WorldWideScience

Sample records for major cytoskeletal component

  1. Alternative cytoskeletal landscapes: cytoskeletal novelty and evolution in basal excavate protists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Scott C.; Paredez, Alexander R.

    2016-01-01

    Microbial eukaryotes encompass the majority of eukaryotic evolutionary and cytoskeletal diversity. The cytoskeletal complexity observed in multicellular organisms appears to be an expansion of components present in genomes of diverse microbial eukaryotes such as the basal lineage of flagellates, the Excavata. Excavate protists have complex and diverse cytoskeletal architectures and life cycles – essentially alternative cytoskeletal “landscapes” – yet still possess conserved microtubule- and actin-associated proteins. Comparative genomic analyses have revealed that a subset of excavates, however, lack many canonical actin-binding proteins central to actin cytoskeleton function in other eukaryotes. Overall, excavates possess numerous uncharacterized and “hypothetical” genes, and may represent an undiscovered reservoir of novel cytoskeletal genes and cytoskeletal mechanisms. The continued development of molecular genetic tools in these complex microbial eukaryotes will undoubtedly contribute to our overall understanding of cytoskeletal diversity and evolution. PMID:23312067

  2. Cytoskeletal Components Define Protein Location to Membrane Microdomains*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, Witold G.; Zauber, Henrik; Erban, Alexander; Gorka, Michal; Wu, Xu Na; Schulze, Waltraud X.

    2015-01-01

    The plasma membrane is an important compartment that undergoes dynamic changes in composition upon external or internal stimuli. The dynamic subcompartmentation of proteins in ordered low-density (DRM) and disordered high-density (DSM) membrane phases is hypothesized to require interactions with cytoskeletal components. Here, we systematically analyzed the effects of actin or tubulin disruption on the distribution of proteins between membrane density phases. We used a proteomic screen to identify candidate proteins with altered submembrane location, followed by biochemical or cell biological characterization in Arabidopsis thaliana. We found that several proteins, such as plasma membrane ATPases, receptor kinases, or remorins resulted in a differential distribution between membrane density phases upon cytoskeletal disruption. Moreover, in most cases, contrasting effects were observed: Disruption of actin filaments largely led to a redistribution of proteins from DRM to DSM membrane fractions while disruption of tubulins resulted in general depletion of proteins from the membranes. We conclude that actin filaments are necessary for dynamic movement of proteins between different membrane phases and that microtubules are not necessarily important for formation of microdomains as such, but rather they may control the protein amount present in the membrane phases. PMID:26091700

  3. Biosynthesis of intestinal microvillar proteins. Rapid expression of cytoskeletal components in microvilli of pig small intestinal mucosal explants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowell, G M; Danielsen, E M

    1984-01-01

    Using alkaline extraction to separate cytoskeletal and membrane proteins of intestinal microvilli, the kinetics of assembly of these two microvillar protein compartments was studied by pulse-chase labelling of pig small intestinal mucosal explants, kept in organ culture. Following a 10 min pulse...... of [35S]methionine, the membrane proteins did not appear in the microvillar fraction until after 40-60 min of chase. In contrast, the cytoskeletal components, of which the 110-kDa protein and villin were immunologically identified, were expressed in the microvillar fraction immediately after the 10 min...

  4. Assembly of the MreB-associated cytoskeletal ring of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vats, Purva; Shih, Yu-Ling; Rothfield, Lawrence

    2009-04-01

    The Escherichia coli actin homologue MreB is part of a helical cytoskeletal structure that winds around the cell between the two poles. It has been shown that MreB redistributes during the cell cycle to form circumferential ring structures that flank the cytokinetic FtsZ ring and appear to be associated with division and segregation of the helical cytoskeleton. We show here that the MreB cytoskeletal ring also contains the MreC, MreD, Pbp2 and RodA proteins. Assembly of MreB, MreC, MreD and Pbp2 into the ring structure required the FtsZ ring but no other known components of the cell division machinery, whereas assembly of RodA into the cytoskeletal ring required one or more additional septasomal components. Strikingly, MreB, MreC, MreD and RodA were each able to independently assemble into the cytoskeletal ring and coiled cytoskeletal structures in the absence of any of the other ring components. This excludes the possibility that one or more of these proteins acts as a scaffold for incorporation of the other proteins into these structures. In contrast, incorporation of Pbp2 required the presence of MreC, which may provide a docking site for Pbp2 entry.

  5. Biotechnological aspects of cytoskeletal regulation in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komis, George; Luptovciak, Ivan; Doskocilova, Anna; Samaj, Jozef

    2015-11-01

    The cytoskeleton is a protein-based intracellular superstructure that evolved early after the appearance of bacterial prokaryotes. Eventually cytoskeletal proteins and their macromolecular assemblies were established in eukaryotes and assumed critical roles in cell movements, intracellular organization, cell division and cell differentiation. In biomedicine the small-molecules targeting cytoskeletal elements are in the frontline of anticancer research with plant-derived cytoskeletal drugs such as Vinca alkaloids and toxoids, being routinely used in the clinical practice. Moreover, plants are also major material, food and energy resources for human activities ranging from agriculture, textile industry, carpentry, energy production and new material development to name some few. Most of these inheritable traits are associated with cell wall synthesis and chemical modification during primary and secondary plant growth and inevitably are associated with the dynamics, organization and interactions of the plant cytoskeleton. Taking into account the vast intracellular spread of microtubules and actin microfilaments the cytoskeleton collectively assumed central roles in plant growth and development, in determining the physical stance of plants against the forces of nature and becoming a battleground between pathogenic invaders and the defense mechanisms of plant cells. This review aims to address the role of the plant cytoskeleton in manageable features of plants including cellulose biosynthesis with implications in wood and fiber properties, in biofuel production and the contribution of plant cytoskeletal elements in plant defense responses against pathogens or detrimental environmental conditions. Ultimately the present work surveys the potential of cytoskeletal proteins as platforms of plant genetic engineering, nominating certain cytoskeletal proteins as vectors of favorable traits in crops and other economically important plants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All

  6. Cytoskeletal protein translation and expression in the rat brain are stressor-dependent and region-specific.

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    Petra Sántha

    Full Text Available Stress is an integral component of life that can sometimes cause a critical overload, depending on the qualitative and quantitative natures of the stressors. The involvement of actin, the predominant component of dendritic integrity, is a plausible candidate factor in stress-induced neuronal cytoskeletal changes. The major aim of this study was to compare the effects of three different stress conditions on the transcription and translation of actin-related cytoskeletal genes in the rat brain. Male Wistar rats were exposed to one or other of the frequently used models of physical stress, i.e. electric foot shock stress (EFSS, forced swimming stress (FSS, or psychosocial stress (PSS for periods of 3, 7, 14, or 21 days. The relative mRNA and protein expressions of β-actin, cofilin and mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK-1 were determined by qRT- PCR and western blotting from hippocampus and frontal cortex samples. Stressor-specific alterations in both β-actin and cofilin expression levels were seen after stress. These alterations were most pronounced in response to EFSS, and exhibited a U-shaped time course. FSS led to a significant β-actin mRNA expression elevation in the hippocampus and the frontal cortex after 3 and 7 days, respectively, without any subsequent change. PSS did not cause any change in β-actin or cofilin mRNA or protein expression in the examined brain regions. EFSS, FSS and PSS had no effect on the expression of MAPK-1 mRNA at any tested time point. These findings indicate a very delicate, stress type-dependent regulation of neuronal cytoskeletal components in the rat hippocampus and frontal cortex.

  7. Nucleocytoplasmic Shuttling of Cytoskeletal Proteins: Molecular Mechanism and Biological Significance

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    Masahiro Kumeta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Various nuclear functional complexes contain cytoskeletal proteins as regulatory subunits; for example, nuclear actin participates in transcriptional complexes, and actin-related proteins are integral to chromatin remodeling complexes. Nuclear complexes such as these are involved in both basal and adaptive nuclear functions. In addition to nuclear import via classical nuclear transport pathways or passive diffusion, some large cytoskeletal proteins spontaneously migrate into the nucleus in a karyopherin-independent manner. The balance of nucleocytoplasmic distribution of such proteins can be altered by several factors, such as import versus export, or capture and release by complexes. The resulting accumulation or depletion of the nuclear populations thereby enhances or attenuates their nuclear functions. We propose that such molecular dynamics constitute a form of cytoskeleton-modulated regulation of nuclear functions which is mediated by the translocation of cytoskeletal components in and out of the nucleus.

  8. CONSERVED ROLES FOR CYTOSKELETAL COMPONENTS IN DETERMINING LATERALITY

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    McDowell, Gary S.; Lemire, Joan M.; Paré, Jean-Francois; Cammarata, Garrett; Lowery, Laura Anne; Levin, Michael

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Consistently-biased left-right (LR) patterning is required for the proper placement of organs including the heart and viscera. The LR axis is especially fascinating as an example of multi-scale pattern formation, since here chiral events at the subcellular level are integrated and amplified into asymmetric transcriptional cascades and ultimately into the anatomical patterning of the entire body. In contrast to the other two body axes, there is considerable controversy about the earliest mechanisms of embryonic laterality. Many molecular components of asymmetry have not been widely tested among phyla with diverse bodyplans, and it is unknown whether parallel (redundant) pathways may exist that could reverse abnormal asymmetry states at specific checkpoints in development. To address conservation of the early steps of LR patterning, we used the Xenopus laevis (frog) embryo to functionally test a number of protein targets known to direct asymmetry in plants, fruit fly, and rodent. Using the same reagents that randomize asymmetry in Arabidopsis, Drosophila, and mouse embryos, we show that manipulation of the microtubule and actin cytoskeleton immediately post-fertilization, but not later, results in laterality defects in Xenopus embryos. Moreover, we observed organ-specific randomization effects and a striking dissociation of organ situs from effects on the expression of left side control genes, which parallel data from Drosophila and mouse. Remarkably, some early manipulations that disrupt laterality of transcriptional asymmetry determinants can be subsequently “rescued” by the embryo, resulting in normal organ situs. These data reveal the existence of novel corrective mechanisms, demonstrate that asymmetric expression of Nodal is not a definitive marker of laterality, and suggest the existence of amplification pathways that connect early cytoskeletal processes to control of organ situs bypassing Nodal. Counter to alternative models of symmetry breaking

  9. Regulation of cytoskeletal organization by syndecan transmembrane proteoglycans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoneda, Atsuko; Couchman, John R

    2003-01-01

    have recently suggested that signaling through core protein of syndecans can regulate cytoskeletal organization through their clustering, association with cytoskeletal structures, binding to cytoplasmic binding proteins, and intracellular phosphorylation. Here we will review current understanding...... of signaling through syndecans in cytoskeletal organization....

  10. Cytoskeletal defects in Bmpr2-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jennifer A; Hemnes, Anna R; Perrien, Daniel S; Schuster, Manfred; Robinson, Linda J; Gladson, Santhi; Loibner, Hans; Bai, Susan; Blackwell, Tom R; Tada, Yuji; Harral, Julie W; Talati, Megha; Lane, Kirk B; Fagan, Karen A; West, James

    2012-03-01

    The heritable form of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is typically caused by a mutation in bone morphogenic protein receptor type 2 (BMPR2), and mice expressing Bmpr2 mutations develop PAH with features similar to human disease. BMPR2 is known to interact with the cytoskeleton, and human array studies in PAH patients confirm alterations in cytoskeletal pathways. The goal of this study was to evaluate cytoskeletal defects in BMPR2-associated PAH. Expression arrays on our Bmpr2 mutant mouse lungs revealed cytoskeletal defects as a prominent molecular consequence of universal expression of a Bmpr2 mutation (Rosa26-Bmpr2(R899X)). Pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells cultured from these mice have histological and functional cytoskeletal defects. Stable transfection of different BMPR2 mutations into pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells revealed that cytoskeletal defects are common to multiple BMPR2 mutations and are associated with activation of the Rho GTPase, Rac1. Rac1 defects are corrected in cell culture and in vivo through administration of exogenous recombinant human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (rhACE2). rhACE2 reverses 77% of gene expression changes in Rosa26-Bmpr2(R899X) transgenic mice, in particular, correcting defects in cytoskeletal function. Administration of rhACE2 to Rosa26-Bmpr2(R899X) mice with established PAH normalizes pulmonary pressures. Together, these findings suggest that cytoskeletal function is central to the development of BMPR2-associated PAH and that intervention against cytoskeletal defects may reverse established disease.

  11. Mycoplasma pneumoniae cytoskeletal protein HMW2 and the architecture of the terminal organelle.

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    Bose, Stephanie R; Balish, Mitchell F; Krause, Duncan C

    2009-11-01

    The terminal organelle of Mycoplasma pneumoniae mediates cytadherence and gliding motility and functions in cell division. The defining feature of this complex membrane-bound cell extension is an electron-dense core of two segmented rods oriented longitudinally and enlarging to form a bulb at the distal end. While the components of the core have not been comprehensively identified, previous evidence suggested that the cytoskeletal protein HMW2 forms parallel bundles oriented lengthwise to yield the major rod of the core. In the present study, we tested predictions emerging from that model by ultrastructural and immunoelectron microscopy analyses of cores from wild-type M. pneumoniae and mutants producing HMW2 derivatives. Antibodies specific for the N or C terminus of HMW2 labeled primarily peripheral to the core along its entire length. Furthermore, truncation of HMW2 did not correlate specifically with core length. However, mutant analysis correlated specific HMW2 domains with core assembly, and examination of core-enriched preparations confirmed that HMW2 was a major component of these fractions. Taken together, these findings yielded a revised model for HMW2 in terminal organelle architecture.

  12. Mycoplasma pneumoniae Cytoskeletal Protein HMW2 and the Architecture of the Terminal Organelle▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Stephanie R.; Balish, Mitchell F.; Krause, Duncan C.

    2009-01-01

    The terminal organelle of Mycoplasma pneumoniae mediates cytadherence and gliding motility and functions in cell division. The defining feature of this complex membrane-bound cell extension is an electron-dense core of two segmented rods oriented longitudinally and enlarging to form a bulb at the distal end. While the components of the core have not been comprehensively identified, previous evidence suggested that the cytoskeletal protein HMW2 forms parallel bundles oriented lengthwise to yield the major rod of the core. In the present study, we tested predictions emerging from that model by ultrastructural and immunoelectron microscopy analyses of cores from wild-type M. pneumoniae and mutants producing HMW2 derivatives. Antibodies specific for the N or C terminus of HMW2 labeled primarily peripheral to the core along its entire length. Furthermore, truncation of HMW2 did not correlate specifically with core length. However, mutant analysis correlated specific HMW2 domains with core assembly, and examination of core-enriched preparations confirmed that HMW2 was a major component of these fractions. Taken together, these findings yielded a revised model for HMW2 in terminal organelle architecture. PMID:19717588

  13. Proteomic and Microscopic Strategies towards the Analysis of the Cytoskeletal Networks in Major Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joëlle V. F. Coumans

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mental health disorders have become worldwide health priorities. It is estimated that in the next 20 years they will account for a 16 trillion United State dollars (US$ loss. Up to now, the underlying pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders remains elusive. Altered cytoskeleton proteins expression that may influence the assembly, organization and maintenance of cytoskeletal integrity has been reported in major depressive disorders, schizophrenia and to some extent bipolar disorders. The use of quantitative proteomics, dynamic microscopy and super-resolution microscopy to investigate disease-specific protein signatures holds great promise to improve our understanding of these disorders. In this review, we present the currently available quantitative proteomic approaches use in neurology, gel-based, stable isotope-labelling and label-free methodologies and evaluate their strengths and limitations. We also reported on enrichment/subfractionation methods that target the cytoskeleton associated proteins and discuss the need of alternative methods for further characterization of the neurocytoskeletal proteome. Finally, we present live cell imaging approaches and emerging dynamic microscopy technology that will provide the tools necessary to investigate protein interactions and their dynamics in the whole cells. While these areas of research are still in their infancy, they offer huge potential towards the understanding of the neuronal network stability and its modification across neuropsychiatric disorders.

  14. Cellular automata in cytoskeletal lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, S A; Watt, R C; Hameroff, S R

    1984-01-01

    Cellular automata (CA) activities could mediate biological regulation and information processing via nonlinear electrodynamic effects in cytoskeletal lattice arrays. Frohlich coherent oscillations and other nonlinear mechanisms may effect discrete 10/sup -10/ to 10/sup -11/ s interval events which result in dynamic patterns in biolattices such as cylindrical protein polymers: microtubules (MT). Structural geometry and electrostatic forces of MT subunit dipole oscillations suggest neighbor rules among the hexagonally packed protein subunits. Computer simulations using these suggested rules and MT structural geometry demonstrate CA activities including dynamical and stable self-organizing patterns, oscillators, and traveling gliders. CA activities in MT and other cytoskeletal lattices may have important biological regulatory functions. 23 references, 6 figures, 1 table.

  15. Dendritic Cytoskeletal Architecture Is Modulated by Combinatorial Transcriptional Regulation in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Ravi; Bhattacharjee, Shatabdi; Patel, Atit A; Harris, Jenna M; Bhattacharya, Surajit; Letcher, Jamin M; Clark, Sarah G; Nanda, Sumit; Iyer, Eswar Prasad R; Ascoli, Giorgio A; Cox, Daniel N

    2017-12-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) have emerged as essential cell autonomous mediators of subtype specific dendritogenesis; however, the downstream effectors of these TFs remain largely unknown, as are the cellular events that TFs control to direct morphological change. As dendritic morphology is largely dictated by the organization of the actin and microtubule (MT) cytoskeletons, elucidating TF-mediated cytoskeletal regulatory programs is key to understanding molecular control of diverse dendritic morphologies. Previous studies in Drosophila melanogaster have demonstrated that the conserved TFs Cut and Knot exert combinatorial control over aspects of dendritic cytoskeleton development, promoting actin and MT-based arbor morphology, respectively. To investigate transcriptional targets of Cut and/or Knot regulation, we conducted systematic neurogenomic studies, coupled with in vivo genetic screens utilizing multi-fluor cytoskeletal and membrane marker reporters. These analyses identified a host of putative Cut and/or Knot effector molecules, and a subset of these putative TF targets converge on modulating dendritic cytoskeletal architecture, which are grouped into three major phenotypic categories, based upon neuromorphometric analyses: complexity enhancer, complexity shifter, and complexity suppressor. Complexity enhancer genes normally function to promote higher order dendritic growth and branching with variable effects on MT stabilization and F-actin organization, whereas complexity shifter and complexity suppressor genes normally function in regulating proximal-distal branching distribution or in restricting higher order branching complexity, respectively, with spatially restricted impacts on the dendritic cytoskeleton. Collectively, we implicate novel genes and cellular programs by which TFs distinctly and combinatorially govern dendritogenesis via cytoskeletal modulation. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  16. Cholera toxin can catalyze ADP-ribosylation of cytoskeletal proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaslow, H.R.; Groppi, V.E.; Abood, M.E.; Bourne, H.R.

    1981-01-01

    Cholera toxin catalyzes transfer of radiolabel from [ 32 P]NAD + to several peptides in particulate preparations of human foreskin fibroblasts. Resolution of these peptides by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis allowed identification of two peptides of M/sub r/ = 42,000 and 52,000 as peptide subunits of a regulatory component of adenylate cyclase. The radiolabeling of another group of peptides (M/sub r/ = 50,000 to 65,000) suggested that cholera toxin could catalyze ADP-ribosylation of cytoskeletal proteins. This suggestion was confirmed by showing that incubation with cholera toxin and [ 32 P]NAD + caused radiolabeling of purified microtubule and intermediate filament proteins

  17. Mycoplasma pneumoniae Cytoskeletal Protein HMW2 and the Architecture of the Terminal Organelle▿

    OpenAIRE

    Bose, Stephanie R.; Balish, Mitchell F.; Krause, Duncan C.

    2009-01-01

    The terminal organelle of Mycoplasma pneumoniae mediates cytadherence and gliding motility and functions in cell division. The defining feature of this complex membrane-bound cell extension is an electron-dense core of two segmented rods oriented longitudinally and enlarging to form a bulb at the distal end. While the components of the core have not been comprehensively identified, previous evidence suggested that the cytoskeletal protein HMW2 forms parallel bundles oriented lengthwise to yie...

  18. Precortical phase of Alzheimer’s disease (AD)-related tau cytoskeletal pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratmann, Katharina; Heinsen, Helmut; Korf, Horst-Werner; Del Turco, Domenico; Ghebremedhin, Estifanos; Seidel, Kay; Bouzrou, Mohamed; Grinberg, Lea T.; Bohl, Jürgen; Wharton, Stephen B; den Dunnen, Wilfred; Rüb, Udo

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) represents the most frequent progressive neuropsychiatric disorder worldwide leading to dementia and accounts for 60 to 70% of demented individuals. In view of the early appearance of neuronal deposits of the hyperphosphorylated cytoskeletal protein tau in the transentorhinal and entorhinal regions of the allocortex (i.e. in Braak and Braak AD stage I in the evolution of the AD-related cortical tau cytoskeletal pathology) it has been believed for a long time that these allocortical regions represent the first brain targets of the AD-related tau cytoskeletal pathology. However, recent pathoanatomical studies suggested that the subcortical brain nuclei that send efferent projections to the transentorhinal and entorhinal regions may also comprise AD-related cytoskeletal changes already at very early Braak and Braak AD stages. In order to corroborate these initial results we systematically investigated the presence and extent of the AD-related cytoskeletal pathology in serial thick tissue sections through all the subcortical nuclei known to send efferent projections to these vulnerable allocortical regions of three individuals with Braak and Braak AD stage 0 and fourteen individuals with Braak and Braak AD stage I by means of immunostainings with the anti-tau antibody AT8. These investigations revealed consistent AT8 immunoreactive neuronal tau cytoskeletal pathology in a subset of these subcortical nuclei (i.e. medial septal nucleus, nuclei of the vertical and horizontal limbs of the diagonal band of Broca, basal nucleus of Meynert; claustrum; hypothalamic ventromedial, tuberomamillary and supramamillary nuclei, perifornical region and lateral area; thalamic central medial, laterodorsal, subparafascicular, and central lateral nuclei, medial pulvinar and limitans-suprageniculate complex; peripeduncular nucleus, dopaminergic substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area, periaqueductal gray, midbrain and pontine dorsal raphe nuclei, locus

  19. Strong adhesion by regulatory T cells induces dendritic cell cytoskeletal polarization and contact-dependent lethargy.

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    Chen, Jiahuan; Ganguly, Anutosh; Mucsi, Ashley D; Meng, Junchen; Yan, Jiacong; Detampel, Pascal; Munro, Fay; Zhang, Zongde; Wu, Mei; Hari, Aswin; Stenner, Melanie D; Zheng, Wencheng; Kubes, Paul; Xia, Tie; Amrein, Matthias W; Qi, Hai; Shi, Yan

    2017-02-01

    Dendritic cells are targeted by regulatory T (T reg) cells, in a manner that operates as an indirect mode of T cell suppression. In this study, using a combination of single-cell force spectroscopy and structured illumination microscopy, we analyze individual T reg cell-DC interaction events and show that T reg cells exhibit strong intrinsic adhesiveness to DCs. This increased DC adhesion reduces the ability of contacted DCs to engage other antigen-specific cells. We show that this unusually strong LFA-1-dependent adhesiveness of T reg cells is caused in part by their low calpain activities, which normally release integrin-cytoskeleton linkage, and thereby reduce adhesion. Super resolution imaging reveals that such T reg cell adhesion causes sequestration of Fascin-1, an actin-bundling protein essential for immunological synapse formation, and skews Fascin-1-dependent actin polarization in DCs toward the T reg cell adhesion zone. Although it is reversible upon T reg cell disengagement, this sequestration of essential cytoskeletal components causes a lethargic state of DCs, leading to reduced T cell priming. Our results reveal a dynamic cytoskeletal component underlying T reg cell-mediated DC suppression in a contact-dependent manner. © 2017 Chen et al.

  20. The regulation of cytoskeletal and liver-specific gene expression during liver regeneration and primary hepatocyte culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, G.S.

    1989-01-01

    The focus of this dissertation is to determine what role(s) the extracellular matrix and expression of certain cytoskeletal genes play in the regulation of hepatocyte growth and the maintenance of a differential state. The expression of several cytoskeletal and liver-specific genes was examined during liver regeneration and in hepatocyte cultures maintained in a hormonally-defined, serum-free medium and plated on two different matrices: rat tail collagen and the EHS matrix. During liver regeneration and in hepatocytes cultured on rat tail collagen, there was a dramatic increase in tubulin mRNA levels coincident with but not linked to DNA synthesis. The message levels for other cytoskeletal genes similarly increased, while a decrease was observed in the mRNA levels of the liver-specific genes, serum albumin and alpha 1 inhibitor III. Hepatocytes cultured on the EHS matrix resulted in the maintenance of low levels of cytoskeletal gene expression and high levels of liver-specific gene expression, similar to that observed in the normal liver. Results from subcellar fractionation and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of 35 S-labelled proteins paralleled the results seen at the mRNA level. Preliminary work suggests that microtubule organization may play a role in the expression of the liver-specific genes which encode secreted proteins. These studies, which compare hepatocytes cultured on collagen or the EHS matrix gel, reveal that both cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions play a major role in the maintenance of the differential phenotype in hepatocytes

  1. Unique expression of cytoskeletal proteins in human soft palate muscles.

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    Shah, Farhan; Berggren, Diana; Holmlund, Thorbjörn; Levring Jäghagen, Eva; Stål, Per

    2016-03-01

    The human oropharyngeal muscles have a unique anatomy with diverse and intricate functions. To investigate if this specialization is also reflected in the cytoarchitecture of muscle fibers, intermediate filament proteins and the dystrophin-associated protein complex have been analyzed in two human palate muscles, musculus uvula (UV) and musculus palatopharyngeus (PP), with immunohistochenmical and morphological techniques. Human limb muscles were used as reference. The findings show that the soft palate muscle fibers have a cytoskeletal architecture that differs from the limb muscles. While all limb muscles showed immunoreaction for a panel of antibodies directed against different domains of cytoskeletal proteins desmin and dystrophin, a subpopulation of palate muscle fibers lacked or had a faint immunoreaction for desmin (UV 11.7% and PP 9.8%) and the C-terminal of the dystrophin molecule (UV 4.2% and PP 6.4%). The vast majority of these fibers expressed slow contractile protein myosin heavy chain I. Furthermore, an unusual staining pattern was also observed in these fibers for β-dystroglycan, caveolin-3 and neuronal nitric oxide synthase nNOS, which are all membrane-linking proteins associated with the dystrophin C-terminus. While the immunoreaction for nNOS was generally weak or absent, β-dystroglycan and caveolin-3 showed a stronger immunostaining. The absence or a low expression of cytoskeletal proteins otherwise considered ubiquitous and important for integration and contraction of muscle cells indicate a unique cytoarchitecture designed to meet the intricate demands of the upper airway muscles. It can be concluded that a subgroup of muscle fibers in the human soft palate appears to have special biomechanical properties, and their unique cytoarchitecture must be taken into account while assessing function and pathology in oropharyngeal muscles. © 2015 Anatomical Society.

  2. Abnormal expression of leiomyoma cytoskeletal proteins involved in cell migration.

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    Ura, Blendi; Scrimin, Federica; Arrigoni, Giorgio; Athanasakis, Emmanouil; Aloisio, Michelangelo; Monasta, Lorenzo; Ricci, Giuseppe

    2016-05-01

    Uterine leiomyomas are monoclonal tumors. Several factors are involved in the neoplastic transformation of the myometrium. In our study we focused on dysregulated cytoskeletal proteins in the leiomyoma as compared to the myometrium. Paired tissue samples of ten leiomyomas and adjacent myometria were obtained and analyzed by two‑dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). Mass spectrometry was used for protein identification, and western blotting for 2-DE data validation. The values of ten cytoskeletal proteins were found to be significantly different: eight proteins were upregulated in the leiomyoma and two proteins were downregulated. Three of the upregulated proteins (myosin regulatory light polypeptide 9, four and a half LIM domains protein 1 and LIM and SH3 domain protein 1) are involved in cell migration, while downregulated protein transgelin is involved in replicative senescence. Myosin regulatory light polypeptide 9 (MYL9) was further validated by western blotting because it is considered to be a cell migration marker in several cancers and could play a key role in leiomyoma development. Our data demonstrate significant alterations in the expression of cytoskeletal proteins involved in leiomyoma growth. A better understanding of the involvement of cytoskeletal proteins in leiomyoma pathogenesis may contribute to the identification of new therapeutic targets and the development of new pharmacological approaches.

  3. cAMP/PKA signalling reinforces the LATS–YAP pathway to fully suppress YAP in response to actin cytoskeletal changes

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    Kim, Minchul; Kim, Miju; Lee, Seunghee; Kuninaka, Shinji; Saya, Hideyuki; Lee, Ho; Lee, Sookyung; Lim, Dae-Sik

    2013-01-01

    Actin cytoskeletal damage induces inactivation of the oncoprotein YAP (Yes-associated protein). It is known that the serine/threonine kinase LATS (large tumour suppressor) inactivates YAP by phosphorylating its Ser127 and Ser381 residues. However, the events downstream of actin cytoskeletal changes that are involved in the regulation of the LATS–YAP pathway and the mechanism by which LATS differentially phosphorylates YAP on Ser127 and Ser381 in vivo have remained elusive. Here, we show that cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKA) phosphorylates LATS and thereby enhances its activity sufficiently to phosphorylate YAP on Ser381. We also found that PKA activity is involved in all contexts previously reported to trigger the LATS–YAP pathway, including actin cytoskeletal damage, G-protein-coupled receptor activation, and engagement of the Hippo pathway. Inhibition of PKA and overexpression of YAP cooperate to transform normal cells and amplify neural progenitor pools in developing chick embryos. We also implicate neurofibromin 2 as an AKAP (A-kinase-anchoring protein) scaffold protein that facilitates the function of the cAMP/PKA–LATS–YAP pathway. Our study thus incorporates PKA as novel component of the Hippo pathway. PMID:23644383

  4. Interplay between cytoskeletal stresses and cell adaptation under chronic flow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepika Verma

    Full Text Available Using stress sensitive FRET sensors we have measured cytoskeletal stresses in α-actinin and the associated reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton in cells subjected to chronic shear stress. We show that long-term shear stress reduces the average actinin stress and this effect is reversible with removal of flow. The flow-induced changes in cytoskeletal stresses are found to be dynamic, involving a transient decrease in stress (phase-I, a short-term increase (3-6 min (Phase-II, followed by a longer-term decrease that reaches a minimum in ~20 min (Phase-III, before saturating. These changes are accompanied by reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton from parallel F-actin bundles to peripheral bundles. Blocking mechanosensitive ion channels (MSCs with Gd(3+ and GsMTx4 (a specific inhibitor eliminated the changes in cytoskeletal stress and the corresponding actin reorganization, indicating that Ca(2+ permeable MSCs participate in the signaling cascades. This study shows that shear stress induced cell adaptation is mediated via MSCs.

  5. Imaging Cytoskeleton Components by Electron Microscopy.

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    Svitkina, Tatyana

    2016-01-01

    The cytoskeleton is a complex of detergent-insoluble components of the cytoplasm playing critical roles in cell motility, shape generation, and mechanical properties of a cell. Fibrillar polymers-actin filaments, microtubules, and intermediate filaments-are major constituents of the cytoskeleton, which constantly change their organization during cellular activities. The actin cytoskeleton is especially polymorphic, as actin filaments can form multiple higher order assemblies performing different functions. Structural information about cytoskeleton organization is critical for understanding its functions and mechanisms underlying various forms of cellular activity. Because of the nanometer-scale thickness of cytoskeletal fibers, electron microscopy (EM) is a key tool to determine the structure of the cytoskeleton. This article describes application of rotary shadowing (or metal replica) EM for visualization of the cytoskeleton. The procedure is applicable to thin cultured cells growing on glass coverslips and consists of detergent extraction of cells to expose their cytoskeleton, chemical fixation to provide stability, ethanol dehydration and critical point drying to preserve three-dimensionality, rotary shadowing with platinum to create contrast, and carbon coating to stabilize replicas. This technique provides easily interpretable three-dimensional images, in which individual cytoskeletal fibers are clearly resolved, and individual proteins can be identified by immunogold labeling. More importantly, replica EM is easily compatible with live cell imaging, so that one can correlate the dynamics of a cell or its components, e.g., expressed fluorescent proteins, with high resolution structural organization of the cytoskeleton in the same cell.

  6. Cytoskeletal proteins from human skin fibroblasts, peripheral blood leukocytes, and a lymphoblastoid cell line compared by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giometti, C.S.; Willard, K.E.; Anderson, N.L.

    1982-01-01

    Differences in proteins between cells grown as suspension cultures and those grown as attached cultures were studied by comparing the proteins of detergent-resistant cytoskeletons prepared from peripheral blood leukocytes and a lymphoblastoid cell line (GM607) (both grown as suspension cultures) and those of human skin fibroblasts (grown as attached cultures) by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The major cytoskeletal proteins of the leukocytes were also present in the protein pattern of GM607 cytoskeletons. In contrast, the fibroblast cytoskeletal protein pattern contained four groups of proteins that differed from the patterns of the leukocytes and GM607. In addition, surface labeling of GM607 and human fibroblasts with 125 I demonstrated that substantial amounts of vimentin and actin are exposed at the surface of the attached fibroblasts, but there is little evidence of similar exposure at the surface of the suspension-grown GM607. These results demonstrate some differences in cytoskeletal protein composition between different types of cells could be related to their ability or lack of ability to grow as attached cells in tissue culture

  7. Changes in cytoskeletal dynamics and nonlinear rheology with metastatic ability in cancer cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coughlin, Mark F; Fredberg, Jeffrey J

    2013-01-01

    Metastatic outcome is impacted by the biophysical state of the primary tumor cell. To determine if changes in cancer cell biophysical properties facilitate metastasis, we quantified cytoskeletal biophysics in well-characterized human skin, bladder, prostate and kidney cell line pairs that differ in metastatic ability. Using magnetic twisting cytometry with optical detection, cytoskeletal dynamics was observed through spontaneous motion of surface bound marker beads and nonlinear rheology was characterized through large amplitude forced oscillations of probe beads. Measurements of cytoskeletal dynamics and nonlinear rheology differed between strongly and weakly metastatic cells. However, no set of biophysical parameters changed systematically with metastatic ability across all cell lines. Compared to their weakly metastatic counterparts, the strongly metastatic kidney cancer cells exhibited both increased cytoskeletal dynamics and stiffness at large deformation which are thought to facilitate the process of vascular invasion. (paper)

  8. Cytoskeletal-assisted dynamics of the mitochondrial reticulum in living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Michelle K; Guenza, Marina G; Capaldi, Roderick A; Marcus, Andrew H

    2002-11-12

    Subcellular organelle dynamics are strongly influenced by interactions with cytoskeletal filaments and their associated motor proteins, and lead to complex multiexponential relaxations that occur over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. Here we report spatio-temporal measurements of the fluctuations of the mitochondrial reticulum in osteosarcoma cells by using Fourier imaging correlation spectroscopy, over time and distance scales of 10(-2) to 10(3) s and 0.5-2.5 microm. We show that the method allows a more complete description of mitochondrial dynamics, through the time- and length-scale-dependent collective diffusion coefficient D(k,tau), than available by other means. Addition of either nocodazole to disrupt microtubules or cytochalasin D to disassemble microfilaments simplifies the intermediate scattering function. When both drugs are used, the reticulum morphology of mitochondria is retained even though the cytoskeletal elements have been de-polymerized. The dynamics of the organelle are then primarily diffusive and can be modeled as a collection of friction points interconnected by elastic springs. This study quantitatively characterizes organelle dynamics in terms of collective cytoskeletal interactions in living cells.

  9. A novel system of cytoskeletal elements in the human pathogen Helicobacter pylori.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Waidner

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenicity of the human pathogen Helicobacter pylori relies upon its capacity to adapt to a hostile environment and to escape from the host response. Therefore, cell shape, motility, and pH homeostasis of these bacteria are specifically adapted to the gastric mucus. We have found that the helical shape of H. pylori depends on coiled coil rich proteins (Ccrp, which form extended filamentous structures in vitro and in vivo, and are differentially required for the maintenance of cell morphology. We have developed an in vivo localization system for this pathogen. Consistent with a cytoskeleton-like structure, Ccrp proteins localized in a regular punctuate and static pattern within H. pylori cells. Ccrp genes show a high degree of sequence variation, which could be the reason for the morphological diversity between H. pylori strains. In contrast to other bacteria, the actin-like MreB protein is dispensable for viability in H. pylori, and does not affect cell shape, but cell length and chromosome segregation. In addition, mreB mutant cells displayed significantly reduced urease activity, and thus compromise a major pathogenicity factor of H. pylori. Our findings reveal that Ccrp proteins, but not MreB, affect cell morphology, while both cytoskeletal components affect the development of pathogenicity factors and/or cell cycle progression.

  10. Hierarchical Distribution of the Tau Cytoskeletal Pathology in the Thalamus of Alzheimer's Disease Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rueb, Udo; Stratmann, Katharina; Heinsen, Helmut; Del Turco, Domenico; Ghebremedhin, Estifanos; Seidel, Kay; den Dunnen, Wilfred; Korf, Horst-Werner

    2015-01-01

    In spite of considerable progress in neuropathological research on Alzheimer's disease (AD), knowledge regarding the exact pathoanatomical distribution of the tau cytoskeletal pathology in the thalamus of AD patients in the advanced Braak and Braak AD stages V or VI of the cortical cytoskeletal

  11. Zearalenone altered the cytoskeletal structure via ER stress- autophagy- oxidative stress pathway in mouse TM4 Sertoli cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wanglong; Wang, Bingjie; Si, Mengxue; Zou, Hui; Song, Ruilong; Gu, Jianhong; Yuan, Yan; Liu, Xuezhong; Zhu, Guoqiang; Bai, Jianfa; Bian, Jianchun; Liu, ZongPing

    2018-02-20

    The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms of the destruction of cytoskeletal structure by Zearalenone (ZEA) in mouse-derived TM4 cells. In order to investigate the role of autophagy, oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum(ER) stress in the process of destruction of cytoskeletal structure, the effects of ZEA on the cell viability, cytoskeletal structure, autophagy, oxidative stress, ER stress, MAPK and PI3K- AKT- mTOR signaling pathways were studied. The data demonstrated that ZEA damaged the cytoskeletal structure through the induction of autophagy that leads to the alteration of cytoskeletal structure via elevated oxidative stress. Our results further showed that the autophagy was stimulated by ZEA through PI3K-AKT-mTOR and MAPK signaling pathways in TM4 cells. In addition, ZEA also induced the ER stress which was involved in the induction of the autophagy through inhibiting the ERK signal pathway to suppress the phosphorylation of mTOR. ER stress was involved in the damage of cytoskeletal structure through induction of autophagy by producing ROS. Taken together, this study revealed that ZEA altered the cytoskeletal structure via oxidative stress - autophagy- ER stress pathway in mouse TM4 Sertoli cells.

  12. PTP-PEST controls EphA3 activation and ephrin-induced cytoskeletal remodelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Mariam; Nievergall, Eva; Gegenbauer, Kristina; Llerena, Carmen; Atapattu, Lakmali; Hallé, Maxime; Tremblay, Michel L; Janes, Peter W; Lackmann, Martin

    2016-01-15

    Eph receptors and their corresponding membrane-bound ephrin ligands regulate cell positioning and establish tissue patterns during embryonic and oncogenic development. Emerging evidence suggests that assembly of polymeric Eph signalling clusters relies on cytoskeletal reorganisation and underlies regulation by protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs). PTP-PEST (also known as PTPN12) is a central regulator of actin cytoskeletal dynamics. Here, we demonstrate that an N-terminal fragment of PTP-PEST, generated through an ephrinA5-triggered and spatially confined cleavage mediated by caspase-3, attenuates EphA3 receptor activation and its internalisation. Isolation of EphA3 receptor signalling clusters within intact plasma membrane fragments obtained by detergent-free cell fractionation reveals that stimulation of cells with ephrin triggers effective recruitment of this catalytically active truncated form of PTP-PEST together with key cytoskeletal and focal adhesion proteins. Importantly, modulation of actin polymerisation using pharmacological and dominant-negative approaches affects EphA3 phosphorylation in a similar manner to overexpression of PTP-PEST. We conclude that PTP-PEST regulates EphA3 activation both by affecting cytoskeletal remodelling and through its direct action as a PTP controlling EphA3 phosphorylation, indicating its multifaceted regulation of Eph signalling. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. Hierarchical Distribution of the Tau Cytoskeletal Pathology in the Thalamus of Alzheimer's Disease Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüb, Udo; Stratmann, Katharina; Heinsen, Helmut; Del Turco, Domenico; Ghebremedhin, Estifanos; Seidel, Kay; den Dunnen, Wilfred; Korf, Horst-Werner

    2016-01-01

    In spite of considerable progress in neuropathological research on Alzheimer's disease (AD), knowledge regarding the exact pathoanatomical distribution of the tau cytoskeletal pathology in the thalamus of AD patients in the advanced Braak and Braak AD stages V or VI of the cortical cytoskeletal pathology is still fragmentary. Investigation of serial 100 μm-thick brain tissue sections through the thalamus of clinically diagnosed AD patients with Braak and Braak AD stage V or VI cytoskeletal pathologies immunostained with the anti-tau AT8 antibody, along with the affection of the extraterritorial reticular nucleus of the thalamus, reveals a consistent and severe tau immunoreactive cytoskeletal pathology in the limbic nuclei of the thalamus (e.g., paraventricular, anterodorsal and laterodorsal nuclei, limitans-suprageniculate complex). The thalamic nuclei integrated into the associative networks of the human brain (e.g., ventral anterior and mediodorsal nuclei) are only mildly affected, while its motor precerebellar (ventral lateral nucleus) and sensory nuclei (e.g., lateral and medial geniculate bodies, ventral posterior medial and lateral nuclei, parvocellular part of the ventral posterior medial nucleus) are more or less spared. The highly stereotypical and characteristic thalamic distribution pattern of the AD-related tau cytoskeletal pathology represents an anatomical mirror of the hierarchical topographic distribution of the cytoskeletal pathology in the interconnected regions of the cerebral cortex of AD patients. These pathoanatomical parallels support the pathophysiological concept of a transneuronal spread of the disease process of AD along anatomical pathways. The AD-related tau cytoskeletal pathology in the thalamus most likely contributes substantially to the neuropsychiatric disease symptoms (e.g., dementia), attention deficits, oculomotor dysfunctions, altered non-discriminative aspects of pain experience of AD patients, and the disruption of their

  14. Evaluation of the neuronal apoptotic pathways involved in cytoskeletal disruption-induced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordà, Elvira G; Verdaguer, Ester; Jimenez, Andrés; Arriba, S Garcia de; Allgaier, Clemens; Pallàs, Mercè; Camins, Antoni

    2005-08-01

    The cytoskeleton is critical to neuronal functioning and survival. Cytoskeletal alterations are involved in several neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. We studied the possible pathways involved in colchicine-induced apoptosis in cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs). Although colchicine evoked an increase in caspase-3, caspase-6 and caspase-9 activation, selective caspase inhibitors did not attenuate apoptosis. Inhibitors of other cysteine proteases such as PD150606 (a calpain-specific inhibitor), Z-Phe-Ala fluoromethyl ketone (a cathepsins-inhibitors) and N(alpha)-p-tosyl-l-lysine chloromethyl ketone (serine-proteases inhibitor) also had no effect on cell death/apoptosis induced by colchicine. However, BAPTA-AM 10 microM (intracellular calcium chelator) prevented apoptosis mediated by cytoskeletal alteration. These data indicate that calcium modulates colchicine-induced apoptosis in CGNs. PARP-1 inhibitors did not prevent apoptosis mediated by colchicine. Finally, colchicine-induced apoptosis in CGNs was attenuated by kenpaullone, a cdk5 inhibitor. Kenpaullone and indirubin also prevented cdk5/p25 activation mediated by colchicine. These findings indicate that cytoskeletal alteration can compromise cdk5 activation, regulating p25 formation and suggest that cdk5 inhibitors attenuate apoptosis mediated by cytoskeletal alteration. The present data indicate the potential therapeutic value of drugs that prevent the formation of p25 for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders.

  15. Cytoskeletal Tropomyosin Tm5NM1 Is Required for Normal Excitation–Contraction Coupling in Skeletal Muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Vlahovich, Nicole; Kee, Anthony J.; Van der Poel, Chris; Kettle, Emma; Hernandez-Deviez, Delia; Lucas, Christine; Lynch, Gordon S.; Parton, Robert G.; Gunning, Peter W.; Hardeman, Edna C.

    2009-01-01

    The functional diversity of the actin microfilaments relies in part on the actin binding protein tropomyosin (Tm). The muscle-specific Tms regulate actin-myosin interactions and hence contraction. However, there is less known about the roles of the numerous cytoskeletal isoforms. We have shown previously that a cytoskeletal Tm, Tm5NM1, defines a Z-line adjacent cytoskeleton in skeletal muscle. Recently, we identified a second cytoskeletal Tm in this region, Tm4. Here we show that Tm4 and Tm5N...

  16. Combining two major ATLAS inner detector components

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    The semiconductor tracker is inserted into the transition radiation tracker for the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. These make up two of the three major components of the inner detector. They will work together to measure the trajectories produced in the proton-proton collisions at the centre of the detector when the LHC is switched on in 2008.

  17. Detection of cytoskeletal proteins in small cell lung carcinoma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hložánková, M.; Lukáš, Z.; Viklický, Vladimír

    1999-01-01

    Roč. 18, - (1999), s. 47-49 ISSN 0231-5882 Grant - others:MŠk1(CZ) OE10a/EU1450 Keywords : cytoskeletal proteins * small cell lung carcinoma Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 0.400, year: 1999

  18. Residual life assessment of major LWR components: NPAR approach and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, V.N.; Weidenhamer, G.H.; Vora, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    The nuclear plant aging research (NPAR) program is systematically addressing the technical issues associated with understanding and managing aging of major LWR components. Twenty-one major components have been identified and prioritized according to their relevance to plant safety. Qualitative aging assessment has identified pertinent design features, materials, stressors, environments, aging mechanisms. and failure modes for each of the components. Emerging inspection, surveillance, and monitoring methods to characterize aging damage and mitigation methods to reduce the damage are currently being assessed. The results of all these assessments are used to develop life-assessment procedures for the components and are included in appropriate documents supporting the regulatory requirements for license renewal. (author)

  19. Nuclear shape changes are induced by knockdown of the SWI/SNF ATPase BRG1 and are independent of cytoskeletal connections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen M Imbalzano

    Full Text Available Changes in nuclear morphology occur during normal development and have been observed during the progression of several diseases. The shape of a nucleus is governed by the balance of forces exerted by nuclear-cytoskeletal contacts and internal forces created by the structure of the chromatin and nuclear envelope. However, factors that regulate the balance of these forces and determine nuclear shape are poorly understood. The SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling enzyme ATPase, BRG1, has been shown to contribute to the regulation of overall cell size and shape. Here we document that immortalized mammary epithelial cells show BRG1-dependent nuclear shape changes. Specifically, knockdown of BRG1 induced grooves in the nuclear periphery that could be documented by cytological and ultrastructural methods. To test the hypothesis that the observed changes in nuclear morphology resulted from altered tension exerted by the cytoskeleton, we disrupted the major cytoskeletal networks and quantified the frequency of BRG1-dependent changes in nuclear morphology. The results demonstrated that disruption of cytoskeletal networks did not change the frequency of BRG1-induced nuclear shape changes. These findings suggest that BRG1 mediates control of nuclear shape by internal nuclear mechanisms that likely control chromatin dynamics.

  20. Aging assessment and mitigation for major LWR [light water reactor] components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Y.N.; Ware, A.G.; Conley, D.A.; MacDonald, P.E.; Burns, J.J. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    This paper summarizes some of the results of the Aging Assessment and Mitigation Project sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC), Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. The objective of the project is to develop an understanding of the aging degradation of the major light water reactor (LWR) structures and components and to develop methods for predicting the useful life of these components so that the impact of aging on the safe operation of nuclear power plants can be evaluated and addressed. The research effort consists of integrating, evaluating, and updating the available aging-related information. This paper discusses current accomplishments and summarizes the significant degradation processes active in two major components: pressurized water reactor pressurizer surge and spray lines and nozzles, and light water reactor primary coolant pumps. This paper also evaluates the effectiveness of the current inservice inspection programs and presents conclusions and recommendations related to aging of these two major components. 37 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  1. Ultrafine particles cause cytoskeletal dysfunctions in macrophages: role of intracellular calcium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown David M

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Particulate air pollution is reported to cause adverse health effects in susceptible individuals. Since most of these particles are derived form combustion processes, the primary composition product is carbon with a very small diameter (ultrafine, less than 100 nm in diameter. Besides the induction of reactive oxygen species and inflammation, ultrafine particles (UFP can cause intracellular calcium transients and suppression of defense mechanisms of alveolar macrophages, such as impaired migration or phagocytosis. Methods In this study the role of intracellular calcium transients caused by UFP was studied on cytoskeleton related functions in J774A.1 macrophages. Different types of fine and ultrafine carbon black particles (CB and ufCB, respectively, such as elemental carbon (EC90, commercial carbon (Printex 90, diesel particulate matter (DEP and urban dust (UD, were investigated. Phagosome transport mechanisms and mechanical cytoskeletal integrity were studied by cytomagnetometry and cell viability was studied by fluorescence microscopy. Macrophages were exposed in vitro with 100 and 320 μg UFP/ml/million cells for 4 hours in serum free medium. Calcium antagonists Verapamil, BAPTA-AM and W-7 were used to block calcium channels in the membrane, to chelate intracellular calcium or to inhibit the calmodulin signaling pathways, respectively. Results Impaired phagosome transport and increased cytoskeletal stiffness occurred at EC90 and P90 concentrations of 100 μg/ml/million cells and above, but not with DEP or UD. Verapamil and W-7, but not BAPTA-AM inhibited the cytoskeletal dysfunctions caused by EC90 or P90. Additionally the presence of 5% serum or 1% bovine serum albumin (BSA suppressed the cytoskeletal dysfunctions. Cell viability showed similar results, where co-culture of ufCB together with Verapamil, W-7, FCS or BSA produced less cell dead compared to the particles only.

  2. Visualization of cytoskeletal elements by the atomic force microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berdyyeva, T.; Woodworth, C.D.; Sokolov, I.

    2005-01-01

    We describe a novel application of atomic force microscopy (AFM) to directly visualize cytoskeletal fibers in human foreskin epithelial cells. The nonionic detergent Triton X-100 in a low concentration was used to remove the membrane, soluble proteins, and organelles from the cell. The remaining cytoskeleton can then be directly visualized in either liquid or air-dried ambient conditions. These two types of scanning provide complimentary information. Scanning in liquid visualizes the surface filaments of the cytoskeleton, whereas scanning in air shows both the surface filaments and the total 'volume' of the cytoskeletal fibers. The smallest fibers observed were ca. 50 nm in diameter. The lateral resolution of this technique was ca.20 nm, which can be increased to a single nanometer level by choosing sharper AFM tips. Because the AFM is a true 3D technique, we are able to quantify the observed cytoskeleton by its density and volume. The types of fibers can be identified by their size, similar to electron microscopy

  3. Cooperation of the BTB-Zinc finger protein, Abrupt, with cytoskeletal regulators in Drosophila epithelial tumorigenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nezaket Turkel

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The deregulation of cell polarity or cytoskeletal regulators is a common occurrence in human epithelial cancers. Moreover, there is accumulating evidence in human epithelial cancer that BTB-ZF genes, such as Bcl6 and ZBTB7A, are oncogenic. From our previous studies in the vinegar fly, Drosophila melanogaster, we have identified a cooperative interaction between a mutation in the apico-basal cell polarity regulator Scribble (Scrib and overexpression of the BTB-ZF protein Abrupt (Ab. Herein, we show that co-expression of ab with actin cytoskeletal regulators, RhoGEF2 or Src64B, in the developing eye-antennal epithelial tissue results in the formation of overgrown amorphous tumours, whereas ab and DRac1 co-expression leads to non-cell autonomous overgrowth. Together with ab, these genes affect the expression of differentiation genes, resulting in tumours locked in a progenitor cell fate. Finally, we show that the expression of two mammalian genes related to ab, Bcl6 and ZBTB7A, which are oncogenes in mammalian epithelial cancers, significantly correlate with the upregulation of cytoskeletal genes or downregulation of apico-basal cell polarity neoplastic tumour suppressor genes in colorectal, lung and other human epithelial cancers. Altogether, this analysis has revealed that upregulation of cytoskeletal regulators cooperate with Abrupt in Drosophila epithelial tumorigenesis, and that high expression of human BTB-ZF genes, Bcl6 and ZBTB7A, shows significant correlations with cytoskeletal and cell polarity gene expression in specific epithelial tumour types. This highlights the need for further investigation of the cooperation between these genes in mammalian systems.

  4. Cytoskeletal Regulation Dominates Temperature-Sensitive Proteomic Changes of Hibernation in Forebrain of 13-Lined Ground Squirrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, Allyson G.; Martin, Sandra L.

    2013-01-01

    13-lined ground squirrels, Ictidomys tridecemlineatus, are obligate hibernators that transition annually between summer homeothermy and winter heterothermy – wherein they exploit episodic torpor bouts. Despite cerebral ischemia during torpor and rapid reperfusion during arousal, hibernator brains resist damage and the animals emerge neurologically intact each spring. We hypothesized that protein changes in the brain underlie winter neuroprotection. To identify candidate proteins, we applied a sensitive 2D gel electrophoresis method to quantify protein differences among forebrain extracts prepared from ground squirrels in two summer, four winter and fall transition states. Proteins that differed among groups were identified using LC-MS/MS. Only 84 protein spots varied significantly among the defined states of hibernation. Protein changes in the forebrain proteome fell largely into two reciprocal patterns with a strong body temperature dependence. The importance of body temperature was tested in animals from the fall; these fall animals use torpor sporadically with body temperatures mirroring ambient temperatures between 4 and 21°C as they navigate the transition between summer homeothermy and winter heterothermy. Unlike cold-torpid fall ground squirrels, warm-torpid individuals strongly resembled the homeotherms, indicating that the changes observed in torpid hibernators are defined by body temperature, not torpor per se. Metabolic enzymes were largely unchanged despite varied metabolic activity across annual and torpor-arousal cycles. Instead, the majority of the observed changes were cytoskeletal proteins and their regulators. While cytoskeletal structural proteins tended to differ seasonally, i.e., between summer homeothermy and winter heterothermy, their regulatory proteins were more strongly affected by body temperature. Changes in the abundance of various isoforms of the microtubule assembly and disassembly regulatory proteins dihydropyrimidinase

  5. Cytoskeletal regulation dominates temperature-sensitive proteomic changes of hibernation in forebrain of 13-lined ground squirrels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allyson G Hindle

    Full Text Available 13-lined ground squirrels, Ictidomys tridecemlineatus, are obligate hibernators that transition annually between summer homeothermy and winter heterothermy - wherein they exploit episodic torpor bouts. Despite cerebral ischemia during torpor and rapid reperfusion during arousal, hibernator brains resist damage and the animals emerge neurologically intact each spring. We hypothesized that protein changes in the brain underlie winter neuroprotection. To identify candidate proteins, we applied a sensitive 2D gel electrophoresis method to quantify protein differences among forebrain extracts prepared from ground squirrels in two summer, four winter and fall transition states. Proteins that differed among groups were identified using LC-MS/MS. Only 84 protein spots varied significantly among the defined states of hibernation. Protein changes in the forebrain proteome fell largely into two reciprocal patterns with a strong body temperature dependence. The importance of body temperature was tested in animals from the fall; these fall animals use torpor sporadically with body temperatures mirroring ambient temperatures between 4 and 21°C as they navigate the transition between summer homeothermy and winter heterothermy. Unlike cold-torpid fall ground squirrels, warm-torpid individuals strongly resembled the homeotherms, indicating that the changes observed in torpid hibernators are defined by body temperature, not torpor per se. Metabolic enzymes were largely unchanged despite varied metabolic activity across annual and torpor-arousal cycles. Instead, the majority of the observed changes were cytoskeletal proteins and their regulators. While cytoskeletal structural proteins tended to differ seasonally, i.e., between summer homeothermy and winter heterothermy, their regulatory proteins were more strongly affected by body temperature. Changes in the abundance of various isoforms of the microtubule assembly and disassembly regulatory proteins

  6. Antibodies to cytoskeletal proteins as evidenced by immunofluorescence microscopy and radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zugehoer, M.; Struy, H.; Morenz, J.

    1987-01-01

    In patients suffering from chronic hepatitis, collagenosis and infectious mononucleosis, resp., as well as in blood donors antibodies against cytoskeletal antigens such as actin, myosin, actinin, desmin, keratin, and tubulin were determined by radioimmunoassay

  7. Antibodies to cytoskeletal proteins as evidenced by immunofluorescence microscopy and radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zugehoer, M; Struy, H; Morenz, J

    1987-01-01

    In patients suffering from chronic hepatitis, collagenosis and infectious mononucleosis, resp., as well as in blood donors antibodies against cytoskeletal antigens such as actin, myosin, actinin, desmin, keratin, and tubulin were determined by radioimmunoassay.

  8. 41 CFR 102-85.40 - What are the major components of the pricing policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... components of the pricing policy? 102-85.40 Section 102-85.40 Public Contracts and Property Management...-PRICING POLICY FOR OCCUPANCY IN GSA SPACE Pricing Policy-General § 102-85.40 What are the major components of the pricing policy? The major components of the pricing policy are: (a) An OA between a customer...

  9. Diversity of Histologic Patterns and Expression of Cytoskeletal Proteins in Canine Skeletal Osteosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamine, E; Hirayama, K; Matsuda, K; Okamoto, M; Ohmachi, T; Kadosawa, T; Taniyama, H

    2015-09-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS), the most common bone tumor, includes OS of the head (OSH) and appendicular OS (OSA). In dogs, it is classified into 6 histologic subtypes: osteoblastic, chondroblastic, fibroblastic, telangiectatic, giant cell, and poorly differentiated. This study investigated the significance of the histologic classification relevant to clinical outcome and the histologic and immunohistochemical relationships between pleomorphism and expression of cytoskeletal proteins in 60 cases each of OSH and OSA. Most neoplasms exhibited histologic diversity, and 64% of OS contained multiple subtypes. In addition to the above 6 subtypes, myxoid, round cell, and epithelioid subtypes were observed. Although the epithelioid subtypes were observed in only OSH, no significant difference in the frequency of other subtypes was observed. Also, no significant relevance was observed between the clinical outcome and histologic subtypes. Cytokeratin (CK) was expressed in both epithelioid and sarcomatoid tumor cells in various subtypes, and all CK-positive tumor cells also expressed vimentin. Vimentin and α-smooth muscle actin (SMA) were expressed in all subtypes. A few SMA-positive spindle-shaped tumor cells exhibited desmin expression. Glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive tumor cells were observed in many subtypes, and some of these cells showed neurofilament expression. Although OSH exhibited significantly stronger immunoreactivity for SMA than OSA, no significant difference in other cytoskeletal proteins was observed. Some tumor cells had cytoskeletal protein expression compatible with the corresponding histologic subtypes, such as CK in the epithelioid subtype and SMA in the fibroblastic subtype. Thus, canine skeletal OS is composed of pleomorphic and heterogenous tumor cells as is reflected in the diversity of histologic patterns and expression of cytoskeletal proteins. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Acute fluoride poisoning alters myocardial cytoskeletal and AMPK signaling proteins in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panneerselvam, Lakshmikanthan; Raghunath, Azhwar; Perumal, Ekambaram

    2017-02-15

    Our previous findings revealed that increased oxidative stress, apoptosis and necrosis were implicated in acute fluoride (F - ) induced cardiac dysfunction apart from hypocalcemia and hyperkalemia. Cardiac intermediate filaments (desmin and vimentin) and cytoskeleton linker molecule vinculin plays an imperative role in maintaining the architecture of cardiac cytoskeleton. In addition, AMPK is a stress activated kinase that regulates the energy homeostasis during stressed state. The present study was aimed to examine the role of cytoskeletal proteins and AMPK signaling molecules in acute F - induced cardiotoxicity in rats. In order to study this, male Wistar rats were treated with single oral doses of 45 and 90mg/kgF - for 24h. Acute F - intoxicated rats showed declined cytoskeletal protein expression of desmin, vimentin and vinculin in a dose dependent manner compared to control. A significant increase in phosphorylation of AMPKα (Thr172), AMPKß1 (Ser108) and Acetyl-coA carboxylase (ACC) (Ser79) in the myocardium and associated ATP deprivation were found in acute F - intoxicated rats. Further, ultra-structural studies confirmed myofibril lysis with interruption of Z lines, dilated sarcoplasmic reticulum and damaged mitochondrion were observed in both the groups of F - intoxicated rats. Taken together, these findings reveal that acute F - exposure causes sudden heart failure by altering the expression of cytoskeletal proteins and AMPK signaling molecules. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Early cytoskeletal protein modifications precede overt structural degeneration in the DBA/2J mouse model of glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Nicole Wilson

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Axonal transport deficits precede structural loss in glaucoma and other neurodegenerations. Impairments in structural support, including modified cytoskeletal proteins and microtubule-destabilizing elements, could be initiating factors in glaucoma pathogenesis. We investigated the time course of changes in protein levels and post-translational modifications in the DBA/2J mouse model of glaucoma. Using anterograde tract tracing of the retinal projection, we assessed major cytoskeletal and transported elements as a function of transport integrity in different stages of pathological progression. Using capillary-based electrophoresis, single- and multiplex immunosorbent assays, and immunofluorescence, we quantified hyperphosphorylated neurofilament-heavy chain, phosphorylated tau (ptau, calpain-mediated spectrin breakdown product (145/150kDa, β –tubulin, and amyloid-β42 proteins based on age and transport outcome to the superior colliculus (SC, the main retinal target in mice. Phosphorylated neurofilament-heavy chain (pNF-H was elevated within the optic nerve (ON and SC of 8-10 month-old DBA/2J mice, but was not evident in the retina until 12-15 months, suggesting that cytoskeletal modifications first appear in the distal retinal projection. As expected, higher pNF-H levels in the SC and retina were correlated with axonal transport deficits. Elevations in hyperphosphorylated tau (ptau occurred in ON and SC between 3-8 month of age while retinal ptau accumulations occurred at 12-15 months in DBA/2J mice. In vitro co-immunoprecipitation experiments suggested increased affinity of ptau for the retrograde motor complex protein, dynactin. We observed a transport-related decrease of β-tubulin in ON of 10-12 month-old DBA/2J mice, suggesting destabilized microtubule array. Elevations in calpain-mediated spectrin breakdown product were seen in ON and SC at the earliest age examined, well before axonal transport loss is evident. Finally, transport

  12. Cytoskeletal Configuration Modulates Mechanically Induced Changes in Mesenchymal Stem Cell Osteogenesis, Morphology, and Stiffness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongkitwitoon, Suphannee; Uzer, Gunes; Rubin, Janet; Judex, Stefan

    2016-10-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) responding to mechanical cues generated by physical activity is critical for skeletal development and remodeling. Here, we utilized low intensity vibrations (LIV) as a physiologically relevant mechanical signal and hypothesized that the confined cytoskeletal configuration imposed by 2D culture will enable human bone marrow MSCs (hBMSC) to respond more robustly when LIV is applied in-plane (horizontal-LIV) rather than out-of-plane (vertical-LIV). All LIV signals enhanced hBMSC proliferation, osteogenic differentiation, and upregulated genes associated with cytoskeletal structure. The cellular response was more pronounced at higher frequencies (100 Hz vs 30 Hz) and when applied in the horizontal plane. Horizontal but not vertical LIV realigned the cell cytoskeleton, culminating in increased cell stiffness. Our results show that applying very small oscillatory motions within the primary cell attachment plane, rather than perpendicular to it, amplifies the cell’s response to LIV, ostensibly facilitating a more effective transfer of intracellular forces. Transcriptional and structural changes in particular with horizontal LIV, together with the strong frequency dependency of the signal, emphasize the importance of intracellular cytoskeletal configuration in sensing and responding to high-frequency mechanical signals at low intensities.

  13. A major protein component of the Bacillus subtilis biofilm matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branda, Steven S; Chu, Frances; Kearns, Daniel B; Losick, Richard; Kolter, Roberto

    2006-02-01

    Microbes construct structurally complex multicellular communities (biofilms) through production of an extracellular matrix. Here we present evidence from scanning electron microscopy showing that a wild strain of the Gram positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis builds such a matrix. Genetic, biochemical and cytological evidence indicates that the matrix is composed predominantly of a protein component, TasA, and an exopolysaccharide component. The absence of TasA or the exopolysaccharide resulted in a residual matrix, while the absence of both components led to complete failure to form complex multicellular communities. Extracellular complementation experiments revealed that a functional matrix can be assembled even when TasA and the exopolysaccharide are produced by different cells, reinforcing the view that the components contribute to matrix formation in an extracellular manner. Having defined the major components of the biofilm matrix and the control of their synthesis by the global regulator SinR, we present a working model for how B. subtilis switches between nomadic and sedentary lifestyles.

  14. Vacuolar and cytoskeletal dynamics during elicitor-induced programmed cell death in tobacco BY-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higaki, Takumi; Kadota, Yasuhiro; Goh, Tatsuaki; Hayashi, Teruyuki; Kutsuna, Natsumaro; Sano, Toshio; Hasezawa, Seiichiro; Kuchitsu, Kazuyuki

    2008-09-01

    Responses of plant cells to environmental stresses often involve morphological changes, differentiation and redistribution of various organelles and cytoskeletal network. Tobacco BY-2 cells provide excellent model system for in vivo imaging of these intracellular events. Treatment of the cell cycle-synchronized BY-2 cells with a proteinaceous oomycete elicitor, cryptogein, induces highly synchronous programmed cell death (PCD) and provide a model system to characterize vacuolar and cytoskeletal dynamics during the PCD. Sequential observation revealed dynamic reorganization of the vacuole and actin microfilaments during the execution of the PCD. We further characterized the effects cryptogein on mitotic microtubule organization in cell cycle-synchronized cells. Cryptogein treatment at S phase inhibited formation of the preprophase band, a cortical microtubule band that predicts the cell division site. Cortical microtubules kept their random orientation till their disruption that gradually occurred during the execution of the PCD twelve hours after the cryptogein treatment. Possible molecular mechanisms and physiological roles of the dynamic behavior of the organelles and cytoskeletal network in the pathogenic signal-induced PCD are discussed.

  15. VEGF-A, cytoskeletal dynamics, and the pathological vascular phenotype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, Janice A.; Senger, Donald R.

    2006-01-01

    Normal angiogenesis is a complex process involving the organization of proliferating and migrating endothelial cells (ECs) into a well-ordered and highly functional vascular network. In contrast, pathological angiogenesis, which is a conspicuous feature of tumor growth, ischemic diseases, and chronic inflammation, is characterized by vessels with aberrant angioarchitecture and compromised barrier function. Herein we review the subject of pathological angiogenesis, particularly that driven by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A), from a new perspective. We propose that the serious structural and functional anomalies associated with VEGF-A-elicited neovessels, reflect, at least in part, imbalances in the internal molecular cues that govern the ordered assembly of ECs into three dimensional vascular networks and preserve vessel barrier function. Adopting such a viewpoint widens the focus from solely on specific pro-angiogenic stimuli such as VEGF-A to include a key set of cytoskeletal regulatory molecules, the Rho GTPases, which are known to direct multiple aspects of vascular morphogenesis including EC motility, alignment, multi-cellular organization, as well as intercellular junction integrity. We offer this perspective to draw attention to the importance of endothelial cytoskeletal dynamics for proper neovascularization and to suggest new therapeutic strategies with the potential to improve the pathological vascular phenotype

  16. Vitreous-induced cytoskeletal rearrangements via the Rac1 GTPase-dependent signaling pathway in human retinal pigment epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Xionggao; Wei, Yantao; Ma, Haizhi; Zhang, Shaochong

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Vitreous induces morphological changes and cytoskeletal rearrangements in RPE cells. ► Rac1 is activated in vitreous-transformed RPE cells. ► Rac inhibition prevents morphological changes in vitreous-transformed RPE cells. ► Rac inhibition suppresses cytoskeletal rearrangements in vitreous-transformed RPE cells. ► The vitreous-induced effects are mediated by a Rac1 GTPase/LIMK1/cofilin pathway. -- Abstract: Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) is mainly caused by retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell migration, invasion, proliferation and transformation into fibroblast-like cells that produce the extracellular matrix (ECM). The vitreous humor is known to play an important role in PVR. An epithelial-to-mesenchymal transdifferentiation (EMT) of human RPE cells induced by 25% vitreous treatment has been linked to stimulation of the mesenchymal phenotype, migration and invasion. Here, we characterized the effects of the vitreous on the cell morphology and cytoskeleton in human RPE cells. The signaling pathway that mediates these effects was investigated. Serum-starved RPE cells were incubated with 25% vitreous, and the morphological changes were examined by phase-contrast microscopy. Filamentous actin (F-actin) was examined by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. Protein phosphorylation of AKT, ERK1/2, Smad2/3, LIM kinase (LIMK) 1 and cofilin was analyzed by Western blot analysis. Vitreous treatment induced cytoskeletal rearrangements, activated Rac1 and enhanced the phosphorylation of AKT, ERK1/2 and Smad2/3. When the cells were treated with a Rac activation-specific inhibitor, the cytoskeletal rearrangements were prevented, and the phosphorylation of Smad2/3 was blocked. Vitreous treatment also enhanced the phosphorylation of LIMK1 and cofilin and the Rac inhibitor blocked this effect. We propose that vitreous-transformed human RPE cells undergo cytoskeletal rearrangements via Rac1 GTPase-dependent pathways that modulate LIMK1 and

  17. Vitreous-induced cytoskeletal rearrangements via the Rac1 GTPase-dependent signaling pathway in human retinal pigment epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Xionggao [State Key Ophthalmic Laboratory, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Department of Ophthalmology, Hainan Medical College, Haikou (China); Wei, Yantao; Ma, Haizhi [State Key Ophthalmic Laboratory, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Zhang, Shaochong, E-mail: zhshaochong@163.com [State Key Ophthalmic Laboratory, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China)

    2012-03-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Vitreous induces morphological changes and cytoskeletal rearrangements in RPE cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rac1 is activated in vitreous-transformed RPE cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rac inhibition prevents morphological changes in vitreous-transformed RPE cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rac inhibition suppresses cytoskeletal rearrangements in vitreous-transformed RPE cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The vitreous-induced effects are mediated by a Rac1 GTPase/LIMK1/cofilin pathway. -- Abstract: Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) is mainly caused by retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell migration, invasion, proliferation and transformation into fibroblast-like cells that produce the extracellular matrix (ECM). The vitreous humor is known to play an important role in PVR. An epithelial-to-mesenchymal transdifferentiation (EMT) of human RPE cells induced by 25% vitreous treatment has been linked to stimulation of the mesenchymal phenotype, migration and invasion. Here, we characterized the effects of the vitreous on the cell morphology and cytoskeleton in human RPE cells. The signaling pathway that mediates these effects was investigated. Serum-starved RPE cells were incubated with 25% vitreous, and the morphological changes were examined by phase-contrast microscopy. Filamentous actin (F-actin) was examined by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. Protein phosphorylation of AKT, ERK1/2, Smad2/3, LIM kinase (LIMK) 1 and cofilin was analyzed by Western blot analysis. Vitreous treatment induced cytoskeletal rearrangements, activated Rac1 and enhanced the phosphorylation of AKT, ERK1/2 and Smad2/3. When the cells were treated with a Rac activation-specific inhibitor, the cytoskeletal rearrangements were prevented, and the phosphorylation of Smad2/3 was blocked. Vitreous treatment also enhanced the phosphorylation of LIMK1 and cofilin and the Rac inhibitor blocked this effect. We propose that vitreous

  18. p21-Activated kinase (PAK regulates cytoskeletal reorganization and directional migration in human neutrophils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asako Itakura

    Full Text Available Neutrophils serve as a first line of defense in innate immunity owing in part to their ability to rapidly migrate towards chemotactic factors derived from invading pathogens. As a migratory function, neutrophil chemotaxis is regulated by the Rho family of small GTPases. However, the mechanisms by which Rho GTPases orchestrate cytoskeletal dynamics in migrating neutrophils remain ill-defined. In this study, we characterized the role of p21-activated kinase (PAK downstream of Rho GTPases in cytoskeletal remodeling and chemotactic processes of human neutrophils. We found that PAK activation occurred upon stimulation of neutrophils with f-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP, and PAK accumulated at the actin-rich leading edge of stimulated neutrophils, suggesting a role for PAK in Rac-dependent actin remodeling. Treatment with the pharmacological PAK inhibitor, PF3758309, abrogated the integrity of RhoA-mediated actomyosin contractility and surface adhesion. Moreover, inhibition of PAK activity impaired neutrophil morphological polarization and directional migration under a gradient of fMLP, and was associated with dysregulated Ca(2+ signaling. These results suggest that PAK serves as an important effector of Rho-family GTPases in neutrophil cytoskeletal reorganization, and plays a key role in driving efficient directional migration of human neutrophils.

  19. Cytoskeletal Reorganization Drives Mesenchymal Condensation and Regulates Downstream Molecular Signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poulomi Ray

    Full Text Available Skeletal condensation occurs when specified mesenchyme cells self-organize over several days to form a distinctive cartilage template. Here, we determine how and when specified mesenchyme cells integrate mechanical and molecular information from their environment, forming cartilage condensations in the pharyngeal arches of chick embryos. By disrupting cytoskeletal reorganization, we demonstrate that dynamic cell shape changes drive condensation and modulate the response of the condensing cells to Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF, Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP and Transforming Growth Factor beta (TGF-β signaling pathways. Rho Kinase (ROCK-driven actomyosin contractions and Myosin II-generated differential cell cortex tension regulate these cell shape changes. Disruption of the condensation process inhibits the differentiation of the mesenchyme cells into chondrocytes, demonstrating that condensation regulates the fate of the mesenchyme cells. We also find that dorsal and ventral condensations undergo distinct cell shape changes. BMP signaling is instructive for dorsal condensation-specific cell shape changes. Moreover, condensations exhibit ventral characteristics in the absence of BMP signaling, suggesting that in the pharyngeal arches ventral morphology is the ground pattern. Overall, this study characterizes the interplay between cytoskeletal dynamics and molecular signaling in a self-organizing system during tissue morphogenesis.

  20. Cytoskeletal Tropomyosin Tm5NM1 Is Required for Normal Excitation–Contraction Coupling in Skeletal Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahovich, Nicole; Kee, Anthony J.; Van der Poel, Chris; Kettle, Emma; Hernandez-Deviez, Delia; Lucas, Christine; Lynch, Gordon S.; Parton, Robert G.; Gunning, Peter W.

    2009-01-01

    The functional diversity of the actin microfilaments relies in part on the actin binding protein tropomyosin (Tm). The muscle-specific Tms regulate actin-myosin interactions and hence contraction. However, there is less known about the roles of the numerous cytoskeletal isoforms. We have shown previously that a cytoskeletal Tm, Tm5NM1, defines a Z-line adjacent cytoskeleton in skeletal muscle. Recently, we identified a second cytoskeletal Tm in this region, Tm4. Here we show that Tm4 and Tm5NM1 define separate actin filaments; the former associated with the terminal sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) and other tubulovesicular structures. In skeletal muscles of Tm5NM1 knockout (KO) mice, Tm4 localization was unchanged, demonstrating the specificity of the membrane association. Tm5NM1 KO muscles exhibit potentiation of T-system depolarization and decreased force rundown with repeated T-tubule depolarizations consistent with altered T-tubule function. These results indicate that a Tm5NM1-defined actin cytoskeleton is required for the normal excitation–contraction coupling in skeletal muscle. PMID:19005216

  1. Cytoskeletal tropomyosin Tm5NM1 is required for normal excitation-contraction coupling in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahovich, Nicole; Kee, Anthony J; Van der Poel, Chris; Kettle, Emma; Hernandez-Deviez, Delia; Lucas, Christine; Lynch, Gordon S; Parton, Robert G; Gunning, Peter W; Hardeman, Edna C

    2009-01-01

    The functional diversity of the actin microfilaments relies in part on the actin binding protein tropomyosin (Tm). The muscle-specific Tms regulate actin-myosin interactions and hence contraction. However, there is less known about the roles of the numerous cytoskeletal isoforms. We have shown previously that a cytoskeletal Tm, Tm5NM1, defines a Z-line adjacent cytoskeleton in skeletal muscle. Recently, we identified a second cytoskeletal Tm in this region, Tm4. Here we show that Tm4 and Tm5NM1 define separate actin filaments; the former associated with the terminal sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) and other tubulovesicular structures. In skeletal muscles of Tm5NM1 knockout (KO) mice, Tm4 localization was unchanged, demonstrating the specificity of the membrane association. Tm5NM1 KO muscles exhibit potentiation of T-system depolarization and decreased force rundown with repeated T-tubule depolarizations consistent with altered T-tubule function. These results indicate that a Tm5NM1-defined actin cytoskeleton is required for the normal excitation-contraction coupling in skeletal muscle.

  2. Extracellular matrix component signaling in cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Multhaupt, Hinke A. B.; Leitinger, Birgit; Gullberg, Donald

    2016-01-01

    Cell responses to the extracellular matrix depend on specific signaling events. These are important from early development, through differentiation and tissue homeostasis, immune surveillance, and disease pathogenesis. Signaling not only regulates cell adhesion cytoskeletal organization and motil...... as well as matrix constitution and protein crosslinking. Here we summarize roles of the three major matrix receptor types, with emphasis on how they function in tumor progression. [on SciFinder(R)]...

  3. Aging and life extension of major light water reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, V.N.; MacDonald, P.E.

    1993-01-01

    An understanding of the aging degradation of the major pressurized and boiling water reactor structures and components is given. The design and fabrication of each structure or component is briefly described followed by information on the associated stressors. Interactions between the design, materials and various stressors that cause aging degradation are reviewed. In many cases, aging degradation problems have occurred, and the plant experience to date is analyzed. The discussion summarize the available aging-related information and are supported with extensive references, including references to US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) documents, Electric Power Research Institute reports, US and international conference proceedings and other publications

  4. Cadmium-induced glutathionylation of actin occurs through a ROS-independent mechanism: Implications for cytoskeletal integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choong, Grace; Liu, Ying; Xiao, Weiqun; Templeton, Douglas M., E-mail: doug.templeton@utoronto.ca

    2013-10-15

    Cadmium disrupts the actin cytoskeleton in rat mesangial cells, and we have previously shown that this involves a complex interplay involving activation of kinase signaling, protein translocation, and disruption of focal adhesions. Here we investigate the role that glutathionylation of actin plays in Cd{sup 2+}-associated cytoskeletal reorganization. Low concentrations of Cd{sup 2+} (0.5–2 μM) caused an increase in actin glutathionylation by 6 h, whereas at higher concentrations glutathionylation remained at basal levels. Although oxidation with diamide increased glutathionylation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) were not involved in the Cd{sup 2+}-dependent effect, as only Cd{sup 2+} concentrations above 2 μM were sufficient to increase ROS. However, low [Cd{sup 2+}] increased total glutathione levels without affecting the ratio of reduced/oxidized glutathione, and inhibition of glutathione synthesis suppressed actin glutathionylation. Cadmium increased the activity of the enzyme glutaredoxin, which influences the equilibrium between glutathionylated and deglutathionylated proteins and thus may influence levels of glutathionylated actin. Together these observations show that cadmium-dependent effects on actin glutathionylation are affected by glutathione metabolism and not by direct effects of ROS on thiol chemistry. In vitro polymerization assays with glutathionylated actin show a decreased rate of polymerization. In contrast, immunofluorescence of cytoskeletal structure in intact cells suggests that increases in actin glutathionylation accompanying increased glutathione levels occurring under low Cd{sup 2+} exposure are protective in vivo, with cytoskeletal disruption ensuing only when higher Cd{sup 2+} concentrations increase ROS levels and prevent an increase in actin–glutathione conjugates. - Highlights: • Cadmium disrupts the actin cytoskeleton in mesangial cells. • Cadmium induces glutathionylation of actin at low concentrations.

  5. Cadmium-induced glutathionylation of actin occurs through a ROS-independent mechanism: Implications for cytoskeletal integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choong, Grace; Liu, Ying; Xiao, Weiqun; Templeton, Douglas M.

    2013-01-01

    Cadmium disrupts the actin cytoskeleton in rat mesangial cells, and we have previously shown that this involves a complex interplay involving activation of kinase signaling, protein translocation, and disruption of focal adhesions. Here we investigate the role that glutathionylation of actin plays in Cd 2+ -associated cytoskeletal reorganization. Low concentrations of Cd 2+ (0.5–2 μM) caused an increase in actin glutathionylation by 6 h, whereas at higher concentrations glutathionylation remained at basal levels. Although oxidation with diamide increased glutathionylation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) were not involved in the Cd 2+ -dependent effect, as only Cd 2+ concentrations above 2 μM were sufficient to increase ROS. However, low [Cd 2+ ] increased total glutathione levels without affecting the ratio of reduced/oxidized glutathione, and inhibition of glutathione synthesis suppressed actin glutathionylation. Cadmium increased the activity of the enzyme glutaredoxin, which influences the equilibrium between glutathionylated and deglutathionylated proteins and thus may influence levels of glutathionylated actin. Together these observations show that cadmium-dependent effects on actin glutathionylation are affected by glutathione metabolism and not by direct effects of ROS on thiol chemistry. In vitro polymerization assays with glutathionylated actin show a decreased rate of polymerization. In contrast, immunofluorescence of cytoskeletal structure in intact cells suggests that increases in actin glutathionylation accompanying increased glutathione levels occurring under low Cd 2+ exposure are protective in vivo, with cytoskeletal disruption ensuing only when higher Cd 2+ concentrations increase ROS levels and prevent an increase in actin–glutathione conjugates. - Highlights: • Cadmium disrupts the actin cytoskeleton in mesangial cells. • Cadmium induces glutathionylation of actin at low concentrations. • Glutathionylation requires glutathione

  6. The Ovary of Tubifex tubifex (Clitellata, Naididae, Tubificinae Is Composed of One, Huge Germ-Line Cyst that Is Enriched with Cytoskeletal Components.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Z Urbisz

    Full Text Available Recent studies on the ovary organization and oogenesis in Tubificinae have revealed that their ovaries are small polarized structures that are composed of germ cells in subsequent stages of oogenesis that are associated with somatic cells. In syncytial cysts, as a rule, each germ cell is connected to the central cytoplasmic mass, the cytophore, via only one stable intercellular bridge (ring canal. In this paper we present detailed data about the composition of germ-line cysts in Tubifex tubifex with special emphasis on the occurrence and distribution of the cytoskeletal elements. Using fixed material and live cell imaging techniques, we found that the entire ovary of T. tubifex is composed of only one, huge multicellular germ-line cyst, which may contain up to 2,600 cells. Its architecture is broadly similar to the cysts that are found in other clitellate annelids, i.e. a common, anuclear cytoplasmic mass in the center of the cyst and germ cells that are connected to it via intercellular bridges. The cytophore in the T. tubifex cyst extends along the long axis of the ovary in the form of elongated and branched cytoplasmic strands. Rhodamine-coupled phalloidin staining revealed that the prominent strands of actin filaments occur inside the cytophore. Similar to the cytophore, F-actin strands are branched and they are especially well developed in the middle and outermost parts of the ovary. Microfilaments are also present in the ring canals that connect the germ cells with the cytophore in the narrow end of the ovary. Using TubulinTracker, we found that the microtubules form a prominent network of loosely and evenly distributed tubules inside the cytophore as well as in every germ cell. The well-developed cytoskeletal elements in T. tubifex ovary seem to ensure the integrity of such a huge germ-line cyst of complex (germ cells-ring canals-cytophore organization. A comparison between the cysts that are described here and other well-known female

  7. The phosphorylation status and cytoskeletal remodeling of striatal astrocytes treated with quinolinic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierozan, Paula; Ferreira, Fernanda; Ortiz de Lima, Bárbara; Gonçalves Fernandes, Carolina; Totarelli Monteforte, Priscila; Castro Medaglia, Natalia de; Bincoletto, Claudia; Soubhi Smaili, Soraya; Pessoa-Pureur, Regina

    2014-01-01

    Quinolinic acid (QUIN) is a glutamate agonist which markedly enhances the vulnerability of neural cells to excitotoxicity. QUIN is produced from the amino acid tryptophan through the kynurenine pathway (KP). Dysregulation of this pathway is associated with neurodegenerative conditions. In this study we treated striatal astrocytes in culture with QUIN and assayed the endogenous phosphorylating system associated with glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and vimentin as well as cytoskeletal remodeling. After 24 h incubation with 100 µM QUIN, cells were exposed to 32 P-orthophosphate and/or protein kinase A (PKA), protein kinase dependent of Ca 2+ /calmodulin II (PKCaMII) or protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors, H89 (20 μM), KN93 (10 μM) and staurosporin (10 nM), respectively. Results showed that hyperphosphorylation was abrogated by PKA and PKC inhibitors but not by the PKCaMII inhibitor. The specific antagonists to ionotropic NMDA and non-NMDA (50 µM DL-AP5 and CNQX, respectively) glutamate receptors as well as to metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGLUR; 50 µM MCPG), mGLUR1 (100 µM MPEP) and mGLUR5 (10 µM 4C3HPG) prevented the hyperphosphorylation provoked by QUIN. Also, intra and extracellular Ca 2+ quelators (1 mM EGTA; 10 µM BAPTA-AM, respectively) prevented QUIN-mediated effect, while Ca 2+ influx through voltage-dependent Ca 2+ channel type L (L-VDCC) (blocker: 10 µM verapamil) is not implicated in this effect. Morphological analysis showed dramatically altered actin cytoskeleton with concomitant change of morphology to fusiform and/or flattened cells with retracted cytoplasm and disruption of the GFAP meshwork, supporting misregulation of actin cytoskeleton. Both hyperphosphorylation and cytoskeletal remodeling were reversed 24 h after QUIN removal. Astrocytes are highly plastic cells and the vulnerability of astrocyte cytoskeleton may have important implications for understanding the neurotoxicity of QUIN in neurodegenerative disorders. - Highlights:

  8. Effect of Rapid Chilling on Beef Quality and Cytoskeletal Protein Degradation in of Chinese Yellow Crossbred Bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanwei Mao

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of rapid chilling (RC on beef quality and the degradation of cytoskeletal proteins. Twenty Chinese Yellow crossbred bulls were selected and randomly divided into two groups. RC and conventional chilling (CC were applied to left and right sides of the carcasses respectively after slaughtering. To determine whether electrical stimulation (ES treatment can alleviate the potential hazard of RC on meat quality, ES was applied to one group. The effects of RC and ES were determined by meat color, shear force and cytoskeletal protein degradation postmortem (PM. The results showed that RC decreased beef tenderness at 1 d and 3 d postmortem, but had no detrimental effect on meat color. Western blotting showed that RC decreased the degradation rate of desmin and troponin-T, but the effects weakened gradually as postmortem aging extended. Degradation rates of both desmin and troponin-T were accelerated by ES. The combination of RC and ES could improve beef color, accelerate degradation rate of cytoskeletal protein and improve beef tenderness.

  9. Reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton via transcriptional regulation of cytoskeletal/focal adhesion genes by myocardin-related transcription factors (MRTFs/MAL/MKLs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Tsuyoshi; Mayanagi, Taira; Sobue, Kenji

    2007-01-01

    RhoA is a crucial regulator of stress fiber and focal adhesion formation through the activation of actin nucleation and polymerization. It also regulates the nuclear translocation of myocardin-related transcription factor-A and -B (MRTF-A/B, MAL or MKL 1/2), which are co-activators of serum response factor (SRF). In dominant-negative MRTF-A (DN-MRTF-A)-expressing NIH 3T3 cell lines, the expressions of several cytoskeletal/focal adhesion genes were down-regulated, and the formation of stress fiber and focal adhesion was severely diminished. MRTF-A/B-knockdown cells also exhibited such cytoskeletal defects. In reporter assays, both RhoA and MRTF-A enhanced promoter activities of these genes in a CArG-box-dependent manner, and DN-MRTF-A inhibited the RhoA-mediated activation of these promoters. In dominant-negative RhoA (RhoA-N19)-expressing NIH 3T3 cell lines, the nuclear translocation of MRTF-A/B was predominantly prevented, resulting in the reduced expression of cytoskeletal/focal adhesion proteins. Further, constitutive-active MRTF-A/B increased the expression of endogenous cytoskeletal/focal adhesion proteins, and thereby rescued the defective phenotype of stress fibers and focal adhesions in RhoA-N19 expressing cells. These results indicate that MRTF-A/B act as pivotal mediators of stress fiber and focal adhesion formation via the transcriptional regulation of a subset of cytoskeletal/focal adhesion genes

  10. Aging management of major light water reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, V.N.; Sinha, U.P.; Ware, A.G.

    1992-01-01

    Review of technical literature and field experience has identified stress corrosion cracking as one of the major degradation mechanisms for the major light water reactor components. Three of the stress corrosion cracking mechanisms of current concern are (a) primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) in pressurized water reactors, and (b) intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) and (c) irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) in boiling water reactors. Effective aging management of stress corrosion cracking mechanisms includes evaluation of interactions between design, materials, stressors, and environment; identification and ranking of susceptible sites; reliable inspection of any damage; assessment of damage rate; mitigation of damage; and repair and replacement using corrosion-resistant materials. Management of PWSCC includes use of lower operating temperatures, reduction in residual tensile stresses, development of reliable inspection techniques, and use of Alloy 690 as replacement material. Management of IGSCC of nozzle and attachment welds includes use of Alloy 82 as weld material, and potential use of hydrogen water chemistry. Management of IASCC also includes potential use of hydrogen water chemistry

  11. The autonomic higher order processing nuclei of the lower brain stem are among the early targets of the Alzheimer's disease-related cytoskeletal pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüb, U; Del Tredici, K; Schultz, C; Thal, D R; Braak, E; Braak, H

    2001-06-01

    The nuclei of the pontine parabrachial region (medial parabrachial nucleus, MPB; lateral parabrachial nucleus, LPB; subpeduncular nucleus, SPP) together with the intermediate zone of the medullary reticular formation (IRZ) are pivotal relay stations within central autonomic regulatory feedback systems. This study was undertaken to investigate the evolution of the Alzheimer's disease-related cytoskeletal pathology in these four sites of the lower brain stem. We examined the MPB, LPB, SPP and IRZ in 27 autopsy cases and classified the cortical Alzheimer-related cytoskeletal anomalies according to an established staging system (neurofibrillary tangle/neuropil threads [NFT/NT] stages I-VI). The lesions were visualized either with the antibody AT8, which is immunospecific for the abnormally phosphorylated form of the cytoskeletal protein tau, or with a modified Gallyas silver iodide stain. The MPB, SPB, and IRZ display cytoskeletal pathology in stage I and the LPB in stage II, whereby bothstages correspond to the preclinical phase of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In stages III-IV (incipient AD), the MPB and SPP are severely affected. In all of the stage III-IV cases, the lesions in the LPB and IRZ are well developed. In stages V and VI (clinical phase of AD), the MPB and SPP are filled with the abnormal intraneuronal material. At stages V-VI, the LPB is moderately involved and the IRZ shows severe damage. The pathogenesis of the AD-related cytoskeletal lesions in the nuclei of the pontine parabrachial region and in the IRZ conforms with the cortical NFT/NT staging sequence I-VI. In the event that the cytoskeletal pathology observed in this study impairs the function of the nerve cells involved, it is conceivable that autonomic mechanisms progressively deteriorate with advancing cortical NFT/NT stages. This relationship remains to be established, but it could provide insights into the illusive correlation between the AD-related cytoskeletal pathology and the function of

  12. Aging management of major LWR components with nondestructive evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, V.N.; MacDonald, P.E.; Akers, D.W.; Sellers, C.; Murty, K.L.; Miraglia, P.Q.; Mathew, M.D.; Haggag, F.M.

    1997-01-01

    Nondestructive evaluation of material damage can contribute to continued safe, reliable, and economical operation of nuclear power plants through their current and renewed license period. The aging mechanisms active in the major light water reactor components are radiation embrittlement, thermal aging, stress corrosion cracking, flow-accelerated corrosion, and fatigue, which reduce fracture toughness, structural strength, or fatigue resistance of the components and challenge structural integrity of the pressure boundary. This paper reviews four nondestructive evaluation methods with the potential for in situ assessment of damage caused by these mechanisms: stress-strain microprobe for determining mechanical properties of reactor pressure vessel and cast stainless materials, magnetic methods for estimating thermal aging damage in cast stainless steel, positron annihilation measurements for estimating early fatigue damage in reactor coolant system piping, and ultrasonic guided wave technique for detecting cracks and wall thinning in tubes and pipes and corrosion damage to embedded portion of metal containments

  13. Matrix effects in PIXE evaluation of the major components in thick homogeneous samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oystaeyen, B. van; Demortier, G.

    1983-01-01

    Matrix effects on the major component X-ray yields in PIXE measurements are studied in general terms with the Au-Cu-Ag matrix as practical example. Postulating firstly that all the major components may be simultaneously detected through one well-isolated peak for each of them, and secondly that a known reference material is available which contains all the elements of the unknown sample, we propose a direct method to extract the true concentrations of the latter taking into accout the matrix effects. The geometrical parameters describing the target location with respect to ion beam direction and detector position are also studied and a first attempt is made to include them in the data treatment. (orig.)

  14. The phosphorylation status and cytoskeletal remodeling of striatal astrocytes treated with quinolinic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierozan, Paula; Ferreira, Fernanda; Ortiz de Lima, Bárbara; Gonçalves Fernandes, Carolina [Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS 90035-003 (Brazil); Totarelli Monteforte, Priscila; Castro Medaglia, Natalia de; Bincoletto, Claudia; Soubhi Smaili, Soraya [Departamento de Farmacologia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Pessoa-Pureur, Regina, E-mail: rpureur@ufrgs.br [Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS 90035-003 (Brazil)

    2014-04-01

    Quinolinic acid (QUIN) is a glutamate agonist which markedly enhances the vulnerability of neural cells to excitotoxicity. QUIN is produced from the amino acid tryptophan through the kynurenine pathway (KP). Dysregulation of this pathway is associated with neurodegenerative conditions. In this study we treated striatal astrocytes in culture with QUIN and assayed the endogenous phosphorylating system associated with glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and vimentin as well as cytoskeletal remodeling. After 24 h incubation with 100 µM QUIN, cells were exposed to {sup 32}P-orthophosphate and/or protein kinase A (PKA), protein kinase dependent of Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin II (PKCaMII) or protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors, H89 (20 μM), KN93 (10 μM) and staurosporin (10 nM), respectively. Results showed that hyperphosphorylation was abrogated by PKA and PKC inhibitors but not by the PKCaMII inhibitor. The specific antagonists to ionotropic NMDA and non-NMDA (50 µM DL-AP5 and CNQX, respectively) glutamate receptors as well as to metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGLUR; 50 µM MCPG), mGLUR1 (100 µM MPEP) and mGLUR5 (10 µM 4C3HPG) prevented the hyperphosphorylation provoked by QUIN. Also, intra and extracellular Ca{sup 2+} quelators (1 mM EGTA; 10 µM BAPTA-AM, respectively) prevented QUIN-mediated effect, while Ca{sup 2+} influx through voltage-dependent Ca{sup 2+} channel type L (L-VDCC) (blocker: 10 µM verapamil) is not implicated in this effect. Morphological analysis showed dramatically altered actin cytoskeleton with concomitant change of morphology to fusiform and/or flattened cells with retracted cytoplasm and disruption of the GFAP meshwork, supporting misregulation of actin cytoskeleton. Both hyperphosphorylation and cytoskeletal remodeling were reversed 24 h after QUIN removal. Astrocytes are highly plastic cells and the vulnerability of astrocyte cytoskeleton may have important implications for understanding the neurotoxicity of QUIN in neurodegenerative

  15. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans lipopolysaccharide affects human gingival fibroblast cytoskeletal organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Venegas, Gloria; Contreras-Marmolejo, Luis Arturo; Román-Alvárez, Patricia; Barajas-Torres, Carolina

    2008-04-01

    The cytoskeleton is a dynamic structure that plays a key role in maintaining cell morphology and function. This study investigates the effect of bacterial wall lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a strong inflammatory agent, on the dynamics and organization of actin, tubulin, vimentin, and vinculin proteins in human gingival fibroblasts (HGF). A time-dependent study showed a noticeable change in actin architecture after 1.5 h of incubation with LPS (1 microg/ml) with the formation of orthogonal fibers and further accumulation of actin filament at the cell periphery by 24 h. When 0.01-10 microg/ml of LPS was added to human gingival fibroblast cultures, cells acquired a round, flat shape and gradually developed cytoplasmic ruffling. Lipopolysaccharides extracted from Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans periodontopathogenic bacteria promoted alterations in F-actin stress fibres of human gingival cells. Normally, human gingival cells have F-actin fibres that are organized in linear distribution throughout the cells, extending along the cell's length. LPS-treated cells exhibited changes in cytoskeletal protein organization, and F-actin was reorganized by the formation of bundles underneath and parallel to the cell membrane. We also found the reorganization of the vimentin network into vimentin bundling after 1.5 h of treatment. HGF cells exhibited diffuse and granular gamma-tubulin stain. There was no change in LPS-treated HGF. However, vinculin plaques distributed in the cell body diminished after LPS treatment. We conclude that the dynamic and structured organization of cytoskeletal filaments and actin assembly in human gingival fibroblasts is altered by LPS treatment and is accompanied by a decrease in F-actin pools.

  16. Cytoskeletal proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid as biomarker of multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeddu, Roberto; Farace, Cristiano; Tolu, Paola; Solinas, Giuliana; Asara, Yolande; Sotgiu, Maria Alessandra; Delogu, Lucia Gemma; Prados, Jose Carlos; Sotgiu, Stefano; Montella, Andrea

    2013-02-01

    The axonal cytoskeleton is a finely organized system, essential for maintaining the integrity of the axon. Axonal degeneration is implicated in the pathogenesis of unremitting disability of multiple sclerosis (MS). Purpose of this study is to evaluate levels of cytoskeletal proteins such as neurofilament light protein (NFL), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and β-tubulin (β-Tub) isoforms II and III in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of MS patients and their correlation with MS clinical indices. CSF levels of cytoskeletal proteins were determined in 51 patients: 33 with MS and 18 with other neurological diseases (OND). NFL, GFAP and β-Tub II proteins were significantly higher (p 0.05) was found between MS and OND with regard to β-Tub III. Interestingly, levels of β-Tub III and NFL were higher in progressive than in remitting MS forms; on the contrary, higher levels of β-Tub II and GFAP were found in remitting MS forms. However, with the exception of β-Tub III, all proteins tend to decrease their CSF levels concomitantly with the increasing disability (EDSS) score. Overall, our results might indicate β-Tub II as a potential candidate for diagnostic and β-Tub III as a possible prognostic biomarker of MS. Therefore, further analyses are legitimated and desirable.

  17. Chemical composition and antiprotozoal activities of Colombian Lippia spp essential oils and their major components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Escobar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition and biological activities of 19 essential oils and seven of their major components were tested against free and intracellular forms of Leishmania chagasi and Trypanosoma cruzi parasites as well as Vero and THP-1 mammalian cell lines. The essential oils were obtained from different species of Lippia, a widely distributed genus of Colombian plants. They were extracted by microwave radiation-assisted hydro-distillation and characterised by GC-FID and GC-MS. The major components were geranial, neral, limonene, nerol, carvacrol, p-cymene, γ-terpinene, carvone and thymol. The essential oil of Lippia alba exhibited the highest activity against T. cruzi epimastigotes and intracellular amastigotes with an IC50 of 5.5 μg/mL and 12.2 μg/mL, respectively. The essential oil of Lippia origanoides had an IC50 of 4.4 μg/mL in L. chagasi promastigotes and exhibited no toxicity in mammalian cells. Thymol (IC50 3.2 ± 0.4 μg/mL and S-carvone (IC50 6.1 ± 2.2 μg/mL, two of the major components of the active essential oils, were active on intracellular amastigotes of T. cruziinfected Vero cells, with a selective index greater than 10. None of the essential oils or major components tested in this study was active on amastigotes of L. chagasi infected THP-1 cells.

  18. Using Force to Probe Single-Molecule Receptor-Cytoskeletal Anchoring Beneath the Surface of a Living Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evans, Evan; Kinoshita, Koji

    2007-01-01

    -cytoskeletal unbinding increased exponentially with the level of force, suggesting disruption at a site of single-molecule interaction. Since many important enzymes and signaling molecules are closely associated with a membrane receptor-cytoskeletal linkage, pulling on a receptor could alter interactions among its......The ligation of cell surface receptors often communicates a signal that initiates a cytoplasmic chemical cascade to implement an important cell function. Less well understood is how physical stress applied to a cell surface adhesive bond propagates throughout the cytostructure to catalyze...... or trigger important steps in these chemical processes. Probing the nanoscale impact of pulling on cell surface bonds, we discovered that receptors frequently detach prematurely from the interior cytostructure prior to failure of the exterior adhesive bond [Evans, E., Heinrich, V., Leung, A., and Kinoshita...

  19. Role of cyclic nucleotide-dependent actin cytoskeletal dynamics:Ca(2+](i and force suppression in forskolin-pretreated porcine coronary arteries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle M Hocking

    Full Text Available Initiation of force generation during vascular smooth muscle contraction involves a rise in intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+]i and phosphorylation of myosin light chains (MLC. However, reversal of these two processes alone does not account for the force inhibition that occurs during relaxation or inhibition of contraction, implicating that other mechanisms, such as actin cytoskeletal rearrangement, play a role in the suppression of force. In this study, we hypothesize that forskolin-induced force suppression is dependent upon changes in actin cytoskeletal dynamics. To focus on the actin cytoskeletal changes, a physiological model was developed in which forskolin treatment of intact porcine coronary arteries (PCA prior to treatment with a contractile agonist resulted in complete suppression of force. Pretreatment of PCA with forskolin suppressed histamine-induced force generation but did not abolish [Ca(2+]i rise or MLC phosphorylation. Additionally, forskolin pretreatment reduced filamentous actin in histamine-treated tissues, and prevented histamine-induced changes in the phosphorylation of the actin-regulatory proteins HSP20, VASP, cofilin, and paxillin. Taken together, these results suggest that forskolin-induced complete force suppression is dependent upon the actin cytoskeletal regulation initiated by the phosphorylation changes of the actin regulatory proteins and not on the MLC dephosphorylation. This model of complete force suppression can be employed to further elucidate the mechanisms responsible for smooth muscle tone, and may offer cues to pathological situations, such as hypertension and vasospasm.

  20. Kynurenic Acid Prevents Cytoskeletal Disorganization Induced by Quinolinic Acid in Mixed Cultures of Rat Striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierozan, Paula; Biasibetti-Brendler, Helena; Schmitz, Felipe; Ferreira, Fernanda; Pessoa-Pureur, Regina; Wyse, Angela T S

    2018-06-01

    Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is a neuroactive metabolite of tryptophan known to modulate a number of mechanisms involved in neural dysfunction. Although its activity in the brain has been widely studied, the effect of KYNA counteracting the actions of quinolinic acid (QUIN) remains unknown. The present study aims at describing the ability of 100 μM KYNA preventing cytoskeletal disruption provoked by QUIN in astrocyte/neuron/microglia mixed culture. KYNA totally preserved cytoskeletal organization, cell morphology, and redox imbalance in mixed cultures exposed to QUIN. However, KYNA partially prevented morphological alteration in isolated primary astrocytes and failed to protect the morphological alterations of neurons caused by QUIN exposure. Moreover, KYNA prevented QUIN-induced microglial activation and upregulation of ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba-1) and partially preserved tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) level in mixed cultures. TNF-α level was also partially preserved in astrocytes. In addition to the mechanisms dependent on redox imbalance and microglial activation, KYNA prevented downregulation of connexin-43 and the loss of functionality of gap junctions (GJs), preserving cell-cell contact, cytoskeletal organization, and cell morphology in QUIN-treated cells. Furthermore, the toxicity of QUIN targeting the cytoskeleton of mixed cultures was not prevented by the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist MK-801. We suggest that KYNA protects the integrity of the cytoskeleton of mixed cultures by complex mechanisms including modulating microglial activation preventing oxidative imbalance and misregulated GJs leading to disrupted cytoskeleton in QUIN-treated cells. This study contributed to elucidate the molecular basis of KYNA protection against QUIN toxicity.

  1. Parathyroid hormone promotes the disassembly of cytoskeletal actin and myosin in cultured osteoblastic cells: Mediation by cyclic AMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egan, J.J.; Gronowicz, G.; Rodan, G.A.

    1991-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) alters the shape of osteoblastic cells both in vivo and in vitro. In this study, we examined the effect of PTH on cytoskeletal actin and myosin, estimated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of Triton X-100 (1%) nonextractable proteins. After 2-5 minutes, PTH caused a rapid and transient decrease of 50-60% in polymerized actin and myosin associated with the Triton X-100 nonextractable cytoskeleton. Polymerized actin returned to control levels by 30 min. The PTH effect was dose-dependent with an IC50 of about 1 nM, and was partially inhibited by the (3-34) PTH antagonist. PTH caused a rapid transient rise in cyclic AMP (cAMP) in these cells that peaked at 4 min, while the nadir in cytoskeletal actin and myosin was recorded around 5 min. The intracellular calcium chelator Quin-2/AM (10 microM) also decreased cytoskeletal actin and myosin, to the same extent as did PTH (100 nM). To distinguish between cAMP elevation and Ca++ reduction as mediators of PTH action, we measured the phosphorylation of the 20 kD (PI 4.9) myosin light chain in cells preincubated with [32P]-orthophosphate. The phosphorylation of this protein decreased within 2-3 min after PTH addition and returned to control levels after 5 min. The calcium ionophore A-23187 did not antagonize this PTH effect. Visualization of microfilaments with rhodamine-conjugated phalloidin showed that PTH altered the cytoskeleton by decreasing the number of stress fibers. These changes in the cytoskeleton paralleled changes in the shape of the cells from a spread configuration to a stellate form with retracting processes. The above findings indicate that the alteration in osteoblast shape produced by PTH involve relatively rapid and transient changes in cytoskeletal organization that appear to be mediated by cAMP

  2. Cytoskeletal proteins in the follicular wall of normal andcystic ovaries of sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano J.F. de Sant'Ana

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The expression of cytoskeletal proteins was evaluated immunohistochemically in 36 normal ovaries sampled from 18 sows and 44 cystic ovaries sampled from of 22 sows, was evaluated. All sows had history of reproductive problems, such as infertility or subfertility. The immunohistochemically stained area (IHCSA was quantified through image analysis to evaluate the expression of these proteins in the follicular wall of secondary, tertiary, and cystic follicles. Cytokeratins (CK immunoreactivity was strong in the granulosa cell layer (GC and mild in the theca interna (TI and externa (TE of the normal follicles. There was severe reduction of the reaction to CK in the GC in the cystic follicles, mainly in the luteinized cysts. The immunoreactivity for vimentin was higher in the GC from normal and cystic follicles in contrast with the other follicular structures. In the luteinized cysts, the IHCSA for vimentin was significantly higher in TI and in both observed cysts, the labeling was more accentuated in TE. Immunohistochemical detection of desmin and α-SMA was restricted to the TE, without differences between the normal and cystic follicles. The results of the current study show that the development of ovarian cysts in sows is associated to changes in the expression of the cytoskeletal proteins CK and vimentin.

  3. Reinforcement versus fluidization in cytoskeletal mechanoresponsiveness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramaswamy Krishnan

    Full Text Available Every adherent eukaryotic cell exerts appreciable traction forces upon its substrate. Moreover, every resident cell within the heart, great vessels, bladder, gut or lung routinely experiences large periodic stretches. As an acute response to such stretches the cytoskeleton can stiffen, increase traction forces and reinforce, as reported by some, or can soften and fluidize, as reported more recently by our laboratory, but in any given circumstance it remains unknown which response might prevail or why. Using a novel nanotechnology, we show here that in loading conditions expected in most physiological circumstances the localized reinforcement response fails to scale up to the level of homogeneous cell stretch; fluidization trumps reinforcement. Whereas the reinforcement response is known to be mediated by upstream mechanosensing and downstream signaling, results presented here show the fluidization response to be altogether novel: it is a direct physical effect of mechanical force acting upon a structural lattice that is soft and fragile. Cytoskeletal softness and fragility, we argue, is consistent with early evolutionary adaptations of the eukaryotic cell to material properties of a soft inert microenvironment.

  4. Differential Modulation of Transcription Factors and Cytoskeletal Proteins in Prostate Carcinoma Cells by a Bacterial Lactone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthil R. Kumar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study tested the effect of a bacterial lactone N-(3-oxododecanoyl-homoserine lactone (C12-HSL on the cytoskeletal and transcriptional genes and proteins in prostate adenocarcinoma (PA cells (DU145 and LNCaP and prostate small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (SCNC PC3 cells including their cellular viability and apoptosis. Our data indicate that cell migration and colony formation were affected in the presence of C12-HSL. C12-HSL induced apoptosis and altered viability of both PA and SCNC cells in a concentration dependent manner as measured by fluorescence and chemiluminescence assays. Compared to PCa cells, noncancerous prostate epithelial cells (RWPE1 were resistant to modification by C12-HSL. Further, the viability of PC3 cells in 3D matrix was suppressed by C12-HSL treatment as detected using calcein AM fluorescence in situ. C12-HSL treatment induced cytoskeletal associated protein expression of vinculin and RhoC, which may have implications in cancer cell motility, adhesion, and metastasis. IQGAP protein expression was reduced in DU145 and RWPE1 cells in the presence of C12-HSL. C12-HSL decreased STAT3 phosphorylation in DU145 cells but increased STAT1 protein phosphorylation in PC3 and LNCaP cells. Overall, these studies indicate that C12-HSL can trigger changes in transcription factors and cytoskeletal proteins and thereby modulate growth and migration properties of PCa cells.

  5. Cell elasticity with altered cytoskeletal architectures across multiple cell types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Martha E; Composto, Russell J; Eckmann, David M

    2016-08-01

    The cytoskeleton is primarily responsible for providing structural support, localization and transport of organelles, and intracellular trafficking. The structural support is supplied by actin filaments, microtubules, and intermediate filaments, which contribute to overall cell elasticity to varying degrees. We evaluate cell elasticity in five different cell types with drug-induced cytoskeletal derangements to probe how actin filaments and microtubules contribute to cell elasticity and whether it is conserved across cell type. Specifically, we measure elastic stiffness in primary chondrocytes, fibroblasts, endothelial cells (HUVEC), hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HUH-7), and fibrosarcoma cells (HT 1080) subjected to two cytoskeletal destabilizers: cytochalasin D and nocodazole, which disrupt actin and microtubule polymerization, respectively. Elastic stiffness is measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and the disruption of the cytoskeleton is confirmed using fluorescence microscopy. The two cancer cell lines showed significantly reduced elastic moduli values (~0.5kPa) when compared to the three healthy cell lines (~2kPa). Non-cancer cells whose actin filaments were disrupted using cytochalasin D showed a decrease of 60-80% in moduli values compared to untreated cells of the same origin, whereas the nocodazole-treated cells showed no change in elasticity. Overall, we demonstrate actin filaments contribute more to elastic stiffness than microtubules but this result is cell type dependent. Cancer cells behaved differently, exhibiting increased stiffness as well as stiffness variability when subjected to nocodazole. We show that disruption of microtubule dynamics affects cancer cell elasticity, suggesting therapeutic drugs targeting microtubules be monitored for significant elastic changes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Intracellular Transport of Cargo in a Sub-diffusive Environment over an Explicit Cytoskeletal Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maelfeyt, Bryan; Gopinathan, Ajay

    Intracellular transport occurs in nearly all eukaryotic cells, where materials such as proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids travel to target locations through phases of passive, diffusion-based transport and active, motor-driven transport along filaments that make up the cell's cytoskeleton.We develop a computational model of the process with explicit cytoskeletal filament networks. In the active transport phase, cargo moves in straight lines along these filaments that are spread throughout the cell. To model the passive transport phase of cargo in the cytoplasm, where anomalous sub-diffusion is thought to take place, we implement a continuous-time random walk. We use this approach to provide a stepping stone to a predictive model where we can determine transport properties over a cytoskeletal network provided by experimental images of real filaments. We illustrate our approach by modeling the transport of insulin out of the cell and determining the impact of network geometry, anomalous sub-diffusion and motor number on the first-passage time distributions for insulin granules reaching their target destinations on the membrane.

  7. Regulatory instrument review: Management of aging of LWR [light water reactor] major safety-related components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werry, E.V.

    1990-10-01

    This report comprises Volume 1 of a review of US nuclear plant regulatory instruments to determine the amount and kind of information they contain on managing the aging of safety-related components in US nuclear power plants. The review was conducted for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under the NRC Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program. Eight selected regulatory instruments, e.g., NRC Regulatory Guides and the Code of Federal Regulations, were reviewed for safety-related information on five selected components: reactor pressure vessels, steam generators, primary piping, pressurizers, and emergency diesel generators. Volume 2 will be concluded in FY 1991 and will also cover selected major safety-related components, e.g., pumps, valves and cables. The focus of the review was on 26 NPAR-defined safety-related aging issues, including examination, inspection, and maintenance and repair; excessive/harsh testing; and irradiation embrittlement. The major conclusion of the review is that safety-related regulatory instruments do provide implicit guidance for aging management, but include little explicit guidance. The major recommendation is that the instruments be revised or augmented to explicitly address the management of aging

  8. Progressive supranuclear palsy: neuronal and glial cytoskeletal pathology in the higher order processing autonomic nuclei of the lower brainstem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüb, U; Del Tredici, K; Schultz, C; de Vos, R A I; Jansen Steur, E N H; Arai, K; Braak, H

    2002-02-01

    The medial and lateral parabrachial nuclei (MPB, LPB), the gigantocellular reticular nucleus (GI), the raphes magnus (RMG) and raphes obscurus nuclei (ROB), as well as the intermediate reticular zone (IRZ) represent pivotal subordinate brainstem centres, all of which control autonomic functions. In this study, we investigated the occurrence and severity of the neuronal and glial cytoskeletal pathology in these six brainstem nuclei from 17 individuals with clinically diagnosed and neuropathologically confirmed progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). The association between the severity of the pathology and the duration of the disease was investigated by means of correlation analysis. The brainstem nuclei in all of the PSP cases were affected by the neuronal cytoskeletal pathology, with the IRZ and GI regularly showing severe involvement, the MPB, RMG, and ROB marked involvement, and the LPB mild involvement. In the six nuclear greys studied, glial cells undergo alterations of their cytoskeleton on an irregular basis, whereby diseased oligodendrocytes predominantly presented as coiled bodies and affected astrocytes as thorn-shaped astrocytes. In all six nuclei, the severity of the neuronal or glial cytoskeletal pathology showed no correlation with the duration of PSP. In view of their functional role, the neuronal pathology in the nuclei studied offers a possible explanation for the autonomic dysfunctions that eventually develop in the course of PSP.

  9. Assessment and management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety: Metal components of BWR containment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-10-01

    At present, there are over four hundred operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) in IAEA Member States. Operating experience has shown that ineffective control of the ageing degradation of the major NPP components (e.g. caused by unanticipated phenomena and by operating, maintenance or manufacturing errors) can jeopardize plant safety and also plant life. Ageing in these NPPs must therefore be effectively managed to ensure the availability of design functions throughout the plant service life. From the safety perspective, this means controlling within acceptable limits the ageing degradation and wear-out of plant components important to safety so that adequate safety margins remain, i.e. integrity and functional capability in excess of normal operating requirements. This TECDOC is one in a series of reports on the assessment and management of ageing of the major NPP components important to safety. The reports are based on experience and practices of NPP operators, regulators, designers, manufacturers, and technical support organizations and a widely accepted Methodology for the Management of Ageing of NPP Components Important to Safety, which was issued by the IAEA in 1992. The current practices for the assessment of safety margins (fitness for service) and the inspection, monitoring and mitigation of ageing degradation of selected components of Canada deuterium-uranium (CANDU) reactors, boiling water reactors (BWRs), pressurized water reactors (PWRs), and water moderated, water cooled energy reactors (WWERs) are documented in the reports. These practices are intended to help all involved directly and indirectly in ensuring the safe operation of NPPs, and to provide a common technical basis for dialogue between plant operators and regulators when dealing with age related licensing issues. The guidance reports are directed toward technical experts from NPPs and from regulatory, plant design, manufacturing and technical support organizations dealing with specific

  10. (R)-3-hydroxyhexan-2-one is a major pheromone component of Anelaphus inflaticollis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, A M; Swift, I P; Moreira, J A; Millar, J G; Hanks, L M

    2009-10-01

    We report the identification and field bioassays of a major component of the male-produced aggregation pheromone of Anelaphus inflaticollis Chemsak, an uncommon desert cerambycine beetle. Male A. inflaticollis produced a sex-specific blend of components that included (R)-3-hydroxyhexan-2-one, (S)-2-hydroxyhexan-3-one, 2,3-hexanedione, and (2R,3R)- and (2R,3S)-2,3-hexanediols. Field trials with baited bucket traps determined that the reconstructed synthetic pheromone blend and (R)-3-hydroxyhexan-2-one alone attracted adult A. inflaticollis of both sexes, with significantly more beetles being attracted to the blend. We conclude that (R)-3-hydroxyhexan-2-one is a major pheromone component of A. inflaticollis, and our results suggest that one or more of the minor components may further increase attraction of conspecifics. Scanning electron microscopy showed that male A. inflaticollis have pores on the prothorax that are consistent in structure with sex-specific pheromone gland pores in related species. Males also displayed stereotyped calling behavior similar to that observed in other cerambycine species. This study represents the first report of volatile pheromones for a cerambycine species in the tribe Elaphidiini.

  11. Fragility of foot process morphology in kidney podocytes arises from chaotic spatial propagation of cytoskeletal instability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele V Falkenberg

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Kidney podocytes' function depends on fingerlike projections (foot processes that interdigitate with those from neighboring cells to form the glomerular filtration barrier. The integrity of the barrier depends on spatial control of dynamics of actin cytoskeleton in the foot processes. We determined how imbalances in regulation of actin cytoskeletal dynamics could result in pathological morphology. We obtained 3-D electron microscopy images of podocytes and used quantitative features to build dynamical models to investigate how regulation of actin dynamics within foot processes controls local morphology. We find that imbalances in regulation of actin bundling lead to chaotic spatial patterns that could impair the foot process morphology. Simulation results are consistent with experimental observations for cytoskeletal reconfiguration through dysregulated RhoA or Rac1, and they predict compensatory mechanisms for biochemical stability. We conclude that podocyte morphology, optimized for filtration, is intrinsically fragile, whereby local transient biochemical imbalances may lead to permanent morphological changes associated with pathophysiology.

  12. Demonstration of mechanical connections between integrins, cytoskeletal filaments, and nucleoplasm that stabilize nuclear structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniotis, A. J.; Chen, C. S.; Ingber, D. E.

    1997-01-01

    We report here that living cells and nuclei are hard-wired such that a mechanical tug on cell surface receptors can immediately change the organization of molecular assemblies in the cytoplasm and nucleus. When integrins were pulled by micromanipulating bound microbeads or micropipettes, cytoskeletal filaments reoriented, nuclei distorted, and nucleoli redistributed along the axis of the applied tension field. These effects were specific for integrins, independent of cortical membrane distortion, and were mediated by direct linkages between the cytoskeleton and nucleus. Actin microfilaments mediated force transfer to the nucleus at low strain; however, tearing of the actin gel resulted with greater distortion. In contrast, intermediate filaments effectively mediated force transfer to the nucleus under both conditions. These filament systems also acted as molecular guy wires to mechanically stiffen the nucleus and anchor it in place, whereas microtubules acted to hold open the intermediate filament lattice and to stabilize the nucleus against lateral compression. Molecular connections between integrins, cytoskeletal filaments, and nuclear scaffolds may therefore provide a discrete path for mechanical signal transfer through cells as well as a mechanism for producing integrated changes in cell and nuclear structure in response to changes in extracellular matrix adhesivity or mechanics.

  13. Development and verification test of integral reactor major components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. I.; Kim, Y. W.; Kim, J. H. and others

    1999-03-01

    The conceptual designs for SG, MCP, CEDM to be installed in the integral reactor SMART were developed. Three-dimensional CAD models for the major components were developed to visualize the design concepts. Once-through helical steam generator was conceptually designed for SMART. Canned motor pump was adopted in the conceptual design of MCP. Linear pulse motor type and ballscrew type CEDM, which have fine control capabilities were studied for adoption in SMART. In parallel with the structural design, the electro-magnetic design was performed for the sizing motors and electro-magnet. Prototypes for the CEDM and MCP sub-assemblies were developed and tested to verify the performance. The impeller design procedure and the computer program to analyze the dynamic characteristics of MCP rotor shaft were developed. The design concepts of SG, MCP, CEDM were also invetigated for the fabricability.

  14. Development and verification test of integral reactor major components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. I.; Kim, Y. W.; Kim, J. H. and others

    1999-03-01

    The conceptual designs for SG, MCP, CEDM to be installed in the integral reactor SMART were developed. Three-dimensional CAD models for the major components were developed to visualize the design concepts. Once-through helical steam generator was conceptually designed for SMART. Canned motor pump was adopted in the conceptual design of MCP. Linear pulse motor type and ballscrew type CEDM, which have fine control capabilities were studied for adoption in SMART. In parallel with the structural design, the electro-magnetic design was performed for the sizing motors and electro-magnet. Prototypes for the CEDM and MCP sub-assemblies were developed and tested to verify the performance. The impeller design procedure and the computer program to analyze the dynamic characteristics of MCP rotor shaft were developed. The design concepts of SG, MCP, CEDM were also invetigated for the fabricability

  15. Quercetin, not caffeine, is a major neuroprotective component in coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moonhee; McGeer, Edith G; McGeer, Patrick L

    2016-10-01

    Epidemiologic studies indicate that coffee consumption reduces the risk of Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. To determine the factors involved, we examined the protective effects of coffee components. The test involved prevention of neurotoxicity to SH-SY5Y cells that was induced by lipopolysaccharide plus interferon-γ or interferon-γ released from activated microglia and astrocytes. We found that quercetin, flavones, chlorogenic acid, and caffeine protected SH-SY5Y cells from these toxins. They also reduced the release of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 from the activated microglia and astrocytes and attenuated the activation of proteins from P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor kappa light chain enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB). After exposure to toxin containing glial-stimulated conditioned medium, we also found that quercetin reduced oxidative/nitrative damage to DNA, as well as to the lipids and proteins of SH-SY5Y cells. There was a resultant increase in [GSH]i in SH-SY5Y cells. The data indicate that quercetin is the major neuroprotective component in coffee against Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Major Components of the National TRU Waste System Optimization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moody, D.C.; Bennington, B.; Sharif, F.

    2002-01-01

    The National Transuranic (TRU) Program (NTP) is being optimized to allow for disposing of the legacy TRU waste at least 10 years earlier than originally planned. This acceleration will save the nation an estimated $713. The Department of Energy's (DOE'S) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) has initiated the National TRU Waste System Optimization Project to propose, and upon approvaI, implement activities that produce significant cost saving by improving efficiency, thereby accelerating the rate of TRU waste disposal without compromising safety. In its role as NTP agent of change, the National TRU Waste System Optimization Project (the Project) (1) interacts closely with all NTP activities. Three of the major components of the Project are the Central Characterization Project (CCP), the Central Confirmation Facility (CCF), and the MobiIe/Modular Deployment Program.

  17. Characterization of the major nutritional components of Caryocar brasiliense fruit pulp by NMR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda-Vilela, Ana Luisa; Grisolia, Cesar Koppe [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Biologicas. Dept. de Genetica e Morfologia; Resck, Ines Sabioni; Mendonca, Marcio Antonio [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2009-07-01

    Pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.), a typical fruit of Brazilian Cerrado, is well known in regional cookery and used in folk medicine to treat various illnesses. Mass spectrometry and chromatographic methods have identified the organic composition of pequi fruit pulp; however, NMR spectroscopy is used for the first time to characterize the nutritional components of organic and aqueous-ethanolic extracts. This spectroscopic technique determined the triacylglycerols in the pequi organic fraction, which is constituted mainly by oleate and palmitate esters, and detected the carbohydrate mixtures as the major components of aqueous and ethanolic fractions, respectively. In this study, presence of phenolic compounds was only evidenced in the ethanolic fraction. (author)

  18. Characterization of the major nutritional components of Caryocar brasiliense fruit pulp by NMR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda-Vilela, Ana Luisa; Grisolia, Cesar Koppe; Resck, Ines Sabioni; Mendonca, Marcio Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.), a typical fruit of Brazilian Cerrado, is well known in regional cookery and used in folk medicine to treat various illnesses. Mass spectrometry and chromatographic methods have identified the organic composition of pequi fruit pulp; however, NMR spectroscopy is used for the first time to characterize the nutritional components of organic and aqueous-ethanolic extracts. This spectroscopic technique determined the triacylglycerols in the pequi organic fraction, which is constituted mainly by oleate and palmitate esters, and detected the carbohydrate mixtures as the major components of aqueous and ethanolic fractions, respectively. In this study, presence of phenolic compounds was only evidenced in the ethanolic fraction. (author)

  19. The Prediction of Key Cytoskeleton Components Involved in Glomerular Diseases Based on a Protein-Protein Interaction Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Fangrui; Tan, Aidi; Ju, Wenjun; Li, Xuejuan; Li, Shao; Ding, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Maintenance of the physiological morphologies of different types of cells and tissues is essential for the normal functioning of each system in the human body. Dynamic variations in cell and tissue morphologies depend on accurate adjustments of the cytoskeletal system. The cytoskeletal system in the glomerulus plays a key role in the normal process of kidney filtration. To enhance the understanding of the possible roles of the cytoskeleton in glomerular diseases, we constructed the Glomerular Cytoskeleton Network (GCNet), which shows the protein-protein interaction network in the glomerulus, and identified several possible key cytoskeletal components involved in glomerular diseases. In this study, genes/proteins annotated to the cytoskeleton were detected by Gene Ontology analysis, and glomerulus-enriched genes were selected from nine available glomerular expression datasets. Then, the GCNet was generated by combining these two sets of information. To predict the possible key cytoskeleton components in glomerular diseases, we then examined the common regulation of the genes in GCNet in the context of five glomerular diseases based on their transcriptomic data. As a result, twenty-one cytoskeleton components as potential candidate were highlighted for consistently down- or up-regulating in all five glomerular diseases. And then, these candidates were examined in relation to existing known glomerular diseases and genes to determine their possible functions and interactions. In addition, the mRNA levels of these candidates were also validated in a puromycin aminonucleoside(PAN) induced rat nephropathy model and were also matched with existing Diabetic Nephropathy (DN) transcriptomic data. As a result, there are 15 of 21 candidates in PAN induced nephropathy model were consistent with our predication and also 12 of 21 candidates were matched with differentially expressed genes in the DN transcriptomic data. By providing a novel interaction network and prediction, GCNet

  20. TiO2 nanoparticles disrupt cell adhesion and the architecture of cytoskeletal networks of human osteoblast-like cells in a size dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohamed; Schoelermann, Julia; Mustafa, Kamal; Cimpan, Mihaela R

    2018-04-30

    Human exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO 2 ) is increasing. An internal source of nano-TiO 2 is represented by titanium-based orthopedic and dental implants can release nanoparticles (NPs) upon abrasion. Little is known about how the size of NPs influences their interaction with cytoskeletal protein networks and the functional/homeostatic consequences that might follow at the implant-bone interface with regard to osteoblasts. We investigated the effects of size of anatase nano-TiO 2 on SaOS-2 human osteoblast-like cells exposed to clinically relevant concentrations (0.05, 0.5, 5 mg/L) of 5 and 40 nm spherical nano-TiO 2 . Cell viability and proliferation, adhesion, spread and migration were assessed, as well as the orientation of actin and microtubule cytoskeletal networks. The phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (p-FAK Y397 ) and the expression of vinculin in response to nano-TiO 2 were also assessed. Treatment with nano-TiO 2 disrupted the actin and microtubule cytoskeletal networks leading to morphological modifications of SaOS-2 cells. The phosphorylation of p-FAK Y397 and the expression of vinculin were also modified depending on the particle size, which affected cell adhesion. Consequently, the cell migration was significantly impaired in the 5 nm-exposed cells compared to unexposed cells. The present work shows that the orientation of cytoskeletal networks and the focal adhesion proteins and subsequently the adhesion, spread and migration of SaOS-2 cells were affected by the selected nano-TiO 2 in a size dependent manner. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Temporal variations of PM1 major components in an urban street canyon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yubero, E; Galindo, N; Nicolás, J F; Crespo, J; Calzolai, G; Lucarelli, F

    2015-09-01

    Seasonal changes in the levels of PM1 and its main components (organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), SO4 (2-), NO3 (-) and NH4 (+)) were studied in an urban street canyon in southeastern Spain. Although PM1 levels did not show an evident seasonal cycle, strong variations in the concentrations of its major components were observed. Ammonium sulfate, the main secondary inorganic compound, was found to be of regional origin. Its formation was favored during summer due to increased photochemical activity. In contrast, the concentrations of particulate ammonium nitrate, which is thermally unstable, were highest in winter. Although traffic emissions are the dominant source of EC in the city, variations in traffic intensity could not explain the seasonal cycle of this component. The higher EC concentrations during the cold months were attributed to the lower dispersion conditions and the increase in EC emissions. Special attention has been given to variations in organic carbon levels since it accounted for about one third of the total PM1 mass. The concentrations of both total OC and secondary OC (SOC) were maxima in winter. The observed seasonal variation in SOC levels is similar to that found in other southern European cities where the frequency of sunny days in winter is high enough to promote photochemical processes.

  2. Ras1 interacts with multiple new signaling and cytoskeletal loci in Drosophila eggshell patterning and morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnorr, J D; Holdcraft, R; Chevalier, B; Berg, C A

    2001-10-01

    Little is known about the genes that interact with Ras signaling pathways to regulate morphogenesis. The synthesis of dorsal eggshell structures in Drosophila melanogaster requires multiple rounds of Ras signaling followed by dramatic epithelial sheet movements. We took advantage of this process to identify genes that link patterning and morphogenesis; we screened lethal mutations on the second chromosome for those that could enhance a weak Ras1 eggshell phenotype. Of 1618 lethal P-element mutations tested, 13 showed significant enhancement, resulting in forked and fused dorsal appendages. Our genetic and molecular analyses together with information from the Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project reveal that 11 of these lines carry mutations in previously characterized genes. Three mutations disrupt the known Ras1 cell signaling components Star, Egfr, and Blistered, while one mutation disrupts Sec61beta, implicated in ligand secretion. Seven lines represent cell signaling and cytoskeletal components that are new to the Ras1 pathway; these are Chickadee (Profilin), Tec29, Dreadlocks, POSH, Peanut, Smt3, and MESK2, a suppressor of dominant-negative Ksr. A twelfth insertion disrupts two genes, Nrk, a "neurospecific" receptor tyrosine kinase, and Tpp, which encodes a neuropeptidase. These results suggest that Ras1 signaling during oogenesis involves novel components that may be intimately associated with additional signaling processes and with the reorganization of the cytoskeleton. To determine whether these Ras1 Enhancers function upstream or downstream of the Egf receptor, four mutations were tested for their ability to suppress an activated Egfr construct (lambdatop) expressed in oogenesis exclusively in the follicle cells. Mutations in Star and l(2)43Bb had no significant effect upon the lambdatop eggshell defect whereas smt3 and dock alleles significantly suppressed the lambdatop phenotype.

  3. Novelty-induced activity-regulated cytoskeletal-associated protein (Arc) expression in frontal cortex requires serotonin 2A receptor activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santini, Martin; Klein, A B; El-Sayed, M

    2011-01-01

    environment. As an output of FC activation we measured expression of activity-regulated cytoskeletal-associated protein (Arc). Novelty-exposure (open-field arena) robustly up-regulated FC Arc mRNA expression (∼160%) in mice compared to home-cage controls. This response was inhibited with the 5-HT(2A...

  4. Novelty-induced activity-regulated cytoskeletal-associated protein (Arc) expression in frontal cortex requires serotonin 2A receptor activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santini, Martin; Klein, A B; El-Sayed, M

    2011-01-01

    environment. As an output of FC activation we measured expression of activity-regulated cytoskeletal-associated protein (Arc). Novelty-exposure (open-field arena) robustly up-regulated FC Arc mRNA expression (~160%) in mice compared to home-cage controls. This response was inhibited with the 5-HT(2A...

  5. Active Polar Gels: a Paradigm for Cytoskeletal Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julicher, Frank

    2006-03-01

    The cytoskeleton of eucaryotic cells is an intrinsically dynamic network of rod-like filaments. Active processes on the molecular scale such as the action of motor proteins and the polymerization and depolymerization of filaments drive active dynamic behaviors while consuming chemical energy in the form of a fuel. Such emergent dynamics is regulated by the cell and is important for many cellular processes such as cell locomotion and cell division. From a general point of view the cytoskeleton represents an active gel-like material with interesting material properties. We present a general theory of active viscoelastic materials made of polar filaments which is motivated by the the cytoskeleton. The continuous consumption of a fuel generates a non- equilibrium state characterized by the generation of flows and stresses. Our theory can be applied to experiments in which cytoskeletal patterns are set in motion by active processes such as those which are at work in cells. It can also capture generic aspects of the flows and stress profiles which occur during cell locomotion.

  6. Distribution of cytoskeletal proteins, integrins, leukocyte adhesion molecules and extracellular matrix proteins in plastic-embedded human and rat kidneys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Goor, H; Coers, W; van der Horst, MLC; Suurmeijer, AJH

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the distribution of cytoskeletal proteins (actin, alpha -actinin, vinculin, beta -tubulin, keratin, vimentin, desmin), adhesion molecules for cell-matrix interations (very later antigens [VLA1-6], beta1, beta2 [CD18], vitronectin receptor [alphav beta3], CD 11b), leukocyte

  7. Induction of Plant Curvature by Magnetophoresis and Cytoskeletal Changes during Root Graviresponse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenstein, Karl H.; Kuznetsov, Oleg A.; Blancaflor, Eilson B.

    1996-01-01

    High gradient magnetic fields (HGMF) induce curvature in roots and shoots. It is considered that this response is likely to be based on the intracellular displacement of bulk starch (amyloplasts) by the ponderomotive force generated by the HGMF. This process is called magnetophoresis. The differential elongation during the curvature along the concave and convex flanks of growing organs may be linked to the microtubular and/or microfilament cytoskeleton. The possible existence of an effect of the HGMF on the cytoskeleton was tested for, but none was found. The application of cytoskeletal stabilizers or depolymerizers showed that neither microtubules, nor microfilaments, are involved in the graviresponse.

  8. Neutrophil microparticle production and inflammasome activation by hyperglycemia due to cytoskeletal instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, Stephen R; Bhopale, Veena M; Yu, Kevin; Huang, Weiliang; Kane, Maureen A; Margolis, David J

    2017-11-03

    Microparticles are lipid bilayer-enclosed vesicles produced by cells under oxidative stress. MP production is elevated in patients with diabetes, but the underlying cellular mechanisms are poorly understood. We hypothesized that raising glucose above the physiological level of 5.5 mm would stimulate leukocytes to produce MPs and activate the nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich repeat pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome. We found that when incubated in buffer with up to 20 mm glucose, human and murine neutrophils, but not monocytes, generate progressively more MPs with high interleukin (IL)-1β content. Enhanced MP production required generation of reactive chemical species by mitochondria, NADPH oxidase, and type 2 nitric-oxide synthase (NOS-2) and resulted in S -nitrosylation of actin. Depleting cells of capon (C-terminal PDZ ligand of neuronal nitric-oxide synthase protein), apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing C-terminal caspase recruitment domain (ASC), or pro-IL-1β prevented the hyperglycemia-induced enhancement of reactive species production, MP generation, and IL-1β synthesis. Additional components required for these responses included inositol 1,3,5-triphosphate receptors, PKC, and enhancement of filamentous-actin turnover. Numerous proteins become localized to short filamentous actin in response to S -nitrosylation, including vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein, focal adhesion kinase, the membrane phospholipid translocation enzymes flippase and floppase, capon, NLRP3, and ASC. We conclude that an interdependent oxidative stress response to hyperglycemia perturbs neutrophil cytoskeletal stability leading to MP production and IL-1β synthesis. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Arsenic trioxide (AT) is a novel human neutrophil pro-apoptotic agent: effects of catalase on AT-induced apoptosis, degradation of cytoskeletal proteins and de novo protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binet, François; Cavalli, Hélène; Moisan, Eliane; Girard, Denis

    2006-02-01

    The anti-cancer drug arsenic trioxide (AT) induces apoptosis in a variety of transformed or proliferating cells. However, little is known regarding its ability to induce apoptosis in terminally differentiated cells, such as neutrophils. Because neutropenia has been reported in some cancer patients after AT treatment, we hypothesised that AT could induce neutrophil apoptosis, an issue that has never been investigated. Herein, we found that AT-induced neutrophil apoptosis and gelsolin degradation via caspases. AT did not increase neutrophil superoxide production and did not induce mitochondrial generation of reactive oxygen species. AT-induced apoptosis in PLB-985 and X-linked chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) cells (PLB-985 cells deficient in gp91(phox) mimicking CGD) at the same potency. Addition of catalase, an inhibitor of H2O2, reversed AT-induced apoptosis and degradation of the cytoskeletal proteins gelsolin, alpha-tubulin and lamin B1. Unexpectedly, AT-induced de novo protein synthesis, which was reversed by catalase. Cycloheximide partially reversed AT-induced apoptosis. We conclude that AT induces neutrophil apoptosis by a caspase-dependent mechanism and via de novo protein synthesis. H2O2 is of major importance in AT-induced neutrophil apoptosis but its production does not originate from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate dehydrogenase activation and mitochondria. Cytoskeletal structures other than microtubules can now be considered as novel targets of AT.

  10. Characterization of cytoskeletal and junctional proteins expressed by cells cultured from human arachnoid granulation tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehta Bhavya C

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The arachnoid granulations (AGs are projections of the arachnoid membrane into the dural venous sinuses. They function, along with the extracranial lymphatics, to circulate the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF to the systemic venous circulation. Disruption of normal CSF dynamics may result in increased intracranial pressures causing many problems including headaches and visual loss, as in idiopathic intracranial hypertension and hydrocephalus. To study the role of AGs in CSF egress, we have grown cells from human AG tissue in vitro and have characterized their expression of those cytoskeletal and junctional proteins that may function in the regulation of CSF outflow. Methods Human AG tissue was obtained at autopsy, and explanted to cell culture dishes coated with fibronectin. Typically, cells migrated from the explanted tissue after 7–10 days in vitro. Second or third passage cells were seeded onto fibronectin-coated coverslips at confluent densities and grown to confluency for 7–10 days. Arachnoidal cells were tested using immunocytochemical methods for the expression of several common cytoskeletal and junctional proteins. Second and third passage cultures were also labeled with the common endothelial markers CD-31 or VE-cadherin (CD144 and their expression was quantified using flow cytometry analysis. Results Confluent cultures of arachnoidal cells expressed the intermediate filament protein vimentin. Cytokeratin intermediate filaments were expressed variably in a subpopulation of cells. The cultures also expressed the junctional proteins connexin43, desmoplakin 1 and 2, E-cadherin, and zonula occludens-1. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that second and third passage cultures failed to express the endothelial cell markers CD31 or VE-cadherin in significant quantities, thereby showing that these cultures did not consist of endothelial cells from the venous sinus wall. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first report of

  11. ATG5 overexpression is neuroprotective and attenuates cytoskeletal and vesicle-trafficking alterations in axotomized motoneurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva-Rodríguez, Tatiana; Romeo-Guitart, David; Marmolejo-Martínez-Artesero, Sara; Herrando-Grabulosa, Mireia; Bosch, Assumpció; Forés, Joaquim; Casas, Caty

    2018-05-24

    Injured neurons should engage endogenous mechanisms of self-protection to limit neurodegeneration. Enhancing efficacy of these mechanisms or correcting dysfunctional pathways may be a successful strategy for inducing neuroprotection. Spinal motoneurons retrogradely degenerate after proximal axotomy due to mechanical detachment (avulsion) of the nerve roots, and this limits recovery of nervous system function in patients after this type of trauma. In a previously reported proteomic analysis, we demonstrated that autophagy is a key endogenous mechanism that may allow motoneuron survival and regeneration after distal axotomy and suture of the nerve. Herein, we show that autophagy flux is dysfunctional or blocked in degenerated motoneurons after root avulsion. We also found that there were abnormalities in anterograde/retrograde motor proteins, key secretory pathway factors, and lysosome function. Further, LAMP1 protein was missorted and underglycosylated as well as the proton pump v-ATPase. In vitro modeling revealed how sequential disruptions in these systems likely lead to neurodegeneration. In vivo, we observed that cytoskeletal alterations, induced by a single injection of nocodazole, were sufficient to promote neurodegeneration of avulsed motoneurons. Besides, only pre-treatment with rapamycin, but not post-treatment, neuroprotected after nerve root avulsion. In agreement, overexpressing ATG5 in injured motoneurons led to neuroprotection and attenuation of cytoskeletal and trafficking-related abnormalities. These discoveries serve as proof of concept for autophagy-target therapy to halting the progression of neurodegenerative processes.

  12. Organoselenium compounds prevent hyperphosphorylation of cytoskeletal proteins induced by the neurotoxic agent diphenyl ditelluride in cerebral cortex of young rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretto, M.B.; Funchal, C.; Zeni, G.; Rocha, J.B.T.; Pessoa-Pureur, R.

    2005-01-01

    In this work we investigated the protective ability of the selenium compounds ebselen and diphenyl diselenide against the effect of diphenyl ditelluride on the in vitro incorporation of 32 P into intermediate filament (IF) proteins from slices of cerebral cortex of 17-day-old rats. We observed that ditelluride in the concentrations of 1, 15 and 50 μM induced hyperphosphorylation of the high-salt Triton insoluble neurofilament subunits (NF-M and NF-L), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and vimentin, without altering the immunocontent of these proteins. Concerning the selenium compounds, diselenide (1, 15 and 50 μM) did not induce alteration of the in vitro phosphorylation of the IF proteins. Otherwise, ebselen induced an altered in vitro phosphorylation of the cytoskeletal proteins in a dose-dependent manner. At intermediate concentrations (15 and 30 μM) it increased the in vitro phosphorylation even though, at low (5 μM) or high (50 and 100 μM) concentrations this compound was ineffective in altering the activity of the cytoskeletal-associated phosphorylating system. In addition, 15 μM diselenide and 5 μM ebselen, presented a protective effect against the action of ditelluride, on the phosphorylation of the proteins studied. Considering that hyperphosphorylation of cytoskeletal proteins is associated with neuronal dysfunction and neurodegeneration, it is probable that the effects of ditelluride could be related to the remarkable neurotoxicity of this organic form of tellurium. Furthermore the neuroprotective action of selenium compounds against tellurium effects could be a promising route to be exploited for a possible treatment of organic tellurium poisoning

  13. Milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor-factor VIII-derived peptide MSP68 is a cytoskeletal immunomodulator of neutrophils that inhibits Rac1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Louie; Aziz, Monowar; Yang, Weng-Lang; Nicastro, Jeffrey; Coppa, Gene F; Symons, Marc; Wang, Ping

    2017-02-01

    Prolonged neutrophil infiltration leads to exaggerated inflammation and tissue damage during sepsis. Neutrophil migration requires rearrangement of their cytoskeleton. Milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor-factor VIII-derived short peptide 68 (MSP68) has recently been shown to be beneficial in sepsis-induced tissue injury and mortality. We hypothesize that MSP68 inhibits neutrophil migration by modulating small GTPase Rac1-dependent cytoskeletal rearrangements. Bone marrow-derived neutrophils (BMDNs) or whole lung digest isolated neutrophils were isolated from 8 to 10 wk old C57BL/6 mice by Percoll density gradient centrifugation. The purity of BMDN was verified by flow cytometry with CD11b/Gr-1 staining. Neutrophils were stimulated with N-formylmethionine-leucine-phenylalanine (f-MLP) (10 nM) in the presence or absence of MSP68 at 10 nM or cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) was used to induce sepsis, and MSP68 was administered at 1 mg/kg intravenously. Cytoskeletal organization was assessed by phalloidin staining, followed by analysis using fluorescence microscopy. Activity of the Rac1 GTPase in f-MLP or CLP-activated BMDN in the presence or absence of MSP68 was assessed by GTPase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activity was determined by western blot densitometry. BMDN treatment with f-MLP increased cytoskeletal remodeling as revealed by the localization of filamentous actin to the periphery of the neutrophil. By contrast, cells pretreated with MSP68 had considerably reduced filamentous actin polymerization. Cytoskeletal spreading is associated with the activation of the small GTPase Rac1. We found BMDN-treated with f-MLP or that were exposed to sepsis by CLP had increased Rac1 signaling, whereas the cells pretreated with MSP68 had significantly reduced Rac1 activation (P Rac1-MAP kinase-mediated neutrophil motility. Thus, MSP68 is a novel therapeutic candidate for regulating inflammation and tissue damage caused

  14. A major genetic component of BSE susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juling, Katrin; Schwarzenbacher, Hermann; Williams, John L; Fries, Ruedi

    2006-01-01

    Background Coding variants of the prion protein gene (PRNP) have been shown to be major determinants for the susceptibility to transmitted prion diseases in humans, mice and sheep. However, to date, the effects of polymorphisms in the coding and regulatory regions of bovine PRNP on bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) susceptibility have been considered marginal or non-existent. Here we analysed two insertion/deletion (indel) polymorphisms in the regulatory region of bovine PRNP in BSE affected animals and controls of four independent cattle populations from UK and Germany. Results In the present report, we show that two previously reported 23- and 12-bp insertion/deletion (indel) polymorphisms in the regulatory region of bovine PRNP are strongly associated with BSE incidence in cattle. Genotyping of BSE-affected and control animals of UK Holstein, German Holstein, German Brown and German Fleckvieh breeds revealed a significant overrepresentation of the deletion alleles at both polymorphic sites in diseased animals (P = 2.01 × 10-3 and P = 8.66 × 10-5, respectively). The main effect on susceptibility is associated with the 12-bp indel polymorphism. Compared with non-carriers, heterozygous and homozygous carriers of the 12-bp deletion allele possess relatively higher risks of having BSE, ranging from 1.32 to 4.01 and 1.74 to 3.65 in the different breeds. These values correspond to population attributable risks ranging from 35% to 53%. Conclusion Our results demonstrate a substantial genetic PRNP associated component for BSE susceptibility in cattle. Although the BSE risk conferred by the deletion allele of the 12-bp indel in the regulatory region of PRNP is substantial, the main risk factor for BSE in cattle is environmental, i.e. exposure to feedstuffs contaminated with the infectious agent. PMID:17014722

  15. A major genetic component of BSE susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams John L

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coding variants of the prion protein gene (PRNP have been shown to be major determinants for the susceptibility to transmitted prion diseases in humans, mice and sheep. However, to date, the effects of polymorphisms in the coding and regulatory regions of bovine PRNP on bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE susceptibility have been considered marginal or non-existent. Here we analysed two insertion/deletion (indel polymorphisms in the regulatory region of bovine PRNP in BSE affected animals and controls of four independent cattle populations from UK and Germany. Results In the present report, we show that two previously reported 23- and 12-bp insertion/deletion (indel polymorphisms in the regulatory region of bovine PRNP are strongly associated with BSE incidence in cattle. Genotyping of BSE-affected and control animals of UK Holstein, German Holstein, German Brown and German Fleckvieh breeds revealed a significant overrepresentation of the deletion alleles at both polymorphic sites in diseased animals (P = 2.01 × 10-3 and P = 8.66 × 10-5, respectively. The main effect on susceptibility is associated with the 12-bp indel polymorphism. Compared with non-carriers, heterozygous and homozygous carriers of the 12-bp deletion allele possess relatively higher risks of having BSE, ranging from 1.32 to 4.01 and 1.74 to 3.65 in the different breeds. These values correspond to population attributable risks ranging from 35% to 53%. Conclusion Our results demonstrate a substantial genetic PRNP associated component for BSE susceptibility in cattle. Although the BSE risk conferred by the deletion allele of the 12-bp indel in the regulatory region of PRNP is substantial, the main risk factor for BSE in cattle is environmental, i.e. exposure to feedstuffs contaminated with the infectious agent.

  16. A Study on Major Components of Bee Venom Using Electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee, Jin-Seon

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to study on major components of various Bee Venom(Bee Venom by electrical stimulation in Korea; K-BV I, Bee Venom by Microwave stimulation in Korea; K -BV II, 0.5rng/ml, Fu Yu Pharmaceutical Factory, China; C-BV, 1mg /ml, Monmouth Pain Institute, Inc., U.S.A.; A-BV using Electrophoresis. The results were summarized as follows: 1. In 1:4000 Bee Venom solution rate, the band was not displayed distinctly usmg Electrophoresis. But in 1: 1000, the band showed clearly. 2. The results of Electrophoresis at solution rate 1:1000, K-BV I and K-BVII showed similar band. 3. The molecular weight of Phospholipase A2 was known as 19,000 but its band was seen at 17,000 in Electrophoresis. 4. Protein concentration of Bee Venom by Lowry method was different at solution rate 1:4000 ; C-BV was 250μg/ml, K-BV I was 190μg/ml, K-BV Ⅱ was 160μg/ml and C-BV was 45μg/ml. 5. Electrophoresis method was unuseful for analysis of Bee Venom when solution rate is above 1:4000 but Protein concentration of Bee Venom by Lowry method was possible. These data from the study can be applied to establish the standard measurement of Bee Venom and prevent pure bee venom from mixing of another components. I think it is desirable to study more about safety of Bee Venom as time goes by.

  17. Melittin, a major peptide component of bee venom, and its conjugates in cancer therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Rady, Islam; Siddiqui, Imtiaz A.; Rady, Mohamad; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2017-01-01

    Melittin (MEL), a major peptide component of bee venom, is an attractive candidate for cancer therapy. This agent has shown a variety of anti-cancer effects in preclinical cell culture and animal model systems. Despite a convincing efficacy data against variety of cancers, its applicability to humans has met with challenges due to several issues including its non-specific cytotoxicity, degradation and hemolytic activity. Several optimization approaches including utilization of nanoparticle ba...

  18. Stress and strain in the contractile and cytoskeletal filaments of airway smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Linhong; Bosse, Ynuk; Brown, Nathan; Chin, Leslie Y M; Connolly, Sarah C; Fairbank, Nigel J; King, Greg G; Maksym, Geoffrey N; Paré, Peter D; Seow, Chun Y; Stephen, Newman L

    2009-10-01

    Stress and strain are omnipresent in the lung due to constant lung volume fluctuation associated with respiration, and they modulate the phenotype and function of all cells residing in the airways including the airway smooth muscle (ASM) cell. There is ample evidence that the ASM cell is very sensitive to its physical environment, and can alter its structure and/or function accordingly, resulting in either desired or undesired consequences. The forces that are either conferred to the ASM cell due to external stretching or generated inside the cell must be borne and transmitted inside the cytoskeleton (CSK). Thus, maintaining appropriate levels of stress and strain within the CSK is essential for maintaining normal function. Despite the importance, the mechanisms regulating/dysregulating ASM cytoskeletal filaments in response to stress and strain remained poorly understood until only recently. For example, it is now understood that ASM length and force are dynamically regulated, and both can adapt over a wide range of length, rendering ASM one of the most malleable living tissues. The malleability reflects the CSK's dynamic mechanical properties and plasticity, both of which strongly interact with the loading on the CSK, and all together ultimately determines airway narrowing in pathology. Here we review the latest advances in our understanding of stress and strain in ASM cells, including the organization of contractile and cytoskeletal filaments, range and adaptation of functional length, structural and functional changes of the cell in response to mechanical perturbation, ASM tone as a mediator of strain-induced responses, and the novel glassy dynamic behaviors of the CSK in relation to asthma pathophysiology.

  19. Design and development of major balance of plant components in solid oxide fuel cell system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Wen-Tang; Huang, Cheng-Nan; Tan, Hsueh-I; Chao, Yu [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research Atomic Energy Council, Taoyuan County 32546 (Taiwan, Province of China); Yen, Tzu-Hsiang [Green Technology Research Institute, CPC Corporation, Chia-Yi City 60036 (Taiwan, Province of China)

    2013-07-01

    The balance of plant (BOP) of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) system with a 2 kW stack and an electric efficiency of 40% is optimized using commercial GCTool software. The simulation results provide a detailed understanding of the optimal operating temperature, pressure and mass flow rate in all of the major BOP components, i.e., the gas distributor, the afterburner, the reformer and the heat exchanger. A series of experimental trials are performed to validate the simulation results. Overall, the results presented in this study not only indicate an appropriate set of operating conditions for the SOFC power system, but also suggest potential design improvements for several of the BOP components.

  20. Identification of mechanosensitive genes during skeletal development: alteration of genes associated with cytoskeletal rearrangement and cell signalling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolfe, Rebecca A; Nowlan, Niamh C; Kenny, Elaine M; Cormican, Paul; Morris, Derek W; Prendergast, Patrick J; Kelly, Daniel; Murphy, Paula

    2014-01-20

    into a transcriptional response. This work identifies key developmental regulatory genes impacted by altered mechanical stimulation, sheds light on the molecular mechanisms that interpret mechanical stimulation during skeletal development and provides valuable resources for further investigation of the mechanistic basis of mechanoregulation. In particular it highlights the Wnt signalling pathway as a potential point of integration of mechanical and molecular signalling and cytoskeletal components as mediators of the response.

  1. Chemical composition of the major components of PM in different sites at the Metropolitan Region of Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, F.; Castillo, M. A.; Rubio, M.; Gramsch, E.; Vasquez, Y.; Oyola, P.

    2013-05-01

    Santiago, Chile's capital is one of most polluted megacity (5.5 million of people) of the world. Currently, PM2.5 annual concentration is over 2.2 times the Chilean standard (20 μg/m3). Continuous measurements of non-refractory PM1.0 (sulfate, nitrate, chloride, ammonium and organics aerosols), black carbon, and PM2,5 mass concentration were determined using Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM, Aerodyne Research, Inc), absorption coefficient monitor (SIMCA, Santiago University) and dustrack monitor (TSI Inc) in order to know the temporal variability of the major components of PM. The measurements were carried out at kerbside, urban background, industrial and mixed residential/industrial locations during year 2012 and -2013. Meteorological data (Relative Humidity, temperature, wind speed, wind direction and precipitations) were obtained from the air quality network operated by the environmental authority. The results show strong correlation with the metropolitan region major sources. Multiple regression analysis indicates that precipitations have a strong impact on PM1.0 soluble components; relative humidity has effects only on chloride, sulfate and black carbon. Chloride concentration decrease when temperature is increasing. The perceptual contribution of each component is similar among all sites. All sites shows that OA (Organics Aerosol) as the major constituent of PM1.0 (>50%), followed of nitrates (>13%). Sulfate could be used to differentiate the industrial site; due to there is a strong impact of SO2 emission. Combustion sources direct impact can be seen at BC contribution at industrial and kerbside site. Also, the OA/BC ratio shows slow value at kerbside (3.05) and industrial (3.26) site, and higher at urban background site (4.15). Aged organics aerosols are majority found at all sites (f43/f44 plot), indicating that regional background is strong in all results. These results will be compared with size distribution measurements available from previous

  2. Acute effects of decaffeinated coffee and the major coffee components chlorogenic acid and trigonelline on glucose tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, A.E.; Olthof, M.R.; Meeuse, J.C.; Seebus, E.; Heine, R.J.; van Dam, R.M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE - Coffee consumption has been associated with lower risk of type 2 diabetes. We evaluated the acute effects of decaffeinated coffee and the major coffee components chlorogenic acid and trigonelline on glucose tolerance. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - We conducted a randomized crossover

  3. Assessment and management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety: PWR vessel internals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-10-01

    At present, there are over four hundred operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) in IAEA Member States. Operating experience has shown that ineffective control of the ageing degradation of the major NPP components (e.g. caused by unanticipated phenomena and by operating, maintenance or manufacturing errors) can jeopardize plant safety and also plant life. Ageing in these NPPs must be therefore effectively managed to ensure the availability of design functions throughout the plant service life. From the safety perspective, this means controlling within acceptable limits the ageing degradation and wear-out of plant components important to safety so that adequate safety margins remain, i.e. integrity and functional capability in excess of normal operating requirements. This TECDOC is one in a series of reports on the assessment and management of ageing of the major NPP components important to safety. The reports are based on experience and practices of NPP operators, regulators, designers, manufacturers, and technical support organizations and a widely accepted Methodology for the Management of Ageing of NPP Components Important to Safety, which was issued by the IAEA in 1992. The current practices for the assessment of safety margins (fitness-for-service) and the inspection, monitoring and mitigation of ageing degradation of selected components of Canada deuterium-uranium (CANDU) reactors, boiling water reactors (BWRs), pressurized water reactors (PWRs), and water moderated, water cooled energy reactors (WWERs) are documented in the reports. These practices are intended to help all involved directly and indirectly in ensuring the safe operation of NPPs, and to provide a common technical basis for dialogue between plant operators and regulators when dealing with age related licensing issues. The guidance reports are directed at technical experts from NPPs and from regulatory, plant design, manufacturing and technical support organizations dealing with specific plant

  4. Cytoskeletal actin genes function downstream of HNF-3beta in ascidian notochord development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, W R; Ewing, N; Machula, J; Olsen, C L; Swalla, B J

    1998-11-01

    We have examined the expression and regulation of cytoskeletal actin genes in ascidians with tailed (Molgula oculata) and tailless larvae (Molgula occulta). Four cDNA clones were isolated representing two pairs of orthologous cytoskeletal actin genes (CA1 and CA2), which encode proteins differing by five amino acids in the tailed and tailless species. The CA1 and CA2 genes are present in one or two copies, although several related genes may also be present in both species. Maternal CA1 and CA2 mRNA is present in small oocytes but transcript levels later decline, suggesting a role in early oogenesis. In the tailed species, embryonic CA1 and CA2 mRNAs first appear in the presumptive mesenchyme and muscle cells during gastrulation, subsequently accumulate in the presumptive notochord cells, and can be detected in these tissues through the tadpole stage. CA1 mRNAs accumulate initially in the same tissues in the tailless species but subsequently disappear, in concert with the arrest of notochord and tail development. In contrast, CA2 mRNAs were not detected in embryos of the tailless species. Fertilization of eggs of the tailless species with sperm of the tailed species, which restores the notochord and the tail, also results in the upregulation of CA1 and CA2 gene expression in hybrid embryos. Antisense oligodeoxynucleotide experiments suggest that CA1 and CA2 expression in the notochord, but not in the muscle cells, is dependent on prior expression of Mocc FHI, an ascidian HNF-3beta-like gene. The expression of the CA1 and CA2 genes in the notochord in the tailed species, downregulation in the tailless species, upregulation in interspecific hybrids, and dependence on HNF-3beta activity is consistent with a role of these genes in development of the ascidian notochord.

  5. Assessment and management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety: CANDU reactor assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-02-01

    At present, there are over four hundred operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) in IAEA Member States. Operating experience has shown that ineffective control of the ageing degradation of the major NPP components (e.g. caused by unanticipated phenomena and by operating, maintenance, design or manufacturing errors) can jeopardize plant safety and also plant life. Ageing in these NPPs must therefore be effectively managed to ensure the availability of design functions throughout the plant service life. From the safety perspective, this means controlling within acceptable limits the ageing degradation and wearout of plant components important to safety so that adequate safety margins remain, i.e. integrity and functional capability in excess of normal operating requirements. This TECDOC is one in a series of reports on the assessment and management of ageing of the major NPP components important to safety. The reports are based on experience and practices of NPP operators, regulators, designers, manufacturers, and technical support organizations and a widely accepted Methodology for the Management of Ageing of NPP Components Important to Safety which was issued by the IAEA in 1992. The current practices for the assessment of safety margins (fitness for service) and the inspection, monitoring, and mitigation of ageing degradation of selected components of Canada deuterium-uranium (CANDU) reactors, boiling water reactors (BWRs), pressurized water reactors (PWRs) including the Soviet designed water moderated and water cooled energy reactors (WWERs), are documented in the reports. These practices are intended to help all involved directly and indirectly in ensuring the safe operation of NPPs and also to provide a common technical basis for dialogue between plant operators and regulators when dealing with age-related licensing issues. Since the reports are written from a safety perspective, they do not address life or life-cycle management of the plant components, which

  6. Assessment and Management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety: PWR pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-10-01

    At present, there are over four hundred operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) in IAEA Member States. Operating experience has shown that ineffective control of the ageing degradation of the major NPP components (e.g., caused by unanticipated phenomena and by operating, maintenance or manufacturing errors) can jeopardize plant safety and also plant life. Ageing in these NPPs must be therefore effectively managed to ensure the availability of design functions throughout the plant service life. From the safety perspective, this means controlling within acceptable limits the ageing degradation and wear-out of plant components important to safety so that adequate safety margins remain, i.e. integrity and functional capability in excess of normal operating requirements. This TECDOC is one in a series of reports on the assessment and management of ageing of the major NPP components important to safety. The reports are based on experience and practices of NPP operators, regulators, designers, manufacturers and technical support organizations and a widely accepted Methodology for the Management of Ageing of NPP Components Important to Safety which was issued by the IAEA in 1992. The current practices for the assessment of safety margins (fitness-for-service) and the inspection, monitoring and mitigation of ageing degradation of selected components of Canada deuterium-uranium (CANDU) reactors, boiling water reactors (BWRs), pressurized water reactors (PWRs), including water moderated, water cooled energy reactors (WWERs) are documented in the reports. These practices are intended to help all involved directly and indirectly in ensuring the safe operation of NPPs; and also to provide a common technical basis for dialogue between plant operators and regulators when dealing with age related licensing issues. Since the reports are written from a safety perspective, they do not address life or life-cycle management of the plant components, which involves the integration of

  7. Estradiol influences the mechanical properties of human fetal osteoblasts through cytoskeletal changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muthukumaran, Padmalosini [Department of Bioengineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Lim, Chwee Teck [Department of Bioengineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Mechanobiology Institute, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Singapore-MIT Alliance for Research and Technology (SMART), National University of Singapore (Singapore); Lee, Taeyong, E-mail: bielt@nus.edu.sg [Department of Bioengineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore)

    2012-07-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Estradiol induced stiffness changes of osteoblasts were quantified using AFM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Estradiol causes significant decrease in the stiffness of osteoblasts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Decreased stiffness was caused by decreased density of f-actin network. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stiffness changes were not associated with mineralized matrix of osteoblasts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Estradiol increases inherent alkaline phosphatase activity of osteoblasts. -- Abstract: Estrogen is known to have a direct effect on bone forming osteoblasts and bone resorbing osteoclasts. The cellular and molecular effects of estrogen on osteoblasts and osteoblasts-like cells have been extensively studied. However, the effect of estrogen on the mechanical property of osteoblasts has not been studied yet. It is important since mechanical property of the mechanosensory osteoblasts could be pivotal to its functionality in bone remodeling. This is the first study aimed to assess the direct effect of estradiol on the apparent elastic modulus (E{sup Asterisk-Operator }) and corresponding cytoskeletal changes of human fetal osteoblasts (hFOB 1.19). The cells were cultured in either medium alone or medium supplemented with {beta}-estradiol and then subjected to Atomic Force Microscopy indentation (AFM) to determine E{sup Asterisk-Operator }. The underlying changes in cytoskeleton were studied by staining the cells with TRITC-Phalloidin. Following estradiol treatment, the cells were also tested for proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralization. With estradiol treatment, E{sup Asterisk-Operator} of osteoblasts significantly decreased by 43-46%. The confocal images showed that the changes in f-actin network observed in estradiol treated cells can give rise to the changes in the stiffness of the cells. Estradiol also increases the inherent alkaline phosphatase activity of the cells. Estradiol induced stiffness

  8. Estradiol influences the mechanical properties of human fetal osteoblasts through cytoskeletal changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muthukumaran, Padmalosini; Lim, Chwee Teck; Lee, Taeyong

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Estradiol induced stiffness changes of osteoblasts were quantified using AFM. ► Estradiol causes significant decrease in the stiffness of osteoblasts. ► Decreased stiffness was caused by decreased density of f-actin network. ► Stiffness changes were not associated with mineralized matrix of osteoblasts. ► Estradiol increases inherent alkaline phosphatase activity of osteoblasts. -- Abstract: Estrogen is known to have a direct effect on bone forming osteoblasts and bone resorbing osteoclasts. The cellular and molecular effects of estrogen on osteoblasts and osteoblasts-like cells have been extensively studied. However, the effect of estrogen on the mechanical property of osteoblasts has not been studied yet. It is important since mechanical property of the mechanosensory osteoblasts could be pivotal to its functionality in bone remodeling. This is the first study aimed to assess the direct effect of estradiol on the apparent elastic modulus (E ∗ ) and corresponding cytoskeletal changes of human fetal osteoblasts (hFOB 1.19). The cells were cultured in either medium alone or medium supplemented with β-estradiol and then subjected to Atomic Force Microscopy indentation (AFM) to determine E ∗ . The underlying changes in cytoskeleton were studied by staining the cells with TRITC-Phalloidin. Following estradiol treatment, the cells were also tested for proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralization. With estradiol treatment, E ∗ of osteoblasts significantly decreased by 43–46%. The confocal images showed that the changes in f-actin network observed in estradiol treated cells can give rise to the changes in the stiffness of the cells. Estradiol also increases the inherent alkaline phosphatase activity of the cells. Estradiol induced stiffness changes of osteoblasts were not associated with changes in the synthesized mineralized matrix of the cells. Thus, a decrease in osteoblast stiffness with estrogen treatment was

  9. Pharmacological activity of salvinorin A, the major component of Salvia divinorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listos, Joanna; Merska, Alicja; Fidecka, Sylwia

    2011-01-01

    The hallucinogenic plant Salvia divinorum (i.e., "magic mint") is a member of the Sage family that has been historically used for divination and shamanism by the Mazatecs. Today, S. divinorum has become increasingly popular as a recreational drug for its hallucinogenic effects. The non-nitrogenous diterpene, salvinorin A, the major active component of S. divinorum, is responsible for the hallucinogenic effect of this plant. Here, we described the behavioral effects of salvinorin A in animals including the addictive, antinociception and antidepressant properties of the drug. The present paper also demonstrates the not well recognized (or unclear) mechanisms of action of salvinorin A. The last part of the paper presents information about the legal status of S. divinorum and its derivatives. Taking into account the increasing popularity and consumption of salvinorin A and S. divinorum today, it is important to collect all data on the pharmacological profile of this plant and its products.

  10. Assessment and management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety: Steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-11-01

    This TECDOC is one in a series of reports on the assessment and management of ageing of the major NPP components important to safety. The reports are based on experience and practices of NPP operators, regulators, designers, manufacturers, and technical support organizations and a widely accepted Methodology for the Management of Ageing of NPP Components Important to Safety which was issued by the IAEA in 1992. They have been compiled using contributions from technical experts in typically 10 to 12 countries for each report, a feedback from a September 1994 Technical Committee Meeting attended by 53 technical experts from 21 Member States (who reviewed first drafts in specialized working groups), and review comments from invited specialists

  11. THE DISTRIBUTION OF ORGANIC CARBON IN MAJOR COMPONENTS OF FORESTS LOCATED IN FIVE LIFE ZONES OF VENEZUELA

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the major uncertainties concerning the role of tropical forests in the global carbon cycle is the lack of adequate data on the carbon content of all their components. The goal of this study was to contribute to filling this data gap by estimating the quantity of carbon in ...

  12. Major cellular and physiological impacts of ocean acidification on a reef building coral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaniewska, Paulina; Campbell, Paul R; Kline, David I; Rodriguez-Lanetty, Mauricio; Miller, David J; Dove, Sophie; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove

    2012-01-01

    As atmospheric levels of CO(2) increase, reef-building corals are under greater stress from both increased sea surface temperatures and declining sea water pH. To date, most studies have focused on either coral bleaching due to warming oceans or declining calcification due to decreasing oceanic carbonate ion concentrations. Here, through the use of physiology measurements and cDNA microarrays, we show that changes in pH and ocean chemistry consistent with two scenarios put forward by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) drive major changes in gene expression, respiration, photosynthesis and symbiosis of the coral, Acropora millepora, before affects on biomineralisation are apparent at the phenotype level. Under high CO(2) conditions corals at the phenotype level lost over half their Symbiodinium populations, and had a decrease in both photosynthesis and respiration. Changes in gene expression were consistent with metabolic suppression, an increase in oxidative stress, apoptosis and symbiont loss. Other expression patterns demonstrate upregulation of membrane transporters, as well as the regulation of genes involved in membrane cytoskeletal interactions and cytoskeletal remodeling. These widespread changes in gene expression emphasize the need to expand future studies of ocean acidification to include a wider spectrum of cellular processes, many of which may occur before impacts on calcification.

  13. Major cellular and physiological impacts of ocean acidification on a reef building coral.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Kaniewska

    Full Text Available As atmospheric levels of CO(2 increase, reef-building corals are under greater stress from both increased sea surface temperatures and declining sea water pH. To date, most studies have focused on either coral bleaching due to warming oceans or declining calcification due to decreasing oceanic carbonate ion concentrations. Here, through the use of physiology measurements and cDNA microarrays, we show that changes in pH and ocean chemistry consistent with two scenarios put forward by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC drive major changes in gene expression, respiration, photosynthesis and symbiosis of the coral, Acropora millepora, before affects on biomineralisation are apparent at the phenotype level. Under high CO(2 conditions corals at the phenotype level lost over half their Symbiodinium populations, and had a decrease in both photosynthesis and respiration. Changes in gene expression were consistent with metabolic suppression, an increase in oxidative stress, apoptosis and symbiont loss. Other expression patterns demonstrate upregulation of membrane transporters, as well as the regulation of genes involved in membrane cytoskeletal interactions and cytoskeletal remodeling. These widespread changes in gene expression emphasize the need to expand future studies of ocean acidification to include a wider spectrum of cellular processes, many of which may occur before impacts on calcification.

  14. Thermal-structural response of EBR-II major components under reactor operational transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, L.K.; Lee, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    Until recently, the LMFBR safety research has been focused primarily on severe but highly unlikely accident, such as hypothetical-core-disruptive accidents (HCDA's), and not enough attention has been given to accident prevention, which is less severe but more likely sequence. The objective of the EBR-II operational reliability testing (ORT) is to demonstrate that the reactor can be designed and operated to prevent accident. A series of mild duty cycles and overpower transients were designed for accident prevention tests. An assessment of the EBR-II major plant components has been performed to assure structural integrity of the reactor plant for the ORT program. In this paper, the thermal-structural response and structural evaluation of the reactor vessel, the reactor-vessel cover, the intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) and the superheater are presented

  15. Assessment and management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety: BWR pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-10-01

    At present, there are over four hundred operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) in IAEA Member States. Operating experience has shown that ineffective control of the ageing degradation of the major NPP components (caused for instance by unanticipated phenomena and by operating, maintenance or manufacturing errors) can jeopardize plant safety and also plant life. Ageing in these NPPs must be therefore effectively managed to ensure the availability of design functions throughout the plant service life. From the safety perspective, this means controlling, within acceptable limits, the ageing degradation and wear out of plant components important to safety so that adequate safety margins remain, i.e. integrity and functional capability in excess of normal operating requirements. This TECDOC is one in a series of reports on the assessment and management of ageing of the major NPP components important to safety. The reports are based on experience and practices of NPP operators, regulators, designers, manufacturers and technical support organizations and a widely accepted Methodology for the Management of Ageing of NPP Components Important to Safety, which was issued by the IAEA in 1992. Since the reports are written from a safety perspective, they do not address life or life cycle management of plant components, which involves economic considerations. The current practices for the assessment of safety margins (fitness for service) and the inspection, monitoring and mitigation of ageing degradation of selected components of Canada deuterium-uranium (CANDU) reactors, boiling water reactors (BWRs), pressurized water reactors (PWRs), and water moderated, water cooled energy reactors (WWERs) are documented in the reports. These practices are intended to help all involved directly and indirectly in ensuring the safe operation of NPPs, and also to provide a common technical basis for dialogue between plant operators and regulators when dealing with age related licensing issues

  16. Actin grips: circular actin-rich cytoskeletal structures that mediate the wrapping of polymeric microfibers by endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Desiree; Park, DoYoung; Anghelina, Mirela; Pécot, Thierry; Machiraju, Raghu; Xue, Ruipeng; Lannutti, John J; Thomas, Jessica; Cole, Sara L; Moldovan, Leni; Moldovan, Nicanor I

    2015-06-01

    Interaction of endothelial-lineage cells with three-dimensional substrates was much less studied than that with flat culture surfaces. We investigated the in vitro attachment of both mature endothelial cells (ECs) and of less differentiated EC colony-forming cells to poly-ε-capro-lactone (PCL) fibers with diameters in 5-20 μm range ('scaffold microfibers', SMFs). We found that notwithstanding the poor intrinsic adhesiveness to PCL, both cell types completely wrapped the SMFs after long-term cultivation, thus attaining a cylindrical morphology. In this system, both EC types grew vigorously for more than a week and became increasingly more differentiated, as shown by multiplexed gene expression. Three-dimensional reconstructions from multiphoton confocal microscopy images using custom software showed that the filamentous (F) actin bundles took a conspicuous ring-like organization around the SMFs. Unlike the classical F-actin-containing stress fibers, these rings were not associated with either focal adhesions or intermediate filaments. We also demonstrated that plasma membrane boundaries adjacent to these circular cytoskeletal structures were tightly yet dynamically apposed to the SMFs, for which reason we suggest to call them 'actin grips'. In conclusion, we describe a particular form of F-actin assembly with relevance for cytoskeletal organization in response to biomaterials, for endothelial-specific cell behavior in vitro and in vivo, and for tissue engineering. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Maintenance service for major component of PWR plant. Replacement of pressurizer safe end weld

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyoshi, Yoshiyuki; Kobayashi, Yuki; Yamamoto, Kazuhide; Ueda, Takeshi; Suda, Naoki; Shintani, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    In October 2016, MHI completed the replacement of safe end weld of pressurizer (Pz) of Ringhals unit 3, which was the first maintenance work for main component of pressurized water reactor (PWR) plant in Europe. For higher reliability and longer lifetime of PWR plant, MHI has conducted many kinds of maintenance works of main components of PWR plants in Japan against stress corrosion cracking due to aging degradation. Technical process for replacement of Pz safe end weld were established by MHI. MHI has experienced the work for 21 PWR units in Japan. That of Ringhals unit 3 was planned and conducted based on the experiences. In this work, Alloy 600 used for welds of nozzles of Pz was replaced with Alloy 690. Alloy 690 is more corrosive-resistant than Alloy 600. Specially designed equipment and technical process were developed and established by MHI to replace safe end weld of Pz and applied for the Ringhals unit 3 as a first application in Europe. The application had been performed in success and achieved the planned replacement work duration and total radiation dose by using sophisticated machining and welding equipment designed to meet the requirements to be small, lightweight and remote-controlled and operating by well skilled MHI personnel experienced in maintenance activities for major components of PWR plant in Japan. The success shows that the experience, activities and technology developed in Japan for main components of PWR plant shall be applicable to contribute reliable operations of nuclear power plants in Europe and other countries. (author)

  18. The Na+–H+ exchanger-1 induces cytoskeletal changes involving reciprocal RhoA and Rac1 signaling, resulting in motility and invasion in MDA-MB-435 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paradiso, Angelo; Cardone, Rosa Angela; Bellizzi, Antonia; Bagorda, Anna; Guerra, Lorenzo; Tommasino, Massimo; Casavola, Valeria; Reshkin, Stephan J

    2004-01-01

    An increasing body of evidence shows that the tumour microenvironment is essential in driving neoplastic progression. The low serum component of this microenvironment stimulates motility/invasion in human breast cancer cells via activation of the Na + –H + exchanger (NHE) isoform 1, but the signal transduction systems that underlie this process are still poorly understood. We undertook the present study to elucidate the role and pattern of regulation by the Rho GTPases of this serum deprivation-dependent activation of both NHE1 and subsequent invasive characteristics, such as pseudopodia and invadiopodia protrusion, directed cell motility and penetration of normal tissues. The present study was performed in a well characterized human mammary epithelial cell line representing late stage metastatic progression, MDA-MB-435. The activity of RhoA and Rac1 was modified using their dominant negative and constitutively active mutants and the activity of NHE1, cell motility/invasion, F-actin content and cell shape were measured. We show for the first time that serum deprivation induces NHE1-dependent morphological and cytoskeletal changes in metastatic cells via a reciprocal interaction of RhoA and Rac1, resulting in increased chemotaxis and invasion. Deprivation changed cell shape by reducing the amount of F-actin and inducing the formation of leading edge pseudopodia. Serum deprivation inhibited RhoA activity and stimulated Rac1 activity. Rac1 and RhoA were antagonistic regulators of both basal and stimulated tumour cell NHE1 activity. The regulation of NHE1 activity by RhoA and Rac1 in both conditions was mediated by an alteration in intracellular proton affinity of the exchanger. Interestingly, the role of each of these G-proteins was reversed during serum deprivation; basal NHE1 activity was regulated positively by RhoA and negatively by Rac1, whereas RhoA negatively and Rac1 positively directed the stimulation of NHE1 during serum deprivation. Importantly, the same

  19. Selective ablation of the androgen receptor in mouse sertoli cells affects sertoli cell maturation, barrier formation and cytoskeletal development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane Willems

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The observation that mice with a selective ablation of the androgen receptor (AR in Sertoli cells (SC (SCARKO mice display a complete block in meiosis supports the contention that SC play a pivotal role in the control of germ cell development by androgens. To delineate the physiological and molecular mechanism responsible for this control, we compared tubular development in pubertal SCARKO mice and littermate controls. Particular attention was paid to differences in SC maturation, SC barrier formation and cytoskeletal organization and to the molecular mediators potentially involved. Functional analysis of SC barrier development by hypertonic perfusion and lanthanum permeation techniques and immunohistochemical analysis of junction formation showed that SCARKO mice still attempt to produce a barrier separating basal and adluminal compartment but that barrier formation is delayed and defective. Defective barrier formation was accompanied by disturbances in SC nuclear maturation (immature shape, absence of prominent, tripartite nucleoli and SC polarization (aberrant positioning of SC nuclei and cytoskeletal elements such as vimentin. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to study the transcript levels of genes potentially related to the described phenomena between day 8 and 35. Differences in the expression of SC genes known to play a role in junction formation could be shown from day 8 for Cldn11, from day 15 for Cldn3 and Espn, from day 20 for Cdh2 and Jam3 and from day 35 for ZO-1. Marked differences were also noted in the transcript levels of several genes that are also related to cell adhesion and cytoskeletal dynamics but that have not yet been studied in SC (Actn3, Ank3, Anxa9, Scin, Emb, Mpzl2. It is concluded that absence of a functional AR in SC impedes the remodeling of testicular tubules expected at the onset of spermatogenesis and interferes with the creation of the specific environment needed for germ cell development.

  20. A procedure for evaluating residual life of major components in light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, S.; Fujimori, H.; Ibe, E.; Kuniya, J.; Hayashi, M.; Fuse, M.; Yamauchi, K.

    1995-01-01

    A computer program for evaluating residual life of major components in boiling water reactors is proposed. It divides the stress corrosion cracking process into two stages; a probabilistic crack generation stage and a deterministic crack propagation one. The minimum period of the crack generation stage is evaluated assuming an exponential distribution of the stage. The crack propagation rate is calculated by the slip-dissolution/film-rupture model. The neutron flux and fluence dependence of the neutron radiation effects on material properties was evaluated by using theoretical models of radiation damage. The computer program works on an engineering work station. Evaluated results are displayed as a map of the residual life, or as graphs of crack length evolution

  1. A comparative study of the effect of oxidative stress on the cytoskeleton in human cortical neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allani, Pramod K.; Sum, Tak; Bhansali, Suraj G.; Mukherjee, Suman K.; Sonee, Manisha

    2004-01-01

    Cytoskeleton disruption is a process by which oxidative stress disrupts cellular function. This study compares and contrasts the effect of oxidative stress on the three major cytoskeleton filaments, microfilaments (MFs), microtubule (MT), and vimentin in human cortical neuronal cell line (HCN2). HCN2 cells were treated with 100 μM tertiary butylhydroperoxide (t-BuOOH), a free radical generating neurotoxin for 1, 3, or 6 h. Cell viability studies demonstrated significant cell death although the morphology studies showed that there was a substantial loss in neurites of neurons treated with t-BuOOH for 6 h. Because the cytoskeleton plays a role in neurite outgrowth, the effect of oxidative stress on the cytoskeletal was studied. In neurons subjected to oxidative stress for 30 min or 1 h, there were no major changes in microfilament distribution though there was altered distribution of microtubule and vimentin filaments as compared to controls. However, loss and disruption of all the three cytoskeletal filaments was observed at later times (3 and 6 h), which was confirmed by Western Blot analysis. Further studies were done to measure the gene expression levels of actin, tubulin, and vimentin. Results indicated that the overall loss of the cytoskeletal proteins in neurons treated with free radical generating toxin might not be a direct result of the downregulation of the cytoskeletal genes. This study shows that free radical generation in human neurons leads to the disruption of the cytoskeleton, though there may be a difference in the susceptibility to oxidative stress among the individual components of the cytoskeletal filaments

  2. The cytoskeletal binding domain of band 3 is required for multiprotein complex formation and retention during erythropoiesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satchwell, Timothy J; Hawley, Bethan R; Bell, Amanda J; Ribeiro, M. Leticia; Toye, Ashley M

    2015-01-01

    Band 3 is the most abundant protein in the erythrocyte membrane and forms the core of a major multiprotein complex. The absence of band 3 in human erythrocytes has only been reported once, in the homozygous band 3 Coimbra patient. We used in vitro culture of erythroblasts derived from this patient, and separately short hairpin RNA-mediated depletion of band 3, to investigate the development of a band 3-deficient erythrocyte membrane and to specifically assess the stability and retention of band 3 dependent proteins in the absence of this core protein during terminal erythroid differentiation. Further, using lentiviral transduction of N-terminally green fluorescent protein-tagged band 3, we demonstrated the ability to restore expression of band 3 to normal levels and to rescue secondary deficiencies of key proteins including glycophorin A, protein 4.2, CD47 and Rh proteins arising from the absence of band 3 in this patient. By transducing band 3-deficient erythroblasts from this patient with band 3 mutants with absent or impaired ability to associate with the cytoskeleton we also demonstrated the importance of cytoskeletal connectivity for retention both of band 3 and of its associated dependent proteins within the reticulocyte membrane during the process of erythroblast enucleation. PMID:25344524

  3. Why is cytoskeletal contraction required for cardiac fusion before but not after looping begins?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yunfei; Varner, Victor D.; Taber, Larry A.

    2015-02-01

    Cytoskeletal contraction is crucial to numerous morphogenetic processes, but its role in early heart development is poorly understood. Studies in chick embryos have shown that inhibiting myosin-II-based contraction prior to Hamburger-Hamilton (HH) stage 10 (33 h incubation) impedes fusion of the mesodermal heart fields that create the primitive heart tube (HT), as well as the ensuing process of cardiac looping. If contraction is inhibited at or after looping begins at HH10, however, fusion and looping proceed relatively normally. To explore the mechanisms behind this seemingly fundamental change in behavior, we measured spatiotemporal distributions of tissue stiffness, stress, and strain around the anterior intestinal portal (AIP), the opening to the foregut where contraction and cardiac fusion occur. The results indicate that stiffness and tangential tension decreased bilaterally along the AIP with distance from the embryonic midline. The gradients in stiffness and tension, as well as strain rate, increased to peaks at HH9 (30 h) and decreased afterward. Exposure to the myosin II inhibitor blebbistatin reduced these effects, suggesting that they are mainly generated by active cytoskeletal contraction, and finite-element modeling indicates that the measured mechanical gradients are consistent with a relatively uniform contraction of the endodermal layer in conjunction with constraints imposed by the attached mesoderm. Taken together, our results suggest that, before HH10, endodermal contraction pulls the bilateral heart fields toward the midline where they fuse to create the HT. By HH10, however, the fusion process is far enough along to enable apposing cardiac progenitor cells to keep ‘zipping’ together during looping without the need for continued high contractile forces. These findings should shed new light on a perplexing question in early heart development.

  4. Why is cytoskeletal contraction required for cardiac fusion before but not after looping begins?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Yunfei; Taber, Larry A; Varner, Victor D

    2015-01-01

    Cytoskeletal contraction is crucial to numerous morphogenetic processes, but its role in early heart development is poorly understood. Studies in chick embryos have shown that inhibiting myosin-II-based contraction prior to Hamburger–Hamilton (HH) stage 10 (33 h incubation) impedes fusion of the mesodermal heart fields that create the primitive heart tube (HT), as well as the ensuing process of cardiac looping. If contraction is inhibited at or after looping begins at HH10, however, fusion and looping proceed relatively normally. To explore the mechanisms behind this seemingly fundamental change in behavior, we measured spatiotemporal distributions of tissue stiffness, stress, and strain around the anterior intestinal portal (AIP), the opening to the foregut where contraction and cardiac fusion occur. The results indicate that stiffness and tangential tension decreased bilaterally along the AIP with distance from the embryonic midline. The gradients in stiffness and tension, as well as strain rate, increased to peaks at HH9 (30 h) and decreased afterward. Exposure to the myosin II inhibitor blebbistatin reduced these effects, suggesting that they are mainly generated by active cytoskeletal contraction, and finite-element modeling indicates that the measured mechanical gradients are consistent with a relatively uniform contraction of the endodermal layer in conjunction with constraints imposed by the attached mesoderm. Taken together, our results suggest that, before HH10, endodermal contraction pulls the bilateral heart fields toward the midline where they fuse to create the HT. By HH10, however, the fusion process is far enough along to enable apposing cardiac progenitor cells to keep ‘zipping’ together during looping without the need for continued high contractile forces. These findings should shed new light on a perplexing question in early heart development. (paper)

  5. Analysis of leukocyte binding to depletion filters: role of passive binding, interaction with platelets, and plasma components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henschler, R; Rüster, B; Steimle, A; Hansmann, H L; Walker, W; Montag, T; Seifried, E

    2005-08-01

    Since limited knowledge exists on the mechanisms which regulate cell binding to leukocyte removal filter surfaces, we investigated the binding patterns of leukocytes to individual layers of leukocyte depletion filters. After passage of 1 unit of whole blood, blotting of isolated filter layers on glass slides or elution of cells from filter layers revealed that most leukocytes were located within the first 10 of a total of 28 filter layers, peaking at layers 6 to 8, with granulocytes binding on average to earlier filter layers than lymphocytes. Leukocytes preincubated with inhibitors of actin activation showed unchanged distribution between filter layers, suggesting that cytoskeletal activation does not significantly contribute to their binding. When leukocytes were directly incubated with single filter layers, binding of up to 30% of input cells was recorded in the absence of Ca(2+). Immunohistological analyses showed colocalization of platelets and leukocytes, with co-clustering of platelets and leukocytes. Monocytes and to some degree lymphocytes but not granulocytes competed with platelets for filter binding. Precoating of filter layers with individual plasma components showed that hyaluronic acid, plasma type fibronectin, and fibrinogen all increased the binding of leukocytes compared with albumin coating. In conclusion, leukocytes can bind passively to filters in a process which does not require Ca(2+), which is independent of cytoskeletal activation and which may depend on individual plasma components. These results are of importance when new selective cell enrichment or depletion strategies through specific filters are envisaged.

  6. Development of and verification test integral reactor major components - Development of manufacturing process and fabrication of prototype for SG and CEDM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Hee; Park, Hwa Kyu; Kim, Yong Kyu; Choi, Yong Soon; Kang, Ki Su; Hyun, Young Min [Korea Heavy Industries and Construction Co., LTD., Changwon (Korea)

    1999-03-01

    Integral SMART(System integrated Modular Advanced Reactor) type reactor is under conceptual design. Because major components is integrated within in a single pressure vessel, compact design using advanced technology is essential. It means that manufacturing process for these components is more complex and difficult. The objective of this study is to confirm the possibility of manufacture of Steam Generator, Control Element Drive Mechanism(CEDM) and Reactor Assembly which includes Reactor Pressure Vessel, it is important to understand the design requirement and function of the major components. After understanding the design requirement and function, it is concluded that the helical bending and weld qualification of titanium tube for Steam Generator and the applicability of electron beam weld for CEDM step motor parts is the critical to fabricate the components. Therefore, bending mock-up and weld qualification of titanium tube was performed and the results are quite satisfactory. Also, it is concluded that electron beam welding technique can be applicable to the CEDM step motor part. (author). 22 refs., 14 figs., 46 tabs.

  7. Major component analysis of dynamic networks of physiologic organ interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Kang K L; Ma, Qianli D Y; Ivanov, Plamen Ch; Bartsch, Ronny P

    2015-01-01

    The human organism is a complex network of interconnected organ systems, where the behavior of one system affects the dynamics of other systems. Identifying and quantifying dynamical networks of diverse physiologic systems under varied conditions is a challenge due to the complexity in the output dynamics of the individual systems and the transient and nonlinear characteristics of their coupling. We introduce a novel computational method based on the concept of time delay stability and major component analysis to investigate how organ systems interact as a network to coordinate their functions. We analyze a large database of continuously recorded multi-channel physiologic signals from healthy young subjects during night-time sleep. We identify a network of dynamic interactions between key physiologic systems in the human organism. Further, we find that each physiologic state is characterized by a distinct network structure with different relative contribution from individual organ systems to the global network dynamics. Specifically, we observe a gradual decrease in the strength of coupling of heart and respiration to the rest of the network with transition from wake to deep sleep, and in contrast, an increased relative contribution to network dynamics from chin and leg muscle tone and eye movement, demonstrating a robust association between network topology and physiologic function. (paper)

  8. Intracellular transport driven by cytoskeletal motors: General mechanisms and defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appert-Rolland, C.; Ebbinghaus, M.; Santen, L.

    2015-09-01

    Cells are the elementary units of living organisms, which are able to carry out many vital functions. These functions rely on active processes on a microscopic scale. Therefore, they are strongly out-of-equilibrium systems, which are driven by continuous energy supply. The tasks that have to be performed in order to maintain the cell alive require transportation of various ingredients, some being small, others being large. Intracellular transport processes are able to induce concentration gradients and to carry objects to specific targets. These processes cannot be carried out only by diffusion, as cells may be crowded, and quite elongated on molecular scales. Therefore active transport has to be organized. The cytoskeleton, which is composed of three types of filaments (microtubules, actin and intermediate filaments), determines the shape of the cell, and plays a role in cell motion. It also serves as a road network for a special kind of vehicles, namely the cytoskeletal motors. These molecules can attach to a cytoskeletal filament, perform directed motion, possibly carrying along some cargo, and then detach. It is a central issue to understand how intracellular transport driven by molecular motors is regulated. The interest for this type of question was enhanced when it was discovered that intracellular transport breakdown is one of the signatures of some neuronal diseases like the Alzheimer. We give a survey of the current knowledge on microtubule based intracellular transport. Our review includes on the one hand an overview of biological facts, obtained from experiments, and on the other hand a presentation of some modeling attempts based on cellular automata. We present some background knowledge on the original and variants of the TASEP (Totally Asymmetric Simple Exclusion Process), before turning to more application oriented models. After addressing microtubule based transport in general, with a focus on in vitro experiments, and on cooperative effects in the

  9. Quinolinic acid induces disrupts cytoskeletal homeostasis in striatal neurons. Protective role of astrocyte-neuron interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierozan, Paula; Ferreira, Fernanda; de Lima, Bárbara Ortiz; Pessoa-Pureur, Regina

    2015-02-01

    Quinolinic acid (QUIN) is an endogenous metabolite of the kynurenine pathway involved in several neurological disorders. Among the several mechanisms involved in QUIN-mediated toxicity, disruption of the cytoskeleton has been demonstrated in striatally injected rats and in striatal slices. The present work searched for the actions of QUIN in primary striatal neurons. Neurons exposed to 10 µM QUIN presented hyperphosphorylated neurofilament (NF) subunits (NFL, NFM, and NFH). Hyperphosphorylation was abrogated in the presence of protein kinase A and protein kinase C inhibitors H89 (20 μM) and staurosporine (10 nM), respectively, as well as by specific antagonists to N-methyl-D-aspartate (50 µM DL-AP5) and metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (100 µM MPEP). Also, intra- and extracellular Ca(2+) chelators (10 µM BAPTA-AM and 1 mM EGTA, respectively) and Ca(2+) influx through L-type voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channel (10 µM verapamil) are implicated in QUIN-mediated effects. Cells immunostained for the neuronal markers βIII-tubulin and microtubule-associated protein 2 showed altered neurite/neuron ratios and neurite outgrowth. NF hyperphosphorylation and morphological alterations were totally prevented by conditioned medium from QUIN-treated astrocytes. Cocultured astrocytes and neurons interacted with one another reciprocally, protecting them against QUIN injury. Cocultured cells preserved their cytoskeletal organization and cell morphology together with unaltered activity of the phosphorylating system associated with the cytoskeleton. This article describes cytoskeletal disruption as one of the most relevant actions of QUIN toxicity in striatal neurons in culture with soluble factors secreted by astrocytes, with neuron-astrocyte interaction playing a role in neuroprotection. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. The effect of the cytoskeletal inhibitors on the splenic lymphocyte traffic and homing in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Huibin

    1989-01-01

    The rat splenic lymphocyte traffic and homing in vivo and the effect of cytoskeletal inhibitors on this process were investigated using the technique of γ-counting of 51 Cr-labelled lymphocytes. The results suggests that:(1) After 2 of intravenous injection, the 51 Cr-labelled lymphocytes from donor rat spleen mainly home to recipient rat spleen, liver, lungs, mesenteric lymph modes (MLN) and gut-associated lymphoid tissues. (2) A significant inhibiting effect on the ability of preferential homing of splenic lymphocytes treated with sodium azide, cytochalasin B or colchicine shows that microtubles and microfilaments play an important role in the lymphocyte traffic and homing

  11. Attenuation of LDHA expression in cancer cells leads to redox-dependent alterations in cytoskeletal structure and cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arseneault, Robert; Chien, Andrew; Newington, Jordan T; Rappon, Tim; Harris, Richard; Cumming, Robert C

    2013-09-28

    Aerobic glycolysis, the preferential use of glycolysis even in the presence of oxygen to meet cellular metabolic demands, is a near universal feature of cancer. This unique type of metabolism is thought to protect cancer cells from damaging reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced in the mitochondria. Using the cancer cell line MDA-MB-435 it is shown that shRNA mediated knockdown of lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA), a key mediator of aerobic glycolysis, results in elevated mitochondrial ROS production and a concomitant decrease in cell proliferation and motility. Redox-sensitive proteins affected by oxidative stress associated with LDHA knockdown were identified by Redox 2D-PAGE and mass spectrometry. In particular, tropomyosin (Tm) isoforms Tm4, Tm5NM1 and Tm5NM5, proteins involved in cell migration and cytoskeletal dynamics, exhibited changes in disulfide bonding and co-localized with peri-nuclear actin aggregates in LDHA knockdown cells. In contrast, treatment with the thiol-based antioxidant N-acetylcysteine promoted the relocalization of Tms to cortical actin microfilaments and partially rescued the migration defects associated with attenuated LDHA expression. These results suggest that aerobic glycolysis and reduced mitochondrial ROS production create an environment conducive to cytoskeletal remodeling; key events linked to the high cell motility associated with cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Small-molecule intramimics of formin autoinhibition: a new strategy to target the cytoskeletal remodeling machinery in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lash, L Leanne; Wallar, Bradley J; Turner, Julie D; Vroegop, Steven M; Kilkuskie, Robert E; Kitchen-Goosen, Susan M; Xu, H Eric; Alberts, Arthur S

    2013-11-15

    Although the cancer cell cytoskeleton is a clinically validated target, few new strategies have emerged for selectively targeting cell division by modulating the cytoskeletal structure, particularly ways that could avoid the cardiotoxic and neurotoxic effects of current agents such as taxanes. We address this gap by describing a novel class of small-molecule agonists of the mammalian Diaphanous (mDia)-related formins, which act downstream of Rho GTPases to assemble actin filaments, and their organization with microfilaments to establish and maintain cell polarity during migration and asymmetric division. GTP-bound Rho activates mDia family members by disrupting the interaction between the DID and DAD autoregulatory domains, which releases the FH2 domain to modulate actin and microtubule dynamics. In screening for DID-DAD disruptors that activate mDia, we identified two molecules called intramimics (IMM-01 and -02) that were sufficient to trigger actin assembly and microtubule stabilization, serum response factor-mediated gene expression, cell-cycle arrest, and apoptosis. In vivo analysis of IMM-01 and -02 established their ability to slow tumor growth in a mouse xenograft model of colon cancer. Taken together, our work establishes the use of intramimics and mDia-related formins as a new general strategy for therapeutic targeting of the cytoskeletal remodeling machinery of cancer cells. ©2013 AACR

  13. Gallic Acid Is the Major Active Component of Cortex Moutan in Inhibiting Immune Maturation of Human Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Chung Lap Chan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Atopic dermatitis (AD is a widely prevalent and chronically relapsing inflammatory skin disease. Penta Herbs Formula (PHF is efficacious in improving the quality of life and reducing topical corticosteroid used in children with AD and one of the active herbs it contains is Cortex Moutan. Recent studies showed that altered functions of dendritic cells (DC were observed in atopic individuals, suggesting that DC might play a major role in the generation and maintenance of inflammation by their production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Hence, the aims of the present study were to identify the major active component(s of Cortex Moutan, which might inhibit DC functions and to investigate their possible interactions with conventional corticosteroid on inhibiting the development of DC from monocytes. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDC culture model coupled with the high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC, high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC and Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LCMS analyses were used. Gallic acid was the major active component from Cortex Moutan which could dose dependently inhibit interleukin (IL-12 p40 and the functional cluster of differentiation (CD surface markers CD40, CD80, CD83 and CD86 expression from cytokine cocktail-activated moDC. Gallic acid could also lower the concentration of hydrocortisone required to inhibit the activation of DC.

  14. Assessment and management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety: BWR pressure vessel internals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-10-01

    At present, there are over four hundred operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) in IAEA Member States. Operating experience has shown that ineffective control of the ageing degradation of the major NPP components (caused for instance by unanticipated phenomena and by operating maintenance or manufacturing errors) can jeopardize plant safety and also plant life. Ageing in these NPPs must be therefore effectively managed to ensure the availability of design functions throughout the plant service life. From the safety perspective, this means controlling, within acceptable limits, the ageing degradation and ware out of components important to safety so that adequate safety margins remain, i.e. integrity and functional capability in excess of normal operating requirements. This TECDOC is one in a series of guidance reports on the assessment and management of ageing of the major NPP components important to safety. The reports are based on experience and practices of NPP operators, regulators, designers, manufacturers, and technical support organizations and a widely accepted Methodology for the Management of Ageing of NPP Components Important to Safety, which was issued by the IAEA in 1992. Since the reports are written from a safety perspective, they do not address life or life cycle management of plant components, which involves economic considerations. The current practices for the assessment of safety margins (fitness for service) and the inspection, monitoring and mitigation of ageing degradation of selected components of heavy water moderated reactors (HWRs), boiling water reactors (BWRs), pressurized water reactors (PWRs), and water moderated, water cooled energy reactors (WWERs) are documented in the reports. These practices are intended to help all involved directly and indirectly in ensuring the safe operation of NPPs, and also to provide a common technical basis for dialogue between plant operators and regulators when dealing with age related licensing issues

  15. Altered expression of γ-secretase components in animal model of major depressive disorder induced by reserpine administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye-Ryun; Hwang, In-Sik; Kim, Ji-Eun; Choi, Sun-Il; Lee, Young-Ju; Goo, Jun-Seo; Lee, Eon-Pil; Choi, Hae-Wook; Kim, Hong-Sung; Lee, Jae-Ho; Jung, Young-Jin; Hwang, Dae-Youn

    2012-06-01

    Altered expression of neurotrophic factors as well as neuroinflammation is commonly associated with Major depressive disorder (MDD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). To investigate whether or not reserpine-induced MDD affects the expression of AD-related proteins, the expression of γ-secretase components and substrate were measured in brains of ICR mice following reserpine treatment for 15 days. In active avoidance test, total response time and peak slightly increased in the 2 mg/kg reserpine (RSP2)-treated group compared to vehicle-treated group (Pprecursor protein (APP) was enhanced in the RSP1 and RSP2-treated groups compared to the vehicle-treated group, whereas expression of γ-secretase components decreased (P<0.03). Among the three components of the γ-secretase complex, nicastrin protein underwent the largest decrease in expression, as detected by Western blotting (P<0.03). Therefore, the data presented here provide additional evidence about the pathological correlation between MDD and AD.

  16. Development of technology on natural flaw fabrication and precise diagnosis for the major components in NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Jung Ho; Choi, Myung Sik; Lee, Doek Hyun; Hur, Do Haeng

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this research is to develop a fabrication technology of natural flaw specimen of major components in NPPs and a technology of precise diagnosis for failure and degradation of components using natural flaw specimen. 1) Successful development of the natural flaw fabrication technology of SG tube 2) Evaluation of ECT signal and development of precise diagnosis using natural flaws. - Determination of length, depth, width, and multiplicity of fabricated natural flaws. - Informations about detectability and accuracy of ECT evaluation on various kinds of defects are collected when the combination of probe and frequency is changed. - An advanced technology for precise ECT evaluation is established. 3) Application of precise ECT diagnosis to failure analysis of SG tube in operation. - Fretting wear of KSNP SG. - ODSCC at tube expanded region of KSNP SG. - Determination of through/non-through wall of axial crack

  17. Expression analysis of cellulose synthase and main cytoskeletal protein genes in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galinousky, Dmitry; Padvitski, Tsimafei; Bayer, Galina; Pirko, Yaroslav; Pydiura, Nikolay; Anisimova, Natallia; Nikitinskaya, Tatyana; Khotyleva, Liubov; Yemets, Alla; Kilchevsky, Aleksandr; Blume, Yaroslav

    2017-08-09

    Fiber flax is an important source of natural fiber and a comprehensive model for the plant fiber biogenesis studies. Cellulose-synthase (CesA) and cytoskeletal genes are known to be important for the cell wall biogenesis in general and for the biogenesis of flax fibers in particular. Currently, knowledge about activity of these genes during the plant growth is limited. In this study, we have investigated flax fiber biogenesis by measuring expression of CesA and cytoskeletal genes at two stages of the flax development (seedlings and stems at the rapid growth stage) in several flax subspecies (elongatum, mediterraneum, crepitans). RT-qPCR has been used to quantify the expression of LusСesA1, LusСesA4, LusСesA7, LusСesA6, Actin, and α-Tubulin genes in plant samples. We report that CesA genes responsible for the secondary cell wall synthesis (LusCesA4, LusCesA7) have different expression pattern compared with CesA genes responsible for the primary cell wall synthesis (LusCesA1, LusCesA6): an average expression of LusCesA4 and LusCesA7 genes is relatively high in seedlings and further increases in stems at the rapid growth stage, whereas an average expression of LusCesA1 and LusCesA6 genes decreases. Interestingly, LusCesA1 is the only studied gene with different expression dynamics between the flax subspecies: its expression decreases by 5.2-10.7 folds in elongatum and mediterraneum but does not change in crepitans subspecies when the rapid growth stage and seedlings are compared. The expression of cytoskeleton genes (coding actin and α-tubulin) is relatively stable and significantly higher than the expression of cellulose-synthase genes in all the studied samples. © 2017 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  18. Characterization of secondary organic aerosol from photo-oxidation of gasoline exhaust and specific sources of major components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Pengkun; Zhang, Peng; Shu, Jinian; Yang, Bo; Zhang, Haixu

    2018-01-01

    To further explore the composition and distribution of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) components from the photo-oxidation of light aromatic precursors (toluene, m-xylene, and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (1,3,5-TMB)) and idling gasoline exhaust, a vacuum ultraviolet photoionization mass spectrometer (VUV-PIMS) was employed. Peaks of the molecular ions of the SOA components with minimum molecular fragmentation were clearly observed from the mass spectra of SOA, through the application of soft ionization methods in VUV-PIMS. The experiments comparing the exhaust-SOA and light aromatic mixture-SOA showed that the observed distributions of almost all the predominant cluster ions in the exhaust-SOA were similar to that of the mixture-SOA. Based on the characterization experiments of SOA formed from individual light aromatic precursors, the SOA components with molecular weights of 98 and 110 amu observed in the exhaust-SOA resulted from the photo-oxidation of toluene and m-xylene; the components with a molecular weight of 124 amu were derived mainly from m-xylene; and the components with molecular weights of 100, 112, 128, 138, and 156 amu were mainly derived from 1,3,5-TMB. These results suggest that C 7 -C 9 light aromatic hydrocarbons are significant SOA precursors and that major SOA components originate from gasoline exhaust. Additionally, some new light aromatic hydrocarbon-SOA components were observed for the first time using VUV-PIMS. The corresponding reaction mechanisms were also proposed in this study to enrich the knowledge base of the formation mechanisms of light aromatic hydrocarbon-SOA compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Metabolic syndrome definitions and components in predicting major adverse cardiovascular events after kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, G V Ramesh; Huang, Michael; Silver, Samuel A; Al-Lawati, Ali I; Rapi, Lindita; Nash, Michelle M; Zaltzman, Jeffrey S

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) associates with cardiovascular risk post-kidney transplantation, but its ambiguity impairs understanding of its diagnostic utility relative to components. We compared five MetS definitions and the predictive value of constituent components of significant definitions for major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in a cohort of 1182 kidney transplant recipients. MetS definitions were adjusted for noncomponent traditional Framingham risk factors and relevant transplant-related variables. Kaplan-Meier, logistic regression, and Cox proportional hazards analysis were utilized. There were 143 MACE over 7447 patient-years of follow-up. Only the World Health Organization (WHO) 1998 definition predicted MACE (25.3 vs 15.5 events/1000 patient-years, P = 0.019). Time-to-MACE was 5.5 ± 3.5 years with MetS and 6.8 ± 3.9 years without MetS (P < 0.0001). MetS was independent of pertinent MACE risk factors except age and previous cardiac disease. Among MetS components, dysglycemia provided greatest hazard ratio (HR) for MACE (1.814 [95% confidence interval 1.26-2.60]), increased successively by microalbuminuria (HR 1.946 [1.37-2.75]), dyslipidemia (3.284 [1.72-6.26]), hypertension (4.127 [2.16-7.86]), and central obesity (4.282 [2.09-8.76]). MetS did not affect graft survival. In summary, although the WHO 1998 definition provides greatest predictive value for post-transplant MACE, most of this is conferred by dysglycemia and is overshadowed by age and previous cardiac disease. © 2014 Steunstichting ESOT.

  20. Assessment and management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety. Primary piping in PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-07-01

    At present, there are over four hundred operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) in IAEA Member States. Operating experience has shown that ineffective control of the ageing degradation of the major NPP components (caused for instance by unanticipated phenomena and by operating, maintenance or manufacturing errors) can jeopardize plant safety and also plant life. Ageing in these NPPs must therefore be effectively managed to ensure the availability of design functions throughout the plant service life. From the safety perspective, this means controlling, within acceptable limits, the ageing degradation and wear out of plant components important to safety so that adequate safety margins remain, i.e. integrity and functional capability in excess of normal operating requirements. This TECDOC is one in a series of reports on the assessment and management of ageing of the major NPP components important to safety. The reports are based on experience and practices of NPP operators, regulators, designers, manufacturers, technical support organizations and a widely accepted Methodology for the Management of Ageing of NPP Components Important to Safety, which was issued by the IAEA in 1992. Since the reports are written from a safety perspective, they do not address life or life cycle management of plant components, which involves economic considerations. The current practices for the assessment of safety margins (fitness-for-service) and the inspection, monitoring and mitigation of ageing degradation of selected components of Canada deuterium-uranium (CANDU) reactors, boiling water reactors (BWRs), pressurized water reactors (PWRs), and water moderated, water cooled energy reactors (WWERs) are documented in the reports. These practices are intended to help all involved directly and indirectly in ensuring the safe operation of NPPs, and to provide a common technical basis for dialogue between plant operators and regulators when dealing with age-related licensing issues. The

  1. Cytoskeletal remodeling of connective tissue fibroblasts in response to static stretch is dependent on matrix material properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Rosalyn D; Koptiuch, Cathryn; Iatridis, James C; Howe, Alan K; Badger, Gary J; Langevin, Helene M

    2012-01-01

    In areolar “loose” connective tissue, fibroblasts remodel their cytoskeleton within minutes in response to static stretch resulting in increased cell body cross-sectional area that relaxes the tissue to a lower state of resting tension. It remains unknown whether the loosely arranged collagen matrix, characteristic of areolar connective tissue, is required for this cytoskeletal response to occur. The purpose of this study was to evaluate cytoskeletal remodeling of fibroblasts in and dissociated from areolar and dense connective tissue in response to 2 hours of static stretch in both native tissue and collagen gels of varying crosslinking. Rheometric testing indicated that the areolar connective tissue had a lower dynamic modulus and was more viscous than the dense connective tissue. In response to stretch, cells within the more compliant areolar connective tissue adopted a large “sheet-like” morphology that was in contrast to the smaller dendritic morphology in the dense connective tissue. By adjusting the in vitro collagen crosslinking, and the resulting dynamic modulus, it was demonstrated that cells dissociated from dense connective tissue are capable of responding when seeded into a compliant matrix, while cells dissociated from areolar connective tissue can lose their ability to respond when their matrix becomes stiffer. This set of experiments indicated stretch-induced fibroblast expansion was dependent on the distinct matrix material properties of areolar connective tissues as opposed to the cells’ tissue of origin. These results also suggest that disease and pathological processes with increased crosslinks, such as diabetes and fibrosis, could impair fibroblast responsiveness in connective tissues. PMID:22552950

  2. Cytoskeletal Linker Protein Dystonin Is Not Critical to Terminal Oligodendrocyte Differentiation or CNS Myelination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha F Kornfeld

    Full Text Available Oligodendrocyte differentiation and central nervous system myelination require massive reorganization of the oligodendrocyte cytoskeleton. Loss of specific actin- and tubulin-organizing factors can lead to impaired morphological and/or molecular differentiation of oligodendrocytes, resulting in a subsequent loss of myelination. Dystonin is a cytoskeletal linker protein with both actin- and tubulin-binding domains. Loss of function of this protein results in a sensory neuropathy called Hereditary Sensory Autonomic Neuropathy VI in humans and dystonia musculorum in mice. This disease presents with severe ataxia, dystonic muscle and is ultimately fatal early in life. While loss of the neuronal isoforms of dystonin primarily leads to sensory neuron degeneration, it has also been shown that peripheral myelination is compromised due to intrinsic Schwann cell differentiation abnormalities. The role of this cytoskeletal linker in oligodendrocytes, however, remains unclear. We sought to determine the effects of the loss of neuronal dystonin on oligodendrocyte differentiation and central myelination. To address this, primary oligodendrocytes were isolated from a severe model of dystonia musculorum, Dstdt-27J, and assessed for morphological and molecular differentiation capacity. No defects could be discerned in the differentiation of Dstdt-27J oligodendrocytes relative to oligodendrocytes from wild-type littermates. Survival was also compared between Dstdt-27J and wild-type oligodendrocytes, revealing no significant difference. Using a recently developed migration assay, we further analysed the ability of primary oligodendrocyte progenitor cell motility, and found that Dstdt-27J oligodendrocyte progenitor cells were able to migrate normally. Finally, in vivo analysis of oligodendrocyte myelination was done in phenotype-stage optic nerve, cerebral cortex and spinal cord. The density of myelinated axons and g-ratios of Dstdt-27J optic nerves was normal, as

  3. Comparative study on major bioactive components in natural, artificial and in-vitro cultured Calculus Bovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shi-Kai; Wu, Yan-Wen; Liu, Run-Hui; Zhang, Wei-Dong

    2007-01-01

    Major bioactive components in various Calculus Bovis, including natural, artificial and in-vitro cultured Calculus Bovis, were comparatively studied. An approach of high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ultraviolet and evaporative light scattering detections (HPLC/UV/ELSD) was established to simultaneously determinate six bioactive components thereof, including five bile acids (cholic acid, deoxycholic acid, ursodeoxycholic, chenodeoxycholic acid, hyodeoxycholic acid) and bilirubin. ELSD and UV detector were applied to detect bile acids and bilirubin respectively. The assay was performed on a C(18) column with water-acetonitrile gradient elution and the investigated constituents were authenticated by comparing retention times and mass spectra with those of reference compounds. The proposed method was applied to analyze twenty-one Calculus Bovis extraction samples, and produced data with acceptable linearity, precision, repeatability and accuracy. The result indicated the variations among Calculus Bovis samples under different developmental conditions. Artificial and in-vitro cultured Calculus Bovis, especially in-vitro cultured ones, which contain total bioactive constituents no less than natural products and have the best batch-to-batch uniformity, suffice to be used as substitutes of natural Calculus Bovis.

  4. Mechanical components: fabrication of major reactor structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholson, S.

    1985-01-01

    The paper examines the validity of criticisms of quality assurance of mechanical plant and welded products within major reactor structures, taking into account experience gained on the AGR's. Various constructive recommendations are made aimed at furthering the objectives of quality assurance in the nuclear industry and making it more cost-effective. Current levels of quality related costs in the fabrication industry are provided as a basis for discussion. (U.K.)

  5. Magnolol inhibits migration of vascular smooth muscle cells via cytoskeletal remodeling pathway to attenuate neointima formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karki, Rajendra; Kim, Seong-Bin; Kim, Dong-Wook

    2013-01-01

    Background: Increased proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) contribute importantly to the formation of both atherosclerotic and restenotic lesions. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of magnolol on VSMC migration. Methods: The proteolytic activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) stimulated VSMCs was performed by gelatin zymography. VSMC migration was assessed by wound healing and Boyden chamber methods. Collagen induced VSMC adhesion was determined by spectrofluorimeter and stress fibers formation was evaluated by fluorescence microscope. The expression of signaling molecules involved in stress fibers formation was determined by western blot. The phosphorylation of myosin light chain (MLC20) was determined by urea-glycerol polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Immunohistochemistry was performed to determine the expression of β1-integrin and collagen type I in the injured carotid arteries of rats on day 35 after vascular injury. Results: VSMC migration was strongly inhibited by magnolol without affecting MMPs expression. Also, magnolol inhibited β1-integrin expression, FAK phosphorylation and RhoA and Cdc42 activation to inhibit the collagen induced stress fibers formation. Moreover, magnolol inhibited the phosphorylation of MLC20. Our in vivo results showed that magnolol inhibited β1-integrin expression, collagen type I deposition and FAK phosphorylation in injured carotid arteries without affecting MMP-2 activity. Conclusions: Magnolol inhibited VSMC migration via inhibition of cytoskeletal remodeling pathway to attenuate neointima formation. General significance: This study provides a rationale for further evaluation of magnolol for the management of atherosclerosis and restenosis. - Highlights: • Magnolol strongly inhibited migration of VSMCs. • Magnolol inhibited stress fibers formation. • MLC20 phosphorylation was also inhibited by magnolol. • Anti

  6. Magnolol inhibits migration of vascular smooth muscle cells via cytoskeletal remodeling pathway to attenuate neointima formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karki, Rajendra [Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, University of Missouri-Kansas City (United States); Department of Oriental Medicine Resources, Mokpo National University (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seong-Bin [Jeollanamdo Development Institute for Korean Traditional Medicine, Jangheung gun, Jeollanamdo (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong-Wook, E-mail: dbkim@mokpo.ac.kr [Department of Oriental Medicine Resources, Mokpo National University (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-10

    Background: Increased proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) contribute importantly to the formation of both atherosclerotic and restenotic lesions. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of magnolol on VSMC migration. Methods: The proteolytic activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) stimulated VSMCs was performed by gelatin zymography. VSMC migration was assessed by wound healing and Boyden chamber methods. Collagen induced VSMC adhesion was determined by spectrofluorimeter and stress fibers formation was evaluated by fluorescence microscope. The expression of signaling molecules involved in stress fibers formation was determined by western blot. The phosphorylation of myosin light chain (MLC20) was determined by urea-glycerol polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Immunohistochemistry was performed to determine the expression of β1-integrin and collagen type I in the injured carotid arteries of rats on day 35 after vascular injury. Results: VSMC migration was strongly inhibited by magnolol without affecting MMPs expression. Also, magnolol inhibited β1-integrin expression, FAK phosphorylation and RhoA and Cdc42 activation to inhibit the collagen induced stress fibers formation. Moreover, magnolol inhibited the phosphorylation of MLC20. Our in vivo results showed that magnolol inhibited β1-integrin expression, collagen type I deposition and FAK phosphorylation in injured carotid arteries without affecting MMP-2 activity. Conclusions: Magnolol inhibited VSMC migration via inhibition of cytoskeletal remodeling pathway to attenuate neointima formation. General significance: This study provides a rationale for further evaluation of magnolol for the management of atherosclerosis and restenosis. - Highlights: • Magnolol strongly inhibited migration of VSMCs. • Magnolol inhibited stress fibers formation. • MLC20 phosphorylation was also inhibited by magnolol. • Anti

  7. IQGAP1 is a novel CXCR2-interacting protein and essential component of the "chemosynapse".

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole F Neel

    Full Text Available Chemotaxis is essential for a number of physiological processes including leukocyte recruitment. Chemokines initiate intracellular signaling pathways necessary for chemotaxis through binding seven transmembrane G protein-couple receptors. Little is known about the proteins that interact with the intracellular domains of chemokine receptors to initiate cellular signaling upon ligand binding. CXCR2 is a major chemokine receptor expressed on several cell types, including endothelial cells and neutrophils. We hypothesize that multiple proteins interact with the intracellular domains of CXCR2 upon ligand stimulation and these interactions comprise a "chemosynapse", and play important roles in transducing CXCR2 mediated signaling processes.In an effort to define the complex of proteins that assemble upon CXCR2 activation to relay signals from activated chemokine receptors, a proteomics approach was employed to identify proteins that co-associate with CXCR2 with or without ligand stimulation. The components of the CXCR2 "chemosynapse" are involved in processes ranging from intracellular trafficking to cytoskeletal modification. IQ motif containing GTPase activating protein 1 (IQGAP1 was among the novel proteins identified to interact directly with CXCR2. Herein, we demonstrate that CXCR2 co-localizes with IQGAP1 at the leading edge of polarized human neutrophils and CXCR2 expressing differentiated HL-60 cells. Moreover, amino acids 1-160 of IQGAP1 directly interact with the carboxyl-terminal domain of CXCR2 and stimulation with CXCL8 enhances IQGAP1 association with Cdc42.Our studies indicate that IQGAP1 is a novel essential component of the CXCR2 "chemosynapse".

  8. Catenins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez-Moreno, Mirna; Fuchs, Elaine

    2006-01-01

    intercellular communication between different cell types within a tissue. These findings reveal novel aspects of AJ function in normal tissues and offer insights into how changes in AJs and their associated proteins and cytoskeletal dynamics impact wound-repair and cancer......., conventional views have similarly been shaken about the other two major AJ catenins, alpha-catenin and p120-catenin. Catenins have emerged as molecular sensors that integrate cell-cell junctions and cytoskeletal dynamics with signaling pathways that govern morphogenesis, tissue homeostasis, and even......Adherens junctions have been traditionally viewed as building blocks of tissue architecture. The foundations for this view began to change with the discovery that a central component of AJs, beta-catenin, can also function as a transcriptional cofactor in Wnt signaling. In recent years...

  9. Development of a web-based aging monitoring system for an integrity evaluation of the major components in a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jae-Boong; Yeum, Seung-Won; Ko, Han-Ok; Kim, Young-Jin; Kim, Hong-Key; Choi, Young-Hwan; Park, Youn-Won

    2010-01-01

    Structural and mechanical components in a nuclear power plant are designed to operate for its entire service life. Recently, a number of nuclear power plants are being operated beyond their design life to produce more electricity without shutting down. The critical issue in extending a lifetime is to maintain the level of safety during the extended operation period while satisfying the international regulatory standards. However, only a small portion of these components are of great importance for a significant aging degradation which would deeply affect the long-term safety and reliability of the related facilities. Therefore, it is beneficial to build a monitoring system to measure an aging status. While a number of integrity evaluation systems have been developed for NPPs, a real-time aging monitoring system has not been proposed yet . This paper proposes an expert system for the integrity evaluation of nuclear power plants based on a Web-based Reality Environment (WRE). The proposed system provides the integrity assessment for the major mechanical components of a nuclear power plant under concurrent working environments. In the WRE, it is possible for users to understand a mechanical system such as its size, geometry, coupling condition etc. In conclusion, it is anticipated that the proposed system can be used for a more efficient integrity evaluation of the major components subjected to an aging degradation.

  10. Development of a web-based aging monitoring system for an integrity evaluation of the major components in a nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jae-Boong, E-mail: boong33@skku.ed [SAFE Research Centre, School of Mechanical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, 300 Chunchun-dong, Jangan-gu, Suwon, Kyonggi-do 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Yeum, Seung-Won; Ko, Han-Ok; Kim, Young-Jin [SAFE Research Centre, School of Mechanical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, 300 Chunchun-dong, Jangan-gu, Suwon, Kyonggi-do 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hong-Key; Choi, Young-Hwan; Park, Youn-Won [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, 34 Gwahak-ro, Yusong-ku, Teajon 305-338 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-01-15

    Structural and mechanical components in a nuclear power plant are designed to operate for its entire service life. Recently, a number of nuclear power plants are being operated beyond their design life to produce more electricity without shutting down. The critical issue in extending a lifetime is to maintain the level of safety during the extended operation period while satisfying the international regulatory standards. However, only a small portion of these components are of great importance for a significant aging degradation which would deeply affect the long-term safety and reliability of the related facilities. Therefore, it is beneficial to build a monitoring system to measure an aging status. While a number of integrity evaluation systems have been developed for NPPs, a real-time aging monitoring system has not been proposed yet . This paper proposes an expert system for the integrity evaluation of nuclear power plants based on a Web-based Reality Environment (WRE). The proposed system provides the integrity assessment for the major mechanical components of a nuclear power plant under concurrent working environments. In the WRE, it is possible for users to understand a mechanical system such as its size, geometry, coupling condition etc. In conclusion, it is anticipated that the proposed system can be used for a more efficient integrity evaluation of the major components subjected to an aging degradation.

  11. Melittin, a major peptide component of bee venom, and its conjugates in cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rady, Islam; Siddiqui, Imtiaz A; Rady, Mohamad; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2017-08-28

    Melittin (MEL), a major peptide component of bee venom, is an attractive candidate for cancer therapy. This agent has shown a variety of anti-cancer effects in preclinical cell culture and animal model systems. Despite a convincing efficacy data against variety of cancers, its applicability to humans has met with challenges due to several issues including its non-specific cytotoxicity, degradation and hemolytic activity. Several optimization approaches including utilization of nanoparticle based delivery of MEL have been utilized to circumvent the issues. Here, we summarize the current understanding of the anticancer effects of bee venom and MEL on different kinds of cancers. Further, we also present the available information for the possible mechanism of action of bee venom and/or MEL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Synthetic polymeric substrates as potent pro-oxidant versus anti-oxidant regulators of cytoskeletal remodeling and cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Hak-Joon; Chandra, Prafulla; Treiser, Matthew D; Liu, Er; Iovine, Carmine P; Moghe, Prabhas V; Kohn, Joachim

    2009-03-01

    The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated cell signal transduction pathways emanating from engineered cell substrates remains unclear. To elucidate the role, polymers derived from the amino acid L-tyrosine were used as synthetic matrix substrates. Variations in their chemical properties were created by co-polymerizing hydrophobic L-tyrosine derivatives with uncharged hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG, Mw = 1,000 Da), and negatively charged desaminotyrosyl-tyrosine (DT). These substrates were characterized for their intrinsic ability to generate ROS, as well as their ability to elicit Saos-2 cell responses in terms of intracellular ROS production, actin remodeling, and apoptosis. PEG-containing substrates induced both exogenous and intracellular ROS production, whereas the charged substrates reduced production of both types, indicating a coupling of exogenous ROS generation and intracellular ROS production. Furthermore, PEG-mediated ROS induction caused nuclear translocation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and an increase in caspase-3 activity, confirming a link with apoptosis. PEG-rich pro-oxidant substrates caused cytoskeletal actin remodeling through beta-actin cleavage by caspase-3 into fractins. The fractins co-localized to the mitochondria and reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential. The remnant cytosolic beta-actin was polymerized and condensed, events consistent with apoptotic cell shrinkage. The cytoskeletal remodeling was integral to the further augmentation of intracellular ROS production. Conversely, the anti-oxidant DT-containing charged substrates suppressed the entire cascade of apoptotic progression. We demonstrate that ROS activity serves an important role in "outside-in" signaling for cells grown on substrates: the ROS activity couples exogenous stress, driven by substrate composition, to changes in intracellular signaling. This signaling causes cell apoptosis, which is mediated by actin remodeling.

  13. Neoplastic progression of the human breast cancer cell line G3S1 is associated with elevation of cytoskeletal dynamics and upregulation of MT1-MMP

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tolde, O.; Rosel, D.; Mierke, C.T.; Paňková, D.; Folk, P.; Veselý, Pavel; Brabek, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 4 (2010), s. 833-839 ISSN 1019-6439 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06061 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : invasiveness * neoplastic progression * cytoskeletal dynamics Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.571, year: 2010

  14. Modulators of cytoskeletal reorganization in CA1 hippocampal neurons show increased expression in patients at mid-stage Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia F Kao

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available During the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD, hippocampal neurons undergo cytoskeletal reorganization, resulting in degenerative as well as regenerative changes. As neurofibrillary tangles form and dystrophic neurites appear, sprouting neuronal processes with growth cones emerge. Actin and tubulin are indispensable for normal neurite development and regenerative responses to injury and neurodegenerative stimuli. We have previously shown that actin capping protein beta2 subunit, Capzb2, binds tubulin and, in the presence of tau, affects microtubule polymerization necessary for neurite outgrowth and normal growth cone morphology. Accordingly, Capzb2 silencing in hippocampal neurons resulted in short, dystrophic neurites, seen in neurodegenerative diseases including AD. Here we demonstrate the statistically significant increase in the Capzb2 expression in the postmortem hippocampi in persons at mid-stage, Braak and Braak stage (BB III-IV, non-familial AD in comparison to controls. The dynamics of Capzb2 expression in progressive AD stages cannot be attributed to reactive astrocytosis. Moreover, the increased expression of Capzb2 mRNA in CA1 pyramidal neurons in AD BB III-IV is accompanied by an increased mRNA expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF receptor tyrosine kinase B (TrkB, mediator of synaptic plasticity in hippocampal neurons. Thus, the up-regulation of Capzb2 and TrkB may reflect cytoskeletal reorganization and/or regenerative response occurring in hippocampal CA1 neurons at a specific stage of AD progression.

  15. Stress-based fatigue assessment of major component in NPP using modified Green's function approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Han Ok; Jhung, Myung Jo; Choi, Jae Boong

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the modified GFA which can consider temperature-dependent material properties is proposed by using a neural network (NN) and weight factor. To verify the modified GFA, thermal stresses by the proposed method are compared with those by FEM. Finally, pros and cons of the new method as well as technical findings from the assessment are discussed to show applicability of them. In this paper, the modified GFA considering temperature-dependent material properties is proposed by using NN and weight factor. To verify the proposed method, thermal stresses by the modified Green's function are compared with those by FEM and the results between two methods show a good agreement. Finally, it is anticipated that more precise fatigue evaluation is performed by using the proposed method. Recently, 434 nuclear reactors are being operated in the world. Among them, about 40% reactors are being operated beyond their design life or will be approaching their life. During the long term operation, various degradation mechanisms are occurred. Fatigue damage caused by alternating operational stresses in terms of temperature or pressure change is the one of important damage mechanisms in the nuclear power plants (NPPs). Although components important to safety were designed to withstand the fatigue damage, cumulative usage factor (CUF) at some locations can exceed the design limit beyond the design life. So, it is necessary to monitor the fatigue damage of major components during the long term operation. Researches on fatigue monitoring system (FMS) have been widely performed. In USA, the FatiguePro was developed by EPRI and was applied to the CE, WEC, B and W and GE type reactors. In Korea, the Kori unit 1 which started commercial operation in 1978 is being operated beyond its design life. At the stage of the license renewal, various plans for degradation mechanisms were established and reviewed. And, in case of fatigue damage, to monitor the fatigue damage of major components

  16. Quantitative Evaluation of Stomatal Cytoskeletal Patterns during the Activation of Immune Signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Shimono

    Full Text Available Historically viewed as primarily functioning in the regulation of gas and water vapor exchange, it is now evident that stomata serve an important role in plant immunity. Indeed, in addition to classically defined functions related to cell architecture and movement, the actin cytoskeleton has emerged as a central component of the plant immune system, underpinning not only processes related to cell shape and movement, but also receptor activation and signaling. Using high resolution quantitative imaging techniques, the temporal and spatial changes in the actin microfilament array during diurnal cycling of stomatal guard cells has revealed a highly orchestrated transition from random arrays to ordered bundled filaments. While recent studies have demonstrated that plant stomata close in response to pathogen infection, an evaluation of stimulus-induced changes in actin cytoskeletal dynamics during immune activation in the guard cell, as well as the relationship of these changes to the function of the actin cytoskeleton and stomatal aperture, remains undefined. In the current study, we employed quantitative cell imaging and hierarchical clustering analyses to define the response of the guard cell actin cytoskeleton to pathogen infection and the elicitation of immune signaling. Using this approach, we demonstrate that stomatal-localized actin filaments respond rapidly, and specifically, to both bacterial phytopathogens and purified pathogen elicitors. Notably, we demonstrate that higher order temporal and spatial changes in the filament array show distinct patterns of organization during immune activation, and that changes in the naïve diurnal oscillations of guard cell actin filaments are perturbed by pathogens, and that these changes parallel pathogen-induced stomatal gating. The data presented herein demonstrate the application of a highly tractable and quantifiable method to assign transitions in actin filament organization to the activation of

  17. Identification and differentiation of major components in three different “Sheng-ma” crude drug species by UPLC/Q-TOF-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengxue Fan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Cimicifugae Rhizoma (Sheng ma is a Ranunculaceae herb belonging to a composite family and well known in China. has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine. The Pharmacopoeia of the People׳s Republic of China contains three varieties (Cimicifuga dahurica (Turcz., Cimicifuga foetida L. and Cimicifuga heracleifolia Kom. which have been used clinically as “Sheng-ma”. However, the chemical constituents of three components of “Sheng-ma” have never been documented. In this study, a rapid method for the analysis of the main components of “Sheng-ma” was developed using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF-MS. The present study reveals the major common and distinct chemical constituents of C. dahurica, C. foetida and C. heracleifolia and also reports principal component and statistical analyses of these results. The components were identified by comparing the retention time, accurate mass, mass spectrometric fragmentation characteristic ions and matching empirical molecular formula with that of the published compounds. A total of 32 common components and 8 markers for different “Sheng-ma” components were identified. These findings provide an important basis for the further study and clinical utilities of the three “Sheng-ma” varieties.

  18. Correlation of major components of ocular astigmatism in myopic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadpour, Mehrdad; Heidari, Zahra; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi; Amouzegar, Afsaneh; Hashemi, Hassan

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the correlation of major components of ocular astigmatism in myopic patients in an academic hospital. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 376 eyes of 188 patients who were referred to Farabi Eye Hospital for refractive surgery. Preoperative examinations including refraction and corneal topography were performed for all candidates to measure refractive and corneal astigmatism. Ocular residual astigmatism was calculated using vector analysis. Pearson's correlation and ANOVA analysis were used to evaluate the strength of the association between different types of astigmatism. Both eyes were defined as cluster and the Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) analysis were performed. Mean age of 119 women (63.3%) and 69 men (36.7%) was 27.8 ± 5.7 years. Mean refractive error based on spherical equivalent was -3.59 ± 1.95D (range, -0.54 to -10.22D). Mean refractive and corneal astigmatism was 1.97 ± 1.3D and 1.85 ± 1.01D, respectively. Mean amount of ORA was 0.65 ± 0.36D.There was a significant correlation between ORA and refractive astigmatism(r=0.23, pcorrelation between ORA and corneal astigmatism (r=0.13, p=0.014). There was a significant correlation between J0 and J45 values of ORA and corneal astigmatism (pcorrelation between ORA and refractive astigmatism, refractive and corneal astigmatism and a weak correlation between ORA and corneal astigmatism in refractive surgery candidates. Identifying the type of astigmatism and preoperative measurement of ocular residual astigmatism is highly recommended prior to any refractive surgery, especially in cases with significant astigmatism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of collagen I and fibronectin on the adhesion, elasticity and cytoskeletal organization of prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docheva, Denitsa; Padula, Daniela; Schieker, Matthias; Clausen-Schaumann, Hauke

    2010-11-12

    Despite of intensive research efforts, the precise mechanism of prostate cancer metastasis in bone is still not fully understood. Several studies have suggested that specific matrix production by the bone cells, such as collagen I, supports cancer cell invasion. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of collagen I (COL1) and fibronectin (FN) on cell adhesion, cell elasticity and cytoskeletal organization of prostate cancer cells. Two cell lines, bone marrow- (PC3) and lymph node-derived (LNCaP) were cultivated on COL1 and FN (control protein). By using a quantitative adhesion assay and time-lapse analysis, it was found that PC3, but not LNCaP, adhered strongly and were more spread on COL1. Next, PC3 and LNCaP were evaluated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and flatness shape factor and cellular Young's modulus were calculated. The shape analysis revealed that PC3 were significantly flatter when grown on COL1 in comparison to LNCaP. In general, PC3 were also significantly stiffer than LNCaP and furthermore, their stiffness increased upon interaction with COL1. Since cell stiffness is strongly dependent on actin organization, phalloidin-based actin staining was performed and revealed that, of the two cell types as well as the two different matrix proteins, only PC3 grown on COL1 formed robust actin cytoskeleton. In conclusion, our study showed that PC3 cells have a strong affinity towards COL1. On this matrix protein, the cells adhered strongly and underwent a specific cell flattening. Moreover, with the establishment of PC3 contact to COL1 a significant increase of PC3 stiffness was observed due to a profound cytoskeletal rearrangement. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Ceftriaxone-associated gallbladder sludge. Identification of calcium-ceftriaxone salt as a major component of gallbladder precipitate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, H.Z.; Lee, S.P.; Schy, A.L.

    1991-01-01

    Ceftriaxone, a third-generation cephalosporin, is partially excreted into bile. With its clinical use, the formation of gallbladder sludge detected by ultrasonography has been reported. Four surgical specimens were examined and no gallstones were found. Instead, fine precipitates of 20-250 microns were present. Microscopically, there was a small number of cholesterol monohydrate crystals and bilirubin granules among an abundant amount of granular-crystalline material that was not morphologically cholesterol monohydrate crystals. The chemical composition of the precipitates (n = 4) was determined. There was a small amount of cholesterol (1.7% +/- 0.8%) and bilirubin (13.9% +/- 0.74%). The major component of the precipitate was a residue. On further analysis using thin-layer chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, and electron microprobe analysis, the residue was identified as a calcium salt of ceftriaxone. The residue also had identical crystal morphology and chromatographic elution profile as authentic calcium-ceftriaxone standards. It is concluded that ceftriaxone, after excretion and being concentrated in the gallbladder bile, can form a precipitate. The major constituent has been identified as a ceftriaxone-calcium salt

  1. Systems Biology Approaches to Discerning Striated Muscle Pathologies

    OpenAIRE

    Mukund, Kavitha

    2016-01-01

    The human muscular system represents nearly 75% of the body mass and encompasses two major muscle forms- striated and smooth. Striated muscle, composed broadly of myofibers, accompanying membrane systems, cytoskeletal networks together with the metabolic and regulatory machinery, have revealed complexities in composition, structure and function. A disruption to any component within this complex system of interactions lead to disorders of the muscle, typically characterized by muscle fiber los...

  2. Biogenic non-crystalline U(IV) revealed as major component in uranium ore deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Amrita; Campbell, Kate M.; Kelly, Shelly D.; Roebbert, Yvonne; Weyer, Stefan; Bernier-Latmani, Rizlan; Borch, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    Historically, it is believed that crystalline uraninite, produced via the abiotic reduction of hexavalent uranium (U(VI)) is the dominant reduced U species formed in low-temperature uranium roll-front ore deposits. Here we show that non-crystalline U(IV) generated through biologically mediated U(VI) reduction is the predominant U(IV) species in an undisturbed U roll-front ore deposit in Wyoming, USA. Characterization of U species revealed that the majority (~58-89%) of U is bound as U(IV) to C-containing organic functional groups or inorganic carbonate, while uraninite and U(VI) represent only minor components. The uranium deposit exhibited mostly 238U-enriched isotope signatures, consistent with largely biotic reduction of U(VI) to U(IV). This finding implies that biogenic processes are more important to uranium ore genesis than previously understood. The predominance of a relatively labile form of U(IV) also provides an opportunity for a more economical and environmentally benign mining process, as well as the design of more effective post-mining restoration strategies and human health-risk assessment.

  3. Formation of actin networks in microfluidic concentration gradients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalja eStrelnikova

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The physical properties of cytoskeletal networks are contributors in a number of mechanical responses of cells including cellular deformation and locomotion, and are crucial for the proper action of living cells. Local chemical gradients modulate cytoskeletal functionality including the interactions of the cytoskeleton with other cellular components. Actin is a major constituent of the cytoskeleton. Introducing a microfluidic-based platform, we explored the impact of concentration gradients on the formation and structural properties of actin networks. Microfluidics-controlled flow-free steady state experimental conditions allow for the generation of chemical gradients of different profiles, such as linear or step-like. We discovered specific features of actin networks emerging in defined gradients. In particular, we analyzed the effects of spatial conditions on network properties, bending rigidities of network links, and the network elasticity.

  4. The cytoskeletal inhibitors latrunculin A and blebbistatin exert antitumorigenic properties in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells by interfering with intracellular HuR trafficking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doller, Anke; Badawi, Amel; Schmid, Tobias; Brauß, Thilo; Pleli, Thomas; Meyer zu Heringdorf, Dagmar; Piiper, Albrecht; Pfeilschifter, Josef; Eberhardt, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    The impact of the RNA-binding protein HuR for the post-transcriptional deregulation of tumor-relevant genes is well established. Despite of elevations in HuR expression levels, an increase in cytoplasmic HuR abundance in many cases correlates with a high grade of malignancy. Here, we demonstrated that administration of the actin-depolymerizing macrolide latrunculin A, or blebbistatin, an inhibitor of myosin II ATPase activity, caused a dose- and time-dependent reduction in the high cytoplasmic HuR content of HepG2 and Huh7 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. Subcellular fractionation revealed that in addition, both inhibitors strongly attenuated cytoskeletal and membrane-bound HuR abundance and conversely increased the HuR amount in nuclear cell fractions. Concomitant with changes in intracellular HuR localization, both cytoskeletal inhibitors markedly decreased the half-lives of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), cyclin A and cyclin D 1 encoding mRNAs resulting in a significant reduction in their expression levels in HepG2 cells. Importantly, a similar reduction in the expression of these HuR targets was achieved by a RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown of either HuR or nonmuscle myoin IIA. Using polysomal fractionation, we further demonstrate that the decrease in cytoplasmic HuR by latrunculin A or blebbistatin is accompanied by a marked change in the allocation of HuR and its mRNA cargo from polysomes to ribonucleoprotein (RNP) particles. Functionally, the basal migration and prostaglandin E 2 synthesis are similarly impaired in inhibitor-treated and stable HuR-knockdown HepG2 cells. Our data demonstrate that interfering with the actomyosin-dependent HuR trafficking may comprise a valid therapeutic option for antagonizing pathologic posttranscriptional gene expression by HuR and furthermore emphasize the potential benefit of HuR inhibitory strategies for treatment of HCC. - Highlights: • We tested the effects of latrunculin A and blebbistatin on different Hu

  5. Massive elimination of multinucleated osteoclasts by eupatilin is due to dual inhibition of transcription and cytoskeletal rearrangement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Young Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is an aging-associated disease requiring better therapeutic modality. Eupatilin is a major flavonoid from Artemisia plants such as Artemisia princeps and Artemisia argyi which has been reported to possess various beneficial biological effects including anti-inflammation, anti-tumor, anti-cancer, anti-allergy, and anti-oxidation activity. Complete blockade of RANK-dependent osteoclastogenesis was accomplished upon stimulation prior to the receptor activator of nuclear factor κB (RANK-ligand (RANKL treatment or post-stimulation of bone marrow macrophages (BMCs in the presence of RANKL with eupatilin. This blockade was accompanied by inhibition of rapid phosphorylation of Akt, GSK3β, ERK and IκB as well as downregulation of c-Fos and NFATc1 at protein, suggesting that transcriptional suppression is a key mechanism for anti-osteoclastogenesis. Transient reporter assays or gain of function assays confirmed that eupatilin was a potent transcriptional inhibitor in osteoclasts (OC. Surprisingly, when mature osteoclasts were cultured on bone scaffolds in the presence of eupatilin, bone resorption activity was also completely blocked by dismantling the actin rings, suggesting that another major acting site of eupatilin is cytoskeletal rearrangement. The eupatilin-treated mature osteoclasts revealed a shrunken cytoplasm and accumulation of multi-nuclei, eventually becoming fibroblast-like cells. No apoptosis occurred. Inhibition of phosphorylation of cofilin by eupatilin suggests that actin may play an important role in the morphological change of multinucleated cells (MNCs. Human OC similarly responded to eupatilin. However, eupatilin has no effects on osteoblast differentiation and shows cytotoxicity on osteoblast in the concentration of 50 μM. When eupatilin was administered to LPS-induced osteoporotic mice after manifestation of osteoporosis, it prevented bone loss. Ovariectomized (OVX mice remarkably exhibited bone protection effects

  6. MAL Overexpression Leads to Disturbed Expression of Genes That Influence Cytoskeletal Organization and Differentiation of Schwann Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Schmid

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the developing peripheral nervous system, a coordinated reciprocal signaling between Schwann cells and axons is crucial for accurate myelination. The myelin and lymphocyte protein MAL is a component of lipid rafts that is important for targeting proteins and lipids to distinct domains. MAL overexpression impedes peripheral myelinogenesis, which is evident by a delayed onset of myelination and reduced expression of the myelin protein zero (Mpz/P0 and the low-affinity neurotrophin receptor p75NTR . This study shows that MAL overexpression leads to a significant reduction of Mpz and p75NTR expression in primary mouse Schwann cell cultures, which was already evident before differentiation, implicating an effect of MAL in early Schwann cell development. Their transcription was robustly reduced, despite normal expression of essential transcription factors and receptors. Further, the cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB and phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling pathways important for Schwann cell differentiation were correctly induced, highlighting that other so far unknown rate limiting factors do exist. We identified novel genes expressed by Schwann cells in a MAL-dependent manner in vivo and in vitro. A number of those, including S100a4, RhoU and Krt23, are implicated in cytoskeletal organization and plasma membrane dynamics. We showed that S100a4 is predominantly expressed by nonmyelinating Schwann cells, whereas RhoU was localized within myelin membranes, and Krt23 was detected in nonmyelinating as well as in myelinating Schwann cells. Their differential expression during early peripheral nerve development further underlines their possible role in influencing Schwann cell differentiation and myelination.

  7. Integrin β1 regulates leiomyoma cytoskeletal integrity and growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Minnie; Segars, James; Catherino, William H.

    2014-01-01

    Uterine leiomyomas are characterized by an excessive extracellular matrix, increased mechanical stress, and increased active RhoA. Previously, we observed that mechanical signaling was attenuated in leiomyoma, but the mechanisms responsible remain unclear. Integrins, especially integrin β1, are transmembrane adhesion receptors that couple extracellular matrix stresses to the intracellular cytoskeleton to influence cell proliferation and differentiation. Here we characterized integrin and laminin to signaling in leiomyoma cells. We observed a 2.25 ± 0.32 fold increased expression of integrin β1 in leiomyoma cells, compared to myometrial cells. Antibody-mediated inhibition of integrin β1 led to significant growth inhibition in leiomyoma cells and a loss of cytoskeletal integrity. Specifically, polymerization of actin filaments and formation of focal adhesions were reduced by inhibition of integrin p1. Inhibition of integrin β1 in leiomyoma cells led to 0.81 ± 0.02 fold decrease in active RhoA, and resembled levels found in serum-starved cells. Likewise, inhibition of integrin β1 was accompanied by a decrease in phospho-ERK. Compared to myometrial cells, leiomyoma cells demonstrated increased expression of integrin α6 subunit to laminin receptor (1.91 ± 0.11 fold), and increased expression of laminin 5α (1.52±0.02), laminin 5β (3.06±0.92), and laminin 5γ (1.66 ± 0.06). Of note, leiomyoma cells grown on laminin matrix appear to realign themselves. Taken together, the findings reveal that the attenuated mechanical signaling in leiomyoma cells is accompanied by an increased expression and a dependence on integrin β1 signaling in leiomyoma cells, compared to myometrial cells. PMID:23023061

  8. Quinolinic acid neurotoxicity: Differential roles of astrocytes and microglia via FGF-2-mediated signaling in redox-linked cytoskeletal changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierozan, Paula; Biasibetti, Helena; Schmitz, Felipe; Ávila, Helena; Parisi, Mariana M; Barbe-Tuana, Florencia; Wyse, Angela T S; Pessoa-Pureur, Regina

    2016-12-01

    QUIN is a glutamate agonist playing a role in the misregulation of the cytoskeleton, which is associated with neurodegeneration in rats. In this study, we focused on microglial activation, FGF2/Erk signaling, gap junctions (GJs), inflammatory parameters and redox imbalance acting on cytoskeletal dynamics of the in QUIN-treated neural cells of rat striatum. FGF-2/Erk signaling was not altered in QUIN-treated primary astrocytes or neurons, however cytoskeleton was disrupted. In co-cultured astrocytes and neurons, QUIN-activated FGF2/Erk signaling prevented the cytoskeleton from remodeling. In mixed cultures (astrocyte, neuron, microglia), QUIN-induced FGF-2 increased level failed to activate Erk and promoted cytoskeletal destabilization. The effects of QUIN in mixed cultures involved redox imbalance upstream of Erk activation. Decreased connexin 43 (Cx43) immunocontent and functional GJs, was also coincident with disruption of the cytoskeleton in primary astrocytes and mixed cultures. We postulate that in interacting astrocytes and neurons the cytoskeleton is preserved against the insult of QUIN by activation of FGF-2/Erk signaling and proper cell-cell interaction through GJs. In mixed cultures, the FGF-2/Erk signaling is blocked by the redox imbalance associated with microglial activation and disturbed cell communication, disrupting the cytoskeleton. Thus, QUIN signal activates differential mechanisms that could stabilize or destabilize the cytoskeleton of striatal astrocytes and neurons in culture, and glial cells play a pivotal role in these responses preserving or disrupting a combination of signaling pathways and cell-cell interactions. Taken together, our findings shed light into the complex role of the active interaction of astrocytes, neurons and microglia in the neurotoxicity of QUIN. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Location of and post-mortem changes in some cytoskeletal proteins in pork and cod muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, E.H.; Bremner, Allan; Purslow, P.P.

    2000-01-01

    The cytoskeletal proteins actin, nebulin, spectrin, desmin, vinculin and talin were labelled immunohistochemically in sections of muscle from commercially available pigs and cod (Gadus morhua) taken pre-rigor and from samples stored for several days. Actin, nebulin and spectrin gave similar...... labelling patterns in both pork and cod muscle which remained the same in stored samples. Desmin was intensely labelled at the cell boundaries and within the body of the cells in both pork and cod in the initial and the stored samples. Vinculin was readily labelled in pork muscle but showed only diffuse...... labelling in fish. Labelling for talin in pork muscle was intense at the sarcolemma but was not present in samples stored for 4 days. In contrast, the label for talin was concentrated at the myotendinous junction of the cod muscle throughout the storage period. These are the first reports of the detection...

  10. Hair Regenerative Mechanisms of Red Ginseng Oil and Its Major Components in the Testosterone-Induced Delay of Anagen Entry in C57BL/6 Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Van-Long; Bak, Min Ji; Lee, Changook; Jun, Mira; Jeong, Woo-Sik

    2017-09-08

    Hair loss (alopecia) is a universal problem for numerous people in the world. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of red ginseng oil (RGO) and its major components on hair re-growth using testosterone (TES)-induced delay of anagen entry in C57BL/6 mice and their mechanisms of action. Seven-week-old C57BL/6 mice were daily treated with TES for 1 h prior to topical application of 10% RGO, 1% linoleic acid (LA), 1% β-sitosterol (SITOS), or 1% bicyclo(10.1.0)tridec-1-ene (BICYCLO) once a day for 28 days. Hair regenerative capacity was significantly restored by treatment of RGO and its major compounds in the TES-treated mice. Histological analysis showed that RGO along with LA and SITOS but not BICYCLO promoted hair growth through early inducing anagen phase that was delayed by TES in mice. Treatment of mice with RGO, LA, or SITOS up-regulated Wnt/β-catenin and Shh/Gli pathways-mediated expression of genes such as β-catenin, Lef-1, Sonic hedgehog, Smoothened, Gli-1, Cyclin D1, and Cyclin E in the TES-treated mice. In addition, RGO and its major components reduced the protein level of TGF-β but enhanced the expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. These results suggest that RGO is a potent novel therapeutic natural product for treatment of androgenic alopecia possibly through hair re-growth activity of its major components such as LA and SITOS.

  11. On the major ductile fracture methodologies for failure assessment of nuclear reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, Julio R.B.; Andrade, Arnaldo H.P. de; Landes, John D.

    1996-01-01

    In structures like nuclear reactor components there is a special concern with the loads that may occur under postulated accident conditions. These loads can cause the stresses to go well beyond the linear elastic limits, requiring the use of ductile fracture mechanics methods to the prediction of the structure behavior. Since the use of numerical methods to apply EPFM concepts is expensive and time consuming, the existence of analytical engineering procedures are of great relevance. The lack of precision in detail, as compared with numerical nonlinear analyses, is compensated by the possibility of quick failure assessments. This is a determinant factor in situations where a systematic evaluation of a large range of geometries and loading conditions is necessary, like in thr application of the Leak-Before-Break (LBB) concept on nuclear piping. This paper outlines four ductile fracture analytical methods, pointing out positive and negative aspects of each one. The objective is to take advantage of this critical review to conceive a new methodology, one that would gather strong points of the major existent methods and would try to eliminate some of their drawbacks. (author)

  12. Identification of the Major Components of Buddleja officinalis Extract and Their Metabolites in Rat Urine by UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mohan; Luo, Zhiqiang; Liu, Yang; Yang, Ruirui; Lu, Lina; Yu, Guohua; Ma, Xiaoyun; Liu, Aoxue; Guo, Yafang; Zhao, Haiyu

    2016-10-01

    Buddleja officinalis Maxim, one of the most popular herbal medicines in China, is widely prescribed for curing eye diseases for centuries. In this study, the major components of B. officinalis extract (BOE) and their metabolites in rat urine were detected and identified by ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled with linear ion trap-orbitrap tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap). A total of 19 compounds, including 8 flavonoids and 11 phenylethanoid glycosides, were confirmed or tentatively identified from BOE. In vivo, 33 components, including 3 prototypes and 30 metabolies, were confirmed or tentatively identified in rat urine samples. The metabolic pathways of different types of compounds were also proposed. This study would effectively narrow the range of potentially bioactive constituents of BOE and shed light to its action mechanism. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  13. Mertk deficiency affects macrophage directional migration via disruption of cytoskeletal organization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Tang

    Full Text Available Mertk belongs to the Tyro3, Axl and Mertk (TAM family of receptor tyrosine kinases, and plays a pivotal role in regulation of cytoskeletal rearrangement during phagocytosis. Phagocytosis by either professional or non-professional phagocytes is impaired in the Mertk deficient individual. In the present study, we further investigated the effects of Mertk mutation on peritoneal macrophage morphology, attachment, spreading and movement. Mertk-mutated macrophages exhibited decreased attachment, weak spreading, loss of spindle-like body shape and lack of clear leading and trailing edges within the first few hours of culture, as observed by environmental scanning electron microscopy. Time-lapse video photography recording showed that macrophage without Mertk conducted mainly random movement with oscillating swing around the cell body, and lost the directional migration action seen on the WT cells. Western blotting showed a decreased phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK. Immunocytochemistry revealed that actin filaments and dynamic protein myosin II failed to concentrate in the leading edge of migrating cells. Microtubules were localized mainly in one side of mutant cell body, with no clear MTOC and associated radially-distributed microtubule bundles, which were clearly evident in the WT cells. Our results suggest that Mertk deficiency affects not only phagocytosis but also cell shape and migration, likely through a common regulatory mechanism on cytoskeletons.

  14. Understanding the Compositional Variability of the Major Components of Hydrothermal Plumes in the Okinawa Trough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Zeng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies of the major components of hydrothermal plumes in seafloor hydrothermal fields are critical for an improved understanding of biogeochemical cycles and the large-scale distribution of elements in the submarine environment. The composition of major components in hydrothermal plume water column samples from 25 stations has been investigated in the middle and southern Okinawa Trough. The physical and chemical properties of hydrothermal plume water in the Okinawa Trough have been affected by input of the Kuroshio current, and its influence on hydrothermal plume water from the southern Okinawa Trough to the middle Okinawa Trough is reduced. The anomalous layers of seawater in the hydrothermal plume water columns have higher K+, Ca2+, Mn2+, B3+, Ca2+/SO42-, and Mn2+/Mg2+ ratios and higher optical anomalies than other layers. The Mg2+, SO42-, Mg2+/Ca2+, and SO42-/Mn2+ ratios of the anomalous layers are lower than other layers in the hydrothermal plume water columns and are consistent with concentrations in hydrothermal vent fluids in the Okinawa Trough. This suggests that the chemical variations of hydrothermal plumes in the Tangyin hydrothermal field, like other hydrothermal fields, result in the discharge of high K+, Ca2+, and B3+ and low Mg2+ and SO42- fluid. Furthermore, element ratios (e.g., Sr2+/Ca2+, Ca2+/Cl− in hydrothermal plume water columns were found to be similar to those in average seawater, indicating that Sr2+/Ca2+ and Ca2+/Cl− ratios of hydrothermal plumes might be useful proxies for chemical properties of seawater. The hydrothermal K+, Ca2+, Mn2+, and B3+ flux to seawater in the Okinawa Trough is about 2.62–873, 1.04–326, 1.30–76.4, and 0.293–34.7 × 106 kg per year, respectively. The heat flux is about 0.159–1,973 × 105 W, which means that roughly 0.0006% of ocean heat is supplied by seafloor hydrothermal plumes in the Okinawa Trough.

  15. In vitro susceptibility of Trypanosoma brucei brucei to selected essential oils and their major components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Sonya; Cavadas, Cláudia; Cavaleiro, Carlos; Salgueiro, Lígia; do Céu Sousa, Maria

    2018-07-01

    Aiming for discovering effective and harmless antitrypanosomal agents, 17 essential oils and nine major components were screened for their effects on T. b. brucei. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation from fresh plant material and analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The trypanocidal activity was assessed using blood stream trypomastigotes cultures of T. b. brucei and the colorimetric resazurin method. The MTT test was used to assess the cytotoxicity of essential oils on macrophage cells and Selectivity Indexes were calculated. Of the 17 essential oils screened three showed high trypanocidal activity (IC 50  oils had no cytotoxic effects on macrophage cells showing the highest values of Selectivity Index (63.4, 9.0 and 11.8, respectively). The oils of Distichoselinum tenuifolium, Lavandula viridis, Origanum virens, Seseli tortuosom, Syzygium aromaticum, and Thymbra capitata also exhibited activity (IC 50 of 10-25 μg/mL) but showed cytotoxicity on macrophages. Of the nine compounds tested, α-pinene (IC 50 of 2.9 μg/mL) and citral (IC 50 of 18.9 μg/mL) exhibited the highest anti-trypanosomal activities. Citral is likely the active component of C. citratus and α-pinene is responsible for the antitrypanosomal effects of J. oxycedrus. The present work leads us to propose the J. oxycedrus, C. citratus and L. luisieri oils as valuable sources of new molecules for African Sleeping Sickness treatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Assessment and Management of Ageing of Major Nuclear Power Plant Components Important to Safety: Steam Generators. 2011 Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-11-01

    At present there are over four hundred forty operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) in IAEA Member States. Ageing degradation of the systems, structures of components during their operational life must be effectively managed to ensure the availability of design functions throughout the plant service life. From the safety perspective, this means controlling, within acceptable limits, the ageing degradation and wear-out of plant components important to safety so that adequate safety margins remain, i.e. integrity and functional capability in excess of normal operating requirements. This IAEA-TECDOC is one in a series of reports on the assessment and management of ageing of the major NPP components important to safety. The reports are based on experience and practices of NPP operators, regulators, designers, manufacturers, and technical support organizations. The current practices for the assessment of safety margins (fitness for service) and the inspection, monitoring and mitigation of ageing degradation of selected components of Canada deuteriumuranium (CANDU) reactor, boiling water reactor (BWR), pressurized water reactor (PWR), and water moderated, water cooled energy reactor (WWER) plants are documented in the reports. These practices are intended to help all involved directly and indirectly in ensuring the safe operation of NPPs, and also to provide a common technical basis for dialogue between plant operators and regulators when dealing with age related licensing issues. Since the reports are written from a safety perspective, they do not address life or life cycle management of the plant components, which involves the integration of ageing management and economic planning. The target audience of the reports consists of technical experts from NPPs and from regulatory, plant design, manufacturing and technical support organizations dealing with specific plant components addressed in the reports. The component addressed in the present publication is the steam

  17. Effect of collagen I and fibronectin on the adhesion, elasticity and cytoskeletal organization of prostate cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Docheva, Denitsa [Experimental Surgery and Regenerative Medicine, Department of Surgery, Ludwig-Maximilians-University (LMU), Nussbaumstr. 20, 80336 Munich (Germany); Padula, Daniela [Experimental Surgery and Regenerative Medicine, Department of Surgery, Ludwig-Maximilians-University (LMU), Nussbaumstr. 20, 80336 Munich (Germany); Department of Precision- and Micro-Engineering, Engineering Physics, Munich University of Applied Sciences, Lothstr. 34, 80335 Munich (Germany); Center for NanoScience (CeNS), Geschwister-Scholl-Platz 1, 80539 Munich (Germany); Schieker, Matthias, E-mail: matthias.schieker@med.uni-muenchen.de [Experimental Surgery and Regenerative Medicine, Department of Surgery, Ludwig-Maximilians-University (LMU), Nussbaumstr. 20, 80336 Munich (Germany); Clausen-Schaumann, Hauke, E-mail: clausen-schaumann@hm.edu [Department of Precision- and Micro-Engineering, Engineering Physics, Munich University of Applied Sciences, Lothstr. 34, 80335 Munich (Germany); Center for NanoScience (CeNS), Geschwister-Scholl-Platz 1, 80539 Munich (Germany)

    2010-11-12

    Research highlights: {yields} Depending on the metastatic origin, prostate cancer cells differ in their affinity to COL1. {yields} COL1 affects specifically the F-actin and cell elasticity of bone-derived prostate cancer cells. {yields} Cell elasticity can be used as a biomarker for cancer cells from different metastases. -- Abstract: Despite of intensive research efforts, the precise mechanism of prostate cancer metastasis in bone is still not fully understood. Several studies have suggested that specific matrix production by the bone cells, such as collagen I, supports cancer cell invasion. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of collagen I (COL1) and fibronectin (FN) on cell adhesion, cell elasticity and cytoskeletal organization of prostate cancer cells. Two cell lines, bone marrow- (PC3) and lymph node-derived (LNCaP) were cultivated on COL1 and FN (control protein). By using a quantitative adhesion assay and time-lapse analysis, it was found that PC3, but not LNCaP, adhered strongly and were more spread on COL1. Next, PC3 and LNCaP were evaluated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and flatness shape factor and cellular Young's modulus were calculated. The shape analysis revealed that PC3 were significantly flatter when grown on COL1 in comparison to LNCaP. In general, PC3 were also significantly stiffer than LNCaP and furthermore, their stiffness increased upon interaction with COL1. Since cell stiffness is strongly dependent on actin organization, phalloidin-based actin staining was performed and revealed that, of the two cell types as well as the two different matrix proteins, only PC3 grown on COL1 formed robust actin cytoskeleton. In conclusion, our study showed that PC3 cells have a strong affinity towards COL1. On this matrix protein, the cells adhered strongly and underwent a specific cell flattening. Moreover, with the establishment of PC3 contact to COL1 a significant increase of PC3 stiffness was observed due to a profound

  18. The cytoskeletal inhibitors latrunculin A and blebbistatin exert antitumorigenic properties in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells by interfering with intracellular HuR trafficking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doller, Anke; Badawi, Amel [Pharmazentrum Frankfurt/ZAFES, Klinikum der Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Schmid, Tobias; Brauß, Thilo [Institut für Biochemie I (Pathobiochemie), Klinikum der Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Pleli, Thomas [Medizinische Klinik 1, Schwerpunkt Gastroenterologie und Hepatologie, Klinikum der Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Meyer zu Heringdorf, Dagmar [Pharmazentrum Frankfurt/ZAFES, Klinikum der Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Piiper, Albrecht [Medizinische Klinik 1, Schwerpunkt Gastroenterologie und Hepatologie, Klinikum der Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Pfeilschifter, Josef [Pharmazentrum Frankfurt/ZAFES, Klinikum der Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Eberhardt, Wolfgang, E-mail: w.eberhardt@em.uni-frankfurt.de [Pharmazentrum Frankfurt/ZAFES, Klinikum der Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Frankfurt/Main (Germany)

    2015-01-01

    The impact of the RNA-binding protein HuR for the post-transcriptional deregulation of tumor-relevant genes is well established. Despite of elevations in HuR expression levels, an increase in cytoplasmic HuR abundance in many cases correlates with a high grade of malignancy. Here, we demonstrated that administration of the actin-depolymerizing macrolide latrunculin A, or blebbistatin, an inhibitor of myosin II ATPase activity, caused a dose- and time-dependent reduction in the high cytoplasmic HuR content of HepG2 and Huh7 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. Subcellular fractionation revealed that in addition, both inhibitors strongly attenuated cytoskeletal and membrane-bound HuR abundance and conversely increased the HuR amount in nuclear cell fractions. Concomitant with changes in intracellular HuR localization, both cytoskeletal inhibitors markedly decreased the half-lives of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), cyclin A and cyclin D{sub 1} encoding mRNAs resulting in a significant reduction in their expression levels in HepG2 cells. Importantly, a similar reduction in the expression of these HuR targets was achieved by a RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown of either HuR or nonmuscle myoin IIA. Using polysomal fractionation, we further demonstrate that the decrease in cytoplasmic HuR by latrunculin A or blebbistatin is accompanied by a marked change in the allocation of HuR and its mRNA cargo from polysomes to ribonucleoprotein (RNP) particles. Functionally, the basal migration and prostaglandin E{sub 2} synthesis are similarly impaired in inhibitor-treated and stable HuR-knockdown HepG2 cells. Our data demonstrate that interfering with the actomyosin-dependent HuR trafficking may comprise a valid therapeutic option for antagonizing pathologic posttranscriptional gene expression by HuR and furthermore emphasize the potential benefit of HuR inhibitory strategies for treatment of HCC. - Highlights: • We tested the effects of latrunculin A and blebbistatin on

  19. Hair Regenerative Mechanisms of Red Ginseng Oil and Its Major Components in the Testosterone-Induced Delay of Anagen Entry in C57BL/6 Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van-Long Truong

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Hair loss (alopecia is a universal problem for numerous people in the world. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of red ginseng oil (RGO and its major components on hair re-growth using testosterone (TES-induced delay of anagen entry in C57BL/6 mice and their mechanisms of action. Seven-week-old C57BL/6 mice were daily treated with TES for 1 h prior to topical application of 10% RGO, 1% linoleic acid (LA, 1% β-sitosterol (SITOS, or 1% bicyclo(10.1.0tridec-1-ene (BICYCLO once a day for 28 days. Hair regenerative capacity was significantly restored by treatment of RGO and its major compounds in the TES-treated mice. Histological analysis showed that RGO along with LA and SITOS but not BICYCLO promoted hair growth through early inducing anagen phase that was delayed by TES in mice. Treatment of mice with RGO, LA, or SITOS up-regulated Wnt/β-catenin and Shh/Gli pathways-mediated expression of genes such as β-catenin, Lef-1, Sonic hedgehog, Smoothened, Gli-1, Cyclin D1, and Cyclin E in the TES-treated mice. In addition, RGO and its major components reduced the protein level of TGF-β but enhanced the expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. These results suggest that RGO is a potent novel therapeutic natural product for treatment of androgenic alopecia possibly through hair re-growth activity of its major components such as LA and SITOS.

  20. Hes6 is required for actin cytoskeletal organization in differentiating C2C12 myoblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malone, Caroline M.P.; Domaschenz, Renae; Amagase, Yoko [MRC Cancer Cell Unit, Hutchison-MRC Research Centre, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge CB2 0XZ (United Kingdom); Dunham, Ian [EMBL-European Bioinformatics Institute (EBI), Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SD (United Kingdom); Murai, Kasumi [MRC Cancer Cell Unit, Hutchison-MRC Research Centre, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge CB2 0XZ (United Kingdom); Jones, Philip H., E-mail: phj20@cam.ac.uk [MRC Cancer Cell Unit, Hutchison-MRC Research Centre, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge CB2 0XZ (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-01

    Hes6 is a member of the hairy-enhancer-of-split family of transcription factors that regulate proliferating cell fate in development and is known to be expressed in developing muscle. Here we investigate its function in myogenesis in vitro. We show that Hes6 is a direct transcriptional target of the myogenic transcription factors MyoD and Myf5, indicating that it is integral to the myogenic transcriptional program. The localization of Hes6 protein changes during differentiation, becoming predominantly nuclear. Knockdown of Hes6 mRNA levels by siRNA has no effect on cell cycle exit or induction of myosin heavy chain expression in differentiating C2C12 myoblasts, but F-actin filament formation is disrupted and both cell motility and myoblast fusion are reduced. The knockdown phenotype is rescued by expression of Hes6 cDNA resistant to siRNA. These results define a novel role for Hes6 in actin cytoskeletal dynamics in post mitotic myoblasts.

  1. Hes6 is required for actin cytoskeletal organization in differentiating C2C12 myoblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malone, Caroline M.P.; Domaschenz, Renae; Amagase, Yoko; Dunham, Ian; Murai, Kasumi; Jones, Philip H.

    2011-01-01

    Hes6 is a member of the hairy-enhancer-of-split family of transcription factors that regulate proliferating cell fate in development and is known to be expressed in developing muscle. Here we investigate its function in myogenesis in vitro. We show that Hes6 is a direct transcriptional target of the myogenic transcription factors MyoD and Myf5, indicating that it is integral to the myogenic transcriptional program. The localization of Hes6 protein changes during differentiation, becoming predominantly nuclear. Knockdown of Hes6 mRNA levels by siRNA has no effect on cell cycle exit or induction of myosin heavy chain expression in differentiating C2C12 myoblasts, but F-actin filament formation is disrupted and both cell motility and myoblast fusion are reduced. The knockdown phenotype is rescued by expression of Hes6 cDNA resistant to siRNA. These results define a novel role for Hes6 in actin cytoskeletal dynamics in post mitotic myoblasts.

  2. Covalent modification of cytoskeletal proteins in neuronal cells by tryptamine-4,5-dione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoji Kato

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Serotonin, 5-hydroxytryptamine, is a systemic bioactive amine that acts in the gut and brain. As a substrate of myeloperoxidase in vitro, serotonin is oxidized to tryptamine-4,5-dione (TD, which is highly reactive with thiols. In this work, we successively prepared a monoclonal antibody to quinone-modified proteins and found that the antibody preferentially recognizes the TD–thiol adduct. Using the antibody, we observed that the chloride ion, the predominant physiological substrate for myeloperoxidase in vivo, is not competitive toward the enzyme catalyzed serotonin oxidation process, suggesting that serotonin is a plausible physiological substrate for the enzyme in vivo. Immunocytochemical analyses revealed that TD staining was observed in the cytosol of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells while blot analyses showed that some cellular proteins were preferentially modified. Pull-down analyses confirmed that the cytoskeletal proteins tubulins, vimentin, and neurofilament-L were modified. When pure tubulins were exposed to micromolar levels of synthetic TD, self-polymerization was initially enhanced and then suppressed. These results suggest that serotonin oxidation by myeloperoxidase or the action of other oxidants could cause functional alteration of cellular proteins, which may be related to neurodegeneration processes or irritable bowel syndrome.

  3. Title: Cytoskeletal proteins in cortical development and diseasesubtitle: Actin associated proteins in periventricular heterotopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gewei eLian

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The actin cytoskeleton regulates many important cellular processes in the brain, including cell division and proliferation, migration, and cytokinesis and differentiation. These developmental processes can be regulated through actin dependent vesicle and organelle movement, cell signaling, and the establishment and maintenance of cell junctions and cell shape. Many of these processes are mediated by extensive and intimate interactions of actin with cellular membranes and proteins. Disruption in the actin cytoskeleton in the brain gives rise to periventricular heterotopia (PH, a malformation of cortical development, characterized by abnormal neurons clustered deep in the brain along the lateral ventricles. This disorder can give rise to seizures, dyslexia and psychiatric disturbances. Anatomically, PH is characterized by a smaller brain (impaired proliferation, heterotopia (impaired initial migration and disruption along the neuroependymal lining (impaired cell-cell adhesion. Genes causal for PH have also been implicated in actin-dependent processes. The current review provides mechanistic insight into actin cytoskeletal regulation of cortical development in the context of this malformation of cortical development.

  4. Manufacturing and testing experience for FFTF major safety related components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peckinpaugh, C.L.

    1976-01-01

    Experience with FFTF Heat Transport System components during design, manufacturing, and prototype testing is dscussed. Specifically the special design features and the results of the testing performed to assure that the designs provide for safe operation are outlined. Particular emphasis is placed on the full size prototype testing programs and the valuable experience gained

  5. Characterization of PM2.5 and the major chemical components during a 1-year campaign in rural Guangzhou, Southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Senchao; Zhao, Yan; Ding, Aijun; Zhang, Yingyi; Song, Tianli; Zheng, Junyu; Ho, Kin Fai; Lee, Shun-cheng; Zhong, Liuju

    2016-01-01

    A 1-year campaign was conducted in the rural area of Guangzhou, a megacity in southern China, to collect fine particulate matter (PM2.5) from March 2012 to February 2013. The mass concentrations of PM2.5 and the major chemical components including 6 water-soluble ions, organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), and 13 additional elements were measured. The annual average concentration of PM2.5 was 44.2 ± 25.8 μg/m3. Sulfate was the most dominant component, accounting for 28.6% of PM2.5, followed by organic matter (21.9%). Both sea salt and crustal material accounted for only a small fraction of PM2.5 (burning. Two high-PM2.5 case studies show that both local and long-range transport can play important roles in the PM2.5 elevation episode.

  6. Pulmonary epithelial response in the rat lung to instilled Montserrat respirable dusts and their major mineral components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housley, D G; Bérubé, K A; Jones, T P; Anderson, S; Pooley, F D; Richards, R J

    2002-07-01

    The Soufriere Hills, a stratovolcano on Montserrat, started erupting in July 1995, producing volcanic ash, both from dome collapse pyroclastic flows and phreatic explosions. The eruptions/ash resuspension result in high concentrations of suspended particulate matter in the atmosphere, which includes cristobalite, a mineral implicated in respiratory disorders. To conduct toxicological studies on characterised samples of ash, together with major components of the dust mixture (anorthite, cristobalite), and a bioreactive mineral control (DQ12 quartz). Rats were challenged with a single mass (1 mg) dose of particles via intratracheal instillation and groups sacrificed at one, three, and nine weeks. Acute bioreactivity of the particles was assessed by increases in lung permeability and inflammation, changes in epithelial cell markers, and increase in the size of bronchothoracic lymph nodes. Data indicated that respirable ash derived from pyroclastic flows (20.1% cristobalite) or phreatic explosion (8.6% cristobalite) had minimal bioreactivity in the lung. Anorthite showed low bioreactivity, in contrast to pure cristobalite, which showed progressive increases in lung damage. Results suggests that either the percentage mass of cristobalite particles present in Montserrat ash was not sufficient as a catalyst in the lung environment, or its surface reactivity was masked by the non-reactive volcanic glass components during the process of ash formation.

  7. Crystal structure of prunin-1, a major component of the almond (Prunus dulcis) allergen amandin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Tengchuan; Albillos, Silvia M; Guo, Feng; Howard, Andrew; Fu, Tong-Jen; Kothary, Mahendra H; Zhang, Yu-Zhu

    2009-09-23

    Seed storage proteins are accumulated during seed development and act as a reserve of nutrition for seed germination and young sprout growth. Plant seeds play an important role in human nutrition by providing a relatively inexpensive source of protein. However, many plant foods contain allergenic proteins, and the number of people suffering from food allergies has increased rapidly in recent years. The 11S globulins are the most widespread seed storage proteins, present in monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous seeds as well as in gymnosperms (conifers) and other spermatophytes. This family of proteins accounts for a number of known major food allergens. They are of interest to both the public and industry due to food safety concerns. Because of the interests in the structural basis of the allergenicity of food allergens, we sought to determine the crystal structure of Pru1, the major component of the 11 S storage protein from almonds. The structure was refined to 2.4 A, and the R/Rfree for the final refined structure is 17.2/22.9. Pru1 is a hexamer made of two trimers. Most of the back-to-back trimer-trimer association was contributed by monomer-monomer interactions. An alpha helix (helix 6) at the C-terminal end of the acidic domain of one of the interacting monomers lies at the cleft of the two protomers. The residues in this helix correspond to a flexible region in the peanut allergen Ara h 3 that encompasses a previously defined linear IgE epitope.

  8. Crystal Structure of Prunin-1, a Major Component of the Almond (Prunus dulcis) Allergen Amandin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Tengchuan; Albillos, Silvia M.; Guo, Feng; Howard, Andrew; Fu, Tong-Jen; Kothary, Mahendra H.; Zhang, Yu-Zhu; (IIT); (US-FDA); (IT)

    2010-10-28

    Seed storage proteins are accumulated during seed development and act as a reserve of nutrition for seed germination and young sprout growth. Plant seeds play an important role in human nutrition by providing a relatively inexpensive source of protein. However, many plant foods contain allergenic proteins, and the number of people suffering from food allergies has increased rapidly in recent years. The 11S globulins are the most widespread seed storage proteins, present in monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous seeds as well as in gymnosperms (conifers) and other spermatophytes. This family of proteins accounts for a number of known major food allergens. They are of interest to both the public and industry due to food safety concerns. Because of the interests in the structural basis of the allergenicity of food allergens, we sought to determine the crystal structure of Pru1, the major component of the 11 S storage protein from almonds. The structure was refined to 2.4 {angstrom}, and the R/Rfree for the final refined structure is 17.2/22.9. Pru1 is a hexamer made of two trimers. Most of the back-to-back trimer-trimer association was contributed by monomer-monomer interactions. An {alpha} helix (helix 6) at the C-terminal end of the acidic domain of one of the interacting monomers lies at the cleft of the two protomers. The residues in this helix correspond to a flexible region in the peanut allergen Ara h 3 that encompasses a previously defined linear IgE epitope.

  9. CagI is an essential component of the Helicobacter pylori Cag type IV secretion system and forms a complex with CagL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kieu Thuy Pham

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori, the causative agent of type B gastritis, peptic ulcers, gastric adenocarcinoma and MALT lymphoma, uses the Cag type IV secretion system to induce a strong proinflammatory response in the gastric mucosa and to inject its effector protein CagA into gastric cells. CagA translocation results in altered host cell gene expression profiles and cytoskeletal rearrangements, and it is considered as a major bacterial virulence trait. Recently, it has been shown that binding of the type IV secretion apparatus to integrin receptors on target cells is a crucial step in the translocation process. Several bacterial proteins, including the Cag-specific components CagL and CagI, have been involved in this interaction. Here, we have examined the localization and interactions of CagI in the bacterial cell. Since the cagI gene overlaps and is co-transcribed with the cagL gene, the role of CagI for type IV secretion system function has been difficult to assess, and conflicting results have been reported regarding its involvement in the proinflammatory response. Using a marker-free gene deletion approach and genetic complementation, we show now that CagI is an essential component of the Cag type IV secretion apparatus for both CagA translocation and interleukin-8 induction. CagI is distributed over soluble and membrane-associated pools and seems to be partly surface-exposed. Deletion of several genes encoding essential Cag components has an impact on protein levels of CagI and CagL, suggesting that both proteins require partial assembly of the secretion apparatus. Finally, we show by co-immunoprecipitation that CagI and CagL interact with each other. Taken together, our results indicate that CagI and CagL form a functional complex which is formed at a late stage of secretion apparatus assembly.

  10. Dual role of preputial gland secretion and its major components in sex recognition of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-Xu; Liu, Ying-Juan; Zhang, Jin-Hua; Sun, Lixing

    2008-10-20

    This study was aimed at validating the sexual attractiveness of hexadecanol and hexadecyl acetate, two putative pheromone compounds, from preputial gland secretion of mice. These two compounds have been reported to be among the major components of preputial gland secretion in both sexes but higher in quantity in males than females. In this study, we show that castration suppressed the production of the two compounds, further suggesting their association with maleness. Adding preputial gland secretion and the synthetic analogs of the two compounds to castrated male urine at their physiological levels in intact males increased the attractiveness of castrated male urine to female mice, showing that the two compounds were indeed male pheromones. Furthermore, their sexual attractiveness disappeared upon removing the vomeronasal organs (VNOs) from female recipients. Replenishing castrated male urine with preputial gland secretion and the two compounds at their physiological levels in females increased the attractiveness of castrated male urine to males. Such a reversal of sexual attractiveness for hexadecanol and hexadecyl acetate suggests that they had opposing dual effects in sexual attractiveness in a dosage-dependent manner.

  11. Chemosensory responses to the repellent nepeta essential oil and its major component nepetalactone by the yellow fever mosquito, aedes aegypti, a vector of zika virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepeta essential oil (Neo) (catnip) and its major component, nepetalactone, have long been known to repel insects including mosquitoes. However, the neural mechanisms through which these repellents are detected by mosquitoes, including the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti, an important vector of...

  12. Replacement of major nuclear power plant components for service life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, S.

    1987-01-01

    Problems are discussed associated with replacement of nuclear power plant components with the aim to extend their original scheduled life. The existing foreign experience shows that it is technically feasible to replace practically all basic components for which the necessity of replacement is established. Data is summed up on the replacement of steam generators in US and West German nuclear power plants showing the duration of the job, the total consumption of manhours, the collective dose equivalent and the cost. Attention is also focused on implemented and projected replacements of circulation pipes in nuclear power plants abroad. Based on these figures, the cost is estimated of the replacement of the reactor vessel and the steam generators for WWER-440 nuclear power plants. The conclusion is arrived at that even based on a conservative estimate, the extension by 20 years of the service life of a nuclear power plant is economically more effective than the construction of a new plant. (Z.M.) 2 tabs., 15 refs., 3 figs

  13. Effect of essential oils of Syzygium aromaticum and Cinnamomum zeylanicum and their major components on biofilm production in Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from milk of cows with mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budri, P E; Silva, N C C; Bonsaglia, E C R; Fernandes Júnior, A; Araújo Júnior, J P; Doyama, J T; Gonçalves, J L; Santos, M V; Fitzgerald-Hughes, D; Rall, V L M

    2015-09-01

    Bovine mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary glands of cows and causes significant economic losses in dairy cattle. Staphylococcus aureus is one of the microorganisms most commonly isolated. Novel agents are required in agricultural industries to prevent the development of mastitis. The production of biofilm by Staph. aureus facilitates the adhesion of bacteria to solid surfaces and contributes to the transmission and maintenance of these bacteria. The effect of the essential oils of Syzygium aromaticum (clove; EOSA) and Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon; EOCZ) and their major components, eugenol and cinnamaldehyde, on Staph. aureus biofilm formation on different surfaces was investigated. The results showed a significant inhibition of biofilm production by EOSA on polystyrene and stainless steel surfaces (69.4 and 63.6%, respectively). However, its major component, eugenol, was less effective on polystyrene and stainless steel (52.8 and 19.6%, respectively). Both EOCZ and its major component, cinnamaldehyde, significantly reduced biofilm formation on polystyrene (74.7 and 69.6%, respectively) and on stainless steel surfaces (45.3 and 44.9%, respectively). These findings suggest that EOSA, EOCZ, and cinnamaldehyde may be considered for applications such as sanitization in the food industry. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Z ring as executor of bacterial cell division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dajkovic, Alex; Lutkenhaus, Joe

    2006-01-01

    It has become apparent that bacteria possess ancestors of the major eukaryotic cytoskeletal proteins. FtsZ, the ancestral homologue of tubulin, assembles into a cytoskeletal structure associated with cell division, designated the Z ring. Formation of the Z ring represents a major point of both spatial and temporal regulation of cell division. Here we discuss findings concerning the structure and the formation of the ring as well as its spatial and temporal regulation.

  15. Big rock point restoration project BWR major component removal, packaging and shipping - planning and experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milner, T.; Dam, S.; Papp, M.; Slade, J.; Slimp, B.; Nurden, P.

    2001-01-01

    The Big Rock Point boiling water reactor (BWR) at Charlevoix, MI was permanently shut down on August 29th 1997. In 1999 BNFL Inc.'s Reactor Decommissioning Group (RDG) was awarded a contract by Consumers Energy (CECo) for the Big Rock Point (BRP) Major Component Removal (MCR) project. BNFL Inc. RDG has teamed with MOTA, Sargent and Lundy and MDM Services to plan and execute MCR in support of the facility restoration project. The facility restoration project will be completed by 2005. Key to the success of the project has been the integration of best available demonstrated technology into a robust and responsive project management approach, which places emphasis on safety and quality assurance in achieving project milestones linked to time and cost. To support decommissioning of the BRP MCR activities, a reactor vessel (RV) shipping container is required. Discussed in this paper is the design and fabrication of a 10 CFR Part 71 Type B container necessary to ship the BRP RV. The container to be used for transportation of the RV to the burial site was designed as an Exclusive Use Type B package for shipment and burial at the Barnwell, South Carolina (SC) disposal facility. (author)

  16. The effects of near-UV radiation on elasmobranch lens cytoskeletal actin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zigman, S; Rafferty, N S; Scholz, D L; Lowe, K

    1992-08-01

    The role of near-UV radiation as a cytoskeletal actin-damaging agent was investigated. Two procedures were used to analyse fresh smooth dogfish (Mustelus canis) eye lenses that were incubated for up to 22 hr in vitro, with elasmobranch Ringer's medium, and with or without exposure to a near-UV lamp (emission principally at 365 nm; irradiance of 2.5 mW cm-2). These were observed histologically using phalloidin-rhodamine specific staining and by transmission electron microscopy. In addition, solutions of purified polymerized rabbit muscle actin were exposed to the same UV conditions and depolymerization was assayed by ultracentrifugation and high-pressure liquid chromatography. While the two actins studied do differ very slightly in some amino acid sequences, they would react physically nearly identically. The results showed that dogfish lenses developed superficial opacities due to near-UV exposure. Whole mounts of lens epithelium exhibited breakdown of actin filaments in the basal region of the cells within 18 hr of UV exposure. TEM confirmed the breakdown of actin filaments due to UV exposure. SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting positively identified actin in these cells. Direct exposure of purified polymerized muscle actin in polymerizing buffer led to an increase in actin monomer of approximately 25% in the UV-exposed solutions within 3-18 hr, whether assayed by ultracentrifugation or HPLC. The above indicates that elasmobranch lens epithelial cells contain UV-labile actin filaments, and that near-UV radiation, as is present in the sunlit environment, can break down the actin structure in these cells. Furthermore, breakdown of purified polymerized muscle actin does occur due to near-UV light exposure.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. The proteins of the grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seed endosperm: fractionation and identification of the major components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzola, Diana; Vincenzi, Simone; Gastaldon, Luca; Tolin, Serena; Pasini, Gabriella; Curioni, Andrea

    2014-07-15

    In the present study, grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seed endosperm proteins were characterized after sequential fractionation, according to a modified Osborne procedure. The salt-soluble fraction (albumins and globulins) comprised the majority (58.4%) of the total extracted protein. The protein fractions analysed by SDS-PAGE showed similar bands, indicating different solubility of the same protein components. SDS-PAGE in non-reducing and reducing conditions revealed the polypeptide composition of the protein bands. The main polypeptides, which were similar in all the grape varieties analysed, were identified by LC-MS/MS as homologous to the 11S globulin-like seed storage proteins of other plant species, while a monomeric 43 kDa protein presented high homology with the 7S globulins of legume seeds. The results provide new insights about the identity, structure and polypeptide composition of the grape seed storage proteins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Estimation of Th, Cs, Sr, I, Co, Fe, Zn, Ca and K in major food components using neutron activation analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, Suma; Bhati, Sharda

    2010-01-01

    The concentration of some radiologically and nutritionally important trace elements: Th, Cs, Sr, I, Co, Fe, Zn, Ca and K were determined in major food components such as cereals, pulses, vegetables, fruits, milk etc. The trace elements in food samples were determined using neutron activation analysis technique which involves instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation analysis. Whereas, the trace elements Th, Cs, K and Sr, are important in radiation protection; Fe and Zn are of importance in nutrition studies and Ca and I have dual importance, both in nutrition and radiation protection. The results of analysis show that among the food materials, higher concentrations of Th, Cs, Sr, K, Fe, Zn and Co were found in cereals and pulses. In case of Ca, the milk appears to be the main contributor towards its dietary intake. The estimated concentrations of the trace elements in food components can be employed in determining the daily dietary intake of these elements which in turn can be used for their biokinetic studies. (author)

  19. Different effects of inorganic and dimethylated arsenic compounds on cell morphology, cytoskeletal organization, and DNA synthesis in cultured Chinese hamster V79 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochi, Takafumi; Nakajima, Fumie [Department of Environmental Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Teikyo University, Sagamiko, Kanagawa (Japan); Fukumori, Nobutaka [Department of Toxicology, Tokyo Metropolitan Research Laboratory of Public Health, Hyakuninchou, Shinjyuku (Japan)

    1998-09-01

    Changes in cytoskeletal organization of cultured V79 cells exposed to arsenite and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAA), a methylated derivative of inorganic arsenics, and related changes, such as mitotic arrest and induction of multinucleated cells, were investigated in comparison with their effects on DNA synthesis. DMAA caused mitotic arrest and induction of multinucleated cells with a delay of 12 h relative to the mitotic arrest. By contrast, arsenite at equitoxic concentrations to DMAA was less effective than DMAA in causing mitotic arrest and in inducing multinucleated cells. Post-mitotic incubation of cells arrested in metaphase by 6 h incubation with 10 mM DMAA showed that the incidence of multinucleated cells increased conversely with a rapid decrease in metaphase cells. This suggests that metaphase-arrested cells can escape from metaphase, resulting in the appearance of multinucleated cells. The mitotic arrest caused by DMAA was accompanied by disruption of the microtubule network. By contrast, both arsenite and DMAA did not cause disorganization of actin stress fibers even when incubated at concentrations that caused a marked retardation of cell growth. Cells exposed to arsenite for 6 h showed marked inhibition of DNA synthesis, whereas inhibition by DMAA was not observed. When incubation was prolonged by 18 h, the arsenite-induced inhibition of DNA synthesis was mitigated. By contrast, inhibition of DNA synthesis by DMAA occurred in parallel with an increase in the population of mitotic cells. These results suggest that DMAA caused growth retardation and morphological changes via disruption of the microtubule network, and that arsenite-induced retardation of cell growth and inhibition of DNA synthesis were not attributable to the cytoskeletal changes. (orig.) (orig.) With 7 figs., 31 refs.

  20. The integrin alphav beta3 increases cellular stiffness and cytoskeletal remodeling dynamics to facilitate cancer cell invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierke, Claudia Tanja

    2013-01-01

    The process of cancer cell invasion through the extracellular matrix (ECM) of connective tissue plays a prominent role in tumor progression and is based fundamentally on biomechanics. Cancer cell invasion usually requires cell adhesion to the ECM through the cell-matrix adhesion receptors integrins. The expression of the αvβ3 integrin is increased in several tumor types and is consistently associated with increased metastasis formation in patients. The hypothesis was that the αvβ3 integrin expression increases the invasiveness of cancer cells through increased cellular stiffness, and increased cytoskeletal remodeling dynamics. Here, the invasion of cancer cells with different αvβ3 integrin expression levels into dense three-dimensional (3D) ECMs has been studied. Using a cell sorter, two subcell lines expressing either high or low amounts of αvβ3 integrins (αvβ3high or αvβ3low cells, respectively) have been isolated from parental MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. αvβ3high cells showed a threefold increased cell invasion compared to αvβ3low cells. Similar results were obtained for A375 melanoma, 786-O kidney and T24 bladder carcinoma cells, and cells in which the β3 integrin subunit was knocked down using specific siRNA. To investigate whether contractile forces are essential for αvβ3 integrin-mediated increased cellular stiffness and subsequently enhanced cancer cell invasion, invasion assays were performed in the presence of myosin light chain kinase inhibitor ML-7 and Rho kinase inhibitor Y27632. Indeed, cancer cell invasiveness was reduced after addition of ML-7 and Y27632 in αvβ3high cells but not in αvβ3low cells. Moreover, after addition of the contractility enhancer calyculin A, an increase in pre-stress in αvβ3low cells was observed, which enhanced cellular invasiveness. In addition, inhibition of the Src kinase, STAT3 or Rac1 strongly reduced the invasiveness of αvβ3high cells, whereas the invasiveness of β3 specific knock

  1. The integrin alphav beta3 increases cellular stiffness and cytoskeletal remodeling dynamics to facilitate cancer cell invasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mierke, Claudia Tanja

    2013-01-01

    The process of cancer cell invasion through the extracellular matrix (ECM) of connective tissue plays a prominent role in tumor progression and is based fundamentally on biomechanics. Cancer cell invasion usually requires cell adhesion to the ECM through the cell-matrix adhesion receptors integrins. The expression of the αvβ3 integrin is increased in several tumor types and is consistently associated with increased metastasis formation in patients. The hypothesis was that the αvβ3 integrin expression increases the invasiveness of cancer cells through increased cellular stiffness, and increased cytoskeletal remodeling dynamics. Here, the invasion of cancer cells with different αvβ3 integrin expression levels into dense three-dimensional (3D) ECMs has been studied. Using a cell sorter, two subcell lines expressing either high or low amounts of αvβ3 integrins (αvβ3 high or αvβ3 low cells, respectively) have been isolated from parental MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. αvβ3 high cells showed a threefold increased cell invasion compared to αvβ3 low cells. Similar results were obtained for A375 melanoma, 786-O kidney and T24 bladder carcinoma cells, and cells in which the β3 integrin subunit was knocked down using specific siRNA. To investigate whether contractile forces are essential for αvβ3 integrin-mediated increased cellular stiffness and subsequently enhanced cancer cell invasion, invasion assays were performed in the presence of myosin light chain kinase inhibitor ML-7 and Rho kinase inhibitor Y27632. Indeed, cancer cell invasiveness was reduced after addition of ML-7 and Y27632 in αvβ3 high cells but not in αvβ3 low cells. Moreover, after addition of the contractility enhancer calyculin A, an increase in pre-stress in αvβ3 low cells was observed, which enhanced cellular invasiveness. In addition, inhibition of the Src kinase, STAT3 or Rac1 strongly reduced the invasiveness of αvβ3 high cells, whereas the invasiveness of β3 specific knock

  2. Assessment and management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety: In-containment instrumentation and control cables. Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-12-01

    At present, there are over four hundred operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) in IAEA Member States. Operating experience has shown that ineffective control of the ageing degradation of major NPP components (e.g. caused by unanticipated phenomena and by operating, maintenance, design or manufacturing error) can jeopardize plant safety and also plant life. Ageing in these NPPs must be therefore effectively managed to ensure the availability of design functions throughout the plant service life. From the safety perspective, this means controlling within acceptable limits the ageing degradation and wear-out of plant components important to safety so that adequate safety margins remain, i.e. integrity and functional capability in excess of normal operating requirements. This publication is one in a series of guidance reports on the assessment and management of ageing of the major NPP components important to safety. The reports are based on experience and practices of NPP operators, regulators, designers, manufacturers, and technical support organizations and a widely accepted Methodology for the Management of Ageing of NPP Components Important to Safety, which was issued by the IAEA in 1992. The current practices for the assessment of safety margins (fitness-for-service) and the inspection, monitoring and mitigation of ageing degradation of selected components of Canadian deuterium-uranium (CANDU) reactors, boiling water reactors (BWRs), pressurized water reactors (PWRs), including the Soviet designed 'water moderated and water cooled energy reactors' (WWERs), are documented in the reports. These practices are intended to help all involved directly and indirectly in ensuring the safe operation of NPPs, and to provide a common technical basis for dialogue between plant operators and regulators when dealing with age related licensing issues. The guidance reports are directed at technical experts and managers from NPPs and from regulatory, plant design, manufacturing

  3. Assessment and management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety: In-containment instrumentation and control cables. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-12-01

    At present, there are over four hundred operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) in IAEA Member States. Operating experience has shown that ineffective control of the ageing degradation of major NPP components (e.g. caused by unanticipated phenomena and by operating, maintenance, design or manufacturing error) can jeopardize plant safety and also plant life. Ageing in these NPPs must be therefore effectively managed to ensure the availability of design functions throughout the plant service life. From the safety perspective, this means controlling within acceptable limits the ageing degradation and wear-out of plant components important to safety so that adequate safety margins remain, i.e. integrity and functional capability in excess of normal operating requirements. This publication is one in a series of guidance reports on the assessment and management of ageing of the major NPP components important to safety. The reports are based on experience and practices of NPP operators, regulators, designers, manufacturers, and technical support organizations and a widely accepted Methodology for the Management of Ageing of NPP Components Important to Safety, which was issued by the IAEA in 1992. The current practices for the assessment of safety margins (fitness-for-service) and the inspection, monitoring and mitigation of ageing degradation of selected components of Canadian deuterium-uranium (CANDU) reactors, boiling water reactors (BWRs), pressurized water reactors (PWRs), including the Soviet designed 'water moderated and water cooled energy reactors' (WWERs), are documented in the reports. These practices are intended to help all involved directly and indirectly in ensuring the safe operation of NPPs, and to provide a common technical basis for dialogue between plant operators and regulators when dealing with age related licensing issues. The guidance reports are directed at technical experts and managers from NPPs and from regulatory, plant design, manufacturing

  4. Component-resolved evaluation of the content of major allergens in therapeutic extracts for specific immunotherapy of honeybee venom allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blank, Simon; Etzold, Stefanie; Darsow, Ulf

    2017-01-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy is the only curative treatment of honeybee venom (HBV) allergy, which is able to protect against further anaphylactic sting reactions. Recent analyses on a molecular level have demonstrated that HBV represents a complex allergen source that contains more relevant...... major allergens than formerly anticipated. Moreover, allergic patients show very diverse sensitization profiles with the different allergens. HBV-specific immunotherapy is conducted with HBV extracts which are derived from pure venom. The allergen content of these therapeutic extracts might differ due...... to natural variations of the source material or different down-stream processing strategies of the manufacturers. Since variations of the allergen content of therapeutic HBV extracts might be associated with therapeutic failure, we adressed the component-resolved allergen composition of different therapeutic...

  5. Alpinia Essential Oils and Their Major Components against Rhodnius nasutus, a Vector of Chagas Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamiris de A. de Souza

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Species of the genus Alpinia are widely used by the population and have many described biological activities, including activity against insects. In this paper, we describe the bioactivity of the essential oil of two species of Alpinia genus, A. zerumbet and A. vittata, against Rhodnius nasutus, a vector of Chagas disease. The essential oils of these two species were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. The main constituent of A. zerumbet essential oil (OLALPZER was terpinen-4-ol, which represented 19.7% of the total components identified. In the essential oil of A. vittata (OLALPVIT the monoterpene β-pinene (35.3% was the main constituent. The essential oils and their main constituents were topically applied on R. nasutus fifth-instar nymphs. In the first 10 min of application, OLALPVIT and OLALPZER at 125 μg/mL provoked 73.3% and 83.3% of mortality, respectively. Terpinen-4-ol at 25 μg/mL and β-pinene at 44 μg/mL provoked 100% of mortality. The monitoring of resistant insects showed that both essential oils exhibited antifeedant activity. These results suggest the potential use of A. zerumbet and A. vittata essential oils and their major constituents to control R. nasutus population.

  6. Rubber elongation factor (REF, a major allergen component in Hevea brasiliensis latex has amyloid properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Berthelot

    Full Text Available REF (Hevb1 and SRPP (Hevb3 are two major components of Hevea brasiliensis latex, well known for their allergenic properties. They are obviously taking part in the biosynthesis of natural rubber, but their exact function is still unclear. They could be involved in defense/stress mechanisms after tapping or directly acting on the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway. The structure of these two proteins is still not described. In this work, it was discovered that REF has amyloid properties, contrary to SRPP. We investigated their structure by CD, TEM, ATR-FTIR and WAXS and neatly showed the presence of β-sheet organized aggregates for REF, whereas SRPP mainly fold as a helical protein. Both proteins are highly hydrophobic but differ in their interaction with lipid monolayers used to mimic the monomembrane surrounding the rubber particles. Ellipsometry experiments showed that REF seems to penetrate deeply into the monolayer and SRPP only binds to the lipid surface. These results could therefore clarify the role of these two paralogous proteins in latex production, either in the coagulation of natural rubber or in stress-related responses. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an amyloid formed from a plant protein. This suggests also the presence of functional amyloid in the plant kingdom.

  7. A growing family: the expanding universe of the bacterial cytoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingerson-Mahar, Michael; Gitai, Zemer

    2012-01-01

    Cytoskeletal proteins are important mediators of cellular organization in both eukaryotes and bacteria. In the past, cytoskeletal studies have largely focused on three major cytoskeletal families, namely the eukaryotic actin, tubulin, and intermediate filament (IF) proteins and their bacterial homologs MreB, FtsZ, and crescentin. However, mounting evidence suggests that these proteins represent only the tip of the iceberg, as the cellular cytoskeletal network is far more complex. In bacteria, each of MreB, FtsZ, and crescentin represents only one member of large families of diverse homologs. There are also newly identified bacterial cytoskeletal proteins with no eukaryotic homologs, such as WACA proteins and bactofilins. Furthermore, there are universally conserved proteins, such as the metabolic enzyme CtpS, that assemble into filamentous structures that can be repurposed for structural cytoskeletal functions. Recent studies have also identified an increasing number of eukaryotic cytoskeletal proteins that are unrelated to actin, tubulin, and IFs, such that expanding our understanding of cytoskeletal proteins is advancing the understanding of the cell biology of all organisms. Here, we summarize the recent explosion in the identification of new members of the bacterial cytoskeleton and describe a hypothesis for the evolution of the cytoskeleton from self-assembling enzymes. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Inhibition of phospholipase C disrupts cytoskeletal organization and gravitropic growth in Arabidopsis roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, Zornitza; Barton, Deborah; Armour, William J; Li, Min Y; Liao, Li-Fen; McKellar, Heather L; Pethybridge, Kylie A; Marc, Jan

    2010-10-01

    The phospholipase protein superfamily plays an important role in hormonal signalling and cellular responses to environmental stimuli. There is also growing evidence for interactions between phospholipases and the cytoskeleton. In this report we used a pharmacological approach to investigate whether inhibiting a member of the phospholipase superfamily, phospholipase C (PLC), affects microtubules and actin microfilaments as well as root growth and morphology of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. Inhibiting PLC activity using the aminosteroid U73122 significantly inhibited root elongation and disrupted root morphology in a concentration-dependent manner, with the response being saturated at 5 μM, whereas the inactive analogue U73343 was ineffective. The primary root appeared to lose growth directionality accompanied by root waving and formation of curls. Immunolabelling of roots exposed to increasingly higher U73122 concentrations revealed that the normal transverse arrays of cortical microtubules in the elongation zone became progressively more disorganized or depolymerized, with the disorganization appearing within 1 h of incubation. Likewise, actin microfilament arrays also were disrupted. Inhibiting PLC using an alternative inhibitor, neomycin, caused similar disruptions to both cytoskeletal organization and root morphology. In seedlings gravistimulated by rotating the culture plates by 90°, both U73122 and neomycin disrupted the normal gravitropic growth of roots and etiolated hypocotyls. The effects of PLC inhibitors are therefore consistent with the notion that, as with phospholipases A and D, PLC likewise interacts with the cytoskeleton, alters growth morphology, and is involved in gravitropism.

  9. Preventive effects of a major component of green tea, epigallocathechin-3-gallate, on hepatitis-B virus DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamese, Murat; Aydogdu, Sabiha; Karamese, Selina Aksak; Altoparlak, Ulku; Gundogdu, Cemal

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus infection is one of the major world health problems. Epigallocatechin-3 gallate is the major component of the polyphenolic fraction of green tea and it has an anti-viral, anti-mutagenic, anti- tumorigenic, anti-angiogenic, anti-proliferative, and/or pro-apoptotic effects on mammalian cells. In this study, our aim was to investigate the inhibition of HBV replication by epigallocatechin-3 gallate in the Hep3B2.1-7 hepatocellular carcinoma cell line. HBV-replicating Hep3B2.1-7 cells were used to investigate the preventive effects of epigallocatechin-3 gallate on HBV DNA replication. The expression levels of HBsAg and HBeAg were determined using ELISA. Quantitative real-time-PCR was applied for the determination of the expression level of HBV DNA. Cytotoxicity of epigallocathechin-3-gallate was not observed in the hepatic carcinoma cell line when the dose was lower than 100 μM. The ELISA method demonstrated that epigallocatechin-3 gallate have strong effects on HBsAg and HBeAg levels. Also it was detected by real-time PCR that epigallocatechin-3 gallate could prevent HBV DNA replication. The obtained data pointed out that although the exact mechanism of HBV DNA replication and related diseases remains unclear, epigallocatechin-3 gallate has a potential as an effective anti-HBV agent with low toxicity.

  10. Axon Initial Segment Cytoskeleton: Architecture, Development, and Role in Neuron Polarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svitkina, Tatyana M.

    2016-01-01

    The axon initial segment (AIS) is a specialized structure in neurons that resides in between axonal and somatodendritic domains. The localization of the AIS in neurons is ideal for its two major functions: it serves as the site of action potential firing and helps to maintain neuron polarity. It has become increasingly clear that the AIS cytoskeleton is fundamental to AIS functions. In this review, we discuss current understanding of the AIS cytoskeleton with particular interest in its unique architecture and role in maintenance of neuron polarity. The AIS cytoskeleton is divided into two parts, submembrane and cytoplasmic, based on localization, function, and molecular composition. Recent studies using electron and subdiffraction fluorescence microscopy indicate that submembrane cytoskeletal components (ankyrin G, βIV-spectrin, and actin filaments) form a sophisticated network in the AIS that is conceptually similar to the polygonal/triangular network of erythrocytes, with some important differences. Components of the AIS cytoplasmic cytoskeleton (microtubules, actin filaments, and neurofilaments) reside deeper within the AIS shaft and display structural features distinct from other neuronal domains. We discuss how the AIS submembrane and cytoplasmic cytoskeletons contribute to different aspects of AIS polarity function and highlight recent advances in understanding their AIS cytoskeletal assembly and stability. PMID:27493806

  11. Cell migration through connective tissue in 3-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabry, Ben

    2008-03-01

    A prerequisite for metastasis formation is the ability of tumor cells to invade and migrate through connective tissue. Four key components endow tumor cells with this ability: secretion of matrix-degrading enzymes, firm but temporary adhesion onto connective tissue fibers, contractile force generation, and rapid remodeling of cytoskeletal structures. Cell adhesion, contraction, and cytoskeletal remodeling are biomechanical parameter that can be measured on single cells using a panel of biophysical methods. We use 2-D and 3-D traction microscopy to measure contractile forces; magnetic tweezer microrheology to estimate adhesion strengths, cytoskeletal stiffness and molecular turn-over rates; and nanoscale particle tracking to measure cytoskeletal remodeling. On a wide range of tumor cell lines we could show that cell invasiveness correlates with increased expression of integrin adhesion receptors, increased contractile force generation, and increased speed of cytoskeletal reorganization. Each of those biomechanical parameters, however, varied considerably between cell lines of similar invasivity, suggesting that tumor cells employ multiple invasion strategies that cannot be unambiguously characterized using a single assay.

  12. Development of the TRSSS-1 Satellite as the Major Component of the Space Based Information System(SBIS) for Effective Decision Support System for Thailand's Natural Resources and Environmental Management

    OpenAIRE

    Musigasam, Weerapant; Ditsariyakue, Praneet; Aphicholati, Navanit; Vibulsresth, Suvit

    1997-01-01

    The paper describes development of the first Thailand Remote Sensing Satellite System (TRSSS-1) by the National Research Council of Thailand (NRCT), Ministry of Science Technology and Environment (MOSTE). The TRSSS-1 project has primarily been developed as a major component of the Space Base Information System (SBIS) for effective decision support system for Thailand's natural resources and environmental management. The Space Based Information System consists of three components namely, the u...

  13. Antinuclear, Cytoskeletal, Antineuronal Antibodies in the Serum Samples of Children with Tic Disorders and Obsessive Compulsive Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Işık Görker

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available streptococcus infections in the development of tic and obsessive compulsive disorders (OCD is controversial. The autoimmune hypothesis states that during infection, formation of autoantibodies leads to an autoimmune disorder, which in turn results in movement disorders, tic disorders and/or OCD. In order to test this hypothesis, we assayed these antibodies in children and adolescents diagnosed with tic disorders and/or OCD.Material and Methods: Children and adolescents who were diagnosed with either tic disorders or OCD according to DSM-IV criteria (n=28, were compared with healthy controls (n=15 having similar age and gender characteristics. Regardless of a streptococcus infection history, serum samples of all patients and controls underwent antinuclear, cytoskeletal, and antineuronal antibody assay using indirect immunofluorescence.Results: The rates of antinuclear antibody positivity were 21% and 20% in the patient and control groups respectively (p>0.05. Antineuronal antibody was positive in 2 (7% of 28 patients versus in 1 (6% of 15 controls (p>0.05.Conclusion: These results suggest that such antibodies may not be involved in the pathogenesis of tic disorders/OCD.

  14. Comparative study of cyanotoxins affecting cytoskeletal and chromatin structures in CHO-K1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gácsi, Mariann; Antal, Otilia; Vasas, Gábor; Máthé, Csaba; Borbély, György; Saker, Martin L; Gyori, János; Farkas, Anna; Vehovszky, Agnes; Bánfalvi, Gáspár

    2009-06-01

    In this study we compared the effects of the two frequently occuring and most dangerous cyanobacterial toxins on the cellular organization of microfilaments, microtubules and on the chromatin structure in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells. These compounds are the widely known microcystin-LR (MC-LR) and cylindrospermopsin (CYN) classified as the highest-priority cyanotoxin. Toxic effects were tested in a concentration and time dependent manner. The hepatotoxic MC-LR did not cause significant cytotoxicity on CHO-K1 cells under 20 microM, but caused apoptotic changes at higher concentrations. Apoptotic shrinkage was associated with the shortening and loss of actin filaments and with a concentration dependent depolymerization of microtubules. No necrosis was observed over the concentration range (1-50 microM MC-LR) tested. Cylindrospermopsin did cause apoptosis at low concentrations (1-2 microM) and over short exposure periods (12h). Necrosis was observed at higher concentrations (5-10 microM) and following longer exposure periods (24 or 48h). Cyanotoxins also affected the chromatin structure. The condensation process was inhibited by MC-LR at a later stage and manifested as broken elongated prechromosomes. CYN inhibited chromatin condensation at the early fibrillary stage leading to blurred fluorescent images of apoptotic bodies and preventing the formation of metaphase chromosomes. Cylindrospermopsin exhibited a more pronounced toxic effect causing cytoskeletal and nuclear changes as well as apoptotic and necrotic alterations.

  15. Soluble components of the flagellar export apparatus, FliI, FliJ, and FliH, do not deliver flagellin, the major filament protein, from the cytosol to the export gate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajó, Ráchel; Liliom, Károly; Muskotál, Adél; Klein, Agnes; Závodszky, Péter; Vonderviszt, Ferenc; Dobó, József

    2014-11-01

    Flagella, the locomotion organelles of bacteria, extend from the cytoplasm to the cell exterior. External flagellar proteins are synthesized in the cytoplasm and exported by the flagellar type III secretion system. Soluble components of the flagellar export apparatus, FliI, FliH, and FliJ, have been implicated to carry late export substrates in complex with their cognate chaperones from the cytoplasm to the export gate. The importance of the soluble components in the delivery of the three minor late substrates FlgK, FlgL (hook-filament junction) and FliD (filament-cap) has been convincingly demonstrated, but their role in the transport of the major filament component flagellin (FliC) is still unclear. We have used continuous ATPase activity measurements and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) studies to characterize interactions between the soluble export components and flagellin or the FliC:FliS substrate-chaperone complex. As controls, interactions between soluble export component pairs were characterized providing Kd values. FliC or FliC:FliS did not influence the ATPase activity of FliI alone or in complex with FliH and/or FliJ suggesting lack of interaction in solution. Immobilized FliI, FliH, or FliJ did not interact with FliC or FliC:FliS detected by QCM. The lack of interaction in the fluid phase between FliC or FliC:FliS and the soluble export components, in particular with the ATPase FliI, suggests that cells use different mechanisms for the export of late minor substrates, and the major substrate, FliC. It seems that the abundantly produced flagellin does not require the assistance of the soluble export components to efficiently reach the export gate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Beta-lipotropin is the major component of the plasma opioid response to surgical stress in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porro, C.A.; Facchinetti, F.; Bertellini, E.; Petraglia, F.; Stacca, R.; Barbieri, G.C.; Genazzani, A.R.

    1987-12-07

    There is growing experimental evidence that beta-endorphin immunoreactivity is raised by surgical stress in patients undergoing general anesthesia. As the assay methods employed to date did not allow to fully discriminate between beta-endorphin and its immediate precursor, beta-lipotropin, the authors have investigated in the present study plasma levels of these two peptides by separating them by chromatography on plasma extracts prior to radioimmunoassay. Beta-lipotropin, but not beta-endorphin, plasma levels were found to be significantly elevated during surgery in the general anesthesia group, while no change was found in either peptide concentration in the spinal one. Cortisol plasma levels also increased significantly 90 minutes after the beginning of surgery. Although the sampling time they adopted may have prevented them from detecting an early peak of beta-endorphin during the first 30 minutes of surgery, the major component of the pituitary opioid response to surgical stress appears to be related to beta-lipotropin. This is in agreement with results of experimental work on various kinds of stress in animals and humans and seems to rule out a role for plasma beta-endorphin in post-operative analgesia. 38 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  17. Synergism Effect of the Essential Oil from Ocimum basilicum var. Maria Bonita and Its Major Components with Fluconazole and Its Influence on Ergosterol Biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Nathalia N. R.; Alviano, Celuta S.; Blank, Arie F.; Romanos, Maria Teresa V.; Fonseca, Beatriz B.; Rozental, Sonia; Rodrigues, Igor A.; Alviano, Daniela S.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of the EO and its major components of Ocimum basilicum var. Maria Bonita, a genetically improved cultivar, against the fluconazole sensitive and resistant strains of Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. Geraniol presented better results than the EO, with a low MIC (76 μg/mL against C. neoformans and 152 μg/mL against both Candida strains). The combination of EO, linalool, or geraniol with fluconazole enhanced their antifungal activity, especially against the resistant strain (MIC reduced to 156, 197, and 38 μg/mL, resp.). The ergosterol assay showed that subinhibitory concentrations of the substances were able to reduce the amount of sterol extracted. The substances tested were able to reduce the capsule size which suggests they have an important mechanism of action. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated cell wall destruction of C. neoformans after treatment with subinhibitory concentrations. In C. albicans ultrastructure alterations such as irregularities in the membrane, presence of vesicles, and cell wall thickening were observed. The biofilm formation was inhibited in both C. albicans strains at MIC and twice MIC. These results provide further support for the use of O. basilicum EO and its major components as a potential source of antifungal agents. PMID:27274752

  18. Effectiveness of a mood management component as an adjunct to a telephone counselling smoking cessation intervention for smokers with a past major depression: a pragmatic randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, Regina M.; Willemsen, Marc C.; Smit, Filip; Cuijpers, Pim; Schippers, Gerard M.

    2010-01-01

    Aims To assess whether the addition of a mood management component to telephone counselling produces higher abstinence rates in smokers with past major depression and helps to prevent recurrence of depressive symptoms. Design Pragmatic randomized controlled trial with two conditions, with follow-up

  19. Effectiveness of a mood management component as an adjunct to a telephone counselling smoking cessation intervention for smokers with a past major depression: A pragmatic randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, R.; Willemsen, M.C.; Smit, H.F.E.; Cuijpers, P.; Schippers, G.M.

    2010-01-01

    Aims To assess whether the addition of a mood management component to telephone counselling produces higher abstinence rates in smokers with past major depression and helps to prevent recurrence of depressive symptoms. Design Pragmatic randomized controlled trial with two conditions, with follow-up

  20. FOXO/DAF-16 Activation Slows Down Turnover of the Majority of Proteins in C. elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ineke Dhondt

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Most aging hypotheses assume the accumulation of damage, resulting in gradual physiological decline and, ultimately, death. Avoiding protein damage accumulation by enhanced turnover should slow down the aging process and extend the lifespan. However, lowering translational efficiency extends rather than shortens the lifespan in C. elegans. We studied turnover of individual proteins in the long-lived daf-2 mutant by combining SILeNCe (stable isotope labeling by nitrogen in Caenorhabditis elegans and mass spectrometry. Intriguingly, the majority of proteins displayed prolonged half-lives in daf-2, whereas others remained unchanged, signifying that longevity is not supported by high protein turnover. This slowdown was most prominent for translation-related and mitochondrial proteins. In contrast, the high turnover of lysosomal hydrolases and very low turnover of cytoskeletal proteins remained largely unchanged. The slowdown of protein dynamics and decreased abundance of the translational machinery may point to the importance of anabolic attenuation in lifespan extension, as suggested by the hyperfunction theory.

  1. Major components in oils obtained from Amazonian palm fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos, M. F. G.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Native palm trees belong to the Arecaceae family and are among the most useful plant resources in the Amazons. Despite its great diversity and various uses, few species have been study in detail, which makes it necessary to perform more comprehensive studies on the quality and composition of species not yet explored. This study deals with the characterization of the major compounds in the oils obtained from the mesocarp of fruits of the main palm species from the State of Amapá, Brasil, i.e. bacaba (Oenocarpus bacaba, buriti (Mauritia flexuosa, inajá (Maximiliana maripa, pupunha (Bactris gasipaes and tucumã (Astrocaryum vulgare. Physicochemical characteristics, fatty acids and triacylglycerol (TAG contents were analyzed by HPLC and GC. The proximate composition of the fruits was also analyzed. The results relating to acidity, peroxide value and polar compounds indicate good quality of the oils obtained. Oleic acid ranging from 39.2 to 71.6% and palmitic acid ranging from 20.8 to 39.6% were the two major fatty acids in all the samples. The oils from inajá were characterized by the presence of significant amounts of lauric (4.6% and miristic (10.7% acids while in bacaba, buriti, pupunha and tucumã, as in most edible vegetable oils, only the fatty acids of 16 and 18 carbon atoms were present. Accordingly, the major TAG species in all the samples were POP, POO and OOO. The mesocarp of the palm fruit had a high content in lipids ranging from 17.0% for pupunha to 38.3% for bacaba, expressed as dry basis.Las palmeras nativas de la familia Arecaceae constituyen recursos alimentarios de gran importancia en la región amazónica. A pesar de su diversidad y utilidad, muchas especies son poco conocidas por lo que son de interés los estudios dirigidos a conocer la calidad y composición de las especies menos exploradas para evaluar su potencial económico. El objetivo de este estudio fue la caracterización de los aceites obtenidos del mesocarpio

  2. Focal adhesions and cell-matrix interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woods, A; Couchman, J R

    1988-01-01

    Focal adhesions are areas of cell surfaces where specializations of cytoskeletal, membrane and extracellular components combine to produce stable cell-matrix interactions. The morphology of these adhesions and the components identified in them are discussed together with possible mechanisms...

  3. Risk of metabolic syndrome and its components in people with schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancampfort, Davy; Stubbs, Brendon; Mitchell, Alex J; De Hert, Marc; Wampers, Martien; Ward, Philip B; Rosenbaum, Simon; Correll, Christoph U

    2015-10-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components are highly predictive of cardiovascular diseases. The primary aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the prevalence of MetS and its components in people with schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder, comparing subjects with different disorders and taking into account demographic variables and psychotropic medication use. The secondary aim was to compare the MetS prevalence in persons with any of the selected disorders versus matched general population controls. The pooled MetS prevalence in people with severe mental illness was 32.6% (95% CI: 30.8%-34.4%; N = 198; n = 52,678). Relative risk meta-analyses established that there was no significant difference in MetS prevalence in studies directly comparing schizophrenia versus bipolar disorder, and in those directly comparing bipolar disorder versus major depressive disorder. Only two studies directly compared people with schizophrenia and major depressive disorder, precluding meta-analytic calculations. Older age and a higher body mass index were significant moderators in the final demographic regression model (z = -3.6, p = 0.0003, r(2)  = 0.19). People treated with all individual antipsychotic medications had a significantly (ppeople with severe mental illness had a significantly increased risk for MetS (RR = 1.58; 95% CI: 1.35-1.86; p<0.001) and all its components, except for hypertension (p = 0.07). These data suggest that the risk for MetS is similarly elevated in the diagnostic subgroups of severe mental illness. Routine screening and multidisciplinary management of medical and behavioral conditions is needed in these patients. Risks of individual antipsychotics should be considered when making treatment choices. © 2015 World Psychiatric Association.

  4. A cytoskeletal activator and inhibitor are downstream targets of the frizzled/starry night planar cell polarity pathway in the Drosophila epidermis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Paul N

    2018-04-10

    The frizzled pathway regulates the planar polarity of epithelial cells. In insects this is manifested by the polarity of cuticular structures such as hairs (trichomes) and sensory bristles. A variety of evidence has established that this is achieved by regulating the subcellular location for activating the cytoskeleton in the epithelial cells. How this is accomplished is still poorly understood. In the best-studied tissue, the Drosophila pupal wing two important cytoskeletal regulators have been identified. One, shavenoid (sha), appears to be an activator while the second multiple wing hairs (mwh), appears to be an inhibitor. In vitro biochemistry has confirmed that the Multiple Wing Hairs protein inhibits the elongation of F-actin chains and surprisingly that it also bundles F-actin. These two activities can explain the multifaceted mwh mutant phenotype. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Differential proteomics study of platelets in asymptomatic constitutional macrothrombocytopenia: altered levels of cytoskeletal proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, Shilpita; Saha, Sutapa; Banerjee, Debasis; Chakrabarti, Abhijit

    2015-01-01

    Harris platelet syndrome (HPS), also known as asymptomatic constitutional macrothrombocytopenia (ACMT), is an autosomal dominant platelet disorder characterized by mild-to-severe thrombocytopenia and giant platelets with normal platelet aggregation and absence of bleeding symptoms. We have attempted a comparative proteomics study for profiling of platelet proteins in healthy vs. pathological states to discover characteristic protein expression changes in macrothrombocytes and decipher the factors responsible for the functionally active yet morphologically distinct platelets. We have used 2-D gel-based protein separation techniques coupled with MALDI-ToF/ToF-based mass spectrometric identification and characterization of the proteins to investigate the differential proteome profiling of platelet proteins isolated from the peripheral blood samples of patients and normal volunteers. Our study revealed altered levels of actin-binding proteins such as myosin light chain, coactosin-like protein, actin-related protein 2/3 complex, and transgelin2 that hint toward the cytoskeletal changes necessary to maintain the structural and functional integrity of macrothrombocytes. We have also observed over expressed levels of peroxiredoxin2 that signifies the prevailing oxidative stress in these cells. Additionally, altered levels of protein disulfide isomerase and transthyretin provide insights into the measures adapted by the macrothrombocytes to maintain their normal functional activity. This first proteomics study of platelets from ACMT may provide an understanding of the structural stability and normal functioning of these platelets in spite of their large size. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Oestradiol and progesterone differentially alter cytoskeletal protein expression and flame cell morphology in Taenia crassiceps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosio, Javier R; Ostoa-Saloma, Pedro; Palacios-Arreola, M Isabel; Ruíz-Rosado, Azucena; Sánchez-Orellana, Pedro L; Reynoso-Ducoing, Olivia; Nava-Castro, Karen E; Martínez-Velázquez, Nancy; Escobedo, Galileo; Ibarra-Coronado, Elizabeth G; Valverde-Islas, Laura; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2014-09-01

    We examined the effects of oestradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) on cytoskeletal protein expression in the helminth Taenia crassiceps - specifically actin, tubulin and myosin. These proteins assemble into flame cells, which constitute the parasite excretory system. Total protein extracts were obtained from E2- and P4-treated T. crassiceps cysticerci and untreated controls, and analysed by one- and two-dimensional protein electrophoresis, flow cytometry, immunofluorescence and videomicroscopy. Exposure of T. crassiceps cysticerci to E2 and P4 induced differential protein expression patterns compared with untreated controls. Changes in actin, tubulin and myosin expression were confirmed by flow cytometry of parasite cells and immunofluorescence. In addition, parasite morphology was altered in response to E2 and P4 versus controls. Flame cells were primarily affected at the level of the ciliary tuft, in association with the changes in actin, tubulin and myosin. We conclude that oestradiol and progesterone act directly on T. crassiceps cysticerci, altering actin, tubulin and myosin expression and thus affecting the assembly and function of flame cells. Our results increase our understanding of several aspects of the molecular crosstalk between host and parasite, which might be useful in designing anthelmintic drugs that exclusively impair parasitic proteins which mediate cell signaling and pathogenic reproduction and establishment. Copyright © 2014 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. MARCKS-related protein regulates cytoskeletal organization at cell-cell and cell-substrate contacts in epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Itallie, Christina M; Tietgens, Amber Jean; Aponte, Angel; Gucek, Marjan; Cartagena-Rivera, Alexander X; Chadwick, Richard S; Anderson, James M

    2018-02-02

    Treatment of epithelial cells with interferon-γ and TNF-α (IFN/TNF) results in increased paracellular permeability. To identify relevant proteins mediating barrier disruption, we performed proximity-dependent biotinylation (BioID) of occludin and found that tagging of MARCKS-related protein (MRP; also known as MARCKSL1) increased ∼20-fold following IFN/TNF administration. GFP-MRP was focused at the lateral cell membrane and its overexpression potentiated the physiological response of the tight junction barrier to cytokines. However, deletion of MRP did not abrogate the cytokine responses, suggesting that MRP is not required in the occludin-dependent IFN/TNF response. Instead, our results reveal a key role for MRP in epithelial cells in control of multiple actin-based structures, likely by regulation of integrin signaling. Changes in focal adhesion organization and basal actin stress fibers in MRP-knockout (KO) cells were reminiscent of those seen in FAK-KO cells. In addition, we found alterations in cell-cell interactions in MRP-KO cells associated with increased junctional tension, suggesting that MRP may play a role in focal adhesion-adherens junction cross talk. Together, our results are consistent with a key role for MRP in cytoskeletal organization of cell contacts in epithelial cells. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Covisualization in living onion cells of putative integrin, putative spectrin, actin, putative intermediate filaments, and other proteins at the cell membrane and in an endomembrane sheath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuzeau, C.; Doolittle, K. W.; McNally, J. G.; Pickard, B. G.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    Covisualizations with wide-field computational optical-sectioning microscopy of living epidermal cells of the onion bulb scale have evidenced two major new cellular features. First, a sheath of cytoskeletal elements clads the endomembrane system. Similar elements clad the inner faces of punctate plasmalemmal sites interpreted as plasmalemmal control centers. One component of the endomembrane sheath and plasmalemmal control center cladding is anti-genicity-recognized by two injected antibodies against animal spectrin. Immunoblots of separated epidermal protein also showed bands recognized by these antibodies. Injected phalloidin identified F-actin with the same cellular distribution pattern, as did antibodies against intermediate-filament protein and other cytoskeletal elements known from animal cells. Injection of general protein stains demonstrated the abundance of endomembrane sheath protein. Second, the endomembrane system, like the plasmalemmal puncta, contains antigen recognized by an anti-beta 1 integrin injected into the cytoplasm. Previously, immunoblots of separated epidermal protein were shown to have a major band recognized both by this antibody prepared against a peptide representing the cytosolic region of beta 1 integrin and an antibody against the matrix region of beta 1 integrin. The latter antiboby also identified puncta at the external face of protoplasts. It is proposed that integrin and associated transmembrane proteins secure the endomembrane sheath and transmit signals between it and the lumen or matrix of the endoplasmic reticulum and organellar matrices. This function is comparable to that proposed for such transmembrane linkers in the plasmalemmal control centers, which also appear to bind cytoskeleton and a host of related molecules and transmit signals between them and the wall matrix. It is at the plasmalemmal control centers that the endoplasmic reticulum, a major component of the endomembrane system, attaches to the plasma membrane.

  9. The Impact of Central Bank FX Interventions on Currency Components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beine, M.; Bos, C.S.; Laurent, S.

    2007-01-01

    This article assesses the impact of official FOREX interventions of the three major central banks in terms of the dynamics of the currency components of the major exchange rates over the period 1989-2003. We identify the currency components of the mean and volatility processes of exchange rates

  10. Capillary electrophoretic analysis reveals subcellular binding between individual mitochondria and cytoskeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostal, Vratislav; Arriaga, Edgar A.

    2011-01-01

    Interactions between the cytoskeleton and mitochondria are essential for normal cellular function. An assessment of such interactions is commonly based on bulk analysis of mitochondrial and cytoskeletal markers present in a given sample, which assumes complete binding between these two organelle types. Such measurements are biased because they rarely account for non-bound ‘free’ subcellular species. Here we report on the use of capillary electrophoresis with dual laser induced fluorescence detection (CE-LIF) to identify, classify, count and quantify properties of individual binding events of mitochondria and cytoskeleton. Mitochondria were fluorescently labeled with DsRed2 while F-actin, a major cytoskeletal component, was fluorescently labeled with Alexa488-phalloidin. In a typical subcellular fraction of L6 myoblasts, 79% of mitochondrial events did not have detectable levels of F-actin, while the rest had on average ~2 zeptomole F-actin, which theoretically represents a ~ 2.5-μm long network of actin filaments per event. Trypsin treatment of L6 subcellular fractions prior to analysis decreased the fraction of mitochondrial events with detectable levels of F-actin, which is expected from digestion of cytoskeletal proteins on the surface of mitochondria. The electrophoretic mobility distributions of the individual events were also used to further distinguish between cytoskeleton-bound from cytoskeleton-free mitochondrial events. The CE-LIF approach described here could be further developed to explore cytoskeleton interactions with other subcellular structures, the effects of cytoskeleton destabilizing drugs, and the progression of viral infections. PMID:21309532

  11. Characterizing components of the Saw Palmetto Berry Extract (SPBE) on prostate cancer cell growth and traction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholtysek, Carina; Krukiewicz, Aleksandra A.; Alonso, Jose-Luis; Sharma, Karan P.; Sharma, Pal C.; Goldmann, Wolfgang H.

    2009-01-01

    Saw Palmetto Berry Extract (SPBE) is applied for prostate health and treatment of urinary tract infections, nonbacterial prostitis and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) in man. An assumption is that SPBE affects tumor cell progression and migration in breast and prostate tissue. In this work, DU-145 cells were used to demonstrate that SPBE and its sterol components, β-sitosterol and stigmasterol, inhibit prostate cancer growth by increasing p53 protein expression and also inhibit carcinoma development by decreasing p21 and p27 protein expression. In the presence of cholesterol, these features are not only reversed but increased significantly. The results show for the first time the potential of SPBE, β-sitosterol and stigmasterol as potential anti-tumor agents. Since the protein p53 is also regarded as nuclear matrix protein facilitating actin cytoskeletal binding, 2D tractions were measured. The cell adhesion strength in the presence of SPBE, β-sitosterol and cholesterol and the observation was that the increase in p53 expression triggered an increase in the intracellular force generation. The results suggest a dual function of p53 in cells.

  12. Characterizing components of the Saw Palmetto Berry Extract (SPBE) on prostate cancer cell growth and traction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholtysek, Carina; Krukiewicz, Aleksandra A; Alonso, José-Luis; Sharma, Karan P; Sharma, Pal C; Goldmann, Wolfgang H

    2009-02-13

    Saw Palmetto Berry Extract (SPBE) is applied for prostate health and treatment of urinary tract infections, nonbacterial prostitis and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) in man. An assumption is that SPBE affects tumor cell progression and migration in breast and prostate tissue. In this work, DU-145 cells were used to demonstrate that SPBE and its sterol components, beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol, inhibit prostate cancer growth by increasing p53 protein expression and also inhibit carcinoma development by decreasing p21 and p27 protein expression. In the presence of cholesterol, these features are not only reversed but increased significantly. The results show for the first time the potential of SPBE, beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol as potential anti-tumor agents. Since the protein p53 is also regarded as nuclear matrix protein facilitating actin cytoskeletal binding, 2D tractions were measured. The cell adhesion strength in the presence of SPBE, beta-sitosterol and cholesterol and the observation was that the increase in p53 expression triggered an increase in the intracellular force generation. The results suggest a dual function of p53 in cells.

  13. The Drosophila HEM-2/NAP1 homolog KETTE controls axonal pathfinding and cytoskeletal organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, T; Leifker, K; Klämbt, C

    2000-04-01

    In Drosophila, the correct formation of the segmental commissures depends on neuron-glial interactions at the midline. The VUM midline neurons extend axons along which glial cells migrate in between anterior and posterior commissures. Here, we show that the gene kette is required for the normal projection of the VUM axons and subsequently disrupts glial migration. Axonal projection defects are also found for many other moto- and interneurons. In addition, kette affects the cell morphology of mesodermal and epidermal derivatives, which show an abnormal actin cytoskeleton. The KETTE protein is homologous to the transmembrane protein HEM-2/NAP1 evolutionary conserved from worms to vertebrates. In vitro analysis has shown a specific interaction of the vertebrate HEM-2/NAP1 with the SH2-SH3 adapter protein NCK and the small GTPase RAC1, which both have been implicated in regulating cytoskeleton organization and axonal growth. Hypomorphic kette mutations lead to axonal defects similar to mutations in the Drosophila NCK homolog dreadlocks. Furthermore, we show that kette and dock mutants genetically interact. NCK is thought to interact with the small G proteins RAC1 and CDC42, which play a role in axonal growth. In line with these observations, a kette phenocopy can be obtained following directed expression of mutant DCDC42 or DRAC1 in the CNS midline. In addition, the kette mutant phenotype can be partially rescued by expression of an activated DRAC1 transgene. Our data suggest an important role of the HEM-2 protein in cytoskeletal organization during axonal pathfinding.

  14. FOXO/DAF-16 Activation Slows Down Turnover of the Majority of Proteins in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhondt, Ineke; Petyuk, Vladislav A; Cai, Huaihan; Vandemeulebroucke, Lieselot; Vierstraete, Andy; Smith, Richard D; Depuydt, Geert; Braeckman, Bart P

    2016-09-13

    Most aging hypotheses assume the accumulation of damage, resulting in gradual physiological decline and, ultimately, death. Avoiding protein damage accumulation by enhanced turnover should slow down the aging process and extend the lifespan. However, lowering translational efficiency extends rather than shortens the lifespan in C. elegans. We studied turnover of individual proteins in the long-lived daf-2 mutant by combining SILeNCe (stable isotope labeling by nitrogen in Caenorhabditiselegans) and mass spectrometry. Intriguingly, the majority of proteins displayed prolonged half-lives in daf-2, whereas others remained unchanged, signifying that longevity is not supported by high protein turnover. This slowdown was most prominent for translation-related and mitochondrial proteins. In contrast, the high turnover of lysosomal hydrolases and very low turnover of cytoskeletal proteins remained largely unchanged. The slowdown of protein dynamics and decreased abundance of the translational machinery may point to the importance of anabolic attenuation in lifespan extension, as suggested by the hyperfunction theory. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Heterogeneous Cytoskeletal Force Distribution Delineates the Onset Ca2+ Influx Under Fluid Shear Stress in Astrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad M. Maneshi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical perturbations increase intracellular Ca2+ in cells, but the coupling of mechanical forces to the Ca2+ influx is not well understood. We used a microfluidic chamber driven with a high-speed pressure servo to generate defined fluid shear stress to cultured astrocytes, and simultaneously measured cytoskeletal forces using a force sensitive actinin optical sensor and intracellular Ca2+. Fluid shear generated non-uniform forces in actinin that critically depended on the stimulus rise time emphasizing the presence of viscoelasticity in the activating sequence. A short (ms shear pulse with fast rise time (2 ms produced an immediate increase in actinin tension at the upstream end of the cell with minimal changes at the downstream end. The onset of Ca2+ rise began at highly strained areas. In contrast to stimulus steps, slow ramp stimuli produced uniform forces throughout the cells and only a small Ca2+ response. The heterogeneity of force distribution is exaggerated in cells having fewer stress fibers and lower pre-tension in actinin. Disruption of cytoskeleton with cytochalasin-D (Cyt-D eliminated force gradients, and in those cells Ca2+ elevation started from the soma. Thus, Ca2+ influx with a mechanical stimulus depends on local stress within the cell and that is time dependent due to viscoelastic mechanics.

  16. Contrast in air pollution components between major streets and background locations: Particulate matter mass, black carbon, elemental composition, nitrogen oxide and ultrafine particle number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boogaard, Hanna; Kos, Gerard P. A.; Weijers, Ernie P.; Janssen, Nicole A. H.; Fischer, Paul H.; van der Zee, Saskia C.; de Hartog, Jeroen J.; Hoek, Gerard

    2011-01-01

    Policies to reduce outdoor air pollution concentrations are often assessed on the basis of the regulated pollutants. Whether these are the most appropriate components to assess the potential health benefits is questionable, as other health-relevant pollutants may be more strongly related to traffic. The aim of this study is to compare the contrast in concentration between major roads and (sub)urban background for a large range of pollutants and to analyze the magnitude of the measured difference in the street - background for major streets with different street configurations. Measurements of PM 10, PM 2.5, particle number concentrations (PNC), black carbon (BC), elemental composition of PM 10 and PM 2.5 and NO x were conducted simultaneously in eight major streets and nine (sub)urban background locations in the Netherlands. Measurements were done six times for a week during a six month period in 2008. High contrasts between busy streets and background locations in the same city were found for chromium, copper and iron (factor 2-3). These elements were especially present in the coarse fraction of PM. In addition, high contrasts were found for BC and NO x (factor 1.8), typically indicators of direct combustion emissions. The contrast for PNC was similar to BC. NO 2 contrast was lower (factor 1.5). The largest contrast was found for two street canyons and two streets with buildings at one side of the street only. The contrast between busy streets and urban background in NO 2 was less than the contrast found for BC, PNC and elements indicative of non-exhaust emissions, adding evidence that NO 2 is not representing (current) traffic well. The study supports a substantial role for non-exhaust emissions including brake- and tyre wear and road dust in addition to direct combustion emissions. Significant underestimation of disease burden may occur when relying too much on the regulated components.

  17. Assessment and management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety: PWR pressure vessels. 2007 update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-06-01

    At present, there are over four hundred operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) in IAEA Member States. Operating experience has shown that effective control of the ageing degradation of the major NPP components (e.g. caused by unanticipated phenomena and by operating, maintenance or manufacturing errors) is one of the most important issues for plant safety and also plant life. Ageing in these NPPs must be therefore effectively managed to ensure the availability of design functions throughout the plant service life. From the safety perspective, this means controlling within acceptable limits the ageing degradation and wear-out of plant components important to safety so that adequate safety margins remain, i.e. integrity and functional capability in excess of normal operating requirements. IAEA-TECDOC-1120 documented ageing assessment and management practices for pressurized water reactor (PWR) reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) that were current at the time of its finalization in 1997-1998. Safety significant operating events have occurred since the finalization of the TECDOC, e.g. primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) of Alloy 600 control rod drive mechanism (CRDM) penetrations and boric acid corrosion/wastage of RPV heads, which threatened the integrity of the RPV heads. These events led to new ageing management actions by both NPP operators and regulators. Therefore it was recognized that IAEA-TECDOC-1120 should be updated by incorporating those new events and their countermeasures. The objective of this report is to update IAEA-TECDOC-1120 in order to provide current ageing management guidance for PWR RPVs to all involved in the operation and regulation of PWRs and thus to help ensure PWR RPV integrity in IAEA Member States throughout their entire service life

  18. Anti-Inflammatory Applications of Melittin, a Major Component of Bee Venom: Detailed Mechanism of Action and Adverse Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gihyun Lee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is a pervasive phenomenon triggered by the innate and adaptive immune systems to maintain homeostasis. The phenomenon normally leads to recovery from infection and healing, but when not properly phased, inflammation may cause immune disorders. Bee venom is a toxin that bees use for their protection from enemies. However, for centuries it has been used in the Orient as an anti-inflammatory medicine for the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases. Bee venom and its major component, melittin, are potential means of reducing excessive immune responses and provide new alternatives for the control of inflammatory diseases. Recent experimental studies show that the biological functions of melittin could be applied for therapeutic use in vitro and in vivo. Reports verifying the therapeutic effects of melittin are accumulating in the literature, but the cellular mechanism(s of the anti-inflammatory effects of melittin are not fully elucidated. In the present study, we review the current knowledge on the therapeutic effects of melittin and its detailed mechanisms of action against several inflammatory diseases including skin inflammation, neuroinflammation, atherosclerosis, arthritis and liver inflammation, its adverse effects as well as future prospects regarding the use of melittin.

  19. Anti-Inflammatory Applications of Melittin, a Major Component of Bee Venom: Detailed Mechanism of Action and Adverse Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gihyun; Bae, Hyunsu

    2016-05-11

    Inflammation is a pervasive phenomenon triggered by the innate and adaptive immune systems to maintain homeostasis. The phenomenon normally leads to recovery from infection and healing, but when not properly phased, inflammation may cause immune disorders. Bee venom is a toxin that bees use for their protection from enemies. However, for centuries it has been used in the Orient as an anti-inflammatory medicine for the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases. Bee venom and its major component, melittin, are potential means of reducing excessive immune responses and provide new alternatives for the control of inflammatory diseases. Recent experimental studies show that the biological functions of melittin could be applied for therapeutic use in vitro and in vivo. Reports verifying the therapeutic effects of melittin are accumulating in the literature, but the cellular mechanism(s) of the anti-inflammatory effects of melittin are not fully elucidated. In the present study, we review the current knowledge on the therapeutic effects of melittin and its detailed mechanisms of action against several inflammatory diseases including skin inflammation, neuroinflammation, atherosclerosis, arthritis and liver inflammation, its adverse effects as well as future prospects regarding the use of melittin.

  20. Oviposition Deterrent and Larvicidal and Pupaecidal Activity of Seven Essential Oils and their Major Components against Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae): Synergism–antagonism Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade-Ochoa, Sergio; Sánchez-Aldana, Daniela; Chacón-Vargas, Karla Fabiola; Rivera-Chavira, Blanca E.; Camacho, Alejandro D.; Nogueda-Torres, Benjamín

    2018-01-01

    The larvicidal activity of essential oils cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum J. Presl), Mexican lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) cumin (Cuminum cyminum Linnaeus), clove (Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M.Perry), laurel (Laurus nobilis Linnaeus), Mexican oregano (Lippia berlandieri Schauer) and anise (Pimpinella anisum Linnaeus)) and their major components are tested against larvae and pupae of Culex quinquefasciatus Say. Third instar larvae and pupae are used for determination of lethality and mortality. Essential oils with more than 90% mortality after a 30-min treatment are evaluated at different time intervals. Of the essential oils tested, anise and Mexican oregano are effective against larvae, with a median lethal concentration (LC50) of 4.7 and 6.5 µg/mL, respectively. Anise essential oil and t-anethole are effective against pupae, with LC50 values of 102 and 48.7 µg/mL, respectively. Oregano essential oil and carvacrol also have relevant activities. A kinetic analysis of the larvicidal activity, the oviposition deterrent effect and assays of the effects of the binary mixtures of chemical components are undertaken. Results show that anethole has synergistic effects with other constituents. This same effect is observed for carvacrol and thymol. Limonene shows antagonistic effect with β-pinene. The high larvicidal and pupaecidal activities of essential oils and its components demonstrate that they can be potential substitutes for chemical compounds used in mosquitoes control programs. PMID:29443951

  1. Identification of human cytochrome P450 and UGT enzymes involved in the metabolism of ferulic acid, a major bioactive component in traditional Chinese medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Xiao-Mei; Chen, Lin; Tan, Yan; Yang, Hai-Ying; Lu, Chuang; Gao, Yue; Li, Hua

    2017-09-01

    Ferulic acid (FA) is an active component of herbal medicines. One of the best documented activities of FA is its antioxidant property. Moreover, FA exerts antiallergic, anti-inflammatory, and hepatoprotective effects. However, the metabolic pathways of FA in humans remain unclear. To identify whether human CYP or UGT enzymes are involved in the metabolism of FA, reaction phenotyping of FA was conducted using major CYP-selective chemical inhibitors together with individual CYP and UGT Supersomes. The CYP- and/or UGT-mediated metabolism kinetics were examined simultaneously or individually. Relative activity factor and total normalized rate approaches were used to assess the relative contributions of each major human CYPs towards the FA metabolism. Incubations of FA with human liver microsomes (HLM) displayed NADPH- and UDPGA-dependent metabolism with multiple CYP and UGT isoforms involved. CYPs and UGTs contributed equally to the metabolism of FA in HLM. Although CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 appeared to be the major contributors in the CYP-mediated clearance, their contributions to the overall clearance are still minor (medicines because multiple phase I and phase II enzymes are involved in its metabolism. Copyright © 2017 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. 10-Hydroxy-2-decenoic Acid, the Major Lipid Component of Royal Jelly, Extends the Lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans through Dietary Restriction and Target of Rapamycin Signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Honda, Yoko; Araki, Yoko; Hata, Taketoshi; Ichihara, Kenji; Ito, Masafumi; Tanaka, Masashi; Honda, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    Royal jelly (RJ) produced by honeybees has been reported to possess diverse health-beneficial properties and has been implicated to have a function in longevity across diverse species as well as honeybees. 10-Hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA), the major lipid component of RJ produced by honeybees, was previously shown to increase the lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans. The objective of this study is to elucidate signaling pathways that are involved in the lifespan extension by 10-HDA. 10-HDA f...

  3. Molecular dissection of the mechanism by which EWS/FLI expression compromises actin cytoskeletal integrity and cell adhesion in Ewing sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Aashi; Hoffman, Laura M.; Jensen, Christopher C.; Lin, Yi-Chun; Grossmann, Allie H.; Randall, R. Lor; Lessnick, Stephen L.; Welm, Alana L.; Beckerle, Mary C.

    2014-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma is the second-most-common bone cancer in children. Driven by an oncogenic chromosomal translocation that results in the expression of an aberrant transcription factor, EWS/FLI, the disease is typically aggressive and micrometastatic upon presentation. Silencing of EWS/FLI in patient-derived tumor cells results in the altered expression of hundreds to thousands of genes and is accompanied by dramatic morphological changes in cytoarchitecture and adhesion. Genes encoding focal adhesion, extracellular matrix, and actin regulatory proteins are dominant targets of EWS/FLI-mediated transcriptional repression. Reexpression of genes encoding just two of these proteins, zyxin and α5 integrin, is sufficient to restore cell adhesion and actin cytoskeletal integrity comparable to what is observed when the EWS/FLI oncogene expression is compromised. Using an orthotopic xenograft model, we show that EWS/FLI-induced repression of α5 integrin and zyxin expression promotes tumor progression by supporting anchorage-independent cell growth. This selective advantage is paired with a tradeoff in which metastatic lung colonization is compromised. PMID:25057021

  4. Interpretable functional principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhenhua; Wang, Liangliang; Cao, Jiguo

    2016-09-01

    Functional principal component analysis (FPCA) is a popular approach to explore major sources of variation in a sample of random curves. These major sources of variation are represented by functional principal components (FPCs). The intervals where the values of FPCs are significant are interpreted as where sample curves have major variations. However, these intervals are often hard for naïve users to identify, because of the vague definition of "significant values". In this article, we develop a novel penalty-based method to derive FPCs that are only nonzero precisely in the intervals where the values of FPCs are significant, whence the derived FPCs possess better interpretability than the FPCs derived from existing methods. To compute the proposed FPCs, we devise an efficient algorithm based on projection deflation techniques. We show that the proposed interpretable FPCs are strongly consistent and asymptotically normal under mild conditions. Simulation studies confirm that with a competitive performance in explaining variations of sample curves, the proposed FPCs are more interpretable than the traditional counterparts. This advantage is demonstrated by analyzing two real datasets, namely, electroencephalography data and Canadian weather data. © 2015, The International Biometric Society.

  5. Freezing tolerance of sea urchin embryonic cells: Differentiation commitment and cytoskeletal disturbances in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odintsova, Nelly A; Ageenko, Natalya V; Kipryushina, Yulia O; Maiorova, Mariia A; Boroda, Andrey V

    2015-08-01

    This study focuses on the freezing tolerance of sea urchin embryonic cells. To significantly reduce the loss of physiological activity of these cells that occurs after cryopreservation and to study the effects of ultra-low temperatures on sea urchin embryonic cells, we tested the ability of the cells to differentiate into spiculogenic or pigment directions in culture, including an evaluation of the expression of some genes involved in pigment differentiation. A morphological analysis of cytoskeletal disturbances after freezing in a combination of penetrating (dimethyl sulfoxide and ethylene glycol) and non-penetrating (trehalose and polyvinylpyrrolidone) cryoprotectants revealed that the distribution pattern of filamentous actin and tubulin was similar to that in the control cultures. In contrast, very rare spreading cells and a small number of cells with filamentous actin and tubulin were detected after freezing in the presence of only non-penetrating cryoprotectants. The largest number of pigment cells was found in cultures frozen with trehalose or trehalose and dimethyl sulfoxide. The ability to induce the spicule formation was lost in the cells frozen only with non-penetrating cryoprotectants, while it was maximal in cultures frozen in a cryoprotective mixture containing both non-penetrating and penetrating cryoprotectants (particularly, when ethylene glycol was present). Using different markers for cell state assessment, an effective cryopreservation protocol for sea urchin cells was developed: three-step freezing with a low cooling rate (1-2°C/min) and a combination of non-penetrating and penetrating cryoprotectants made it possible to obtain a high level of cell viability (up to 65-80%). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Fisetin antagonizes cell fusion, cytoskeletal organization and bone resorption in RANKL-differentiated murine macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yun-Ho; Kim, Jung-Lye; Lee, Eun-Jung; Park, Sin-Hye; Han, Seon-Young; Kang, Soon Ah; Kang, Young-Hee

    2014-03-01

    Osteoclastogenesis is comprised of several stage s including progenitor survival, differentiation to mononuclear preosteoclasts, cell fusion to multinuclear mature osteoclasts, and activation to osteoclasts with bone resorbing activity. Botanical antioxidants are now being increasingly investigated for their health-promoting effects on bone. This study investigated that fisetin, a flavonol found naturally in many fruits and vegetables, suppressed osteoclastogenesis by disturbing receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF)-κB ligand (RANKL)-mediated signaling pathway and demoting osteoclastogenic protein induction. Nontoxic fisetin at ≤10 μM inhibited the induction of RANK, tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor 6 (TRAF6) and the activation of NF-κB in RANKL-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. In RANKL-differentiated osteoclasts cell fusion protein of E-cadherin was induced, which was dampened by fisetin. The formation of tartrate-resistance acid phosphatase-positive multinucleated osteoclasts was suppressed by adding fisetin to RANKL-exposed macrophages. It was also found that fisetin reduced actin ring formation and gelsolin induction of osteclasts enhanced by RANKL through disturbing c-Src-proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 signaling. Fisetin deterred preosteoclasts from the cell-cell fusion and the organization of the cytoskeleton to seal the resorbing area and to secret protons for bone resorption. Consistently, the 5 day-treatment of fisetin diminished RANKL-induced cellular expression of carbonic anhydrase II and integrin β3 concurrently with a reduction of osteoclast bone-resorbing activity. Therefore, fisetin was a natural therapeutic agent retarding osteoclast fusion and cytoskeletal organization such as actin rings and ruffled boarder, which is a property of mature osteoclasts and is required for osteoclasts to resorb bone. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Major Lipid Body Protein: A Conserved Structural Component of Lipid Body Accumulated during Abiotic Stress in S. quadricauda CASA-CC202

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arumugam Muthu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abiotic stress in oleaginous microalgae enhances lipid accumulation and is stored in a specialised organelle called lipid droplets (LDs. Both the LDs and body are enriched with major lipid droplet protein (MLDP. It serves as a major structural component and also plays a key role in recruiting other proteins and enzymes involved in lipid body maturation. In the present study, the presence of MLDP was detected in two abiotic stress condition namely nitrogen starvation and salt stress condition. Previous research reveals that nitrogen starvation enhances lipid accumulation. Therefore, the effect of salt on growth, biomass yield, and fatty acid profile is studied in detail. The specific growth rate of S. quadricauda under the salt stress of 10mM concentration is about 0.174μ and in control, the SGR is 0.241μ. An increase in the doubling time of the cells shows that the rate of cell division decreases during salt stress (2.87–5.17. The dry biomass content also decreased drastically at 50mM salt-treated cells (129mg/L compared to control (236mg/L on the day 20. The analysis of fatty acid composition also revealed that there is a 20% decrease in the saturated fatty acid level and 19.9% increment in monounsaturated fatty acid level, which makes salt-mediated lipid accumulation as a suitable biodiesel precursor.

  8. Major Lipid Body Protein: A Conserved Structural Component of Lipid Body Accumulated during Abiotic Stress in S. quadricauda CASA-CC202

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javee, Anand; Sulochana, Sujitha Balakrishnan; Pallissery, Steffi James; Arumugam, Muthu

    2016-01-01

    Abiotic stress in oleaginous microalgae enhances lipid accumulation, which is stored in a specialized organelle called lipid droplets (LDs). Both the LDs or lipid body are enriched with major lipid droplet protein (MLDP). It serves as a major structural component and also plays a key role in recruiting other proteins and enzymes involved in lipid body maturation. In the present study, the presence of MLDP was detected in two abiotic stress condition namely nitrogen starvation and salt stress condition. Previous research reveals that nitrogen starvation enhances lipid accumulation. Therefore, the effect of salt on growth, biomass yield, and fatty acid profile is studied in detail. The specific growth rate of Scenedesmus quadricauda under the salt stress of 10mM concentration is about 0.174 μ and in control, the SGR is 0.241 μ. An increase in the doubling time of the cells shows that the rate of cell division decreases during salt stress (2.87–5.17). The dry biomass content also decreased drastically at 50mM salt-treated cells (129 mg/L) compared to control (236 mg/L) on the day 20. The analysis of fatty acid composition also revealed that there is a 20% decrease in the saturated fatty acid level and 19.9% increment in monounsaturated fatty acid level, which makes salt-mediated lipid accumulation as a suitable biodiesel precursor.

  9. Major Lipid Body Protein: A Conserved Structural Component of Lipid Body Accumulated during Abiotic Stress in S. quadricauda CASA-CC202

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javee, Anand [Biotechnology Division, National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology (NIIST), Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Trivandrum (India); Sulochana, Sujitha Balakrishnan [Biotechnology Division, National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology (NIIST), Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Trivandrum (India); Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), New Delhi (India); Pallissery, Steffi James [Biotechnology Division, National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology (NIIST), Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Trivandrum (India); Arumugam, Muthu, E-mail: arumugam@niist.res.in [Biotechnology Division, National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology (NIIST), Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Trivandrum (India); Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), New Delhi (India)

    2016-11-23

    Abiotic stress in oleaginous microalgae enhances lipid accumulation, which is stored in a specialized organelle called lipid droplets (LDs). Both the LDs or lipid body are enriched with major lipid droplet protein (MLDP). It serves as a major structural component and also plays a key role in recruiting other proteins and enzymes involved in lipid body maturation. In the present study, the presence of MLDP was detected in two abiotic stress condition namely nitrogen starvation and salt stress condition. Previous research reveals that nitrogen starvation enhances lipid accumulation. Therefore, the effect of salt on growth, biomass yield, and fatty acid profile is studied in detail. The specific growth rate of Scenedesmus quadricauda under the salt stress of 10mM concentration is about 0.174 μ and in control, the SGR is 0.241 μ. An increase in the doubling time of the cells shows that the rate of cell division decreases during salt stress (2.87–5.17). The dry biomass content also decreased drastically at 50mM salt-treated cells (129 mg/L) compared to control (236 mg/L) on the day 20. The analysis of fatty acid composition also revealed that there is a 20% decrease in the saturated fatty acid level and 19.9% increment in monounsaturated fatty acid level, which makes salt-mediated lipid accumulation as a suitable biodiesel precursor.

  10. Espins are multifunctional actin cytoskeletal regulatory proteins in the microvilli of chemosensory and mechanosensory cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekerková, Gabriella; Zheng, Lili; Loomis, Patricia A.; Changyaleket, Benjarat; Whitlon, Donna S.; Mugnaini, Enrico; Bartles, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Espins are associated with the parallel actin bundles of hair cell stereocilia and are the target of mutations that cause deafness and vestibular dysfunction in mice and humans. Here, we report that espins are also concentrated in the microvilli of a number of other sensory cells: vomeronasal organ sensory neurons, solitary chemoreceptor cells, taste cells and Merkel cells. Moreover, we show that hair cells and these other sensory cells contain novel espin isoforms that arise from a different transcriptional start site and differ significantly from other espin isoforms in their complement of ligand-binding activities and their effects on actin polymerization. The novel espin isoforms of sensory cells bundled actin filaments with high affinity in a Ca2+-resistant fashion, bound actin monomer via a WASP homology 2 domain, bound profilin via a single proline-rich peptide, and caused a dramatic elongation of microvillus-type parallel actin bundles in transfected epithelial cells. In addition, the novel espin isoforms of sensory cells differed from other espin isoforms in that they potently inhibited actin polymerization in vitro, did not bind the Src homology 3 domain of the adapter protein insulin receptor substrate p53 and did not bind the acidic, signaling phospholipid phosphatidylinositol 4,5- bisphosphate. Thus, the espins constitute a family of multifunctional actin cytoskeletal regulatory proteins with the potential to differentially influence the organization, dimensions, dynamics and signaling capabilities of the actin filament-rich, microvillus-type specializations that mediate sensory transduction in a variety of mechanosensory and chemosensory cells. PMID:15190118

  11. Assessment and management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety: PWR vessel internals: 2007 update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-06-01

    At present, there are over four hundred operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) in IAEA Member States. Operating experience has shown that effective control of the ageing degradation of the major NPP components (e.g. caused by unanticipated phenomena and by operating, maintenance or manufacturing errors) is one of the most important issues for plant safety and also plant life. Ageing in these NPPs must be therefore effectively managed to ensure the availability of design functions throughout the plant service life. From the safety perspective, this means controlling within acceptable limits the ageing degradation and wearout of plant components important to safety so that adequate safety margins remain, i.e. integrity and functional capability in excess of normal operating requirements. IAEA-TECDOC-1119 documents ageing assessment and management practices for PWR Reactor Vessel Internals (RVIs) that were current at the time of its finalization in 1997-1998. Safety significant operating events have occurred since the finalization of the TECDOC, e.g. irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) of baffle-former bolts, which threatened the integrity of the vessel internals. In addition, concern of fretting wear of control rod guide tubes has been raised in Japan. These events led to new ageing management actions by both NPP operators and regulators. Therefore it was recognized that IAEA-TECDOC-1119 should be updated by incorporating those new events and their countermeasures. The objective of this report is to update relevant sections of the existing IAEA-TECDOC- 1119 in order to provide current ageing management guidance for PWR RVIs to all involved in the operation and regulation of PWRs and thus to help ensure PWR safety in IAEA Member States throughout their entire service life

  12. Sodium removal from Hallam Reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huntsman, L.K.; Meservey, R.H.

    1979-08-01

    This report discussed the removal of sodium from major components of the Hallam Nuclear Power Facility. This facility contained the experimental ractor used to test the feasibility of sodium coolant. The Idaho Operations Office of the Department of Energy assigned EG and G Idaho, Inc., the task of carrying out this decontamination and decommissioning program at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Since their shipment to the INEL from Lincoln, Nebraska in 1968, the Hallam Reactor components had been stored in inert nitrogen to prevent the sodium in the components from reacting with moisture in the air. The procedure used to react the sodium in the components and to decontaminate them is discussed. Problems and unusual occurrences in the decontamination and decommissioning process are also reported

  13. Reforming an Undergraduate Environmental Science Course for Nonscience Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazempour, Mahsa; Amirshokoohi, Aidin

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the key components of a reform-based introductory undergraduate environmental science course for nonscience majors and elementary teacher candidates as well as the impact of such components on the participants. The main goals for the course were to actively engage the students in their learning and, in doing so, to enhance…

  14. Dual inhibition of mTORC1 and mTORC2 perturbs cytoskeletal organization and impairs endothelial cell elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji-Tamura, Kiyomi; Ogawa, Minetaro

    2018-02-26

    Elongation of endothelial cells is an important process in vascular formation and is expected to be a therapeutic target for inhibiting tumor angiogenesis. We have previously demonstrated that inhibition of mTORC1 and mTORC2 impaired endothelial cell elongation, although the mechanism has not been well defined. In this study, we analyzed the effects of the mTORC1-specific inhibitor everolimus and the mTORC1/mTORC2 dual inhibitor KU0063794 on the cytoskeletal organization and morphology of endothelial cell lines. While both inhibitors equally inhibited cell proliferation, KU0063794 specifically caused abnormal accumulation of F-actin and disordered distribution of microtubules, thereby markedly impairing endothelial cell elongation and tube formation. The effects of KU0063794 were phenocopied by paclitaxel treatment, suggesting that KU0063794 might impair endothelial cell morphology through over-stabilization of microtubules. Although mTORC1 is a key signaling molecule in cell proliferation and has been considered a target for preventing angiogenesis, mTORC1 inhibitors have not been sufficient to suppress angiogenesis. Our results suggest that mTORC1/mTORC2 dual inhibition is more effective for anti-angiogenic therapy, as it impairs not only endothelial cell proliferation, but also endothelial cell elongation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Expression of cytoskeletal and matrix genes following exposure to ionizing radiation: Dose-rate effects and protein synthesis requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woloschak, G.E.

    1994-01-01

    Experiments were designed to examine the effects Of radiation dose-rate and of the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide on expression of cytoskeletal elements (γ- and β-actin and α-tubulin) and matrix elements (fibronectin) in Syrian hamster embryo cells. Past work from our laboratory had already demonstrated optimum time points and doses for examination of radiation effects on accumulation of specific transcripts. Our results here demonstrated little effect of dose-rate for JANUS fission spectrum neutrons when comparing expression of either α-tubulin or fibronectin genes. Past work had already documented similar results for expression of actin transcripts. Effects of cycloheximide revealed that cycloheximide repressed accumulation of α-tubulin following exposure to high dose-rate neutrons or γ rays; this did not occur following similar low dose-rate exposure. (2) Cycloheximide did not affect accumulation of MRNA for actin genes; and that cycloheximide abrogated the moderate induction of fibronectin-mRNA which occurred following exposure to γ rays and high dose-rate neutrons. These results suggest a role for labile proteins in the maintenance of α-tubulin and fibronectin MRNA accumulation following exposure to ionizing radiation. in addition, they suggest that the cellular/molecular response to low dose-rate neutrons may be different from the response to high dose-rate neutrons

  16. Beta-actin deficiency with oxidative posttranslational modifications in Rett syndrome erythrocytes: insights into an altered cytoskeletal organization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Cortelazzo

    Full Text Available Beta-actin, a critical player in cellular functions ranging from cell motility and the maintenance of cell shape to transcription regulation, was evaluated in the erythrocyte membranes from patients with typical Rett syndrome (RTT and methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2 gene mutations. RTT, affecting almost exclusively females with an average frequency of 1∶10,000 female live births, is considered the second commonest cause of severe cognitive impairment in the female gender. Evaluation of beta-actin was carried out in a comparative cohort study on red blood cells (RBCs, drawn from healthy control subjects and RTT patients using mass spectrometry-based quantitative analysis. We observed a decreased expression of the beta-actin isoforms (relative fold changes for spots 1, 2 and 3: -1.82±0.15, -2.15±0.06, and -2.59±0.48, respectively in pathological RBCs. The results were validated by western blotting and immunofluorescence microscopy. In addition, beta-actin from RTT patients also showed a dramatic increase in oxidative posttranslational modifications (PTMs as the result of its binding with the lipid peroxidation product 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE. Our findings demonstrate, for the first time, a beta-actin down-regulation and oxidative PTMs for RBCs of RTT patients, thus indicating an altered cytoskeletal organization.

  17. The Prototypical Majority Effect Under Social Influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koriat, Asher; Adiv-Mashinsky, Shiri; Undorf, Monika; Schwarz, Norbert

    2018-05-01

    Majority views are reported with greater confidence and fluency than minority views, with the difference increasing with majority size. This Prototypical Majority Effect (PME) was attributed generally to conformity pressure, but Koriat et al. showed that it can arise from the processes underlying decision and confidence independent of social influence. Here we examined the PME under conditions that differ in social influence. In Experiment 1, a robust PME emerged in the absence of information about the majority views, but the provision sof that information increased the choice of the majority view and magnified the PME. In Experiment 2, a PME emerged in a minority-biased condition that misled participants to believe that the majority view was the minority view, but the PME was stronger in a majority-biased condition. The results were discussed in terms of a dual-process view: The PME observed under social influence may contain externally driven and internally driven components.

  18. NADPH oxidase complex-derived reactive oxygen species, the actin cytoskeleton, and rho GTPases in cell migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanley, Alanna; Thompson, Kerry; Hynes, Ailish

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Rho GTPases are historically known to be central regulators of actin cytoskeleton reorganization. This affects many processes including cell migration. In addition, members of the Rac subfamily are known to be involved in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production through...... mediating cytoskeletal reorganization. Critical Issues: The role of the actin cytoskeleton in providing a scaffold for components of the Nox complex needs to be examined in the light of these new advances. During cell migration, Rho GTPases, ROS, and cytoskeletal organization appear to function as a complex...... compartments. This in conjunction with the analysis of tissues lacking specific Rho GTPases, and Nox components will facilitate a detailed examination of the interactions of these structures with the actin cytoskeleton. In combination with the analysis of ROS production, including its subcellular location...

  19. APS beamline standard components handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzay, T.M.

    1992-01-01

    It is clear that most Advanced Photon Source (APS) Collaborative Access Team (CAT) members would like to concentrate on designing specialized equipment related to their scientific programs rather than on routine or standard beamline components. Thus, an effort is in progress at the APS to identify standard and modular components of APS beamlines. Identifying standard components is a nontrivial task because these components should support diverse beamline objectives. To assist with this effort, the APS has obtained advice and help from a Beamline Standardization and Modularization Committee consisting of experts in beamline design, construction, and operation. The staff of the Experimental Facilities Division identified various components thought to be standard items for beamlines, regardless of the specific scientific objective of a particular beamline. A generic beamline layout formed the basis for this identification. This layout is based on a double-crystal monochromator as the first optical element, with the possibility of other elements to follow. Pre-engineering designs were then made of the identified standard components. The Beamline Standardization and Modularization Committee has reviewed these designs and provided very useful input regarding the specifications of these components. We realize that there will be other configurations that may require special or modified components. This Handbook in its current version (1.1) contains descriptions, specifications, and pre-engineering design drawings of these standard components. In the future, the APS plans to add engineering drawings of identified standard beamline components. Use of standard components should result in major cost reductions for CATs in the areas of beamline design and construction

  20. Protective effects of Mangifera indica L extract (Vimang), and its major component mangiferin, on iron-induced oxidative damage to rat serum and liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-Andreu, Gilberto L; Barrios, Mariela Forrellat; Curti, Carlos; Hernández, Ivones; Merino, Nelson; Lemus, Yeny; Martínez, Ioanna; Riaño, Annia; Delgado, René

    2008-01-01

    In vivo preventive effects of a Mangifera indica L extract (Vimang) or its major component mangiferin on iron overload injury have been studied in rats given respectively, 50, 100, 250 mg kg(-1) body weight of Vimang, or 40 mg kg(-1) body weight of mangiferin, for 7 days prior to, and for 7 days following the administration of toxic amounts of iron-dextran. Both Vimang or mangiferin treatment prevented iron overload in serum as well as liver oxidative stress, decreased serum and liver lipid peroxidation, serum GPx activity, and increased serum and liver GSH, serum SOD and the animals overall antioxidant condition. Serum iron concentration was decreased although at higher doses, Vimang tended to increase it; percent tranferrin saturation, liver weight/body mass ratios, liver iron content was decreased. Treatment increased serum iron-binding capacity and decreased serum levels of aspartate-amine transferase (ASAT) and alanine-amine transferase (ALAT), as well as the number of abnormal Kupffer cells in iron-loaded livers. It is suggested that besides acting as antioxidants, Vimang extract or its mangiferin component decrease liver iron by increasing its excretion. Complementing earlier in vitro results from our group, it appears possible to support the hypothesis that Vimang and mangiferin present therapeutically useful effects in iron overload related diseases.

  1. Effects of whey protein and its two major protein components on satiety and food intake in normal-weight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chungchunlam, Sylvia M S; Henare, Sharon J; Ganesh, Siva; Moughan, Paul J

    2017-06-01

    Protein is the most satiating macronutrient and is source dependent, with whey protein thought to be particularly satiating. The purported satiating effect of whey protein may be due to the unique mixture of proteins in whey or to the major constituent individual proteins (β-lactoglobulin and α-lactalbumin). The objective of the study was to compare the effects of isoenergetic (~2100kJ, ~500kcal) preload meals enriched (~50g protein) with either whey protein isolate (WP), β-lactoglobulin (BL) isolate or α-lactalbumin (AL) isolate, on food intake at an ad libitum test meal 120min later and subjective ratings of appetite (hunger, desire to eat, prospective food consumption and fullness) using visual analogue scales (VAS). Twenty adult normal-weight women (mean age 24.2±0.8years; mean BMI 22.7±0.4kg/m 2 ) participated in the study which used a single-blind completely randomised block design, where each subject consumed each of the three preload meals. Energy intake at the ad libitum test meal and total energy intakes (preload+test meal) did not differ between the three preload meals (p>0.05). There were no significant differences observed for the VAS scores and net incremental area under the curve (net iAUC) during the 120min following consumption of the three preload meals for subjective ratings of appetite (p>0.05). The findings show that the satiating effect of whey protein was similar to that of BL or AL individually and suggest that the major whey protein components BL and AL do not mediate the satiating effect of whey protein. The present human trial was registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (www.anzctr.org.au) as ACTRN12615000344594. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of major and trace components of Chinese and Canadian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puling Liu; Jervis, R.E.

    1992-01-01

    INAA was used to determine 32 major and trace elements in 21 soil samples collected from the Loess Plateau, China, and Ontario, Canada. The elemental concentrations determined in different layers of each soil, have been used for comparison in order to find out the general characteristics and any significant differences between Canadian and Chinese soils which developed from similar parent materials. This data can be useful to pedologists and geochemists to study the elemental behaviours and the influences of climate and environment on soil formation. Effort is directed to applying a statistical factor pattern recognition method to these soils for possible use in future soil erosion and transport studies in China. From this study, four soil factors were resolved each for the Chinese and Canadian soils. (author) 13 refs.; 2 figs.; 5 tabs

  3. Mechanotransduction and the Cytoskeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickard, Barbara G.

    1996-01-01

    Two intellectual developments in the lab suggested a more powerful approach to the problem defined in the original statement. These were discussed with the "Program Chief', who agreed that an alteration of approach was desirable. Second expansion of our work was on the computational optical sectioning microscope (COSM). Additionally, we hoped to visualize the channels with respect to cytoskeletal entities. We have identified major here-to-fore unknown cytoskeletal structure in our representative experimental system, the onion epidermal cell, and have named this structure the endomembrane grant.

  4. [Effect of β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex on transport of major components of Xiangfu Siwu decoction essential oil in Caco-2 cell monolayer model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Jun-zuan; Qian, Da-wei; Duan, Jin-ao; Liu, Pei; Zhu, Yue; Zhu, Zhen-hua; Zhang, Li

    2015-08-01

    Although the essential oil of Xiangfu Siwu decoction (XFSWD) has strong pharmacological activity, its special physical and chemical properties restrict the clinical application and curative effect. In this paper, Xiangfu Siwu decoction essential oil (XFS-WO) was prepared by forming inclusion complex with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD). The present study is to investigate the effect of β-CD inclusion complex on the transport of major components of XFSWO using Caco-2 cell monolayer model, thus to research the effect of this formation on the absorption of drugs with low solubility and high permeability, which belong to class 2 in biopharmaceutics classification system. A sensitive and rapid UPLC-MS/MS method was developed for simultaneous quantification of senkyunolide A, 3-n-butylphthalide, Z-ligustilide, dehydrocostus lactone and α-cyperone, which are active compounds in XFSWO. The transport parameters were analyzed and compared in free oil and its β-CD inclusion complex. The result revealed that the formation of XFSWO/β-CD inclusion complex has significantly increased the transportation and absorption of major active ingredients than free oil. Accordingly, it can be speculated that cyclodextrin inclusion complex can improve bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs. Above all these mentioned researches, it provided foundation and basis for physiological disposition and pharmaceutical study of XFSWD.

  5. Weighted Components of i-Government Enterprise Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiardjo, E. K.; Firmansyah, G.; Hasibuan, Z. A.

    2017-01-01

    Lack of government performance, among others due to the lack of coordination and communication among government agencies. Whilst, Enterprise Architecture (EA) in the government can be use as a strategic planning tool to improve productivity, efficiency, and effectivity. However, the existence components of Government Enterprise Architecture (GEA) do not show level of importance, that cause difficulty in implementing good e-government for good governance. This study is to explore the weight of GEA components using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) in order to discovered an inherent structure of e-government. The results show that IT governance component of GEA play a major role in the GEA. The rest of components that consist of e-government system, e-government regulation, e-government management, and application key operational, contributed more or less the same. Beside that GEA from other countries analyzes using comparative base on comon enterprise architecture component. These weighted components use to construct i-Government enterprise architecture. and show the relative importance of component in order to established priorities in developing e-government.

  6. Affordances and Alignments: Continuing Challenges in Advising Undergraduate Psychology Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landrum, R. Eric

    2018-01-01

    Challenges abound in providing accurate and useful information to prospective and declared psychology majors about their career options and how to make decisions that will lead to satisfying and rewarding postgraduate lives. One component of this challenge is that by majoring in psychology, career affordances (i.e., the opportunities and…

  7. Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) program plan: Components, systems, and structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    The nuclear plant aging research described in this plan is intended to resolve issues related to the aging and service wear of equipment and systems and major components at commercial reactor facilities and their possible impact on plant safety. Emphasis has been placed on identification and characterization of the mechanisms of material and component degradation during service and evaluation of methods of inspection, surveillance, condition monitoring, and maintenance as means of mitigating such effects. Specifically, the goals of the program are as follows: (1) to identify and characterize aging and service wear effects which, if unchecked, could cause degradation of equipment, a systems, and major components and thereby impair plant safety; (2) to identify methods of inspection, surveillance, and monitoring, or of evaluating residual life of equipment, systems, and major components, which will ensure timely detection of significant aging effects prior to loss of safety function; and (3) to evaluate the effectiveness of storage, maintenance, repair, and replacement practices in mitigating the rate and extent of degradation caused by aging and service wear

  8. Anti-oxidant activity and major chemical component analyses of twenty-six commercially available essential oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Fen Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed 26 commercially available essential oils and their major chemical components to determine their antioxidant activity levels by measuring their total phenolic content (TPC, reducing power (RP, β-carotene bleaching (BCB activity, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging (DFRS ability. The clove bud and thyme borneol essential oils had the highest RP, BCB activity levels, and TPC values among the 26 commercial essential oils. Furthermore, of the 26 essential oils, the clove bud and ylang ylang complete essential oils had the highest TEAC values, and the clove bud and jasmine absolute essential oils had the highest DFRS ability. At a concentration of 2.5 mg/mL, the clove bud and thyme borneol essential oils had RP and BCB activity levels of 94.56% ± 0.06% and 24.64% ± 0.03% and 94.58% ± 0.01% and 89.33% ± 0.09%, respectively. At a concentration of 1 mg/mL, the clove bud and thyme borneol essential oils showed TPC values of 220.00 ± 0.01 and 69.05 ± 0.01 mg/g relative to gallic acid equivalents, respectively, and the clove bud and ylang ylang complete essential oils had TEAC values of 809.00 ± 0.01 and 432.33 ± 0.01 μM, respectively. The clove bud and jasmine absolute essential oils showed DFRS abilities of 94.13% ± 0.01% and 78.62% ± 0.01%, respectively. Phenolic compounds of the clove bud, thyme borneol and jasmine absolute essential oils were eugenol (76.08%, thymol (14.36% and carvacrol (12.33%, and eugenol (0.87%, respectively. The phenolic compounds in essential oils were positively correlated with the RP, BCB activity, TPC, TEAC, and DFRS ability.

  9. Anti-oxidant activity and major chemical component analyses of twenty-six commercially available essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsiao-Fen; Yih, Kuang-Hway; Yang, Chao-Hsun; Huang, Keh-Feng

    2017-10-01

    This study analyzed 26 commercially available essential oils and their major chemical components to determine their antioxidant activity levels by measuring their total phenolic content (TPC), reducing power (RP), β-carotene bleaching (BCB) activity, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging (DFRS) ability. The clove bud and thyme borneol essential oils had the highest RP, BCB activity levels, and TPC values among the 26 commercial essential oils. Furthermore, of the 26 essential oils, the clove bud and ylang ylang complete essential oils had the highest TEAC values, and the clove bud and jasmine absolute essential oils had the highest DFRS ability. At a concentration of 2.5 mg/mL, the clove bud and thyme borneol essential oils had RP and BCB activity levels of 94.56% ± 0.06% and 24.64% ± 0.03% and 94.58% ± 0.01% and 89.33% ± 0.09%, respectively. At a concentration of 1 mg/mL, the clove bud and thyme borneol essential oils showed TPC values of 220.00 ± 0.01 and 69.05 ± 0.01 mg/g relative to gallic acid equivalents, respectively, and the clove bud and ylang ylang complete essential oils had TEAC values of 809.00 ± 0.01 and 432.33 ± 0.01 μM, respectively. The clove bud and jasmine absolute essential oils showed DFRS abilities of 94.13% ± 0.01% and 78.62% ± 0.01%, respectively. Phenolic compounds of the clove bud, thyme borneol and jasmine absolute essential oils were eugenol (76.08%), thymol (14.36%) and carvacrol (12.33%), and eugenol (0.87%), respectively. The phenolic compounds in essential oils were positively correlated with the RP, BCB activity, TPC, TEAC, and DFRS ability. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. In-depth investigation of enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass wastes based on three major components: Cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lili; Yan, Rong; Liu, Yongqiang; Jiang, Wenju

    2010-11-01

    The artificial biomass based on three biomass components (cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin) were developed on the basis of a simplex-lattice approach. Together with a natural biomass sample, they were employed in enzymatic hydrolysis researches. Different enzyme combines of two commercial enzymes (ACCELLERASE 1500 and OPTIMASH BG) showed a potential to hydrolyze hemicellulose completely. Negligible interactions among the three components were observed, and the used enzyme ACCELLERASE 1500 was proven to be weak lignin-binding. On this basis, a multiple linear-regression equation was established for predicting the reducing sugar yield based on the component proportions in a biomass. The hemicellulose and cellulose in a biomass sample were found to have different contributions in staged hydrolysis at different time periods. Furthermore, the hydrolysis of rice straw was conducted to validate the computation approach through considerations of alkaline solution pretreatment and combined enzymes function, so as to understand better the nature of biomass hydrolysis, from the aspect of three biomass components.

  11. Cytoskeletal dynamics in interphase, mitosis and cytokinesis analysed through Agrobacterium-mediated transient transformation of tobacco BY-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschmann, H; Green, P; Sambade, A; Doonan, J H; Lloyd, C W

    2011-04-01

    Transient transformation with Agrobacterium is a widespread tool allowing rapid expression analyses in plants. However, the available methods generate expression in interphase and do not allow the routine analysis of dividing cells. Here, we present a transient transformation method (termed 'TAMBY2') to enable cell biological studies in interphase and cell division. Agrobacterium-mediated transient gene expression in tobacco BY-2 was analysed by Western blotting and quantitative fluorescence microscopy. Time-lapse microscopy of cytoskeletal markers was employed to monitor cell division. Double-labelling in interphase and mitosis enabled localization studies. We found that the transient transformation efficiency was highest when BY-2/Agrobacterium co-cultivation was performed on solid medium. Transformants produced in this way divided at high frequency. We demonstrated the utility of the method by defining the behaviour of a previously uncharacterized microtubule motor, KinG, throughout the cell cycle. Our analyses demonstrated that TAMBY2 provides a flexible tool for the transient transformation of BY-2 with Agrobacterium. Fluorescence double-labelling showed that KinG localizes to microtubules and to F-actin. In interphase, KinG accumulates on microtubule lagging ends, suggesting a minus-end-directed function in vivo. Time-lapse studies of cell division showed that GFP-KinG strongly labels preprophase band and phragmoplast, but not the metaphase spindle. © 2010 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2010 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. Expression of cytoskeletal and matrix genes following exposure to ionizing radiation: Dose-rate effects and protein synthesis requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woloschak, G.E.; Felcher, P.; Chang-Liu, Chin-Mei

    1992-01-01

    Experiments were designed to examine the effects of radiation dose-rate and of the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide on expression of cytoskeletal elements (γ- and β-actin and α-tubulin) and matrix elements (fibronectin) in Syrian hamster embryo cells. Past work from our laboratory had already demonstrated optimum time points and doses for examination of radiation effects on accumulation of specific transcripts. Our results here demonstrated little effect of dose-rate for JANUS fission spectrum neutrons when comparing expression of either α-tubulin or fibronectin genes. Past work had already documented similar results for expression of actin transcripts. Effects of cycloheximide, however, revealed several interesting and novel findings: (1) Cycloheximide repressed accumulation of α-tubulin following exposure to high dose-rate neutrons or γ rays; this did not occur following similar low dose-rate exposure (2) Cycloheximide did not affect accumulation of mRNA for actin genes. Cycloheximide abrogated the moderate induction of fibronectin-mRNA which occurred following exposure to γ rays and high dose-rate neutrons. These results suggest a role for labile proteins in the maintenance of α-tubulin and fibronectin mRNA accumulation following exposure to ionizing radiation. In addition, they suggest that the cellular/molecular response to low dose-rate neutrons may be different from the response to high dose-rate neutrons

  13. Innovative Approaches to Large Component Packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitag, A.; Hooper, M.; Posivak, E.; Sullivan, J.

    2006-01-01

    Radioactive waste disposal often times requires creative approaches in packaging design, especially for large components. Innovative design techniques are required to meet the needs for handling, transporting, and disposing of these large packages. Large components (i.e., Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) heads and even RPVs themselves) require special packaging for shielding and contamination control, as well as for transport and disposal. WMG Inc designed and used standard packaging for RPV heads without control rod drive mechanisms (CRDMs) attached for five RPV heads and has also more recently met an even bigger challenge and developed the innovative Intact Vessel Head Transport System (IVHTS) for RPV heads with CRDMs intact. This packaging system has been given a manufacturer's exemption by the United States Department of Transportation (USDOT) for packaging RPV heads. The IVHTS packaging has now been successfully used at two commercial nuclear power plants. Another example of innovative packaging is the large component packaging that WMG designed, fabricated, and utilized at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). In 2002, West Valley's high-level waste vitrification process was shut down in preparation for D and D of the West Valley Vitrification Facility. Three of the major components of concern within the Vitrification Facility were the Melter, the Concentrate Feed Makeup Tank (CFMT), and the Melter Feed Holdup Tank (MFHT). The removal, packaging, and disposition of these three components presented significant radiological and handling challenges for the project. WMG designed, fabricated, and installed special packaging for the transport and disposal of each of these three components, which eliminated an otherwise time intensive and costly segmentation process that WVDP was considering. Finally, WMG has also designed and fabricated special packaging for both the Connecticut Yankee (CY) and San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station (SONGS) RPVs. This paper

  14. EBR-II facility for cleaning and maintenance of LMR components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washburn, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    The cleaning and maintenance of EBR-II sodium wetted components is accomplished in a separate hands-on maintenance facility known as the Sodium Components Maintenance Shop (SCMS). Sodium removal is mostly done using alcohol but steam or water is used. The SCMS has three alcohol cleaning systems: one for small nonradioactive components, one for small radioactive components, and one for large radioactive components. The SCMS also has a water-wash station for the removal of sodium with steam or water. An Alcohol Recovery Facility removes radioactive contaminants from the alcohol and reclaims the alcohol for reuse. Associated with the large components cleaning system is a major component handling system

  15. Component evaluation testing and analysis algorithms.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Darren M.; Merchant, Bion John

    2011-10-01

    The Ground-Based Monitoring R&E Component Evaluation project performs testing on the hardware components that make up Seismic and Infrasound monitoring systems. The majority of the testing is focused on the Digital Waveform Recorder (DWR), Seismic Sensor, and Infrasound Sensor. In order to guarantee consistency, traceability, and visibility into the results of the testing process, it is necessary to document the test and analysis procedures that are in place. Other reports document the testing procedures that are in place (Kromer, 2007). This document serves to provide a comprehensive overview of the analysis and the algorithms that are applied to the Component Evaluation testing. A brief summary of each test is included to provide the context for the analysis that is to be performed.

  16. APS beamline standard components handbook, Version 1.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, U.; Shu, D.; Kuzay, T.M.

    1993-02-01

    This Handbook in its current version (1.3) contains descriptions, specifications, and preliminary engineering design drawings for many of the standard components. The design status and schedules have been provided wherever possible. In the near future, the APS plans to update engineering drawings of identified standard beamline components and complete the Handbook. The completed version of this Handbook will become available to both the CATs and potential vendors. Use of standard components should result in major cost reductions for CATs in the areas of beamline design and construction

  17. Novel Design for Quantum Dots Cellular Automata to Obtain Fault-Tolerant Majority Gate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razieh Farazkish, R.; Sayedsalehi, S.; Navi, K.

    2012-01-01

    Quantum-dot Cellular Automata (QCA) is one of the most attractive technologies for computing at nano scale. The principle element in QCA is majority gate. In this paper, fault-tolerance properties of the majority gate is analyzed. This component is suitable for designing fault-tolerant QCA circuits. We analyze fault-tolerance properties of three-input majority gate in terms of misalignment, missing, and dislocation cells. In order to verify the functionality of the proposed component some physical proofs using kink energy (the difference in electrostatic energy between the two polarization states) and computer simulations using QCA Designer tool are provided. Our results clearly demonstrate that the redundant version of the majority gate is more robust than the standard style for this gate.

  18. Novel Design for Quantum Dots Cellular Automata to Obtain Fault-Tolerant Majority Gate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razieh Farazkish

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantum-dot Cellular Automata (QCA is one of the most attractive technologies for computing at nanoscale. The principle element in QCA is majority gate. In this paper, fault-tolerance properties of the majority gate is analyzed. This component is suitable for designing fault-tolerant QCA circuits. We analyze fault-tolerance properties of three-input majority gate in terms of misalignment, missing, and dislocation cells. In order to verify the functionality of the proposed component some physical proofs using kink energy (the difference in electrostatic energy between the two polarization states and computer simulations using QCA Designer tool are provided. Our results clearly demonstrate that the redundant version of the majority gate is more robust than the standard style for this gate.

  19. Fusion-component lifetime analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattas, R.F.

    1982-09-01

    A one-dimensional computer code has been developed to examine the lifetime of first-wall and impurity-control components. The code incorporates the operating and design parameters, the material characteristics, and the appropriate failure criteria for the individual components. The major emphasis of the modeling effort has been to calculate the temperature-stress-strain-radiation effects history of a component so that the synergystic effects between sputtering erosion, swelling, creep, fatigue, and crack growth can be examined. The general forms of the property equations are the same for all materials in order to provide the greatest flexibility for materials selection in the code. The individual coefficients within the equations are different for each material. The code is capable of determining the behavior of a plate, composed of either a single or dual material structure, that is either totally constrained or constrained from bending but not from expansion. The code has been utilized to analyze the first walls for FED/INTOR and DEMO and to analyze the limiter for FED/INTOR

  20. ECM-dependent HIF induction directs trophoblast stem cell fate via LIMK1-mediated cytoskeletal rearrangement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwa J Choi

    Full Text Available The Hypoxia-inducible Factor (HIF family of transcriptional regulators coordinates the expression of dozens of genes in response to oxygen deprivation. Mammalian development occurs in a hypoxic environment and HIF-null mice therefore die in utero due to multiple embryonic and placental defects. Mouse embryonic stem cells do not differentiate into placental cells; therefore, trophoblast stem cells (TSCs are used to study mouse placental development. Consistent with a requirement for HIF activity during placental development in utero, TSCs derived from HIF-null mice exhibit severe differentiation defects and fail to form trophoblast giant cells (TGCs in vitro. Interestingly, differentiating TSCs induce HIF activity independent of oxygen tension via unclear mechanisms. Here, we show that altering the extracellular matrix (ECM composition upon which TSCs are cultured changes their differentiation potential from TGCs to multinucleated syncytiotropholasts (SynTs and blocks oxygen-independent HIF induction. We further find that modulation of Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase Kinase-1/2 (MAP2K1/2, MEK-1/2 signaling by ECM composition is responsible for this effect. In the absence of ECM-dependent cues, hypoxia-signaling pathways activate this MAPK cascade to drive HIF induction and redirect TSC fate along the TGC lineage. In addition, we show that integrity of the microtubule and actin cytoskeleton is critical for TGC fate determination. HIF-2α ensures TSC cytoskeletal integrity and promotes invasive TGC formation by interacting with c-MYC to induce non-canonical expression of Lim domain kinase 1-an enzyme that regulates microtubule and actin stability, as well as cell invasion. Thus, we find that HIF can integrate positional and metabolic cues from within the TSC niche to regulate placental development by modulating the cellular cytoskeleton via non-canonical gene expression.

  1. RNA of Enterococcus faecalis Strain EC-12 Is a Major Component Inducing Interleukin-12 Production from Human Monocytic Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryoichiro Nishibayashi

    Full Text Available Interleukin-12 (IL-12 is an important cytokine for the immunomodulatory effects of lactic acid bacteria (LAB. Using murine immune cells, we previously reported that the RNA of Enterococcus faecalis EC-12, a LAB strain exerting probiotic-like beneficial effects, is the major IL-12-inducing immunogenic component. However, it was recently revealed that bacterial RNA can be a ligand for Toll-like receptor (TLR 13, which is only expressed in mice. Because TLR13 is not expressed in humans, the immuno-stimulatory and -modulatory effects of LAB RNA in human cells should be augmented excluding TLR13 contribution. In experiment 1 of this study, the role of LAB RNA in IL-12 induction in human immune cells was studied using three LAB strains, E.faecalis EC-12, Lactobacillus gasseri JCM5344, and Bifidobacterium breve JCM1192. RNase A treatment of heat-killed LAB significantly decreased the IL-12 production of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells on stimulation, while RNase III treatment revealed virtually no effects. Further, IL-12 production against heat-killed E. faecalis EC-12 was abolished by depleting monocytes. These results demonstrated that single stranded RNA (ssRNA of LAB is a strong inducer of IL-12 production from human monocytes. In experiment 2, major receptor for ssRNA of E. faecalis EC-12 was identified using THP-1 cells, a human monocytic cell line. The type of RNA molecules of E. faecalis EC-12 responsible for IL-12 induction was also identified. IL-12 production induced by the total RNA of E. faecalis EC-12 was significantly reduced by the treatment of siRNA for TLR8 but not for TLR7. Furthermore, both 23S and 16S rRNA, but not mRNA, of E. faecalis EC-12 markedly induced IL-12 production from THP-1 cells. These results suggested that the recognition of ssRNA of E. faecalis EC-12 was mediated by TLR8 and that rRNA was the RNA molecule that exhibited IL-12-inducing ability in human cells.

  2. Correlative STED and Atomic Force Microscopy on Live Astrocytes Reveals Plasticity of Cytoskeletal Structure and Membrane Physical Properties during Polarized Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Rouach

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The plasticity of the cytoskeleton architecture and membrane properties is important for the establishment of cell polarity, adhesion and migration. Here, we present a method which combines stimulated emission depletion (STED super-resolution imaging and atomic force microscopy (AFM to correlate cytoskeletal structural information with membrane physical properties in live astrocytes. Using STED compatible dyes for live cell imaging of the cytoskeleton, and simultaneously mapping the cell surface topology with AFM, we obtain unprecedented detail of highly organized networks of actin and microtubules in astrocytes. Combining mechanical data from AFM with optical imaging of actin and tubulin further reveals links between cytoskeleton organization and membrane properties. Using this methodology we illustrate that scratch-induced migration induces cytoskeleton remodeling. The latter is caused by a polarization of actin and microtubule elements within astroglial cell processes, which correlates strongly with changes in cell stiffness. The method opens new avenues for the dynamic probing of the membrane structural and functional plasticity of living brain cells. It is a powerful tool for providing new insights into mechanisms of cell structural remodeling during physiological or pathological processes, such as brain development or tumorigenesis.

  3. Antimicrobial action and anti-corrosion effect against sulfate reducing bacteria by lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) essential oil and its major component, the citral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenblum, Elisa; Regina de Vasconcelos Goulart, Fátima; de Almeida Rodrigues, Igor; Abreu, Fernanda; Lins, Ulysses; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; Valoni, Erika; Sebastián, Gina V; Alviano, Daniela Sales; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Seldin, Lucy

    2013-08-10

    The anti-corrosion effect and the antimicrobial activity of lemongrass essential oil (LEO) against the planktonic and sessile growth of a sulfate reducing bacterium (SRB) were evaluated. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of LEO and its major component, the citral, was 0.17 mg ml-1. In addition, both LEO and citral showed an immediate killing effect against SRB in liquid medium, suggesting that citral is responsible for the antimicrobial activity of LEO against SRB. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the MIC of LEO caused discernible cell membrane alterations and formed electron-dense inclusions. Neither biofilm formation nor corrosion was observed on carbon steel coupons after LEO treatment. LEO was effective for the control of the planktonic and sessile SRB growth and for the protection of carbon steel coupons against biocorrosion. The application of LEO as a potential biocide for SRB growth control in petroleum reservoirs and, consequently, for souring prevention, and/or as a coating protection against biocorrosion is of great interest for the petroleum industries.

  4. Monitoring aquatic environment pollution : a major component of environment management system part-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, I.H.; Khan, M.H.; Sheikh, I.M.

    1999-01-01

    The quality of water suitable for simple disinfection and filtration is presented in this article. Aquatic monitoring requires sampling frequencies along the alignment of surface water bodies. It is necessary to control the industrial effluents discharge in to river and sewers. Unlike wastes from entirely domestic sources, however industrial effluents may contain a very large variety of unnatural components which necessitates greater considerations in setting suitable discharge limits and, perhaps closer surveillance to ensure that standards are met. Several suggestion and example of different types of effluent have been described. All the examples given are sufficiently convincing that Pakistan can learn a great deal from international experiences in environmental pollution to avoid catastrophes. (A.B.)

  5. Characterization of the major histopathological components of thyroid nodules using sonographic textural features for clinical diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Jer; Yu, Sung-Nien; Tzeng, Jeh-En; Chen, Yen-Ting; Chang, Ku-Yaw; Cheng, Kuo-Sheng; Hsiao, Fu-Tsung; Wei, Chang-Kuo

    2009-02-01

    In this study, the characteristic sonographic textural feature that represents the major histopathologic components of the thyroid nodules was objectively quantified to facilitate clinical diagnosis and management. A total of 157 regions-of-interest thyroid ultrasound image was recruited in the study. The sonographic system used was the GE LOGIQ 700), (General Electric Healthcare, Chalfant St. Giles, UK). The parameters affecting image acquisition were kept in the same condition for all lesions. Commonly used texture analysis methods were applied to characterize thyroid ultrasound images. Image features were classified according to the corresponding pathologic findings. To estimate their relevance and performance to classification, ReliefF was used as a feature selector. Among the various textural features, the sum average value derived from co-occurrence matrix can well reflect echogenicity and can effectively differentiate between follicles and fibrosis base thyroid nodules. Fibrosis shows lowest echogenicity and lowest difference sum average value. Enlarged follicles show highest echogenicity and difference sum average values. Papillary cancer or follicular tumors show the difference sum average values and echogenicity between. The rule of thumb for the echogenicity is that the more follicles are mixed in, the higher the echo of the follicular tumor and papillary cancer will be and vice versa for fibrosis mixed. Areas with intermediate and lower echo should address the possibility of follicular or papillary neoplasm mixed with either follicles or fibrosis. These areas provide more cellular information for ultrasound guided aspiration

  6. Integrated pharmacokinetics of major bioactive components in MCAO rats after oral administration of Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Huaxu; Qian, Zhilei; Li, Huan; Guo, Liwei; Pan, Linmei; Zhang, Qichun; Tang, Yuping

    2012-05-07

    Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang (HLJDT, or Oren-gedoku-to in Japanese), an important multi-herb remedy in China and other Asia countries, has been used clinically to treat cerebral ischemia for decades. According to the previous studies we have reported, an HPLC method was developed and validated for determination of berberine, palmatine, baicalin, baicalein and geniposide simultaneously in MCAO rat plasma after administration of HLJDT aqueous extract. A classified integral pharmacokinetic method was put forward after having compared the integrated concentration-time profile with that of single component. An AUC based weighting approach was used for integrated principle. The results indicated the classified integral pharmacokinetic profile of index components from HLJDT could reveal the pharmacokinetic behavior of original components, and was corresponding to the holistic pharmacological effects of anti-ischemia with HLJDT. This study was aimed to explore an approach that could be applied to integrate the pharmacokinetic behavior of different components derived from HLJDT. The integrated pharmacokinetic results also provided more information for further understanding of the clinical cerebrovascular disease in use of HLJDT. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Principal components analysis in clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhongheng; Castelló, Adela

    2017-09-01

    In multivariate analysis, independent variables are usually correlated to each other which can introduce multicollinearity in the regression models. One approach to solve this problem is to apply principal components analysis (PCA) over these variables. This method uses orthogonal transformation to represent sets of potentially correlated variables with principal components (PC) that are linearly uncorrelated. PCs are ordered so that the first PC has the largest possible variance and only some components are selected to represent the correlated variables. As a result, the dimension of the variable space is reduced. This tutorial illustrates how to perform PCA in R environment, the example is a simulated dataset in which two PCs are responsible for the majority of the variance in the data. Furthermore, the visualization of PCA is highlighted.

  8. Principal component analysis of early alcohol, drug and tobacco use with major depressive disorder in US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kesheng; Liu, Ying; Ouedraogo, Youssoufou; Wang, Nianyang; Xie, Xin; Xu, Chun; Luo, Xingguang

    2018-05-01

    Early alcohol, tobacco and drug use prior to 18 years old are comorbid and correlated. This study included 6239 adults with major depressive disorder (MDD) in the past year and 72,010 controls from the combined data of 2013 and 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). To deal with multicollinearity existing among 17 variables related to early alcohol, tobacco and drug use prior to 18 years old, we used principal component analysis (PCA) to infer PC scores and then use weighted multiple logistic regression analyses to estimate the associations of potential factors and PC scores with MDD. The odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated. The overall prevalence of MDD was 6.7%. The first four PCs could explain 57% of the total variance. Weighted multiple logistic regression showed that PC 1 (a measure of psychotherapeutic drugs and illicit drugs other than marijuana use), PC 2 (a measure of cocaine and hallucinogens), PC 3 (a measure of early alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana use), and PC 4 (a measure of cigar, smokeless tobacco use and illicit drugs use) revealed significant associations with MDD (OR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.08-1.16, OR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.04-1.12, OR = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.07-1.18, and OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.09-1.21, respectively). In conclusion, PCA can be used to reduce the indicators in complex survey data. Early alcohol, tobacco and drug use prior to 18 years old were found to be associated with increased odds of adult MDD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cytoskeletal stability and metabolic alterations in primary human macrophages in long-term microgravity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svantje Tauber

    and non-significant cytoskeletal alterations represent a stable "steady state" after adaptive processes are initiated in the new microgravity environment. Due to the utmost importance of the human macrophage system for the elimination of pathogens and the clearance of apoptotic cells, its apparent robustness to a low gravity environment is crucial for human health and performance during long-term space missions.

  10. Microcystin-LR induced reactive oxygen species mediate cytoskeletal disruption and apoptosis of hepatocytes in Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinlin Jiang

    Full Text Available Microcystins (MCs are a group of cyclic hepatotoxic peptides produced by cyanobacteria. Microcystin-LR (MC-LR contains Leucine (L and Arginine (R in the variable positions, and is one of the most common and potently toxic peptides. MC-LR can inhibit protein phosphatase type 1 and type 2A (PP1 and PP2A activities and induce excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. The underlying mechanism of the inhibition of PP1 and PP2A has been extensively studied. The over-production of ROS is considered to be another main mechanism behind MC-LR toxicity; however, the detailed toxicological mechanism involved in over-production of ROS in carp (Cyprinus carpio L. remains largely unclear. In our present study, the hydroxyl radical (•OH was significantly induced in the liver of carp after a relatively short-term exposure to MC-LR. The elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS production may play an important role in the disruption of microtubule structure. Pre-injection of the antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC provided significant protection to the cytoskeleton, however buthionine sulfoximine (BSO exacerbated cytoskeletal destruction. In addition, the elevated ROS formation induced the expression of apoptosis-related genes, including p38, JNKa, and bcl-2. A significant increase in apoptotic cells was observed at 12-48 hours. Our study further supports evidence that ROS are involved in MC-LR induced damage to liver cells in carp, and indicates the need for further study of the molecular mechanisms behind MC-LR toxicity.

  11. Microcystin-LR Induced Reactive Oxygen Species Mediate Cytoskeletal Disruption and Apoptosis of Hepatocytes in Cyprinus carpio L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jinlin; Shan, Zhengjun; Xu, Weili; Wang, Xiaorong; Zhou, Junying; Kong, Deyang; Xu, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Microcystins (MCs) are a group of cyclic hepatotoxic peptides produced by cyanobacteria. Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) contains Leucine (L) and Arginine (R) in the variable positions, and is one of the most common and potently toxic peptides. MC-LR can inhibit protein phosphatase type 1 and type 2A (PP1 and PP2A) activities and induce excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The underlying mechanism of the inhibition of PP1 and PP2A has been extensively studied. The over-production of ROS is considered to be another main mechanism behind MC-LR toxicity; however, the detailed toxicological mechanism involved in over-production of ROS in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) remains largely unclear. In our present study, the hydroxyl radical (•OH) was significantly induced in the liver of carp after a relatively short-term exposure to MC-LR. The elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production may play an important role in the disruption of microtubule structure. Pre-injection of the antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) provided significant protection to the cytoskeleton, however buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) exacerbated cytoskeletal destruction. In addition, the elevated ROS formation induced the expression of apoptosis-related genes, including p38, JNKa, and bcl-2. A significant increase in apoptotic cells was observed at 12 - 48 hours. Our study further supports evidence that ROS are involved in MC-LR induced damage to liver cells in carp, and indicates the need for further study of the molecular mechanisms behind MC-LR toxicity. PMID:24376844

  12. Predicting Undergraduate Music Education Majors' Collegiate Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohwer, Debbie

    2012-01-01

    In order for teachers to guide students in their preparation to be music majors, it would be useful to know those musical components that best predict overall collegiate success. The purpose of this study was to measure the relationship of predictor variables (Lessons, Music History, Music Theory, and Piano) to collegiate grade point average (GPA)…

  13. Profiles of Major Suppliers to the Automotive Industry : Vol. 5. Multinational Automotive Parts and Components Suppliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    This study summarizes extensive information collected over a two-year period (October 1978 to October 1980) on suppliers of parts and components, materials, and machine tools to the automotive industry in the United States. The objective of the study...

  14. Profiles of Major Suppliers to the Automotive Industry : Vol. 6. Foreign Automotive Parts and Components Suppliers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    This study summarizes extensive information collected over a two-year period (October 1978 to October 1980) on suppliers of parts and components, materials, and machine tools to the automotive industry in the United States. The objective of the study...

  15. Abrasion Testing of Critical Components of Hydrokinetic Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worthington, Monty [ORPC Alaska; Ali, Muhammad [Ohio University; Ravens, Tom [University of Alaska Anchorage

    2013-12-06

    The objective of the Abrasion Testing of Critical Components of Hydrokinetic Devices (Project) was to test critical components of hydrokinetic devices in waters with high levels of suspended sediment – information that is widely applicable to the hydrokinetic industry. Tidal and river sites in Alaska typically have high suspended sediment concentrations. High suspended sediment also occurs in major rivers and estuaries throughout the world and throughout high latitude locations where glacial inputs introduce silt into water bodies. In assessing the vulnerability of technology components to sediment induced abrasion, one of the greatest concerns is the impact that the sediment may have on device components such as bearings and seals, failures of which could lead to both efficiency loss and catastrophic system failures.

  16. Physical characteristics of non-fuel assembly reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkes, E.C.

    1994-09-01

    The primary objective of this report is to enhance the utility of the Characteristics Data Base (CDB). This has been accomplished by providing a pictorial representation of the principal non-fuel assembly (NFA) components along with a tabular summary of key information about each type of component. This report is intended for use as an adjunct to the CDB. Toward this end, the report may be used either as a complement to the detailed descriptions in the CDB, or as a stand-alone document that acts as an illustrated abstract of the CDB. Line drawings of major NFA components are included. Data not provided in the CDB are also included. Summary descriptions of each component are given in tabular format

  17. Removal of Shippingport Station primary system components and piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaGuardia, T.S.; Lipsett, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    The dismantling workscope for the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project was divided into subtasks to permit the work to be subcontracted to the maximum extent practicable. Major subtasks were identified and described by Activity specifications which could then be grouped into logical work packages to be put out for bid. Two of the largest dismantling work packages, removal of piping and components, were grouped together and designated as Activity Specifications 4 and 5. TLG Services, Inc. and Cleveland Wrecking Company formed a Joint Venture to perform this work during a two-year period at a cost of approximately $7 million. The major portions of this dismantling workscope are described. The primary system components within this workscope consist of the stainless steel reactor coolant piping, check valves, reactor coolant pumps, steam generators, and reactor purification demineralizers and coolers. The work performed, the heavy rigging preparations and procedures, the cutting tools used, component draining/capping techniques to prevent spills, contamination containment, airborne control techniques, and lessons learned during the removal of these primary system components are described. Summaries of crew size and composition, labor hours, duration hours and radiation exposure to workers are provided and discussed briefly. The successful completion of this work is evidence of the engineering, planning, equipment, materials and labor pool available to remove large, radioactively contaminated components safely. This experience will help decommissioning planners to prepare for the removal of reactor components in future decommissioning

  18. A Comparison of Motivation to Learn English between English Major and Non-English Major Students in a Vietnamese University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Huong; Spooner-Lane, Rebecca; Mergler, Amanda

    2017-01-01

    Despite the plethora of literature examining higher education students' motivation to learn a second language, it is not known if students who choose to study English as their major differ from those who are required to study English as the minor component of their wider degree. Drawing on self-determination theory, this paper reports on the…

  19. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a major component of green tea, is a dual phosphoinositide-3-kinase/mTOR inhibitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Aller, Glenn S.; Carson, Jeff D.; Tang, Wei; Peng, Hao; Zhao, Lin; Copeland, Robert A.; Tummino, Peter J.; Luo, Lusong

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is an ATP-competitive inhibitor of PI3K and mTOR with Ki values around 300 nM. → EGCG inhibits cell proliferation and AKT phosphorylation at Ser473 in MDA-MB-231and A549 cells. → Molecular docking studies show that EGCG binds well to the PI3K kinase domain active site. → These results suggest another important molecular mechanism for the anticancer activities of EGCG. -- Abstract: The PI3K signaling pathway is activated in a broad spectrum of human cancers, either directly by genetic mutation or indirectly via activation of receptor tyrosine kinases or inactivation of the PTEN tumor suppressor. The key nodes of this pathway have emerged as important therapeutic targets for the treatment of cancer. In this study, we show that (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major component of green tea, is an ATP-competitive inhibitor of both phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) with K i values of 380 and 320 nM respectively. The potency of EGCG against PI3K and mTOR is within physiologically relevant concentrations. In addition, EGCG inhibits cell proliferation and AKT phosphorylation at Ser473 in MDA-MB-231 and A549 cells. Molecular docking studies show that EGCG binds well to the PI3K kinase domain active site, agreeing with the finding that EGCG competes for ATP binding. Our results suggest another important molecular mechanism for the anticancer activities of EGCG.

  20. Analysis of electron spin resonance spectra of irradiated gingers: Organic radical components derived from carbohydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaoki, Rumi; Kimura, Shojiro; Ohta, Masatoshi

    2010-01-01

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectral characterizations of gingers irradiated with electron beam were studied. Complex asymmetrical spectra (near g=2.005) with major spectral components (line width=2.4 mT) and minor signals (at 6 mT apart) were observed in irradiated gingers. The spectral intensity decreased considerably 30 days after irradiation, and continued to decrease steadily thereafter. The spectra simulated on the basis of characteristics of free radical components derived from carbohydrates in gingers are in good agreement with the observed spectra. Analysis showed that shortly after irradiation the major radical components of gingers were composed of radical species derived from amylose and cellulose, and the amylose radicals subsequently decreased considerably. At 30 days after irradiation, the major radical components of gingers were composed of radical species derived from cellulose, glucose, fructose or sucrose.

  1. Antimicrobial action and anti-corrosion effect against sulfate reducing bacteria by lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) essential oil and its major component, the citral

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The anti-corrosion effect and the antimicrobial activity of lemongrass essential oil (LEO) against the planktonic and sessile growth of a sulfate reducing bacterium (SRB) were evaluated. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of LEO and its major component, the citral, was 0.17 mg ml-1. In addition, both LEO and citral showed an immediate killing effect against SRB in liquid medium, suggesting that citral is responsible for the antimicrobial activity of LEO against SRB. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the MIC of LEO caused discernible cell membrane alterations and formed electron-dense inclusions. Neither biofilm formation nor corrosion was observed on carbon steel coupons after LEO treatment. LEO was effective for the control of the planktonic and sessile SRB growth and for the protection of carbon steel coupons against biocorrosion. The application of LEO as a potential biocide for SRB growth control in petroleum reservoirs and, consequently, for souring prevention, and/or as a coating protection against biocorrosion is of great interest for the petroleum industries. PMID:23938023

  2. Cytomatrix synthesis in MDCK epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, J.J.; Low, R.B.; Woodcock-Mitchell, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    Detailed information regarding the synthesis rates of individual protein components is important in understanding the assembly and dynamics of the cytoskeletal matrix of eukaryotic cells. As an approach to this topic, the dual isotope technique of Clark and Zak, was employed to measure fractional synthesis rates (FSRs) in growing and quiescent cultures of MDCK epithelial cells. Cell protein was labeled to equilibrium with [14C]leucine over several days and then pulse-labeled for 4 hours with [3H]leucine. FSRs (as percent per hour) were calculated from the 3H/14C ratio of cell extracts or individual proteins separated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and the 3H/14C ratio of free leucine in the medium. Synthesis of total cell protein rose from approximately 1.4%/hour in quiescent cells to 3.5%/hour in the growing cultures. The latter rate was sufficient to account for the rate of protein accumulation and a low level of turnover in the growing cultures. The FSR of the buffered-Triton soluble extract was higher and the cytoskeletal FSR significantly lower than that for total protein in quiescent monolayers. This difference, however, was not observed in growing cultures. A distinct pattern of differences was seen in the FSRs of individual cytoskeletal proteins in the quiescent cultures. Vimentin synthesis was significantly lower than that of the keratins and the keratin FSRs were not obviously matched in pairwise fashion. Unexpectedly, the FSRs of alpha- and beta-tubulin diverged in quiescent cells with alpha-tubulin turnover exceeding beta-tubulin. Likewise, components of the microfilament lattice showed unequal fractional synthesis rates, myosin and alpha-actinin being faster than actin. In addition, the FSR for globular actin exceeded that of the cytoskeletal associated form

  3. Lifetime analysis of fusion-reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattas, R.F.

    1983-01-01

    A one-dimensional computer code has been developed to examine the lifetime of first-wall and impurity-control components. The code incorporates the operating and design parameters, the material characteristics, and the appropriate failure criteria for the individual components. The major emphasis of the modelling effort has been to calculate the temperature-stress-strain-radiation effects history of a component so that the synergystic effects between sputtering erosion, swelling, creep, fatigue, and crack growth can be examined. The general forms of the property equations are the same for all materials in order to provide the greatest flexibility for materials selection in the code. The code is capable of determining the behavior of a plate, composed of either a single or dual material structure, that is either totally constrained or constrained from bending but not from expansion. The code has been utilized to analyze the first walls for FED/INTOR and DEMO

  4. Solid State Lighting Reliability Components to Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, XJ

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Lighting Reliability: Components to Systems begins with an explanation of the major benefits of solid state lighting (SSL) when compared to conventional lighting systems including but not limited to long useful lifetimes of 50,000 (or more) hours and high efficacy. When designing effective devices that take advantage of SSL capabilities the reliability of internal components (optics, drive electronics, controls, thermal design) take on critical importance. As such a detailed discussion of reliability from performance at the device level to sub components is included as well as the integrated systems of SSL modules, lamps and luminaires including various failure modes, reliability testing and reliability performance. This book also: Covers the essential reliability theories and practices for current and future development of Solid State Lighting components and systems Provides a systematic overview for not only the state-of-the-art, but also future roadmap and perspectives of Solid State Lighting r...

  5. Proteomic analysis in giant axonal neuropathy: new insights into disease mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussche, Silke; De Paepe, Boel; Smet, Joél; Devreese, Katrien; Lissens, Willy; Rasic, Vedrana Milic; Murnane, Matthew; Devreese, Bart; Van Coster, Rudy

    2012-08-01

    Giant axonal neuropathy (GAN) is a progressive hereditary disease that affects the peripheral and central nervous systems. It is characterized morphologically by aggregates of intermediate filaments in different tissues. Mutations have been reported in the gene that codes for gigaxonin. Nevertheless, the underlying molecular mechanism remains obscure. Cell lines from 4 GAN patients and 4 controls were analyzed by iTRAQ. Among the dysregulated proteins were ribosomal protein L29, ribosomal protein L37, galectin-1, glia-derived nexin, and aminopeptidase N. Also, nuclear proteins linked to formin-binding proteins were found to be dysregulated. Although the major role of gigaxonin is reported to be degradation of cytoskeleton-associated proteins, the amount of 76 structural cytoskeletal proteins was unaltered. Several of the dysregulated proteins play a role in cytoskeletal reorganization. Based on these findings, we speculate that disturbed cytoskeletal regulation is responsible for formation of aggregates of intermediate filaments. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Major plant retrofits at Monticello nuclear generating plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, D.E.; Hogg, C.B.

    1986-01-01

    For the past several years, Northern States Power (NSP) has been making major plant retrofits to Monticello Nuclear generating Station in order to improve plant availability and upgrade the plant components for the potential extension of the operating license (life extension). This paper discusses in detail three major retrofits that have been completed or in the process of completion; recirculation loop piping replacement, reactor pressure vessel (RPV) water level-instrumentation modification, core spray piping replacement, the authors will address the scope of work, design and installation concerns, and life extension considerations during the design and procurement process for these three projects

  7. Giardia duodenalis Surface Cysteine Proteases Induce Cleavage of the Intestinal Epithelial Cytoskeletal Protein Villin via Myosin Light Chain Kinase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amol Bhargava

    Full Text Available Giardia duodenalis infections are among the most common causes of waterborne diarrhoeal disease worldwide. At the height of infection, G. duodenalis trophozoites induce multiple pathophysiological processes within intestinal epithelial cells that contribute to the development of diarrhoeal disease. To date, our understanding of pathophysiological processes in giardiasis remains incompletely understood. The present study reveals a previously unappreciated role for G. duodenalis cathepsin cysteine proteases in intestinal epithelial pathophysiological processes that occur during giardiasis. Experiments first established that Giardia trophozoites indeed produce cathepsin B and L in strain-dependent fashion. Co-incubation of G. duodenalis with human enterocytes enhanced cathepsin production by Assemblage A (NF and S2 isolates trophozoites, but not when epithelial cells were exposed to Assemblage B (GSM isolate trophozoites. Direct contact between G. duodenalis parasites and human intestinal epithelial monolayers resulted in the degradation and redistribution of the intestinal epithelial cytoskeletal protein villin; these effects were abolished when parasite cathepsin cysteine proteases were inhibited. Interestingly, inhibition of parasite proteases did not prevent degradation of the intestinal tight junction-associated protein zonula occludens 1 (ZO-1, suggesting that G. duodenalis induces multiple pathophysiological processes within intestinal epithelial cells. Finally, this study demonstrates that G. duodenalis-mediated disruption of villin is, at least, in part dependent on activation of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK. Taken together, this study indicates a novel role for parasite cathepsin cysteine proteases in the pathophysiology of G. duodenalis infections.

  8. SUNrises on the International Plant Nucleus Consortium: SEB Salzburg 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Graumann, Katja; Bass, Hank W.; Parry, Geraint

    2013-01-01

    The nuclear periphery is a dynamic, structured environment, whose precise functions are essential for global processes—from nuclear, to cellular, to organismal. Its main components—the nuclear envelope (NE) with inner and outer nuclear membranes (INM and ONM), nuclear pore complexes (NPC), associated cytoskeletal and nucleoskeletal components as well as chromatin are conserved across eukaryotes (Fig. 1). In metazoans in particular, the structure and functions of nuclear periphery components a...

  9. Comparison of the cell cytoskeleton in migratory and stationary chick fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badley, R A; Couchman, J R; Rees, D A

    1980-01-01

    The organization of the principal cytoskeletal components (actin, tubulin and 10 nm filament protein) have been compared by immunofluorescence microscopy in two populations of chick heart fibroblasts, previously shown to be adapted respectively for rapid, directed migration or adhesion and growth...... bundles. The variety of patients observed in the migratory cells are documented and the possible roles of the different components of the cytoskeleton in cell locomotion are discussed....

  10. Feasibility study of component risk ranking for plant maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ushijima, Koji; Yonebayashi, Kenji; Narumiya, Yoshiyuki; Sakata, Kaoru; Kumano, Tetsuji

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear power is the base load electricity source in Japan, and reduction of operation and maintenance cost maintaining or improving plant safety is one of the major issues. Recently, Risk Informed Management (RIM) is focused as a solution. In this paper, the outline regarding feasibility study of component risk ranking for plant maintenance for a typical Japanese PWR plant is described. A feasibility study of component risk raking for plant maintenance optimization is performed on check valves and motor-operated valves. Risk ranking is performed in two steps using probabilistic analysis (quantitative method) for risk ranking of components, and deterministic examination (qualitative method) for component review. In this study, plant components are ranked from the viewpoint of plant safety / reliability, and the applicability for maintenance is assessed. As a result, distribution of maintenance resources using risk ranking is considered effective. (author)

  11. Investigation of the condition of spent-fuel pool components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kustas, F.M.; Bates, S.O.; Opitz, B.E.; Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Perez, J.M. Jr.; Farnsworth, R.K.

    1981-09-01

    It is currently projected that spent nuclear fuel, which is discharged from the reactor and then stored in water pools, may remain in those pools for several decades. Other studies have addressed the expected integrity of the spent fuel during extended water storage; this study assesses the integrity of metallic spent fuel pool components. Results from metallurgical examinations of specimens taken from stainless steel and aluminum components exposed in spent fuel pools are presented. Licensee Event Reports (LERs) relating to problems with spent fuel components were assessed and are summarized to define the types of operational problems that have occurred. The major conclusions of this study are: aluminum and stainless steel spent fuel pool components have a good history of performance in both deionized and borated water pools. Although some operational problems involving pool components have occurred, these problems have had minimal impacts

  12. Investigation of the condition of spent-fuel pool components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kustas, F.M.; Bates, S.O.; Opitz, B.E.; Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Perez, J.M. Jr.; Farnsworth, R.K.

    1981-09-01

    It is currently projected that spent nuclear fuel, which is discharged from the reactor and then stored in water pools, may remain in those pools for several decades. Other studies have addressed the expected integrity of the spent fuel during extended water storage; this study assesses the integrity of metallic spent fuel pool components. Results from metallurgical examinations of specimens taken from stainless steel and aluminum components exposed in spent fuel pools are presented. Licensee Event Reports (LERs) relating to problems with spent fuel components were assessed and are summarized to define the types of operational problems that have occurred. The major conclusions of this study are: aluminum and stainless steel spent fuel pool components have a good history of performance in both deionized and borated water pools. Although some operational problems involving pool components have occurred, these problems have had minimal impacts.

  13. Characteristic odor components of essential oil from Scutellaria laeteviolacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, Mitsuo; Nomura, Machi; Marumoto, Shinsuke; Mori, Kiyoshige

    2013-01-01

    The essential oils from aerial parts of Scutellaria laeteviolacea was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The characteristic odor components were also detected in the oil using gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) analysis and aroma extraction dilution analysis (AEDA). As a result, 100 components (accounting for 99.11 %) of S. laeteviolacea, were identified. The major components of S. laeteviolacea oil were found to be 1-octen-3-ol (27.72 %), germacrene D (21.67 %),and β-caryophyllene (9.18 %). The GC-O and AEDA results showed that 1-octen-3-ol, germacrene D, germacrene B, and β-caryophyllene were the most characteristic odor components of the oil. These compounds are thought to contribute to the unique flavor of this plant.

  14. Laminin beta 2 chain and adhalin deficiency in the skeletal muscle of Walker-Warburg syndrome (cerebro-ocular dysplasia-muscular dystrophy)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, U M; Durkin, M E; Zhang, X

    1995-01-01

    Muscular dystrophy may be caused by disturbances in a number of muscle proteins that appear to be part of a chain of interacting molecules that includes cytoskeletal, cell membrane, and basement membrane components. We found that the skeletal muscle cells in two cases of Walker-Warburg syndrome w...

  15. Profiles of Major Suppliers to the Automotive Industry : Vol. 4. North American Automotive Parts and Components Suppliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    This study summarizes extensive information collected over a two-year period (October 1978 to October 1980) on suppliers of parts and components, materials, and machine tools to the automotive industry in the United States. The objective of the study...

  16. Benzyl isothiocyanate, a major component from the roots of Salvadora persica is highly active against Gram-negative bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abier Sofrata

    Full Text Available Plants produce a number of antimicrobial substances and the roots of the shrub Salvadora persica have been demonstrated to possess antimicrobial activity. Sticks from the roots of S. persica, Miswak sticks, have been used for centuries as a traditional method of cleaning teeth. Diverging reports on the chemical nature and antimicrobial repertoire of the chewing sticks from S. persica led us to explore its antibacterial properties against a panel of pathogenic or commensal bacteria and to identify the antibacterial component/s by methodical chemical characterization. S. persica root essential oil was prepared by steam distillation and solid-phase microextraction was used to sample volatiles released from fresh root. The active compound was identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and antibacterial assays. The antibacterial compound was isolated using medium-pressure liquid chromatography. Transmission electron microscopy was used to visualize the effect on bacterial cells. The main antibacterial component of both S. persica root extracts and volatiles was benzyl isothiocyanate. Root extracts as well as commercial synthetic benzyl isothiocyanate exhibited rapid and strong bactericidal effect against oral pathogens involved in periodontal disease as well as against other Gram-negative bacteria, while Gram-positive bacteria mainly displayed growth inhibition or remained unaffected. The short exposure needed to obtain bactericidal effect implies that the chewing sticks and the essential oil may have a specific role in treatment of periodontal disease in reducing Gram-negative periodontal pathogens. Our results indicate the need for further investigation into the mechanism of the specific killing of Gram-negative bacteria by S. persica root stick extracts and its active component benzyl isothiocyanate.

  17. Tritium in fusion reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, J.S.; Fisher, P.W.; Talbot, J.B.

    1980-01-01

    When tritium is used in a fusion energy experiment or reactor, several implications affect and usually restrict the design and operation of the system and involve questions of containment, inventory, and radiation damage. Containment is expected to be particularly important both for high-temperature components and for those components that are prone to require frequent maintenance. Inventory is currently of major significance in cases where safety and environmental considerations limit the experiments to very low levels of tritium. Fewer inventory restrictions are expected as fusion experiments are placed in more-remote locations and as the fusion community gains experience with the use of tritium. However, the advent of power-producing experiments with high-duty cycle will again lead to serious difficulties based principally on tritium availability; cyclic operations with significant regeneration times are the principal problems

  18. Explorative analysis of major components and isotopes. SDM-Site Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smellie, John (Conterra AB (Sweden)); Tullborg, Eva-Lena (Terralogica AB (Sweden)); Nilsson, Ann-Chatrin (Geosigma AB (Sweden)); Sandstroem, Bjoern (Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden)); Waber, Niklaus (Univ. of Bern (Switzerland)); Gimeno, Maria (Univ. of Zaragoza (Spain)); Gascoyne, Mel (GGP Inc. (United Kingdom))

    2008-09-15

    The overall objectives of the hydrogeochemical description for Forsmark are to establish a detailed understanding of the hydrogeochemical conditions at the site and to develop models that fulfil the needs identified by the safety assessment groups during the site investigation phase. Issues of concern to safety assessment are radionuclide transport and technical barrier behaviour, both of which are dependent on the chemistry of groundwater and pore water and their evolution with time. The work has involved the development of descriptive and mathematical models for groundwaters in relation to rock domains, fracture domains and deformation zones. Past climate events are the major driving force for hydrogeochemical changes and therefore are of fundamental importance for understanding the palaeohydrogeological, palaeohydrogeochemical and present evolution of groundwater in the crystalline bedrock of the Fennoscandian Shield. Understanding current undisturbed hydrochemical conditions at the proposed repository site is important when predicting future changes in groundwater chemistry. The causes behind copper corrosion and/or bentonite degradation are of particular interest as they may jeopardise the long-term integrity of the planned SKB repository system. Thus, the following variables are considered for the hydrogeochemical site descriptive modelling: pH, Eh, sulphur species, iron, manganese, carbonate, phosphate, nitrogen species, total dissolved solids (TDS), isotopes, colloids, fulvic and humic acids and microorganisms. In addition, dissolved gases (e.g. carbon dioxide, methane and hydrogen) are of interest because of their likely participation in microbial reactions. In this series of reports, the final hydrogeochemical evaluation work of the site investigation at the Forsmark site, is presented. The work was conducted by SKB's hydrogeochemical project group, ChemNet, which consists of independent consultants and university researchers with expertise in

  19. Explorative analysis of major components and isotopes. SDM-Site Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smellie, John; Tullborg, Eva-Lena; Nilsson, Ann-Chatrin; Sandstroem, Bjoern; Waber, Niklaus; Gimeno, Maria; Gascoyne, Mel

    2008-09-01

    The overall objectives of the hydrogeochemical description for Forsmark are to establish a detailed understanding of the hydrogeochemical conditions at the site and to develop models that fulfil the needs identified by the safety assessment groups during the site investigation phase. Issues of concern to safety assessment are radionuclide transport and technical barrier behaviour, both of which are dependent on the chemistry of groundwater and pore water and their evolution with time. The work has involved the development of descriptive and mathematical models for groundwaters in relation to rock domains, fracture domains and deformation zones. Past climate events are the major driving force for hydrogeochemical changes and therefore are of fundamental importance for understanding the palaeohydrogeological, palaeohydrogeochemical and present evolution of groundwater in the crystalline bedrock of the Fennoscandian Shield. Understanding current undisturbed hydrochemical conditions at the proposed repository site is important when predicting future changes in groundwater chemistry. The causes behind copper corrosion and/or bentonite degradation are of particular interest as they may jeopardise the long-term integrity of the planned SKB repository system. Thus, the following variables are considered for the hydrogeochemical site descriptive modelling: pH, Eh, sulphur species, iron, manganese, carbonate, phosphate, nitrogen species, total dissolved solids (TDS), isotopes, colloids, fulvic and humic acids and microorganisms. In addition, dissolved gases (e.g. carbon dioxide, methane and hydrogen) are of interest because of their likely participation in microbial reactions. In this series of reports, the final hydrogeochemical evaluation work of the site investigation at the Forsmark site, is presented. The work was conducted by SKB's hydrogeochemical project group, ChemNet, which consists of independent consultants and university researchers with expertise in

  20. Cytoskeleton and Cytoskeleton-Bound RNA Visualization in Frog and Insect Oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloc, Malgorzata; Bilinski, Szczepan; Kubiak, Jacek Z

    2016-01-01

    The majority of oocyte functions involves and depends on the cytoskeletal elements, which include microtubules and actin and cytokeratin filaments. Various structures and molecules are temporarily or permanently bound to the cytoskeletal elements and their functions rely on cytoskeleton integrity and its timely assembly. Thus the accurate visualization of cytoskeleton is often crucial for studies and analyses of oocyte structure and functions. Here we describe several reliable methods for microtubule and/or microfilaments preservation and visualization in Xenopus oocyte extracts, and in situ in live and fixed insect and frog (Xenopus) oocytes. In addition, we describe visualization of cytoskeleton-bound RNAs using molecular beacons in live Xenopus oocytes.

  1. Component failures at pressurized water reactors. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reisinger, M.F.

    1980-10-01

    Objectives of this study were to identify those systems having major impact on safety and availability (i.e. to identify those systems and components whose failures have historically caused the greatest number of challenges to the reactor protective systems and which have resulted in greatest loss of electric generation time). These problems were identified for engineering solutions and recommendations made for areas and programs where research and development should be concentrated. The program was conducted in three major phases: Data Analysis, Engineering Evaluation, Cost Benefit Analysis

  2. Sparse logistic principal components analysis for binary data

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Seokho

    2010-09-01

    We develop a new principal components analysis (PCA) type dimension reduction method for binary data. Different from the standard PCA which is defined on the observed data, the proposed PCA is defined on the logit transform of the success probabilities of the binary observations. Sparsity is introduced to the principal component (PC) loading vectors for enhanced interpretability and more stable extraction of the principal components. Our sparse PCA is formulated as solving an optimization problem with a criterion function motivated from a penalized Bernoulli likelihood. A Majorization-Minimization algorithm is developed to efficiently solve the optimization problem. The effectiveness of the proposed sparse logistic PCA method is illustrated by application to a single nucleotide polymorphism data set and a simulation study. © Institute ol Mathematical Statistics, 2010.

  3. Lysophosphatidic acid receptor activation affects the C13NJ microglia cell line proteome leading to alterations in glycolysis, motility, and cytoskeletal architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhart, Eva; Kollroser, Manfred; Rechberger, Gerald; Reicher, Helga; Heinemann, Akos; Schratl, Petra; Hallström, Seth; Wintersperger, Andrea; Nusshold, Christoph; DeVaney, Trevor; Zorn-Pauly, Klaus; Malli, Roland; Graier, Wolfgang; Malle, Ernst; Sattler, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Microglia, the immunocompetent cells of the CNS, are rapidly activated in response to injury and microglia migration towards and homing at damaged tissue plays a key role in CNS regeneration. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is involved in signaling events evoking microglia responses through cognate G protein-coupled receptors. Here we show that human immortalized C13NJ microglia express LPA receptor subtypes LPA1, LPA2, and LPA3 on mRNA and protein level. LPA activation of C13NJ cells induced Rho and extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation and enhanced cellular ATP production. In addition, LPA induced process retraction, cell spreading, led to pronounced changes of the actin cytoskeleton and reduced cell motility, which could be reversed by inhibition of Rho activity. To get an indication about LPA-induced global alterations in protein expression patterns a 2-D DIGE/LC-ESI-MS proteomic approach was applied. On the proteome level the most prominent changes in response to LPA were observed for glycolytic enzymes and proteins regulating cell motility and/or cytoskeletal dynamics. The present findings suggest that naturally occurring LPA is a potent regulator of microglia biology. This might be of particular relevance in the pathophysiological context of neurodegenerative disorders where LPA concentrations can be significantly elevated in the CNS. PMID:19899077

  4. Challenges of the Open Source Component Marketplace in the Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Claudia; Hauge, Øyvind; Conradi, Reidar; Franch, Xavier; Li, Jingyue; Velle, Ketil Sandanger

    The reuse of Open Source Software components available on the Internet is playing a major role in the development of Component Based Software Systems. Nevertheless, the special nature of the OSS marketplace has taken the “classical” concept of software reuse based on centralized repositories to a completely different arena based on massive reuse over Internet. In this paper we provide an overview of the actual state of the OSS marketplace, and report preliminary findings about how companies interact with this marketplace to reuse OSS components. Such data was gathered from interviews in software companies in Spain and Norway. Based on these results we identify some challenges aimed to improve the industrial reuse of OSS components.

  5. Digital Components in Swedish NPP Power Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, Mattias; Eriksson, Tage

    2015-01-01

    Swedish nuclear power plants have over the last 20 years of operation modernised or exchanged several systems and components of the electrical power system. Within these works, new components based on digital technology have been employed in order to realize functionality that was previously achieved by using electro-mechanical or analogue technology. Components and systems such as relay protection, rectifiers, inverters, variable speed drives and diesel-generator sets are today equipped with digital components. Several of the systems and components fulfil functions with a safety-role in the NPP. Recently, however, a number of incidents have occurred which highlight deficiencies in the design or HMI of the equipment, which warrants questions whether there are generic problems with some applications of digital components that needs to be addressed. The use of digital components has presented cost effective solutions, or even the only available solution on the market enabling a modernisation. The vast majority of systems using digital components have been operating without problems and often contribute to improved safety but the challenge of non-detectable, or non-identifiable, failure modes remain. In this paper, the extent to which digital components are used in Swedish NPP power systems will be presented including a description of typical applications. Based on data from maintenance records and fault reports, as well as interviews with designers and maintenance personnel, the main areas where problems have been encountered and where possible risks have been identified will be described. The paper intends to investigate any 'tell-tales' that could give signals of unwanted behaviour. Furthermore, particular benefits experienced by using digital components will be highlighted. The paper will also discuss the safety relevance of these findings and suggest measures to improve safety in the application of digital components in power systems. (authors)

  6. Protein Kinase CK2 Regulates Cytoskeletal Reorganization during Ionizing Radiation-Induced Senescence of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Daojing; Jang, Deok-Jin

    2009-08-21

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) are critical for tissue regeneration. How hMSC respond to genotoxic stresses and potentially contribute to aging and cancer remain underexplored. We demonstrated that ionizing radiation induced cellular senescence of hMSC over a period of 10 days, showing a critical transition between day 3 and day 6. This was confirmed by senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA-{beta}-gal) staining, protein expression profiles of key cell cycle regulators (retinoblastoma (Rb) protein, p53, p21{sup waf1/Cip1}, and p16{sup INK4A}), and senescence-associated secretory phenotypes (SASPs) (IL-8, IL-12, GRO, and MDC). We observed dramatic cytoskeletal reorganization of hMSC through reduction of myosin-10, redistribution of myosin-9, and secretion of profilin-1. Using a SILAC-based phosphoproteomics method, we detected significant reduction of myosin-9 phosphorylation at Ser1943, coinciding with its redistribution. Importantly, through treatment with cell permeable inhibitors (4,5,6,7-tetrabromo-1H-benzotriazole (TBB) and 2-dimethylamino-4,5,6,7-tetrabromo-1H-benzimidazole (DMAT)), and gene knockdown using RNA interference, we identified CK2, a kinase responsible for myosin-9 phosphorylation at Ser1943, as a key factor contributing to the radiation-induced senescence of hMSC. We showed that individual knockdown of CK2 catalytic subunits CK2{alpha} and CK2{alpha}{prime} induced hMSC senescence. However, only knockdown of CK2{alpha} resulted in morphological phenotypes resembling those of radiation-induced senescence. These results suggest that CK2{alpha} and CK2{alpha}{prime} play differential roles in hMSC senescence progression, and their relative expression might represent a novel regulatory mechanism for CK2 activity.

  7. Cytoskeletal role in the transition from compensated to decompensated hypertrophy during adult canine left ventricular pressure overloading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagawa, H.; Koide, M.; Sato, H.; Zile, M. R.; Carabello, B. A.; Cooper, G. 4th

    1998-01-01

    Increased microtubule density causes cardiocyte contractile dysfunction in right ventricular (RV) pressure-overload hypertrophy, and these linked phenotypic and contractile abnormalities persist and progress during the transition to failure. Although more severe in cells from failing than hypertrophied RVs, the mechanical defects are normalized in each case by microtubule depolymerization. To define the role of increased microtubule density in left ventricular (LV) pressure-overload hypertrophy and failure, in a given LV we examined ventricular mechanics, sarcomere mechanics, and free tubulin and microtubule levels in control dogs and in dogs with aortic stenosis both with LV hypertrophy alone and with initially compensated hypertrophy that had progressed to LV muscle failure. In comparing initial values with those at study 8 weeks later, dogs with hypertrophy alone had a very substantial increase in LV mass but preservation of a normal ejection fraction and mean systolic wall stress. Dogs with hypertrophy and associated failure had a substantial but lesser increase in LV mass and a reduction in ejection fraction, as well as a marked increase in mean systolic wall stress. Cardiocyte contractile function was equivalent, and unaffected by microtubule depolymerization, in cells from control LVs and those with compensated hypertrophy. In contrast, cardiocyte contractile function in cells from failing LVs was quite depressed but was normalized by microtubule depolymerization. Microtubules were increased only in failing LVs. These contractile and cytoskeletal changes, when assayed longitudinally in a given dog by biopsy, appeared in failing ventricles only when wall stress began to increase and function began to decrease. Thus, the microtubule-based cardiocyte contractile dysfunction characteristic of pressure-hypertrophied myocardium, originally described in the RV, obtains equally in the LV but is shown here to have a specific association with increased wall stress.

  8. A Multi-component Matrix Loop Algebra and Its Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Huanhe; Zhang Ning

    2005-01-01

    A set of multi-component matrix Lie algebra is constructed. It follows that a type of new loop algebra A M-1 is presented. An isospectral problem is established. Integrable multi-component hierarchy is obtained by Tu pattern, which possesses tri-Hamiltonian structures. Furthermore, it can be reduced to the well-known AKNS hierarchy and BPT hierarchy. Therefore, the major result of this paper can be regarded as a unified expression integrable model of the AKNS hierarchy and the BPT hierarchy.

  9. 10-Hydroxy-2-decenoic Acid, the Major Lipid Component of Royal Jelly, Extends the Lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans through Dietary Restriction and Target of Rapamycin Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Honda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Royal jelly (RJ produced by honeybees has been reported to possess diverse health-beneficial properties and has been implicated to have a function in longevity across diverse species as well as honeybees. 10-Hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA, the major lipid component of RJ produced by honeybees, was previously shown to increase the lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans. The objective of this study is to elucidate signaling pathways that are involved in the lifespan extension by 10-HDA. 10-HDA further extended the lifespan of the daf-2 mutants, which exhibit long lifespan through reducing insulin-like signaling (ILS, indicating that 10-HDA extended lifespan independently of ILS. On the other hand, 10-HDA did not extend the lifespan of the eat-2 mutants, which show long lifespan through dietary restriction caused by a food-intake defect. This finding indicates that 10-HDA extends lifespan through dietary restriction signaling. We further found that 10-HDA did not extend the lifespan of the long-lived mutants in daf-15, which encodes Raptor, a target of rapamycin (TOR components, indicating that 10-HDA shared some longevity control mechanisms with TOR signaling. Additionally, 10-HDA was found to confer tolerance against thermal and oxidative stress. 10-HDA increases longevity not through ILS but through dietary restriction and TOR signaling in C. elegans.

  10. 10-Hydroxy-2-decenoic Acid, the Major Lipid Component of Royal Jelly, Extends the Lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans through Dietary Restriction and Target of Rapamycin Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Yoko; Araki, Yoko; Hata, Taketoshi; Ichihara, Kenji; Ito, Masafumi; Tanaka, Masashi; Honda, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    Royal jelly (RJ) produced by honeybees has been reported to possess diverse health-beneficial properties and has been implicated to have a function in longevity across diverse species as well as honeybees. 10-Hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA), the major lipid component of RJ produced by honeybees, was previously shown to increase the lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans. The objective of this study is to elucidate signaling pathways that are involved in the lifespan extension by 10-HDA. 10-HDA further extended the lifespan of the daf-2 mutants, which exhibit long lifespan through reducing insulin-like signaling (ILS), indicating that 10-HDA extended lifespan independently of ILS. On the other hand, 10-HDA did not extend the lifespan of the eat-2 mutants, which show long lifespan through dietary restriction caused by a food-intake defect. This finding indicates that 10-HDA extends lifespan through dietary restriction signaling. We further found that 10-HDA did not extend the lifespan of the long-lived mutants in daf-15, which encodes Raptor, a target of rapamycin (TOR) components, indicating that 10-HDA shared some longevity control mechanisms with TOR signaling. Additionally, 10-HDA was found to confer tolerance against thermal and oxidative stress. 10-HDA increases longevity not through ILS but through dietary restriction and TOR signaling in C. elegans.

  11. Light-dependent governance of cell shape dimensions in cyanobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beronda L Montgomery

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The regulation of cellular dimension is important for the function and survival of cells. Cellular dimensions, such as size and shape, are regulated throughout the life cycle of bacteria and can be adapted in response to environmental changes to fine-tune cellular fitness. Cell size and shape are generally coordinated with cell growth and division. Cytoskeletal regulation of cell shape and cell wall biosynthesis and/or deposition occurs in a range of organisms. Photosynthetic organisms, such as cyanobacteria, particularly exhibit light-dependent regulation of morphogenes and generation of reactive oxygen species and other signals that can impact cellular dimensions. Environmental signals initiate adjustments of cellular dimensions, which may be vitally important for optimizing resource acquisition and utilization or for coupling the cellular dimensions with the regulation of subcellular organization to maintain optimal metabolism. Although the involvement of cytoskeletal components in the regulation of cell shape is widely accepted, the signaling factors that regulate cytoskeletal and other distinct components involved in cell shape control, particularly in response to changes in external light cues, remain to be fully elucidated. In this review, factors impacting the inter-coordination of growth and division, the relationship between the regulation of cellular dimensions and central carbon metabolism, and consideration of the effects of specific environment signals, primarily light, on cell dimensions in cyanobacteria will be discussed. Current knowledge about the molecular bases of the light-dependent regulation of cellular dimensions and cell shape in cyanobacteria will be highlighted.

  12. Investigation of liquid wax components of Egyptian jojoba seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mallah, Mohammed Hassan; El-Shami, Safinaz Mohammed

    2009-01-01

    Egyptian jojoba seeds newly cultivated in Ismailia desert in Egypt promoted us to determine its lipid components. Fatty alcohols, fatty acids, wax esters and sterols patterns were determined by capillary GLC whereas, tocopherols profile, isopropenoid alcohols and sterylglycosides were determined by HPLC. The Egyptian seeds are rich in wax esters (55 %) with fatty alcohols C20:1 and C22:1 as major components and amounted to 43.0 % and 45.6 % respectively followed by C24:1 and C18:1(9.6 % and 1.3 % respectively). The fatty acids profile showed that C20:1 is the major constituent (60 %) followed by C18:1 and C22:1 (14.5 and 11.8 % respectively) whereas C24:1 was present at low concentration amounted to 1.6 %. In addition, the Egyptian jojoba wax contained C18:2 fatty acid at a level of 8.7 %. Wax esters composition showed that the local wax had C42 and C40 esters as major components amounted to 51.1 and 30.1 % respectively. Also, it had C44 and C38 at reasonable amounts (10.0 and 6.3 % respectively). Whereas C36 and C46 were present at lower concentrations amounted to 1.4 and 1.1 respectively. The sterols analysis showed the presence of campe-, stigma-, beta-sito-, and isofuco- sterol amounting to 18.4 %, 6.9 %, 68.7 %, and 6.0 % respectively. The tocopherols pattern revealed that the local seed wax contained gamma-tocopherol as major constituent (79.2 %) followed by alpha-tocopherol (20.3 %). beta-tocopherol as well as delta-tocopherol were found as minor constituents. The isopropenoid alcohols and the sterylglycosides (free and acylated) were not detected. The wax is proposed to be used in oleo chemistry and cosmetics.

  13. Increasing complexity of the bacterial cytoskeleton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Jensen, Jakob; Löwe, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Bacteria contain cytoskeletal elements involved in major cellular processes including DNA segregation and cell morphogenesis and division. Distant bacterial homologues of tubulin (FtsZ) and actin (MreB and ParM) not only resemble their eukaryotic counterparts structurally but also show similar...

  14. YeeU enhances the bundling of cytoskeletal polymers of MreB and FtsZ, antagonizing the CbtA (YeeV) toxicity in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Hisako; Tan, Qian; Awano, Naoki; Wu, Kuen-Phon; Inouye, Masayori

    2012-06-01

    All free-living bacteria carry the toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems controlling cell growth and death under stress conditions. YeeU-YeeV (CbtA) is one of the Escherichia coli TA systems, and the toxin, CbtA, has been reported to inhibit the polymerization of bacterial cytoskeletal proteins, MreB and FtsZ. Here, we demonstrate that the antitoxin, YeeU, is a novel type of antitoxin (type IV TA system), which does not form a complex with CbtA but functions as an antagonist for CbtA toxicity. Specifically, YeeU was found to directly interact with MreB and FtsZ, and enhance the bundling of their filamentous polymers in vitro. Surprisingly, YeeU neutralized not only the toxicity of CbtA but also the toxicity caused by other inhibitors of MreB and FtsZ, such as A22, SulA and MinC, indicating that YeeU-induced bundling of MreB and FtsZ has an intrinsic global stabilizing effect on their homeostasis. Here we propose to rename YeeU as CbeA for cytoskeleton bundling-enhancing factor A. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Simulations of fast component and slow component of SMBI on HL-2A tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Yong-Fu; Wang Zhan-Hui; Sun Ai-Ping; Yu De-Liang; Xu Min; Ren Qi-Long; Guo Wen-Feng

    2017-01-01

    It is very important to improve the penetration depth and fueling efficiency of supersonic molecular beam injection (SMBI) especially for the next generation fusion devices such as ITER. Two components, a fast component (FC) and a slow component (SC), have been observed in the HL-2A SMBI experiments for several years, and the FC can penetrate much more deeply than the common SMBIs which draws a great deal of attention for a better fueling method. It is the first time to the FC and SC of SMBI have been simulated and interpreted in theory and simulation in this paper with the trans-neut module of the BOUT++ code. The simulation results of the FC and SC are clear and distinguishable in the same way as the observation in experiment. For the major mechanism of the FC and SC, it is found that although the difference in the injection velocity has some effect on the penetration depth difference between the FC and SC, it is mainly caused by the self-blocking effect of the first ionized SMB. We also discuss the influence of the initial plasma density on the FC and SC, and the variation of the SC penetration depth with its injection velocity. (paper)

  16. Development of high performance scientific components for interoperability of computing packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulabani, Teena Pratap [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Three major high performance quantum chemistry computational packages, NWChem, GAMESS and MPQC have been developed by different research efforts following different design patterns. The goal is to achieve interoperability among these packages by overcoming the challenges caused by the different communication patterns and software design of each of these packages. A chemistry algorithm is hard to develop as well as being a time consuming process; integration of large quantum chemistry packages will allow resource sharing and thus avoid reinvention of the wheel. Creating connections between these incompatible packages is the major motivation of the proposed work. This interoperability is achieved by bringing the benefits of Component Based Software Engineering through a plug-and-play component framework called Common Component Architecture (CCA). In this thesis, I present a strategy and process used for interfacing two widely used and important computational chemistry methodologies: Quantum Mechanics and Molecular Mechanics. To show the feasibility of the proposed approach the Tuning and Analysis Utility (TAU) has been coupled with NWChem code and its CCA components. Results show that the overhead is negligible when compared to the ease and potential of organizing and coping with large-scale software applications.

  17. Design and development of neutral beam module components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holl, P.M.; Bulmer, R.H.; Dilgard, L.W.; Horvath, J.A.; Molvik, A.W.; Porter, G.D.; Shearer, J.W.; Slack, D.S.; Colonias, J.S.

    1979-01-01

    The Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) injection system consists of twenty 20 keV start-up, and twenty-four 80 keV sustaining neutral beam source modules. The neutral beam modules are mounted in four clusters equally spaced around the waist of the vacuum vessel which contains the superconducting magnets. A module is defined here as an assembly consisting of a beam source and the interfacing components between that beam source and the vacuum chamber. Six major interfacing components are the subject of this paper. They are the magnetic shield, the neutralizer duct, the isolation valve, mounting gimbals, aiming bellows and actuators

  18. Multielement determination of major-to-ultratrace elements in deep-seawater salts by ICP-AES and ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Takeshi; Nakagawa, Koji; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Itoh, Akihide; Ji, Shan; Haraguchi, Hiroki

    2002-01-01

    Major-to-ultratrace elements in deep-seawater salts were determined by ICP-AES and ICP-MS, after they were separated into the water-soluble, acid-soluble, and insoluble particle components. Deep-seawater salts were prepared from seawater collected at 344 m deep near the off-shore of Cape Muroto in Kochi Prefecture. The major and minor elements in salts were determined by ICP-AES after appropriate dilution with pure water. Trace and ultratrace elements in the water-soluble and acid-soluble components were preconcentrated by a chelating resin preconcentration method. In addition, the major to-ultratrace elements in the insoluble particle component were determined by ICP-AES and ICP-MS, after acid-digestion using HNO 3 /HF/HClO 4 . As a result, 21-35 elements in deep-seawater salts could be determined over the wide concentration range. It was found that the elements, such as Al, V, Fe, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, and rare earth elements, were more abundant in the acid-soluble component of deep-seawater salts, which may play some essential roles in physiological effectiveness for intake of salt. (author)

  19. Design evolution and integration of the ITER in-vessel components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, A.; Calcagno, B.; Chappuis, Ph.; Daly, E.; Dellopoulos, G.; Furmanek, A.; Gicquel, S.; Heitzenroeder, P.; Jiming, Chen; Kalish, M.; Kim, D.-H.; Khomiakov, S.; Labusov, A.; Loarte, A.; Loughlin, M.; Merola, M.; Mitteau, R.; Polunovski, E.; Raffray, R.; Sadakov, S.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The ITER in-vessel components have experienced a major redesign since the ITER Design Review of 2007. ► A set of in-vessel vertical stabilization (VS) coils and a set of in-vessel Edge Localized Mode (ELM) control coils have been implemented. ► The blanket system has been redesigned to include first wall (FW) shaping, to upgrade the FW heat removal capability and to allow for an “in situ” replacement. ► The blanket manifold system has been redesigned to improve leak detection and localisation. ► The introduction of a new set of in-vessel coils and the design evolution of the blanket system while the ITER project was entering the procurement phase have proven to be a major engineering challenge. -- Abstract: The ITER in-vessel components have experienced a major redesign since the ITER Design Review of 2007. A set of in-vessel vertical stabilization (VS) coils and a set of in-vessel Edge Localized Mode (ELM) control coils have been implemented. The blanket system has been redesigned to include first wall (FW) shaping, to upgrade the FW heat removal capability and to allow for an “in situ” replacement. The blanket manifold system has been redesigned to improve leak detection and localisation. The introduction of a new set of in-vessel coils and the design evolution of the blanket system while the ITER project was entering the procurement phase have proven to be a major engineering challenge. This paper describes the status of the redesign of the in-vessel components and the associated integration issues

  20. Numerical simulation of extraction behavior of major components in the CMPO-TBP-HNO3 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takanashi, M.; Koma, Y.; Koyama, T.; Funasaka, H.

    2000-01-01

    A numerical simulation code was developed in order to find the optimum condition for separation and the recovery of TRU (TRansUranium) elements in the octyl(phenyl)-N,N-di-isobutyl-carbamoyl-methyl-phosphine oxide (CMPO) - tri-butyl phosphate (TBP) - HNO 3 solvent extraction system. This code is able to predict the extraction behavior of americium and europium in the system containing many components. Calculations of concentration profiles of americium and lanthanides were carried out for a counter current experiment with laboratory scale mixer-settlers. The calculated profiles were in agreement with the experimental ones. The effect of oxalic acid was also included in the calculation and was discussed. (authors)

  1. Monitoring aquatic environment pollution: a major component of environment management systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, I.H.; Khan, M.H.; Sheikh, I.M.

    1999-01-01

    The paper is based on the international experiences mostly of the UK (United Kingdom) and Europe on monitoring aquatic pollution and controlling water pollution which have a long history of the legislation involved. The U.K. control of water pollution and regulatory laws are very effective as in shown by the fact that 96 percent of rivers in England and Wales are suitable for potable supplies with conventional water treatment. Current British legislation is basically contained n the 1951, 1960 and 1974 acts of parliament in the U.K. A common feature of all this environment legislation is the high level of consultation which has taken place between government and all concerned and al those concerned in the development of legislation and drawing up regulations etc. and involved in implementation of them. Similarly considerable discussion takes place with the controlling authorities by dischargers over the detailed implementation of legislation in the U.K. Consequently these harmonious attitudes have been responsible for the effectiveness of the U.K. legislation. In the U.K. control of discharges of industrial effluents to sewers and to all natural waters including underground water is vested in the regional water authorities, which on application, issue consent permitting discharges of industrial effluents to sewers and to all natural waters including underground waters in vested in the regional water authorities, which on application, issue consent permitting discharges to be made subject to conditions and limitations in the consent/authorisation/approval. The paper critically reviews major aspects of the philosophy of aquatic pollution control and monitoring, as statistics reveal deadly state of liquid effluent contamination water bodies in Pakistan. Without prompt installation of treatment plants we may face a tragedy of catastrophic magnitude. (author)

  2. Amino acids as regulators and components of nonproteinogenic pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Alfred J.

    2003-01-01

    Amino acids are not only important precursors for the synthesis of proteins and other N-containing compounds, but also participate in the regulation of major metabolic pathways. Glutamate and aspartate, for example, are components of the malate/aspartate shuttle and their concentrations control the

  3. Sensor potency of the moonlighting enzyme-decorated cytoskeleton: the cytoskeleton as a metabolic sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background There is extensive evidence for the interaction of metabolic enzymes with the eukaryotic cytoskeleton. The significance of these interactions is far from clear. Presentation of the hypothesis In the cytoskeletal integrative sensor hypothesis presented here, the cytoskeleton senses and integrates the general metabolic activity of the cell. This activity depends on the binding to the cytoskeleton of enzymes and, depending on the nature of the enzyme, this binding may occur if the enzyme is either active or inactive but not both. This enzyme-binding is further proposed to stabilize microtubules and microfilaments and to alter rates of GTP and ATP hydrolysis and their levels. Testing the hypothesis Evidence consistent with the cytoskeletal integrative sensor hypothesis is presented in the case of glycolysis. Several testable predictions are made. There should be a relationship between post-translational modifications of tubulin and of actin and their interaction with metabolic enzymes. Different conditions of cytoskeletal dynamics and enzyme-cytoskeleton binding should reveal significant differences in local and perhaps global levels and ratios of ATP and GTP. The different functions of moonlighting enzymes should depend on cytoskeletal binding. Implications of the hypothesis The physical and chemical effects arising from metabolic sensing by the cytoskeleton would have major consequences on cell shape, dynamics and cell cycle progression. The hypothesis provides a framework that helps the significance of the enzyme-decorated cytoskeleton be determined. PMID:23398642

  4. Determination of material behavior in 700 C turbine components under component and load specific conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lueckemeyer, N.; Kirchner, H.; Kern, T.U. [Siemens AG, Muehlheim (Germany). Energy Sector; Reigl, M. [Alstom Power, Baden (Switzerland); Klenk, A.; Klein, T. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). MPA; Schwienheer, M.; Cui, L.; Scholz, A.; Berger, C. [Institut fuer Werkstoffkunde (IfW), Darmstadt (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    With global warming being one of mankind's greatest challenges, an increasing demand for electricity world-wide, and studies showing that fossil resources like coal and gas will remain a major source for electricity for the next couple of decades, research into the development of highest efficiency fossil power plants has become a top priority. Calculations for coal fired power plants have shown that CO{sub 2} emissions can be reduced by as much as 7% compared to the current state of the art equipment. It can be reached by increasing the live steam parameters to 700 C and 350bar. To achieve the desired operating hours at this temperature the application of nickel base materials is necessary for the main components such as rotors, inner casings and valves. Nowadays, the use of Nickel base alloys is common practice for selected gas turbine components. However, with steam turbine rotors being 1000mm in diameter and casings with wall thicknesses higher than 100mm the gas turbine application range and experience for nickel base alloys are well exceeded. This paper uses a basic design for a steam turbine to illustrate the core challenges in developing nickel based steam turbine components, such as casting, forging, nondestructive testing and welding. Suitable nickel based alloys have been investigated in research projects over the past years. The research results are summarized and an explanation is given as to why Alloy617 was selected for forged components and Alloy625 for cast components. This paper then focuses on the material behavior under long term and complex loading conditions and on the development of life time concepts for thick walled components made from these alloys. Due to the differences in the material behavior of nickel base alloys, the existing steel design philosophies cannot be completely adopted but rather must be carefully evaluated and modified where necessary. To do this, large test components were manufactured. Based on both standard tests

  5. Vinculin promotes cell spreading by mechanically coupling integrins to the cytoskeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzell, R. M.; Goldmann, W. H.; Wang, N.; Parasharama, N.; Ingber, D. E.

    1997-01-01

    Mouse F9 embryonic carcinoma 5.51 cells that lack the cytoskeletal protein vinculin spread poorly on extracellular matrix compared with wild-type F9 cells or two vinculin-transfected clones (5.51Vin3 and Vin4; Samuels et al., 1993, J. Cell Biol. 121, 909-921). In the present study, we used this model system to determine how the presence of vinculin promotes cytoskeletal alterations and associated changes in cell shape. Microscopic analysis of cell spreading at early times, revealed that 5.51 cells retained the ability to form filopodia; however, they could not form lamellipodia, assemble stress fibers, or efficiently spread over the culture substrate. Detergent (Triton X-100) studies revealed that these major differences in cell morphology and cytoskeletal organization did not result from differences in levels of total polymerized or cross-linked actin. Biochemical studies showed that 5.51 cells, in addition to lacking vinculin, exhibited slightly reduced levels of alpha-actinin and paxillin in their detergent-insoluble cytoskeleton. The absence of vinculin correlated with a decrease in the mechanical stiffness of the integrin-cytoskeleton linkage, as measured using cell magnetometry. Furthermore, when vinculin was replaced by transfection in 5.51Vin3 and 5.51Vin4 cells, the levels of cytoskeletal-associated alpha-actinin and paxillin, the efficiency of transmembrane mechanical coupling, and the formation of actin stress fibers were all restored to near wild-type levels. These findings suggest that vinculin may promote cell spreading by stabilizing focal adhesions and transferring mechanical stresses that drive cytoskeletal remodeling, rather than by altering the total level of actin polymerization or cross-linking.

  6. Fuel-cell-system and its components for mobile application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venturi, Massimo [NuCellSys GmbH, Kirchheim/Teck-Nabern (Germany)

    2013-06-01

    In the past years the development of fuel cell systems for mobile applications has made significant progress in power density, performance and robustness. For a successful market introduction the cost of the fuel system powertrain needs to be competitive to diesel hybrid engine. The current development activities are therefore focusing on cost reduction. There are 3 major areas for cost reduction: functional integration, materials and design, supplier competitiveness and volume. Today unique fuel cell system components are developed by single suppliers, which lead to a monopoly. In the future the components will be developed at multiple suppliers to achieve a competitor situation, which will further reduce the component cost. Using all these cost reduction measures the fuel cell system will become a competitive alternative drive train. (orig.)

  7. Advanced qualification methodology for actively cooled plasma facing components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durocher, A.; Escourbiac, F.; Grosman, A.; Boscary, J.; Merola, M.; Cismondi, F.; Courtois, X.; Farjon, J. L.; Missirlian, M.; Schlosser, J.; Tivey, R.

    2007-12-01

    The use of high heat flux plasma facing components (PFCs) in steady state fusion devices requires high reliability. These components have to withstand heat fluxes in the range 10-20 MW m-2 involving a number of severe engineering constraints. Feedback from the experience of various industrial manufacturings showed that the bonding of the refractory armour material onto the metallic heat sink causes generic difficulties strongly depending on material qualities and specific design. As the heat exhaust capability and lifetime of PFCs during plasma operation are directly linked to the manufacturing quality, a set of qualification activities such as active infrared thermography, lock-in and acoustic measurements were performed during the component development phases following a qualification route. This paper describes the major improvements stemming from better measurement accuracy and refined data processing and analyses recent developments aimed at investigating the capability to qualify the component in situ during its lifetime.

  8. Advanced qualification methodology for actively cooled plasma facing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durocher, A.; Escourbiac, F.; Grosman, A.; Boscary, J.; Merola, M.; Cismondi, F.; Courtois, X.; Farjon, J.L.; Missirlian, M.; Schlosser, J.; Tivey, R.

    2007-01-01

    The use of high heat flux plasma facing components (PFCs) in steady state fusion devices requires high reliability. These components have to withstand heat fluxes in the range 10-20 MW m -2 involving a number of severe engineering constraints. Feedback from the experience of various industrial manufacturings showed that the bonding of the refractory armour material onto the metallic heat sink causes generic difficulties strongly depending on material qualities and specific design. As the heat exhaust capability and lifetime of PFCs during plasma operation are directly linked to the manufacturing quality, a set of qualification activities such as active infrared thermography, lock-in and acoustic measurements were performed during the component development phases following a qualification route. This paper describes the major improvements stemming from better measurement accuracy and refined data processing and analyses recent developments aimed at investigating the capability to qualify the component in situ during its lifetime

  9. Rebuilding the foundations: major renovations to the mental health component of an undergraduate nursing curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Deborah; Garrick, Helen; McKay, Marie

    2012-10-01

    Concerns relating to the adequacy of nurses' preparation for the care of people with mental illness prompted significant revision of the mental health component in a Bachelor of Health Science nursing programme in New Zealand that prepares approximately 200 students per year. Working collaboratively with clinical providers, university staff developed and introduced three courses (equivalent to 450 hours of learning) specifically focused on mental health science, inpatient practice, and primary community mental health practice. This paper provides an overview of the new courses and reports the findings of an appreciative inquiry evaluation of this curriculum innovation. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing © 2012 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  10. Water reuse systems: A review of the principal components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchetti, G.; Gray, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    Principal components of water reuse systems include ammonia removal, disease control, temperature control, aeration, and particulate filtration. Effective ammonia removal techniques include air stripping, ion exchange, and biofiltration. Selection of a particular technique largely depends on site-specific requirements (e.g., space, existing water quality, and fish densities). Disease control, although often overlooked, is a major problem in reuse systems. Pathogens can be controlled most effectively with ultraviolet radiation, ozone, or chlorine. Simple and inexpensive methods are available to increase oxygen concentration and eliminate gas supersaturation, these include commercial aerators, air injectors, and packed columns. Temperature control is a major advantage of reuse systems, but the equipment required can be expensive, particularly if water temperature must be rigidly controlled and ambient air temperature fluctuates. Filtration can be readily accomplished with a hydrocyclone or sand filter that increases overall system efficiency. Based on criteria of adaptability, efficiency, and reasonable cost, we recommend components for a small water reuse system.

  11. Three-dimensional components of selfhood in treatment-naive patients with major depressive disorder: A resting-state qEEG imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingelkurts, Andrew A; Fingelkurts, Alexander A

    2017-05-01

    Based on previous studies implicating increased functional connectivity within the self-referential brain network in major depressive disorder (MDD), and considering the functional roles of three distinct modules of such brain net (responsible for three-dimensional components of Selfhood) together with the documented abnormalities of self-related processing in MDD, we tested the hypothesis that patients with depression would exhibit increased connectivity within each module of the self-referential brain network and that the strength of these connections would correlate positively with depression severity. Applying the electroencephalogram (EEG) operational synchrony analysis to extract three modules of the self-referential brain network in 12 medication-free depressive outpatients and 10 control subjects we have found an increase in the strength of EEG synchrony within all three modules in depressive patients (though non-significant for the right module). Furthermore, multiple regression analysis that used 3 factors (values of synchrony strength for all three modules) as input indicated that combined increase in the strength of synchrony in all three modules was positively associated with severity of depression. Taken together the findings of this study suggest that depression is primarily associated with hypersynchrony in all three modules of the brain self-referential network (the anterior module been responsible for "witnessing observation and first-person perspective", the left posterior module been responsible for "reflective agency and narration" and the right posterior module been responsible for "bodily representational-emotional agency"), thus contributing to excessive self-focus, rumination, and body tension. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils and their components against the three major pathogens of the cultivated button mushroom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sokovic, M.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2006-01-01

    Essential oils of Matricaria chamommilla, Mentha piperita, M. spicata, Lavandula angusti folia, Ocimum basilicum, Thymus vulgaris, Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis, Citrus limon and C. aurantium and their components; linalyl acetate, linalool, limonene, ¿-pinene, ß-pinene, 1,8-cineole, camphor,

  13. Longitudinal assessment of neuropsychological function in major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Katie M; Porter, Richard J

    2009-12-01

    Neuropsychological impairment is a core component of major depression, yet its relationship to clinical state is unclear. The aims of the present review were to determine which neuropsychological domains and tasks were most sensitive to improvement in clinical state in major depression and to highlight the methodological issues in such research. Studies that included a baseline and at least one follow-up neuropsychological testing session in adults with major depression were identified using MEDLINE, Web of Science and ScienceDirect databases. Thirty studies were included in the review. Findings in younger adult populations suggested that improvement in mood was most strongly related to improved verbal memory and verbal fluency, while measures of executive functioning and attention tended to remain impaired across treatment. In late-life major depression, improved psychomotor speed was most closely related to treatment response, but there was much inconsistency between study findings, which may be due to methodological issues. In major depression, particular neuropsychological domains are more strongly related to clinical state than others. The findings from the present review suggest that the domains most sensitive to clinical state are verbal learning and memory, verbal fluency and psychomotor speed. In contrast, measures of attention and executive functioning perhaps represent more trait-like markers of major depression. With further methodologically sound research, the changes in neuropsychological function associated with treatment response may provide a means of evaluating different treatment strategies in major depression.

  14. Cytoskeletal dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Pól Martin

    2015-01-01

    I worked with reconstitutted contractile acto-myosin systems containing mainly actin, actin cross-linkers and myosin motors. Contractility and rheology of such systems was studied using confocal microscopy and rheology.......I worked with reconstitutted contractile acto-myosin systems containing mainly actin, actin cross-linkers and myosin motors. Contractility and rheology of such systems was studied using confocal microscopy and rheology....

  15. A new methodology for predicting flow induced vibration in industrial components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, N.

    1997-12-01

    Flow induced vibration damage is a major concern for designers and operators of industrial components. For example, nuclear power plant operators have currently to deal with such flow induced vibration problems, in steam generator tube bundles, control rods or nuclear fuel assemblies. Some methodologies have thus been recently proposed to obtain an accurate description of the flow induced vibration phenomena. These methodologies are based on unsteady semi-analytical models for fluid-dynamic forces, associated with non-dimensional fluid force coefficients generally obtained from experiments. The aim is to determine the forces induced by the flow on the structure, and then to take account of these forces to derive the dynamic behaviour of the component under flow excitation. The approach is based on a general model for fluid-dynamic forces, using several non-dimensional parameters that cannot be reached through computation. These parameters are then determined experimentally on simplified test sections, representative of the component, of the flow and of the fluid-elastic coupling phenomena. Predicting computations of the industrial component can then be performed for various operating configurations, by applying laws of similarity. The major physical mechanisms involved in complex fluid-structure interaction phenomena have been understood and modelled. (author)

  16. Failure trend analysis for safety related components of Korean standard NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sun Yeong; Han, Sang Hoon

    2005-01-01

    The component reliability data of Korean NPP that reflects the plant specific characteristics is required necessarily for PSA of Korean nuclear power plants. We have performed a project to develop the component reliability database (KIND, Korea Integrated Nuclear Reliability Database) and S/W for database management and component reliability analysis. Based on the system, we have collected the component operation data and failure/repair data during from plant operation date to 2002 for YGN 3, 4 and UCN 3, 4 plants. Recently, we provided the component failure rate data for UCN 3, 4 standard PSA model from the KIND. We evaluated the components that have high-ranking failure rates with the component reliability data from plant operation date to 1998 and 2000 for YGN 3,4 and UCN 3, 4 respectively. We also identified their failure mode that occurred frequently. In this study, we analyze the component failure trend and perform site comparison based on the generic data by using the component reliability data which is extended to 2002 for UCN 3, 4 and YGN 3, 4 respectively. We focus on the major safety related rotating components such as pump, EDG etc

  17. Functional principal component analysis of glomerular filtration rate curves after kidney transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jianghu J; Wang, Liangliang; Gill, Jagbir; Cao, Jiguo

    2017-01-01

    This article is motivated by some longitudinal clinical data of kidney transplant recipients, where kidney function progression is recorded as the estimated glomerular filtration rates at multiple time points post kidney transplantation. We propose to use the functional principal component analysis method to explore the major source of variations of glomerular filtration rate curves. We find that the estimated functional principal component scores can be used to cluster glomerular filtration rate curves. Ordering functional principal component scores can detect abnormal glomerular filtration rate curves. Finally, functional principal component analysis can effectively estimate missing glomerular filtration rate values and predict future glomerular filtration rate values.

  18. Qualification of engine-mounted components due to operational vibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, B.J.; Bayat, A.

    1994-01-01

    The Emergency Diesel Generator (EDG) in a Nuclear Power Plant is considered to be an essential component of the plant for its safe operation. Failures of auxiliary components directly mounted on the EDG creates costly repairs, and compromises the engine's availability and reliability. Although IEEE-323 and Section III of the ASME code require addressing of safety-related components due to mechanically induced vibration, very few guidelines exist in the nuclear industry to show how this may be accounted for. Most engine vendors rely on the empirical experience data as the basis of their evaluation for vibration. Upgrade of engine controls, addition of monitoring components and other engine modifications require design and installation of new mechanical and electrical components to be mounted directly on the engine. This necessitates the evaluation of such components for engine-induced vibration which is considered to be one of the most severe design parameters. This paper presents a methodology to evaluate three categories of components; structural, mechanical, and electrical under engine vibration. The discussion for the characteristics and manipulation of engine vibration profile to be used for each component evaluation is also given. In addition, the suitability of analytical verses testing approaches is discussed for each category. An example application of the methodology is presented for a typical EDG which is currently undergoing major controls upgrade and monitoring modification

  19. Statistics of Shared Components in Complex Component Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzolini, Andrea; Gherardi, Marco; Caselle, Michele; Cosentino Lagomarsino, Marco; Osella, Matteo

    2018-04-01

    Many complex systems are modular. Such systems can be represented as "component systems," i.e., sets of elementary components, such as LEGO bricks in LEGO sets. The bricks found in a LEGO set reflect a target architecture, which can be built following a set-specific list of instructions. In other component systems, instead, the underlying functional design and constraints are not obvious a priori, and their detection is often a challenge of both scientific and practical importance, requiring a clear understanding of component statistics. Importantly, some quantitative invariants appear to be common to many component systems, most notably a common broad distribution of component abundances, which often resembles the well-known Zipf's law. Such "laws" affect in a general and nontrivial way the component statistics, potentially hindering the identification of system-specific functional constraints or generative processes. Here, we specifically focus on the statistics of shared components, i.e., the distribution of the number of components shared by different system realizations, such as the common bricks found in different LEGO sets. To account for the effects of component heterogeneity, we consider a simple null model, which builds system realizations by random draws from a universe of possible components. Under general assumptions on abundance heterogeneity, we provide analytical estimates of component occurrence, which quantify exhaustively the statistics of shared components. Surprisingly, this simple null model can positively explain important features of empirical component-occurrence distributions obtained from large-scale data on bacterial genomes, LEGO sets, and book chapters. Specific architectural features and functional constraints can be detected from occurrence patterns as deviations from these null predictions, as we show for the illustrative case of the "core" genome in bacteria.

  20. LOK is a major ERM kinase in resting lymphocytes and regulates cytoskeletal rearrangement through ERM phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkina, Natalya V; Liu, Yin; Hao, Jian-Jiang; Karasuyama, Hajime; Shaw, Stephen

    2009-03-24

    ERM (ezrin-radixin-moesin) proteins mediate linkage of actin cytoskeleton to plasma membrane in many cells. ERM activity is regulated in part by phosphorylation at a C-terminal threonine, but the identity of ERM kinases is unknown in lymphocytes and incompletely defined in other mammalian cells. Our studies show that lymphocyte-oriented kinase (LOK) is an ERM kinase in vitro and in vivo. Mass spectrometric analysis indicates LOK is abundant at the lymphocyte plasma membrane and immunofluorescence studies show LOK enrichment at the plasma membrane near ERM. In vitro peptide specificity analyses characterize LOK as a basophilic kinase whose optimal substrate sequence resembles the ERM site, including unusual preference for tyrosine at P-2. LOK's activity on moesin peptide and protein was comparable to reported ERM kinases ROCK and PKC but unlike them LOK displayed preferential specificity for moesin compared to traditional basophilic kinase substrates. Two genetic approaches demonstrate a role for LOK in ERM phosphorylation: cell transfection with LOK kinase domain augments ERM phosphorylation and lymphocytes from LOK knockout mice have >50% reduction in ERM phosphorylation. The findings on localization and specificity argue that LOK is a direct ERM kinase. The knockout mice have normal hematopoietic cell development but notably lymphocyte migration and polarization in response to chemokine are enhanced. These functional alterations fit the current understanding of the role of ERM phosphorylation in regulating cortical reorganization. Thus, these studies identify a new ERM kinase of importance in lymphocytes and confirm the role of ERM phosphorylation in regulating cell shape and motility.

  1. Cell surface clustering of Cadherin adhesion complex induced by antibody coated beads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Cadherin receptors mediate cell-cell adhesion, signal transduction and assembly of cytoskeletons. How a single transmembrane molecule Cadherin can be involved in multiple functions through modulating its binding activities with many membrane adhesion molecules and cytoskeletal components is an unanswered question which can be elucidated by clues from bead experiments. Human lung cells expressing N-Cadherin were examined. After co-incubation with anti-N-Cadherin monoclonal antibody coated beads, cell surface clustering of N-Cadherin was induced. Immunofluorescent detection demonstrated that in addition to Cadherin, β-Catenin, α-Catenin, α-Actinin and Actin fluorescence also aggregated respectively at the membrane site of bead attachment. Myosin heavy chain (MHC), another major component of Actin cytoskeleton, did not aggregate at the membrane site of bead attachment. Adhesion unrelated protein Con A and polylysine conjugated beads did not induce the clustering of adhesion molecules. It is indicated that the Cadherin/Catenins/α-Actinin/Actin complex is formed at Cadherin mediated cell adherens junction; occupancy and cell surface clustering of Cadherin is crucial for the formation of Cadherin adhesion protein complexes.

  2. Storm runoff analysis using environmental isotopes and major ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritz, P.; Cherry, J.A.; Sklash, M.; Weyer, K.U.

    1976-01-01

    At a given locality the oxygen-18 content of rainwater varies from storm to storm but within broad seasonal trends. Very frequently, especially during heavy summer storms, the stable isotope composition of rainwater differs from that of the groundwater in the area. This isotopic difference can be used to differentiate between 'prestorm' and 'rain' components in storm runoff. This approach to the use of natural 18 O was applied in four hydrogeologically very different basins in Canada. Their surface areas range from less than 2km 2 to more than 700km 2 . Before, during and after the storm events samples of stream water, groundwater and rain were analysed for 18 O and in some cases for deuterium, major ions and electrical conductance. The 18 O hydrograph separations show that groundwater was a major component of the runoff in each of the basins, and usually exceeded 50% of the total water discharged. Even at peak stream flow most of discharge was subsurface water. The identification of geographic sources rather than time sources appears possible if isotope techniques are used in conjunction with chemical analyses, hydrological data - such as flow measurements - and visual observations. (author)

  3. Emotional Component in Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnambalam, Michael

    2018-02-01

    The laws of physics are often seen as objective truth, pure and simple. Hence, they tend to appear cerebral and cold. However, their presentation is necessarily subjective and may vary from being boring to being exciting. A detailed analysis of physics education reform efforts over the last three decades finds that interactive instruction results in greater learning gains than the traditional lecture format. In interactive engagement, the emotional component plays a far greater role than acknowledged by many. As an experienced physics teacher [(i) Four decades of teaching and research in four continents (teaching all courses to undergraduate physics majors and algebra-based physics to high school seniors as well as college freshmen), (ii) 11 years of volunteer work in Physics Popularization in six countries to many thousands of students in elementary, middle, and high schools as well as colleges and universities, and (iii) eight years as a Master Teacher and mentor], I feel that the emotional component in teaching and learning physics has been neglected. This paper presents the role of the emotional component in transforming ordinary teaching and learning of physics into an enjoyable and exciting experience for students as well as teachers.

  4. Sensory profile and contribution of major components of aroma in dry red wine quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Costa de Oliveira

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the sensory profile and main volatile compounds of a set of commercial wines from two major wine regions in Brazil. A total of 28 descriptors were selected by quantitative descriptive analysis, and “red”, “violet”, “pungent aroma”, “vinegary aroma” and “softness” were the most important descriptors in sample discrimination (p<=0.05. 42 volatile aroma compounds were considered relevant for the evaluation of red wine samples. Several acetates and esters that contribute to the pleasant aroma in wines were found in the samples, but other undesirable compounds were also identified: acetic acid and octanoic acid may have contributed to the vinegary and sulphur odors perceived by a trained team.

  5. Estimates of variance components for postweaning feed intake and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feed efficiency is of major economic importance in beef production. The objective of this work was to evaluate alternative measures of feed efficiency for use in genetic evaluation. To meet this objective, genetic parameters were estimated for the components of efficiency. These parameters were then used in multiple-trait ...

  6. The Virome and Its Major Component, Anellovirus, a Convoluted System Molding Human Immune Defenses and Possibly Affecting the Development of Asthma and Respiratory Diseases in Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Freer

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The microbiome, a thriving and complex microbial community colonizing the human body, has a broad impact on human health. Colonization is a continuous process that starts very early in life and occurs thanks to shrewd strategies microbes have evolved to tackle a convoluted array of anatomical, physiological, and functional barriers of the human body. Cumulative evidence shows that viruses are part of the microbiome. This part, called virome, has a dynamic composition that reflects what we eat, how and where we live, what we do, our genetic background, and other unpredictable variables. Thus, the virome plays a chief role in shaping innate and adaptive host immune defenses. Imbalance of normal microbial flora is thought to trigger or exacerbate many acute and chronic disorders. A compelling example can be found in the respiratory apparatus, where early-life viral infections are major determinants for the development of allergic diseases, like asthma, and other non-transmissible diseases. In this review, we focus on the virome and, particularly, on Anelloviridae, a recently discovered virus family. Anelloviruses are major components of the virome, present in most, if not all, human beings, where they are acquired early in life and replicate persistently without causing apparent disease. We will discuss how modulation of innate and adaptive immune systems by Anelloviruses can influence the development of respiratory diseases in childhood and provide evidence for the use of Anelloviruses as useful and practical molecular markers to monitor inflammatory processes and immune system competence.

  7. Statistics of Shared Components in Complex Component Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Mazzolini

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Many complex systems are modular. Such systems can be represented as “component systems,” i.e., sets of elementary components, such as LEGO bricks in LEGO sets. The bricks found in a LEGO set reflect a target architecture, which can be built following a set-specific list of instructions. In other component systems, instead, the underlying functional design and constraints are not obvious a priori, and their detection is often a challenge of both scientific and practical importance, requiring a clear understanding of component statistics. Importantly, some quantitative invariants appear to be common to many component systems, most notably a common broad distribution of component abundances, which often resembles the well-known Zipf’s law. Such “laws” affect in a general and nontrivial way the component statistics, potentially hindering the identification of system-specific functional constraints or generative processes. Here, we specifically focus on the statistics of shared components, i.e., the distribution of the number of components shared by different system realizations, such as the common bricks found in different LEGO sets. To account for the effects of component heterogeneity, we consider a simple null model, which builds system realizations by random draws from a universe of possible components. Under general assumptions on abundance heterogeneity, we provide analytical estimates of component occurrence, which quantify exhaustively the statistics of shared components. Surprisingly, this simple null model can positively explain important features of empirical component-occurrence distributions obtained from large-scale data on bacterial genomes, LEGO sets, and book chapters. Specific architectural features and functional constraints can be detected from occurrence patterns as deviations from these null predictions, as we show for the illustrative case of the “core” genome in bacteria.

  8. Integrated Evaluation of Closed Loop Air Revitalization System Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, K.

    2010-01-01

    NASA s vision and mission statements include an emphasis on human exploration of space, which requires environmental control and life support technologies. This Contractor Report (CR) describes the development and evaluation of an Air Revitalization System, modeling and simulation of the components, and integrated hardware testing with the goal of better understanding the inherent capabilities and limitations of this closed loop system. Major components integrated and tested included a 4-Bed Modular Sieve, Mechanical Compressor Engineering Development Unit, Temperature Swing Adsorption Compressor, and a Sabatier Engineering and Development Unit. The requisite methodolgy and technical results are contained in this CR.

  9. The role of nesprins as multifunctional organizers in the nucleus and the cytoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noegel, Angelika A; Neumann, Sascha

    2011-12-01

    Nesprins (nuclear envelope spectrin repeat proteins), also known as SYNE (synaptic nuclear envelope protein), MYNE (myocyte nuclear envelope protein), ENAPTIN and NUANCE, are proteins that are primarily components of the nuclear envelope. The nuclear envelope is a continuous membrane system composed of two lipid bilayers: an inner and an outer nuclear membrane. Nesprins are components of both nuclear membranes and reach into the nucleoplasm and the cytoplasm, where they undergo different interactions and have the potential to influence transcriptional processes and cytoskeletal activities.

  10. Generalized Majority Logic Criterion to Analyze the Statistical Strength of S-Boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Iqtadar; Shah, Tariq; Gondal, Muhammad Asif; Mahmood, Hasan

    2012-05-01

    The majority logic criterion is applicable in the evaluation process of substitution boxes used in the advanced encryption standard (AES). The performance of modified or advanced substitution boxes is predicted by processing the results of statistical analysis by the majority logic criteria. In this paper, we use the majority logic criteria to analyze some popular and prevailing substitution boxes used in encryption processes. In particular, the majority logic criterion is applied to AES, affine power affine (APA), Gray, Lui J, residue prime, S8 AES, Skipjack, and Xyi substitution boxes. The majority logic criterion is further extended into a generalized majority logic criterion which has a broader spectrum of analyzing the effectiveness of substitution boxes in image encryption applications. The integral components of the statistical analyses used for the generalized majority logic criterion are derived from results of entropy analysis, contrast analysis, correlation analysis, homogeneity analysis, energy analysis, and mean of absolute deviation (MAD) analysis.

  11. DISTRIBUTION OF HEAVY METALS AMONG THE COMPONENTS OF FRESHWATER ECOSYSTEMS (REVIEW)

    OpenAIRE

    N. Kolesnyk

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To review scientific sources on the distribution of heavy metals among the components of freshwater ecosystems. Findings. The review of the works of many scientists showed that heavy metals are widespread in the biotic and abiotic components of freshwater ecosystems. The article highlights the distribution of heavy metals in water, bottom sediments, natural food base, fish organs and tissues. It has been shown that as a result of global pollution of the ecosystem, the majority of...

  12. Nucleus and nucleus-cytoskeleton connections in 3D cell migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Lingling, E-mail: liulingling2012@163.com; Luo, Qing, E-mail: qing.luo@cqu.edu.cn; Sun, Jinghui, E-mail: sunjhemail@163.com; Song, Guanbin, E-mail: song@cqu.edu.cn

    2016-10-15

    Cell migration plays an important role in many physiological and pathological settings, ranging from embryonic development to cancer metastasis. Currently, accumulating data suggest that cells migrating in three-dimensional (3D) environments show well-defined differences compared to their well-established two-dimensional (2D) counterparts. During 3D migration, the cell body and nucleus must deform to allow cellular passage through the available spaces, and the deformability of the relatively rigid nucleus may constitute a limiting step. Here, we highlight the key evidence regarding the role of the nuclear mechanics in 3D migration, including the molecular components that govern the stiffness of the nucleus and review how the nuclear dynamics are connected to and controlled by cytoskeleton-based migration machinery. Intriguingly, nuclear movement must be coordinated with the cytoskeletal dynamics at the leading and trailing edges, which in turn impact the cytoplasmic dynamics that affect the migration efficiency. Thus, we suggest that alterations in the nuclear structure may facilitate cellular reorganizations that are necessary for efficient migration. - Graphical abstract: Schematic representations of a cell migrating on a 2D substrate and a cell migrating in a 3D extracellular matrix environment. (A) Nucleus-cytoskeleton connections are essential to 3D migration. Mechanical signals are transduced by integrins at the cell surface and channeled to cytoskeletal proteins, which generates prestress. The nucleus-cytoskeleton connections can either act as a stable skeleton to anchor the nuclei or provide active force to move the nuclei. The LINC complex is responsible for the nucleo-cytoskeletal coupling. Nesprins connect the cytoskeletal proteins to the inner nuclear membrane proteins SUN1 and SUN2. The SUN proteins connect to the lamins that form the lamina, which attaches to the chromatin. This physical connectivity transmits the mechanical signals from receptors at

  13. Nucleus and nucleus-cytoskeleton connections in 3D cell migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Lingling; Luo, Qing; Sun, Jinghui; Song, Guanbin

    2016-01-01

    Cell migration plays an important role in many physiological and pathological settings, ranging from embryonic development to cancer metastasis. Currently, accumulating data suggest that cells migrating in three-dimensional (3D) environments show well-defined differences compared to their well-established two-dimensional (2D) counterparts. During 3D migration, the cell body and nucleus must deform to allow cellular passage through the available spaces, and the deformability of the relatively rigid nucleus may constitute a limiting step. Here, we highlight the key evidence regarding the role of the nuclear mechanics in 3D migration, including the molecular components that govern the stiffness of the nucleus and review how the nuclear dynamics are connected to and controlled by cytoskeleton-based migration machinery. Intriguingly, nuclear movement must be coordinated with the cytoskeletal dynamics at the leading and trailing edges, which in turn impact the cytoplasmic dynamics that affect the migration efficiency. Thus, we suggest that alterations in the nuclear structure may facilitate cellular reorganizations that are necessary for efficient migration. - Graphical abstract: Schematic representations of a cell migrating on a 2D substrate and a cell migrating in a 3D extracellular matrix environment. (A) Nucleus-cytoskeleton connections are essential to 3D migration. Mechanical signals are transduced by integrins at the cell surface and channeled to cytoskeletal proteins, which generates prestress. The nucleus-cytoskeleton connections can either act as a stable skeleton to anchor the nuclei or provide active force to move the nuclei. The LINC complex is responsible for the nucleo-cytoskeletal coupling. Nesprins connect the cytoskeletal proteins to the inner nuclear membrane proteins SUN1 and SUN2. The SUN proteins connect to the lamins that form the lamina, which attaches to the chromatin. This physical connectivity transmits the mechanical signals from receptors at

  14. Component-based development process and component lifecycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crnkovic, I.; Chaudron, M.R.V.; Larsson, S.

    2006-01-01

    The process of component- and component-based system development differs in many significant ways from the "classical" development process of software systems. The main difference is in the separation of the development process of components from the development process of systems. This fact has a

  15. Utilization of non-conventional systems for conversion of biomass to food components: Potential for utilization of algae in engineered foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karel, M.; Kamarei, A. R.; Nakhost, Z.

    1985-01-01

    The major nutritional components of the green algae (Scenedesmus obliquus) grown in a Constant Cell density Apparatus were determined. Suitable methodology to prepare proteins from which three major undesirable components of these cells (i.e., cell walls, nucleic acids, and pigments) were either removed or substantially reduced was developed. Results showed that processing of green algae to protein isolate enhances its potential nutritional and organoleptic acceptability as a diet component in a Controlled Ecological Life Support System.

  16. Major outage trends in light water reactors. Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, E.T.

    1978-04-01

    The report is a summary of the major outages which occurred in light water reactor plants during the period January 1971 through June 1977. Only those outages greater than 100 hours duration (exclusive of refueling outages) are included in the report. The trends in outages related to various reactor systems and components are presented as a function of plant age, and alternatively, calendar year. The principal contributors to major outages are ranked by their effect on the overall outage time for PWRs and BWRs. In addition, the outage history of each operating nuclear plant greater than 150 MWe is presented, along with a brief summary of those outages greater than two months duration

  17. Multi-component separation and analysis of bat echolocation calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiCecco, John; Gaudette, Jason E; Simmons, James A

    2013-01-01

    The vast majority of animal vocalizations contain multiple frequency modulated (FM) components with varying amounts of non-linear modulation and harmonic instability. This is especially true of biosonar sounds where precise time-frequency templates are essential for neural information processing of echoes. Understanding the dynamic waveform design by bats and other echolocating animals may help to improve the efficacy of man-made sonar through biomimetic design. Bats are known to adapt their call structure based on the echolocation task, proximity to nearby objects, and density of acoustic clutter. To interpret the significance of these changes, a method was developed for component separation and analysis of biosonar waveforms. Techniques for imaging in the time-frequency plane are typically limited due to the uncertainty principle and interference cross terms. This problem is addressed by extending the use of the fractional Fourier transform to isolate each non-linear component for separate analysis. Once separated, empirical mode decomposition can be used to further examine each component. The Hilbert transform may then successfully extract detailed time-frequency information from each isolated component. This multi-component analysis method is applied to the sonar signals of four species of bats recorded in-flight by radiotelemetry along with a comparison of other common time-frequency representations.

  18. GC-MS DETERMINATION OF CHEMICAL COMPONENTS IN THE BIOACTIVE SECRETION OF ANOPLODESMUS SAUSSURII (HUMBERT, 1865)

    OpenAIRE

    Rukhsana, K; Vijesh Varghese; Akhilesh, V. P.; Jisha Krishnan, E. K.; Priya Bhaskaran, K. P.; Bindu, P. U.; Sebastian, C. D.

    2015-01-01

    The secretory bioactive components of the hexane extract of Anoplodesmus saussurii was analyzed using GCMS. From the study, presence of ten components in the secretion was confirmed. N-[3-(4-Butoxyphenyl) -10- Oxo-10H-9-oxa-2,4-diaza- phenanthren-1-yl] propionamide and 8,9-Octadecenamide are the major components and was found in 22.646% and 20.023% in peak area. These components showed a variety of functional as well as physiological properties like antioxidants, steroidal antimineralocortico...

  19. The case for SAR as the major component of a hyperthermia treatment unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, R.S.

    1985-01-01

    A major problem facing clinical hyperthermia is the lack of a useful unit of treatment. Most attempts at a treatment unit have utilized some function of temperature and time. Having accepted the validity of such a hypothetical units, one is faced with the formidable problem of obtaining a three dimensional temperature profile so that thermal dose can be determined. A corollary is the desirability of obtaining uniform temperature in the treatment volume. Various studies suggest that a uniform SAR is a more desirable goal when radiotherapy is to be used in combination with hyperthermia. The synergy between radiation and hyperthermia is maximized in low pH regions of tumor which are presumably also hypoxic. These regions are poorly perfused, likely to heat readily, and are resistant to the cytotoxic effects of radiation alone. On the other hand, well perfused regions of tumor are likely sensitive to radiation, and benefit less from the combination treatment. Other studies have definitely shown that tissue temperatures in the range normally associated with desirable hyperthermia treatment result in severe vascular damage. This damage could be expected to unnecessarily compromise the effectiveness of radiotherapy. Models in the literature can be combined to verify these observations

  20. Implicit Tariffs on Imported Dairy Product Components in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Tellioglu, Isin; Bailey, Kenneth W.; Blandford, David

    2007-01-01

    The majority of the dairy products imported by the United States are intermediate products used in food processing. As such, they are demanded for their components such as milk fat and protein. The implications of the U.S. tariff structure for import demand must be viewed in terms of the tariff's effects upon the relative prices of imported milk components. In this article we examine the implications of the current tariff structure and proposed changes under the Doha Round of international tr...

  1. Major advances in testing of dairy products: milk component and dairy product attribute testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbano, D M; Lynch, J M

    2006-04-01

    Milk component analysis is relatively unusual in the field of quantitative analytical chemistry because an analytical test result determines the allocation of very large amounts of money between buyers and sellers of milk. Therefore, there is high incentive to develop and refine these methods to achieve a level of analytical performance rarely demanded of most methods or laboratory staff working in analytical chemistry. In the last 25 yr, well-defined statistical methods to characterize and validate analytical method performance combined with significant improvements in both the chemical and instrumental methods have allowed achievement of improved analytical performance for payment testing. A shift from marketing commodity dairy products to the development, manufacture, and marketing of value added dairy foods for specific market segments has created a need for instrumental and sensory approaches and quantitative data to support product development and marketing. Bringing together sensory data from quantitative descriptive analysis and analytical data from gas chromatography olfactometry for identification of odor-active compounds in complex natural dairy foods has enabled the sensory scientist and analytical chemist to work together to improve the consistency and quality of dairy food flavors.

  2. An automatic chip structure optical inspection system for electronic components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhichao; Xue, Bindang; Liang, Jiyuan; Wang, Ke; Chen, Junzhang; Liu, Yunhe

    2018-01-01

    An automatic chip structure inspection system based on machine vision is presented to ensure the reliability of electronic components. It consists of four major modules, including a metallographic microscope, a Gigabit Ethernet high-resolution camera, a control system and a high performance computer. An auto-focusing technique is presented to solve the problem that the chip surface is not on the same focusing surface under the high magnification of the microscope. A panoramic high-resolution image stitching algorithm is adopted to deal with the contradiction between resolution and field of view, caused by different sizes of electronic components. In addition, we establish a database to storage and callback appropriate parameters to ensure the consistency of chip images of electronic components with the same model. We use image change detection technology to realize the detection of chip images of electronic components. The system can achieve high-resolution imaging for chips of electronic components with various sizes, and clearly imaging for the surface of chip with different horizontal and standardized imaging for ones with the same model, and can recognize chip defects.

  3. Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma inhibits thyroid papillary cancer cell invasion via cytoskeletal modulation, altered MMP-2/-9/uPA activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Won Chang

    Full Text Available Plasma, the fourth state of matter, is defined as a partially or completely ionized gas that includes a mixture of electrons and ions. Advances in plasma physics have made it possible to use non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma (NTP in cancer research. However, previous studies have focused mainly on apoptotic cancer cell death mediated by NTP as a potential cancer therapy. In this study, we investigated the effect of NTP on invasion or metastasis, as well as the mechanism by which plasma induces anti-migration and anti-invasion properties in human thyroid papillary cancer cell lines (BHP10-3 and TPC1. Wound healing, pull-down, and Transwell assays demonstrated that NTP reduced cell migration and invasion. In addition, NTP induced morphological changes and cytoskeletal rearrangements, as detected by scanning electron microscopy and immunocytochemistry. We also examined matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2/-9 and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA activity using gelatin zymography, uPA assays and RT-PCR. FAK, Src, and paxillin expression was detected using Western blot analyses and immunocytochemistry. NTP decreased FAK, Src, and paxillin expression as well as MMP/uPA activity. In conclusion, NTP inhibited the invasion and metastasis of BHP10-3 and TPC1 cells by decreasing MMP-2/-9 and uPA activities and rearranging the cytoskeleton, which is regulated by the FAK/Src complex. These findings suggest novel actions for NTP and may aid in the development of new therapeutic strategies for locally invasive and metastatic cancers.

  4. Research program Integrity of Components (FKS). A substantial contribution to component safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kussmaul, K.; Roos, E.; Foehl, J.

    1998-01-01

    The main objectives pursued are: (a) verify the quality of reactor pressure vessels in existing LWR-type reactors, and (b) quantify the safety margin using both specified and non-specified materials and welds. On the basis of knowledge obtained through earlier programmes, the research project was to examine in particular deviations from the specified materials properties, for more exact quantification of the safety margin before RPV failure. There are three major factors influencing the component performance until failure, which are aggregate material fatigue, flaws, loading conditions, and the research work was to focus on the materials properties. An item of main interest was to assess the impact of long service life on the materials properties, assuming particularly unfavourable boundary conditions for materials properties and operational loads. (orig./CB) [de

  5. Integration Test of the High Voltage Hall Accelerator System Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamhawi, Hani; Haag, Thomas; Huang, Wensheng; Pinero, Luis; Peterson, Todd; Dankanich, John

    2013-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center is developing a 4 kilowatt-class Hall propulsion system for implementation in NASA science missions. NASA science mission performance analysis was completed using the latest high voltage Hall accelerator (HiVHAc) and Aerojet-Rocketdyne's state-of-the-art BPT-4000 Hall thruster performance curves. Mission analysis results indicated that the HiVHAc thruster out performs the BPT-4000 thruster for all but one of the missions studied. Tests of the HiVHAc system major components were performed. Performance evaluation of the HiVHAc thruster at NASA Glenn's vacuum facility 5 indicated that thruster performance was lower than performance levels attained during tests in vacuum facility 12 due to the lower background pressures attained during vacuum facility 5 tests when compared to vacuum facility 12. Voltage-Current characterization of the HiVHAc thruster in vacuum facility 5 showed that the HiVHAc thruster can operate stably for a wide range of anode flow rates for discharge voltages between 250 and 600 volts. A Colorado Power Electronics enhanced brassboard power processing unit was tested in vacuum for 1,500 hours and the unit demonstrated discharge module efficiency of 96.3% at 3.9 kilowatts and 650 volts. Stand-alone open and closed loop tests of a VACCO TRL 6 xenon flow control module were also performed. An integrated test of the HiVHAc thruster, brassboard power processing unit, and xenon flow control module was performed and confirmed that integrated operation of the HiVHAc system major components. Future plans include continuing the maturation of the HiVHAc system major components and the performance of a single-string integration test.

  6. Large aperture components for solid state laser fusion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, W.W.

    1978-01-01

    Solid state lasers for fusion experiments must reliably deliver maximum power to small (approximately .5 mm) targets from stand-off focal distances of 1 m or more. This requirement places stringent limits upon the optical quality, resistance to damage, and overall performance of the several major components--amplifiers, Faraday isolators, spatial filters--in each amplifier train. Component development centers about achieving (1) highest functional material figure of merit, (2) best optical quality, and (3) maximum resistance to optical damage. Specific examples of the performance of large aperture components will be presented within the context of the Argus and Shiva laser systems, which are presently operational at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Shiva comprises twenty amplifiers, each of 20 cm output clear aperture. Terawatt beams from these amplifiers are focused through two opposed, nested clusters of f/6 lenses onto such targets. Design requirements upon the larger aperture Nova laser components, up to 35 cm in clear aperture, will also be discussed; these pose a significant challenge to the optical industry

  7. Materials and Components Technology Division research summary, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    The Materials and Components Technology Division (MCT) provides a research and development capability for the design, fabrication, and testing of high-reliability materials, components, and instrumentation. Current divisional programs related to nuclear energy support the development of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR): life extension and accident analyses for light water reactors (LWRs); fuels development for research and test reactors; fusion reactor first-wall and blanket technology; and safe shipment of hazardous materials. MCT Conservation and Renewables programs include major efforts in high-temperature superconductivity, tribology, nondestructive evaluation (NDE), and thermal sciences. Fossil Energy Programs in MCT include materials development, NDE technology, and Instrumentation design. The division also has a complementary instrumentation effort in support of Arms Control Technology. Individual abstracts have been prepared for the database

  8. Analysis of Volatile Components of Adenosma indianum (Lour. Merr. by Steam Distillation and Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Zeng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of Adenosma indianum (Lour. Merr. plays an important role in its antibacterial and antiphlogistic activities. In this work, the volatile components were extracted by steam distillation (SD and headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. A total of 49 volatile components were identified by GC-MS, and the major volatile components were α-limonene (20.59–35.07%, fenchone (15.79–31.81%, α-caryophyllene (6.98–10.32%, β-caryophyllene (6.98–10.19%, and piperitenone oxide (1.96–11.63%. The comparison of the volatile components from A. indianum (Lour. Merr. grown in two regions of China was reported. Also, the comparison of the volatile components by SD and HS-SPME was discussed. The results showed that the major volatile components of A. indianum (Lour. Merr. from two regions of China were similar but varied with different extraction methods. These results were indicative of the suitability of HS-SPME method for simple, rapid, and solvent-free analysis of the volatile components of the medicinal plants.

  9. Cytotoxicity of Vitex agnus-castus fruit extract and its major component, casticin, correlates with differentiation status in leukemia cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Hidetomo; Yuan, Bo; Nishimura, Yoshio; Imai, Masahiko; Furutani, Ryota; Kamoi, Saki; Seno, Misako; Fukushima, Shin; Hazama, Shingo; Hirobe, Chieko; Ohyama, Kunio; Hu, Xiao-Mei; Takagi, Norio; Hirano, Toshihiko; Toyoda, Hiroo

    2013-12-01

    We have demonstrated that an extract from the ripe fruit of Vitex agnus-castus (Vitex) exhibits cytotoxic activities against various types of solid tumor cells, whereas its effects on leukemia cells has not been evaluated to date. In this study, the effects of Vitex and its major component, casticin, on leukemia cell lines, HL-60 and U-937, were investigated by focusing on proliferation, induction of apoptosis and differentiation. Identification and quantitation by NMR spectroscopy showed that casticin accounted for approximate 1% weight of Vitex. Dose-dependent cytotoxicity of Vitex and casticin was observed in both cell lines, and HL-60 cells were more sensitive to the cytotoxicity of Vitex/casticin compared to U-937 cells. Furthermore, compared to unstimulated HL-60 cells, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)- and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D₃ (VD₃)-differentiated HL-60 cells acquired resistance to Vitex/casticin based on the results from cell viability and apoptosis induction analysis. Since the HL-60 cell line is more immature than the U-937 cell line, these results suggested that the levels of cytotoxicity of Vitex/casticin were largely attributed to the degree of differentiation of leukemia cells; that is, cell lines with less differentiated phenotype were more susceptible than the differentiated ones. RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that PMA upregulated the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in HL-60 cells, and that anti-ICAM-1 monoclonal antibody not only abrogated PMA-induced aggregation and adhesion of the cells but also restored its sensitivity to Vitex. These results suggested that ICAM-1 plays a crucial role in the acquired resistance in PMA-differentiated HL-60 cells by contributing to cell adhesion. These findings provide fundamental insights into the clinical application of Vitex/casticin for hematopoietic malignancy.

  10. Component resolution reveals additional major allergens in patients with honeybee venom allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Julian; Blank, Simon; Müller, Sabine; Bantleon, Frank; Frick, Marcel; Huss-Marp, Johannes; Lidholm, Jonas; Spillner, Edzard; Jakob, Thilo

    2014-05-01

    Detection of IgE to recombinant Hymenoptera venom allergens has been suggested to improve the diagnostic precision in Hymenoptera venom allergy. However, the frequency of sensitization to the only available recombinant honeybee venom (HBV) allergen, rApi m 1, in patients with HBV allergy is limited, suggesting that additional HBV allergens might be of relevance. We performed an analysis of sensitization profiles of patients with HBV allergy to a panel of HBV allergens. Diagnosis of HBV allergy (n = 144) was based on history, skin test results, and allergen-specific IgE levels to HBV. IgE reactivity to 6 HBV allergens devoid of cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCD) was analyzed by ImmunoCAP. IgE reactivity to rApi m 1, rApi m 2, rApi m 3, nApi m 4, rApi m 5, and rApi m 10 was detected in 72.2%, 47.9%, 50.0%, 22.9%, 58.3%, and 61.8% of the patients with HBV allergy, respectively. Positive results to at least 1 HBV allergen were detected in 94.4%. IgE reactivity to Api m 3, Api m 10, or both was detected in 68.0% and represented the only HBV allergen-specific IgE in 5% of the patients. Limited inhibition of IgE binding by therapeutic HBV and limited induction of Api m 3- and Api m 10-specific IgG4 in patients obtaining immunotherapy supports recent reports on the underrepresentation of these allergens in therapeutic HBV preparations. Analysis of a panel of CCD-free HBV allergens improved diagnostic sensitivity compared with use of rApi m 1 alone, identified additional major allergens, and revealed sensitizations to allergens that have been reported to be absent or underrepresented in therapeutic HBV preparations. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Involvement of major components from Sporothrix schenckii cell wall in the caspase-1 activation, nitric oxide and cytokines production during experimental sporotrichosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Amanda Costa; Maia, Danielle Cardoso Geraldo; Ferreira, Lucas Souza; Monnazzi, Luis Gustavo Silva; Alegranci, Pâmela; Placeres, Marisa Campos Polesi; Batista-Duharte, Alexander; Carlos, Iracilda Zeppone

    2015-02-01

    Sporotrichosis is a chronic infection caused by the dimorphic fungus Sporothrix schenckii, involving all layers of skin and the subcutaneous tissue. The role of innate immune toll-like receptors 2 and 4 in the defense against this fungus has been reported, but so far, there were no studies on the effect of cell wall major components over the cytosolic oligo-merization domain (NOD)-like receptors, important regulators of inflammation and responsible for the maturation of IL-1β and IL-18, whose functions are dependents of the caspase-1 activation, that can participate of inflammasome. It was evaluated the percentage of activation of caspase-1, the production of IL-1β, IL-18, IL-17, IFN-γ and nitric oxide in a Balb/c model of S. schenckii infection. It was observed a decreased activity of caspase-1 during the fourth and sixth weeks of infection accompanied by reduced secretion of the cytokines IL-1β, IL-18 and IL-17 and high production of nitric oxide. IFN-γ levels were elevated during the entire time course of infection. This temporal reduction in caspase-1 activity coincides exactly with the reported period of fungal burden associated with a transitory immunosuppression induced by this fungus and detected in similar infection models. These results indicate the importance of interaction between caspase-1, cytokines IL-1β and IL-18 in the host defense against S. schenckii infection, suggesting a participation the inflammasome in this response.

  12. The Use of Principal Components in Long-Range Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chern, Jonq-Gong

    Large-scale modes of the global sea surface temperatures and the Northern Hemisphere tropospheric circulation are described by principal component analysis. The first and the second SST components well describe the El Nino episodes, and the El Nino index (ENI), suggested in this study, is consistent with the winter Southern Oscillation index (SOI), where this ENI is a composite component of the weighted first and second SST components. The large-scale interactive modes of the coupling ocean-atmosphere system are identified by cross-correlation analysis The result shows that the first SST component is strongly correlated with the first component of geopotential height in lead time of 6 months. In the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) evolution, the El Nino mode strongly influences the winter tropospheric circulation in the mid -latitudes for up to three leading seasons. The regional long-range variation of climate is investigated with these major components of the SST and the tropospheric circulation. In the mid-latitude, the climate of the central United States shows a weak linkage with these large-scale circulations, and the climate of the western United States appears to be consistently associated with the ENSO modes. These El Nino modes also show a dominant influence on Eastern Asia as evidenced in Taiwan Mei-Yu patterns. Possible regional long-range forecasting schemes, utilizing the complementary characteristics of the winter El Nino mode and SST anomalies, are examined with the Taiwan Mei-Yu.

  13. Rapidly evolving zona pellucida domain proteins are a major component of the vitelline envelope of abalone eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aagaard, Jan E.; Yi, Xianhua; MacCoss, Michael J.; Swanson, Willie J.

    2006-01-01

    Proteins harboring a zona pellucida (ZP) domain are prominent components of vertebrate egg coats. Although less well characterized, the egg coat of the non-vertebrate marine gastropod abalone (Haliotis spp.) is also known to contain a ZP domain protein, raising the possibility of a common molecular basis of metazoan egg coat structures. Egg coat proteins from vertebrate as well as non-vertebrate taxa have been shown to evolve under positive selection. Studied most extensively in the abalone system, coevolution between adaptively diverging egg coat and sperm proteins may contribute to the rapid development of reproductive isolation. Thus, identifying the pattern of evolution among egg coat proteins is important in understanding the role these genes may play in the speciation process. The purpose of the present study is to characterize the constituent proteins of the egg coat [vitelline envelope (VE)] of abalone eggs and to provide preliminary evidence regarding how selection has acted on VE proteins during abalone evolution. A proteomic approach is used to match tandem mass spectra of peptides from purified VE proteins with abalone ovary EST sequences, identifying 9 of 10 ZP domain proteins as components of the VE. Maximum likelihood models of codon evolution suggest positive selection has acted among a subset of amino acids for 6 of these genes. This work provides further evidence of the prominence of ZP proteins as constituents of the egg coat, as well as the prominent role of positive selection in diversification of these reproductive proteins. PMID:17085584

  14. LEDA RF distribution system design and component test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roybal, W.T.; Rees, D.E.; Borchert, H.L.; McCarthy, M.; Toole, L.

    1998-01-01

    The 350 MHz and 700 MHz RF distribution systems for the Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) have been designed and are currently being installed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Since 350 MHz is a familiar frequency used at other accelerator facilities, most of the major high-power components were available. The 700 MHz, 1.0 MW, CW RF delivery system designed for LEDA is a new development. Therefore, high-power circulators, waterloads, phase shifters, switches, and harmonic filters had to be designed and built for this applications. The final Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) RF distribution systems design will be based on much of the same technology as the LEDA systems and will have many of the RF components tested for LEDA incorporated into the design. Low power and high-power tests performed on various components of these LEDA systems and their results are presented here

  15. Fish as major carbonate mud producers and missing components of the tropical carbonate factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Chris T.; Salter, Michael A.; Harborne, Alastair R.; Crowley, Stephen F.; Jelks, Howard L.; Wilson, Rod W.

    2011-01-01

    Carbonate mud is a major constituent of recent marine carbonate sediments and of ancient limestones, which contain unique records of changes in ocean chemistry and climate shifts in the geological past. However, the origin of carbonate mud is controversial and often problematic to resolve. Here we show that tropical marine fish produce and excrete various forms of precipitated (nonskeletal) calcium carbonate from their guts ("low" and "high" Mg-calcite and aragonite), but that very fine-grained (mostly 4 mole % MgCO3) are their dominant excretory product. Crystallites from fish are morphologically diverse and species-specific, but all are unique relative to previously known biogenic and abiotic sources of carbonate within open marine systems. Using site specific fish biomass and carbonate excretion rate data we estimate that fish produce ~6.1 x 106 kg CaCO3/year across the Bahamian archipelago, all as mud-grade (the marine carbonate factories function both today and in the past.

  16. Gastroprotective activity of essential oil of the Syzygium aromaticum and its major component eugenol in different animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santin, José Roberto; Lemos, Marivane; Klein-Júnior, Luiz Carlos; Machado, Isabel Daufenback; Costa, Philipe; de Oliveira, Ana Paula; Tilia, Crislaine; de Souza, Juliana Paula; de Sousa, João Paulo Barreto; Bastos, Jairo Kenupp; de Andrade, Sérgio Faloni

    2011-02-01

    Syzygium aromaticum, a medicinal plant commonly known as clove, is used to treat toothache, respiratory disorders, inflammation, and gastrointestinal disorders. From the flower buds of S. aromaticum, it is possible to obtain an essential oil comprised of a mixture of aliphatic and cyclic volatile terpenes and phenylpropanoids, being eugenol as the main component. The aims of this study were: (1) to extract the essential oil of the flower buds of S. aromaticum, (2) to identify and quantify the main component of the essential oil, and (3) to evaluate its antiulcer activity using different animal models. Assays were performed using the following protocols in rats: indomethacin-induced and ethanol/HCl-induced ulcer model. Both essential oils from S. aromaticum and eugenol displayed antiulcer activities in the rat models of indomethacin- and ethanol-induced ulcer. Studies focusing on the possible mechanisms of gastroprotection were also undertaken using the following experiments: evaluation of gastric secretion by the pylorus-ligated model, determination of mucus in gastric content, participation of nitric oxide (NO) and endogenous sulfhydryl in gastric protection. The results show that there was no significant effect on the volume of gastric juice and total acidity. However, the quantification of free gastric mucus showed that the clove oil and eugenol were capable of significantly enhancing mucus production. With regard to the NO and endogenous sulfhydryls, the results demonstrated that the gastroprotection induced by clove oil and eugenol are not related to the activities of the nitric oxide and endogenous sulfhydryls. No sign of toxicity was observed in the acute toxicity study. In conclusion, the results of this study show that essential oil of S. aromaticum, as well as its main component (eugenol), possesses antiulcer activity. The data suggest that the effectiveness of the essential oil and eugenol is based on its ability to stimulate the synthesis of mucus, an

  17. Assessment and management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety: Concrete containment buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    The report presents the results of the Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on the Management of Ageing of Concrete Containment Buildings (CCBs) addressing current practices and techniques for assessing fitness-for-service and the inspection, monitoring and mitigation of ageing degradation of selected components of CANDU reactor, BWR reactor, PWR reactor and WWER plants. These practices are intended to help all involved directly and indirectly in ensuring the safe operation of NPPs and also to provide a common technical basis for dialogue between plant operators and regulators when dealing with age-related licensing issues

  18. Does vitamin D affects components of the metabolic syndrome?

    OpenAIRE

    Sevil Karahan Yılmaz; Aylin Ayaz

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a major public health problem which has become increasingly common worlwide with cardiometabolic complications and have high morbidity and mortality. In addition to some genetical features, environmental factors such sedentary lifestyle, improper eating habits constitutes a risk factor for metabolic syndrome. Important components of the metabolic syndrome are dyslipidemia (low HDL levels, high triglycerides level), hyperglycemia, elevated blood...

  19. Microservices as an Evolutionary Architecture of Component-Based Development: A Think-aloud Study

    OpenAIRE

    Parizi, Reza M.

    2018-01-01

    Microservices become a fast growing and popular architectural style based on service-oriented development. One of the major advantages using component-based approaches is to support reuse. In this paper, we present a study of microservices and how these systems are related to the traditional abstract models of component-based systems. This research focuses on the core properties of microservices including their scalability, availability and resilience, consistency, coupling and cohesion, and ...

  20. Changes in the content of edible and non-edible components and distribution of tissue components in cockerels and capons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Zawacka

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effects of castration and age on the content of edible and non-edible components, and the distribution of tissue components in the carcasses of cockerels and capons. The study was conducted on 200 birds (Green-legged Partridge, divided into two sex categories (with 5 replications per group and 20 birds per replication, raised to 28 wk of age. At 8 wk of age, 100 birds were surgically castrated and afterwards at 12 wk of age and at four-wk intervals, 10 intact cockerels and 10 capons were selected randomly and slaughtered. Cockerels, compared with capons, were characterized by a higher proportion of edible components at 24 and 28 wk of age, and a more desirable carcass tissue composition due to a higher content of lean meat in total body weight (BW. Capons had higher abdominal fat content than cockerels, which resulted in a higher percentage of non-edible components in their BW at 24 and 28 wk of age. Differences in the distribution of lean meat in the carcass were noted from 20 wk of age in both castrated and intact birds. The content of breast muscles increased in capons, and the content of leg muscles (thigh and drumstick increased in cockerels. The results of this study indicate that in view of the optimal lean meat content of the carcass and the optimal distribution of major tissue components, Green-legged Partridge capons should be fattened for a maximum period of 24 wk.

  1. Changes in the content of edible and non-edible components and distribution of tissue components in cockerels and capons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zawacka, M.; Gesek, M.; Michalik, D.; Murawska, D.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of castration and age on the content of edible and non-edible components, and the distribution of tissue components in the carcasses of cockerels and capons. The study was conducted on 200 birds (Green-legged Partridge), divided into two sex categories (with 5 replications per group and 20 birds per replication), raised to 28 wk of age. At 8 wk of age, 100 birds were surgically castrated and afterwards at 12 wk of age and at four-wk intervals, 10 intact cockerels and 10 capons were selected randomly and slaughtered. Cockerels, compared with capons, were characterized by a higher proportion of edible components at 24 and 28 wk of age, and a more desirable carcass tissue composition due to a higher content of lean meat in total body weight (BW). Capons had higher abdominal fat content than cockerels, which resulted in a higher percentage of non-edible components in their BW at 24 and 28 wk of age. Differences in the distribution of lean meat in the carcass were noted from 20 wk of age in both castrated and intact birds. The content of breast muscles increased in capons, and the content of leg muscles (thigh and drumstick) increased in cockerels. The results of this study indicate that in view of the optimal lean meat content of the carcass and the optimal distribution of major tissue components, Green-legged Partridge capons should be fattened for a maximum period of 24 wk.

  2. The major basement membrane components localize to the chondrocyte pericellular matrix--a cartilage basement membrane equivalent?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Alexander J.; Nyström, Alexander; Hultenby, Kjell

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrate that articular cartilage chondrocytes are surrounded by the defining basement membrane proteins laminin, collagen type IV, nidogen and perlecan, and suggest that these form the functional equivalent of a basement membrane. We found by real-time PCR that mouse...... chondrocytes express these four cardinal components of basement membranes and demonstrated by immunohistochemistry that the proteins are present in bovine and mouse cartilage tissues and are deposited in a thin pericellular structure. Immunoelectron microscopy confirmed high laminin concentration...... becomes less distinct, especially in areas of obvious mechanical attrition. Interestingly, individual laminin subunits were located in different zones of the cartilage, with laminin alpha1 showing preferential localization around a select population of superficial layer chondrocytes. We propose...

  3. Component Fragility Research Program: Phase 1 component prioritization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holman, G.S.; Chou, C.K.

    1987-06-01

    Current probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methods for nuclear power plants utilize seismic ''fragilities'' - probabilities of failure conditioned on the severity of seismic input motion - that are based largely on limited test data and on engineering judgment. Under the NRC Component Fragility Research Program (CFRP), the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has developed and demonstrated procedures for using test data to derive probabilistic fragility descriptions for mechanical and electrical components. As part of its CFRP activities, LLNL systematically identified and categorized components influencing plant safety in order to identify ''candidate'' components for future NRC testing. Plant systems relevant to safety were first identified; within each system components were then ranked according to their importance to overall system function and their anticipated seismic capacity. Highest priority for future testing was assigned to those ''very important'' components having ''low'' seismic capacity. This report describes the LLNL prioritization effort, which also included application of ''high-level'' qualification data as an alternate means of developing probabilistic fragility descriptions for PRA applications

  4. The Trails of Superluminal Jet Components in 3C 111

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadler, M.; Ros, E.; Perucho, M.; Kovalev, Y. Y.; Homan, D. C.; Agudo, I.; Kellermann, K. I.; Aller, M. F.; Aller, H. D.; Lister, M. L.; hide

    2007-01-01

    The parsec-scale radio jet of the broad-line radio galaxy 3C 111 has been monitored since 1995 as part of the 2cm Survey and MOJAVE monitoring observations conducted with the VLBA. Here, we present results from 18 epochs of VLBA observations of 3C 111 and from 18 years of radio flux density monitoring observations conducted at the University of Michigan. A major radio flux-density outburst of 3C 111 occurred in 1996 and was followed by a particularly bright plasma ejection associated with a superluminal jet component. This major event allows us to study a variety of processes associated with outbursts of radio-loud AGN in much greater detail than possible in other cases: the primary perturbation gives rise to the formation of a forward and a backward-shock, which both evolve in characteristically different ways and allow us to draw conclusions about the workflow of jet-production events; the expansion, acceleration and recollimation of the ejected jet plasma in an environment with steep pressure and density gradients are revealed; trailing components are formed in the wake of the primary perturbation as a result of Kelvin- Helmholtz instabilities from the interaction of the jet with the external medium. The jet-medium interaction is further scrutinized by the linear-polarization signature of jet components traveling along the jet and passing a region of steep pressure/density gradients.

  5. Quality assurance aspects of the major procurements for the Large Coil Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.J.; Thompson, P.B.; Ryan, T.L.; Queen, C.C.; Halstead, E.L.; Murphy, J.L.; Wood, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    The Large Coil Test Facility (LCTF) project is comprised of the test stand, supporting cryogenic systems, instrumentation, data acquisition, and utilities necessary for testing the large superconducting coils of the Large Coil Program (LCP). A significant portion of the facility hardware has been obtained through procurement actions with industrial suppliers. This paper addresses the project's experience in formulation and execution of quality assurance (QA) actions relative to several of the major items procured. Project quality assurance planning and specific features related to procurement activities for several of the more specialized test facility components are described. These component procurements include: (1) the coil test stand's major structural item (the bucking post) purchased from foreign industry; (2) fabrication and testing of high-current power supplies; (3) industrial fabrication of specialized instrumentation (voltage-tap signal conditioning modules); and (4) fabrication, installation, and testing of the liquid helium piping system

  6. Linking cortical microtubule attachment and exocytosis [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivar Noordstra

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Exocytosis is a fundamental cellular process whereby secreted molecules are packaged into vesicles that move along cytoskeletal filaments and fuse with the plasma membrane. To function optimally, cells are strongly dependent on precisely controlled delivery of exocytotic cargo. In mammalian cells, microtubules serve as major tracks for vesicle transport by motor proteins, and thus microtubule organization is important for targeted delivery of secretory carriers. Over the years, multiple microtubule-associated and cortical proteins have been discovered that facilitate the interaction between the microtubule plus ends and the cell cortex. In this review, we focus on mammalian protein complexes that have been shown to participate in both cortical microtubule capture and exocytosis, thereby regulating the spatial organization of secretion. These complexes include microtubule plus-end tracking proteins, scaffolding factors, actin-binding proteins, and components of vesicle docking machinery, which together allow efficient coordination of cargo transport and release.

  7. Generalized Anxiety and Major Depressive syndrome ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: Environmental exposure to manganese (Mn) may cause generalized anxiety (GA) and major depression (MD) in residents living in Mn-exposed areas. Marietta and East Liverpool are two Ohio towns identified as having elevated levels of Mn. The objective was to determine if levels of Mn exposure were associated with levels of GA and MD.Participants and methods: 186 participants (Mean age: 55.0 ± 10.80) were examined. Levels of air-Mn were assessed over a period of ten years using U.S. EPA’s AERMOD dispersion model. Average air-Mn exposure was 0.53 μg/m3 in the two towns. The GA syndrome was comprised of anxiety, obsessive-compulsive, and phobic scales from the Symptom Checklist (SCL-90-R). The MD syndrome was comprised of depression, anxiety, and psychoticism scales also from the SCL-90-R. Linear regression models were used to determine the relationship between Mn and GA, MD and the specific components of each.Results: Elevated air-Mn was associated with GA (β= 0.240, p=0.002), and MD (β= 0.202, p=0.011). Air-Mn was associated with specific components of GA anxiety (β= 0.255, p=0.001), phobic anxiety (β= 0.159, p=0.046), and obsessive-compulsive (β= 0.197, p=0.013). Similarly, components of MD syndrome suggested an association as well: depression (β= 0.180, p=0.023), anxiety (β= 0.255, p=0.001), and psychoticism (β= 0.188, p=0.018). Conclusions: The results suggest that residents with elevated exposure to environmental Mn have elevated levels of

  8. Profiles of blood and blood component transfusion recipients in Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafirakureva, Nyashadzaishe; Khoza, Star; Hassall, Oliver; Faragher, Brian E.; Kajja, Isaac; Mvere, David A.; Emmanuel, Jean C.; Postma, Maarten J.; van Hulst, Marinus

    2015-01-01

    Background There are limited published data on the characteristics of blood transfusion recipients in sub-Saharan Africa. This study describes the demographic characteristics of blood transfusion recipients and patterns of blood and blood component use in Zimbabwe. Materials and methods Data on the characteristics of the blood transfusion recipients (age, sex, blood group), blood components received (type, quantity), discharge diagnoses and outcomes following transfusion (discharge status, duration of stay in hospital), were retrospectively collected from four major hospitals for the period from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2012. Diagnoses were grouped into broad categories according to the disease headings of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). Surgical procedures were grouped into broad categories according to organ system using ICD-9. Results Most of the 1,793 transfusion recipients studied were female (63.2%) and in the reproductive age group, i.e. 15–49 years (65.3%). The median age of the recipients was 33 years (range, 0–93). The majority of these recipients (n=1,642; 91.6%) received a red blood cell transfusion. The majority of the patients were diagnosed with conditions related to pregnancy and childbirth (22.3%), and diseases of blood and blood-forming organs (17.7%). The median time spent in hospital was 8 days (range, 0–214) and in-hospital mortality was 15.4%. Discussion Our sample of blood transfusion recipients were fairly young and most of them received red blood cell transfusions. The majority of patients in the reproductive age group received blood transfusions for pregnancy and childbirth-related diagnoses. PMID:26192782

  9. Ageing and obsolescence of electronic components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnero, E.; Daguzan, Ph.; Guillas, J.; Schweitz, G.

    1998-01-01

    Nowadays, every electronic equipment has to cope with two major problems. On the one hand, faster and faster obsolescence of electronic devices is a new trend which happens to prevent users from repairing their boards when parts are no more available. On the other hand, ageing of electronic components can lead to a massive amount of simultaneous failures on huge systems. This phenomenon is unfortunately emphasized when all systems date back to the same period of time. This paper aims at showing the mechanisms involved in these processes. It also describes the solutions found at EDF to face this situation. (authors)

  10. COMPONENTS OF THE UNEMPLOYMENT ANALYSIS IN CONTEMPORARY ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Enea-SMARANDACHE

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The unemployment is a permanent phenomenon in majority countries of the world, either with advanced economies, either in course of developed economies, and the implications and the consequences are more complexes, so that, practically, the fight with unemployment becomes a fundamental objective for the economy politics. In context, the authors proposed to set apart essentially components for unemployment analyse with the scope of identification the measures and the instruments of counteracted.

  11. Magnetic measurements on human erythrocytes: Normal, beta thalassemia major, and sickle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhnini, Lama

    2003-05-01

    In this article magnetic measurements were made on human erythrocytes at different hemoglobin states (normal and reduced hemoglobin). Different blood samples: normal, beta thalassemia major, and sickle were studied. Beta thalassemia major and sickle samples were taken from patients receiving lifelong blood transfusion treatment. All samples examined exhibited diamagnetic behavior. Beta thalassemia major and sickle samples showed higher diamagnetic susceptibilities than that for the normal, which was attributed to the increase of membrane to hemoglobin volume ratio of the abnormal cells. Magnetic measurements showed that the erythrocytes in the reduced state showed less diamagnetic response in comparison with erythrocytes in the normal state. Analysis of the paramagnetic component of magnetization curves gave an effective magnetic moment of μeff=7.6 μB per reduced hemoglobin molecule. The same procedure was applied to sickle and beta thalassemia major samples and values for μeff were found to be comparable to that of the normal erythrocytes.

  12. COMPARING INDEPENDENT COMPONENT ANALYSIS WITH PRINCIPLE COMPONENT ANALYSIS IN DETECTING ALTERATIONS OF PORPHYRY COPPER DEPOSIT (CASE STUDY: ARDESTAN AREA, CENTRAL IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mahmoudishadi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The image processing techniques in transform domain are employed as analysis tools for enhancing the detection of mineral deposits. The process of decomposing the image into important components increases the probability of mineral extraction. In this study, the performance of Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Independent Component Analysis (ICA has been evaluated for the visible and near-infrared (VNIR and Shortwave infrared (SWIR subsystems of ASTER data. Ardestan is located in part of Central Iranian Volcanic Belt that hosts many well-known porphyry copper deposits. This research investigated the propylitic and argillic alteration zones and outer mineralogy zone in part of Ardestan region. The two mentioned approaches were applied to discriminate alteration zones from igneous bedrock using the major absorption of indicator minerals from alteration and mineralogy zones in spectral rang of ASTER bands. Specialized PC components (PC2, PC3 and PC6 were used to identify pyrite and argillic and propylitic zones that distinguish from igneous bedrock in RGB color composite image. Due to the eigenvalues, the components 2, 3 and 6 account for 4.26% ,0.9% and 0.09% of the total variance of the data for Ardestan scene, respectively. For the purpose of discriminating the alteration and mineralogy zones of porphyry copper deposit from bedrocks, those mentioned percentages of data in ICA independent components of IC2, IC3 and IC6 are more accurately separated than noisy bands of PCA. The results of ICA method conform to location of lithological units of Ardestan region, as well.

  13. Comparing Independent Component Analysis with Principle Component Analysis in Detecting Alterations of Porphyry Copper Deposit (case Study: Ardestan Area, Central Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudishadi, S.; Malian, A.; Hosseinali, F.

    2017-09-01

    The image processing techniques in transform domain are employed as analysis tools for enhancing the detection of mineral deposits. The process of decomposing the image into important components increases the probability of mineral extraction. In this study, the performance of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Independent Component Analysis (ICA) has been evaluated for the visible and near-infrared (VNIR) and Shortwave infrared (SWIR) subsystems of ASTER data. Ardestan is located in part of Central Iranian Volcanic Belt that hosts many well-known porphyry copper deposits. This research investigated the propylitic and argillic alteration zones and outer mineralogy zone in part of Ardestan region. The two mentioned approaches were applied to discriminate alteration zones from igneous bedrock using the major absorption of indicator minerals from alteration and mineralogy zones in spectral rang of ASTER bands. Specialized PC components (PC2, PC3 and PC6) were used to identify pyrite and argillic and propylitic zones that distinguish from igneous bedrock in RGB color composite image. Due to the eigenvalues, the components 2, 3 and 6 account for 4.26% ,0.9% and 0.09% of the total variance of the data for Ardestan scene, respectively. For the purpose of discriminating the alteration and mineralogy zones of porphyry copper deposit from bedrocks, those mentioned percentages of data in ICA independent components of IC2, IC3 and IC6 are more accurately separated than noisy bands of PCA. The results of ICA method conform to location of lithological units of Ardestan region, as well.

  14. Measuring the Spread Components of Oil and Gas Companies from CDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Ribeiro de Almeida

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we use the information from the credit default swap market to measure the main components of the oil and gas companies spread. Using nearly 20 companies of this industry with different ratings and nearly 80 bonds, the result was that the majority of the oil and gas spread is due to the default risk. We also find that the spread component related to the non-default is strongly associated with some liquidity measures of bond markets, what suggest that liquidity has a very important role in the valuation of fixed income assets. On the other side, we do not find evidence that the non-default component of the spread is related to tax matters.

  15. Operational Maneuver from the Sea and Amphibious Command Relationships: Is It time for a Joint Force Amphibious Component Commander?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bennett, Michael

    2004-01-01

    .... In a joint community that is becoming increasingly dependant on the use of functional component commanders in the execution of major operations, the need for a Joint Force Amphibious Component Commander (JFAMCC...

  16. The magnet components database system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baggett, M.J.; Leedy, R.; Saltmarsh, C.; Tompkins, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    The philosophy, structure, and usage of MagCom, the SSC magnet components database, are described. The database has been implemented in Sybase (a powerful relational database management system) on a UNIX-based workstation at the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL); magnet project collaborators can access the database via network connections. The database was designed to contain the specifications and measured values of important properties for major materials, plus configuration information (specifying which individual items were used in each cable, coil, and magnet) and the test results on completed magnets. The data will facilitate the tracking and control of the production process as well as the correlation of magnet performance with the properties of its constituents. 3 refs., 9 figs

  17. The magnet components database system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baggett, M.J.; Leedy, R.; Saltmarsh, C.; Tompkins, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    The philosophy, structure, and usage MagCom, the SSC magnet components database, are described. The database has been implemented in Sybase (a powerful relational database management system) on a UNIX-based workstation at the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL); magnet project collaborators can access the database via network connections. The database was designed to contain the specifications and measured values of important properties for major materials, plus configuration information (specifying which individual items were used in each cable, coil, and magnet) and the test results on completed magnets. These data will facilitate the tracking and control of the production process as well as the correlation of magnet performance with the properties of its constituents. 3 refs., 10 figs

  18. Regulation of the Postsynaptic Compartment of Excitatory Synapses by the Actin Cytoskeleton in Health and Its Disruption in Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly Stefen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Disruption of synaptic function at excitatory synapses is one of the earliest pathological changes seen in wide range of neurological diseases. The proper control of the segregation of neurotransmitter receptors at these synapses is directly correlated with the intact regulation of the postsynaptic cytoskeleton. In this review, we are discussing key factors that regulate the structure and dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton, the major cytoskeletal building block that supports the postsynaptic compartment. Special attention is given to the complex interplay of actin-associated proteins that are found in the synaptic specialization. We then discuss our current understanding of how disruption of these cytoskeletal elements may contribute to the pathological events observed in the nervous system under disease conditions with a particular focus on Alzheimer’s disease pathology.

  19. Determination of Five Major 8-Prenylflavones in Leaves of Epimedium by Solid-Phase Extraction Coupled with Capillary Electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Juan-ping; Xiang, Ji-ming; Zhu, Zhong-liang

    2016-01-01

    A simple, accurate and reproducible method which is based on the capillary electrophoresis, coupled with solid-phase extraction, has been developed for simultaneous determination of multiple 8-prenylflavones from Chinese Herba Epimedii. In this study, the author has mainly illustrated the experimental process and research results of five major components including epimedin C, icariin, diphylloside A, epimedoside A and icarisoside A that have been extracted and identified from Herba Epimedii for the first time. Experimental conditions have been optimized to achieve the best separation efficiency for the following factors: the buffer pH, buffer concentration and applied voltage. The experiment can be conducted through two separable stages: the first stage is to obtain the crude extracts through the solid-phase extraction; and the second stage is to further separate five major components by using the capillary electrophoresis. The separation of the five components and the analysis of the experiment are relatively fast and can be completed within 20 min. The concentration ranges of the construction of standard curves of five major 8-prenylflavones are 32.0–395.0, 23.4–292.0, 42.1–526.0, 18.8–233.5 and 29.7–371.0 µg mL−1 respectively, which have showed acceptable linearity with a correlation coefficient, r ≥ 0.999. The coefficient varies within 2.0% for both intra- and inter-days tests. The recoveries of five components range from 92.3 to 104.1%. The relative standard deviations of recoveries of five components range from 1.2 and 2.8%. This new method will facilitate the extraction and expedite the determination of medical components from Herba Epimedii. PMID:26865656

  20. Safety prediction for basic components of safety-critical software based on static testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, H.S.; Seong, P.H.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop a safety prediction method, with which we can predict the risk of software components based on static testing results at the early development stage. The predictive model combines the major factor with the quality factor for the components, which are calculated based on the measures proposed in this work. The application to a safety-critical software system demonstrates the feasibility of the safety prediction method. (authors)

  1. Reliability considerations of electronics components for the deep underwater muon and neutrino detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leskovar, B.

    1980-02-01

    The reliability of some electronics components for the Deep Underwater Muon and Neutrino Detection (DUMAND) System is discussed. An introductory overview of engineering concepts and technique for reliability assessment is given. Component reliability is discussed in the contest of major factors causing failures, particularly with respect to physical and chemical causes, process technology and testing, and screening procedures. Failure rates are presented for discrete devices and for integrated circuits as well as for basic electronics components. Furthermore, the military reliability specifications and standards for semiconductor devices are reviewed

  2. Do Biology Majors Really Differ from Non–STEM Majors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotner, Sehoya; Thompson, Seth; Wright, Robin

    2017-01-01

    Recent calls to action urge sweeping reform in science education, advocating for improved learning for all students—including those majoring in fields beyond the sciences. However, little work has been done to characterize the differences—if any exist—between students planning a career in science and those studying other disciplines. We describe an attempt to clarify, in broad terms, how non–STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) majors differ from life sciences majors, and how they are similar. Using survey responses and institutional data, we find that non–STEM majors are not unilaterally science averse; non–STEM majors are more likely than biology majors to hold misconceptions about the nature of science, yet they are not completely ignorant of how science works; non–STEM majors are less likely than biology majors to see science as personally relevant; and non–STEM majors populations are likely to be more diverse—with respect to incoming knowledge, perceptions, backgrounds, and skills—than a biology majors population. We encourage science educators to consider these characteristics when designing curricula for future scientists or simply for a well-informed citizenry. PMID:28798210

  3. Other components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This chapter includes descriptions of electronic and mechanical components which do not merit a chapter to themselves. Other hardware requires mention because of particularly high tolerance or intolerance of exposure to radiation. A more systematic analysis of radiation responses of structures which are definable by material was given in section 3.8. The components discussed here are field effect transistors, transducers, temperature sensors, magnetic components, superconductors, mechanical sensors, and miscellaneous electronic components

  4. Mechanical design assessments of structural components and auxiliaries of the Joint European Torus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonnerup, L.

    1986-01-01

    The general design of the Joint European Torus (JET) is briefly described. The loads on its major structural components, at normal operation, and in cases of plasma instability and/or disruption, are discussed. The way these components have been assessed and optimised in relation to their loads is presented. A short account of mechanical design problems of auxiliary equipment is given. Finally, the state of operation of JET and its implications for the mechanical design is summarized. The mechanically most important components of the JET device are the support structure of the toroidal magnet, the vacuum vessel, the coils of the magnets and the pedestals supporting the weight of the torus. These components all participate in resisting and transmitting the primary forces during operation. (orig.)

  5. The cytoskeleton and gravitropism in higher plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blancaflor, Elison B.

    2002-01-01

    The cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the gravitropic response of plants have continued to elude plant biologists despite more than a century of research. Lately there has been increased attention on the role of the cytoskeleton in plant gravitropism, but several controversies and major gaps in our understanding of cytoskeletal involvement in gravitropism remain. A major question in the study of plant gravitropism is how the cytoskeleton mediates early sensing and signal transduction events in plants. Much has been made of the actin cytoskeleton as the cellular structure that sedimenting amyloplasts impinge upon to trigger the downstream signaling events leading to the bending response. There is also strong molecular and biochemical evidence that the transport of auxin, an important player in gravitropism, is regulated by actin. Organizational changes in microtubules during the growth response phase of gravitropism have also been well documented, but the significance of such reorientations in controlling differential cellular growth is unclear. Studies employing pharmacological approaches to dissect cytoskeletal involvement in gravitropism have led to conflicting results and therefore need to be interpreted with caution. Despite the current controversies, the revolutionary advances in molecular, biochemical, and cell biological techniques have opened up several possibilities for further research into this difficult area. The myriad proteins associated with the plant cytoskeleton that are being rapidly characterized provide a rich assortment of candidate regulators that could be targets of the gravity signal transduction chain. Cytoskeletal and ion imaging in real time combined with mutant analysis promises to provide a fresh start into this controversial area of research.

  6. Proteomic characterization of the subpellicular cytoskeleton of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez de León, Carmen T; Díaz Martín, Rubén Darío; Mendoza Hernández, Guillermo; González Pozos, Sirenia; Ambrosio, Javier R; Mondragón Flores, Ricardo

    2014-12-05

    Toxoplasma, the causative agent of toxoplasmosis in animals and humans, has a subpellicular cytoskeleton that is involved in motility, cell shape and invasion. Knowledge of components of the cytoskeleton is necessary to understand the invasion mechanisms as well as for the identification of possible therapeutic targets. To date, most cytoskeletal components of Toxoplasma remain unidentified due mainly to the lack of reproducible methods for their isolation. Based on the successful isolation of the cytoskeleton, it was possible to report for the first time, the proteomic characterization of the subpellicular cytoskeleton of Toxoplasma formed by 95 cytoskeletal proteins through proteomic analysis by tandem mass spectrometry of one dimension SDS PAGE. By bioinformatic analysis of the data, proteins were classified as: 18 conventional cytoskeletal proteins; 10 inner membrane complex proteins, including 7 with alveolin repeats; 5 new proteins with alveolin like repeats; 37 proteins associated with other organelles and 25 novel proteins of unknown function. One of the alveolin like proteins not previously described in Toxoplasma named TgArticulin was partially characterized with a specific monoclonal antibody. Presence of TgArticulin was exclusively associated with the cytoskeleton fraction with a cortical distribution. Functions for the several molecules identified are proposed. This manuscript describes, for the first time, the proteome of the subpellicular cytoskeleton of Toxoplasma gondii. The importance of this study is related to the role of the cytoskeleton in the highly invasive capability of a parasite that causes abortion, blindness, and death by encephalitis in immunocompromised patients. Proteomic characterization of the cytoskeleton of T. gondii tachyzoites was possible by the development of a successful procedure for the isolation of the subpellicular cytoskeleton. Knowledge of the composition of the cytoskeleton of Toxoplasma is fundamental for the

  7. Agrin is a major heparan sulfate proteoglycan in the human glomerular basement membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groffen, Alexander J.; Ruegg, Markus A.; Dijkman, Henri; Van De Velden, Thea J.; Buskens, Carin A.; Van Den Born, Jacob; Assmann, Karel J.; Monnens, Leo A.; Veerkamp, Jacques H.; Van Den Heuvel, Lambert P.

    Agrin is a heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) that is highly concentrated in the synaptic basal lamina at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Agrin-like immunoreactivity is also detected outside the NMJ. Here we show that agrin is a major HSPG component of the human glomerular basement membrane

  8. Extracellular matrix production by human osteoblasts cultured on biodegradable polymers applicable for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Amin, S F; Lu, H H; Khan, Y; Burems, J; Mitchell, J; Tuan, R S; Laurencin, C T

    2003-03-01

    The nature of the extracellular matrix (ECM) is crucial in regulating cell functions via cell-matrix interactions, cytoskeletal organization, and integrin-mediated signaling. In bone, the ECM is composed of proteins such as collagen (CO), fibronectin (FN), laminin (LM), vitronectin (VN), osteopontin (OP) and osteonectin (ON). For bone tissue engineering, the ECM should also be considered in terms of its function in mediating cell adhesion to biomaterials. This study examined ECM production, cytoskeletal organization, and adhesion of primary human osteoblastic cells on biodegradable matrices applicable for tissue engineering, namely polylactic-co-glycolic acid 50:50 (PLAGA) and polylactic acid (PLA). We hypothesized that the osteocompatible, biodegradable polymer surfaces promote the production of bone-specific ECM proteins in a manner dependent on polymer composition. We first examined whether the PLAGA and PLA matrices could support human osteoblastic cell growth by measuring cell adhesion at 3, 6 and 12h post-plating. Adhesion on PLAGA was consistently higher than on PLA throughout the duration of the experiment, and comparable to tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS). ECM components, including CO, FN, LM, ON, OP and VN, produced on the surface of the polymers were quantified by ELISA and localized by immunofluorescence staining. All of these proteins were present at significantly higher levels on PLAGA compared to PLA or TCPS surfaces. On PLAGA, OP and ON were the most abundant ECM components, followed by CO, FN, VN and LN. Immunofluorescence revealed an extracellular distribution for CO and FN, whereas OP and ON were found both intracellularly as well as extracellularly on the polymer. In addition, the actin cytoskeletal network was more extensive in osteoblasts cultured on PLAGA than on PLA or TCPS. In summary, we found that osteoblasts plated on PLAGA adhered better to the substrate, produced higher levels of ECM molecules, and showed greater cytoskeletal

  9. Component configuration control system development at EBR-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monson, L.R.; Stratton, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    One ofthe major programs being pursued by the EBR-II Division of Argonne National Laboratory is to improve the reliability of plant control and protection systems. This effort involves looking closely at the present state of the art and needs associated with plant diagnostic, control and protection systems. One of the areas of development at EBR-II involves a component configuration control system (CCCS). This system is a computerized control and planning aid for the nuclear power operator

  10. Impacts of Imported Liquefied Natural Gas on Residential Appliance Components: Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lekov, Alex; Sturges, Andy; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle

    2009-12-09

    An increasing share of natural gas supplies distributed to residential appliances in the U.S. may come from liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports. The imported gas will be of a higher Wobbe number than domestic gas, and there is concern that it could produce more pollutant emissions at the point of use. This report will review recently undertaken studies, some of which have observed substantial effects on various appliances when operated on different mixtures of imported LNG. While we will summarize findings of major studies, we will not try to characterize broad effects of LNG, but describe how different components of the appliance itself will be affected by imported LNG. This paper considers how the operation of each major component of the gas appliances may be impacted by a switch to LNG, and how this local impact may affect overall safety, performance and pollutant emissions.

  11. Component design considerations for gas turbine HTGR waste-heat power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, C.F.; Vrable, D.L.

    1976-01-01

    Component design considerations are described for the ammonia waste-heat power conversion system of a large helium gas-turbine nuclear power plant under development by General Atomic Company. Initial component design work was done for a reference plant with a 3000-MW(t) High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR), and this is discussed. Advanced designs now being evaluated include higher core outlet temperature, higher peak system pressures, improved loop configurations, and twin 4000-MW(t) reactor units. Presented are the design considerations of the major components (turbine, condenser, heat input exchanger, and pump) for a supercritical ammonia Rankine waste heat power plant. The combined cycle (nuclear gas turbine and waste-heated plant) has a projected net plant efficiency of over 50 percent. While specifically directed towards a nuclear closed-cycle helium gas-turbine power plant (GT-HTGR), it is postulated that the bottoming waste-heat cycle component design considerations presented could apply to other low-grade-temperature power conversion systems such as geothermal plants

  12. Safety prediction for basic components of safety critical software based on static testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, H.S.; Seong, P.H.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop a safety prediction method, with which we can predict the risk of software components based on static testing results at the early development stage. The predictive model combines the major factor with the quality factor for the components, both of which are calculated based on the measures proposed in this work. The application to a safety-critical software system demonstrates the feasibility of the safety prediction method. (authors)

  13. Food Components and Supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr

    2012-01-01

    The major part of food consists of chemical compounds that can be used for energy production, biological synthesis, or maintenance of metabolic processes by the host. These components are defined as nutrients, and can be categorized into macronutrients (proteins, carbohydrates, triglycerides......, and alcohol), minerals, and micronutrients. The latter category comprises 13 vitamins and a hand full of trace elements. Many micronutrients are used as food supplements and are ingested at doses exceeding the amounts that can be consumed along with food by a factor of 10–100. Both macro- and micronutrients...... can interact with enzyme systems related to xenobiotic metabolism either by regulation of their expression or direct interference with their enzymatic activity. During food consumption, we consume a wide range of xenobiotics along with the consumable food, either as an original part of the food (e...

  14. Ly49Q, a member of the Ly49 family that is selectively expressed on myeloid lineage cells and involved in regulation of cytoskeletal architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyama-Sorimachi, Noriko; Tsujimura, Yusuke; Maruya, Mikako; Onoda, Atsuko; Kubota, Toshiyuki; Koyasu, Shigeo; Inaba, Kayo; Karasuyama, Hajime

    2004-01-01

    Here, we identified and characterized a Ly49 family member, designated as Ly49Q. The Ly49q gene encodes a 273-aa protein with an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM) at the N terminus of its cytoplasmic domain. We show that the ITIM of Ly49Q can recruit SHP-2 and SHP-1 in a tyrosine phosphorylation-dependent manner. In contrast to other known members of the Ly49 family, Ly49Q was found not to be expressed on NK1.1+ cells, but instead was detectable on virtually all Gr-1+ cells, such as myeloid precursors in bone marrow. Monocytes/macrophages also expressed low levels of Ly49Q, and the expression was enhanced by the treatment of cells with IFN-γ. Treatment of activated macrophages with anti-Ly49Q mAb induced rapid formation of polarized actin structures, showing filopodia-like structure on one side and lamellipodial-like structure on the other side. A panel of proteins became tyrosine-phosphorylated in myeloid cells when treated with the mAb. Induction of the phosphorylation depends on the ITIM of Ly49Q. Thus, Ly49Q has unique features different from other known Ly49 family members and appears to be involved in regulation of cytoskeletal architecture of macrophages through ITIM-mediated signaling. PMID:14732700

  15. Nuclear Mechanics in Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwerger, Monika; Ho, Chin Yee; Lammerding, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Over the past two decades, the biomechanical properties of cells have emerged as key players in a broad range of cellular functions, including migration, proliferation, and differentiation. Although much of the attention has focused on the cytoskeletal networks and the cell’s microenvironment, relatively little is known about the contribution of the cell nucleus. Here, we present an overview of the structural elements that determine the physical properties of the nucleus and discuss how changes in the expression of nuclear components or mutations in nuclear proteins can affect not only nuclear mechanics but also modulate cytoskeletal organization and diverse cellular functions. These findings illustrate that the nucleus is tightly integrated into the surrounding cellular structure. Consequently, changes in nuclear structure and composition are highly relevant to normal development and physiology and can contribute to many human diseases, such as muscular dystrophy, dilated cardiomyopathy, (premature) aging, and cancer. PMID:21756143

  16. Thermodynamic database of multi-component Mg alloys and its application to solidification and heat treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanglong Xu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An overview about one thermodynamic database of multi-component Mg alloys is given in this work. This thermodynamic database includes thermodynamic descriptions for 145 binary systems and 48 ternary systems in 23-component (Mg–Ag–Al–Ca–Ce–Cu–Fe–Gd–K–La–Li–Mn–Na–Nd–Ni–Pr–Si–Sn–Sr–Th–Y–Zn–Zr system. First, the major computational and experimental tools to establish the thermodynamic database of Mg alloys are briefly described. Subsequently, among the investigated binary and ternary systems, representative binary and ternary systems are shown to demonstrate the major feature of the database. Finally, application of the thermodynamic database to solidification simulation and selection of heat treatment schedule is described.

  17. Prophylactic administration of an extract from Plantaginis Semen and its major component aucubin inhibits mechanical allodynia caused by paclitaxel in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsugunobu Andoh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The chemotherapeutic agent paclitaxel (PTX causes peripheral neuropathy as a major dose-limiting side effect, and this peripheral neuropathy is difficult to control. Our previous report showed that prophylactic repetitive administration of goshajinkigan (牛車腎氣丸 niú chē shèn qì wán, but not hachimijiogan (八味地黃丸 bā wèi dì huáng wán, which lacks two of the constituents of goshajinkigan, inhibited PTX-induced mechanical allodynia in mice. Thus, the herbal medicines Plantaginis Semen (車前子 chē qián zǐ or Achyranthis Radix (牛膝 niú xī may contribute to the inhibitory action of goshajinkigan on the exacerbation of PTX-induced mechanical allodynia [Andoh et al, J. Tradit. Complement. Med. 2014; 4: 293–297]. Therefore, in this study, we examined whether an extract of Plantaginis Semen (EPS or Achyranthis Radix (EAR would relieve PTX-induced mechanical allodynia in mice. A single intraperitoneal injection of PTX caused mechanical allodynia, which peaked on day 14 after injection. Repetitive oral administration of EPS, but not EAR, starting from the day after PTX injection significantly inhibited the exacerbation of PTX-induced mechanical allodynia. Repetitive intraperitoneal injection of aucubin, one of the main components of EPS, starting from the day after PTX injection also significantly reduced PTX-induced mechanical allodynia. However, repetitive intraperitoneal injection of geniposide acid (a precursor of aucubin or catalpol (a metabolite of aucubin did not prevent the exacerbation of mechanical allodynia. These results suggest that prophylactic administration of EPS is effective for preventing the exacerbation of PTX-induced allodynia. Aucubin may contribute to the inhibitory action of EPS on the exacerbation of PTX-induced allodynia.

  18. Egg weights, egg component weights, and laying gaps in Great Tits (Parus major) in relation to ambient temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lessells, C.M.; Dingemanse, N.J.; Both, C.; Blem, C.

    2002-01-01

    We collected 328 freshly laid Great Tit (Parus major) eggs from 38 clutches in 1999 to determine the relationship of whole egg weight, wet yolk weight, wet albumen weight, dry shell weight, and the occurrence of laying gaps with mean ambient temperature in the three days preceding laying, while

  19. Egg weights, egg component weights, and laying gaps in great tits (Parus major) in relation to ambient temperature.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lessells, C.M.; Dingemanse, N.J.; Both, C.

    2002-01-01

    We collected 328 freshly laid Great Tit (Parus major) eggs from 38 clutches in 1999 to determine the relationship of whole egg weight, wet yolk weight, wet albumen weight, dry shell weight, and the occurrence of laying gaps with mean ambient temperature in the three days preceding laying, while

  20. Quick profile-reorganization driven by helical field perturbation for suppressing tokamak major disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, K.; Kawahata, K.; Ando, R.

    1986-09-01

    Disruptive behavior of magnetic field configuration leading to tokamak major disruption is found to be controlled by a mild ''mini-disruption'' which is induced by the compact external modular multipole-field coils with m = 3/n = 2 dominant helical field component in the JIPP T-IIU tokamak. This mini-disruption ergodizes the m = 2/n = 1 magnetic island quickly but mildly and then prevents the profile of electron temperature from flattening. This quick profile-reorganization is effective to avoid the two-step disruption (pre- and major disuptions) responsible for the chatastrophic current termination. (author)

  1. Biocidal effects of Piper hispidinervum (Piperaceae) essential oil and synergism among its main components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés, M F; Rossa, G E; Cassel, E; Vargas, R M F; Santana, O; Díaz, C E; González-Coloma, A

    2017-11-01

    In this study we evaluated the effect of a pressure gradient (1-2 atm) in the extraction and composition of the essential oil (EO) of Piper hispidinervum by steam distillation. We also evaluated the insect antifeedant effects (Spodoptera littoralis, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, Myzus persicae and Rhopalosiphum padi) and nematicidal activity (Meloidogyne javanica) of the oils, their major components and their synergistic interactions. Safrole was the major component (78-81%) followed by terpinolene (5-9%). The EOs tested were effective insect antifeedants. Safrole, explained most of the insect antifeedant action of P. hispidinervum EOs. When safrole and terpinolene were tested in binary combinations, low ratios of safrole improved the antifeedant effects of terpinolene. P. hispidinervum EOs caused higher mortality of M. javanica juveniles than their major components. In binary combinations, low ratios of terpinolene increased the nematicidal effects of safrole. The EO treatment strongly suppressed nematode egg hatching and juvenile infectivity. P. hispidinervum EOs affected the germination of S. lycopersicum and L. sativa mostly at 24 h of treatment, being L. sativa the most sensitive. Safrole moderately affected germination and root growth of L. sativa, S. lycopersicum and L. perenne. Terpinolene only affected S. lycopersicum root growth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Do Biology Majors Really Differ from Non-STEM Majors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotner, Sehoya; Thompson, Seth; Wright, Robin

    2017-01-01

    Recent calls to action urge sweeping reform in science education, advocating for improved learning for all students-including those majoring in fields beyond the sciences. However, little work has been done to characterize the differences-if any exist-between students planning a career in science and those studying other disciplines. We describe an attempt to clarify, in broad terms, how non-STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) majors differ from life sciences majors, and how they are similar. Using survey responses and institutional data, we find that non-STEM majors are not unilaterally science averse; non-STEM majors are more likely than biology majors to hold misconceptions about the nature of science, yet they are not completely ignorant of how science works; non-STEM majors are less likely than biology majors to see science as personally relevant; and non-STEM majors populations are likely to be more diverse-with respect to incoming knowledge, perceptions, backgrounds, and skills-than a biology majors population. We encourage science educators to consider these characteristics when designing curricula for future scientists or simply for a well-informed citizenry. © 2017 S. Cotner et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2017 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  3. Parvalbumin--the major tropical fish allergen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Dawn Li-Chern; Neo, Keng Hwee; Yi, Fong Cheng; Chua, Kaw Yan; Goh, Denise Li-Meng; Shek, Lynette Pei-Chi; Giam, Yoke Chin; Van Bever, Hugo P S; Lee, Bee Wah

    2008-08-01

    Fish allergy is common in countries where consumption is high. Asian nations are amongst the world's largest consumers of fish but the allergen profiles of tropical fish are unknown. This study sought to evaluate the allergenicity of four commonly consumed tropical fish, the threadfin (Polynemus indicus), Indian anchovy (Stolephorus indicus), pomfret (Pampus chinensis) and tengirri (Scomberomorus guttatus). Immunoglobulin E (IgE) cross-reactivity with parvalbumin of cod fish (Gad c 1), the major fish allergen, was also studied. Detection of tropical fish and cod specific-IgE was performed by UniCap assay, and skin prick tests were also carried out. The IgE-binding components of tropical fish were identified using IgE immunoblot techniques, and cross-reactivity with Gad c 1 was assessed by ELISA inhibition and IgE immunoblot inhibition. Clinically, nine of 10 patients studied were allergic to multiple fish. All patients exhibited detectable specific-IgE to cod fish (10 of 10 skin prick test positive, eight of 10 UniCap assay positive) despite lack of previous exposure. The major allergen of the four tropical fish was the 12-kDa parvalbumin. IgE cross-reactivity of these allergens to Gad c 1 was observed to be moderate to high in the tropical fish studied. Parvalbumins are the major allergens in commonly consumed tropical fish. They are cross-reactive with each other as well as with Gad c 1. Commercial tests for cod fish appear to be sufficient for the detection of tropical fish specific-IgE.

  4. Mechanical design assessments of structural components and auxiliaries of the Joint European Torus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonnerup, L.

    1985-01-01

    The general design of the Joint European Torus (JET) is briefly described. The loads on its major structural components, at normal operation, and in cases of plasma instability and/or disruption, are discussed. The way these components have been assessed and optimised in relation to their loads is presented. A short account of mechanical design problems of auxiliary equipment is given. Finally, the state of operation of JET and its implications for the mechanical design at the time of the conference will be summarized. The mechanically most important components of the JET device are the support structure of the toroidal magnet, th vacuum vessel, the coils of the magnets and the pedestals supporting the weight of the torus. These components all participate in resisting and transmitting the primary forces during operation. (orig.)

  5. Identification and quantification of major bovine milk proteins by liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordin, G; Cordeiro Raposo, F; de la Calle, B; Rodriguez, A R

    2001-08-31

    In the field of food quality, bovine milk products are of particular interest due to the social and economic importance of the dairy products market. However, the risk of fraudulent manipulation is high in this area, for instance, replacing milk powder by whey is very interesting from an economic point of view. Therefore, there is a need to have suitable analytical methods available for the determination of all milk components, which is currently not the case, especially for the main proteins. The detection of potential manipulations requires then a clear analytical characterisation of each type of bovine milk, what constitutes the goal of this work. The separation of the major milk proteinic components has been carried out by ion-pair reversed-phase HPLC with photodiode array detection, using a C4 column. The overall optimisation has been achieved using a statistical experimental design procedure. The identification of each protein was ascertained using retention times, peak area ratios and second derivative UV spectra. Quantification was based on calibration curves drawn using purified proteins. Major sources of uncertainty were identified and the full uncertainty budget was established. The procedure was initially developed using the skimmed milk powder certified reference material CRM 063R and then applied to various types of commercial milks as well as to raw milk. The method is able to separate and quantify the seven major proteins (K-casein, alphas2-casein, alphas1-casein, beta-casein, alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin B and beta-lactoglobulin A) in one run and also to provide precise determinations of the total protein concentration. These are important results towards the further development of a reference method for major proteins in milk. In addition, the use of a certified material reference is suggested in order to make comparisons of method performances possible.

  6. Characterization of fine particle components in Mexico City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saitoh, K.; Sera, K.; Perales, J.G.; Garcia, F.A.; Suzuki, H.

    1999-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM-3.9 and PM-15.8) samples were collected in the three zones at the Northeast, Southwest and Southeast suburbs of Mexico City, from July to August 1998, for one week for each sampling site. The concentrations of several elements in the PM-3.9 and PM-15.8 samples were determined by Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). In the PM-3.9 samples, 21 elements were determined for each zone, and Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, K, Ca, Ti, Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb are found to be the major elemental components. On the other hand, 22 elements including P were determined on the PM-15.8 samples, and the dominant elements were the same as in the PM-3.9. Factor analysis is applied to the 28 variables (14 elements for each PM-3.9 and PM-15.8 groups) and for 21 samples (seven days for three zones) in order to identify possible sources of the particles. The result of factor analysis allows to identify five major sources, being soil the major contributor. (author)

  7. Characterization of fine particle components in Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saitoh, K. [Akita Prefectural Institute of Environmental Science, Yabase-Shimoyabase, Akita (Japan); Sera, K. [Iwate Medical Univ., Cyclotron Research Center, Takizawa, Iwate (Japan); Perales, J.G.; Garcia, F.A. [Centro Nacional de Investigacion y Capacitacion Ambiental (CENICA), Av. Michoacan y la Purisima Col. Vicentina C.P. 09340 Mexico (Mexico); Suzuki, H. [Environmental Data Analysis Laboratory, System Design, Inc., Shinagawa, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    Particulate matter (PM-3.9 and PM-15.8) samples were collected in the three zones at the Northeast, Southwest and Southeast suburbs of Mexico City, from July to August 1998, for one week for each sampling site. The concentrations of several elements in the PM-3.9 and PM-15.8 samples were determined by Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). In the PM-3.9 samples, 21 elements were determined for each zone, and Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, K, Ca, Ti, Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb are found to be the major elemental components. On the other hand, 22 elements including P were determined on the PM-15.8 samples, and the dominant elements were the same as in the PM-3.9. Factor analysis is applied to the 28 variables (14 elements for each PM-3.9 and PM-15.8 groups) and for 21 samples (seven days for three zones) in order to identify possible sources of the particles. The result of factor analysis allows to identify five major sources, being soil the major contributor. (author)

  8. Coupler induced monopole component and its minimization in deflecting cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Ambattu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Deflecting cavities are used in particle accelerators for the manipulation of charged particles by deflecting or crabbing (rotating them. For short deflectors, the effect of the power coupler on the deflecting field can become significant. The particular power coupler type can introduce multipole rf field components and coupler-specific wakefields. Coupler types that would normally be considered like standard on-cell coupler, waveguide coupler, or mode-launcher coupler could have one or two rf feeds. The major advantage of a dual-feed coupler is the absence of monopole and quadrupole rf field components in the deflecting structure. However, a dual-feed coupler is mechanically more complex than a typical single-feed coupler and needs a splitter. For most applications, deflecting structures are placed in regions where there is small space hence reducing the size of the structure is very desirable. This paper investigates the multipole field components of the deflecting mode in single-feed couplers and ways to overcome the effect of the monopole component on the beam. Significant advances in performance have been demonstrated. Additionally, a novel coupler design is introduced which has no monopole field component to the deflecting mode and is more compact than the conventional dual-feed coupler.

  9. Photoaffinity labelling of a small protein component of a purified (Na+-K+)ATPase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, T.B.; Lazdunski, M.

    1979-01-01

    Studies have been carried out on the photoaffinity labelling of the (Na + -K + )ATPase from the electric organ of Electrophorus electricus. The aims were to see if different photoaffinity labels of the ouabain binding site, are capable of labelling a small protein component and to know if there is a small protein component, in addition to the major protein chains with molecular weights in the regions of 100 000 and 50 000, which is present in other purified (Na + -K + )ATPase preparations. (Auth.)

  10. Morphological features of the major duodenal papilla in patients with cholelithiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Klymenko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The high prevalence of the pathology of major duodenal papilla in patients with gallstone disease, the difficulties of diagnosis and treatment determine the relevance of the study. The purpose is to study the morphological features of the major duodenal papilla in patients with cholelithiasis. Material and methods. During autopsies, selection of fragments of major duodenal papilla from 30 dead was performed. The main group consisted of autopsy specimens (n = 15 from the dead, which had stones in the gallbladder in the absence of signs of inflammation of the walls of the gallbladder and bile ducts. Biomaterial samples (n = 15 from the dead, which had no stones and signs of inflammation of the biliary system, were included in the control group. To study the severity of the stromal component, the Mason’s trichrome and the Van Gieson’s stains were used. Light microscopy was carried out using a light microscope Axioplan 2 (Carl Zeiss - Germany using x10, x20, x40, x100 lenses and x10 eyepiece. For a quantitative assessment of the severity of sclerotic changes, we conducted a morphometric study of preparations stained with picrofuchsin accordimg to Van Gieson. The area of the stromal component was calculated in the resulted images in 5 fields of view under magnification of x200 using the medical software for analysis and processing of digital images ImageJ, initiated by W. Rasband (1997-2012. The expression area was the percentage ratio of the number of pixels of the digital image of the zones of expression of the connective tissue component to the total number of pixels in the image. Results. The quantitative analysis of the severity of sclerotic changes in the periductal tissue in both studied groups showed that in the control observations the expression area of the connective tissue component was 18.84 ± 3.14%, and in the main group (cases of gallstone disease – 78.06 ± 15.12% (p = 0.0031. Conclusions. 1. In patients with gallstone disease

  11. Risk Management of Large Component in Decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nah, Kyung Ku; Kim, Tae Ryong

    2014-01-01

    The need for energy, especially electric energy, has been dramatically increasing in Korea. Therefore, a rapid growth in nuclear power development has been achieved to have about 30% of electric power production. However, such a large nuclear power generation has been producing a significant amount of radioactive waste and other matters such as safety issue. In addition, owing to the severe accidents at the Fukushima in Japan, public concerns regarding NPP and radiation hazard have greatly increased. In Korea, the operation of KORI 1 has been scheduled to be faced with end of lifetime in several years and Wolsong 1 has been being under review for extending its life. This is the reason why the preparation of nuclear power plant decommissioning is significant in this time. Decommissioning is the final phase in the life-cycle of a nuclear facility and during decommissioning operation, one of the most important management in decommissioning is how to deal with the disused large component. Therefore, in this study, the risk in large component in decommissioning is to be identified and the key risk factor is to be analyzed from where can be prepared to handle decommissioning process safely and efficiently. Developing dedicated acceptance criteria for large components at disposal site was analyzed as a key factor. Acceptance criteria applied to deal with large components like what size of those should be and how to be taken care of during disposal process strongly affect other major works. For example, if the size of large component was not set up at disposal site, any dismantle work in decommissioning is not able to be conducted. Therefore, considering insufficient time left for decommissioning of some NPP, it is absolutely imperative that those criteria should be laid down

  12. Risk Management of Large Component in Decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nah, Kyung Ku; Kim, Tae Ryong [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The need for energy, especially electric energy, has been dramatically increasing in Korea. Therefore, a rapid growth in nuclear power development has been achieved to have about 30% of electric power production. However, such a large nuclear power generation has been producing a significant amount of radioactive waste and other matters such as safety issue. In addition, owing to the severe accidents at the Fukushima in Japan, public concerns regarding NPP and radiation hazard have greatly increased. In Korea, the operation of KORI 1 has been scheduled to be faced with end of lifetime in several years and Wolsong 1 has been being under review for extending its life. This is the reason why the preparation of nuclear power plant decommissioning is significant in this time. Decommissioning is the final phase in the life-cycle of a nuclear facility and during decommissioning operation, one of the most important management in decommissioning is how to deal with the disused large component. Therefore, in this study, the risk in large component in decommissioning is to be identified and the key risk factor is to be analyzed from where can be prepared to handle decommissioning process safely and efficiently. Developing dedicated acceptance criteria for large components at disposal site was analyzed as a key factor. Acceptance criteria applied to deal with large components like what size of those should be and how to be taken care of during disposal process strongly affect other major works. For example, if the size of large component was not set up at disposal site, any dismantle work in decommissioning is not able to be conducted. Therefore, considering insufficient time left for decommissioning of some NPP, it is absolutely imperative that those criteria should be laid down.

  13. SIZES OF LYα-EMITTING GALAXIES AND THEIR REST-FRAME ULTRAVIOLET COMPONENTS AT z = 3.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, Nicholas A.; Gawiser, Eric; Gronwall, Caryl; Ciardullo, Robin; Altmann, Martin; Schawinski, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    We present a rest-frame ultraviolet analysis of ∼120 z ∼ 3.1 Lyman Alpha Emitters (LAEs) in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South. Using Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images taken as part of the Galaxy Evolution From Morphology and SEDS (GEMS) survey, Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS), and Hubble Ultradeep Field surveys, we analyze the sizes of LAEs, as well as the spatial distribution of their components, which are defined as distinct clumps of UV-continuum emission. We set an upper limit of ∼1 kpc (∼0.''1) on the rms offset between the centroids of the continuum and Lyα emission. The SFRs of LAE components inferred from the rest-frame ultraviolet continuum range from ∼0.1 M sun yr -1 to ∼5 M sun yr -1 . A subsample of LAEs with coverage in multiple surveys (at different imaging depths) suggests that one needs a signal-to-noise ratio, S/N ∼>30, in order to make a robust estimate of the half-light radius of an LAE system. The majority of LAEs have observed half-light radii ∼<2 kpc, and LAE components typically have observed half-light radii ∼<1.5 kpc (∼<0.''20). Although only ∼50% of the detected LAE components are resolved at GOODS depth, the brightest (V ∼< 26.3) are all resolved in both GOODS and GEMS. Since we find little evidence for a correlation between the rest-UV sizes and magnitudes of LAEs, the majority should be resolved in a deeper survey at the ∼0.''05 angular resolution of the HST. Most of the multi-component LAEs identified in shallow frames become connected in deeper images, suggesting that the majority of the rest-UV 'clumps' are individual star-forming regions within a single system.

  14. Integrated Lecture and Laboratory Chemistry Components of Science Education Program for Early and Middle Childhood Education Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunsford, S. K.

    2004-05-01

    Two new chemistry courses were developed for early childhood and middle childhood education majors. The results of a pre- and posttest in the courses indicate success in developing student content knowledge and ability to problem solve. In addition these courses are designed to develop preservice teachers' understanding of the National Science Education Standards and foster support for implementing these standards in their classrooms. These courses provide materials, resources, and guidance in implementing the standards in their future teaching careers.

  15. EU Development of High Heat Flux Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linke, J.; Lorenzetto, P.; Majerus, P.; Merola, M.; Pitzer, D.; Roedig, M.

    2005-01-01

    The development of plasma facing components for next step fusion devices in Europe is strongly focused to ITER. Here a wide spectrum of different design options for the divertor target and the first wall have been investigated with tungsten, CFC, and beryllium armor. Electron beam simulation experiments have been used to determine the performance of high heat flux components under ITER specific thermal loads. Beside thermal fatigue loads with power density levels up to 20 MWm -2 , off-normal events are a serious concern for the lifetime of plasma facing components. These phenomena are expected to occur on a time scale of a few milliseconds (plasma disruptions) or several hundred milliseconds (vertical displacement events) and have been identified as a major source for the production of neutron activated metallic or tritium enriched carbon dust which is of serious importance from a safety point of view.The irradiation induced material degradation is another critical concern for future D-T-burning fusion devices. In ITER the integrated neutron fluence to the first wall and the divertor armour will remain in the order of 1 dpa and 0.7 dpa, respectively. This value is low compared to future commercial fusion reactors; nevertheless, a nonnegligible degradation of the materials has been detected, both for mechanical and thermal properties, in particular for the thermal conductivity of carbon based materials. Beside the degradation of individual material properties, the high heat flux performance of actively cooled plasma facing components has been investigated under ITER specific thermal and neutron loads

  16. Major and trace elements in mouse bone measured by surface and bulk sensitive methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benkoe, I.; Geresi, K.; Ungvari, E.; Szabo, B.; Paripas, B.

    2011-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. In the past years an increasing research interest turned to the accurate determination of the components of bone samples. These investigations focused on both the major and trace elements in the bone. Work in this field is strongly motivated because various major and trace element concentrations can be good indicators of several diseases. Number of studies also focused on the determination of the components both in the organic and inorganic parts of the bone separately, because they both have role during bone remodeling processes. Also important to note that bone can be one of the final destinations in the body where toxic elements are deposited. In this work we performed various surface and bulk sensitive analyses for the mouse bone samples to determine its major and trace element components. We have shown concentration profiles for various major and observable trace elements of the mouse bone. We found, in accordance with our expectation, that the mostly surface sensitive XPS technique is not suitable to determine the concentration of the trace elements in bone samples. It was also shown that XPS is a valuable tool not only in the determination of the chemical states of the major components of the bone powder but in the quantitative determination of their relative concentrations. Both the major and the trace elements of the bone samples are determined using PIXE and SNMS spectra. Although the information depths are very different for PIXE (a few tens of micrometer) and for XPS analysis (a few nanometers), our present PIXE result, using the bone sample in its original form for the concentration ratio between Ca and P is in excellent agreement with the XPS results using calcinated mouse bone powder. Discrepancy in Ca/Mg ratio (PIXE: 35.7 and XPS: 12.7) maybe due to many factors, which influence this ratio in bone samples. In the case of PIXE we studied native bones and determined composition of the compact bone at outside