Maiorana-McFarland class: Degree optimization and algebraic properties
Pasalic, Enes
2006-01-01
in the original class. Preserving a high-nonlinearity value immanent to the original construction method, together with the degree optimization gives in many cases functions with cryptographic properties superior to all previously known construction methods. This approach is then used to increase the algebraic......In this paper, we consider a subclass of the Maiorana-McFarland class used in the design of resilient nonlinear Boolean functions. We show that these functions allow a simple modification so that resilient Boolean functions of maximum algebraic degree may be generated instead of suboptimized degree...... degree of functions in the extended Maiorana-McFarland (MM) class (nonlinear resilient functions F : GF (2)(n) -> GF (2)(m) derived from linear codes). We also show that in the Boolean case, the same subclass seems not to have an optimized algebraic immunity, hence not providing a maximum resistance...
Class 1 integrons in environments with different degrees of urbanization.
Maximiliano Nardelli
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Class 1 integrons are one of the most successful elements in the acquisition, expression and spread of antimicrobial resistance genes (ARG among clinical isolates. Little is known about the gene flow of the components of the genetic platforms of class 1 integrons within and between bacterial communities. Thus it is important to better understand the interactions among "environmental" intI1, its genetic platforms and its distribution with human activities. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: An evaluation of two types of genetic determinants, ARG (sul1 and qacE1/qacEΔ1 genes and lateral genetic elements (LGE (intI1, ISCR1 and tniC genes in a model of a culture-based method without antibiotic selection was conducted in a gradient of anthropogenic disturbances in a Patagonian island recognized as being one of the last regions containing wild areas. The intI1, ISCR1 genes and intI1 pseudogenes that were found widespread throughout natural communities were not associated with urbanization (p>0.05. Each ARG that is embedded in the most common genetic platform of clinical class 1 integrons, showed different ecological and molecular behaviours in environmental samples. While the sul1 gene frequency was associated with urbanization, the qacE1/qacEΔ1 gene showed an adaptive role to several habitats. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The high frequency of intI1 pseudogenes suggests that, although intI1 has a deleterious impact within several genomes, it can easily be disseminated among natural bacterial communities. The widespread occurrence of ISCR1 and intI1 throughout Patagonian sites with different degree of urbanization, and within different taxa, could be one of the causes of the increasing frequency of multidrug-resistant isolates that have characterized Argentina for decades. The flow of ARG and LGE between natural and clinical communities cannot be explained with a single general process but is a direct consequence of the interaction of multiple
Prime Factors of π-Partial Character Degrees and Conjugacy Class Sizes of π-Elements
Antonio Beltrán; María José Felipe
2005-01-01
Let G be a finite solvable group. We prove that any prime dividing any irreducible π-partial character degree of G divides the size of some conjugacy class of π-elements of G. Under certain hypothesis, we show that if two distinct primes r and s both divide some irreducible π-partial character degree, then there exists a conjugacy class of π-elements whose size is divisible by rs.
Working-Class Women Study Social Science Degrees: Remembering Enablers and Detractors
Fraser, Heather; Michell, Dee; Beddoe, Liz; Jarldorn, Michele
2016-01-01
In this article, we report on a feminist memory work project conducted with 11 working-class women in Australia. Participants responded to the question: "what helps and hinders working-class women study social science degrees?" The women confirmed that to succeed at university, they needed opportunities, resources, support and…
Working-Class Women Study Social Science Degrees: Remembering Enablers and Detractors
Fraser, Heather; Michell, Dee; Beddoe, Liz; Jarldorn, Michele
2016-01-01
In this article, we report on a feminist memory work project conducted with 11 working-class women in Australia. Participants responded to the question: "what helps and hinders working-class women study social science degrees?" The women confirmed that to succeed at university, they needed opportunities, resources, support and…
Commonwealth Degrees from Class to Equivalence: Changing to Grade Point Averages in the Caribbean
Bastick, Tony
2004-01-01
British Commonwealth universities inherited the class system for classifying degrees. However, increasing global marketization has brought with it increasing demands for student exchanges, particularly with universities in North America. Hence, Commonwealth universities are considering adopting grade point averages (GPAs) for degree classification…
A degree theory for a class of perturbed Fredholm maps II
Calamai Alessandro
2006-01-01
Full Text Available In a recent paper we gave a notion of degree for a class of perturbations of nonlinear Fredholm maps of index zero between real infinite dimensional Banach spaces. Our purpose here is to extend that notion in order to include the degree introduced by Nussbaum for local -condensing perturbations of the identity, as well as the degree for locally compact perturbations of Fredholm maps of index zero recently defined by the first and third authors.
Class-II neurons display a higher degree of stochastic synchronization than class-I neurons.
Marella, Sashi; Ermentrout, G Bard
2008-04-01
We describe the relationship between the shape of the phase-resetting curve (PRC) and the degree of stochastic synchronization observed between a pair of uncoupled general oscillators receiving partially correlated Poisson inputs in addition to inputs from independent sources. We use perturbation methods to derive an expression relating the shape of the PRC to the probability density function (PDF) of the phase difference between the oscillators. We compute various measures of the degree of synchrony and cross correlation from the PDF's and use the same to compare and contrast differently shaped PRCs, with respect to their ability to undergo stochastic synchronization. Since the shape of the PRC depends on underlying dynamical details of the oscillator system, we utilize the results obtained from the analysis of general oscillator systems to study specific models of neuronal oscillators. It is shown that the degree of stochastic synchronization is controlled both by the firing rate of the neuron and the membership of the PRC (type I or type II). It is also shown that the circular variance for the integrate and fire neuron and the generalized order parameter for a hippocampal interneuron model have a nonlinear relationship to the input correlation.
The class of Eisenbud--Khimshiashvili--Levine is the local A1-Brouwer degree
Kass, Jesse Leo; Wickelgren, Kirsten
2016-01-01
Given a polynomial function with an isolated zero at the origin, we prove that the local A1-Brouwer degree equals the Eisenbud-Khimshiashvili-Levine class. This answers a question posed by David Eisenbud in 1978. We give an application to counting nodes together with associated arithmetic information by enriching Milnor's equality between the local degree of the gradient and the number of nodes into which a hypersurface singularity degenerates to an equality in the Grothendieck-Witt group.
Degrees of Inequality: Culture, Class, and Gender in American Higher Education
Mullen, Ann L.
2010-01-01
"Degrees of Inequality" reveals the powerful patterns of social inequality in American higher education by analyzing how the social background of students shapes nearly every facet of the college experience. Even as the most prestigious institutions claim to open their doors to students from diverse backgrounds, class disparities remain. Just two…
CENTER CONDITIONS AND BIFURCATION OF LIMIT CYCLES FOR A CLASS OF FIFTH DEGREE SYSTEMS
HuangWentao; LiuYirong
2004-01-01
The center conditions and bifurcation of limit cycles for a class of fifth degree systems are investigated. Two recursive formulas to compute singular quantities at infinity and at the origin are given. The first nine singular point quantities at infinity and first seven singular point quantities at the origin for the system are given in order to get center conditions and study bifurcation of limit cycles. Two fifth degree systems are constructed. One allows the appearance of eight limit cycles in the neighborhood of infinity,which is the first example that a polynomial differential system bifurcates eight limit cycles at infinity. The other perturbs six limit cycles at the origin.
Degrees of Intersectionality: Male Rap Artists in Sweden Negotiating Class, Race and Gender
Kalle Berggren
2013-06-01
Full Text Available “Intersectionality” has become a highly influential concept in gender research over the last 25 years. Debates have focused on differences and power asymmetries between women, in terms of race but also addressing class, age, sexuality, ability and nation. However, intersectional paradigms have been used to a much lesser extent in gender studies on men. This article seeks to contribute to an emerging discussion about intersectionality and masculinity by analyzing rap lyrics in Swe-dish songs. The data consists of a broad sample of rap lyrics by male artists 1991-2011, which is analyzed through poststructuralist discourse analysis and queer phenomenology. The analysis shows how classed discourses can be described in terms of orientation and flow, how racialization is articulated in terms of place, and the role of normative notions of gender and sexuality in anti-racist discourses. It is argued that this interconnectedness – class being related to race, which in turn is profoundly gendered – is neither well captured by the prevailing notion of “masculinities” in gender studies on men, nor by the “constitution” vs. “addition” dichotomy in intersectionality debates. Instead, it is suggested that degrees of in-tersectionality might be a more fruitful way of theorizing intersectionality in rela-tion to men.
Morrison, Andrew
2011-01-01
This article is an analysis of middle-class rejection of higher education. The author uses accounts of the educational decision-making of three female students, all identified to be from broadly middle-class backgrounds, from within full-time vocational further education in the United Kingdom, as a means to consider two issues. First, the author…
Theory of center-focus for a class of higher-degree critical points and infinite points
无
2001-01-01
For the real planar autonomous differential system, the questionsof detection between center and focus, successor function, formal series, central integration, integration factor, focal values, values of singular point and bifurcation of limit cycles for a class of higher-degree critical points and infinite points are expounded.
Eniel Espirito Santo
2013-11-01
Full Text Available This paper discusses the inclusion and use of ICTs in higher education at a postgraduate level; specifically in Master courses. It presents some possibilities and opportunities for the use of technology in teaching mediation, including them as indispensable tools in the teaching and learning process. This is an exploratory and descriptive research that uses - as a source - both the review of the literature and a field research paper that is developed in an experience report format. The field research paper presents the experience of classes delivered in Master courses using Moodle as a complementary support platform to the lectures at two universities located in South America. Taking into account a methodological triangulation, collection techniques for the focus groups, questionnaires and participant observations were used as data. The paper concludes that the actual classes in the postgraduate courses may be made more dynamic with the use of technological tools that enable interaction before, during and after classroom activities, encouraging a pleasant and meaningful learning.
ON THE HOMOCLINIC ORBITS IN A CLASS OF TWO-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEMS UNDER THE RESONANCE CONDITIONS
王茂南; 徐振源
2001-01-01
A class of two-degree-of-freedom systems in resonance with an external,parametric excitation is investigated, the existence of the periodic solutions locked to Ω is proved by the use of the method of multiple scales. This systems can be transformed into the systems of Wiggins under some conditions. A calculating formula which determines the existence of homoclinic orbits of the systems is given.
Degree Growth, Linear Independence and Periods of a Class of Rational Dynamical Systems
Ostafe, Alina
2011-01-01
We introduce and study algebraic dynamical systems generated by triangular systems of rational functions. We obtain several results about the degree growth and linear independence of iterates as well as about possible lengths of trajectories generated by such dynamical systems over finite fields. Some of these results are generalisations of those known in the polynomial case, some are new even in this case.
Nonlinear resonances in a class of multi-degree-of-freedom systems
Sridhar, S.; Nayfeh, A. H.; Mook, D. T.
1975-01-01
An analysis is presented of the superharmonic, subharmonic, and combination resonances in a multi-degree-of-freedom system which has cubic nonlinearity and modal viscous damping and is subject to harmonic excitation. It is shown that, in the absence of internal resonances, the steady-state response contains only the modes which are directly excited. It is shown that, in the presence of internal resonances, modes other than those that are directly excited can appear in the response. The strong influence of internal resonances is exhibited in numerical examples involving hinged-clamped beams. It is shown that when a multimode solution exists the lowest mode can dominate the response, even when it is not directly excited.
Eﬀect of roasting degree on the antioxidant activity of diﬀerent Arabica coﬀee quality classes
Božana Odžaković
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Background. Coﬀee is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world, because of its unique sen- sory properties and physiological properties. Coﬀee beverages represent a signiﬁcant source of antioxidants in the consumers’ diet and contribute signiﬁcantly to their daily intake. The aim of this research was to inves- tigate the eﬀect of diﬀerent roasting degrees on the content of biologically active compounds and antioxidant activity in diﬀerent quality classes of Arabica coﬀee. Materials and methods. Samples of green Arabica coﬀee (Rio Minas of two quality classes from two pro- duction batches were used for the research. Roasting was carried out at temperatures of 167, 175 and 171°C. The total phenol content (TPC, total ﬂavonoid content (TFC, ﬂavonol content (FC and antioxidant activity (DPPH, ABTS in the coﬀee extracts was determined. Results. This research shows that TPC was signiﬁcantly higher (P < 0.05 in green coﬀee compared to TPC in roasted coﬀee, and TPC decreases as the roasting temperature increases. TFC and FC were signiﬁcantly lower (P < 0.05 in green coﬀee than in roasted coﬀee. Diﬀerences in TPC between the 1st and 2nd classes of Arabica coﬀee were not signiﬁcant (P > 0.05, while diﬀerences in TFC were signiﬁcant (P < 0.05 only for green coﬀee from the second production batch and diﬀerences in FC were signiﬁcant (P < 0.05 for green cof- fee and for coﬀee roasted at 175°C. Roasting temperatures have diﬀerent inﬂuences the antioxidant activity (DPPH, ABTS of coﬀee and the highest antioxidant activity was determined in coﬀee roasted at 171°C. An exception was 1st class Arabica coﬀee roasted at 167°C (ABTS. All samples of 1st class Arabica coﬀee had higher antioxidant activity (DPPH, ABTS compared to 2nd class Arabica. Conclusions. This research shows that the bioactive compounds content and antioxidant activity of diﬀerent quality classes of Arabica co
Mulvey, Patrick; Shindel, Brandon
2011-01-01
Each fall the Statistical Research Center conducts its Survey of Enrollments and Degrees, which asks all degree-granting physics and astronomy departments in the US to provide information concerning the numbers of students they have enrolled and counts of recent degree recipients. In connection with this survey, the authors ask for the names and…
Pold, Jack; Mulvey, Patrick
2015-01-01
Each fall the Statistical Research Center (SRC) conducts its Survey of Enrollments and Degrees, which asks all degree-granting physics and astronomy departments in the US to provide information concerning the numbers of students they have enrolled and counts of recent degree recipients. In connection with this survey, SRC asks for the names and…
Mulvey, Patrick; Pold, Jack; Tesfaye, Casey
2014-01-01
Each fall the American Institute of Physics (AIP) Statistical Research Center conducts its Survey of Enrollments and Degrees, which asks all degree-granting physics and astronomy departments in the U.S. to provide information concerning the number of students they have enrolled and the counts of recent degree recipients. In connection with this…
Shyam Lal
2003-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper the degree of approximation of conjugate of a function belonging to Lip $ \\alpha$ class by $ K^\\lambda$-summability means of conjugate series of its Fourier series has been determined.
Pold, Jack; Mulvey, Patrick
2015-01-01
Exiting physics master's recipients from the classes of 2012, 2013, and 2014 combined pursued a variety of different post-degree outcomes. Initial outcomes differed greatly depending on citizenship. The majority of US citizens were in the workforce following the receipt of their master's degrees. In contrast, the majority of non-US citizens…
Tesfaye, Casey Langer; Mulvey, Patrick
2014-01-01
Each fall, the Statistical Research Center conducts the "Survey of Enrollments and Degrees," which asks physics and astronomy departments to provide information concerning the number of students they have enrolled and counts of recent degree recipients. In connection with this survey, the names and contact information for their recent…
Pold, Jack; Mulvey, Patrick
2016-01-01
This report presents trend data on the status of physics PhDs one year after receiving their degree. For the last decade postdoctoral fellowships were the most commonly reported positions taken by physics PhDs in the year after receiving their degree. The type of initial employment for of physics PhDs varied depending on the subfield of their…
Zahra Kamverdi
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Background Experimental dentin bonding systems containing nanoclay fillers have shown high microleakage, which may be due to the high concentration of hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA in their composition. Objectives This study sought to assess the effect of using different concentrations of HEMA in an experimental dentin bonding system containing PAA-g-nanoclay on the degree of conversion and microleakage of class V composite restorations. Methods This in vitro experimental study was conducted on 60 class V cavities prepared in the buccal and/or lingual surfaces of sound-extracted premolar teeth. The cavities were restored using an experimental dentin bonding agent containing PAA-g-nanoclay and a light-cure composite in three groups (n = 20 with a HEMA concentration of 15% (group 1, 20% (group 2, and 30% (group 3 in the adhesive. After thermocycling, microleakage was assessed at the occlusal and gingival margins of the restorations using the dye penetration method. The degree of conversion of the dentin bonding agent was calculated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 16 and the Kruskal-Wallis, Fisher’s exact, Wilcoxon, and Mann-Whitney tests (α = 0.05. Results Microleakage at the occlusal and gingival margins was not significantly different between the three groups (P > 0.05, but the difference in microleakage between the occlusal and gingival margins was significant within each group (P 0.05. Conclusions Based on the results, HEMA concentrations of 15%, 20%, and 30% in our experimental bonding agent had no effect on the microleakage of class V restorations. They were not significantly different in terms of degree of conversion either.
Amanda L Brearley
2015-10-01
Full Text Available Question: What is the body temperature response of healthy pregnant women exercising at moderate intensity in an aqua-aerobics class where the water temperature is in the range of 28 to 33 degrees Celsius, as typically found in community swimming pools? Design: An observational study. Participants: One hundred and nine women in the second and third trimester of pregnancy who were enrolled in a standardised aqua-aerobics class. Outcome measures: Tympanic temperature was measured at rest pre-immersion (T1, after 35 minutes of moderate-intensity aqua-aerobic exercise (T2, after a further 10 minutes of light exercise while still in the water (T3 and finally on departure from the facility (T4. The range of water temperatures in seven indoor community pools was 28.8 to 33.4 degrees Celsius. Results: Body temperature increased by a mean of 0.16 degrees Celsius (SD 0.35, p < 0.001 at T2, was maintained at this level at T3 and had returned to pre-immersion resting values at T4. Regression analysis demonstrated that the temperature response was not related to the water temperature (T2 r = –0.01, p = 0.9; T3 r = –0.02, p = 0.9; T4 r = 0.03, p = 0.8. Analysis of variance demonstrated no difference in body temperature response between participants when grouped in the cooler, medium and warmer water temperatures (T2 F = 0.94, p = 0.40; T3 F = 0.93, p = 0.40; T4 F = 0.70, p = 0.50. Conclusions: Healthy pregnant women maintain body temperatures within safe limits during moderate-intensity aqua-aerobic exercise conducted in pools heated up to 33 degrees Celsius. The study provides evidence to inform guidelines for safe water temperatures for aqua-aerobic exercise during pregnancy. [Brearley AL, Sherburn M, Galea MP, Clarke SJ, (2015 Pregnant women maintain body temperatures within safe limits during moderate-intensity aqua-aerobic classes conducted in pools heated up to 33 degrees Celsius: an observational study. Journal of
Wang, Yujing; Kang, Shouqiang; Jiang, Yicheng; Yang, Guangxue; Song, Lixin; Mikulovich, V. I.
2012-05-01
Effective classification of a rolling bearing fault location and especially its degree of performance degradation provides an important basis for appropriate fault judgment and processing. Two methods are introduced to extract features of the rolling bearing vibration signal—one combining empirical mode decomposition (EMD) with the autoregressive model, whose model parameters and variances of the remnant can be obtained using the Yule-Walker or Ulrych-Clayton method, and the other combining EMD with singular value decomposition. Feature vector matrices obtained are then regarded as the input of the improved hyper-sphere-structured multi-class support vector machine (HSSMC-SVM) for classification. Thereby, multi-status intelligent diagnosis of normal rolling bearings and faulty rolling bearings at different locations and the degrees of performance degradation of the faulty rolling bearings can be achieved simultaneously. Experimental results show that EMD combined with singular value decomposition and the improved HSSMC-SVM intelligent method requires less time and has a higher recognition rate.
Tesfaye, Casey Langer; Mulvey, Patrick
2012-01-01
Each fall the Statistical Research Center conducts its Survey of Enrollments and Degrees, which asks all degree-granting physics and astronomy departments in the U.S. to provide information concerning the numbers of students they have enrolled and counts of recent degree recipients. In connection with this survey, the authors ask for the names and…
Mulvey, Patrick; Pold, Jack
2014-01-01
Each fall the Statistical Research Center (SRC) conducts its Survey of Enrollments and Degrees, which asks all degree-granting physics and astronomy departments in the U.S. to provide information concerning the number of students they have enrolled and the counts of recent degree recipients. In connection with this survey, SRC asks for the names…
Shyam Lal
2000-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper a new theorem on the degree of approximation of conjugate of a function belonging to weighted $ W(L^p,\\xi(t$ class by Matrix summability means of conjugate series of a Fourier series has been established. The main theorem is a generalization of serveral known and unknown results.
Tesfaye, Casey Langer; Mulvey, Patrick
2012-01-01
Each fall, the Statistical Research Center conducts its "Survey of Enrollments and Degrees" which asks physics and astronomy departments to provide information concerning the number of students they have enrolled and counts of recent degree recipients. In connection with this survey, the authors ask for the names and contact information for their…
B. E. Rhoades
2002-12-01
Full Text Available In a recent paper Lal [1] obtained a theorem on the degree of approximation of the conjugate of a function belonging to the weighted $ W(L^p, \\xi(t$ class using a triangular matrix transform of the conjugate series of the Fourier series representation of the function. The matrix involved was assumed to have monotone increasing rows. We establish the same result by removing the monotonicity conditon.
Mulvey, Patrick; Pold, Jack
2015-01-01
New physics bachelor's entering the workforce receive some of the highest starting salaries of any undergraduate majors. Each fall, the Statistical Research Center conducts its "Survey of Enrollments and Degrees," which asks physics and astronomy departments to provide information concerning the numbers of students they have enrolled and…
黄文韬; 刘一戌
2004-01-01
The center conditions and bifurcation of limit cycles for a class of fifth degree systems are investigated.Two recursive formulas to compute singular quantities at infinity and at the origin are given.The first nine singular point quantities at infinity and first seven singular point quantities at the origin for the system are given in order to get center conditions and study bifurcation of limit cycles.Two fifth degree systems are constructed.One allows the appearance of eight limit cycles in the neighborhood of infinity,which is the first example that a polynomial differential system bifurcates eight limit cycles at infinity.The other perturbs six limit cycles at the origin.
王茂南; 徐振源
2001-01-01
A class of two-degree-of-freedom systems in resonance with an external, parametric excitation is investigated, the existence of the periodic solutions locked to Ω is proved by the use of the method of multiple scales. This systems can be transformed into the systems of Wiggins, under some conditions. A calculating formula which determines the exsitence of homoclinic orbits of the systems is given.%研究一类在参数和强迫激励下发生共振时的两个自由度系统，利用多重尺度法证明存在锁频于Ω的周期解。在一定条件下可变换成Wiggins的系统，给出了判断这类系统同宿轨道存在的计算公式
Extended degree functions and monomial modules
2004-01-01
The arithmetic degree, the smallest extended degree, and the homological degree are invariants that have been proposed as alternatives of the degree of a module if this module is not Cohen-Macaulay. We compare these degree functions and study their behavior when passing to the generic initial or the lexicographic submodule. This leads to various bounds and to counterexamples to a conjecture of Gunston and Vasconcelos, respectively. Particular attention is given to the class of sequentially Co...
吴根洲; 潘璟琳
2014-01-01
Using the center point clustering method to cluster the 3 dimensions of class 1 disciplines, they are the NEDD quantity, the number of degree units, and the amount of award-winning degree units. 84 class l disciplines can be clustered into 7 categories, and has passed the significant test. The dimensions of class II , class V and class VI are higher, respectively ranking 1, 2, 3 in class 1 disciplines. Both class III and class I are lower, respectively ranking 32, 26 in class 1 disciplines. The dimensions of class VII and class IV are secondary, respectively ranking 7, 13 in class 1 disciplines. The correlation coefficient of National Excellent Doctoral Dissertations (NEDD) and the number of degree units and award-winning degree units also have passed the significant test. Overall, the bigger the number of class 1 disciplines is, the bigger the number of award-winning degree units is, and the bigger the number of NEDD corresponding also is. However, relative to the fluctuation of the number of degree units, the corresponding fluctuations of the number of award-winning degree units is much smaller. At the same time, there is dislocation obviously among a small number of disciplines in 3 dimensions.%运用中心点聚类法对一级学科全国优秀博士论文（NEDD）数量、学位点数量、获奖学位点数量三个维度进行聚类，84个一级学科可以聚为7类，并且通过了显著性检验。第II类、第V类、第VI类三个维度皆高，分别有1、2、3个一级学科；第III类和第I类三个维度皆低，分别有32、26个一级学科；第VII类、第IV类三个维度皆为中等，分别有7、13个一级学科。全国优秀博士学位论文（NEDD）数量与学位点数量、获奖学位点数量的相关系数也均通过显著性检验。总体而言，一级学科的学位点数量越多、获奖学位点的数量也越多，相应的NEDD数量也就越多，但是，相对于学位点数量的波动，获奖学位点数量
Killing Horizons Kill Horizon Degrees
Bergamin, L.; Grumiller, D.
Frequently, it is argued that the microstates responsible for the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy should arise from some physical degrees of freedom located near or on the black hole horizon. In this essay, we elucidate that instead entropy may emerge from the conversion of physical degrees of freedom, attached to a generic boundary, into unobservable gauge degrees of freedom attached to the horizon. By constructing the reduced phase space, it can be demonstrated that such a transmutation indeed takes place for a large class of black holes, including Schwarzschild.
Killing horizons kill horizon degrees
Bergamin, L
2006-01-01
Frequently it is argued that the microstates responsible for the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy should arise from some physical degrees of freedom located near or on the black hole horizon. In this Essay we elucidate that instead entropy may emerge from the conversion of physical degrees of freedom, attached to a generic boundary, into unobservable gauge degrees of freedom attached to the horizon. By constructing the reduced phase space it can be demonstrated that such a transmutation indeed takes place for a large class of black holes, including Schwarzschild.
Mulvey, Patrick; Garrett, Arnell
2013-01-01
Each fall, the Statistical Research Center conducts the Survey of Enrollments and Degrees, which asks physics and astronomy departments to provide information on the number of students enrolled and the number of recent degree recipients conferred the previous academic year. This survey also asks for the names and contact information of their…
郭永积
2011-01-01
, the systematic nature in a new disciplinary system after psychology becomes an independent discipline classification, the social need for psychology to become a independent discipline classification. Especially in view of the deficiencies the author pointed out that Chinese psychology belongs to natural science and pedagogy in professional programs, and this subordinate relationship will restrict its development and discipline maturity. The author arrived at the important conclusion that it is necessary and feasible to make psychology an independent discipline classification and academic degree type. Finally the author put forward four suggestions and prospects to promote Chinese indigenous psychology development, to improve the current psychology discipline and profession program, increase the professional quantity and expand the ways of psychology talents training, expand the subject range of psychology and deepen the edge discipline research of psychology. Eastablishing a system model of subject category relationship based on a platform, including 13 discipline classes at present and psychology discipline classification or degree type. According to the logical relationship of disciplines in this model picture, how to deal with and use the systematicness for psychology as an independent discipline in the whole discipline system is a new issue for the research of systematic indigenous psychology and theoretical psychology. If psychologists study it from the view of social constructivism, the psychological perspective on the subject knowledge is the result of the construction in the particular cultural history of the environment, because it is different from the knowledge system which has been constructed in different branches of science background. When the social construction of the psychology subject takes up in a more open and large discipline background, the knowledge formation of the indigenous psychology system will be more open, multiple and rich.%为了促
Hatt-Echeverria, Beth; Urrieta, Luis, Jr.
2003-01-01
In an effort to explore how racial and class oppressions intersect, the authors use their autobiographical narratives to depict cultural and experiential continuity and discontinuity in growing up white working class versus Chicano working class. They specifically focus on "racializing class" due to the ways class is often used as a copout by…
The Topological Degree in Ordered Banach Spaces
Adrian DUMA; Ileana DUMA
2008-01-01
This paper is devoted to the applications of classical topological degrees to nonlinear problems involving various classes of operators acting between ordered Banach spaces. In this frame-work, the Leray-Schauder, Browder-Petryshyn, and Amann-Weiss degree theories are considered, and several existence results are obtained. The non-Archimedean case is also discussed.
Gasiunas, Vaidas; Mezini, Mira; Ostermann, Klaus
2007-01-01
Virtual classes allow nested classes to be refined in subclasses. In this way nested classes can be seen as dependent abstractions of the objects of the enclosing classes. Expressing dependency via nesting, however, has two limitations: Abstractions that depend on more than one object cannot...... be modeled and a class must know all classes that depend on its objects. This paper presents dependent classes, a generalization of virtual classes that expresses similar semantics by parameterization rather than by nesting. This increases expressivity of class variations as well as the flexibility...... of their modularization. Besides, dependent classes complement multi-methods in scenarios where multi-dispatched abstractions rather than multi-dispatched method are needed. They can also be used to express more precise signatures of multi-methods and even extend their dispatch semantics. We present a formal semantics...
Degree distance and Gutman index of corona product of graphs
V. Sheeba Agnes
2015-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper, the degree distance and the Gutman index of the corona product of two graphs are determined. Using the results obtained, the exact degree distance and Gutman index of certain classes of graphs are computed.
Houle, Cyril O.
This book examines the external degree in relation to the extremes of attitudes, myths, and data. Emphasis is placed on the emergence of the American external degree, foreign external-degree programs, the purpose of the external degree, the current scene, institutional issues, and problems of general policy. (MJM)
... first birth and hope to have a vaginal delivery this time, there is a class for that, too. Choose ... t covered in your birthing class, it’s a good idea to take an individual class on it, especially if you are a first-time mother. The health benefits of breastfeeding your baby ...
Physics Bachelor's Degrees: Results from the 2010 Survey of Enrollments and Degrees. Focus On
Mulvey, Patrick J.; Nicholson, Starr
2012-01-01
The Statistical Research Center of the American Institute of Physics conducts an annual census of all degree-granting physics departments in the United States and Puerto Rico. The survey had a 95% response rate from the 751 departments that granted physics bachelor's degrees in the class of 2010. Results show that the number of physics bachelor's…
Twelfth degree spline with application to quadrature.
Mohammed, P O; Hamasalh, F K
2016-01-01
In this paper existence and uniqueness of twelfth degree spline is proved with application to quadrature. This formula is in the class of splines of degree 12 and continuity order [Formula: see text] that matches the derivatives up to order 6 at the knots of a uniform partition. Some mistakes in the literature are pointed out and corrected. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the applicability and efficiency of the new method.
Teaching Third-Degree Price Discrimination
Round, David K.; McIver, Ron P.
2006-01-01
Third-degree price discrimination is taught in almost every intermediate microeconomics class. The theory, geometry, and the algebra behind the concept are simple, and the phenomenon is commonly associated with the sale of many of the goods and services used frequently by students. Classroom discussion is usually vibrant as students can relate…
Inverse Degree and Connectivity
MA Xiao-ling; TIAN Ying-zhi
2013-01-01
Let G be a connected graph with vertex set V(G),order n =丨V(G)丨,minimum degree δ(G) and connectivity κ(G).The graph G is called maximally connected if κ(G) =δ(G).Define the inverse degree of G with no isolated vertices as R(G) =Σv∈V(G)1/d(v),where d(v) denotes the degree of the vertex v.We show that G is maximally connected if R(G) ＜ 1 + 2/δ + n-2δ+1/(n-1)(n-3).
Rijkhoff, Jan
2007-01-01
This article provides an overview of recent literature and research on word classes, focusing in particular on typological approaches to word classification. The cross-linguistic classification of word class systems (or parts-of-speech systems) presented in this article is based on statements found...... a parts-of-speech system that includes the categories Verb, Noun, Adjective and Adverb, other languages may use only a subset of these four lexical categories. Furthermore, quite a few languages have a major word class whose members cannot be classified in terms of the categories Verb – Noun – Adjective...
Courtis, Barbara
1974-01-01
Discusses a student's experience with a research project on the synthesis and reactions of an organo-platinum complex with an organo-Group IV linkage, including the advantages and disadvantages of such a degree by thesis course. (CC)
Class size versus class composition
Jones, Sam
Raising schooling quality in low-income countries is a pressing challenge. Substantial research has considered the impact of cutting class sizes on skills acquisition. Considerably less attention has been given to the extent to which peer effects, which refer to class composition, also may affect...... bias from omitted variables, the preferred IV results indicate considerable negative effects due to larger class sizes and larger numbers of overage-for-grade peers. The latter, driven by the highly prevalent practices of grade repetition and academic redshirting, should be considered an important...
De Marco, N
2013-01-01
Two identical sets of calorimeters are located on both sides with respect to the beam Interaction Point (IP), 112.5 m away from it. Each set of detectors consists of a neutron (ZN) and a proton (ZP) Zero Degree Calorimeter (ZDC), positioned on remotely controlled platforms. The ZN is placed at zero degree with respect to the LHC beam axis, between the two beam pipes, while the ZP is positioned externally to the outgoing beam pipe. The spectator protons are separated from the ion beams by means of the dipole magnet D1.
Thomas, EG
2014-01-01
Physics to a Degree provides an extensive collection of problems suitable for self-study or tutorial and group work at the level of an undergraduate physics course. This novel set of exercises draws together the core elements of an undergraduate physics degree and provides students with the problem solving skills needed for general physics' examinations and for real-life situations encountered by the professional physicist. Topics include force, momentum, gravitation, Bernoulli's Theorem, magnetic fields, blackbody radiation, relativistic travel, mechanics near the speed of light, radioactive
Registered Nurse (Associate Degree).
Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.
This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of registered nurse (with an associate degree), lists technical competencies and competency builders for 19 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general and 5 units specific to the occupation of registered nurse. The following…
Johnson, Jean
2012-01-01
A 2011 survey of young adults conducted by Public Agenda found that a cluster of obstacles have prevented many of them from competing college. The author describes the opportunity, college awareness, and funding gaps that put a postsecondary degree out of the reach of so many young people. For example, just 3 in 10 non-college-completers are aware…
A degree condition for maximal cycles in bipartite digraphs
Adamus, Janusz
2011-01-01
We prove a sharp Ore-type criterion for hamiltonicity of balanced bipartite digraphs: A bipartite digraph D, with colour classes of cardinality N, is hamiltonian if, for every pair of vertices u and v from opposite colour classes of D such that the arc u->v is not in D, the sum of the positive half-degree of u and the negative half-degree of v is greater than or equal to N+2.
Class size versus class composition
Jones, Sam
Raising schooling quality in low-income countries is a pressing challenge. Substantial research has considered the impact of cutting class sizes on skills acquisition. Considerably less attention has been given to the extent to which peer effects, which refer to class composition, also may affect...... outcomes. This study uses new microdata from East Africa, incorporating test score data for over 250,000 children, to compare the likely efficacy of these two types of interventions. Endogeneity bias is addressed via fixed effects and instrumental variables techniques. Although these may not fully mitigate...
Astronomy Enrollments and Degrees: Results from the 2007 Survey of Enrollments and Degrees. Focus On
Nicholson, Starr; Mulvey, Patrick
2009-01-01
The Statistical Research Center of the American Institute of Physics conducts an annual census from October through February of all 75 departments that offer degrees in astronomy in the United States. For the class of 2007, the authors received responses from 73 (97%) of these departments. Estimates were derived and included in the totals for…
Integrated Marketing Communications: A New Master's Degree Concept.
Caywood, Clarke; Ewing, Raymond
1991-01-01
Describes how separate graduate degree programs have been fused into an integrated marketing communications program at Northwestern University. Discusses the five-quarter program that includes a core of new marketing communications planning and management classes, professional specialization classes in corporate public relations, advertising, and…
When Graduate Degrees Prostitute the Educational Process: Degrees Gone Wild
Lumadue, Richard T.
2006-01-01
Graduate degrees prostitute the educational process when they are sold to consumers by unaccredited degree/diploma mills as being equivalent to legitimate, bona-fide degrees awarded by accredited graduate schools. This article carefully analyzes the serious problems of bogus degrees and their association with the religious higher education…
White, M. Catherine
Typical 101 courses discourage many students from pursuing higher level science and math courses. Introductory classes in science and math serve largely as a filter, screening out all but the most promising students, and leaving the majority of college graduates—including most prospective teachers—with little understanding of how science works, according to a study conducted for the National Science Foundation. Because few teachers, particularly at the elementary level, experience any collegiate science teaching that stresses skills of inquiry and investigation, they simply never learn to use those methods in their teaching, the report states.
Operationalizing Max Weber's probability concept of class situation: the concept of social class.
Smith, Ken
2007-03-01
In this essay I take seriously Max Weber's astonishingly neglected claim that class situation may be defined, not in categorial terms, but probabilistically. I then apply this idea to another equally neglected claim made by Weber that the boundaries of social classes may be determined by the degree of social mobility within such classes. Taking these two ideas together I develop the idea of a non-categorial boundary 'surface' between classes and of a social class 'corridor' made up of all those people who are still to be found within the boundaries of the social class into which they were born. I call social mobility within a social class 'intra-class social mobility' and social mobility between classes 'inter-class social mobility'. I also claim that this distinction resolves the dispute between those sociologists who claim that late industrial societies are still highly class bound and those who think that this is no longer the case. Both schools are right I think, but one is referring to a high degree of intra-class social mobility and the other to an equally high degree of inter-class mobility. Finally I claim that this essay provides sociology with only one example among many other possible applications of how probability theory might usefully be used to overcome boundary problems generally in sociology.
Degree-degree dependencies in random graphs with heavy-tailed degrees
Hofstad, van der Remco; Litvak, Nelly
2014-01-01
Mixing patterns in large self-organizing networks, such as the Internet, the World Wide Web, social, and biological networks are often characterized by degree-degree dependencies between neighboring nodes. In assortative networks, the degree-degree dependencies are positive (nodes with similar degre
Degree-Degree Dependencies in Random Graphs with Heavy-Tailed Degrees
van der Hofstad, Remco; Litvak, Nelli
2014-01-01
Mixing patterns in large self-organizing networks, such as the Internet, the World Wide Web, social, and biological networks are often characterized by degree-degree dependencies between neighboring nodes. In assortative networks, the degree-degree dependencies are positive (nodes with similar
Kennedy, Ruth R.
2009-01-01
The students in three sections of a class rated their knowledge and identified their view before and after each of five in-class debates. The degree of self-reported knowledge was significantly different after four of the five debates. Between 31% and 58% of participants changed their views after participating in or observing each debate. Some…
The cycle classes of divisorial Maroni loci
van der Geer, Gerard; Kouvidakis, Alexis
2015-01-01
We determine the cycle classes of effective divisors in the compactified Hurwitz spaces of curves of genus g with a linear system of degree d that extend the Maroni divisors on the open Hurwitz space. Our approach uses Chern classes associated to a global-to-local evaluation map of a vector bundle over a generic $P^1$-bundle over the Hurwitz space.
Quantitative modeling of degree-degree correlation in complex networks
Niño, Alfonso
2013-01-01
This paper presents an approach to the modeling of degree-degree correlation in complex networks. Thus, a simple function, \\Delta(k', k), describing specific degree-to- degree correlations is considered. The function is well suited to graphically depict assortative and disassortative variations within networks. To quantify degree correlation variations, the joint probability distribution between nodes with arbitrary degrees, P(k', k), is used. Introduction of the end-degree probability function as a basic variable allows using group theory to derive mathematical models for P(k', k). In this form, an expression, representing a family of seven models, is constructed with the needed normalization conditions. Applied to \\Delta(k', k), this expression predicts a nonuniform distribution of degree correlation in networks, organized in two assortative and two disassortative zones. This structure is actually observed in a set of four modeled, technological, social, and biological networks. A regression study performed...
Stability of latent class segments over time
Mueller, Simone
2011-01-01
Dynamic stability, as the degree to which identified segments at a given time remain unchanged over time in terms of number, size and profile, is a desirable segment property which has received limited attention so far. This study addresses the question to what degree latent classes identified from...
Rethinking the Bachelor Degree Course
Toft, Anne Elisabeth; Gammelgaard Nielsen, Anders
2011-01-01
The text contains reflections on the background for rethinking the bachelor degree course at the Aarhus School of Architecture.......The text contains reflections on the background for rethinking the bachelor degree course at the Aarhus School of Architecture....
Foundation Degrees: A Risky Business?
Rowley, Jennifer
2005-01-01
Purpose: Foundation degrees, the new proposal for sub-degree vocational education in the UK, are characterised by innovation both in their design (curriculum, teaching, learning and assessment) and in the marketplace for which they are designed. This article argues that the development and delivery of foundation degrees carry a high level of risk,…
Degree correlations in signed social networks
Ciotti, Valerio; Bianconi, Ginestra; Capocci, Andrea; Colaiori, Francesca; Panzarasa, Pietro
2015-03-01
We investigate degree correlations in two online social networks where users are connected through different types of links. We find that, while subnetworks in which links have a positive connotation, such as endorsement and trust, are characterized by assortative mixing by degree, networks in which links have a negative connotation, such as disapproval and distrust, are characterized by disassortative patterns. We introduce a class of simple theoretical models to analyze the interplay between network topology and the superimposed structure based on the sign of links. Results uncover the conditions that underpin the emergence of the patterns observed in the data, namely the assortativity of positive subnetworks and the disassortativity of negative ones. We discuss the implications of our study for the analysis of signed complex networks.
Degree correlations in signed social networks
Ciotti, Valerio; Capocci, Andrea; Colaiori, Francesca; Panzarasa, Pietro
2014-01-01
We investigate degree correlations in two online social networks where users are connected through different types of links. We find that, while subnetworks in which links have a positive connotation, such as endorsement and trust, are characterized by assortative mixing by degree, networks in which links have a negative connotation, such as disapproval and distrust, are characterized by disassortative patterns. We introduce a class of simple theoretical models to analyze the interplay between network topology and the superimposed structure based on the sign of links. Results uncover the conditions that underpin the emergence of the patterns observed in the data, namely the assortativity of positive subnetworks and the disassortativity of negative ones. We discuss the implications of our study for the analysis of signed complex networks.
HLA class I expression in bladder carcinomas.
Cabrera, T; Pedrajas, G; Cozar, J M; Garrido, A; Vicente, J; Tallada, M; Garrido, F
2003-10-01
HLA class I molecules are frequently lost in a large variety of human carcinomas, possibly because of T-cell immune selection of major histocompatibility complex class I deficient tumor variants. We report that this phenomenon is also a frequent event in bladder carcinomas. Of a total of 72 bladder carcinomas, 72% of the tumors had at least one alteration in HLA class I expression. These altered HLA class I phenotypes were classified as total HLA class I loss (25%; phenotype I); HLA-A or/and HLA-B locus-specific loss (12%; phenotype III); and HLA class I allelic loss (35%; phenotype II or IV). Comparison of histopathological parameters with HLA class I expression showed a statistically significant relationship with the degree of differentiation and tumor recurrence.
Degree-degree correlations in random graphs with heavy-tailed degrees
Litvak, Nelli; van der Hofstad, Remco
2012-01-01
We investigate degree-degree correlations for scale-free graph sequences. The main conclusion of this paper is that the assortativity coefficient is not the appropriate way to describe degree-dependences in scale-free random graphs. Indeed, we study the infinite volume limit of the assortativity
Degree-degree correlations in random graphs with heavy-tailed degrees
Litvak, Nelli; van der Hofstad, Remco
2012-01-01
We investigate degree-degree correlations for scale-free graph sequences. The main conclusion of this paper is that the assortativity coefficient is not the appropriate way to describe degree-dependences in scale-free random graphs. Indeed, we study the infinite volume limit of the assortativity coe
New Method for Identifying Finite Degree Volterra Series
Suleiman, Wael; Monin, André
2008-01-01
International audience; In this paper, the identification of a class of nonlinear systems which admits input-output maps described by a finite degree Volterra series is considered. In actual fact, it appears that this class can model many important nonlinear multivariable processes not only in engineering, but also in biology, socio-economics, and ecology. To solve this identification problem, we propose a method based on a local gradient search in a local parameterization of the state space ...
Graduate Physics Degrees: Largest Departments and Degree Distribution. Focus On
Mulvey, Patrick J.; Nicholson, Starr
2014-01-01
In the 2011-12 academic year there were 751 degree-granting physics departments in the U.S. Of these, 195 offered a PhD and 62 departments offered a master's as the highest physics degree. The remaining 494 departments offered a bachelor's as their highest physics degree. There were six universities that had two doctoral-granting physics…
Learning Read-constant Polynomials of Constant Degree modulo Composites
Chattopadhyay, Arkadev; Gavaldá, Richard; Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt;
2011-01-01
Boolean functions that have constant degree polynomial representation over a fixed finite ring form a natural and strict subclass of the complexity class \\textACC0ACC0. They are also precisely the functions computable efficiently by programs over fixed and finite nilpotent groups. This class...... is not known to be learnable in any reasonable learning model. In this paper, we provide a deterministic polynomial time algorithm for learning Boolean functions represented by polynomials of constant degree over arbitrary finite rings from membership queries, with the additional constraint that each variable...
Perceptual qualities and material classes.
Fleming, Roland W; Wiebel, Christiane; Gegenfurtner, Karl
2013-07-11
Under typical viewing conditions, we can easily group materials into distinct classes (e.g., woods, plastics, textiles). Additionally, we can also make many other judgments about material properties (e.g., hardness, rigidity, colorfulness). Although these two types of judgment (classification and inferring material properties) have different requirements, they likely facilitate one another. We conducted two experiments to investigate the interactions between material classification and judgments of material qualities in both the visual and semantic domains. In Experiment 1, nine students viewed 130 images of materials from 10 different classes. For each image, they rated nine subjective properties (glossiness, transparency, colorfulness, roughness, hardness, coldness, fragility, naturalness, prettiness). In Experiment 2, 65 subjects were given the verbal names of six material classes, which they rated in terms of 42 adjectives describing material qualities. In both experiments, there was notable agreement between subjects, and a relatively small number of factors (weighted combinations of different qualities) were substantially independent of one another. Despite the difficulty of classifying materials from images (Liu, Sharan, Adelson, & Rosenholtz, 2010), the different classes were well clustered in the feature space defined by the subjective ratings. K-means clustering could correctly identify class membership for over 90% of the samples, based on the average ratings across subjects. We also found a high degree of consistency between the two tasks, suggesting subjects access similar information about materials whether judging their qualities visually or from memory. Together, these findings show that perceptual qualities are well defined, distinct, and systematically related to material class membership.
Nicholson, Starr; Mulvey, Patrick J.
2012-01-01
The number of astronomy bachelor's conferred in the U.S. continues to climb. The academic year 2010-11 produced more astronomy bachelor's than in any other time in U.S. history. The 408 astronomy bachelor's degrees earned in the class of 2011 more than doubled the class of 2000, and the number of astronomy PhDs conferred (160) is…
Degree Depreciation: A Fait Accompli for the Liberal Arts Degree
Duplass, James A.
1976-01-01
The liberal arts degree will continue to lack the credibility needed to compete with professional school degrees in the job market unless a return is made to rigourous standards, subjective tests, term papers, comprehensive exams, improvement in instructional methods, and more stringent curriculum requirements for foreign language, composition,…
Van Galen, Jane
2008-01-01
In this article, I argue for a closer read of the daily "class work" of teachers, as posited by Reay, 1998. In developing exploratory class portraits of four teachers who occupy distinctive social positions (two from working-class homes now teaching upper-middle-class children and two from upper-middle-class homes now teaching poor children), I…
Research Degrees as Professional Education?
Barnacle, Robyn; Dall'Alba, Gloria
2011-01-01
There is an increasing trend within higher education and, more specifically, in higher degrees by research, to treat a professional skills set as a desirable graduate outcome. The increasing value that is being placed on a professional skills set in large part reflects growing interest around the world in the role of research degrees in labour…
2006-01-01
Full Text Available The maps of the form f( x = ∑ i=1 n a i ⋅x⋅ b i , called 1-degree maps, are introduced and investigated. For noncommutative algebras and modules over them 1-degree maps give an analogy of linear maps and differentials. Under some conditions on the algebra 𝒜 , contractibility of the group of 1-degree isomorphisms is proved for the module l 2 ( 𝒜 . It is shown that these conditions are fulfilled for the algebra of linear maps of a finite-dimensional linear space. The notion of 1-degree map gives a possibility to define a nonlinear Fredholm map of l 2 ( 𝒜 and a Fredholm manifold modelled by l 2 ( 𝒜 . 1-degree maps are also applied to some problems of Markov chains.
Markov Chain-based Degree Distributions of Evolving Networks
Xiang Xing KONG; Zhen Ting HOU; Ding Hua SHI; Quan Rong CHEN; Qing Gui ZHAO
2012-01-01
In this paper,we study a class of stochastic processes,called evolving network Markov chains,in evolving networks. Our approach is to transform the degree distribution problem of an evolving network to a corresponding problem of evolving network Markov chains.We investigate the evolving network Markov chains,thereby obtaining some exact formulas as well as a precise criterion for determining whether the steady degree distribution of the evolving network is a power-law or not.With this new method,we finally obtain a rigorous,exact and unified solution of the steady degree distribution of the evolving network.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The RxClass Browser is a web application for exploring and navigating through the class hierarchies to find the RxNorm drug members associated with each class....
Gast, Angela
2013-01-01
Although many adult students turn to online degree programs due to their flexibility and convenience, a majority of prospective adult learners prefer to take classes on traditional brick-and-mortar campuses. This chapter examines how public research universities create pathways to degree attainment and boost degree completion rates among adult…
HadISST (1-degree)/HadISST (1-degree)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly version of HadISST sea surface temperature component (1-degree). See Rayner, N. A., Parker, D. E., Horton, E. B., Folland, C. K., Alexander, L. V., Rowell,...
Degree-degree correlations in directed networks with heavy-tailed degrees
Hoorn, van der Pim; Litvak, Nelly
2013-01-01
In network theory, Pearson's correlation coefficients are most commonly used to measure the degree assortativity of a network. We investigate the behavior of these coefficients in the setting of directed networks with heavy-tailed degree sequences. We prove that for graphs where the in- and out-degr
Degree-degree dependencies in directed networks with heavy-tailed degrees
Hoorn, van der Pim; Litvak, Nelly
2015-01-01
In network theory, Pearson’s correlation coefficients are most commonly used to measure the degree assortativity of a network. We investigate the behavior of these coefficients in the setting of directed networks with heavy-tailed degree sequences. We prove that for graphs where the in- and out-degr
Nicholson, Starr; Mulvey, Patrick J.
2011-01-01
Academic year 2009-10 produced more astronomy bachelor's than in any other time in US history. The 382 astronomy physics bachelor's degrees earned in the class of 2010 represent a 19% increase from the previous class and an increase of 89% from a decade earlier. The number of astronomy PhDs conferred has remained at around 150 for the last 3…
On differential characteristic classes
Ho, Man-Ho
2013-01-01
In this paper we give explicit formulas of differential characteristic classes of principal $G$-bundles with connections and prove their expected properties. In particular, we obtain explicit formulas for differential Chern classes, differential Pontryagin classes and differential Euler class. Furthermore, we show that the differential Chern class is the unique natural transformation from (Simons-Sullivan) differential $K$-theory to (Cheeger-Simons) differential characters that is compatible ...
On degree-degree correlations in multilayer networks
de Arruda, Guilherme Ferraz; Moreno, Yamir; Rodrigues, Francisco A
2015-01-01
We propose a generalization of the concept of assortativity based on the tensorial representation of multilayer networks, covering the definitions given in terms of Pearson and Spearman coefficients. Our approach can also be applied to weighted networks and provides information about correlations considering pairs of layers. By analyzing the multilayer representation of the airport transportation network, we show that contrasting results are obtained when the layers are analyzed independently or as an interconnected system. Finally, we study the impact of the level of assortativity and heterogeneity between layers on the spreading of diseases. Our results highlight the need of studying degree-degree correlations on multilayer systems, instead of on aggregated networks.
On degree-degree correlations in multilayer networks
de Arruda, Guilherme Ferraz; Cozzo, Emanuele; Moreno, Yamir; Rodrigues, Francisco A.
2016-06-01
We propose a generalization of the concept of assortativity based on the tensorial representation of multilayer networks, covering the definitions given in terms of Pearson and Spearman coefficients. Our approach can also be applied to weighted networks and provides information about correlations considering pairs of layers. By analyzing the multilayer representation of the airport transportation network, we show that contrasting results are obtained when the layers are analyzed independently or as an interconnected system. Finally, we study the impact of the level of assortativity and heterogeneity between layers on the spreading of diseases. Our results highlight the need of studying degree-degree correlations on multilayer systems, instead of on aggregated networks.
Nicholson, Starr; Mulvey, Patrick J.
2015-01-01
Physics bachelor's degree production has more than doubled since the recent low in 1999 and total enrollments in US undergraduate physics programs continue to increase. The all-time high of 7,526 bachelor's degrees in the class of 2014 represents the 15th consecutive year that the number of physics bachelor's conferred has increased. First-year…
On free ring extensions of degree n
George Szeto
1981-01-01
Full Text Available Nagahara and Kishimoto [1] studied free ring extensions B(x of degree n for some integer n over a ring B with 1, where xn=b, cx=xρ(c for all c and some b in B(ρ=automophism of B, and {1,x…,xn−1} is a basis. Parimala and Sridharan [2], and the author investigated a class of free ring extensions called generalized quaternion algebras in which b=−1 and ρ is of order 2. The purpose of the present paper is to generalize a characterization of a generalized quaternion algebra to a free ring extension of degree n in terms of the Azumaya algebra. Also, it is shown that a one-to-one correspondence between the set of invariant ideals of B under ρ and the set of ideals of B(x leads to a relation of the Galois extension B over an invariant subring under ρ to the center of B.
Loosely coupled class families
Ernst, Erik
2001-01-01
are expressed using virtual classes seem to be very tightly coupled internally. While clients have achieved the freedom to dynamically use one or the other family, it seems that any given family contains a xed set of classes and we will need to create an entire family of its own just in order to replace one......Families of mutually dependent classes that may be accessed polymor- phically provide an advanced tool for separation of concerns, in that it enables client code to use a group of instances of related classes safely without depending on the exact classes involved. However, class families which...... of the members with another class. This paper shows how to express class families in such a manner that the classes in these families can be used in many dierent combinations, still enabling family polymorphism and ensuring type safety....
Life after a Humanities Degree
Masola, Athambile
2016-01-01
This article explores the experiences of a humanities graduate after leaving the academy. The author considers her own education in light of the historical changes in South Africa's education system. The article is a personal account of the questions and challenges encountered in choosing a humanities degree in a context where a tertiary education…
Aerospace Technology (Aerospace Engineering Degree)
Tiseira Izaguirre, Andrés Omar; Blanco Rodríguez, David; Carreres Talens, Marcos; Fajardo Peña, Pablo
2013-01-01
Apuntes de la asignatura Tecnología Aeroespacial Tiseira Izaguirre, AO.; Blanco Rodríguez, D.; Carreres Talens, M.; Fajardo Peña, P. (2013). Aerospace Technology (Aerospace Engineering Degree). Editorial Universitat Politècnica de València. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/35263.
The Top Theological Degree Producers
Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 2012
2012-01-01
Each year, "Diverse: Issues in Higher Education" publishes a list of the Top 100 producers of associate, bachelor's and graduate degrees awarded to minority students based on research conducted by Dr. Victor M. H. Borden, professor of educational leadership and policy studies at Indiana University Bloomington. This year, for the first…
Real Analytic Machines and Degrees
Gärtner, Tobias; 10.4204/EPTCS.24.12
2010-01-01
We study and compare in two degree-theoretic ways (iterated Halting oracles analogous to Kleene's arithmetical hierarchy and the Borel hierarchy of descriptive set theory) the capabilities and limitations of three models of analytic computation: BSS machines (aka real-RAM) and strongly/weakly analytic machines as introduced by Hotz et. al. (1995).
Class Size and Cost in ADN Programs
Boehret, Alice C.; Larowe, Ann
1978-01-01
The article discusses the cost-effective use of faculty and facilities in associate degree nursing programs, as a large number of programs with small classes is uneconomical. Appraisal of admissions to reach an enrollment level sufficient to justify program cost is suggested. (MF)
Town of Cary, North Carolina — This data is specific to Parks and Recreation classes, workshops, and activities within the course catalog. It contains an entry for upcoming classes.*This data set...
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — A "Class 1" area is a geographic area recognized by the EPA as being of the highest environmental quality and requiring maximum protection. Class I areas are areas...
Arkenberg, Rebecca
2013-01-01
Arkenberg reviews Doodling in Math Class, an Internet resource available at www.youtube.com. Both math and art teachers have recommended the series of YouTube videos "Doodling in Math Class with Vihart...
Ernst, Erik; Ostermann, Klaus; Cook, William Randall
2006-01-01
model for virtual classes has been a long-standing open question. This paper presents a virtual class calculus, vc, that captures the essence of virtual classes in these full-fledged programming languages. The key contributions of the paper are a formalization of the dynamic and static semantics of vc...
Van Galen, Jane A.
2000-01-01
The working class is nearly invisible in multicultural education literature. Examines the possibilities of a more careful foregrounding of the complexities of social class in shaping life chances, focusing on the educational experiences of working class students and discussing the poor in order to promote understanding of the potential of teacher…
Super Five Brane Hamiltonian and the Chiral Degrees of Freedom
De Castro, A
2002-01-01
We construct the Hamiltonian of the super five brane in terms of its physical degrees of freedom. It does not depend on the inverse of the induced metric. Consequently, some singular configurations are physically admissible, implying an interpretation of the theory as a multiparticle one. The symmetries of the theory are analyzed from the canonical point of view in terms of the first and second class constraints. In particular it is shown how the chiral sector may be canonically reduced to its physical degrees of freedom.
Relationship between EFL Learners’ Autonomy and Speaking Strategies They Use in Conversation Classes
Hadi Salehi; Marziyeh Ebrahimi; Susan Sattar; Mohammad Shojaee
2015-01-01
The present study was conducted at Parsayan Language Institute in Isfahan, Iran. The students in pre- intermediate and intermediate classes were examined to investigate the relationship between degrees of learner autonomy, use of strategies for coping with speaking problems and the learners’ success in their speaking classes. To determine the degree of correlation among degree of learner autonomy, use of strategies for coping with speaking problems, and success in speaking classes, a validate...
Vann, Charles S.
1999-01-01
This small, non-contact optical sensor increases the capability and flexibility of computer controlled machines by detecting its relative position to a workpiece in all six degrees of freedom (DOF). At a fraction of the cost, it is over 200 times faster and up to 25 times more accurate than competing 3-DOF sensors. Applications range from flexible manufacturing to a 6-DOF mouse for computers. Until now, highly agile and accurate machines have been limited by their inability to adjust to changes in their tasks. By enabling them to sense all six degrees of position, these machines can now adapt to new and complicated tasks without human intervention or delay--simplifying production, reducing costs, and enhancing the value and capability of flexible manufacturing.
Topological structural classes of complex networks
Estrada, Ernesto
2007-01-01
We use theoretical principles to study how complex networks are topologically organized at large scale. Using spectral graph theory we predict the existence of four different topological structural classes of networks. These classes correspond, respectively, to highly homogenous networks lacking structural bottlenecks, networks organized into highly interconnected modules with low inter-community connectivity, networks with a highly connected central core surrounded by a sparser periphery, and networks displaying a combination of highly connected groups (quasicliques) and groups of nodes partitioned into disjoint subsets (quasibipartites). Here we show by means of the spectral scaling method that these classes really exist in real-world ecological, biological, informational, technological, and social networks. We show that neither of three network growth mechanisms—random with uniform distribution, preferential attachment, and random with the same degree sequence as real network—is able to reproduce the four structural classes of complex networks. These models reproduce two of the network classes as a function of the average degree but completely fail in reproducing the other two classes of networks.
Degree 3 Networks Topological Routing
Gutierrez Lopez, Jose Manuel; Riaz, M. Tahir; Pedersen, Jens Myrup;
2009-01-01
Topological routing is a table free alternative to traditional routing methods. It is specially well suited for organized network interconnection schemes. Topological routing algorithms correspond to the type O(1), constant complexity, being very attractive for large scale networks. It has been...... proposed for many topologies and this work compares the algorithms for three degree three topologies using a more analytical approach than previous studies....
Marina Pantcheva
2007-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper I present the prepositional system in Persian. I show that Persian prepositions can be divided into three classes (Class 1, Class 2a and Class 2b which exhibit distinct syntactic behavior. Then I examine the question of the categorial status of Class 2 prepositions and demonstrate that they are not to be regarded as nouns. Finally I present the extended PP projection of Persian spatial prepositions and argue for a feature-based analysis of the properties they manifest.
Harrits, Gitte Sommer
2013-01-01
Even though contemporary discussions of class have moved forward towards recognizing a multidimensional concept of class, empirical analyses tend to focus on cultural practices in a rather narrow sense, that is, as practices of cultural consumption or practices of education. As a result......, discussions within political sociology have not yet utilized the merits of a multidimensional conception of class. In light of this, the article suggests a comprehensive Bourdieusian framework for class analysis, integrating culture as both a structural phenomenon co-constitutive of class and as symbolic...
Constructing and sampling directed graphs with given degree sequences
Kim, H; Bassler, K E; Toroczkai, Z
2011-01-01
The interactions between the components of complex networks are often directed. Proper modeling of such systems frequently requires the construction of ensembles of digraphs with a given sequence of in- and out-degrees. As the number of simple labeled graphs with a given degree sequence is typically very large even for short sequences, sampling methods are needed for statistical studies. Currently, there are two main classes of methods that generate samples. One of the existing methods first generates a restricted class of graphs, then uses a Markov Chain Monte-Carlo algorithm based on edge swaps to generate other realizations. As the mixing time of this process is still unknown, the independence of the samples is not well controlled. The other class of methods is based on the Configuration Model that may lead to unacceptably many sample rejections due to self-loops and multiple edges. Here we present an algorithm that can directly construct all possible realizations of a given bi-degree sequence by simple di...
The strong Novikov conjecture for low degree cohomology
Schick, Thomas
2007-01-01
We show that for each discrete group G, the rational assembly map K_*(BG) \\otimes Q \\to K_*(C*_{max} G) \\otimes \\Q is injective on classes dual to the subring generated by cohomology classes of degree at most 2 (identifying rational K-homology and homology via the Chern character). Our result implies homotopy invariance of higher signatures associated to these cohomology classes. This consequence was first established by Connes-Gromov-Moscovici and Mathai. Our approach is based on the construction of flat twisting bundles out of sequences of almost flat bundles as first described in our previous work. In contrast to the argument of Mathai, our approach is independent of (and indeed gives a new proof of) the result of Hilsum-Skandalis on the homotopy invariance of the index of the signature operator twisted with bundles of small curvature.
The 360 Degree Fulldome Production "Clockwork Ocean"
Baschek, B.; Heinsohn, R.; Opitz, D.; Fischer, T.; Baschek, T.
2016-02-01
The investigation of submesoscale eddies and fronts is one of the leading oceanographic topics at the Ocean Sciences Meeting 2016. In order to observe these small and short-lived phenomena, planes equipped with high-resolution cameras and fast vessels were deployed during the Submesoscale Experiments (SubEx) leading to some of the first high-resolution observations of these eddies. In a future experiment, a zeppelin will be used the first time in marine sciences. The relevance of submesoscale processes for the oceans and the work of the eddy hunters is described in the fascinating 9-minute long 360 degree fulldome production Clockwork Ocean. The fully animated movie is introduced in this presentation taking the observer from the bioluminescence in the deep ocean to a view of our blue planet from space. The immersive media is used to combine fascination for a yet unknown environment with scientific education of a broad audience. Detailed background information is available at the parallax website www.clockwork-ocean.com. The Film is also available for Virtual Reality glasses and smartphones to reach a broader distribution. A unique Mobile Dome with an area of 70 m² and seats for 40 people is used for science education at events, festivals, for politicians and school classes. The spectators are also invited to participate in the experiments by presenting 360 degree footage of the measurements. The premiere of Clockwork Ocean was in July 2015 in Hamburg, Germany and will be worldwide available in English and German as of fall 2015. Clockwork Ocean is a film of the Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht produced by Daniel Opitz and Ralph Heinsohn.
Honorary Degree Congregation in Cambridge
2006-01-01
One day in mid-June 2006 when I was on a visit to the Countryside Restoration Trust at Barton near Cambridge, Mr. Christopher Stevenson, the director of Program of Events for Newcomers & Academic Visitors, gave me a letter enclosing a notice and a ticket I booked nearly two months earlier. He told me that I was very lucky because a strictly limited number of tickets had been allocated to academic visitors. It was a ticket to admit me to the Honorary Degree Congregation and to the reception afterwards on Tuesday 27 June.
Vague inclusion degree%Vague集的包含度
朱英丽; 杨勇; 朱晓钟; 席元鸿
2011-01-01
Vague集是Zadeh模糊集的一种推广形式,同样Vague集的包含度也是模糊集包含度的一种扩展.针对现有文献涉及到的Vague集的包含度只是属于[0,1]区间的一个模糊值的问题,根据Vague集理论的基本思想拓展了Vague集的包含度,提出一种新的Vague集的包含度定义,以体现Vague集的拓展意义.提出并验证了四类Vague集的包含度的计算公式,同时给出此Vague集包含度与模糊集包含度之间关系的定理.%Vague set is one of generalizations of Zadeh's fuzzy set, and Vague inclusion degree is also an extension of fuzzy inclusion degree.For the definition of Vague inclusion degree existed in present references is only a fuzzy value, this paper proposes a new definition of Vague inclusion degree to reflect the expansion meaning of the Vague set.This new Vague inclusion degree based on the notion of vague set extends the conception of Vague inclusion degree and fully expresses the advantage of Vague set. Four classes of Vague inclusion degree formulas are proposed and verified, a theorem about the relationship between Vague inclusion degree and fuzzy inclusion degree is given.
First-order D-type Iterative Learning Control for Nonlinear Systems with Unknown Relative Degree
SONGZhao-Qing; MAOJian-Qin; DAIShao-Wu
2005-01-01
The classical D-type iterative learning control law depends crucially on the relative degree of the controlled system, high order differential iterative learning law must be taken for systems with high order relative degree. It is very difficult to ascertain the relative degree of the controlled system for uncertain nonlinear systems. A first-order D-type iterative learning control design method is presented for a class of nonlinear systems with unknown relative degree based on dummy model in this paper. A dummy model with relative degree 1 is constructed for a class of nonlinear systems with unknown relative degree. A first-order D-type iterative learning control law is designed based on the dummy model, so that the dummy model can track the desired trajectory perfectly, and the controlled system can track the desired trajectory within a certain error. The simulation example demonstrates the feasibility and effectiveness of the presented method.
Splitting and cone avoidance in the D.C.E.degrees
无
2002-01-01
It is shown that the Cooper splitting theorem for the n-c.e. degrees is not compatible with cone avoidance: For any n ＞ 1, there exist n-c.e. degree a, c.e. degree b such that 0 ＜ b ＜ a and such that for any n-c.e. degrees x, y, if x V y = a, then either b ≤ x or b ≤ y. This provides a new type of elementary difference between the classes of c.e. and d.c.e. degrees, implementable at lower levels of the high/Iow hierarchy.
Bhanot, Gyan; Blumrich, Matthias A.; Chen, Dong; Coteus, Paul W.; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Heidelberger, Philip; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D.; Takken, Todd E.; Vranas, Pavlos M.
2009-09-08
Class network routing is implemented in a network such as a computer network comprising a plurality of parallel compute processors at nodes thereof. Class network routing allows a compute processor to broadcast a message to a range (one or more) of other compute processors in the computer network, such as processors in a column or a row. Normally this type of operation requires a separate message to be sent to each processor. With class network routing pursuant to the invention, a single message is sufficient, which generally reduces the total number of messages in the network as well as the latency to do a broadcast. Class network routing is also applied to dense matrix inversion algorithms on distributed memory parallel supercomputers with hardware class function (multicast) capability. This is achieved by exploiting the fact that the communication patterns of dense matrix inversion can be served by hardware class functions, which results in faster execution times.
Miyamoto, Yuri
2017-08-08
A large body of research in Western cultures has demonstrated the psychological and health effects of social class. This review outlines a cultural psychological approach to social stratification by comparing psychological and health manifestations of social class across Western and East Asian cultures. These comparisons suggest that cultural meaning systems shape how people make meaning and respond to material/structural conditions associated with social class, thereby leading to culturally divergent manifestations of social class. Specifically, unlike their counterparts in Western cultures, individuals of high social class in East Asian cultures tend to show high conformity and other-orientated psychological attributes. In addition, cultures differ in how social class impacts health (i.e. on which bases, through which pathways, and to what extent). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
World Migration Degree Global migration flows in directed networks
Porat, Idan
2015-01-01
In this article we analyze the global flow of migrants from 206 source countries to 145 destination countries (2006-2010) and focus on the differences in the migration network pattern between destination and source counters as represented by its degree and weight distribution. Degree represents the connectivity of a country to the global migration network, and plays an important role in defining migration processes and characteristics. Global analysis of migration degree distribution offers a strong potential contribution to understanding of migration as a global phenomenon. In regard to immigration, we found that it is possible to classify destination countries into three classes: global migration hubs with high connectivity and high migration rate; local migration hubs with low connectivity and high migration rate; and local migration hubs with opposite strategy of high connectivity and low migration rate. The different migration strategies of destination countries are emerging from similar and homogenies p...
YAO BIN
2011-01-01
Though there is no official definition of "middle class" in China,the tag has become one few Chinese people believe they deserve anyway.In early August,the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences released a report on China's urban development,saying China had a middle-class population of 230 million in 2009,or 37 percent of its urban residents.It also forecast half of city dwellers in China would be part of the middle class by 2023.
On a class of invariant algebraic curves for Kukles systems
Osvaldo Osuna
2016-08-01
Full Text Available In this paper we give a new upper bound for the degree of a class of transversal to infinity invariant algebraic curves for polynomial Kukles systems of arbitrary degree. Moreover, we prove that a quadratic Kukles system having at least one transversal to infinity invariant algebraic curve is integrable.
Schreirer, Barbara A.
1978-01-01
Adapted teaching materials and procedures were developed at Florida State University to help visually handicapped students in the public schools participate in a mainstreamed home economics class. (MF)
Language, Culture, Class, Gender, and Class Participation.
Vandrick, Stephanie
This paper explores reasons why some students with English as a Second Language (ESL) feel less entitled to speak out in class than others, discussing ways in which teachers can widen the definition of participation. The first section explains how student background can affect participation. For students who are non-native English speakers and who…
Social class and heart disease mortality among African Americans.
Barnett, Elizabeth; Williams, Carol R; Moore, Latetia; Chen, Fangfei
2002-01-01
The purpose of the present study was to examine variation in heart disease death rates by the social class of decedents. The term, "social class" refers to a complex set of phenomena such as control over economic resources, social status, and power relative to others in society. The target population for this study was African-American adults aged 35-74 years old who resided in the United States during the years 1996-1997. As a proxy for social class, we examined 5 levels of educational attainment: 0-8 years of school completed (Social Class I), 9-11 years of school completed (Social Class II), high school graduate/12 years of school completed (Social Class III), some college completed (Social Class IV), and college degree completed (Social Class V). Older age, male gender, and lower social class were all independently associated with higher heart disease death rates. For all ages, more disadvantaged social classes had a higher risk of heart disease mortality. The highest relative risks were found for Social Classes I and II among the younger age groups. Many of the "prerequisites" for the "heart healthy lifestyle" are predicated on the benefits of a privileged social class position. For African Americans, there are the additional stressors of segregation, exclusion, and discrimination to overcome, as well as the cumulative physiological toll of lifetime resistance to various forms of racism. For many African Americans in disadvantaged social class positions, the obstacles to reducing the risk for heart disease are very difficult to overcome.
Gorski, Paul C.
2007-01-01
For too long, educators' approach to understanding the relationships between poverty, class and education has been framed by studying the behaviors and cultures of poor students and their families. If only people--in the middle and upper-middle classes--can understand "their" culture, why "those people" do not value education, why "those parents"…
Jackson, Acy L.
2012-01-01
The conversation class occupies a unique place in the process of learning English as a second or foreign language. From the author's own experience in conducting special conversation classes with Persian-speaking adults, he has drawn up a number of simple but important guidelines, some of which he hopes may provide helpful suggestions for the…
Vassiliadis, Gaëlle; Destoumieux-Garzón, Delphine; Peduzzi, Jean
Class II microcins are 4.9- to 8.9-kDa polypeptides produced by and active against enterobacteria. They are classified into two subfamilies according to their structure and their gene cluster arrangement. While class IIa microcins undergo no posttranslational modification, class IIb microcins show a conserved C-terminal sequence that carries a salmochelin-like siderophore motif as a posttranslational modification. Aside from this C-terminal end, which is the signature of class IIb microcins, some sequence similarities can be observed within and between class II subclasses, suggesting the existence of common ancestors. Their mechanisms of action are still under investigation, but several class II microcins use inner membrane proteins as cellular targets, and some of them are membrane-active. Like group B colicins, many, if not all, class II microcins are TonB- and energy-dependent and use catecholate siderophore receptors for recognition/translocation across the outer membrane. In that context, class IIb microcins are considered to have developed molecular mimicry to increase their affinity for their outer membrane receptors through their salmochelin-like posttranslational modification.
Faber, Stine Thidemann; Prieur, Annick
This paper asks how class can have importance in one of the worlds’ most equal societies: Denmark. The answer is that class here appears in disguised forms. The field under study is a city, Aalborg, in the midst of transition from a stronghold of industrialism to a post industrial economy...
Taylor, Lewis A., III
2012-01-01
An accessible business school population of undergraduate students was investigated in three independent, but related studies to determine effects on grades due to cutting class and failing to take advantage of optional reviews and study quizzes. It was hypothesized that cutting classes harms exam scores, attending preexam reviews helps exam…
无
2011-01-01
Classifying the middle class remains controversial despite its alleged growth China’s cities housed more than 230 million middle-class residents in 2009 or 37 percent of the urban population,according to the 2011 Blue Book of Cities in China released on August 3.
WANG HAIRONG
2011-01-01
China's cities housed more than 230 million middle-class residents in 2009ot 37 percent of the urban population,according to the 2011 Blue Book of Cities in China released on August 3.In China's main urban centers,Beijing and Shanghai,the middle class accounted for 46 percent and 38 percent,respectively,of the local population.
Universality classes of inflation
Roest, Diederik
2014-01-01
We investigate all single-field, slow-roll inflationary models whose slow-roll parameters scale as 1/N in the limit of a large number of e-folds N. We proof that all such models belong to two universality classes, characterised by a single parameter. One class contains small field models like hillto
Tablante, Courtney B.; Fiske, Susan T.
2015-01-01
Discussing socioeconomic status in college classes can be challenging. Both teachers and students feel uncomfortable, yet social class matters more than ever. This is especially true, given increased income inequality in the United States and indications that higher education does not reduce this inequality as much as many people hope. Resources…
Generalized Fourier transforms classes
Berntsen, Svend; Møller, Steen
2002-01-01
The Fourier class of integral transforms with kernels $B(\\omega r)$ has by definition inverse transforms with kernel $B(-\\omega r)$. The space of such transforms is explicitly constructed. A slightly more general class of generalized Fourier transforms are introduced. From the general theory...
Opposite Degree Algorithm and Its Applications
Xiao-Guang Yue
2015-01-01
The opposite (Opposite Degree, referred to as OD) algorithm is an intelligent algorithm proposed by Yue Xiaoguang et al. Opposite degree algorithm is mainly based on the concept of opposite degree, combined with the idea of design of neural network and genetic algorithm and clustering analysis algorithm. The OD algorithm is divided into two sub algorithms, namely: opposite degree - numerical computation (OD-NC) algorithm and opposite degree - Classification computation (OD-CC) algorithm.
Opposite Degree Algorithm and Its Applications
Xiao-Guang Yue
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The opposite (Opposite Degree, referred to as OD algorithm is an intelligent algorithm proposed by Yue Xiaoguang et al. Opposite degree algorithm is mainly based on the concept of opposite degree, combined with the idea of design of neural network and genetic algorithm and clustering analysis algorithm. The OD algorithm is divided into two sub algorithms, namely: opposite degree - numerical computation (OD-NC algorithm and opposite degree - Classification computation (OD-CC algorithm.
Controllability of deterministic networks with the identical degree sequence.
Xiujuan Ma
Full Text Available Controlling complex network is an essential problem in network science and engineering. Recent advances indicate that the controllability of complex network is dependent on the network's topology. Liu and Barabási, et.al speculated that the degree distribution was one of the most important factors affecting controllability for arbitrary complex directed network with random link weights. In this paper, we analysed the effect of degree distribution to the controllability for the deterministic networks with unweighted and undirected. We introduce a class of deterministic networks with identical degree sequence, called (x,y-flower. We analysed controllability of the two deterministic networks ((1, 3-flower and (2, 2-flower by exact controllability theory in detail and give accurate results of the minimum number of driver nodes for the two networks. In simulation, we compare the controllability of (x,y-flower networks. Our results show that the family of (x,y-flower networks have the same degree sequence, but their controllability is totally different. So the degree distribution itself is not sufficient to characterize the controllability of deterministic networks with unweighted and undirected.
Controllability of deterministic networks with the identical degree sequence.
Ma, Xiujuan; Zhao, Haixing; Wang, Binghong
2015-01-01
Controlling complex network is an essential problem in network science and engineering. Recent advances indicate that the controllability of complex network is dependent on the network's topology. Liu and Barabási, et.al speculated that the degree distribution was one of the most important factors affecting controllability for arbitrary complex directed network with random link weights. In this paper, we analysed the effect of degree distribution to the controllability for the deterministic networks with unweighted and undirected. We introduce a class of deterministic networks with identical degree sequence, called (x,y)-flower. We analysed controllability of the two deterministic networks ((1, 3)-flower and (2, 2)-flower) by exact controllability theory in detail and give accurate results of the minimum number of driver nodes for the two networks. In simulation, we compare the controllability of (x,y)-flower networks. Our results show that the family of (x,y)-flower networks have the same degree sequence, but their controllability is totally different. So the degree distribution itself is not sufficient to characterize the controllability of deterministic networks with unweighted and undirected.
Spatial segmentation and the black middle class.
Sharkey, Patrick
2014-01-01
Ethnographic studies of the black middle class focus attention on the ways in which residential environments condition the experiences of different segments of the black class structure. This study places these arguments in a larger demographic context by providing a national analysis of neighborhood inequality and spatial inequality of different racial and ethnic groups in urban America. The findings show that there has been no change over time in the degree to which majority-black neighborhoods are surrounded by spatial disadvantage. Predominantly black neighborhoods, regardless of socioeconomic composition, continue to be spatially linked with areas of severe disadvantage. However, there has been substantial change in the degree to which middle- and upper-income African-American households have separated themselves from highly disadvantaged neighborhoods. These changes are driven primarily by the growing segment of middle- and upper-income African-Americans living in neighborhoods in which they are not the majority group, both in central cities and in suburbs.
Social Class Dialogues and the Fostering of Class Consciousness
Madden, Meredith
2015-01-01
How do critical pedagogies promote undergraduate students' awareness of social class, social class identity, and social class inequalities in education? How do undergraduate students experience class consciousness-raising in the intergroup dialogue classroom? This qualitative study explores undergraduate students' class consciousness-raising in an…
Semantic Analysis of Virtual Classes and Nested Classes
Madsen, Ole Lehrmann
1999-01-01
Virtual classes and nested classes are distinguishing features of BETA. Nested classes originated from Simula, but until recently they have not been part of main stream object- oriented languages. C++ has a restricted form of nested classes and they were included in Java 1.1. Virtual classes...... the central elements of the semantic analysis used in the Mjølner BETA compiler....
Social Class Dialogues and the Fostering of Class Consciousness
Madden, Meredith
2015-01-01
How do critical pedagogies promote undergraduate students' awareness of social class, social class identity, and social class inequalities in education? How do undergraduate students experience class consciousness-raising in the intergroup dialogue classroom? This qualitative study explores undergraduate students' class consciousness-raising in an…
General N-th Degree Stochastic Dominance
张顺明
2001-01-01
This paper examines N-th degree stochastic dominance which isused to compare the risk factor of risky assets after summarizing the definitions of first degree stochastic dominance and second degree stochastic dominance. The paper defines general N-th degree stochastic dominance, presents a sufficient and necessary condition which is the equivalent theorem of general N-th degree stochastic dominance. The feasible utility form is constructed to explain the economic meaning of N-th degree stochastic dominance in the field of financial economics. The equivalent condition is described by the probability distribution functions of risky assets, which are not related to utility functions (preference relations).
Middle Class and Democracy in Latin America
Jaime Fierro
2015-06-01
Full Text Available The consolidation of the middle class has been interpreted by modernization and postmodernization theories as a key factor for the functioning and stability of the democratic system. However, in Latin America the middle class has tended to be associated with two contradictory positions. On the one hand, it is emphasized that it plays a stabilizing and democratic role while, on the other hand, it is linked to supporting military coups. With the purpose of elucidate such a dilemma, the relationship that can be established between the socioeconomic status and the degree of support for democracy will be examined. In order to do this, an empirical analysis from Latinbarometer surveys databases will be conducted, covering seventeen countries in the region for the period from 1996 to 2011. It will be concluded that the middle class in Latin America does not have particularly more favorable attitudes toward democracy than other social segments.
The Complex Case of Positioning the Foundation Degree: Making Sense of a Degree That Is Not a Degree
Kadembo, Ernest
2008-01-01
The Foundation degree was launched in 2001 and has enjoyed growth but remains a controversial qualification. Foundation Degree Forward, the body charged by the UK government with providing a "national network or expertise to support the development and validation of high-quality Foundation degrees" is championing the marketing of the…
陈了了
2010-01-01
@@ As an exchange student majoring in English, I am curious about how English is taught to international students here in America. Therefore, I observed an IELP (Intensive English Learning Program) class in Central Connecticut State University where I study.
Teaching Heterogeneous Classes.
Millrood, Radislav
2002-01-01
Discusses an approach to teaching heterogeneous English-as-a-Second/Foreign-Language classes. Draws on classroom research data to describe the features of a success-building lesson context. (Author/VWL)
... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Classes of Heart Failure Updated:Sep 28,2016 Doctors usually classify patients' ... Blood Pressure Tracker Find additional helpful resources here Heart Failure • Home • About Heart Failure Introduction Types of Heart ...
admin
2015-01-01
To purchase this material click below link http://www.assignmentcloud.com/MKT-438/MKT-438-Complete-Class-Guide For more classes visit www.assignmentcloud.com MKT 438 Week 1 Individual Assignment Defining Public Relation Paper MKT 438 Week 2 Team Assignment Public Relations Campaign Overview Paper MKT 438 Week 3 Individual Assignment Functions of Public Relation Paper MKT 438 Week 3 Team Assignment Public Relations Campaig...
Airieau, S. A.
1999-09-01
The goal of this class is to provide basic astrobiology knowledge to upper division science students. The scope is broad and in-depth coverage is not possible in this introductory course. Instead, science students from various branches of academia can acquire a broad basis and understanding of the other fields: astronomy, biology, geology, biochemistry, planetary and space sciences. The class is highly modular and allows instructors to concentrate on or eliminate topics according to their priorities and preferences.
Fitness Club
2015-01-01
Four classes of one hour each are held on Tuesdays. RDV barracks parking at Entrance A, 10 minutes before class time. Spring Course 2015: 05.05/12.05/19.05/26.05 Prices 40 CHF per session + 10 CHF club membership 5 CHF/hour pole rental Check out our schedule and enroll at: https://espace.cern.ch/club-fitness/Lists/Nordic%20Walking/NewForm.aspx? Hope to see you among us! fitness.club@cern.ch
Multiplier Spectra and the Moduli Space of Degree 3 Morphisms on P1
Hutz, Benjamin
2011-01-01
The moduli space of degree $d$ morphisms on $\\mathbb{P}^1$ has received much study. McMullen showed that, except for certain families of Latt\\`es maps, there is a finite-to-one correspondence (over $\\mathbb{C}$) between classes of morphisms in the moduli space and the multipliers of the periodic points. For degree 2 morphisms Milnor (over $\\mathbb{C}$) and Silverman (over $\\mathbb{Z}$) showed that the correspondence is an isomorphism. In this article we address two cases: polynomial maps of any degree and rational maps of degree 3.
Perceived Benefits of an Undergraduate Degree
Cole Norton
2017-04-01
Full Text Available Canadian university students tend to endorse employment-related reasons for attending university ahead of other reasons such as personal satisfaction or intellectual growth. In the present study, first- and fourth-year students from a mid-sized Canadian university reported on the benefits they expected to receive from their degree and rated their relative importance. These open-ended responses suggested that both groups of students placed a greater emphasis on benefits related to career preparation and economic advancement than those associated with learning and self-improvement. However, when asked to evaluate the importance of a comprehensive list of degree-related benefits both groups of students endorsed the value of many of them, including those related to learning and self-improvement. Our results suggest the importance of methodology in gathering data about this issue, and we consider them in light of current concerns with helping students to understand the full value of their degree. Les étudiants des universités canadiennes ont tendance à accepter les raisons qui se rapportent à l’emploi pour justifier les études universitaires avant d’autres raisons telles que la satisfaction personnelle ou la croissance intellectuelle. Dans la présente étude, des étudiants de première année et de quatrième année d’une université canadienne de taille moyenne ont indiqué les avantages qu’ils s’attendaient à obtenir avec leur diplôme et les ont classés par ordre d’importance. Ces réponses ouvertes suggèrent que les deux groupes d’étudiants ont attribué une plus grande importance aux avantages liés à la préparation de leur carrière et à l’avancement économique qu’à ceux liés à l’apprentissage et à l’amélioration personnelle. Toutefois, quand on leur a demandé d’évaluer l’importance d’une liste complète d’avantages liés à l’obtention d’un diplôme, les deux groupes d’étudiants ont
Networks with superfat-tailed degree distributions
Timár, Gábor; Mendes, José Fernando F
2016-01-01
A majority of studied models for scale-free networks have degree distributions with exponents greater than $2$. Real networks, however, can demonstrate essentially more heavy-tailed degree distributions. We explore two models of scale-free equilibrium networks that have the degree distribution exponent $\\gamma = 1$, $P(q) \\sim q^{-\\gamma}$. Such "superfat-tailed" degree distributions can be identified in empirical data only if the mean degree of a network is sufficiently high. Our models exploit a rewiring mechanism. They are local in the sense that no knowledge of the network structure, apart from the immediate neighbourhood of the vertices, is required. These models generate uncorrelated networks in the infinite size limit, where they are solved explicitly. We investigate finite size effects by the use of simulations. We find that both models exhibit disassortative degree-degree correlations for finite network sizes. In addition, we observe a markedly degree-dependent clustering in the finite networks. We i...
Nonclassical degrees of freedom in the Riemann Hamiltonian.
Srednicki, Mark
2011-09-02
The Hilbert-Pólya conjecture states that the imaginary parts of the zeros of the Riemann zeta function are eigenvalues of a quantum Hamiltonian. If so, conjectures by Katz and Sarnak put this Hamiltonian in the Altland-Zirnbauer universality class C. This implies that the system must have a nonclassical two-valued degree of freedom. In such a system, the dominant primitive periodic orbits contribute to the density of states with a phase factor of -1. This resolves a previously mysterious sign problem with the oscillatory contributions to the density of the Riemann zeros.
Measures of quantum state purity and classical degree of polarization
Gamel, Omar
2013-01-01
There is a well-known mathematical similarity between two-dimensional classical polarization optics and two-level quantum systems, where the Poincare and Bloch spheres are identical mathematical structures. This analogy implies that the classical degree of polarization and quantum purity are in fact the same quantity. We make extensive use of this analogy to analyze various measures of polarization for higher dimensions proposed in the literature, in particular the N = 3 case, illustrating interesting relationships that emerge as well as the advantages of each measure. We also propose a different class of measures of entanglement based on the purity of subsystems.
Lower bounds on the class number of algebraic function fields defined over any finite field
Ballet, Stéphane
2011-01-01
We give lower bounds on the number of effective divisors of degree $\\leq g-1$ with respect to the number of places of certain degrees of an algebraic function field of genus $g$ defined over a finite field. We deduce lower bounds and asymptotics for the class number, depending mainly on the number of places of a certain degree. We give examples of towers of algebraic function fields having a large class number.
Invariant generalized ideal classes - structure theorems for $p$-class groups in $p$-extensions
Georges Gras
2017-02-01
We give, in sections 2 and 3, an english translation of: Classes g\\acute{e}n\\acute{e}ralis\\acute{e}es invariantes, J. Math. Soc. Japan, 46, 3 (1994), with some improvements and with notations and definitions in accordance with our book: Class Field Theory: From Theory to Practice, SMM, Springer-Verlag, 2nd corrected printing 2005. We recall, in section 4, some structure theorems for finite $\\mathbb{Z}_p[G]$-modules ($G\\simeq\\mathbb{Z}/p\\mathbb{Z}$) obtained in: Sur les$\\scr l$-classes d’id\\acute{e}aux dans les extensions cycliques relatives de degr\\acute{e} premier $\\mathcal{l}$, Annales de l’Institut Fourier, 23, 3 (1973). Then we recall the algorithm of local normic computations which allows to obtain the order and (potentially) the structure of a $p$-class group in a cyclic extension of degree $p$. In section 5, we apply this to the study of the structure of relative $p$-class groups of Abelian extensions of prime to $p$ degree, using the Thaine–Ribet–Mazur–Wiles–Kolyvagin ‘principal theorem’, and the notion of ‘admissible sets of prime numbers’ in a cyclic extension of degree $p$, from: Sur la structure des groupes de classes relatives, Annales de l’Institut Fourier, 43, 1 (1993). In conclusion, we suggest the study, in the same spirit, of some deep invariants attached to the $p$-ramification theory (as dual form of non-ramification theory) and which have become standard in a $p$-adic framework. Since some of these techniques have often been rediscovered, we give a substantial (but certainly incomplete) bibliography which may be used to have a broad view on the subject.
Elling, Rasmus Christian; Rezakhani, Khodadad
2016-01-01
Persian, like any other language, is laced with references to class, both blatant and subtle. With idioms and metaphors, Iranians can identify and situate others, and thus themselves, within hierarchies of social status and privilege, both real and imagined. Some class-related terms can be traced...... back to medieval times, whereas others are of modern vintage, the linguistic legacy of television shows, pop songs, social media memes or street vernacular. Every day, it seems, an infectious set of phrases appears that make yesterday’s seem embarrassingly antiquated....
Laynebaril1
2017-01-01
NR 512 Entire Class Click Link Below To Buy: http://hwcampus.com/shop/nr-512-entire-class/ Or Visit www.hwcampus.com NR512 Week 1 Discussion Latest 2017 Integration of Nursing Informatics Skills and Competencies (graded) • Reflect on your own practice. Discuss how informatics is used in your practice. What is your primary area where you would use informatics? NR512 Week 2 Discussion Latest 2017 Wisdom Versus Judgment (graded) How does the conc...
Werlauff, Erik
2009-01-01
The article deals with the relatively new Danish Act on Class Action (Danish: gruppesøgsmål) which was suggested by The Permanent Council on Civil procedure (Retsplejerådet) of which the article's author is a member. The operability of the new provisions is illustrated through some wellknown Dani...... cases: Hafnia case (investment prospectus), and Danish Eternit (roof elements) where the existence of Danish provisions on class actions might have made a difference, and the article also deals with the delicate questions of opt-in and opt-out....
Maria Torres De Squire
1987-01-01
Full Text Available We extend F. Holland's definition of the space of resonant classes of functions, on the real line, to the space R(Φpq (1≦p, q≦∞ of resonant classes of measures, on locally compact abelian groups. We characterize this space in terms of transformable measures and establish a realatlonship between R(Φpq and the set of positive definite functions for amalgam spaces. As a consequence we answer the conjecture posed by L. Argabright and J. Gil de Lamadrid in their work on Fourier analysis of unbounded measures.
Dr. K. Sravana Kumar
2016-01-01
The middle class is placed between labour and capital. It neither directly awns the means of production that pumps out the surplus generated by wage labour power, nor does it, by its own labour, produce the surplus which has use and exchange value. Broadly speaking, this class consists of the petty bourgeoisie and the white-collar workers. The former are either self-employed or involved in the distribution of commodities and t...
Dr. K. Sravana Kumar
2016-01-01
The middle class is placed between labour and capital. It neither directly awns the means of production that pumps out the surplus generated by wage labour power, nor does it, by its own labour, produce the surplus which has use and exchange value. Broadly speaking, this class consists of the petty bourgeoisie and the white-collar workers. The former are either self-employed or involved in the distribution of commodities and t...
Laynebaril1
2017-01-01
BUSN 460 Complete Class Click Link Below To Buy: http://hwcampus.com/shop/busn-460-complete-class/ Week 1 DQ 1 Selling your team’s services to CanGo Week 1 DQ 2 Mission, Vision & Values Week 2 DQ 1 Planning a Technological Solution Week 2 DQ 2 Cost Benefit Analysis Week 3 DQ 1 Flow Charting Processes Week 3 DQ 2 Implementing Technology Week 4 DQ 1 Group vs Team Week 4 DQ 2 Matrixed Employee Environments Week 5 DQ 1 Pe...
MacLennan, Michael; Magalhães, Beatrix Judice
2013-01-01
The Middle class as a concept has evolved over time, taking on various meanings at various points throughout history, becoming an object to aspire to for poor people, an object of desire for a strong government, a buzzword for politicians the world over, and the source of new customers for firms, and the global economy more broadly. This special issue of Poverty in Focus, exclusively devoted to the exploration of themes related to the middle class is part of a larger endeavour initiated by Th...
Classification and estimation in the Stochastic Block Model based on the empirical degrees
Channarond, Antoine; Robin, Stéphane
2011-01-01
The Stochastic Block Model (Holland et al., 1983) is a mixture model for heterogeneous network data. Unlike the usual statistical framework, new nodes give additional information about the previous ones in this model. Thereby the distribution of the degrees concentrates in points conditionally on the node class. We show under a mild assumption that classification, estimation and model selection can actually be achieved with no more than the empirical degree data. We provide an algorithm able to process very large networks and consistent estimators based on it. In particular, we prove a bound of the probability of misclassification of at least one node, including when the number of classes grows.
Symmetry breaking: a tool to unveil the topology of chaotic scattering with three degrees of freedom
Jung, Christof; Zapfe, W. P. Karel; Merlo, Olivier; Seligman, T. H.
2010-12-01
We shall use symmetry breaking as a tool to attack the problem of identifying the topology of chaotic scatteruing with more then two degrees of freedom. specifically we discuss the structure of the homoclinic/heteroclinic tangle and the connection between the chaotic invariant set, the scattering functions and the singularities in the cross section for a class of scattering systems with one open and two closed degrees of freedom.
Class, Cultism, and Multiculturalism.
McLaren, Peter; Farahmandpur, Ramin
2001-01-01
Globalization has hurt both developed and developing countries. Capitalism's relations of exploitation can hurt people of color in disabling ways. Discusses the relationships among race, gender, ethnic, and class identities in order to articulate a political framework that moves toward transnational ethnic alliances, abolishing the role of capital…
DeRogatis, Amy; Honerkamp, Kenneth; McDaniel, Justin; Medine, Carolyn; Nyitray, Vivian-Lee; Pearson, Thomas
2014-01-01
The editor of "Teaching Theology and Religion" facilitated this reflective conversation with five teachers who have extensive experience and success teaching extremely large classes (150 students or more). In the course of the conversation these professors exchange and analyze the effectiveness of several active learning strategies they…
Communication, "Class," and Culture.
Jeffres, Leo W.
A study was conducted to examine the relationships among communication, social class, and ethnic heritage. Eleven of thirteen ethnic groups in a Midwestern metropolitan area who had been studied in 1976 were surveyed again in late 1980 and early 1981. Groups surveyed were Irish, Greek, Czech, Italian, Lebanese, Hungarian, Lithuanian, Polish,…
Herron-Thorpe, Farren L.; Olson, Jo Clay; Davis, Denny
2010-01-01
Toys in the classroom was the result of a National Science Foundation grant that brought two engineering graduate students to a middle school math class. The graduate students and teachers collaborated in an effort to enhance students' mathematical learning. An engineering context was theorized as a way to further develop students' understanding…
Gridley, C. Robert R.
This teaching guide contains 200 activities that are suitable for openers and demonstrations in biology classes. Details are provided regarding the use of these activities. Some of the broad topics under which the activities are organized include algae, amphibians, bacteria, biologists, crustaceans, dinosaurs, ecology, evolution, flowering plants,…
Flyvbjerg, Bent
Underbudgettering og budgetoverskridelser forekommer i et flertal af større bygge- og anlægsprojekter. Problemet skyldes optimisme og/eller strategisk misinformation i budgetteringsprocessen. Reference class forecasting (RCF) er en prognosemetode, som er udviklet for at reducere eller eliminere...
Fischbein, Siv
1980-01-01
Swedish longitudinal studies of twins support Scarr-Salapatek's explanation of nature-nurture influences on intelligence. This model predicts more genetic variance in test results for advantaged than disadvantaged groups. Jensen's work, however, suggests equal amounts of variance among different social classes. (Author/CP)
An "expanded" class perspective
Steur, Luisa Johanna
2014-01-01
-back of Adivasis against their age-old colonization or the work of ‘external’ agitators. Capitalist restructuring and ‘globalization’ was generally seen as simply the latest chapter in the suffering of these Adivasis. Little focused attention was paid to the recent class trajectory of their lives under changing...
无
2011-01-01
Though there is no official definition of "middle class" in China, the tag has become one few Chinese people believe they deserve anyway.In early August, the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences released a report on China’s urban development,
Diagnosis and Treatment of Pseudo-Class III Malocclusion
Ariel Reyes; Luis Serret; Marcos Peguero; Orlando Tanaka
2014-01-01
Pseudo-Class III malocclusion is characterized by the presence of an anterior crossbite due to a forward functional displacement of the mandible; in most cases, the maxillary incisors present some degree of retroclination, and the mandibular incisors are proclined. Various types of appliances have been described in the literature for the early treatment of pseudo-Class III malocclusion. The objectives of this paper are to demonstrate the importance of making the differential diagnosis between...
Dynamics and Control of a Class of Underactuated Mechanical Systems
Reyhanoglu, Mahmut; van der Schaft, Arjan; McClamroch, N. Harris; Kolmanovsky, Ilya
1999-01-01
This paper presents a theoretical framework for the dynamics and control of underactuated mechanical systems, defined as systems with fewer inputs than degrees of freedom. Control system formulation of underactuated mechanical systems is addressed and a class of underactuated systems characterized by nonintegrable dynamics relations is identified. Controllability and stabilizability results are derived for this class of underactuated systems. Examples are included to illustrate the results; t...
Academic outcomes in school classes with markedly disruptive pupils
Bru, Edvin
2009-01-01
The aim of the present research is to investigate the degree to which average academic outcomes in secondary school classes are associated with the inclusion of markedly disruptive pupils. Findings are based on two separate studies among pupils in Norwegian secondary schools. The first s tudy i ncluded a r elatively large sample of 2,332 pupils from 105 school classes and used pupil report of disruptive behaviour, perceived peace to learn and grades achieved. A second study, co...
Determination of Even Degree of Animal Population
SongRen－xue; YangYun－qing
1999-01-01
The even degree of animal population is generlay measured by the coefficient of variation of major economic characters.Facing the coefficient of variation,a statistic with complex properties,we achieved indirectly the determination of confidence interval for even degree of an animal population by analysing the reciprocal of the statistic.The sample size which is suitable to the determination of the even degree of an animal population was probed into within the extent of permissive estimation error.
Determination of Even Degree of Animal Population
无
1999-01-01
The even degree of animal population is generlay measured by the coefficient of variation of major eco- nomic characters. Facing the coefficient of variation,a statistic with complex properties,we achieved indirectly the determination of confidence interval for even degree of an animal population by analysing the reciprocal of the statistic. The sample size which is suitable to the determination of the even degree of an animal population was probed into within the extent of permissive estimation error.
Degree of Competition of Consumer Loan Industry
Kohei Kubota; Yoshiro Tsutsui
2008-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to estimate the degree of competition of consumer loan industry in Japan utilizing responses to a questionnaire survey conducted by Japan Consumer Finance Association. Estimating the cost function, we found that the industry is characterized by large scale economies. Estimation of Lerner index, H-statistics, degree of noncompetition, and degree of collusion reveals that consumer loan market is highly monopolistic. Consumer loan companies answered to a question tha...
Degree-layer theory of network topology
Zhou, Bin; Zhe, He
2014-01-01
The network topology can be described by the number of nodes and the interconnections among them. The degree of a node in a network is the number of connections it has to other nodes and the degree distribution is the probability distribution of these degrees over the whole network. Therefore, the degree is very important structural parameter of network topology. However, given the number of nodes and the degree of each node in a network, the topology of the network cannot be determined. Therefore, we propose the degree-layer theory of network topology to describe deeply the network topology. First, we propose the concept of degree-tree with the breadth-first search tree. The degrees of all nodes are layered and have a hierarchical structure. Second,the degree-layer theory is described in detail. Two new concepts are defined in the theory. An index is proposed to quantitatively distinguish the two network topologies. It also can quantitatively measure the stability of network topology built by a model mechani...
Cooperation in an evolutionary prisoner's dilemma on networks with degree-degree correlations.
Devlin, Stephen; Treloar, Thomas
2009-08-01
We study the effects of degree-degree correlations on the success of cooperation in an evolutionary prisoner's dilemma played on a random network. When degree-degree correlations are not present, the standardized variance of the network's degree distribution has been shown to be an accurate analytical measure of network heterogeneity that can be used to predict the success of cooperation. In this paper, we use a local-mechanism interpretation of standardized variance to give a generalization to graphs with degree-degree correlations. Two distinct mechanisms are shown to influence cooperation levels on these types of networks. The first is an intrinsic measurement of base-line heterogeneity coming from the network's degree distribution. The second is the increase in heterogeneity coming from the degree-degree correlations present in the network. A strong linear relationship is found between these two parameters and the average cooperation level in an evolutionary prisoner's dilemma on a network.
Gauge symmetries of systems with a finite number of degrees of freedom
Loran, Farhang
2008-01-01
For systems with a finite number of degrees of freedom, it is shown in [arXiv:hep-th/0303014] that first class constraints are Abelianizable if the Faddeev-Popov determinant is not vanishing for some choice of subsidiary constraints. Here, for irreducible first class constraint systems with SO(3) or SO(4) gauge symmetries, including a subset of coordinates in the fundamental representation of the gauge group, we explicitly determine the Abelianizable and non-Abelianizable classes of constraints. For the Abelianizable class, we explicitly solve the constraints to obtain the equivalent set of Abelian first class constraints. We show that for non-Abelianizable constraints there exist residual gauge symmetries which results in confinement-like phenomena.
Coincidence classes in nonorientable manifolds
2006-01-01
Full Text Available We study Nielsen coincidence theory for maps between manifolds of same dimension regardless of orientation. We use the definition of semi-index of a class, review the definition of defective classes, and study the occurrence of defective root classes. We prove a semi-index product formula for lifting maps and give conditions for the defective coincidence classes to be the only essential classes.
Spectrum of classes of point emitters of electromagnetic wave fields.
Castañeda, Román
2016-09-01
The spectrum of classes of point emitters has been introduced as a numerical tool suitable for the design, analysis, and synthesis of non-paraxial optical fields in arbitrary states of spatial coherence. In this paper, the polarization state of planar electromagnetic wave fields is included in the spectrum of classes, thus increasing its modeling capabilities. In this context, optical processing is realized as a filtering on the spectrum of classes of point emitters, performed by the complex degree of spatial coherence and the two-point correlation of polarization, which could be implemented dynamically by using programmable optical devices.
Diagnosis and Treatment of Pseudo-Class III Malocclusion.
Reyes, Ariel; Serret, Luis; Peguero, Marcos; Tanaka, Orlando
2014-01-01
Pseudo-Class III malocclusion is characterized by the presence of an anterior crossbite due to a forward functional displacement of the mandible; in most cases, the maxillary incisors present some degree of retroclination, and the mandibular incisors are proclined. Various types of appliances have been described in the literature for the early treatment of pseudo-Class III malocclusion. The objectives of this paper are to demonstrate the importance of making the differential diagnosis between a skeletal and a pseudo-Class III malocclusion and to describe the correction of an anterior crossbite. The association of maxillary expansion and a 2 × 4 appliance can successfully be used to correct anterior crossbites.
New High in Engineering Degree Production. Facts
Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2010
2010-01-01
Several of the state's key industry sectors depend heavily on employees with advanced scientific, analytic and technical knowledge. Among the fields closely related to these sectors, engineering degrees have posted the largest gain. This paper presents details on the following facts: (1) 2009 represented a record high for engineering degrees; (2)…
Competency-Based Business Degree. Issue Brief
Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2014
2014-01-01
In January 2015, thirteen Washington community colleges launched an online, competency-based business transfer degree--the first in the state's community and technical college system. This issue brief provides answers to commonly asked questions about the new competency-based degree.
Master's Degree Studies: Expectations versus Reality
Swanepoel, C. H.
2010-01-01
During the past two decades, higher education in South Africa has been affected drastically by transformation. An issue that has specifically been influenced is master's degrees. A significant increase in the demand for access to course work master's degrees has been experienced, while universities themselves have been confronted with a new…
Experiencing Higher Degree Research Supervision as Teaching
Bruce, Christine; Stoodley, Ian
2013-01-01
This article describes higher degree research supervisors' experiences of supervision as teaching. While research education is considered central to the higher degree research experience, comparatively little is known to date of the teaching lenses adopted by supervisors as they go about their supervision. We worked with 35 supervisors engaged in…
Powers of the degree of coherence.
Mei, Zhangrong; Korotkova, Olga; Mao, Yonghua
2015-04-01
We establish conditions under which a legitimate degree of coherence of a statistically stationary beam-like field raised to a power results in a novel legitimate degree of coherence. The general results and examples relate to scalar beams having uniform and non-uniform correlations.
Nuclear Engineering Enrollments and Degrees, 1982.
Sweeney, Deborah H.; And Others
This report presents data on the number of students enrolled and the number of bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees awarded in academic year 1981-82 from 72 United States institutions offering degree programs in nuclear engineering or nuclear options within other engineering fields. Presented as well are historical data for the last decade…
Walker, L; Sell, I
2001-01-01
ABSTRACT Lesbian activist Léonie Walker traces the evolution of her involvement in social change philanthropy and her work to bring together activists of diverse class and racial backgrounds. She shows how she was trained as an activist, discusses conscious and socially responsible ways to steward wealth, and gives voice to the seldom-heard experiences of LGBT people with inherited wealth. The co-founder of the Women Managing Wealth program at the Ms. Foundation and a board member of Astraea Lesbian Action Foundation, she has also developed and facilitated numerous Dismantling Classism workshops. In this article, she discusses the importance of, and ways of implementing, cross-class, cross-race dialogue that can further understanding among activists of different backgrounds.
World Class Facilities Management
Malmstrøm, Ole Emil; Jensen, Per Anker
2013-01-01
Alle der med entusiasme arbejder med Facilities Management drømmer om at levere World Class. DFM drømmer om at skabe rammer og baggrund for, at vi i Danmark kan bryste os at være blandt de førende på verdensplan. Her samles op på, hvor tæt vi er på at nå drømmemålet.......Alle der med entusiasme arbejder med Facilities Management drømmer om at levere World Class. DFM drømmer om at skabe rammer og baggrund for, at vi i Danmark kan bryste os at være blandt de førende på verdensplan. Her samles op på, hvor tæt vi er på at nå drømmemålet....
2013-01-01
• First major publication on the phenomenon • Offers cross-linguistic, descriptive, and diverse theoretical approaches • Includes analysis of data from different language families and from lesser studied languages This book is the first major cross-linguistic study of 'flexible words', i.e. words...... that cannot be classified in terms of the traditional lexical categories Verb, Noun, Adjective or Adverb. Flexible words can - without special morphosyntactic marking - serve in functions for which other languages must employ members of two or more of the four traditional, 'specialised' word classes. Thus......, flexible words are underspecified for communicative functions like 'predicating' (verbal function), 'referring' (nominal function) or 'modifying' (a function typically associated with adjectives and e.g. manner adverbs). Even though linguists have been aware of flexible world classes for more than...
World Class Facilities Management
Malmstrøm, Ole Emil; Jensen, Per Anker
2013-01-01
Alle der med entusiasme arbejder med Facilities Management drømmer om at levere World Class. DFM drømmer om at skabe rammer og baggrund for, at vi i Danmark kan bryste os at være blandt de førende på verdensplan. Her samles op på, hvor tæt vi er på at nå drømmemålet.......Alle der med entusiasme arbejder med Facilities Management drømmer om at levere World Class. DFM drømmer om at skabe rammer og baggrund for, at vi i Danmark kan bryste os at være blandt de førende på verdensplan. Her samles op på, hvor tæt vi er på at nå drømmemålet....
Manish Sonthalia
2010-01-01
India has had two stages of growth, both related to consumption since 1947. The first was based on developing economic self sufficiency; the second on rising disposable income. It is now entering its third period of consumption growth which sees it entering the world stage as one of the largest consumers in the world. This paper explains the factors that are driving this dramatic shift from the emerging middle classes to the patterns of consumption and investment in India today.
Infinite-degree-corrected stochastic block model
Herlau, Tue; Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard; Mørup, Morten
2014-01-01
In stochastic block models, which are among the most prominent statistical models for cluster analysis of complex networks, clusters are defined as groups of nodes with statistically similar link probabilities within and between groups. A recent extension by Karrer and Newman [Karrer and Newman......, Phys. Rev. E 83, 016107 (2011)] incorporates a node degree correction to model degree heterogeneity within each group. Although this demonstrably leads to better performance on several networks, it is not obvious whether modeling node degree is always appropriate or necessary. We formulate the degree...... corrected stochastic block model as a nonparametric Bayesian model, incorporating a parameter to control the amount of degree correction that can then be inferred from data. Additionally, our formulation yields principled ways of inferring the number of groups as well as predicting missing links...
On Second Order Degree of Graphs
Gabriela ARAUJO-PARDO; Camino BALBUENA; Mika OLSEN; Pilar VALENCIA
2012-01-01
Given a vertex v of a graph G the second order degree of v denoted as d2 (v) is defined as the number of vertices at distance 2 from v.In this paper we address the following question:What are the sufficient conditions for a graph to have a vertex v such that d2(v) ≥ d(v),where d(v) denotes the degree of v? Among other results,every graph of minimum degree exactly 2,except four graphs,is shown to have a vertex of second order degree as large as its own degree.Moreover,every K-4-free graph or every maximal planar graph is shown to have a vertex v such that d2(v) ≥ d(v).Other sufficient conditions on graphs for guaranteeing this property are also proved.
A novel configuration model for random graphs with given degree sequence
Xu Xin-Ping; Liu Feng
2007-01-01
Recently, random graphs in which vertices are characterized by hidden variables controlling the establishment of edges between pairs of vertices have attracted much attention. This paper presents a specific realization of a class of random network models in which the connection probability between two vertices (i, j) is a specific function of degrees ki and kj. In the framework of the configuration model of random graphs, we find the analytical expressions for the degree correlation and clustering as a function of the variance of the desired degree distribution. The obtained expressions are checked by means of numerical simulations. Possible applications of our model are discussed.
Benach, Joan; Amable, Marcelo
2004-05-01
Social classes and poverty are two key social determinants fundamental to understand how disease and health inequalities are produced. During the 90's in Spain there has been a notable oscillation in the inequality and poverty levels, with an increase in the middle of the decade when new forms of social exclusion, high levels of unemployment and great difficulties in accessing the labour market, especially for those workers with less resources, emerged. Today society is still characterized by a clear social stratification and the existence of social classes with a predominance of high levels of unemployment and precarious jobs, and where poverty is an endemic social problem much worse than the EU average. To diminish health inequalities and to improve the quality of life will depend very much on the reduction of the poverty levels and the improvement of equal opportunities and quality of employment. To increase understanding of how social class and poverty affect public health, there is a need to improve the quality of both information and research, and furthermore planners and political decision makers must take into account those determinants when undertaking disease prevention and health promotion.
Rough similarity degree and rough close degree in rough fuzzy sets and the applications
Li Jian; Xu Xiaojing; Shi Kaiquan
2008-01-01
Based on rough similarity degree of rough sets and close degree of fuzzy sets,the definitions of rough similarity degree and rough close degree of rough fuzzy sets are given,which can be used to measure the similar degree between two rough fuzzy sets.The properties and theorems are listed.Using the two new measures,the method of clustering in the rough fuzzy system can be obtained.After clustering,the new fuzzy sample can be recognized by the principle of maximal similarity degree.
The Associate Degree Nursing Program at Rio Hondo College: A Research Report.
Michaels, Joseph
During 1975-76, an evaluation of the Associate Degree Nursing (ADN) program at Rio Hondo College was undertaken which involved: (1) surveying all nursing graduates in the classes of 1973, 1974, and 1975, and all fourth semester students currently enrolled in the program; (2) surveying or interviewing all instructional staff for the ADN program;…
RESEARCH OF THE PERIODIC MOTION AND STABILITY OF TWO-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM NONLINEAR OSCILLATING SYSTEMS
刘俊
2002-01-01
The periodic motion and stability for a class of two-degree-of freedom nonlinear oscillating systems are studied by using the method of Liapunov function.The sufficient conditions which guarantee the existence, uniqueness and asymptotic stability of the periodic solutions are obtained.
Class Action and Class Settlement in a European Perspective
Werlauff, Erik
2013-01-01
The article analyses the options for introducing common European rules on class action lawsuits with an opt-out-model in individual cases. An analysis is made of how the risks of misuse of class actions can be prevented. The article considers the Dutch rules on class settlements (the WCAM procedure...
The Transcendence Degree over a Ring
Kemper, Gregor
2011-01-01
For a finitely generated algebra over a field, the transcendence degree is known to be equal to the Krull dimension. The aim of this paper is to generalize this result to algebras over rings. A new definition of the transcendence degree of an algebra A over a ring R is given by calling elements of A algebraically dependent if they satisfy an algebraic equation over R whose trailing coefficient, with respect to some monomial ordering, is 1. The main result is that for a finitely generated algebra over a Noetherian Jacobson ring, the transcendence degree is equal to the Krull dimension.
Branding the bio/biomedical engineering degree.
Voigt, Herbert F
2011-01-01
The future challenges to medical and biological engineering, sometimes referred to as biomedical engineering or simply bioengineering, are many. Some of these are identifiable now and others will emerge from time to time as new technologies are introduced and harnessed. There is a fundamental issue regarding "Branding the bio/biomedical engineering degree" that requires a common understanding of what is meant by a B.S. degree in Biomedical Engineering, Bioengineering, or Biological Engineering. In this paper we address some of the issues involved in branding the Bio/Biomedical Engineering degree, with the aim of clarifying the Bio/Biomedical Engineering brand.
Classroom contexts: connections between class size and within class grouping.
Blatchford, P; Baines, E; Kutnick, P; Martin, C
2001-06-01
There has been a vigorous debate for many years about the educational effects of class size differences, but even if differences have an impact on pupils' academic progress this still leaves unanswered important questions about what mediates the effect. This paper is informed by a classroom contextual perspective, and examines associations between class size and within class groupings (in terms of size and number of groups, adult presence in groups, and type of interaction between grouping members). Age differences in these relationships are also explored. The quantitative study is based on analysis of 3157 groupings, from 672 Reception, Year 2 and Year 5 classes in 331 schools. The qualitative study was based on 12 classes in 8 case study schools, and questionnaire responses completed by over 100 class teachers. Links between size of class and within class groupings were examined on the basis of a 'grouping mapping survey', in which teachers at a given time in the school day provided information on group size and number, adult presence, and type of interaction between pupils, and complementary qualitative analyses of data from teacher-completed questionnaires, and interviews. The number of groups in a class increased with the size of the class. Over all three year groups, small classes had on average just over three groups, while large classes approached six groups. The size of groups in the class decreased with size of class. In class sizes over 25, pupils were more likely to be in a large group of 7-10, while in classes under 25 they were more likely to be in whole class groupings. Qualitative analyses showed that teachers felt that groups of 7-10 pupils had negative educational effects, for example, in terms of the quality and quantity of teaching and children's concentration and contribution in groups. Results suggest that the effects of class size can be best seen as through the size and number of groups, which will then have implications for learning
Archform comparisons between skeletal class II and III malocclusions.
Zou, Wei; Wu, JiaQi; Jiang, JiuHui; Xu, TianMin; Li, CuiYing
2014-01-01
The purpose of this cross-sectional research was to explore the relationship of the mandibular dental and basal bone archforms between severe Skeletal Class II (SC2) and Skeletal Class III (SC3) malocclusions. We also compared intercanine and intermolar widths in these two malocclusion types. Thirty-three virtual pretreatment mandibular models (Skeletal Class III group) and Thirty-five Skeletal Class II group pretreatment models were created with a laser scanning system. FA (the midpoint of the facial axis of the clinical crown)and WALA points (the most prominent point on the soft-tissue ridge)were employed to produce dental and basal bone archforms, respectively. Gained scatter diagrams of the samples were processed by nonlinear regression analysis via SPSS 17.0. The mandibular dental and basal bone intercanine and intermolar widths were significantly greater in the Skeletal Class III group compared to the Skeletal Class II group. In both groups, a moderate correlation existed between dental and basal bone arch widths in the canine region, and a high correlation existed between dental and basal bone arch widths in the molar region. The coefficient of correlation of the Skeletal Class III group was greater than the Skeletal Class II group. Fourth degree, even order power functions were used as best-fit functions to fit the scatter plots. The radius of curvature was larger in Skeletal Class III malocclusions compared to Skeletal Class II malocclusions (rWALA3>rWALA2>rFA3>rFA2). In conclusion, mandibular dental and basal intercanine and intermolar widths were significantly different between the two groups. Compared with Skeletal Class II subjects, the mandibular archform was more flat for Skeletal Class III subjects.
Dynamics and control of a class of underactuated mechanical systems
Reyhanoglu, Mahmut; Schaft, van der Arjan; McClamroch, N. Harris; Kolmanovsky, Ilya
1999-01-01
This paper presents a theoretical framework for the dynamics and control of underactuated mechanical systems, defined as systems with fewer inputs than degrees of freedom. Control system formulation of underactuated mechanical systems is addressed and a class of underactuated systems characterized b
Dynamics and Control of a Class of Underactuated Mechanical Systems
Reyhanoglu, Mahmut; Schaft, Arjan van der; McClamroch, N. Harris; Kolmanovsky, Ilya
1999-01-01
This paper presents a theoretical framework for the dynamics and control of underactuated mechanical systems, defined as systems with fewer inputs than degrees of freedom. Control system formulation of underactuated mechanical systems is addressed and a class of underactuated systems characterized b
The essence of fire regime-condition class assessment
McKinley-Ben Miller
2008-01-01
The interagency-Fire Regime / Condition Class - assessment process (FRCC) represents a contemporary and effective means of estimating the relative degree of difference or "departure" a subject landscape condition is currently in, as compared to the historic or reference ecological conditions. This process generally applied to fire adapted systems is science-...
The CM class number one problem for curves
Kilicer, P.
2016-01-01
The main subject of this thesis is the CM class number one problem for curves of genus g, in the cases g=2 and g=3. The problem asks for which CM fields of degree 2g with a primitive CM type are the corresponding CM curves of genus g defined over the reflex field. Chapter 1 is an introduction to ab
2014-01-01
Projeto de Pós-Graduação/Dissertação apresentado à Universidade Fernando Pessoa como parte dos requisitos para obtenção do grau de Mestre em Medicina Dentária Introdução: A anomalia de classe III, é uma má oclusão que afeta os indivíduos psicologicamente, pois hoje em dia, a estética é socialmente valorizada. Deste modo, o diagnóstico deve ser executado precocemente para que os indivíduos portadores desta anomalia, possam ser acompanhados desde criança, pelos profissionais área da Medicina...
Degrees of Truthfulness in Accepted Scientific Claims
Ahmed Hassan Mabrouk
2008-01-01
...";">: Sciences adopt different methodologies in deriving claims and establishing theories. As a result, two accepted claims or theories belonging to two different sciences may not necessarily carry the same degree of truthfulness...
Degrees of Curves in Abelian Varieties
Debarre, O
1992-01-01
The degree of a curve $C$ in a polarized abelian variety $(X,\\lambda)$ is the integer $d=C\\cdot\\lambda$. When $C$ generates $X$, we find a lower bound on $d$ which depends on $n$ and the degree of the polarization $\\lambda$. The smallest possible degree is $d=n$ and is obtained only for a smooth curve in its Jacobian with its principal polarization (Ran, Collino). The cases $d=n+1$ and $d=n+2$ are studied. Moreover, when $X$ is simple, it is shown, using results of Smyth on the trace of totally positive algebraic integers, that if $d\\le 1.7719\\, n$, then $C$ is smooth and $X$ is isomorphic to its Jacobian. We also get an upper bound on the geometric genus of $C$ in terms of its degree.
The Doctor of Physical Therapy Degree: A New Curriculum for a New Degree
Rapport, Mary Jane K.; Stelzner, Denise; Rodriguez, Jenny
2007-01-01
By 2020, all graduates of accredited physical therapy programs will receive the Doctor of Physical Therapy (DPT) degree. Bachelor degrees in physical therapy are no longer granted, and over 83% (N = 176 accredited programs) of the entry-level physical therapy education programs already grant the DPT degree. The purpose of this article is to…
Directed networks' different link formation mechanisms causing degree distribution distinction
Behfar, Stefan Kambiz; Turkina, Ekaterina; Cohendet, Patrick; Burger-Helmchen, Thierry
2016-11-01
-source-software (OSS) project-project dependency within a cluster, package-package dependency within a project and class-class dependency within a package. We conclude that indegree and outdegree dependencies do not lead to similar type of degree distributions, implying that indegree dependencies follow overall power-law distribution (or power-law with flat-top or exponential cut-off in some cases), while outdegree dependencies do not follow heavy-tailed distribution.
[Hemodynamic changes in myopia of different degrees].
Mamikonian, V R; Shmeleva-Demir, O A; Kharlap, S I; Andzhelova, D V; Kazarian, E E; Makashova, N V; Galoian, N S; Mazurova, Iu V; Tatevosian, A A; Karapetian, A T
2013-01-01
A total of 78 patients (143 eyes) with low, medium and high degree myopia were assessed. Apart from standard ophthalmological tests, flowmetry and duplex ultrasound of ocular vessels were performed in all cases to evaluate volumetric and velocity parameters of ocular blood flow in relation to the length of anterior-posterior axis and the degree of myopia. It is found that both parameters of regional blood flow progressively decrease as the anterior-posterior axis increases.
Quantification of modulation degree for VMAT
Park, Jong Min; Park, So Yeon; Wu, Hong Gyun; Kim, Jin Ho; Ye, Sung Joon [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Carkson, Joel [Program in Biomedical Radiation Sciences, Dept. of Transdisciplinary Studies, Seoul National University Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2014-11-15
The aim of this study is to quantify the degree of modulation by presenting a modulation index (MI) for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) based on the speed and acceleration analysis of modulating-parameters such as multi-leaf collimator (MLC) movements, gantry rotation and dose-rate, comprehensively, as well as by performing texture analysis on fluence maps. The MIt showed good performance for the evaluation of the modulation-degree of VMAT plans showing highest correlations to the plan deliverability.
Interplay of degree correlations and cluster synchronization
Jalan, Sarika; Kumar, Anil; Zaikin, Alexey; Kurths, Jürgen
2016-12-01
We study the evolution of coupled chaotic dynamics on networks and investigate the role of degree-degree correlation in the networks' cluster synchronizability. We find that an increase in the disassortativity can lead to an increase or a decrease in the cluster synchronizability depending on the degree distribution and average connectivity of the network. Networks with heterogeneous degree distribution exhibit significant changes in cluster synchronizability as well as in the phenomena behind cluster synchronization as compared to those of homogeneous networks. Interestingly, cluster synchronizability of a network may be very different from global synchronizability due to the presence of the driven phenomenon behind the cluster formation. Furthermore, we show how degeneracy at the zero eigenvalues provides an understanding of the occurrence of the driven phenomenon behind the synchronization in disassortative networks. The results demonstrate the importance of degree-degree correlations in determining cluster synchronization behavior of complex networks and hence have potential applications in understanding and predicting dynamical behavior of complex systems ranging from brain to social systems.
Team Learning in Large Classes.
Roueche, Suanne D., Ed.
1984-01-01
Information and suggestions are provided on the use of team learning in large college classes. Introductory material discusses the negative cycle of student-teacher interaction that may be provoked by large classes, and the use of permanent, heterogeneous, six- or seven-member student learning groups as the central focus of class activity as a…
Reconciling Virtual Classes with Genericity
Ernst, Erik
2006-01-01
classes. As a result, a kind of type parameters have been introduced, but they are simple and only used where they excel. Conversely, final definitions of virtual classes have been re- moved from the language, thus making virtual classes more flexible. The result- ing language presents a clearer and more...
Understanding Class in Contemporary Societies
Harrits, Gitte Sommer
2007-01-01
In this paper, I argue that claims about the death of class and the coming of the classless society are premature. Such claims are seldom genuinely empirical, and the theoretical argument often refers to a simple and therefore easily dismissible concept of class. By rejecting the concept of class...
[Nutritional evaluation and functional class in hospitalized cardiopathy patients].
Herrera Franco, R; Martínez Martínez, E; López Vega, L T; Astudillo Sandoval, R; Benítez Pérez, C; Ariza Andraca, H
1999-01-01
The nutritional state evaluation of any patient with heart disease must include the anthropometric measures, organic metabolic and cellular immunity test. We evaluated the nutritional state of 75 hospitalized patients with heart disease, and its correlation with New York Heart Association class and heart disease type. There was 36 patients (48%) with normal nutritional state, 24 (32%) with grade I malnutrition, 12 (16%) with grade II malnutrition, and 3 (4%) with grade III malnutrition. Of 23 patients with rheumatic valvular heart disease 83.4% have some degree of malnutrition, 37 patients with ischemic heart disease 25% was under nourished. Fifty percent of patients with hypertensive cardiopathy, 75% of the patients with cardiomyopathy and 83% of the 7 patients with other type of heart disease had some degree of malnourishment. There was a direct correlation between nutritional state and functional class, we found no patient in IV class functional with normal nutritional state, or grade I malnutrition.
Hirzebruch classes of complex hypersurfaces
Cappell, Sylvain E; Schuermann, Joerg; Shaneson, Julius L
2009-01-01
The Milnor-Hirzebruch class of a locally complete intersection X in an algebraic manifold M measures the difference between the (Poincare dual of the) Hirzebruch class of the virtual tangent bundle of X and, respectively, the Brasselet-Schuermann-Yokura (homology) Hirzebruch class of X. In this note, we calculate the Milnor-Hirzebruch class of a globally defined algebraic hypersurface X in terms of the corresponding Hirzebruch invariants of singular strata in a Whitney stratification of X. Our approach is based on Schuermann's specialization property for the motivic Hirzebruch class transformation of Brasselet-Schuermann-Yokura.
Class Attendance in Undergraduate Classes: Why and When Do Students Miss Classes?
Van Blerkom, Malcolm L.
The first part of this study examined class attendance of 959 students in 17 sections of undergraduate psychology classes. It was found that class attendance decreased from the beginning to the end of the semester. An investigation of 117 of the students found that attendance displayed moderate correlations with course grades. Students missed…
Class Discovery in Galaxy Classification
Bazell, D; Bazell, David; Miller, David J.
2004-01-01
In recent years, automated, supervised classification techniques have been fruitfully applied to labeling and organizing large astronomical databases. These methods require off-line classifier training, based on labeled examples from each of the (known) object classes. In practice, only a small batch of labeled examples, hand-labeled by a human expert, may be available for training. Moreover, there may be no labeled examples for some classes present in the data, i.e. the database may contain several unknown classes. Unknown classes may be present due to 1) uncertainty in or lack of knowledge of the measurement process, 2) an inability to adequately ``survey'' a massive database to assess its content (classes), and/or 3) an incomplete scientific hypothesis. In recent work, new class discovery in mixed labeled/unlabeled data was formally posed, with a proposed solution based on mixture models. In this work we investigate this approach, propose a competing technique suitable for class discovery in neural network...
Propagating Class and Method Combination
Ernst, Erik
1999-01-01
This paper presents a mixin based class and method combination mechanism with block structure propagation. Traditionally, mixins can be composed to form new classes, possibly merging the implementations of methods (as in CLOS). In our approach, a class or method combination operation may cause any...... number of implicit combinations. For example, it is possible to specify separate aspects of a family of classes, and then combine several aspects into a full-fledged class family. The combination expressions would explicitly combine whole-family aspects, and by propagation implicitly combine the aspects...... for each member of the class family, and again by propagation implicitly compose each method from its aspects. As opposed to CLOS, this is type-checked statically; and as opposed to other systems for advanced class combination/ merging/weaving, it is integrated directly in the language, ensuring a clear...
Pseudo Class III malocclusion.
Al-Hummayani, Fadia M
2016-04-01
The treatment of deep anterior crossbite is technically challenging due to the difficulty of placing traditional brackets with fixed appliances. This case report represents a none traditional treatment modality to treat deep anterior crossbite in an adult pseudo class III malocclusion complicated by severely retruded, supraerupted upper and lower incisors. Treatment was carried out in 2 phases. Phase I treatment was performed by removable appliance "modified Hawley appliance with inverted labial bow," some modifications were carried out to it to suit the presented case. Positive overbite and overjet was accomplished in one month, in this phase with minimal forces exerted on the lower incisors. Whereas, phase II treatment was performed with fixed appliances (braces) to align teeth and have proper over bite and overjet and to close posterior open bite, this phase was accomplished within 11 month.
Network class superposition analyses.
Carl A B Pearson
Full Text Available Networks are often used to understand a whole system by modeling the interactions among its pieces. Examples include biomolecules in a cell interacting to provide some primary function, or species in an environment forming a stable community. However, these interactions are often unknown; instead, the pieces' dynamic states are known, and network structure must be inferred. Because observed function may be explained by many different networks (e.g., ≈ 10(30 for the yeast cell cycle process, considering dynamics beyond this primary function means picking a single network or suitable sample: measuring over all networks exhibiting the primary function is computationally infeasible. We circumvent that obstacle by calculating the network class ensemble. We represent the ensemble by a stochastic matrix T, which is a transition-by-transition superposition of the system dynamics for each member of the class. We present concrete results for T derived from boolean time series dynamics on networks obeying the Strong Inhibition rule, by applying T to several traditional questions about network dynamics. We show that the distribution of the number of point attractors can be accurately estimated with T. We show how to generate Derrida plots based on T. We show that T-based Shannon entropy outperforms other methods at selecting experiments to further narrow the network structure. We also outline an experimental test of predictions based on T. We motivate all of these results in terms of a popular molecular biology boolean network model for the yeast cell cycle, but the methods and analyses we introduce are general. We conclude with open questions for T, for example, application to other models, computational considerations when scaling up to larger systems, and other potential analyses.
The latent class multitrait-multimethod model.
Oberski, Daniel L; Hagenaars, Jacques A P; Saris, Willem E
2015-12-01
A latent class multitrait-multimethod (MTMM) model is proposed to estimate random and systematic measurement error in categorical survey questions while making fewer assumptions than have been made so far in such evaluations, allowing for possible extreme response behavior and other nonmonotone effects. The method is a combination of the MTMM research design of Campbell and Fiske (1959), the basic response model for survey questions of Saris and Andrews (1991), and the latent class factor model of Vermunt and Magidson (2004, pp. 227-230). The latent class MTMM model thus combines an existing design, model, and method to allow for the estimation of the degree to and manner in which survey questions are affected by systematic measurement error. Starting from a general form of the response function for a survey question, we present the MTMM experimental approach to identification of the response function's parameters. A "trait-method biplot" is introduced as a means of interpreting the estimates of systematic measurement error, whereas the quality of the questions can be evaluated by item information curves and the item information function. An experiment from the European Social Survey is analyzed and the results are discussed, yielding valuable insights into the functioning of a set of example questions on the role of women in society in 2 countries.
Why do different people choose different university degrees? Motivation and the choice of degree
Skatova, Anya; Ferguson, Eamonn
2014-01-01
Different people choose undergraduate degrees to study at university for different reasons. To date, there have been limited attempts to identify individual differences in motivation that drive undergraduate degree choice. We identified that people choose university degrees for four reasons: career concerns (Career), intrinsic interest in the subject (Interest), an opportunity to help others (Helping) and because they are looking for an easy option to get into higher education (Loafing). We investigated whether these motivations apply to the choice of undergraduate degree in two samples: (1) undergraduate (N = 989) and (2) prospective (N = 896) students. We developed the Motivations Influencing Course Choice (MICC) questionnaire to measure these motivations. Scales of Helping, Career, Loafing, and Interest showed good psychometric properties, showed validity with respect to general life goals and personality traits, and predicted actual and prospective degree choices. We demonstrated that medical degrees were chosen due to a mixture of Helping and Career, while engineering degrees were associated with Career and low Interest in the degree. The choice of arts and humanities degrees was driven by Interest and low concern about future career, accompanied with high Loafing. We also demonstrated gender differences: females were high in Helping (both samples) and Interest (only in the undergraduate sample) motivation, while males scored higher in Career (only in the undergraduate sample) and Loafing (both samples). The findings can feed into both theoretical accounts of proximal motivation as well as provide help to improve degree programmes at universities and support better career advice. PMID:25431561
Why do different people choose different university degrees? Motivation and the choice of degree
Anya eSkatova
2014-11-01
Full Text Available Different people choose which undergraduate degree to study at the university for different reasons. To date, there have been limited attempts to identify individual differences in motivation that drive the undergraduate degree choice. We identified that people choose university degrees for four reasons: career concerns (Career, intrinsic interest (Interest in the subject, an opportunity to help others (Helping and because they are looking for an easy option into higher education (Loafing. We investigated whether these motivation apply to the choice of undergraduate degree in two samples: (1 undergraduate (N = 989 and (2 prospective (N = 896 students. We developed the Motivations Influencing Course Choice (MICC questionnaire to measure these motivations. Scales of Helping, Career, Loafing and Interest showed good psychometric properties, showed validity with respect to general life goals and personality traits, and predicted actual and prospective degree choices. We demonstrated that medical degrees were chosen due to a mixture of Helping and Career, while engineering degrees were associated with Career and low interest in the degree. The choice of art and humanities degrees was driven by Interest and low concern about future career, accompanied with high Loafing. We also demonstrated gender differences: females were high in Helping (both samples and Interest (only in undergraduate sample motivation, while males scored higher in Career (only in undergraduate sample and Loafing (both samples. The findings can feed into both theoretical accounts of proximal motivation as well as help to improve degree programmes at universities and provide better career advice.
On the commutativity degree in finite Moufang loops
Karim Ahmadidelir
2016-09-01
Full Text Available The textit{commutativity degree}, $Pr(G$, of a finite group $G$ (i.e. the probability that two (randomly chosen elements of $G$ commute with respect to its operation has been studied well by many authors. It is well-known that the best upper bound for $Pr(G$ is $frac{5}{8}$ for a finite non--abelian group $G$.In this paper, we will define the same concept for a finite non--abelian textit{Moufang loop} $M$ and try to give a best upper bound for $Pr(M$. We will prove that for a well-known class of finite Moufang loops, named textit{Chein loops}, and its modifications, this best upper bound is $frac{23}{32}$. So, our conjecture is that for any finite Moufang loop $M$, $Pr(Mleq frac{23}{32}$.Also, we will obtain some results related to the $Pr(M$ and ask the similar questions raised and answered in group theory about the relations between the structure of a finite group and its commutativity degree in finite Moufang loops.
Decoherence of rotational degrees of freedom
Zhong, Changchun; Robicheaux, F.
2016-11-01
The mechanism of decoherence for a mesoscopic quantum system with rotational degrees of freedom is studied. From a simple model of elastic scattering, we show that the nondiagonal density-matrix elements of the system exponentially decay. The decay rate depends on the difference of scattering amplitudes for different rotational configurations, leading to the gradual loss of quantum coherence between the pointer states in the orientational space. For a dielectric ellipsoid immersed in a photon-gas environment (assuming no absorption), the decay rate is found to be proportional to the seventh power of the temperature. For an ellipsoidal object interacting with massive particles, the decay rate is proportional to the 5/2 power of the temperature. Both are different from the case of translational decoherence induced by the same environment scattering. For photon scattering, the coherence time in the rotational degrees of freedom is shown to be much shorter than that in the translational degrees of freedom.
Market Orientation and Degree of Novelty
Mateja Bodlaj
2011-03-01
Full Text Available This study aims to examine the relationship between a responsive and aproactive market orientation and the degree of novelty. Data obtainedvia an Internet survey were analysed using structural equation modelling.An analysis of 325 Slovenian firms reveals that only a proactivemarket orientation is positively related to the degree of novelty. Whilethere is no evidence of statistically significant differences in the examinedrelationships given the firm size and environmental characteristics,separate analyses in each group indicate that a proactive market orientationmay be more important for small firms and firms operatingamidst a higher level of technological turbulence. This study suggeststhat a distinction between a responsive and a proactive market orientationis important for a better understanding of the effect of a marketorientation on the degree of novelty.
Node degree distribution in spanning trees
Pozrikidis, C.
2016-03-01
A method is presented for computing the number of spanning trees involving one link or a specified group of links, and excluding another link or a specified group of links, in a network described by a simple graph in terms of derivatives of the spanning-tree generating function defined with respect to the eigenvalues of the Kirchhoff (weighted Laplacian) matrix. The method is applied to deduce the node degree distribution in a complete or randomized set of spanning trees of an arbitrary network. An important feature of the proposed method is that the explicit construction of spanning trees is not required. It is shown that the node degree distribution in the spanning trees of the complete network is described by the binomial distribution. Numerical results are presented for the node degree distribution in square, triangular, and honeycomb lattices.
Developing 360 degree feedback system for KINS
Han, In Soo; Cheon, B. M.; Kim, T. H.; Ryu, J. H. [Chungman National Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2003-12-15
This project aims to investigate the feasibility of a 360 degree feedback systems for KINS and to design guiding rules and structures in implementing that systems. Literature survey, environmental analysis and questionnaire survey were made to ensure that 360 degree feedback is the right tool to improve performance in KINS. That review leads to conclusion that more readiness and careful feasibility review are needed before implementation of 360 degree feedback in KINS. Further the project suggests some guiding rules that can be helpful for successful implementation of that system in KINS. Those include : start with development, experiment with one department, tie it to a clear organization's goal, train everyone involve, make sure to try that system in an atmosphere of trust.
The Low-Degree Shape of Mercury
Perry, M. E.; Neumann, G. A.; Mazarico, E.; Hauck, S. A., II; Solomon, S. C.; Zuber, M. T.; Smith, D. E.; Phillips, R. J.; Margot, J. L.; Johnson, C. L.; Ernst, C. M.; Oberst, J.
2015-12-01
The shape of Mercury, particularly when combined with its geoid, provides clues to the planet's internal structure, thermal evolution, and rotational history. Twenty-five million elevation measurements of the northern hemisphere, acquired by the Mercury Laser Altimeter on the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging spacecraft, were combined with 378 occultation measurements of radio-frequency signals from the spacecraft in the planet's southern hemisphere to reveal the low-degree shape of Mercury. We solved for the spherical-harmonic coefficients through degree and order 128 and found that Mercury's mean radius is 2439.36±0.02 km. The offset between the planet's centers of mass and figure is negligible (40±40 m) along the polar axis and modest (140±50 m) in the equatorial plane. Mercury's spherical-harmonic shape spectrum is dominated by degree 2, and the planet's first-order shape is that of a triaxial ellipsoid with semimajor axes a, b, and c. The polar radius, c, is 1.65 km less than (a+b)/2, and the equatorial difference, a-b, is 1.25 km. The long axis is rotated 15° west of Mercury's dynamically defined principal axis. Mercury's geoid is similarly dominated by degree 2 and well described by a triaxial ellipsoid. The degree-2 geoid and shape are highly correlated, but the power spectral density of the geoid at degree 2 is only 1% of its shape counterpart, implying substantial compensation of elevation variations on a global scale and that Mercury is not in hydrostatic equilibrium.
High-Degree Neurons Feed Cortical Computations.
Nicholas M Timme
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Recent work has shown that functional connectivity among cortical neurons is highly varied, with a small percentage of neurons having many more connections than others. Also, recent theoretical developments now make it possible to quantify how neurons modify information from the connections they receive. Therefore, it is now possible to investigate how information modification, or computation, depends on the number of connections a neuron receives (in-degree or sends out (out-degree. To do this, we recorded the simultaneous spiking activity of hundreds of neurons in cortico-hippocampal slice cultures using a high-density 512-electrode array. This preparation and recording method combination produced large numbers of neurons recorded at temporal and spatial resolutions that are not currently available in any in vivo recording system. We utilized transfer entropy (a well-established method for detecting linear and nonlinear interactions in time series and the partial information decomposition (a powerful, recently developed tool for dissecting multivariate information processing into distinct parts to quantify computation between neurons where information flows converged. We found that computations did not occur equally in all neurons throughout the networks. Surprisingly, neurons that computed large amounts of information tended to receive connections from high out-degree neurons. However, the in-degree of a neuron was not related to the amount of information it computed. To gain insight into these findings, we developed a simple feedforward network model. We found that a degree-modified Hebbian wiring rule best reproduced the pattern of computation and degree correlation results seen in the real data. Interestingly, this rule also maximized signal propagation in the presence of network-wide correlations, suggesting a mechanism by which cortex could deal with common random background input. These are the first results to show that the extent to
Safety learning from drugs of the same class
Stefansdottir, G; Knol, M J; Arnardottir, A H
2012-01-01
This study was aimed at assessing the extent of safety learning from data pertaining to other drugs of the same class. We studied drug classes for which the first and second drugs were centrally registered in the European Union from 1995 to 2008. We assessed whether adverse drug reactions (ADRs...... present in both SPCs of a drug pair, 241 (61.3%) were present when the drug entered the market and 152 (30.7%) appeared in the postmarketing phase. The mention of ADRs in the SPCs of both same-class drugs in the postmarketing phase was associated with type A ADRs, marketing in the same regulator country......, a longer time interval between entry into the market by the two drugs, and an earlier date of ADR. Although there appears to be some degree of safety learning from same-class drugs, there is still room for improvement, possibly by increasing proactive risk management....
Class Action and Class Settlement in a European Perspective
Werlauff, Erik
2013-01-01
The article analyses the options for introducing common European rules on class action lawsuits with an opt-out-model in individual cases. An analysis is made of how the risks of misuse of class actions can be prevented. The article considers the Dutch rules on class settlements (the WCAM procedure......) and the advantage of integrating equivalent rules into a European rule set. The Danish rules, which have now been in effect for some years, are then considered....
360-degree feedback for medical trainees
Holm, Ellen; Holm, Kirsten; Sørensen, Jette Led
2015-01-01
In 360-degree feedback medical colleagues and collaborators give a trainee feedback by answering a questionnaire on behaviour of the trainee. The questionnaire may contain questions answered on a scale or/and they may contain open questions. The result from 360-degree feedback is used for formative...... feedback and assessment. In order to secure reliability 8-15 respondents are needed. It is a matter of discussion whether the respondents should be chosen by the trainee or by a third part, and if respondents should be anonymous. The process includes a feedback session with a trained supervisor....
Brain Endogenous Feedback and Degrees of Consciousness
Carrara-Augustenborg, Claudia; Pereira Jr., Alfredo
2012-01-01
positive and negative feedback loops. Variable levels of consciousness are proposed to depend on the degree of resonance between these networks. The resonance can occur in the absence of salient external stimulation and, even when such stimulation occurs, the response of the coupled networks is always......We present a hypothesis to explain how the brain operates to generate different degrees of consciousness. We relate our model to recent evidence from brain morphology and physiology, indicating that the central nervous system contains two parallel networks (neuronal and astroglial) establishing...
Alumni Job Search Strategies, Class of 2011. GMAC[R] Data-to-Go Series
Graduate Management Admission Council, 2012
2012-01-01
Examining the job search strategies and employment outcomes for Class of 2011 graduate business school alumni sheds light on current job market trends and the effort required to secure a first job after earning a graduate business degree. This fact sheet highlights the job search methods used by Class of 2011 business school graduates as reported…
Review Sessions and Results: Competency Testing in the Capstone Business Class
Parente, Diane H.; Brown, Randy C.; Warner, Alfred G.
2005-01-01
Capstone is defined in the dictionary as "putting the final stone in place." Business Policy or Strategic Management is typically the capstone class in a business management degree program. As such, there are prerequisite requirements in terms of courses and specific knowledge. We have implemented a competency test for the capstone class and…
Relationship between EFL Learners' Autonomy and Speaking Strategies They Use in Conversation Classes
Salehi, Hadi; Ebrahimi, Marziyeh; Sattar, Susan; Shojaee, Mohammad
2015-01-01
The present study was conducted at Parsayan Language Institute in Isfahan, Iran. The students in pre-intermediate and intermediate classes were examined to investigate the relationship between degrees of learner autonomy, use of strategies for coping with speaking problems and the learners' success in their speaking classes. To determine the…
On the class of possible nonlocal anyon-like operators and quantum groups
Chaichian, Masud; Montonen, Claus
1993-01-01
We find a class of nonlocal operators constructed by attaching a disorder operator to fermionic degrees of freedom, which can be used to generate q-deformed algebras following the Schwinger approach. This class includes the recently proposed anyonic operators defined on a lattice.
Ball, Frank; Sirl, David
2012-01-01
A random network model which allows for tunable, quite general forms of clustering, degree correlation and degree distribution is defined. The model is an extension of the configuration model, in which stubs (half-edges) are paired to form a network. Clustering is obtained by forming small completely connected subgroups, and positive (negative) degree correlation is obtained by connecting a fraction of the stubs with stubs of similar (dissimilar) degree. An SIR (Susceptible -> Infective -> Recovered) epidemic model is defined on this network. Asymptotic properties of both the network and the epidemic, as the population size tends to infinity, are derived: the degree distribution, degree correlation and clustering coefficient, as well as a reproduction number $R_*$, the probability of a major outbreak and the relative size of such an outbreak. The theory is illustrated by Monte Carlo simulations and numerical examples. The main findings are that clustering tends to decrease the spread of disease, the effect of...
Link Prediction in Complex Networks by Multi Degree Preferential-Attachment Indices
Hu, Ke; Yang, Wanchun; Xu, Xiaoke; Tang, Yi
2012-01-01
In principle, the rules of links formation of a network model can be considered as a kind of link prediction algorithm. By revisiting the preferential attachment mechanism for generating a scale-free network, here we propose a class of preferential attachment indices which are different from the previous one. Traditionally, the preferential attachment index is defined by the product of the related nodes degrees, while the new indices will define the similarity score of a pair of nodes by either the maximum in the two nodes degrees or the summarization of their degrees. Extensive experiments are carried out on fourteen real-world networks. Compared with the traditional preferential attachment index, the new ones, especially the degree-summarization similarity index, can provide more accurate prediction on most of the networks. Due to the improved prediction accuracy and low computational complexity, these proposed preferential attachment indices may be of help to provide an instruction for mining unknown links...
teachers say reading and writing in a university degree in the colombian caribbean.
Luis Manuel Cárdenas Cárdenas
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Literacy practices in higher education: what students andThis article is the result of a survey conducted in 10 degrees in a University Colombian Caribbean whose general purpose was to describe, interpret and understand the literacy practices that take place in these degrees. To achieve this article was taken into account one aspect that research in general was conceived as the first specific objective. This aspect refers to the conceptions which teachers and students of the degrees on the teaching and learning of reading and writing academic texts in college. The study usually takes as a theoretical concept of academic literacy. Data collected through classroom observations, also came from surveys and interviews with students and teachers of the degrees. The results of the investigation determined that the teaching and learning of reading and writing in the undergraduate classroom is very limited. The development of pedagogical and didactic classes lacks reading and writing practices.
Benchmarking binary classification models on data sets with different degrees of imbalance
Ligang ZHOU; Kin Keung LAI
2009-01-01
In practice, there are many binary classification problems, such as credit risk assessment, medical testing for determining if a patient has a certain disease or not, etc.However, different problems have different characteristics that may lead to different difficulties of the problem. One important characteristic is the degree of imbalance of two classes in data sets. For data sets with different degrees of imbalance, fire the commonly used binary classification methods still feasible? In this study, various binary classifi-cation models, including traditional statistical methods andnewly emerged methods from artificial intelligence, such as linear regression, discriminant analysis, decision tree, neural network, support vector machines, etc., are reviewed, and their performance in terms of the measure of classification accuracy and area under Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve are tested and compared on fourteen data sets with different imbalance degrees. The results help to select the appropriate methods for problems with different degrees of imbalance.
Comparison of 360 degrees and 180 degrees data collection in SPECT imaging.
Knesaurek, K
1987-11-01
The problem of using 360 degrees or 180 degrees data sampling techniques in transaxial SPECT imaging is still to be solved. A theoretical point source study for an ideal response detector has shown, for objects which are close enough to the origin of the reconstructed area, that there are significant differences between sections obtained by different sampling methods. A computer simulation study of line sources in a homogeneous attenuated medium has confirmed the results of clinical studies in which significant image distortion has been observed in 180 degrees sections but not in 360 degrees reconstructed images.
Organizing MHC Class II Presentation
David R Fooksman
2014-04-01
Full Text Available Major histocompatibility complex (MHC class II molecules are ligands for CD4+ T cells and are critical for initiating the adaptive immune response. This review is focused on what is currently known about MHC class II organization at the plasma membrane of antigen presenting cells and how this affects antigen presentation to T cells. The organization and diffusion of class II molecules have been measured by a variety of biochemical and microscopic techniques. Membrane lipids and other proteins have been implicated in MHC class II organization and function. However, when compared with the organization of MHC class I or TCR complexes, much less is known about MHC class II. Since clustering of T cell receptors occurs during activation, the organization of MHC molecules prior to recognition and during synapse formation may be critical for antigen presentation.
Degree Compass: The Preferred Choice Approach
Whitten, Leah S.; Sanders, Anthony R.; Stewart, J. Gary
2013-01-01
While engaged in academic reading, a college provost converged on an idea to use a preferential approach to students' selection of college courses, similar to the recommendation ideas based on Netflix and Amazon. The result of this idea came to be known as Degree Compass and was implemented on the campus of Austin Peay State University in 2011.…
Third-Degree Price Discrimination Revisited
Kwon, Youngsun
2006-01-01
The author derives the probability that price discrimination improves social welfare, using a simple model of third-degree price discrimination assuming two independent linear demands. The probability that price discrimination raises social welfare increases as the preferences or incomes of consumer groups become more heterogeneous. He derives the…
Technical Degrees and Higher Vocational Education
Hordern, Jim
2017-01-01
This paper focuses on the proposals for the introduction of "technical degrees" in English higher education institutions advanced by the Labour Party's Liam Byrne in a document entitled "Robbins Rebooted" which was published in August 2014 by the Social Market Foundation. The context and rationale for the proposed technical…
Perceived Benefits of an Undergraduate Degree
Norton, Cole; Martini, Tanya
2017-01-01
Canadian university students tend to endorse employment-related reasons for attending university ahead of other reasons such as personal satisfaction or intellectual growth. In the present study, first- and fourth-year students from a mid-sized Canadian university reported on the benefits they expected to receive from their degree and rated their…
The Top American Indian Degree Producers
Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 2012
2012-01-01
Each year, "Diverse: Issues In Higher Education" publishes lists of the Top 100 producers of associate, bachelor's and graduate degrees awarded to minority students based on research conducted by Dr. Victor M.H. Borden, professor of educational leadership and policy studies at the Indiana University Bloomington. This year, Diverse staff…
Purchases of Degrees from Diploma Mills.
Cramer, Robert J.
In response to a request from the Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations of the Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs, the General Accounting Office (GAO) investigated issues concerning the proliferation of "diploma mills," which sell bogus academic degrees based on "life experience" or substandard or negligible work.…
Independence, Odd Girth, and Average Degree
Löwenstein, Christian; Pedersen, Anders Sune; Rautenbach, Dieter;
2011-01-01
We prove several tight lower bounds in terms of the order and the average degree for the independence number of graphs that are connected and/or satisfy some odd girth condition. Our main result is the extension of a lower bound for the independence number of triangle-free graphs of maximum...
Labeling schemes for bounded degree graphs
Adjiashvili, David; Rotbart, Noy Galil
2014-01-01
graphs. Our results complement a similar bound recently obtained for bounded depth trees [Fraigniaud and Korman, SODA 2010], and may provide new insights for closing the long standing gap for adjacency in trees [Alstrup and Rauhe, FOCS 2002]. We also provide improved labeling schemes for bounded degree...
Degrees of Change--Resistance or Resilience.
Marsh, Christine
2001-01-01
Considers issues involved in the change process within organizational culture. Highlights include adopting an appropriate management style; evaluation of performance; aspects of change; implications of change for people management; degrees of change; resistance to change; and an example of planning and implementing a new information technology…
On degree phrases and result clauses
Rijkhoek, Paulien Dea
1998-01-01
This dissertation consists of two parts, one on degree phrases and one on result clauses. Sentence (1) below exemplifies a result clause construction: (1) Zij had zo mooi gezongen dat het publiek er stil van was she has so beautifully sang that the audience there silent of was ‘She had sung so beaut
A six degrees of freedom mems manipulator
de Jong, B.R.
2006-01-01
This thesis reports about a six degrees of freedom (DOF) precision manipulator in MEMS, concerning concept generation for the manipulator followed by design and fabrication (of parts) of the proposed manipulation concept in MEMS. Researching the abilities of 6 DOF precision manipulation in MEMS is
Active Methodology in the Audiovisual Communication Degree
Gimenez-Lopez, J. L.; Royo, T. Magal; Laborda, Jesus Garcia; Dunai, Larisa
2010-01-01
The paper describes the adaptation methods of the active methodologies of the new European higher education area in the new Audiovisual Communication degree under the perspective of subjects related to the area of the interactive communication in Europe. The proposed active methodologies have been experimentally implemented into the new academic…
Class Councils in Switzerland: Citizenship Education in Classroom Communities?
Corinne Wyss
2012-09-01
Full Text Available Democracy depends on the participation of citizens. Citizenship educationis taking place in classroom communities to prepare pupils for their role ascitizens. Class councils are participatory forms of citizenship educationguaranteeing the children’s right to form and express their views freely aswritten down in the Convention on the Rights of the Child. Theoreticaldeficiencies and empirical objections have been formulated againstparticipation in the school setting. Despite widespread practices, empiricaldata about class councils in Switzerland barely exists. In our researchproject we video-recorded fourteen class councils in secondary schools, weinterviewed the teacher and four pupils of each class, and all the pupilsfilled in a standardized questionnaire. Class councils are very popular formsof education with pupils although the actual power to influence decisions bydeliberation is doubted to some extent. Quantitative analysis of the videorecordingsshows the wide range of forms of class councils that exist inrespect to the talking time of the pupils. To express one’s own viewpointand to understand the standpoint of other discussants, constructarguments and counterarguments, participate, and lead discussions aredifficult tasks. Based on the empirical research the project describes threeforms of class councils that differ in the degree of favouring thedevelopment of communicative competences as a part of citizenshipeducation.
Physics and Astronomy Senior Report: Class of 2001. AIP Report, Number R-211.32
Mulvey, Patrick J.; Nicholson, Starr
2004-01-01
About one-third of the physics majors in the class of 2001 took more than 4 years to complete their undergraduate studies. The most common reasons were receiving a double major and changing majors. There are 761 departments in the US that confer at least a bachelor's degree in physics. These programs produced 4091 bachelor's degrees in the class…
Weil classes on abelian varieties
Moonen, B J J; Zarhin, Yu. G.
1996-01-01
Consider a complex abelian variety X on which a field F acts. Generalizing a construction of A. Weil, one associates to this a subspace W_F of the cohomology of X, which we call the space of Weil classes w.r.t. F. The purpose of this paper is to answer the following two questions: Q1: under what conditions on F does the space W_F contain, or even consist of, Hodge classes?, Q2: if W_F contains Hodge classes, under what conditions on F are these exceptional? In case X is defined over a number field, we also answer the analogous questions for Tate classes.
On uniqueness of characteristic classes
Feliu, Elisenda
2011-01-01
We give an axiomatic characterization of maps from algebraic K-theory. The results apply to a large class of maps from algebraic K-theory to any suitable cohomology theory or to algebraic K-theory. In particular, we obtain comparison theorems for the Chern character and Chern classes and for the ......We give an axiomatic characterization of maps from algebraic K-theory. The results apply to a large class of maps from algebraic K-theory to any suitable cohomology theory or to algebraic K-theory. In particular, we obtain comparison theorems for the Chern character and Chern classes...
Type Families with Class, Type Classes with Family
Serrano, Alejandro; Hage, Jurriaan; Bahr, Patrick
2015-01-01
Type classes and type families are key ingredients in Haskell programming. Type classes were introduced to deal with ad-hoc polymorphism, although with the introduction of functional dependencies, their use expanded to type-level programming. Type families also allow encoding type-level functions...
Mulvey, Patrick; Nicholson, Starr
2014-01-01
Interest in astronomy degrees in the U.S. remains strong, with astronomy enrollments at or near all-time highs for the 2012-13 academic year. The total number of students taking an introductory astronomy course at a degree-granting physics or astronomy department is approaching 200,000. Enrollments in introductory astronomy courses have been…
Lessons Learned: Creating an Online Business Degree from a Successful On-Campus Business Degree
Cordeiro, William P.; Muraoka, Dennis
2015-01-01
The horse has left the barn. Distance education is here to stay and the number of degree programs offered online is growing rapidly. California State University Channel Islands (CI) admitted its first students in 2002, and the undergraduate and graduate degrees in business were among its first program offerings. From its inception, the…
On the relationship between degree of hand-preference and degree of language lateralization
Somers, Metten; Ophoff, Roel A; Boks, Marco P; Fleer, Willemien; de Visser, Kees C L; Kahn, René S; Sommer, Iris E; Aukes, M.F.
2015-01-01
Language lateralization and hand-preference show inter-individual variation in the degree of lateralization to the left- or right, but their relation is not fully understood. Disentangling this relation could aid elucidating the mechanisms underlying these traits. The relation between degree of lang
Condylar volume and condylar area in class I, class II and class III young adult subjects
Saccucci Matteo; D’Attilio Michele; Rodolfino Daria; Festa Felice; Polimeni Antonella; Tecco Simona
2012-01-01
Abstract Aim Aim of this study was to compare the volume and the shape of mandibular condyles in a Caucasian young adult population, with different skeletal pattern. Material and methods 200 Caucasian patients (15–30 years old, 95 male and 105 females) were classified in three groups on the base of ANB angle: skeletal class I (65 patients), skeletal class II (70 patients) and skeletal class III (65 patients). Left and right TMJs of each subject were evaluated independently with CBCT (Iluma). ...
Socio-occupational class, region of birth and maternal age
Hougaard, Karin Sørig; Larsen, Ann Dyreborg; Hannerz, Harald
2014-01-01
BACKGROUND: Cryptorchidism (undescended testes) is associated with poor male fertility, but can be alleviated and fertility preserved to some degree by early detection and treatment. Here we assess the influence of socio-occupational class, geographical region, maternal age and birth cohort on time...... for time to detection of cryptorchidism. Parental employment in the calendar year preceding birth was grouped into one of five socio-occupational classes. Geographical region was defined by place of birth in one of 15 Danish counties. Detection rate ratios of cryptorchidism were analyzed as a function...
Improving Scientific Writing in Undergraduate Geosciences Degrees Through Peer Review
Day, E. A.; Collins, G. S.; Craig, L.
2016-12-01
In the British educational system, students specialise early. Often geoscience undergraduates have not taken a class that requires extended writing since they were sixteen years old. This can make it difficult for students to develop the written skills necessary for a geoscience degree, which often has assessments in the form of essays and reports. To improve both the writing and editing skills of our undergraduates we have introduced a peer review system, in which seniors review the work of first year students. At Imperial College London we set written coursework in every year of the degree. Communication is taught and assessed in many courses. There are two major modules with substantial written components that bookend the undergraduate degree at Imperial; the freshmen all write an assessed essay, while all seniors take 'Science Communication', a course that aims to prepare them for a range of possible careers. In the 2015-16 academic year we linked these courses by introducing a modified form of peer marking and instruction. Seniors had to complete reviews of draft first year essays for credit in Science Communication. These reviews are completed for the department 'journal' and introduce the first and fourth years to the nature of peer review. Seniors learn how to critically, but kindly, evaluate the work of other students, and are also prepared for potentially submitting their senior theses to journals. Reviews were managed by volunteer seniors, who acted as associate editors. They allocated anonymous reviewers and wrote decision letters, which were sent to the freshmen before their final assessed essay submission. Ultimately the fourth year reviews were formally assessed and graded by members of staff, as were the revised and resubmitted first year essays. Feedback for both courses has improved since the introduction of student reviews of essays. The markers of the freshman essay have also commented on the improvement in the standard of the writing and a
Degree sequences of k-multi-hypertournaments
Pirzada S
2009-01-01
Let n and k (n ≥ k > 1) be two non-negative integers. A k-multi-hypertournament on n vertices is a pair (V, A), where V is a set of vertices with |V|= n, and A is a set of k-tuples of vertices, called arcs, such that for any k-subset S of V, A contains at least one (at most k!) of the k! k-tuples whose entries belong to S. The necessary and sufficient conditions for a non-decreasing sequence of non-negative integers to be the out-degree sequence (in-degree sequence) of some k-multi-hypertournament are given.
An Approach of Degree Constraint MST Algorithm
Sanjay Kumar Pal
2013-08-01
Full Text Available This paper is approaching a new technique of creating Minimal Spanning Trees based on degree constraints of a simple symmetric and connected graph G. Here we recommend a new algorithm based on the average degree sequence factor of the nodes in the graph. The time complexity of the problem is less than O(N log|E| compared to the other existing time complexity algorithms is O(|E| log|E|+C of Kruskal, which is optimum. The goal is to design an algorithm that is simple, graceful, resourceful, easy to understand, and applicable in various fields starting from constraint based network design, mobile computing to other field of science and engineering.
Vigilance Degree Computing Based on EEG
Zhenzhong Zhan
2013-09-01
Full Text Available In daily life, lots of work need people maintain higher attention or vigilance. In the early study of vigilance, blink frequency, the impedance of skin, body temperature and blood pressure and other physiological signals was used to estimate the vigilance. EEG signal can more directly reflect the brain's activity than other physiological signals, and EEG signal have a higher time resolution. In this paper, ERP component and different frequencies of EEG were used to analyze the alert state, according to this study, in the ERP components, N170 can be a good representation of the degree of fatigue of the subject; Through the 10 subjects EEG frequency distribution analysis, and according to the formula defined in this paper, the vigilance degree of this ten subjects was calculated.
Degrees of freedom in discrete geometry
Ariwahjoedi, Seramika; Rovelli, Carlo; Zen, Freddy P
2016-01-01
Following recent developments in discrete gravity, we study geometrical variables (angles and forms) of simplices in the discrete geometry point of view. Some of our relatively new results include: new ways of writing a set of simplices using vectorial (differential form) and coordinate-free pictures, and a consistent procedure to couple particles of space, together with a method to calculate the degrees of freedom of the system of 'quanta' of space in the classical framework.
Role Preparation of Associate Degree Graduates.
Stokes, Lillian G.
The role of associate degree nursing (ADN) programs has changed dramatically in their 30 years of existence. The number of ADN graduates increased from 260 in 1954 to 36,434 in 1980, and 47.8% of all nursing graduates in 1980 came from ADN programs, as compared to 0.9% in 1954. These graduates have the best record of employment five years after…
Minimum degree and density of binary sequences
Brandt, Stephan; Müttel, J.; Rautenbach, D.
2010-01-01
For d,k∈N with k ≤ 2d, let g(d,k) denote the infimum density of binary sequences (x)∈{0,1} which satisfy the minimum degree condition σ(x+) ≥ k for all i∈Z with xi=1. We reduce the problem of computing g(d,k) to a combinatorial problem related to the generalized k-girth of a graph G which...
Membrane Triangles with Drilling Degrees of Freedom
P. Fajman
2004-01-01
Full Text Available An accurate triangular plane element with drilling degrees of freedom is shown in this paper. This element can be successfully used for solving linear and nonlinear problems. The main advantage of this element is that the stiffness matrix is obtained from pure deformations – elongations of the edges. This aproach is very suitable for nonlinear analysis, where the unbalanced forces can be obtained directly from elongations of edges.
Evaluation of Fifth Degree Elliptic Singular Moduli
Bagis, Nikos
2012-01-01
Our main result in this article is a formula for the extraction of the solution of the fifth degree modular polynomial equation i.e. the value of $k_{25^nr_0}$, when we know only two consecutive values $k_{r_0}$ and $k_{r_0/25}$. By this way we reduce the problem of solving the depressed equation if we known two consecutive values of the Elliptic singular moduli $k_r$.
Translanguaging in a Reading Class
Vaish, Viniti; Subhan, Aidil
2015-01-01
Using translanguaging as a theoretical foundation, this paper analyses findings from a Grade 2 reading class for low achieving students, where Malay was used as a scaffold to teach English. Data come from one class in one school in Singapore and its Learning Support Programme (LSP), which is part of a larger research project on biliteracy. The LSP…
Class Differences in Cohabitation Processes
Sassler, Sharon; Miller, Amanda J.
2011-01-01
Despite the burgeoning cohabitation literature, research has failed to examine social class variation in processes of forming and advancing such unions. Drawing upon in-depth interviews with 122 working- and middle-class cohabitors, we examine the duration between dating and moving in together, reasons for cohabiting, and subsequent plans.…
Relations among tautological classes revisited
Randal-Williams, Oscar
2012-01-01
We give a simple generalisation of a theorem of Morita (1989) [10] and [11], which leads to a great number of relations among tautological classes on moduli spaces of Riemann surfaces......We give a simple generalisation of a theorem of Morita (1989) [10] and [11], which leads to a great number of relations among tautological classes on moduli spaces of Riemann surfaces...
Tautological Classes on Projective Towers
Negut, Andrei
2011-01-01
When one has a tower of projective bundles over an algebraic variety and wishes to compute the push-forward of any cohomology class down this tower, one needs to recursively compute the Segre classes corresponding to each level. In this paper, we give a closed combinatorial formula that encodes this recursive procedure.
Ideas for Managing Large Classes.
Kabel, Robert L.
1983-01-01
Describes management strategies used in a large kinetics/industrial chemistry course. Strategies are designed to make instruction in such classes more efficient and effective. Areas addressed include homework assignment, quizzes, final examination, grading and feedback, and rewards for conducting the class in the manner described. (JN)
Class, Identity, and Teacher Education
Van Galen, Jane A.
2010-01-01
This paper explores the possibilities of working with White, working-class teacher education students to explore the "complex social trajectory" (Reay in Women's Stud Int Forum 20(2):225-233, 1997a, p. 19) of class border crossing as they progress through college. Through analysis of a course that I have developed, "Education and the American…
Student Engagement and Marketing Classes
Taylor, Steven A.; Hunter, Gary L.; Melton, Horace; Goodwin, Stephen A.
2011-01-01
A study is reported that investigates the goals underlying undergraduate students' engagement in their major classes, nonmajor classes, and in extracurricular activities. The qualitative study employs both focus groups and goal-mapping exercises. The results suggest that students tend to focus on utilitarian, attribute-level considerations mainly…
Making Large Classes More Interactive.
Brenner, John
2000-01-01
Describes the method of using prompts to allow students to have more "voice" in a large class. The prompt assignment requires students to respond anonymously to a statement that concerns the chapter being discussed in the class. Discusses how the Internet has allowed more freedom with the prompts. Puts forth some student responses to the…
The Paradox of Paperless Classes.
Lackie, Paula
1998-01-01
Describes paperless classes developed at Carleton College that augment traditional classes by giving students and faculty the ability to share digital course-related materials via the campus computer network. Presents a case study of a managerial economics course, and includes problems with various aspects of the course and solutions. (LRW)
Predicting Acoustics in Class Rooms
Christensen, Claus Lynge; Rindel, Jens Holger
2005-01-01
Typical class rooms have fairly simple geometries, even so room acoustics in this type of room is difficult to predict using today's room acoustic computer modeling software. The reasons why acoustics of class rooms are harder to predict than acoustics of complicated concert halls might...
Notes on absolute Hodge classes
Charles, François
2011-01-01
We survey the theory of absolute Hodge classes. The notes include a full proof of Deligne's theorem on absolute Hodge classes on abelian varieties as well as a discussion of other topics, such as the field of definition of Hodge loci and the Kuga-Satake construction.
ADULT EDUCATION AND SOCIAL CLASS.
LONDON, JACK; AND OTHERS
IDENTIFICATION OF SOME OF THE VARIABLES THAT ENCOURAGE OR DISCOURAGE PARTICIPATION IN ADULT EDUCATION AMONG MIDDLE-CLASS AND WORKING-CLASS MEN WAS THE BASIS FOR THIS STUDY. A COMMUNITY SURVEY WAS USED TO LOCATE A SAMPLE OF PARTICIPANTS AND NONPARTICIPANTS, AS WELL AS TO PROVIDE DESCRIPTIVE DATA ABOUT THE RATES OF PARTICIPATION. A MATCHED SAMPLE…
无
2009-01-01
A new procedure is proposed to construct strongly nonlinear systems of multiple degrees of freedom subjected to parametric and/or external Gaussian white noises, whose exact stationary solutions are independent of energy. Firstly, the equivalent Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov (FPK) equations are derived by using exterior differentiation. The main difference between the equivalent FPK equation and the original FPK equation lies in the additional arbitrary antisymmetric diffusion matrix. Then the exact stationary solutions and the structures of the original systems can be obtained by using the coefficients of antisymmetric diffusion matrix. The obtained exact stationary solutions, which are generally independent of energy, are for the most general class of strongly nonlinear stochastic systems multiple degrees of freedom (MDOF) so far, and some classes of the known ones dependent on energy belong to the special cases of them.
Quantum circuits and low-degree polynomials over {{{F}}_\\mathsf{2}}
Montanaro, Ashley
2017-02-01
In this work we explore a correspondence between quantum circuits and low-degree polynomials over the finite field {{{F}}2} . Any quantum circuit made up of Hadamard, Z, controlled-Z and controlled-controlled-Z gates gives rise to a degree-3 polynomial over {{{F}}2} such that calculating quantum circuit amplitudes is equivalent to counting zeroes of the corresponding polynomial. We exploit this connection, which is especially clean and simple for this particular gate set, in two directions. First, we give proofs of classical hardness results based on quantum circuit concepts. Second, we find efficient classical simulation algorithms for certain classes of quantum circuits based on efficient algorithms for classes of polynomials.
HUANG ZhiLong; JIN XiaoLing
2009-01-01
A new procedure is proposed to construct strongly nonlinear systems of multiple degrees of freedom subjected to parametric and/or external Gaussian white noises,whose exact stationary solutions are independent of energy.Firstly,the equivalent Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov(FPK)equations are derived by using exterior differentiation.The main difference between the equivalent FPK equation and the original FPK equation lies in the additional arbitrary antisymmetric diffusion matrix.Then the exact stationary solutions and the structures of the original systems can be obtained by using the coefficients of antisymmetric diffusion matrix.The obtained exact stationary solutions,which are generally independent of energy,are for the most general class of strongly nonlinear stochastic systems multiple degrees of freedom(MDOF)so far,and some classes of the known ones dependent on energy belong to the special cases of them.
Control Class Summaries and Control Class IV from April 1990
Wu, J.; /Fermilab
1991-02-22
The D0 cryogenic control system is a complicated system with many facets. Because of the large number and variety of features in the system, a series of ongoing control system training seminars, or control classes, were created in order to keep people up to date on the operation of the system. As of the writing of this engineering note, there have been four classes. The original lecture notes from each class can be found in the cryogenic control room at the D0 Assembly Building, or in the Co-op office. This note provides a summary of the first three control classes, and it includes the entire set of notes from the fourth class, which was held in April of 1990. This class was taught by Jeff Wendlandt and Dan Markley. Dan should be consulted for more complete explanations than those given in the notes. The notes are, in fact, more of a reference for someone who has some experience with the system, than they are a training manual. Most of the pages include pictures and printouts of different menus and functions, useful for finding details without searching through the actual program. In general, this note serves as a pointer to the existence of the control class lecture notes, and as an explanation of their overall contents and purpose.
Payne, Joshua L; Dodds, Peter Sheridan
2011-01-01
We derive analytic expressions for the probability and expected size of global spreading events starting from a single infected seed for a broad collection of contagion processes acting on random networks with both directed and undirected edges and arbitrary degree-degree correlations. Our work extends previous theoretical developments for the undirected case, and we provide numerical support for our findings by investigating an example class of networks for which we are able to obtain closed-form expressions.
Joint Degree Program: the Perspective of Employers
Tatjana Bilevičienė
2013-08-01
Full Text Available Purpose — the purpose of this article is to extend discussion towards the need and importance of joint degree programs in modern universities, introducing the perspective of the employers toward this question. Design/methodology/approach — the research was conducted to analyze the demand of joint degree programs from the perspective of employers, identify weak and strong aspects, opinion and demand for graduates of such programs. To achieve this purpose, a combination of theoretical and empirical methods was chosen: document analysis (previous studies, statistics was conducted and an online qualitative survey was organized. Findings — The analysis of articles, studies and statistics points out the challenges and threats faced by universities nowadays, forcing higher education institutions to find new ways to raise the quality of studies and raise the interest of employers to choose graduates from MRU, as well as the satisfaction of employers with their choice of employees. Theoretical analysis pointed out these challenges and requirements for the modern employee, summarised the challenges in preparation of IT field specialists. The conducted research results showed that the diploma of joint degree programs would not be treated as an advantage of possible employee from the perspective of employers in case some important aspects will not be taken into consideration by program creators. On the other hand, undeniably there are strong sides, such as knowledge in the fields of foreign language, international experience, innovativeness and creativeness of employees that would be treated as an advantage in the process of selection for positions of any technical support related positions. Research limitations/implications — employers, whose business activities are closely related to information technology, have been invited as experts. In addition, these experts have a good understanding of the specifics of joint degree programs. The received
Plane Graphs with Maximum Degree 5 Are 11-Linear-Colorable
Kan WANG; Weifan WANG
2012-01-01
A linear coloring of a graph G is a proper vertex coloring such that the graph induced by the vertices of any two color classes is the union of vertex-disjoint paths.The linear chromatic number lc(G) of G is the smallest number of colors in a linear coloring of G.In this paper,we prove that every planar graph G with maximum degree 5 is 11-linear-colorable.
DeSimone, Barbara B
2006-01-01
This project describes the curriculum design of an accelerated bachelor's degree nursing program intended to promote the critical thinking of its students. Course objectives and teaching-learning strategies are described. Rogers' unitary view of human beings supports critical thinking as a developing process that should be measured in the context of nursing practice. Pre- and post-program critical thinking test scores indicated significant growth for the 38 graduates in the first 4 consecutive classes tested.
Variation in meroplankton along 78 degrees E Meridian
Balachandran, T.; Peter, K.J.
degrees S, 5 degrees S-15 degrees S and 15 degrees S-23 degrees S). Fish eggs showed variations within the zones, having a maximum of 1 to 5 in Zone B. While greater variations of 1 to 4 were shown in Zone B by the bivalve larvae, it was less in other...
Rank of loop, constraint degree of path, coupling degree of graph and their application
YANG Tingli; LUO Yufeng; ZHANG Ce; YAO Fanghua
2005-01-01
Some new concepts (rank of a loop, degree of freedom of a graph, path unit and ordered path arrangement, constraint degree of path, coupling degree of a graph, basic graph, etc. ), formulas, and algorithms, are proposed in this paper. Based on these concepts, a new systematic theory and practical method for the design of topological structure, kinematics and dynamics of mechanical systems is established. Some conjectures and problems needed to be researched are also put forward. The concepts, formulae and algorithms presented in this paper will find wide potential applications.
New Class of Consistent Scalar-Tensor Theories
Gleyzes, Jérôme; Langlois, David; Piazza, Federico; Vernizzi, Filippo
2015-05-01
We introduce a new class of scalar-tensor theories of gravity that extend Horndeski, or "generalized Galileon," models. Despite possessing equations of motion of higher order in derivatives, we show that the true propagating degrees of freedom obey well-behaved second-order equations and are thus free from Ostrogradski instabilities, in contrast to standard lore. Remarkably, the covariant versions of the original Galileon Lagrangians—obtained by direct replacement of derivatives with covariant derivatives—belong to this class of theories. These extensions of Horndeski theories exhibit an uncommon, interesting phenomenology: The scalar degree of freedom affects the speed of sound of matter, even when the latter is minimally coupled to gravity.
[Evidence-based practice competence in undergraduate Nursing Degree students].
Ruzafa-Martínez, María; Molina-Salas, Yolanda; Ramos-Morcillo, Antonio Jesús
2016-01-01
Evidence-based practice (EBP) learning has become a key issue for nurses. An EPB subject was included in the 4(th) year in the new syllabus of the Nursing Degree at University of Murcia (UM). To know the competence level in EBP of undergraduate nursing students at UM and compare the results between all four years. Observational descriptive study with a cross-sectional approach. undergraduate nursing students from all four years at Nursing Degree at the Faculty of Social and Healthcare Science at UM in the year 2013-14. EBP evaluation of competence of the nursing students consisted of attitude, skills and knowledge on EBP. A validated questionnaire, the EBP-COQ, was used. The scale range is 1 point «lowest level» to 5 points «higher level».The SPSS 21.0 program has been used to carry out descriptive and bivariate analyses. 144 students were included, 76.4% was female, and the median age was 23 years, 84.7% attended more than 75% class hours. The mean differences in the questionnaire between first and fourth years were 0.58 points in attitude, 0.60 in skills, 1.6 in knowledge and 0.83 in global competence in EBP. Significant differences in mean scores between the fourth and the remaining years in the global competence in EBP were observed, as well as in the three dimensions (p <0.05). The undergraduate-nursing students studied here have acquired an appropriate competence level in EBP, with a gradual increase by year. The biggest increase was in the fourth year students. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Ogg, Tom; Zimdars, Anna; Heath, Anthony
2009-01-01
This article examines the cause of school type effects upon gaining a first class degree at Oxford University, whereby for a given level of secondary school performance, private school students perform less well at degree level. We compare the predictive power of an aptitude test and secondary school grades (GCSEs) for final examination…
Effective degrees of freedom in QCD thermodynamics
Turko L.
2014-04-01
Full Text Available An effective model reproducing the equation of state of hadronic matter as obtained in recent lattice QCD simulations and from hadron resonance gas data is presented. The hadronic phase is described by means of an extended Mott-Hagedorn resonance gas while the QGP phase is described by the extended PNJL model. The dissociation of hadrons is obtained by including the state dependent hadron resonance width. The model gives a quantitative estimate for partial fractions of hadronic and partonic degrees of freedom above Tc.
Developing Your 360-Degree Leadership Potential.
Verma, Nupur; Mohammed, Tan-Lucien; Bhargava, Puneet
2017-09-01
Radiologists serve in leadership roles throughout their career, making leadership education an integral part of their development. A maxim of leadership style is summarized by 360-Degree Leadership, which highlights the ability of a leader to lead from any position within the organization while relying on core characteristics to build confidence from within their team. The qualities of leadership discussed can be learned and applied by radiologists at any level. These traits can form a foundation for the leader when faced with unfavorable events, which themselves allow the leader an opportunity to build trust. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Geologic map of the Dillon 1 degree by 2 degrees Quadrangle, Idaho and Montana
Ruppel, E.T.; Lopez, D.A.; O'Neill, J. M.
1993-01-01
The digital ARC/INFO databases included in this website provide a GIS database for the geologic map of the Dillon 1 degree by 2 degree quadrangle of southwest Montana and east-central Idaho. The geologic map was originally published as U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Investigations Series Map I-1803-H. This website directory contains ARC/INFO format files that can be used to query or display the geology of USGS Map I-1803-H with GIS software.
Bodirsky, Manuel
2012-01-01
Let C_1 and C_2 be strong amalgamation classes of finite structures, with disjoint finite signatures sigma and tau. Then C_1 wedge C_2 denotes the class of all finite (sigma cup tau)-structures whose sigma-reduct is from C_1 and whose tau-reduct is from C_2. We prove that when C_1 and C_2 are Ramsey, then C_1 wedge C_2 is also Ramsey. We also discuss variations of this statement, and give several examples of new Ramsey classes derived from those general results.
Lipschitz classes on local fields
Wei-yi SU; Guo-xiang CHEN
2007-01-01
The Lipschitz class Lipα on a local field K is defined in this note, and the equivalent relationship between the Lipschitz class Lipα and the Holder type space Cα (K) is proved. Then, those important characteristics on the Euclidean space Rn and the local field K are compared, so that one may interpret the essential differences between the analyses on Rn and K. Finally, the Cantor type fractal function (V)(x) is showed in the Lipschitz class Lip (m, K), m ＜ ln2/ln3.
Lipschitz classes on local fields
2007-01-01
The Lipschitz class Lipαon a local field K is defined in this note,and the equivalent relationship between the Lipschitz class Lipαand the Holder type space C~α(K)is proved.Then,those important characteristics on the Euclidean space R~n and the local field K are compared,so that one may interpret the essential differences between the analyses on R~n and K.Finally,the Cantor type fractal functionθ(x)is showed in the Lipschitz class Lip(m,K),m＜(ln 2/ln 3).
Homogeneous products of conjugacy classes
Adan-Bante, Edith
2006-01-01
Let $G$ be a finite group and $a\\in G$. Let $a^G=\\{g^{-1}ag\\mid g\\in G\\}$ be the conjugacy class of $a$ in $G$. Assume that $a^G$ and $b^G$ are conjugacy classes of $G$ with the property that ${\\bf C}_G(a)={\\bf C}_G(b)$. Then $a^G b^G$ is a conjugacy class if and only if $[a,G]=[b,G]=[ab,G]$ and $[ab,G]$ is a normal subgroup of $G$.
Pseudo-randomness of the fourth class of GSS sequences
HU Yupu; XIAO Guozhen
2004-01-01
This paper discusses pseudo-randomness of a periodic sequence, named the fourth class of GSS sequence. We get the ollowing results: ① Its least period always reaches the maximum (that is, 2n-1). ② Its least period and linear complexity keep robust under single-symbol-substitution. ③ It has good Iow-degree-auto-correlation feature. ④It has good short-length-run-distribution.
The Relationship between Class I and Class II Methanol Masers
Ellingsen, S P
2005-01-01
The Australia Telescope National Facility Mopra millimetre telescope has been used to search for 95.1-GHz class I methanol masers towards sixty-two 6.6-GHz class II methanol masers. A total of twenty-six 95.1-GHz masers were detected, eighteen of these being new discoveries. Combining the results of this search with observations reported in the literature, a near complete sample of sixty-six 6.6-GHz class II methanol masers has been searched in the 95.1-GHz transition, with detections towards 38 per cent (twenty-five detections ; not all of the sources studied in this paper qualify for the complete sample, and some of the sources in the sample were not observed in the present observations). There is no evidence of an anti-correlation between either the velocity range, or peak flux density of the class I and II transitions, contrary to suggestions from previous studies. The majority of class I methanol maser sources have a velocity range that partially overlaps with the class II maser transitions. The presence...
Management of Classes with Breaches of Discipline
陈海军
2009-01-01
As an only child is pampered and spoiled by parents, the contemporary student easily breaches class discipline. Class management appears more concerned than ever because breaches of class discipline have great impact on teaching. The author clarifies the necessity to study the management of classes with breaches of class discipline, numerates the phenomena of breaches of class discipline, precisely analyzes the causes from teachers and students and especially submits several measures to effectively prevent breaches of class discipline.
Research on the use of E-Class in the university class management
LIANG QIN; LAI YI WEI
2016-01-01
As an information exchange platform for online class, E-Class has played an important role in class management since its foundation. Based on the analysis of the impact of the network to university class management, this paper studied the advantages and the disadvantages of the current E-Class in class management, and proposed suggestions of strengthening the E-Class management.
Minimum degree condition forcing complete graph immersion
DeVos, Matt; Fox, Jacob; McDonald, Jessica; Mohar, Bojan; Scheide, Diego
2011-01-01
An immersion of a graph $H$ into a graph $G$ is a one-to-one mapping $f:V(H) \\to V(G)$ and a collection of edge-disjoint paths in $G$, one for each edge of $H$, such that the path $P_{uv}$ corresponding to edge $uv$ has endpoints $f(u)$ and $f(v)$. The immersion is strong if the paths $P_{uv}$ are internally disjoint from $f(V(H))$. It is proved that for every positive integer $t$, every simple graph of minimum degree at least $200t$ contains a strong immersion of the complete graph $K_t$. For dense graphs one can say even more. If the graph has order $n$ and has $2cn^2$ edges, then there is a strong immersion of the complete graph on at least $c^2 n$ vertices in $G$ in which each path $P_{uv}$ is of length 2. As an application of these results, we resolve a problem raised by Paul Seymour by proving that the line graph of every simple graph with average degree $d$ has a clique minor of order at least $cd^{3/2}$, where $c>0$ is an absolute constant. For small values of $t$, $1\\le t\\le 7$, every simple graph of...
Degree of satisfaction among hearing aid users
Mondelli, Maria Fernanda Capoani Garcia
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Introduction: Hearing loss (HL is defined as the complete or partial loss of hearing ability. Aims: To characterize (1 the degree of satisfaction among adult and elderly hearing aid (HA users who were treated by a public hearing health service and (2 the relationship between satisfaction and the variables of gender, age, degree of HL, and type of HA. Method: The clinical and experimental study included the administration of the Satisfaction with Amplification in Daily Life (SADL questionnaire to 110 patients who had used HAs for more than 3 months and were 18 years of age or older. Results: Test patients were sex-balanced (48% were women and had a mean age of 67 years. A relatively high incidence of sensorineural moderate HL was detected in the study patients (66% and device B was the most commonly used HA type (48%. No significant differences were evident between HA satisfaction and sex. The importance placed on services/costs and personal image varied between age groups. Correlation was evident at all levels between user satisfaction and amplification. Decreased satisfaction was observed in individuals with severe and/or profound HL. The type of HA used yielded statistically significant differences in the positive effects referring. Conclusion: No correlations were evident between the different factors proposed. HA users exhibited high levels of satisfaction in all SADL areas.
STUDY REGARDING THE CUSTOMERS SATISFACTION DEGREE
Palade Alexandru Constantin
2015-07-01
Full Text Available The main objective of the study is to establish the satisfaction degree of the heavy commercial vehicles market customers. This scientifical endeavour is justified by the major importance given by the producers and distributors of such vehicles to the beneficiaries’ satisfaction, a hich importance factor in the product development, customer relations inprovement and market share growth. After the 2008-2009 financial crisis, when the Romanian heavy commercial vehicles market collapsed, the growth trend was linear and moderat, but the market structure changed significantly. Having on one hand high technological costs, generated by the European legislation on pllution reduction and road safety and, on the other hand, the beneficiaries’ price pressure, the top producers from the deveoped countries focused on the optimization of the cutomers’ satisfaction degree and the development of their loyalty towards the brand. In order to achieve this, there has been developed a selective qualitative research, in the form of a questionnaire, among the most important customers of MHS Truck & Bus SRL – the importer of MAN trucks in Romania. The questions were directed towards obtaining informations regarding the customers’ product perception, identifying the main acquisition motivations and finding the main issues in successfully implementing the main politics of the relational maketing. The obtained results generally showed a good satisfaction result, the main complaints regarding subjects indirectly linked to the distribution, like service performance or road assistance.
80 Degrees of Seperation: Landscape in Literature
Stephanie Rolley
2004-12-01
Full Text Available Two writers in the early 1900s, Katherine Mansfield in New Zealand and Willa Cather in the United States tallgrass prairie, chronicled both the cultural and physical nuances of their frontiers. Their stories are set in rich textural backdrops, made vivid with their descriptions of natural environments. These descriptions provide the context for this paper's exploration. The dense and evocative imagery of these two writers provides a point of departure for a comparison of the two landscapes. The agricultural settlement patterns and natural systems of the New Zealand bush and farmland and those of the United States tallgrass prairie invite comparison. Mansfield's and Cather's narratives provide the guide for this study, capturing the subtle differences and underlying similarities of the textures and patterns of these two landscapes, while emphasising the differences in colour and scale. The degrees of separation are not as distinct as the 80 degrees of latitude that lie between them. Instead there is a myriad of subtle, rather than singular, differentiations. This visual analysis is not intended to address the significant cultural differences of these two places. Rather, it is a study of visual distinctions and similarities guided by the environmental qualities identified by a native author from each locale: Mansfield (New Zealand bush and farmland, and Cather (United States tallgrass prairie. Guided by their words, my own investigation of place is a graphic exploration of the physical environment: the line, form, pattern, texture, colour, light and spatial qualities of each landscape.
360 DEGREE SUBANNULAR TYMPANOPLASTY: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY
Kuldeep
2015-04-01
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY: To study the efficacy of underlay tympanoplasty by elevating the annulus by 360 degrees. SUBJECTS AND METHODS : Two hundred patients with chronic otitis media , tubotympanic disease , inactive stage who underwent tympanoplasty by the above technique between the years 2009 to 2013 were selected for the study as and when they were admitted. All the patients were followed up for 6 months fol lowing surgery. Any complications like secondary infection , wound dehiscence , granulations , were looked for and treated appropriately. Status of the neotympanum was evaluated at the end of 3 months. Any anterior blunting , medialisation or lateralisation of the graft was noted. Any residual perforation was considered as failure. Hearing was evaluated in all patients with an intact neotympanum. RESULTS : Our study showed an overall success rate of 96% as far as graft uptake was concerned. Hearing improvement w as seen in 93% of our patients. 6 patients had complete air bone gap closure , 49 had AB gap of 10db or less , 131 had AB gap of 11 - 20db. 14 patients had no improvement in hearing. Overall hearing improvement was seen in 93% of our patients. CONCLUSION : In c onclusion 360 degree sub - annular tympanoplasty is a efficient technique of tympanoplasty with very good results.
Diagnosis and Treatment of Pseudo-Class III Malocclusion
Ariel Reyes
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Pseudo-Class III malocclusion is characterized by the presence of an anterior crossbite due to a forward functional displacement of the mandible; in most cases, the maxillary incisors present some degree of retroclination, and the mandibular incisors are proclined. Various types of appliances have been described in the literature for the early treatment of pseudo-Class III malocclusion. The objectives of this paper are to demonstrate the importance of making the differential diagnosis between a skeletal and a pseudo-Class III malocclusion and to describe the correction of an anterior crossbite. The association of maxillary expansion and a 2 × 4 appliance can successfully be used to correct anterior crossbites.
Diffusion distinguishes between structural universality classes of disordered media
Papaioannou, Antonios; Fieremans, Els; Boutis, Gregory S
2016-01-01
Identifying relevant parameters is central to understanding complex phenomena. This often evokes the concept of universality, which groups microscopically distinct systems into a handful of universality classes, according to the relevant degrees of freedom affecting their thermodynamic and dynamical properties. Here we show that universality is key to relating transport to structure in disordered systems. We experimentally demonstrate the relation between the structural exponent, characterizing a structural universality class, and the dynamical exponent of classical diffusion in disordered media. To that end, we manufactured samples of hyperuniform and short-range disorder, characterized by the statistics of the placement of {\\mu}m-thin parallel barriers permeable to water. We used NMR-measured water diffusion to identify the structural universality class of these samples via the dynamical exponent describing the power-law decrease of the diffusion coefficient across the barriers at long times. Our experiment...
USING PICTURES IN ENGLISH CLASSES
1994-01-01
Introduction In China, some English teachers go to class with only a textbook and a teaching plan, nothing else. After a while, the students complain that their classes are becoming more and more boring. Teachers have tried many ways to make their classes more interesting, motivating and effective, but using pictures in the classroom to do this has not been a popular method. The world provides us with all kinds of beautiful pictures. There is no reason why we should not make better use of them in language learning and teaching. This article will discuss the reasons for using pictures, suggest ways of collecting pictures and ways of using pictures in reading, writing, listening and speaking classes.
Brainwriting in the Theory Class
Wunsch, Ilse Gerda
1973-01-01
Considers the problem of taking dictation in a music class and recognizes the importance of perception for understanding musical structure. Author demonstrates his point with an analysis of a German folksong. (RK)
Bassett, Lawrence F.
1998-01-01
Presents a high school student's description in class of her deep connection to Hester Prynne in Nathaniel Hawthorne's "The Scarlet Letter," and how it offers a glimpse of the vast interior lives of women. (SR)
Condylar volume and condylar area in class I, class II and class III young adult subjects
Saccucci Matteo
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Abstract Aim Aim of this study was to compare the volume and the shape of mandibular condyles in a Caucasian young adult population, with different skeletal pattern. Material and methods 200 Caucasian patients (15–30 years old, 95 male and 105 females were classified in three groups on the base of ANB angle: skeletal class I (65 patients, skeletal class II (70 patients and skeletal class III (65 patients. Left and right TMJs of each subject were evaluated independently with CBCT (Iluma. TMJ evaluation included: condylar volume; condylar area; morphological index (MI. Condylar volumes were calculated by using the Mimics software. The condylar volume, the area and the morphological index (MI were compared among the three groups, by using non-parametric tests. Results The Kruskal-Wallis test and the Mann Whitney test revealed that: no significant difference was observed in the whole sample between the right and the left condylar volume; subjects in skeletal class III showed a significantly higher condylar volume, respect to class I and class II subjects (p 3 in males and 663.5 ± 81.3 mm3 in females; p 2 in males and 389.76 ± 61.15 mm2 in females; p Conclusion Skeletal class appeared to be associated to the mandibular condylar volume and to the mandibular condylar area in the Caucasian orthodontic population.
Dickman, P W; Auvinen, A; Voutilainen, E. T.; Hakulinen, T
1998-01-01
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Estimation of cancer patient survival by social class has been performed using observed, corrected (cause specific), and relative (with expected survival based on the national population) survival rates. Each of these measures are potentially biased and the optimal method is to calculate relative survival rates using social class specific death rates to estimate expected survival. This study determined the degree to which the choice of survival measure affects the esti...
A new class of nonlinear Rauch-Tung-Striebel cubature Kalman smoothers.
Jia, Bin; Xin, Ming
2015-03-01
In this paper, a new Rauch-Tung-Striebel type of nonlinear smoothing method is proposed based on a class of high-degree cubature integration rules. This new class of cubature Kalman smoothers generalizes the conventional third-degree cubature Kalman smoother using the combination of Genz׳s or Mysovskikh׳s high-degree spherical rule with the moment matching based arbitrary-degree radial rule, which considerably improves the estimation accuracy. A target tracking problem is utilized to demonstrate the performance of this new smoother and to compare it with other Gaussian approximation smoothers. It will be shown that this new cubature Kalman smoother enhances the filtering accuracy and outperforms the extended Kalman smoother, the unscented Kalman smoother, and the conventional third-degree cubature Kalman smoother. It also maintains close performance to the Gauss-Hermite quadrature smoother with much less computational cost.
An evaluation of pharmacology curricula in Australian science and health-related degree programs.
Lloyd, Hilary; Hinton, Tina; Bullock, Shane; Babey, Anna-Marie; Davis, Elizabeth; Fernandes, Lynette; Hart, Joanne; Musgrave, Ian; Ziogas, James
2013-11-19
Pharmacology is a biomedical discipline taught in basic science and professional degree programs. In order to provide information that would facilitate pharmacology curricula to be refined and developed, and approaches to teaching to be updated, a national survey was undertaken in Australia that investigated pharmacology course content, teaching and summative assessment methods. Twenty-two institutions participated in a purpose-built online questionnaire, which enabled an evaluation of 147 courses taught in 10 different degrees. To enable comparison, degrees were grouped into four major degree programs, namely science, pharmacy, medicine and nursing. The pharmacology content was then classified into 16 lecture themes, with 2-21 lecture topics identified per theme. The resultant data were analysed for similarities and differences in pharmacology curricula across the degree programs. While all lecture themes were taught across degree programs, curriculum content differed with respect to the breadth and hours of coverage. Overall, lecture themes were taught most broadly in medicine and with greatest coverage in pharmacy. Reflecting a more traditional approach, lectures were a dominant teaching method (at least 90% of courses). Sixty-three percent of science courses provided practical classes but such sessions occurred much less frequently in other degree programs, while tutorials were much more common in pharmacy degree programs (70%). Notably, problem-based learning was common across medical programs. Considerable diversity was found in the types of summative assessment tasks employed. In science courses the most common form of in-semester assessment was practical reports, whereas in other programs pen-and-paper quizzes predominated. End-of-semester assessment contributed 50-80% to overall assessment across degree programs. The similarity in lecture themes taught across the four different degree programs shows that common knowledge- and competency-based learning
Degree of conversion and permeability of dental adhesives.
Cadenaro, Milena; Antoniolli, Francesca; Sauro, Salvatore; Tay, Franklin R; Di Lenarda, Roberto; Prati, Carlo; Biasotto, Matteo; Contardo, Luca; Breschi, Lorenzo
2005-12-01
The aim of this study was to analyse the extent of polymerization of different adhesive films in relation to their permeability. One adhesive of each class was investigated: OptiBond FL; One-Step; Clearfil Protect Bond; and Xeno III. Adhesive films were prepared and cured with XL-2500 (3M ESPE) for 20, 40 or 60 s. Polymerization kinetic curves of the adhesives tested were obtained with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and data were correlated with microhardness. The permeability of the adhesives under the same experimental conditions was evaluated on human extracted teeth connected to a permeability device and analysed statistically. The results showed that the extent of polymerization obtained from DSC exotherms was directly correlated with microhardness. An increased level of polymerization after prolonged light-curing was confirmed for all adhesives. Simplified adhesives exhibited a lower extent of polymerization and showed incomplete polymerization, even after 60 s. An inverse correlation was found between the degree of cure and the permeability. This study supports the hypothesis that the permeability of simplified adhesives is correlated with incomplete polymerization of resin monomers and the extent of light exposure. These adhesives may be rendered less permeable by using longer curing times than those recommended by the respective manufacturer.
Tesfaye, Casey Langer; Mulvey, Patrick J.
2007-01-01
This report describes the initial employment and educational paths pursued by physics and astronomy degree recipients at the bachelor's, master's, and PhD levels for the classes of 2002-03 and 2003-04. The report includes starting salaries, primary work activities, ratings of professional challenge and other aspects of initial employment. The…
Walker, Ian; Zhu, Yu
2011-01-01
This paper provides estimates of the impact of higher education qualifications on the earnings of graduates in the U.K. by subject studied. We use data from the recent U.K. Labour Force Surveys which provide a sufficiently large sample to consider the effects of the subject studied, class of first degree, and postgraduate qualifications. Ordinary…
Mesodynamics with implicit degrees for freedom
Lin, Keng-Hua; Germann, Timothy C; Strachan, Alejandro
2014-01-01
Mesoscale phenomena -- involving a level of description between the finest atomistic scale and the macroscopic continuum -- can be studied by a variation on the usual atomistic-level molecular dynamics (MD) simulation technique. In mesodynamics, the mass points, rather than being atoms, are mesoscopic in size, for instance representing the centers of mass of polycrystalline grains or molecules. In order to reproduce many of the overall features of fully atomistic MD, which is inherently more expensive, the equations of motion in mesodynamics must be derivable from an interaction potential that is faithful to the compressive equation of state, as well as to tensile de-cohesion that occurs along the boundaries of the mesoscale units. Moreover, mesodynamics diffrers from Newton's equations of motion in that dissipation -- the exchange of energy between mesoparticles and their internal degrees of freedom (DoFs) -- must be described, and so should the transfer of energy between the internal modes of neighboring me...
Research on image scrambling degree evaluation method
Bai, Sen; Liao, Xiaofeng; Chen, Jinyu; Liu, Yijun; Wang, Xiao
2005-12-01
This paper discussed the evaluation problem of image scrambling degree (ISD). Inspired by the evaluation method of image texture characteristics, three new metrics for assessing objectively the ISD were proposed. The first method utilized the performance of energy concentration of Walsh transformation (WT), which took into account the properties that a good ISD measurement method should be contented. The second method used angular second moment (ASM) of image gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM). The third method combined the entropy of GLCM with image texture characteristic. Experimental results show that the proposed metrics are effective to assess the ISD, which correlates well with subjective assessment. Considering the computational complexity, the first evaluation method based on WT is remarkably superior to the method based on ASM and GLCM in terms of the time cost.
The Degree Distribution of the Random Multigraphs
Ai Lian CHEN; Fu Ji ZHANG; Hao LI
2012-01-01
In this paper,as a generalization of the binomial random graph model,we define the model of multigraphs as follows:let (Q)(n; {pk}) be the probability space of all the labelled loopless multigraphs with vertex set V ={v1,v2,...,vn },in which the distribution of tvi,vj,the number of the edges between any two vertices vi and vj isP{tvi,vj =k} =pk, k =0,1,2,...and they are independent of each other.Denote by Xd =Xd(G),Yd =Yd(G),Zd =Zd(G) and Zcd =Zed(G) the number of vertices of G with degree d,at least d,at most d and between c and d.In this paper,we discuss the distribution of Xd,Yd,Zd and Zcd in the probability space (Q)(n; {pk}).
Happiness, Psychology, and Degrees of Realism
Lavazza, Andrea
2016-01-01
The recent emphasis on a realist ontology that cannot be overshadowed by subjectivist or relativist perspectives seems to have a number of consequences for psychology as well. My attempt here is to analyse the relationship between happiness as a state of the individual and the states of the external world and the brain events related to (or, in some hypotheses, causally responsible for) its occurrence. It can be maintained that different degrees of realism are suitable to describe the states of happiness and this fact might have relevant psychological implications, namely for the so-called positive psychology. This is especially true now that there are methods available to induce subjective states of happiness unrelated to the external conditions usually taken to be linked to such states. PMID:27536261
Happiness, Psychology, and Degrees of Realism.
Lavazza, Andrea
2016-01-01
The recent emphasis on a realist ontology that cannot be overshadowed by subjectivist or relativist perspectives seems to have a number of consequences for psychology as well. My attempt here is to analyse the relationship between happiness as a state of the individual and the states of the external world and the brain events related to (or, in some hypotheses, causally responsible for) its occurrence. It can be maintained that different degrees of realism are suitable to describe the states of happiness and this fact might have relevant psychological implications, namely for the so-called positive psychology. This is especially true now that there are methods available to induce subjective states of happiness unrelated to the external conditions usually taken to be linked to such states.
Vocational Counseling and Training for Medical Degrees
Belkis Mercedes Vicente Sánchez
2014-04-01
Full Text Available Deciding on a university degree is undoubtedly a difficult choice. This situation brings about fear of failing and disappointing yourself and others, which is a common feeling among high school students, becoming a source of anxiety and stress. This demonstrates the need for an appropriate vocational and professional guidance. In Cuba, this subject is gaining importance, since a greater number of youngsters have the opportunity to choose from more professions; thus, deciding on one or the other is a problem of great practical and social impact. Vocational guidance and training in the Cuban educational context aims to reaffirm the inclination of youth towards medical studies, where they fully develop their potential, on the basis of consolidating values and feelings, and a high social, moral and unconditional commitment to the practice of the profession. This paper presents various issues that currently affect vocational guidance and the role of each of the major participants in the process itself.
On degree bounds for separating invariants
Kohls, Martin
2010-01-01
Let a group $G$ act on a finite dimensional vector space $V$ over an algebraically closed field $K$ of characteristic $p$. Then $\\beta_{\\sep}(G)$ is the minimal number such that, for any $V$, the invariants of degree less or equal than this number have the same separating properties as the whole invariant ring $K[V]^{G}$. Derksen and Kemper have shown $\\beta_{\\sep}(G)\\le |G|$. We show $\\beta_{\\sep}(G)=|G|$ for $p$-groups and cyclic groups, and $\\beta_{\\sep}(G)=\\infty$ for infinite unipotent groups. We also show $\\beta_{\\sep}(G)\\le \\beta_{\\sep}(G/N)\\beta_{\\sep}(N)$ for a normal divisor $N$ of finite index.
Hidden degrees of freedom in aperiodic materials.
Toudic, Bertrand; Garcia, Pilar; Odin, Christophe; Rabiller, Philippe; Ecolivet, Claude; Collet, Eric; Bourges, Philippe; McIntyre, Garry J; Hollingsworth, Mark D; Breczewski, Tomasz
2008-01-04
Numerous crystalline materials, including those of bioorganic origin, comprise incommensurate sublattices whose mutual arrangement is described in a superspace framework exceeding three dimensions. We report direct observation by neutron diffraction of superspace symmetry breaking in a solid-solid phase transition of an incommensurate host-guest system: the channel inclusion compound of nonadecane/urea. Strikingly, this phase transition generates a unit cell doubling that concerns only the modulation of one substructure by the other-an internal variable available only in superspace. This unanticipated pathway for degrees of freedom to rearrange leads to a second phase transition, which again is controlled by the higher dimensionality of superspace. These results reveal nature's capacity to explore the increased number of phases allowed in aperiodic crystals.
Ivete Simionatto
2009-06-01
Full Text Available O artigo procura resgatar, no pensamento de Antonio Gramsci, a concepção de classes subalternas e a sua relação com outras categorias, especialmente, o Estado, a sociedade civil e a hegemonia, como suportes da luta de classes na realidade contemporânea. Aborda, ainda, as relações entre classes subalternas, senso comum e ideologia, bem como as formas de superação tematizadas por Gramsci, através da cultura e da filosofia da práxis. Nesse sentido, num movimento de totalidade, busca recuperar a discussão das classes subalternas, a partir da original formulação gramsciana no âmbito do marxismo, mediante a interação dialética entre estrutura e superestrutura, economia e política. Além do resgate conceitual, apontam-se alguns elementos como subsídios à discussão das formas de subalternidade presentes na realidade contemporânea e as possibilidades de fortalecimento das lutas de tais camadas de classe, sobretudo em momentos de forte desmobilização da participação popular.This article sought to revive the concept of subaltern classes and their relation with other categories, particularly the State, civil society and hegemony in the thinking of Antonio Gramsci, as a support for contemporary class struggles. It also analyzes the relations between subaltern classes, common sense and ideology, as well as the forms of "overcoming" conceptualized by Gramsci, through the culture and philosophy of praxis. The paper revives the discussion of the subaltern classes, based on the original Gramscian formulation in the realm of Marxism, through the dialectic interaction between structure and superstructure, economy and politics. In addition to the conceptual revival, it indicates some elements that can support the discussion of the forms of subalternity found in contemporary reality and the possibilities for strengthening the struggles of these class layers, above all in moments of strong demobilization of popular participation.
Multiple degree of freedom impact oscillator
Gontier, C. [Laboratoire Mecanique S., S. et M., Ecole Centrale, 75 -Paris (France)
1996-07-01
The forced vibration of dynamic systems with motion stops is relevant to many practical engineering problems. Several applications were identified in the field of mechanical engineering: structures having clearances, bolted junctions, or rods inside guiding grids. Such mechanical systems, when subjected to harmonic excitation, may not necessarily behave in a periodic way, and the loss of stability of their periodic motion is often a precursor for much more complex nonlinear behaviour. Many numerical, analytical and experimental studies have been carried out on the dynamics of these impacting systems. In particular, the behaviour of single degree of freedom (d.o.f.) impact oscillators has been extensively studied. Phenomena like attractor coexistence, subharmonic bifurcation, and chaos were identified in many earlier papers. The classical pattern of flip bifurcation cascade was observed numerically by Shaw and Holmes, and the Feigenbaum scenario of transition to chaos was confirmed. Others also proved that such systems can undergo ``grazing bifurcation`` and that they could lead to chaotic behaviour. Peterka and Vacik even provided bounds of chaotic responses with the help of an analogue computer. Experiments were also carried out on models, like impact pendulums, whose dynamics can be approximately fitted by a single d.o.f. impact oscillator. Other authors conducted investigations into the existence and stability of periodic solutions. Most of these studies were dedicated to the single impact periodic responses of single d.o.f. impact oscillators. The purpose of this paper is to expand the scope of these analytic investigations. This expansion will take two directions, considering first an arbitrarily large number of degrees of freedom in the oscillating structure, and secondly an arbitrary finite number of impacts per period. Thus, the methods presented here could be applied in the study of any finite impact periodic motions of any dynamic impacting system.
360-degree retinectomy for severe ocular rupture
ZHANG Mao-nian; JIANG Cai-hui
2005-01-01
Objective: To investigate the effect of 360-degree retinectomy for severe ocular rupture and evaluate the related factors associated with prognosis.Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on 28 consecutive patients, 18 men and 10 women, with severe ocular rupture admitted to the Chinese PLA General Hospital between January 1999 and January 2002. The patients' ages ranged from 16 to 58 years, mean 29.5years. All operations were performed by the first author.All patients underwent standard 3-port pars plana vitrectomy with scleral encircling buckle,endophotocoagulation, and tamponaded with silicone oil.Lensectomy were performed on 15 eyes. 360-degree retinotomy and retinectomy were performed at anterior equator on 16 eyes, and posterior equator on 12 eyes.Results: During operation, all patients were confirmed to have vitreous hemorrhage and retinal detachment, in which hemorrhagic ciliary body detachment was found in 9 eyes, suprachoroidal hemorrhage in 12 eyes,retinal twisting like flower stalk in 11 eyes, and retinal incarceration in 17 eyes. Postoperative follow-up was conducted in 26 cases, ranged from 6 months to 46 months.Retinal reattachment achieved in 20 eyes (76. 9%), in which three patients' retina was reattached after revitrectomy. The silicone oil was removed at the fourth month in 8 eyes postoperatively. Corrected visual acuity of 0.02 or more was in 14 eyes (70. 0%) among the 20patients with reattached retina. Visual acuity of 0.05 or more was in 7 eyes ( 35.0 % ), and 0.1 or more was in 3eyes. The best visual acuity was 0.3 in 1 eye.Conclusions: Retinectomy may improve the prognosis of severe ocular rupture and save the visual function of some patients.
Helvacioglu, Firat; Yeter, Celal; Tunc, Zeki; Sencan, Sadik
2013-08-01
To compare the safety and efficacy of Ozil Intelligent Phaco torsional microcoaxial phacoemulsification surgeries performed with 12-degree and 22-degree bent tips using the Infiniti Vision System. Maltepe University School of Medicine Department of Ophthalmology, Istanbul, Turkey. Comparative case series. Eyes were assigned to 2.2 mm microcoaxial phacoemulsification using the torsional mode with a 22-degree bent tip (Group 1) or a 12-degree bent tip (Group 2). The primary outcome measures were ultrasound time (UST), cumulative dissipated energy (CDE), longitudinal and torsional ultrasound (US) amplitudes, mean surgical time, mean volume of balanced salt solution used, and surgical complications. Both groups included 45 eyes. The mean UST, CDE, longitudinal US amplitude, and torsional US amplitude were 65 seconds ± 27.23 (SD), 11.53 ± 6.99, 0.22 ± 0.26, and 42.86 ± 15.64, respectively, in Group 1 and 84 ± 45.04 seconds, 16.68 ± 10.66, 0.48 ± 0.68, and 46.27 ± 14.74, respectively, in Group 2. The mean UST, CDE, and longitudinal amplitudes were significantly lower in Group 1 (P=.003, P=.008, and P=.022, respectively). The mean volume of balanced salt solution was 73.33 ± 28.58 cc in Group 1 and 82.08 ± 26.21 cc in Group 2 (P=.134). Torsional phacoemulsification performed with 22-degree bent tips provided more effective lens removal than 12-degree bent tips, with a lower UST and CDE. Copyright © 2013 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Portion of Enhanced 360-degree Gallery Pan
1997-01-01
This is a sub-section of the 'geometrically improved, color enhanced' version of the 360-degree panorama heretofore known as the 'Gallery Pan', the first contiguous, uniform panorama taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) over the course of Sols 8, 9, and 10. Different regions were imaged at different times over the three Martian days to acquire consistent lighting and shadow conditions for all areas of the panorama.The IMP is a stereo imaging system that, in its fully deployed configuration, stands 1.8 meters above the Martian surface, and has a resolution of two millimeters at a range of two meters. In this geometrically improved version of the panorama, distortion due to a 2.5 degree tilt in the IMP camera mast has been removed, effectively flattening the horizon.The IMP has color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye'. Its red, green, and blue filters were used to take this image. The color was digitally balanced according to the color transmittance capability of a high-resolution TV at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), and is dependent on that device. In this color enhanced version of the panorama, detail in surface features are brought out via changes to saturation and intensity, holding the original hue constant. A threshold was applied to avoid changes to the sky.At left is a Lander petal and a metallic mast which is a portion of the low-gain antenna. Misregistration in the antenna and other Lander features is due to parallax in the extreme foreground. Another Lander petal is at the right, showing the fully deployed forward ramp.Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The IMP was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar
Gender, social class, and women's employment.
McGinn, Kathleen L; Oh, Eunsil
2017-07-17
People in low-power positions, whether due to gender or class, tend to exhibit other-oriented rather than self-oriented behavior. Women's experiences at work and at home are shaped by social class, heightening identification with gender for relatively upper class women and identification with class for relatively lower class women, potentially mitigating, or even reversing, class-based differences documented in past research. Gender-class differences are reflected in women's employment beliefs and behaviors. Research integrating social class with gendered experiences in homes and workplaces deepens our understanding of the complex interplay between sources of power and status in society. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
New Degree for a New Career? Career Development of Finnish Polytechnic Master's Degree Graduates
Ahola, Sakari; Galli, Loretta
2012-01-01
This article explores Finnish polytechnic master's degree graduates' career development about one year after graduation. Twenty interviewed graduates were first classified on the basis of their initial educational motives yielding a typology of goal-oriented, learning-oriented and drifters. After this, their career development was analysed. As a…
Making Sense of the Combined Degree Experience: The Example of Criminology Double Degrees
Wimshurst, Kerry; Manning, Matthew
2017-01-01
Little research has been undertaken on student experiences of combined degrees. The few studies report that a considerable number of students experienced difficulty with the contrasting epistemic/disciplinary demands of the component programmes. A mixed-methods approach was employed to explore the experiences of graduates from four double degrees…
Marketing Issues for Non-Degree United Kingdom Higher Education: The Case of Foundation Degrees.
Gibbs, Paul
2002-01-01
Discusses educational marketing in terms of branding and consumer trust. Argues that the labeling and marketing of Britain's new foundation degrees, employment-related higher education qualifications, is detrimental to their success. Suggests a need for more clarity and veracity in the claim for parity of esteem for vocational qualifications.…
Increasingly Global: Combining an International Business Degree with a Post-Degree Designation
Smith, Rachel; Terry, Andy; Vibhakar, Ashvin
2006-01-01
In the increasingly complex and competitive global marketplace, many students seek to gain multiple skills and credentials that can aid them in their career goals. One such career strategy weds a general overarching comprehensive degree with a specific and targeted skill set. This paper provides a viable curriculum path for students who seek…
Chewning, June S.
The Atomic Energy Commission's survey of nuclear engineering degrees granted during the 1971-72 academic year shows a continuing increase in bachelor's recipients, a slight increase in the number of master's, but a continuing decline in new Ph.D.'s. If the present rate of decline persists, by 1974 the number of new Ph.D.'s in the field will be…
Starks, Luciana Janee'
2010-01-01
Increasing the number of advanced degree recipients is more than an educational issue; it is also a key social issue. "A college-educated population results in pivotal benefits to society" (The National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education, 2004, p. 1). Although African Americans have made steady and notable progress in doctorate degree…
A JVLA 10~degree^2 deep survey
Jarvis, Matt J; Bruggen, Marcus; Ferrari, Chiara; Heywood, Ian; Hardcastle, Martin; Murphy, Eric; Taylor, Russ; Smirnov, Oleg; Simpson, Chris; Smolcic, Vernesa; Stil, Jeroen; van der Heyden, Kurt
2014-01-01
(Abridged)One of the fundamental challenges for astrophysics in the 21st century is finding a way to untangle the physical processes that govern galaxy formation and evolution. Given the importance and scope of this problem, the multi-wavelength astronomical community has used the past decade to build up a wealth of information over specific extragalactic deep fields to address key questions in galaxy formation and evolution. These fields generally cover at least 10square degrees to facilitate the investigation of the rarest, typically most massive, galaxies and AGN. Furthermore, such areal coverage allows the environments to be fully accounted for, thereby linking the single halo to the two-halo terms in the halo occupation distribution. Surveys at radio wavelengths have begun to lag behind those at other wavelengths, especially in this medium-deep survey tier. However, the survey speed offered by the JVLA means that we can now reach a point where we can begin to obtain commensurate data at radio wavelengths...
Constraining the roughness degree of slip heterogeneity
Causse, Mathieu
2010-05-07
This article investigates different approaches for assessing the degree of roughness of the slip distribution of future earthquakes. First, we analyze a database of slip images extracted from a suite of 152 finite-source rupture models from 80 events (Mw = 4.1–8.9). This results in an empirical model defining the distribution of the slip spectrum corner wave numbers (kc) as a function of moment magnitude. To reduce the “epistemic” uncertainty, we select a single slip model per event and screen out poorly resolved models. The number of remaining models (30) is thus rather small. In addition, the robustness of the empirical model rests on a reliable estimation of kc by kinematic inversion methods. We address this issue by performing tests on synthetic data with a frequency domain inversion method. These tests reveal that due to smoothing constraints used to stabilize the inversion process, kc tends to be underestimated. We then develop an alternative approach: (1) we establish a proportionality relationship between kc and the peak ground acceleration (PGA), using a k−2 kinematic source model, and (2) we analyze the PGA distribution, which is believed to be better constrained than slip images. These two methods reveal that kc follows a lognormal distribution, with similar standard deviations for both methods.
47 CFR 74.708 - Class A TV and digital Class A TV station protection.
2010-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class A TV and digital Class A TV station... SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.708 Class A TV and digital Class A TV station protection. (a) The Class A TV and digital Class A TV station protected contours are specified...
Class number relation between type (l,l/,…, l) function fields over F_q(T) and their subfields
赵健强
1995-01-01
Let L/Fq(T) be a tame abelian extension of type (l, l,...l). The ratio of the degree zero divisor dass number (as well as the ideal class number) of L to the product of corresponding class numbers of all cydic subfields of L is clearly determined.
Helvacioglu, Firat; Sencan, Sadik; Yeter, Celal; Tunc, Zeki; Uyar, O Murat
2014-03-01
To compare the safety and efficacy of Ozil Intelligent Phaco torsional microcoaxial phacoemulsification surgeries performed using 30-degree and 45-degree aperture angled tips. Maltepe University School of Medicine Department of Ophthalmology, Istanbul, Turkey. Comparative case series. Eyes were assigned to 2.2 mm microcoaxial phacoemulsification using the torsional mode with a 45-degree (Group 1) or 30-degree (Group 2) aperture angled tip. A quick-chop surgical technique was used. The primary outcome measures were ultrasound time (UST), cumulative dissipated energy (CDE), longitudinal and torsional ultrasound (US) amplitudes, mean surgical time, mean balanced salt solution volume used, and mean central corneal thickness (CCT) changes. The mean UST, CDE, and longitudinal and torsional US amplitudes were 58.21 seconds ± 33.81 (SD), 7.74 ± 6.23, 0.45 ± 0.30, and 26.30 ± 12.60 in Group 1 and 63.83 ± 23.42 seconds, 12.36 ± 6.75, 0.23 ± 0.26, and 44.65 ± 14.38 in Group 2, respectively. The mean CDE and torsional amplitudes were significantly lower in Group 1 (P=.002 and P=.001, respectively). The mean balanced salt solution volume was 73.30 ± 19.87 cc in Group 1 and 74.30 ± 19.44 cc in Group 2 (P=.821). The mean CCT change was 52.40 ± 38.08 μm and 99.35 ± 47.14 μm, respectively (Ptip provided more effective lens removal with a lower CDE and less CCT change than a 30-degree aperture angled tip. Copyright © 2014 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Interdiffusion and Reaction between Zr and Al Alloys from 425 degrees to 625 degrees C
J. Dickson; L. Zhou; A. Ewh; M. Fu; D. D. Keiser, Jr.; Y. H. Sohn; A. Paz y Puente
2014-06-01
Zirconium has recently garnered attention for use as a diffusion barrier between U–Mo nuclear fuels and Al cladding alloys. Interdiffusion and reactions between Zr and Al, Al-2 wt.% Si, Al-5 wt.% Si or AA6061 were investigated using solid-to-solid diffusion couples annealed in the temperature range of 425 degrees to 625 degrees C. In the binary Al and Zr system, the Al3Zr and Al2Zr phases were identified, and the activation energy for the growth of the Al3Zr phase was determined to be 347 kJ/mol. Negligible diffusional interactions were observed for diffusion couples between Zr vs. Al-2 wt.% Si, Al-5 wt.% Si and AA6061 annealed at or below 475 degrees C. In diffusion couples with the binary Al–Si alloys at 560 degrees C, a significant variation in the development of the phase constituents was observed including the thick t1 (Al5SiZr2) with Si content up to 12 at.%, and thin layers of (Si,Al)2Zr, (Al,Si)3Zr, Al3SiZr2 and Al2Zr phases. The use of AA6061 as a terminal alloy resulted in the development of both T1 (Al5SiZr2) and (Al,Si)3Zr phases with a very thin layer of (Al,Si)2Zr. At 560 degrees C, with increasing Si content in the Al–Si alloy, an increase in the overall rate of diffusional interaction was observed; however, the diffusional interaction of Zr in contact with multicomponent AA6061 with 0.4–0.8 wt.% Si was most rapid.
Degree of the generalized Plücker embedding of a Quot scheme and quantum cohomology
Ravi, M S; Wang, X
1994-01-01
We compute the degree of the generalized Plücker embedding $\\kappa$ of a Quot scheme $X$ over $\\PP^1$. The space $X$ can also be considered as a compactification of the space of algebraic maps of a fixed degree from $\\PP^1$ to the Grassmanian $\\rm{Grass}(m,n)$. Then the degree of the embedded variety $\\kappa (X)$ can be interpreted as an intersection product of pullbacks of cohomology classes from $\\rm{Grass}(m,n)$ through the map $\\psi$ that evaluates a map from $\\PP^1$ at a point $x\\in \\PP^1$. We show that our formula for the degree verifies the formula for these intersection products predicted by physicists through Quantum cohomology~\\cite{va92}~\\cite{in91}~\\cite{wi94}. We arrive at the degree by proving a version of the classical Pieri's formula on the variety $X$, using a cell decomposition of a space that lies in between $X$ and $\\kappa (X)$.
无
2001-01-01
The purpose of this survey is to present Moran sets and Moran classes which generalize the classical selfsimilar sets from the following points: ( i ) The placements of the basic sets at each step of the constructions can be arbitrary; (ii) the contraction ratios may be different at each step; and (iii) the lower limit of the contraction ratios permits zero. In this discussion we will present geometrical properties and results of dimensions of these sets and classes,and discuss conformal Moran sets and random Moran sets as well.``
Teaching Reading in Large Classes
Rojas B Leyla María
2001-08-01
Full Text Available This article deals with the problem of overcrowded classes. Ideas from research findings are given in an attempt to approach the teaching of reading at tertiary and secondary levels. This study is mainly based on the analysis of five pedagogical principles that emerged from the Lancaster-Leeds Language Learning in Large Classes Research Project in the United Kingdom (1986- 1999. Emphasis is also made on two important general principles emerging from the project: being realistic and giving more responsibility to the learner. Practical suggestions from research on reading are made based on the principles stated.
Predicting Acoustics in Class Rooms
Christensen, Claus Lynge; Rindel, Jens Holger
2005-01-01
Typical class rooms have fairly simple geometries, even so room acoustics in this type of room is difficult to predict using today's room acoustic computer modeling software. The reasons why acoustics of class rooms are harder to predict than acoustics of complicated concert halls might...... coefficients that are used in order to describe surface scattering (roughness of material) as well as scattering of reflected sound caused by limited surface size (diffraction). A method which combines scattering caused by diffraction due to surface dimensions, angle of incidence and incident path length...
Supervised Object Class Colour Normalisation
Riabchenko, Ekatarina; Lankinen, Jukka; Buch, Anders Glent;
2013-01-01
Colour is an important cue in many applications of computer vision and image processing, but robust usage often requires estimation of the unknown illuminant colour. Usually, to obtain images invariant to the illumination conditions under which they were taken, color normalisation is used....... In this work, we develop a such colour normalisation technique, where true colours are not important per se but where examples of same classes have photometrically consistent appearance. This is achieved by supervised estimation of a class specic canonical colour space where the examples have minimal variation...
Enzymatic Browning: a practical class
Maria Teresa Pedrosa Silva Clerici
2014-10-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a practical class about the enzymes polyphenol oxidases, which have been shown to be responsible for the enzymatic browning of fruits and vegetables. Vegetables samples were submitted to enzymatic inactivation process with chemical reagents, as well as by bleaching methods of applying heat by conventional oven and microwave oven. Process efficiency was assessed qualitatively by both observing the guaiacol peroxidase activity and after the storage period under refrigeration or freezing. The practical results obtained in this class allow exploring multidisciplinary knowledge in food science, with practical applications in everyday life.
Isabel Garrido
2016-04-01
Full Text Available The class of metric spaces (X,d known as small-determined spaces, introduced by Garrido and Jaramillo, are properly defined by means of some type of real-valued Lipschitz functions on X. On the other hand, B-simple metric spaces introduced by Hejcman are defined in terms of some kind of bornologies of bounded subsets of X. In this note we present a common framework where both classes of metric spaces can be studied which allows us to see not only the relationships between them but also to obtain new internal characterizations of these metric properties.
1997-01-01
This 360-degree panorama was taken in stereo by the deployed Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses (red left lens, blue right lens) are necessary to help identify surface detail. All three petals, the perimeter of the deflated airbags, deployed rover Sojourner, forward and backward ramps and prominent surface features are visible, including the double Twin Peaks at the horizon. Sojourner would later investigate the rock Barnacle Bill just to its left in this image, and the larger rock Yogi at its forward right.The IMP is a stereo imaging system with color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye.' It stands 1.8 meters above the Martian surface, and has a resolution of two millimeters at a range of two meters. Stereoscopic imaging brings exceptional clarity and depth to many of the features in this image, particularly the ridge beyond the far left petal and the large rock Yogi. The curvature and misalignment of several section are due to image parallax.Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right
Degree and connectivity of the Internet's scale-free topology
Zhang Lian-Ming; Deng Xiao-Heng; Yu Jian-Ping; Wu Xiang-Sheng
2011-01-01
This paper theoretically and empirically studies the degree and connectivity of the Internet's scale-free topology at an autonomous system (AS)level. The basic features of scale-free networks influence the normalization constant of degree distribution p(k). It develops a new mathematic model for describing the power-law relationships of Internet topology. From this model we theoretically obtain formulas to calculate the average degree, the ratios of the kmin-degree (minimum degree)nodes and the km.-degree (maximum degree)nodes, and the fraction of the degrees (or links)in the hands of the richer (top best-connected)nodes. It finds that the average degree is larger for a smaller power-law exponent λ and a larger minimum or maximum degree. The ratio of the kmin-degree nodes is larger for larger a and smaller kmin or kmax. The ratio of the kmax-degree ones is larger for smaller λ and kn,ax or larger kmin. The richer nodes hold most of the total degrees of Internet AS-level topology. In addition, it is revealed that the increased rate of the average degree or the ratio of the kmin-degree nodes has power-law decay with the increase of kmin. The ratio of the km.-degree nodes has a power-law decay with the increase of k, and the fraction of the degrees in the hands of the richer 27% nodes is about 73% (the'73/27 rule'). Finally, empirically calculations are made, based on the empirical data extracted from the Border Gateway Protocol, of the average degree, ratio and fraction using this method and other methods, and find that this method is rigorous and effective for Internet AS-level topology.
Inferring modules from human protein interactome classes
Chaurasia Gautam
2010-07-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The integration of protein-protein interaction networks derived from high-throughput screening approaches and complementary sources is a key topic in systems biology. Although integration of protein interaction data is conventionally performed, the effects of this procedure on the result of network analyses has not been examined yet. In particular, in order to optimize the fusion of heterogeneous interaction datasets, it is crucial to consider not only their degree of coverage and accuracy, but also their mutual dependencies and additional salient features. Results We examined this issue based on the analysis of modules detected by network clustering methods applied to both integrated and individual (disaggregated data sources, which we call interactome classes. Due to class diversity, we deal with variable dependencies of data features arising from structural specificities and biases, but also from possible overlaps. Since highly connected regions of the human interactome may point to potential protein complexes, we have focused on the concept of modularity, and elucidated the detection power of module extraction algorithms by independent validations based on GO, MIPS and KEGG. From the combination of protein interactions with gene expressions, a confidence scoring scheme has been proposed before proceeding via GO with further classification in permanent and transient modules. Conclusions Disaggregated interactomes are shown to be informative for inferring modularity, thus contributing to perform an effective integrative analysis. Validation of the extracted modules by multiple annotation allows for the assessment of confidence measures assigned to the modules in a protein pathway context. Notably, the proposed multilayer confidence scheme can be used for network calibration by enabling a transition from unweighted to weighted interactomes based on biological evidence.
Achieving world class maintenance status
Tomlingson, P.D. [Paul D. Tomingson Associates (United States)
2007-08-15
The article written by a management consultant, discusses the art of successful planning and operation of maintenance in mines considering factors such as benchmaking, key performance indices (KPIs) and frequency of procedures which can help achieve 'world class maintenance'. 1 fig.
Professional Elites in "Classes" Societies
S.J. Magala (Slawomir)
2003-01-01
textabstractModern European identity has been forged in class struggles between the French revolution and fall of the Berlin Wall, which fell twice. Once, with the rest of the city in May 1945, when a national socialist alternative to a modernizing mix of parliamentary democracy and market economy
Professional Elites in "Classes" Societies
S.J. Magala (Slawomir)
2003-01-01
textabstractModern European identity has been forged in class struggles between the French revolution and fall of the Berlin Wall, which fell twice. Once, with the rest of the city in May 1945, when a national socialist alternative to a modernizing mix of parliamentary democracy and market economy c
Active Learning in Large Classes
Gørtz, Inge Li
2011-01-01
the lectures in the course. The main idea is to use inductive, case-based learning, with many small exercises/ discussions during the lectures. We describe a framework for the lectures, that most lectures in the class were based on. The framework contains the conceive, design, and implement stage from the CDIO...
Sigma-class glutathione transferases.
Flanagan, Jack U; Smythe, Mark L
2011-05-01
Mammalian cytosolic glutathione transferases (GSTs) can be grouped into seven classes. Of these, the sigma class is also widely distributed in nature, with isoforms found in both vertebrates and invertebrates. It contains examples of proteins that have evolved specialized functions, such as the cephalopod lens S-crystallins, the mammalian hematopoietic prostaglandin D(2) synthase, and the helminth 28-kDa antigen. In mammals, the sigma-class GST has both anti- and proinflammatory functions, depending on the type of immune response, and an immunomodulatory function is also associated with the enzyme from helminth parasites. In the fly, it is associated with a specific detoxication activity toward lipid oxidation products. Mice genetically depleted of the sigma-class GST, or transgenically overexpressing it, have provided insight into the physiological roles of the GST. Inhibitors of the mammalian enzyme developed by structure-based methods are effective in controlling allergic response. This review covers the structure, function, and pharmacology of vertebrate and invertebrate GSTs.
COOPERATIVE LEARNING IN LARGE CLASSES
GuoXiangju
2004-01-01
Teaching college English in large classes is a new challenge to teachers. To meet this challenge, the strategy of cooperative learning is practicable. This paper introduces cooperative learning and describes the experiment results, which prove the advantages of cooperative learning over competitive learning or individualistic learning.
MATERIALS FOR LITERARY ENJOYMENT CLASS
Sarah Prasasti
2000-01-01
Full Text Available As the introductory class of literature at the Faculty of Letters, Literary Enjoyment serves as a campaign to motivate students to appreciate and enjoy works of literature. Materials, which generally hinder the students' ability to enjoy literary works, should be carefully considered. Ideally, language and content should be easily digested but a compromise can be made between language and content.
A class of topological actions
Bauer, Michel [Service de Physique Theorique de Saclay, F-91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Girardi, Georges [LAPTH, Chemin de Bellevue, BP 110, F-74941 Annecy-le-Vieux cedex (France); Stora, Ramond [LAPTH, Chemin de Bellevue, BP 110, F-74941 Annecy-le-Vieux cedex (France); Thuillier, Frank [LAPTH, Chemin de Bellevue, BP 110, F-74941 Annecy-le-Vieux cedex (France)
2005-08-01
We review definitions of generalized parallel transports in terms of Cheeger-Simons differential characters. Integration formulae are given in terms of Deligne-Beilinson cohomology classes. These representations of parallel transport can be extended to situations involving distributions as is appropriate in the context of quantized fields.
A Class of Topological Actions
Bauer, M; Stora, Raymond Félix; Thuillier, F
2005-01-01
We review definitions of generalized parallel transports in terms of Cheeger-Simons differential characters. Integration formulae are given in terms of Deligne-Beilinson cohomology classes. These representations of parallel transport can be extended to situations involving distributions as is appropriate in the context of quantized fields.
Civility in Classes and Sports
Lumpkin, Angela
2010-01-01
Civility is a polite or courteous act, expression, or standard of conduct, including the display of respect and tolerance to everyone. Teaching and modeling civility in classes and with sport teams is essential so students and athletes can learn the importance of and demonstrate civility in their interactions with others. Teachers and coaches…
Class-Based Affirmative Action.
Roach, Ronald
2003-01-01
Discusses class-based, or economic, affirmative action, touted by the Bush administration as a race-neutral alternative to race-conscious affirmative action in college admissions. Explores whether such policies will result in fewer minority admissions and considers the "fairness" of the approach. (SLD)
Art of Class Teaching Encourage
HE Jiao-fei
2013-01-01
Teaching encourage can lead to student’s learning motivation and interesting. It improves the effect of classroom teach⁃ing. Methods of class teaching inspiration are: Target encourage, expectation encourage, emotional encourage, positive encourage, attribution encourage, competition encourage, caress encourage, democracy encourage, praise encourage, time encourage, check en⁃courage, questions encourage, examination encourage, score encourage, example encourage and understanding encourage.
孟凡洪; 苏耕; 杨继
2000-01-01
The present paper shows the coordinates of a tree and its vertices, defines a kind of Trees with Odd-Number Radiant Type (TONRT), deals with the gracefulness of TONRT by using the edge-moving theorem, and uses graceful TONRT to construct another class of graceful trees.
Courtel, Claudine, Ed.; Amyot, Denise, Ed.
1985-01-01
A series of class activities for French instruction includes uses of the telephone book, tape recordings, advertising, word and pattern games, and creation of a radio program. Suggestions for instruction of Canadian natives include games for animal, body, and clothing vocabulary. (MSE)
Helbig, P
2000-01-01
Abstract: I give a brief overview of the current status of some aspects of the Cosmic Lens All-Sky Survey (CLASS): description of the survey, current list of lens systems, cosmological parameters from lensing statistics, H_0 from time delays, dark lenses, wide-separation lenses.
Ethnicity, class, and civil war
Hechter, Michael Norman; Siroky, David
2016-01-01
Why are some countries prone to ethno-nationalist conflict, whereas others are plagued by class conflict? This is a question that has seldom been raised and rarely been examined empirically. This paper presents a social-structural theory to account for the variable incidence of these two forms...
Sahu, Subrata K.; Acharya, D.; Nayak, P. C.; Misra, U. K.
2016-06-01
Trigonometric Fourier approximation and Lipchitz class of function had been introduced by Zygmund and McFadden respectively. Dealing with degree of approximation of conjugate series of a Fourier series of a function of Lipchitz class Misra et al. have established certain theorems. Extending their results, in this paper a theorem on trigonometric approximation of conjugate series of Fourier series of a function f ∈ W(Lp, ξ(t)) by product summability (E, s)(N, pn, qn) has been established.
The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS): 38 GHz detector array of bolometric polarimeters
Appel, John W; Amiri, Mandana; Araujo, Derek; Bennett, Charles L; Boone, Fletcher; Chan, Manwei; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Chuss, David T; Colazo, Felipe; Crowe, Erik; Denis, Kevin; Dunner, Rolando; Eimer, Joseph; Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Gothe, Dominik; Halpern, Mark; Harrington, Kathleen; Hilton, Gene; Hinshaw, Gary F; Huang, Caroline; Irwin, Kent; Jones, Glenn; Karakla, John; Kogut, Alan J; Larson, David; Limon, Michele; Lowry, Lindsay; Marriage, Tobias; Mehrle, Nicholas; Miller, Amber D; Miller, Nathan; Moseleyb, Samuel H; Novakh, Giles; Reintsemad, Carl; Rostemab, Karwan; Stevensonb, Thomas; Towner, Deborah; U-Yen, Kongpop; Wagner, Emily; Watts, Duncan; Wollack, Edward; Xu, Zhilei; Zeng, Lingzhen
2014-01-01
The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) experiment aims to map the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) at angular scales larger than a few degrees. Operating from Cerro Toco in the Atacama Desert of Chile, it will observe over 65% of the sky at 38, 93, 148, and 217 GHz. In this paper we discuss the design, construction, and characterization of the CLASS 38 GHz detector focal plane, the first ever Q-band bolometric polarimeter array.
The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS): 38 GHz Detector Array of Bolometric Polarimeters
Appel, John W.; Ali, Aamir; Amiri, Mandana; Araujo, Derek; Bennett, Charles L.; Boone, Fletcher; Chan, Manwei; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Chuss, David T.; Colazo, Felipe; Crowe, Erik; Denis, Kevin; Dunner, Rolando; Eimer, Joseph; Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Gothe, Dominik; Halpern, Mark; Harrington, Kathleen; Kogut, Alan J..; Miller, Nathan; Moseley, Samuel H.; Stevenson, Thomas; Towner, Deborah; U-Yen, Kongpop; Wollack, Edward
2014-01-01
The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) experiment aims to map the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) at angular scales larger than a few degrees. Operating from Cerro Toco in the Atacama Desert of Chile, it will observe over 65% of the sky at 38, 93, 148, and 217 GHz. In this paper we discuss the design, construction, and characterization of the CLASS 38 GHz detector focal plane, the first ever Q-band bolometric polarimeter array.
Silverman, Joseph H
2011-01-01
Let F : P^N --> P^N be a dominant rational map. The dynamical degree of F is the quantity d_F = lim (deg F^n)^(1/n). When F is defined over a number field, we define the arithmetic degree of an algebraic point P to be a_F(P) = limsup h(F^n(P))^(1/n) and the canonical height of P to be h_F(P) = limsup h(F^n(P))/n^k d_F^n for an appropriately chosen integer k = k_F. In this article we prove some elementary relations and make some deep conjectures relating d_F, a_F(P), and h_F(P). We prove our conjectures for semisimple monomial maps.
A Discussion Strategy for an Online Class
Reese-Durham, Nancy Faith
2014-01-01
As a former teacher of face-to-face classes now assigned to teach only online classes, Nancy Reese Durham found herself challenged to change to accommodate online learners. She was determined to provide an environment in the online class where the high level of discussion she had provided in face-to-face classes could flourish as well. Here she…
Using Linguistic References To Characterize Class Integration.
Stewart, Gay B.; Stewart, John C.; Skinner, Stephen; Baily, Crystal
1999-01-01
Introduces a technique using linguistic references in the communication of a physics class to characterize class integration. Measurement of a traditional physics class shows only marginal integration; however, measurement of a traditional physics class shows that integration can be dramatically improved. (Author/CCM)
Student versus Faculty Perceptions of Missing Class.
Sleigh, Merry J.; Ritzer, Darren R.; Casey, Michael B.
2002-01-01
Examines and compares student and faculty attitudes towards students missing classes and class attendance. Surveys undergraduate students (n=231) in lower and upper level psychology courses and psychology faculty. Reports that students found more reasons acceptable for missing classes and that the amount of in-class material on the examinations…
Class Action Suits against Public Schools.
Mesibov, Laurie
1984-01-01
If a suit is brought as a class action, either plaintiff or defendant may move to uphold or challenge class certification. If neither does so, the court decides whether the action may be maintained as a class suit. Prerequisites for class certification from Rule 23 (Federal Rules of Civil Procedure) are explained. (TE)
Atomic Energy Commission, Washington, DC. Office of Industrial Relations.
This document presents statistical data concerning enrollments for fall 1973 and degrees granted 1965-June 1973 in nuclear engineering. Highlights of this survey of educational institutions indicated: (1) Ph.D.'s decreased to 126 from 149 in 1971-72 and from 181 in 1969-70. (2) MS's increased to 442 from 428 in 1971-72. (3) BS's increased to 551…
Assessing Degree of Susceptibility to Landslide Hazard
Sheridan, M. F.; Cordoba, G. A.; Delgado, H.; Stefanescu, R.
2013-05-01
The modeling of hazardous mass flows, both dry and water saturated, is currently an area of active research and several stable models have now emerged that have differing degrees of physical and mathematical fidelity. Models based on the early work of Savage and Hutter (1989) assume that very large dense granular flows could be modeled as incompressible continua governed by a Coulomb failure criterion. Based on this concept, Patra et al. (2005) developed a code for dry avalanches, which proposes a thin layer mathematical model similar to shallow-water equations. This concept was implemented in the widely-used TITAN2D program, which integrates the shock-capturing Godunov solution methodology for the equation system. We propose a method to assess the susceptibility of specific locations susceptible to landslides following heavy tephra fall using the TIATN2D code. Successful application requires that the range of several uncertainties must be framed in the selection of model input data: 1) initial conditions, like volume and location of origin of the landslide, 2) bed and internal friction parameters and 3) digital elevation model (DEM) uncertainties. Among the possible ways of coping with these uncertainties, we chose to use Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS). This statistical technique reduces a computationally intractable problem to such an extent that is it possible to apply it, even with current personal computers. LHS requires that there is only one sample in each row and each column of the sampling matrix, where each row (multi-dimensional) corresponds to each uncertainty. LHS requires less than 10% of the sample runs needed by Monte Carlo approaches to achieve a stable solution. In our application LHS output provides model sampling for 4 input parameters: initial random volumes, UTM location (x and y), and bed friction. We developed a simple Octave script to link the output of LHS with TITAN2D. In this way, TITAN2D can run several times with successively different
Degrees of Truthfulness in Accepted Scientific Claims.
Ahmed Hassan Mabrouk
2008-12-01
Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-MY X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Abstract: Sciences adopt different methodologies in deriving claims and establishing theories. As a result, two accepted claims or theories belonging to two different sciences may not necessarily carry the same degree of truthfulness. Examining the different methodologies of deriving claims in the sciences of ʿaqīdah (Islamic Creed, fiqh (Islamic Jurisprudence and physics, the study shows that ʿaqīdah provides a holistic understanding of the universe. Physics falls short of interpreting physical phenomena unless these phenomena are looked at through the ʿaqīdah holistic view. Left to itself, error may creep into laws of physics due to the methodology of conducting the physical experiments, misinterpreting the experimental results, or accepting invalid assumptions. As for fiqh, it is found that apart from apparent errors, fiqh views cannot be falsified. It is, therefore, useful to consider ʿaqīdah as a master science which would permit all other sciences to live in harmony.
Properties of $\\gamma$-Ray Burst Classes
Hakkila, J; Roiger, R J; Mallozzi, R S; Pendleton, G N; Meegan, C A; Hakkila, Jon; Haglin, David J.; Roiger, Richard J.; Mallozzi, Robert S.; Pendleton, Geoffrey N.; Meegan, Charles A.
2000-01-01
The three gamma-ray burst (GRB) classes identified by statistical clustering analysis (Mukherjee et al. 1998) are examined using the pattern recognition algorithm C4.5 (Quinlan 1986). Although the statistical existence of Class 3 (intermediate duration, intermediate fluence, soft) is supported, the properties of this class do not need to arise from a distinct source population. Class 3 properties can easily be produced from Class 1 (long, high fluence, intermediate hardness) by a combination of measurement error, hardness/intensity correlation, and a newly-identified BATSE bias (the fluence duration bias). Class 2 (short, low fluence, hard) does not appear to be related to Class 1.
Michell, Dee; Beddoe, Liz; Fraser, Heather; Jarldorn, Michele
2017-01-01
This paper reports on our use of a two-phased, feminist memory work in a project conducted with 11 women, social science students at an Australian university. We begin by describing government-led attempts to widen participation in Australian universities because 10 of the 11 women who participated in our project were from…
Theory of center-focus for a class of higher-degree critical points and infinite points
LIU; Yirong
2001-01-01
［1］Ye, Y. Q., Qualitative Theory of Polynomial Differential Systems (in Chinese), Shanghai: Shanghai Scientific & Technical Publishers, 1995.［2］Anderonov, A. A., Theory of Oscillating (Translated in Chinese), Beijing: Science Press, 1973.［3］Liu, Y. R., Li, J. B., Theory of values of singular point in complex autonomous differential system, Science in China, Ser. A, 1990, 33(1): 10.［4］Galubiev, B. B., Teaching Materials on Analytic Theory of Differential Equations (Translated in Chinese), Beijing: Higher Education Press, 1956.［5］Griffiths, P., Algebraic Curves (Translated in Chinese), Beijing: Peking University Press, 1985, 70.［6］Chebataliov, H. G., Theory of Algebraic Curves (Translated in Chinese), Beijing: Higher Education Press, 1956, 257.
中世古, 貴彦; 木村, 拓也; 丸野, 俊一
2016-01-01
This paper is a case study to examine how a research university can become more “world-class” without expansion of Ph.D. programs and with curriculum reform pursuing late specialization. The balance between undergraduate level and graduate level is one of the most important issues for higher education institutions, especially for highly-specialized research universities. In 2008 the University of Melbourne undertook an education reform called “the Melbourne Model.” The reform introduced the g...
Michell, Dee; Beddoe, Liz; Fraser, Heather; Jarldorn, Michele
2017-01-01
This paper reports on our use of a two-phased, feminist memory work in a project conducted with 11 women, social science students at an Australian university. We begin by describing government-led attempts to widen participation in Australian universities because 10 of the 11 women who participated in our project were from…
HUANG; Tian; (黄; 田); TANG; Guobao; (唐国宝); LI; Siwei; (李思维); LI; Ya; (李; 亚); G.; Derek; Chetwynd; J.; David; Whitehouse
2003-01-01
By taking a 3-DOF translational milling machine as an example, this paper investigates the kinematic calibration of PKM systems with fewer than 6-DOF. The error mapping function is formulated in such a way that the geometric errors affecting the compensatable and uncompensatable pose errors can be separated. Based upon the previous investigation, a hierarchical approach to the geometric error identification is proposed. The compensation strategy is developed which is particularly suitable for the PKM systems with translational moving capability. The experiment has been carried out to verify the effectiveness of the proposed approach and the results show that the accuracy can be significantly improved.
Trabalho e classes sociais Work and social classes
Fernando Haddad
1997-10-01
Full Text Available Exposição, discussão e refutação das principais tentativas de atualizar a teoria marxista de classes e posterior reavaliação dessa teoria à luz da transformação da ciência em fator de produção e da possível perda de centralidade do trabalho no processo produtivo, tendo por base as interpretações lógicas da obra de Marx feitas por Ruy Fausto.Exposition, discussion and refutation of the main attempts of actualizing marxist class theory and a posterior reevaluation of this theory taking into account the transformation of Science into a factor of production and of the possible centrality-loss of work in the productive process, based on the logic interpretations of Marx's work made by Ruy Fausto.
Classification of infrastructure networks by neighborhood degree distribution
Giustolisi, O; Ridolfi, L
2016-01-01
A common way of classifying network connectivity is the association of the nodal degree distribution to specific probability distribution models. During the last decades, researchers classified many networks using the Poisson or Pareto distributions. Urban infrastructures, like transportation (railways, roads, etc.) and distribution (gas, water, energy, etc.) systems, are peculiar networks strongly constrained by spatial characteristics of the environment where they are constructed. Consequently, the nodal degree of such networks spans very small ranges not allowing a reliable classification using the nodal degree distribution. In order to overcome this problem, we here (i) define the neighborhood degree, equal to the sum of the nodal degrees of the nearest topological neighbors, the adjacent nodes and (ii) propose to use neighborhood degree to classify infrastructure networks. Such neighborhood degree spans a wider range of degrees than the standard one allowing inferring the probabilistic model in a more re...
FDM Video Classe: Modes d'emploi pour la classe (FDM Video Class: Classroom Uses).
Beacco, Marcella Di Giura
1996-01-01
Content and design of the videotape series FDM Video Classe, produced by the journal "Le francais dans le monde," are described and classroom uses suggested. The materials are from authentic television programs, selected to illustrate aspects of French culture. It is suggested that the teacher also provide students with supporting materials that…
Expectations of Adult Graduate Students in an Online Degree Program
Deggs, David; Grover, Kenda; Kacirek, Kit
2010-01-01
This study was conducted to examine the expectations of adult graduate students enrolled in an online degree program at a research university in the mid-South United States. Students who were pursuing their master of education degree were invited to participate in an e-Focus group regarding their expectations of the degree program. Focus groups…
Building Bridges: Higher Degree Student Retention and Counselling Support
Pearson, Mark
2012-01-01
This paper aims to contribute to the discussion on increasing retention rates in higher degree students. It presents evidence from the literature on the value of increasing counselling and mentoring care for higher degree research students. The creation of, and rationale for, a designated higher degree student counsellor-mentor role is described.…
Comparability of Degrees and Diplomas in International Law.
Dupuy, Rene Jean; Tunkin, Gregory
University exchanges, as well as the high degree of mobility that is a feature of certain professions, demand a system of international equivalences of degrees. This study deals with degrees in international law, and includes under this term: (1) public international law, defined as the body of rules that apply to states and others subject to…
The Applied Baccalaureate Degree: The Right Time and Place
Ruud, Collin M.; Bragg, Debra D.; Townsend, Barbara K.
2010-01-01
The applied baccalaureate degree, which integrates once-terminal applied associate degrees and course work into a four-year degree, is a relatively new phenomenon in higher education. This article presents findings from the first of two phases of research conducted--utilizing Kingdon's (1995) Multiple Streams framework--exploring the status of…
Facilitating Timely Completion of a College Degree with Optimization Technology
Dechter, Avi
2009-01-01
Students who pursue a bachelor's degree in four-year colleges and universities often take longer than four years to complete their degrees. The reasons for prolonging the time to degree seem to fall into three broad categories: part-time enrollment, deficiencies in academic readiness, and inadequate course planning. This paper focuses on the…
Effect of Class III bone anchor treatment on airway.
Nguyen, Tung; De Clerck, Hugo; Wilson, Michael; Golden, Brent
2015-07-01
To compare airway volumes and minimum cross-section area changes of Class III patients treated with bone-anchored maxillary protraction (BAMP) versus untreated Class III controls. Twenty-eight consecutive skeletal Class III patients between the ages of 10 and 14 years (mean age, 11.9 years) were treated using Class III intermaxillary elastics and bilateral miniplates (two in the infra-zygomatic crests of the maxilla and two in the anterior mandible). The subjects had cone beam computed tomographs (CBCTs) taken before initial loading (T1) and 1 year out (T2). Twenty-eight untreated Class III patients (mean age, 12.4 years) had CBCTs taken and cephalograms generated. The airway volumes and minimum cross-sectional area measurements were performed using Dolphin Imaging 11.7 3D software. The superior border of the airway was defined by a plane that passes through the posterior nasal spine and basion, while the inferior border included the base of the epiglottis to the lower border of C3. From T1 to T2, airway volume from BAMP-treated subjects showed a statistically significant increase (1499.64 mm(3)). The area in the most constricted section of the airway (choke point) increased slightly (15.44 mm(2)). The airway volume of BAMP patients at T2 was 14136.61 mm(3), compared with 14432.98 mm(3) in untreated Class III subjects. Intraexaminer correlation coefficients values and 95% confidence interval values were all greater than .90, showing a high degree of reliability of the measurements. BAMP treatment did not hinder the development of the oropharynx.
Degree of Entanglement and Violation of Bell Inequality by Two-Spin-1/2 States
K. Berrada; Y. Hassouni; H. Eleuch
2011-01-01
Bell inequality is violated by the quantum mechanical predictions made from an entangled state of the composite system. In this paper we examine this inequality and entanglement measures in the construction of the coherent states for two-qubit pure and mixed states, we find a link to some entanglement measures through some new parameters （amplitudes of coherent states）. Conditions for maximal entanglement and separability are then established for both pure and mixed states. Finally, we analyze and compare the violation of Bell inequality for a class of mixed states with the degree of entanglement by applying the formalism of Horodecki et al.
Marakulina, K. M.; Kramor, R. V.; Lukanina, Yu. K.; Plashchina, I. G.; Polyakov, A. V.; Fedorova, I. V.; Chukicheva, I. Yu.; Kutchin, A. V.; Shishkina, L. N.
2016-02-01
The parameters of complexation between natural phospholipids (lecithin, sphingomyelin, and cephalin) with antioxidants of a new class, isobornylphenols (IBPs), were determined by UV and IR spectroscopy. The self-organization of phospholipids (PLs) was studied depending on the structure of IBPs by dynamic light scattering. The nature of phospholipids and the structure of IBPs was found to produce a substantial effect both on the degree of complexation and on the size of PL aggregates in a nonpolar solvent. Based on the obtained data it was concluded that the structure of biological membranes mainly depends on the complexation of IBP with sphingomyelin.
On regulators with a prescribed degree of stability. M.S. Thesis
Ng, P. T. P.
1981-01-01
Several important aspects of the Regulator with a Prescribed Degree of Stability (RPDS) methodology and its applications are considered. The solution of the time varying RPDS problem as well as the characterization of RPDS closed loop eigenstructure properties are obtained. Based on the asymptotic behavior of RPDS root loci, a one step algorithm for designing Regulators with Prescribed Damping Ratio (RPDR) is developed. The robustness properties of RPDS are characterized in terms of the properties of the return difference and the inverse return difference matrices for the RPDS state feedback loop. This class of regulators is found to possess excellent multiloop margins with respect to stability and degree of stability properties. The ability of RPDS design to tolerate changing operating conditions and unmodelled dynamics are illustrated with a multiterminal dc/ac power system example. The output feedback realization of RPDS requires the use of Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG) methodology.
Uniform sampling of undirected and directed graphs with a fixed degree sequence
Berger, Annabell
2009-01-01
Many applications in network analysis require efficient algorithms to sample uniformly at random from the set of all graphs with a prescribed degree sequence. We solve this long-standing open problem for both the directed and undirected case using a Markov chain based approach. By spectral analysis we prove that our Markov chains are rapidly mixing, i.e., we can determine a random realization in polynomial time. Previous solutions to these sampling problems have either been restricted to special classes of degree sequences or only led to approximately uniform sampling. For the case of directed graphs, we also explain in this paper why a popular switching algorithm fails in general to sample uniformly at random but characterize under which efficiently checkable conditions it will provable succeed in polynomial time. Finally, we point out some interesting consequences for network analysis.
Multiple degree of freedom object recognition using optical relational graph decision nets
Casasent, David P.; Lee, Andrew J.
1988-01-01
Multiple-degree-of-freedom object recognition concerns objects with no stable rest position with all scale, rotation, and aspect distortions possible. It is assumed that the objects are in a fairly benign background, so that feature extractors are usable. In-plane distortion invariance is provided by use of a polar-log coordinate transform feature space, and out-of-plane distortion invariance is provided by linear discriminant function design. Relational graph decision nets are considered for multiple-degree-of-freedom pattern recognition. The design of Fisher (1936) linear discriminant functions and synthetic discriminant function for use at the nodes of binary and multidecision nets is discussed. Case studies are detailed for two-class and multiclass problems. Simulation results demonstrate the robustness of the processors to quantization of the filter coefficients and to noise.
Bulk amplitude and degree of divergence in 4d spin foams
Chen, Lin-Qing
2016-01-01
We study the 4-d holomorphic Spin Foam amplitude on arbitrary connected 2-complexes and degrees of divergence. With recently developed tools and truncation scheme, we derive a formula for a certain class of graphs, which allows us to write down the value of bulk amplitudes simply based on graph properties. We then generalize the result to arbitrary connected 2-complexes and extract a simple expression for the degree of divergence only in terms of combinatorial properties and topological invariants. The distinct behaviors of the model in different regions of parameter space signal phase transitions. In the regime which is of physical interest for recovering diffeomorphsim symmetry in the continuum limit, the most divergent configurations are melonic graphs. We end with a discussion of physical implications.
Bisimulation and expressivity for conditional belief, degrees of belief, and safe belief
Andersen, Mikkel Birkegaard; Bolander, Thomas; van Ditmarsch, Hans;
2016-01-01
Plausibility models are Kripke models that agents use to reason about knowledge and belief, both of themselves and of each other. Such models are used to interpret the notions of conditional belief, degrees of belief, and safe belief. The logic of conditional belief contains that modality and also...... the knowledge modality, and similarly for the logic of degrees of belief and the logic of safe belief. With respect to these logics, plausibility models may contain too much information. A proper notion of bisimulation is required that characterises them. We define that notion of bisimulation and prove...... the required characterisations: on the class of image-finite and preimage-finite models (with respect to the plausibility relation), two pointed Kripke models are modally equivalent in either of the three logics, if and only if they are bisimilar. As a result, the information content of such a model can...
STUDENTS’ ANXIETIES IN SPEAKING CLASS
Mahyuzar Rahman
2017-08-01
Full Text Available This qualitative research discussed the anxieties the students of semester 3, English Department, IAIN STS Jambi faced during the speaking class. The result of the research indicated that the causes of the students’ anxieties were the lack of grammar mastery, pronunciation problem, lack of vocabulary, unconfident feeling, fear of making mistakes and feared of being laughed by other students. But the dominant factors found were the lack of grammar, the lack of good pronunciation, and lack of vocabulary mastery. The lecturer had taken part to overcome these problems by giving them motivation not to give up easily, how to cope with vocabulary problems, and how to prepare well before coming into the class.
A Transformer Class E Amplifier
Mikolajewski Miroslaw
2014-12-01
Full Text Available In a high-efficiency Class E ZVS resonant amplifier a matching and isolation transformer can replace some or even all inductive components of the amplifier thus simplifying the circuit and reducing its cost. In the paper a theoretical analysis, a design example and its experimental verification for a transformer Class E amplifier are presented. In the experimental amplifier with a transformer as the only inductive component in the circuit high efficiency ηMAX = 0.95 was achieved for supply voltage VI = 36 V, maximum output power POMAX = 100 W and the switching frequency f = 300 kHz. Measured parameters and waveforms showed a good agreement with theoretical predictions. Moreover, the relative bandwidth of the switching frequency was only 19% to obtain output power control from 4.8 W to POMAX with efficiency not less than 0.9 in the regulation range.
Growing a strong middle class.
O'Malley, Martin
2009-01-01
An important mission for the country is achieving sustainability while strengthening the middle class. American leadership and innovation can play a critical role in defining the interconnectedness of our economy and environment-and in unlocking, harnessing, and advancing green technologies. The State of Maryland has launched a Green Jobs Initiative focused on attracting green businesses, working with existing businesses to adopt sustainable practices, promoting clean energy research and use, and training the work force for ne, green-collar jobs.
Class Transitions in Black Holes
Chakrabarti, S K
2005-01-01
A black hole spectrum is known to change from the hard state to the soft state when the energy spectral index $\\alpha$ ($F_E \\propto E^{-\\alpha}$) in, say, 2-20 keV range changes from $\\alpha \\sim 0.5$ to $\\sim 1.5$. However, this `classical' definition which characterizes black holes like Cyg X-1, becomes less useful for many objects such as GRS 1915+105 in which the spectral slope is seen to vary from one to the other in a matter of seconds and depending on whether or not winds form, the spectral slope also changes. The light curves and the colour-colour diagrams may look completely different on different days depending on the frequency and mode of switching from one spectral state to the other. Though RXTE observations have yielded wealth of information on such `variability classes' in GRS 1915+105, very rarely one has been able to observe how the object goes from one class to the other. In the present review, we discuss possible origins of the class transition and present several examples of such transiti...
The complexity of class polynomial computation via floating point approximations
Enge, Andreas
2009-06-01
We analyse the complexity of computing class polynomials, that are an important ingredient for CM constructions of elliptic curves, via complex floating point approximations of their roots. The heart of the algorithm is the evaluation of modular functions in several arguments. The fastest one of the presented approaches uses a technique devised by Dupont to evaluate modular functions by Newton iterations on an expression involving the arithmetic-geometric mean. Under the heuristic assumption, justified by experiments, that the correctness of the result is not perturbed by rounding errors, the algorithm runs in time O left( sqrt {\\vert D\\vert} log^3 \\vert D\\vert M left( sq... ...arepsilon} \\vert D\\vert right) subseteq O left( h^{2 + \\varepsilon} right) for any \\varepsilon > 0 , where D is the CM discriminant, h is the degree of the class polynomial and M (n) is the time needed to multiply two n -bit numbers. Up to logarithmic factors, this running time matches the size of the constructed polynomials. The estimate also relies on a new result concerning the complexity of enumerating the class group of an imaginary quadratic order and on a rigorously proven upper bound for the height of class polynomials.
Kinematics and design of a class of parallel manipulators
Hertz, Roger Barry
1998-12-01
This dissertation is concerned with the kinematic analysis and design of a class of three degree-of-freedom, spatial parallel manipulators. The class of manipulators is characterized by two platforms, between which are three legs, each possessing a succession of revolute, spherical, and revolute joints. The class is termed the "revolute-spherical-revolute" class of parallel manipulators. Two members of this class are examined. The first mechanism is a double-octahedral variable-geometry truss, and the second is termed a double tripod. The history the mechanisms is explored---the variable-geometry truss dates back to 1984, while predecessors of the double tripod mechanism date back to 1869. This work centers on the displacement analysis of these three-degree-of-freedom mechanisms. Two types of problem are solved: the forward displacement analysis (forward kinematics) and the inverse displacement analysis (inverse kinematics). The kinematic model of the class of mechanism is general in nature. A classification scheme for the revolute-spherical-revolute class of mechanism is introduced, which uses dominant geometric features to group designs into 8 different sub-classes. The forward kinematics problem is discussed: given a set of independently controllable input variables, solve for the relative position and orientation between the two platforms. For the variable-geometry truss, the controllable input variables are assumed to be the linear (prismatic) joints. For the double tripod, the controllable input variables are the three revolute joints adjacent to the base (proximal) platform. Multiple solutions are presented to the forward kinematics problem, indicating that there are many different positions (assemblies) that the manipulator can assume with equivalent inputs. For the double tripod these solutions can be expressed as a 16th degree polynomial in one unknown, while for the variable-geometry truss there exist two 16th degree polynomials, giving rise to 256
Greenhouse-gas emission targets for limiting global warming to 2 degrees C.
Meinshausen, Malte; Meinshausen, Nicolai; Hare, William; Raper, Sarah C B; Frieler, Katja; Knutti, Reto; Frame, David J; Allen, Myles R
2009-04-30
More than 100 countries have adopted a global warming limit of 2 degrees C or below (relative to pre-industrial levels) as a guiding principle for mitigation efforts to reduce climate change risks, impacts and damages. However, the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions corresponding to a specified maximum warming are poorly known owing to uncertainties in the carbon cycle and the climate response. Here we provide a comprehensive probabilistic analysis aimed at quantifying GHG emission budgets for the 2000-50 period that would limit warming throughout the twenty-first century to below 2 degrees C, based on a combination of published distributions of climate system properties and observational constraints. We show that, for the chosen class of emission scenarios, both cumulative emissions up to 2050 and emission levels in 2050 are robust indicators of the probability that twenty-first century warming will not exceed 2 degrees C relative to pre-industrial temperatures. Limiting cumulative CO(2) emissions over 2000-50 to 1,000 Gt CO(2) yields a 25% probability of warming exceeding 2 degrees C-and a limit of 1,440 Gt CO(2) yields a 50% probability-given a representative estimate of the distribution of climate system properties. As known 2000-06 CO(2) emissions were approximately 234 Gt CO(2), less than half the proven economically recoverable oil, gas and coal reserves can still be emitted up to 2050 to achieve such a goal. Recent G8 Communiqués envisage halved global GHG emissions by 2050, for which we estimate a 12-45% probability of exceeding 2 degrees C-assuming 1990 as emission base year and a range of published climate sensitivity distributions. Emissions levels in 2020 are a less robust indicator, but for the scenarios considered, the probability of exceeding 2 degrees C rises to 53-87% if global GHG emissions are still more than 25% above 2000 levels in 2020.
Correlation Degree and Correlation Coefficient of Multi- Output Functions
JU Gui-zhi; ZHAO Ya-qun
2005-01-01
We present definitions of the correlation degree and correlation coefficient of multi-output functions. Two relationships about the correlation degree of multi-output functions are proved. One is between the correlation degree and independency,the other is between the correlation degree and balance. Especially the paper discusses the correlation degree of affine multioutput functions. We demonstrate properties of the correlation coefficient of multi-output functions. One is the value range of the correlation coefficient, one is the relationship between the correlation coefficient and independency, and another is the sufficient and necessary condition that two multi-output functions are equivalent to each other.
Cosmological dynamics of $f(R)$ gravity scalar degree of freedom in Einstein frame
Goswami, Umananda Dev
2013-01-01
$f(R)$ gravity models belong to an important class of modified gravity models where the late time cosmic accelerated expansion is considered as the manifestation of the large scale modification of the force of gravity. $f(R)$ gravity models can be expressed in terms of a scalar degree of freedom by redefinition of models variable. The conformal transformation of the action from Jordan frame to Einstein frame makes the scalar degree of freedom more explicit and can be studied conveniently. We have investigated the features of the scalar degree of freedoms and the consequent cosmological implications of the power-law ($\\xi R^n$) and the Starobinsky (disappearing cosmological constant) $f(R)$ gravity models numerically in the Einstein frame. Both the models show interesting behaviour of their scalar degree of freedom and could produce the accelerated expansion of the Universe in the Einstein frame with the negative equation of state of the scalar field. However the scalar field potential for the power-law model ...
Barth, Michael M.; Karagiannidis, Iordanis
2016-01-01
Many universities have implemented tuition differentials for certain undergraduate degree programs, citing higher degree costs or higher demand. However, most college accounting systems are unsuited for measuring cost differentials by degree program. This research outlines a method that can convert commonly available financial data to a more…
Barth, Michael M.; Karagiannidis, Iordanis
2016-01-01
Many universities have implemented tuition differentials for certain undergraduate degree programs, citing higher degree costs or higher demand. However, most college accounting systems are unsuited for measuring cost differentials by degree program. This research outlines a method that can convert commonly available financial data to a more…
Exact sampling of graphs with prescribed degree correlations
Bassler, Kevin E; Erdős, Péter L; Miklós, István; Toroczkai, Zoltán
2015-01-01
Many real-world networks exhibit correlations between the node degrees. For instance, in social networks nodes tend to connect to nodes of similar degree. Conversely, in biological and technological networks, high-degree nodes tend to be linked with low-degree nodes. Degree correlations also affect the dynamics of processes supported by a network structure, such as the spread of opinions or epidemics. The proper modelling of these systems, i.e., without uncontrolled biases, requires the sampling of networks with a specified set of constraints. We present a solution to the sampling problem when the constraints imposed are the degree correlations. In particular, we develop an efficient and exact method to construct and sample graphs with a specified joint-degree matrix, which is a matrix providing the number of edges between all the sets of nodes of a given degree, for all degrees, thus completely specifying all pairwise degree correlations, and additionally, the degree sequence itself. Our algorithm always pro...
Linear analysis of degree correlations in complex networks
JU XIANG; TAO HU; YAN ZHANG; KE HU; YAN-NI TANG; YUAN-YUAN GAO; KE DENG
2016-12-01
Many real-world networks such as the protein–protein interaction networks and metabolic networks often display nontrivial correlations between degrees of vertices connected by edges. Here, we analyse the statistical methods used usually to describe the degree correlation in the networks, and analytically give linear relation in the degree correlation. It provides a simple and interesting perspective on the analysis of the degree correlation in networks, which is usefully complementary to the existing methods for degree correlation in networks. Especially, the slope in the linear relation corresponds exactly to the degree correlation coefficient in networks, meaning that it can not only characterize the level of degree correlation in networks, but also reflects the speed that the average nearest neighbours’ degree varies with the vertex degree. Finally, we applied our results to several real-world networks, validating the conclusions of the linear analysis of degree correlation. We hope that the work in this paper can be helpful for further understanding the degree correlation in complex networks.
Sandpile Dynamics Driven by Degree on Scale-Free Networks
YIN Yan-Ping; ZHANG Duan-Ming; PAN Gui-Jun; HE Min-Hua
2007-01-01
@@ We introduce a sandpile model driven by degree on scale-free networks, where the perturbation is triggered at nodes with the same degree. We numerically investigate the avalanche behaviour of sandpile driven by different degrees on scale-free networks. It is observed that the avalanche area has the same behaviour with avalanche size. When the sandpile is driven at nodes with the minimal degree, the avalanches of our model behave similarly to those of the original Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld (BTW) model on scale-free networks. As the degree of driven nodes increases from the minimal value to the maximal value, the avalanche distribution gradually changes from a clean power law, then a mixture of Poissonian and power laws, finally to a Poisson-like distribution. The average avalanche area is found to increase with the degree of driven nodes so that perturbation triggered on higher-degree nodes will result in broader spreading of avalanche propagation.
José Garcia Neto; Roberto de Cleva; Bruno Zilberstein; Joaquim José Gama-Rodrigues
2005-01-01
AIM: To analyze the risk of cardiovascular complications in patients with indication for surgical treatment of Chagasic esophageal achalasia and to correlate the surgical risks with the degree of esophageal dilation,thereby proposing a risk scale index.METHODS: One hundred and twenty-four patients with Chagasic esophageal achalasia, who received surgical treatment at the Hospital das Clinicas of the Federal patients were mostly related to the postoperative complications due to the cardiovascular system. All the patients were submitted to: (1) clinical history to define the cardiac functional class (New York Heart Association);(2) conventional 12-lead electrocardiogram at rest; and (3) contrast imaging of the esophagus to determine esophageal dilatation according to Rezende's classification of Chagasic megaesophagus.RESULTS: An assessment of the functional classification (FC) of heart failure during the preoperative period determined that 67 patients (54.03%) were assigned functional class Ⅰ (FC Ⅰ), 46 patients (37.09%) were assigned functional class Ⅱ (FC Ⅱ), and 11 patients (8.87%) were assigned functional class Ⅲ (FC Ⅲ). None of the patients were assigned to functional class Ⅳ (FC Ⅳ). There was a positive correlation between the functional class and the postoperative complications (FC ⅠxFC Ⅱ: P＜0.001; FC ⅠxFC Ⅲ: P＜0.001). The ECG was normal in 44 patients (35.48%) and presented abnormalities in 80 patients (64.52%). There was a significant statistical correlation between abnormal ECG (arrhythmias and primary change in ventricular repolarization) and postoperative complications (P＜0.001).With regard to the classification of the Chagasic esophageal achalasia, the following distribution was observed: group Ⅱ, 53 patients (42.74%); group Ⅲ, 37 patients (29.83%);and group Ⅳ, 34 patients (27.41%). There was a positive correlation between the degree of esophageal dilation and the increase in postoperative complications (grade
Demircan, Süleyman; Ataş, Mustafa; Göktaş, Emre; Başkan, Burhan
2015-01-01
To compare the intraoperative performance and postoperative outcome after microcoaxial torsional phacoemulsification using either a Kelman or balanced phaco tip. Cataracts were treated using 2.2 mm microcoaxial torsional phacoemulsification using either a 45-degree mini-flared Kelman(®) or a 45-degree Intrepid(®) Balanced phaco tip. Intraoperative measurements included total ultrasound (US) time, cumulative dissipated energy (CDE), torsional US time, and balanced salt solution (BSS) use. The central endothelial cell density (ECD) and central corneal thickness (CCT) were evaluated preoperatively and postoperatively 1, 7, and 30d after surgery using noncontact specular microscopy. The 116 enrolled eyes (116 patients) were divided equally between the Kelman and balanced tip groups. Intraoperative measurements showed significantly less total US time, torsional US time, CDE, and BSS use in the balanced group than in Kelman group (Ptip provided more effective lens removal with less total US time, torsional time, CDE, and BSS use, as well as similar changes in ECD with a Kelman tip in all cataract grades. This special designed phaco tip for torsional phacoemulsification provides an alternative phaco tip for many surgeons' preference with straight phaco tip.
[The importance of master's degree and doctorate degree in general surgery].
Montalvo-Javé, Eduardo Esteban; Mendoza-Barrera, Germán Eduardo; Valderrama-Treviño, Alan Isaac; Alcántara-Medina, Stefany; Macías-Huerta, Nain Abraham; Tapia-Jurado, Jesús
2016-01-01
The Doctor of Philosophy is the highest academic degree that can be obtained in universities. Graduate Education Program in Medicine in Mexico is divided into 2 major categories: Medical Specialty and Master studies/Doctor of Philosophy. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the importance of master's degrees and Doctor of Philosophy in general surgery. A literature search in PubMed and Medline among others, from 1970 to 2015 with subsequent analysis of the literature reviews found. The physicians who conducted doctoral studies stand out as leaders in research, teaching and academic activities. Dual training with a doctorate medical specialty is a significant predictor for active participation in research projects within the best educational institutions. It is important to study a PhD in the education of doctors specialising in surgery, who show more training in teaching, research and development of academic activities. Currently, although there is a little proportion of students who do not finish the doctoral program, the ones who do are expected to play an important role in the future of medical scientific staff. It has been shown that most doctors with Doctor of Philosophy have wide range of career options. The importance of doctoral studies in the formation of general surgery is due to various reasons; the main one being comprehensively training physician scientists who can develop in clinical, teaching and research. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.
Zink, M R
1989-03-01
A statewide study was done with five associate degree (ADN) and five baccalaureate degree (BSN) nursing programs in Georgia to examine the similarities and differences in curriculum based on a nationally used model. From this overall study, select content related to community/home health care was evaluated in the sample programs. Professional standards for community and home health care nursing practice, as well as other published literature on the topic, provided a basis to determine competence to practice. Data were collected through a taped telephone interview to all program chairpersons (N = 10) and mailed questionnaires to faculty involved with all required courses (N = 110). Content analyses of responses allowed for evaluation of frequency of these learning activities between ADN and BSN programs and among BSN programs in the areas of family, teaching, interdisciplinary collaboration, physical assessment, and leadership. Overall, the results indicated lack of conclusive data to support a distinct difference in these educational components between the ADN and BSN sample or among BSN programs. The study was intended to service as a basis for home health care curriculum development in the future.
Bidirectional selection between two classes in complex social networks
Zhou, Bin; Jiang, Luo-Luo; Wang, Nian-Xin; Wang, Bing-Hong
2015-01-01
The bidirectional selection between two classes widely emerges in various social lives, such as commercial trading and mate choosing. Until now, the discussions on bidirectional selection in structured human society are quite limited. We demonstrated theoretically that the rate of successfully matching is affected greatly by individuals neighborhoods in social networks, regardless of the type of networks. Furthermore, it is found that the high average degree of networks contributes to increasing rates of successful matches. The matching performance in different types of networks has been quantitatively investigated, revealing that the small-world networks reinforces the matching rate more than scale-free networks at given average degree. In addition, our analysis is consistent with the modeling result, which provides the theoretical understanding of underlying mechanisms of matching in complex networks.
Do class size effects differ across grades?
Nandrup, Anne Brink
This paper contributes to the class size literature by analyzing whether short-run class size effects are constant across grade levels in compulsory school. Results are based on administrative data on all pupils enroled in Danish public schools. Identification is based on a government-imposed class...... size cap that creates exogenous variation in class sizes. Significant (albeit modest) negative effects of class size increases are found for children on primary school levels. The effects on math abilities are statistically different across primary and secondary school. Larger classes do not affect...
Measuring Class Cohesion Based on Dependence Analysis
Zhen-Qiang Chen; Bao-Wen Xu; Yu-Ming Zhou
2004-01-01
Classes are the basic modules in object-oriented (OO) software, which consist of attributes and methods. Thus, in OO environment, the cohesion is mainly about the tightness of the attributes and methods of classes. This paper discusses the relationships between attributes and attributes, attributes and methods, methods and methods of a class based on dependence analysis. Then the paper presents methods to compute these dependencies. Based on these, the paper proposes a method to measure the class cohesion, which satisfies the properties that a good measurement should have. The approach overcomes the limitations of previous class cohesion measures, which consider only one or two of the three relationships in a class.
A FRAMEWORK TO MEASURE CLASS COHESION
Xu Baowen; Chen Zhenqiang; Zhou Yuming
2003-01-01
Classes are the basic modules in Object-Oriented (OO) software, which consist of attributes and methods. Thus, in OO environment, the cohesion is mainly about how tightly the attributes and methods of classes cohere with each other. This letter discusses the relationships between attributes and attributes, attributes and methods, methods and methods of a class,and the properties of these relationships. Based on these properties, the letter proposes a new framework to measure the cohesion of a class. The approach overcomes the limitations of previous class cohesion measures, which consider only one or two of the three relationships in a class.
An Unexplained 10 Degree - 40 Degree Shift in the Location of Some Diverse Neutral Atom Data at 1 AU
Collier, M; Simpson, D; Roberts, A; Szabo, A P; Fuselier, S; Wurz, P; Lee, M A; Tsurutani, B T; Collier, Michael R.; Moore, Thomas E.; Simpson, David; Roberts, Aaron; Szabo, Adam; Fuselier, Stephen; Wurz, Peter; Lee, Martin A.; Tsurutani, Bruce T.
2003-01-01
Four different data sets pertaining to the neutral atom environment at 1 AU are presented and discussed. These data sets include neutral solar wind and interstellar neutral atom data from IMAGE/LENA, energetic hydrogen atom data from SOHO/HSTOF and plasma wave data from the magnetometer on ISEE-3. Surprisingly, these data sets are centered between 262 degrees and 292 degrees ecliptic longitude, about 10 degrees - 40 degrees from the upstream interstellar neutral flow direction at 254 degrees resulting from the motion of the Sun relative to the local interstellar cloud. Some possible explanations for this offset, none of which is completely satisfactory, are discussed.
Manzoor Khan
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents new classes of estimators in estimating the finite population mean under double sampling in the presence of nonresponse when using information on fractional raw moments. The expressions for mean square error of the proposed classes of estimators are derived up to the first degree of approximation. It is shown that a proposed class of estimators performs better than the usual mean estimator, ratio type estimators, and Singh and Kumar (2009 estimator. An empirical study is carried out to demonstrate the performance of a proposed class of estimators.
Nielsen, H.B.; Mladenovska, Zuzana; Westermann, Peter
2004-01-01
A two-stage 68degreesC/55degreesC anaerobic degradation process for treatment of cattle manure was studied. In batch experiments, an increase of the specific methane yield, ranging from 24% to 56%, was obtained when cattle manure and its fractions (fibers and liquid) were pretreated at 68degrees......C for periods of 36, 108, and 168 h, and subsequently digested at 55degreesC. In a lab-scale experiment, the performance of a two-stage reactor system, consisting of a digester operating at 68degreesC with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 3 days, connected to a 55degreesC reactor with 12-day HRT......, was compared with a conventional single-stage reactor running at 55degreesC with 15-days HRT. When an organic loading of 3 g volatile solids (VS) per liter per day was applied, the two-stage setup had a 6% to 8% higher specific methane yield and a 9% more effective VS-removal than the conventional single...
Nedelcu, Roxana I; Fields, Lanny; Arntzen, Erik
2015-03-01
Equivalence class formation by college students was influenced through the prior acquisition of conditional discriminative functions by one of the abstract stimuli (C) in the to-be-formed classes. Participants in the GR-0, GR-1, and GR-5 groups attempted to form classes under the simultaneous protocol, after mastering 0, 1, or 5 conditional relations between C and other abstract stimuli (V, W, X, Y, Z) that were not included in the to-be-formed classes (ABCDE). Participants in the GR-many group attempted to form classes that contained four abstract stimuli and one meaningful picture as the C stimulus. In the GR-0, GR-1, GR-5, and GR-many groups, classes were formed by 17, 25, 58, and 67% of participants, respectively. Thus, likelihood of class formation was enhanced by the prior formation of five C-based conditional relations (the GR-5 vs. GR-0 condition), or the inclusion of a meaningful stimulus as a class member (the GR-many vs. GR-0 condition). The GR-5 and GR-many conditions produced very similar yields, indicating that class formation was enhanced to a similar degree by including a meaningful stimulus or an abstract stimulus that had become a member of five conditional relations prior to equivalence class formation. Finally, the low and high yields produced by the GR-1 and GR-5 conditions showed that the class enhancement effect of the GR-5 condition was due to the number of conditional relations established during preliminary training and not to the sheer amount of reinforcement provided while learning these conditional relations. Class enhancement produced by meaningful stimuli, then, can be attributed to their acquired conditional discriminative functions as well as their discriminative, connotative, and denotative properties.
Do Class and School Size Matter? A Crucial Issue to School Improvement
Cornelius, Elizabeth; Gaines, Raffaella; Gautney, Tara; Johnson, Gresha; Rainer, Robyn; Notar, Charles E.; Webb, Shelia A.
2008-01-01
Students in a first year Master's degree seminar were asked to find the answer to the question "Do Class and School Size Matter as A Crucial Issue to School Improvement?" The paper the students wrote is based on a review of the literature. The students determined that the question had several issues to be addressed before they could…
Ioannitou, Gina
2010-01-01
This paper is the result of a participative process in which the students of the Master's Degree "Didactique des Langues" (foreign language didactics) at Universite du Maine (Le Mans, France) explored through whole-class activities the field of intercultural dialog and intercultural competence teaching. Our approach to intercultural…
Ioannitou, Gina
2010-01-01
This paper is the result of a participative process in which the students of the Master's Degree "Didactique des Langues" (foreign language didactics) at Universite du Maine (Le Mans, France) explored through whole-class activities the field of intercultural dialog and intercultural competence teaching. Our approach to intercultural…
Increasing Student Engagement with Practical Classes through Online Pre-Lab Quizzes
Cann, Alan J.
2016-01-01
Laboratory practicals classes are an essential component of all science degrees, but are a pinch point because of rising student numbers, rising student expectations and falling student exposure to laboratory work prior to entering higher education. Augmentation of physical laboratory work with online interventions is not new, but as virtual…
Global Exponential Stability Analysis of a Class of Dynamical Neural Networks
Jin-Liang Shao; Ting-Zhu Huang
2009-01-01
The problem of the global exponential stability of a class of Hopfield neural networks is considered. Based on nonnegative matrix theory, a sufficient condition for the existence, uniqueness and global exponential stability of the equilibrium point is presented. And the upper bound for the degree of exponential stability is given. Moreover, a simulation is given to show the effectiveness of the result.
ON THE EXISTENCE OF POSITIVE RADIAL SOLUTIONS FOR A CLASS OF QUASILINEAR ELLIPTIC SYSTEMS
杨作东; 陆启韶
2001-01-01
We study the existence of positive radial solutions for a class of quasilinear elliptic systems in a ball domains via the blowing up argument and degree theory.The main results of the present paper are new and extend the previously known results.
Those Who Graduate: A Brief Look at the UNO Graduating Class of 1986.
Crawford, A. E.
1989-01-01
The University of Nebraska at Omaha (UNO) conducted a study of 1,358 bachelor's degree graduates of the class of 1986 to examine two factors: (1) age at entrance and graduation, and (2) length of time required for graduation from several specified beginning points. The study required four sets of data: demographic, age related data, time-frame…
Tan, Edna; Barton, Angela Calabrese
2008-01-01
Identity formation is a critical dimension of how and why students engage in science to varying degrees. In this paper, we use the lens of identity formation, and in particular identities in practice, to make sense of how and why Melanie, over the course of sixth grade, transformed from a marginalized member of the science class with a failing…
Gus, L A; Arsenina, O I; Komolov, I S
2015-01-01
The article presents data on androgen levels in female patients with temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dysfunction of varying degree and class II malocclusion. The study revealed significant correlation between degenerative and inflammatory TMJ changes and androgens level in patients with stigmas of connective tissue dysplasia (p<0.05), probably due to indirect proinflammatory action of androgens as they stimulate inflammatory mediators expression.
CONVEX CLASS OF STARLIKE FUNCTIONS
Gupta, V. P.
1984-01-01
Let ＄S＄ denote the class of functions of the form ＄f(z)=z-￥sum_{n=2}^{￥infty}|a_{n}|z^{n}＄ that are analytic and univalent in the unit disk ＄U＄. Let ＄S(￥alpha, ￥beta)＄ and ＄K(￥alpha, ￥beta)＄ denote the subclasses of ＄S＄ consisting respectively, of starlike and close-to-convex functions of order ＄￥alpha(0￥leqq￥alpha
Anabalon, Andres
2016-01-01
In four dimensions, the most general metric admitting two Killing vectors and a rank-two Killing tensor can be parameterized by ten arbitrary functions of a single variable. We show that picking a special vierbien, reducing the system to eight functions, implies the existence of two geodesic and share-free, null congruences, generated by two principal null directions of the Weyl tensor. Thus, if the spacetime is an Einstein manifold, the Goldberg-Sachs theorem implies it is Petrov type D, and by explicit construction, is in the Carter class. Hence, our analysis provide an straightforward connection between the most general integrable structure and the Carter family of spacetimes.
Fracture toughness testing of V-4Cr-4Ti at 25{degrees}C and -196{degrees}C
Li, H.X.; Kurtz, R.J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)
1996-10-01
Measurements of the fracture toughness of the production-scale heat (832665) of V-4Cr-4Ti have been performed at 25{degrees}C and {minus}196{degrees}C using compact tension (CT) specimens. Test specimens were vacuum annealed at either 1000{degrees}C for 1 hour (HT1) or 1050{degrees}C for two hours (HT2). Specimens given the HT1 treatment were annealed after final machining, whereas the HT2 specimens received the 1050{degrees}C anneal at Teledyne Wah Chang prior to final machining. Following machining HT2 specimens were then vacuum annealed at 180{degrees}C for two hours to remove hydrogen. Specimens treated using HT1 had a partially recrystallized microstructure and those treated using HT2 had a fully recrystallized microstructure. The fracture toughness at 25{degrees}C was determined by J-integral tests and at {minus}196{degrees}C by ASTM E 399 type tests. Toughness values obtained at {minus}196{degrees}C were converted to J-integral values for comparison to the 25{degrees}C data. The 25{degrees}C fracture toughness was very high with none of the specimens giving valid results per ASTM criteria. Specimens fractured by microvoid coalescence. The fracture toughness at {minus}196{degrees}C was much lower than that at 25{degrees}C and the fracture surface showed predominantly cleavage features. The present results show a transition from ductile to brittle behavior with decreasing test temperature which is not observed from one-third scale Charpy impact tests. The fracture toughness at {minus}196{degrees}C was still quite high, however, at about 75 kJ/m{sup 2}. Delaminations in planes normal to the thickness direction were seen at both test temperatures. Fracture surfaces inside the delaminations exhibited nearly 100% cleavage facets. The cause of the brittle delaminations was not determined, but will be a subject for further investigation.
Mandatory Class 1 Federal Areas Web Service
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This web service contains the following layers: Mandatory Class 1 Federal Area polygons and Mandatory Class 1 Federal Area labels in the United States. The polygon...
Middle-class projects in modern Malaysia
Fischer, Johan
2017-01-01
Within the last two decades or so there has been increased scholarly focus on the emergence, consolidation and future of the middle class in developing Asia. This is also the case with the Malay Muslim middle class in Malaysia, but how this class is developing over time is not well understood even...... if the Malays constitute the largest and fastest growing section of the middle class in Malaysia. Based on research projects I have carried out from the mid-1990s to the present, this article argues that an unpacking of the Malay Muslim middle class over time is important in order to understand the broader...... picture surrounding this class and its relationship to Malaysian national repertoires such as Islamic revivalism, politics, consumer culture, social mobility and the state-market nexus. I understand middle-class projects to be the making of local class culture in Malaysia and explore these in four...
Middle-class projects in modern Malaysia
Fischer, Johan
2017-01-01
.... This is also the case with the Malay Muslim middle class in Malaysia, but how this class is developing over time is not well understood even if the Malays constitute the largest and fastest growing...
Equivariant characteristic classes of complex algebraic varieties
Cappell, Sylvain E; Schuermann, Joerg; Shaneson, Julius L
2010-01-01
Homology Hirzebruch characteristic classes for singular varieties have been recently defined by Brasselet-Schuermann-Yokura as an attempt to unify previously known characteristic class theories for singular spaces (e.g., MacPherson-Chern classes, Baum-Fulton-MacPherson Todd classes, and Goresky-MacPherson L-classes, respectively). In this note we define equivariant analogues of these classes for quasi-projective varieties acted upon by a finite group of algebraic automorphisms, and show how these can be used to calculate the homology Hirzebruch classes of global orbifolds. We also compute the new classes in the context of monodromy problems, e.g., for varieties that fiber equivariantly (in the complex topology) over a connected algebraic manifold.
Investment Company Series and Class Information
Securities and Exchange Commission — The Series and Class Report provides basic identification information for all active registered investment company series and classes that have been issued IDs by...
Class Based Contextual Logic for DOOD
JoseK.Raphel; SiuCheungHui; 等
1996-01-01
Cntextual logic provides a mechanism to reason about modules.In this paper,this theory of modules if modules is extended to a context theory of classes where class is in the true spirit of object-oriented databases.The logic,referred to as CLOG,is class-based.CLOG supports class,object identity,multiple role of object, monotonic and non-monotonic inheritance of data and method,method factoring,views,derived and query classes.Views and derived classes are queries in themselves.Objects are pure data terms representing the ground instances of facts in the class.Object identity is a first class term in the logic.Inheritance is handled through delegation.
Süleyman Demircan
2015-12-01
Full Text Available AIM: To compare the intraoperative performance and postoperative outcome after microcoaxial torsional phacoemulsification using either a Kelman or balanced phaco tip. METHODS: Cataracts were treated using 2.2 mm microcoaxial torsional phacoemulsification using either a 45-degree mini-flared Kelman® or a 45-degree Intrepid® Balanced phaco tip. Intraoperative measurements included total ultrasound (US time, cumulative dissipated energy (CDE, torsional US time, and balanced salt solution (BSS use. The central endothelial cell density (ECD and central corneal thickness (CCT were evaluated preoperatively and postoperatively 1, 7, and 30d after surgery using noncontact specular microscopy. RESULTS: The 116 enrolled eyes (116 patients were divided equally between the Kelman and balanced tip groups. Intraoperative measurements showed significantly less total US time, torsional US time, CDE, and BSS use in the balanced group than in Kelman group (P<0.05. The total US time, torsional US time, CDE, and BSS use were 17.45±14.53s, 16.63±13.97s, 6.38±5.26, and 48.21±17.21 mL in the Kelman group and 11.39 ± 9.60s, 10.90 ± 9.25s, 4.04 ± 3.42, and 41.36 ± 12.70 mL in the balanced group, respectively. CONCLUSION: Torsional phacoemulsification performed with a balanced tip provided more effective lens removal with less total US time, torsional time, CDE, and BSS use, as well as similar changes in ECD with a Kelman tip in all cataract grades. This special designed phaco tip for torsional phacoemulsification provides an alternative phaco tip for many surgeons' preference with straight phaco tip.
Allen, Paul D.; Eddins, David A.
2010-01-01
Many reports have documented age-by-frequency increases in average auditory thresholds in various human populations. Despite this, the prevalence of different patterns of hearing loss in presbycusis remains uncertain. We examined presbycusis phenotypes in a database of 960 subjects (552 female, 408 male, 18 to 92 yrs) that each had 30 measures of peripheral hearing sensitivity: pure tone audiograms for left and right ears from 0.25 kHz to 8 kHz and DPOAE for each ear with Fmean = 1 to 6.4 kHz. Surprisingly, the hearing phenotypes did not naturally separate into discrete classes of presbycusis. Principal component (PC) analysis revealed that two principal components account for 74 % of the variance among the 30 measures of hearing. The two components represent the overall degree (PC1) and configuration of loss (Flat vs. Sloping; PC2) and the phenotypes form a continuum when plotted against them. A heuristic partitioning of this continuum produced classes of presbycusis that vary in their degree of Sloping or Flat hearing loss, suggesting that the previously reported sub-types of presbycusis arise from the categorical segregation of a continuous and heterogeneous distribution. Further, most phenotypes lie intermediate to the extremes of either Flat or Sloping loss, indicating that if audiometric configuration does predict presbycusis etiology, then a mixed origin is the most prevalent. PMID:20144701
Allen, Paul D; Eddins, David A
2010-06-01
Many reports have documented age-by-frequency increases in average auditory thresholds in various human populations. Despite this, the prevalence of different patterns of hearing loss in presbycusis remains uncertain. We examined 'presbycusis phenotypes' in a database of 960 subjects (552 female, 408 male, 18-92 years) that each had 30 measures of peripheral hearing sensitivity: pure tone audiograms for left and right ears from 0.25 to 8 kHz and DPOAE for each ear with F(mean)=1-6.4 kHz. Surprisingly, the hearing phenotypes did not naturally separate into discrete classes of presbycusis. Principal component (PC) analysis revealed that two principal components account for 74% of the variance among the 30 measures of hearing. The two components represent the overall degree (PC1) and configuration of loss (Flat vs. Sloping; PC2) and the phenotypes form a continuum when plotted against them. A heuristic partitioning of this continuum produced classes of presbycusis that vary in their degree of Sloping or Flat hearing loss, suggesting that the previously reported sub-types of presbycusis arise from the categorical segregation of a continuous and heterogeneous distribution. Further, most phenotypes lie intermediate to the extremes of either Flat or Sloping loss, indicating that if audiometric configuration does predict presbycusis etiology, then a mixed origin is the most prevalent.
What Are Lay Theories of Social Class?
Michael E. W. Varnum
2013-01-01
Numerous studies have documented the effects of social class on psychological and behavioral variables. However, lay beliefs about how social class affects these dimensions have not been systematically tested. Studies 1 and 2 assessed lay beliefs about the association between social class and 8 variables (including psychological and behavioral tendencies and cognitive ability). Study 3 assessed lay beliefs about the Big five personality traits and social class, and study 4 reframed the 8 vari...
Hirzebruch-Milnor classes of complete intersections
Maxim, Laurentiu; Schuermann, Joerg
2012-01-01
We prove a new formula for the Hirzebruch-Milnor classes of global complete intersections with arbitrary singularities describing the difference between the Hirzebruch classes and the virtual ones. This generalizes a formula for the Chern-Milnor classes in the hypersurface case that was conjectured by S. Yokura and was proved by A. Parusinski and P. Pragacz. It also generalizes a formula of T. Suwa for the Chern-Milnor classes of complete intersections with isolated singularities.
Analysis and perturbation of degree correlation in complex networks
Xiang, Ju; Hu, Tao; Zhang, Yan
2015-01-01
Degree correlation is an important topological property common to many real-world networks. In this paper, the statistical measures for characterizing the degree correlation in networks are investigated analytically. We give an exact proof of the consistency for the statistical measures, reveal the general linear relation in the degree correlation, which provide a simple and interesting perspective on the analysis of the degree correlation in complex networks. By using the general linear analysis, we investigate the perturbation of the degree correlation in complex networks caused by the addition of few nodes and the rich club. The results show that the assortativity of homogeneous networks such as the ER graphs is easily to be affected strongly by the simple structural changes, while it has only slight variation for heterogeneous networks with broad degree distribution such as the scale-free networks. Clearly, the homogeneous networks are more sensitive for the perturbation than the heterogeneous networks.
del Campillo, M. C.; Cañasveras, J. C.; Sánchez-Alcalá, I.; Sánchez-Rodríguez, A. R.; Alburquerque, J. A.; Castro, M. A.; Rey, M. A.; Barrón, V.; Torrent, J.
2012-04-01
Courses of the first year at Engineering are typically basic to understanding other subjects and in many cases less attractive for students. In order to innovate and incorporate some aims of the Bologna process, here we present the development of the course of Geology and Climatology given the first year of Agricultural and Forestry degrees at the University of Córdoba. Temporal distribution of activities was as follows: a) to the whole group: 35% of master class, 5% of conferences and 10% of field trip, b) to the medium group (<30 students) 20% of seminars and c) to the small group (<15 students) 25% laboratory and field practical class, and 5% final oral presentation of individual work. Students were assigned the performance of a professional work: characterization of the geology and climatology of an area that will need to know for the courses in the coming years (for example soil science, crop sciences and environmental sciences). Students have to a) complete a literature review of all work done to date, b) use and study the geological map (1:50000) published by the Geological Survey of Spain (IGME), visit the study area in which they had to pick up rocks and subsequently to characterize them, and c) obtain meteorological data from the Spanish Agency of Meteorology (AEMET) (minimum 30 years of precipitation, 15 years of temperatures and 10 years of other variables) for a complete characterization of the climate. The assessment system for students included: attend classes, participation in practicals and excursions, carry out exercices, oral presentation of the report and a final written test. Key factors that favored student participation and interest in the course were: a) the small number of students in classes dedicated to the practicals and seminars and the continuous advice from teachers, and b) the personal choice by the student of the work area, usually close to their origin and in many cases from family property. All of this has served to students, who
Flipping Quantitative Classes: A Triple Win
Swart, William; Wuensch, Karl L.
2016-01-01
In the "flipped" class, students use online materials to learn what is traditionally learned by attending lectures, and class time is used for interactive group learning. A required quantitative business class was taught as a flipped classroom in an attempt to improve student satisfaction in the course and reduce the "transactional…
Making the Most of Your Class Website
Dunn, Lemoyne S.
2011-01-01
Students today are electronically connected, and they expect their learning to be connected as well. Many college students prefer online classes, even if they live on campus. Students who do take face-to-face classes often expect the class to have an online communication component (such as a discussion board). However, despite the fact that K-12…
Application of Class Activities in English Teaching
刘琦
2015-01-01
Beginning with the analysis of present English teaching,the article puts forward some questions occurring in English classes.Then it talks about the necessity of implementing class activities.Finally it further elaborates how to carry out class activities through three specific examples.
Diffusion of Responsibility in College Classes
李珍珍
2015-01-01
Diffusion of responsibility takes place in college classes nowadays.The author points out diffusion of responsibility in college classes,analyses psychological reasons of diffusion of responsibility,and gives strategies on avoiding the diffusion of responsibility.The paper aims at doing some contribution to improving teaching quality of college class.
Intersection numbers with Witten's top Chern class
Shadrin, S.; Zvonkine, D.
2008-01-01
Witten’s top Chern class is a particular cohomology class on the moduli space of Riemann surfaces endowed with r-spin structures. It plays a key role in Witten’s conjecture relating to the intersection theory on these moduli spaces. Our first goal is to compute the integral of Witten’s class over th
Class composition influences on pupils' cognitive development
Peetsma, T.; van der Veen, I.; Koopman, P.; van Schooten, E.
2006-01-01
The proportion of low-achieving children in a class can affect the progress of individual pupils in that class. Having a large proportion of low achievers in a class could slow down growth in cognitive achievement but, might also boost such growth, due to the effects of specialist teaching geared to
Encouraging Undergraduate Class Participation: A Student Perspective
Wright, Nichole S.; Gragg, Marcia N.; Cramer, Kenneth M.
2009-01-01
Undergraduate classes typically involve a professor lecturing to 100 or more students. Too often, this results in minimal opportunities for student participation. Positive reinforcement was used to promote student participation (i.e., defined as relevant comments or questions) in a second-year psychology class (N = 97). Class participation was…
The Social Psychology of Class and Classism
Lott, Bernice
2012-01-01
In the United States, one is born into a family that can be identified as working class, middle class, or affluent--divisions that denote status and power, as defined by access to resources. This article explores the relationships between social class membership and a wide array of personal and social daily life experiences. It concludes with a…
White Middle Class Identities and Urban Schooling
Devine, Dympna; Savage, Mike; Ingram, Nicola
2012-01-01
The authors review "White middle class identities and urban schooling," by D. Reay, G. Crozier and D. James. This book focuses on the perspectives of white middle-class parents who make "against"-the-grain school choices for their children in urban England. It provides key insights into the dynamics of class practising that are…
Class composition influences on pupils' cognitive development
Peetsma, T.; van der Veen, I.; Koopman, P.; van Schooten, E.
2006-01-01
The proportion of low-achieving children in a class can affect the progress of individual pupils in that class. Having a large proportion of low achievers in a class could slow down growth in cognitive achievement but, might also boost such growth, due to the effects of specialist teaching geared to
The Wisdom of Class-Size Reduction
Graue, Elizabeth; Hatch, Kelly; Rao, Kalpana; Oen, Denise
2007-01-01
In this study, the authors explore the implementation of a statewide class-size reduction program in nine high-poverty schools. Through qualitative methods, they examined how schools used class-size reduction to change staffing patterns and instructional programs. Requiring changes in space allocation, class-size reduction was accomplished through…
Application of TBT in Reading Class
Yu, Hong-qin
2007-01-01
"TBT" means "task-based teaching". In a TBT class, students play the central role. In the class where students are provided with plenty of chances to be engaged in activities, the teacher is more like a patient listener rather than a talkative speaker. This paper mainly explores how task-based teaching is used in English reading class.