1.37-2.75]), dyslipidemia (3.284 [1.72-6.26]), hypertension (4.127 [2.16-7.86]), and central obesity (4.282 [2.09-8.76]). MetS did not affect graft survival. In summary, although the WHO 1998 definition provides greatest predictive value for post-transplant MACE, most of this is conferred by dysglycemia and is overshadowed by age and previous cardiac disease. © 2014 Steunstichting ESOT.

  20. Stress-based fatigue assessment of major component in NPP using modified Green's function approach

    Ko, Han Ok; Jhung, Myung Jo; Choi, Jae Boong

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the modified GFA which can consider temperature-dependent material properties is proposed by using a neural network (NN) and weight factor. To verify the modified GFA, thermal stresses by the proposed method are compared with those by FEM. Finally, pros and cons of the new method as well as technical findings from the assessment are discussed to show applicability of them. In this paper, the modified GFA considering temperature-dependent material properties is proposed by using NN and weight factor. To verify the proposed method, thermal stresses by the modified Green's function are compared with those by FEM and the results between two methods show a good agreement. Finally, it is anticipated that more precise fatigue evaluation is performed by using the proposed method. Recently, 434 nuclear reactors are being operated in the world. Among them, about 40% reactors are being operated beyond their design life or will be approaching their life. During the long term operation, various degradation mechanisms are occurred. Fatigue damage caused by alternating operational stresses in terms of temperature or pressure change is the one of important damage mechanisms in the nuclear power plants (NPPs). Although components important to safety were designed to withstand the fatigue damage, cumulative usage factor (CUF) at some locations can exceed the design limit beyond the design life. So, it is necessary to monitor the fatigue damage of major components during the long term operation. Researches on fatigue monitoring system (FMS) have been widely performed. In USA, the FatiguePro was developed by EPRI and was applied to the CE, WEC, B and W and GE type reactors. In Korea, the Kori unit 1 which started commercial operation in 1978 is being operated beyond its design life. At the stage of the license renewal, various plans for degradation mechanisms were established and reviewed. And, in case of fatigue damage, to monitor the fatigue damage of major components

  1. The contribution of three components of nutrition knowledge to socio-economic differences in food purchasing choices.

    McKinnon, Loretta; Giskes, Katrina; Turrell, Gavin

    2014-08-01

    To assess socio-economic differences in three components of nutrition knowledge, i.e. knowledge of (i) the relationship between diet and disease, (ii) the nutrient content of foods and (iii) dietary guideline recommendations; furthermore, to determine if socio-economic differences in nutrition knowledge contribute to inequalities in food purchasing choices. The cross-sectional study considered household food purchasing, nutrition knowledge, socio-economic and demographic information. Household food purchasing choices were summarised by three indices, based on self-reported purchasing of sixteen groceries, nineteen fruits and twenty-one vegetables. Socio-economic position (SEP) was measured by household income and education. Associations between SEP, nutrition knowledge and food purchasing were examined using general linear models adjusted for age, gender, household type and household size. Brisbane, Australia in 2000. Main household food shoppers (n 1003, response rate 66·4 %), located in fifty small areas (Census Collectors Districts). Shoppers in households of low SEP made food purchasing choices that were less consistent with dietary guideline recommendations: they were more likely to purchase grocery foods comparatively higher in salt, sugar and fat, and lower in fibre, and they purchased a narrower range of fruits and vegetables. Those of higher SEP had greater nutrition knowledge and this factor attenuated most associations between SEP and food purchasing choices. Among nutrition knowledge factors, knowledge of the relationship between diet and disease made the greatest and most consistent contribution to explaining socio-economic differences in food purchasing. Addressing inequalities in nutrition knowledge is likely to reduce socio-economic differences in compliance with dietary guidelines. Improving knowledge of the relationship between diet and disease appears to be a particularly relevant focus for health promotion aimed to reduce socio

  2. Nutritional risk in major abdominal surgery: NURIMAS Liver (DRKS00010923 – protocol of a prospective observational trial to evaluate the prognostic value of different nutritional scores in hepatic surgery

    Pascal Probst

    Full Text Available Background: Malnutrition is commonly known as a risk factor in surgical procedures. The nutritional status seems particularly relevant to the clinical outcome of patients undergoing hepatic resection. Thus, identifying affected individuals and taking preventive therapeutic actions before surgery is an important task. However, there are only very few studies, that investigate which existing nutritional assessment score (NAS is suited best to predict the postoperative outcome in liver surgery. Objective: Nutritional Risk in Major Abdominal Surgery (NURIMAS Liver is a prospective observational trial that analyses the predictive value of 12 different NAS for postoperative morbidity and mortality after liver resection. Methods: After admission to the surgical department of the University Hospital in Heidelberg or the municipal hospital of Karlsruhe, all patients scheduled for elective liver resection will be screened for eligibility. Participants will fill in a questionnaire and undergo a physical examination in order to evaluate nutritional status according to Nutritional Risk Index, Nutritional Risk Screening Score, Subjective Global Assessment, Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool, Mini Nutritional Assessment, Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire, Imperial Nutritional Screening System, Imperial Nutritional Screening System II, Nutritional Risk Classification and the ESPEN malnutrition criteria. Postoperative morbidity and mortality will be tracked prospectively throughout the postoperative course. The association of malnutrition according to each score and occurrence of at least one major complication will be analysed using both chi-squared tests and a multivariable logistic regression analysis. Already established risk factors in liver surgery will be added as covariates. Discussion: NURIMAS Liver is a bicentric, prospective observational trial. The aim of this study is to investigate the predictive value of clinical nutritional assessment

  3. A qualitative exploration of stakeholder perspectives on a school-based multi-component health promotion nutrition programme.

    Middleton, G; Keegan, R; Henderson, H

    2012-12-01

    Food for Fitness is an on-going multi-component health promotion programme, delivered in primary and secondary schools by community nutrition assistants. The programme uses nutritional interventions aimed at promoting healthier eating practices for children. This service evaluation investigated the receipt and delivery of the programme, as perceived by local stakeholders who had experienced and administered the service. Semi-structured interviews and focus groups were carried out with three key stakeholder groups: health professionals (n = 9), school teachers (n = 10) and senior health officials (n = 3). Qualitative data were transcribed verbatim and received thematic analysis with deductive and inductive processes. Stakeholders reported that the programme contributed to the development of food education and healthy-eating practices of children in the local area. Stakeholders considered that the main concern was the limited capacity and size of the service. They described problems with long-term sustainability in supporting schools with maintaining nutritional interventions, highlighting issues regarding contact, planning and organisation of several interventions. The findings of the service evaluation inform service management, organisation and ground-level delivery. The use of stakeholder opinion provided contextualised information on the factors that impact on the implementation of the programme. The richness of the qualitative results can guide future planning and provision for similar health promotion nutrition programmes delivered in the school environment. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2012 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  4. In vitro susceptibility of Trypanosoma brucei brucei to selected essential oils and their major components.

    Costa, Sonya; Cavadas, Cláudia; Cavaleiro, Carlos; Salgueiro, Lígia; do Céu Sousa, Maria

    2018-07-01

    Aiming for discovering effective and harmless antitrypanosomal agents, 17 essential oils and nine major components were screened for their effects on T. b. brucei. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation from fresh plant material and analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The trypanocidal activity was assessed using blood stream trypomastigotes cultures of T. b. brucei and the colorimetric resazurin method. The MTT test was used to assess the cytotoxicity of essential oils on macrophage cells and Selectivity Indexes were calculated. Of the 17 essential oils screened three showed high trypanocidal activity (IC 50  oils had no cytotoxic effects on macrophage cells showing the highest values of Selectivity Index (63.4, 9.0 and 11.8, respectively). The oils of Distichoselinum tenuifolium, Lavandula viridis, Origanum virens, Seseli tortuosom, Syzygium aromaticum, and Thymbra capitata also exhibited activity (IC 50 of 10-25 μg/mL) but showed cytotoxicity on macrophages. Of the nine compounds tested, α-pinene (IC 50 of 2.9 μg/mL) and citral (IC 50 of 18.9 μg/mL) exhibited the highest anti-trypanosomal activities. Citral is likely the active component of C. citratus and α-pinene is responsible for the antitrypanosomal effects of J. oxycedrus. The present work leads us to propose the J. oxycedrus, C. citratus and L. luisieri oils as valuable sources of new molecules for African Sleeping Sickness treatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Understanding the Compositional Variability of the Major Components of Hydrothermal Plumes in the Okinawa Trough

    Zhigang Zeng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies of the major components of hydrothermal plumes in seafloor hydrothermal fields are critical for an improved understanding of biogeochemical cycles and the large-scale distribution of elements in the submarine environment. The composition of major components in hydrothermal plume water column samples from 25 stations has been investigated in the middle and southern Okinawa Trough. The physical and chemical properties of hydrothermal plume water in the Okinawa Trough have been affected by input of the Kuroshio current, and its influence on hydrothermal plume water from the southern Okinawa Trough to the middle Okinawa Trough is reduced. The anomalous layers of seawater in the hydrothermal plume water columns have higher K+, Ca2+, Mn2+, B3+, Ca2+/SO42-, and Mn2+/Mg2+ ratios and higher optical anomalies than other layers. The Mg2+, SO42-, Mg2+/Ca2+, and SO42-/Mn2+ ratios of the anomalous layers are lower than other layers in the hydrothermal plume water columns and are consistent with concentrations in hydrothermal vent fluids in the Okinawa Trough. This suggests that the chemical variations of hydrothermal plumes in the Tangyin hydrothermal field, like other hydrothermal fields, result in the discharge of high K+, Ca2+, and B3+ and low Mg2+ and SO42- fluid. Furthermore, element ratios (e.g., Sr2+/Ca2+, Ca2+/Cl− in hydrothermal plume water columns were found to be similar to those in average seawater, indicating that Sr2+/Ca2+ and Ca2+/Cl− ratios of hydrothermal plumes might be useful proxies for chemical properties of seawater. The hydrothermal K+, Ca2+, Mn2+, and B3+ flux to seawater in the Okinawa Trough is about 2.62–873, 1.04–326, 1.30–76.4, and 0.293–34.7 × 106 kg per year, respectively. The heat flux is about 0.159–1,973 × 105 W, which means that roughly 0.0006% of ocean heat is supplied by seafloor hydrothermal plumes in the Okinawa Trough.

  6. Big rock point restoration project BWR major component removal, packaging and shipping - planning and experience

    Milner, T.; Dam, S.; Papp, M.; Slade, J.; Slimp, B.; Nurden, P.

    2001-01-01

    The Big Rock Point boiling water reactor (BWR) at Charlevoix, MI was permanently shut down on August 29th 1997. In 1999 BNFL Inc.'s Reactor Decommissioning Group (RDG) was awarded a contract by Consumers Energy (CECo) for the Big Rock Point (BRP) Major Component Removal (MCR) project. BNFL Inc. RDG has teamed with MOTA, Sargent and Lundy and MDM Services to plan and execute MCR in support of the facility restoration project. The facility restoration project will be completed by 2005. Key to the success of the project has been the integration of best available demonstrated technology into a robust and responsive project management approach, which places emphasis on safety and quality assurance in achieving project milestones linked to time and cost. To support decommissioning of the BRP MCR activities, a reactor vessel (RV) shipping container is required. Discussed in this paper is the design and fabrication of a 10 CFR Part 71 Type B container necessary to ship the BRP RV. The container to be used for transportation of the RV to the burial site was designed as an Exclusive Use Type B package for shipment and burial at the Barnwell, South Carolina (SC) disposal facility. (author)

  7. On the major ductile fracture methodologies for failure assessment of nuclear reactor components

    Cruz, Julio R.B.; Andrade, Arnaldo H.P. de; Landes, John D.

    1996-01-01

    In structures like nuclear reactor components there is a special concern with the loads that may occur under postulated accident conditions. These loads can cause the stresses to go well beyond the linear elastic limits, requiring the use of ductile fracture mechanics methods to the prediction of the structure behavior. Since the use of numerical methods to apply EPFM concepts is expensive and time consuming, the existence of analytical engineering procedures are of great relevance. The lack of precision in detail, as compared with numerical nonlinear analyses, is compensated by the possibility of quick failure assessments. This is a determinant factor in situations where a systematic evaluation of a large range of geometries and loading conditions is necessary, like in thr application of the Leak-Before-Break (LBB) concept on nuclear piping. This paper outlines four ductile fracture analytical methods, pointing out positive and negative aspects of each one. The objective is to take advantage of this critical review to conceive a new methodology, one that would gather strong points of the major existent methods and would try to eliminate some of their drawbacks. (author)

  8. Dual role of preputial gland secretion and its major components in sex recognition of mice.

    Zhang, Jian-Xu; Liu, Ying-Juan; Zhang, Jin-Hua; Sun, Lixing

    2008-10-20

    This study was aimed at validating the sexual attractiveness of hexadecanol and hexadecyl acetate, two putative pheromone compounds, from preputial gland secretion of mice. These two compounds have been reported to be among the major components of preputial gland secretion in both sexes but higher in quantity in males than females. In this study, we show that castration suppressed the production of the two compounds, further suggesting their association with maleness. Adding preputial gland secretion and the synthetic analogs of the two compounds to castrated male urine at their physiological levels in intact males increased the attractiveness of castrated male urine to female mice, showing that the two compounds were indeed male pheromones. Furthermore, their sexual attractiveness disappeared upon removing the vomeronasal organs (VNOs) from female recipients. Replenishing castrated male urine with preputial gland secretion and the two compounds at their physiological levels in females increased the attractiveness of castrated male urine to males. Such a reversal of sexual attractiveness for hexadecanol and hexadecyl acetate suggests that they had opposing dual effects in sexual attractiveness in a dosage-dependent manner.

  9. Alpinia Essential Oils and Their Major Components against Rhodnius nasutus, a Vector of Chagas Disease

    Thamiris de A. de Souza

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Species of the genus Alpinia are widely used by the population and have many described biological activities, including activity against insects. In this paper, we describe the bioactivity of the essential oil of two species of Alpinia genus, A. zerumbet and A. vittata, against Rhodnius nasutus, a vector of Chagas disease. The essential oils of these two species were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. The main constituent of A. zerumbet essential oil (OLALPZER was terpinen-4-ol, which represented 19.7% of the total components identified. In the essential oil of A. vittata (OLALPVIT the monoterpene β-pinene (35.3% was the main constituent. The essential oils and their main constituents were topically applied on R. nasutus fifth-instar nymphs. In the first 10 min of application, OLALPVIT and OLALPZER at 125 μg/mL provoked 73.3% and 83.3% of mortality, respectively. Terpinen-4-ol at 25 μg/mL and β-pinene at 44 μg/mL provoked 100% of mortality. The monitoring of resistant insects showed that both essential oils exhibited antifeedant activity. These results suggest the potential use of A. zerumbet and A. vittata essential oils and their major constituents to control R. nasutus population.

  10. Biogenic non-crystalline U(IV) revealed as major component in uranium ore deposits

    Bhattacharyya, Amrita; Campbell, Kate M.; Kelly, Shelly D.; Roebbert, Yvonne; Weyer, Stefan; Bernier-Latmani, Rizlan; Borch, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    Historically, it is believed that crystalline uraninite, produced via the abiotic reduction of hexavalent uranium (U(VI)) is the dominant reduced U species formed in low-temperature uranium roll-front ore deposits. Here we show that non-crystalline U(IV) generated through biologically mediated U(VI) reduction is the predominant U(IV) species in an undisturbed U roll-front ore deposit in Wyoming, USA. Characterization of U species revealed that the majority (~58-89%) of U is bound as U(IV) to C-containing organic functional groups or inorganic carbonate, while uraninite and U(VI) represent only minor components. The uranium deposit exhibited mostly 238U-enriched isotope signatures, consistent with largely biotic reduction of U(VI) to U(IV). This finding implies that biogenic processes are more important to uranium ore genesis than previously understood. The predominance of a relatively labile form of U(IV) also provides an opportunity for a more economical and environmentally benign mining process, as well as the design of more effective post-mining restoration strategies and human health-risk assessment.

  11. Rubber elongation factor (REF, a major allergen component in Hevea brasiliensis latex has amyloid properties.

    Karine Berthelot

    Full Text Available REF (Hevb1 and SRPP (Hevb3 are two major components of Hevea brasiliensis latex, well known for their allergenic properties. They are obviously taking part in the biosynthesis of natural rubber, but their exact function is still unclear. They could be involved in defense/stress mechanisms after tapping or directly acting on the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway. The structure of these two proteins is still not described. In this work, it was discovered that REF has amyloid properties, contrary to SRPP. We investigated their structure by CD, TEM, ATR-FTIR and WAXS and neatly showed the presence of β-sheet organized aggregates for REF, whereas SRPP mainly fold as a helical protein. Both proteins are highly hydrophobic but differ in their interaction with lipid monolayers used to mimic the monomembrane surrounding the rubber particles. Ellipsometry experiments showed that REF seems to penetrate deeply into the monolayer and SRPP only binds to the lipid surface. These results could therefore clarify the role of these two paralogous proteins in latex production, either in the coagulation of natural rubber or in stress-related responses. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an amyloid formed from a plant protein. This suggests also the presence of functional amyloid in the plant kingdom.

  12. [Nutritional deficit in children in a major city of the interior of the state of Bahia, Brazil].

    de Jesus, Gilmar Mercês; Castelão, Elizia Simões; Vieira, Tatiana de Oliveira; Gomes, Daiene Rosa; Vieira, Graciete Oliveira

    2014-05-01

    The study sought to analyze the nutritional deficit of children and associated environmental factors and maternal and infant characteristics in a major city in the interior of the state of Bahia. Information from mother/child-under-four duos of a birth cohort was assessed. Malnutrition was defined by the height-for-age (H/A) anthropometric index, at a cutoff of -1 z-score relative to the benchmark of the 2006 Multicentre Growth Reference Study. The variables studied were: the characteristics of children (birth weight and multiple births) and mothers (age at the time of birth, education level, parity and performing prenatal exams) and environmental factors (floor and roof material of residence, source of water consumed, indoor plumbing, water used for consumption and ownership of a refrigerator). Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with nutritional deficit. Nutritional deficit occurred in 24.6% of children. Underweight at birth, inadequate prenatal care, precarious nature of the floor of the home and no indoor plumbing were predictors of malnutrition among children in the study. Factors associated with malnutrition confirm the contribution of social issues in the genesis of malnutrition.

  13. Changes in geriatric nutritional risk index and risk of major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events in incident peritoneal dialysis patients

    Mi Jung Lee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI is a validated nutritional assessment method, and lower GNRI values are closely associated with adverse clinical outcomes in dialysis patients. This study investigated the impact of changes in GNRI during the first year of dialysis on cardiovascular outcomes in incident peritoneal dialysis (PD patients. Methods: We reviewed medical records in 133 incident PD patients to determine GNRI at the start of PD and after 12 months. Patients were categorized into improved (delta GNRI > 0 and worsening/stationary (delta GNRI ≤ 0 groups. The primary outcome was major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCEs. Results: During a mean follow-up of 51.1 months, the primary outcome was observed in 42 patients (31.6%. The baseline GNRI at PD initiation was not significantly associated with MACCEs (log-rank test, P = 0.40. However, the cumulative event-free rate was significantly lower in the worsening or stationary GNRI group than in the improved group (log-rank test, P = 0.004. Multivariate Cox analysis revealed that a worsening or stationary GNRI was independently associated with higher risk for MACCEs (hazard ratio, 2.47; 95% confidence interval, 1.15–5.29; P = 0.02. In subgroup analysis, patients with worsening or stationary GNRI were at significantly greater risk for MACCEs in both the lower (P = 0.04 and higher (P = 0.01 baseline GNRI groups. Conclusion: Baseline GNRI was not associated with MACCEs, but patients with deteriorating or stationary nutritional status were at significantly greater risk for MACCEs, suggesting that serial monitoring of nutritional status is important to stratify cardiovascular risk in incident PD patients.

  14. An ethnographic action research study to investigate the experiences of Bindjareb women participating in the cooking and nutrition component of an Aboriginal health promotion programme in regional Western Australia.

    Nilson, Caroline; Kearing-Salmon, Karrie-Anne; Morrison, Paul; Fetherston, Catherine

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the experiences of women participating in a cooking and nutrition component of a health promotion research initiative in an Australian Aboriginal regional community. Weekly facilitated cooking and nutrition classes were conducted during school terms over 12 months. An ethnographic action research study was conducted for the programme duration with data gathered by participant and direct observation, four yarning groups and six individual yarning sessions. The aim was to determine the ways the cooking and nutrition component facilitated lifestyle change, enabled engagement, encouraged community ownership and influenced community action. Regional Bindjareb community in the Nyungar nation of Western Australia. A sample of seventeen Aboriginal women aged between 18 and 60 years from the two kinships in two towns in one shire took part in the study. The recruitment and consent process was managed by community Elders and leaders. Major themes emerged highlighting the development of participants and their recognition of the need for change: the impact of history on current nutritional health of Indigenous Australians; acknowledging shame; challenges of change around nutrition and healthy eating; the undermining effect of mistrust and limited resources; the importance of community control when developing health promotion programmes; finding life purpose through learning; and the need for planning and partnerships to achieve community determination. Suggested principles for developing cooking and nutrition interventions are: consideration of community needs; understanding the impact of historical factors on health; understanding family and community tensions; and the engagement of long-term partnerships to develop community determination.

  15. Dietary Intake of Athletes Seeking Nutrition Advice at a Major International Competition

    Sarah J. Burkhart

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available International travel and short-term residence overseas is now a common feature of an elite athlete’s competition schedule, however, food choice away from home may be challenging and potentially impact on performance. Guidelines for dietary intake specific to competition exist for athletes, however, there is little evidence available to ascertain if athletes meet these recommendations during competition periods, particularly when food is provided in-house. During the Delhi 2010 Commonwealth Games, dietitians based in the dining hall recorded 24 h dietary recalls with all athletes who visited the nutrition kiosk. Analysis of dietary intake was conducted with FoodWorks (Xyris Pty Ltd., Brisbane, Australia. Overall, athletes reported consuming a median total daily energy intake of 8674 kJ (range 2384–18,009 kJ, with carbohydrate within the range of 1.0–9.0 g per kg of bodyweight (g/kg (median = 3.8 and contributing to 50% total energy (TE (range 14%–79%. Protein and fat intake ranged from 0.3–4.0 g/kg (median = 1.7 to 10–138 g (median = 67 g, and contributed to 21% TE (range 8%–48% and 24% TE (range 8%–44%, respectively. Athletes reported consuming between 4 and 29 different food items (median = 15 in the previous 24 h period, with predominately discretionary, grains/cereals, meats, poultry, fish, eggs, and meat alternative items. This suggests that dairy, fruit, and vegetable intake may be suboptimal and intake of the micronutrients iron, zinc, calcium, and vitamins A and C may be of concern for a number of athletes.

  16. Beneficial Effects of Early Enteral Nutrition After Major Rectal Surgery: A Possible Role for Conditionally Essential Amino Acids? Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial.

    van Barneveld, Kevin W Y; Smeets, Boudewijn J J; Heesakkers, Fanny F B M; Bosmans, Joanna W A M; Luyer, Misha D; Wasowicz, Dareczka; Bakker, Jaap A; Roos, Arnout N; Rutten, Harm J T; Bouvy, Nicole D; Boelens, Petra G

    2016-06-01

    To investigate direct postoperative outcome and plasma amino acid concentrations in a study comparing early enteral nutrition versus early parenteral nutrition after major rectal surgery. Previously, it was shown that a low plasma glutamine concentration represents poor prognosis in ICU patients. A preplanned substudy of a previous prospective, randomized, open-label, single-centre study, comparing early enteral nutrition versus early parenteral nutrition in patients at high risk of postoperative ileus after surgery for locally advanced or locally recurrent rectal cancer. Early enteral nutrition reduced postoperative ileus, anastomotic leakage, and hospital stay. Tertiary referral centre for locally advanced and recurrent rectal cancer. A total of 123 patients with locally advanced or recurrent rectal carcinoma requiring major rectal surgery. Patients were randomized (ALEA web-based external randomization) preoperatively into two groups: early enteral nutrition (early enteral nutrition, intervention) by nasojejunal tube (n = 61) or early parenteral nutrition (early parenteral nutrition, control) by jugular vein catheter (n = 62). Eight hours after the surgical procedure artificial nutrition was started in hemodynamically stable patients, stimulating oral intake in both groups. Blood samples were collected to measure plasma glutamine, citrulline, and arginine concentrations using a validated ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method. Baseline concentrations were comparable for both groups. Directly after rectal surgery, a decrease in plasma amino acids was observed. Plasma glutamine concentrations were higher in the parenteral group than in the enteral group on postoperative day 1 (p = 0.027) and day 5 (p = 0.008). Arginine concentrations were also significantly increased in the parenteral group at day 1 (p < 0.001) and day 5 (p = 0.001). Lower plasma glutamine and arginine concentrations were measured in the enteral group, whereas a

  17. Profiles of Major Suppliers to the Automotive Industry : Vol. 5. Multinational Automotive Parts and Components Suppliers

    1982-08-01

    This study summarizes extensive information collected over a two-year period (October 1978 to October 1980) on suppliers of parts and components, materials, and machine tools to the automotive industry in the United States. The objective of the study...

  18. Profiles of Major Suppliers to the Automotive Industry : Vol. 6. Foreign Automotive Parts and Components Suppliers.

    1982-08-01

    This study summarizes extensive information collected over a two-year period (October 1978 to October 1980) on suppliers of parts and components, materials, and machine tools to the automotive industry in the United States. The objective of the study...

  19. Effect of gamma irradiation on nutritional components and Cry1Ab protein in the transgenic rice with a synthetic cry1Ab gene from Bacillus thuringiensis

    Wu Dianxing; Ye Qingfu; Wang Zhonghua; Xia Yingwu

    2004-01-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation on the transgenic rice containing a synthetic cry1Ab gene from Bacillus thuringiensis were investigated. There was almost no difference in the content of the major nutritional components, i.e. crude protein, crude lipid, eight essential amino acids and total ash between the irradiated grains and the non-irradiated transgenic rice. However, the amounts of Cry1Ab protein and apparent amylose in the irradiated transgenic rice were reduced significantly by the doses higher than 200 Gy. In vivo observation showed that Cry1Ab protein contents also decreased in the fresh leaf tissues of survival seedlings after irradiation with 200 Gy or higher doses and showed inhibition of seedling growth. The results indicate that gamma irradiation might improve the quality of transgenic rice due to removal of the toxic Cry1Ab protein

  20. Characterization of inorganic components in nutritional supplements by neutron activation analysis

    Reis, Rogerio Alves de Sousa

    2006-01-01

    The control of element composition in nutritional supplements is of great interest due to increasingly high consumption and a large diversity and brands of these products offered in market. Therefore, there is the necessity to evaluate the element contents in the supplements and to compare with those values declared on the labels. In this study neutron activation analysis (NAA) was applied to evaluate the element composition of 11 commercial nutritional supplement brands bought in natural product drugstores and pharmacies. These samples acquired in capsule or tablet forms were ground to a homogeneous powder. The samples were irradiated together with the elemental standards in the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. Irradiations of 8 h under a thermal neutron flux of 5 x 10 12 n cm -2 s -1 were carried out for Ca, Co, Cr, Fe, Se and Zn determinations. For Cu, K and Na determinations thermal neutron flux of 1 x 10 12 n cm -s-1 was used and, the exposure time was 1h. The induced gamma activities were measured using a hyper pure Ge detector coupled to a gamma ray spectrometer. The obtained results compared with the values of the labels of nutritional supplements presented good agreement for most of the elements. Toxic elements such as As, Cd, Hg and Sb were not detected in the samples. For quality control of the analytical data, certified reference materials NIST 1400 Bone Ash and NIST 1633b Coal Fly Ash provided by the National Institute of Standards and Technology were also analysed. Accuracy and precision of these results were evaluated. The obtained Z score values were lower than 2 indicating that the data are within the ranges of certified values at 95% confidence level (author)

  1. Comparison of multi-modal early oral nutrition for the tolerance of oral nutrition with conventional care after major abdominal surgery: a prospective, randomized, single-blind trial.

    Sun, Da-Li; Li, Wei-Ming; Li, Shu-Min; Cen, Yun-Yun; Xu, Qing-Wen; Li, Yi-Jun; Sun, Yan-Bo; Qi, Yu-Xing; Lin, Yue-Ying; Yang, Ting; Lu, Qi-Ping; Xu, Peng-Yuan

    2017-02-10

    Early oral nutrition (EON) has been shown to improve recovery of gastrointestinal function, length of stay and mortality after abdominal surgery; however, early oral nutrition often fails during the first week after surgery. Here, a multi-modal early oral nutrition program is introduced to promote recovery of gastrointestinal function and tolerance of oral nutrition. Consecutive patients scheduled for abdominal surgery were randomized to the multimodal EON group or a group receiving conventional care. The primary endpoint was the time of first defecation. The secondary endpoints were outcomes and the cost-effectiveness ratio in treating infectious complications. The rate of infectious-free patients was regarded as the index of effectiveness. One hundred seven patients were randomly assigned to groups. Baseline characteristics were similar for both groups. In intention-to-treat analysis, the success rate of oral nutrition during the first week after surgery in the multimodal EON group was 44 (83.0%) versus 31 (57.4%) in the conventional care group (P = 0.004). Time to first defecation, time to flatus, recovery time of bowel sounds, and prolonged postoperative ileus were all less in the multimodal EON group (P oral nutrition group (P oral nutrition program was an effective way to improve tolerance of oral nutrition during the first week after surgery, decrease the length of stay and improve cost-effectiveness after abdominal surgery. Registration number: ChiCTR-TRC-14004395 . Registered 15 March 2014.

  2. Individualized nutrition intervention is of major benefit to colorectal cancer patients: long-term follow-up of a randomized controlled trial of nutritional therapy.

    Ravasco, Paula; Monteiro-Grillo, Isabel; Camilo, Maria

    2012-12-01

    In our published randomized trial in colorectal cancer, group 1 (n = 37) received individualized nutritional counseling and education about regular foods, group 2 (n = 37) received dietary supplements and consumed their usual diet of regular foods, and group 3 (n = 37) consumed their usual diet of regular foods. Neither group 2 nor group 3 received individualized counseling. Early nutritional counseling during radiotherapy was highly effective at reducing acute radiotherapy toxicity and improving nutritional intake/status and quality of life (QoL). Efficacy persisted for 3 mo after the intervention. The objective was to perform long-term follow-up in survivors of that clinical trial to specifically evaluate survival, late toxicity, QoL, and nutritional variables. Medical data were collected from patients' records, and prescheduled interviews were conducted by dietitians for individualized evaluations. Analyses and comparisons between groups (adjusted for stage) were performed after a median follow-up of 6.5 (range: 4.9-8.1) y. Patients complied with the Radiotherapy Department's follow-up protocol. Nutritional deterioration was higher (P nutritional status was maintained in 91% of group 1 patients but not in any of the group 3 patients (P group 2 > group 1 (P group 1 (P nutritional status and intake (P nutritional status, and QoL predicted shorter survival and late toxicity (HR: 8.25; 95% CI: 2.74, 1.47; P nutrition at improving long-term prognosis in colorectal cancer. Overall, the data indicate that early individualized nutritional counseling and education during radiotherapy is valuable for patients.

  3. Acute effects of decaffeinated coffee and the major coffee components chlorogenic acid and trigonelline on glucose tolerance

    van Dijk, A.E.; Olthof, M.R.; Meeuse, J.C.; Seebus, E.; Heine, R.J.; van Dam, R.M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE - Coffee consumption has been associated with lower risk of type 2 diabetes. We evaluated the acute effects of decaffeinated coffee and the major coffee components chlorogenic acid and trigonelline on glucose tolerance. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - We conducted a randomized crossover

  4. THE DISTRIBUTION OF ORGANIC CARBON IN MAJOR COMPONENTS OF FORESTS LOCATED IN FIVE LIFE ZONES OF VENEZUELA

    One of the major uncertainties concerning the role of tropical forests in the global carbon cycle is the lack of adequate data on the carbon content of all their components. The goal of this study was to contribute to filling this data gap by estimating the quantity of carbon in ...

  5. Using plukenetia volubilis (sacha inchi to improve the nutritional components of burger

    Daniela Baldeón Clavijo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available (Received: 2015/03/18 - Accepted: 2015/05/27Three levels of paste Plukenetia volubilis (Sacha Inchi consisting of 10, 15% and 20% were evaluated to replace the weight percent lard conventionally used to improve the nutritional quality of the common hamburger, compared with a reference group. The experimental units were 10 burgers, weighing 100 g. each and a total of 120 were analyzed in a completely randomized design with three replications. The research was conducted in the Universidad Estatal Amazónica and bromatológics and microbiological analyzes to determine the quality of the raw material and products are made in laboratory of the Faculty of Chemical Sciences of the Universidad Central del Ecuador. As supplements sensory tests and studies Benefit / Cost performed. The results show the variation of 10% pulp Sacha Inchi as the most recommended for use in industry.

  6. Replacement of major nuclear power plant components for service life extension

    Novak, S.

    1987-01-01

    Problems are discussed associated with replacement of nuclear power plant components with the aim to extend their original scheduled life. The existing foreign experience shows that it is technically feasible to replace practically all basic components for which the necessity of replacement is established. Data is summed up on the replacement of steam generators in US and West German nuclear power plants showing the duration of the job, the total consumption of manhours, the collective dose equivalent and the cost. Attention is also focused on implemented and projected replacements of circulation pipes in nuclear power plants abroad. Based on these figures, the cost is estimated of the replacement of the reactor vessel and the steam generators for WWER-440 nuclear power plants. The conclusion is arrived at that even based on a conservative estimate, the extension by 20 years of the service life of a nuclear power plant is economically more effective than the construction of a new plant. (Z.M.) 2 tabs., 15 refs., 3 figs

  7. Numerical simulation of extraction behavior of major components in the CMPO-TBP-HNO3 system

    Takanashi, M.; Koma, Y.; Koyama, T.; Funasaka, H.

    2000-01-01

    A numerical simulation code was developed in order to find the optimum condition for separation and the recovery of TRU (TRansUranium) elements in the octyl(phenyl)-N,N-di-isobutyl-carbamoyl-methyl-phosphine oxide (CMPO) - tri-butyl phosphate (TBP) - HNO 3 solvent extraction system. This code is able to predict the extraction behavior of americium and europium in the system containing many components. Calculations of concentration profiles of americium and lanthanides were carried out for a counter current experiment with laboratory scale mixer-settlers. The calculated profiles were in agreement with the experimental ones. The effect of oxalic acid was also included in the calculation and was discussed. (authors)

  8. Monitoring aquatic environment pollution : a major component of environment management system part-II

    Khan, I.H.; Khan, M.H.; Sheikh, I.M.

    1999-01-01

    The quality of water suitable for simple disinfection and filtration is presented in this article. Aquatic monitoring requires sampling frequencies along the alignment of surface water bodies. It is necessary to control the industrial effluents discharge in to river and sewers. Unlike wastes from entirely domestic sources, however industrial effluents may contain a very large variety of unnatural components which necessitates greater considerations in setting suitable discharge limits and, perhaps closer surveillance to ensure that standards are met. Several suggestion and example of different types of effluent have been described. All the examples given are sufficiently convincing that Pakistan can learn a great deal from international experiences in environmental pollution to avoid catastrophes. (A.B.)

  9. Rebuilding the foundations: major renovations to the mental health component of an undergraduate nursing curriculum.

    Spence, Deborah; Garrick, Helen; McKay, Marie

    2012-10-01

    Concerns relating to the adequacy of nurses' preparation for the care of people with mental illness prompted significant revision of the mental health component in a Bachelor of Health Science nursing programme in New Zealand that prepares approximately 200 students per year. Working collaboratively with clinical providers, university staff developed and introduced three courses (equivalent to 450 hours of learning) specifically focused on mental health science, inpatient practice, and primary community mental health practice. This paper provides an overview of the new courses and reports the findings of an appreciative inquiry evaluation of this curriculum innovation. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing © 2012 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  10. Energy efficient drying strategies to retain nutritional components in broccoli broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica)

    Jin, X.; Sman, van der R.G.M.; Straten, van G.; Boom, R.M.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2014-01-01

    This work concerns the combined optimization of the retention of bioactive components and energy efficiency during drying of broccoli. Kinetics for the degradation of glucosinolates, vitamin C and drying of broccoli are used to calculate optimal drying trajectories for the control variables air flow

  11. Statistical evaluation of nutritional components impacting phycocyanin production in Synechocystis SP

    Devendra V. Deshmukh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Alkaliphilic cyanobacterial cultures were isolated from Lonar lake (MS, India. Among the set of cultures, Synechocystis sp, was studied for phycocyanin production. A maximum yield was obtained in BG-11 medium at optimized conditions (pH 10 and 16 h light. In order to increase the phycocyanin yield media optimization based on the eight media components a Plackett-Burman design of the 12 experimental trials was used. As per the analysis CaCl2.2H2O and Na2CO3 have been found to be the most influencing media components at 95% significance. Further the optimum concentrations of these components were estimated following a Box Wilson Central Composite Design (CCD with four star points and five replicates at the center points for each of two factors was adopted for optimization of these two media components. The results indicated that there was an interlinked influence of CaCl2.2H2O and Na2CO3 on 98% significance. The maximum yield of phycocyanin (12% of dry wt could be obtained at 0.058 g/l and 0.115 g/l of CaCl2.2H2O and Na2CO3, respectively.

  12. Comparison of major and trace components of Chinese and Canadian soils

    Puling Liu; Jervis, R.E.

    1992-01-01

    INAA was used to determine 32 major and trace elements in 21 soil samples collected from the Loess Plateau, China, and Ontario, Canada. The elemental concentrations determined in different layers of each soil, have been used for comparison in order to find out the general characteristics and any significant differences between Canadian and Chinese soils which developed from similar parent materials. This data can be useful to pedologists and geochemists to study the elemental behaviours and the influences of climate and environment on soil formation. Effort is directed to applying a statistical factor pattern recognition method to these soils for possible use in future soil erosion and transport studies in China. From this study, four soil factors were resolved each for the Chinese and Canadian soils. (author) 13 refs.; 2 figs.; 5 tabs

  13. Sensory profile and contribution of major components of aroma in dry red wine quality

    Luisa Costa de Oliveira

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the sensory profile and main volatile compounds of a set of commercial wines from two major wine regions in Brazil. A total of 28 descriptors were selected by quantitative descriptive analysis, and “red”, “violet”, “pungent aroma”, “vinegary aroma” and “softness” were the most important descriptors in sample discrimination (p<=0.05. 42 volatile aroma compounds were considered relevant for the evaluation of red wine samples. Several acetates and esters that contribute to the pleasant aroma in wines were found in the samples, but other undesirable compounds were also identified: acetic acid and octanoic acid may have contributed to the vinegary and sulphur odors perceived by a trained team.

  14. Analysis of Chemical Constituents Changing in Physical Process and Nutritional Components of Malus halliana Koehne Tea

    Zhenhua Yin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to establish a HPLC method for simultaneous determination of the changing of quercitrin, 3-hydroxyphloridzin, and phloridzin in physical process of M. halliana tea. Meanwhile, the nutritional compositions were determined, using anthrone-sulfuric acid colorimetry and direct titration determination of total sugar and reducing sugar, respectively, in order to provide theoretical basis for quality control and tea production. The results showed that the regression equations for quercitrin, 3-hydroxyphloridzin, and phloridzin were linear in the range of 0.0972–12.15 μg (r=0.999 8, 0.0932~11.65 μg (r=0.999 1, and 0.9~112.5 μg (r=0.999 6, respectively. The average recoveries ranged from 98.19% to 99.35%. The contents of crude protein and the crude fat were measured by spectrophotometric detection and soxhlet extraction detection, respectively. The contents of total sugar, reducing sugar, the fat, and protein were 6.8 g/100 g, 8.5 mg/100 g, 2.399 g/100 g, and 4.362 g/100 g, respectively, in M. halliana tea.

  15. Improving the nutritive characteristics of corn flakes enriched with functional components

    Košutić Milenko B.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effects of simultaneous addition of sunflower (3, 6 or 9 g/100 g of sample and dry residue of wild oregano (0.5 or 1 g/100 g of sample on the essential amino acids pattern and antioxidant potential of flake products. The accepted experimental design plan was 34. Data point that Score and PDCAAS values in flake products increase with increasing share of sunflower. Maximum value of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity were experienced of TPC 2.84 mg/g, DPPH 0.75 mg/ml, FRAP 1.57 mg/g with the product having maximum shares of sunflower and dry residue of wild oregano. Tukey’s HSD test showed statistically significant differences between most of the mean values of amino acids content and antioxidant activity in the observed corn flakes. The response surface method has been applied for evaluation of amino acid content and antioxidative potential of corn flakes. Sunflower in flake products positively contributed to the protein nutritive value and dry residues of wild oregano elevated antioxidant potential of flake products and also contributed to the food waste valorisation in the food industry. Corn flakes are new products with improved essential amino acid pattern, antioxidant activity and functional properties due to added dry residue of wild oregano and sunflower. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. III 46005 and Grant no. TR 31027

  16. Which Design Components of Nutrition Infographics Make Them Memorable and Compelling?

    Wansink, Brian; Robbins, Rebecca

    2016-11-01

    Which design features of nutrition infographics make them memorable and compelling? First, we conducted 3 focus groups with a total of 28 participants to understand preferred infographic characteristics of adults who were mostly in their early 20s. Second, using between subject design, a slide show of single-image infographics was displayed to an independent sample of college students and young career university employees (N = 50). We assigned participants randomly to either active or passive processing conditions. We conducted correlation and regression analyses to examine differences in recall and intention by infographic characteristics and processing conditions. Regardless of whether a person was actively or passively viewing the infographics, the most robust predictor of recall was an action-oriented title (p = .003). Surprisingly, infographics in color (vs black-and-white), humorous, or simply worded were no more memorable or effective than if they simply had actionable titles. Action-oriented titles make infographics memorable and compelling. Regardless of how involved a person is in processing an infographic, cartoon, or illustration, time spent on perfecting an action-oriented title will be time better spent than on making the infographic colorful, humorous, or detailed. Whereas content and detail of the infographic are important, effectiveness might be improved by the command given in its title or subtitle.

  17. Assessment and management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety: PWR vessel internals

    1999-10-01

    At present, there are over four hundred operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) in IAEA Member States. Operating experience has shown that ineffective control of the ageing degradation of the major NPP components (e.g. caused by unanticipated phenomena and by operating, maintenance or manufacturing errors) can jeopardize plant safety and also plant life. Ageing in these NPPs must be therefore effectively managed to ensure the availability of design functions throughout the plant service life. From the safety perspective, this means controlling within acceptable limits the ageing degradation and wear-out of plant components important to safety so that adequate safety margins remain, i.e. integrity and functional capability in excess of normal operating requirements. This TECDOC is one in a series of reports on the assessment and management of ageing of the major NPP components important to safety. The reports are based on experience and practices of NPP operators, regulators, designers, manufacturers, and technical support organizations and a widely accepted Methodology for the Management of Ageing of NPP Components Important to Safety, which was issued by the IAEA in 1992. The current practices for the assessment of safety margins (fitness-for-service) and the inspection, monitoring and mitigation of ageing degradation of selected components of Canada deuterium-uranium (CANDU) reactors, boiling water reactors (BWRs), pressurized water reactors (PWRs), and water moderated, water cooled energy reactors (WWERs) are documented in the reports. These practices are intended to help all involved directly and indirectly in ensuring the safe operation of NPPs, and to provide a common technical basis for dialogue between plant operators and regulators when dealing with age related licensing issues. The guidance reports are directed at technical experts from NPPs and from regulatory, plant design, manufacturing and technical support organizations dealing with specific plant

  18. Major advances in testing of dairy products: milk component and dairy product attribute testing.

    Barbano, D M; Lynch, J M

    2006-04-01

    Milk component analysis is relatively unusual in the field of quantitative analytical chemistry because an analytical test result determines the allocation of very large amounts of money between buyers and sellers of milk. Therefore, there is high incentive to develop and refine these methods to achieve a level of analytical performance rarely demanded of most methods or laboratory staff working in analytical chemistry. In the last 25 yr, well-defined statistical methods to characterize and validate analytical method performance combined with significant improvements in both the chemical and instrumental methods have allowed achievement of improved analytical performance for payment testing. A shift from marketing commodity dairy products to the development, manufacture, and marketing of value added dairy foods for specific market segments has created a need for instrumental and sensory approaches and quantitative data to support product development and marketing. Bringing together sensory data from quantitative descriptive analysis and analytical data from gas chromatography olfactometry for identification of odor-active compounds in complex natural dairy foods has enabled the sensory scientist and analytical chemist to work together to improve the consistency and quality of dairy food flavors.

  19. Development and Application of a Probabilistic Risk-Benefit Assessment Model for Infant Feeding Integrating Microbiological, Nutritional, and Chemical Components.

    Boué, Géraldine; Cummins, Enda; Guillou, Sandrine; Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Le Bizec, Bruno; Membré, Jeanne-Marie

    2017-12-01

    A probabilistic and interdisciplinary risk-benefit assessment (RBA) model integrating microbiological, nutritional, and chemical components was developed for infant milk, with the objective of predicting the health impact of different scenarios of consumption. Infant feeding is a particular concern of interest in RBA as breast milk and powder infant formula have both been associated with risks and benefits related to chemicals, bacteria, and nutrients, hence the model considers these three facets. Cronobacter sakazakii, dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCB), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were three risk/benefit factors selected as key issues in microbiology, chemistry, and nutrition, respectively. The present model was probabilistic with variability and uncertainty separated using a second-order Monte Carlo simulation process. In this study, advantages and limitations of undertaking probabilistic and interdisciplinary RBA are discussed. In particular, the probabilistic technique was found to be powerful in dealing with missing data and to translate assumptions into quantitative inputs while taking uncertainty into account. In addition, separation of variability and uncertainty strengthened the interpretation of the model outputs by enabling better consideration and distinction of natural heterogeneity from lack of knowledge. Interdisciplinary RBA is necessary to give more structured conclusions and avoid contradictory messages to policymakers and also to consumers, leading to more decisive food recommendations. This assessment provides a conceptual development of the RBA methodology and is a robust basis on which to build upon. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  20. Nutritional quality and fractionation of carbohydrates and protein in the forage components of an intensive silvopastoral system

    Gaviria, Xiomara; Rivera, J.E.; Barahona, R.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritional quality of the forage components of a SPSi based on Leucaena leucocephala associated to improved pastures, as well as its biomass production. The forage production was determined at several moments of the year and the nutritional quality was evaluated through the Cornell model. The soluble protein proportion (fraction A) was similar between the grasses and L. leucocephala, and represented as minimum 34 % of the total protein. The proportion of protein B2 (intermediate degradation) of the legume was higher than that of the grasses (53,7 vs. 30,2 %, respectively). Protein B3 of the diet (slow degradation) was around 22 % of the total protein, and more than 71 % of it can be considered degradable in rumen. L. leucocephala showed a higher concentration of soluble carbohydrates (16,7 %) and lower quantity of fraction B2 (14,94 %) than the grasses. Concerning the biomass availability, a production of 19,26 t DM/ha year-1 was reached. It is concluded that in SPSis a high quantity of quality forage is produced throughout the year, and that this offer is sufficient to cover the requirements of ruminants. (author)

  1. Formative evaluation of the feedback component of Children's and Adolescents' Nutrition Assessment and Advice on the Web (CANAA-W) among parents of schoolchildren.

    Vereecken, Carine; Covents, Marc; Maes, Lea; Moyson, Tinneke

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to describe the formative evaluation of the feedback component of an online nutrition tailoring instrument, the Children's and Adolescents' Nutrition Assessment and Advice on the Web (CANAA-W), among parents of schoolchildren. Parents of pre-primary and primary-school children recorded their child's food intake over 3 d with CANAA-W and completed the evaluation questionnaire online. A subsample participated in focus group discussions. Parents completed CANAA-W at home. Forty-six parents completed the evaluation questionnaire. Seventeen parents participated in three focus group discussions. Parents were enthusiastic: the majority (81 % or more) found the advice comprehensible, interesting, logical, useful, believable, well formulated, correct, personal, relevant, complete, attractive, containing enough and not too much information; they indicated that it is helpful to improve their children's eating habits and that they intend to use it. The qualitative analyses revealed that the respondents appreciated the confrontation with their child's diet and the visualization (i.e. traffic light colours, pictograms, food models, diagrams). The length of the feedback was rather a drawback, but it was useful nevertheless. CANAA-W was well received by the parents; the scores on the feasibility questionnaire were high and the qualitative analyses showed that the confrontation with their child's diet, and attractive visualization of the most relevant feedback linked to more elaborated optional feedback, were well appreciated. The major challenge will be to convince parents who are less interested in food habits and less computer-literate to participate in this type of study.

  2. [Medicinal chemistry and pharmacology focused on cannabidiol, a major component of the fiber-type cannabis].

    Takeda, Shuso

    2013-01-01

    Considerable attention has focused on cannabidiol (CBD), a major non-psychotropic constituent of fiber-type cannabis plant, and it has been reported to possess diverse biological activities. Although CBD is obtained from non-enzymatic decarboxylation of its parent molecule, cannabidiolic acid (CBDA), several studies have investigated whether CBDA itself is biologically active. In the present report, the author summarizes findings indicating that; 1) CBDA is a selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, and ii) CBDA possesses an anti-migrative potential for highly invasive cancer cells, apparently through a mechanism involving inhibition of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A, coupled with an activation of the small GTPase, RhoA. Further, the author introduces recent findings on the medicinal chemistry and pharmacology of the CBD derivative, CBD-2',6'-dimethyl ether (CBDD), that exhibits inhibitory activity toward 15-lipoxygenase (15-LOX), an enzyme responsible for the production of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL). These studies establish CBD as both an important experimental tool and as a lead compound for pharmaceutical development. In this review, the author further discusses the potential uses of CBD and its derivatives in future medicines.

  3. The case for SAR as the major component of a hyperthermia treatment unit

    Scott, R.S.

    1985-01-01

    A major problem facing clinical hyperthermia is the lack of a useful unit of treatment. Most attempts at a treatment unit have utilized some function of temperature and time. Having accepted the validity of such a hypothetical units, one is faced with the formidable problem of obtaining a three dimensional temperature profile so that thermal dose can be determined. A corollary is the desirability of obtaining uniform temperature in the treatment volume. Various studies suggest that a uniform SAR is a more desirable goal when radiotherapy is to be used in combination with hyperthermia. The synergy between radiation and hyperthermia is maximized in low pH regions of tumor which are presumably also hypoxic. These regions are poorly perfused, likely to heat readily, and are resistant to the cytotoxic effects of radiation alone. On the other hand, well perfused regions of tumor are likely sensitive to radiation, and benefit less from the combination treatment. Other studies have definitely shown that tissue temperatures in the range normally associated with desirable hyperthermia treatment result in severe vascular damage. This damage could be expected to unnecessarily compromise the effectiveness of radiotherapy. Models in the literature can be combined to verify these observations

  4. Fish as major carbonate mud producers and missing components of the tropical carbonate factory

    Perry, Chris T.; Salter, Michael A.; Harborne, Alastair R.; Crowley, Stephen F.; Jelks, Howard L.; Wilson, Rod W.

    2011-01-01

    Carbonate mud is a major constituent of recent marine carbonate sediments and of ancient limestones, which contain unique records of changes in ocean chemistry and climate shifts in the geological past. However, the origin of carbonate mud is controversial and often problematic to resolve. Here we show that tropical marine fish produce and excrete various forms of precipitated (nonskeletal) calcium carbonate from their guts ("low" and "high" Mg-calcite and aragonite), but that very fine-grained (mostly 4 mole % MgCO3) are their dominant excretory product. Crystallites from fish are morphologically diverse and species-specific, but all are unique relative to previously known biogenic and abiotic sources of carbonate within open marine systems. Using site specific fish biomass and carbonate excretion rate data we estimate that fish produce ~6.1 x 106 kg CaCO3/year across the Bahamian archipelago, all as mud-grade (the marine carbonate factories function both today and in the past.

  5. Current Views on Therapeutic and Preventive Nutrition and the Most Effectivenes European Diet in Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components

    D.K. Miloslavskyi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This review contains literature information about pathogenetic and pathophysiological mechanisms of metabolic syndrome development, its main components, national recommendations on nutrition for the citizens of some countries, the results of multicenter studies on the role of alimentary factors, molecular targets of favorable effects of certain nutrients in this pathology. The basic dietary recommendations, the most important and special European diets with proven efficacy (Mediterranean Diet, DASH diet, TLC, D. Ornish, the Polymeal diet, Omni Heart, the Mayo clinic, Weight Watchers, the characteristics of their prescription in hypertension, atherosclerosis, dyslipidemia, purine metabolism disorders, obesity, diabetes mellitus type 2, as well as a short recommendation on lifestyle modification and physical activity increasing in these patients were present.

  6. Optical absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy studies of Artepillin C, the major component of green propolis

    Camuri, Isamara Julia; Costa, Adriano Batista; Ito, Amando Siuiti; Pazin, Wallance Moreira

    2018-06-01

    The bioactivity of propolis against several pathogens is well established, leading to the extensive consumption of that bee product to prevent diseases. Brazilian green propolis, collected by the species Apis mellifera, is one of the most consumed in the world. The chemical composition of green propolis is complex and it has been shown that it displays antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antitumor activities, especially due to the high content of Artepillin C. The molecule is a derivative of cinnamic acid with two prenylated groups, responsible for the improvement of the affinity of the compound for lipophilic environment. A carboxylic group (COOH) is also present in the molecule, making it a pH-sensitive compound and the pH-dependent structure of Artepillin C, may modulate its biological activity related to interactions with the cellular membrane of organisms and tissues. Molecular properties of Artepillin C on aqueous solution were examined by optical absorption, steady state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopies. Acid-base titration based on the spectral position of the near UV absorption band, resulted in the pKa value of 4.65 for the carboxylic group in Artepillin C. In acidic pH, below the pKa value, an absorption band raised around 350 nm at Artepillin C concentration above 50 μM, due to aggregation of the molecule. In neutral pH, with excitation at 310 nm, Artepillin C presents dual emission at 400 and 450 nm. In pH close to the pKa, the optical spectra show contribution from both protonated and deprotonated species. A three-exponential function was necessary to fit the intensity decays at the different pHs, dominated by a very short lifetime component, around 0.060 ns. The fast decay resulted in emission before fluorescence depolarization, and in values of fluorescence anisotropy higher than could be expected for monomeric forms of the compound. The results give fundamental knowledge about the protonation-deprotonation state of the

  7. Molecular cloning of human protein 4.2: A major component of the erythrocyte membrane

    Sung, L.A.; Chien, Shu; Lambert, K.; Chang, Longsheng; Bliss, S.A.; Bouhassira, E.E.; Nagel, R.L.; Schwartz, R.S.; Rybicki, A.C.

    1990-01-01

    Protein 4.2 (P4.2) comprises ∼5% of the protein mass of human erythrocyte (RBC) membranes. Anemia occurs in patients with RBCs deficient in P4.2, suggesting a role for this protein in maintaining RBC stability and integrity. The authors now report the molecular cloning and characterization of human RBC P4.2 cDNAs. By immunoscreening a human reticulocyte cDNA library and by using the polymerase chain reaction, two cDNA sequences of 2.4 and 2.5 kilobases (kb) were obtained. These cDNAs differ only by a 90-base-air insert in the longer isoform located three codons downstream from the putative initiation site. The 2.4- and 2.5-kb cDNAs predict proteins of ∼77 and ∼80 kDa, respectively, and the authenticity was confirmed by sequence identity with 46 amino acids of three cyanogen bromide-cleaved peptides of P4.2. Northern blot analysis detected a major 2.4-kb RNA species in reticulocytes. Isolation of two P4.2 cDNAs implies existence of specific regulation of P4.2 expression in human RBCs. Human RBC P4.2 has significant homology with human factor XIII subunit a and guinea pig liver transglutaminase. Sequence alignment of P4.2 with these two transglutaminases, however, revealed that P4.2 lacks the critical cysteine residue required for the enzymatic crosslinking of substrates

  8. Monitoring aquatic environment pollution: a major component of environment management systems

    Khan, I.H.; Khan, M.H.; Sheikh, I.M.

    1999-01-01

    The paper is based on the international experiences mostly of the UK (United Kingdom) and Europe on monitoring aquatic pollution and controlling water pollution which have a long history of the legislation involved. The U.K. control of water pollution and regulatory laws are very effective as in shown by the fact that 96 percent of rivers in England and Wales are suitable for potable supplies with conventional water treatment. Current British legislation is basically contained n the 1951, 1960 and 1974 acts of parliament in the U.K. A common feature of all this environment legislation is the high level of consultation which has taken place between government and all concerned and al those concerned in the development of legislation and drawing up regulations etc. and involved in implementation of them. Similarly considerable discussion takes place with the controlling authorities by dischargers over the detailed implementation of legislation in the U.K. Consequently these harmonious attitudes have been responsible for the effectiveness of the U.K. legislation. In the U.K. control of discharges of industrial effluents to sewers and to all natural waters including underground water is vested in the regional water authorities, which on application, issue consent permitting discharges of industrial effluents to sewers and to all natural waters including underground waters in vested in the regional water authorities, which on application, issue consent permitting discharges to be made subject to conditions and limitations in the consent/authorisation/approval. The paper critically reviews major aspects of the philosophy of aquatic pollution control and monitoring, as statistics reveal deadly state of liquid effluent contamination water bodies in Pakistan. Without prompt installation of treatment plants we may face a tragedy of catastrophic magnitude. (author)

  9. Component resolution reveals additional major allergens in patients with honeybee venom allergy.

    Köhler, Julian; Blank, Simon; Müller, Sabine; Bantleon, Frank; Frick, Marcel; Huss-Marp, Johannes; Lidholm, Jonas; Spillner, Edzard; Jakob, Thilo

    2014-05-01

    Detection of IgE to recombinant Hymenoptera venom allergens has been suggested to improve the diagnostic precision in Hymenoptera venom allergy. However, the frequency of sensitization to the only available recombinant honeybee venom (HBV) allergen, rApi m 1, in patients with HBV allergy is limited, suggesting that additional HBV allergens might be of relevance. We performed an analysis of sensitization profiles of patients with HBV allergy to a panel of HBV allergens. Diagnosis of HBV allergy (n = 144) was based on history, skin test results, and allergen-specific IgE levels to HBV. IgE reactivity to 6 HBV allergens devoid of cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCD) was analyzed by ImmunoCAP. IgE reactivity to rApi m 1, rApi m 2, rApi m 3, nApi m 4, rApi m 5, and rApi m 10 was detected in 72.2%, 47.9%, 50.0%, 22.9%, 58.3%, and 61.8% of the patients with HBV allergy, respectively. Positive results to at least 1 HBV allergen were detected in 94.4%. IgE reactivity to Api m 3, Api m 10, or both was detected in 68.0% and represented the only HBV allergen-specific IgE in 5% of the patients. Limited inhibition of IgE binding by therapeutic HBV and limited induction of Api m 3- and Api m 10-specific IgG4 in patients obtaining immunotherapy supports recent reports on the underrepresentation of these allergens in therapeutic HBV preparations. Analysis of a panel of CCD-free HBV allergens improved diagnostic sensitivity compared with use of rApi m 1 alone, identified additional major allergens, and revealed sensitizations to allergens that have been reported to be absent or underrepresented in therapeutic HBV preparations. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Explorative analysis of major components and isotopes. SDM-Site Forsmark

    Smellie, John (Conterra AB (Sweden)); Tullborg, Eva-Lena (Terralogica AB (Sweden)); Nilsson, Ann-Chatrin (Geosigma AB (Sweden)); Sandstroem, Bjoern (Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden)); Waber, Niklaus (Univ. of Bern (Switzerland)); Gimeno, Maria (Univ. of Zaragoza (Spain)); Gascoyne, Mel (GGP Inc. (United Kingdom))

    2008-09-15

    The overall objectives of the hydrogeochemical description for Forsmark are to establish a detailed understanding of the hydrogeochemical conditions at the site and to develop models that fulfil the needs identified by the safety assessment groups during the site investigation phase. Issues of concern to safety assessment are radionuclide transport and technical barrier behaviour, both of which are dependent on the chemistry of groundwater and pore water and their evolution with time. The work has involved the development of descriptive and mathematical models for groundwaters in relation to rock domains, fracture domains and deformation zones. Past climate events are the major driving force for hydrogeochemical changes and therefore are of fundamental importance for understanding the palaeohydrogeological, palaeohydrogeochemical and present evolution of groundwater in the crystalline bedrock of the Fennoscandian Shield. Understanding current undisturbed hydrochemical conditions at the proposed repository site is important when predicting future changes in groundwater chemistry. The causes behind copper corrosion and/or bentonite degradation are of particular interest as they may jeopardise the long-term integrity of the planned SKB repository system. Thus, the following variables are considered for the hydrogeochemical site descriptive modelling: pH, Eh, sulphur species, iron, manganese, carbonate, phosphate, nitrogen species, total dissolved solids (TDS), isotopes, colloids, fulvic and humic acids and microorganisms. In addition, dissolved gases (e.g. carbon dioxide, methane and hydrogen) are of interest because of their likely participation in microbial reactions. In this series of reports, the final hydrogeochemical evaluation work of the site investigation at the Forsmark site, is presented. The work was conducted by SKB's hydrogeochemical project group, ChemNet, which consists of independent consultants and university researchers with expertise in

  11. Explorative analysis of major components and isotopes. SDM-Site Forsmark

    Smellie, John; Tullborg, Eva-Lena; Nilsson, Ann-Chatrin; Sandstroem, Bjoern; Waber, Niklaus; Gimeno, Maria; Gascoyne, Mel

    2008-09-01

    The overall objectives of the hydrogeochemical description for Forsmark are to establish a detailed understanding of the hydrogeochemical conditions at the site and to develop models that fulfil the needs identified by the safety assessment groups during the site investigation phase. Issues of concern to safety assessment are radionuclide transport and technical barrier behaviour, both of which are dependent on the chemistry of groundwater and pore water and their evolution with time. The work has involved the development of descriptive and mathematical models for groundwaters in relation to rock domains, fracture domains and deformation zones. Past climate events are the major driving force for hydrogeochemical changes and therefore are of fundamental importance for understanding the palaeohydrogeological, palaeohydrogeochemical and present evolution of groundwater in the crystalline bedrock of the Fennoscandian Shield. Understanding current undisturbed hydrochemical conditions at the proposed repository site is important when predicting future changes in groundwater chemistry. The causes behind copper corrosion and/or bentonite degradation are of particular interest as they may jeopardise the long-term integrity of the planned SKB repository system. Thus, the following variables are considered for the hydrogeochemical site descriptive modelling: pH, Eh, sulphur species, iron, manganese, carbonate, phosphate, nitrogen species, total dissolved solids (TDS), isotopes, colloids, fulvic and humic acids and microorganisms. In addition, dissolved gases (e.g. carbon dioxide, methane and hydrogen) are of interest because of their likely participation in microbial reactions. In this series of reports, the final hydrogeochemical evaluation work of the site investigation at the Forsmark site, is presented. The work was conducted by SKB's hydrogeochemical project group, ChemNet, which consists of independent consultants and university researchers with expertise in

  12. Characterization of secondary organic aerosol from photo-oxidation of gasoline exhaust and specific sources of major components.

    Ma, Pengkun; Zhang, Peng; Shu, Jinian; Yang, Bo; Zhang, Haixu

    2018-01-01

    To further explore the composition and distribution of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) components from the photo-oxidation of light aromatic precursors (toluene, m-xylene, and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (1,3,5-TMB)) and idling gasoline exhaust, a vacuum ultraviolet photoionization mass spectrometer (VUV-PIMS) was employed. Peaks of the molecular ions of the SOA components with minimum molecular fragmentation were clearly observed from the mass spectra of SOA, through the application of soft ionization methods in VUV-PIMS. The experiments comparing the exhaust-SOA and light aromatic mixture-SOA showed that the observed distributions of almost all the predominant cluster ions in the exhaust-SOA were similar to that of the mixture-SOA. Based on the characterization experiments of SOA formed from individual light aromatic precursors, the SOA components with molecular weights of 98 and 110 amu observed in the exhaust-SOA resulted from the photo-oxidation of toluene and m-xylene; the components with a molecular weight of 124 amu were derived mainly from m-xylene; and the components with molecular weights of 100, 112, 128, 138, and 156 amu were mainly derived from 1,3,5-TMB. These results suggest that C 7 -C 9 light aromatic hydrocarbons are significant SOA precursors and that major SOA components originate from gasoline exhaust. Additionally, some new light aromatic hydrocarbon-SOA components were observed for the first time using VUV-PIMS. The corresponding reaction mechanisms were also proposed in this study to enrich the knowledge base of the formation mechanisms of light aromatic hydrocarbon-SOA compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessment and management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety: CANDU reactor assemblies

    2001-02-01

    At present, there are over four hundred operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) in IAEA Member States. Operating experience has shown that ineffective control of the ageing degradation of the major NPP components (e.g. caused by unanticipated phenomena and by operating, maintenance, design or manufacturing errors) can jeopardize plant safety and also plant life. Ageing in these NPPs must therefore be effectively managed to ensure the availability of design functions throughout the plant service life. From the safety perspective, this means controlling within acceptable limits the ageing degradation and wearout of plant components important to safety so that adequate safety margins remain, i.e. integrity and functional capability in excess of normal operating requirements. This TECDOC is one in a series of reports on the assessment and management of ageing of the major NPP components important to safety. The reports are based on experience and practices of NPP operators, regulators, designers, manufacturers, and technical support organizations and a widely accepted Methodology for the Management of Ageing of NPP Components Important to Safety which was issued by the IAEA in 1992. The current practices for the assessment of safety margins (fitness for service) and the inspection, monitoring, and mitigation of ageing degradation of selected components of Canada deuterium-uranium (CANDU) reactors, boiling water reactors (BWRs), pressurized water reactors (PWRs) including the Soviet designed water moderated and water cooled energy reactors (WWERs), are documented in the reports. These practices are intended to help all involved directly and indirectly in ensuring the safe operation of NPPs and also to provide a common technical basis for dialogue between plant operators and regulators when dealing with age-related licensing issues. Since the reports are written from a safety perspective, they do not address life or life-cycle management of the plant components, which

  14. Assessment and Management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety: PWR pressure vessels

    1999-10-01

    At present, there are over four hundred operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) in IAEA Member States. Operating experience has shown that ineffective control of the ageing degradation of the major NPP components (e.g., caused by unanticipated phenomena and by operating, maintenance or manufacturing errors) can jeopardize plant safety and also plant life. Ageing in these NPPs must be therefore effectively managed to ensure the availability of design functions throughout the plant service life. From the safety perspective, this means controlling within acceptable limits the ageing degradation and wear-out of plant components important to safety so that adequate safety margins remain, i.e. integrity and functional capability in excess of normal operating requirements. This TECDOC is one in a series of reports on the assessment and management of ageing of the major NPP components important to safety. The reports are based on experience and practices of NPP operators, regulators, designers, manufacturers and technical support organizations and a widely accepted Methodology for the Management of Ageing of NPP Components Important to Safety which was issued by the IAEA in 1992. The current practices for the assessment of safety margins (fitness-for-service) and the inspection, monitoring and mitigation of ageing degradation of selected components of Canada deuterium-uranium (CANDU) reactors, boiling water reactors (BWRs), pressurized water reactors (PWRs), including water moderated, water cooled energy reactors (WWERs) are documented in the reports. These practices are intended to help all involved directly and indirectly in ensuring the safe operation of NPPs; and also to provide a common technical basis for dialogue between plant operators and regulators when dealing with age related licensing issues. Since the reports are written from a safety perspective, they do not address life or life-cycle management of the plant components, which involves the integration of

  15. Major multinational food and beverage companies and informal sector contributions to global food consumption: implications for nutrition policy

    Yach Derek

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, 10 major multinational food and beverage companies have worked together within the International Food and Beverage Alliance (IFBA to increase their commitments to public health. Current IFBA commitments include initiatives to improve the nutrition quality of products and how these products are advertised to children. The impact and magnitude of IFBA member contributions to the total market share of packaged foods and beverages consumed remain incompletely understood, however. Methods In order to evaluate this impact, we examined packaged food and soft drink company shares provided by Euromonitor, an international independent market analysis company. Packaged foods include baby food, bakery, canned/preserved food, chilled/processed food, confectionery, dairy, dried processed food, frozen processed food, ice cream, meal replacement, noodles, oils and fats, pasta, ready meals, sauces, dressings and condiments, snack bars, soup, spreads, and sweet and savoury snacks. Soft drinks include carbonates, packaged fruit/vegetable juice, bottled water, functional drinks, concentrates, ready-to-drink tea, ready-to-drink coffee and Asian specialty drinks. We calculated the market shares for IFBA companies, globally and within nine countries--the US, China, India, Egypt, South Africa, Brazil, Mexico, Turkey and the UK. Results Worldwide, the top ten packaged food companies account for 15.2% of sales, with each individual company contributing less than 3.3%. The top ten soft drink companies account for 52.3% of sales worldwide; Coca-Cola and PepsiCo lead with 25.9% and 11.5% of sales, respectively. Conclusions Although the top ten soft drink companies account for half of global sales, the top ten packaged food companies account for only a small proportion of market share with most individual companies contributing less than 3.3% each. Major multinational companies need to be joined by the myriad of small- and medium

  16. Major multinational food and beverage companies and informal sector contributions to global food consumption: implications for nutrition policy

    2011-01-01

    Background In recent years, 10 major multinational food and beverage companies have worked together within the International Food and Beverage Alliance (IFBA) to increase their commitments to public health. Current IFBA commitments include initiatives to improve the nutrition quality of products and how these products are advertised to children. The impact and magnitude of IFBA member contributions to the total market share of packaged foods and beverages consumed remain incompletely understood, however. Methods In order to evaluate this impact, we examined packaged food and soft drink company shares provided by Euromonitor, an international independent market analysis company. Packaged foods include baby food, bakery, canned/preserved food, chilled/processed food, confectionery, dairy, dried processed food, frozen processed food, ice cream, meal replacement, noodles, oils and fats, pasta, ready meals, sauces, dressings and condiments, snack bars, soup, spreads, and sweet and savoury snacks. Soft drinks include carbonates, packaged fruit/vegetable juice, bottled water, functional drinks, concentrates, ready-to-drink tea, ready-to-drink coffee and Asian specialty drinks. We calculated the market shares for IFBA companies, globally and within nine countries--the US, China, India, Egypt, South Africa, Brazil, Mexico, Turkey and the UK. Results Worldwide, the top ten packaged food companies account for 15.2% of sales, with each individual company contributing less than 3.3%. The top ten soft drink companies account for 52.3% of sales worldwide; Coca-Cola and PepsiCo lead with 25.9% and 11.5% of sales, respectively. Conclusions Although the top ten soft drink companies account for half of global sales, the top ten packaged food companies account for only a small proportion of market share with most individual companies contributing less than 3.3% each. Major multinational companies need to be joined by the myriad of small- and medium-sized enterprises in developing and

  17. Major multinational food and beverage companies and informal sector contributions to global food consumption: implications for nutrition policy.

    Alexander, Eleanore; Yach, Derek; Mensah, George A

    2011-08-01

    In recent years, 10 major multinational food and beverage companies have worked together within the International Food and Beverage Alliance (IFBA) to increase their commitments to public health. Current IFBA commitments include initiatives to improve the nutrition quality of products and how these products are advertised to children. The impact and magnitude of IFBA member contributions to the total market share of packaged foods and beverages consumed remain incompletely understood, however. In order to evaluate this impact, we examined packaged food and soft drink company shares provided by Euromonitor, an international independent market analysis company. Packaged foods include baby food, bakery, canned/preserved food, chilled/processed food, confectionery, dairy, dried processed food, frozen processed food, ice cream, meal replacement, noodles, oils and fats, pasta, ready meals, sauces, dressings and condiments, snack bars, soup, spreads, and sweet and savoury snacks. Soft drinks include carbonates, packaged fruit/vegetable juice, bottled water, functional drinks, concentrates, ready-to-drink tea, ready-to-drink coffee and Asian specialty drinks. We calculated the market shares for IFBA companies, globally and within nine countries--the US, China, India, Egypt, South Africa, Brazil, Mexico, Turkey and the UK. Worldwide, the top ten packaged food companies account for 15.2% of sales, with each individual company contributing less than 3.3%. The top ten soft drink companies account for 52.3% of sales worldwide; Coca-Cola and PepsiCo lead with 25.9% and 11.5% of sales, respectively. Although the top ten soft drink companies account for half of global sales, the top ten packaged food companies account for only a small proportion of market share with most individual companies contributing less than 3.3% each. Major multinational companies need to be joined by the myriad of small- and medium-sized enterprises in developing and implementing programs to improve the

  18. Nutritional support as an obligatory component of accompanying therapy for head and neck tumors during radiotherapy and chemoradiotherapy

    A. V. Boyko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers supportive therapy in patients with head and neck tumors during radiotherapy and chemoradiotherapy. Special attention is given to nutritional support on every stage of patient care. The main methods of evaluation of nutritional status and risks are presented, as well as principles of clinical nutrition selection.

  19. Formative assessment in the development of an obesity prevention component for the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program in Texas

    This study conducted formative research (surveys, focus groups); to assess the nutrition education needs of clients in the Texas Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program prior to curriculum revision. Current participants in the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program from 3 Texas cities (...

  20. Assessment and management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety: BWR pressure vessel internals

    2005-10-01

    At present, there are over four hundred operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) in IAEA Member States. Operating experience has shown that ineffective control of the ageing degradation of the major NPP components (caused for instance by unanticipated phenomena and by operating maintenance or manufacturing errors) can jeopardize plant safety and also plant life. Ageing in these NPPs must be therefore effectively managed to ensure the availability of design functions throughout the plant service life. From the safety perspective, this means controlling, within acceptable limits, the ageing degradation and ware out of components important to safety so that adequate safety margins remain, i.e. integrity and functional capability in excess of normal operating requirements. This TECDOC is one in a series of guidance reports on the assessment and management of ageing of the major NPP components important to safety. The reports are based on experience and practices of NPP operators, regulators, designers, manufacturers, and technical support organizations and a widely accepted Methodology for the Management of Ageing of NPP Components Important to Safety, which was issued by the IAEA in 1992. Since the reports are written from a safety perspective, they do not address life or life cycle management of plant components, which involves economic considerations. The current practices for the assessment of safety margins (fitness for service) and the inspection, monitoring and mitigation of ageing degradation of selected components of heavy water moderated reactors (HWRs), boiling water reactors (BWRs), pressurized water reactors (PWRs), and water moderated, water cooled energy reactors (WWERs) are documented in the reports. These practices are intended to help all involved directly and indirectly in ensuring the safe operation of NPPs, and also to provide a common technical basis for dialogue between plant operators and regulators when dealing with age related licensing issues

  1. Assessment and management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety: BWR pressure vessels

    2005-10-01

    At present, there are over four hundred operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) in IAEA Member States. Operating experience has shown that ineffective control of the ageing degradation of the major NPP components (caused for instance by unanticipated phenomena and by operating, maintenance or manufacturing errors) can jeopardize plant safety and also plant life. Ageing in these NPPs must be therefore effectively managed to ensure the availability of design functions throughout the plant service life. From the safety perspective, this means controlling, within acceptable limits, the ageing degradation and wear out of plant components important to safety so that adequate safety margins remain, i.e. integrity and functional capability in excess of normal operating requirements. This TECDOC is one in a series of reports on the assessment and management of ageing of the major NPP components important to safety. The reports are based on experience and practices of NPP operators, regulators, designers, manufacturers and technical support organizations and a widely accepted Methodology for the Management of Ageing of NPP Components Important to Safety, which was issued by the IAEA in 1992. Since the reports are written from a safety perspective, they do not address life or life cycle management of plant components, which involves economic considerations. The current practices for the assessment of safety margins (fitness for service) and the inspection, monitoring and mitigation of ageing degradation of selected components of Canada deuterium-uranium (CANDU) reactors, boiling water reactors (BWRs), pressurized water reactors (PWRs), and water moderated, water cooled energy reactors (WWERs) are documented in the reports. These practices are intended to help all involved directly and indirectly in ensuring the safe operation of NPPs, and also to provide a common technical basis for dialogue between plant operators and regulators when dealing with age related licensing issues

  2. Assessment and management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety. Primary piping in PWRs

    2003-07-01

    At present, there are over four hundred operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) in IAEA Member States. Operating experience has shown that ineffective control of the ageing degradation of the major NPP components (caused for instance by unanticipated phenomena and by operating, maintenance or manufacturing errors) can jeopardize plant safety and also plant life. Ageing in these NPPs must therefore be effectively managed to ensure the availability of design functions throughout the plant service life. From the safety perspective, this means controlling, within acceptable limits, the ageing degradation and wear out of plant components important to safety so that adequate safety margins remain, i.e. integrity and functional capability in excess of normal operating requirements. This TECDOC is one in a series of reports on the assessment and management of ageing of the major NPP components important to safety. The reports are based on experience and practices of NPP operators, regulators, designers, manufacturers, technical support organizations and a widely accepted Methodology for the Management of Ageing of NPP Components Important to Safety, which was issued by the IAEA in 1992. Since the reports are written from a safety perspective, they do not address life or life cycle management of plant components, which involves economic considerations. The current practices for the assessment of safety margins (fitness-for-service) and the inspection, monitoring and mitigation of ageing degradation of selected components of Canada deuterium-uranium (CANDU) reactors, boiling water reactors (BWRs), pressurized water reactors (PWRs), and water moderated, water cooled energy reactors (WWERs) are documented in the reports. These practices are intended to help all involved directly and indirectly in ensuring the safe operation of NPPs, and to provide a common technical basis for dialogue between plant operators and regulators when dealing with age-related licensing issues. The

  3. Effect of integrated plant nutrition and irrigation scheduling on yield and yield components of maize (zea mays l.)

    Randhawa, M.S.; Maqsood, M.; Wajid, S.A.; Haq, A.U.

    2012-01-01

    Effect of three irrigation schedules (4-6 irrigations) and seven integrated plant nutrition levels (control, 125-60-62 kg N-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/-K/sub 2/O ha/sup -1/, 125-60-62 kg N-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/--K/sub 2/O ha/sup -1/ + Farmyard manure at the rate 10 t ha/sup -1/, 125-60-62 kg N-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/-K/sub 2/O ha/sup -1/ + Farm yard manure at the rate 15 t ha-1, 250-120-125 kg N-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/--K/sub 2/O ha-1, 250-120-125 kg N-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ -K/sub 2/O ha/sup -1/ + Farmyard manure at the rate 10 t ha-1 and 250-120-125 kg N-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/--K/sub 2/O ha/sup -1/ + Farmyard manure at the rate 15 t ha/sup -1/) on grain yield and its components in maize were studied during 2009 and 2010. Plant height, number of cobs plant-1, number of grain rows cob-1, number of grains cob-1, 1000-grain weight, grain weight cob-1, grain yield, stover yield and biological yield were significantly affected by irrigation schedules and integrated plant nutrition levels during both years. The crop applied with six irrigations and fertilized by integrated application of chemical fertilizers (250-120-125 kg N-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/--K/sub 2/O ha/sup -1/) and farmyard manure (15 t ha/sup -1/) produced the highest grain yield of 8.47 t ha/sup -1/ and 8.22 t ha/sup -1/ during 2009 and 2010, respectively. (author)

  4. Demographic and socioeconomic disparity in nutrition: application of a novel Correlated Component Regression approach

    Alkerwi, Ala'a; Vernier, Céderic; Sauvageot, Nicolas; Crichton, Georgina E; Elias, Merrill F

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to examine the most important demographic and socioeconomic factors associated with diet quality, evaluated in terms of compliance with national dietary recommendations, selection of healthy and unhealthy food choices, energy density and food variety. We hypothesised that different demographic and socioeconomic factors may show disparate associations with diet quality. Study design A nationwide, cross-sectional, population-based study. Participants A total of 1352 apparently healthy and non-institutionalised subjects, aged 18–69 years, participated in the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg (ORISCAV-LUX) study in 2007–2008. The participants attended the nearest study centre after a telephone appointment, and were interviewed by trained research staff. Outcome measures Diet quality as measured by 5 dietary indicators, namely, recommendation compliance index (RCI), recommended foods score (RFS), non-recommended foods score (non-RFS), energy density score (EDS), and dietary diversity score (DDS). The novel Correlated Component Regression (CCR) technique was used to determine the importance and magnitude of the association of each socioeconomic factor with diet quality, in a global analytic approach. Results Increasing age, being male and living below the poverty threshold were predominant factors associated with eating a high energy density diet. Education level was an important factor associated with healthy and adequate food choices, whereas economic resources were predominant factors associated with food diversity and energy density. Conclusions Multiple demographic and socioeconomic circumstances were associated with different diet quality indicators. Efforts to improve diet quality for high-risk groups need an important public health focus. PMID:25967988

  5. Identification of the Major Components of Buddleja officinalis Extract and Their Metabolites in Rat Urine by UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap.

    Sun, Mohan; Luo, Zhiqiang; Liu, Yang; Yang, Ruirui; Lu, Lina; Yu, Guohua; Ma, Xiaoyun; Liu, Aoxue; Guo, Yafang; Zhao, Haiyu

    2016-10-01

    Buddleja officinalis Maxim, one of the most popular herbal medicines in China, is widely prescribed for curing eye diseases for centuries. In this study, the major components of B. officinalis extract (BOE) and their metabolites in rat urine were detected and identified by ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled with linear ion trap-orbitrap tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap). A total of 19 compounds, including 8 flavonoids and 11 phenylethanoid glycosides, were confirmed or tentatively identified from BOE. In vivo, 33 components, including 3 prototypes and 30 metabolies, were confirmed or tentatively identified in rat urine samples. The metabolic pathways of different types of compounds were also proposed. This study would effectively narrow the range of potentially bioactive constituents of BOE and shed light to its action mechanism. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  6. Major Findings from The Changing Body: Health, Nutrition, and Human Development in the Western World since 1700.

    Fogel, Robert W; Grotte, Nathaniel

    2011-12-01

    This paper discusses findings from The Changing Body: Health, Nutrition, and Human Development in the Western World since 1700 (Cambridge University Press) The book is built on the authors' work with 300 years of height and nutrition data and discusses their findings in the context of technophysio evolution, a uniquely modern form of rapid physiological development, the result of humanity's ability to control its environment and create technological innovations to adapt to it.

  7. Nutrition, insulin resistance and dysfunctional adipose tissue determine the different components of metabolic syndrome

    Paniagua, Juan Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is an excessive accumulation of body fat that may be harmful to health. Today, obesity is a major public health problem, affecting in greater or lesser proportion all demographic groups. Obesity is estimated by body mass index (BMI) in a clinical setting, but BMI reports neither body composition nor the location of excess body fat. Deaths from cardiovascular diseases, cancer and diabetes accounted for approximately 65% of all deaths, and adiposity and mainly abdominal adiposity are associated with all these disorders. Adipose tissue could expand to inflexibility levels. Then, adiposity is associated with a state of low-grade chronic inflammation, with increased tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 release, which interfere with adipose cell differentiation, and the action pattern of adiponectin and leptin until the adipose tissue begins to be dysfunctional. In this state the subject presents insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia, probably the first step of a dysfunctional metabolic system. Subsequent to central obesity, insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hypoalphalipoproteinemia, hypertension and fatty liver are grouped in the so-called metabolic syndrome (MetS). In subjects with MetS an energy balance is critical to maintain a healthy body weight, mainly limiting the intake of high energy density foods (fat). However, high-carbohydrate rich (CHO) diets increase postprandial peaks of insulin and glucose. Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins are also increased, which interferes with reverse cholesterol transport lowering high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. In addition, CHO-rich diets could move fat from peripheral to central deposits and reduce adiponectin activity in peripheral adipose tissue. All these are improved with monounsaturated fatty acid-rich diets. Lastly, increased portions of ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids also decrease triglyceride levels, and complement the healthy diet that is recommended in patients with MetS. PMID

  8. Nutrition, insulin resistance and dysfunctional adipose tissue determine the different components of metabolic syndrome

    Juan; Antonio; Paniagua[1,2

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is an excessive accumulation of body fat that may be harmful to health. Today, obesity is a major public health problem, affecting in greater or lesser proportion all demographic groups. Obesity is estimated by body mass index (BMI) in a clinical setting, but BMI reports neither body composition nor the location of excess body fat.Deaths from cardiovascular diseases, cancer and diabetes accounted for approximately 65% of all deaths, and adiposity and mainly abdominal adiposity are associated with all these disorders. Adipose tissue could expand to inflexibility levels. Then, adiposity is associated with a state of low-grade chronic inflammation, with increased tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 release, which interfere with adipose cell differentiation, and the action pattern of adiponectin and leptin until the adipose tissue begins to be dysfunctional. In this state the subject presents insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia, probably the first step of a dysfunctional metabolic system. Subsequent to central obesity, insulin resistance, hyperglycemia,hypertriglyceridemia, hypoalphalipoproteinemia, hypertension and fatty liver are grouped in the so-called metabolic syndrome (MetS). In subjects with MetS an energy balance is critical to maintain a healthy body weight, mainly limiting the intake of high energy density foods (fat). However, high-carbohydrate rich (CHO) diets increase postprandial peaks of insulin and glucose.Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins are also increased, which interferes with reverse cholesterol transport lowering highdensity lipoprotein cholesterol. In addition, CHO-rich diets could move fat from peripheral to central deposits and reduce adiponectin activity in peripheral adipose tissue. All these are improved with monounsaturated fatty acid-rich diets. Lastly, increased portions of ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids also decrease triglyceride levels, and complement the healthy diet that is recommended in patients with MetS.

  9. Chemical composition of the major components of PM in different sites at the Metropolitan Region of Chile

    Reyes, F.; Castillo, M. A.; Rubio, M.; Gramsch, E.; Vasquez, Y.; Oyola, P.

    2013-05-01

    Santiago, Chile's capital is one of most polluted megacity (5.5 million of people) of the world. Currently, PM2.5 annual concentration is over 2.2 times the Chilean standard (20 μg/m3). Continuous measurements of non-refractory PM1.0 (sulfate, nitrate, chloride, ammonium and organics aerosols), black carbon, and PM2,5 mass concentration were determined using Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM, Aerodyne Research, Inc), absorption coefficient monitor (SIMCA, Santiago University) and dustrack monitor (TSI Inc) in order to know the temporal variability of the major components of PM. The measurements were carried out at kerbside, urban background, industrial and mixed residential/industrial locations during year 2012 and -2013. Meteorological data (Relative Humidity, temperature, wind speed, wind direction and precipitations) were obtained from the air quality network operated by the environmental authority. The results show strong correlation with the metropolitan region major sources. Multiple regression analysis indicates that precipitations have a strong impact on PM1.0 soluble components; relative humidity has effects only on chloride, sulfate and black carbon. Chloride concentration decrease when temperature is increasing. The perceptual contribution of each component is similar among all sites. All sites shows that OA (Organics Aerosol) as the major constituent of PM1.0 (>50%), followed of nitrates (>13%). Sulfate could be used to differentiate the industrial site; due to there is a strong impact of SO2 emission. Combustion sources direct impact can be seen at BC contribution at industrial and kerbside site. Also, the OA/BC ratio shows slow value at kerbside (3.05) and industrial (3.26) site, and higher at urban background site (4.15). Aged organics aerosols are majority found at all sites (f43/f44 plot), indicating that regional background is strong in all results. These results will be compared with size distribution measurements available from previous

  10. Assessment and Management of Ageing of Major Nuclear Power Plant Components Important to Safety: Steam Generators. 2011 Update

    2011-11-01

    At present there are over four hundred forty operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) in IAEA Member States. Ageing degradation of the systems, structures of components during their operational life must be effectively managed to ensure the availability of design functions throughout the plant service life. From the safety perspective, this means controlling, within acceptable limits, the ageing degradation and wear-out of plant components important to safety so that adequate safety margins remain, i.e. integrity and functional capability in excess of normal operating requirements. This IAEA-TECDOC is one in a series of reports on the assessment and management of ageing of the major NPP components important to safety. The reports are based on experience and practices of NPP operators, regulators, designers, manufacturers, and technical support organizations. The current practices for the assessment of safety margins (fitness for service) and the inspection, monitoring and mitigation of ageing degradation of selected components of Canada deuteriumuranium (CANDU) reactor, boiling water reactor (BWR), pressurized water reactor (PWR), and water moderated, water cooled energy reactor (WWER) plants are documented in the reports. These practices are intended to help all involved directly and indirectly in ensuring the safe operation of NPPs, and also to provide a common technical basis for dialogue between plant operators and regulators when dealing with age related licensing issues. Since the reports are written from a safety perspective, they do not address life or life cycle management of the plant components, which involves the integration of ageing management and economic planning. The target audience of the reports consists of technical experts from NPPs and from regulatory, plant design, manufacturing and technical support organizations dealing with specific plant components addressed in the reports. The component addressed in the present publication is the steam

  11. Altered expression of γ-secretase components in animal model of major depressive disorder induced by reserpine administration.

    Lee, Hye-Ryun; Hwang, In-Sik; Kim, Ji-Eun; Choi, Sun-Il; Lee, Young-Ju; Goo, Jun-Seo; Lee, Eon-Pil; Choi, Hae-Wook; Kim, Hong-Sung; Lee, Jae-Ho; Jung, Young-Jin; Hwang, Dae-Youn

    2012-06-01

    Altered expression of neurotrophic factors as well as neuroinflammation is commonly associated with Major depressive disorder (MDD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). To investigate whether or not reserpine-induced MDD affects the expression of AD-related proteins, the expression of γ-secretase components and substrate were measured in brains of ICR mice following reserpine treatment for 15 days. In active avoidance test, total response time and peak slightly increased in the 2 mg/kg reserpine (RSP2)-treated group compared to vehicle-treated group (Pprecursor protein (APP) was enhanced in the RSP1 and RSP2-treated groups compared to the vehicle-treated group, whereas expression of γ-secretase components decreased (P<0.03). Among the three components of the γ-secretase complex, nicastrin protein underwent the largest decrease in expression, as detected by Western blotting (P<0.03). Therefore, the data presented here provide additional evidence about the pathological correlation between MDD and AD.

  12. Nutritional status is the major factor affecting grip strength of African HIV patients before and during antiretroviral treatment

    Filteau, Suzanne; PrayGod, G; Woodd, Susannah L

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Low grip strength is a marker of frailty and a risk factor for mortality among HIV patients and other populations. We investigated factors associated with grip strength in malnourished HIV patients at referral to ART, and at 12 weeks and 2-3 years after starting ART. METHODS: The study...... involved HIV-infected Zambian and Tanzanian participants recruited to the NUSTART trial when malnourished (body mass index .... CONCLUSIONS: In this population of originally malnourished HIV patients, poor grip strength was more strongly and independently associated with nutritional than with infection and inflammation variables. Programmes to improve health and survival of HIV patients should incorporate nutritional assessment...

  13. Effect of Nutritional Management on Yield and Yield Components of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa as a Medicinal Plant in Mashhad Condition

    P Rezvani Moghaddam

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa is an annual plant with a height of about 64 to 429 cm belongs to Malvaceae family. Roselle is self-pollinated and sensitive to cold. Sepals of Roselle are used in food and pharmaceutical industries. It has been reported that Roselle is not native to Iran but it is cultivated extensively in Sistan and Baluchistan province, Iran. In order to achieve high quality and quantity yield of Roselle sepal it is necessary to improve nutritional systems of plant. Proper management of soil fertility and plant nutrition can preserve environment, improve biodiversity and also increase inputs efficiency. Results showed that use of nutritional resources will improve plant growth. Organic fertilizers such as compost can improve soil fertility as an important source of food that increase yield of plants. Nabila and Aly (2002 observed that use of hen and cow manure increased plant height, number of lateral branches, numbers of fruit and sepal yield of Roselle. Each plant species has the maximum potential in favorable conditions. Therefore, evaluation the effect of climatic and agronomic factors and nutritional management for plants is essential. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the yield and yield components of Roselle in response to use of single and combined nutritional resources. Materials and Methods In order to study the effects of single and combined organic, biological and chemical fertilizers on yield and yield components of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa, a field experiment was conducted with 12 treatments based on a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications at Research Station, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, in 2013-2014. Treatments included: 1- mycorrhiza (Glomus intraradices, 2- cow manure, 3- chemical fertilizer, 4- vermicompost, 5- chemical fertilizer + cow manure, 6- chemical fertilizer + vermicompost, 7- chemical fertilizer + mycorrhiza, 8- cow manure

  14. Nutritional status is the major factor affecting grip strength of African HIV patients before and during antiretroviral treatment.

    Filteau, S; PrayGod, G; Woodd, S L; Friis, H; Heimburger, D C; Koethe, J R; Kelly, P; Kasonka, L; Rehman, A M

    2017-10-01

    Low grip strength is a marker of frailty and a risk factor for mortality among HIV patients and other populations. We investigated factors associated with grip strength in malnourished HIV patients at referral to ART, and at 12 weeks and 2-3 years after starting ART. The study involved HIV-infected Zambian and Tanzanian participants recruited to the NUSTART trial when malnourished (body mass index <18.5 kg/m 2 ) and requiring ART. The relationship of grip strength to nutritional, infectious and demographic factors was assessed by multivariable linear regression at referral for ART (n = 1742) and after 12 weeks (n = 778) and 2-3 years of ART (n = 273). In analyses controlled only for sex, age and height, most nutrition and infection-related variables were associated with grip strength. However, in multivariable analyses, consistent associations were seen for fat-free mass index, mid-upper arm circumference, haemoglobin and systolic blood pressure, and a variable association with fat mass index in men. C-reactive protein and CD4 count had limited independent effects on grip strength, while receiving tuberculosis treatment was associated with weaker grip strength. In this population of originally malnourished HIV patients, poor grip strength was more strongly and independently associated with nutritional than with infection and inflammation variables. Programmes to improve health and survival of HIV patients should incorporate nutritional assessment and management and could use grip strength as a functional indicator of improving nutrition. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Early Nutrition as a Major Determinant of 'Immune Health': Implications for Allergy, Obesity and Other Noncommunicable Diseases.

    Prescott, Susan L

    2016-01-01

    Early-life nutritional exposures are significant determinants of the development and future health of all organ systems. The dramatic rise in infant immune diseases, most notably allergy, indicates the specific vulnerability of the immune system to early environmental changes. Dietary changes are at the center of the emerging epigenetic paradigms that underpin the rise in many modern inflammatory and metabolic diseases. There is growing evidence that exposures in pregnancy and the early postnatal period can modify gene expression and disease susceptibility. Although modern dietary changes are complex and involve changing patterns of many nutrients, there is also interest in the developmental effects of specific nutrients. Oligosaccharides (soluble fiber), antioxidants, polyunsaturated fatty acids, folate and other vitamins have documented effects on immune function as well as metabolism. Some have also been implicated in modified risk of allergic diseases in observational studies. Intervention studies are largely limited to trials with polyunsaturated fatty acids and oligosaccharides, showing preliminary but yet unconfirmed benefits in allergy prevention. Understanding how environmental influences disrupt the finely balanced development of immune and metabolic programming is of critical importance. Diet-sensitive pathways are likely to be crucial in these processes. While an epigenetic mechanism provides a strong explanation of how nutritional exposures can affect fetal gene expression and subsequent disease risk, other diet-induced tissue compositional changes may also contribute directly to altered immune and metabolic function--including diet-induced changes in the microbiome. A better understanding of nutritional programming of immune health, nutritional epigenetics and the biological processes sensitive to nutritional exposures early in life may lead to dietary strategies that provide more tolerogenic conditions during early immune programming and reduce the

  16. Component-resolved evaluation of the content of major allergens in therapeutic extracts for specific immunotherapy of honeybee venom allergy

    Blank, Simon; Etzold, Stefanie; Darsow, Ulf

    2017-01-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy is the only curative treatment of honeybee venom (HBV) allergy, which is able to protect against further anaphylactic sting reactions. Recent analyses on a molecular level have demonstrated that HBV represents a complex allergen source that contains more relevant...... major allergens than formerly anticipated. Moreover, allergic patients show very diverse sensitization profiles with the different allergens. HBV-specific immunotherapy is conducted with HBV extracts which are derived from pure venom. The allergen content of these therapeutic extracts might differ due...... to natural variations of the source material or different down-stream processing strategies of the manufacturers. Since variations of the allergen content of therapeutic HBV extracts might be associated with therapeutic failure, we adressed the component-resolved allergen composition of different therapeutic...

  17. The proteins of the grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seed endosperm: fractionation and identification of the major components.

    Gazzola, Diana; Vincenzi, Simone; Gastaldon, Luca; Tolin, Serena; Pasini, Gabriella; Curioni, Andrea

    2014-07-15

    In the present study, grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seed endosperm proteins were characterized after sequential fractionation, according to a modified Osborne procedure. The salt-soluble fraction (albumins and globulins) comprised the majority (58.4%) of the total extracted protein. The protein fractions analysed by SDS-PAGE showed similar bands, indicating different solubility of the same protein components. SDS-PAGE in non-reducing and reducing conditions revealed the polypeptide composition of the protein bands. The main polypeptides, which were similar in all the grape varieties analysed, were identified by LC-MS/MS as homologous to the 11S globulin-like seed storage proteins of other plant species, while a monomeric 43 kDa protein presented high homology with the 7S globulins of legume seeds. The results provide new insights about the identity, structure and polypeptide composition of the grape seed storage proteins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Pulmonary epithelial response in the rat lung to instilled Montserrat respirable dusts and their major mineral components.

    Housley, D G; Bérubé, K A; Jones, T P; Anderson, S; Pooley, F D; Richards, R J

    2002-07-01

    The Soufriere Hills, a stratovolcano on Montserrat, started erupting in July 1995, producing volcanic ash, both from dome collapse pyroclastic flows and phreatic explosions. The eruptions/ash resuspension result in high concentrations of suspended particulate matter in the atmosphere, which includes cristobalite, a mineral implicated in respiratory disorders. To conduct toxicological studies on characterised samples of ash, together with major components of the dust mixture (anorthite, cristobalite), and a bioreactive mineral control (DQ12 quartz). Rats were challenged with a single mass (1 mg) dose of particles via intratracheal instillation and groups sacrificed at one, three, and nine weeks. Acute bioreactivity of the particles was assessed by increases in lung permeability and inflammation, changes in epithelial cell markers, and increase in the size of bronchothoracic lymph nodes. Data indicated that respirable ash derived from pyroclastic flows (20.1% cristobalite) or phreatic explosion (8.6% cristobalite) had minimal bioreactivity in the lung. Anorthite showed low bioreactivity, in contrast to pure cristobalite, which showed progressive increases in lung damage. Results suggests that either the percentage mass of cristobalite particles present in Montserrat ash was not sufficient as a catalyst in the lung environment, or its surface reactivity was masked by the non-reactive volcanic glass components during the process of ash formation.

  19. Ceftriaxone-associated gallbladder sludge. Identification of calcium-ceftriaxone salt as a major component of gallbladder precipitate

    Park, H.Z.; Lee, S.P.; Schy, A.L.

    1991-01-01

    Ceftriaxone, a third-generation cephalosporin, is partially excreted into bile. With its clinical use, the formation of gallbladder sludge detected by ultrasonography has been reported. Four surgical specimens were examined and no gallstones were found. Instead, fine precipitates of 20-250 microns were present. Microscopically, there was a small number of cholesterol monohydrate crystals and bilirubin granules among an abundant amount of granular-crystalline material that was not morphologically cholesterol monohydrate crystals. The chemical composition of the precipitates (n = 4) was determined. There was a small amount of cholesterol (1.7% +/- 0.8%) and bilirubin (13.9% +/- 0.74%). The major component of the precipitate was a residue. On further analysis using thin-layer chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, and electron microprobe analysis, the residue was identified as a calcium salt of ceftriaxone. The residue also had identical crystal morphology and chromatographic elution profile as authentic calcium-ceftriaxone standards. It is concluded that ceftriaxone, after excretion and being concentrated in the gallbladder bile, can form a precipitate. The major constituent has been identified as a ceftriaxone-calcium salt

  20. Preventive effects of a major component of green tea, epigallocathechin-3-gallate, on hepatitis-B virus DNA replication.

    Karamese, Murat; Aydogdu, Sabiha; Karamese, Selina Aksak; Altoparlak, Ulku; Gundogdu, Cemal

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus infection is one of the major world health problems. Epigallocatechin-3 gallate is the major component of the polyphenolic fraction of green tea and it has an anti-viral, anti-mutagenic, anti- tumorigenic, anti-angiogenic, anti-proliferative, and/or pro-apoptotic effects on mammalian cells. In this study, our aim was to investigate the inhibition of HBV replication by epigallocatechin-3 gallate in the Hep3B2.1-7 hepatocellular carcinoma cell line. HBV-replicating Hep3B2.1-7 cells were used to investigate the preventive effects of epigallocatechin-3 gallate on HBV DNA replication. The expression levels of HBsAg and HBeAg were determined using ELISA. Quantitative real-time-PCR was applied for the determination of the expression level of HBV DNA. Cytotoxicity of epigallocathechin-3-gallate was not observed in the hepatic carcinoma cell line when the dose was lower than 100 μM. The ELISA method demonstrated that epigallocatechin-3 gallate have strong effects on HBsAg and HBeAg levels. Also it was detected by real-time PCR that epigallocatechin-3 gallate could prevent HBV DNA replication. The obtained data pointed out that although the exact mechanism of HBV DNA replication and related diseases remains unclear, epigallocatechin-3 gallate has a potential as an effective anti-HBV agent with low toxicity.

  1. Assessment and management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety: PWR pressure vessels. 2007 update

    2007-06-01

    At present, there are over four hundred operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) in IAEA Member States. Operating experience has shown that effective control of the ageing degradation of the major NPP components (e.g. caused by unanticipated phenomena and by operating, maintenance or manufacturing errors) is one of the most important issues for plant safety and also plant life. Ageing in these NPPs must be therefore effectively managed to ensure the availability of design functions throughout the plant service life. From the safety perspective, this means controlling within acceptable limits the ageing degradation and wear-out of plant components important to safety so that adequate safety margins remain, i.e. integrity and functional capability in excess of normal operating requirements. IAEA-TECDOC-1120 documented ageing assessment and management practices for pressurized water reactor (PWR) reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) that were current at the time of its finalization in 1997-1998. Safety significant operating events have occurred since the finalization of the TECDOC, e.g. primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) of Alloy 600 control rod drive mechanism (CRDM) penetrations and boric acid corrosion/wastage of RPV heads, which threatened the integrity of the RPV heads. These events led to new ageing management actions by both NPP operators and regulators. Therefore it was recognized that IAEA-TECDOC-1120 should be updated by incorporating those new events and their countermeasures. The objective of this report is to update IAEA-TECDOC-1120 in order to provide current ageing management guidance for PWR RPVs to all involved in the operation and regulation of PWRs and thus to help ensure PWR RPV integrity in IAEA Member States throughout their entire service life

  2. Assessment and management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety: PWR vessel internals: 2007 update

    2007-06-01

    At present, there are over four hundred operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) in IAEA Member States. Operating experience has shown that effective control of the ageing degradation of the major NPP components (e.g. caused by unanticipated phenomena and by operating, maintenance or manufacturing errors) is one of the most important issues for plant safety and also plant life. Ageing in these NPPs must be therefore effectively managed to ensure the availability of design functions throughout the plant service life. From the safety perspective, this means controlling within acceptable limits the ageing degradation and wearout of plant components important to safety so that adequate safety margins remain, i.e. integrity and functional capability in excess of normal operating requirements. IAEA-TECDOC-1119 documents ageing assessment and management practices for PWR Reactor Vessel Internals (RVIs) that were current at the time of its finalization in 1997-1998. Safety significant operating events have occurred since the finalization of the TECDOC, e.g. irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) of baffle-former bolts, which threatened the integrity of the vessel internals. In addition, concern of fretting wear of control rod guide tubes has been raised in Japan. These events led to new ageing management actions by both NPP operators and regulators. Therefore it was recognized that IAEA-TECDOC-1119 should be updated by incorporating those new events and their countermeasures. The objective of this report is to update relevant sections of the existing IAEA-TECDOC- 1119 in order to provide current ageing management guidance for PWR RVIs to all involved in the operation and regulation of PWRs and thus to help ensure PWR safety in IAEA Member States throughout their entire service life

  3. Effects of whey protein and its two major protein components on satiety and food intake in normal-weight women.

    Chungchunlam, Sylvia M S; Henare, Sharon J; Ganesh, Siva; Moughan, Paul J

    2017-06-01

    Protein is the most satiating macronutrient and is source dependent, with whey protein thought to be particularly satiating. The purported satiating effect of whey protein may be due to the unique mixture of proteins in whey or to the major constituent individual proteins (β-lactoglobulin and α-lactalbumin). The objective of the study was to compare the effects of isoenergetic (~2100kJ, ~500kcal) preload meals enriched (~50g protein) with either whey protein isolate (WP), β-lactoglobulin (BL) isolate or α-lactalbumin (AL) isolate, on food intake at an ad libitum test meal 120min later and subjective ratings of appetite (hunger, desire to eat, prospective food consumption and fullness) using visual analogue scales (VAS). Twenty adult normal-weight women (mean age 24.2±0.8years; mean BMI 22.7±0.4kg/m 2 ) participated in the study which used a single-blind completely randomised block design, where each subject consumed each of the three preload meals. Energy intake at the ad libitum test meal and total energy intakes (preload+test meal) did not differ between the three preload meals (p>0.05). There were no significant differences observed for the VAS scores and net incremental area under the curve (net iAUC) during the 120min following consumption of the three preload meals for subjective ratings of appetite (p>0.05). The findings show that the satiating effect of whey protein was similar to that of BL or AL individually and suggest that the major whey protein components BL and AL do not mediate the satiating effect of whey protein. The present human trial was registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (www.anzctr.org.au) as ACTRN12615000344594. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Beta-lipotropin is the major component of the plasma opioid response to surgical stress in humans

    Porro, C.A.; Facchinetti, F.; Bertellini, E.; Petraglia, F.; Stacca, R.; Barbieri, G.C.; Genazzani, A.R.

    1987-12-07

    There is growing experimental evidence that beta-endorphin immunoreactivity is raised by surgical stress in patients undergoing general anesthesia. As the assay methods employed to date did not allow to fully discriminate between beta-endorphin and its immediate precursor, beta-lipotropin, the authors have investigated in the present study plasma levels of these two peptides by separating them by chromatography on plasma extracts prior to radioimmunoassay. Beta-lipotropin, but not beta-endorphin, plasma levels were found to be significantly elevated during surgery in the general anesthesia group, while no change was found in either peptide concentration in the spinal one. Cortisol plasma levels also increased significantly 90 minutes after the beginning of surgery. Although the sampling time they adopted may have prevented them from detecting an early peak of beta-endorphin during the first 30 minutes of surgery, the major component of the pituitary opioid response to surgical stress appears to be related to beta-lipotropin. This is in agreement with results of experimental work on various kinds of stress in animals and humans and seems to rule out a role for plasma beta-endorphin in post-operative analgesia. 38 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  5. Anti-Inflammatory Applications of Melittin, a Major Component of Bee Venom: Detailed Mechanism of Action and Adverse Effects

    Gihyun Lee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is a pervasive phenomenon triggered by the innate and adaptive immune systems to maintain homeostasis. The phenomenon normally leads to recovery from infection and healing, but when not properly phased, inflammation may cause immune disorders. Bee venom is a toxin that bees use for their protection from enemies. However, for centuries it has been used in the Orient as an anti-inflammatory medicine for the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases. Bee venom and its major component, melittin, are potential means of reducing excessive immune responses and provide new alternatives for the control of inflammatory diseases. Recent experimental studies show that the biological functions of melittin could be applied for therapeutic use in vitro and in vivo. Reports verifying the therapeutic effects of melittin are accumulating in the literature, but the cellular mechanism(s of the anti-inflammatory effects of melittin are not fully elucidated. In the present study, we review the current knowledge on the therapeutic effects of melittin and its detailed mechanisms of action against several inflammatory diseases including skin inflammation, neuroinflammation, atherosclerosis, arthritis and liver inflammation, its adverse effects as well as future prospects regarding the use of melittin.

  6. Anti-Inflammatory Applications of Melittin, a Major Component of Bee Venom: Detailed Mechanism of Action and Adverse Effects.

    Lee, Gihyun; Bae, Hyunsu

    2016-05-11

    Inflammation is a pervasive phenomenon triggered by the innate and adaptive immune systems to maintain homeostasis. The phenomenon normally leads to recovery from infection and healing, but when not properly phased, inflammation may cause immune disorders. Bee venom is a toxin that bees use for their protection from enemies. However, for centuries it has been used in the Orient as an anti-inflammatory medicine for the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases. Bee venom and its major component, melittin, are potential means of reducing excessive immune responses and provide new alternatives for the control of inflammatory diseases. Recent experimental studies show that the biological functions of melittin could be applied for therapeutic use in vitro and in vivo. Reports verifying the therapeutic effects of melittin are accumulating in the literature, but the cellular mechanism(s) of the anti-inflammatory effects of melittin are not fully elucidated. In the present study, we review the current knowledge on the therapeutic effects of melittin and its detailed mechanisms of action against several inflammatory diseases including skin inflammation, neuroinflammation, atherosclerosis, arthritis and liver inflammation, its adverse effects as well as future prospects regarding the use of melittin.

  7. Characterization of the major histopathological components of thyroid nodules using sonographic textural features for clinical diagnosis and management.

    Chen, Shao-Jer; Yu, Sung-Nien; Tzeng, Jeh-En; Chen, Yen-Ting; Chang, Ku-Yaw; Cheng, Kuo-Sheng; Hsiao, Fu-Tsung; Wei, Chang-Kuo

    2009-02-01

    In this study, the characteristic sonographic textural feature that represents the major histopathologic components of the thyroid nodules was objectively quantified to facilitate clinical diagnosis and management. A total of 157 regions-of-interest thyroid ultrasound image was recruited in the study. The sonographic system used was the GE LOGIQ 700), (General Electric Healthcare, Chalfant St. Giles, UK). The parameters affecting image acquisition were kept in the same condition for all lesions. Commonly used texture analysis methods were applied to characterize thyroid ultrasound images. Image features were classified according to the corresponding pathologic findings. To estimate their relevance and performance to classification, ReliefF was used as a feature selector. Among the various textural features, the sum average value derived from co-occurrence matrix can well reflect echogenicity and can effectively differentiate between follicles and fibrosis base thyroid nodules. Fibrosis shows lowest echogenicity and lowest difference sum average value. Enlarged follicles show highest echogenicity and difference sum average values. Papillary cancer or follicular tumors show the difference sum average values and echogenicity between. The rule of thumb for the echogenicity is that the more follicles are mixed in, the higher the echo of the follicular tumor and papillary cancer will be and vice versa for fibrosis mixed. Areas with intermediate and lower echo should address the possibility of follicular or papillary neoplasm mixed with either follicles or fibrosis. These areas provide more cellular information for ultrasound guided aspiration

  8. RNA of Enterococcus faecalis Strain EC-12 Is a Major Component Inducing Interleukin-12 Production from Human Monocytic Cells.

    Ryoichiro Nishibayashi

    Full Text Available Interleukin-12 (IL-12 is an important cytokine for the immunomodulatory effects of lactic acid bacteria (LAB. Using murine immune cells, we previously reported that the RNA of Enterococcus faecalis EC-12, a LAB strain exerting probiotic-like beneficial effects, is the major IL-12-inducing immunogenic component. However, it was recently revealed that bacterial RNA can be a ligand for Toll-like receptor (TLR 13, which is only expressed in mice. Because TLR13 is not expressed in humans, the immuno-stimulatory and -modulatory effects of LAB RNA in human cells should be augmented excluding TLR13 contribution. In experiment 1 of this study, the role of LAB RNA in IL-12 induction in human immune cells was studied using three LAB strains, E.faecalis EC-12, Lactobacillus gasseri JCM5344, and Bifidobacterium breve JCM1192. RNase A treatment of heat-killed LAB significantly decreased the IL-12 production of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells on stimulation, while RNase III treatment revealed virtually no effects. Further, IL-12 production against heat-killed E. faecalis EC-12 was abolished by depleting monocytes. These results demonstrated that single stranded RNA (ssRNA of LAB is a strong inducer of IL-12 production from human monocytes. In experiment 2, major receptor for ssRNA of E. faecalis EC-12 was identified using THP-1 cells, a human monocytic cell line. The type of RNA molecules of E. faecalis EC-12 responsible for IL-12 induction was also identified. IL-12 production induced by the total RNA of E. faecalis EC-12 was significantly reduced by the treatment of siRNA for TLR8 but not for TLR7. Furthermore, both 23S and 16S rRNA, but not mRNA, of E. faecalis EC-12 markedly induced IL-12 production from THP-1 cells. These results suggested that the recognition of ssRNA of E. faecalis EC-12 was mediated by TLR8 and that rRNA was the RNA molecule that exhibited IL-12-inducing ability in human cells.

  9. Principal component analysis of early alcohol, drug and tobacco use with major depressive disorder in US adults.

    Wang, Kesheng; Liu, Ying; Ouedraogo, Youssoufou; Wang, Nianyang; Xie, Xin; Xu, Chun; Luo, Xingguang

    2018-05-01

    Early alcohol, tobacco and drug use prior to 18 years old are comorbid and correlated. This study included 6239 adults with major depressive disorder (MDD) in the past year and 72,010 controls from the combined data of 2013 and 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). To deal with multicollinearity existing among 17 variables related to early alcohol, tobacco and drug use prior to 18 years old, we used principal component analysis (PCA) to infer PC scores and then use weighted multiple logistic regression analyses to estimate the associations of potential factors and PC scores with MDD. The odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated. The overall prevalence of MDD was 6.7%. The first four PCs could explain 57% of the total variance. Weighted multiple logistic regression showed that PC 1 (a measure of psychotherapeutic drugs and illicit drugs other than marijuana use), PC 2 (a measure of cocaine and hallucinogens), PC 3 (a measure of early alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana use), and PC 4 (a measure of cigar, smokeless tobacco use and illicit drugs use) revealed significant associations with MDD (OR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.08-1.16, OR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.04-1.12, OR = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.07-1.18, and OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.09-1.21, respectively). In conclusion, PCA can be used to reduce the indicators in complex survey data. Early alcohol, tobacco and drug use prior to 18 years old were found to be associated with increased odds of adult MDD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a major component of green tea, is a dual phosphoinositide-3-kinase/mTOR inhibitor

    Van Aller, Glenn S.; Carson, Jeff D.; Tang, Wei; Peng, Hao; Zhao, Lin; Copeland, Robert A.; Tummino, Peter J.; Luo, Lusong

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is an ATP-competitive inhibitor of PI3K and mTOR with Ki values around 300 nM. → EGCG inhibits cell proliferation and AKT phosphorylation at Ser473 in MDA-MB-231and A549 cells. → Molecular docking studies show that EGCG binds well to the PI3K kinase domain active site. → These results suggest another important molecular mechanism for the anticancer activities of EGCG. -- Abstract: The PI3K signaling pathway is activated in a broad spectrum of human cancers, either directly by genetic mutation or indirectly via activation of receptor tyrosine kinases or inactivation of the PTEN tumor suppressor. The key nodes of this pathway have emerged as important therapeutic targets for the treatment of cancer. In this study, we show that (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major component of green tea, is an ATP-competitive inhibitor of both phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) with K i values of 380 and 320 nM respectively. The potency of EGCG against PI3K and mTOR is within physiologically relevant concentrations. In addition, EGCG inhibits cell proliferation and AKT phosphorylation at Ser473 in MDA-MB-231 and A549 cells. Molecular docking studies show that EGCG binds well to the PI3K kinase domain active site, agreeing with the finding that EGCG competes for ATP binding. Our results suggest another important molecular mechanism for the anticancer activities of EGCG.

  11. Influence of non-dietary factors on the prevalence of abdominal obesity as a major component of the metabolic syndrome among 17-18-year-old youth.

    Piotrowska, Ewa; Broniecka, Anna; Biernat, Jadwiga; Wyka, Joanna; Bronkowska, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Youth nutrition and their nutritional status are conditioned by many factors, some of the main ones being: economic, social, climatic, cultural, and psychological factors as well as nutritional knowledge. With the growing problem of overweight and obesity among children and young people, the incidence of the metabolic syndrome is also increasing. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of demographic, sociological and psychological factors on the incidence of obesity among 17-18-year-old adolescents from Wroclaw and vicinity as a major risk factor for the development of the metabolic syndrome. The study was conducted in three upper-secondary schools in Wroclaw, Poland. In the surveyed group (17-18 years old, n = 269) girls accounted for 59.5% and boys constituted 40.5%. Majority of young people were Wroclaw citizens (72.9%). Centile charts elaborated by the Children's Memorial Health Institute were adopted for the evaluation of anthropometric parameters. Evaluation of the impact of non-dietary factors on the manner of nutrition was carried out using own questionnaire. Based on the tests, abdominal obesity was determined among 34.5% of adolescents aged 17 years and among 65.5% of these aged 18 years. Obesity was more common in girls carrying genetic burden of the disease. Youth with the largest waist circumference most often declared to use slimming diets - 6.7%, and the lowest hunger sensation in stress - 3.4%. In addition, 30.5% of the adolescents with the smallest waist circumference and 11.5% with the largest waist circumference declared to be non-smoking. Occasional alcohol consumption was declared by 30.1% of young people with the smallest waist circumference, and 13.4% with the largest waist circumference. Youth with abdominal obesity significantly more likely than those with normal waist circumference applied slimming diets. Significant impact on the formation of abdominal obesity among girls had inherited disease burden.

  12. Nutritional quality of major meals consumed away from home in Brazil and its association with the overall diet quality.

    Gorgulho, Bartira Mendes; Fisberg, Regina Mara; Marchioni, Dirce Maria Lobo

    2013-08-01

    The objective of the study is to evaluate the nutritional quality of meals consumed away from home and its association with overall diet quality. Data was obtained from 834 participants of a Health Survey in São Paulo, Brazil. Food intake was measured by a 24-hour dietary recall applied telephonically using the Automated Multiple-Pass Method. Overall dietary quality was assessed by the Brazilian Healthy Eating Index Revised (B-HEIR) and the Meal Quality Index (MQI) was used to evaluate dietary quality of the main meals. The association between the B-HEIR and the MQI was assessed by linear regression analysis. The consumption of at least one of the three main meals away from home was reported for 32% of respondents (70 adolescents, 156 adults and 40 elderly). The average MQI score of lunch consumed away from home was lower than lunch consumed at home, with higher amounts of total and saturated fats. The average score of B-HEIR was 58 points and was associated with the MQI score, energy, meal consumption location and gender. Lunch consumed away from home presented the worst quality, being higher in total and saturated fat. However, the meals consumed at home also need improvement. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The Influence of Nutrition, Sex and Slaughter Age on Characteristics of Pectoralis Major Muscle at Broiler Chickens Ross-308

    Adela Marcu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper was studied the effect of dietary energy and protein levels on characteristics of pectoralis major (P. major muscle at broiler chickens, which were sacrificed at 35 and 42 days old. The genetic material was represented by broiler chickens that belonged to the „Ross-308” hybrid, with two groups (LC-control group and LE experimental group. During the growth periods (starter, growing and finishing they have received compound feed ad libitum, with different energy and protein levels (LC-conforming to recommendations of Aviagen Company; LE-higher with 10%. After slaughter, from each group were sampled breast muscles (five per sex and for P. major were determined: the weight, pH value, the thickness of myocytes (fiber diameter, cross-sectional area of fibers. At the LE group, high levels of dietary proteins and energy has significantly influenced pH value and the thickness of myocytes in the P. major muscle, as compared with LC. The sex and slaughter age have significantly influenced the fibers diameter from P. major muscle, that were thicker at female chickens, as compared with male chickens and at 42 days age vs. 35 days.

  14. Anti-oxidant activity and major chemical component analyses of twenty-six commercially available essential oils

    Hsiao-Fen Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed 26 commercially available essential oils and their major chemical components to determine their antioxidant activity levels by measuring their total phenolic content (TPC, reducing power (RP, β-carotene bleaching (BCB activity, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging (DFRS ability. The clove bud and thyme borneol essential oils had the highest RP, BCB activity levels, and TPC values among the 26 commercial essential oils. Furthermore, of the 26 essential oils, the clove bud and ylang ylang complete essential oils had the highest TEAC values, and the clove bud and jasmine absolute essential oils had the highest DFRS ability. At a concentration of 2.5 mg/mL, the clove bud and thyme borneol essential oils had RP and BCB activity levels of 94.56% ± 0.06% and 24.64% ± 0.03% and 94.58% ± 0.01% and 89.33% ± 0.09%, respectively. At a concentration of 1 mg/mL, the clove bud and thyme borneol essential oils showed TPC values of 220.00 ± 0.01 and 69.05 ± 0.01 mg/g relative to gallic acid equivalents, respectively, and the clove bud and ylang ylang complete essential oils had TEAC values of 809.00 ± 0.01 and 432.33 ± 0.01 μM, respectively. The clove bud and jasmine absolute essential oils showed DFRS abilities of 94.13% ± 0.01% and 78.62% ± 0.01%, respectively. Phenolic compounds of the clove bud, thyme borneol and jasmine absolute essential oils were eugenol (76.08%, thymol (14.36% and carvacrol (12.33%, and eugenol (0.87%, respectively. The phenolic compounds in essential oils were positively correlated with the RP, BCB activity, TPC, TEAC, and DFRS ability.

  15. Anti-oxidant activity and major chemical component analyses of twenty-six commercially available essential oils.

    Wang, Hsiao-Fen; Yih, Kuang-Hway; Yang, Chao-Hsun; Huang, Keh-Feng

    2017-10-01

    This study analyzed 26 commercially available essential oils and their major chemical components to determine their antioxidant activity levels by measuring their total phenolic content (TPC), reducing power (RP), β-carotene bleaching (BCB) activity, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging (DFRS) ability. The clove bud and thyme borneol essential oils had the highest RP, BCB activity levels, and TPC values among the 26 commercial essential oils. Furthermore, of the 26 essential oils, the clove bud and ylang ylang complete essential oils had the highest TEAC values, and the clove bud and jasmine absolute essential oils had the highest DFRS ability. At a concentration of 2.5 mg/mL, the clove bud and thyme borneol essential oils had RP and BCB activity levels of 94.56% ± 0.06% and 24.64% ± 0.03% and 94.58% ± 0.01% and 89.33% ± 0.09%, respectively. At a concentration of 1 mg/mL, the clove bud and thyme borneol essential oils showed TPC values of 220.00 ± 0.01 and 69.05 ± 0.01 mg/g relative to gallic acid equivalents, respectively, and the clove bud and ylang ylang complete essential oils had TEAC values of 809.00 ± 0.01 and 432.33 ± 0.01 μM, respectively. The clove bud and jasmine absolute essential oils showed DFRS abilities of 94.13% ± 0.01% and 78.62% ± 0.01%, respectively. Phenolic compounds of the clove bud, thyme borneol and jasmine absolute essential oils were eugenol (76.08%), thymol (14.36%) and carvacrol (12.33%), and eugenol (0.87%), respectively. The phenolic compounds in essential oils were positively correlated with the RP, BCB activity, TPC, TEAC, and DFRS ability. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Major Differences in Diet across Three Linguistic Regions of Switzerland: Results from the First National Nutrition Survey menuCH.

    Chatelan, Angeline; Beer-Borst, Sigrid; Randriamiharisoa, Alex; Pasquier, Jerome; Blanco, Juan Manual; Siegenthaler, Stefan; Paccaud, Fred; Slimani, Nadia; Nicolas, Genevieve; Camenzind-Frey, Esther; Zuberbuehler, Christine Anne; Bochud, Murielle

    2017-10-25

    Switzerland is a multilingual country located between Germany, France and Italy, which differ by dietary habits and related outcomes. We explored differences in food consumption as well as compliance to the Swiss food-based dietary guidelines (FBDG) across the German-, French-, and Italian-speaking regions. The 2014-2015 nationwide cross-sectional survey was conducted among a stratified random sample of 2057 adults aged 18 to 75 years. Trained dietitians assessed food consumption via two non-consecutive 24-h dietary recalls using the international validated software GloboDiet ® . Recorded foods and beverages were classified into six groups and 31 subgroups relevant for assessing compliance to the FBDG (Swiss Food Pyramid). Usual daily intake distributions were modelled and weighted for sampling design, non-response, weekdays and season. Participation rate was 38%. Significant differences across regions were observed in 18 of 31 food subgroups ( p ≤ 0.01). Weighted mean daily intakes in the German-, French- and Italian-speaking regions were, respectively, 245 g, 155 g, 140 g for soft drinks, 273 g, 214 g, 135 g for coffee, 127 g, 72 g, 109 g for milk, 32 g, 45 g, 43 g for red meat, 18 g, 29 g, 34 g for fish/seafood, 8.1 g, 6.4 g, 3.7 g for butter, and 206 g, 214 g, 168 g for vegetables. The seven FBDGs were followed by Nutritional education along with public health interventions are needed and may be most efficient if regionally targeted.

  17. Major Differences in Diet across Three Linguistic Regions of Switzerland: Results from the First National Nutrition Survey menuCH

    Angeline Chatelan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Switzerland is a multilingual country located between Germany, France and Italy, which differ by dietary habits and related outcomes. We explored differences in food consumption as well as compliance to the Swiss food-based dietary guidelines (FBDG across the German-, French-, and Italian-speaking regions. The 2014–2015 nationwide cross-sectional survey was conducted among a stratified random sample of 2057 adults aged 18 to 75 years. Trained dietitians assessed food consumption via two non-consecutive 24-h dietary recalls using the international validated software GloboDiet®. Recorded foods and beverages were classified into six groups and 31 subgroups relevant for assessing compliance to the FBDG (Swiss Food Pyramid. Usual daily intake distributions were modelled and weighted for sampling design, non-response, weekdays and season. Participation rate was 38%. Significant differences across regions were observed in 18 of 31 food subgroups (p ≤ 0.01. Weighted mean daily intakes in the German-, French- and Italian-speaking regions were, respectively, 245 g, 155 g, 140 g for soft drinks, 273 g, 214 g, 135 g for coffee, 127 g, 72 g, 109 g for milk, 32 g, 45 g, 43 g for red meat, 18 g, 29 g, 34 g for fish/seafood, 8.1 g, 6.4 g, 3.7 g for butter, and 206 g, 214 g, 168 g for vegetables. The seven FBDGs were followed by <1% of the population. Four in 10 participants met ≥3 FBDG. Eighteen percent of participants ate ≥5 portions of fruit and vegetables a day, without regional differences. Food consumption substantially differed across the three linguistic regions of Switzerland. Adherence to FBDG was uniformly low. This highlights the potential influence of culture on diet. Nutritional education along with public health interventions are needed and may be most efficient if regionally targeted.

  18. Profiles of Major Suppliers to the Automotive Industry : Vol. 4. North American Automotive Parts and Components Suppliers

    1982-08-01

    This study summarizes extensive information collected over a two-year period (October 1978 to October 1980) on suppliers of parts and components, materials, and machine tools to the automotive industry in the United States. The objective of the study...

  19. In-depth investigation of enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass wastes based on three major components: Cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin.

    Lin, Lili; Yan, Rong; Liu, Yongqiang; Jiang, Wenju

    2010-11-01

    The artificial biomass based on three biomass components (cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin) were developed on the basis of a simplex-lattice approach. Together with a natural biomass sample, they were employed in enzymatic hydrolysis researches. Different enzyme combines of two commercial enzymes (ACCELLERASE 1500 and OPTIMASH BG) showed a potential to hydrolyze hemicellulose completely. Negligible interactions among the three components were observed, and the used enzyme ACCELLERASE 1500 was proven to be weak lignin-binding. On this basis, a multiple linear-regression equation was established for predicting the reducing sugar yield based on the component proportions in a biomass. The hemicellulose and cellulose in a biomass sample were found to have different contributions in staged hydrolysis at different time periods. Furthermore, the hydrolysis of rice straw was conducted to validate the computation approach through considerations of alkaline solution pretreatment and combined enzymes function, so as to understand better the nature of biomass hydrolysis, from the aspect of three biomass components.

  20. Application of diet-derived taste active components for clinical nutrition: perspectives from ancient Ayurvedic medical science, space medicine, and modern clinical nutrition.

    Kulkarni, Anil D; Sundaresan, Alamelu; Rashid, Muhammad J; Yamamoto, Shigeru; Karkow, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    The principal objective of this paper is to demonstrate the role of taste and flavor in health from the ancient science of Ayurveda to modern medicine; specifically their mechanisms and roles in space medicine and their clinical relevance in modern heath care. It also describes the brief history of the use of the monosodium glutamate or flavor enhancers ("Umami substance") that improve the quality of food intake by stimulating chemosensory perception. In addition, the dietary nucleotides are known to be the components of "Umami substance" and the benefit of their use has been proposed in various types of patients with cancer, radiation therapy, organ transplantation, and for application in space medicine.

  1. A Cost Analysis of the Decision to Cannibalize Major Components of the Navy's H-60 Helicopters at the Operational Level

    Kowalski, Danny

    2000-01-01

    ... often make a decision to cannibalize without considering the total cost of their decision This thesis examines the costs incurred by an operational H-6O helicopter squadron to cannibalize major...

  2. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils and their components against the three major pathogens of the cultivated button mushroom

    Sokovic, M.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2006-01-01

    Essential oils of Matricaria chamommilla, Mentha piperita, M. spicata, Lavandula angusti folia, Ocimum basilicum, Thymus vulgaris, Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis, Citrus limon and C. aurantium and their components; linalyl acetate, linalool, limonene, ¿-pinene, ß-pinene, 1,8-cineole, camphor,

  3. Integrated pharmacokinetics of major bioactive components in MCAO rats after oral administration of Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang.

    Zhu, Huaxu; Qian, Zhilei; Li, Huan; Guo, Liwei; Pan, Linmei; Zhang, Qichun; Tang, Yuping

    2012-05-07

    Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang (HLJDT, or Oren-gedoku-to in Japanese), an important multi-herb remedy in China and other Asia countries, has been used clinically to treat cerebral ischemia for decades. According to the previous studies we have reported, an HPLC method was developed and validated for determination of berberine, palmatine, baicalin, baicalein and geniposide simultaneously in MCAO rat plasma after administration of HLJDT aqueous extract. A classified integral pharmacokinetic method was put forward after having compared the integrated concentration-time profile with that of single component. An AUC based weighting approach was used for integrated principle. The results indicated the classified integral pharmacokinetic profile of index components from HLJDT could reveal the pharmacokinetic behavior of original components, and was corresponding to the holistic pharmacological effects of anti-ischemia with HLJDT. This study was aimed to explore an approach that could be applied to integrate the pharmacokinetic behavior of different components derived from HLJDT. The integrated pharmacokinetic results also provided more information for further understanding of the clinical cerebrovascular disease in use of HLJDT. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Application of Moldavian dragonhead (Dracocephalum moldavica L.) leaves addition as a functional component of nutritionally valuable corn snacks.

    Wójtowicz, Agnieszka; Oniszczuk, Anna; Oniszczuk, Tomasz; Kocira, Sławomir; Wojtunik, Karolina; Mitrus, Marcin; Kocira, Anna; Widelski, Jarosław; Skalicka-Woźniak, Krystyna

    2017-09-01

    Application of Moldavian dragonhead ( Dracocephalum moldavica L.) leaves in extruded snacks was evaluated. Directly expanded corn snacks (crisps) were supplemented with 5-20% of dragonhead leaves. The supplemented snacks were characterized to have improved nutritional value and were a good source of dietary fibre. The presence of phenolic compounds, especially rosmarinic acid, showed a high antioxidant potential and a radical scavenging activity of tested snacks, especially if a high content of additive was used. The increasing amount of additive also had an impact on the physical properties of extrudates lowering the expansion ratio, water absorption and solubility, yet increasing bulk density, cutting force and the breaking index of the enriched snacks. The highest viscosity was observed at 5 and 10% addition level. The increasing amount of dragonhead leaves lowered the brightness of snacks and increased the greenness tint significantly. A sensory evaluation showed good acceptability of snacks enriched with up to 15% of dragonhead dried leaves. Dried leaves of the Moldavian dragonhead seem to be a prospective functional additive for extruded crisps with a high nutritional value, especially because of dietary fibre and rosmarinic acid content, a strong antioxidant potential and acceptable sensory properties.

  5. Sports nutrition

    Tomanić Milena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to higher energy consumption, physically active people have higher nutritional requirements. In addition to other important factors for sports, such as good health and physical predisposition, adequate nutrition is a fundamental component. Sports nutrition must be well planned and individually adapted based on physical characteristics, tendencies towards gaining or losing weight, frequency, duration and intensity of training sessions. Studies have shown that a well-balanced ratio of macro and micronutrients, with the support of supplements and adequate hydration, can significantly improve athletic performance and plays a key role in achieving better results. An optimally designed nutritional program, with realistic and achievable goals, which complements a well-planned training program, is the basis for success in sports. Only when nutritional requirements are met, deficits can be prevented and performance in sport pushed to the limit.

  6. Benzyl isothiocyanate, a major component from the roots of Salvadora persica is highly active against Gram-negative bacteria.

    Abier Sofrata

    Full Text Available Plants produce a number of antimicrobial substances and the roots of the shrub Salvadora persica have been demonstrated to possess antimicrobial activity. Sticks from the roots of S. persica, Miswak sticks, have been used for centuries as a traditional method of cleaning teeth. Diverging reports on the chemical nature and antimicrobial repertoire of the chewing sticks from S. persica led us to explore its antibacterial properties against a panel of pathogenic or commensal bacteria and to identify the antibacterial component/s by methodical chemical characterization. S. persica root essential oil was prepared by steam distillation and solid-phase microextraction was used to sample volatiles released from fresh root. The active compound was identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and antibacterial assays. The antibacterial compound was isolated using medium-pressure liquid chromatography. Transmission electron microscopy was used to visualize the effect on bacterial cells. The main antibacterial component of both S. persica root extracts and volatiles was benzyl isothiocyanate. Root extracts as well as commercial synthetic benzyl isothiocyanate exhibited rapid and strong bactericidal effect against oral pathogens involved in periodontal disease as well as against other Gram-negative bacteria, while Gram-positive bacteria mainly displayed growth inhibition or remained unaffected. The short exposure needed to obtain bactericidal effect implies that the chewing sticks and the essential oil may have a specific role in treatment of periodontal disease in reducing Gram-negative periodontal pathogens. Our results indicate the need for further investigation into the mechanism of the specific killing of Gram-negative bacteria by S. persica root stick extracts and its active component benzyl isothiocyanate.

  7. Effectiveness of a mood management component as an adjunct to a telephone counselling smoking cessation intervention for smokers with a past major depression: a pragmatic randomized controlled trial

    van der Meer, Regina M.; Willemsen, Marc C.; Smit, Filip; Cuijpers, Pim; Schippers, Gerard M.

    2010-01-01

    Aims To assess whether the addition of a mood management component to telephone counselling produces higher abstinence rates in smokers with past major depression and helps to prevent recurrence of depressive symptoms. Design Pragmatic randomized controlled trial with two conditions, with follow-up

  8. Effectiveness of a mood management component as an adjunct to a telephone counselling smoking cessation intervention for smokers with a past major depression: A pragmatic randomized controlled trial

    van der Meer, R.; Willemsen, M.C.; Smit, H.F.E.; Cuijpers, P.; Schippers, G.M.

    2010-01-01

    Aims To assess whether the addition of a mood management component to telephone counselling produces higher abstinence rates in smokers with past major depression and helps to prevent recurrence of depressive symptoms. Design Pragmatic randomized controlled trial with two conditions, with follow-up

  9. Chemosensory responses to the repellent nepeta essential oil and its major component nepetalactone by the yellow fever mosquito, aedes aegypti, a vector of zika virus

    Nepeta essential oil (Neo) (catnip) and its major component, nepetalactone, have long been known to repel insects including mosquitoes. However, the neural mechanisms through which these repellents are detected by mosquitoes, including the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti, an important vector of...

  10. Egg weights, egg component weights, and laying gaps in Great Tits (Parus major) in relation to ambient temperature

    Lessells, C.M.; Dingemanse, N.J.; Both, C.; Blem, C.

    2002-01-01

    We collected 328 freshly laid Great Tit (Parus major) eggs from 38 clutches in 1999 to determine the relationship of whole egg weight, wet yolk weight, wet albumen weight, dry shell weight, and the occurrence of laying gaps with mean ambient temperature in the three days preceding laying, while

  11. Egg weights, egg component weights, and laying gaps in great tits (Parus major) in relation to ambient temperature.

    Lessells, C.M.; Dingemanse, N.J.; Both, C.

    2002-01-01

    We collected 328 freshly laid Great Tit (Parus major) eggs from 38 clutches in 1999 to determine the relationship of whole egg weight, wet yolk weight, wet albumen weight, dry shell weight, and the occurrence of laying gaps with mean ambient temperature in the three days preceding laying, while

  12. Seasonal Contribution of Mineral Dust and Otlher Major Components to Particulate Matter at Two Remote Sites in Central Asia

    Dust storms are significant contributors to ambient levels of particulate matter (PM) in many areas of the world. Central Asia, an area that is relatively understudied in this regard, is anticipated to be affected by dust storms due to its proximity to several major deserts that ...

  13. Gastroprotective activity of essential oil of the Syzygium aromaticum and its major component eugenol in different animal models.

    Santin, José Roberto; Lemos, Marivane; Klein-Júnior, Luiz Carlos; Machado, Isabel Daufenback; Costa, Philipe; de Oliveira, Ana Paula; Tilia, Crislaine; de Souza, Juliana Paula; de Sousa, João Paulo Barreto; Bastos, Jairo Kenupp; de Andrade, Sérgio Faloni

    2011-02-01

    Syzygium aromaticum, a medicinal plant commonly known as clove, is used to treat toothache, respiratory disorders, inflammation, and gastrointestinal disorders. From the flower buds of S. aromaticum, it is possible to obtain an essential oil comprised of a mixture of aliphatic and cyclic volatile terpenes and phenylpropanoids, being eugenol as the main component. The aims of this study were: (1) to extract the essential oil of the flower buds of S. aromaticum, (2) to identify and quantify the main component of the essential oil, and (3) to evaluate its antiulcer activity using different animal models. Assays were performed using the following protocols in rats: indomethacin-induced and ethanol/HCl-induced ulcer model. Both essential oils from S. aromaticum and eugenol displayed antiulcer activities in the rat models of indomethacin- and ethanol-induced ulcer. Studies focusing on the possible mechanisms of gastroprotection were also undertaken using the following experiments: evaluation of gastric secretion by the pylorus-ligated model, determination of mucus in gastric content, participation of nitric oxide (NO) and endogenous sulfhydryl in gastric protection. The results show that there was no significant effect on the volume of gastric juice and total acidity. However, the quantification of free gastric mucus showed that the clove oil and eugenol were capable of significantly enhancing mucus production. With regard to the NO and endogenous sulfhydryls, the results demonstrated that the gastroprotection induced by clove oil and eugenol are not related to the activities of the nitric oxide and endogenous sulfhydryls. No sign of toxicity was observed in the acute toxicity study. In conclusion, the results of this study show that essential oil of S. aromaticum, as well as its main component (eugenol), possesses antiulcer activity. The data suggest that the effectiveness of the essential oil and eugenol is based on its ability to stimulate the synthesis of mucus, an

  14. Assessment and management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety: Concrete containment buildings

    1998-06-01

    The report presents the results of the Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on the Management of Ageing of Concrete Containment Buildings (CCBs) addressing current practices and techniques for assessing fitness-for-service and the inspection, monitoring and mitigation of ageing degradation of selected components of CANDU reactor, BWR reactor, PWR reactor and WWER plants. These practices are intended to help all involved directly and indirectly in ensuring the safe operation of NPPs and also to provide a common technical basis for dialogue between plant operators and regulators when dealing with age-related licensing issues

  15. Integrated Lecture and Laboratory Chemistry Components of Science Education Program for Early and Middle Childhood Education Majors

    Lunsford, S. K.

    2004-05-01

    Two new chemistry courses were developed for early childhood and middle childhood education majors. The results of a pre- and posttest in the courses indicate success in developing student content knowledge and ability to problem solve. In addition these courses are designed to develop preservice teachers' understanding of the National Science Education Standards and foster support for implementing these standards in their classrooms. These courses provide materials, resources, and guidance in implementing the standards in their future teaching careers.

  16. Rapidly evolving zona pellucida domain proteins are a major component of the vitelline envelope of abalone eggs

    Aagaard, Jan E.; Yi, Xianhua; MacCoss, Michael J.; Swanson, Willie J.

    2006-01-01

    Proteins harboring a zona pellucida (ZP) domain are prominent components of vertebrate egg coats. Although less well characterized, the egg coat of the non-vertebrate marine gastropod abalone (Haliotis spp.) is also known to contain a ZP domain protein, raising the possibility of a common molecular basis of metazoan egg coat structures. Egg coat proteins from vertebrate as well as non-vertebrate taxa have been shown to evolve under positive selection. Studied most extensively in the abalone system, coevolution between adaptively diverging egg coat and sperm proteins may contribute to the rapid development of reproductive isolation. Thus, identifying the pattern of evolution among egg coat proteins is important in understanding the role these genes may play in the speciation process. The purpose of the present study is to characterize the constituent proteins of the egg coat [vitelline envelope (VE)] of abalone eggs and to provide preliminary evidence regarding how selection has acted on VE proteins during abalone evolution. A proteomic approach is used to match tandem mass spectra of peptides from purified VE proteins with abalone ovary EST sequences, identifying 9 of 10 ZP domain proteins as components of the VE. Maximum likelihood models of codon evolution suggest positive selection has acted among a subset of amino acids for 6 of these genes. This work provides further evidence of the prominence of ZP proteins as constituents of the egg coat, as well as the prominent role of positive selection in diversification of these reproductive proteins. PMID:17085584

  17. Source heterogeneity for the major components of ~3.7 Ga banded iron formations (Isua Greenstone Belt, Western Greenland)

    Frei, Robert; Polat, Ali

    2006-01-01

    of the protocrustal landmass (eNd(3.7 Ga)   + 1.6). The validity of two different and periodically interacting water masses (an essentially two-component mixing system) in the deposition of alternating iron- and silica-rich layers is also reflected by systematic trends in germanium (Ge)/silicon (Si) ratios....... These suggest that significant amounts of silica were derived from unexposed and/or destroyed mafic Hadean landmass, unlike iron which probably originated from oceanic crust following hydrothermal alteration by deep percolating seawater. Ge/Si distributional patterns in the early Archean Isua BIF are similar...... of the depositional environment and to the understanding of depositional mechanisms of these earliest chemical sediments. Rare earth element (REE)-yttrium (Y) patterns of the individual mesobands show features of modern seawater with diagnostic cerium (Ce/Ce ), presodymium (Pr/Pr ) and Y/holmium (Ho) anomalies. Very...

  18. Complement component C1r mediated cleavage of the heavy chain of the major histocompatibility class I antigens

    Eriksson, H; Nissen, Mogens Holst

    1992-01-01

    Apart from cleaving C1s, we demonstrate for the first time that: 1) at concentrations found in serum, the activated forms of the complement components C1r in addition to C1s can cleave the heavy chain of MHC class I antigens, 2) the cleavage by C1r and C1s is seemingly dependent upon a native con......-chain of MHC class I was shown to take place between the alpha 2- and alpha 3- domains as estimated by the Con A-Sepharose precipitation pattern on SDS-PAGE. The alpha 1/alpha 2 fragment was still shown to interact with beta 2-microglobulin as shown by immunoprecipitation....

  19. The major basement membrane components localize to the chondrocyte pericellular matrix--a cartilage basement membrane equivalent?

    Kvist, Alexander J.; Nyström, Alexander; Hultenby, Kjell

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrate that articular cartilage chondrocytes are surrounded by the defining basement membrane proteins laminin, collagen type IV, nidogen and perlecan, and suggest that these form the functional equivalent of a basement membrane. We found by real-time PCR that mouse...... chondrocytes express these four cardinal components of basement membranes and demonstrated by immunohistochemistry that the proteins are present in bovine and mouse cartilage tissues and are deposited in a thin pericellular structure. Immunoelectron microscopy confirmed high laminin concentration...... becomes less distinct, especially in areas of obvious mechanical attrition. Interestingly, individual laminin subunits were located in different zones of the cartilage, with laminin alpha1 showing preferential localization around a select population of superficial layer chondrocytes. We propose...

  20. Adverse Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extracts and the Major Components in the Stems of Impatiens balsamina L. on Caenorhabditis elegans

    Hong-Fang Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Impatiens balsamina L. (Balsaminaceae, an annual herb found throughout China, has been extensively used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM. However, our knowledge regarding the adverse effects of I. balsamina in vivo is very limited. In this present study, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans model was employed to fully assess the adverse effects of hydroalcoholic (EtOH 55% extracts of I. balsamina stems (HAEIBS in vivo. After exposure to 10 mg/mL HAEIBS, the major organism-level endpoints of C. elegans of percent survival, frequency of head thrash and body bends, and reproduction had decreased by 24%, 30%, and 25%, respectively. The lifespan of C. elegans was also greatly reduced after HAEIBS exposure compared to the controls. The active compounds in HAEIBS were separated using high speed countercurrent chromatograph (HSCCC and characterized by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR. Two compounds, lawsone and 2-methoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (MNQ, and their adverse effects were then more thoroughly detailed in this study. It was found that lawsone is the major toxin in HAEIBS with a higher toxicity than MNQ in terms of negative impact on C. elegans mortality, locomotion, reproduction, and lifespan. Our data also suggests that the C. elegans model may be useful for assessing the possible toxicity of other Chinese medicines, plant extracts, and/or compounds.

  1. Gravitational separation of major atmospheric components observed in the stratosphere over Syowa Station, Antarctica, Kiruna, Sweden and Sanriku, Japan.

    Shigeyuki Ishidoya

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the gravitational separation of atmospheric components in the stratosphere, air samples collected using an aircraft during the Arctic Airborne Measurement Program 2002 (AAMP02 were analyzed for the O_2 N_2 ratios (δ(O_2 N_2, δ^N of N_2, δ^O of O_2 and Ar N_2 ratio (δ(Ar N_2. The relationship between observed stratospheric δ^N of N_2, δ^O of O_2 and δ(Ar N_2 over the Svalbard Islands and Barrow showed mass-dependent fractionation of atmospheric components in the stratosphere, which suggested that gravitational separation could be observable in the lowermost stratosphere inside the polar vortex. By examining the rates of change in δ(O_2 Nv and δ^C of CO_2 relative to the CO_2 concentration, such observed correlations were bound to be mainly attributable to upward propagation of their seasonal cycles produced in the troposphere and height-dependent air age as well as gravitational separation in the stratosphere. Air samples collected over Syowa Station, Antarctica, Kiruna, Sweden and Sanriku, Japan using balloon-borne cryogenic air samplers were analyzed for δ^N of Nv and δ^O of O_2. Strength of the gravitational separation was a function of latitude, showing the largest separation inside the polar vortex over Kiruna. It is suggested that information on increase of gravitational separation with height is useful in understanding the vertical transport of air masses in the stratosphere. By comparing the gravitational separations, mean age of air and N_2O concentration at two height intervals with N_2O concentrations > 125 ppb and < 45 ppb, the effect of descending air was found to be more significant over Kiruna than over Syowa Station and Sanriku. The variation in the gravitational separation with height is found to be weaker in the region with N_2O concentrations between 45 and 125 ppb than in other regions, which might suggest that vertical mixing of air occurred in this region.

  2. Pressure-Driven Poiseuille Flow: A Major Component of the Torque-Balance Governing Pacific Plate Motion

    Stotz, I. L.; Iaffaldano, G.; Davies, D. R.

    2018-01-01

    The Pacific Plate is thought to be driven mainly by slab pull, associated with subduction along the Aleutians-Japan, Marianas-Izu-Bonin, and Tonga-Kermadec trenches. This implies that viscous flow within the sub-Pacific asthenosphere is mainly generated by overlying plate motion (i.e., Couette flow) and that the associated shear stresses at the lithosphere's base are resisting such motion. Recent studies on glacial isostatic adjustment and lithosphere dynamics provide tighter constraints on the viscosity and thickness of Earth's asthenosphere and, therefore, on the amount of shear stress that asthenosphere and lithosphere mutually exchange, by virtue of Newton's third law of motion. In light of these constraints, the notion that subduction is the main driver of present-day Pacific Plate motion becomes somewhat unviable, as the pulling force that would be required by slabs exceeds the maximum available from their negative buoyancy. Here we use coupled global models of mantle and lithosphere dynamics to show that the sub-Pacific asthenosphere features a significant component of pressure-driven (i.e., Poiseuille) flow and that this has driven at least 50% of the Pacific Plate motion since, at least, 15 Ma. A corollary of our models is that a sublithospheric pressure difference as high as ±50 MPa is required across the Pacific domain.

  3. Effect of trans-anethole, limonene and your combination in nutritional components and their reflection on reproductive parameters and testicular apoptosis in Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Cruz, Glaucilane S; Wanderley-Teixeira, Valéria; Oliveira, José V; D' Assunção, Carolline G; Cunha, Franklin M; Teixeira, Álvaro A C; Guedes, Carolina A; Dutra, Kamilla A; Barbosa, Douglas R S; Breda, Mariana O

    2017-02-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda is a major pest in several crops due to its polyphagous habit. Studies on the use of essential oils for pest control have been increasing over the years, presenting itself as a promising alternative with less environmental impact. Chemical profile evaluations of essential oils enable the knowledge and use of major compounds, providing a better understanding of their actions in the life history of insects. Thus, the study evaluated the effects of the major compounds limonene, trans-anethole and the combined effects upon nutrition, reproduction and testicular apoptosis in S. frugiperda. Larvae of third instar were submitted to the LD 50 of the compounds by topical contact and 48 h later the amounts of lipids, proteins, total sugar and glycogen were evaluated. The testicular apoptosis was evaluated in the treated larvae after 48 h and the reproductive parameters were evaluated after adult emergence. All treatments reduced the amounts of lipid, protein, total sugar and glycogen when compared to control. The most significant results were obtained by the association of compounds. All treatments reduced the number of eggs, oviposition period and adult longevity when compared to control. There were no changes in the pre-oviposition and post-oviposition periods. Testicular apoptosis was observed in the limonene and in the combined treatments. It is concluded that limonene and trans-anethole, especially in association, cause adverse effects upon nutrition and reproduction in S. frugiperda, altering essential parameters for its survival and establishment on crops. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of soil structures and nitrogen nutrition on yield and yield components of Barley: utilization of δC13 as an indicator of water deficit

    Wibawa, Gede; Menard, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of combination between soil structures and nitrogen doses on the yield and its components. The treatments consisted of three soil structures: loose(O), block(B) and alternate between loose and compact(G) and five doses of nitrogen ranging from 0 to 200 kg/ha which were tested at TASS2, TASS3 and TASS4. Results showed that soil structures influenced nitrogen absorption and yield mainly through grain number/m2. The soil structure effect depends greatly on the climate. This study proved that carbon isotopic composition δC 1 3 related greatly to the carbon and water nutrition of the plant, therefore it can be used as an indicator of water deficit. (author), 17 refs, 2 tabs, 7 figs

  5. Identification and differentiation of major components in three different “Sheng-ma” crude drug species by UPLC/Q-TOF-MS

    Mengxue Fan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Cimicifugae Rhizoma (Sheng ma is a Ranunculaceae herb belonging to a composite family and well known in China. has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine. The Pharmacopoeia of the People׳s Republic of China contains three varieties (Cimicifuga dahurica (Turcz., Cimicifuga foetida L. and Cimicifuga heracleifolia Kom. which have been used clinically as “Sheng-ma”. However, the chemical constituents of three components of “Sheng-ma” have never been documented. In this study, a rapid method for the analysis of the main components of “Sheng-ma” was developed using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF-MS. The present study reveals the major common and distinct chemical constituents of C. dahurica, C. foetida and C. heracleifolia and also reports principal component and statistical analyses of these results. The components were identified by comparing the retention time, accurate mass, mass spectrometric fragmentation characteristic ions and matching empirical molecular formula with that of the published compounds. A total of 32 common components and 8 markers for different “Sheng-ma” components were identified. These findings provide an important basis for the further study and clinical utilities of the three “Sheng-ma” varieties.

  6. CD34+ mesenchymal cells are a major component of the intestinal stem cells niche at homeostasis and after injury.

    Stzepourginski, Igor; Nigro, Giulia; Jacob, Jean-Marie; Dulauroy, Sophie; Sansonetti, Philippe J; Eberl, Gérard; Peduto, Lucie

    2017-01-24

    The intestinal epithelium is continuously renewed by intestinal epithelial stem cells (IESCs) positioned at the base of each crypt. Mesenchymal-derived factors are essential to maintain IESCs; however, the cellular composition and development of such mesenchymal niche remains unclear. Here, we identify pericryptal CD34 + Gp38 + αSMA - mesenchymal cells closely associated with Lgr5 + IESCs. We demonstrate that CD34 + Gp38 + cells are the major intestinal producers of the niche factors Wnt2b, Gremlin1, and R-spondin1, and are sufficient to promote maintenance of Lgr5 + IESCs in intestinal organoids, an effect mainly mediated by Gremlin1. CD34 + Gp38 + cells develop after birth in the intestinal submucosa and expand around the crypts during the third week of life in mice, independently of the microbiota. We further show that pericryptal CD34 + gp38 + cells are rapidly activated by intestinal injury, up-regulating niche factors Gremlin1 and R-spondin1 as well as chemokines, proinflammatory cytokines, and growth factors with key roles in gut immunity and tissue repair, including IL-7, Ccl2, Ptgs2, and Amphiregulin. Our results indicate that CD34 + Gp38 + mesenchymal cells are programmed to develop in the intestine after birth to constitute a specialized microenvironment that maintains IESCs at homeostasis and contribute to intestinal inflammation and repair after injury.

  7. 10-Hydroxy-2-decenoic Acid, the Major Lipid Component of Royal Jelly, Extends the Lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans through Dietary Restriction and Target of Rapamycin Signaling

    Honda, Yoko; Araki, Yoko; Hata, Taketoshi; Ichihara, Kenji; Ito, Masafumi; Tanaka, Masashi; Honda, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    Royal jelly (RJ) produced by honeybees has been reported to possess diverse health-beneficial properties and has been implicated to have a function in longevity across diverse species as well as honeybees. 10-Hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA), the major lipid component of RJ produced by honeybees, was previously shown to increase the lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans. The objective of this study is to elucidate signaling pathways that are involved in the lifespan extension by 10-HDA. 10-HDA f...

  8. Anti-Trichomonas vaginalis properties of the oil of Amomum tsao-ko and its major component, geraniol.

    Dai, Min; Peng, Cheng; Peng, Fu; Xie, Chengbin; Wang, Pinjia; Sun, Fenghui

    2016-01-01

    Trichomonosis, caused by the flagellate protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis, is the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease (STD) and 5-nitroimidazole drugs are used for the treatment. However, a growing number of T. vaginalis isolates are resistant to these drugs, which make it becomes an urgent issue. The current study was designed to evaluate the anti-T. vaginalis activity of the essential oil from A. tsao-ko used in traditional Chinese medicine and as a spice and its main component, geraniol. The anti-T. vaginalis activities of A. tsao-ko essential oil and geraniol were evaluated by the minimum lethal concentration (MLC) and 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) in vitro. The morphological changes of T. vaginalis were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Additionally, sub-MLC concentration treatment with sub-MLC A. tsao-ko essential oil and geraniol was also performed. This study shows that MLC/IC50 of A. tsao-ko essential oil was 44.97 µg/ml/22.49 µg/ml for T. vaginalis isolate Tv1, and 89.93 µg/ml/44.97 µg/ml for T. vaginalis isolate Tv2. Those of geraniol were 342.96 µg/ml/171.48 µg/ml, respectively. After A. tsao-ko essential oil or geraniol treatment, obvious similar morphological changes of T. vaginalis were observed by TEM: the nuclear membrane was damaged, nuclei were dissolved, and the chromatin was accumulated; in the cytoplasm, numerous vacuoles appeared, rough endoplasmic reticulum dilated, the number of ribosomes were reduced, organelles disintegrated, the cell membrane was partially damaged, with cytoplasmic leakage, and cell disintegration was observed. The action time did not increase the effect of A. tsao-ko essential oil or geraniol against T. vaginalis, as no significant difference was observed after sub-MLC concentration treatment for 1, 3, and 5 h with A. tsao-ko essential oil and geraniol. The study describes the first report on the activity and morphological changes of A. tsao-ko essential oil and

  9. Metabolic pathways leading to detoxification of triptolide, a major active component of the herbal medicine Tripterygium wilfordii.

    Du, Fuying; Liu, Zhaohua; Li, Xinxiu; Xing, Jie

    2014-08-01

    Triptolide (TP) shows promising anti-inflammatory and antitumor activity but with severe toxicity. TP is a natural reactive electrophile containing three epoxide groups, which are usually linked to hepatotoxicity via their ability to covalently bind to cellular macromolecules. In this study, metabolic pathways leading to detoxification of TP were evaluated in glutathione (GSH)-depleted (treated with L-buthionine-S,R-sulfoxinine, BSO) and aminobenzotriazole (ABT; a non-specific inhibitor for P450s)-treated mice. The toxicity of TP in mice was evaluated in terms of mortality and levels of serum alanine transaminase (ALT). In incubates with NADPH- and GSH-supplemented liver microsomes, seven GSH conjugates derived from TP were detected. In mice, these hydrolytically unstable GSH conjugates underwent γ-glutamyltranspeptidase/dipeptidases-mediated hydrolysis leading to two major cysteinylglycine conjugates, which underwent further hydrolysis by dipeptidases to form two cysteine conjugates of TP. In ABT-treated mice, the hydroxylated metabolites of TP were found at a lower level than normal mice, and their subsequent conjugated metabolites were not found. The level of cysteinylglycine and cysteine conjugates derived from NADPH-independent metabolism increased in mice treated with both TP and BSO (or ABT), which could be the stress response to toxicity of TP. Compared with normal mice, mortality and ALT levels were significantly higher in TP-treated mice, indicating the toxicity of TP. Pretreatment of ABT increased the toxicity caused by TP, whereas the mortality decreased in GSH-depleted mice. Metabolism by cytochrome P450 enzymes to less reactive metabolites implied a high potential for detoxification of TP. The GSH conjugation pathway also contributed to TP's detoxification in mice. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Gallic Acid Is the Major Active Component of Cortex Moutan in Inhibiting Immune Maturation of Human Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells

    Ben Chung Lap Chan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Atopic dermatitis (AD is a widely prevalent and chronically relapsing inflammatory skin disease. Penta Herbs Formula (PHF is efficacious in improving the quality of life and reducing topical corticosteroid used in children with AD and one of the active herbs it contains is Cortex Moutan. Recent studies showed that altered functions of dendritic cells (DC were observed in atopic individuals, suggesting that DC might play a major role in the generation and maintenance of inflammation by their production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Hence, the aims of the present study were to identify the major active component(s of Cortex Moutan, which might inhibit DC functions and to investigate their possible interactions with conventional corticosteroid on inhibiting the development of DC from monocytes. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDC culture model coupled with the high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC, high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC and Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LCMS analyses were used. Gallic acid was the major active component from Cortex Moutan which could dose dependently inhibit interleukin (IL-12 p40 and the functional cluster of differentiation (CD surface markers CD40, CD80, CD83 and CD86 expression from cytokine cocktail-activated moDC. Gallic acid could also lower the concentration of hydrocortisone required to inhibit the activation of DC.

  11. Effect of essential oils of Syzygium aromaticum and Cinnamomum zeylanicum and their major components on biofilm production in Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from milk of cows with mastitis.

    Budri, P E; Silva, N C C; Bonsaglia, E C R; Fernandes Júnior, A; Araújo Júnior, J P; Doyama, J T; Gonçalves, J L; Santos, M V; Fitzgerald-Hughes, D; Rall, V L M

    2015-09-01

    Bovine mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary glands of cows and causes significant economic losses in dairy cattle. Staphylococcus aureus is one of the microorganisms most commonly isolated. Novel agents are required in agricultural industries to prevent the development of mastitis. The production of biofilm by Staph. aureus facilitates the adhesion of bacteria to solid surfaces and contributes to the transmission and maintenance of these bacteria. The effect of the essential oils of Syzygium aromaticum (clove; EOSA) and Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon; EOCZ) and their major components, eugenol and cinnamaldehyde, on Staph. aureus biofilm formation on different surfaces was investigated. The results showed a significant inhibition of biofilm production by EOSA on polystyrene and stainless steel surfaces (69.4 and 63.6%, respectively). However, its major component, eugenol, was less effective on polystyrene and stainless steel (52.8 and 19.6%, respectively). Both EOCZ and its major component, cinnamaldehyde, significantly reduced biofilm formation on polystyrene (74.7 and 69.6%, respectively) and on stainless steel surfaces (45.3 and 44.9%, respectively). These findings suggest that EOSA, EOCZ, and cinnamaldehyde may be considered for applications such as sanitization in the food industry. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Development of and verification test integral reactor major components - Development of manufacturing process and fabrication of prototype for SG and CEDM

    Lee, Chang Hee; Park, Hwa Kyu; Kim, Yong Kyu; Choi, Yong Soon; Kang, Ki Su; Hyun, Young Min [Korea Heavy Industries and Construction Co., LTD., Changwon (Korea)

    1999-03-01

    Integral SMART(System integrated Modular Advanced Reactor) type reactor is under conceptual design. Because major components is integrated within in a single pressure vessel, compact design using advanced technology is essential. It means that manufacturing process for these components is more complex and difficult. The objective of this study is to confirm the possibility of manufacture of Steam Generator, Control Element Drive Mechanism(CEDM) and Reactor Assembly which includes Reactor Pressure Vessel, it is important to understand the design requirement and function of the major components. After understanding the design requirement and function, it is concluded that the helical bending and weld qualification of titanium tube for Steam Generator and the applicability of electron beam weld for CEDM step motor parts is the critical to fabricate the components. Therefore, bending mock-up and weld qualification of titanium tube was performed and the results are quite satisfactory. Also, it is concluded that electron beam welding technique can be applicable to the CEDM step motor part. (author). 22 refs., 14 figs., 46 tabs.

  13. Development of a web-based aging monitoring system for an integrity evaluation of the major components in a nuclear power plant

    Choi, Jae-Boong; Yeum, Seung-Won; Ko, Han-Ok; Kim, Young-Jin; Kim, Hong-Key; Choi, Young-Hwan; Park, Youn-Won

    2010-01-01

    Structural and mechanical components in a nuclear power plant are designed to operate for its entire service life. Recently, a number of nuclear power plants are being operated beyond their design life to produce more electricity without shutting down. The critical issue in extending a lifetime is to maintain the level of safety during the extended operation period while satisfying the international regulatory standards. However, only a small portion of these components are of great importance for a significant aging degradation which would deeply affect the long-term safety and reliability of the related facilities. Therefore, it is beneficial to build a monitoring system to measure an aging status. While a number of integrity evaluation systems have been developed for NPPs, a real-time aging monitoring system has not been proposed yet . This paper proposes an expert system for the integrity evaluation of nuclear power plants based on a Web-based Reality Environment (WRE). The proposed system provides the integrity assessment for the major mechanical components of a nuclear power plant under concurrent working environments. In the WRE, it is possible for users to understand a mechanical system such as its size, geometry, coupling condition etc. In conclusion, it is anticipated that the proposed system can be used for a more efficient integrity evaluation of the major components subjected to an aging degradation.

  14. Development of a web-based aging monitoring system for an integrity evaluation of the major components in a nuclear power plant

    Choi, Jae-Boong, E-mail: boong33@skku.ed [SAFE Research Centre, School of Mechanical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, 300 Chunchun-dong, Jangan-gu, Suwon, Kyonggi-do 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Yeum, Seung-Won; Ko, Han-Ok; Kim, Young-Jin [SAFE Research Centre, School of Mechanical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, 300 Chunchun-dong, Jangan-gu, Suwon, Kyonggi-do 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hong-Key; Choi, Young-Hwan; Park, Youn-Won [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, 34 Gwahak-ro, Yusong-ku, Teajon 305-338 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-01-15

    Structural and mechanical components in a nuclear power plant are designed to operate for its entire service life. Recently, a number of nuclear power plants are being operated beyond their design life to produce more electricity without shutting down. The critical issue in extending a lifetime is to maintain the level of safety during the extended operation period while satisfying the international regulatory standards. However, only a small portion of these components are of great importance for a significant aging degradation which would deeply affect the long-term safety and reliability of the related facilities. Therefore, it is beneficial to build a monitoring system to measure an aging status. While a number of integrity evaluation systems have been developed for NPPs, a real-time aging monitoring system has not been proposed yet . This paper proposes an expert system for the integrity evaluation of nuclear power plants based on a Web-based Reality Environment (WRE). The proposed system provides the integrity assessment for the major mechanical components of a nuclear power plant under concurrent working environments. In the WRE, it is possible for users to understand a mechanical system such as its size, geometry, coupling condition etc. In conclusion, it is anticipated that the proposed system can be used for a more efficient integrity evaluation of the major components subjected to an aging degradation.

  15. Hair Regenerative Mechanisms of Red Ginseng Oil and Its Major Components in the Testosterone-Induced Delay of Anagen Entry in C57BL/6 Mice

    Van-Long Truong

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Hair loss (alopecia is a universal problem for numerous people in the world. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of red ginseng oil (RGO and its major components on hair re-growth using testosterone (TES-induced delay of anagen entry in C57BL/6 mice and their mechanisms of action. Seven-week-old C57BL/6 mice were daily treated with TES for 1 h prior to topical application of 10% RGO, 1% linoleic acid (LA, 1% β-sitosterol (SITOS, or 1% bicyclo(10.1.0tridec-1-ene (BICYCLO once a day for 28 days. Hair regenerative capacity was significantly restored by treatment of RGO and its major compounds in the TES-treated mice. Histological analysis showed that RGO along with LA and SITOS but not BICYCLO promoted hair growth through early inducing anagen phase that was delayed by TES in mice. Treatment of mice with RGO, LA, or SITOS up-regulated Wnt/β-catenin and Shh/Gli pathways-mediated expression of genes such as β-catenin, Lef-1, Sonic hedgehog, Smoothened, Gli-1, Cyclin D1, and Cyclin E in the TES-treated mice. In addition, RGO and its major components reduced the protein level of TGF-β but enhanced the expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. These results suggest that RGO is a potent novel therapeutic natural product for treatment of androgenic alopecia possibly through hair re-growth activity of its major components such as LA and SITOS.

  16. Hair Regenerative Mechanisms of Red Ginseng Oil and Its Major Components in the Testosterone-Induced Delay of Anagen Entry in C57BL/6 Mice.

    Truong, Van-Long; Bak, Min Ji; Lee, Changook; Jun, Mira; Jeong, Woo-Sik

    2017-09-08

    Hair loss (alopecia) is a universal problem for numerous people in the world. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of red ginseng oil (RGO) and its major components on hair re-growth using testosterone (TES)-induced delay of anagen entry in C57BL/6 mice and their mechanisms of action. Seven-week-old C57BL/6 mice were daily treated with TES for 1 h prior to topical application of 10% RGO, 1% linoleic acid (LA), 1% β-sitosterol (SITOS), or 1% bicyclo(10.1.0)tridec-1-ene (BICYCLO) once a day for 28 days. Hair regenerative capacity was significantly restored by treatment of RGO and its major compounds in the TES-treated mice. Histological analysis showed that RGO along with LA and SITOS but not BICYCLO promoted hair growth through early inducing anagen phase that was delayed by TES in mice. Treatment of mice with RGO, LA, or SITOS up-regulated Wnt/β-catenin and Shh/Gli pathways-mediated expression of genes such as β-catenin, Lef-1, Sonic hedgehog, Smoothened, Gli-1, Cyclin D1, and Cyclin E in the TES-treated mice. In addition, RGO and its major components reduced the protein level of TGF-β but enhanced the expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. These results suggest that RGO is a potent novel therapeutic natural product for treatment of androgenic alopecia possibly through hair re-growth activity of its major components such as LA and SITOS.

  17. Characterization of PM2.5 and the major chemical components during a 1-year campaign in rural Guangzhou, Southern China

    Lai, Senchao; Zhao, Yan; Ding, Aijun; Zhang, Yingyi; Song, Tianli; Zheng, Junyu; Ho, Kin Fai; Lee, Shun-cheng; Zhong, Liuju

    2016-01-01

    A 1-year campaign was conducted in the rural area of Guangzhou, a megacity in southern China, to collect fine particulate matter (PM2.5) from March 2012 to February 2013. The mass concentrations of PM2.5 and the major chemical components including 6 water-soluble ions, organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), and 13 additional elements were measured. The annual average concentration of PM2.5 was 44.2 ± 25.8 μg/m3. Sulfate was the most dominant component, accounting for 28.6% of PM2.5, followed by organic matter (21.9%). Both sea salt and crustal material accounted for only a small fraction of PM2.5 (burning. Two high-PM2.5 case studies show that both local and long-range transport can play important roles in the PM2.5 elevation episode.

  18. Risk of metabolic syndrome and its components in people with schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Vancampfort, Davy; Stubbs, Brendon; Mitchell, Alex J; De Hert, Marc; Wampers, Martien; Ward, Philip B; Rosenbaum, Simon; Correll, Christoph U

    2015-10-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components are highly predictive of cardiovascular diseases. The primary aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the prevalence of MetS and its components in people with schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder, comparing subjects with different disorders and taking into account demographic variables and psychotropic medication use. The secondary aim was to compare the MetS prevalence in persons with any of the selected disorders versus matched general population controls. The pooled MetS prevalence in people with severe mental illness was 32.6% (95% CI: 30.8%-34.4%; N = 198; n = 52,678). Relative risk meta-analyses established that there was no significant difference in MetS prevalence in studies directly comparing schizophrenia versus bipolar disorder, and in those directly comparing bipolar disorder versus major depressive disorder. Only two studies directly compared people with schizophrenia and major depressive disorder, precluding meta-analytic calculations. Older age and a higher body mass index were significant moderators in the final demographic regression model (z = -3.6, p = 0.0003, r(2)  = 0.19). People treated with all individual antipsychotic medications had a significantly (ppeople with severe mental illness had a significantly increased risk for MetS (RR = 1.58; 95% CI: 1.35-1.86; p<0.001) and all its components, except for hypertension (p = 0.07). These data suggest that the risk for MetS is similarly elevated in the diagnostic subgroups of severe mental illness. Routine screening and multidisciplinary management of medical and behavioral conditions is needed in these patients. Risks of individual antipsychotics should be considered when making treatment choices. © 2015 World Psychiatric Association.

  19. Synergism Effect of the Essential Oil from Ocimum basilicum var. Maria Bonita and Its Major Components with Fluconazole and Its Influence on Ergosterol Biosynthesis

    Cardoso, Nathalia N. R.; Alviano, Celuta S.; Blank, Arie F.; Romanos, Maria Teresa V.; Fonseca, Beatriz B.; Rozental, Sonia; Rodrigues, Igor A.; Alviano, Daniela S.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of the EO and its major components of Ocimum basilicum var. Maria Bonita, a genetically improved cultivar, against the fluconazole sensitive and resistant strains of Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. Geraniol presented better results than the EO, with a low MIC (76 μg/mL against C. neoformans and 152 μg/mL against both Candida strains). The combination of EO, linalool, or geraniol with fluconazole enhanced their antifungal activity, especially against the resistant strain (MIC reduced to 156, 197, and 38 μg/mL, resp.). The ergosterol assay showed that subinhibitory concentrations of the substances were able to reduce the amount of sterol extracted. The substances tested were able to reduce the capsule size which suggests they have an important mechanism of action. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated cell wall destruction of C. neoformans after treatment with subinhibitory concentrations. In C. albicans ultrastructure alterations such as irregularities in the membrane, presence of vesicles, and cell wall thickening were observed. The biofilm formation was inhibited in both C. albicans strains at MIC and twice MIC. These results provide further support for the use of O. basilicum EO and its major components as a potential source of antifungal agents. PMID:27274752

  20. Pregnancy Requires Major Changes in the Quality of the Diet for Nutritional Adequacy: Simulations in the French and the United States Populations.

    Clélia M Bianchi

    Full Text Available Maternal nutrition is critical to the health of both mother and offspring, but there is a paucity of data on the nutritional adequacy of diets during pregnancy.Our objective was to identify to what extent pregnancy reduces the nutritional adequacy of the expecting mother's diet and if this nutritional gap can be resolved by simple quantitative or qualitative changes in the diet.We evaluated the observed overall nutritional adequacy of diets of French and American women of childbearing age participating in ENNS (n = 344 and NHANES (n = 563 using the probabilistic approach of the PANDiet system, resulting in a 100-point score. Then, we simulated the changes in the PANDiet scores of women of childbearing age who would remain on their diet during pregnancy. Finally, by either increasing the quantity of consumed foods or using eleven snacks recommended during pregnancy, we simulated the effect of a 150-kcal increase in the energy intake of French women.Observed PANDiet scores were equal to 59.3 ± 7.0 and 58.8 ± 9.3 points respectively in France and in the US. Simulation of pregnancy for women of childbearing age led to a decrease in nutritional adequacy for key nutrients during pregnancy and resulted in reducing PANDiet scores by 3.3 ± 0.1 and 3.7 ± 0.1 points in France and in the US. Simulated 150-kcal increases in energy intake proved to be only partially effective in filling the gap both when the quantity of food consumed was increased and when recommended snacks were used.The decrease in nutritional adequacy induced by pregnancy cannot be addressed by simply following generic dietary guidelines.

  1. Major food sources of calories, added sugars, and saturated fat and their contribution to essential nutrient intakes in the U.S. diet: data from the national health and nutrition examination survey (2003–2006)

    2013-01-01

    Background The risk of chronic disease cannot be predicted simply by the content of a single nutrient in a food or food group in the diet. The contribution of food sources of calories, added sugars and saturated fat (SFA) to intakes of dietary fiber and micronutrients of public health importance is also relevant to understanding the overall dietary impact of these foods. Objective Identify the top food sources of calories, added sugars and SFA in the U.S. diet and quantify their contribution to fiber and micronutrient intakes. Methods Single 24-hour dietary recalls (Day 1) collected from participants ≥2 years (n = 16,822) of the What We Eat in America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (WWEIA/NHANES 2003–2006) were analyzed. All analyses included sample weights to account for the survey design. Calorie and nutrient intakes from foods included contributions from disaggregated food mixtures and tabulated by rank order. Results No one food category contributes more than 7.2% of calories to the overall U.S. diet, but half of the top 10 contribute 10% or more of total dietary fiber and micronutrients. Three of the top 10 sources of calories and SFA (beef, milk and cheese) contribute 46.3% of the calcium, 49.5% of the vitamin D, 42.3% of the vitamin B12 as well as other essential nutrients to the American diet. On the other hand, foods categorized as desserts, snacks, or beverages, contribute 13.6% of total calories, 83% of added sugar intake, and provide little or no nutritional value. Including food components of disaggregated recipes more accurately estimated the contribution of foods like beef, milk or cheese to overall nutrient intake compared to “as consumed” food categorizations. Conclusions Some food sources of calories, added sugars and SFA make major contributions to American dietary fiber and micronutrient intakes. Dietary modifications targeting reductions in calories, added sugar, or SFA need to take these key micronutrient

  2. Major food sources of calories, added sugars, and saturated fat and their contribution to essential nutrient intakes in the U.S. diet: data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2003-2006).

    Huth, Peter J; Fulgoni, Victor L; Keast, Debra R; Park, Keigan; Auestad, Nancy

    2013-08-08

    The risk of chronic disease cannot be predicted simply by the content of a single nutrient in a food or food group in the diet. The contribution of food sources of calories, added sugars and saturated fat (SFA) to intakes of dietary fiber and micronutrients of public health importance is also relevant to understanding the overall dietary impact of these foods. Identify the top food sources of calories, added sugars and SFA in the U.S. diet and quantify their contribution to fiber and micronutrient intakes. Single 24-hour dietary recalls (Day 1) collected from participants ≥2 years (n = 16,822) of the What We Eat in America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (WWEIA/NHANES 2003-2006) were analyzed. All analyses included sample weights to account for the survey design. Calorie and nutrient intakes from foods included contributions from disaggregated food mixtures and tabulated by rank order. No one food category contributes more than 7.2% of calories to the overall U.S. diet, but half of the top 10 contribute 10% or more of total dietary fiber and micronutrients. Three of the top 10 sources of calories and SFA (beef, milk and cheese) contribute 46.3% of the calcium, 49.5% of the vitamin D, 42.3% of the vitamin B12 as well as other essential nutrients to the American diet. On the other hand, foods categorized as desserts, snacks, or beverages, contribute 13.6% of total calories, 83% of added sugar intake, and provide little or no nutritional value. Including food components of disaggregated recipes more accurately estimated the contribution of foods like beef, milk or cheese to overall nutrient intake compared to "as consumed" food categorizations. Some food sources of calories, added sugars and SFA make major contributions to American dietary fiber and micronutrient intakes. Dietary modifications targeting reductions in calories, added sugar, or SFA need to take these key micronutrient sources into account so as not to have the unintended

  3. Oviposition Deterrent and Larvicidal and Pupaecidal Activity of Seven Essential Oils and their Major Components against Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae): Synergism–antagonism Effects

    Andrade-Ochoa, Sergio; Sánchez-Aldana, Daniela; Chacón-Vargas, Karla Fabiola; Rivera-Chavira, Blanca E.; Camacho, Alejandro D.; Nogueda-Torres, Benjamín

    2018-01-01

    The larvicidal activity of essential oils cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum J. Presl), Mexican lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) cumin (Cuminum cyminum Linnaeus), clove (Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M.Perry), laurel (Laurus nobilis Linnaeus), Mexican oregano (Lippia berlandieri Schauer) and anise (Pimpinella anisum Linnaeus)) and their major components are tested against larvae and pupae of Culex quinquefasciatus Say. Third instar larvae and pupae are used for determination of lethality and mortality. Essential oils with more than 90% mortality after a 30-min treatment are evaluated at different time intervals. Of the essential oils tested, anise and Mexican oregano are effective against larvae, with a median lethal concentration (LC50) of 4.7 and 6.5 µg/mL, respectively. Anise essential oil and t-anethole are effective against pupae, with LC50 values of 102 and 48.7 µg/mL, respectively. Oregano essential oil and carvacrol also have relevant activities. A kinetic analysis of the larvicidal activity, the oviposition deterrent effect and assays of the effects of the binary mixtures of chemical components are undertaken. Results show that anethole has synergistic effects with other constituents. This same effect is observed for carvacrol and thymol. Limonene shows antagonistic effect with β-pinene. The high larvicidal and pupaecidal activities of essential oils and its components demonstrate that they can be potential substitutes for chemical compounds used in mosquitoes control programs. PMID:29443951

  4. Contrast in air pollution components between major streets and background locations: Particulate matter mass, black carbon, elemental composition, nitrogen oxide and ultrafine particle number

    Boogaard, Hanna; Kos, Gerard P. A.; Weijers, Ernie P.; Janssen, Nicole A. H.; Fischer, Paul H.; van der Zee, Saskia C.; de Hartog, Jeroen J.; Hoek, Gerard

    2011-01-01

    Policies to reduce outdoor air pollution concentrations are often assessed on the basis of the regulated pollutants. Whether these are the most appropriate components to assess the potential health benefits is questionable, as other health-relevant pollutants may be more strongly related to traffic. The aim of this study is to compare the contrast in concentration between major roads and (sub)urban background for a large range of pollutants and to analyze the magnitude of the measured difference in the street - background for major streets with different street configurations. Measurements of PM 10, PM 2.5, particle number concentrations (PNC), black carbon (BC), elemental composition of PM 10 and PM 2.5 and NO x were conducted simultaneously in eight major streets and nine (sub)urban background locations in the Netherlands. Measurements were done six times for a week during a six month period in 2008. High contrasts between busy streets and background locations in the same city were found for chromium, copper and iron (factor 2-3). These elements were especially present in the coarse fraction of PM. In addition, high contrasts were found for BC and NO x (factor 1.8), typically indicators of direct combustion emissions. The contrast for PNC was similar to BC. NO 2 contrast was lower (factor 1.5). The largest contrast was found for two street canyons and two streets with buildings at one side of the street only. The contrast between busy streets and urban background in NO 2 was less than the contrast found for BC, PNC and elements indicative of non-exhaust emissions, adding evidence that NO 2 is not representing (current) traffic well. The study supports a substantial role for non-exhaust emissions including brake- and tyre wear and road dust in addition to direct combustion emissions. Significant underestimation of disease burden may occur when relying too much on the regulated components.

  5. Identification of human cytochrome P450 and UGT enzymes involved in the metabolism of ferulic acid, a major bioactive component in traditional Chinese medicines.

    Zhuang, Xiao-Mei; Chen, Lin; Tan, Yan; Yang, Hai-Ying; Lu, Chuang; Gao, Yue; Li, Hua

    2017-09-01

    Ferulic acid (FA) is an active component of herbal medicines. One of the best documented activities of FA is its antioxidant property. Moreover, FA exerts antiallergic, anti-inflammatory, and hepatoprotective effects. However, the metabolic pathways of FA in humans remain unclear. To identify whether human CYP or UGT enzymes are involved in the metabolism of FA, reaction phenotyping of FA was conducted using major CYP-selective chemical inhibitors together with individual CYP and UGT Supersomes. The CYP- and/or UGT-mediated metabolism kinetics were examined simultaneously or individually. Relative activity factor and total normalized rate approaches were used to assess the relative contributions of each major human CYPs towards the FA metabolism. Incubations of FA with human liver microsomes (HLM) displayed NADPH- and UDPGA-dependent metabolism with multiple CYP and UGT isoforms involved. CYPs and UGTs contributed equally to the metabolism of FA in HLM. Although CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 appeared to be the major contributors in the CYP-mediated clearance, their contributions to the overall clearance are still minor (medicines because multiple phase I and phase II enzymes are involved in its metabolism. Copyright © 2017 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Soybean nutritional properties: The good and the bad about soy ...

    Consumption of soy foods is increasing worldwide mainly due to their acclaimed health benefits. However, nutritional demerits associated with soy foods consumption exist. Proteins and lipids, some vitamins and minerals, are major nutritionallyimportant components of soybeans; carbohydrates are major constituents ...

  7. Assessment and management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety: In-containment instrumentation and control cables. Volume I

    2000-12-01

    At present, there are over four hundred operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) in IAEA Member States. Operating experience has shown that ineffective control of the ageing degradation of major NPP components (e.g. caused by unanticipated phenomena and by operating, maintenance, design or manufacturing error) can jeopardize plant safety and also plant life. Ageing in these NPPs must be therefore effectively managed to ensure the availability of design functions throughout the plant service life. From the safety perspective, this means controlling within acceptable limits the ageing degradation and wear-out of plant components important to safety so that adequate safety margins remain, i.e. integrity and functional capability in excess of normal operating requirements. This publication is one in a series of guidance reports on the assessment and management of ageing of the major NPP components important to safety. The reports are based on experience and practices of NPP operators, regulators, designers, manufacturers, and technical support organizations and a widely accepted Methodology for the Management of Ageing of NPP Components Important to Safety, which was issued by the IAEA in 1992. The current practices for the assessment of safety margins (fitness-for-service) and the inspection, monitoring and mitigation of ageing degradation of selected components of Canadian deuterium-uranium (CANDU) reactors, boiling water reactors (BWRs), pressurized water reactors (PWRs), including the Soviet designed 'water moderated and water cooled energy reactors' (WWERs), are documented in the reports. These practices are intended to help all involved directly and indirectly in ensuring the safe operation of NPPs, and to provide a common technical basis for dialogue between plant operators and regulators when dealing with age related licensing issues. The guidance reports are directed at technical experts and managers from NPPs and from regulatory, plant design, manufacturing

  8. Assessment and management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety: In-containment instrumentation and control cables. Volume II

    2000-12-01

    At present, there are over four hundred operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) in IAEA Member States. Operating experience has shown that ineffective control of the ageing degradation of major NPP components (e.g. caused by unanticipated phenomena and by operating, maintenance, design or manufacturing error) can jeopardize plant safety and also plant life. Ageing in these NPPs must be therefore effectively managed to ensure the availability of design functions throughout the plant service life. From the safety perspective, this means controlling within acceptable limits the ageing degradation and wear-out of plant components important to safety so that adequate safety margins remain, i.e. integrity and functional capability in excess of normal operating requirements. This publication is one in a series of guidance reports on the assessment and management of ageing of the major NPP components important to safety. The reports are based on experience and practices of NPP operators, regulators, designers, manufacturers, and technical support organizations and a widely accepted Methodology for the Management of Ageing of NPP Components Important to Safety, which was issued by the IAEA in 1992. The current practices for the assessment of safety margins (fitness-for-service) and the inspection, monitoring and mitigation of ageing degradation of selected components of Canadian deuterium-uranium (CANDU) reactors, boiling water reactors (BWRs), pressurized water reactors (PWRs), including the Soviet designed 'water moderated and water cooled energy reactors' (WWERs), are documented in the reports. These practices are intended to help all involved directly and indirectly in ensuring the safe operation of NPPs, and to provide a common technical basis for dialogue between plant operators and regulators when dealing with age related licensing issues. The guidance reports are directed at technical experts and managers from NPPs and from regulatory, plant design, manufacturing

  9. 10-Hydroxy-2-decenoic Acid, the Major Lipid Component of Royal Jelly, Extends the Lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans through Dietary Restriction and Target of Rapamycin Signaling

    Yoko Honda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Royal jelly (RJ produced by honeybees has been reported to possess diverse health-beneficial properties and has been implicated to have a function in longevity across diverse species as well as honeybees. 10-Hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA, the major lipid component of RJ produced by honeybees, was previously shown to increase the lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans. The objective of this study is to elucidate signaling pathways that are involved in the lifespan extension by 10-HDA. 10-HDA further extended the lifespan of the daf-2 mutants, which exhibit long lifespan through reducing insulin-like signaling (ILS, indicating that 10-HDA extended lifespan independently of ILS. On the other hand, 10-HDA did not extend the lifespan of the eat-2 mutants, which show long lifespan through dietary restriction caused by a food-intake defect. This finding indicates that 10-HDA extends lifespan through dietary restriction signaling. We further found that 10-HDA did not extend the lifespan of the long-lived mutants in daf-15, which encodes Raptor, a target of rapamycin (TOR components, indicating that 10-HDA shared some longevity control mechanisms with TOR signaling. Additionally, 10-HDA was found to confer tolerance against thermal and oxidative stress. 10-HDA increases longevity not through ILS but through dietary restriction and TOR signaling in C. elegans.

  10. Protective effects of Mangifera indica L extract (Vimang), and its major component mangiferin, on iron-induced oxidative damage to rat serum and liver.

    Pardo-Andreu, Gilberto L; Barrios, Mariela Forrellat; Curti, Carlos; Hernández, Ivones; Merino, Nelson; Lemus, Yeny; Martínez, Ioanna; Riaño, Annia; Delgado, René

    2008-01-01

    In vivo preventive effects of a Mangifera indica L extract (Vimang) or its major component mangiferin on iron overload injury have been studied in rats given respectively, 50, 100, 250 mg kg(-1) body weight of Vimang, or 40 mg kg(-1) body weight of mangiferin, for 7 days prior to, and for 7 days following the administration of toxic amounts of iron-dextran. Both Vimang or mangiferin treatment prevented iron overload in serum as well as liver oxidative stress, decreased serum and liver lipid peroxidation, serum GPx activity, and increased serum and liver GSH, serum SOD and the animals overall antioxidant condition. Serum iron concentration was decreased although at higher doses, Vimang tended to increase it; percent tranferrin saturation, liver weight/body mass ratios, liver iron content was decreased. Treatment increased serum iron-binding capacity and decreased serum levels of aspartate-amine transferase (ASAT) and alanine-amine transferase (ALAT), as well as the number of abnormal Kupffer cells in iron-loaded livers. It is suggested that besides acting as antioxidants, Vimang extract or its mangiferin component decrease liver iron by increasing its excretion. Complementing earlier in vitro results from our group, it appears possible to support the hypothesis that Vimang and mangiferin present therapeutically useful effects in iron overload related diseases.

  11. 10-Hydroxy-2-decenoic Acid, the Major Lipid Component of Royal Jelly, Extends the Lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans through Dietary Restriction and Target of Rapamycin Signaling.

    Honda, Yoko; Araki, Yoko; Hata, Taketoshi; Ichihara, Kenji; Ito, Masafumi; Tanaka, Masashi; Honda, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    Royal jelly (RJ) produced by honeybees has been reported to possess diverse health-beneficial properties and has been implicated to have a function in longevity across diverse species as well as honeybees. 10-Hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA), the major lipid component of RJ produced by honeybees, was previously shown to increase the lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans. The objective of this study is to elucidate signaling pathways that are involved in the lifespan extension by 10-HDA. 10-HDA further extended the lifespan of the daf-2 mutants, which exhibit long lifespan through reducing insulin-like signaling (ILS), indicating that 10-HDA extended lifespan independently of ILS. On the other hand, 10-HDA did not extend the lifespan of the eat-2 mutants, which show long lifespan through dietary restriction caused by a food-intake defect. This finding indicates that 10-HDA extends lifespan through dietary restriction signaling. We further found that 10-HDA did not extend the lifespan of the long-lived mutants in daf-15, which encodes Raptor, a target of rapamycin (TOR) components, indicating that 10-HDA shared some longevity control mechanisms with TOR signaling. Additionally, 10-HDA was found to confer tolerance against thermal and oxidative stress. 10-HDA increases longevity not through ILS but through dietary restriction and TOR signaling in C. elegans.

  12. Major Lipid Body Protein: A Conserved Structural Component of Lipid Body Accumulated during Abiotic Stress in S. quadricauda CASA-CC202

    Arumugam Muthu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abiotic stress in oleaginous microalgae enhances lipid accumulation and is stored in a specialised organelle called lipid droplets (LDs. Both the LDs and body are enriched with major lipid droplet protein (MLDP. It serves as a major structural component and also plays a key role in recruiting other proteins and enzymes involved in lipid body maturation. In the present study, the presence of MLDP was detected in two abiotic stress condition namely nitrogen starvation and salt stress condition. Previous research reveals that nitrogen starvation enhances lipid accumulation. Therefore, the effect of salt on growth, biomass yield, and fatty acid profile is studied in detail. The specific growth rate of S. quadricauda under the salt stress of 10mM concentration is about 0.174μ and in control, the SGR is 0.241μ. An increase in the doubling time of the cells shows that the rate of cell division decreases during salt stress (2.87–5.17. The dry biomass content also decreased drastically at 50mM salt-treated cells (129mg/L compared to control (236mg/L on the day 20. The analysis of fatty acid composition also revealed that there is a 20% decrease in the saturated fatty acid level and 19.9% increment in monounsaturated fatty acid level, which makes salt-mediated lipid accumulation as a suitable biodiesel precursor.

  13. Major Lipid Body Protein: A Conserved Structural Component of Lipid Body Accumulated during Abiotic Stress in S. quadricauda CASA-CC202

    Javee, Anand; Sulochana, Sujitha Balakrishnan; Pallissery, Steffi James; Arumugam, Muthu

    2016-01-01

    Abiotic stress in oleaginous microalgae enhances lipid accumulation, which is stored in a specialized organelle called lipid droplets (LDs). Both the LDs or lipid body are enriched with major lipid droplet protein (MLDP). It serves as a major structural component and also plays a key role in recruiting other proteins and enzymes involved in lipid body maturation. In the present study, the presence of MLDP was detected in two abiotic stress condition namely nitrogen starvation and salt stress condition. Previous research reveals that nitrogen starvation enhances lipid accumulation. Therefore, the effect of salt on growth, biomass yield, and fatty acid profile is studied in detail. The specific growth rate of Scenedesmus quadricauda under the salt stress of 10mM concentration is about 0.174 μ and in control, the SGR is 0.241 μ. An increase in the doubling time of the cells shows that the rate of cell division decreases during salt stress (2.87–5.17). The dry biomass content also decreased drastically at 50mM salt-treated cells (129 mg/L) compared to control (236 mg/L) on the day 20. The analysis of fatty acid composition also revealed that there is a 20% decrease in the saturated fatty acid level and 19.9% increment in monounsaturated fatty acid level, which makes salt-mediated lipid accumulation as a suitable biodiesel precursor.

  14. [Effect of β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex on transport of major components of Xiangfu Siwu decoction essential oil in Caco-2 cell monolayer model].

    Xi, Jun-zuan; Qian, Da-wei; Duan, Jin-ao; Liu, Pei; Zhu, Yue; Zhu, Zhen-hua; Zhang, Li

    2015-08-01

    Although the essential oil of Xiangfu Siwu decoction (XFSWD) has strong pharmacological activity, its special physical and chemical properties restrict the clinical application and curative effect. In this paper, Xiangfu Siwu decoction essential oil (XFS-WO) was prepared by forming inclusion complex with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD). The present study is to investigate the effect of β-CD inclusion complex on the transport of major components of XFSWO using Caco-2 cell monolayer model, thus to research the effect of this formation on the absorption of drugs with low solubility and high permeability, which belong to class 2 in biopharmaceutics classification system. A sensitive and rapid UPLC-MS/MS method was developed for simultaneous quantification of senkyunolide A, 3-n-butylphthalide, Z-ligustilide, dehydrocostus lactone and α-cyperone, which are active compounds in XFSWO. The transport parameters were analyzed and compared in free oil and its β-CD inclusion complex. The result revealed that the formation of XFSWO/β-CD inclusion complex has significantly increased the transportation and absorption of major active ingredients than free oil. Accordingly, it can be speculated that cyclodextrin inclusion complex can improve bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs. Above all these mentioned researches, it provided foundation and basis for physiological disposition and pharmaceutical study of XFSWD.

  15. The Virome and Its Major Component, Anellovirus, a Convoluted System Molding Human Immune Defenses and Possibly Affecting the Development of Asthma and Respiratory Diseases in Childhood

    Giulia Freer

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The microbiome, a thriving and complex microbial community colonizing the human body, has a broad impact on human health. Colonization is a continuous process that starts very early in life and occurs thanks to shrewd strategies microbes have evolved to tackle a convoluted array of anatomical, physiological, and functional barriers of the human body. Cumulative evidence shows that viruses are part of the microbiome. This part, called virome, has a dynamic composition that reflects what we eat, how and where we live, what we do, our genetic background, and other unpredictable variables. Thus, the virome plays a chief role in shaping innate and adaptive host immune defenses. Imbalance of normal microbial flora is thought to trigger or exacerbate many acute and chronic disorders. A compelling example can be found in the respiratory apparatus, where early-life viral infections are major determinants for the development of allergic diseases, like asthma, and other non-transmissible diseases. In this review, we focus on the virome and, particularly, on Anelloviridae, a recently discovered virus family. Anelloviruses are major components of the virome, present in most, if not all, human beings, where they are acquired early in life and replicate persistently without causing apparent disease. We will discuss how modulation of innate and adaptive immune systems by Anelloviruses can influence the development of respiratory diseases in childhood and provide evidence for the use of Anelloviruses as useful and practical molecular markers to monitor inflammatory processes and immune system competence.

  16. Major Lipid Body Protein: A Conserved Structural Component of Lipid Body Accumulated during Abiotic Stress in S. quadricauda CASA-CC202

    Javee, Anand [Biotechnology Division, National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology (NIIST), Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Trivandrum (India); Sulochana, Sujitha Balakrishnan [Biotechnology Division, National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology (NIIST), Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Trivandrum (India); Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), New Delhi (India); Pallissery, Steffi James [Biotechnology Division, National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology (NIIST), Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Trivandrum (India); Arumugam, Muthu, E-mail: arumugam@niist.res.in [Biotechnology Division, National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology (NIIST), Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Trivandrum (India); Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), New Delhi (India)

    2016-11-23

    Abiotic stress in oleaginous microalgae enhances lipid accumulation, which is stored in a specialized organelle called lipid droplets (LDs). Both the LDs or lipid body are enriched with major lipid droplet protein (MLDP). It serves as a major structural component and also plays a key role in recruiting other proteins and enzymes involved in lipid body maturation. In the present study, the presence of MLDP was detected in two abiotic stress condition namely nitrogen starvation and salt stress condition. Previous research reveals that nitrogen starvation enhances lipid accumulation. Therefore, the effect of salt on growth, biomass yield, and fatty acid profile is studied in detail. The specific growth rate of Scenedesmus quadricauda under the salt stress of 10mM concentration is about 0.174 μ and in control, the SGR is 0.241 μ. An increase in the doubling time of the cells shows that the rate of cell division decreases during salt stress (2.87–5.17). The dry biomass content also decreased drastically at 50mM salt-treated cells (129 mg/L) compared to control (236 mg/L) on the day 20. The analysis of fatty acid composition also revealed that there is a 20% decrease in the saturated fatty acid level and 19.9% increment in monounsaturated fatty acid level, which makes salt-mediated lipid accumulation as a suitable biodiesel precursor.

  17. Analysis of nutritional and odor components in muscle of Siam alligator (Crocodylus siamensis) .%暹罗鳄肌肉营养及腥味成分分析

    阙婷婷; 谢妍; 郑家闻; 胡庆兰; 胡亚芹; 罗自生

    2013-01-01

    research . Hence , our objectives were to identify the volatile components of Siam alligator muscle and evaluate its nutritional value . Odors in the muscle of Siam alligator were collected and determined by solid phase micro‐extraction ( SPME)and gas chromatography‐mass spectrometry ( GC‐MS ) before and after deodorization , and the nutritional components in the muscle of Siam alligator were analyzed by common methods . The result showed that there were 72 kinds of volatile compounds detected , in which hexaldehyde was the main component of the odors , along with others constituted the peculiar smell of Siam alligator meat . The contents of moisture , protein , fat and ash in Siam alligator meat were 76 .8% , 19 .8% , 2 .0% and 1 .0% respectively . Sixteen types of amino acids in muscle were contained with accounting for 70 .44% of the muscle dry matter content and including seven essential ones for human being . The constitutional rate of the essential amino acids was in accordance with the FAO ( Food and Agriculture Organization ) standard . According to the nutrition evaluation in amino acid score ( AAS ) and chemical score ( CS ) ,the essential amino acid index ( EAAI) was 60 .63% . The muscle also contained a variety amount of unsaturated fatty acids , in which the contents of eicosapentaenoic acid ( EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were 1 .44% and 2 .96% , respectively . The Siam alligator meat also contained rich minerals and trace elements , especially the most calcium content . Consequently , the meat of Siam alligator is a kind of high‐quality one with high protein and low fat , rich in a variety of unsaturated fatty acids and minerals .

  18. Can the sustainable development goals reduce the burden of nutrition-related non-communicable diseases without truly addressing major food system reforms?

    Hawkes, Corinna; Popkin, Barry M

    2015-06-16

    While the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs; 2000-2015) focused primarily on poverty reduction, hunger and infectious diseases, the proposed Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and targets pay more attention to nutrition and non-communicable diseases (NCDs). One of the 169 proposed targets of the SDGs is to reduce premature deaths from NCDs by one third; another is to end malnutrition in all its forms. Nutrition-related NCDs (NR-NCDs) stand at the intersection between malnutrition and NCDs. Driven in large part by remarkable transformations of food systems, they are rapidly increasing in most low and middle income countries (LMICs). The transformation to modern food systems began in the period following World War II with policies designed to meet a very different set of nutritional and food needs, and continued with globalization in the 1990s onwards. Another type of food systems transformation will be needed to shift towards a healthier and more sustainable diet--as will meeting many of the other SDGs. The process will be complex but is necessary. Communities concerned with NCDs and with malnutrition need to work more closely together to demand food systems change.

  19. Health Scenario of Major Tribals of Northern Orissa in Relation to Human Growth, Development and Nutrition and the Role of Genetic Factors in Smell and Tasting Abilities in Children

    Balgir RS

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The nature of physical growth and development of children depends primarily upon the genetic endowments, nutritional status, psychosocial attitude and surrounding physical environmental conditions. School going children are the most important segment of the society who are affected by under- and mal-nutrition. Good nutrition is an indispensable component of healthy life. Tribal children studying in Ashram schools can be taken as representatives of the predominant tribes of the area. This study was aimed at evaluating the health profile in relation to growth, development and nutrition of a randomly selected cross section of 1038 Ashram school children aged six through 15 years in the state of Orissa. Following the standard methodology, it was noticed that nutritional complications are compounded due to ignorance, bad food habits, food fads, and poverty. About 71% of the Ashram school children showed mild to moderate anemia. According to different grades of malnutrition, the frequency of grade III malnutrition was very low in Ashram-school boys (1.4% and girls (3.5%, with an average of 2.3%. The grade I as well as grade II malnutrition was also higher in girls (grade II =24.3%; grade I= 37.6% as compared to boys (grade II=16.7%; grade I=31.5% with an average of 19.9% and 34.1%, respectively for grade II and grade I malnutrition. There was a consistent pattern of increase in height and weight in the year six through fifteen of age, showing that height and weight of the Ashram school children increases with the corresponding advancement of age in both boys and girls. In general, the girls were shorter and lighter in weight than the boys. This pattern is consistent in the present study of Ashram school children in Orissa. It has been observed that apart from the genetic potential, the intra-uterine environment, mother’s nutritional status before, during and post pregnancy, and neonatal nutrition and associated traditional behavior drastically

  20. Development of nutrition education tool: healthy eating index in Thailand.

    Taechangam, Sunard; Pinitchun, Utumporn; Pachotikarn, Chanida

    2008-01-01

    A healthful diet can reduce major risk factors for chronic diseases. To assess the dietary status of Thais and monitor changes in food consumption patterns, the Healthy Eating Index for Thais (THEI) is developed, an important tool for meeting the nutrition goals and determining people's overall diet quality. This index measures how well the diets of Thai people conform to the recommendations of the Food Guide Thailand Nutrition Flag. The THEI consists of 11 components, each representing different aspects of a healthful diet: Components 1-5 measure the degree to which a person's diet conforms to serving recommendations for the five major food groups of Thailand Nutrition Flag; Components 6, 7 and 8 measure total fat, saturated fat and added sugar consumption, respectively; Components 9 and 10 measure total cholesterol and sodium intake; and Component 11 examines variety in a person's diet. Each of the 11 components has a score ranging from 0 to 10, for a total score of 110. The dietary intake data from selected working adults were collected to derive the THEI scores. The average THEI score indicated that the diets of most people needed improvement and some individuals were more likely than others to consume a poor diet. This suggests a continued role for nutrition education and promotion efforts should result in a significant improvement of people's overall diet quality. In conclusion, the THEI is an useful index for describing overall diet quality for Thais and serves as a basic tool for providing nutrition education and promotion.

  1. Involvement of major components from Sporothrix schenckii cell wall in the caspase-1 activation, nitric oxide and cytokines production during experimental sporotrichosis.

    Gonçalves, Amanda Costa; Maia, Danielle Cardoso Geraldo; Ferreira, Lucas Souza; Monnazzi, Luis Gustavo Silva; Alegranci, Pâmela; Placeres, Marisa Campos Polesi; Batista-Duharte, Alexander; Carlos, Iracilda Zeppone

    2015-02-01

    Sporotrichosis is a chronic infection caused by the dimorphic fungus Sporothrix schenckii, involving all layers of skin and the subcutaneous tissue. The role of innate immune toll-like receptors 2 and 4 in the defense against this fungus has been reported, but so far, there were no studies on the effect of cell wall major components over the cytosolic oligo-merization domain (NOD)-like receptors, important regulators of inflammation and responsible for the maturation of IL-1β and IL-18, whose functions are dependents of the caspase-1 activation, that can participate of inflammasome. It was evaluated the percentage of activation of caspase-1, the production of IL-1β, IL-18, IL-17, IFN-γ and nitric oxide in a Balb/c model of S. schenckii infection. It was observed a decreased activity of caspase-1 during the fourth and sixth weeks of infection accompanied by reduced secretion of the cytokines IL-1β, IL-18 and IL-17 and high production of nitric oxide. IFN-γ levels were elevated during the entire time course of infection. This temporal reduction in caspase-1 activity coincides exactly with the reported period of fungal burden associated with a transitory immunosuppression induced by this fungus and detected in similar infection models. These results indicate the importance of interaction between caspase-1, cytokines IL-1β and IL-18 in the host defense against S. schenckii infection, suggesting a participation the inflammasome in this response.

  2. Comparative pharmacokinetic and tissue distribution profiles of four major bioactive components in normal and hepatic fibrosis rats after oral administration of Fuzheng Huayu recipe.

    Yang, Tao; Liu, Shan; Wang, Chang-Hong; Tao, Yan-Yan; Zhou, Hua; Liu, Cheng-Hai

    2015-10-10

    Fuzheng Huayu recipe (FZHY) is a herbal product for the treatment of liver fibrosis approved by the Chinese State Food and Drug Administration (SFDA), but its pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution had not been investigated. In this study, the liver fibrotic model was induced with intraperitoneal injection of dimethylnitrosamine (DMN), and FZHY was given orally to the model and normal rats. The plasma pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution profiles of four major bioactive components from FZHY were analyzed in the normal and fibrotic rat groups using an ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method. Results revealed that the bioavailabilities of danshensu (DSS), salvianolic acid B (SAB) and rosmarinic acid (ROS) in liver fibrotic rats increased 1.49, 3.31 and 2.37-fold, respectively, compared to normal rats. There was no obvious difference in the pharmacokinetics of amygdalin (AMY) between the normal and fibrotic rats. The tissue distribution of DSS, SAB, and AMY trended to be mostly in the kidney and lung. The distribution of DSS, SAB, and AMY in liver tissue of the model rats was significantly decreased compared to the normal rats. Significant differences in the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution profiles of DSS, ROS, SAB and AMY were observed in rats with hepatic fibrosis after oral administration of FZHY. These results provide a meaningful basis for developing a clinical dosage regimen in the treatment of hepatic fibrosis by FZHY. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Antimicrobial action and anti-corrosion effect against sulfate reducing bacteria by lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) essential oil and its major component, the citral.

    Korenblum, Elisa; Regina de Vasconcelos Goulart, Fátima; de Almeida Rodrigues, Igor; Abreu, Fernanda; Lins, Ulysses; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; Valoni, Erika; Sebastián, Gina V; Alviano, Daniela Sales; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Seldin, Lucy

    2013-08-10

    The anti-corrosion effect and the antimicrobial activity of lemongrass essential oil (LEO) against the planktonic and sessile growth of a sulfate reducing bacterium (SRB) were evaluated. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of LEO and its major component, the citral, was 0.17 mg ml-1. In addition, both LEO and citral showed an immediate killing effect against SRB in liquid medium, suggesting that citral is responsible for the antimicrobial activity of LEO against SRB. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the MIC of LEO caused discernible cell membrane alterations and formed electron-dense inclusions. Neither biofilm formation nor corrosion was observed on carbon steel coupons after LEO treatment. LEO was effective for the control of the planktonic and sessile SRB growth and for the protection of carbon steel coupons against biocorrosion. The application of LEO as a potential biocide for SRB growth control in petroleum reservoirs and, consequently, for souring prevention, and/or as a coating protection against biocorrosion is of great interest for the petroleum industries.

  4. Antimicrobial action and anti-corrosion effect against sulfate reducing bacteria by lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) essential oil and its major component, the citral

    2013-01-01

    The anti-corrosion effect and the antimicrobial activity of lemongrass essential oil (LEO) against the planktonic and sessile growth of a sulfate reducing bacterium (SRB) were evaluated. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of LEO and its major component, the citral, was 0.17 mg ml-1. In addition, both LEO and citral showed an immediate killing effect against SRB in liquid medium, suggesting that citral is responsible for the antimicrobial activity of LEO against SRB. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the MIC of LEO caused discernible cell membrane alterations and formed electron-dense inclusions. Neither biofilm formation nor corrosion was observed on carbon steel coupons after LEO treatment. LEO was effective for the control of the planktonic and sessile SRB growth and for the protection of carbon steel coupons against biocorrosion. The application of LEO as a potential biocide for SRB growth control in petroleum reservoirs and, consequently, for souring prevention, and/or as a coating protection against biocorrosion is of great interest for the petroleum industries. PMID:23938023

  5. Utilization of non-conventional systems for conversion of biomass to food components: Potential for utilization of algae in engineered foods

    Karel, M.; Kamarei, A. R.; Nakhost, Z.

    1985-01-01

    The major nutritional components of the green algae (Scenedesmus obliquus) grown in a Constant Cell density Apparatus were determined. Suitable methodology to prepare proteins from which three major undesirable components of these cells (i.e., cell walls, nucleic acids, and pigments) were either removed or substantially reduced was developed. Results showed that processing of green algae to protein isolate enhances its potential nutritional and organoleptic acceptability as a diet component in a Controlled Ecological Life Support System.

  6. 樱桃核主要成分分析及其抗氧化性研究%Major Components and Antioxidant Capability Analysis of Cherry Stone

    甄天元; 肖军霞

    2014-01-01

    樱桃可以加工成樱桃汁、樱桃酒、樱桃醋、樱桃果脯等农副产品,而樱桃核却在加工中成为废弃物。以大紫红和崂山红樱桃核为材料,测定了其主要成分,并分别对其水、石油醚、乙酸乙酯、正丁醇提取物进行了抗氧化性研究。结果表明,樱桃核中主要含有水分、蛋白质和油脂等成分,崂山红樱桃核的4种提取物的还原能力、羟基自由基抑制率和超氧阴离子抑制率最高的均为水提取物,分别达到0.27%、61.5%和38.7%,这说明崂山红樱桃核中起抗氧化作用的主要是水溶性成分。%Cherry can be processed to juice, wine, vinegar and preserve, but the cherry stone is often discarded as a waste. In this paper, the major components in the stone of Dazhihong cherry and Laoshan red cherry were determined and the antioxidant capabilities of the aqueous extract, pettroleum extract, ethyl acetate extract, and n-butanol extract of Laoshan red cherry stone were measured. The results indicated that the cherry stones consisted mainly of water, protein, and lipid. The aqueous extract of the stone of Laoshan red cherry had the highest reducing capability, hydroxyl radical inhibition rate and superoxide anion inhibition activity compared with other organic solvent extracts, reaching 0.27 %,61.5 % and 38.7 % respecitvely, implying that the antioxidant capability of Laoshan red cherry stone was contributed mainly by water-soluble components.

  7. Cytotoxicity of Vitex agnus-castus fruit extract and its major component, casticin, correlates with differentiation status in leukemia cell lines.

    Kikuchi, Hidetomo; Yuan, Bo; Nishimura, Yoshio; Imai, Masahiko; Furutani, Ryota; Kamoi, Saki; Seno, Misako; Fukushima, Shin; Hazama, Shingo; Hirobe, Chieko; Ohyama, Kunio; Hu, Xiao-Mei; Takagi, Norio; Hirano, Toshihiko; Toyoda, Hiroo

    2013-12-01

    We have demonstrated that an extract from the ripe fruit of Vitex agnus-castus (Vitex) exhibits cytotoxic activities against various types of solid tumor cells, whereas its effects on leukemia cells has not been evaluated to date. In this study, the effects of Vitex and its major component, casticin, on leukemia cell lines, HL-60 and U-937, were investigated by focusing on proliferation, induction of apoptosis and differentiation. Identification and quantitation by NMR spectroscopy showed that casticin accounted for approximate 1% weight of Vitex. Dose-dependent cytotoxicity of Vitex and casticin was observed in both cell lines, and HL-60 cells were more sensitive to the cytotoxicity of Vitex/casticin compared to U-937 cells. Furthermore, compared to unstimulated HL-60 cells, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)- and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D₃ (VD₃)-differentiated HL-60 cells acquired resistance to Vitex/casticin based on the results from cell viability and apoptosis induction analysis. Since the HL-60 cell line is more immature than the U-937 cell line, these results suggested that the levels of cytotoxicity of Vitex/casticin were largely attributed to the degree of differentiation of leukemia cells; that is, cell lines with less differentiated phenotype were more susceptible than the differentiated ones. RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that PMA upregulated the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in HL-60 cells, and that anti-ICAM-1 monoclonal antibody not only abrogated PMA-induced aggregation and adhesion of the cells but also restored its sensitivity to Vitex. These results suggested that ICAM-1 plays a crucial role in the acquired resistance in PMA-differentiated HL-60 cells by contributing to cell adhesion. These findings provide fundamental insights into the clinical application of Vitex/casticin for hematopoietic malignancy.

  8. Three-dimensional components of selfhood in treatment-naive patients with major depressive disorder: A resting-state qEEG imaging study.

    Fingelkurts, Andrew A; Fingelkurts, Alexander A

    2017-05-01

    Based on previous studies implicating increased functional connectivity within the self-referential brain network in major depressive disorder (MDD), and considering the functional roles of three distinct modules of such brain net (responsible for three-dimensional components of Selfhood) together with the documented abnormalities of self-related processing in MDD, we tested the hypothesis that patients with depression would exhibit increased connectivity within each module of the self-referential brain network and that the strength of these connections would correlate positively with depression severity. Applying the electroencephalogram (EEG) operational synchrony analysis to extract three modules of the self-referential brain network in 12 medication-free depressive outpatients and 10 control subjects we have found an increase in the strength of EEG synchrony within all three modules in depressive patients (though non-significant for the right module). Furthermore, multiple regression analysis that used 3 factors (values of synchrony strength for all three modules) as input indicated that combined increase in the strength of synchrony in all three modules was positively associated with severity of depression. Taken together the findings of this study suggest that depression is primarily associated with hypersynchrony in all three modules of the brain self-referential network (the anterior module been responsible for "witnessing observation and first-person perspective", the left posterior module been responsible for "reflective agency and narration" and the right posterior module been responsible for "bodily representational-emotional agency"), thus contributing to excessive self-focus, rumination, and body tension. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Prophylactic administration of an extract from Plantaginis Semen and its major component aucubin inhibits mechanical allodynia caused by paclitaxel in mice

    Tsugunobu Andoh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The chemotherapeutic agent paclitaxel (PTX causes peripheral neuropathy as a major dose-limiting side effect, and this peripheral neuropathy is difficult to control. Our previous report showed that prophylactic repetitive administration of goshajinkigan (牛車腎氣丸 niú chē shèn qì wán, but not hachimijiogan (八味地黃丸 bā wèi dì huáng wán, which lacks two of the constituents of goshajinkigan, inhibited PTX-induced mechanical allodynia in mice. Thus, the herbal medicines Plantaginis Semen (車前子 chē qián zǐ or Achyranthis Radix (牛膝 niú xī may contribute to the inhibitory action of goshajinkigan on the exacerbation of PTX-induced mechanical allodynia [Andoh et al, J. Tradit. Complement. Med. 2014; 4: 293–297]. Therefore, in this study, we examined whether an extract of Plantaginis Semen (EPS or Achyranthis Radix (EAR would relieve PTX-induced mechanical allodynia in mice. A single intraperitoneal injection of PTX caused mechanical allodynia, which peaked on day 14 after injection. Repetitive oral administration of EPS, but not EAR, starting from the day after PTX injection significantly inhibited the exacerbation of PTX-induced mechanical allodynia. Repetitive intraperitoneal injection of aucubin, one of the main components of EPS, starting from the day after PTX injection also significantly reduced PTX-induced mechanical allodynia. However, repetitive intraperitoneal injection of geniposide acid (a precursor of aucubin or catalpol (a metabolite of aucubin did not prevent the exacerbation of mechanical allodynia. These results suggest that prophylactic administration of EPS is effective for preventing the exacerbation of PTX-induced allodynia. Aucubin may contribute to the inhibitory action of EPS on the exacerbation of PTX-induced allodynia.

  10. Characterization of the nutritional components in fruit and cladode of selenium-enriched nutraceutical cactus pear fruit varieties grown on agricultural sediment

    Different accessions of different colored cactus pear (Opuntia ficus Indica) were grown in soils high in salts, boron and selenium (Se) located in the Westside of central California. The changes in the nutritional status and biological transformation of the absorbed inorganic Se from the soils into ...

  11. The Effect of Chemical, Biological and Organic Nutritional Treatments on Sunflowers Yield and Yield Components under the Influence of Water Deficit Stress

    fatemeh soleymani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction To achieve the higher economic yield of crop plants, supplying enough nutrients to plants is very important. Moreover, nutrient uptakes by plants is influenced by the soil water contents. However, nowadays chemical fertilizer application is important agronomic factor that has significant effects on growth and quantity and quality of final yield, but traditional nutrient management and excessive use of chemical fertilizers may cause the environmental problems such as contamination of soil and water resources, low quality of agricultural products and reduction of soil fertility. These factors have drawn attention to health and ecological sustainable farming systems (Sharma, 2002. In this context, usage of organic and biological products for plant nutrition is considered as one of the solutions to achieve the goals of sustainable agriculture. Materials and methods To evaluate the effect of various feeding systems on yield and yield components of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. under the influence of water deficit stress, a split-plot experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications, was carried out in the Agricultural Faculty of Bu-Ali Sina University during the growing season of 2013-2014. Main plots consisted of two irrigation levels: optimum irrigation and deficit irrigation stress (irrigation after 60 and 120 mm evaporation from evaporation pan, class A, respectively and sub-plots included of nine nutrition systems: 1- no bio or chemical fertilizer application, 2- 100% of the recommended chemical fertilizer , 3- vermicompost, 4- phospho nitro kara, 5- vermicompost+ phospho nitro kara, 6- vermicompost+ ½ chemical fertilizer, 7- phospho nitro kara+ ½ chemical fertilizer, 8- vermicompost+ phospho nitro kara+ ½ chemical fertilizer, 9- ½ proposed chemical fertilizer. Phospho-nitro-kara which contains phosphate solubilizing and nitrogen fixing bacteria (Bacillus coagulans, azotobactr chroocuccum and

  12. Effect of substrate on the growth, nutritional and bioactive ...

    rosemary

    2016-07-06

    Jul 6, 2016 ... growth, determining nutritional and bioactive components of two oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus and. Pleurotus ... and the method of cultivation are of major importance ..... rendered alkaline with a few drops of ammonia solution. 5 ..... production and non-enzymatic antioxidant activity of Pleurotus.

  13. Diet & Nutrition

    ... Nutrition Share this page Facebook Twitter Email Diet & Nutrition Eating healthy to take charge of your health. Shelly Diagnosed in 2006 Diet & Nutrition Take Control of Your Weight Portion Control Low ...

  14. Home parenteral nutrition in children

    Kalousova, J.; Rouskova, B.; Styblova, J.

    2011-01-01

    Parenteral nutrition delivered at home presents a major improvement in the quality of life of children dependent on long term parenteral nutrition. Indications, technical conditions, logistics, complications, prognosis of home parenteral nutrition as well as some health-care issues to be addressed by pediatric practitioner are summarized. (author)

  15. Position of the American Dietetic Association, School Nutrition Association, and Society for Nutrition Education: Comprehensive School Nutrition Services

    Briggs, Marilyn; Mueller, Constance G.; Fleischhacker, Sheila

    2010-01-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association (ADA), School Nutrition Association (SNA), and Society for Nutrition Education (SNE) that comprehensive, integrated nutrition services in schools, kindergarten through grade 12, are an essential component of coordinated school health programs and will improve the nutritional status, health,…

  16. Development of the TRSSS-1 Satellite as the Major Component of the Space Based Information System(SBIS) for Effective Decision Support System for Thailand's Natural Resources and Environmental Management

    Musigasam, Weerapant; Ditsariyakue, Praneet; Aphicholati, Navanit; Vibulsresth, Suvit

    1997-01-01

    The paper describes development of the first Thailand Remote Sensing Satellite System (TRSSS-1) by the National Research Council of Thailand (NRCT), Ministry of Science Technology and Environment (MOSTE). The TRSSS-1 project has primarily been developed as a major component of the Space Base Information System (SBIS) for effective decision support system for Thailand's natural resources and environmental management. The Space Based Information System consists of three components namely, the u...

  17. [Precision nutrition in the era of precision medicine].

    Chen, P Z; Wang, H

    2016-12-06

    Precision medicine has been increasingly incorporated into clinical practice and is enabling a new era for disease prevention and treatment. As an important constituent of precision medicine, precision nutrition has also been drawing more attention during physical examinations. The main aim of precision nutrition is to provide safe and efficient intervention methods for disease treatment and management, through fully considering the genetics, lifestyle (dietary, exercise and lifestyle choices), metabolic status, gut microbiota and physiological status (nutrient level and disease status) of individuals. Three major components should be considered in precision nutrition, including individual criteria for sufficient nutritional status, biomarker monitoring or techniques for nutrient detection and the applicable therapeutic or intervention methods. It was suggested that, in clinical practice, many inherited and chronic metabolic diseases might be prevented or managed through precision nutritional intervention. For generally healthy populations, because lifestyles, dietary factors, genetic factors and environmental exposures vary among individuals, precision nutrition is warranted to improve their physical activity and reduce disease risks. In summary, research and practice is leading toward precision nutrition becoming an integral constituent of clinical nutrition and disease prevention in the era of precision medicine.

  18. Targeting physical activity and nutrition interventions towards mothers with young children: a review on components that contribute to attendance and effectiveness

    Hartman, Marieke A.; Hosper, Karen; Stronks, Karien

    2011-01-01

    To gain insight into intervention components targeted specifically to mothers of young children that may contribute to attendance and effectiveness on physical activity and healthy eating. Systematic literature searches were performed using MEDLINE, Embase and cited references. Articles were

  19. Human health and nutrition: How isotopes are helping to overcome ''hidden hunger''

    Parr, R.M.; Fjeld, C.R.

    1994-01-01

    In a number of ways, the work of the IAEA is contributing to efforts directed at overcoming hidden hunger and other nutrition problems. The rationale for the IAEA's involvement is twofold. First, adequate nutrition is an essential component of any strategy for improving health, and the IAEA's Statute specifically identifies ''enlarging the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity'' as the major objective of programmes. Second, isotope techniques have a wide variety of applications -some of them unique - for targeted research in human nutrition, for assessing nutritional status, and for monitoring the effectiveness of nutritional intervention programmes. This article provides a brief overview of these techniques and their main applications in areas of human nutrition

  20. Efficient, highly enantioselective synthesis of selina-1,3, 7(11)-trien-8-one, a major component of the essential oil of Eugenia uniflora.

    Kanazawa, A; Patin, A; Greene, A E

    2000-09-01

    The first synthesis of selina-1,3,7(11)-trien-8-one (1), a major constituent of the essential oil from the leaves of Eugenia uniflora, has been accomplished, with excellent stereo- and regiocontrol, in eight steps and in 12% overall yield from the known octalone derivative 2a.

  1. Erythritol, a non-nutritive sugar alcohol sweetener and the main component of truvia®, is a palatable ingested insecticide.

    Kaitlin M Baudier

    Full Text Available Insecticides have a variety of commercial applications including urban pest control, agricultural use to increase crop yields, and prevention of proliferation of insect-borne diseases. Many pesticides in current use are synthetic molecules such as organochlorine and organophosphate compounds. Some synthetic insecticides suffer drawbacks including high production costs, concern over environmental sustainability, harmful effects on human health, targeting non-intended insect species, and the evolution of resistance among insect populations. Thus, there is a large worldwide need and demand for environmentally safe and effective insecticides. Here we show that Erythritol, a non-nutritive sugar alcohol, was toxic to the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Ingested erythritol decreased fruit fly longevity in a dose-dependent manner, and erythritol was ingested by flies that had free access to control (sucrose foods in choice and CAFE studies. Erythritol was US FDA approved in 2001 and is used as a food additive in the United States. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, that erythritol may be used as a novel, environmentally sustainable and human safe approach for insect pest control.

  2. [Development of the pregnancy nutrition knowledge scale and its relationship with eating habits in pregnant women visiting community health center].

    Kim, Hae Won

    2009-02-01

    This study was done to develop a pregnancy nutrition knowledge scale and to examine the relationships between pregnancy nutrition knowledge and eating habits in pregnant women. With convenient sampling, 189 pregnant women who used community health centers for their ante-natal care were recruited. Data were collected using a self administered questionnaire including items on pregnancy nutrition knowledge (18 items) developed by researcher and items on eating habits (14 items). Cronbach's alpha and exploratory factor analysis were examined to test reliability and construct validity of the scale. Pearson's correlation coefficients were used to identify the relationship between pregnancy nutrition knowledge and eating habits. Cronbach's alpha of 18 items was .80. In factor analysis using principal components, 6 factors explained 65% of the total variance. The level of pregnancy nutrition knowledge was not sufficient but correlations between pregnancy nutrition knowledge and some of eating habits were significant. Specifically, pregnancy nutrition knowledge was positively correlated with good eating habits and negatively with bad eating habits. The pregnancy nutrition knowledge scale developed in this study is acceptable for nutrition education led by nurses. Pregnancy nutrition knowledge and eating habits are considered as major variables for ante-natal nutrition education. In future studies, explorations are needed on dietary intake and physiological indices in pregnant women, comparison of women at risk with those not at risk, and development of nutritional education programs for pregnant women.

  3. In vitro activity of essential oils of Lippia sidoides and Lippia gracilis and their major chemical components against Thielaviopsis paradoxa, causal agent of stem bleeding in coconut palms

    Rejane Rodrigues da Costa e Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils of Lippia sidoides, Lippia gracilis and their main chemical components were investigated for in vitro control of Thielaviopsis paradoxa. Mycelial growth and a number of pathogen conidia were inhibited by the essential oil of L. sidoides at all concentrations tested (0.2; 0.5; 1.0; 3.0 µL mL-1. L. sidoides oil contained 42.33% thymol and 4.56% carvacrol, while L. gracilis oil contained 10% thymol and 41.7% carvacrol. Mycelial growth and conidial production of T. paradoxa were completely inhibited by thymol at a 0.3 µL m-1 concentration. The results suggest that thymol could potentially be used for controlling coconut stem bleeding.

  4. Nutrition Basics

    ... and Shareables Autoimmune Diseases Breastfeeding Cancer Fitness and Nutrition Heart Disease and Stroke HIV and AIDS Mental ... health topic Autoimmune Diseases Breastfeeding Cancer Fitness and Nutrition Heart Disease and Stroke HIV and AIDS Mental ...

  5. Nutritional Support

    Nutritional support is therapy for people who cannot get enough nourishment by eating or drinking. You may need ... absorb nutrients through your digestive system You receive nutritional support through a needle or catheter placed in your ...

  6. Nutritional supplements

    Petersen, Gry Bjerg; Andersen, Jens Rikardt

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several studies have indicated that cancer patients have significantly altered taste sensitivity without specifying the preferences. One of the related problems is low compliance to nutritional therapy with oral nutritional supplements (ONS) in patients suffering severe weight loss...

  7. Effects of controlled school-based multi-component model of nutrition and lifestyle interventions on behavior modification, anthropometry and metabolic risk profile of urban Asian Indian adolescents in North India.

    Singhal, N; Misra, A; Shah, P; Gulati, S

    2010-04-01

    To study the effectiveness of a multi-component intervention model of nutrition and lifestyle education on behavior modification, anthropometry and metabolic risk profile of urban Asian-Indian adolescents in North India. Two schools matched for student strength and middle socioeconomic strata were randomly allocated to intervention and control group. Changes in nutrition-related knowledge, attitude, lifestyle practices, food frequency and body image of eleventh-grade students (15-17 years) in both schools were tested using a validated questionnaire. Anthropometric and biochemical measurements were made using standard methods. Segmental body composition analysis was carried out using an 8-electrode multifrequency bioelectrical impedance method of body fat estimation. At 6 months follow-up, significant improvement in several domains of knowledge was observed in intervention children (n=99; males=60; females=39) as compared with control school children (n=102; males=61; females=41). In the intervention group, significantly lower proportion of children consumed aerated drinks (15.1%; Phabits and lifestyle practices, and resulted in beneficial changes in anthropometric and biochemical profiles of the Asian Indian adolescents. This model should be applied on countrywide basis to prevent obesity and diabetes.

  8. Pre-aged soil organic carbon as a major component of the Yellow River suspended load: Regional significance and global relevance

    Tao, Shuqin; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Montluçon, Daniel B.; McIntyre, Cameron; Zhao, Meixun

    2015-03-01

    Large rivers connect the continents and the oceans, and corresponding material fluxes have a global impact on marine biogeochemistry. The Yellow River transports vast quantities of suspended sediments to the ocean, yet the nature of the particulate organic carbon (POC) carried by this system is not well known. The focus of this study is to characterize the sources, composition and age of suspended POC collected near the terminus of this river system, focusing on the abundance and carbon isotopic composition (13C and 14C) of specific biomarkers. The concentrations of vascular plant wax lipids (long-chain (≥C24) n-alkanes, n-fatty acids) and POC co-varied with total suspended solid (TSS) concentrations, indicating that both were controlled by the overall terrestrial sediment flux. POC exhibited relatively uniform δ13C values (-23.8 to -24.2‰), and old radiocarbon ages (4000-4640 yr). However, different biomarkers exhibited a wide range of 14C ages. Short-chain (C16, C18) fatty acid 14C ages were variable but generally the youngest organic components (from 502 yr to modern), suggesting they reflect recently biosynthesized material. Lignin phenol 14C ages were also variable and relatively young (1070 yr to modern), suggesting rapid export of carbon from terrestrial primary production. In contrast, long-chain plant wax lipids display relatively uniform and significantly older 14C ages (1500-1800 yr), likely reflecting inputs of pre-aged, mineral-associated soil OC from the Yellow River drainage basin. Even-carbon-numbered n-alkanes yielded the oldest 14C ages (up to 26 000 yr), revealing the presence of fossil (petrogenic) OC. Two isotopic mass balance approaches were explored to quantitively apportion different OC sources in Yellow River suspended sediments. Results indicate that the dominant component of POC (53-57%) is substantially pre-aged (1510-1770 yr), and likely sourced from the extensive loess-paleosol deposits outcropping within the drainage basin. Of

  9. Soluble components of the flagellar export apparatus, FliI, FliJ, and FliH, do not deliver flagellin, the major filament protein, from the cytosol to the export gate.

    Sajó, Ráchel; Liliom, Károly; Muskotál, Adél; Klein, Agnes; Závodszky, Péter; Vonderviszt, Ferenc; Dobó, József

    2014-11-01

    Flagella, the locomotion organelles of bacteria, extend from the cytoplasm to the cell exterior. External flagellar proteins are synthesized in the cytoplasm and exported by the flagellar type III secretion system. Soluble components of the flagellar export apparatus, FliI, FliH, and FliJ, have been implicated to carry late export substrates in complex with their cognate chaperones from the cytoplasm to the export gate. The importance of the soluble components in the delivery of the three minor late substrates FlgK, FlgL (hook-filament junction) and FliD (filament-cap) has been convincingly demonstrated, but their role in the transport of the major filament component flagellin (FliC) is still unclear. We have used continuous ATPase activity measurements and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) studies to characterize interactions between the soluble export components and flagellin or the FliC:FliS substrate-chaperone complex. As controls, interactions between soluble export component pairs were characterized providing Kd values. FliC or FliC:FliS did not influence the ATPase activity of FliI alone or in complex with FliH and/or FliJ suggesting lack of interaction in solution. Immobilized FliI, FliH, or FliJ did not interact with FliC or FliC:FliS detected by QCM. The lack of interaction in the fluid phase between FliC or FliC:FliS and the soluble export components, in particular with the ATPase FliI, suggests that cells use different mechanisms for the export of late minor substrates, and the major substrate, FliC. It seems that the abundantly produced flagellin does not require the assistance of the soluble export components to efficiently reach the export gate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Total parenteral nutrition - Problems in compatibility and stability

    Schroder, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Adding calcium, trace elements and vitamins could turn parenteral nutrition into a dangerous product, which could harm the patient. This article focuses on the major pharmaceutical problems of parenteral. nutrition when adding nutritional compounds Udgivelsesdato: 2008...

  11. Advantages of enteral nutrition over parenteral nutrition

    Seres, David S.; Valcarcel, Monika; Guillaume, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    It is a strong and commonly held belief among nutrition clinicians that enteral nutrition is preferable to parenteral nutrition. We provide a narrative review of more recent studies and technical reviews comparing enteral nutrition with parenteral nutrition. Despite significant weaknesses in the existing data, current literature continues to support the use of enteral nutrition in patients requiring nutrition support, over parenteral nutrition.

  12. Inhibitory capacity of Rhus coriaria L. extract and its major component methyl gallate on Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation by optical profilometry: Potential applications for oral health.

    Kacergius, Tomas; Abu-Lafi, Saleh; Kirkliauskiene, Agne; Gabe, Vika; Adawi, Azmi; Rayan, Mahmoud; Qutob, Mutaz; Stukas, Rimantas; Utkus, Algirdas; Zeidan, Mouhammad; Rayan, Anwar

    2017-07-01

    Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) bacterium is the most well recognized pathogen involved in pathogenesis of dental caries. Its virulence arises from its ability to produce a biofilm and acidogenicity, causing tooth decay. Discovery of natural products capable to inhibit biofilm formation is of high importance for developing health care products. To the best of our knowledge, in all previous scientific reports, a colorimetric assay was applied to test the effect of sumac and methyl gallate (MG) on S. mutans adherence. Quantitative assessment of the developed biofilm should be further performed by applying an optical profilometry assay, and by testing the effect on both surface roughness and thickness parameters of the biofilm. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report the effect of sumac extract and its constituent MG on biofilm formation using an optical profilometry assay. Testing antibacterial activity of the sumac extract and its fractions revealed that MG is the most bioactive component against S. mutans bacteria. It reduced S. mutans biofilm biomass on the polystyrene surface by 68‑93%, whereas 1 mg/ml MG was able to decrease the biofilm roughness and thickness on the glass surface by 99%. MG also prevented a decrease in pH level by 97%. These bioactivities of MG occurred in a dose‑dependent manner and were significant vs. untreated bacteria. The findings are important for the development of novel pharmaceuticals and formulations of natural products and extracts that possess anti‑biofilm activities with primary applications for oral health, and in a broader context, for the treatment of various bacterial infections.

  13. Natural deep eutectic solvents as the major mobile phase components in high-performance liquid chromatography-searching for alternatives to organic solvents.

    Sutton, Adam T; Fraige, Karina; Leme, Gabriel Mazzi; da Silva Bolzani, Vanderlan; Hilder, Emily F; Cavalheiro, Alberto J; Arrua, R Dario; Funari, Cristiano Soleo

    2018-06-01

    Over the past six decades, acetonitrile (ACN) has been the most employed organic modifier in reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), followed by methanol (MeOH). However, from the growing environmental awareness that leads to the emergence of "green analytical chemistry," new research has emerged that includes finding replacements to problematic ACN because of its low sustainability. Deep eutectic solvents (DES) can be produced from an almost infinite possible combinations of compounds, while being a "greener" alternative to organic solvents in HPLC, especially those prepared from natural compounds called natural DES (NADES). In this work, the use of three NADES as the main organic component in RP-HPLC, rather than simply an additive, was explored and compared to the common organic solvents ACN and MeOH but additionally to the greener ethanol for separating two different mixtures of compounds, one demonstrating the elution of compounds with increasing hydrophobicity and the other comparing molecules of different functionality and molar mass. To utilize NADES as an organic modifier and overcome their high viscosity monolithic columns, temperatures at 50 °C and 5% ethanol in the mobile phase were used. NADES are shown to give chromatographic performances in between those observed for ACN and MeOH when eluotropic strength, resolution, and peak capacity were taken into consideration, while being less environmentally impactful as shown by the HPLC-Environmental Assessment Tool (HPLC-EAT) metric. With the development of proper technologies, DES could open a new class of mobile phases increasing the possibilities of new separation selectivities while reducing the environmental impact of HPLC analyses. Graphical abstract Natural deep eutectic solvents versus traditional solvents in HPLC.

  14. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior, and School Nutrition Association: Comprehensive Nutrition Programs and Services in Schools.

    Hayes, Dayle; Contento, Isobel R; Weekly, Carol

    2018-05-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, School Nutrition Association, and Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior that comprehensive, integrated nutrition programs in preschool through high school are essential to improve the health, nutritional status, and academic performance of our nation's children. Through the continued use of multidisciplinary teams, local school needs will be better identified and addressed within updated wellness policies. Updated nutrition standards are providing students with a wider variety of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, while limiting sodium, calories, and saturated fat. Millions of students enjoy school meals every day in the US, with the majority of these served to children who are eligible for free and reduced-priced meals. To maximize impact, the Academy, School Nutrition Association, and Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior recommend specific strategies in the following key areas: food and nutrition services available throughout the school campus, nutrition initiatives such as farm to school and school gardens, wellness policies, nutrition education and promotion, food and beverage marketing at school, and consideration of roles and responsibilities. It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, School Nutrition Association, and Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior that comprehensive, integrated nutrition programs in preschool through high school are essential to improve the health, nutritional status, and academic performance of our nation's children. To maximize impact, the Academy, School Nutrition Association, and Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior recommend specific strategies in the following key areas: food and nutrition services available throughout the school campus; nutrition initiatives such as farm to school and school gardens; wellness policies; nutrition education and promotion; food and beverage marketing at school; and consideration of

  15. CD40-CD40 Ligand Pathway is a Major Component of Acute Neuroinflammation and Contributes to Long-term Cognitive Dysfunction after Sepsis.

    Michels, Monique; Danieslki, Lucinéia Gainski; Vieira, Andriele; Florentino, Drielly; Dall'Igna, Dhébora; Galant, Letícia; Sonai, Beatriz; Vuolo, Francieli; Mina, Franciele; Pescador, Bruna; Dominguini, Diogo; Barichello, Tatiana; Quevedo, João; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Petronilho, Fabrícia

    2015-03-26

    Sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE) is associated with an increased rate of morbidity and mortality. It is not understood what the exact mechanism is for the brain dysfunction that occurs in septic patients, but brain inflammation and oxidative stress are a possible theory. Such events can occur through the alteration of molecules that perpetuate the inflammatory response. Thus, it is possible to postulate that CD40 may be involved in this process. The aim of this work is to evaluate the role of CD40-CD40L pathway activation in brain dysfunction associated with sepsis in an animal model. Microglia activation induces the upregulation of CD40-CD40L, both in vitro and in vivo. The inhibition of microglia activation decreases levels of CD40-CD40L in the brain and decreases brain inflammation, oxidative damage and blood brain barrier dysfunction. Despite this, anti-CD40 treatment does not improve mortality in this model. However, it is able to improve long-term cognitive impairment in sepsis survivors. In conclusion, there is a major involvement of the CD40-CD40L signaling pathway in long-term brain dysfunction in an animal model of sepsis.

  16. CD40–CD40 Ligand Pathway Is a Major Component of Acute Neuroinflammation and Contributes to Long-term Cognitive Dysfunction after Sepsis

    Michels, Monique; Danieslki, Lucinéia Gainski; Vieira, Andriele; Florentino, Drielly; Dall’Igna, Dhébora; Galant, Letícia; Sonai, Beatriz; Vuolo, Francieli; Mina, Franciele; Pescador, Bruna; Dominguini, Diogo; Barichello, Tatiana; Quevedo, João; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Petronilho, Fabrícia

    2015-01-01

    Sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE) is associated with an increased rate of morbidity and mortality. It is not understood what the exact mechanism is for the brain dysfunction that occurs in septic patients, but brain inflammation and oxidative stress are a possible theory. Such events can occur through the alteration of molecules that perpetuate the inflammatory response. Thus, it is possible to postulate that CD40 may be involved in this process. The aim of this work is to evaluate the role of CD40–CD40L pathway activation in brain dysfunction associated with sepsis in an animal model. Microglia activation induces the upregulation of CD40–CD40L, both in vitro and in vivo. The inhibition of microglia activation decreases levels of CD40–CD40L in the brain and decreases brain inflammation, oxidative damage and blood brain barrier dysfunction. Despite this, anti-CD40 treatment does not improve mortality in this model. However, it is able to improve long-term cognitive impairment in sepsis survivors. In conclusion, there is a major involvement of the CD40–CD40L signaling pathway in long-term brain dysfunction in an animal model of sepsis. PMID:25822797

  17. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of prunin-1, a major component of the almond (Prunus dulcis) allergen amandin.

    Albillos, Silvia M; Jin, Tengchuan; Howard, Andrew; Zhang, Yuzhu; Kothary, Mahendra H; Fu, Tong-Jen

    2008-07-09

    The 11S globulins from plant seeds account for a number of major food allergens. Because of the interest in the structural basis underlying the allergenicity of food allergens, we sought to crystallize the main 11S seed storage protein from almond ( Prunus dulcis). Prunin-1 (Pru1) was purified from defatted almond flour by water extraction, cryoprecipitation, followed by sequential anion exchange, hydrophobic interaction, and size exclusion chromatography. Single crystals of Pru1 were obtained in a screening with a crystal screen kit, using the hanging-drop vapor diffusion method. Diffraction quality crystals were grown after optimization. The Pru1 crystals diffracted to at least 3.0 A and belong to the tetragonal space group P4(1)22, with unit cell parameters of a = b = 150.912 A, c = 165.248 A. Self-rotation functions and molecular replacement calculations showed that there are three molecules in the asymmetry unit with water content of 51.41%. The three Pru1 protomers are related by a noncrystallographic 3-fold axis and they form a doughnut-shaped trimer. Two prunin trimers form a homohexamer. Elucidation of prunin structure will allow further characterization of the allergenic features of the 11S protein allergens at the molecular level.

  18. Purification, Crystallization and Preliminary X-ray Characterization of Prunin-1, a Major Component of the Almond (Prunus dulcis) Allergen Amandin

    Albillos, Silvia M.; Jin, Tengchuan; Howard, Andrew; Zhang, Yuzhu; Kothary, Mahendra H.; Fu, Tong-Jen (IIT); (US-FDA)

    2008-08-04

    The 11S globulins from plant seeds account for a number of major food allergens. Because of the interest in the structural basis underlying the allergenicity of food allergens, we sought to crystallize the main 11S seed storage protein from almond (Prunus dulcis). Prunin-1 (Pru1) was purified from defatted almond flour by water extraction, cryoprecipitation, followed by sequential anion exchange, hydrophobic interaction, and size exclusion chromatography. Single crystals of Pru1 were obtained in a screening with a crystal screen kit, using the hanging-drop vapor diffusion method. Diffraction quality crystals were grown after optimization. The Pru1 crystals diffracted to at least 3.0 {angstrom} and belong to the tetragonal space group P4{sub 1}22, with unit cell parameters of a = b = 150.912 {angstrom}, c = 165.248 {angstrom}. Self-rotation functions and molecular replacement calculations showed that there are three molecules in the asymmetry unit with water content of 51.41%. The three Pru1 protomers are related by a noncrystallographic 3-fold axis and they form a doughnut-shaped trimer. Two prunin trimers form a homohexamer. Elucidation of prunin structure will allow further characterization of the allergenic features of the 11S protein allergens at the molecular level.

  19. Component-resolved microarray analysis of IgE sensitization profiles to Felis catus major allergen molecules in Russian cat-allergic patients.

    Dolgova, Anna Sergeevna; Sudina, Anna Evgenevna; Cherkashina, Anna Sergeevna; Stukolova, Olga Alekseevna

    We aimed to determine the profile of IgE reactivity to three major cat allergens, Fel d 1, Fel d 2 and Fel d 4, in cat-allergic patients in the Moscow region in Russia. sIgE levels to recombinant proteins expressed in Escherichia coli (Fel d 1 and Fel d 4) and to Fel d 2 protein purified from cat serum were measured using a microarray method developed in our laboratory. Sera from 174 anonymous subjects with a positive reaction (≥0.35 IU/mL) to cat dander extract (e1, ImmunoCAP) and 56 negative controls were used for IgE testing. Fel d 1 was recognized by 92.5%, Fel d 2 by 29.9% and Fel d 4 by 39.1% of the tested patient sera. The sensitivity to these three proteins was approximately 98% compared to cat dander extract (correlation coefficient to ImmunoCAP is 0.94 with PPV = 0.99 and NPV = 0.95). These predictive values appeared to be even more statistically significant than the divergence between the ISAC IgE test and the extract-based singleplex ImmunoCAP. The combination of the three investigated proteins (Fel d 1, Fel d 2 and Fel d 4) is suitable for in vitro molecular (serological) diagnosis of cat allergy in this region as a complement to cat dander extract. Moreover, with this method, we found distinction between Fel d 2 and other Feline sIgEs formation.

  20. Nutrition Labeling

    Grunert, Klaus G

    2013-01-01

    because consumers will avoid products that the label shows to be nutritionally deficient, but also because food producers will try to avoid marketing products that appear, according to the label, as nutritionally problematic, for example, because of a high content of saturated fat or salt. Nutrition......Nutrition labeling refers to the provision of information on a food product’s nutritional content on the package label. It can serve both public health and commercial purposes. From a public health perspective, the aim of nutrition labeling is to provide information that can enable consumers...... to make healthier choices when choosing food products. Nutrition labeling is thus closely linked to the notion of the informed consumer, that chooses products according to their aims, on the basis of the information at their disposal. Because many consumers are assumed to be interested in making healthy...

  1. Effects and mechanisms of Shaofu-Zhuyu decoction and its major bioactive component for Cold - Stagnation and Blood - Stasis primary dysmenorrhea rats.

    Huang, Xiaochen; Su, Shulan; Duan, Jin-Ao; Sha, Xiuxiu; Zhu, Kavin Yue; Guo, Jianming; Yu, Li; Liu, Pei; Shang, Erxin; Qian, Dawei

    2016-06-20

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is used under the guidance of the theory of traditional Chinese medical sciences in clinical application. The Chinese herbal formula, Shaofu Zhuyu decoction (SFZYD), is considered as an effective prescription for treating Cold - Stagnation and Blood - Stasis (CSBS) primary dysmenorrhea. The previous studies showed the SFZYD exhibited significant anti-inflammation and analgesic effect. In this present study the metabolomics of CSBS primary dysmenorrhea diseased rats and the cytokine transcription in PHA stimulated-PBMC were investigated to explore the effects and mechanisms. Explore a valuable insight into the effects and mechanisms of SFZYD on Cold - Stagnation and Blood - Stasis primary dysmenorrhea rats. We established CSBS primary dysmenorrhea diseased rats according the clinical symptoms. A targeted tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS)-based metabolomic platform was used to evaluate the metabolic profiling changes and the intervention effects by SFZYD. The PBMC cell was adopted to explore the mechanisms by analyzing the signaling pathway evaluated by expression of inflammatory cytokines, c-jun and c-fos and corresponding phosphorylation levels. Estradiol, oxytocin, progesterone, endothelin, β-endorphin and PGF2α were restored back to the normal level after the treatment of SFZYD. Total twenty-five metabolites (10 in plasma and 15 in urine), up-regulated or down-regulated, were identified. These identified biomarkers underpinning the metabolic pathway including pentose and glucuronate interconversions, steroid hormone biosynthesis, and glycerophospholipid metabolism are disturbed in model rats. Among these metabolites, twenty one potential biomarkers were regulated after SFZYD treated. The compound of paeoniflorin, a major bioactive compound in SFZYD, was proved to regulate the MAPK signaling pathway by inhibiting the expression of IL-1β, IL-2, IL-10, IL-12, TNFα, INFγ, c-jun and c-fos in PHA stimulated-PBMC. These findings

  2. The Colostrum Proteome, Ruminant Nutrition and Immunity: A Review

    Hernandez Castellano, Lorenzo E; Almeida, André M; Castro, Noemí

    2014-01-01

    In this review authors address colostrum proteins implications in different domestic ruminant species. The colostrogenesis process and how different factors, such as litter size or nutrition during gestation can alter the different components concentrations in colostrum are also reviewed....... The different colostrum fractions will be described, focusing on high and low abundant proteins. This review describes the major function of such proteins and their role on the passive immune transfer and nutrition in the newborn animal. It will be also performed a comprehensive review on different techniques...

  3. Relationship between Kt/V urea-based dialysis adequacy and nutritional status and their effect on the components of the quality of life in incident peritoneal dialysis patients

    Chen Jin-Bor

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well known that the quality of life of patients with chronic kidney disease can be improved by dialysis. While previous studies have used retrospective designs and adhered to a standard target prescribed by clinical guidelines, our study prospectively investigates the association between the adequacy of peritoneal dialysis (PD and measures of nutritional status on quality-of-life domains in a cohort of incident PD patients. Methods It was a prospective 6-month observational study. Eighty incident PD participants who were treated in a hospital-based PD center were enrolled. The period of enrollment was January 2009–June 2010; follow-up continued until December 2010. PD adequacy indices, including Kt/V urea, weekly Ccr (WCcr, measures of nutritional status (albumin, BMI, and nPCR were measured at 1 month and 6 months after PD initiation. SF-36 health survey questionnaires were used to measure the quality of life. The outcomes were used to measure the changes in the domains of the SF-36 after 6 months of PD therapy. Results Seventy-seven incident patients who underwent PD for 6 months were included in the study. The mean age was 47.3 years, and the male-to-female ratio was 38:39. A peritoneal Kt/V urea value of 1.2, which was also the baseline cutoff value, was found to have the highest influence on SF-36 domains. Patients with baseline peritoneal Kt/V urea value of Limitations A small cohort and a short observation period. Conclusions The baseline level of peritoneal Kt/V urea affected the components of the quality of life after PD initiation. In contrast, a lower baseline nPCR level was associated with deterioration in the quality of life after PD therapy.

  4. Physicochemical, Nutritional, and Functional Characteristics of ...

    ... a good source of nutritional components and essential nutrients, including minerals and amino acids, and have functional properties, which, if properly utilized, can improve human nutrition and health. Keywords: Grewia tenax, Physicochemical, Amino acids, Nutrition, Functional properties, Minerals, Volatile compounds ...

  5. [Community Nutrition].

    Aranceta, Javier

    2004-06-01

    In the last 20 years, Public Health Nutrition focused mainly on the qualitative aspects which may influence the onset of chronic diseases, quality of life, physical and mental performance and life expectancy. This applied knowledge organised as part of preventive and health promotion programs led to the development of Community Nutrition. The aim of Community Nutrition actions is to adequate lifestyles related to food consumption patterns in order to improve the quality of life and contribute to health promotion of the population in the community where programs and services are delivered. Key functions to develop in a Community Nutrition Unit consist in the identification and assessment of nutrition problems in the community as well as the design, implementation and evaluation of intervention programs by means of appropriate strategies. These should aim at different populations groups and settings, such as work places, schools, high risk groups or the general public. Nowadays, Community Nutrition work efforts should focus on three main aspects: nutrition education in schools and in the community; food safety and food security and the development and reinforcement of food preparation skills across all age groups. Social catering services, either in schools, the work place or at the community level, need to ensure adequate nutritional supply, provide foods contributing to healthy eating practices as well as to enhance culinary traditions and social learning. Food safety and food security have become a top priority in Public Health. The concepts referes to the availability of food safe and adequate as well as in sufficient amount in order to satisfy nutrition requirements of all individuals in the community. Social changes along new scientific developments will introduce new demands in Community Nutrition work and individual dietary counselling will become a key strategy. In order to face new challenges, community nutrition pactitioners require a high quality

  6. Efficacy of a multi-component exercise programme and nutritional supplementation on musculoskeletal health in men treated with androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer (IMPACT): study protocol of a randomised controlled trial.

    Owen, Patrick J; Daly, Robin M; Livingston, Patricia M; Mundell, Niamh L; Dalla Via, Jack; Millar, Jeremy L; Fraser, Steve F

    2017-10-03

    Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in men in developed countries. Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is a systemic treatment shown to increase survival in selected patients with prostate cancer. The use of ADT continues to increase for all stages and grades of prostate cancer despite known treatment-induced adverse effects. The primary aim of this study is to examine the efficacy of a targeted, multi-component resistance and impact-loading exercise programme together with a daily protein-, calcium- and vitamin D-enriched supplement on bone health in men treated with ADT for prostate cancer. Secondary aims are to determine the effects of this intervention on measures of total body and regional body composition, cardiometabolic risk, inflammatory markers, health-related quality of life and cognitive function. This study is a two-arm randomised controlled trial. Men currently treated with ADT for prostate cancer will be randomised to either a 52-week, community-based, exercise training and nutritional supplementation intervention (n = 51) or usual care control (n = 51). Participants will be assessed at baseline, 26 weeks and 52 weeks for all measures. The primary outcome measures are proximal femur and lumbar spine areal bone mineral density (BMD). Secondary outcomes comprise: changes in tibial and radial bone structure and strength, total body and regional body composition, muscle strength and function, as well as cardiometabolic health, catabolic/inflammatory and anabolic/anti-inflammatory cytokines, health-related quality of life and cognitive function. This study investigates whether a multi-component intervention incorporating a targeted bone and muscle-loading programme in combination with a protein-, calcium- and vitamin D-enriched supplement can ameliorate multiple adverse effects of ADT when compared to usual care. The results will contribute to the development of exercise training and nutrition guidelines for optimising overall

  7. Importance of nutrition in pediatric oncology

    P C Rogers

    2015-01-01

    A nutritional perspective within pediatric oncology is usually just related to the supportive care aspect during the management of the underlying malignancy. However, nutrition has a far more fundamental importance with respect to a growing, developing child who has cancer as well as viewing cancer from a nutritional cancer control perspective. Nutrition is relevant to all components of cancer control including prevention, epidemiology, biology, treatment, supportive care, rehabilitation, and...

  8. Sports Nutrition.

    Missouri State Dept. of Health, Jefferson City.

    This guide deals with various aspects of sports and nutrition. Twelve chapters are included: (1) "Sports and Nutrition"; (2) "Eat to Compete"; (3) "Fit Folks Need Fit Food"; (4) "The Food Guide Pyramid"; (5) "Fat Finder's Guide"; (6) "Pre- and Post-Event Meals"; (7) "Tips for the…

  9. Nutritional epigenetics

    This chapter is intended to provide a timely overview of the current state of research at the intersection of nutrition and epigenetics. I begin by describing epigenetics and molecular mechanisms of eigenetic regulation, then highlight four classes of nutritional exposures currently being investiga...

  10. Nutrition in Diabetes.

    Hamdy, Osama; Barakatun-Nisak, Mohd-Yusof

    2016-12-01

    Medical nutrition therapy (MNT) is a key component of diabetes management. The importance of balancing macronutrients, reducing carbohydrate load, lowering glycemic index, and implementing an overall healthy dietary pattern are emerging as better approaches for MNT in diabetes. Recent research points to improved glycemic control, reduction in body weight, and improvement in many cardiovascular risk factors when these approaches are provided by registered dietitians or health care providers. This review article discusses the current evidence about the role of sensible nutrition in diabetes management. Specific eating plans for weight reduction and for patients with type 1 diabetes are also discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. [Nutrition therapy of cancer patients].

    Lövey, József

    2017-09-20

    The majority of cancer patients becomes malnourished during the course of their disease. Malnutrition deteriorates the efficiency of all kinds of oncologic interventions. As a consequence of it, treatment-related toxicity increases, hospital stay is lengthened, chances of cure and survival as well as the quality of life of the patients worsen. Nutritional status therefore influences all aspects of outcome of oncology care. In spite of this the use of nutritional therapy varies across health care providers but its application is far from being sufficient during active oncology interventions as well as rehabilitation and supportive care. It threatens not only the outcome and quality of life of cancer patients but also the success of oncologic treatments which often demand high input of human and financial resources. Meanwhile application of nutritional therapy is legally regulated in Hungary and a very recent update of the European guideline on cancer patient nutrition published in 2017 is available. Moreover, cost effectiveness of nutritional therapy has been proven in a number of studies. In this review we present the basics of nutritional therapy including nutritional screening and evaluation, nutritional plan, the role of nutrition support teams, oral, enteral and parenteral nutrition, the use of different drugs and special nutrients and the follow-up of the patients.

  12. Do European consumers use nutrition labels?

    Wills, Josephine M.; Grunert, Klaus G.; Celemín, Laura Fernández

    2009-01-01

    Nutrition labelling on food packages becomes more and more widespread in the European Union. Such information is not compulsory, unless a nutrition or health claim is made. However, how do consumers use nutrition information? Two European studies are currently assessing whether nutrition...... information on food labels is exerting an effect on healthy food choices among consumers. Based for the first time on in-store observations and interviews, these studies give a real-life insight into consumers' shopping behaviours. The major outcomes to date are that most European consumers have reasonable...... knowledge about nutrition and are able to use nutrition labels to identify healthier products within a category....

  13. Clinical avian nutrition.

    Orosz, Susan E

    2014-09-01

    Psittacine birds eat plant-based foods. Birds in the wild seem to be able to balance their energy needs, amino acids, and calcium. Companion birds in captivity do not do as well when self-selecting, and balanced diets are needed to improve their general health. A nutritional history is important to determine whether the avian patient is in balance nutritionally. Understanding the various sources of the fat-soluble vitamins, calcium, and protein will help guide clients to provide nutritious foods for their birds. Owners need to learn to use foraging as a major source of their bird's diet and techniques. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Nutrition and the eye.

    Congdon, N G; West, K P

    1999-12-01

    The topic "nutrition and the eye" cannot adequately be covered in a single review article; indeed, dozens of books and hundreds of articles have been written on the subject. This review concentrates on three areas in which specific nutrients are known or theorized to have a major impact on vision and the visual system: vitamin A deficiency; antioxidants and their proposed role in the prevention of age-related cataract and macular degeneration; and nutritional optic neuropathies, including those of the recent Cuban epidemic. In addition, this article touches on nutritional treatments that have been suggested for several less common eye diseases and, finally, considers several less prevalent conditions in which deficiency of or excess exposure to a particular nutrient has been associated with ocular pathology.

  15. Nutrition in sports

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition is one of the fundamental factors that influence the effectiveness of physical activity, increase efficiency and replenishment of muscle mass, balances the ratio of energy consumed and restored. The diet of an athlete can and should be built on common foods available and prepared in accordance with generally accepted principles of healthy eating. The need for major macronutrients and micronutrients is determined by the need for energy, the intensity of sweating and the goals for building muscle mass. Depending on the intensity of the proposed load including competition, there are individual nutritional needs and, if necessary, various food supplements may be used. The basic principles of sport nutrition are described in this article

  16. Major depression

    Depression - major; Depression - clinical; Clinical depression; Unipolar depression; Major depressive disorder ... providers do not know the exact causes of depression. It is believed that chemical changes in the ...

  17. Space Nutrition

    Smith, Scott M.

    2009-01-01

    Optimal nutrition will be critical for crew members who embark on space exploration missions. Nutritional assessment provides an opportunity to ensure that crewmembers begin their missions in optimal nutritional status, to document changes during a mission and, if necessary, to provide intervention to maintain that status throughout the mission, and to assesses changes after landing in order to facilitate the return to their normal status as soon as possible after landing. We report here the findings from our nutritional assessment of astronauts who participated in the International Space Station (ISS) missions, along with flight and ground-based research findings. We also present ongoing and planned nutrition research activities. These studies provide evidence that bone loss, compromised vitamin status, and oxidative damage are the critical nutritional concerns for space travelers. Other nutrient issues exist, including concerns about the stability of nutrients in the food system, which are exposed to longterm storage and radiation during flight. Defining nutrient requirements, and being able to provide and maintain those nutrients on exploration missions, will be critical for maintaining crew member health.

  18. Nutritional surveillance.

    Mason, J B; Mitchell, J T

    1983-01-01

    The concept of nutritional surveillance is derived from disease surveillance, and means "to watch over nutrition, in order to make decisions that lead to improvements in nutrition in populations". Three distinct objectives have been defined for surveillance systems, primarily in relation to problems of malnutrition in developing countries: to aid long-term planning in health and development; to provide input for programme management and evaluation; and to give timely warning of the need for intervention to prevent critical deteriorations in food consumption. Decisions affecting nutrition are made at various administrative levels, and the uses of different types of nutritional surveillance information can be related to national policies, development programmes, public health and nutrition programmes, and timely warning and intervention programmes. The information should answer specific questions, for example concerning the nutritional status and trends of particular population groups.Defining the uses and users of the information is the first essential step in designing a system; this is illustrated with reference to agricultural and rural development planning, the health sector, and nutrition and social welfare programmes. The most usual data outputs are nutritional outcome indicators (e.g., prevalence of malnutrition among preschool children), disaggregated by descriptive or classifying variables, of which the commonest is simply administrative area. Often, additional "status" indicators, such as quality of housing or water supply, are presented at the same time. On the other hand, timely warning requires earlier indicators of the possibility of nutritional deterioration, and agricultural indicators are often the most appropriate.DATA COME FROM TWO MAIN TYPES OF SOURCE: administrative (e.g., clinics and schools) and household sample surveys. Each source has its own advantages and disadvantages: for example, administrative data often already exist, and can be

  19. Evaluation methods for corrosion damage of components in cooling systems of nuclear power plants by coupling analysis of corrosion and flow dynamics (1). Major targets and development strategies of the evaluation methods

    Naitoh, Masanori; Uchida, Shunsuke; Koshizuka, Seiichi; Ninokata, Hisashi; Hiranuma, Naoki; Dosaki, Koji; Nishida, Koji; Akiyama, Minoru; Saitoh, Hiroaki

    2008-01-01

    Problems in major components and structural materials in nuclear power plants have often been caused by flow induced vibration and corrosion and their overlapping effects. In order to establish safe and reliable plant operation, future problems for structural materials should be predicted based on combined analyses of flow dynamics and corrosion and they should be mitigated before becoming serious issues for plant operation. Three approaches have been prepared for predicting future problems in structural materials: 1. Computer program packages for predicting future corrosion fatigue on structural materials, 2. Computer program packages for predicting future corrosion damage on structural materials, and 3. Computer program packages for predicting wall thinning caused by flow accelerated corrosion. General features of evaluation methods and their computer packages, technical innovations required for their development, and application plans for the developed approaches for plant operation are introduced in this paper. (author)

  20. Rapid and sensitive determination of major polyphenolic components in Euphoria longana Lam. seeds using matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction and UHPLC with hybrid linear ion trap triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    Rathore, Atul S; Sathiyanarayanan, L; Deshpande, Shreekant; Mahadik, Kakasaheb R

    2016-11-01

    A rapid and sensitive method for the extraction and determination of four major polyphenolic components in Euphoria longana Lam. seeds is presented for the first time based on matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction followed by ultra high performance liquid chromatography with hybrid triple quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry. Matrix solid-phase dispersion method was designed for the extraction of Euphoria longana seed constituents and compared with microwave-assisted extraction and ultrasonic-assisted extraction methods. An Ultra high performance liquid chromatography with hybrid triple quadrupole linear ion-trap mass spectrometry method was developed for quantitative analysis in multiple-reaction monitoring mode in negative electrospray ionization. The chromatographic separation was accomplished using an ACQUITY UPLC BEH C 18 (2.1 mm × 50 mm, 1.7 μm) column with gradient elution of 0.1% aqueous formic acid and 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile. The developed method was validated with acceptable linearity (r 2 > 0.999), precision (RSD ≤ 2.22%) and recovery (RSD ≤ 2.35%). The results indicated that matrix solid-phase dispersion produced comparable extraction efficiency compared with other methods nevertheless was more convenient and time-saving with reduced requirements on sample and solvent volumes. The proposed method is rapid and sensitive in providing a promising alternative for extraction and comprehensive determination of active components for quality control of Euphoria longana products. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Research and Development on Food Nutrition Statistical Analysis Software System

    Du Li; Ke Yun

    2013-01-01

    Designing and developing a set of food nutrition component statistical analysis software can realize the automation of nutrition calculation, improve the nutrition processional professional’s working efficiency and achieve the informatization of the nutrition propaganda and education. In the software development process, the software engineering method and database technology are used to calculate the human daily nutritional intake and the intelligent system is used to evaluate the user’s hea...

  2. Parenteral nutrition.

    Inayet, N; Neild, P

    2015-03-01

    Over the last 50 years, parenteral nutrition has been recognised as an invaluable and potentially lifesaving tool in the physician's arsenal in the management of patients with intestinal failure or inaccessibility; however, it may also be associated with a number of potentially life-threatening complications. A recent NCEPOD report (2010) identified a number of inadequacies in the overall provision and management of parenteral nutrition and recommendations were made with the aim of improving clinical practice in the future. This paper focuses on the practical aspects relating to parenteral nutrition for adults, including important concepts, such as patient selection, as well as general management. We also explore the various pitfalls and potential complications and how these may be minimised.

  3. The colostrum proteome, ruminant nutrition and immunity: a review.

    Hernández-Castellano, Lorenzo E; Almeida, Andrè M; Castro, Noemi; Argüello, Anastasio

    2014-02-01

    In this review authors address colostrum proteins implications in different domestic ruminant species. The colostrogenesis process and how different factors, such as litter size or nutrition during gestation can alter the different components concentrations in colostrum are also reviewed. The different colostrum fractions will be described, focusing on high and low abundant proteins. This review describes the major function of such proteins and their role on the passive immune transfer and nutrition in the newborn animal. It will be also performed a comprehensive review on different techniques and commercial kits available for high abundant protein depletion in colostrum. We will finally focus on how proteomics has been used to address this issue and how it can contribute to the major questions about colostrum associated immunology.

  4. Nutritional assessment with body composition measurements

    Shizgal, H.M.

    1987-01-01

    The measurement of body composition by multiple isotope dilution provides an accurate and precise measure of both the nutritional state and the response to nutritional support. A multiple isotope dilution technique has been developed that permits measurement of the three major components of body composition: body fat, extracellular mass (ECM), and body cell mass (BCM). Normal body composition was defined by data obtained in 25 healthy volunteers. Malnutrition is characterized by a loss of BCM and an expansion of the ECM, and as a result the lean body mass is not significantly different from normal. The loss of body weight with malnutrition therefore often reflects the loss of body fat. The utility of body composition measurements was demonstrated by determining the effect of total parenteral nutrition on body composition to determine the relationship between caloric intake and the change in the BCM. A statistically significant relationship was developed which demonstrated that a caloric intake in the range of 30-40 cal/kg/day is required for maintenance. To restore a depleted or malnourished BCM requires a caloric intake in excess of that required for maintenance. The measurement of body composition by multiple isotope dilution is complex and time consuming, and requires specialized laboratory facilities and specially trained personnel. As a result, these measurements are not suited for routine patient management, but should rather be reserved for research purposes

  5. Nutrition and eating disorders in adolescents.

    Seidenfeld, Marjorie E Kaplan; Sosin, Elyse; Rickert, Vaughn I

    2004-05-01

    Adequate nutrition is essential during adolescence, since growth and development during this period play key roles in achieving normal adult size and reproductive capacity. This article briefly reviews recommended caloric intake; the healthy balance of carbohydrates, fat and protein; and the appropriate dietary intake of iron, folic acid and calcium for the adolescent. A major potential obstacle to good nutrition for an adolescent is the development of an eating disorder such as anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa. Anorexia nervosa, characterized by severe underweight, fear of gaining weight, and low self-esteem and amenorrhea, is associated with many physiological and psychological complications with which the provider must be familiar. Similarly, bulimia nervosa, which presents with eating binges followed by compensatory behaviors such as vomiting, diet pill abuse and overexercise, may be harder to detect, but can also have devastating consequences, both physically and emotionally, for a young person. Both of these disorders are best treated by a multidisciplinary team of specialists to address the medical, psychological, and nutritional components of these illnesses.

  6. Nutrition and Diet

    ... Thai HbH:Vietnamese Relevant links Living with Thalassemia NUTRITION AND EXERCISE ▶ Nutrition and Diet ▶ Diet for the ... Thalassemia (for providers) Exercise for Patients with Thalassemia Nutrition and Diet Nutritional deficiencies are common in thalassemia, ...

  7. Medical Issues: Nutrition

    ... support & care > living with sma > medical issues > nutrition Nutrition Good nutrition is essential to health and growth. ... must make decisions based on their own needs. Nutrition Considerations Since we are still waiting for clinical ...

  8. Nutritional Component Analysis of Corn Stalk in Different Regions of Inner Mongolia%内蒙古不同地区玉米秸秆营养成分分析

    杨耀刚; 田瑞华

    2017-01-01

    [目的]测定内蒙古不同地区玉米秸秆的营养成分含量.[方法]对内蒙古自治区不同地区玉米秸秆中的营养物质含量进行了测定与分析.[结果]不同地区玉米秸秆中营养成分含量存在差异.总糖含量为11.38%~13.57%,粗纤维含量为31.11%~33.55%,粗蛋白含量为5.31%~7.65%,粗灰分含量为5.77%~7.25%,粗脂肪含量为3.83%~4.78%.不同地区总糖、粗蛋白、粗脂肪差异不显著(P>0.05).[结论]研究结果可为利用玉米秸杆作为反刍家畜的粗饲料及食用菌的营养物质提供配方参考.%[Objective]To determine the content of nutritional components in different regions of Inner Mongolia.[Method]The contents of nutrients in different regions of Inner Mongolia autonomous region were determined and analyzed.[Result]There were differences of nutrient content in different areas.Total sugar content was 11.38%-13.57%,crude fiber content was 31.11%-33.55%,crude protein content was 5.31%-7.65%,crude ash content was 5.77%-7.25%,crude fat content was 3.83%-4.78%.The contents of total sugar,crude protein,crude fat in different regions had no significant difference(P >0.05).[Conclusion]The research results can provide formula references for making use of corn stalk as forage of ruminants and nutrients of edible fungi.

  9. Shopper marketing nutrition interventions.

    Payne, Collin R; Niculescu, Mihai; Just, David R; Kelly, Michael P

    2014-09-01

    Grocery stores represent a context in which a majority of people's food purchases occur. Considering the nutrition quality of the population's food intake has dramatically decreased, understanding how to improve food choice in the grocery store is paramount to healthier living. In this work, we detail the type of financial resources from which shoppers could draw (i.e., personal income and benefits from government food assistance programs to low income populations) and explain how these financial resources are allocated in the grocery store (i.e., planned, unplanned, error). Subsequently, we identify a conceptual framework for shopper marketing nutrition interventions that targets unplanned fruit and vegetable purchases (i.e., slack, or willingness to spend minus list items). Targeting slack for fresh fruit and vegetable purchases allows retailers to benefit economically (i.e., fruit and vegetables are higher margin) and allows shoppers to improve their nutrition without increasing their budgets (i.e., budget neutrality). We also provide preliminary evidence of what in-store marketing of fresh fruits and vegetables could entail by modifying grocery carts and grocery floors to provide information of what is common, normal, or appropriate fruit and vegetable purchases. In each example, fresh fruit and vegetable purchases increased and evidence suggested shopper budget neutrality. To provide context for these results, we detail measurement tools that can be used to measure shopper behaviors, purchases, and consumption patterns. Finally, we address theoretical, practical, and policy implications of shopper marketing nutrition interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Nutrimetabonomics:applications for nutritional sciences, with specific reference to gut microbial interactions.

    Claus, Sandrine P; Swann, Jonathan R

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the role of the diet in determining human health and disease is one major objective of modern nutrition. Mammalian biocomplexity necessitates the incorporation of systems biology technologies into contemporary nutritional research. Metabonomics is a powerful approach that simultaneously measures the low-molecular-weight compounds in a biological sample, enabling the metabolic status of a biological system to be characterized. Such biochemical profiles contain latent information relating to inherent parameters, such as the genotype, and environmental factors, including the diet and gut microbiota. Nutritional metabonomics, or nutrimetabonomics, is being increasingly applied to study molecular interactions between the diet and the global metabolic system. This review discusses three primary areas in which nutrimetabonomics has enjoyed successful application in nutritional research: the illumination of molecular relationships between nutrition and biochemical processes; elucidation of biomarker signatures of food components for use in dietary surveillance; and the study of complex trans-genomic interactions between the mammalian host and its resident gut microbiome. Finally, this review illustrates the potential for nutrimetabonomics in nutritional science as an indispensable tool to achieve personalized nutrition.

  11. [ENTERAL NUTRITION ON THE NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF CANCER].

    Escortell Sánchez, Raquel; Reig García-Galbis, Manuel

    2015-10-01

    to identify what effect causes enteral nutrition on nutritional status of cancer. a search was performed using the keywords "Cancer" AND "Enteral Nutrition" AND "Supplementation" in four document databases: Pubmed, EBSCO, ProQuest, and Web of Science. age of the sample, major than 18 years; submitted to surgery for cancer; that the intervention program was including diet and employment or not of nutritional Supplementation; clinical trials published between January 2004 and December 2014, in scientific journals indexed. we analyzed 660 articles, of which only 2% has been included. 58% of intervention programs are applied outside Spain; 84% of the interventions was carried out in a hospitable ambient; 58% of the sample is formed by adults older than 54 years; 33% of the interventions were multidisciplinary and its duration ranges between 1 and 4 years. we found just a few national interventions in cancer participants and there two types of interventions: by exclusive polymeric enteral formula or mixed with immunonutrition. enteral nutrition shows against the parenteral and its introduction at an early stage, it helps to improve nutritional status of the patient; polymeric formulas next immunonutrition, it helps to reduce the time of hospitalization; the analytical parameters are shown as a measurement pattern when assessing the improvement in nutritional status in cancer. It is recommended to increase the research in this field, especially in children. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  12. Nutritional Metabolomics

    Gürdeniz, Gözde

    strategy influences the patterns identified as important for the nutritional question under study. Therefore, in depth understanding of the study design and the specific effects of the analytical technology on the produced data is extremely important to achieve high quality data handling. Besides data......Metabolomics provides a holistic approach to investigate the perturbations in human metabolism with respect to a specific exposure. In nutritional metabolomics, the research question is generally related to the effect of a specific food intake on metabolic profiles commonly of plasma or urine....... Application of multiple analytical strategies may provide comprehensive information to reach a valid answer to these research questions. In this thesis, I investigated several analytical technologies and data handling strategies in order to evaluate their effects on the biological answer. In metabolomics, one...

  13. Nutrition and food for health and longevity

    Rattan, Suresh

    2015-01-01

    None of the nutritional components is by itself good or bad, and none of the foodstuffs is either healthy or unhealthy. Nutrition can lead to either good effects or bad effects, and food can have consequences, making us either healthy or unhealthy. It is the quantity, quality, frequency...

  14. Nutritional genomics and personalized diet | Gaboon | Egyptian ...

    Nutritional genetics is considered as the combination of nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics. Nutrigenomics is establishing the effects of ingested nutrients and other food components on gene expression and gene regulation. It will also determine the individual nutritional requirements based on the genetic makeup of the ...

  15. Nutritional Biochemistry

    Smith, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the effects that space flight has on humans nutritional biochemistry. Particular attention is devoted to the study of protein breakdown, inflammation, hypercatabolism, omega 3 fatty acids, vitamin D, calcium, urine, folate and nutrient stability of certain vitamins, the fluid shift and renal stone risk, acidosis, iron/hematology, and the effects on bone of dietary protein, potassium. inflammation, and omega-3 fatty acids

  16. Comprehensive Performance Nutrition for Special Operations Forces.

    Daigle, Karen A; Logan, Christi M; Kotwal, Russ S

    2015-01-01

    Special Operations Forces (SOF) training, combat, and contingency operations are unique and demanding. Performance nutrition within the Department of Defense has emphasized that nutrition is relative to factors related to the desired outcome, which includes successful performance of mentally and physically demanding operations and missions of tactical and strategic importance, as well as nonoperational assignments. Discussed are operational, nonoperational, and patient categories that require different nutrition strategies to facilitate category-specific performance outcomes. Also presented are 10 major guidelines for a SOF comprehensive performance nutrition program, practical nutrition recommendations for Special Operators and medical providers, as well as resources for dietary supplement evaluation. Foundational health concepts, medical treatment, and task-specific performance factors should be considered when developing and systematically implementing a comprehensive SOF performance nutrition program. When tailored to organizational requirements, SOF unit- and culture-specific nutrition education and services can optimize individual Special Operator performance, overall unit readiness, and ultimately, mission success. 2015.

  17. Nutrition quality analysis in school-age children

    Ковтюк, Наталия Ивановна

    2015-01-01

    School nutrition as a component of quality of life is analyzed. A total of 180 children 10–17 years old are examined. Health indicators studied in conjunction with physiological components of quality of life. The one-sided nutrition principles with predominance of cereals and confectionery products with low consumption of dairy and meat products are determined. The deficit of the fundamental components of nutrition creates a risk factor for health problems and makes preconditions for the deve...

  18. Major Links.

    Henderson, Tona

    1995-01-01

    Provides electronic mail addresses for resources and discussion groups related to the following academic majors: art, biology, business, chemistry, computer science, economics, health sciences, history, literature, math, music, philosophy, political science, psychology, sociology, and theater. (AEF)

  19. Major Roads

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for major roads (interstates and trunk highways) found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. These roadways are current...

  20. Comparative tissue distribution profiles of five major bio-active components in normal and blood deficiency rats after oral administration of Danggui Buxue Decoction by UPLC-TQ/MS.

    Shi, Xuqin; Tang, Yuping; Zhu, Huaxu; Li, Weixia; Li, Zhenhao; Li, Wei; Duan, Jin-ao

    2014-01-01

    Astragali Radix (AR) and Angelicae Sinensis Radix (ASR) were frequently combined and used in China as herbal pair called as Danggui Buxue Decoction (DBD) for treatment of blood deficiency syndrome, such as women's ailments. This study is to investigate the tissue distribution profiles of five major bio-active constituents (ferulic acid, caffeic acid, calycosin-7-O-β-glucoside, ononin and astragaloside IV) in DBD after oral administration of DBD in blood deficiency rats, and to compare the difference between normal and blood deficiency rats. The blood deficiency rats were induced by bleeding from orbit at the dosages of 5.0mLkg(-1) every day, and the experimental period was 12 days. At the finally day of experimental period, both normal and blood deficiency rats were orally administrated with DBD, and then the tissues samples were collected at different time points. Ferulic acid, caffeic acid, calycosin-7-O-β-glucoside, ononin and astragaloside IV in different tissues were detected simultaneously by UPLC-TQ/MS, and the histograms were drawn. The results showed that the overall trend was CLiver>CKidney>CHeart>CSpleen>CLung, CC-30min>CM-30min>CM-60min>CC-5min>CM-5min>CC-60min>CM-240min>CC-240min. The contents of the detected compounds in liver were more than that in other tissues no matter in normal or blood deficiency rats. Compared to normal rats, partial contents of the compounds in blood deficiency rats' tissues at different time points had significant difference (Pdistribution investigation in blood deficiency animals which is conducted by bleeding. And the results demonstrated that the five DBD components in normal and blood deficiency rats had obvious differences in some organs and time points, suggesting that the blood flow and perfusion rate of the organ were altered in blood deficiency animals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Obstacles to nutrition labeling in restaurants.

    Almanza, B A; Nelson, D; Chai, S

    1997-02-01

    This study determined the major obstacles that foodservices face regarding nutrition labeling. Survey questionnaire was conducted in May 1994. In addition to demographic questions, the directors were asked questions addressing willingness, current practices, and perceived obstacles related to nutrition labeling. Sixty-eight research and development directors of the largest foodservice corporations as shown in Restaurants & Institutions magazine's list of the top 400 largest foodservices (July 1993). P tests were used to determine significance within a group for the number of foodservices that were currently using nutrition labeling, perceived impact of nutrition labeling on sales, and perceived responsibility to add nutrition labels. Regression analysis was used to determine the importance of factors on willingness to label. Response rate was 45.3%. Most companies were neutral about their willingness to use nutrition labeling. Two thirds of the respondents were not currently using nutrition labels. Only one third thought that it was the foodservice's responsibility to provide such information. Several companies perceived that nutrition labeling would have a potentially negative effect on annual sales volume. Major obstacles were identified as menu or personnel related, rather than cost related. Menu-related obstacles included too many menu variations, limited space on the menu for labeling, and loss of flexibility in changing the menu. Personnel-related obstacles included difficulty in training employees to implement nutrition labeling, and not enough time for foodservice personnel to implement nutrition labeling. Numerous opportunities will be created for dietetics professionals in helping foodservices overcome these menu- or personnel-related obstacles.

  2. Nutritional risk factors for postmenopausal osteoporosis | Berriche ...

    Background: Osteoporosis is a bone disease that combines both a decrease in bone density and its internal architecture changes. Nutrition is one of the major determinants of osteoporosis. Aim: The purpose of our study was to identify nutritional risk factors of osteoporosis of two groups of osteoporotic women and ...

  3. Nutrition for Young Men

    ... Healthy Aging Nutrition for Young Men Print Email Nutrition for Young Men Reviewed by Taylor Wolfram, MS, ... 2017 XiXinXing/iStock/Thinkstock For many young men, nutrition isn't always a focus. There are many ...

  4. Nutrition Advice and Recipes

    ... Sign-Up Home Patient Information Nutrition Advice & Recipes Nutrition Advice & Recipes This is a very important section ... information on all aspects of daily life, including nutrition, medical treatments, pain management, and practical tips. For ...

  5. Nutrition Following Pancreatic Surgery

    ... BACK Contact Us DONATE NOW GENERAL DONATION PURPLESTRIDE Nutrition Following Pancreatic Surgery Home Facing Pancreatic Cancer Living with Pancreatic Cancer Diet and Nutrition Nutrition Following Pancreatic Surgery Ver esta página en ...

  6. Artificial Hydration and Nutrition

    ... Crisis Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans ... Your Health Resources Healthcare Management Artificial Hydration and Nutrition Artificial Hydration and Nutrition Share Print Patients who ...

  7. Nutrition for Space Exploration

    Smith, Scott M.

    2005-01-01

    Nutrition has proven to be critical throughout the history of human exploration, on both land and water. The importance of nutrition during long-duration space exploration is no different. Maintaining optimal nutritional status is critical for all bodily systems, especially in light of the fact that that many are also affected by space flight itself. Major systems of concern are bone, muscle, the cardiovascular system, the immune system, protection against radiation damage, and others. The task ahead includes defining the nutritional requirements for space travelers, ensuring adequacy of the food system, and assessing crew nutritional status before, during, and after flight. Accomplishing these tasks will provide significant contributions to ensuring crew health on long-duration missions. In addition, development and testing of nutritional countermeasures to effects of space flight is required, and assessment of the impact of other countermeasures (such as exercise and pharmaceuticals) on nutrition is also critical for maintaining overall crew health. Vitamin D stores of crew members are routinely low after long-duration space flight. This occurs even when crew members take vitamin D supplements, suggesting that vitamin D metabolism may be altered during space flight. Vitamin D is essential for efficient absorption of calcium, and has numerous other benefits for other tissues with vitamin D receptors. Protein is a macronutrient that requires additional study to define the optimal intake for space travelers. Administration of protein to bed rest subjects can effectively mitigate muscle loss associated with disuse, but too much or too little protein can also have negative effects on bone. In another bed rest study, we found that the ratio of protein to potassium was correlated with the level of bone resorption: the higher the ratio, the more bone resorption. These relationships warrant further study to optimize the beneficial effect of protein on both bone and muscle

  8. NUTRITIONAL ENHANCEMENT OF GHANAIAN WEANING FOODS ...

    CSTC

    chemical composition, sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability. ... to low input agriculture and satisfies more nutritional requirements. Ghanaian ... Ghana, and used as one of the major ingredients for all the weaning food.

  9. Nutritional management in Ebola haemorrhagic fever

    Kamon Chaiyasit

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ebola haemorrhagic fever is a viral infection causing a major health problem worldwide. In this short article, the authors briefly review and discuss on the nutritional management (energy, protein, fat and micronutrient in management of Ebola infection.

  10. Nutrition during lactation

    Committee on Nutritional Status During Pregnancy and Lactation, Institute of Medicine

    On the basis of a comprehensive literature review and analysis, Nutrition During Lactation points out specific directions for needed research in understanding the relationship between the nutrition...

  11. Vegetarian nutrition: past, present, future.

    Leitzmann, Claus

    2014-07-01

    Early human food cultures were plant-based. Major religions such as Hinduism and Buddhism have recommended a vegetarian way of life since their conception. The recorded history of vegetarian nutrition started in the sixth century bc by followers of the Orphic mysteries. The Greek philosopher Pythagoras is considered the father of ethical vegetarianism. The Pythagorean way of life was followed by a number of important personalities and influenced vegetarian nutrition until the 19th century. In Europe, vegetarian nutrition more or less disappeared during the Middle Ages. In the Renaissance era and in the Age of Enlightenment, various personalities practiced vegetarianism. The first vegetarian society was started in England in 1847. The International Vegetarian Society was founded in 1908 and the first vegan society began in 1944. Prominent vegetarians during this time included Sylvester Graham, John Harvey Kellogg, and Maximilian Bircher-Benner. A paradigm shift occurred at the turn of the 21st century. The former prejudices that vegetarianism leads to malnutrition were replaced by scientific evidence showing that vegetarian nutrition reduces the risk of most contemporary diseases. Today, vegetarian nutrition has a growing international following and is increasingly accepted. The main reasons for this trend are health concerns and ethical, ecologic, and social issues. The future of vegetarian nutrition is promising because sustainable nutrition is crucial for the well-being of humankind. An increasing number of people do not want animals to suffer nor do they want climate change; they want to avoid preventable diseases and to secure a livable future for generations to come. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  12. Nutrition and Oral Health: Experiences in Iran

    Zohre Sadat Sangsefidi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral health is a crucial factor for overall well-being and there is a mutual relationship between nutrition and oral health. The aim of this study was to review the publications which have examined the association between nutrition or diet and oral health status or oral disease in Iran. Methods: The electronic databases of PubMed, Scopus, Google scholar, scientific information database (SID, and Magiran were searched using key words of diet, nutrition, oral health, oral disease, and Iran to reach the related articles published up to 2016. The English and Persian articles with cross-sectional, clinical trial, prospective, and case-control designs were selected. The Persian studies were then translated into English. The animal studies were not investigated. Results: The findings showed that nutrition and diet were associated with oral health. However, the majority of studies focused on evaluation of the relation between nutrition and dental caries. Further, a few studies were conducted on the association between nutrition and other oral problems such as periodontal disease or oral cancer. Moreover, the limited nutritional or dietary factors were investigated in the literature. Conclusions: Nutrition and diet are related to oral health and prevention of oral disease. Further studies are therefore recommended to evaluate the association between nutrition and oral health with considering various dietary or nutritional factors and different types of oral problems in Iran.

  13. Nutritional Countermeasures to Ameliorate Losses in Muscle Mass and Function

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Major Accomplishments This project represents a combination of two NASA-funded protocols, which investigated nutritional countermeasures to activity-induced...

  14. Nutrition, training and recovery : A qualitative study of athletes’ perceptions

    Nilsson, Viktoria

    2016-01-01

    Background: Large components for athletes are nutrition, training and recovery. These components are subjects all by them selves in all kind of media. That woke my interest to find out more about the connections between nutrition, training and recovery and how much knowledge athletes have of them together. Objectives: The purpose of this study is to investigate how athletes feelings and experience of nutrition, training and recovery. Method: A qualitative approach was used to investigate athl...

  15. Clinical nutrition knowledge of gastroenterology fellows: is there anything omitted?

    Eslamian, Ghazaleh; Jacobson, Kevan; Hekmatdoost, Azita

    2013-01-01

    Despite the increased emphasis on chronic non-communicable diseases, there are notable deficits about nutrition education in many medicine training programs particularly gastroenterology fellowship programs. In the present cross-sectional study, we examined the nutritional knowledge related to clinical nutrition among Iranian gastroenterology fellows. Thirty-six gastroenterology fellows currently enrolled in a gastroenterology fellowship program completed a questionnaire, including two sections. The first of which assessed the gastroenterology fellows experience about nutrition training, nutrition management of patients with gastrointestinal (GI) disorders and evaluating perceived nutrition education needs. The second section consisted of multiple choice questions that assessed nutritional knowledge. A total of 32 gastroenterology fellows completed the first section. The majority of gastroenterology fellows failed to partake in any nutrition education during their fellowship training particularly for inpatients despite the availability to participate in the nutrition training especially for the purpose of nutrition support. Mean correct response rates for the second section was 38%. The highest mean score was seen in nutrition assessment (48.1%), followed by scores of 40.5% in nutrition support, 37.0% nutrition in GI disease, and 25.0% in micro and macronutrients. Iranian gastroenterology fellows have serious deficits in their nutrition knowledge. This study paves the way for the development of an education program to improve nutritional knowledge of gastroenterology fellows.

  16. Screening for nutritional risk in hospitalized children with liver disease.

    Song, Tiantian; Mu, Ying; Gong, Xue; Ma, Wenyan; Li, Li

    2017-01-01

    Malnutrition is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality from pediatric liver disease. We investigated the prevalence of both malnutrition and high nutritional risk in hospitalized children with liver disease as well as the rate of in-hospital nutritional support. A total of 2,874 hospitalized children and adolescents with liver disease aged 1 to 17 years (inclusive) were enrolled. Malnutrition was screened by anthropometric measures (height-for-age, weight-for-height, weight-for-age, and BMI- for-age z-scores). The Screening Tool for Risk on Nutritional Status and Growth (STRONGkids) was used to evaluate nutritional risk status. Nutrition markers in blood, rate of nutritional support, length of hospital stay, and hospital fees were compared among nutritional risk groups. The overall prevalence of malnutrition was 38.6%. About 20.0% of children had high nutritional risk, and prevalence of malnutrition was markedly greater in the high nutritional risk group compared with the moderate risk group (67.9% vs 31.3%). Serum albumin and prealbumin differed significantly between high and moderate risk groups (pnutritional risk and 3.5% with moderate nutritional risk received nutrition support during hospitalization. Children with high nutritional risk had longer hospital stays and greater hospital costs (pnutritional risk is also prevalent at admission. Albumin and prealbumin are sensitive markers for distinguishing nutritional risk groups. High nutritional risk prolongs length of stay and increases hospital costs. The nutritional support rate is still low and requires standardization.

  17. Other components

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This chapter includes descriptions of electronic and mechanical components which do not merit a chapter to themselves. Other hardware requires mention because of particularly high tolerance or intolerance of exposure to radiation. A more systematic analysis of radiation responses of structures which are definable by material was given in section 3.8. The components discussed here are field effect transistors, transducers, temperature sensors, magnetic components, superconductors, mechanical sensors, and miscellaneous electronic components

  18. Quantitative Assessment of the Influence of Rhizoma Zingiberis on the Level of Aconitine in Rat Gut Sacs and Qualitative Analysis of the Major Influencing Components of Rhizoma Zingiberis on Aconitine Using UPLC/MS.

    Yang Xin

    Full Text Available This study attempted to clarify the material basis for the detoxification of Rhizoma Zingiberis (RZ on aconitine, an analgesic drug, by quantitatively assessing the influence of RZ on the in vitro intestinal concentration of aconitine using an everted gut sac model and by qualitatively identifying the components in the RZ extract. To quantify aconitine in rat everted gut sacs, both an accurate processing method and a sensitive detection method were required. We developed a three-step sample processing method to protect the components from decomposition and applied ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UPLC/TQMS to quantify aconitine, glucose and digoxin. In addition, ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with linear ion trap mass spectrometry (UPLC/ITMS was applied to detect the potential antidotal components in the RZ extract. Finally, the RZ extract reduced the level of aconitine in everted gut sacs, and eleven gingerols were successfully identified, which could be considered potential antidotal components for aconitine. This study demonstrated the application of two UPLC/MS methods for analyzing the material basis for the reciprocity between Chinese medicine components in everted gut sacs.

  19. Nutrition in correction of health of the population

    Tsygankov, V.G.

    2003-01-01

    antioxydants and development immunodeficiency of statuses, that in the total reduces ability of an organism to support persistence of the internal environment. Is placed, that the nutrition has radioprotective action, in particular rations with a boosted contents an animal proteins, polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamins and trace substances. Outgoing from above explained, we consider, that the alimentary factor is the most effective, accessible and safe way of rise of stability of an organism to operation of the unfavorable factors of the external environment, including ionizing radiation. According to it the system of measures in the field of nutrition with reference to liquidation of consequences of a crash on Chernobyl should be directed, on the one hand, on decrease, and whenever possible termination of arrival of radionuclides to an organism, and on the other hand, on an amplification of protective preventive properties of nutrition. The lowering of possibility of arrival of radionuclides in an organism with nutrition depends: from application of appropriate technological receptions of cooking, both in industrial size, and in home conditions, from legible operation of organs inspecting contamination of alimentary raw material and alimentary production acting on the market of republic, from competence of the population in this field.. For an amplification of protective and preventive properties of nutrition it is necessary to conduct a vitaminization of foodstuff, enrichment by its major trace substances, alimentary filaments, pectins. It is necessary to apply the alimentary components containing such class biologically of fissile substances, as bioflavonoids, possessing brightly expressed antioxigent, organoprotective and adaptive effects. Now in Institute of a sanitation and hygiene in Minsk project vegetable canned food with usage of carotene, sodium alginate, pectins, bakeries and confectionery products enriched with vitamins, pectins, alimentary filaments, number of

  20. Cell Nutrition

    Malda, J.; Radisic, M.; Levenberg, S.; Woodfield, T.; Oomens, C.W.J.; Baaijens, F.P.T.; Svalander, P.; Vunjak-Novakovic, G.; Blitterswijk, C.; Thomsen, P.; Lindahl, A.; Hubbel, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter summarizes the role of mass transport in providing nutrients to the cells. It describes how mathematical modeling can enhance the understanding of nutrient limitation in tissue engineering. The nutrient requirements of the cells are explained and the components of the cell culture

  1. [Nutrition in inflammatory bowel disease].

    Banai, János

    2009-05-03

    Aetiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is complex and probably multifactorial. Nutrition has been proposed to be an important aetiological factor for development of IBD. Several components of the diet (such as sugar, fat, fibre, fruit and vegetable, protein, fast food, preservatives etc.) were examined as possible causative agents for IBD. According to some researchers infant feeding (breast feeding) may also contribute to the development of IBD. Though the importance of environmental factors is evidenced by the increasing incidence in developed countries and in migrant population in recent decades, the aetiology of IBD remained unclear. There are many theories, but as yet no dietary approaches have been proved to reduce the risk of developing IBD. The role of nutrition in the management of IBD is better understood. The prevention and correction of malnutrition, the provision of macro- and micronutrients and vitamins and the promotion of optimal growth and development of children are key points of nutritional therapy. In active disease, the effective support of energy and nutrients is a very important part of the therapy. Natural and artificial nutrition or the combination of two can be chosen for supporting therapy of IBD. The author summarises the aetiological and therapeutic role of nutrition in IBD.

  2. EFFECTS OF THE INTERACTION GENOTYPE X NUTRITIONAL SYSTEM ON LIVEWEIGHT AND CARCASS COMPONENT EFEITO DA INTERAÇÃO GENÓTIPO X SISTEMA NUTRICIONAL SOBRE A COMPOSIÇÃO REGIONAL E TECIDUAL

    Roberta Rollemberg Cabral Martins

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available With the objective of evaluating the isolated effects of genotype and of nutritional system, as well as the effect of the interaction between genotype and nutrition on quantitative and qualitative aspects of the meat production, sixty Polwarth male lambs and 51 Corriedale male lamb, born at August and September, raised in three different nutritional systems (native pasture, improved pasture e confinement and slaughtered with 122 days of age, were examined. The animals were weighed before slaughtering and, after slaughtering, the following traits were measured: cold carcass weights, shoulder, hindquarter, rib and neck weights and the weight of bone, muscle and fat of the shoulder and the hindquarter. The percentages were obtained by calculation. The experimental design was a totally randomized in a 3x2 factors (nutritional systems and genotypes. There was interaction genotype-nutrition (P <0.05 for bone of the hindquarter and of the shoulder and for the shoulder fat. Except for the weight and percentage of the bone of the shoulder, for all the other parameters of weight and of carcass studied there was not genotype effect. The nutrition influenced significantly (P <0.05 all the parameters. KEY WORDS: Interaction genotype-nutritional system, lambs, regional composition, tissue composition.

    Com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos isolados de genótipo e de sistema nutricional, bem como o da interação genótipo x sistema nutricional sobre aspectos quantitativos e qualitativos da produção de carne ovina, utilizaram-se 60 cordeiros da raça Ideal e

  3. Pharmacokinetic Comparison of Seven Major Bio-Active Components in Normal and Blood Stasis Rats after Oral Administration of Herb Pair Danggui-Honghua by UPLC-TQ/MS

    Yi Jin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The compatibility between Danggui (Angelicae Sinensis Radix and Honghua (Carthami Flos is a known herb pair, which could activate blood circulation and dissipate blood stasis effects. In this paper, we quantified seven main bio-active components (hydroxysafflor yellow A, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, ferulic acid, 3-n-butylphthalide, and ligustilide in plasma samples in vivo by UPLC-TQ/MS method and investigatedwhether the pharmacokinetic (PK behaviors of the seven components could be altered in blood stasis rats after oral administration of the Gui-Hong extracts. It was found that the Cmax and AUC0-t of these components in blood stasis rats had increasing tendency compared with normal rats. Most components in model and normal rats had significant difference in some pharmacokinetic parameters, which indicated that the metabolism enzymes and transporters involved in the metabolism and disposition of these bio-active componentsmay bealtered in blood stasis rats. This study was the first report about the pharmacokinetic investigation between normal and blood stasis rats after oral administrationof Gui-Hong extracts, and these results are important and valuable for better clinical applications of Gui-Hong herb pair and relatedTCM formulae.

  4. European Nutrition and Health Report 2009

    Elmadfa, Ibrahim; Meyer, A.; Nowak, V.

    The general aim of the ENHR II project is to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date report on the nutrition and health situation in Europe that focuses on diet, physical activity, tobacco use and alcohol consumption. The European Nutrition and Health Report 2009 will contribute to the identificat......The general aim of the ENHR II project is to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date report on the nutrition and health situation in Europe that focuses on diet, physical activity, tobacco use and alcohol consumption. The European Nutrition and Health Report 2009 will contribute...... to the identification of major nutrition and health problems in the EU regions and to the monitoring and evaluation of food and nutrition policies already in place within the Member States. The method implies collecting and critically reviewing available data on the most common indicators used for the assessment...... of nutrition and health situation of 25 European countries. The European Nutrition and Health Report 2009 will provide information on dietary habits, diet related health indicators as well as established food and nutrition policies in European countries....

  5. Electronic components

    Colwell, Morris A

    1976-01-01

    Electronic Components provides a basic grounding in the practical aspects of using and selecting electronics components. The book describes the basic requirements needed to start practical work on electronic equipment, resistors and potentiometers, capacitance, and inductors and transformers. The text discusses semiconductor devices such as diodes, thyristors and triacs, transistors and heat sinks, logic and linear integrated circuits (I.C.s) and electromechanical devices. Common abbreviations applied to components are provided. Constructors and electronics engineers will find the book useful

  6. Ethical issues in nutritional support nursing. Withholding and withdrawing nutritional support.

    Knox, L S

    1989-06-01

    A new and controversial debate in bioethics concerns the question, "Is it ever acceptable to withhold or withdraw specialized nutritional support from the dying adult patient?" In the opinion of many, the answer to this question is yes, but for only a very small number of patients. Provision of nutrition through artificial means is an invasive medical intervention. As such, procedures for supplying nutritional support impose burdens as well as provide benefits and may, under certain circumstances, be foregone. However, the needs of the vast majority of dying patients will best be served by providing specialized nutritional support.

  7. Moleculer nutritional immunology and cancer

    Rüksan Çehreli

    2018-01-01

    The immune system composed of cells that are sensitive to a series of surrounding factors and forming an integrated network. During the last decade a significant increase in the number of studies demonstrated that diet components released from adipocytes and metabolic pathways, affected the immune system and highly contributed to the human health.T-cells are significantly affected by nutrition. Decrease in glucose uptake and metabolism, cytokine synthesis, T-cell proliferation and survival in...

  8. Influence of the 3D-conformation, glycan component and microheterogeneity on the epitope structure of Ole e 1, the major olive allergen - Use of recombinant isoforms and specific monoclonal antibodies as immunological tools

    González, Eva M.; Villalba, Mayte; Lombardero, Manuel; Aalbers, Marja; van Ree, Ronald; Rodríguez, Rosalía

    2002-01-01

    Ole e 1 is the main allergen of olive pollen, which is a major cause of pollinosis in countries of the Mediterranean area. Nine Ole e 1-specific murine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), as well as two Ole e 1-isoforms and two Ole e 1-like allergens from lilac and privet, all of them obtained in Pichia

  9. Diet, nutrition, and cancer

    Palmer, S.

    1985-01-01

    Evidence pertaining to the role of dietary factors in carcinogenesis comes from both epidemiological studies and laboratory experiments. In 1982, the Committee on Diet, Nutrition, and Cancer of the National Research Council conducted a comprehensive evaluation of this evidence. That assessment as well as recent epidemiological and laboratory investigations suggest that a high fat diet is associated with increased susceptibility to cancer of different sites, particularly the breast and colon, and to a lesser extent, the prostate. Current data permit no definitive conclusions about other dietary macroconstituents including cholesterol, total caloric intake, protein, carbohydrates and total dietary fiber. Specific components of fiber, however, may have a protective effect against colon cancer. In epidemiological studies, frequent consumption of certain fruits and vegetables, especially citrus fruits and carotene-rich and cruciferous vegetables, is associated with a lower incidence of cancers at various sites. The specific components responsible for these effects are not clearly identified, although the epidemiological evidence appears to be most consistent for a protective effect of carotene on lung cancer and less so for vitamins A and C and various cancer sites. The laboratory evidence is most consistent for vitamin A deficiency and enhanced tumorigenesis, and for the ability of various nonnutritive components in cruciferous vegetables to block in-vivo carcinogenesis. The data for minerals and carcinogenesis are extremely limited, although preliminary evidence from both epidemiological and laboratory studies suggests that selenium may protect against overall cancer risk. 402 references.

  10. Nutrition in team sports.

    Mujika, Iñigo; Burke, Louise M

    2010-01-01

    Team sports are based on intermittent high-intensity activity patterns, but the exact characteristics vary between and within codes, and from one game to the next. Despite the challenge of predicting exact game demands, performance in team sports is often dependent on nutritional factors. Chronic issues include achieving ideal levels of muscle mass and body fat, and supporting the nutrient needs of the training program. Acute issues, both for training and in games, include strategies that allow the player to be well fuelled and hydrated over the duration of exercise. Each player should develop a plan of consuming fluid and carbohydrate according to the needs of their activity patterns, within the breaks that are provided in their sport. In seasonal fixtures, competition varies from a weekly game in some codes to 2-3 games over a weekend road trip in others, and a tournament fixture usually involves 1-3 days between matches. Recovery between events is a major priority, involving rehydration, refuelling and repair/adaptation activities. Some sports supplements may be of value to the team athlete. Sports drinks, gels and liquid meals may be valuable in allowing nutritional goals to be met, while caffeine, creatine and buffering agents may directly enhance performance. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. [TRANSPORT OF OXYGEN DURING GEOMETRICAL RECONSTRUCTION OF THE LEFT VENTRICLE IN CONJUNCTION WITH CORONARY ARTERY BYPASS GRAFTING AND USING OF HIGH THORACIC EPIDURAL ANESTHESIA AS A MAJOR COMPONENT OF GENERAL ANAESTHESIA].

    Zatevahina, M V; Farzutdinov, A F; Rahimov, A A; Makrushin, I M; Kvachantiradze, G Y

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to examine the perioperative dynamics of strategic blood oxygen transport indicators: delivery (DO2), consumption (VO2), the coefficient of oxygen uptake (CUO2) and their composition, as well as the dynamics of blood lactate indicators in patients with ischaemic heart disease (IHD) who underwent surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass with high thoracic epidural anaesthesia (HTEA) as the main component of anesthesia. Research was conducted in 30 patients with a critical degree of operational risk, during the correction of post-infarction heart aneurysmn using the V. Dor method in combination with coronary artery bypass grafting. The strategic blood oxygen transport indicators (delivery, consumption and the oxygen uptake coefficient) showed a statistically significant decrease compared to the physiological norm and to the initial data at two points of the research: the intubation of the trachea and during cardiopulmonary bypass. The system components of oxygen were influenced at problematic stages by the dynamics of SvO2 (increase), AVD (decrease), hemodilution withe fall of the HIb- in the process of JR in the persence of superficial hypothermia. The maintenance of optimal CA in the context of HTEA, combined with a balanced volemic load and a minimized cardiotonic support ensured the stabilisation of strategic blood oxygen transport indicators aithe postperfusion stage and during the immediate postoperative period The article is dedicated to the study of strategic blood oxygen transport indicators and their components during the operation of geometric reconstruc-tion of the left ventricle combined with coronary artery-bypass using cardiopulmonary bypass and with high thoracic epidural anesthesia as the main component of general anaesthesia. The analysis has covered the stagewise delivery dynamics, consumption and the oxygen uptake coefficient at II stages of the operation and of the immediate postoperative period. The study has ident (fled

  12. Health Risk Assessment of Women in Submarines: Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity Evaluation of Major Submarine Atmosphere Components (CO, CO2 and O2) in Rats (Rattus norvegicus) - Phase II (Neurological and Reproductive Performance Study)

    2011-10-11

    creatinine (CREA), globulin (GLOB), glucose (GLU), total bilirubin (TBIL), triglycerides (TRIG), and major electrolyte concentrations (Na+; K+; Cl...positioning an index finger along the abdomen. The finger was removed and the latency for the pup to roll over and obtain the prone posture with all four paws...paternal exposures: p = 0.371, ANOVA); the stillbirth index (fraction of pups dead at birth; maternal exposures: p = 0.349; maternal and paternal

  13. Health Risk Assessment of Women in Submarines (Phase III): Two Generation Developmental and Reproductive Safety Evaluation of Major Submarine Atmosphere Components (CO, CO2, and O2) in Rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    2012-05-31

    creatinine (CREA), globulin (GLOB), glucose (GLU), total bilirubin (TBIL), triglycerides (TRIG), and major electrolyte concentrations (Na+; K+; Cl... index finger along the abdomen. The finger was removed and the latency for the pup to roll over and obtain the prone posture with all four paws on...to controls for dams exhibiting evidence of pregnancy (mating index ) and for pregnant dams producing live offspring (gestation index ) were

  14. Nanotechnology Research: Applications in Nutritional Sciences12

    Srinivas, Pothur R.; Philbert, Martin; Vu, Tania Q.; Huang, Qingrong; Kokini, Josef L.; Saos, Etta; Chen, Hongda; Peterson, Charles M.; Friedl, Karl E.; McDade-Ngutter, Crystal; Hubbard, Van; Starke-Reed, Pamela; Miller, Nancy; Betz, Joseph M.; Dwyer, Johanna; Milner, John; Ross, Sharon A.

    2010-01-01

    The tantalizing potential of nanotechnology is to fabricate and combine nanoscale approaches and building blocks to make useful tools and, ultimately, interventions for medical science, including nutritional science, at the scale of ∼1–100 nm. In the past few years, tools and techniques that facilitate studies and interventions in the nanoscale range have become widely available and have drawn widespread attention. Recently, investigators in the food and nutrition sciences have been applying the tools of nanotechnology in their research. The Experimental Biology 2009 symposium entitled “Nanotechnology Research: Applications in Nutritional Sciences” was organized to highlight emerging applications of nanotechnology to the food and nutrition sciences, as well as to suggest ways for further integration of these emerging technologies into nutrition research. Speakers focused on topics that included the problems and possibilities of introducing nanoparticles in clinical or nutrition settings, nanotechnology applications for increasing bioavailability of bioactive food components in new food products, nanotechnology opportunities in food science, as well as emerging safety and regulatory issues in this area, and the basic research applications such as the use of quantum dots to visualize cellular processes and protein-protein interactions. The session highlighted several emerging areas of potential utility in nutrition research. Nutrition scientists are encouraged to leverage ongoing efforts in nanomedicine through collaborations. These efforts could facilitate exploration of previously inaccessible cellular compartments and intracellular pathways and thus uncover strategies for new prevention and therapeutic modalities. PMID:19939997

  15. Nanotechnology research: applications in nutritional sciences.

    Srinivas, Pothur R; Philbert, Martin; Vu, Tania Q; Huang, Qingrong; Kokini, Josef L; Saltos, Etta; Saos, Etta; Chen, Hongda; Peterson, Charles M; Friedl, Karl E; McDade-Ngutter, Crystal; Hubbard, Van; Starke-Reed, Pamela; Miller, Nancy; Betz, Joseph M; Dwyer, Johanna; Milner, John; Ross, Sharon A

    2010-01-01

    The tantalizing potential of nanotechnology is to fabricate and combine nanoscale approaches and building blocks to make useful tools and, ultimately, interventions for medical science, including nutritional science, at the scale of approximately 1-100 nm. In the past few years, tools and techniques that facilitate studies and interventions in the nanoscale range have become widely available and have drawn widespread attention. Recently, investigators in the food and nutrition sciences have been applying the tools of nanotechnology in their research. The Experimental Biology 2009 symposium entitled "Nanotechnology Research: Applications in Nutritional Sciences" was organized to highlight emerging applications of nanotechnology to the food and nutrition sciences, as well as to suggest ways for further integration of these emerging technologies into nutrition research. Speakers focused on topics that included the problems and possibilities of introducing nanoparticles in clinical or nutrition settings, nanotechnology applications for increasing bioavailability of bioactive food components in new food products, nanotechnology opportunities in food science, as well as emerging safety and regulatory issues in this area, and the basic research applications such as the use of quantum dots to visualize cellular processes and protein-protein interactions. The session highlighted several emerging areas of potential utility in nutrition research. Nutrition scientists are encouraged to leverage ongoing efforts in nanomedicine through collaborations. These efforts could facilitate exploration of previously inaccessible cellular compartments and intracellular pathways and thus uncover strategies for new prevention and therapeutic modalities.

  16. Nutrition Research.

    1983-10-01

    Sandwiches, steaks, hamburgers, meatball sandwiches, braised sirloin tip etc. Beef and beef products are a major source of saturated fat in the American...SELECTIONS (Approx 2,500 cal) FOOD GROUP Total Servings Per Day MILK 4 Cups MEAT (Fish, Poultry, Cheese or Eggs ) 5 Ounces of edible meat without bone or fat... MEATBALL SANDWICHES W/ 17.7% 75.2% ITALIAN SAUCE A 5.2% B 12.5% C 7.2% D 4 4 . 5 % E 30.0, 15.6% 68.9% 53. DO-IT-YOURSELF POORBOY A 5.2% B 10.4% C 15.5

  17. Nutrition knowledge and nutritional status of primary school children ...

    2010-01-04

    Jan 4, 2010 ... b Research Fellow, CSL, Vaal University of Technology, South Africa ... Keywords: primary school children; nutrition knowledge; nutritional status. Nutrition ... research on basic nutrition education focusing on adolescents has.

  18. Gymnaster koraiensis and its major components, 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid and gymnasterkoreayne B, reduce oxidative damage induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide or acetaminophen in HepG2 cells

    Eun Hye Jho

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the protective effects of Gymnaster koraiensisagainst oxidative stress-induced hepatic cell damage. We usedtwo different cytotoxicity models, i.e., the administration oftert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP and acetaminophen, in HepG2cells to evaluate the protective effects of G. koraiensis. The ethylacetate (EA fraction of G. koraiensis and its major compound,3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (DCQA, exerted protective effectsin the t-BHP-induced liver cytotoxicity model. The EA fractionand DCQA ameliorated t-BHP-induced reductions in GSHlevels and exhibited free radical scavenging activity. The EAfraction and DCQA also significantly reduced t-BHP-inducedDNA damage in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, the hexane fractionof G. koraiensis and its major compound, gymnasterkoreayne B(GKB, exerted strong hepatoprotection in the acetaminopheninducedcytotoxicity model. CYP 3A4 enzyme activity wasstrongly inhibited by the extract, hexane fraction, and GKB. Thehexane fraction and GKB ameliorated acetaminophen-inducedreductions in GSH levels and protected against cell death. [BMBReports 2013; 46(10: 513-518

  19. Nutrition in Patients with Head Trauma

    Burcu Totur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The need of energy increases by 40% in patients with a head trauma, when compared to people who are living a normal life. This ratio reaches to 200% in some cases. It is important to give a nutrition support which can satisfy the energy need resulted from the hypermetabolic and hypercatabolic states and that is enough to help to fix the immunologic state and achieve a better result in healing the injury. When oral nutrition is not possible in the patient with a head trauma, their energy need is satisfied through enteral and parenteral nutrition. Though parenteral nutrition had held an important role in feeding patients with head trauma, enteral nutrition is applied much more widely today. Enteral and parenteral nutrition both has their own advantages and disadvantages. In the clinical and laboratory studies that had been held, it was found that enteral nutrition improved the systemic immunity, decreased the incidence of the major infectious complications, decreased the metabolic response to trauma, protected the intestinal mucosa, and protected the ecologic balance of the microflora. In this article, it is investigated through the importance of the feeding in patients with a head trauma and reasons to chose enteral nutrition

  20. Usefulness of the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) in predicting the nutritional status of people with mental disorders in Taiwan.

    Tsai, Alan C; Chou, Yuan-Ti; Chang, Tsui-Lan

    2011-02-01

    The study was to evaluate the ability of the Mini Nutritional Assessment in predicting malnutrition in people with three subtypes of mental disorder (schizophrenia, major depression and bipolar disorder) in Taiwan. The study involved a convenience sample of 120 residents of psychiatric wards managed by a hospital in central Taiwan (52 with schizophrenia, 36 with major depression and 32 with bipolar disorder) classified according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria. A structured questionnaire elicited subjects' personal data, disease history and answers to questions in the Mini Nutritional Assessment. Serum and anthropometrical parameters were measured. Nutritional status was evaluated with a content-equivalent version of the Mini Nutritional Assessment (Taiwan version-1, T1). The Mini Nutritional Assessment-Taiwan version-1 was effective in assessing the nutritional status of people of all three subtypes of disorder. Nutritional statuses predicted with the Mini Nutritional Assessment-Taiwan version-1 agreed well with other nutritional indicators such as BMI, waist circumference and appetite status. According to the Mini Nutritional Assessment-Taiwan version-1, people with major depression were more likely to be at risk of undernutrition, whereas people with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder were more likely to be at risk of overnutrition. The Mini Nutritional Assessment-Taiwan version-1 can effectively grade both undernutrition and overnutrition of people with schizophrenia, major depression or bipolar disorder. The Mini Nutritional Assessment enables nurses to monitor emerging nutritional problems in people with psychiatric disorder without relying on subjective judgement. With proper intervention, it can help reduce nutrition-related chronic conditions in these individuals and save on healthcare cost. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Nutrition and athletic performance

    Exercise - nutrition; Exercise - fluids; Exercise - hydration ... Bird R. Nutrition. In: Miller MD, Thompson SR, eds. DeLee and Drez's Orthopaedic Sports Medicine . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; ...

  2. Nutrition and OI

    Nutrition and OI Introduction To promote bone development and optimal health, children and adults with osteogenesis imperfecta ( ... no foods or supplements that will cure OI. Nutrition Related Problems Difficulties eating solid food have been ...

  3. Nutrition.gov

    ... Gov Sites FAQ Contact Us En Español Search Nutrition.Gov Search all USDA Advanced Search Browse by ... FAQs USDA Research, Education, and Economics Resources Welcome Nutrition.gov is a USDA-sponsored website that offers ...

  4. Total parenteral nutrition - infants

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007239.htm Total parenteral nutrition - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses ...

  5. Total parenteral nutrition

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000177.htm Total parenteral nutrition To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses ...

  6. Living with COPD: Nutrition

    ... Diseases > Lung Disease Lookup > COPD > Living With COPD Nutrition and COPD Most people are surprised to learn ... asking your doctor or visiting the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics at EatRight.org . Be sure to ...

  7. Cooking utensils and nutrition

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002461.htm Cooking utensils and nutrition To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Cooking utensils can have an effect on your nutrition. ...

  8. Nutrition and Myasthenia Gravis

    Good nutrition is important for everyone. This is especially true when you have a chronic disorder like myasthenia gravis ( ... difficulty with chewing and swallowing may interfere with nutrition and create safety issues. Diet modifications may be ...

  9. Nutritional risk factors for postmenopausal osteoporosis

    Olfa Berriche; Amrouche Chiraz; Rym Ben Othman; Hamdi Souheila; Ines Lahmer; Chaabani Wafa; Imen Sebai; Haifa Sfar; Feten Mahjoub; Henda Jamoussi

    2017-01-01

    Background: Osteoporosis is a bone disease that combines both a decrease in bone density and its internal architecture changes. Nutrition is one of the major determinants of osteoporosis. Aim: The purpose of our study was to identify nutritional risk factors of osteoporosis of two groups of osteoporotic women and witnesses. Methods: We conducted a comparative cross-sectional study including 60 postmenopausal women and screening for osteoporosis by a bone densitometry, recruited the outp...

  10. Stroke Prevention & Treatment: Diet & Nutrition

    ... Prevention & Treatment: Diet & Nutrition Stroke Prevention & Treatment: Diet & Nutrition A healthy diet can reduce your risk for ... Treatment How does a stroke affect eating and nutrition? Stroke can devastate a person's nutritional health because ...

  11. Nutrition support in hospitals

    Kondrup, Jens

    2005-01-01

    Nutrition support in hospitals is becoming an area of focus because of the evidence showing improved clinical outcome with nutrition support, its status as a human rights issue and its integration into quality assurance.......Nutrition support in hospitals is becoming an area of focus because of the evidence showing improved clinical outcome with nutrition support, its status as a human rights issue and its integration into quality assurance....

  12. Assessment and comparison of nutritional status of government and private secondary school children of Muzaffarnagar

    Sangeeta Jain Sharma

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malnutrition leads to poor cognitive performance and physical growth in children and is a major component of school health services. Imbalanced nutrition in adolescence can put them at high risk of chronic diseases particularly if combined with adverse lifestyle. Aims & Objectives: This study was designed to assess and compare the nutritional status of government and private school children of Muzaffarnagar city. Material and Methods: School based, comparative Cross-sectional study. One private and one government school was selected using unistage stratified random sampling. A total of 1960 (980 each from private school and government school school children of class 6-12 were studied for socio-epidemiological details, dietary habits, and physical activity. Information on education status, occupation, monthly income of their parents was also collected. Required anthropometric measurements were taken. Results: Of 980 children from private school, 90 (9.18% were underweight,138 (14.08% were overweight, and 137 (13.97% were obese. Majority of children from government school were underweight 215 (21.94% except for 24 (2.45% overweight children. Conclusion: This study shows the dual nature of nutritional problem, under-nutrition among the lower socioeconomic class of govt. school at one side and worrisome epidemic of obesity among the affluent of private school

  13. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: oral health and nutrition.

    Touger-Decker, Riva; Mobley, Connie

    2013-05-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that nutrition is an integral component of oral health. The Academy supports integration of oral health with nutrition services, education, and research. Collaboration between dietetics practitioners and oral health care professionals is recommended for oral health promotion and disease prevention and intervention. Scientific and epidemiological data suggest a lifelong synergy between diet, nutrition, and integrity of the oral cavity in health and disease. Oral health and nutrition have a multifaceted relationship. Oral infectious diseases, as well as acute, chronic, and systemic diseases with oral manifestations, impact an individual's functional ability to eat and their nutrition status. Likewise, nutrition and diet can affect the development and integrity of the oral cavity and progression of oral diseases. As knowledge of the link between oral and nutrition health increases, dietetics practitioners and oral health care professionals must learn to provide screening, education, and referrals as part of comprehensive client/patient care. The provision of medical nutrition therapy, including oral and overall health, is incorporated into the Standards of Practice for registered dietitians and dietetic technicians, registered. Inclusion of didactic and clinical practice concepts that illustrate the role of nutrition in oral health is essential in education programs for both professional groups. Collaborative endeavors between dietetics, dentistry, medicine, and allied health professionals in research, education, and delineation of practice roles are needed to ensure comprehensive health care. The multifaceted interactions between diet, nutrition, and oral health in practice, education, and research in both dietetics and dentistry merit continued, detailed delineation. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Diet and Nutrition

    ... Stories Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Food and Nutrition Sections Diet and Nutrition Can Fish Oil Help ... Cataract Prevention in the Produce Aisle Diet and Nutrition Leer en Español: Dieta y nutrición May. 24, ...

  15. Nutrition Guide for Toddlers

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Nutrition Guide for Toddlers KidsHealth / For Parents / Nutrition Guide ... español Guía de nutrición para sus hijos pequeños Nutrition Through Variety Growth slows somewhat during the toddler ...

  16. Public Health Nutrition Education

    Torheim, Liv Elin; Birgisdottir, Bryndis Eva; Robertson, Aileen

    2016-01-01

    , Oslo, Norway, 2Unit for Nutrition Research, Landspitali University Hospital , 3Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland, 4Global Nutrition and Health, Metropolitan University College, Copenhagen, Denmark, 5School of Hospitality, culinary arts and meal science...

  17. Nutrition for Sport Success.

    Nutrition Foundation, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This guidebook presents basic facts about nutrition, focusing upon the nutritional needs of athletes. Information is given on: (1) the importance of water, salt and other electrolytes, and treating and preventing heat disorders; (2) nutrition for training and performance, the best diet, caloric and energy requirements for various and specific…

  18. Postoperative outcome after oesophagectomy for cancer: Nutritional status is the missing ring in the current prognostic scores.

    Filip, B; Scarpa, M; Cavallin, F; Cagol, M; Alfieri, R; Saadeh, L; Ancona, E; Castoro, C

    2015-06-01

    Several prognostic scores were designed in order to estimate the risk of postoperative adverse events. None of them includes a component directly associated to the nutritional status. The aims of the study were the evaluation of performance of risk-adjusted models for early outcomes after oesophagectomy and to develop a score for severe complication prediction with special consideration regarding nutritional status. A comparison of POSSUM and Charlson score and their derivates, ASA, Lagarde score and nutritional index (PNI) was performed on 167 patients undergoing oesophagectomy for cancer. A logistic regression model was also estimated to obtain a new prognostic score for severe morbidity prediction. Overall morbidity was 35.3% (59 cases), severe complications (grade III-V of Clavien-Dindo classification) occurred in 20 cases. Discrimination was poor for all the scores. Multivariable analysis identified pulse, connective tissue disease, PNI and potassium as independent predictors of severe morbidity. This model showed good discrimination and calibration. Internal validation using standard bootstrapping techniques confirmed the good performance. Nutrition could be an independent risk factor for major complications and a nutritional status coefficient could be included in current prognostic scores to improve risk estimation of major postoperative complications after oesophagectomy for cancer. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Evaluation of the Effect of Knowledge Concerning Healthy Nutrition and Nutrition Science on the Knowledge Development Approach

    Asghari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Nutrition can be regarded as an important part of any preparation program, as well as an important part of life. It seems essential to develop nutritional science and improve eating habits with the purpose of developing a healthy diet and avoiding the outcomes that arise from a lack of nutrition. Proper nutrition is one of the important factors for the development of health. Lack of sufficient awareness about nutrition can result in improper eating habits. Objectives The present study evaluated the effect of knowledge about healthy nutrition and nutrition science on the knowledge development approach. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional descriptive study, the statistical population consisted of 190 experts and other scholars in the area of nutritional science. A questionnaire based on demographic details, nutritional science, nutrition education, research, proper solutions to individuals’ nutritional problems, and a culture of nutrition was used for data collection. Results A relatively strong positive correlation was found between the knowledge development approach, nutritional science, nutrition education and research, and proper solutions for individual nutritional problems and a culture of nutrition (P < 0.001. Conclusions 1 Effective enhancement and participation in an academic community will be important in the future of food and nutrition security; however, major gaps and weaknesses also exist in this context; 2 The main weaknesses in relation to the lack of clear policies and procedures include focusing on only Tehran, Iran; the need to overcome bureaucracy; and problems related to motivation, capital, and international communications; 3 Qualitative and quantitative improvement of research is not possible without access to skilled experts and researchers; 4 To solve these problems, it will be beneficial to pay more attention to the role of universities, facilitate intellectual communication among professors in

  20. Protection by extra virgin olive oil against oxidative stress in vitro and in vivo. Chemical and biological studies on the health benefits due to a major component of the Mediterranean diet

    Rossi, Miriam; Kwok, Lorraine; Lee, Grace; Caruso, Alessio; Gionfra, Fabio; Candelotti, Elena; Belli, Stuart L.; Molasky, Nora; Raley-Susman, Kathleen M.; Leone, Stefano; Filipský, Tomáš; Tofani, Daniela; Pedersen, Jens; Incerpi, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    We report the results of in vivo studies in Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes in which addition of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) to their diet significantly increased their life span with respect to the control group. Furthermore, when nematodes were exposed to the pesticide paraquat, they started to die after two days, but after the addition of EVOO to their diet, both survival percentage and lifespans of paraquat-exposed nematodes increased. Since paraquat is associated with superoxide radical production, a test for scavenging this radical was performed using cyclovoltammetry and the EVOO efficiently scavenged the superoxide. Thus, a linear correlation (y = -0.0838x +19.73, regression factor = 0.99348) was observed for superoxide presence (y) in the voltaic cell as a function of aliquot (x) additions of EVOO, 10 μL each. The originally generated supoeroxide was approximately halved after 10 aliquots (100 μL total). The superoxide scavenging ability was analyzed, theoretically, using Density Functional Theory for tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol, two components of EVOO and was also confirmed experimentally for the galvinoxyl radical, using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The galvinoxyl signal disappeared after adding 1 μL of EVOO to the EPR cell in 10 minutes. In addition, EVOO significantly decreased the proliferation of human leukemic THP-1 cells, while it kept the proliferation at about normal levels in rat L6 myoblasts, a non-tumoral skeletal muscle cell line. The protection due to EVOO was also assessed in L6 cells and THP-1 exposed to the radical generator cumene hydroperoxide, in which cell viability was reduced. Also in this case the oxidative stress was ameliorated by EVOO, in line with results obtained with tetrazolium dye reduction assays, cell cycle analysis and reactive oxygen species measurements. We ascribe these beneficial effects to EVOO antioxidant properties and our results are in agreement with a clear health benefit of EVOO use

  1. Protection by extra virgin olive oil against oxidative stress in vitro and in vivo. Chemical and biological studies on the health benefits due to a major component of the Mediterranean diet.

    Miriam Rossi

    Full Text Available We report the results of in vivo studies in Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes in which addition of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO to their diet significantly increased their life span with respect to the control group. Furthermore, when nematodes were exposed to the pesticide paraquat, they started to die after two days, but after the addition of EVOO to their diet, both survival percentage and lifespans of paraquat-exposed nematodes increased. Since paraquat is associated with superoxide radical production, a test for scavenging this radical was performed using cyclovoltammetry and the EVOO efficiently scavenged the superoxide. Thus, a linear correlation (y = -0.0838x +19.73, regression factor = 0.99348 was observed for superoxide presence (y in the voltaic cell as a function of aliquot (x additions of EVOO, 10 μL each. The originally generated supoeroxide was approximately halved after 10 aliquots (100 μL total. The superoxide scavenging ability was analyzed, theoretically, using Density Functional Theory for tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol, two components of EVOO and was also confirmed experimentally for the galvinoxyl radical, using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR spectroscopy. The galvinoxyl signal disappeared after adding 1 μL of EVOO to the EPR cell in 10 minutes. In addition, EVOO significantly decreased the proliferation of human leukemic THP-1 cells, while it kept the proliferation at about normal levels in rat L6 myoblasts, a non-tumoral skeletal muscle cell line. The protection due to EVOO was also assessed in L6 cells and THP-1 exposed to the radical generator cumene hydroperoxide, in which cell viability was reduced. Also in this case the oxidative stress was ameliorated by EVOO, in line with results obtained with tetrazolium dye reduction assays, cell cycle analysis and reactive oxygen species measurements. We ascribe these beneficial effects to EVOO antioxidant properties and our results are in agreement with a clear health

  2. Pharmaceutical Point of View on Parenteral Nutrition

    M. Stawny

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Parenteral nutrition—a form of administering nutrients, electrolytes, trace elements, vitamins, and water—is a widely used mode of therapy applied in many diseases, in patients of different ages both at home and in hospital. The success of nutritional therapy depends chiefly on proper determination of the patient’s energetic and electrolytic needs as well as preparation and administration of a safe nutritional mixture. As a parenterally administered drug, it is expected to be microbiologically and physicochemically stable, with all of the components compatible with each other. It is very difficult to obtain a stable nutritional mixture due to the fact that it is a complex, two-phase drug. Also, the risk of incompatibility between mixture components and packaging should be taken into consideration and possibly eliminated. Since parenteral nutrition is a part of therapy, simultaneous use of drugs may cause pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions as well as those with the pharmaceutical phase. The aim of this paper is to discuss such aspects of parenteral nutrition as mixture stability, methodology, and methods for determining the stability of nutritional mixtures and drugs added to them.

  3. Pharmaceutical Point of View on Parenteral Nutrition

    Stawny, M.; Olijarczyk, R.; Jaroszkiewicz, E.; Jelińska, A.

    2013-01-01

    Parenteral nutrition—a form of administering nutrients, electrolytes, trace elements, vitamins, and water—is a widely used mode of therapy applied in many diseases, in patients of different ages both at home and in hospital. The success of nutritional therapy depends chiefly on proper determination of the patient's energetic and electrolytic needs as well as preparation and administration of a safe nutritional mixture. As a parenterally administered drug, it is expected to be microbiologically and physicochemically stable, with all of the components compatible with each other. It is very difficult to obtain a stable nutritional mixture due to the fact that it is a complex, two-phase drug. Also, the risk of incompatibility between mixture components and packaging should be taken into consideration and possibly eliminated. Since parenteral nutrition is a part of therapy, simultaneous use of drugs may cause pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions as well as those with the pharmaceutical phase. The aim of this paper is to discuss such aspects of parenteral nutrition as mixture stability, methodology, and methods for determining the stability of nutritional mixtures and drugs added to them. PMID:24453847

  4. Principal components

    Hallin, M.; Hörmann, S.; Piegorsch, W.; El Shaarawi, A.

    2012-01-01

    Principal Components are probably the best known and most widely used of all multivariate analysis techniques. The essential idea consists in performing a linear transformation of the observed k-dimensional variables in such a way that the new variables are vectors of k mutually orthogonal

  5. Enteral nutrition in surgery

    Sucha, R.; Lichvarova, I.; Duchon, R.; Dolnik, J.; Pindak, D.

    2011-01-01

    Enteral feeding provides physiologic, metabolic, safety, and cost benefits over parenteral nutrition. There are various ways enteral nutritional is administered and scheduled. The method of administration must be individualized to each patient's specific needs. Enteral nutrition is not only the supply of exogenous substrates and to prevent depletion of endogenous sources. Today the enteral nutrition becomes part of a therapeutic strategy to influence the severity of the disease to affect the function of GIT, and to modulate immune responses of the gut and the whole organism. Early enteral nutrition in the postoperative period reduces the risk of infectious complications. (author)

  6. Review on Ruminant Nutrition Research

    Budi Haryanto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Research works in ruminant nutrition have been widely published, especially those related to the energy and protein utilization. The energy and protein requirements for maintenance and production in tropical regions may be different from those in the subtropical areas. Responses of different species of ruminants to energy and protein supplements were also observed. The synchronization of energy and protein availability has been considered as an important strategy in affecting the microbial fermentative process in the rumen and in affecting the animal performance. The inclusion of long-chained unsaturated fatty acids in the diets has been successfully affecting milk production with higher concentration of unsaturated fatty acids. Feedstuffs characteristics in terms of their degradability and fermentation by rumen microbial enzymes have been intensively studied; however, further experimentations are still needed to elucidate the specific fate of its nutritive components in the rumen and tissue levels.

  7. A Survey of Medical Students’ Use of Nutrition Resources and Perceived Competency in Providing Basic Nutrition Education

    Rebecca Connor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aims of this study were to assess where medical students obtain their nutrition information and their self-perceived level of competency in providing basic nutrition education to patients. Methods. A survey was distributed to all first through fourth year medical students at Case Western Reserve University (n=657. For statistical analysis, data was expressed as percentages of total responses and binomial regression was used to answer the study hypotheses. Results. The survey response rate was 47%. Forty-two percent of respondents selected a majority of professional nutrition resources (n=132 as their most commonly used nutrition resources, 38% selected a majority of consumer resources (n=119, and 20% selected “I do not use nutrition resources” (n=61. The most popular nutrition resource selected was consumer websites. Seventy percent of respondents reported feeling competent in their ability to provide basic nutrition education to patients (n=219. Conclusion. Medical students seem to feel competent in their ability to give basic nutrition education to patients, but they may be obtaining nutrition information from unreliable consumer-based resources. To help increase the provision of sound nutritional guidance, medical students should be taught to use reliable nutrition resources, as well as the value of referring patients to registered dietitians.

  8. Nutrition in Patients with Gastric Cancer: An Update.

    Rosania, Rosa; Chiapponi, Costanza; Malfertheiner, Peter; Venerito, Marino

    2016-05-01

    Nutritional management of patients with gastric cancer (GC) represents a challenge. This review provides an overview of the present evidence on nutritional support in patients with GC undergoing surgery as well as in those with advanced disease. For patients undergoing surgery, the preoperative nutritional condition directly affects postoperative prognosis, overall survival and disease-specific survival. Perioperative nutritional support enriched with immune-stimulating nutrients reduces overall complications and hospital stay but not mortality after major elective gastrointestinal surgery. Early enteral nutrition after surgery improves early and long-term postoperative nutritional status and reduces the length of hospitalization as well. Vitamin B12 and iron deficiency are common metabolic sequelae after gastrectomy and warrant appropriate replacement. In malnourished patients with advanced GC, short-term home complementary parenteral nutrition improves the quality of life, nutritional status and functional status. Total home parenteral nutrition represents the only modality of caloric intake for patients with advanced GC who are unable to take oral or enteral nutrition. Early evaluations of nutritional status and nutritional support represent key aspects in the management of GC patients with both operable and advanced disease.

  9. Chemical and nutritional characteristics of high-fibre rye milling fractions.

    Kołodziejczyk, Piotr; Makowska, Agnieszka; Pospieszna, Barbara; Michniewicz, Jan; Paschke, Hanna

    2018-01-01

    Many studies have demonstrated the potential health benefits of consuming more high-fibre cereal-based food products. Therefore, there is a need to discover new ways to improve the overall nutritional balance of refined cereal products and focus on increasing their dietary fibre content, at the expense of readily digestible carbohydrates. Lab-scale milling and sieving of whole rye grain was used to obtain two fractions rich in dietary fibre. The fractions were analysed and compared, in terms of microstructure, chemical com- position and nutritional quality. The two fractions significantly obtained differed in their particle size and contents of minerals, available saccharides, and nutritional fractions of starch and dietary fibre and its major components. The total dietary fibre concentrations in the coarse and fine fractions were 50.0 and 36.0 g/100 g, respectively, i.e. three and 2.2 times higher than that of wholegrain rye flour. Both fractions also differed in their relative proportions of major fibre components. In the fine fraction, the levels of soluble fibre, as well as soluble arabinoxylans and fructans, were significantly higher than those in the coarse fraction. It was shown that the application of a simple dry-fractionation method to wholemeal rye flour allows the preparation of two rye products which can serve as concentrated sources of dietary fibre low in available saccharides.

  10. [Alimentation dependent health disorders among adult population of Bashkortostan Republic and their relation with nutritional traits].

    Takaev, R M; Kondrova, N S; Baĭkina, I M; Larionova, T K

    2008-01-01

    The authors demonstrated relationship between alimentation dependent diseases among adult population of the Republic and nutritional traits of the population, defined major directions of program to optimize nutrition of the population.

  11. Australian midwives and provision of nutrition education during pregnancy: A cross sectional survey of nutrition knowledge, attitudes, and confidence.

    Arrish, Jamila; Yeatman, Heather; Williamson, Moira

    2016-10-01

    Maternal nutrition during pregnancy affects the health of the mother and the baby. Midwives are ideally placed to provide nutrition education to pregnant women. There is limited published research evidence of Australian midwives' nutrition knowledge, attitudes and confidence. To investigate Australian midwives' nutrition knowledge, attitudes and confidence in providing nutrition education during pregnancy. Members of the Australian College of Midwives (n=4770) were sent an invitation email to participate in a web-based survey, followed by two reminders. The completion rate was 6.9% (329 of 4770). The majority (86.6% and 75.7%, respectively) highly rated the importance of nutrition during pregnancy and the significance of their role in nutrition education. Midwives' nutrition knowledge was inadequate in several areas such as weight gain, dairy serves and iodine requirements (73.3%, 73.2% and 79.9% incorrect responses, respectively). The level of confidence in discussing general and specific nutrition issues ranged mostly from moderate to low. The majority of the midwives (93%) provided nutrition advice to pregnant women. This advice was mostly described as 'general' and focused on general nutrition topics. Only half of the midwives reported receiving nutrition education during midwifery education (51.1%) or after registration (54.1%). Australian midwives' attitudes towards nutrition during pregnancy and their role in educating pregnant women about it were positive but their knowledge and confidence did not align with these attitudes. This could be due to minimal nutrition education during midwifery education or during practice. Continued education to improve midwives' nutrition knowledge and confidence is essential. Copyright © 2016 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 76 FR 51274 - Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: Major System Failures

    2011-08-18

    ... processing. Negligence Section 11(h) of the Act, 7 CFR 276.3 specifies that FNS may determine that a State... computing amounts of losses of Federal funds due to negligence, FNS may use actual, documented amounts or.... If FNS makes a determination that there has been negligence or fraud on the part of a State agency in...

  13. Comparisons of pharmacokinetic and tissue distribution profile of four major bioactive components after oral administration of Xiang-Fu-Si-Wu Decoction effective fraction in normal and dysmenorrheal symptom rats.

    Liu, Pei; Li, Wei; Li, Zhen-hao; Qian, Da-wei; Guo, Jian-ming; Shang, Er-xin; Su, Shu-lan; Tang, Yu-ping; Duan, Jin-ao

    2014-07-03

    Xiang-Fu-Si-Wu Decoction (XFSWD) has been widely used to treat primary dysmenorrhea in clinical practice for hundreds of years and shown great efficacy. One fraction of XFSWD, which was an elution product by macroporous adsorption resin from aqueous extract solution with 60% ethanol (XFSWE), showed great analgesic effect. The present study was conducted to investigate the possible pharmacokinetic and tissue distribution profiles of four major bioactive constituents (berberine, protopine, tetrahydrocoptisine and tetrahydropalmatine) after oral administration of XFSWE in dysmenorrheal symptom rats, and to compare the difference between normal and dysmenorrheal symptom rats. Estradiol benzoate and oxytocin were used to produce dysmenorrheal symptom rat model. The experimental period was seven days. At the final day of experimental period, both normal and dysmenorrheal symptom rats were orally administrated with XFSWE, and then the blood and tissues samples were collected at different time points. Berberine, protopine, tetrahydrocoptisine and tetrahydropalmatine in blood and tissue samples were determined by LC-MS/MS. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated from the plasma concentration-time data using non-compartmental methods. The differences of pharmacokinetic parameters among groups were tested by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). There were statistically significant differences (Pnormal and dysmenorrheal symptom rats that orally administered with same dosage of XFSWE. In tissue distribution study, the results showed that the overall trend was C(Spleen)>C(Liver)>C(Kidney)>C(Uterus)>C(Heart)>C(Lung)>C(Ovary)>C(Brain)>C(Thymus), C(M-60 min)>C(M-120 min)>C(M-30 min)>C(C-60 min)>C(C-120 min)>C(C-30 min). The contents of protopine in liver, spleen and uterus were more than that in other tissues of dysmenorrheal symptom rats. Compared to normal rats, partial contents of the compounds in dysmenorrheal symptom rats׳ tissues at different time points had significant

  14. [Advances in mechanisms of health benefits of exercise and nutrition].

    Yi, Mu-Qing; Liu, Jian-Kang; Zhang, Yong

    2014-10-01

    Adequate physical activity/exercise and nutrition are the footstone for health, and primary components of healthy life style and prevention and treatment of life style-related diseases. Here we briefly review the recent advances in mechanisms of health benefits of regular physical activity/exercise and adequate nutrition, mitochondrial nutrients, and so on.

  15. Nutrition interventions in the workplace: Evidence of best practice ...

    The following were key success factors: i) there was a nutrition and physical activity component; ii) dietitians were involved in nutrition education; iii) changes occurred in the cafeteria/canteen, which increased the availability of healthy food options and advertised them accordingly; iv) tailored feedback on diet (and clinical ...

  16. Biotic components

    Uresk, D.W.; Fitzner, R.E.; Rogers, L.E.; Rickard, W.H.

    1977-01-01

    Representative plant communities are described. The major community is dominated by sagebrush/cheatgrass-sandberg blue grass. Mammal, bird and insect species inhabiting the 200 Area plateau are representative of surrounding regions. Prairie falcons are the only species present possibly threatened with extinction. They do not nest on the plateau but probably forage over the area

  17. Tailored nutrition education: is it really effective?

    Eyles, Helen; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona

    2012-03-01

    There has been a growing interest in tailored nutrition education over the previous decade, with a number of literature reviews suggesting this intervention strategy holds considerable potential. Nevertheless, the majority of intervention trials undertaken to date have employed subjective self-report outcome measures (such as dietary recalls). The aim of the present review is to further consider the likely true effect of tailored nutrition education by assessing the findings of tailored nutrition education intervention trials where objective outcome measures (such as sales data) have been employed. Four trials of tailored nutrition education employing objective outcome measures were identified: one was undertaken in eight low-cost supermarkets in New Zealand (2010; n 1104); one was an online intervention trial in Australia (2006; n 497); and two were undertaken in US supermarkets (1997 and 2001; n 105 and 296, respectively). Findings from the high-quality New Zealand trial were negative. Findings from the US trials were also generally negative, although reporting was poor making it difficult to assess quality. Findings from the high-quality online trial were positive, although have limited generalisability for public health. Trials employing objective outcome measures strongly suggest tailored nutrition education is not effective as a stand-alone strategy. However, further large, high-quality trials employing objective outcome measures are needed to determine the true effectiveness of this popular nutrition intervention strategy. Regardless, education plays an important role in generating social understanding and acceptance of broader interventions to improve nutrition.

  18. Food nutrition labelling practice in China.

    Tao, Yexuan; Li, Ji; Lo, Y Martin; Tang, Qingya; Wang, Youfa

    2011-03-01

    The present study aimed to scrutinize the food nutrition labelling practice in China before the Chinese Food Nutrition Labeling Regulation (CFNLR) era. Nutrition information of pre-packaged foods collected from a supermarket between December 2007 and January 2008 was analysed and compared with findings from a survey conducted in Beijing. Information collected from a supermarket in Shanghai. A total of 850 pre-packaged foods. In the Shanghai survey, the overall labelling rate was 30·9 %, similar to that found in the Beijing study (29·7 %). While only 20·5 % of the snacks in Shanghai had nutrition labelling, the percentage of food items labelled with SFA (8·6 %), trans fatty acid (4·7 %) or fibre (12·1 %) was very low. Of those food items with nutrition labels, a considerable proportion (7-15 %) did not label energy, fat, carbohydrate or protein. Food products manufactured by Taiwan and Hong Kong companies had a lower labelling rate (13·6 %) than those manufactured by domestic (31·6 %) or international manufacturers (33·8 %). The very low food nutrition labelling rate among products sold in large chain supermarkets in major cities of China before CFNLR emphasizes the need for such critical regulations to be implemented in order to reinforce industrial compliance with accurate nutrition labelling.

  19. Enteral nutrition in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Gassull, M A; Abad, A; Cabré, E; González-Huix, F; Giné, J J; Dolz, C

    1986-01-01

    To assess the effect of the addition of enteral tube feeding with polymeric diets to the standard treatment of acute attacks of inflammatory bowel disease a total of 43 patients admitted to hospital (23 with Crohn's disease and 20 with ulcerative colitis) were studied retrospectively. Total enteral nutrition was given to 26 as the sole nutritional supply and to 17 in conjunction with a normal ward diet, when appropriate, according to the severity of attack (control group). Nutritional state was assessed and classified in all patients at admission and at the end of the study, by measuring the triceps skinfold thickness, mid arm muscle circumference, and serum albumin concentration as representative of body fat, muscle protein, and visceral protein, respectively. At admission the three nutritional variables were not statistically different between the groups. There was a significantly positive effect on mid arm muscle circumference in patients on total enteral nutrition compared with the control group, but there was no effect on either triceps skinfold thickness or serum albumin concentration. The percentage of subjects requiring intravenous albumin infusion, however, was significantly less in the group fed enterally than in the control group. In addition, fewer patients in the group fed enterally required surgical treatment compared with the control group, despite the fact that one of the criteria for starting enteral nutritional support was the expectancy that surgery would be needed. Total enteral nutrition was well tolerated and no major side effects arose during its use in patients with acute exacerbations of inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:3098646

  20. Need for and Interest in a Sports Nutrition Mobile Device Application Among Division I Collegiate Athletes.

    Zuniga, Krystle E; Downey, Darcy L; McCluskey, Ryan; Rivers, Carley

    2017-02-01

    The majority of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) programs do not have a sports nutritionist, leaving athletes to gather information from resources that vary in reputability. The objective of this study was to identify a need for the development of accessible and reputable resources of nutrition information by assessing the current use of nutrition information resources, dietary habits, and sports nutrition knowledge among Division I collegiate athletes. Seventy-two athletes across eight sports completed questionnaires concerning nutrition resources used, dietary habits, and sports nutrition knowledge. In addition, interest levels in a mobile device application for delivery of nutrition information and tools were assessed. Primary sources for nutrition information included parents and family, athletic trainers (AT), and the internet/media, and athletes felt most comfortable discussing nutrition with parents and family, ATs, and strength and conditioning specialists. Performance on a sports nutrition knowledge questionnaire indicated a general lack of nutrition knowledge, and the high frequency of "unsure" responses suggested a lack of confidence in nutrition knowledge. Athletes conveyed a high likelihood that they would use a mobile device application as a nutrition resource, but were more interested in access to nutrition topics than tools such as a food log. We found that college athletes possess minimal sports nutrition knowledge, obtain nutrition information from nonprofessional resources, and were interested in utilizing a mobile device application as a resource. Further research is needed to explore the feasibility and effectiveness of alternative resources, such as a mobile device application, to deliver nutrition information and improve nutrition knowledge.

  1. Poverty nutrition linkages.

    Ramachandran, Prema

    2007-10-01

    At the time of independence majority of Indians were poor. In spite of spending over 80 per cent of their income on food, they could not get adequate food. Living in areas of poor environmental sanitation they had high morbidity due to infections; nutrition toll due to infections was high because of poor access to health care. As a result, majority of Indians especially children were undernourished. The country initiated programmes to improve economic growth, reduce poverty, improve household food security and nutritional status of its citizens, especially women and children. India defined poverty on the basis of calorie requirement and focused its attention on providing subsidized food and essential services to people below poverty line. After a period of slow but steady economic growth, the last decade witnessed acceleration of economic growth. India is now one of the fastest growing economies in the world with gross domestic product (GDP) growth over 8 per cent. There has been a steady but slow decline in poverty; but last decade's rapid economic growth did not translate in to rapid decline in poverty. In 1970s, country became self sufficient in food production; adequate buffer stocks have been built up. Poor had access to subsidized food through the public distribution system. As a result, famines have been eliminated, though pockets of food scarcity still existed. Over the years there has been a decline in household expenditure on food due to availability of food grains at low cost but energy intake has declined except among for the poor. In spite of unaltered/declining energy intake there has been some reduction in undernutrition and increase in overnutrition in adults. This is most probably due to reduction in physical activity. Under the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) programme food supplements are being provided to children, pregnant and lactating women in the entire country. In spite of these, low birth weight rates are still over 30 per

  2. Effect of different processing methods on nutritional composition of ...

    ADOWIE PERE

    their rich contents of essential amino acids, vitamins and minerals (Aye ... inherent toxic factors or anti-nutritional components in plants has been .... protein, crude fat, crude fibre and ash from 100. .... soluble in water, leaving insoluble fibre.

  3. Optimizing patient nutrition

    Geiker, Nina Rica Wium

    (Paper I). The present study is, to my knowledge, the only study investigating the validity of performed nutritional risk screenings by comparing them with medical records. Eight per cent of patients were correctly screened for nutritional risk. A total of 24% of 2393 patients were nutritionally screened......Malnutrition, under-nutrition and/or obesity, may develop due to disease but may also cause disease. The prevalence of under-nutrition among hospitalized patients is high: 40-60% are either already under-nourished on admittance or at-risk of becoming malnourished. As in the general population...... of prescription medication, and take longer to recover. Acknowledging the adverse effects of malnutrition on health, since 2006 it has been mandatory to screen all patients for nutritional risk within 24 hours of admittance at all hospitals in the Capital Region, Denmark. The compliance to and the validity...

  4. Nutritional ecology beyond the individual: a conceptual framework for integrating nutrition and social interactions.

    Lihoreau, Mathieu; Buhl, Jerome; Charleston, Michael A; Sword, Gregory A; Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J

    2015-03-01

    Over recent years, modelling approaches from nutritional ecology (known as Nutritional Geometry) have been increasingly used to describe how animals and some other organisms select foods and eat them in appropriate amounts in order to maintain a balanced nutritional state maximising fitness. These nutritional strategies profoundly affect the physiology, behaviour and performance of individuals, which in turn impact their social interactions within groups and societies. Here, we present a conceptual framework to study the role of nutrition as a major ecological factor influencing the development and maintenance of social life. We first illustrate some of the mechanisms by which nutritional differences among individuals mediate social interactions in a broad range of species and ecological contexts. We then explain how studying individual- and collective-level nutrition in a common conceptual framework derived from Nutritional Geometry can bring new fundamental insights into the mechanisms and evolution of social interactions, using a combination of simulation models and manipulative experiments. © 2015 The Authors. Ecology Letters published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and CNRS.

  5. Nutrition Information at the Point of Selection in High Schools Does Not Affect Purchases

    Rainville, Alice Jo; Choi, Kyunghee; Ragg, Mark; King, Amber; Carr, Deborah H.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: Nutrition information can be an important component of local wellness policies. There are very few studies regarding nutrition information at the point of selection (POS) in high schools. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of posting entree nutrition information at the POS in high schools nationwide.…

  6. Nutritional status, quality of life and CD4 cell count of adults living ...

    Keywords: CD4 cell count; Quality of Life; adults; nutritional status; nutritional intake. Nutritional status .... used to calculate the Body Mass Index (BMI). BMI was ... fat consumption as a percentage of the total food energy intake, and component ..... except when the CD4 counts fall very low.5,27 The CD4 cell count may offer a ...

  7. Valor nutritivo de perfilhos e componentes morfológicos em pastos de capim-braquiária diferidos e adubados com nitrogênio Nutritive value of tillers and morphological components on deferred and nitrogen fertilized pastures of Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk

    Manoel Eduardo Rozalino Santos

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o valor nutritivo de perfilhos e componentes morfológicos em pastos diferidos e adubados com nitrogênio de Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk. Dois experimentos foram realizados em delineamento de blocos casualizados com três repetições e esquema de parcela subdivida. No primeiro experimento, foram realizadas combinações entre doses de nitrogênio (0, 40, 80 e 120 kg/ha com os componentes morfológicos (folha verde, colmo verde, folha morta e colmo morto ou com as categorias de perfilhos (vegetativo e reprodutivo do pasto. No segundo experimento, estudaram-se as combinações entre períodos de diferimento (73, 95 e 116 dias com categorias de perfilhos (vegetativo e reprodutivo. A adubação nitrogenada aumentou o percentual de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN nos colmos verdes e o teor de proteína bruta (PB nas folhas verdes e mortas e no colmo verde. Elevou também os percentuais de PB nos perfilhos vegetativos e reprodutivos, assim como o teor de FDN do perfilhos vegetativos. Maior período de diferimento causou acréscimo no percentual de FDN e redução no percentual de proteína bruta nos perfilhos vegetativos e reprodutivos. A dose de nitrogênio e o período de diferimento alteram o valor nutritivo dos componentes morfológicos e dos perfilhos dos pastos de B. decumbens cv. Basilisk. No diferimento da pastagem, ações de manejo que resultem em maiores percentuais de lâmina foliar verde e perfilho vegetativo no pasto contribuem para melhorar o valor nutritivo da forragem diferida.This work was carried out aiming to evaluate the nutritional value of tillers and the morphological components on deferred and nitrogen-fertilized pastures of Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk. Two experiments were performed in randomized block designs with three repetitions and subdivided plot scheme. In the first experiment, combinations among nitrogen doses (0, 40, 80 and 120 kg/ha were performed

  8. Nutritional aspects of food irradiation

    Murray, T.K.

    1981-01-01

    From the nutritional point of view the irradiation of fruits and vegetables presents few problems. It should be noted that irradiation-induced changes in the β-carotene content of papaya (not available to the Joint Expert Committee in 1976) have been demonstrated to be unimportant. The Joint Expert Committee also noted the need for more data on thiamine loss. These have been forthcoming and indicate that control of insects in rice is possible without serious loss of the vitamin. Experiments with other cereal crops were also positive in this regard. The most important evidence on the nutritional quality of irradiated beef and poultry was the demonstration that they contained no anti-thiamine properties. A point not to be overlooked is the rather serious loss of thiamine when mackerel is irradiated at doses exceeding 3 kGy. Recent evidence indicates that thiamine loss could be reduced by using a high dose rate application process. Though spices contribute little directly to the nutritional quality of the food supply they play an important indirect role. It is thus encouraging that they can be sterilized by irradiation without loss of aroma and taste and without significant loss of β-carotenes. Of future importance are the observations on single cell protein and protein-fat-carbohydrate mixtures. The reduction of net protein utilization in protein-fat mixtures may be the result of physical interaction of the components. (orig./AJ)

  9. Nutritional aspects of food irradiation

    Murray, T K

    1981-08-01

    From the nutritional point of view the irradiation of fruits and vegetables presents few problems. It should be noted that irradiation-induced changes in the ..beta..-carotene content of papaya (not available to the Joint Expert Committee in 1976) have been demonstrated to be unimportant. The Joint Expert Committee also noted the need for more data on thiamine loss. These have been forthcoming and indicate that control of insects in rice is possible without serious loss of the vitamin. Experiments with other cereal crops were also positive in this regard. The most important evidence on the nutritional quality of irradiated beef and poultry was the demonstration that they contained no anti-thiamine properties. A point not to be overlooked is the rather serious loss of thiamine when mackerel is irradiated at doses exceeding 3 kGy. Recent evidence indicates that thiamine loss could be reduced by using a high dose rate application process. Though spices contribute little directly to the nutritional quality of the food supply they play an important indirect role. It is thus encouraging that they can be sterilized by irradiation without loss of aroma and taste and without significant loss of ..beta..-carotenes. Of future importance are the observations on single cell protein and protein-fat-carbohydrate mixtures. The reduction of net protein utilization in protein-fat mixtures may be the result of physical interaction of the components.

  10. Nutritional assessment of athletes

    Driskell, Judy A; Wolinsky, Ira

    2011-01-01

    "Evaluating dietary intake, determining energy metabolism, and conducting other nutritional assessments are essential in understanding the relationships between diet, exercise, health, and physical...

  11. Introduction to clinical nutrition

    Sardesai, Vishwanath M

    2012-01-01

    .... Introduction to Clinical Nutrition, Third edition discusses the physiologic and metabolic interrelationships of all nutrients and their roles in health maintenance and the prevention of various...

  12. What Is Enteral Nutrition?

    ... Solution Center NOVEL Project Parenteral Nutrition Resources Intravenous Lipid Emulsions (ILE) Video Series SmartPN Practice and Research Toolkits Publications & ASPEN Journals Journal of Parenteral and ...

  13. Ruminal degradability In Situ of nutritive components of some / Degradabilidade ruminal In Situ dos componentes nutritivos de alguns suplementos concentrados usados na alimentação de bovinos

    Filipe Alexandre Boscaro de Castro

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Degradability “in situ” of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF of whole cotton seed (WCS, soybean meal (SM, sunflower seed (SS, turnip cake (TC and ground corn (GC were determined with incubation of nylon bags in the rumen of five steers ½ Simmental-Zebu. The effective degradability (ED of dry matter and crude protein with 5%/h of passage rate were respectively 40,93 and 48,95% for cotton seed; 67,35 and 53,20% for soybean meal; 63,38 and 72,50% for sunflower seed; 66,59 and 57,82% for turnip cake and 3,65 e 54,18% for ground corn. Through the fermentation rates of the different nutritious components determined on this experiment it was concluded that turnip cake has a potential to substitute soybean meal as a protein source in ruminant feeding; sunflower seed presents a high soluble fraction of crude protein and the cotton seed ether extract may affect negatively the degradation of dry matter and organic matter of this feed, specially when provided ground to the animals.As degradabilidades in situ da matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO, proteína bruta (PB, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA e da fibra em detergente neutro (FDN do caroço de algodão integral (CAI, farelo de soja (FS, grão de girassol (GG, torta de nabo forrageiro (TN e do milho triturado (MT foram determinadas com a incubação de sacos de náilon no rúmen de cinco bovinos ½ sangue Simental-Zebu. As degradabilidades efetivas (DE da matéria seca (MS e da proteína bruta (PB a taxa de passagem de 5%/h, foram, respectivamente, 40,93 e 48,95% para o caroço de algodão integral; 67,35 e 53,20% para o farelo de soja; 63,38 e 72,50% para o grão de girassol; 66,59 e 57,82 para torta de nabo forrageiro e 63,65 e 54,18% para o milho triturado. Por meio das taxas de fermentação dos diferentes componentes nutritivos determinadas neste experimento, pode-se concluir que a torta de nabo forrageiro

  14. European consumers and nutrition labelling

    Wills, Josephine M.; Grunert, Klaus G.; Celemín, Laura Fernández

    2009-01-01

    Nutrition labelling of food in Europe is not compulsory, unless a nutrition or health claim is made for the product. The European Commission is proposing mandatory nutrition labelling, even front of pack labelling with nutrition information. Yet, how widespread is nutrition labelling in the EU...

  15. How coffee affects metabolic syndrome and its components.

    Baspinar, B; Eskici, G; Ozcelik, A O

    2017-06-21

    Metabolic syndrome, with its increasing prevalence, is becoming a major public health problem throughout the world. Many risk factors including nutrition play a role in the emergence of metabolic syndrome. Of the most-consumed beverages in the world, coffee contains more than 1000 components such as caffeine, chlorogenic acid, diterpenes and trigonelline. It has been proven in many studies that coffee consumption has a positive effect on chronic diseases. In this review, starting from the beneficial effects of coffee on health, the relationship between coffee consumption and metabolic syndrome and its components has been investigated. There are few studies investigating the relationship between coffee and metabolic syndrome, and the existing ones put forward different findings. The factors leading to the differences are thought to stem from coffee variety, the physiological effects of coffee elements, and the nutritional ingredients (such as milk and sugar) added to coffee. It is reported that consumption of coffee in adults up to three cups a day reduces the risk of Type-2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome.

  16. Food & Nutrition: Nourish Your Body

    Food & Nutrition: Nourish Your Body; food & nutrition; food and nutrition; food and nutrition articles; information about nutrition; health & nutrition; health and nutrition; health and nutrition articles; health and nutrition facts; health nutrition; nutrition and health; nutrition health; nutrition health articles; healthy; a healthy diet; diet healthy; eating healthy; healthy diet; healthy diets; nutrition diet; diet and nutrition; diet and nutrition articles; diet and nutrition article; diet nutrition; nutrition and diet; article on nutrition; article about nutrition; articles on nutrition; facts about nutrition; good nutrition; nutrition article; nutrition articles; healthy tips; eat healthy tips; eating healthy tips; healthy diet tips; healthy eating tip; healthy eating tips; healthy food tips; should eat; reasons why you should eat healthy; why people should eat healthy; why should I eat healthy; why should people eat healthy; why should we eat healthy; why should you eat healthy; why we should eat healthy; why you should eat healthy; healthy diet; a healthy diet; diets healthy eating; eat a healthy diet; eat healthy diet; eating a healthy diet; eating healthy diet; eating healthy diets; healthy diet; way to eat; best way to eat healthy; easy way to eat healthy; easy ways to eat healthy; healthy way of eating; healthy way to eat; healthy ways of eating; healthy ways to eat; ways to eat healthy; benefits; benefits eating healthy; benefits for eating healthy; benefits from eating healthy; benefits of eating healthy; benefits of healthy eating; benefits on eating healthy; benefits to eating healthy; eating healthy benefits; health benefits of eating healthy; eat healthier; eat healthier; eating healthier; healthier eating; healthier ways to eat; how can I eat healthier; how do I eat healthier; how to eat healthier; how to start eating healthier; tips to eat healthier; ways to start eating healthier

  17. The need for nutrition support teams in pediatric units: a commentary by the ESPGHAN committee on nutrition.

    Agostoni, Carlo; Axelson, Irene; Colomb, Virginie; Goulet, Olivier; Koletzko, Berthold; Michaelsen, Kim F; Puntis, John W L; Rigo, Jacques; Shamir, Raanan; Szajewska, Hania; Turck, Dominique

    2005-07-01

    The reported prevalence of malnutrition in pediatric hospitals ranges from 15% to 30% of patients, with an impact on growth, morbidity and mortality. Major deficits in nutrition care have been highlighted in European hospitals, and the implementation of nutrition support teams (NSTs) has been suggested as a means to improve malnutrition diagnosis and nutrition care for hospitalized patients. This comment by the ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition reviews disease related-mechanisms causing malnutrition and consequences of malnutrition and suggests a framework for implementation of NSTs in pediatric units. The recommendations by the Committee on Nutrition include: 1) Implementation of NSTs in hospitals is recommended to improve nutritional management of sick children; 2) The main tasks of the NST should include screening for nutritional risk, identification of patients who require nutritional support, provision of adequate nutritional management, education and training of hospital staff and audit of practice; 3) The NST should be multidisciplinary, with expertise in all aspects of clinical nutrition care; 4) The funds needed to support NSTs should be raised from the health care system; and 5) Further research is needed to evaluate the effects of NSTs in prevention and management of pediatric nutritional disorders, including cost effectiveness in different settings.

  18. Immediate preoperative enteral nutrition (preoperative enteral nutrition

    Lađević Nebojša

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional support of surgical patients is a necessary part of the treatment. It alone cannot cure the disease but it significantly affects the recovery of patients and supports surgical interventions. Patients in malnutrition have shown to have significantly more postoperative infectious and non-infectious complications. This significantly prolongs treatment time and increases costs. However, there is one fact that cannot be expressed in money, which is the patient's impression of the surgical intervention. Adequate preoperative patient support, based on the intake of liquid nutritive solutions, reduces preoperative stress and deflects the metabolic response. Now, it is recommended for adults and children older than one year to drink clear liquid up to 2 hours before induction in anesthesia. Appropriate enteral nutrition has a significant place in the postoperative recovery of patients. Enteral nutrition is reducing complications, mainly infectious complications because the function of the digestive system as one large immune system is preserved. Perioperative enteral nutrition is a necessary part of the modern treatment of surgical patients. In addition to the significant effect on the occurrence of postoperative complications, it is also important that this type of diet improves the psychological status of patients.

  19. Evaluation of Nutritional Status and Hydration in Patients on Chronic ...

    Background: Nutrition and hydration of the dialysis patients have major influences on the outcomes of chronic hemodialysis. Purpose: To characterize the states of nutrition and hydration in patients on chronic hemodialysis at Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH) and to evaluate the usefulness of measurements by ...

  20. Kitchen Magic: A Nutrition and Cooking Activities Handbook.

    Crist, Mary Jo; And Others

    This handbook on nutrition and cooking is one of a series written especially for parents and other caregivers. Contents include: (1) the importance of nutrition, (2) the four basic food groups in terms of serving size, menu planning, and major nutrients, (3) ways to build healthy attitudes toward food, (4) unsafe foods which have the potential to…

  1. Complementary feeding practices and nutritional status of children 6 ...

    Objectives: Inappropriate complementary feeding practices among children aged 6-23 months is major cause of under nutrition. There is scarce information on the relationship between complementary feeding practices and nutritional status. This study aimed to determine the factors contributing to the complementary ...

  2. Nutritional Disorders of Children. Prevention, Screening, and Followup.

    Fomon, Samuel J.

    Intended for child health care providers, the text contains information on improving preventive efforts in nutrition, particurlarly those focused on prevention of the major health problems which are nutrition related (obesity, atherosclerosis, dental caries, and anemia). Part I focuses on screening of individual children likely to be at risk of…

  3. Analysis of nutritional quality of low phytic acid mutants in maize

    Yuan Ming'an; Luo Hongbing; Wang Zhonghua; Chen Jinhong; Mei Shufang; Shu Xiaoli; Wu Dianxing

    2008-01-01

    Major nutritional quality and components of eight low phytic acid (lpa) mutants and their corresponding wild types were studied. Compared to their corresponding wild types, the content of inorganic P (Pi) was all increased several times, while the content of total P (TP) in mutants was almost the same as their wild types. The contents of crude lipid and amylose were similar, but total starch was significantly different. Crude protein in some of mutants was increased significantly. Most of amino acids were increased, and essential amino acid-Lysine was increased except mutants derived from Q319 and X178. Mineral macronutrients and micronutrients were similar. All results showed that the lpa mutation in maize could enhance the nutritional quality and bioactivities. (authors)

  4. A culinary laboratory for nutrition education.

    Jacob, Michael; Stewart, Patricia; Medina-Walpole, Annette; Fong, Chin-To

    2016-06-01

    Proficiency in medical nutrition requires an understanding of food-related biochemistry and the application of this knowledge in the context of culinary, cultural, psychosocial and interprofessional components. Our aim was to develop a teaching format where medical students could learn the biochemistry of nutrition in the context of patient narratives, interactive cooking and dialogues with nutrition professionals. We designed and implemented a day-long culinary laboratory intervention (lab), which is taught to first-year medical students at the University of Rochester with the help of dietetic interns from Cornell University. Here, we present the details of the intervention, the resources used and the preliminary outcomes on student attitudes. We designed and implemented a day-long culinary lab, which is taught to first-year medical students A questionnaire with quantitative rating scales and open-ended questions was used to probe student attitudes regarding the educational approach used in the lab. Our preliminary findings suggest that the lab was well received and that the dietetic interns were viewed as effective teachers in this context. A culinary lab is a feasible educational environment for integrating the breadth of topics within the discipline of nutrition. The experiential, food-based format appears to stimulate questions central to current nutritional controversies, particularly challenges related to translating biochemical mechanism into practical nutrition interventions. Close involvement with basic science faculty members, clinical faculty members and allied health professions are essential for this type of endeavour. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The nursing contribution to nutritional care in cancer cachexia.

    Hopkinson, Jane B

    2015-11-01

    Cancer cachexia is a complex syndrome. Its defining feature is involuntary weight loss, which arises, in part, because of muscle atrophy and is accompanied by functional decline. International expert consensus recommends that nutritional support and counselling is a component of multimodal therapy for cancer cachexia, as poor nutritional intake can contribute to progression of the syndrome. The present paper focuses on what is presently known about the nursing contribution to nutritional care in cancer cachexia. There is potential for nurses to play an important role. However, obstacles to this include lack of a robust evidence base to support their nutritional care practices and unmet need for education about nutrition in cancer. The nursing role's boundaries and the outcomes of nurse-delivered nutritional care in cancer cachexia are both uncertain and should be investigated.

  6. Supported Lipid Bilayers with Phosphatidylethanolamine as the Major Component.

    Sendecki, Anne M; Poyton, Matthew F; Baxter, Alexis J; Yang, Tinglu; Cremer, Paul S

    2017-11-21

    Phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) is notoriously difficult to incorporate into model membrane systems, such as fluid supported lipid bilayers (SLBs), at high concentrations because of its intrinsic negative curvature. Using fluorescence-based techniques, we demonstrate that having fewer sites of unsaturation in the lipid tails leads to high-quality SLBs because these lipids help to minimize the curvature. Moreover, shorter saturated chains can help maintain the membranes in the fluid phase. Using these two guidelines, we find that up to 70 mol % PE can be incorporated into SLBs at room temperature and up to 90 mol % PE can be incorporated at 37 °C. Curiously, conditions under which three-dimensional tubules project outward from the planar surface as well as conditions under which domain formation occurs can be found. We have employed these model membrane systems to explore the ability of Ni 2+ to bind to PE. It was found that this transition metal ion binds 1000-fold tighter to PE than to phosphatidylcholine lipids. In the future, this platform could be exploited to monitor the binding of other transition metal ions or the binding of antimicrobial peptides. It could also be employed to explore the physical properties of PE-containing membranes, such as phase domain behavior and intermolecular hydrogen bonding.

  7. ATLAS rewards two Japanese suppliers of major detector components.

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    The ATLAS supplier award in recognition of excellence has just been attributed to Kawasaki Heavy Industries, who produced the liquid-argon barrel cryostat. Kawasaki received its award in Hall 189 on the Meyrin site, where the cryostat is currently located. Toshiba Corporation's award for the superconducting central solenoid was presented two months ago at the Toshiba headquarters in Japan. Photo 01: P. Pailler, project leader for the ATLAS liquid-argon cryostats, addressing the Kawasaki delegation. Photo 04: H. Oberlack, project leader for the ATLAS liquid-argon system, addressing the Kawasaki delegation. Photo 11: P. Jenni (left), ATLAS Collaboration spokesperson, presenting the ATLAS supplier award for the barrel cryostat for the liquid-argon calorimeter to Mr. S. Nose, General Manager of Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd. Photo 18: J. Sondericker (left), liquid-argon barrel cryostat project engineer (BNL), presenting Mr. Nose (Kawasaki) an award from Brookhaven for the barrel cryostat for the ATLAS liquid-argo...

  8. Regulation of major cultural components for designing a cost ...

    acer

    2015-04-22

    Apr 22, 2015 ... the protease synthesis by Bt strains (Liu and Hsieh, 1969). The pH of the medium was adjusted ... by an oxygen sensor but the pH was not controlled. Estimation of spore count ..... Molecular cloning, 2nd. Edition. Cold Spring ...

  9. Regulation of major cultural components for designing a cost ...

    In this regard, locally available cheap molasses as carbon source, soybean extract as nitrogen source, sea water as trace elements source, cystine as sporulation/growth factor were ... While, substituting basal salts with sea water, Btk HD-73 yielded satisfactory and comparable endotoxin (74.3% of yield with basal salts).

  10. Biodegradability Of The Major Components Of Bonny Light Crude ...

    Of the known 92 potential hydrocarbon-utilizing bacteria and fungi isolated from crude oil polluted soil and water samples, only one soil bacterial isolate (SB17), identified as Bacillus subtilis, was found to efficiently degrade 72.23% of the Bonny light crude oil sample after 25 days of incubation, and thus was used for further ...

  11. Lessons learned from fatique failures in major FWR components

    Ware, A.G.; Shah, V.N.

    1992-01-01

    This paper evaluates the field fatigue failure experience and describes the lessons learned that can be employed in managing fatigue damage at the sites of these failures and at other susceptible sites. Fatigue damage has resulted in cracks on the inside surfaces of vessels and piping, and in some cases, through-wall cracks resulting in coolant leakage. All of the fatigue failures resulted from conditions or stressors that were not accounted for in the original design analyses. In some cases, it has proven difficult to discover fatigue cracks using conventional inservice inspection methods; several cracks were detected because of leakage. Supplementary monitoring and inspection techniques such as fatigue monitoring, acoustic emission monitoring, and time-of-flight-diffraction ultrasonic testing can be used to assist in identifying susceptible sites, estimating crack growth, and sizing existing fatigue cracks. It is important to identify the root cause of failures because once the stressors and degradation mechanisms are known, changes in operating procedures and designs can be implemented to mitigate future fatigue damage

  12. Regulation of major cultural components for designing a cost ...

    acer

    2015-04-22

    Apr 22, 2015 ... protein) synthesis by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) kurstaki HD-73 and indigenous Bt JSc1 harboring potential ... The cost of raw materials is one of the principal costs involved .... t- test analysis, the final formulation of the medium was 10% ..... ratio interacts with initial concentration of total solids on insecticidal.

  13. Nutritional catch-up growth.

    Gat-Yablonski, Galia; Pando, Rakefet; Phillip, Moshe

    2013-01-01

    Malnutrition, marked by variant nutrient deficiencies, is considered a leading cause of stunted growth worldwide. In developing countries, malnutrition is caused mainly by food shortage and infectious diseases. Malnutrition may also be found in the developed world, where it is due mostly to prematurity, chronic diseases, and anorexia nervosa. In most cases, when food consumption is corrected, spontaneous catch-up (CU) growth occurs. However, CU growth is not always complete, leading to growth deficits. Therefore, it is important to understand the mechanisms that govern this process. Using a rat model of food restriction followed by refeeding, we established a nutrition-induced CU growth model. Levels of leptin and insulin-like growth factor-1 were found to significantly decrease when food was restricted and to increase already 1 day after refeeding. Gene expression analysis of the growth plate revealed that food restriction specifically affects transcription factors such as the hypoxia inducible factor-1 and its downstream targets on the one hand, and global gene expression, indicating epigenetic regulation, on the other. Food restriction also reduced the level of several microRNAs, including the chondrocyte-specific miR-140, which led to an increase in its target, SIRT1, a class III histone deacetylase. These findings may explain the global changes in gene expression observed under nutritional manipulation. We suggest that multiple levels of regulation, including transcription factors, epigenetic mechanisms, and microRNAs respond to nutritional cues and offer a possible explanation for some of the effects of food restriction on epiphyseal growth plate growth. The means whereby these components sense changes in nutritional status are still unknown. Deciphering the role of epigenetic regulation in growth may pave the way for the development of new treatments for children with growth disorders. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. A brief nutritional approach

    Narvaiz, Patricia

    2006-01-01

    Food irradiation is a preservation method comparable to others that use heat. Some advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Ionizing radiations provided by specific radioactive substances: Cobalt-60 and Cesium-137, or by machines (electron accelerators and X-ray devices), are employed to eliminate living organisms which are harmful to human health or cause food spoilage. Several applications are listed. As any other food preservation method, it does not substitute good manufacturing practices but complements them. Being perhaps the most studied food preservation method, its wholesomeness is guaranteed by the World Health Organization (WHO), the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the American Medical Association, The American Dietists Association, among others. Like in any other food preservation method, some nutritional and sensory losses can occur after an irradiation treatment; so, processing conditions are chosen to minimize these changes. Generally, nutrients are well protected within the food because there are many different molecules able to react with radiation. Some significant nutrient losses referred to in literature are usually found only when irradiating experimental mixtures of an isolated diluted food component and water. The evaluation concludes that macro nutrients like proteins, lipids and carbohydrates are scarcely altered in their nutritional value after a treatment carried out under good irradiation practices. Regarding micro nutrients, minerals are stable, and some vitamins are slightly sensitive, mainly thiamine, ascorbic acid, and tocopherols, being their losses smaller than 15 - 20% which are comparable with those found in foods preserved by other methods. Besides, the impact that food irradiation would have on consumers' vitamins intake should be assessed considering the whole diet contribution, as many products are not likely to be irradiated. Confidence in food irradiation is such

  15. Analysis of nutrition and nutritional status of haemodialysis patients

    Bogacka, Anna; Sobczak-Czynsz, Anna; Kucharska, Elżbieta; Madaj, Małgorzata; Stucka, Katarzyna

    2018-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a common disease of civilization where nutrition is part of the treatment. Diet therapy is difficult as it is necessary to control the intake of: energy, protein and minerals – Na, K, Ca and P in the daily food rations (DFR). The aim of the study was to assess the nutritional status and diets of haemodialysis (HD) patients. The study involved 141 haemodialysis patients, at the average age of 65.9. The patients were divided into groups taking into consideration their sex and diagnosis for diabetes. The information on the diets were collected using a 7-day dietary recall. In the DFRs the amount of energy and 22 nutrients were calculated. Obtained results were compared with requirements for HD patients. Appropriate nutritional status (measured with BMI) was reported for majority of women (70.6%) and almost half of men, however, excessive weight was recognized in every third female patient and more than half male patients, and type I obesity was noted in 7.8% of men. The analysis of the results showed that diets of all examined patients were deficient in energy and protein (except women with diabetes), whereas the consumption of fat was appropriate in both groups of women. The recommendations with respect to the amount of cholesterol were met but dietary fibre was too low. Intake of vitamins B1, D, C, folates and Ca and Mg was lower and intake of vitamin B12 was higher than recommended. Assessment of the coverage of the demand on nutrients in HD patients should not be based on the analysis of their nutritional status (BMI) only but also on the analysis of diets, especially in case of diabetes.

  16. Nutrition, poverty alleviation, and development in Central America and Panama.

    Immink, Maarten D C

    2010-03-01

    This paper reviews research with policy relevance for food and nutrition in Central America and similar areas. The research was conducted by the Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama (INCAP) during the last three decades of the past millennium (1970-99). Six policy areas were selected for this review: agricultural commercialization and rural development; wage and price policies; human resource development; social safety nets, particularly complementary food programs; multi-sectoral nutrition planning; and food and nutrition monitoring for policy formulation. The contents and major conclusions of the work are described, as well as their public policy implications.

  17. Diet and Nutrition (Parkinson's Disease)

    ... Living With Parkinson's › Managing Parkinson's › Diet & Nutrition Diet & Nutrition 1. Maintain Health 2. Ease PD Symptoms 3. ... your team Seek reliable information about diet and nutrition from your medical team and local resources. Please ...

  18. Systems biology of personalized nutrition

    Ommen, B. van; Broek, T. van den; Hoogh, I. de; Erk, M. van; Someren, E. van; Rouhani-Rankouhi, T.; Anthony, J.C.; Hogenelst, K.; Pasman, W.; Boorsma, A.; Wopereis, S.

    2017-01-01

    Personalized nutrition is fast becoming a reality due to a number of technological, scientific, and societal developments that complement and extend current public health nutrition recommendations. Personalized nutrition tailors dietary recommendations to specific biological requirements on the

  19. [Nutrition and oropharyngeal cancer

    Kampman, E.

    2008-01-01

    The conclusion of a recent systematic review of the literature on the relation between nutrition, physical activity and cancer is that more than 30% of all cases of cancer can be prevented by improving nutrition and increasing physical activity. In The Netherlands, 1 out of 100 men and 1 out of 160

  20. Nutrition and allergic diseases

    Neerven, van R.J.J.; Savelkoul, Huub

    2017-01-01

    The development of IgE-mediated allergic diseases is influenced by many factors, including genetic and environmental factors such as pollution and farming, but also by nutrition. In the last decade, substantial progress has been made in our understanding of the impact that nutrition can have on

  1. Geological impacts on nutrition

    This chapter reviews the nutritional roles of mineral elements, as part of a volume on health implications of geology. The chapter addresses the absorption and post-absorptive utilization of the nutritionally essential minerals, including their physiological functions and quantitative requirements....

  2. Insects and human nutrition

    Roos, Nanna

    2018-01-01

    Despite high diversity in species as well as metamorphological life-­stages, edible insects are essentially an animal-source food contributing high quality protein and fat when viewed in the context of human nutrition. The nutritional contribution of insects to diets in populations where insects ...

  3. You Score With Nutrition

    Dow, Ruth McNabb

    1976-01-01

    The leader's guide and student activity booklet contain learning activities, ideas, information, games, and resources for nutrition instruction designed to appeal to the interests of teens and pre-teens and to improve their knowledge of nutrition and their eating habits. (MS)

  4. Epidemiology of nutritional rickets in children

    AlAtawi, M. S.; AlMutair, A. N.; AlAlwan, I. A.; Tamim, H. M.; AlJurayyan, N. A.

    2009-01-01

    In most developing countries, nutritional rickets is a major health problem. The aim of this study was to explore the magnitude of nutritional rickets among Saudi infants, and the various clinical presentations, as well as to address the possible operating risk factors behind the disease. We carried out a retrospective study at King Abdulaziz Medical City-King Fahad National Guard Hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The records of Saudi infants under the age of 14 months over a 10-year period (between January 1990 and January 2000) were reviewed. Information collected included age, sex, clinical presentations, biochemical, radiological findings, infant nutrition, presence of other nutritional deficiencies and exposure to sunlight. There were 283 infants diagnosed with nutritional rickets due to Vitamin D deficiency (67% males) who were between 6 and 14 months of age. Among the total, 70% were exclusively breast-fed, and 23% were breast-fed until the age of 1 year. The most frequent clinical presentation was hypo-calcemic convulsions (34%) followed by chest infections (33%) and gastroenteritis (25%). In conclusion, nutritional rickets is still prevalent in Saudi Arabia with the primary etiology being vitamin D deficiency. Therefore we recommend that every infant, who is exclusively on breast-feeding, has routine supplement of vitamin D in the range of 200 IU/day (alone or as apart of multivitamin), started soon after birth until the time of weaning. (author)

  5. Integrating Nutrition into the Physical Education Curriculum

    Green, Heather L.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity among children and teens continues to be a major public health concern in the United States. Approximately 16.9% of children and adolescents age 2-19 years are obese. To address this epidemic, schools have been encouraged to develop a coordinated school health program, which includes an interdisciplinary approach to nutrition education.…

  6. Nutrition & Adolescent Pregnancy: A Selected Annotated Bibliography.

    National Agricultural Library (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This annotated bibliography on nutrition and adolescent pregnancy is intended to be a source of technical assistance for nurses, nutritionists, physicians, educators, social workers, and other personnel concerned with improving the health of teenage mothers and their babies. It is divided into two major sections. The first section lists selected…

  7. Nutrition in adolescent pregnancy.

    Lenders, C M; McElrath, T F; Scholl, T O

    2000-06-01

    Prevention of unintended adolescent pregnancy is a primary goal of the American Academy of Pediatrics and of many health providers. Nevertheless, many adolescents become pregnant every year in America. Pediatricians therefore should be aware of nutritional recommendations for pregnant adolescents to provide optimal care. The importance of nutrition during pregnancy is here reviewed from a pediatric perspective. Pregnancy, particularly during adolescence, is a time of extreme nutritional risk. The adolescents most likely to become pregnant are often those with inadequate nutritional status and unfavorable socio-economic background. There is increasing evidence of competition for nutrients between the growing pregnant adolescent and her fetus. Also, the prenatal environment has been implicated in the development of obesity, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes in both the mother and her offspring. Many adolescents have poor diet quality and poor knowledge of appropriate nutrition; these habits may not change during pregnancy. Current knowledge and recommendations regarding the intake of energy, calcium, and folate are discussed in detail.

  8. Good maternal nutrition

    Breda, Joao; Robertson, Aileen

    This publication has three parts: •a summary of the results of a systematic review of the most recent evidence on maternal nutrition, the prevention of obesity and noncommunicable diseases; •a review of existing recommendations for nutrition, physical activity and weight gain during pregnancy...... in European countries; and •lists of possible opportunities for action in European countries. The overview and exploration of the national recommendations for nutrition, physical activity and weight gain during pregnancy are based on the results of a survey in which 51 of the 53 Member States in the WHO....... These are opportunities to promote nutrition and health throughout the life-course, ensure optimal diet-related fetal development and reduce the impact of morbidity and risk factors for noncommunicable diseases by improving maternal nutrition....

  9. Nutrition knowledge, and use and understanding of nutrition information on food labels among consumers in the UK

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Wills, Josephine M.; Fernández-Celemín, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Based on in-store observations in three major UK retailers, in-store interviews (2019) and questionnaires filled out at home and returned (921), use of nutrition information on food labels and its understanding were investigated. Respondents' nutrition knowledge was also measured, using...... a comprehensive instrument covering knowledge of expert recommendations, nutrient content in different food products, and calorie content in different food products. Across six product categories, 27% of shoppers were found to have looked at nutrition information on the label, with guideline daily amount (GDA...... information on food labels is mainly related to nutrition knowledge. Both are in turn affected by demographic variables, but in different ways....

  10. Assessment of nutritional status in the elderly: a proposed function-driven model.

    Engelheart, Stina; Brummer, Robert

    2018-01-01

    There is no accepted or standardized definition of 'malnutrition'. Hence, there is also no definition of what constitutes an adequate nutritional status. In elderly people, assessment of nutritional status is complex and is complicated by multi-morbidity and disabilities combined with nutrition-related problems, such as dysphagia, decreased appetite, fatigue, and muscle weakness. We propose a nutritional status model that presents nutritional status from a comprehensive functional perspective. This model visualizes the complexity of the nutritional status in elderly people. The presented model could be interpreted as the nutritional status is conditional to a person's optimal function or situation. Another way of looking at it might be that a person's nutritional status affects his or her optimal situation. The proposed model includes four domains: (1) physical function and capacity; (2) health and somatic disorders; (3) food and nutrition; and (4) cognitive, affective, and sensory function. Each domain has a major impact on nutritional status, which in turn has a major impact on the outcome of each domain. Nutritional status is a multifaceted concept and there exist several knowledge gaps in the diagnosis, prevention, and optimization of treatment of inadequate nutritional status in elderly people. The nutritional status model may be useful in nutritional assessment research, as well as in the clinical setting.

  11. Study review : The European Nutrient Database (ENDB) for Nutritional Epidemiology

    Charrondiere, U.R.; Vignat, J.; Moller, A.; Ireland, J.; Becker, W.; Church, S.; Farran, A.; Holden, J.; Klemm, C.; Linardou, A.; Mueller, D.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2002-01-01

    Food composition databases (FCDB), as well as standardized calculation procedures are required for international studies on nutrition and disease to calculate nutrient intakes across countries. Comparisons of national FCDBs have shown that major improvements are needed in standardization and

  12. Psychosocial components in prevention of MAM

    Bizouerne, Cécile

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Recent research and intervention have shown that early childhood is a critical time for integrating health, nutrition and child stimulation. This presentation will highlight the importance of psychosocial component and in particular maternal mental health in the prevention of MAM. Examples from the field will be proposed for sharing difficulties and lessons learnt. (author)

  13. Clinical nutrition counselling service in the veterinary hospital: retrospective analysis of equine patients and nutritional considerations.

    Vergnano, D; Bergero, D; Valle, E

    2017-06-01

    Nutrition plays a very important role in the healthy and in the ill horse. Although research in this field clearly shows that incorrect nutritional practices may lead to severe pathologies, inappropriate feeding plans often continue to be used. A clinical nutrition counselling (CNC) service could thus be of great use to both horse owners and veterinarians. The aim of this study was to provide information on equine patients referred to the CNC service of the University of Turin and to provide standard dietary protocols as used in our Veterinary Teaching Hospital for the most common nutrition-related pathologies. The data were obtained by retrospective analysis of the nutritional records of referred equine patients. The data collected included information about anamnesis, nutritional assessment, current diet, referring person and follow-up of each patient. Sixty-one horses were included in the study. The majority were adult males. The most common breeds were the Italian Saddle Horse and the Friesian Horse. Old horses (>19 years) had a statistically lower BCS than brood mares or other adult horses (p equine gastric ulcer syndrome. All horses received first-cut meadow hay; 85% also ate concentrates. Young horses (equine population. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Enhanced Recovery After Surgery Protocols in Major Urologic Surgery

    Natalija Vukovic

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the reviewThe analysis of the components of enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS protocols in urologic surgery.Recent findingsERAS protocols has been studied for over 20 years in different surgical procedures, mostly in colorectal surgery. The concept of improving patient care and reducing postoperative complications was also applied to major urologic surgery and especially procedure of radical cystectomy. This procedure is technically challenging, due to a major surgical resection and high postoperative complication rate that may reach 65%. Several clinical pathways were introduced to improve perioperative course and reduce the length of hospital stay. These protocols differ from ERAS modalities in other surgeries. The reasons for this are longer operative time, increased risk of perioperative transfusion and infection, and urinary diversion achieved using transposed intestinal segments. Previous studies in this area analyzed the need for mechanical bowel preparation, postoperative nasogastric tube decompression, as well as the duration of urinary drainage. Furthermore, the attention has also been drawn to perioperative fluid optimization, pain management, and bowel function.SummaryNotwithstanding partial resemblance between the pathways in major urologic surgery and other pelvic surgeries, there are still scarce guidelines for ERAS protocols in urology, which is why further studies should assess the importance of preoperative medical optimization, implementation of thoracic epidural anesthesia and analgesia, and perioperative nutritional management.

  15. Manure as a suitable component of precise nitrogen nutrition

    Schröder, J.J.

    2005-01-01

    Manures are an inevitable consequence of livestock in agriculture. They represent a valuable source of nutrients, including nitrogen (N), phosphorus and potassium. The industrial production of fertilisers containing these elements is associated with finite resources and this alone justifies a proper

  16. Healthful and nutritional components in select Florida tropical fruits

    Fourteen tropical fruits from south Florida (red guava, white guava, carambola, red pitaya (red dragon), white pitaya (white dragon), mamey, sapodilla, lychee, longan, green mango, ripe mango, green papaya and ripe papaya) were evaluated for phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, ascorbic acid (v...

  17. Evaluation of Method-Specific Extraction Variability for the Measurement of Fatty Acids in a Candidate Infant/Adult Nutritional Formula Reference Material.

    Place, Benjamin J

    2017-05-01

    To address community needs, the National Institute of Standards and Technology has developed a candidate Standard Reference Material (SRM) for infant/adult nutritional formula based on milk and whey protein concentrates with isolated soy protein called SRM 1869 Infant/Adult Nutritional Formula. One major component of this candidate SRM is the fatty acid content. In this study, multiple extraction techniques were evaluated to quantify the fatty acids in this new material. Extraction methods that were based on lipid extraction followed by transesterification resulted in lower mass fraction values for all fatty acids than the values measured by methods utilizing in situ transesterification followed by fatty acid methyl ester extraction (ISTE). An ISTE method, based on the identified optimal parameters, was used to determine the fatty acid content of the new infant/adult nutritional formula reference material.

  18. Nutrition and Imagenology

    Rodriguez Allende, Miguel Angel

    2003-01-01

    In this article we present the close, although little explored, relationship between Nutrition and Imagenology, relying mainly on an important number of images which will allow us to explain all the ways an Imagenology can influence upon the nutritional support of a patient.We primarily emphasize the diagnostic aspects of non-operated patients, as well as of those who have undergone surgical treatment, by showing both normality and the resulting surgical complications. We finally describe several interventionist Imagenology techniques used to achieve an adequate enteral nutrition

  19. Nutritional support in patients with systemic sclerosis.

    Ortiz-Santamaria, Vera; Puig, Celia; Soldevillla, Cristina; Barata, Anna; Cuquet, Jordi; Recasens, Asunción

    2014-01-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a chronic multisystem autoimmune disease which involves the gastrointestinal tract in about 90% of cases. It may contribute to nutritional deterioration. To assess whether the application of a nutritional support protocol to these patients could improve their nutritional status and quality of life. Single center prospective study, performed on an outpatient basis, in a county hospital. The Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST) was used to screen risk for malnutrition. Health questionnaire SF-36 and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale were used to assess quality of life and psychopathology respectively. Weight, height, energy and protein requirements, macronutrient intake and nutritional biochemical parameters were evaluated. Nutritional intervention was performed in patients at risk for malnutrition. Of the 72 patients, 12.5% were at risk for malnutrition. Iron deficiency anemia (18.35%) and vitamin D deficiency (54%) were the most frequently observed nutritional deficits. The questionnaires on psychopathology and quality of life showed a high prevalence of anxiety and depression, and lower level poor quality of life in the physical and mental component. No significant improvements were observed in the weight, food intake, nutritional biochemical parameters, psychopathology and quality of life follow-up. Dietary intervention was able to maintain body weight and food intake. Iron deficiency anemia and vitamin D deficiency improved with iron and vitamine D supplements. No deterioration was observed in psychological assessment or quality of life. Studies with larger numbers of patients are needed to assess the efficacy of this intervention. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. The eNutrition Academy: Supporting a New Generation of Nutritional Scientists around the World12

    Geissler, Catherine; Amuna, Paul; Kattelmann, Kendra K; Zotor, Francis B; Donovan, Sharon M

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition training and building capacity to provide a competent workforce to support national and regional efforts to combat malnutrition remain a major challenge in Africa and other developing regions of the world. The capacity to provide the necessary intellectual drive for nutrition research, policy, and practice in countries lacking in readiness for nutrition actions is imperative to improve the health of their people. To help address this need, the eNutrition Academy (eNA) was formed as a global partnership organization by the African Nutrition Society, the Federation of African Nutrition Societies, the Nutrition Society of the United Kingdom and Ireland, the ASN, and the International Union of Nutritional Sciences, supported by Cambridge University Press. The primary objective of this partnership is to provide an online learning platform that is free to access, enabling users to benefit from a wide range of learning materials from basic tools to more-advanced learning materials for teachers and researchers in developing countries. The goal of this article was to summarize the findings of a symposium held at the ASN Scientific Sessions and Annual Meeting at Experimental Biology 2015, which explored the themes of international capacity development, with a particular focus on the African continent, online learning, and the eNA e-learning platform. Given the vast human capacity present in Africa that is poised to create new solutions to address the public health needs of the continent, now is an opportune time to establish South-North and South-South partnerships to develop the next generation of African nutritional scientists. PMID:27180382

  1. [Modular enteral nutrition in pediatrics].

    Murillo Sanchís, S; Prenafeta Ferré, M T; Sempere Luque, M D

    1991-01-01

    Modular Enteral Nutrition may be a substitute for Parenteral Nutrition in children with different pathologies. Study of 4 children with different pathologies selected from a group of 40 admitted to the Maternal-Childrens Hospital "Valle de Hebrón" in Barcelona, who received modular enteral nutrition. They were monitored on a daily basis by the Dietician Service. Modular enteral nutrition consists of modules of proteins, peptides, lipids, glucids and mineral salts-vitamins. 1.--Craneo-encephalic traumatisms with loss of consciousness, Feeding with a combination of parenteral nutrition and modular enteral nutrition for 7 days. In view of the tolerance and good results of the modular enteral nutrition, the parenteral nutrition was suspended and modular enteral nutrition alone used up to a total of 43 days. 2.--55% burns with 36 days of hyperproteic modular enteral nutrition together with normal feeding. A more rapid recovery was achieved with an increase in total proteins and albumin. 3.--Persistent diarrhoea with 31 days of modular enteral nutrition, 5 days on parenteral nutrition alone and 8 days on combined parenteral nutrition and modular enteral nutrition. In view of the tolerance and good results of the modular enteral nutrition, the parenteral nutrition was suspended. 4.--Mucoviscidosis with a total of 19 days on modular enteral nutrition, 12 of which were exclusively on modular enteral nutrition and 7 as a night supplement to normal feeding. We administered proteic intakes of up to 20% of the total calorific intake and in concentrations of up to 1.2 calories/ml of the final preparation, always with a good tolerance. Modular enteral nutrition can and should be used as a substitute for parenteral nutrition in children with different pathologies, thus preventing the complications inherent in parenteral nutrition.

  2. Nutrition screening: science behind simplicity

    Nutrition screening triggers entry into the nutrition care process.1 Screening has informally been described as simple, quick or low-intensity proxy for more complex procedures. More formal definitions for the nutrition setting have been proposed, describing nutrition screening as a process of identifying patients, clients, or ...

  3. Food and Nutrition Service

    ... Perdue Pledges Support on the Long Road to Recovery 4/5 USDA Continues Disaster Assistance in Puerto Rico USDA is continuing its efforts to address the nutrition needs of Puerto Rican residents affected by Hurricanes ...

  4. Nutrition in children posttransplantation

    status and to detect, prevent and treat late-onset complications such as obesity ... potential, prevent further liver injury, promote liver regeneration, minimise risk of infection and .... Campos ACL, Matias JEF and Coelho JCU. Nutritional Aspects ...

  5. Dairy goat nutrition

    Bruno Ronchi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Good goat nutrition is fundamental to the success and sustainability of dairy goat farming in terms of economics, goat health, high quality products, and minimizing environmental impact.

  6. Liver Transplant: Nutrition

    ... Liver Transplant: Nutrition Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For Veterans and the Public Veterans and the Public Home Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hepatitis C Home Getting ...

  7. Youth Education - Health / Nutrition

    2004-01-01

    Deborah L. Angell: The Bug Stops Here! Cheryl L. Barber: Successful Snacks - Food, Fitness and Food Safety Learning Activities. Darcy Batura: At-Risk Youth and Household Hazardous Waste Education. Katherine L. Cason: Nutrition Mission – A Multimedia Educational Tool for Youth . Patsy A. Ezell: An Interactive Food and Nutrition Education Program for Youth. Rhea Lanting: Got Calcium? Sandy McCurdy: Reaching Teens through a Food Safety Education Partnership. Patricia Mulkeen: Choosing 4-H Fitnes...

  8. Nutrition for Sarcopenia

    Yanai, Hidekatsu

    2015-01-01

    Aging-related sarcopenia means that muscle mass, strength, and physical performance tend to decline with age, and malnutrition is associated with sarcopenia. Therefore, nutritional interventions may make an important contribution to prevent the development of sarcopenia. Here I reviewed published articles about the effects of nutritional factors on sarcopenia in elderly people. A growing body of evidence suggests that metabolic factors associated with obesity and diabetes induce the progressi...

  9. Iodine deficiency and nutrition in Scandinavia

    Manousou, Sofia; Dahl, Lisbeth; Heinsbaek Thuesen, Betina

    2017-01-01

    Iodine nutrition is a result of geological conditions, iodine fortification and monitoring strategies within a country together with the dietary habits of the population. This review summarizes the basis for the current iodine situation in the Scandinavian countries in order to identify gaps...... strategies have been used in Scandinavia to improve iodine nutrition. The major source of iodine is iodized salt in Sweden and from milk and dairy products in Norway. In Denmark, drinking water, milk, dairy products and iodized salt used in commercial production of bread are the important sources of iodine....... The current iodine status in Scandinavia is not optimal and action is ongoing to increase iodination in Denmark, where there is mild iodine deficiency in the general population. Data from all three countries indicate insufficient iodine nutrition during pregnancy and there is a need for data from children...

  10. FAT PHOBIA IN MEXICAN NUTRITION STUDENTS.

    Bacardía Gascón, Montserrat; Jiménez-Cruz, Arturo; Castillo-Ruiz, Octelina; Bezares-Sarmiento, Vidalma Del Rosario; León-González, Juan Marcos

    2015-12-01

    Nutritionists play a major role in the prevention and treatment of obesity. Currently, fat phobia among nutrition students and health workers is resulting in health and social consequences. The aim of this study was to assess the fat phobia among nutrition college students of two schools from different regions in Mexico. Six hundred and thirty 18 to 25 yo nutrition students participated in the study. Fat phobia was assessed using the F-scale, containing 14 pairs of adjectives that described people with obesity. Participants achieved a mean F-scale score of 3.45, which could be considered a moderate amount of fat phobia. Only twelve per cent showed neutral or positive attitudes towards obesity (≤ 2.5), while negative attitude (≥ 2.5) was observed among 88% of all students showing a high prevalence of fat phobia towards obesity. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  11. Nutrition and fertility.

    Pinelli, G; Tagliabue, A

    2007-12-01

    The first studies about fertility and nutrition date back to the 70ies and already showed a strict relation among female fertility, weight and body composition. However, the mechanisms of this connection started to be explained only after leptin's discovery. According to some authors' opinion, leptin could interact with reproductive axis at multiple sites with stimulatory effects at the hypothalamus and pituitary and stimulatory or inhibitory actions at the gonads. Leptin could play a role in other physiologic processes such as menstruation and pregnancy, and could initiate the complex process of puberty. It has been showed that conditions in which nutritional status is suboptimal, such as eating disorders, exercise induced amenhorrea, functional hypothalamic amenhorrea and polycystic ovarian syndrome, are associated with abnormal leptin levels. These conditions, are characterized by severe changes in body composition and dietary habits. Since leptin is regulated by body composition and dietary factors, (such as energy intake and macronutrient composition), a strict connection between nutritional intake and fertility regulated by leptin is confirmed. This review focuses on the current knowledge about nutritional factors that influence leptin levels. Since clinical and subclinical nutritional imbalance can determine the development and the maintenance of neuroendocrine and metabolic aberrations, studies on fertility need a deeper attention about dietary habits and nutritional status.

  12. Role of nutrition in preventing insulin resistance in children.

    Blasetti, Annalisa; Franchini, Simone; Comegna, Laura; Prezioso, Giovanni; Chiarelli, Francesco

    2016-03-01

    Nutrition during prenatal, early postnatal and pubertal period is crucial for the development of insulin resistance and its consequences. During prenatal period fetal environment and nutrition seems to interfere with metabolism programming later in life. The type of dietary carbohydrates, glycemic index, protein, fat and micronutrient content in maternal nutrition could influence insulin sensitivity in the newborn. The effects of lactation on metabolism and nutritional behavior later in life have been studied. Dietary habits and quality of diet during puberty could prevent the onset of a pathological insulin resistance through an adequate distribution of macro- and micronutrients, a diet rich in fibers and vegetables and poor in saturated fats, proteins and sugars. We want to overview the latest evidences on the risk of insulin resistance later in life due to both nutritional behaviors and components during the aforementioned periods of life, following a chronological outline from fetal development to adolescence.

  13. Nutritional evaluation of the patient with phenylketonuria (PKU

    Sara Guillén-López

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to diagnose the nutritional status and to provide a personalized treatment in PKU patients, an evaluation of nutritional status should be conducted. Several components are involved in the nutritional assessment; among the parameters there are anthropometric evaluation: weight, height, head circumference; biochemical: proteins, amino acids, vitamins, inorganic nutrients, essential fatty acids; clinical: deficiencies in hair, skin, oral cavity , eyes, etc.; dietary assessment: quantification of energy intake, macronutrients and micronutrients through several tools such as the 24-hour recall; finally it must be taken into account the interaction of nutrients such as carnitine, fatty acids, vitamin B complex, among others, with drugs, which are often anticonvulsants, in order to plan the diet and prevent a future nutritional deficiency. It is important to perform the nutritional status assessment frequently in patients with PKU because the dietary management is essential to prevent neurological problems.

  14. Preventing hospital malnutrition: a survey on nutritional policies in an Italian University Hospital.

    Annetta, M G; Pittiruti, M; De Rosa, S; Franchi, P; Pintaudi, G; Caricato, A; Antonelli, M

    2015-11-01

    A proper strategy for fighting hospital malnutrition should include nutritional screening of all hospitalized patients, adequate utilization of the Hospital facilities - such as Clinical Nutrition Services or Nutrition Teams - and an adequate algorithm for the adoption of proper nutrition support (oral, enteral or parenteral) with proper timing. The main aim of the present study was to investigate the current policies of different non-intensive wards of our institution (a 1100 beds University Hospital) in terms of prevention of hospital malnutrition. We conducted a one-day survey to verify the current policies of nutritional screening and the indication to nutritional support in adult patients, interviewing nurses and physicians of our non-intensive hospital wards. A total of 29 wards were considered, which sum up to 755 hospitalized patients. We found that nutritional screening at admission is routinely assessed only in 41% of wards and that oral nutrient intake is controlled regularly only in 72%. Indication to clinical nutrition support and specifically to artificial nutrition is not consistent with the current international guidelines. Only 14% of patients were receiving artificial nutrition at the moment of the survey and the majority of them were given parenteral nutrition rather than enteral feeding. Our survey confirmed that in large hospitals the main barriers to the fight against hospital malnutrition are the lack of knowledge and/or commitment by nurses and physicians as well as the lack of well-defined hospital policies on early nutritional screening, surveillance of nutritional status and indication to nutrition support.

  15. Nutritional evaluation and management of AKI patients.

    Fiaccadori, Enrico; Maggiore, Umberto; Cabassi, Aderville; Morabito, Santo; Castellano, Giuseppe; Regolisti, Giuseppe

    2013-05-01

    Protein-energy wasting is common in patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) and represents a major negative prognostic factor. Nutritional support as parenteral and/or enteral nutrition is frequently needed because the early phases of this are often a highly catabolic state, although the optimal nutritional requirements and nutrient intake composition remain a partially unresolved issue. Nutrient needs of patients with AKI are highly heterogeneous, depending on different pathogenetic mechanisms, catabolic rate, acute and chronic comorbidities, and renal replacement therapy (RRT) modalities. Thus, quantitative and qualitative aspects of nutrient intake should be frequently evaluated in this clinical setting to achieve better individualization of nutritional support, to integrate nutritional support with RRT, and to avoid under- and overfeeding. Moreover, AKI is now considered a kidney-centered inflammatory syndrome; indeed, recent experimental data indicate that specific nutrients with anti-inflammatory effects could play an important role in the prevention of renal function loss after an episode of AKI. Copyright © 2013 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Attitude of Pharmacy Students Towards a Nutrition Course

    Syed Abdul, Majid Mufaqam

    Today's pharmacists are likely to encounter questions about nutritional products sold in the pharmacy. This is due, in part, to the increased number of pharmacies attached to grocery stores and the availability of pharmacists. Many pharmacists report they lack nutritional knowledge and believe the best time to educate pharmacists about nutrition is during pharmacy school. This study was conducted to determine if today's pharmacy students receive education in nutrition and if they realize the importance of nutrition education. Two hundred and twenty five students from India and ninety five students from the United States currently attending pharmacy school were surveyed. Results showed only 3.5% of students from India and 13.6% of students from the United States received nutrition education during their pharmacy degree curriculum. In addition, 81.8% of students from India and 82.9% of students from the United States who had taken a course in nutrition believed a nutrition course should be incorporated into the pharmacy degree curriculum. When pharmacy-related experience was taken into account, 92.9% of students from India and 73.3% of students from the United States also believed a nutrition course should be incorporated into the pharmacy degree curriculum. Overall, 88% of students from India and 70.5% of students from the United States believed nutrition education was important and should be included in the pharmacy degree curriculum. Results of this study suggest the majority of today's pharmacy students believe a nutrition course should be incorporated into the pharmacy degree curriculum regardless of past nutrition education or pharmacy-related experience.

  17. Strategies for nutritional improvement.

    Gill, K S

    1991-01-01

    India has achieved self-sufficiency in the production of food grains, yet the production of milk, legumes, vegetables, oils and fats, eggs, and meat is far short of the needs of the population. The Indian diet predominantly comprises cereals, and the diets of expectant and nursing mothers as well as children are grossly deficient in protective foods. Serious nutritional inadequacies have resulted in low birth weight, retarded growth, and nutritional deficiencies (protein energy malnutrition in preschool children, vitamin A deficiency, iron deficiency in women of reproductive age, and iodine deficiency disorders among neonates and schoolchildren). General malnutrition is prevalent in 25% of the rural and 20% of the urban population. Deficiency symptoms of vitamin B complex and vitamin C are also not uncommon. 37% of the population of India lives below the poverty limit, the literacy rate is only 52.1% (39.4% for women), safe drinking water is scarce, nutritional ignorance is rampant, there is a lack of personal hygiene, and poor sanitation all account for malnutrition. A number of government and nongovernmental organizations' programs have attempted to raise the level of nutrition and the standard of living of the people. Some of them include the integrated child development services, special nutritional program, national vitamin A deficiency prophylaxis program, national anemia prophylaxis program, national goiter control program, midday meal program, special class feeding programs, universal immunization program, nutritional and health education through the mass media as well as the observance of world food day and world health day. The national health policy gives high priority to the promotion of family planning, the provision of primary health care, and the acceleration of welfare programs for women and children. As a result of policies and programs of health and nutrition, the infant, child, and maternal mortality rates have declined and life expectancy at

  18. Estimation of Meats Food Value in Nutrition Counseling and Nutritional Evaluation

    戸ヶ崎, 多巳江; 鈴木, 亜夕帆; 樋口, 恵; 山下, 光雄; 村松, 芳多子; 渡邊, 智子; Tamie, TOGASAKI; Ayuho, SUZUKI; Megumi, HIGUCHI; Teruo, YAMASHITA; Kanako, MURAMATSU; Tomoko, WATANABE; 千葉県立衛生短期大学; 千葉県立衛生短期大学; 千葉県立衛生短期大学

    2004-01-01

    For the nutrition counseling and menu plan, the nutritive component of meat was compared. 1) As a result of classifying meats into four on the basis of the weight per 100 kcal, there were significant differences between each classification about water, protein, lipid, ash, sodium(Na), potassium(K), calcium(Ca), Magnesium(Mg), phosphorus(P), iron(Fe), zinc(Zn), copper(Cu), vitamine K(V.K), vitamine B_1(V.B_1), vitamine B_2(V.B_2), Niacin, vitamine B_6(V.B_6), vitamine B_12(V.B_12), folate, pan...

  19. Role of nutrition in performance enhancement and postexercise recovery

    Beck, Kathryn L; Thomson, Jasmine S; Swift, Richard J; von Hurst, Pamela R

    2015-01-01

    Kathryn L Beck,1 Jasmine S Thomson,2 Richard J Swift,1 Pamela R von Hurst11School of Food and Nutrition, Massey Institute of Food Science and Technology, College of Health, Massey University Albany, Auckland, 2School of Food and Nutrition, Massey Institute of Food Science and Technology, College of Health, Massey University Manawatu, Palmerston North, New ZealandAbstract: A number of factors contribute to success in sport, and diet is a key component. An athlete's dietary requirements...

  20. The challenges for molecular nutrition research 1: Linking genotype to healthy nutrition

    Williams, C.M.; Ordovas, J.M.; Lairon, D.; Hesketh, J.; Lietz, G.; Gibney, M.; Ommen, B.

    2008-01-01

    Nutrition science finds itself at a major crossroad. On the one hand we can continue the current path, which has resulted in some substantial advances, but also many conflicting messages which impair the trust of the general population, especially those who are motivated to improve their health

  1. The challenges of molecular nutrition research 1- Linking genotype to healthy nutrition

    Nutrition science finds itself at a major crossroad. On one hand we can continue the current path that along several decades has resulted in substantial advances but surrounded by conflicting messages and unsubstantiated claims that have been crumbling the trust of the general population, always eag...

  2. Nutrition notes for quick reference. Issues and perspectives reflecting the UN thinking on the global nutritional scenario and its relevance to the activities of NAHRES/NAHU

    Iyengar, V.

    2000-01-01

    Nutritional sciences are both complex and multidisciplinary in nature and will be more so in the coming years. Recent developments in nutrition extending into areas such as nutrient gene interactions, nutrient-pollutant interactions, nutritional physiology and preventive medicine among others, are emerging as new dimensions for our understanding the many relationships between nutrition and health on one hand. and nutrition and disease on the other. The future nutritional researcher should be prepared to address a range of scientific and clinical disciplines together. Food safety issues and factors that contribute to nutrient compositional changes are critical to several aspects surrounding the nutrition-health-disease domain, and will continue to attract much attention in the future. Nutritional toxicology too will become a major challenge in this context. New strategies are being sought to address micronutrient malnutrition (vitamin A and iron deficiencies in particular). The UN agencies are supporting several initiatives to alleviate micronutrient deficiencies as major public health problems in nutrition. The IAEA is contributing to these efforts by facilitating the development of a variety of isotope based techniques to improve nutrition monitoring techniques and to identify effective strategies in nutrition intervention schemes particularly among vulnerable groups in developing regions around the world

  3. Nutrition notes for quick reference. Issues and perspectives reflecting the UN thinking on the global nutritional scenario and its relevance to the activities of NAHRES/NAHU

    Iyengar, V [comp.

    2000-01-01

    Nutritional sciences are both complex and multidisciplinary in nature and will be more so in the coming years. Recent developments in nutrition extending into areas such as nutrient gene interactions, nutrient-pollutant interactions, nutritional physiology and preventive medicine among others, are emerging as new dimensions for our understanding the many relationships between nutrition and health on one hand. and nutrition and disease on the other. The future nutritional researcher should be prepared to address a range of scientific and clinical disciplines together. Food safety issues and factors that contribute to nutrient compositional changes are critical to several aspects surrounding the nutrition-health-disease domain, and will continue to attract much attention in the future. Nutritional toxicology too will become a major challenge in this context. New strategies are being sought to address micronutrient malnutrition (vitamin A and iron deficiencies in particular). The UN agencies are supporting several initiatives to alleviate micronutrient deficiencies as major public health problems in nutrition. The IAEA is contributing to these efforts by facilitating the development of a variety of isotope based techniques to improve nutrition monitoring techniques and to identify effective strategies in nutrition intervention schemes particularly among vulnerable groups in developing regions around the world.

  4. Nutritional strategies to optimize dairy cattle immunity.

    Sordillo, L M

    2016-06-01

    Dairy cattle are susceptible to increased incidence and severity of both metabolic and infectious diseases during the periparturient period. A major contributing factor to increased health disorders is alterations in bovine immune mechanisms. Indeed, uncontrolled inflammation is a major contributing factor and a common link among several economically important infectious and metabolic diseases including mastitis, retained placenta, metritis, displaced abomasum, and ketosis. The nutritional status of dairy cows and the metabolism of specific nutrients are critical regulators of immune cell function. There is now a greater appreciation that certain mediators of the immune system can have a reciprocal effect on the metabolism of nutrients. Thus, any disturbances in nutritional or immunological homeostasis can provide deleterious feedback loops that can further enhance health disorders, increase production losses, and decrease the availability of safe and nutritious dairy foods for a growing global population. This review will discuss the complex interactions between nutrient metabolism and immune functions in periparturient dairy cattle. Details of how either deficiencies or overexposure to macro- and micronutrients can contribute to immune dysfunction and the subsequent development of health disorders will be presented. Specifically, the ways in which altered nutrient metabolism and oxidative stress can interact to compromise the immune system in transition cows will be discussed. A better understanding of the linkages between nutrition and immunity may facilitate the design of nutritional regimens that will reduce disease susceptibility in early lactation cows. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Nutritional therapies for mental disorders

    Vieira Karen F

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4 out of the 10 leading causes of disability in the US and other developed countries are mental disorders. Major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD are among the most common mental disorders that currently plague numerous countries and have varying incidence rates from 26 percent in America to 4 percent in China. Though some of this difference may be attributable to the manner in which individual healthcare providers diagnose mental disorders, this noticeable distribution can be also explained by studies which show that a lack of certain dietary nutrients contribute to the development of mental disorders. Notably, essential vitamins, minerals, and omega-3 fatty acids are often deficient in the general population in America and other developed countries; and are exceptionally deficient in patients suffering from mental disorders. Studies have shown that daily supplements of vital nutrients often effectively reduce patients' symptoms. Supplements that contain amino acids also reduce symptoms, because they are converted to neurotransmitters that alleviate depression and other mental disorders. Based on emerging scientific evidence, this form of nutritional supplement treatment may be appropriate for controlling major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and anxiety disorders, eating disorders, attention deficit disorder/attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD, addiction, and autism. The aim of this manuscript is to emphasize which dietary supplements can aid the treatment of the four most common mental disorders currently affecting America and other developed countries: major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD. Most antidepressants and other prescription drugs cause severe side effects, which usually discourage patients from taking their medications. Such

  6. Combined enteral and parenteral nutrition.

    Wernerman, Jan

    2012-03-01

    To review and discuss the evidence and arguments to combine enteral nutrition and parenteral nutrition in the ICU, in particular with reference to the Early Parenteral Nutrition Completing Enteral Nutrition in Adult Critically Ill Patients (EPaNIC) study. The EPaNIC study shows an advantage in terms of discharges alive from the ICU when parenteral nutrition is delayed to day 8 as compared with combining enteral nutrition and parenteral nutrition from day 3 of ICU stay. The difference between the guidelines from the European Society of Enteral and Parenteral Nutrition in Europe and American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition/Society of Critical Care Medicine in North America concerning the combination of enteral nutrition and parenteral nutrition during the initial week of ICU stay was reviewed. The EPaNIC study clearly demonstrates that early parenteral nutrition in the ICU is not in the best interests of most patients. Exactly at what time point the combination of enteral nutrition and parenteral nutrition should be considered is still an open question.

  7. Nutrition and pubertal development

    Ashraf Soliman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition is one of the most important factors affecting pubertal development. Puberty entails a progressive nonlinear process starting from prepubescent to full sexual maturity through the interaction and cooperation of biological, physical, and psychological changes. Consuming an adequate and balanced healthy diet during all phases of growth (infancy, childhood and puberty appears necessary both for proper growth and normal pubertal development. Girls begin puberty at an earlier age compared to past decades. Excessive eating of many processed, high-fat foods, may be the cause of this phenomenon. Overweight or obese children are more likely to enter puberty early. Some evidence suggests that obesity can accelerate the onset of puberty in girls and may delay the onset of puberty in boys. Moreover, the progression of puberty is affected by nutrition. On the other hand, puberty triggers a growth spurt, which increases nutritional needs including macro and micronutrients. Increased caloric, protein, iron, calcium, zinc and folate needs have to be provided during this critical period of rapid growth. Severe primary or secondary malnutrition also can delay the onset and progression of puberty. The higher incidence of anorexia nervosa and bulimia in adolescents imposes a nutritional risk on pubertal development. Moreover, many environmental endocrine disruptors (EDs have been identified that can significantly impair the normal course of puberty. This mini-review sums up some important findings in this important complex that link nutrition and pubertal development.

  8. Nutritional Considerations for Bouldering.

    Smith, Edward J; Storey, Ryan; Ranchordas, Mayur K

    2017-08-01

    Bouldering competitions are held up to International level and governed by the International Federation of Sport Climbing. Bouldering has been selected to feature at the 2020 Olympic Games in Tokyo, however, physiological qualities and nutritional requirements to optimize performance remain inadequately defined due to large gaps in the literature. The primary goals of training include optimizing the capacity of the anaerobic energy systems and developing sport-specific strength, with emphasis on the isometric function of the forearm flexors responsible for grip. Bouldering athletes typically possess a lean physique, similar to the characteristics of sport climbers with reported body fat values of 6-12%. Athletes strive for a low body weight to improve power to weight ratio and limit the load on the extremities. Specialized nutritional support is uncommon and poor nutritional practices such as chronic carbohydrate restriction are prevalent, compromising the health of the athletes. The high intensity nature of bouldering demands a focus on adequate carbohydrate availability. Protein intake and timing should be structured to maximize muscle protein synthesis and recovery, with the literature suggesting 0.25-0.3 g/kg in 3-4 hr intervals. Supplementing with creatine and b-alanine may provide some benefit by augmenting the capacity of the anaerobic systems. Boulderers are encouraged to seek advice from nutrition experts to enhance performance, particularly important when weight loss is the desired outcome. Further research is warranted across all nutritional aspects of bouldering which is summarized in this review.

  9. Nutritional and Metabolic Derangements in Pancreatic Cancer and Pancreatic Resection

    Taylor M. Gilliland

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive malignancy with a poor prognosis. The disease and its treatment can cause significant nutritional impairments that often adversely impact patient quality of life (QOL. The pancreas has both exocrine and endocrine functions and, in the setting of cancer, both systems may be affected. Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI manifests as weight loss and steatorrhea, while endocrine insufficiency may result in diabetes mellitus. Surgical resection, a central component of pancreatic cancer treatment, may induce or exacerbate these dysfunctions. Nutritional and metabolic dysfunctions in patients with pancreatic cancer lack characterization, and few guidelines exist for nutritional support in patients after surgical resection. We reviewed publications from the past two decades (1995–2016 addressing the nutritional and metabolic status of patients with pancreatic cancer, grouping them into status at the time of diagnosis, status at the time of resection, and status of nutritional support throughout the diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic cancer. Here, we summarize the results of these investigations and evaluate the effectiveness of various types of nutritional support in patients after pancreatectomy for pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC. We outline the following conservative perioperative strategies to optimize patient outcomes and guide the care of these patients: (1 patients with albumin < 2.5 mg/dL or weight loss > 10% should postpone surgery and begin aggressive nutrition supplementation; (2 patients with albumin < 3 mg/dL or weight loss between 5% and 10% should have nutrition supplementation prior to surgery; (3 enteral nutrition (EN should be preferred as a nutritional intervention over total parenteral nutrition (TPN postoperatively; and, (4 a multidisciplinary approach should be used to allow for early detection of symptoms of endocrine and exocrine pancreatic insufficiency alongside implementation of

  10. Parenteral Nutrition and Intestinal Failure.

    Bielawska, Barbara; Allard, Johane P

    2017-05-06

    Severe short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a major cause of chronic (Type 3) intestinal failure (IF) where structural and functional changes contribute to malabsorption and risk of micronutrient deficiencies. Chronic IF may be reversible, depending on anatomy and intestinal adaptation, but most patients require long-term nutritional support, generally in the form of parenteral nutrition (PN). SBS management begins with dietary changes and pharmacologic therapies taking into account individual anatomy and physiology, but these are rarely sufficient to avoid PN. New hormonal therapies targeting intestinal adaptation hold promise. Surgical options for SBS including intestinal transplant are available, but have significant limitations. Home PN (HPN) is therefore the mainstay of treatment for severe SBS. HPN involves chronic administration of macronutrients, micronutrients, fluid, and electrolytes via central venous access in the patient's home. HPN requires careful clinical and biochemical monitoring. Main complications of HPN are related to venous access (infection, thrombosis) and metabolic complications including intestinal failure associated liver disease (IFALD). Although HPN significantly impacts quality of life, outcomes are generally good and survival is mostly determined by the underlying disease. As chronic intestinal failure is a rare disease, registries are a promising strategy for studying HPN patients to improve outcomes.

  11. Midwives and nutrition education during pregnancy: a literature review.

    Arrish, Jamila; Yeatman, Heather; Williamson, Moira

    2014-03-01

    This review explored the extent to which the role of midwives in nutrition education during pregnancy has been reported in the literature and areas requiring further research were identified. A review of the literature was undertaken. Articles included in the review were published in English, in scholarly journals, and provided information about the knowledge, education, and attitudes of midwives towards nutrition during pregnancy. Few studies were identified. The included studies were exploratory and descriptive. Studies had reported that midwives lacked a basic knowledge of nutrition requirements during pregnancy. This might be attributed to inadequate nutrition education provided in both undergraduate and postgraduate midwifery programmes. The nutrition education components of midwifery courses were not identified within the studies reviewed. Limited international or Australian research is available that reports on the role of midwives in nutrition education during pregnancy and the nutrition content of midwifery curricula. This represents an important omission in midwives capacity to support the health of pregnant women and their babies. More research is required to explore the educational needs of midwives to enhance nutritional care for pregnant women. Copyright © 2013 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Actual characteristics of nutrition of the population in Odessa region

    L. Y. Kovalchuk

    2017-02-01

      Summary Study of hygiene and environmental problems in the Odessa region should be aimed at the preservation of public health by minimizing the negative impact of environmental factors. Nutrition is one of the most important factors. Actual direction of modern medical science is the study of dietary intake and nutritional status of specific population groups to establish correlation between nutrition and health.Odessaregion differs significantly from other regions ofUkraineon the national population structure. The features of the modern structure of nutrition of the local population is the lack of animal protein, polyunsaturated fatty acids (in the face of excess animal fat intake, many vitamins, micro- and macronutrients, dietary fibers. Recently, in the region there is a problem of nutritional rationalizing for people coming into the territory of theOdessaregion from different geographical areas for long term. Scientific substantiation of preventive measures to optimize the nutrition of the population ofOdessaregion and establish the correlation with indicators of health status, disability, and the main components of lifestyle are important for the prevention of nutrition-caused diseases and improve the health of the population of theSouth Ukraine. Keywords: public health, structure of nutrition, dietary intake ,regional differences.

  13. [Nutritional management in geriatric traumatology].

    Singler, K; Goisser, S; Volkert, D

    2016-08-01

    The prevalence of malnutrition or the risk of malnourishment is high among orthogeriatric patients and a poor nutritional status is associated with a negative outcome. A comprehensive management of preoperative and postoperative nutritional and fluid intake in these patients can help to improve the situation. The management includes identification of patients affected, a thorough assessment of the nutritional status, work-up of possible underlying causes, documentation of nutritional and fluid intake and, most importantly, procedures to improve the preoperative and postoperative nutritional situation. This article gives an overview of the recently updated recommendations on nutritional management in orthogeriatric patients as published by the orthogeriatric working group of the German Geriatric Society.

  14. What is Nutrition & Metabolism?

    Feinman Richard D

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A new Open Access journal, Nutrition & Metabolism (N&M will publish articles that integrate nutrition with biochemistry and molecular biology. The open access process is chosen to provide rapid and accessible dissemination of new results and perspectives in a field that is of great current interest. Manuscripts in all areas of nutritional biochemistry will be considered but three areas of particular interest are lipoprotein metabolism, amino acids as metabolic signals, and the effect of macronutrient composition of diet on health. The need for the journal is identified in the epidemic of obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemias and related diseases, and a sudden increase in popular diets, as well as renewed interest in intermediary metabolism.

  15. Nutritional rickets in Denmark

    Beck-Nielsen, Signe; Jensen, Tina Kold; Gram, Jeppe

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This study describes clinical and biochemical characteristics of nutritional rickets and risk factors at diagnosis among children living in Denmark. All medical records from patients with rickets referred to or discharged from hospitals in Southern Denmark from 1985 to 2005 were...... identified by register search. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients included were younger than 15 years of age and fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of primary, nutritional rickets. A total of 112 patients with nutritional rickets were included: 29 were of ethnic Danish origin, and 83 were immigrants. RESULTS......: Patients diagnosed before the age of 4 (median 1.4) years displayed the classic clinical signs of rickets, whereas patients diagnosed after the age of 4 (median 12.5) years had few clinical signs and unspecific symptoms. Ethnic Danish patients were only diagnosed before age 24 months, and they accounted...

  16. Nutrition and skin.

    Pappas, Apostolos; Liakou, Aikaterini; Zouboulis, Christos C

    2016-09-01

    Nutrition has long been associated with skin health, including all of its possible aspects from beauty to its integrity and even the aging process. Multiple pathways within skin biology are associated with the onset and clinical course of various common skin diseases, such as acne, atopic dermatitis, aging, or even photoprotection. These conditions have been shown to be critically affected by nutritional patterns and dietary interventions where well-documented studies have demonstrated beneficial effects of essential nutrients on impaired skin structural and functional integrity and have restored skin appearance and health. Although the subject could be vast, the intention of this review is to provide the most relevant and the most well-documented information on the role of nutrition in common skin conditions and its impact on skin biology.

  17. Non Nutritive Sweeteners - Current Perspective

    Jain Deepak

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available High sugar diet plays a major contributing role in the increased prevalence of obesity and vital health concerns such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, ischemic heart disease (IHD, hypertension, and cerebrovascular stroke. Therefore increased obesity related mortality has resulted in a surge of weight loss diets and products including non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS. NNS are food supplements that imitate the effect of sugar in taste with lesser calories. This has led to the increased global use of NNS. Diabetic subjects can enjoy the taste of meals by including NNS without increasing calorie intake. Various NNS are available in the market, giving a wide range of choice available to the diabetics. Their use has both pro and cons, therefore its use must be decided by the physician depending upon clinical profile of the patient. Judicious use of artificial sweeteners can thus help patients to lead a healthy and prosperous life without compromising with taste.

  18. Nutrition and HIV

    Friis, Henrik; Olsen, Mette Frahm; Filteau, Suzanne

    2017-01-01

    , which is mainly synergistic and operating at different levels. HIV infection increases energy and nutrient requirements, yet it reduces food security. The result is nutritional deficiencies, which increase progression of HIV infection. Both undernutrition and food insecurity may also lead to increased...... risk of transmission. Nutritional intake and status may affect metabolism of antiretroviral drugs, some of which may affect body composition, and increase risk of the metabolic syndrome. In addition, HIV is transmitted through breastfeeding, causing a serious infant feeding dilemma for which...

  19. Nutritional management to optimize fertility of dairy cows in pasture-based systems.

    Butler, S T

    2014-05-01

    The efficiency of milk production in pasture-based systems is heavily influenced by calving pattern, necessitating excellent reproductive performance in a short-breeding season. Where grazed pasture is the major component of the diet, cows are underfed relative to their intake potential. The cow responds by reducing milk output, but fertility is generally better than high intake confinement systems that achieve greater milk production per cow. A number of studies have identified body condition score (BCS) measurements that are related to likelihood of both submission and conception. Blood metabolites and metabolic hormones linked to fertility outcomes are now well characterized. In general, fertility variables have favourable associations with circulating concentrations of glucose, insulin and IGF-1 and unfavourable associations with non-esterified fatty acids, β-hydroxybutyrate and endogenous growth hormone. Nutritional strategies to impact these metabolic indicators have been utilized, but effects on herd fertility are inconsistent. Simply supplementing cows with additional energy in the form of standard concentrates does not appear to have a pronounced effect on fertility. Energy from additional concentrates fed during lactation is preferentially partitioned towards extra milk production rather than BCS repletion. The higher the genetic merit for milk production, the greater the partitioning of additional nutrients to the mammary gland. This review outlines the unique nutritional challenges of pasture-based systems, the role of specific metabolic hormones and metabolites in regulating reproductive function, and nutritional strategies to improve herd fertility.

  20. Evaluation of Nutritional Composition of The Dried Seaweed Ulva lactuca from Pameungpeuk Waters, Indonesia.

    Rasyid, Abdullah

    2017-07-01

    The nutritional composition of the dried seaweed Ulva lactuca from Pameungpeuk waters, including proximate, vitamins, minerals, dietary fibre and heavy metal has been carried out. The objective of this present study is to know the nutritional composition of the dried seaweed U. lactuca for utilisation in human nutrition in the future. Results show that carbohydrate was the major component in the proximate analysis of U. lactuca in the present study. The carbohydrate content was 58.1%. Moisture, ash, protein and fat content were 16.9%, 11.2%, 13.6% and 0.19% respectively, while dietary fibre was 28.4%. The vitamin A content was examined in this study less than 0.5 IU/100 mg while vitamin B1 (thiamine) and vitamin B2 (riboflavin) were 4.87 mg/kg and 0.86 mg/kg respectively. The calcium content was 1828 mg/100 g higher than other minerals. The heavy metal content examined in this study were lower than the limit of the quality criteria applied to edible seaweeds sold in Indonesia. Based on the results of this study show that U. lactuca has potential to be developed as an alternative source of a healthy food for human in the future.