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Sample records for maintains stable haemoglobin

  1. Flying Drosophilamelanogaster maintain arbitrary but stable headings relative to the angle of polarized light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Timothy L; Weir, Peter T; Dickinson, Michael H

    2018-05-11

    Animals must use external cues to maintain a straight course over long distances. In this study, we investigated how the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster selects and maintains a flight heading relative to the axis of linearly polarized light, a visual cue produced by the atmospheric scattering of sunlight. To track flies' headings over extended periods, we used a flight simulator that coupled the angular velocity of dorsally presented polarized light to the stroke amplitude difference of the animals' wings. In the simulator, most flies actively maintained a stable heading relative to the axis of polarized light for the duration of 15 min flights. We found that individuals selected arbitrary, unpredictable headings relative to the polarization axis, which demonstrates that D . melanogaster can perform proportional navigation using a polarized light pattern. When flies flew in two consecutive bouts separated by a 5 min gap, the two flight headings were correlated, suggesting individuals retain a memory of their chosen heading. We found that adding a polarized light pattern to a light intensity gradient enhanced flies' orientation ability, suggesting D . melanogaster use a combination of cues to navigate. For both polarized light and intensity cues, flies' capacity to maintain a stable heading gradually increased over several minutes from the onset of flight. Our findings are consistent with a model in which each individual initially orients haphazardly but then settles on a heading which is maintained via a self-reinforcing process. This may be a general dispersal strategy for animals with no target destination. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. CYTOLOGY PULMONARY IN HORSES (EQUUS CABALLUS MAINTAINED THE FIELD OR STABLED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. F. Fortes Júnior

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Tracheobronchial secretion was collected by endoscopy (Welch-AllynÒ, 200cm long and 9mm diameter, from equines with different ages, races and sex, for posterior cytological analysis. Thirty-six equines were divided into two groups (Group I = stabled, n = 18; Group II = field regimen, n = 18. Animals of Group I (age = 3.5 years were lodged in the Tarumã´s Jockey Club in Curitiba, Parana State. The equines of Group II always were maintained at field condition (never were stabled, in the farm located in Jacarezinho, Paraná State. Following endoscopic exams, tracheobronchial secretion smears were stained by Pappenhein´s method and submitted to cytological analysis. Group I had higher frequency of tracheal discharge than Group II. The cytological analysis showed more presence of macrophages (58.8%, foamy cells (2.3%, body giant cells (0.2%, neutrophils (4.57%, eosinophils (0.7% and Curshmann´s spirals (0.04% on 3 of the 18 animals. The cytological analysis of Group II showed higher frequency of ciliated epithelial cells than Group I, and no Curshmann´s spirals were observed. In conclusion, data showed that horses stabled had more cytological alterations than the animals maintained at field, therefore more tracheobronchial complications. Thus, the care of place where horse are stabled have influence on development of respiratory diseases, may predispose to affections as Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Exercise-Induced Pulmonary Hemorrhage, as well athletic horses may be never reach their full respiratory potential.

  3. Research on Utilizing a Multivariate Feedback Algorithm to Maintain Stable Operation of Variable Energy Electron Accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Ausdeln, L.A.; Cordes, G.A.; Haskell, K.J.; Jones, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    Measurements performed utilizing particle accelerators rely on the stability and reproducibility of the accelerator operation, most notably for beam flux (beam current) and beam energy. This can be vital when the measurements rely on previous calibrations performed to establish a standard on which to base the end result of the measurement. The authors have designed a monitoring and control virtual instrument (VI) based on National Instruments LabVIEW TM which calls external modeling code that is written in a standard programming language. The LabVIEWTM virtual instrument allows the user to monitor multiple accelerator parameters while permitting user control of the most important four of these parameters which determine machine operation. The external modeling code, the Advanced Data Validation and Verification System (ADVVS), incorporates as a kernel the Universal Process Model (UPM) software from Triant Technologies, Inc. The kernel executes the accelerator modeling function based on previously acquired history data of the relevant parameters for accelerator operation for conditions of interest. This history data is stored as a reference set prior to subsequent operation. During accelerator operation, 11 accelerator parameters are input to ADVVS from the LabVIEW TM virtual instrument. The ADVVS uses the reference files to predict the eleven parameter values that would normally be expected for optimal accelerator operation. The set of 11 model values is the nearest model state. This multivariate modeling approach presented two principal advantages: 1. The ADVVS allowed rapid detection of anomalous accelerator behavior variant from normal accelerator behavior recorded in the reference set of the kernel. 2. The ADVVS presented a methodology to incrementally tune the accelerator back to optimal operation, thus maintaining highly stable and reproducible operation. In the future, this methodology may also be utilized to tune the accelerator initially or move

  4. Stable Dual-Wavelength Fibre Laser with Bragg Gratings Fabricated in a Polarization-Maintaining Erbium-Doped Fibre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Wang; Feng-Ping, Yan; Xiang-Qiao, Mao; Shui-Sheng, Jian

    2008-01-01

    A new polarization-independent dual-wavelength fibre laser by fabricating a uniform FBG and a chirped FBG in a polarization-maintaining erbium-doped fibre (PM-EDF) is proposed and demonstrated. The wavelength spacing is 0.18nm and the optical signal-to-noise ratio is greater than 50dB with pump power of 246mW. Chirped FBG is used to make the reflectivity wavelengths of two PM-FBGs match easier. Since both EDF and FBGs are polarization-maintaining without splices and the two wavelengths are polarization-independent, the maximum amplitude variation and wavelength shifts for both lasing wavelength with 3-min intervals over a period of six hours are less than 0.2 dB and 0.005 nm, respectively, which shows stable dual-wavelength output

  5. Using equilibrium passive dosing to maintain stable exposure concentrations of triclosan in a 6-week toxicity test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sobek, A.; Ribbenstedt, A.; Mustajärvi, L.

    2015-01-01

    toxicity tests. Yet, the European Commission’s criteria for chemicals’ risk assessments aim at protecting higher levels in the environment. To achieve protection of populations and ecosystems, reliable long-term ecotoxicologial tests are needed. In this study, we used equilibrium passive dosing to maintain...... stable exposure concentrations of triclosan (log Kow 4.8) in a 6-week multigeneration test with the benthic copepod Nitocra spinipes. The tests were performed in 10 mL vials casted with 1000 mg of silicone (DC 1-2577). Based on a previous pilot study, three triclosan concentrations were selected...... and tested (15 μg L-1; 30 μg L-1; 60 μg L-1) as well as a control (no triclosan). At test beginning, each vial contained 12 individuals consisting of 3 individuals from four different life stages. The test includes feeding with phytoplankton three times a week, which can lead to declining freely dissolved...

  6. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of human glycosylated haemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syakhovich, Vitaly E.; Saraswathi, N. T.; Ruff, Marc; Bokut, Sergey B.; Moras, Dino

    2006-01-01

    Non enzymatic modification of haemoglobin by glucose plays an important role in diabetes pathogenesis. Here the purification, characterization and crystallization of human glycosylated haemoglobin are reported. Human glycosylated haemoglobin A 1C is a stable minor variant formed in vivo by post-translational modification of the main form of haemoglobin by glucose. Crystals of oxyHbA 1C were obtained using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method and PEG as precipitant. The diffraction pattern of the crystal extends to a resolution of 2.3 Å at 120 K. The crystals belong to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 237.98, b = 59.27, c = 137.02 Å, α = 90.00, β = 125.40, γ = 90.00°. The presence of two and a half molecules per asymmetric unit gives a crystal volume per protein weight (V M ) of 9.70 Å 3 Da −1 and a solvent content of 49%

  7. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of human glycosylated haemoglobin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syakhovich, Vitaly E. [Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, International Sakharov Environmental University, Dolgobrodskaya St 23, 220009 Minsk (Belarus); Saraswathi, N. T.; Ruff, Marc, E-mail: ruff@igbmc.u-strasbg.fr [Département de Biologie et Génomique Structurales, Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire, 1 Rue Laurent Fries, BP 10142, 67404 Illkirch (France); Bokut, Sergey B. [Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, International Sakharov Environmental University, Dolgobrodskaya St 23, 220009 Minsk (Belarus); Moras, Dino [Département de Biologie et Génomique Structurales, Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire, 1 Rue Laurent Fries, BP 10142, 67404 Illkirch (France); Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, International Sakharov Environmental University, Dolgobrodskaya St 23, 220009 Minsk (Belarus)

    2006-02-01

    Non enzymatic modification of haemoglobin by glucose plays an important role in diabetes pathogenesis. Here the purification, characterization and crystallization of human glycosylated haemoglobin are reported. Human glycosylated haemoglobin A{sub 1C} is a stable minor variant formed in vivo by post-translational modification of the main form of haemoglobin by glucose. Crystals of oxyHbA{sub 1C} were obtained using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method and PEG as precipitant. The diffraction pattern of the crystal extends to a resolution of 2.3 Å at 120 K. The crystals belong to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 237.98, b = 59.27, c = 137.02 Å, α = 90.00, β = 125.40, γ = 90.00°. The presence of two and a half molecules per asymmetric unit gives a crystal volume per protein weight (V{sub M}) of 9.70 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1} and a solvent content of 49%.

  8. Structure of the haptoglobin-haemoglobin complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian Brix Folsted; Torvund-Jensen, Morten; Nielsen, Marianne Jensby

    2012-01-01

    to oxidative modification after exposure to haem-induced reactive oxygen species are buried in the haptoglobin-haemoglobin interface, thus showing a direct protective role of haptoglobin. The haptoglobin loop previously shown to be essential for binding of haptoglobin-haemoglobin to the macrophage scavenger...... that the rigid dimeric complex can bind two receptors. Such receptor cross-linkage may facilitate scavenging and explain the increased functional affinity of multimeric haptoglobin-haemoglobin for CD163 (ref. 4)....

  9. Bone disease in haemoglobin disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersi Voskaridou

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Bone disease represents a prominent cause of morbidity in patients with thalassaemia and other haemoglobin disorders. The delay in sexual maturation, the presence of diabetes and hypothyroidism, the parathyroid gland dysfunction, the haemolytic anaemia, the progressive marrow expansion, the iron toxicity on osteoblasts, the iron chelators, and the deficiency of growth hormone or insulin growth factors have been identified as major causes of osteoporosis in thalassaemia. Adequate hormonal replacement, effective iron chelation, improvement of hemoglobin levels, calcium and vitamin D administration, physical activity, and smoking cessation are the main to-date measures for the management of the disease. During the last decade, novel pathogenetic data suggest that the reduced osteoblastic activity, which is believed to be the basic mechanism of bone loss in thalassemia, is accompanied by a comparable or even greater increase in bone resorption. Therefore, potent inhibitors of osteoclast activation, such as the aminobisphosphonates, arise as key drugs for the management of osteoporosis in thalassaemia patients and other haemoglobin disorders.

  10. fasting blood glucose and glycosylated haemoglobin levels

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prince Acheampong

    (HbA1c) levels of diabetes mellitus patients as an index of glycaemic control. It was a prospective case- finding study using laboratory and general practice records. ... range of glycosylated haemoglobins, and the cut-off values for some clinical .... quality of glycaemic control by glycated haemoglobin in out-patient diabetic ...

  11. Anaemia prevalence and factors associated with haemoglobin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information on social-clinical characteristics, cancer type and associated factors as well as haemoglobin level before and after radiation were obtained. The prevalence of anaemia was determined as a proportion and linear regression was used to determine factors associated with haemoglobin change. Results: A total of ...

  12. Misleading presentation of haemoglobin electrophoresis data | Adu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Haemoglobinopathies are common in sub-Saharan Africa. As such haemoglobin electrophoresis are required to inform clinical decision making. However, haemoglobin electrophoresis is an assay that detects protein at either alkaline or acidic pH. Such assays do not interrogate gene sequences but rather the product of a ...

  13. Relationship between glycated haemoglobin and fasting plasma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emmanuel Musenge

    2016-07-30

    Jul 30, 2016 ... Relationship between glycated haemoglobin and fasting plasma glucose ... major stakeholders in the management of diabetes mellitus to consider FPG as an ..... HbA1c among customers of health examination services.

  14. Predicting postoperative haemoglobin changes after burn surgery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Burn surgery is associated with significant peri-operative haemoglobin. (Hb) changes. ... operative factors predictive of an Hb <7 g/dL on the first day after surgery, which were ..... clinical judgement, taking into consideration the risk associated.

  15. Investigation of haemoglobin polymorphism in Ogaden cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjoy Kumar Pal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: The Ogaden cattle is one among the tropical cattle breeds (Bos indicus widely distributed in eastern and south eastern part of Ethiopia. The breed has been evolved in arid and semi arid agro-ecological setup, but later on distributed and adapted to the wide agro-ecological zones. Because of its multi-purpose role, the Ogaden cattle have been used for milk, beef, and income generation. Information on the inherent genetic diversity is important in the design of breeding improvement programmes, making rational decisions on sustainable utilization and conservation of Animal Genetic Resources. Limited information is available about genetic variation of Ogaden breed at molecular level. The present investigation was aimed to study the biochemical polymorphism at the Hemoglobin (Hb locus. Materials and Methods: Blood samples collected from 105 Ogaden cattle maintained at Haramaya beef farm by jugular vein puncture were subjected to agarose gel electrophoresis [pH range 8.4-8.5] to study the polymorphic activities of haemoglobin. Results: Three types of phenotypes were detected i.e. a slow moving (AA band, fast moving (BB band and a combination of slow + fast moving bands (AB. The frequency of the fast moving band was less [13 (12.3%] than the slow moving band [57 (54.2%]. Both slow & fast moving phenotype was observed in 35 (33.3% animals. The gene frequency of HBA allele was 0.709 and that of HBB allele 0.291. Conclusion: The distribution of phenotypes was in agreement with codominant single gene inheritance. The Chi-square (χ2 test revealed that the population is under Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.

  16. Identification of the haemoglobin scavenger receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, M; Graversen, Jonas Heilskov; Jacobsen, C

    2001-01-01

    Intravascular haemolysis is a physiological phenomenon as well as a severe pathological complication when accelerated in various autoimmune, infectious (such as malaria) and inherited (such as sickle cell disease) disorders. Haemoglobin released into plasma is captured by the acute phase protein...

  17. Changing reference intervals for haemoglobin in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg-Nørholt, Judith; Frederiksen, Henrik; Nybo, Mads

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Based on international experiences and altering demography the reference intervals (RI) for haemoglobin (Hb) concentrations in blood were changed in Denmark in 2013 from 113 - 161 g/L to 117 - 153 g/L for women and from 129 - 177 g/L to 134 - 170 g/L for men. The aim of this study w...

  18. Is glycosylated haemoglobin a marker of fertility?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjollund, N H; Jensen, Tina Kold; Bonde, Jens Peter

    1999-01-01

    We performed a follow-up study of time to pregnancy in a population of first-time pregnancy planners without previous reproductive experience. The objective of this paper is to report and discuss a finding of a strong relationship between glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1C) and fertility. A total...

  19. Predicting postoperative haemoglobin changes after burn surgery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Burn surgery is associated with significant blood loss and fluid shifts that cause rapid haemoglobin (Hb) changes during and after surgery. Understanding the relationship between intraoperative and postoperative (day 1) Hb changes may assist in avoiding postoperative anaemia and unnecessary ...

  20. Haemoglobin variants among voluntary blood donors in Jos, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to determine the haemoglobin variants among voluntary blood donors in Jos. METHOD: Records of the age, sex, Haemoglobin level, and the haemoglobin genotype of all voluntary blood donors who donated blood at the National Blood Transfusion Service Centre, Jos, Nigeria between January 2011 and ...

  1. The Combination of Fosfomycin, Metronidazole, and Recombinant Human Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor is Stable in vitro and Has Maintained Antibacterial Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonnes, Siv; Holzknecht, Barbara Juliane; Gasbjerg, Lærke Smidt

    2017-01-01

    to the antibacterial effects of fosfomycin and metronidazole alone. CONCLUSION: The drug combination had neutral and stable pH, was iso-osmotic, and had stable concentrations during 24 h of storage. The antibacterial effect of fosfomycin and metronidazole were not altered when the drugs were mixed....

  2. Is glycosylated haemoglobin a marker of fertility?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjollund, N H; Jensen, T K; Bonde, J P

    1999-01-01

    We performed a follow-up study of time to pregnancy in a population of first-time pregnancy planners without previous reproductive experience. The objective of this paper is to report and discuss a finding of a strong relationship between glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1C) and fertility. A total...... concentration of inhibin A. No association was found between HbA1C and psychosocial distress. The reduced fertility among women with high HbA1C may be due to an association with subclinical polycystic ovaries as indicated by the hormonal profile....

  3. Two novel haemoglobin variants that affect haemoglobin A1c measurement by ion-exchange chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bots, Michael; Stroobants, An K.; Delzenne, Barend; Soeters, Maarten R.; de Vries, Johan E.; Weykamp, Cas W.; Norg, Roelf J. C.; Veldthuis, Martijn; van Zwieten, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Haemoglobin (Hb) variants are well-known factors interfering with accurate HbA1c testing. This report describes two novel Hb variants leading to inappropriate quantification of HbA1c by ion-exchange chromatography. Glycated forms of novel Hb variants were recognised in the blood of two patients with

  4. Haemoglobin A1c : Historical overview and current concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenters-Westra, Erna; Schindhelm, Roger K.; Bilo, Henk J.; Slingerland, Robbert J.

    Since the discovery of the relation between increased concentrations of fast haemoglobin fractions in patients with diabetes mellitus compared to concentrations in subjects without diabetes mellitus by Samuel Rahbar and co-workers in 1969, glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) has become a "gold

  5. Should haemoglobin A be used for the diagnosis of diabetes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-04-05

    Apr 5, 2011 ... Review Article: Should haemoglobin A1c be used for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus in South Africa? 122 .... and this is the basis for the high-performance liquid .... the ionic charge of the haemoglobin molecule, and this.

  6. Field evaluation of a novel haemoglobin measuring device ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To evaluate the use of a robust, cheap method for haemoglobin estimation by non-laboratory-trained personnel in a rural setting. Design. Comparative study. Setting. Tintswalo Hospital. Acomhoek. Participants. 7 nursing sisters, 4 medical students, 2 lay persons. Outcome measures. Haemoglobin estimates ...

  7. The effects of maternal haemoglobin as an indicator of maternal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    relationship could exist between MMA of mother-infant pairs and maternal nutritional indicator (haemoglobin). Objectives: This study reviewed the effects of maternal haemoglobin (Hb) on MMA of mother-infant pairs at birth. Methods: One hundred and fifty three mother-infant pairs were enrolled in this study using the ...

  8. The effects of maternal haemoglobin as an indicator of maternal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Maternal measles antibodies (MMA) are actively transferred through the placenta from mother to foetus. A relationship could exist between MMA of mother-infant pairs and maternal nutritional indicator (haemoglobin). Objectives: This study reviewed the effects of maternal haemoglobin (Hb) on MMA of ...

  9. Haemoglobin polymorphism in wild and cultured African catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Haemoglobin polymorphism, haemoglobin concentration, blood group and genotypes of wild and cultured Clarias gariepinus were investigated. Blood samples of Clarias gariepinus collected from Lake Alau (wild) and Dalori fish farm (cultured) were subjected to cellulose acetate electrophoresis to reveal the activities of ...

  10. Evaluation of a reference material for glycated haemoglobin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weykamp, CW; Penders, TJ; Muskiet, FAJ; vanderSlik, W

    The use of lyophilized blood as a reference material for glycated haemoglobin was investigated with respect to IFCC criteria for calibrators and control materials. Ninety-two laboratories, using 11 methods, detected no changes in glycated haemoglobin content when the lyophilizate was stored for one

  11. Reference values of glycosylated haemoglobin and fructosamin in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olair Carlos Beltrame

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Glycated haemoglobin and fructosamin levels are not commonly used to diagnosis Diabetes mellitus in dogs due to a lack of reference values. To estabilish the reference values and determination methods of glycated haemoglobin and frutosamine, both male and females, healthy dogs, 2-8 years old (n=100 were used. The methodologies used were the ionic resin and the kinetic method by the reduction of blue nitrotetrazolium, respectively. Medium values of glycated haemoglobin of 5.3-7.01% and 277.52-387. 30 for fructosamin established by Brazilian Diabetes Society methods can be adopted for dogs, both males and females.

  12. Characterization of haemoglobin from Actinorhizal plants – An in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-10-01

    Oct 1, 2013 ... Actinorhizal plant; haemoglobin (Hb); homology modelling; vesicle ..... specifies the overall quality of the models and determines the extent to which .... service for the recognition of errors in three-dimensional struc- tures of ...

  13. Dietary pattern, haemoglobin and haematocrit status of pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dietary pattern, haemoglobin and haematocrit status of pregnant women in Ogbaru ... Nigerian Journal of Nutritional Sciences ... 220 out of 733 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in the health centres within the three communities.

  14. Maintainability allocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guyot, Christian.

    1980-06-01

    The author gives the general lines of a method for the allocation and for the evaluation of maintainability of complex systems which is to be developed during the conference. The maintainability objective is supposed to be formulated under the form of a mean time to repair (M.T.T.R.) [fr

  15. Exercise and sports in haemoglobin disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Yazman

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Anaemia causes lower oxygen transport to tissues, interfering with normal physical development and may interfere with exercise and sports in thalassemia and Sickle-Cell-Disease (SCD l. Moreover, in SCD, the abnormal haemoglobin alters the erythrocyte shape and leads to pulmonary parenchymal damage, impaired vascular function and micro vascular complications. However, we now accept that, with regular blood transfusions and efficient oral or parenteral chelation modalities, many patients lead a normal development and life with little or no change from the lifestyle of their unaffected friends, although there are cognitive and emotional factors leading behaviour for participation in the social life and exercise, as studied by many scientists in Italy, United Kingdom, Greece and India. 贫血导致组织供氧不足,妨碍身体的正常发育,并可能干扰地中海贫血和镰状细胞病(SCD)患者的体育运动。更严重的是,在镰状细胞病患者体内,异常血红蛋白能改变红细胞形态,造成肺薄壁组织损害、血管功能损伤,并引起微血管并发症。 然而,意大利、英国、希腊和印度的多位科学家的研究表明:尽管认知因子和情感因子是参加社会生活和运动的主导行为,但只要患者定期输血和采用高效的口服或非口服螯合疗法,很多人都可以正常发育和生活,与未受感染的人群并无大的区别。

  16. New insight in the structural features of haloadaptation in α-amylases from halophilic Archaea following homology modeling strategy: folded and stable conformation maintained through low hydrophobicity and highly negative charged surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorgani, Mohamed Amine; Patron, Kevin; Desvaux, Mickaël

    2014-07-01

    Proteins from halophilic archaea, which live in extreme saline conditions, have evolved to remain folded, active and stable at very high ionic strengths. Understanding the mechanism of haloadaptation is the first step toward engineering of halostable biomolecules. Amylases are one of the main enzymes used in industry. Yet, no three-dimensional structure has been experimentally resolved for α-amylases from halophilic archaea. In this study, homology structure modeling of α-amylases from the halophilic archaea Haloarcula marismortui, Haloarcula hispanica, and Halalkalicoccus jeotgali were performed. The resulting models were subjected to energy minimization, evaluation, and structural analysis. Calculations of the amino acid composition, salt bridges and hydrophobic interactions were also performed and compared to a set of non-halophilic counterparts. It clearly appeared that haloarchaeal α-amylases exhibited lower propensities for helix formation and higher propensities for coil-forming regions. Furthermore, they could maintain a folded and stable conformation in high salt concentration through highly negative charged surface with over representation of acidic residues, especially Asp, and low hydrophobicity with increase of salt bridges and decrease in hydrophobic interactions on the protein surface. This study sheds some light on the stability of α-amylases from halophilic archaea and provides strong basis not only to understand haloadaptation mechanisms of proteins in microorganisms from hypersalines environments but also for biotechnological applications.

  17. Effects of Rambutan Peel Extract to The Number of Erythrocytes and Haemoglobin in Rats Exposed to Cigarette Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisdiana; Dewi, F. K.

    2017-04-01

    Cigarette smoke is one of the exogenous free radicals sources. When it is inhaled, its activity may damage the structure of erythrocyte membrane function. The impacts of free radicals can be reduced through the provision of antioxidants. Rambutan fruit peel contains the phenolic compound in the form of polyphenols that are antioxidants. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of rambutan fruit peel extracts to the number of erythrocytes and haemoglobin in rats exposed to cigarette smoke. This design used Post Test Control Group Design. A sample of 25 rats was divided into five groups, each group consisting of 5 rats. The positive control group (K+) were given a standard food and drinking water. The negative control group (K) by three cigarettes, the treatment group (KP1, KP2, KP3) by three cigarettes and skin extract of rambutan each treatment group with a dose 15 mg/kg, 30 mg/kg and 45 mg/kg for 30 days. Data on the number of erythrocytes and haemoglobin in rat blood was analysed with LSD and to determine the optimum dosage was analysed by using regression test. Research results shown that the content of rambutan fruit peel extract may increase the number of erythrocytes and haemoglobin of blood. Conclusions from this research are the rambutan fruit peel extract at a dose of 45 mg/kg body weight can increase and maintain the number of erythrocytes and haemoglobin in the blood of rat exposed to cigarette smoke.

  18. Vessel calibre and haemoglobin effects on pulse oximetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEwen, M P; Reynolds, K J; Bull, G P

    2009-01-01

    Despite its success as a clinical monitoring tool, pulse oximetry may be improved with respect to the need for empirical calibration and the reports of biases in readings associated with peripheral vasoconstriction and haemoglobin concentration. To effect this improvement, this work aims to improve the understanding of the photoplethysmography signal—as used by pulse oximeters—and investigates the effect of vessel calibre and haemoglobin concentration on pulse oximetry. The digital temperature and the transmission of a wide spectrum of light through the fingers of 57 people with known haemoglobin concentrations were measured and simulations of the transmission of that spectrum of light through finger models were performed. Ratios of pulsatile attenuations of light as used in pulse oximetry were dependent upon peripheral temperature and on blood haemoglobin concentration. In addition, both the simulation and in vivo results showed that the pulsatile attenuation of light through fingers was approximately proportional to the absorption coefficients of blood, only when the absorption coefficients were small. These findings were explained in terms of discrete blood vessels acting as barriers to light transmission through tissue. Due to the influence of discrete blood vessels on light transmission, pulse oximeter outputs tend to be dependent upon haemoglobin concentration and on the calibre of pulsing blood vessels—which are affected by vasoconstriction/vasodilation. The effects of discrete blood vessels may account for part of the difference between the Beer–Lambert pulse oximetry model and empirical calibration

  19. Variation of haemoglobin extinction coefficients can cause errors in the determination of haemoglobin concentration measured by near-infrared spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J G; Liu, H

    2007-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy or imaging has been extensively applied to various biomedical applications since it can detect the concentrations of oxyhaemoglobin (HbO 2 ), deoxyhaemoglobin (Hb) and total haemoglobin (Hb total ) from deep tissues. To quantify concentrations of these haemoglobin derivatives, the extinction coefficient values of HbO 2 and Hb have to be employed. However, it was not well recognized among researchers that small differences in extinction coefficients could cause significant errors in quantifying the concentrations of haemoglobin derivatives. In this study, we derived equations to estimate errors of haemoglobin derivatives caused by the variation of haemoglobin extinction coefficients. To prove our error analysis, we performed experiments using liquid-tissue phantoms containing 1% Intralipid in a phosphate-buffered saline solution. The gas intervention of pure oxygen was given in the solution to examine the oxygenation changes in the phantom, and 3 mL of human blood was added twice to show the changes in [Hb total ]. The error calculation has shown that even a small variation (0.01 cm -1 mM -1 ) in extinction coefficients can produce appreciable relative errors in quantification of Δ[HbO 2 ], Δ[Hb] and Δ[Hb total ]. We have also observed that the error of Δ[Hb total ] is not always larger than those of Δ[HbO 2 ] and Δ[Hb]. This study concludes that we need to be aware of any variation in haemoglobin extinction coefficients, which could result from changes in temperature, and to utilize corresponding animal's haemoglobin extinction coefficients for the animal experiments, in order to obtain more accurate values of Δ[HbO 2 ], Δ[Hb] and Δ[Hb total ] from in vivo tissue measurements

  20. Variation of haemoglobin extinction coefficients can cause errors in the determination of haemoglobin concentration measured by near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J. G.; Liu, H.

    2007-10-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy or imaging has been extensively applied to various biomedical applications since it can detect the concentrations of oxyhaemoglobin (HbO2), deoxyhaemoglobin (Hb) and total haemoglobin (Hbtotal) from deep tissues. To quantify concentrations of these haemoglobin derivatives, the extinction coefficient values of HbO2 and Hb have to be employed. However, it was not well recognized among researchers that small differences in extinction coefficients could cause significant errors in quantifying the concentrations of haemoglobin derivatives. In this study, we derived equations to estimate errors of haemoglobin derivatives caused by the variation of haemoglobin extinction coefficients. To prove our error analysis, we performed experiments using liquid-tissue phantoms containing 1% Intralipid in a phosphate-buffered saline solution. The gas intervention of pure oxygen was given in the solution to examine the oxygenation changes in the phantom, and 3 mL of human blood was added twice to show the changes in [Hbtotal]. The error calculation has shown that even a small variation (0.01 cm-1 mM-1) in extinction coefficients can produce appreciable relative errors in quantification of Δ[HbO2], Δ[Hb] and Δ[Hbtotal]. We have also observed that the error of Δ[Hbtotal] is not always larger than those of Δ[HbO2] and Δ[Hb]. This study concludes that we need to be aware of any variation in haemoglobin extinction coefficients, which could result from changes in temperature, and to utilize corresponding animal's haemoglobin extinction coefficients for the animal experiments, in order to obtain more accurate values of Δ[HbO2], Δ[Hb] and Δ[Hbtotal] from in vivo tissue measurements.

  1. Variation of haemoglobin extinction coefficients can cause errors in the determination of haemoglobin concentration measured by near-infrared spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J G; Liu, H [Joint Graduate Program in Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas at Arlington/University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States)

    2007-10-21

    Near-infrared spectroscopy or imaging has been extensively applied to various biomedical applications since it can detect the concentrations of oxyhaemoglobin (HbO{sub 2}), deoxyhaemoglobin (Hb) and total haemoglobin (Hb{sub total}) from deep tissues. To quantify concentrations of these haemoglobin derivatives, the extinction coefficient values of HbO{sub 2} and Hb have to be employed. However, it was not well recognized among researchers that small differences in extinction coefficients could cause significant errors in quantifying the concentrations of haemoglobin derivatives. In this study, we derived equations to estimate errors of haemoglobin derivatives caused by the variation of haemoglobin extinction coefficients. To prove our error analysis, we performed experiments using liquid-tissue phantoms containing 1% Intralipid in a phosphate-buffered saline solution. The gas intervention of pure oxygen was given in the solution to examine the oxygenation changes in the phantom, and 3 mL of human blood was added twice to show the changes in [Hb{sub total}]. The error calculation has shown that even a small variation (0.01 cm{sup -1} mM{sup -1}) in extinction coefficients can produce appreciable relative errors in quantification of {delta}[HbO{sub 2}], {delta}[Hb] and {delta}[Hb{sub total}]. We have also observed that the error of {delta}[Hb{sub total}] is not always larger than those of {delta}[HbO{sub 2}] and {delta}[Hb]. This study concludes that we need to be aware of any variation in haemoglobin extinction coefficients, which could result from changes in temperature, and to utilize corresponding animal's haemoglobin extinction coefficients for the animal experiments, in order to obtain more accurate values of {delta}[HbO{sub 2}], {delta}[Hb] and {delta}[Hb{sub total}] from in vivo tissue measurements.

  2. Higher vs. lower haemoglobin threshold for transfusion in septic shock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rygård, S L; Holst, L B; Wetterslev, J

    2017-01-01

    . a lower haemoglobin threshold. METHODS: In post-hoc analyses of the full trial population of 998 patients from the Transfusion Requirements in Septic Shock (TRISS) trial, we investigated the intervention effect on 90-day mortality in patients with severe comorbidity (chronic lung disease, haematological......BACKGROUND: Using a restrictive transfusion strategy appears to be safe in sepsis, but there may be subgroups of patients who benefit from transfusion at a higher haemoglobin level. We explored if subgroups of patients with septic shock and anaemia had better outcome when transfused at a higher vs.......51), in those who had undergone surgery (P = 0.99) or in patients with septic shock by the new definition (P = 0.20). CONCLUSION: In exploratory analyses of a randomized trial in patients with septic shock and anaemia, we observed no survival benefit in any subgroups of transfusion at a haemoglobin threshold...

  3. Maintaining positive

    OpenAIRE

    Gheorghe Gh. IONESCU; Adina Letitia NEGRUSA

    2004-01-01

    Maintaining positive work-force relationships includes in effective labor-management relations and making appropriate responses to current employee issues. Among the major current employee issues are protection from arbitrary dismissal, drug and alcohol abuse, privacy rights and family maters and they impact work. In our paper we discus two problems: first, the meanings of industrial democracy; second, the three principal operational concepts of industrial democracy (1) industrial democracy t...

  4. Impact of corpulence parameters and haemoglobin A1c on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We assessed the utility of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels in metabolic control for type 2 diabetic patients. ... The apoB/apoA-I ratio was more correlated with postprandial TC/HDL and LDL-c/HDL-c ratios in men and with postprandial TG/HDL-c in women.

  5. Abnormal haemoglobin variants, ABO and Rh blood groups among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Abnormal haemoglobin variants ( HbSS,AS,AC,SC,etc) have been known to be common among blacks. Patients with sickle cell disease are often faced with the risk of alloimmunization from allogeneic blood transfusion. Objectives: The study was designed to sample students population of African descents for ...

  6. Relationship Between Glycated Haemoglobin and Body Mass Index ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood pressure, Height, Weight were all measured and body mass index (BMI) calculated as weight (in kilograms) divided by height (in meters squared). Glycated haemoglobin was estimated using the ion exchange chromatography method. Result: A total of 100 healthy subjects, 50 males and 50 females, ages ranging ...

  7. Association of foetal haemoglobin with pancreatic enzymes in sickle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background/Aim: There are conflicting reports on the potential protective effects of foetal haemoglobin (HbF) in the elimination of symptoms of Sickle cell disease in the patients and reports which correlate the levels of HbF with pancreatic enzymes in SCD are scarce in the literature.This study correlates the levels of HbF on ...

  8. Non-invasive technology to determine the haemoglobin level of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Predonation haemoglobin (Hb) check has been done traditionally by the copper sulphate (CuSO4), or the haemocue haemoglobinometer methods. Both of these require a fingerprick of the donor to obtain capillary blood samples. It is thought that a non-invasive, but accurate method of Hb check will reduce ...

  9. Distribution of abo, rhesus blood groups and haemoglobin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary: The distribution of ABO, Rhesus blood groups and haemoglobin electrophoresis among 200 undergraduate students of Niger Delta University, Bayelsa State, Nigeria randomly selected were studied. Blood samples were collected by venepuncture from the antecubital vein. The blood sample were transferred into ...

  10. Validation of the haemoglobin colour scale for screening blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    blood donors for anaemia, using the WHO Haemoglobin Colour. Scale (HCS) for ... simple alternative for assessing anaemia.3,4 It does not aim to compete with a .... staff to see if similar levels of sensitivity and specificity are obtained. A more ...

  11. Prevalence of haemoglobin variants among the Ika ethnic nationality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    2014-07-26

    Jul 26, 2014 ... mandatory genetic counseling and screening of all intending couples in order to avert the sickling gene pool in our population. REFERENCES. 1. Esan A.J, Omisakin C.T and Okkhuakhua. O. Frequency Distribution of Haemoglobin. Variants, ABO and Rhesus Blood Groups among Children in Ido/Osi Local.

  12. Haemoglobin genotype of children with severe malaria seen at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: Introduction: Types of haemoglobin (Hb) genotype have been found to be crucial to the rate of red blood cell parasite invasion, multiplication, and destruction as well as outcome of malaria disease. In a bid to provide more information on the relationship between Hb genotype and level of protection conferred by ...

  13. Point-of-care estimation of haemoglobin concentration in neonates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. The HemoCue is a point-of-care analytical system for haemoglobin concentration (Hb) measurement. Point-of-care testing has been validated in hospitals and outpatient departments to assist with urgent patient management by providing rapid laboratory test results. Method. In this prospective study we compared ...

  14. E.s.r. radiation studies of erythrocyte membrane-haemoglobin interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koter, M.; Kowalska, M.A.; Leyko, W.; Waterman, M.

    1977-01-01

    The dependence of the yield of free radicals in gamma-irradiated, freeze-dried erythrocyte membranes on their haemoglobin content was studied. A non-monotonous relationship was found, different from that observed in mixtures of freeze-dried membranes and haemoglobin, which suggests the existence of radiation-energy transfer between the membranes and bound haemoglobin. (author)

  15. New technology increases perioperative haemoglobin levels for paediatric cardiopulmonary bypass: what is the benefit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuys, Clarke; Horton, Stephen; Bennett, Martin; Augustin, Simon

    2006-01-01

    Increasing perioperative haemoglobin level by reducing priming volume and maintaining a safe cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) system is the aim of every perfusionist. In this study, we have compared the two membrane oxygenators and pump systems used for paediatric bypass at the Royal Children's Hospital on a regular basis since 1988. We looked at all patients who had the Cobe VPCML (Cobe Laboratories, Denver, CO, USA) and Terumo RX-05 (Terumo Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) oxygenators used for flows from 800 mL/min up to the maximum rated flow for the respective oxygenator from January 2002 until March 2004. The VPCML refers to using only the 0.4-m2 section of the oxygenator. The pump systems used were the Stöckert CAPS (Stöckert Instrumente GmbH, Munich, Germany) and Jostra HL 30 (Jostra AB, Lund, Sweden). Changing from the VPCML to the RX-05 resulted in a 37% reduction in priming volume. The introduction of the Jostra HL 30 with a custom-designed mast system reduced the priming volume by another 15%. This change in priming volume allowed a significant increase, from 6 to 34%, in the percentage of patients who received bloodless primes, and for those patients who received blood primes, an increase in haemoglobin (Hb) on bypass from 8.2 to 9.6 g/dL, on average.

  16. Knowledge insufficient: the management of haemoglobin SC disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecker, Lydia H; Schaefer, Beverly A; Luchtman-Jones, Lori

    2017-02-01

    Although haemoglobin SC (HbSC) accounts for 30% of sickle cell disease (SCD) in the United States and United Kingdom, evidence-based guidelines for genotype specific management are lacking. The unique pathology of HbSC disease is complex, characterized by erythrocyte dehydration, intracellular sickling and increased blood viscosity. The evaluation and treatment of patients with HbSC is largely inferred from studies of SCD consisting mostly of haemoglobin SS (HbSS) patients. These studies are underpowered to allow definitive conclusions about HbSC. We review the pathophysiology of HbSC disease, including known and potential differences between HbSS and HbSC, and highlight knowledge gaps in HbSC disease management. Clinical and translational research is needed to develop targeted treatments and to validate management recommendations for efficacy, safety and impact on quality of life for people with HbSC. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Characterization of blood donors with high haemoglobin concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, K; Hasselbalch, H C; Ullum, H

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives  The literature contains little on the prevalence and causes of high predonation haemoglobin levels among blood donors. This study aimed to characterize and develop an algorithm to manage would-be donors with polycythaemia. Materials and Methods  Between November 2009...... and November 2011, we offered haematology consultations to blood donors with repeated haemoglobin concentration (Hb) above the WHO limit for polycythaemia vera (PV) (10·2 and 11·5 mm/16·5 and 18·5 g/dl for women and men, respectively). Investigation of such donors included Hb, haematocrit, mean cell volume......, erythropoietin, ferritin, platelet count and leucocyte count, JAK2 V617 and JAK2 exon12 analysis, as well as other routine measurements. Results  Among 46 such donors, 39 had a history of smoking, which contributes to erythrocytosis. Two had PV, five had severe hypertension, one of them because of renal artery...

  18. Haemoglobins with multiple reactive sulfhydryl groups: reactions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pH dependence profile of kapp for the slow phase resembles the titration curve of a monoprotic acid. Quantitative analysis indicates that the sulfhydryl group to which this phase may be attributed is linked to a single ionizable group with a pKa of 6.1 0.2. Examination of the structure of guinea pig haemoglobin near the ...

  19. Maintaining evolvability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, James F

    2008-12-01

    Although molecular methods, such as QTL mapping, have revealed a number of loci with large effects, it is still likely that the bulk of quantitative variability is due to multiple factors, each with small effect. Typically, these have a large additive component. Conventional wisdom argues that selection, natural or artificial, uses up additive variance and thus depletes its supply. Over time, the variance should be reduced, and at equilibrium be near zero. This is especially expected for fitness and traits highly correlated with it. Yet, populations typically have a great deal of additive variance, and do not seem to run out of genetic variability even after many generations of directional selection. Long-term selection experiments show that populations continue to retain seemingly undiminished additive variance despite large changes in the mean value. I propose that there are several reasons for this. (i) The environment is continually changing so that what was formerly most fit no longer is. (ii) There is an input of genetic variance from mutation, and sometimes from migration. (iii) As intermediate-frequency alleles increase in frequency towards one, producing less variance (as p --> 1, p(1 - p) --> 0), others that were originally near zero become more common and increase the variance. Thus, a roughly constant variance is maintained. (iv) There is always selection for fitness and for characters closely related to it. To the extent that the trait is heritable, later generations inherit a disproportionate number of genes acting additively on the trait, thus increasing genetic variance. For these reasons a selected population retains its ability to evolve. Of course, genes with large effect are also important. Conspicuous examples are the small number of loci that changed teosinte to maize, and major phylogenetic changes in the animal kingdom. The relative importance of these along with duplications, chromosome rearrangements, horizontal transmission and polyploidy

  20. SERUM MAGNESIUM, LIPID PROFILE AND GLYCATED HAEMOGLOBIN IN DIABETIC RETINOPATHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunanda Vusikala

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Diabetic retinopathy is one of the important microvascular complications of diabetes mellitus of long duration. Alterations in trace metals like magnesium and lipid profile was observed in diabetic retinopathy with hyperglycaemic status. AIM The study was taken up to assess the role of magnesium, lipid profile and glycated haemoglobin in diabetic retinopathy. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 80 subjects between 40-65 years were included in the study. Group 1 includes 20 age and sex matched healthy controls. Group 2 includes 30 cases of Diabetes mellitus without retinopathy. Group 3 includes 30 cases of Diabetes mellitus with retinopathy. RESULTS Magnesium was found to be significantly low in the diabetic group with retinopathy. Serum cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly elevated in the diabetic group with retinopathy. Fasting and Postprandial plasma glucose and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c levels confirmed the glycaemic status of each of the groups. CONCLUSIONS Hypomagnesemia, hypercholesterolaemia, hypertriglyceridemia was observed in diabetic retinopathy along with increased levels of glycated haemoglobin in our study.

  1. d-Ribose as a Contributor to Glycated Haemoglobin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xixi Chen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c is the most important marker of hyperglycaemia in diabetes mellitus. We show that d-ribose reacts with haemoglobin, thus yielding HbA1c. Using mass spectrometry, we detected glycation of haemoglobin with d-ribose produces 10 carboxylmethyllysines (CMLs. The first-order rate constant of fructosamine formation for d-ribose was approximately 60 times higher than that for d-glucose at the initial stage. Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF rat, a common model for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, had high levels of d-ribose and HbA1c, accompanied by a decrease of transketolase (TK in the liver. The administration of benfotiamine, an activator of TK, significantly decreased d-ribose followed by a decline in HbA1c. In clinical investigation, T2DM patients with high HbA1c had a high level of urine d-ribose, though the level of their urine d-glucose was low. That is, d-ribose contributes to HbA1c, which prompts future studies to further explore whether d-ribose plays a role in the pathophysiological mechanism of T2DM.

  2. Structural studies of haemoglobin from pisces species shortfin mako shark (Isurus oxyrinchus) at 1.9 Å resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramesh, Pandian, E-mail: prms23@gmail.com [Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); University of Madras, Maraimalai Campus (Guindy), Chennai 600 025 (India); Sundaresan, S. S.; Sathya Moorthy, Pon.; Balasubramanian, M.; Ponnuswamy, M. N. [University of Madras, Maraimalai Campus (Guindy), Chennai 600 025 (India)

    2013-11-01

    Shortfin mako shark haemoglobin adopts an unliganded deoxy T state conformation, which is shown from the quaternary structural features, interface interactions and heme binding sites of different subunits of haemoglobin with high-resolution X-ray data. Haemoglobin (Hb) is a tetrameric iron-containing protein that carries oxygen from the lungs to tissues and carbon dioxide from tissues back to the lungs. Pisces are the advanced aquatic vertebrates capable of surviving at wide depth ranges. The shortfin mako shark (SMS) is the pelagic, largest, fastest and most sophisticated species of the shark kingdom with well developed eyes. Mostly the pisces species are cold blooded in nature. Distinctly, the SMSs are warm-blooded animals with an advanced circulatory system. SMSs are capable of maintaining elevated muscle temperatures up to 33 K above the ambient water temperatures at a depth of 150–500 m. SMSs have a diverged air-breathing mechanism compared with other vertebrates. The haemoglobin molecule consists of four polypeptide chains, namely two α chains, each with 140 amino acids and two β chains each having 136 amino acids. The SMS Hb was found to crystallize in monoclinic space group P2{sub 1} using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at room temperature. The crystal packing parameters for the SMS Hb structure contain one whole biological molecule in the asymmetric unit with a solvent content of 47%. The SMS Hb quaternary structural features interface–interface interactions and heme binding sites are discussed with different state Hbs and the results reveal that SMS Hb adopts an unliganded deoxy T state conformation.

  3. Structural studies of haemoglobin from pisces species shortfin mako shark (Isurus oxyrinchus) at 1.9 Å resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramesh, Pandian; Sundaresan, S. S.; Sathya Moorthy, Pon.; Balasubramanian, M.; Ponnuswamy, M. N.

    2013-01-01

    Shortfin mako shark haemoglobin adopts an unliganded deoxy T state conformation, which is shown from the quaternary structural features, interface interactions and heme binding sites of different subunits of haemoglobin with high-resolution X-ray data. Haemoglobin (Hb) is a tetrameric iron-containing protein that carries oxygen from the lungs to tissues and carbon dioxide from tissues back to the lungs. Pisces are the advanced aquatic vertebrates capable of surviving at wide depth ranges. The shortfin mako shark (SMS) is the pelagic, largest, fastest and most sophisticated species of the shark kingdom with well developed eyes. Mostly the pisces species are cold blooded in nature. Distinctly, the SMSs are warm-blooded animals with an advanced circulatory system. SMSs are capable of maintaining elevated muscle temperatures up to 33 K above the ambient water temperatures at a depth of 150–500 m. SMSs have a diverged air-breathing mechanism compared with other vertebrates. The haemoglobin molecule consists of four polypeptide chains, namely two α chains, each with 140 amino acids and two β chains each having 136 amino acids. The SMS Hb was found to crystallize in monoclinic space group P2 1 using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at room temperature. The crystal packing parameters for the SMS Hb structure contain one whole biological molecule in the asymmetric unit with a solvent content of 47%. The SMS Hb quaternary structural features interface–interface interactions and heme binding sites are discussed with different state Hbs and the results reveal that SMS Hb adopts an unliganded deoxy T state conformation

  4. Low-grade inflammation is associated with lower haemoglobin levels in healthy individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotzé, S R; Pedersen, O B; Petersen, M S

    2016-01-01

    status. Results: LGI was associated with lower haemoglobin (0·08 mm lower [0·12 g/dl], 95% confidence interval (CI): −0·11–0·05) and increased risk of low haemoglobin (OR = 1·22, 95% CI: 1·05–1·43) in non-smokers. Conversely, LGI was associated with higher haemoglobin in smokers (0·12 mm [0·19 g/dl], 95......% CI: 0·06–0·18). Conclusion: In this first study of LGI and haemoglobin in healthy individuals, there was a negative association between LGI and haemoglobin in non-smokers. The association was positive in smokers, probably because smoking leads to both increased inflammation and increased haemoglobin...

  5. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of parakeet (Psittacula krameri) haemoglobin

    OpenAIRE

    Jaimohan, S. M.; Naresh, M. D.; Arumugam, V.; Mandal, A. B.

    2009-01-01

    Parakeet (Psittacula krameri) haemoglobin has been purified and crystallized under low salt buffered conditions. Preliminary analysis of the crystal that belonged to monoclinic system (C2) is reported.

  6. IMPACT OF HAEMOGLOBIN LEVELS ON OUTCOMES IN ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrirang Kishor Bhurchandi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND It is observed that anaemia is a common problem in patients hospitalised for acute coronary syndromes. There have been reports in worldwide studies of an association between anaemia and poor prognosis in patients with Acute Coronary Syndromes (ACS. MATERIALS AND METHODS All consecutive patients having ST-elevation myocardial infarction, non-ST elevation myocardial infarction and unstable angina who were admitted in medicine ward, Medicine Intensive Care Unit (MICU, Cardiology Department (CRD, Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery (CVTS Department and incidentally found in other departments of Acharya Vinoba Bhave Rural Hospital admitted from 1st November 2014 to 31st December 2015 at AVBRH. Total 200 patients were included in the study. RESULTS Our study showed an association between haemoglobin levels and mean age (p=0.0001, gender (p=0.0001, risk factors like smoking (p=0.035, tobacco (p=0.001 and Killip’s class I (p=0.0001, III (p=0.0001 and IV (p=0.0001. On distribution of the MACE’s during hospital stay stratified with Hb levels, the results of analysis by Chi-square test showed that there were statistically significant differences at various haemoglobin levels in MACE’s as post-infarction angina, heart failure, VT/VF and death (p<0.05 for all. On distribution of the MACE’s during follow up on 30th day and on 180th day stratified with Hb levels, the results of analysis by Chi-square test showed that there were statistically significant differences at various haemoglobin levels in MACE’s as post-infarction angina, re-infarction, heart failure, VT/VF and death (p<0.05 for all. CONCLUSION To conclude our study results, it was found during the study that anaemia as an important risk factor was strongly associated with major adverse outcomes in patients with ACS. Our study suggested that there was a statistically significant correlation between the low Hb levels and MACE’s (post-infarction angina, re-infarction, heart

  7. Haemoglobin Rahere (beta Lys-Thr): A new high affinity haemoglobin associated with decreased 2, 3-diphosphoglycerate binding and relative polycythaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorkin, P A; Stephens, A D; Beard, M E; Wrigley, P F; Adams, L; Lehmann, H

    1975-01-01

    A new haemoglobin with increased oxygen affinity, beta82 (EF6) lysine leads to threonine (Hb Rahere), was found during the investigation of a patient who was found to have a raised haemoglobin concentration after a routine blood count. The substitution affects one of the 2, 3-diphosphoglycerate binding sites, resulting in an increased affinity for oxygen, but both the haem-haem interaction and the alkaline Bohr effect are normal in the haemolysate. This variant had the same mobility as haemoglobin A on electrophoresis at alkaline pH but was detected by measuring the whole blood oxygen affinity; it could be separated from haemoglobin A, however, by electrophoresis in agar at acid pH. The raised haemoglobin concentration was mainly due to a reduction in plasma volume (a relative polycythaemia) and was associated with a persistently raised white blood count. This case emphasises the need to measure the oxygen affinity of haemoglobin in all patients with absolute or relative polycythaemia when some obvious cause is not evident. PMID:124

  8. Ethylene, nitric oxide and haemoglobins in plant tolerance to flooding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mur, Luis A J; Gupta, Kapuganti J; Chakraborty, U

    2015-01-01

    -tolerant species Rumex palustris and the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana have been extensively exploited to reveal some key molecular events. Our groups have recently demonstrated that nitric oxide (NO) triggers the biosynthesis of ethylene during stress and that NO plays key roles in PCD and the hyponastic......As much as 12% of the world's soils may suffer excess water so that flooding is a major limiting factor on crop production in many areas. Plants attempt to deal with submergence by forming root aerenchyma to facilitate oxygen diffusion from the shoot to the root, initiating a hyponastic response....... This chapter will detail our understanding of the roles of ethylene, NO and haemoglobin in flooding stress....

  9. Non-symbiotic haemoglobins-What's happening beyond nitric oxide scavenging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Robert D

    2012-01-01

    Non-symbiotic haemoglobins have been an active research topic for over 30 years, during which time a considerable portfolio of knowledge has accumulated relative to their chemical and molecular properties, and their presence and mode of induction in plants. While progress has been made towards understanding their physiological role, there remain a number of unanswered questions with respect to their biological function. This review attempts to update recent progress in this area and to introduce a hypothesis as to how non-symbiotic haemoglobins might participate in regulating hormone signal transduction. Advances have been made towards understanding the structural nuances that explain some of the differences in ligand association characteristics of class 1 and class 2 non-symbiotic haemoglobins. Non-symbiotic haemoglobins have been found to function in seed development and germination, flowering, root development and differentiation, abiotic stress responses, pathogen invasion and symbiotic bacterial associations. Microarray analyses under various stress conditions yield uneven results relative to non-symbiotic haemoglobin expression. Increasing evidence of the role of nitric oxide (NO) in hormone responses and the known involvement of non-symbiotic haemoglobins in scavenging NO provide opportunities for fruitful research, particularly at the cellular level. Circumstantial evidence suggests that non-symbiotic haemoglobins may have a critical function in the signal transduction pathways of auxin, ethylene, jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, cytokinin and abscisic acid. There is a strong need for research on haemoglobin gene expression at the cellular level relative to hormone signal transduction.

  10. Net haemoglobin increase from reinfusion of refrigerated vs. frozen red blood cells after autologous blood transfusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashenden, M; Mørkeberg, Jakob Sehested

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES  Two main blood storage procedures can be used for storing red blood cells: refrigeration and freezing. Nevertheless, the efficiency of these procedures measured as the increase in haemoglobin after reinfusion compared with baseline has never been examined. The main...... objective was to examine which storage procedure yielded the largest increase in circulating haemoglobin after reinfusion compared to baseline. MATERIALS AND METHODS  Equal volumes of blood from 15 men were withdrawn and stored either frozen or refrigerated as packed red blood cells. Serial measures...... of circulating haemoglobin by carbon monoxide rebreathing provided an opportunity to monitor recovery from anaemia, as well as the net increase in circulating haemoglobin after transfusion. RESULTS  The post-thaw yield of haemoglobin in the bags was 72% after refrigerated storage compared with only 52% after...

  11. Bi-stable optical actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdener, Fred R.; Boyd, Robert D.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is a bi-stable optical actuator device that is depowered in both stable positions. A bearing is used to transfer motion and smoothly transition from one state to another. The optical actuator device may be maintained in a stable position either by gravity or a restraining device.

  12. The impact of prematurity on fetal haemoglobin and how it can bias measurement of glycated haemoglobin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariassen, Gitte; Esberg, Gitte; Grytter, Carl

    Background: The extent to which fetal hemoglobin (HbF) concentrations are increased in premature infants at the age of six to eight months is only sporadically described. The influence of HbF on measurement of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) has not been investigated in this population. Methods......: As part of a nutritional study on premature children, HbF and HbA1c were measured in 46 premature infants at the age of six to eight months. Results: Median HbF percentage was 10.3% (range 2.0 to 39.2%). In a multiple regression model only birth weight (P = 0.002) and post-conceptional age (P ... significantly from unadjusted values (4.4±0.4%), (P premature infants at six to eight months of age. The clinical implication of this work is a renewed attention on the prolonged Hb...

  13. Stability and reliability of glycated haemoglobin measurements in blood samples stored at -20°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataraman, Vijayachandrika; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Pradeepa, Rajendra; Deepa, Mohan; Jayashri, Ramamoorthy; Anbalagan, Viknesh Prabu; Akila, Bridgitte; Madhu, Sri Venkata; Lakshmy, Ramakrishnan; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2016-01-01

    To validate the stability of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) measurements in blood samples stored at -20°C for up to one month. The study group comprised 142 type 2 diabetic subjects visiting a tertiary centre for diabetes at Chennai city in south India. The HbA1c assay was done on a fasting blood sample using the Bio-Rad Variant machine on Day 0 (day of blood sample collection). Several aliquots were stored at -20°C and the assay was repeated on the 3rd, 7th, 15th, and 30th day after the sample collection. Bland-Altman plots were constructed and variation in the HbA1c levels on the different days was compared with the day 0 level. The median differences between HbA1c levels measured on Day 0 and the 3rd, 7th, 15th, and 30th day after blood collection were 0.0%, 0.2%, 0.3% and 0.5% respectively. Bland-Altman plot analysis showed that the differences between the day '0' and the different time points tend to get larger with time, but these were not clinically significant. HbA1c levels are relatively stable up to 2weeks, if blood samples are stored at -20°C. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies on avian haemoglobin from pigeon (Columba livia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathya Moorthy, Pon.; Neelagandan, K.; Balasubramanian, M.; Ponnuswamy, M. N.

    2009-01-01

    Crystallization of pigeon haemoglobin at low pH (5.5) and high ionic concentration (1 M) using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method is reported. Haemoglobin is a physiologically significant metalloprotein that is involved in the exchange of gases for sustaining life. The respiratory system of birds is unique and complex compared with that of mammals. Many investigations of avian haemoglobins have revealed the presence of inositol pentaphosphate (IP5), a principal allosteric effector that is involved in regulation of their function. Structural investigations of avian haemoglobins are presently not adequate to explain their function. Efforts have been made in this direction in order to understand the oxygen-binding affinity involved in adapting to hypoxia in avian haemoglobins. Fresh whole blood was collected from pigeon (Columba livia) and purified using a DEAE cellulose anion-exchange chromatographic column. Crystallization of pigeon haemoglobin was accomplished using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 3350 as a precipitant in 50 mM sodium acetate buffer pH 5.5 with 1 M NaCl. Data collection was carried out using a MAR345 image-plate detector system. The crystals diffracted to 2 Å resolution. Pigeon haemoglobin crystallizes in a triclinic space group, with two whole biological molecules in the asymmetric unit and with unit-cell parameters a = 55.005, b = 65.528, c = 104.370 Å, α = 78.742, β = 89.819, γ = 65.320°

  15. Differences in iron acquisition from human haemoglobin among strains of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayashida, H.; Poulsen, Knud; Kilian, Mogens

    2002-01-01

    . actinomycetemcomitans strains examined harboured a single genomic sequence with homology to the hgpA gene encoding haemoglobin-binding protein A in Haemophilus influenzae. However, in all three strains belonging to the JP2 clone and in one serotype e strain hgpA was a pseudogene. Seven other strains possessed...... a functional hgpA gene which, according to insertion mutagenesis experiments, was responsible for the ability of these strains to utilize haemoglobin as a source of iron. Thus, the presence of an hgpA pseudogene and the inability to use human haemoglobin as an iron source discriminate the high-toxic JP2 clone...

  16. Stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, D.K.

    1986-01-01

    Seventy-five percent of the world's stable isotope supply comes from one producer, Oak Ridge Nuclear Laboratory (ORNL) in the US. Canadian concern is that foreign needs will be met only after domestic needs, thus creating a shortage of stable isotopes in Canada. This article describes the present situation in Canada (availability and cost) of stable isotopes, the isotope enrichment techniques, and related research programs at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL)

  17. Seasonal changes in cell mediated immune responses to soluble Plasmodium falciparum antigens in children with haemoglobin AA and haemoglobin AS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abu-Zeid, Y A; Abdulhadi, N H; Theander, T G

    1992-01-01

    of tuberculin (PPD). The lymphoproliferative responses to SPAg of the paired PBMC samples showed 2 distinct seasonal changes in relation to the haemoglobin phenotype. In HbAA children, the lymphoproliferative responses to SPAg were suppressed during the malaria season. In contrast, they were enhanced in Hb......AS children during the malaria season. No distinct seasonal change in the response to PPD was found in relation to the haemoglobin phenotype. The study points to the role of the sickle cell trait in modulating the cellular immune responses to falciparum malaria....

  18. Point-of-care estimation of haemoglobin concentration in all age ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Point-of-care estimation of haemoglobin concentration in all age groups in clinical ... and the results were compared using standard scatter and difference plots. ... Hb measurements with a smaller sample volume, improved turnaround time, ...

  19. Haemoglobin concentrations appear to be lower in indigenous Greenlanders than in Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milman, N; Byg, K E; Mulvad, G

    2001-01-01

    's correlation coefficient (rs). RESULTS: Greenlanders: Haemoglobin levels were not correlated with age or consumption of traditional foods, and were not significantly different in the three residential areas. Mean haemoglobin was higher in men, 146+/-9.6 (SD) g/L, than in women, 132+/-9.6 g/L (p... haemoglobin in iron-replete men with serum ferritin >32 microg/L (n=104) was 146+/-9.3 g/L, and in iron-replete women (n=68) 133+/-10.4 g/L (pwomen 118 g/L (7.3 mmol/L). The prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia...... (i.e. ferritin women) was 0% in men, 2.78% in women women >50 yr of age. Danes: Mean haemoglobin in men was 154+/-10.0 g/L and in women 138+/-10.4 g/L (p

  20. Low resolution solution structure of the Apo form of Escherichia coli haemoglobin protease Hbp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    scott, D.J.; Grossman, J.G.; Tame, J.R.H.; Byron, O.; Wilson, K.S.; Otto, B.R.

    2002-01-01

    We have studied the solution properties of the apo form of the haemoglobin protease or "haemoglobinase", Hbp, a principal component of an important iron acquisition system in pathogenic Escherichia coli. Experimental determination of secondary structure content from circular dichroism (CD)

  1. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies on avian haemoglobin from pigeon (Columba livia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathya Moorthy, Pon.; Neelagandan, K.; Balasubramanian, M.; Ponnuswamy, M. N.

    2009-01-01

    Haemoglobin is a physiologically significant metalloprotein that is involved in the exchange of gases for sustaining life. The respiratory system of birds is unique and complex compared with that of mammals. Many investigations of avian haemoglobins have revealed the presence of inositol pentaphosphate (IP5), a principal allosteric effector that is involved in regulation of their function. Structural investigations of avian haemoglobins are presently not adequate to explain their function. Efforts have been made in this direction in order to understand the oxygen-binding affinity involved in adapting to hypoxia in avian haemoglobins. Fresh whole blood was collected from pigeon (Columba livia) and purified using a DEAE cellulose anion-exchange chromatographic column. Crystallization of pigeon haemoglobin was accomplished using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 3350 as a precipitant in 50 mM sodium acetate buffer pH 5.5 with 1 M NaCl. Data collection was carried out using a MAR345 image-plate detector system. The crystals diffracted to 2 Å resolution. Pigeon haemoglobin crystallizes in a triclinic space group, with two whole biological molecules in the asymmetric unit and with unit-cell parameters a = 55.005, b = 65.528, c = 104.370 Å, α = 78.742, β = 89.819, γ = 65.320°. PMID:19194000

  2. Metabolic and Cardiovascular Ageing Indices in Relation to Glycated Haemoglobin in Healthy and Diabetic Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvarna H I, Shruthi; Moodithaya, Shailaja; Sharma, Raghava

    2017-01-01

    Ageing is a natural phenomenon that has tremendous amount of control over normal physiological functions. Diabetes mellitus and ageing share common symptoms like stiffness and loss of functioning of tissues due to cross-liked proteins and free radicals. Glycated Haemoglobin (HbA1c) is often used as a stable cumulative index of glycemic control and has shown that even in non-diabetic adults, there is a steady increase in HbA1c levels with age. Aim of the study is to evaluate the strength of association of HbA1c with metabolic and cardiovascular ageing indices in subjects between the age group of 40 to 60 yrs. A total of 220 subjects, with (n=110) and without (n=110) diabetes were assessed for the metabolic and cardiovascular ageing indices. BMI, waist hip ratio, fat percentage, Fasting blood sugar and HbA1c were assessed as metabolic ageing indices. The cardiovascular ageing indices measured were resting heart rate, blood pressure and heart rate variability. Ageing indices were compared between subjects with and without diabetes using independent' t' test and showed that the T2DM group exhibit significant accelerated ageing as compared to that of the controls. Pearson's and partial correlation coefficient was used to assess the association of HbA1c with the ageing indices without and with controlling for chronological age, indicated that, strength of association of levels of HBA1c with cardiovascular and other metabolic indices of ageing is statistically significant. The study concludes that the tightness of glycemic control has a significant impact on the biological ageing process. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of haemoglobin from ostrich (Struthio camelus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundaresan, S. S.; Ramesh, P.; Sivakumar, K.; Ponnuswamy, M. N.

    2009-01-01

    Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of haemoglobin from ostrich (Struthio camelus) has been carried out under 293 K temperature conditions. The ostrich is a large flightless bird which contains inositol tetrakisphosphate in erythrocytes and its whole blood oxygen affinity is higher. Efforts have been made to explore the structure–function relationship of ostrich heamoglobin. Haemoglobin is a tetrameric protein that carries oxygen from the lungs to tissues and carbon dioxide from tissues back to the lungs. The oxygen-binding properties of haemoglobin are regulated through the binding of allosteric effectors. The respiratory system of avian species is unique and complex in nature when compared with that of mammals. In avian species, inositol pentaphosphate (inositol-P 5 ) is present in the erythrocytes of the adult and is thought to be the major factor responsible for the relatively high oxygen affinity of the whole blood. The ostrich (Struthio camelus) is a large flightless bird which contains inositol tetrakisphosphate (inositol-P 4 ) in its erythrocytes and its whole blood oxygen affinity is higher. Efforts have been made to explore the structure–function relationship of ostrich haemoglobin. Ostrich haemoglobin was purified using ion-exchange chromatography. Haemoglobin crystals were grown by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 3350 as the precipitant in 50 mM phosphate buffer pH 7.2. Data were collected using a MAR345 image-plate detector system. The crystals of ostrich haemoglobin diffracted to 2.2 Å resolution. They belonged to the orthorhombic space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 with one whole biological molecule in the asymmetric unit; the unit-cell parameters were a = 80.93, b = 81.68, c = 102.05 Å

  4. Maternal haemoglobin and short-term neonatal outcome in preterm neonates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Savajols

    Full Text Available To determine whether there is a significant association between maternal haemoglobin measured before delivery and short-term neonatal outcome in very preterm neonates.We included prospectively all live births occurring from 25 to 32+6 weeks of gestation in a tertiary care centre between January 1(st 2009 and December 31(st 2011. Outborn infants and infants presenting with lethal malformations were excluded. Three hundred and thirty-nine mothers and 409 infants met the inclusion criteria. For each mother-infant pair a prospective record of epidemiologic data was performed and maternal haemoglobin concentration recorded within 24 hours before delivery was retrospectively researched. Maternal haemoglobin was divided into quartiles with the second and the third one regarded as reference as they were composed of normal haemoglobin values. Short-term outcome was defined as poor in case of death during hospital stay and/or grades III/IV intraventricular haemorrhage and/or periventricular leukomalacia and/or necessity of ventriculoperitoneal shunt.The global rate of poor short-term neonatal outcome was 11.4% and was significantly associated with low maternal haemoglobin values. This association remained significant after adjustment for antenatal corticosteroids therapy, gestational age, parity, mechanism of preterm birth, mode of delivery and birth weight (aOR = 2.97 CI 95% [1.36-6.47]. There was no relation between short-term neonatal outcome and high maternal haemoglobin concentration values.We show that low maternal haemoglobin concentration at delivery is an independent risk factor for poor short-term neonatal outcome in very preterm neonates. This study is one of the first to show such an association within the preterm population.

  5. Risk factors and consequences of maternal anaemia and elevated haemoglobin levels during pregnancy: a population-based prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Romy; Eilers, Paul H C; Yassine, Siham; Hofman, Albert; Steegers, Eric A P; Jaddoe, Vincent W V

    2014-05-01

    To determine sociodemographic and life style-related risk factors and trimester specific maternal, placental, and fetal consequences of maternal anaemia and elevated haemoglobin levels in pregnancy. In a population-based prospective cohort study of 7317 mothers, we measured haemoglobin levels in early pregnancy [gestational age median 14.4 weeks (inter-quartile-range 12.5-17.5)]. Anaemia (haemoglobin ≤11 g/dl) and elevated haemoglobin levels (haemoglobin ≥13.2 g/dl) were defined according to the WHO criteria. Maternal blood pressure, placental function and fetal growth were measured in each trimester. Data on gestational hypertensive disorders and birth outcomes was collected from hospitals. Older maternal age, higher body mass index, primiparity and European descent were associated with higher haemoglobin levels (P pregnancy (mean differences 5.1 mmHg, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.8, 6.5 and 4.1 mmHg, 95% CI 3.0, 5.2, respectively) and with a higher risk of third trimester uterine artery notching (RR 1.3, 95% CI 1.0, 1.7). As compared with maternal normal haemoglobin levels, not anaemia, but elevated haemoglobin levels were associated with fetal head circumference, length, and weight growth restriction from third trimester onwards (P pregnancy. Elevated haemoglobin levels are associated with increased risks of maternal, placental, and fetal complications. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Haemoglobin variants may cause significant differences in haemoglobin A1c as measured by high-performance liquid chromatography and enzymatic methods in diabetic patients: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otabe, Shuichi; Nakayama, Hitomi; Ohki, Tsuyoshi; Soejima, Eri; Tajiri, Yuji; Yamada, Kentaro

    2017-07-01

    Background We aimed to determine whether the discrepancy between haemoglobin A1c values determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and enzymatic haemoglobin A1c measurements in diabetic patients was clinically relevant. Methods We randomly recruited 1421 outpatients undergoing diabetic treatment and follow-up who underwent at least three haemoglobin A1c measurements between April 2014 and March 2015 at our clinic. In 6369 samples, haemoglobin A1c was simultaneously measured by HA-8160 and MetaboLead (enzymatic assay), and the values were compared. Results haemoglobin A1c measurements by high-performance liquid chromatography and enzymatic assay were strongly correlated (correlation coefficient: 0.9828, linear approximation curve y = 0.9986x - 0.2507). Mean haemoglobin A1c (6.8 ± 1.0%) measured by high-performance liquid chromatography was significantly higher than that measured by enzymatic assay (6.5 ± 1.0%, P liquid chromatography than those from enzymatic assay. Of these, three had Hb Toranomon [β112 (G14) Cys→Trp]. The fourth had Hb Ube-2 [α68 (E17) Asn→Asp]. One other subject presented consistently higher haemoglobin A1c values (>1%) by high-performance liquid chromatography than those from enzymatic assay and was diagnosed with a -77 (T > C) mutation in the δ-globin gene. These unrelated asymptomatic subjects had normal erythrocyte profiles, without anaemia. Conclusions We showed that haemoglobin A1c values measured by high-performance liquid chromatography were significantly higher than those measured by enzymatic assay in diabetic subjects. However, when an oversized deviation (>0.7%) between glycaemic control status and haemoglobin A1c is apparent, clinicians should check the methods used to measure haemoglobin A1c and consider the possible presence of a haemoglobin variant.

  7. How Noninvasive Haemoglobin Measurement with Pulse CO-Oximetry Can Change Your Practice: An Expert Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Lindner

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Trauma related haemorrhagic anaemia is rarely diagnosed by physical examination alone but typically includes measurement of blood haemoglobin, one of the most frequently ordered laboratory tests. Recently, noninvasive technologies have been developed that allow haemoglobin to be measured immediately without the need for intravenous access or having to take venous, arterial, or capillary blood. Moreover, with these technologies haemoglobin can be continuously measured in patients with active bleeding, to guide the start and stop of blood transfusions and to detect occult bleeding. Recent studies on the accuracy of the devices showed promising results in terms of accuracy of hemoglobin measurement compared to laboratory determination. The present review gives an overview on the technology itself and reviews the current literature on the subject.

  8. Hepcidin plasma levels are not associated with changes in haemoglobin in early rheumatoid arthritis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østgård, R D; Glerup, H; Jurik, A G

    2017-01-01

    Objective: A reduction in haemoglobin level is a frequent complication among rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Hepcidin has been linked to disturbed erythropoiesis. The objective of this study was to investigate the longitudinal changes in hepcidin in patients with early RA. Method: Hepcidin...... with disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) and with additional adalimumab (ADA, n = 42) or placebo (PLA, n = 38) during 52 weeks, using a treat-to-target strategy, aiming for a 28-joint Disease Activity Score (DAS28) levels [median (interquartile range)] were 9...... = 0.48, p levels of haemoglobin and hepcidin at baseline or during the 52 week follow-up. No change in haemoglobin levels was seen as a function of hepcidin changes. In a mixed statistical model, no single factor was connected with the regulation...

  9. Unpredictably Stable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Failla, Virgilio; Melillo, Francesca; Reichstein, Toke

    2014-01-01

    Is entrepreneurship a more stable career choice for high employment turnover individuals? We find that a transition to entrepreneurship induces a shift towards stayer behavior and identify job matching, job satisfaction and lock-in effects as main drivers. These findings have major implications...

  10. Crystallization and diffraction patterns of the oxy and cyano forms of the Lucina pectinata haemoglobins complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz-Martínez, Carlos R.; Nieves-Marrero, Carlos A.; Estremera-Andújar, Rafael A.; Gavira, José A.; González-Ramírez, Luis A.; López-Garriga, Juan; García-Ruiz, Juan M.

    2008-01-01

    The native oxygen-carrier haemoglobins complex (HbII–III) is composed of haemoglobin II (HbII) and haemoglobin III (HbIII), which are found in the ctenidia tissue of the bivalve mollusc Lucina pectinata. This protein complex was isolated and purified from its natural source and crystallized using the vapour-diffusion and capillary counter-diffusion methods. The native oxygen-carrier haemoglobins complex (HbII–III) is composed of haemoglobin II (HbII) and haemoglobin III (HbIII), which are found in the ctenidia tissue of the bivalve mollusc Lucina pectinata. This protein complex was isolated and purified from its natural source and crystallized using the vapour-diffusion and capillary counter-diffusion methods. Oxy and cyano derivatives of the complex crystallized using several conditions, but the best crystals in terms of quality and size were obtained from sodium formate pH 5 using the counter-diffusion method in a single capillary. Crystals of the oxy and cyano complexes, which showed a ruby-red colour and nonsingular prismatic shapes, scattered X-rays to resolution limits of 2.15 and 2.20 Å, respectively, using a 0.886 Å synchrotron-radiation source. The crystals belonged to the tetragonal system, space group P4 2 2 1 2, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 74.07, c = 152.07 and a = b = 73.83, c = 152.49 Å for the oxy and cyano complexes, respectively. The asymmetric unit of both crystals is composed of a single copy of the heterodimer, with Matthew coefficients (V M ) of 3.08 and 3.06 Å 3 Da −1 for the oxy and cyano complexes, respectively, which correspond to a solvent content of approximately 60.0% by volume

  11. Stable particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samios, N.P.

    1993-01-01

    I have been asked to review the subject of stable particles, essentially the particles that eventually comprised the meson and baryon octets. with a few more additions -- with an emphasis on the contributions made by experiments utilizing the bubble chamber technique. In this activity, much work had been done by the photographic emulsion technique and cloud chambers-exposed to cosmic rays as well as accelerator based beams. In fact, many if not most of the stable particles were found by these latter two techniques, however, the forte of the bubble chamber (coupled with the newer and more powerful accelerators) was to verify, and reinforce with large statistics, the existence of these states, to find some of the more difficult ones, mainly neutrals and further to elucidate their properties, i.e., spin, parity, lifetimes, decay parameters, etc

  12. Role of the duplicated CCAAT box region in γ-globin gene regulation and hereditary persistence of fetal haemoglobin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Ronchi (Antonella); M. Berry (Meera); S. Raguz (Selina); A.M.A. Imam (Ali); N. Yannoutsos (Nikos); S. Ottolenghi (Sergio); F.G. Grosveld (Frank); N.O. Dillon (Niall)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractHereditary persistence of fetal haemoglobin (HPFH) is a clinically important condition in which a change in the developmental specificity of the gamma-globin genes results in varying levels of expression of fetal haemoglobin in the adult. The condition is benign and can significantly

  13. Ergonomics Contribution in Maintainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teymourian, Kiumars; Seneviratne, Dammika; Galar, Diego

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe an ergonomics contribution in maintainability. The economical designs, inputs and training helps to increase the maintainability indicators for industrial devices. This analysis can be helpful, among other cases, to compare systems, to achieve a better design regarding maintainability requirements, to improve this maintainability under specific industrial environment and to foresee maintainability problems due to eventual changes in a device operation conditions. With this purpose, this work first introduces the notion of ergonomics and human factors, maintainability and the implementation of assessment of human postures, including some important postures to perform maintenance activities. A simulation approach is used to identify the critical posture of the maintenance personnel and implements the defined postures with minimal loads on the personnel who use the equipment in a practical scenario. The simulation inputs are given to the designers to improve the workplace/equipment in order to high level of maintainability. Finally, the work concludes summarizing the more significant aspects and suggesting future research.

  14. Reliability and validity of non-invasive determined haemoglobin mass and blood volumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagoni, Nazzareno; Andersen, Andreas Breenfeldt; Oberholzer, Laura

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The carbon monoxide (CO) rebreathing method used for the determination of haemoglobin mass (Hbmass ) is associated with blood sample analysis (in this study: Radiometer ABL800). As an alternative hereto the aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of a portable and non-invas...

  15. Serum Iron and Haemoglobin Estimation in Oral Submucous Fibrosis and Iron Deficiency Anaemia: A Diagnostic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Divya; Dinkar, Ajit D; Satoskar, Sujata K; Desai, Sapna Raut

    2016-12-01

    Oral Submucous Fibrosis (OSMF) is a premalignant condition with potential malignant behaviour characterized by juxta-epithelial fibrosis of the oral cavity. In the process of collagen synthesis, iron gets utilized, by the hydroxylation of proline and lysine, leading to decreased serum iron levels. The trace element like iron is receiving much attention in the detection of oral cancer and precancerous condition like OSMF as it was found to be significantly altered in these conditions. The aim of this study was to compare the haemoglobin and serum iron values of OSMF subjects with that of iron deficiency anaemia subjects. Total of 120 subjects were included, 40 subjects with the OSMF, 40 with the iron deficiency anemia without tobacco chewing habit, 40 healthy control subjects without OSMF and iron deficiency anaemia. A total of 5ml of venous blood was withdrawn from all the subjects and serum iron and haemoglobin levels were estimated for all the subjects. Estimation of iron was done using Ferrozine method and haemoglobin by Sahli's method. The statistical method applied were Kruskal Wallis, Mann Whitney and Pearson correlation coefficient test. There was a statistically significant difference in serum iron and haemoglobin level in all three groups (pauxillary test in assessment of prognosis of the disease.

  16. Nutrient Patterns Associated with Fasting Glucose and Glycated Haemoglobin Levels in a Black South African Population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chikowore, T.; Pisa, P.T.; Zyl, van Tertia; Feskens, E.J.M.; Wentzel-Viljoen, E.; Conradie, K.R.

    2017-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) burden is increasing globally. However, evidence regarding nutrient patterns associated with the biomarkers of T2D is limited. This study set out to determine the nutrient patterns associated with fasting glucose and glycated haemoglobin the biomarkers of T2D. Factor analysis

  17. Racial variations in booking haemoglobin of primigravidae in Malaysia: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Albert Chao Chiet; Leong, Eugene Weng Kong; Chua, Ai Chen; Moy, Foong Ming

    2013-05-01

    Variations in racial haemoglobin had been previously described in multiple studies locally and abroad. This study was conducted to quantify the differences in haemoglobin of booking primigravidae amongst the three major races in Malaysia at the antenatal clinic of University Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur. One year prospective study of booking full blood count sample of primigravidae taken in one centre was conducted. Multiple comparative analyses of the booking haemoglobin were performed using the One-way ANOVA comparative mean test in each trimester. 622 primigravidae without any known history of haematological disorders were recruited into the study. The mean haemoglobin for the Indian race was the lowest compared to the two other races in the second and the third trimesters, and it was found to be statistically significant lower (p- value 0.001) than the Malay race in the second trimester. It was also found that the Indian race had a significantly higher incidence of moderate to severe anaemia (p- value: 0.029). The prevalence of anaemia in our study population is also significantly higher in the Indian population (p- value: 0.01). The findings from this study have established that there is racial preponderance to anaemia in pregnancy. The Indian race is at a higher risk of having anaemia in pregnancy particularly in the second trimester.

  18. Haemoglobin modulates salicylate and jasmonate/ethylene-mediated resistance mechanisms against pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mur, Luis A J; Sivakumaran, Anushen; Mandon, Julien

    2012-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) plays a role in defence against hemibiotrophic pathogens mediated by salicylate (SA) and also necrotrophic pathogens influenced by jasmonate/ethylene (JA/Et). This study examined how NO-oxidizing haemoglobins (Hb) encoded by GLB1, GLB2, and GLB3 in Arabidopsis could influence both...

  19. Inositol-P6 induced structural changes in duck major haemoglobin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bamiji Babalola

    2011-11-02

    Nov 2, 2011 ... of duck (Anas platyrhinchos) have been carried out in the presence of ... dependence profile of the apparent second-order rate constant of both oxy- and ... Key words: 5,5‟-Dithiobis (2-nitrobenzoate), duck, haemoglobin, inositol-P6, sulphydryl group. ... Saigo, 1999), thereby making it possible to detect the.

  20. Glycated haemoglobin may in future be reported as estimated mean blood glucose concentration--secondary publication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, R.; Nerup, J.; Nathan, D.M.

    2009-01-01

    Glycated haemoglobin (HbA 1c ) is widely used to determine levels of chronic glycaemia, to judge the adequacy of diabetes treatment and to adjust therapy. HbA 1c results are expressed as the percentage of HbA that is glycated. Day-to-day management is guided by self-monitoring of capillary glucose...

  1. Establishing traceability of photometric absorbance values for accurate measurements of the haemoglobin concentration in blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, K.; Wolf, H. U.; Heuck, C.; Kammel, M.; Kummrow, A.; Neukammer, J.

    2013-10-01

    Haemoglobin concentration in blood is one of the most frequently measured analytes in laboratory medicine. Reference and routine methods for the determination of the haemoglobin concentration in blood are based on the conversion of haeme, haemoglobin and haemiglobin species into uniform end products. The total haemoglobin concentration in blood is measured using the absorbance of the reaction products. Traceable absorbance measurement values on the highest metrological level are a prerequisite for the calibration and evaluation of procedures with respect to their suitability for routine measurements and their potential as reference measurement procedures. For this purpose, we describe a procedure to establish traceability of spectral absorbance measurements for the haemiglobincyanide (HiCN) method and for the alkaline haematin detergent (AHD) method. The latter is characterized by a higher stability of the reaction product. In addition, the toxic hazard of cyanide, which binds to the iron ion of the haem group and thus inhibits the oxygen transport, is avoided. Traceability is established at different wavelengths by applying total least-squares analysis to derive the conventional quantity values for the absorbance from the measured values. Extrapolation and interpolation are applied to get access to the spectral regions required to characterize the Q-absorption bands of the HiCN and AHD methods, respectively. For absorbance values between 0.3 and 1.8, the contributions of absorbance measurements to the total expanded uncertainties (95% level of confidence) of absorbance measurements range from 1% to 0.4%.

  2. Stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazier, J.L.; Guinamant, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    According to the progress which has been realised in the technology of separating and measuring isotopes, the stable isotopes are used as preferable 'labelling elements' for big number of applications. The isotopic composition of natural products shows significant variations as a result of different reasons like the climate, the seasons, or their geographic origins. So, it was proved that the same product has a different isotopic composition of alimentary and agriculture products. It is also important in detecting the pharmacological and medical chemicals. This review article deals with the technology, like chromatography and spectrophotometry, adapted to this aim, and some important applications. 17 refs. 6 figs

  3. Stable Tetraquarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quigg, Chris [Fermilab

    2018-04-13

    For very heavy quarks, relations derived from heavy-quark symmetry imply novel narrow doubly heavy tetraquark states containing two heavy quarks and two light antiquarks. We predict that double-beauty states will be stable against strong decays, whereas the double-charm states and mixed beauty+charm states will dissociate into pairs of heavy-light mesons. Observing a new double-beauty state through its weak decays would establish the existence of tetraquarks and illuminate the role of heavy color-antitriplet diquarks as hadron constituents.

  4. Stable beams

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Stable beams: two simple words that carry so much meaning at CERN. When LHC page one switched from "squeeze" to "stable beams" at 10.40 a.m. on Wednesday, 3 June, it triggered scenes of jubilation in control rooms around the CERN sites, as the LHC experiments started to record physics data for the first time in 27 months. This is what CERN is here for, and it’s great to be back in business after such a long period of preparation for the next stage in the LHC adventure.   I’ve said it before, but I’ll say it again. This was a great achievement, and testimony to the hard and dedicated work of so many people in the global CERN community. I could start to list the teams that have contributed, but that would be a mistake. Instead, I’d simply like to say that an achievement as impressive as running the LHC – a machine of superlatives in every respect – takes the combined effort and enthusiasm of everyone ...

  5. The relationship between helminth infections and low haemoglobin levels in Ethiopian children with blood type A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degarege, A; Yimam, Y; Madhivanan, P; Erko, B

    2017-05-01

    The current study was conducted to evaluate the nature of association of ABO blood type with helminth infection and related reduction in haemoglobin concentration. Stool samples were collected from 403 school-age children attending Tikur Wuha Elementary School from February to April 2011. Helminth infection was examined using formol-ether concentration and thick Kato-Katz (two slides per stool specimen) techniques. Haemoglobin level was determined using a HemoCue machine and ABO blood type was determined using the antisera haemagglutination test. Nutritional status was assessed using height and weight measurements. Out of 403 children examined, 169, 120, 96 and 18 had blood type O, A, B and AB, respectively. The prevalences of helminth infections were 46.9% for hookworm, 24.6% for Schistosoma mansoni, 4.2% for Ascaris lumbricoides, 1.7% for Trichuris trichiura and 58.3% for any helminth species. The relative odds of infection with at least one helminth species was significantly higher among children with blood type A (adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 2.10; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.28-3.45) or blood type B (AOR, 2.08; 95% CI, 1.22-3.56) as compared to children with blood type O. Among children infected with helminths, mean haemoglobin concentration was lower in those with blood type A than those with blood type O (β, -0.36; 95% CI, -0.72 to -0.01). The relative odds of hookworm infection (AOR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.08-2.92) and related reduction in haemogobin levels (β, -0.45; 95% CI, -0.84 to -0.04) was higher among children with blood type A as compared to those with blood type O. Although the difference was not significant, the relative odds of S. mansoni or A. lumbricoides infections and related reduction in haemoglobin levels was also higher in children with blood type A or B as compared to children with blood type O. In conclusion, children with blood type A are associated with an increased risk of helminth, particularly hookworm, infection and related reduction

  6. Awareness and distribution of ABO, Rhesus blood groups and haemoglobin phenotypes among medical undergraduates in a Nigerian university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akingbola, T S; Yuguda, S; Akinyemi, O O; Olomu, S

    2016-09-01

    In the past two decades the Nigerian government and religious organisations have put more emphasis on knowing the haemoglobin electrophoresis of school children and intending couples respectively. Knowledge of the distribution of blood groups and haemoglobin electrophoretic patterns among young people is vital for the prevention of haemoglobinopathies in the population and for providing effective blood banking services. Therefore, this study was designed to assess the frequency and awareness of blood group and haemoglobinphenotypes among a new set of fourth year clinical medical and dental students of the University of Ibadan, Nigeria. Data, including socio-demographics, self- reported blood group and haemoglobin phenotypes, were obtained from 155 students using a self-administered questionnaire. The ABO, Rhesus (Rh) blood groups and haemoglobin electrophoresis were determined by the tile (slide) technique and cellulose acetate at alkaline phrespectively. Only 43.9% of the participants knew their blood groups while less than a third (29.7%) knew their haemoglobin phenotypes. knowledge of both their blood groups and haemoglobin phenotypes was documented in as low as 20.6% of the respondents. The frequency of haemoglobin AA, AS, AC and. CC were 78.0%, 16.8%, 3.9% and 1.3% respectively. Similarly, the distribution of blood groups were: 0 RhD positive - 47.8%;0 RhD negative- 1.9%;ARhD positive- 21.9%; A RhD negative - 1.3%; B RhD positive - 23.2%; B RhD negative -1.3% and AB RhD positive - 2.6%. No participant was AB RhD negative. Participants who bad previously donated blood and those who were females were more likely to know their blood groups and haemoglobin phenotypes respectively (pblood groups and haemoglobin phenotypes among the medical and dental students was poor. Documentation and routine screening for haemoglobinphenotypes as well as blood grouping, accompanied by appropriate counseling should be institutionalised in Nigeriantertiary institutions.

  7. Maintaining dignity in vulnerability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høy, Bente

    2016-01-01

    to understand the meaning of the narrated text. Results. The meaning of maintaining dignity was constituted in a sense of vulnerability to the self, and elucidated in three major interrelated themes: Being involved as a human being, being involved as the person one is and strives to become, and being involved...

  8. Guaiphenesin-ketamine-xylazine infusion to maintain anesthesia in mules undergoing field castration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vullo, Cecilia; Carluccio, Augusto; Robbe, Domenico; Meligrana, Marina; Petrucci, Linda; Catone, Giuseppe

    2017-10-11

    In order to determine whether a combination of guaiphenesin, ketamine and xylazine can induce safe and satisfactory anaesthesia in mules undergoing field castration, eight healthy adult intact male mules were employed. They were premedicated with intravenous (IV) xylazine (1.3 mg/kg); an additional dose of xylazine (0.3 mg/kg IV) was administered in case of inadequate depth of sedation. Anaesthesia was induced with IV thiopental (6 mg/kg). The quality of sedation and induction was recorded. Anaesthesia was maintained with an infusion of guaiphenesin (50 mg/mL), ketamine (2 mg/mL) and xylazine (1 mg/mL) (GKX). The spermatic cord of each testis was infiltrated with 5 mL of 2% lidocaine. During anaesthesia heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), rectal temperature (RT) and haemoglobin oxygen saturation (SpO 2 ) were measured every 5 min. The data were analysed with simple one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). A P value anesthesia, time of surgery and time of recovery were recorded. Only one mule required an additional dose of xylazine to achieve a satisfactory depth of sedation. Thiopental at the dose of 6 mg/kg IV resulted in smooth induction and lateral recumbency in all animals. GKX provided adequate anaesthesia to perform castration in all mules. Muscle relaxation was deemed adequate and physiological variables remained stable and within references values during the anaesthesia and did not change in response to surgical stimulation. Time (mean ± standard deviation) from the end of the infusion to sternal recumbency and time from sternal recumbency to standing were 27.7 ± 4.6 and 30.1 ± 7.7 min, respectively. The combination of xylazine, thiopental and GKX provides satisfactory short-term anaesthesia in mules undergoing field castration.

  9. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of parakeet (Psittacula krameri) haemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaimohan, S M; Naresh, M D; Arumugam, V; Mandal, A B

    2009-10-01

    Birds often show efficient oxygen management in order to meet the special demands of their metabolism. However, the structural studies of avian haemoglobins (Hbs) are inadequate for complete understanding of the mechanism involved. Towards this end, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies have been carried out for parakeet Hb. Parakeet Hb was crystallized as the met form in low-salt buffered conditions after extracting haemoglobin from crude blood by microcentrifugation and purifying the sample by column chromatography. Good-quality crystals were grown from 10% PEG 3350 and a crystal diffracted to about 2.8 A resolution. Preliminary diffraction data showed that the Hb crystal belonged to the monoclinic system (space group C2), with unit-cell parameters a = 110.68, b = 64.27, c = 56.40 A, beta = 109.35 degrees . Matthews volume analysis indicated that the crystals contained a half-tetramer in the asymmetric unit.

  10. The effect of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate on the oxygen dissociation curve of human haemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodford, P J; Norrington, F E; Paterson, R A; Wootton, R

    1977-01-01

    1. Oxygen dissociation curves for concentrated human haemoglobin solutions (1.6 mmol dm-3 in haem) have been measured by mixing known quantities of oxy- and deoxyhaemoglobin solutions and measuring the resulting partial pressure of oxygen with an oxygen electrode. 2. Observations in the presence of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate support previous conclusions derived from experiments at low haemoglobin concentrations, the validity of which has been questioned. 3. The two affinity state model of Monod, Wyman & Changeux (1965) does not fully describe the actions of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate and a model in which this allosteric effector not only binds preferentially to the T state but also lowers the oxygen affinity of this state gives an improved fit to the data. PMID:604451

  11. Constructability and maintainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, R.S.

    1985-01-01

    A set of principles for minimizing the construction schedule was established at the outset of the CANDU 300 programme. Consideration of these principles and other factors led to the development of the unique CANDU 300 station layout. The paper discusses the CANDU 300 station layout and construction methods. In summary, the station layout provides 360 deg. construction access to all buildings, separation of nuclear and non-nuclear systems, precise and minimal physical interfaces between buildings, accommodation of many contractors and construction activities without interference, and maximum flexibility in terms of constructional, financial and supply arrangements. The CANDU 300 further employs modularization, shop fabrication and advanced instrumentation (multiplexers, remote processors, data highways) to minimize construction time. Many of the CANDU 300 features that enhance constructability also contribute to maintainability. These include the 360 deg. access to all principal buildings, the uncluttered and spacious building layouts, the simplification of systems and the high level of modularization. The CANDU 300 has also been designed to facilitate the replacement of all key components, thereby offering an essentially unlimited station life. A prime example is a reduction in the fuel channel inlet end-fitting diameter such that the fuel channels can be shop assembled and easily replaced after the initial 40 years of operation, without an extended unit outage. Maintainability within the reactor building has been given particular attention in the CANDU 300 design; key features of other CANDU reactors (the ability to replace a heat transport system pump motor at power, for example) have been incorporated, while accessibility and maintainability of all systems and components have been enhanced. These and other aspects of maintainability are discussed. (author)

  12. Reliability and maintainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Several communications in this conference are concerned with nuclear plant reliability and maintainability; their titles are: maintenance optimization of stand-by Diesels of 900 MW nuclear power plants; CLAIRE: an event-based simulation tool for software testing; reliability as one important issue within the periodic safety review of nuclear power plants; design of nuclear building ventilation by the means of functional analysis; operation characteristic analysis for a power industry plant park, as a function of influence parameters

  13. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of parakeet (Psittacula krameri) haemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaimohan, S. M.; Naresh, M. D.; Arumugam, V.; Mandal, A. B.

    2009-01-01

    Parakeet (Psittacula krameri) haemoglobin has been purified and crystallized under low salt buffered conditions. Preliminary analysis of the crystal that belonged to monoclinic system (C2) is reported. Birds often show efficient oxygen management in order to meet the special demands of their metabolism. However, the structural studies of avian haemoglobins (Hbs) are inadequate for complete understanding of the mechanism involved. Towards this end, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies have been carried out for parakeet Hb. Parakeet Hb was crystallized as the met form in low-salt buffered conditions after extracting haemoglobin from crude blood by microcentrifugation and purifying the sample by column chromatography. Good-quality crystals were grown from 10% PEG 3350 and a crystal diffracted to about 2.8 Å resolution. Preliminary diffraction data showed that the Hb crystal belonged to the monoclinic system (space group C2), with unit-cell parameters a = 110.68, b = 64.27, c = 56.40 Å, β = 109.35°. Matthews volume analysis indicated that the crystals contained a half-tetramer in the asymmetric unit

  14. Relationship of white blood cell counts, haemoglobin and ESR with IHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahzad, F.; Shahzad Tawwab, S.; Abbas, A.

    2009-01-01

    To find any association of white blood cells, haemoglobin and ESR with ischemic heart disease in high risk native population. Methodology: The study included 93 male patients with Ischemic heart disease, between 40 and 60 years of age; 96 age and gender matched subjects. All study participants were non-diabetics. Complete blood cells count, haemoglobin and ESR levels were compared between the patient and control groups. Results: Total leukocyte counts along with neutrophils were significantly higher in the test group compared to the control population (p<0.001) and lymphocytes were significantly lower (p<0.001) in the patient group as compared to the control group. Haemoglobin levels were significantly lower (p<0.001) and ESR was higher (p=0.030) in the patient group as compared to the control group. Conclusion: Although, our findings of the study variables extend previous reports, the prevalence and prognostic importance of theses variables in IHD should be assessed in future experimental studies. These parameters could be important in public health because they are routinely measured by clinicians and may be helpful to predict the risk of future and secondary ischemic events in a high risk population. (author)

  15. Capillary crystallization and molecular-replacement solution of haemoglobin II from the clam Lucina pectinata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavira, José A.; Jesus, Walleska de; Camara-Artigas, Ana; López-Garriga, Juan; García-Ruiz, Juan M.

    2006-01-01

    The haemoglobin II from the clam L. pectinata has been crystallized using counter-diffusion in single capillary in the presence of agarose to improve crystal quality. Initial phases have been obtained by molecular replacement. Haemoglobin II is one of three haemoglobins present in the cytoplasm of the Lucina pectinata mollusc that inhabits the Caribbean coast. Using HBII purified from its natural source, crystallization screening was performed using the counter-diffusion method with capillaries of 0.2 mm inner diameter. Crystals of HbII suitable for data collection and structure determination were grown in the presence of agarose at 0.1%(w/v) in order to improve their quality. The crystals belong to the tetragonal space group P4 2 2 1 2, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 73.92, c = 152.35 Å, and diffracted X-rays to a resolution of better than 2.0 Å. The asymmetric unit is a homodimer with a corresponding Matthews coefficient (V M ) of 3.15 Å 3 Da −1 and a solvent content of 61% by volume

  16. Haemoglobin, anaemia, dementia and cognitive decline in the elderly, a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poulter Ruth

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anaemia may increase risk of dementia or cognitive decline. There is also evidence that high haemoglobin levels increase risk of stroke, and consequently possible cognitive impairment. The elderly are more at risk of developing dementia and are also more likely to suffer from anaemia, although there is relatively little longitudinal literature addressing this association. Methods To evaluate the evidence for any relationship between incident cognitive decline or dementia in the elderly and anaemia or haemoglobin level, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analyses of peer reviewed publications. Medline, Embase and PsychInfo were searched for English language publications between 1996 and 2006. Criteria for inclusion were longitudinal studies of subjects aged ≥65, with primary outcomes of incident dementia or cognitive decline. Other designs were excluded. Results Three papers were identified and only two were able to be combined into a meta-analysis. The pooled hazard ratio for these two studies was 1.94 (95 percent confidence intervals of 1.32–2.87 showing a significantly increased risk of incident dementia with anaemia. It was not possible to investigate the effect of higher levels of haemoglobin. Conclusion Anaemia is one factor to bear in mind when evaluating risk of incident dementia. However, there are few data available and the studies were methodologically varied so a cautionary note needs to be sounded and our primary recommendation is that further robust research be carried out.

  17. Study of helminthiasis in pregnancy and its correlation with haemoglobin level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K, Shrinivas; Radhika; R, Sreelatha; K, Kavitha

    2014-10-01

    To study types of worm infestation in pregnancy and to correlate helminthiasis with haemoglobin level in antenatal women presenting in 2nd and 3rd trimester. This prospective cross sectional hospital based study conducted at Vanivilas hospital attached to Bangalore medical college, over a period of sixmonths. Study included 500 pregnant women attending antenatal opd in 2nd and 3rd trimester, selected by systematic random sampling method. Parasitic examination and haemoglobin estimation done respectively with Stool and blood samples collected from study group. Presence of parasites was correlated with haemoglobin percentage. Helminthiasis was found in 62 women (12.4%). All infected women had single type helminth infection. Ascariasis was more commonly found than hookworm (10% Vs 2.4%). Anaemia of various degrees was found in 88.7% of women with helminthiasis as compared to 56.4% women without worm infestation (p-value Helminthiasis is a significant burden in pregnancy and it is associated with anaemia. Hence, the policy of universal administration of anthelminthic drug in pregnancy after first trimester, as recommended by WHO should be practically enforced besides health education.

  18. Effect of Vitamin C and Tablets Fe on Haemoglobin Levels Against Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susilo Wirawan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Iron deficiency anaemia is the most common nutritional problem of pregnant women in Indonesia. The existing program/intervention has been implemented namely supplementation of iron pills for mothers at the third semester of pregnancy. This study aims to compare the effect of single and multiple micronutrients supplementation of iron and iron plus vitamin C. Methods: Type of the study is study experimental with the design of community intervention, implementing pre and post trials. Subjects were pregnant women at the second semester of pregnancy. Haemoglobin level was examinedby Cyanmet hemoglobin. Data analysis was done through independent and paired t-test. Results: showed that there were statistically signifi cant difference between the intervention and control group (p = 0.001. The haemoglobin level of the intervention group increased by 0.91 grm%, while the control group was 0.43 grm%. The proportion of anaemia amongpregnant mothers declined after intervention from 80.95 to 42.86 at the intervention group. Similarly, the proportion of anaemia of the control group reduced from 80.95% to 71.43% after the intervention. Conclusion: intervention with multiple micronutrients of Fe combined with vitamin C has more effect in changing the haemoglobin levels of pregnant mothers.Recommendation: Fe tablet administration should still be accompanied by vitamin C to help boost hemoglobin levels. Required for controlled administration of iron tablet, along with vitamin C so that the effect can be seen.

  19. Evaluation of haemoglobin (erythrogen): for improved somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. cv. SVPR 2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, M; Jayabalan, N

    2004-10-01

    Somatic embryogenesis in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is accelerated when the plant regeneration medium is supplemented with haemoglobin (erythrogen). In cotton SVPR 2 lines, a higher frequency of embryoid formation was observed when the medium contained 400 mg/l haemoglobin. Fresh weight of the callus, rate of embryoid induction, number of embryoids formed and the percentage of plant regeneration from somatic embryos were increased. Among the two different cultivars tested, MCU 11 showed no response to the presence of haemoglobin when compared to SVPR 2, and embryogenic callus formation was completely absent in the former. Medium containing MS salts, 100 mg/l myo-inositol , 0.3 mg/l thiamine-HCL, 0.3 mg/l Picloram (PIC), 0.1 mg/l kinetin and 400 mg/l haemoglobin effected a better response with respect to embryogenic callus induction. After 8 weeks of culture, a high frequency of embryoid induction was observed on medium containing MS basal salts, 100 mg/l myo-inositol, 0.3 mg/l PIC , 0.1 mg/l isopentenyl adenine, 1.0 g/l NH4NO3 and 400 mg/l haemoglobin. Plant regeneration was observed in 75.8% of the mature somatic embryos, and whole plant regeneration was achieved within 6-7 months of culture. The regenerated plantlets were fertile and similar to in vivo-grown, seed-derived plants except that they were phenotypically smaller. A positive influence of haemoglobin was observed at concentrations up to 400 mg/l at all stages of somatic embryogenesis. The increase in the levels of antioxidant enzyme activities, for example superoxide dismutase and peroxidase, indicated the presence of excess oxygen uptake and the stressed condition of the plant tissues that arose from haemoglobin supplementation. This increased oxygen uptake and haemoglobin-mediated stress appeared to accelerate somatic embryogenesis in cotton.

  20. Seamless service: maintaining momentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinstead, N; Timoney, R

    1994-01-01

    Describes the process used by the Mater Infirmorum Hospital in Belfast in 1992-1994 to achieve high quality care (Seamless Service), motivate staff to deliver and measure performance. Aims of the project include focusing the organization on the customer, improving teamwork and motivation at all levels. After comprehensive data collection from GPs, patients and staff management forums developed a full TQM strategy to gain support and maintain momentum including innovative staff events (every staff member was given the opportunity to attend) where multilevel, multidisciplinary workshops enabled staff to design customer care standards, develop teams and lead customer-driven change.

  1. Gestures maintain spatial imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesp, R; Hesse, J; Keutmann, D; Wheaton, K

    2001-01-01

    Recent theories suggest alternatives to the commonly held belief that the sole role of gestures is to communicate meaning directly to listeners. Evidence suggests that gestures may serve a cognitive function for speakers, possibly acting as lexical primes. We observed that participants gestured more often when describing a picture from memory than when the picture was present and that gestures were not influenced by manipulating eye contact of a listener. We argue that spatial imagery serves a short-term memory function during lexical search and that gestures may help maintain spatial images. When spatial imagery is not necessary, as in conditions of direct visual stimulation, reliance on gestures is reduced or eliminated.

  2. Maintainability design guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pack, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    The Human Factors Design Guide for Maintainability provides guidance for systematically incorporating good human factors techniques into the design of power plants. The guide describes a means of developing a comprehensive program plan to ensure compliance with the human factors approaches specified by the utility. The guide also provides specific recommendations for design practices, with examples, bases, and references. The recommendations are formatted for easy use by nuclear power plant design teams and by utility personnel involved in specification and design review. The guide was developed under EPRI research project RP2166-4 and is currently being published

  3. Maintaining Relationship Based Procurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Davis

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Alliance and relationship projects are increasingin number and represent a large pool of work. Tobe successful relationship style contracts dependon soft-dollar factors, particularly the participants'ability to work together within an agreedframework, generally they are not based on lowbid tendering. Participants should be prepared todo business in an open environment based ontrust and mutually agreed governance. Theresearch evaluates relationship maintenance inthe implementation phase of constructionalliances - a particular derivative of relationshipstyle contracts. To determine the factors thatcontribute to relationship maintenance forty-nineexperienced Australian alliance projectmanagers were interviewed. The main findingswere; the development of relationships early inthe project form building blocks of success fromwhich relationships are maintained and projectvalue added; quality facilitation plays animportant part in relationship maintenance and ahybrid organisation created as a result of alliancedevelopment overcomes destructiveorganisational boundaries. Relationshipmaintenance is integral to alliance project controland failure to formalise it and pay attention toprocess and past outcomes will undermine analliance project's potential for success.

  4. Changes in haemoglobin levels according to changes in body mass index and smoking habits, a 20-year follow-up of a male cohort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skjelbakken, Tove; Dahl, Inger Marie S.; Wilsgaard, Tom; Langbakk, Bodil; Lochen, Maja-Lisa

    2006-01-01

    Haemoglobin level declines with increasing age in cross sectional studies. Little is known about the longitudinal changes of haemoglobin. Because both high or low haemoglobin levels increase mortality and morbidity we examined how changes in lifestyle factors like body mass index (BMI) and smoking habits influence cohort changes in haemoglobin level. In all, 4159 men aged 20-49 years at baseline were examined in 1974 and 1994-1995 in a longitudinal, population-based study from the municipality of Tromso, Northern Norway. Mean haemoglobin was 148 g/l. There was no difference in mean haemoglobin after 20 years in any strata of age. Mean BMI increased 2.1 kg/m 2 . The prevalence of smokers decreased 20.1 percentage points. In a multiple regression analysis increase in BMI was associated with increased haemoglobin change. Smoking cessation lowered mean haemoglobin 1.6 g/l compared to never smokers. Haemoglobin increased 0.8 g/l in smoking quitters whose BMI increased >2.5 kg/m 2 compared to a decrease of 6.7 g/l in weight reducers. There was a positive dose-response relationship between changes in cigarettes smoked per day and change in haemoglobin among consistent smokers. In conclusion, in contrast to cross sectional studies, mean haemoglobin did not change during 20 years ageing of relatively young men. This could be explained by higher BMI and less smoking. The increase in BMI affected haemoglobin change to such an extent that the reduction in haemoglobin due to smoking cessation was counteracted. Prospective studies are needed to address the health implications

  5. Maternal anaemia at delivery and haemoglobin evolution in children during their first 18 months of life using latent class analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobto G Koura

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anaemia during pregnancy and at delivery is an important public health problem in low- and middle-income countries. Its association with the children's haemoglobin level over time remains unclear. Our goals were to identify distinct haemoglobin level trajectories using latent class analysis and to assess the association between these trajectories and maternal anaemia and other risk factors. METHOD: A prospective study of children from birth to 18 months of life was conducted in a rural setting in Tori-Bossito, Benin. The main outcome measure was the haemoglobin levels repeatedly measured at 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18 months. Variables were collected from the mothers at delivery and from their children at birth and during the follow-up. The analyses were performed by means of Latent Class Analysis which has never been used for this kind of data. All the analyses were performed with Stata software, version 11.0, using the generalized linear latent and mixed model (GLLAMM framework. RESULTS: We showed that 33.7% of children followed a low haemoglobin trajectory and 66.3% a high trajectory during the first 18 months of life. Newborn anaemia, placental malaria, malaria attack, sickle cell trait and male gender were significantly associated with a lower children's haemoglobin level over time, whereas maternal age, children living in a polygamous family and with good feeding practices had a higher Hb level in the first18 months. We also showed that maternal anaemia was a predictor for 'low haemoglobin level trajectory' group membership but have no significant effect on children haemoglobin level over time. CONCLUSION: Latent Class Analyses framework seems well suited to analyse longitudinal data under the hypothesis that different subpopulations of subjects are present in the data, each with its own set of parameters, with distinctive evolutions that themselves may reflect distinctive aetiologies.

  6. Soluble haemoglobin is a marker of recent Plasmodium falciparum infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, P H; Bygbjerg, I C; Theander, T G

    1997-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (Mab) were raised against haemoglobin (Hb) associated with Plasmodium falciparum protein and used to develop an ELISA, measuring circulating levels of released Hb. This assay was evaluated in different malaria patients in parallel with ELISA assays for C-reactive protein (CR...... after treatment. Soluble Hb levels were associated with malariometric parameters in a similar fashion to haptoglobin. The new Mab-based assay for measuring soluble Hb in the peripheral blood of malaria patients may be useful for future epidemiological studies of malaria....

  7. Epidemiological evidence for the role of the haemoglobin receptor, HmbR, in meningococcal virulence

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, Odile B.; Evans, Nicholas J.; Blair, Jessica M.; Grimes, Holly S.; Tinsley, Colin R.; Nassif, Xavier; Kriz, Paula; Ure, Roisin; Gray, Steve J.; Derrick, Jeremy P.; Maiden, Martin C.J.; Feavers, Ian M.

    2009-01-01

    The distribution of the haemoglobin receptor gene (hmbR) was investigated in disease and carried Neisseria meningitidis isolates revealing that the gene occurred at a significantly higher frequency in disease isolates compared to those obtained from carriage. Where hmbR was absent, the locus was occupied by the cassettes exl2 or exl3, or with a “pseudo hmbR” gene designated exl4. The hmbR locus in published N. meningitidis genomes, as well as N. gonorrhoeae and N. lactamica ST-640, exhibited ...

  8. Maintaining Web Cache Coherency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Document coherency is a challenging problem for Web caching. Once the documents are cached throughout the Internet, it is often difficult to keep them coherent with the origin document without generating a new traffic that could increase the traffic on the international backbone and overload the popular servers. Several solutions have been proposed to solve this problem, among them two categories have been widely discussed: the strong document coherency and the weak document coherency. The cost and the efficiency of the two categories are still a controversial issue, while in some studies the strong coherency is far too expensive to be used in the Web context, in other studies it could be maintained at a low cost. The accuracy of these analysis is depending very much on how the document updating process is approximated. In this study, we compare some of the coherence methods proposed for Web caching. Among other points, we study the side effects of these methods on the Internet traffic. The ultimate goal is to study the cache behavior under several conditions, which will cover some of the factors that play an important role in the Web cache performance evaluation and quantify their impact on the simulation accuracy. The results presented in this study show indeed some differences in the outcome of the simulation of a Web cache depending on the workload being used, and the probability distribution used to approximate updates on the cached documents. Each experiment shows two case studies that outline the impact of the considered parameter on the performance of the cache.

  9. ADAS Update and Maintainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Leela R.

    2010-01-01

    Since 2000, both the National Weather Service Melbourne (NWS MLB) and the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) have used a local data integration system (LOIS) as part of their forecast and warning operations. The original LOIS was developed by the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) in 1998 (Manobianco and Case 1998) and has undergone subsequent improvements. Each has benefited from three-dimensional (3-D) analyses that are delivered to forecasters every 15 minutes across the peninsula of Florida. The intent is to generate products that enhance short-range weather forecasts issued in support of NWS MLB and SMG operational requirements within East Central Florida. The current LDIS uses the Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Data Analysis System (AD AS) package as its core, which integrates a wide variety of national, regional, and local observational data sets. It assimilates all available real-time data within its domain and is run at a finer spatial and temporal resolution than current national or regional-scale analysis packages. As such, it provides local forecasters with a more comprehensive understanding of evolving fine-scale weather features. Over the years, the LDIS has become problematic to maintain since it depends on AMU-developed shell scripts that were written for an earlier version of the ADAS software. The goals of this task were to update the NWS MLB/SMG LDIS with the latest version of ADAS, incorporate new sources of observational data, and upgrade and modify the AMU-developed shell scripts written to govern the system. In addition, the previously developed ADAS graphical user interface (GUI) was updated. Operationally, these upgrades will result in more accurate depictions of the current local environment to help with short-range weather forecasting applications, while also offering an improved initialization for local versions of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model used by both groups.

  10. High activity antioxidant enzymes protect flying-fox haemoglobin against damage: an evolutionary adaptation for flight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinke, N B; O'Brien, G M

    2006-11-01

    Flying-foxes are better able to defend haemoglobin against autoxidation than non-volant mammals such as sheep. When challenged with the common physiological oxidant, hydrogen peroxide, haemolysates of flying-fox red blood cells (RBC) were far less susceptible to methaemoglobin formation than sheep. Challenge with 1-acetyl-2-phenylhydrazine (APH) caused only half as much methaemoglobin formation in flying-fox as in ovine haemolysates. When intact cells were challenged with phenazine methosulfate (PMS), flying-fox RBC partially reversed the oxidant damage, and reduced methaemoglobin from 40 to 20% over 2 h incubation, while ovine methaemoglobin remained at 40%. This reflected flying-fox cells' capacity to replenish GSH fast enough that it did not deplete beyond 50%, while ovine RBC GSH was depleted to around 20%. The greater capacity of flying-foxes to defend haemoglobin against oxidant damage may be explained in part by antioxidant enzymes catalase, superoxide dismutase and cytochrome-b ( 5 ) reductase having two- to four-fold higher activity than in sheep (P foxes.

  11. Stable Isotope Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Tissue samples (skin, bone, blood, muscle) are analyzed for stable carbon, stable nitrogen, and stable sulfur analysis. Many samples are used in their entirety for...

  12. The effect of golimumab on haemoglobin levels in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis or ankylosing spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furst, Daniel E; Kay, Jonathan; Wasko, Mary Chester; Keystone, Edward; Kavanaugh, Arthur; Deodhar, Atul; Murphy, Frederick T; Magnus, Jeanette H; Hsia, Elizabeth C; Hsu, Benjamin; Xu, Stephen; Rahman, Mahboob U; Doyle, Mittie K

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of golimumab on haemoglobin levels in patients with RA, PsA or AS. Secondary analysis was performed on integrated data from five randomized controlled studies: three RA, one PsA and one AS (2303 patients total). Golimumab 50 or 100 mg was injected s.c. every 4 weeks with or without MTX. Control groups received placebo injections plus MTX or background therapy. Patients with haemoglobin levels below the age- and sex-specific normal ranges were considered to have anaemia. Ferritin levels were used to distinguish anaemia of mixed aetiology (≥ 15 and <60 ng/ml) and anaemia of inflammation (≥ 60 ng/ml). Changes from baseline to weeks 14 and 24 in haemoglobin level were compared between treatment groups using an analysis of variance on the van der Waerden normal scores. At baseline, 21% of RA patients, 9% of PsA patients and 15% of AS patients had anaemia. Of these, 24%, 57% and 25%, respectively, had anaemia of inflammation. The median increase from baseline to week 14 in the haemoglobin level of anaemic patients was 0.3 g/dl in the control group and 0.9 g/dl in the golimumab group (P < 0.001). Haemoglobin levels improved within the subgroups of patients with anaemia of mixed aetiology (control, 0.4 g/dl vs golimumab, 0.7 g/dl) (P = 0.305) and with anaemia of inflammation (0.2 vs 1.4 g/dl, respectively) (P < 0.001). Compared with the control group, patients receiving golimumab treatment had significantly improved haemoglobin levels, particularly among patients with anaemia of inflammation.

  13. Aspirin-mediated acetylation of haemoglobin increases in presence of high glucose concentration and decreases protein glycation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Finamore

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Glycation represents the first stage in the development of diabetic complications. Aspirin was shown to prevent sugars reacting with proteins, but the exact mechanism of this interaction was not well defined. We performed a quantitative analysis to calculate the levels of acetylation and glycation of haemoglobin, among others red blood cell (RBC proteins, using a label free approach. After glucose incubation, increases in the acetylation levels were seen for several haemoglobin subunits, while a parallel decrease of their glycation levels was observed after aspirin incubation. These results suggest that, a mutual influence between these two modifications, occur at protein level.

  14. Comparative genome-wide analysis and evolutionary history of haemoglobin-processing and haem detoxification enzymes in malarial parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsuwanna, Patrath; Kochakarn, Theerarat; Bunditvorapoom, Duangkamon; Kümpornsin, Krittikorn; Otto, Thomas D; Ridenour, Chase; Chotivanich, Kesinee; Wilairat, Prapon; White, Nicholas J; Miotto, Olivo; Chookajorn, Thanat

    2016-01-29

    Malaria parasites have evolved a series of intricate mechanisms to survive and propagate within host red blood cells. Intra-erythrocytic parasitism requires these organisms to digest haemoglobin and detoxify iron-bound haem. These tasks are executed by haemoglobin-specific proteases and haem biocrystallization factors that are components of a large multi-subunit complex. Since haemoglobin processing machineries are functionally and genetically linked to the modes of action and resistance mechanisms of several anti-malarial drugs, an understanding of their evolutionary history is important for drug development and drug resistance prevention. Maximum likelihood trees of genetic repertoires encoding haemoglobin processing machineries within Plasmodium species, and with the representatives of Apicomplexan species with various host tropisms, were created. Genetic variants were mapped onto existing three-dimensional structures. Genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism data were used to analyse the selective pressure and the effect of these mutations at the structural level. Recent expansions in the falcipain and plasmepsin repertoires are unique to human malaria parasites especially in the Plasmodium falciparum and P. reichenowi lineage. Expansion of haemoglobin-specific plasmepsins occurred after the separation event of Plasmodium species, but the other members of the plasmepsin family were evolutionarily conserved with one copy for each sub-group in every Apicomplexan species. Haemoglobin-specific falcipains are separated from invasion-related falcipain, and their expansions within one specific locus arose independently in both P. falciparum and P. vivax lineages. Gene conversion between P. falciparum falcipain 2A and 2B was observed in artemisinin-resistant strains. Comparison between the numbers of non-synonymous and synonymous mutations suggests a strong selective pressure at falcipain and plasmepsin genes. The locations of amino acid changes from non

  15. Stable convergence and stable limit theorems

    CERN Document Server

    Häusler, Erich

    2015-01-01

    The authors present a concise but complete exposition of the mathematical theory of stable convergence and give various applications in different areas of probability theory and mathematical statistics to illustrate the usefulness of this concept. Stable convergence holds in many limit theorems of probability theory and statistics – such as the classical central limit theorem – which are usually formulated in terms of convergence in distribution. Originated by Alfred Rényi, the notion of stable convergence is stronger than the classical weak convergence of probability measures. A variety of methods is described which can be used to establish this stronger stable convergence in many limit theorems which were originally formulated only in terms of weak convergence. Naturally, these stronger limit theorems have new and stronger consequences which should not be missed by neglecting the notion of stable convergence. The presentation will be accessible to researchers and advanced students at the master's level...

  16. Haemoglobin Pierre-Benite--a high affinity variant associated with relative polycythaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, M E; Potter, H C; Spearing, R L; Brennan, S O

    2001-12-01

    This is the second reported example of Hb Pierre--Benite (beta90 Glu-->Asp). This mutation is associated with increased oxygen affinity and polycythaemia. No instability was found and there was no charge shift detected by cellulose acetate electrophoresis at pH 8.3. The mutation was however, clearly indicated by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI MS), which showed an abnormal beta chain with a 14 Da decrease in mass. Blood volume studies documented a relative rather than a true polycythaemia and this finding has been reported in at least two other high affinity haemoglobin variants--Hb Heathrow and Hb Rahere. This finding led to delay in diagnosis because high oxygen affinity variants are conventionally considered to cause a true polycythaemia.

  17. Haemoglobin modulates NO emission and hyponasty under hypoxia-related stress in Arabidopsis thaliana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebelstrup, Kim; van Zanten, Martijn; Mandon, Julien

    2012-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) and ethylene are signalling molecules that are synthesized in response to oxygen depletion. Non-symbiotic plant haemoglobins (Hbs) have been demonstrated to act in roots under oxygen depletion to scavenge NO. Using Arabidopsis thaliana plants, the online emission of NO or ethylene...... was directly quantified under normoxia, hypoxia (0.1–1.0% O2), or full anoxia. The production of both gases was increased with reduced expression of either of the Hb genes GLB1 or GLB2, whereas NO emission decreased in plants overexpressing these genes. NO emission in plants with reduced Hb gene expression......-nitrosylated compounds, and it is demonstrated that hypoxia substantially increased the content of S-nitrosylated compounds. A parallel up-regulation of Hb gene expression in the normoxic shoots of the flooded plants may reflect signal transmission from root to shoot via ethylene and a role for Hb in the shoots. Hb gene...

  18. [Role of erythrocyte cytoplasmic structures in changes in the affinity of haemoglobin for oxygen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryzgalova, N Iu; Brazhe, N A; Iusipovich, A U; Maksimov, G V; Rubin, A B

    2009-01-01

    Changes in the refractive index of the cytoplasm and the affinity of haemoporphyrin of erythrocyte haemoglobin to oxygen (pH, 2,3-diphosphoglycerate) have been investigated using laser interference microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. It has been established that a decrease in pH and an increase in the content of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate are accompanied by changes in both the form of the cell and the refractive index of the cytoplasm and the affinity of haemoporphyrin of hemoglobin to oxygen. It has been shown that as pH is reduced, the capacity of haemoporphyrin for binding oxygen decreases and as the concentration of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate is increased, the ability of haemoporphyrin for oxygen reabsorption increases.

  19. Influence of altitude training modality on performance and total haemoglobin mass in elite swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Clare E; Saunders, Philo U; Fowlie, John; Savage, Bernard; Pyne, David B; Anson, Judith M; Wachsmuth, Nadine; Prommer, Nicole; Gore, Christopher J

    2012-09-01

    We compared changes in performance and total haemoglobin mass (tHb) of elite swimmers in the weeks following either Classic or Live High:Train Low (LHTL) altitude training. Twenty-six elite swimmers (15 male, 11 female, 21.4 ± 2.7 years; mean ± SD) were divided into two groups for 3 weeks of either Classic or LHTL altitude training. Swimming performances over 100 or 200 m were assessed before altitude, then 1, 7, 14 and 28 days after returning to sea-level. Total haemoglobin mass was measured twice before altitude, then 1 and 14 days after return to sea-level. Changes in swimming performance in the first week after Classic and LHTL were compared against those of Race Control (n = 11), a group of elite swimmers who did not complete altitude training. In addition, a season-long comparison of swimming performance between altitude and non-altitude groups was undertaken to compare the progression of performances over the course of a competitive season. Regardless of altitude training modality, swimming performances were substantially slower 1 day (Classic 1.4 ± 1.3% and LHTL 1.6 ± 1.6%; mean ± 90% confidence limits) and 7 days (0.9 ± 1.0% and 1.9 ± 1.1%) after altitude compared to Race Control. In both groups, performances 14 and 28 days after altitude were not different from pre-altitude. The season-long comparison indicated that no clear advantage was obtained by swimmers who completed altitude training. Both Classic and LHTL elicited ~4% increases in tHb. Although altitude training induced erythropoeisis, this physiological adaptation did not transfer directly into improved competitive performance in elite swimmers.

  20. Relating oxygen partial pressure, saturation and content: the haemoglobin-oxygen dissociation curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Julie-Ann; Rudenski, Aram; Gibson, John; Howard, Luke; O'Driscoll, Ronan

    2015-09-01

    The delivery of oxygen by arterial blood to the tissues of the body has a number of critical determinants including blood oxygen concentration (content), saturation (S O2 ) and partial pressure, haemoglobin concentration and cardiac output, including its distribution. The haemoglobin-oxygen dissociation curve, a graphical representation of the relationship between oxygen satur-ation and oxygen partial pressure helps us to understand some of the principles underpinning this process. Historically this curve was derived from very limited data based on blood samples from small numbers of healthy subjects which were manipulated in vitro and ultimately determined by equations such as those described by Severinghaus in 1979. In a study of 3524 clinical specimens, we found that this equation estimated the S O2 in blood from patients with normal pH and S O2 >70% with remarkable accuracy and, to our knowledge, this is the first large-scale validation of this equation using clinical samples. Oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry (S pO2 ) is nowadays the standard clinical method for assessing arterial oxygen saturation, providing a convenient, pain-free means of continuously assessing oxygenation, provided the interpreting clinician is aware of important limitations. The use of pulse oximetry reduces the need for arterial blood gas analysis (S aO2 ) as many patients who are not at risk of hypercapnic respiratory failure or metabolic acidosis and have acceptable S pO2 do not necessarily require blood gas analysis. While arterial sampling remains the gold-standard method of assessing ventilation and oxygenation, in those patients in whom blood gas analysis is indicated, arterialised capillary samples also have a valuable role in patient care. The clinical role of venous blood gases however remains less well defined.

  1. Relationship between haemoglobin concentration and packed cell volume in cattle blood samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paa-Kobina Turkson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A convention that has been adopted in medicine is to estimate haemoglobin (HB concentration as a third of packed cell volume (PCV or vice versa. The present research set out to determine whether a proportional relationship exists between PCV and Hb concentration in cattle blood samples, and to assess the validity of the convention of estimating Hb concentration as a third of PCV. A total of 440 cattle in Ghana from four breeds (Ndama, 110; West African Short Horn, 110; Zebu, 110 and Sanga, 110 were bled for haematological analysis, specifically packed cell volume, using the microhaematocrit technique and haemoglobin concentration using the cyanmethaemoglobin method. Means, standard deviations, standard errors of mean and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Trendline analyses generated linear regression equations from scatterplots. For all the cattle, a significant and consistent relationship (r = 0.74 was found between Hb concentration and PCV (%. This was expressed as Hb concentration (g/dL = 0.28 PCV + 3.11. When the Hb concentration was estimated by calculating it as a third of PCV, the relationship was expressed in linear regression as Hb concentration (g/dL = 0.83 calculated Hb + 3.11. The difference in the means of determined (12.2 g/dL and calculated (10.9 g/dL Hb concentrations for all cattle was significant (p < 0.001, whereas the difference in the means of determined Hb and corrected calculated Hb was not significant. In conclusion, a simplified relationship of Hb (g/dL = (0.3 PCV + 3 may provide a better estimate of Hb concentration from the PCV of cattle.

  2. Haemoglobin C and S role in acquired immunity against Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Verra

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A recently proposed mechanism of protection for haemoglobin C (HbC; beta6Glu-->Lys links an abnormal display of PfEMP1, an antigen involved in malaria pathogenesis, on the surface of HbC infected erythrocytes together with the observation of reduced cytoadhesion of parasitized erythrocytes and impaired rosetting in vitro. We investigated the impact of this hypothesis on the development of acquired immunity against Plasmodium falciparum variant surface antigens (VSA encoding PfEMP1 in HbC in comparison with HbA and HbS carriers of Burkina Faso. We measured: i total IgG against a single VSA, A4U, and against a panel of VSA from severe malaria cases in human sera from urban and rural areas of Burkina Faso of different haemoglobin genotypes (CC, AC, AS, SC, SS; ii total IgG against recombinant proteins of P. falciparum asexual sporozoite, blood stage antigens, and parasite schizont extract; iii total IgG against tetanus toxoid. Results showed that the reported abnormal cell-surface display of PfEMP1 on HbC infected erythrocytes observed in vitro is not associated to lower anti- PfEMP1 response in vivo. Higher immune response against the VSA panel and malaria antigens were observed in all adaptive genotypes containing at least one allelic variant HbC or HbS in the low transmission urban area whereas no differences were detected in the high transmission rural area. In both contexts the response against tetanus toxoid was not influenced by the beta-globin genotype. These findings suggest that both HbC and HbS affect the early development of naturally acquired immunity against malaria. The enhanced immune reactivity in both HbC and HbS carriers supports the hypothesis that the protection against malaria of these adaptive genotypes might be at least partially mediated by acquired immunity against malaria.

  3. Malaria and gravidity interact to modify maternal haemoglobin concentrations during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouédraogo Smaïla

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primigravidity is one of the main risk factors for both malaria and anaemia. Since the implementation of intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp in sub-Saharan Africa, the relationship between anaemia and gravidity and its evolution during pregnancy has been little explored. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of gravidity on the variation of haemoglobin during pregnancy according to the timing of gestation. Methods Data from three studies carried out in nearby areas in south Benin (Ouidah, Comé, Allada between 2005 and 2012 were analysed. At inclusion (first antenatal visit, ANV1 women’s age, area of residence, schooling, gravidity, gestational age, weight and height were recorded. Thick blood smears were performed on ANV1, second visit (ANV2 and at delivery. In Allada, women’s serum ferritin and CRP concentrations were also assessed. The impact of gravidity on maternal haemoglobin (Hb was analysed using a logistic or linear regression depending on the outcome. The statistical significance was set to P Results In total, data from 3,591 pregnant women were analysed. Both univariate and multivariate analyses showed a constant association between Hb concentrations and gravidity in the three periods of Hb assessment (ANV1, ANV2 and delivery. Mean Hb concentration was significantly lower in primigravidae than in multigravidae at ANV1 (mean difference = -2.4 g/L, CI 95%: [-3.4, -1.4], P Conclusion In a context of IPTp, Hb levels improved progressively throughout pregnancy in primigravidae, likely as a result of reduction in malaria infection. In multigravidae, the improvement was less perceptible and anaemia was mainly due to iron deficiency.

  4. Blood haemoglobin concentrations are higher in smokers and heavy alcohol consumers than in non-smokers and abstainers-should we adjust the reference range?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milman, N.; Pedersen, Agnes N.

    2009-01-01

    The blood haemoglobin concentration is one of the most frequently used laboratory parameters in clinical practice. There is evidence that haemoglobin levels are influenced by tobacco smoking. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of smoking and alcohol consumption on haemoglobin.......001) and women (r = 0.08, p = 0.05). In non-smokers, alcohol consumption > 14 drinks/week and more than seven drinks/week for men and women, respectively, increased mean haemoglobin by 1.3% in men and by average 1.9% in women compared with those consuming a parts per thousand currency sign14 and less than...... small changes in haemoglobin do not justify the use of separate reference ranges in smokers and alcohol consumers....

  5. Association between glycated haemoglobin and the risk of congestive heart failure in diabetes mellitus : systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erqou, Sebhat; Lee, Chee-Tin Christine; Suffoletto, Matthew; Echouffo-Tcheugui, Justin B.; de Boer, Rudolf A.; van Melle, Joost P.; Adler, Amanda I.

    Clinical trials to date have not provided definitive evidence regarding the effects of glucose lowering on the incidence of congestive heart failure (CHF). We synthesized available prospective epidemiological data on the association between glycaemia measured by haemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)) and

  6. Socioeconomic determinants of haemoglobin levels of African women are less important in areas with more health facilities: a multilevel analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haverkate, M; Smits, J.P.J.M.; Meijerink, H.; Ven, André van der

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND : The prevalence of anaemia in Africa is the highest in the world. Especially women are at risk because of blood loss during menstruation and increased iron requirements during pregnancy. This study examined determinants of the haemoglobin (Hb) level of African women at

  7. Detection of haemoglobins with abnormal oxygen affinity by single blood gas analysis and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrini, G; Morabito, A; Samaja, M

    2000-10-01

    The aim is to determine if a single measurement of blood 2,3-diphosphoglycerate combined with gas analysis (pH, PCO2, PO2 and saturation) can identify the cause of an altered blood-oxygen affinity: the presence of an abnormal haemoglobin or a red cell disorder. The population (n=94) was divided into healthy controls (A, n=14), carriers of red cell disorders (B, n=72) and carriers of high oxygen affinity haemoglobins (C, n=8). Those variables were measured both in samples equilibrated at selected PCO2 and PO2 and in venous blood. In the univariable approach applied to equilibrated samples, we correctly identified C subjects in 93.6% or 96.8% of the cases depending on the selected variable, the standard P50 (PO2 at which 50% of haemoglobin is oxygenated) or a composite variable calculated from the above measurements. After introducing the haemoglobin concentration as a further discriminating variable, the A and B subjects were correctly identified in 91.9% or 94.2% of the cases, respectively. These figures become 93.0% or 86.1%, and 93.7% or 94.9% of the cases when using direct readings from venous blood, thereby avoiding the blood equilibration step. This test is feasible also in blood samples stored at 4 degrees C for 48 h, or at room temperature for 8 h.

  8. Anaemia during pregnancy: impact on birth outcome and infant haemoglobin level during the first 18 months of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koura, Ghislain K; Ouedraogo, Smaïla; Le Port, Agnès; Watier, Laurence; Cottrell, Gilles; Guerra, José; Choudat, Isabelle; Rachas, Antoine; Bouscaillou, Julie; Massougbodji, Achille; Garcia, André

    2012-03-01

    To determine the effect of maternal anaemia on pregnancy outcome and describe its impact on infant haemoglobin level in the first 18 months of life, we conducted a prospective study of 617 pregnant women and their children in Benin. Prevalence of maternal anaemia at delivery was 39.5%, and 61.1% of newborns were anaemic at birth. Maternal anaemia was not associated with low birth weight [OR = 1.2 (0.6-2.2)] or preterm birth [OR = 1.3 (0.7-2.4)], whereas the newborn's anaemia was related to maternal anaemia [OR = 1.8 (1.2-2.5)]. There was no association between an infant's haemoglobin level until 18 months and maternal anaemia. However, malaria attacks during follow-up, male gender and sickle cell trait were all associated with a lower infant haemoglobin level until 18 months, whereas good infant feeding practices and a polygamous family were positively associated with a higher haemoglobin level during the first 18 months of life. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Limited influence of haemoglobin variants on Plasmodium falciparum msp1 and msp2 alleles in symptomatic malaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mockenhaupt, Frank P.; Ehrhardt, Stephan; Otchwemah, Rowland; Eggelte, Teunis A.; Anemana, Sylvester D.; Stark, Klaus; Bienzle, Ulrich; Kohne, Elisabeth

    2004-01-01

    Haemoglobin (Hb) S, HbC, and alpha(+)-thalassaemia confer protection from malaria. Accordingly, these traits may influence the multiplicity of infection (MOI) of Plasmodium falciparum and the presence of distinct parasite genotypes. In 840 febrile children in northern Ghana, we typed the P.

  10. The inherited diseases of haemoglobin are an emerging global health burden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fucharoen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Thalasseamia is one of the common genetic disorders. A genetic defect causes reduction of the globin chains leading to chronic haemolytic anaemia from birth. The mainstay of treatment is blood transfusion to maintain adequate levels of the haemoglobin. Secondary iron overload in β-thalassaemia patients is secondary to multiple blood transfusions and increased iron absorption. Excesses iron potentially catalyses free-radicals generation and impairment in cellular function and integrity. Extensive iron-induced injury develops in the heart, liver, pancreas and endocrine system. In regularly transfused patients, in the absence of iron-chelation therapy, death from iron-induced heart failure occurs by the mid-teenage years. Conventional treatment with the parenteral iron chelator desferrioxamine improves mortality but it is too expensive for middle and lowincome countries. Oral iron chelators, such as deferiprone (L1 and deferasirox, appear to be promising, however, they are still too expensive or need special monitoring. Serum ferritin has been used for many years as a guide for chelation therapy. However, recent studies demonstrated that using serum ferritin or liver iron measurements as a monitor of iron-chelation intensive therapy would have been discontinued long before the iron had cleared from the heart. There is evidence of the value of myocardial T2* measurements by MRI for the detection of early cardiac iron overload which cannot be predicted by liver iron or serum ferritin and for the monitoring of iron-chelation therapy. The major problem is the expensiveness of MRI measurement. In conclusion, the problem of iron chelation in low-income countries may be summarized as follows: i drugs, are not available in every countries that need the medicine, ii the cost of drugs is too high for most low income countries, iii there is poor education of doctor, parents/ patients and local government about the benefit of iron chelation, iv there is need

  11. Maintaining Healthy Skin -- Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and SCI • Depression and SCI • Taking Care of Pressure Sores • Maintaining Healthy Skin (Part I) • Maintaining Healthy Skin ( ... For information on establishing skin tolerance, see our “Pressure Sores” pamphlet.) Pressure releases in a wheelchair can be ...

  12. AECL's reliability and maintainability program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, W.A.; Nieuwhof, G.W.E.

    1976-05-01

    AECL's reliability and maintainability program for nuclear generating stations is described. How the various resources of the company are organized to design and construct stations that operate reliably and safely is shown. Reliability and maintainability includes not only special mathematically oriented techniques, but also the technical skills and organizational abilities of the company. (author)

  13. stableGP

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The code in the stableGP package implements Gaussian process calculations using efficient and numerically stable algorithms. Description of the algorithms is in the...

  14. Angina Pectoris (Stable Angina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Angina Pectoris (Stable Angina) Updated:Aug 21,2017 You may have heard the term “angina pectoris” or “stable angina” in your doctor’s office, ...

  15. Foetal haemoglobin and disease severity in sickle cell anaemia patients in Kampala, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mpalampa Lena

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sickle cell anaemia (SCA is a major chronic health problem in Uganda. In patients with SCA, the level of foetal haemoglobin (HbF has been found to be important in influencing the clinical course of the disease. Thus populations with high levels of HbF like those in Saudi Arabia have been described as having a milder clinical course with fewer complications as compared to populations with lower levels. Disease modifying drugs can increase the Hb F levels and modify the presentation of SCA. Methods This was a cross sectional study in which we determined foetal haemoglobin levels and examined the relationship between HbF levels and disease severity in SCA patients in Mulago Hospital, Kampala, Uganda. We consecutively enrolled 216 children aged 1 year to 18 years with SCA attending the Sickle Cell Clinic at Mulago Hospital whose guardians had given consent. The history included age at onset of initial symptoms and diagnosis, number of hospitalisations and blood transfusions and other complications of SCA (cardiovascular accidents, avascular hip necrosis and priapism. A detailed physical examination was performed to assess the current state and help describe the disease severity for each patient. Blood samples were drawn for HbF levels. HbF levels ≥10% was defined as high. Results Of the 216 children, (80 37% had HbF levels ≥10%. Significant correlations were observed between HbF level and several clinical parameters independent of age including age at diagnosis (p value 0.013, number of hospitalisations (p value 0.024 and transfusions (p value 0.018 since birth. Conclusion A third of the children with SCA attending the Sickle cell clinic in Mulago Hospital have high HbF levels. Higher HbF level is associated with later onset of symptoms and presentation, and less severe disease characterised by fewer hospitalisations and blood transfusions. We suggest HbF levels should be determined at initial contact for patients with SCA to

  16. Diving behaviour and haemoglobin function: the primary structure of the alpha- and beta-chains of the sea turtle (Caretta caretta) and its functional implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruzzelli, R; Aureli, G; Lania, A; Galtieri, A; Desideri, A; Giardina, B

    1996-06-15

    The amino acid sequence of the alpha- and beta-chains of haemoglobin (Hb) from the loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) has been determined. Comparison with that of human Hb shows differences in several residues involved in both alpha 1 beta 1 and alpha 1 beta 2 packing contacts. On the whole, in spite of the mutations, the essential characteristics of both interfaces seem to be maintained. The functional properties of the sea turtle Hb have been investigated at different temperatures and as a function of proton, chloride and organic phosphate concentrations. In addition to overall similarities shared with most of the vertebrate Hbs previously described, this molecule shows significant differences which could be related to the life behaviour of the turtle. In fact, while the shape of the Bohr-effect curve is well adapted for gas exchange during prolonged dives, the very small enthalpy change for O2 binding ensures that O2 delivery becomes essentially insensitive to the temperature changes of the environment. Moreover, and similarly to the case of emperor penguin Hb, the small alkaline Bohr effect appears to be only choride-linked, since the pH dependence of the O2 affinity is abolished in the absence of this ion. These functional characteristics are discussed on the basis of the primary structure of alpha- and beta-chains.

  17. Measuring glycated haemoglobin in women with gestational diabetes mellitus: How useful is it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Vincent W; Chong, Shanley; Mediratta, Sahil; Jalaludin, Bin

    2017-06-01

    Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) is an important tool for assessing glycaemic status in patients with diabetes, but its usefulness in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), is unclear. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether HbA1c in women with GDM is valuable in predicting adverse pregnancy outcomes. A retrospective review of women with GDM who had HbA1c measured at diagnosis of GDM (GHb-diag) and at 36 weeks gestation (GHb-36 weeks) was conducted. The association between HbA1c and various pregnancy outcomes was assessed RESULTS: Among 1244 women with GDM in our cohort, both GHb-diag and GHb-36 weeks were independent predictors for large-for-gestation (LGA) babies (OR 1.06, P = 0.005 and OR 1.06, P = 0.002, respectively) and neonatal hypoglycaemia (OR 1.10, P 5.4% or 35 mmol/mol) at diagnosis of GDM should be monitored closely during pregnancy. However, there is not enough evidence to suggest that repeating HbA1c toward the end of pregnancy will provide additional information in predicting adverse pregnancy outcomes. © 2016 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  18. Constitutive expression of Vitreoscilla haemoglobin in Sphingomonas elodea to improve gellan gum production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, X C; Chen, Y M; Li, Y D; Li, O; Zhu, L; Qian, C D; Tao, X L; Teng, Y

    2011-02-01

    To improve a commercially used strain for gellan production by exogenous Vitreoscilla haemoglobin (VHb). VHb gene was expressed in Sphingomonas elodea under the control of constitutive bla promoter. Biochemical activity of expressed VHb was confirmed by CO-difference spectra analysis that exhibited a characteristic absorption maximum at 419 nm. During cultivation, not only enhanced cell growth was detected, but also 20% improvement in gellan production was observed after 48 h of incubation, with a maximum yield of 16·82 g l(-1). Moreover, maximum sucrose conversion efficiency (g gellan per g sucrose) was 57·8, 20% higher than that of the parental strain. We further examined the polysaccharide production of VHb-expressing strain at different aeration levels in Erlenmeyer flasks. Again, in all cases, a significant enhancement of gellan production was observed, and the enhancement was more significant under oxygen-limiting conditions (up to 26·8%). VHb exhibited positive effect on cell growth and gellan yield of S. elodea, especially under hypoxic conditions. This is the first application of VHb as an effective metabolic engineering strategy in S. elodea to regulate cell growth and optimize gellan yield. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Reference Ranges of Reticulocyte Haemoglobin Content in Preterm and Term Infants: A Retrospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Laila; Peter, Andreas; Arand, Jörg; Springer, Fabian; Poets, Christian F; Franz, Axel R

    2017-01-01

    Despite iron supplementation, some preterm infants develop iron deficiency (ID). The optimal iron status parameter for early detection of ID has yet to be determined. To establish reference ranges for reticulocyte haemoglobin content (Ret-He) in preterm and term infants and to identify confounding factors. Retrospective analyses of Ret-He and complete blood count in infants with a clinically indicated blood sample obtained within 24 h after birth. Mean (SD) Ret-He was 30.7 (3.0) pg in very preterm infants with a gestational age (GA) of pH (r = -0.07). There was a slight variation in Ret-He with mode of delivery [normal vaginal delivery: 32.3 (3.2) pg, secondary caesarean section (CS): 31.4 (3.0) pg, instrumental delivery: 31.3 (2.7) pg and elective CS: 31.2 (2.8) pg]. GA at birth has a negligible impact on Ret-He, and the lower limit of the normal reference range in newborns within 24 h after birth can be set to 25 pg. Moreover, Ret-He seems to be a robust parameter which is not influenced by perinatal factors within the first 24 h after birth. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Adaptation to extreme environments: structure-function relationships in Emperor penguin haemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburrini, M; Condò, S G; di Prisco, G; Giardina, B

    1994-04-15

    The functional properties of the single haemoglobin (Hb) of Emperor penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri) have been investigated at different temperatures as a function of proton and organic phosphate concentration. The complete amino acid sequence has been established. Comparison with that of human HbA shows 12 substitutions in the contact regions of alpha beta dimers. In addition to overall similarities shared with most of the avian Hbs previously described, this Hb shows significant differences, which could be related to the peculiar behaviour of this penguin. In particular we may consider that: (1) the shape of the Bohr effect curve seems well adapted for gas exchange during very prolonged dives, preserving penguin Hb from a sudden and not controlled stripping of oxygen; (2) the very minor enthalpy change observed at lower pH could be an example of molecular adaptation, through which oxygen delivery becomes essentially insensitive to exposure to the extremely low temperatures of the environment. Moreover, the small alkaline Bohr effect has been found to be only chloride-linked, since the pH dependence of the oxygen affinity is totally abolished in the absence of this ion. These functional characteristics are discussed on the basis of the primary structure of alpha and beta-chains.

  1. Relationship between changes in haemoglobin mass and maximal oxygen uptake after hypoxic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Philo U; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Schmidt, Walter F; Gore, Christopher J

    2013-12-01

    Endurance athletes have been using altitude training for decades to improve near sea-level performance. The predominant mechanism is thought to be accelerated erythropoiesis increasing haemoglobin mass (Hb(mass)) resulting in a greater maximal oxygen uptake (VO₂(max)). Not all studies have shown a proportionate increase in VO₂(max) as a result of increased Hb(mass). The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the two parameters in a large group of endurance athletes after altitude training. 145 elite endurance athletes (94 male and 51 female) who participated in various altitude studies as altitude or control participants were used for the analysis. Participants performed Hb(mass) and VO₂(max) testing before and after intervention. For the pooled data, the correlation between per cent change in Hb(mass) and per cent change in VO₂(max) was significant (pstatistical power, we conclude that altitude training of endurance athletes will result in an increase in VO₂(max) of more than half the magnitude of the increase in Hb(mass), which supports the use of altitude training by athletes. But race performance is not perfectly related to relative VO₂(max), and other non-haematological factors altered from altitude training, such as running economy and lactate threshold, may also be beneficial to performance.

  2. Iron from haemoglobin and haemin modulates nucleotide hydrolysis in Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Patrícia de Brum; Silva, Nícolas Luiz Feijó; Kist, Luiza Wilges; Oliveira, Giovanna Medeiros Tavares de; Bogo, Maurício Reis; Carli, Geraldo Atillio de; Macedo, Alexandre José; Tasca, Tiana

    2015-04-01

    Extracellular ATP may act as a danger signalling molecule, inducing inflammation and immune responses in infection sites. The ectonucleotidases NTPDase and ecto-5'-nucleotidase are enzymes that modulate extracellular nucleotide levels; these enzymes have been previously characterised in Trichomonas vaginalis. Iron plays an important role in the complex trichomonal pathogenesis. Herein, the effects of iron on growth, nucleotide hydrolysis and NTPDase gene expression in T. vaginalis isolates from female and male patients were evaluated. Iron from different sources sustained T. vaginalis growth. Importantly, iron from haemoglobin (HB) and haemin (HM) enhanced NTPDase activity in isolates from female patients and conversely reduced the enzyme activity in isolates from male patients. Iron treatments could not alter the NTPDase transcript levels in T. vaginalis. Furthermore, our results reveal a distinct ATP, ADP and AMP hydrolysis profile between isolates from female and male patients influenced by iron from HB and HM. Our data indicate the participation of NTPDase and ecto-5'-nucleotidase in the establishment of trichomonas infection through ATP degradation and adenosine production influenced by iron.

  3. Iron from haemoglobin and haemin modulates nucleotide hydrolysis in Trichomonas vaginalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia de Brum Vieira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular ATP may act as a danger signalling molecule, inducing inflammation and immune responses in infection sites. The ectonucleotidases NTPDase and ecto-5’-nucleotidase are enzymes that modulate extracellular nucleotide levels; these enzymes have been previously characterised in Trichomonas vaginalis. Iron plays an important role in the complex trichomonal pathogenesis. Herein, the effects of iron on growth, nucleotide hydrolysis and NTPDase gene expression in T. vaginalis isolates from female and male patients were evaluated. Iron from different sources sustained T. vaginalis growth. Importantly, iron from haemoglobin (HB and haemin (HM enhanced NTPDase activity in isolates from female patients and conversely reduced the enzyme activity in isolates from male patients. Iron treatments could not alter the NTPDase transcript levels in T. vaginalis. Furthermore, our results reveal a distinct ATP, ADP and AMP hydrolysis profile between isolates from female and male patients influenced by iron from HB and HM. Our data indicate the participation of NTPDase and ecto-5’-nucleotidase in the establishment of trichomonas infection through ATP degradation and adenosine production influenced by iron.

  4. Glycated haemoglobin: A marker of circulating lipids in patients with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheikh Ishaq

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is a group of metabolic disorder and is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and dyslipidaemia. Patients with T2DM have dyslipidaemia at wavering degrees, characterised by increased levels of triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and decreased levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol. In the present study, we evaluated glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c as a marker of circulating lipids in patients with T2DM. Methods: Two hundred and thirty-nine patients with T2DM were enrolled for the study. A detailed biochemical and lipid profile was done for all patients. Results: Of 239 cases, 96 (40% were male and 143 (60% were female. Of 239 patients, 53 (22% patients with T2DM had controlled glycaemia (HbA1c <6.5 and 186 (78% patients had uncontrolled glycaemia (HbA1c ≥6.5. Pearson's correlation of HbA1c with all lipid parameters was statistically significant. HbA1c, however, had an inverse correlation with HDL and had a significant direct correlation with fasting blood glucose. Conclusion: The study reveals that HbA1c is not only a reliable glycaemic index but can also be used as an important indicator of dyslipidaemia in patients with T2DM.

  5. Haemoglobin status and predictors of anaemia among pregnant women in Mpigi, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ononge, Sam; Campbell, Oona; Mirembe, Florence

    2014-10-10

    Anaemia in pregnancy is a major public health problem especially in the low-income countries where it is highly prevalent. There has been no recent study in Uganda about the factors associated with anaemia in pregnancy. We aimed to assess the current haemoglobin (Hb) status and factors associated with anaemia (Hb anaemia were estimated using linear and logistic regression analysis. The mean Hb was 11.5 (± 1.38) g/dl and prevalence of anaemia (Hb anaemia in pregnancy were malaria infection (OR: 1.32, 95% CI: 1.11, 1.58), Human Immuno-deficiency Virus infection (OR: 2.13, 95% CI: 1.36, 2.90) and lack of iron supplementation (OR: 1.66, 95% CI: 1.36, 2.03). Intermittent presumptive treatment of malaria, maternal age and parity showed a weak association with anaemia in pregnancy The high prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy in our setting highlights the need to put more effort in the fight against malaria and HIV, and also ensure that pregnant women access iron supplements early in pregnancy.

  6. Stable Boundary Layer Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Steeneveld, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding and prediction of the stable atmospheric boundary layer is a challenging task. Many physical processes are relevant in the stable boundary layer, i.e. turbulence, radiation, land surface coupling, orographic turbulent and gravity wave drag, and land surface heterogeneity. The development of robust stable boundary layer parameterizations for use in NWP and climate models is hampered by the multiplicity of processes and their unknown interactions. As a result, these models suffer ...

  7. Effects of prolonged compression on the variations of haemoglobin oxygenation-assessment by spectral analysis of reflectance spectrophotometry signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zengyong; Tam, Eric W C; Mak, Arthur F T; Lau, Roy Y C

    2006-01-01

    The consequences of rhythmical flow motion for nutrition and the oxygen supply to tissue are largely unknown. In this study, the periodic variations of haemoglobin oxygenation in compressed and uncompressed skin were evaluated with a reflection spectrometer using an in vivo Sprague-Dawley rat model. Skin compression was induced over the trochanter area by a locally applied external pressure of 13.3 kPa (100 mmHg) via a specifically designed pneumatic indentor. A total of 19 rats were used in this study. The loading duration is 6 h per day for four consecutive days. Haemoglobin oxygenation variations were quantified using spectral analysis based on wavelets' transformation. The results found that in both compressed and uncompressed skin, periodic variations of the haemoglobin oxygenation were characterized by two frequencies in the range of 0.01-0.05 Hz and 0.15-0.4 Hz. These frequency ranges coincide with those of the frequency range of the endothelial-related metabolic and myogenic activities found in the flow motion respectively. Tissue compression following the above loading schedule induced a significant decrease in the spectral amplitudes of frequency interval 0.01-0.05 Hz during the pre-occlusion period on day 3 and day 4 as compared to that on day 1 (p 2 consumption rates of arteriolar walls. The modification of vessel wall oxygen consumption might substantially affect the available oxygen supply to the compressed tissue. This mechanism might be involved in the process leading to pressure ulcer formation

  8. Purification, crystallization, preliminary X-ray diffraction and molecular-replacement studies of great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) haemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagadeesan, G.; Malathy, P.; Gunasekaran, K.; Harikrishna Etti, S.; Aravindhan, S.

    2014-01-01

    The great cormorant hemoglobin has been isolated, purified and crystallized and the three dimensional structure is solved using molecular replacement technique. Haemoglobin is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein that is present in the red blood cells of all vertebrates. In recent decades, there has been substantial interest in attempting to understand the structural basis and functional diversity of avian haemoglobins. Towards this end, purification, crystallization, preliminary X-ray diffraction and molecular-replacement studies have been carried out on cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) haemoglobin. Crystals were grown by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 3350, NaCl and glycerol as precipitants. The crystals belonged to the trigonal system P3 1 21, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 55.64, c = 153.38 Å, β = 120.00°; a complete data set was collected to a resolution of 3.5 Å. Matthews coefficient analysis indicated that the crystals contained a half-tetramer in the asymmetric unit

  9. Pathophysiological effects and changes in potassium, ionised calcium, glucose and haemoglobin early after severe blunt chest trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocksén, David; Gryth, Dan; Druid, Henrik; Gustavsson, Jenny; Arborelius, Ulf P

    2012-05-01

    Severe lung contusion is often observed after blunt chest trauma due to traffic accidents or fall from heights, but may also occur after a non-penetrating ballistic impact against body armour. Such trauma has been designated behind armour blunt trauma (BABT). Our aim in the present study has been to evaluate pathophysiological changes and compensatory mechanisms that occur early after such severe lung contusion. Twelve pigs wearing body armour were shot with a 7.62mm assault rifle to produce a standardised pulmonary contusion. Exposed animals were compared with five control animals shot with blank ammunition. Physiological parameters and levels of potassium, glucose, haemoglobin, calcium, lactate and pH were monitored for two hours after the shot. The impact induced severe pulmonary contusion with apnoea, desaturation and hypotension in all exposed animals. Increased haemoglobin, glucose and severe hyperkalaemia were seen shortly after impact. Seven of twelve animals died due to the trauma. Dense cardiac tissue was observed during post mortem examination in six of the animals that died during the experimental course. In conclusion, this study has shown that life-threatening hyperkalaemia occurs early after severe lung contusion. Moreover, dense cardiac tissue and early increase of haemoglobin and glucose are intriguing findings that should be investigated in future studies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Purification, crystallization, preliminary X-ray diffraction and molecular-replacement studies of great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) haemoglobin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagadeesan, G. [Presidency College, Chennai 600 005 (India); Malathy, P.; Gunasekaran, K. [University of Madras, Chennai 600 025 (India); Harikrishna Etti, S. [GKM College of Engineering and Technology, Kamaraj Salai, Chennai 600 063 (India); Aravindhan, S., E-mail: aravindhanpresidency@gmail.com [Presidency College, Chennai 600 005 (India)

    2014-10-25

    The great cormorant hemoglobin has been isolated, purified and crystallized and the three dimensional structure is solved using molecular replacement technique. Haemoglobin is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein that is present in the red blood cells of all vertebrates. In recent decades, there has been substantial interest in attempting to understand the structural basis and functional diversity of avian haemoglobins. Towards this end, purification, crystallization, preliminary X-ray diffraction and molecular-replacement studies have been carried out on cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) haemoglobin. Crystals were grown by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 3350, NaCl and glycerol as precipitants. The crystals belonged to the trigonal system P3{sub 1}21, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 55.64, c = 153.38 Å, β = 120.00°; a complete data set was collected to a resolution of 3.5 Å. Matthews coefficient analysis indicated that the crystals contained a half-tetramer in the asymmetric unit.

  11. Effects of a diphenyl-ether herbicide, oxyfluorfen, on human BFU-E/CFU-E development and haemoglobin synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rio, B; Parent-Massin, D; Lautraite, S; Hoellinger, H

    1997-02-01

    The diphenyl-ether herbicides exert their phytotoxic activity by preventing chlorophyll formation in plants as a result of inhibition of protoporphyrinogen oxidase. This enzyme is the last step of the common pathway for chlorophyll and haem biosynthesis. The aim of this work is to determine whether herbicide inhibitors of plant protoporphyrinogen oxidase could act on the human protoporphyrinogen oxidase involved in haemoglobin synthesis and cause heamatologic diseases. Human erythroblastic progenitors (BFU-E/CFU-E: Burst Forming Unit-Erythroid and Colony Forming Unit-Erythroid) were exposed to oxyfluorfen, a diphenyl-ether herbicide in the presence of erythropoietin, and the haematoxicity evaluated in vitro by scoring the development of BFU-E/CFU-E colonies after 7 and 14 days of culture. The toxic effect on differentiation has been evaluated using four criteria: morphology, total protein, total porphyrin, and haemoglobin content. The study of BFU-E/CFU-E proliferation and differentiation showed a cytotoxic effect of oxyfluorfen only at very high concentrations. In contrast, haemoglobin synthesis can be inhibited by concentration of oxyfluorfen (10(-4) M) that have no adverse effect on cellular proliferation.

  12. Impact of nutrition education on knowledge and haemoglobin status of hill women in Uttarakhand State of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, S; Kumar, A R; Raghuvanshi, R S; Singh, B B

    2011-12-01

    This study aimed to examine the impact of the use of single vs. combination of media on nutritional knowledge and haemoglobin status of women in a rural hill area in Uttarakhand State, India. Women from three villages were selected randomly and divided into three groups namely, print media group (n = 59), multimedia group (n = 53) and control group (n = 111). The print media group was exposed to nutrition education through the use of calendars on anaemia for 60 days; the multimedia group was given nutrition education through a combination of media including calendars, video films, and group discussions for 60 days. At pre-exposure stage, 62.7% of the women in the print media group, 67.9% of the multimedia group, and 66.7% of the control group had a low nutrition knowledge level. After exposure, the print media group and the multimedia group showed a significant rise in nutrition knowledge, with the multimedia group scoring significantly higher than the print media group. Overall, 69.1% of the women were anaemic with mean haemoglobin concentration of 10.74 +/- 0.86 g/dl. A non-significant rise in mean haemoglobin concentrations in the experimental groups was found at post-exposure stage. Calendars and video films are effective in increasing nutrition knowledge of illiterate hill women. Use of mass media programmes of longer duration should be encouraged to combat the nutritional problems of rural communities.

  13. Maintainability effectiveness evaluations and enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seminara, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    In the mid-seventies EPRI initiated a research project to review the human factors aspects of nuclear power plant control rooms. In the course of investigating operator-control room interfaces in five operational control rooms, it became evident that many plant outages had either been caused or prolonged by human factors problems associated with maintenance activities. Consequently, as one of several follow-on projects, EPRI sponsored a review of nine power plants (five nuclear and four fossil) to examine the human factors aspects of plant maintainability. This survey revealed a wide variety of generic human factors problems that could negatively impact the effectiveness of plant maintenance personnel. It was clear that plant maintainability features deserved no less attention to human factors concerns than the operational features of the control room. This paper describes subsequent EPRI-initiated efforts to assist the utilities in conducting self-reviews of maintainability effectiveness and effect needed enhancements

  14. Stable isotopes labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    The catalogue on stable isotopes labelled compounds offers deuterium, nitrogen-15, and multiply labelled compounds. It includes: (1) conditions of sale and delivery, (2) the application of stable isotopes, (3) technical information, (4) product specifications, and (5) the complete delivery programme

  15. Evolutionary Stable Strategy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 21; Issue 9. Evolutionary Stable Strategy: Application of Nash Equilibrium in Biology. General Article Volume 21 Issue 9 September 2016 pp 803- ... Keywords. Evolutionary game theory, evolutionary stable state, conflict, cooperation, biological games.

  16. Stable Boundary Layer Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding and prediction of the stable atmospheric boundary layer is a challenging task. Many physical processes are relevant in the stable boundary layer, i.e. turbulence, radiation, land surface coupling, orographic turbulent and gravity wave drag, and land surface heterogeneity. The

  17. Developing and maintaining nuclear competencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gobert, C.

    2004-01-01

    The paper discusses the following aspects on the nuclear knowledge management: assimilation of knowledge management, recognition of the nuclear specificity, attracting young talents. Another feature which, possibly, differentiates nuclear from other high-tech industries is that time constraints in some nuclear development may very well exceed the duration of a generation of professionals. That means, not only maintaining scientific and technical knowledge, which, as a minimum, leads to maintain: a rigorous supervision of human resources in quality and quantity; anticipatory planning of human resources, with a special focus on succession planning concerning expertise positions; a steady and continuous effort in training and retraining programs. Maintaining the safety culture is also one of the major managerial duties. Taking full account of the nuclear specificity in knowledge maintenance and development in the AREVA group, requests a multifunctional approach, which combines efforts of Research and Innovation, and Human Resources departments, plus the group Nuclear inspectorate. It is acknowledged that the industry, basically, would readily rely on the capabilities of the academic world and research centers in ensuring that training and education in nuclear science and technologies are attuned to the evolving needs of the industry, in maintaining the proper educational programs and in fostering fruitful cooperations between them

  18. [Maintaining patients' autonomy at home].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niang, Bénédicte; Coudre, Jean Pierre

    2015-01-01

    To maintain the flow of hospital discharges, the patient's return home with support from a home nursing service is important. If any difficulties are identified, there are various programmes or good practices which can be put into place. The future law on adapting society to ageing also comprises a scheme combining home assistance and nursing care.

  19. HAEMOGLOBIN LEVEL AS A RISK FACTOR FOR LOWER RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harishchandra Venkata Yanamandala

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Lower Respiratory Tract Infection (LRTI is an inflammation of the airways, pulmonary tissue below the larynx level. Children who are below 5 years of age suffer about 5-6 episodes of LRTI per year on an average. 1,2 The largest cause of death in children worldwide is pneumonia. If the haemoglobin level is below 11 g/dL 3 , then the child is considered as anaemic. In children, LRTIs associated with anaemia occur more commonly than in adults. Pneumonia kills about an estimated 1.1 million children under the age of 5 years old worldwide. It is more prevalent in South East Asia and Africa. 3,4,5 Anaemia is a condition in which the number of RBCs is very low to meet the body’s physiologic needs. The most common cause of anaemia is deficiency of iron. In both developing and developed countries, anaemia is a common health problem. This study is a prospective study, which was conducted to assess the low haemoglobin level as a risk factor for developing LRTI in children. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a prospective study, which was conducted in 75 children who attended the outpatient unit of Department of Paediatrics, Gitam Institute of Medical Sciences and Research. It was conducted during the period between December 2015 to December 2016. By the symptoms and signs, pneumonia was diagnosed. Exclusion Criteria- Children who had congenital malformations of chest wall, severe systemic illness and protein malfunction. All children’s height and weight were recorded to assess the nutritional status. RESULTS C-Reactive Protein Estimation (CRP was more than 6 mg/L in 34 (45.3% patients in the study group, 11 (14.7% in the control group. Mantoux test was positive for 17 (22.6% among study group and none in the control group. Pneumonia as per radiological evidence was present in 49 (65.3% and hyperinflation of lungs in 26 (34.7% among the study group. X-ray reports were normal in 8 cases (10.7%. Age was not found to be a significant factor, which

  20. Effect of whey guava beverage supplementation on haemoglobin level of school going children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya .

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Iron deficiency is estimated to affect one-half of the school going children in developing countries and school years are opportune time to intervene. Rationale: No coherent, co-ordinate and effective health services are available in the country for below 16 years. So attempt was made to know real scenario of iron deficiency. Objectives: To assess the effect of whey guava beverage supplementation on the haemoglobin level of school going children. Methodology:  An experimental research design was taken to conduct the study in which 200 children of 6≥and7≥ years in low socio economic status of both the genders were taken. For hemoglobin testing Sahil’s hemoglobinometer was used. Each child in experimental group was given 200ml of whey guava beverage for 90 days except holidays. Results and Discussion: The initial mean Hb levels of 6≥and7≥ year’s old boys and girls of control groups and experimental groups were ranging from 9.50 to 10.24 which were 79.17% to 85.33%. The results revealed that almost all the respondents were anaemic. After 90 days of feeding supplement the final mean Hb levels of 6≥7 years old boys and girls of control group  ranged from 10.10 to 10.65 which was 84.17% to 88.75%. Whereas in experimental group it ranged from 11.06 to 11.42 which were 91.92% to 95.17%. The study clearly evidences that the respondents in experimental group had improved with more Hb levels when compared to control group. Also children who were suffering from anaemia in experimental group became normal. Conclusion: Distribution of whey guava beverage through school feeding program may prove as an outstanding strategy to combat iron deficiency in school children.

  1. Haemoglobin-mediated response to hyper-thermal stress in the keystone species Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenca Cambronero, Maria; Zeis, Bettina; Orsini, Luisa

    2018-01-01

    Anthropogenic global warming has become a major geological and environmental force driving drastic changes in natural ecosystems. Due to the high thermal conductivity of water and the effects of temperature on metabolic processes, freshwater ecosystems are among the most impacted by these changes. The ability to tolerate changes in temperature may determine species long-term survival and fitness. Therefore, it is critical to identify coping mechanisms to thermal and hyper-thermal stress in aquatic organisms. A central regulatory element compensating for changes in oxygen supply and ambient temperature is the respiratory protein haemoglobin (Hb). Here, we quantify Hb plastic and evolutionary response in Daphnia magna subpopulations resurrected from the sedimentary archive of a lake with known history of increase in average temperature and recurrence of heat waves. By measuring constitutive changes in crude Hb protein content among subpopulations, we assessed evolution of the Hb gene family in response to temperature increase. To quantify the contribution of plasticity in the response of this gene family to hyper-thermal stress, we quantified changes in Hb content in all subpopulations under hyper-thermal stress as compared to nonstressful temperature. Further, we tested competitive abilities of genotypes as a function of their Hb content, constitutive and induced. We found that Hb-rich genotypes have superior competitive abilities as compared to Hb-poor genotypes under hyper-thermal stress after a period of acclimation. These findings suggest that whereas long-term adjustment to higher occurrence of heat waves may require a combination of plasticity and genetic adaptation, plasticity is most likely the coping mechanism to hyper-thermal stress in the short term. Our study suggests that with higher occurrence of heat waves, Hb-rich genotypes may be favoured with potential long-term impact on population genetic diversity.

  2. Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), diabetes and trajectories of change in episodic memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Colleen; Andel, Ross; Infurna, Frank J; Seetharaman, Shyam

    2017-02-01

    As the ageing population grows, it is important to identify strategies to moderate cognitive ageing. We examined glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and diabetes in relation to level and change in episodic memory in older adults with and without diabetes. Data from 4419 older adults with (n=950) and without (n=3469) diabetes participating in a nationally representative longitudinal panel study (the Health and Retirement Study) were examined. Average baseline age was 72.66 years and 58% were women. HbA1c was measured in 2006 and episodic memory was measured using immediate and delayed list recall over 4 biennial waves between 2006 and 2012. Growth curve models were used to assess trajectories of episodic memory change. In growth curve models adjusted for age, sex, education, race, depressive symptoms and waist circumference, higher HbA1c levels and having diabetes were associated with poorer baseline episodic memory (p=0.036 and HbA1c on episodic memory decline was smaller than the effect of age. The results were stronger for women than men and were not modified by age or race. When the main analyses were estimated for those with and without diabetes separately, HbA1c was significantly linked to change in episodic memory only among those with diabetes. Higher HbA1c and diabetes were both associated with declines in episodic memory, with this relationship further exacerbated by having diabetes and elevated HbA1c. HbA1c appeared more important for episodic memory performance among women than men. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  3. Year-to-year variability in haemoglobin mass response to two altitude training camps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Blake D; Buttifant, David; Gore, Christopher J; White, Kevin; Kemp, Justin

    2013-12-01

    To quantify the year-to-year variability of altitude-induced changes in haemoglobin mass (Hb(mass)) in elite team-sport athletes. 12 Australian-Footballers completed a 19-day (ALT1) and 18-day (ALT2) moderate altitude (∼2100 m), training camp separated by 12 months. An additional 20 participants completed only one of the two training camps (ALT1 additional n=9, ALT2 additional n=11). Total Hb(mass) was assessed using carbon monoxide rebreathing before (PRE), after (POST₁) and 4 weeks after each camp. The typical error of Hb(mass) for the pooled data of all 32 participants was 2.6%. A contemporary statistics analysis was used with the smallest worthwhile change set to 2% for Hb(mass). POST₁ Hb(mass) was very likely increased in ALT1 (3.6 ± 1.6%, n=19; mean ± ∼90 CL) as well as ALT2 (4.4 ± 1.3%, n=23) with an individual responsiveness of 1.3% and 2.2%, respectively. There was a small correlation between ALT1 and ALT2 (R=0.21, p=0.59) for a change in Hb(mass), but a moderately inverse relationship between the change in Hb(mass) and initial relative Hb(mass) (g/kg (R=-0.51, p=0.04)). Two preseason moderate altitude camps 1 year apart yielded a similar (4%) mean increase in Hb(mass) of elite footballers, with an individual responsiveness of approximately half the group mean effect, indicating that most players gained benefit. Nevertheless, the same individuals generally did not change their Hb(mass) consistently from year to year. Thus, a 'responder' or 'non-responder' to altitude for Hb(mass) does not appear to be a fixed trait.

  4. Tubal origin of ovarian cancer - the double-edged sword of haemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shiou-Fu; Gerry, Emily; Shih, Ie-Ming

    2017-05-01

    Ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) is the most malignant neoplasm of the gynaecological tract. While the origins of many human malignant neoplasms are clear, the origin of HGSC remains poorly understood. This lack of knowledge limits our understanding of its pathogenesis and compromises efforts devoted to developing better early detection tools and effective preventative interventions. The paradigm of the tubal origin of HGSC has been advanced since the initial report of dysplastic lesions (now known as serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas or STICs) that morphologically resemble HGSC in the Fallopian tube. These were observed in a group of patients with a genetic predisposition to ovarian cancer who were undergoing risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy. Since then, a series of clinico-pathological and molecular studies have characterized STICs and their concurrent HGSCs, and the results support the new paradigm of a tubal origin of many 'ovarian' HGSCs. Reactive oxygen species-containing ovulatory follicular fluid has been thought to be the major culprit behind DNA damage in tubal epithelial cells, leading to either cell death or, if the cells survive, mutagenesis. A recent report from this journal demonstrates that ferryl haemoglobin (Hb) in peritoneal fluid could prevent cell death from DNA-damaged fimbrial epithelial cells, facilitating ovulation-induced carcinogenesis of tubal epithelium. This timely study provides new insight into the tumour initiation event in HGSC. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Behaviour of perioperative values of haemoglobin, haematocrit and red blood cells in elderly patients undergoing lower limb arthroplasty: a retrospective cohort study on non-transfused patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drago, L; De Vecchi, E; Romano', C L; Vassena, C; Banfi, G

    2013-01-01

    Little is known on how elderly patients recover pre-operative haemoglobin, haematocrit and red blood cell levels after total hip and knee arthroplasties. In this study we aimed to evaluate blood loss and recovery blood levels in relation to gender, type of surgery and preoperative haemoglobin values. We conducted a retrospective cohort study on 187 patients over 65 years of age who underwent total knee or total hip arthroplasty between January 2008 and December 2009. Preoperative blood analysis was carried out within 40 days prior to intervention followed by a 15-day postoperative follow-up. Haemoglobin recovery values in anaemic patients versus healthy patients was also estimated. All tested values decreased significantly during the first 3-5 postoperative days. Haemoglobin levels decreased statistically significantly more in males than in females, while no significant differences were observed for haematocrit and erythrocytes. Recovery of haemoglobin values did not differ significantly between healthy patients and patients with preoperative haemoglobin below 120 g/L. Furthermore, our data showed a higher blood loss in total hip arthroplasty, whilst recovery rates showed to be higher after a total knee arthroplasty procedure. In conclusion, the type of intervention and gender played an important role in blood loss and recovery rates in total joint arthroplasty.

  6. Maintaining steam/condensate lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russum, S.A.

    1992-01-01

    Steam and condensate systems must be maintained with the same diligence as the boiler itself. Unfortunately, they often are not. The water treatment program, critical to keeping the boiler at peak efficiency and optimizing operating life, should not stop with the boiler. The program must encompass the steam and condensate system as well. A properly maintained condensate system maximizes condensate recovery, which is a cost-free energy source. The fuel needed to turn the boiler feedwater into steam has already been provided. Returning the condensate allows a significant portion of that fuel cost to be recouped. Condensate has a high heat content. Condensate is a readily available, economical feedwater source. Properly treated, it is very pure. Condensate improves feedwater quality and reduces makeup water demand and pretreatment costs. Higher quality feedwater means more reliable boiler operation

  7. Disturbance maintains alternative biome states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, Vinícius de L; Hirota, Marina; Oliveira, Rafael S; Pausas, Juli G

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms controlling the distribution of biomes remains a challenge. Although tropical biome distribution has traditionally been explained by climate and soil, contrasting vegetation types often occur as mosaics with sharp boundaries under very similar environmental conditions. While evidence suggests that these biomes are alternative states, empirical broad-scale support to this hypothesis is still lacking. Using community-level field data and a novel resource-niche overlap approach, we show that, for a wide range of environmental conditions, fire feedbacks maintain savannas and forests as alternative biome states in both the Neotropics and the Afrotropics. In addition, wooded grasslands and savannas occurred as alternative grassy states in the Afrotropics, depending on the relative importance of fire and herbivory feedbacks. These results are consistent with landscape scale evidence and suggest that disturbance is a general factor driving and maintaining alternative biome states and vegetation mosaics in the tropics. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  8. Maintaining protein composition in cilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Louise A; Elmaghloob, Yasmin; Ismail, Shehab

    2017-12-20

    The primary cilium is a sensory organelle that is vital in regulating several signalling pathways. Unlike most organelles cilia are open to the rest of the cell, not enclosed by membranes. The distinct protein composition is crucial to the function of cilia and many signalling proteins and receptors are specifically concentrated within distinct compartments. To maintain this composition, a mechanism is required to deliver proteins to the cilium whilst another must counter the entropic tendency of proteins to distribute throughout the cell. The combination of the two mechanisms should result in the concentration of ciliary proteins to the cilium. In this review we will look at different cellular mechanisms that play a role in maintaining the distinct composition of cilia, including regulation of ciliary access and trafficking of ciliary proteins to, from and within the cilium.

  9. Improving versus maintaining nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The concept of improving nuclear safety versus maintaining it has been discussed at a number of nuclear regulators meetings in recent years. National reports have indicated that there are philosophical differences between NEA member countries about whether their regulatory approaches require licensees to continuously improve nuclear safety or to continuously maintain it. It has been concluded that, while the actual level of safety achieved in all member countries is probably much the same, this is difficult to prove in a quantitative way. In practice, all regulatory approaches require improvements to be made to correct deficiencies and when otherwise warranted. Based on contributions from members of the NEA Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA), this publication provides an overview of current nuclear regulatory philosophies and approaches, as well as insights into a selection of public perception issues. This publication's intended audience is primarily nuclear safety regulators, but government authorities, nuclear power plant operators and the general public may also be interested. (author)

  10. Normal modified stable processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Shephard, N.

    2002-01-01

    Gaussian (NGIG) laws. The wider framework thus established provides, in particular, for added flexibility in the modelling of the dynamics of financial time series, of importance especially as regards OU based stochastic volatility models for equities. In the special case of the tempered stable OU process......This paper discusses two classes of distributions, and stochastic processes derived from them: modified stable (MS) laws and normal modified stable (NMS) laws. This extends corresponding results for the generalised inverse Gaussian (GIG) and generalised hyperbolic (GH) or normal generalised inverse...

  11. Applications of stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letolle, R.; Mariotti, A.; Bariac, T.

    1991-06-01

    This report reviews the historical background and the properties of stable isotopes, the methods used for their measurement (mass spectrometry and others), the present technics for isotope enrichment and separation, and at last the various present and foreseeable application (in nuclear energy, physical and chemical research, materials industry and research; tracing in industrial, medical and agronomical tests; the use of natural isotope variations for environmental studies, agronomy, natural resources appraising: water, minerals, energy). Some new possibilities in the use of stable isotope are offered. A last chapter gives the present state and forecast development of stable isotope uses in France and Europe

  12. Analysing Stable Time Series

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adler, Robert

    1997-01-01

    We describe how to take a stable, ARMA, time series through the various stages of model identification, parameter estimation, and diagnostic checking, and accompany the discussion with a goodly number...

  13. Data analytics identify glycated haemoglobin co-markers for type 2 diabetes mellitus diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelinek, Herbert F; Stranieri, Andrew; Yatsko, Andrew; Venkatraman, Sitalakshmi

    2016-08-01

    Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) is being more commonly used as an alternative test for the identification of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) or to add to fasting blood glucose level and oral glucose tolerance test results, because it is easily obtained using point-of-care technology and represents long-term blood sugar levels. HbA1c cut-off values of 6.5% or above have been recommended for clinical use based on the presence of diabetic comorbidities from population studies. However, outcomes of large trials with a HbA1c of 6.5% as a cut-off have been inconsistent for a diagnosis of T2DM. This suggests that a HbA1c cut-off of 6.5% as a single marker may not be sensitive enough or be too simple and miss individuals at risk or with already overt, undiagnosed diabetes. In this study, data mining algorithms have been applied on a large clinical dataset to identify an optimal cut-off value for HbA1c and to identify whether additional biomarkers can be used together with HbA1c to enhance diagnostic accuracy of T2DM. T2DM classification accuracy increased if 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OhdG), an oxidative stress marker, was included in the algorithm from 78.71% for HbA1c at 6.5% to 86.64%. A similar result was obtained when interleukin-6 (IL-6) was included (accuracy=85.63%) but with a lower optimal HbA1c range between 5.73 and 6.22%. The application of data analytics to medical records from the Diabetes Screening programme demonstrates that data analytics, combined with large clinical datasets can be used to identify clinically appropriate cut-off values and identify novel biomarkers that when included improve the accuracy of T2DM diagnosis even when HbA1c levels are below or equal to the current cut-off of 6.5%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Root Effect Haemoglobins in Fish May Greatly Enhance General Oxygen Delivery Relative to Other Vertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodie L Rummer

    Full Text Available The teleost fishes represent over half of all extant vertebrates; they occupy nearly every body of water and in doing so, occupy a diverse array of environmental conditions. We propose that their success is related to a unique oxygen (O2 transport system involving their extremely pH-sensitive haemoglobin (Hb. A reduction in pH reduces both Hb-O2 affinity (Bohr effect and carrying capacity (Root effect. This, combined with a large arterial-venous pH change (ΔpHa-v relative to other vertebrates, may greatly enhance tissue oxygen delivery in teleosts (e.g., rainbow trout during stress, beyond that in mammals (e.g., human. We generated oxygen equilibrium curves (OECs at five different CO2 tensions for rainbow trout and determined that, when Hb-O2 saturation is 50% or greater, the change in oxygen partial pressure (ΔPO2 associated with ΔpHa-v can exceed that of the mammalian Bohr effect by at least 3-fold, but as much as 21-fold. Using known ΔpHa-v and assuming a constant arterial-venous PO2 difference (Pa-vO2, Root effect Hbs can enhance O2 release to the tissues by 73.5% in trout; whereas, the Bohr effect alone is responsible for enhancing O2 release by only 1.3% in humans. Disequilibrium states are likely operational in teleosts in vivo, and therefore the ΔpHa-v, and thus enhancement of O2 delivery, could be even larger. Modeling with known Pa-vO2 in fish during exercise and hypoxia indicates that O2 release from the Hb and therefore potentially tissue O2 delivery may double during exercise and triple during some levels of hypoxia. These characteristics may be central to performance of athletic fish species such as salmonids, but may indicate that general tissue oxygen delivery may have been the incipient function of Root effect Hbs in fish, a trait strongly associated with the adaptive radiation of teleosts.

  15. Developing and maintaining instructor capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, W.P.; Smith, G.

    1985-01-01

    The New York Power Authority, after surveying available courses, decided to develop an in-house instructor training program. Following the principles of the Systems Approach to Training the course embodied the results of a job analysis resulting in a program containing instruction in Educational Philosophy, the Systems Approach to Training, Methods and Media, and Testing. The course content is covered through classroom instruction, on-the-job training, instructor evaluations, and assignments. Instructors completing the program continue to maintain skills with inservice training

  16. The Effect of Date (Phoenix dactylifera Juice on Haemoglobin Level An Experimental Study in Iron Supplemented Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ady Try Himawan Zen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There has been more research on the iron supplementation. Date juice has been shown to be rich in iron. It has been reported to increase the hemoglobin level in rats. Few studies has been conducted on the effect of date juice on the hemoglobin level in male white Wistar rats fed low iron diet.This research was conducted to evaluate the effect of (Phoenix dactylifera juice on haemoglobin level in iron supplemented rats. In this experimental study using post test control group design, 24 male white Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups. G-I served as the control group (standard diet and aquadest. G II was given the low Fe diet and aquadest for 21 d. G-III,IV were given the low fe diet and aquadest plus date juice at the concentration of 50%, 100% respectively. The treatment was given for 14 days. Spectrophotometer was used to assess the haemoglobin level of rats. One way anova followed by Post Hoc LSD was applied for the data analysis. Mean of hemoglobin (g/dl level for the four groups were 12,03, 7.72, 9.25, 10.35 respectively. Test resulted in p<0.05. Post Hoc LSD test resulted in a significant different between K-I and G-II, G-III, G-IV ;G-II and G-III, G-IV ;G-III and G-IV. In conclusion, date juice increases the haemoglobin level in male white rats fed on the low fe diet.

  17. Novel haemoglobin-derived antimicrobial peptides from chicken (Gallus gallus) blood: purification, structural aspects and biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilchenko, A S; Rogozhin, E A; Vasilchenko, A V; Kartashova, O L; Sycheva, M V

    2016-12-01

    To purify and characterize antimicrobial peptides derived from the acid extract of Gallus gallus blood cells. Two polypeptides (i.e. CHb-1 and CHb-2) with antibacterial activity were detected in the acidic extract of blood cells from chicken (G. gallus). The isolated peptides that possessed a potent antibacterial activity were purified using a two-step chromatography procedure that involved solid-phase extraction of a total protein/peptide extract followed by thin fractionation by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The molecular masses of the purified peptides were similar and were 4824·4 and 4825·2 Da, which have been measured by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF MS). Their amino acid sequences were determined by Edman degradation and showed that the peptides were fully identical to the two fragments of G. gallus α-haemoglobin localized into different subunits (A and D respectively). The peptides were active in micromolar concentrations against Gram-negative Escherichia coli K12 TG1. Using the 1-N-phenylnaphthylamine, the FITC-dextran labelled probes and the live/dead staining allowed to show the hemocidin mode of action and estimate the pore size. In this study, for the first time, α-haemoglobin from chicken (G. gallus) has been investigated as a donor of the two high homologous native peptide fragments that possess potent antibacterial activity in vitro. These are membrane-active peptides and their mechanism of action against E. coli involves a toroidal pore formation. The obtained results expand the perception of the role of haemoglobin in a living system, describing it as a source of multifunction substances. Additionally, the data presented in this paper may contribute to the development of new, cost-effective, antimicrobial agents. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Effects of prolonged compression on the variations of haemoglobin oxygenation-assessment by spectral analysis of reflectance spectrophotometry signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zengyong; Tam, Eric W C; Mak, Arthur F T; Lau, Roy Y C [Department of Health Technology and Informatics, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2006-11-07

    The consequences of rhythmical flow motion for nutrition and the oxygen supply to tissue are largely unknown. In this study, the periodic variations of haemoglobin oxygenation in compressed and uncompressed skin were evaluated with a reflection spectrometer using an in vivo Sprague-Dawley rat model. Skin compression was induced over the trochanter area by a locally applied external pressure of 13.3 kPa (100 mmHg) via a specifically designed pneumatic indentor. A total of 19 rats were used in this study. The loading duration is 6 h per day for four consecutive days. Haemoglobin oxygenation variations were quantified using spectral analysis based on wavelets' transformation. The results found that in both compressed and uncompressed skin, periodic variations of the haemoglobin oxygenation were characterized by two frequencies in the range of 0.01-0.05 Hz and 0.15-0.4 Hz. These frequency ranges coincide with those of the frequency range of the endothelial-related metabolic and myogenic activities found in the flow motion respectively. Tissue compression following the above loading schedule induced a significant decrease in the spectral amplitudes of frequency interval 0.01-0.05 Hz during the pre-occlusion period on day 3 and day 4 as compared to that on day 1 (p < 0.05). In contrast, at a frequency range of 0.15-0.4 Hz, prolonged compression caused a significant increase in spectral amplitude during the pre-occlusion period in the compressed tissue on day 3 (p = 0.041) and day 4 (p = 0.024) compared to that in the uncompressed tissue on day 1. These suggested that the variations of the haemoglobin oxygenation were closely related to the endothelial-related metabolic and myogenic activities. Increased amplitude in the frequency interval 0.15-0.4 Hz indicated an increased workload of the vascular smooth muscle and could be attributed to the increase of O{sub 2} consumption rates of arteriolar walls. The modification of vessel wall oxygen consumption might

  19. Uses of stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axente, Damian

    1998-01-01

    The most important fields of stable isotope use with examples are presented. These are: 1. Isotope dilution analysis: trace analysis, measurements of volumes and masses; 2. Stable isotopes as tracers: transport phenomena, environmental studies, agricultural research, authentication of products and objects, archaeometry, studies of reaction mechanisms, structure and function determination of complex biological entities, studies of metabolism, breath test for diagnostic; 3. Isotope equilibrium effects: measurement of equilibrium effects, investigation of equilibrium conditions, mechanism of drug action, study of natural processes, water cycle, temperature measurements; 4. Stable isotope for advanced nuclear reactors: uranium nitride with 15 N as nuclear fuel, 157 Gd for reactor control. In spite of some difficulties of stable isotope use, particularly related to the analytical techniques, which are slow and expensive, the number of papers reporting on this subject is steadily growing as well as the number of scientific meetings organized by International Isotope Section and IAEA, Gordon Conferences, and regional meeting in Germany, France, etc. Stable isotope application development on large scale is determined by improving their production technologies as well as those of labeled compound and the analytical techniques. (author)

  20. Calcium stable isotope geochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gausonne, Nikolaus [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Mineralogie; Schmitt, Anne-Desiree [Strasbourg Univ. (France). LHyGeS/EOST; Heuser, Alexander [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Steinmann-Inst. fuer Geologie, Mineralogie und Palaeontologie; Wombacher, Frank [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geologie und Mineralogie; Dietzel, Martin [Technische Univ. Graz (Austria). Inst. fuer Angewandte Geowissenschaften; Tipper, Edward [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Schiller, Martin [Copenhagen Univ. (Denmark). Natural History Museum of Denmark

    2016-08-01

    This book provides an overview of the fundamentals and reference values for Ca stable isotope research, as well as current analytical methodologies including detailed instructions for sample preparation and isotope analysis. As such, it introduces readers to the different fields of application, including low-temperature mineral precipitation and biomineralisation, Earth surface processes and global cycling, high-temperature processes and cosmochemistry, and lastly human studies and biomedical applications. The current state of the art in these major areas is discussed, and open questions and possible future directions are identified. In terms of its depth and coverage, the current work extends and complements the previous reviews of Ca stable isotope geochemistry, addressing the needs of graduate students and advanced researchers who want to familiarize themselves with Ca stable isotope research.

  1. Calcium stable isotope geochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gausonne, Nikolaus; Schmitt, Anne-Desiree; Heuser, Alexander; Wombacher, Frank; Dietzel, Martin; Tipper, Edward; Schiller, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an overview of the fundamentals and reference values for Ca stable isotope research, as well as current analytical methodologies including detailed instructions for sample preparation and isotope analysis. As such, it introduces readers to the different fields of application, including low-temperature mineral precipitation and biomineralisation, Earth surface processes and global cycling, high-temperature processes and cosmochemistry, and lastly human studies and biomedical applications. The current state of the art in these major areas is discussed, and open questions and possible future directions are identified. In terms of its depth and coverage, the current work extends and complements the previous reviews of Ca stable isotope geochemistry, addressing the needs of graduate students and advanced researchers who want to familiarize themselves with Ca stable isotope research.

  2. Maintaining consistency in distributed systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birman, Kenneth P.

    1991-01-01

    In systems designed as assemblies of independently developed components, concurrent access to data or data structures normally arises within individual programs, and is controlled using mutual exclusion constructs, such as semaphores and monitors. Where data is persistent and/or sets of operation are related to one another, transactions or linearizability may be more appropriate. Systems that incorporate cooperative styles of distributed execution often replicate or distribute data within groups of components. In these cases, group oriented consistency properties must be maintained, and tools based on the virtual synchrony execution model greatly simplify the task confronting an application developer. All three styles of distributed computing are likely to be seen in future systems - often, within the same application. This leads us to propose an integrated approach that permits applications that use virtual synchrony with concurrent objects that respect a linearizability constraint, and vice versa. Transactional subsystems are treated as a special case of linearizability.

  3. Haemoglobin mass and running time trial performance after recombinant human erythropoietin administration in trained men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Durussel

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo increases haemoglobin mass (Hb(mass and maximal oxygen uptake (v O(2 max. PURPOSE: This study defined the time course of changes in Hb(mass, v O(2 max as well as running time trial performance following 4 weeks of rHuEpo administration to determine whether the laboratory observations would translate into actual improvements in running performance in the field. METHODS: 19 trained men received rHuEpo injections of 50 IU•kg(-1 body mass every two days for 4 weeks. Hb(mass was determined weekly using the optimized carbon monoxide rebreathing method until 4 weeks after administration. v O(2 max and 3,000 m time trial performance were measured pre, post administration and at the end of the study. RESULTS: Relative to baseline, running performance significantly improved by ∼6% after administration (10:30±1:07 min:sec vs. 11:08±1:15 min:sec, p<0.001 and remained significantly enhanced by ∼3% 4 weeks after administration (10:46±1:13 min:sec, p<0.001, while v O(2 max was also significantly increased post administration (60.7±5.8 mL•min(-1•kg(-1 vs. 56.0±6.2 mL•min(-1•kg(-1, p<0.001 and remained significantly increased 4 weeks after rHuEpo (58.0±5.6 mL•min(-1•kg(-1, p = 0.021. Hb(mass was significantly increased at the end of administration compared to baseline (15.2±1.5 g•kg(-1 vs. 12.7±1.2 g•kg(-1, p<0.001. The rate of decrease in Hb(mass toward baseline values post rHuEpo was similar to that of the increase during administration (-0.53 g•kg(-1•wk(-1, 95% confidence interval (CI (-0.68, -0.38 vs. 0.54 g•kg(-1•wk(-1, CI (0.46, 0.63 but Hb(mass was still significantly elevated 4 weeks after administration compared to baseline (13.7±1.1 g•kg(-1, p<0.001. CONCLUSION: Running performance was improved following 4 weeks of rHuEpo and remained elevated 4 weeks after administration compared to baseline. These field performance effects coincided with r

  4. Soluble CD163, a product of monocyte/macrophage activation, is inversely associated with haemoglobin levels in placental malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Lin Lin Chua

    Full Text Available In Plasmodium falciparum malaria, activation of monocytes and macrophages (monocytes/macrophages can result in the production of various inflammatory mediators that contribute to immunopathology. Soluble CD163 (sCD163 is a specific marker of monocyte/macrophage activation typically found at increased levels during various inflammatory conditions and can be associated with poor clinical outcomes. To better understand the relationships between levels of sCD163 and clinical parameters in women with placental malaria, we measured plasma sCD163 levels in maternal peripheral and placental blood compartments at delivery and determined their correlations with birth weight and maternal haemoglobin concentrations. sCD163 levels were negatively correlated with birth weight only in the placental compartment (r = -0.145, p = 0.03 and were inversely correlated with maternal haemoglobin concentrations, both in peripheral blood (r = -0.238, p = 0.0004 and in placental blood (r = -0.259, p = 0.0001. These inverse relationships suggest a potential role for monocyte/macrophage activation in the pathogenesis of malaria in pregnancy, particularly in relation to malaria-associated anaemia.

  5. Structural and Functional Characterization of a New Double Variant Haemoglobin (HbG-Philadelphia/Duarte α(2)β(2)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fais, Antonella; Casu, Mariano; Ruggerone, Paolo; Ceccarelli, Matteo; Porcu, Simona; Era, Benedetta; Anedda, Roberto; Sollaino, Maria Carla; Galanello, Renzo; Corda, Marcella

    2011-01-01

    WE REPORT THE FIRST CASE OF COSEGREGATION OF TWO HAEMOGLOBINS (HBS): HbG-Philadelphia [α68(E17)Asn → Lys] and HbDuarte [β62(E6)Ala → Pro]. The proband is a young patient heterozygous also for β°-thalassaemia. We detected exclusively two haemoglobin variants: HbDuarte and HbG-Philadelphia/Duarte. Functional study of the new double variant HbG-Philadelphia/Duarte exhibited an increase in oxygen affinity, with a slight decrease of cooperativity and Bohr effect. This functional behaviour is attributed to β62Ala → Pro instead of α68Asn → Lys substitution. Indeed, HbG-Philadelphia isolated in our laboratory from blood cells donor carrier for this variant is not affected by any functional modification, whereas purified Hb Duarte showed functional properties very similar to the double variant. NMR and MD simulation studies confirmed that the presence of Pro instead of Ala at the β62 position produces displacement of the E helix and modifications of the tertiary structure. The substitution α68(E17)Asn → Lys does not cause significant structural and dynamical modifications of the protein. A possible structure-based rational of substitution effects is suggested.

  6. Stable isotope studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, T.

    1992-01-01

    The research has been in four general areas: (1) correlation of isotope effects with molecular forces and molecular structures, (2) correlation of zero-point energy and its isotope effects with molecular structure and molecular forces, (3) vapor pressure isotope effects, and (4) fractionation of stable isotopes. 73 refs, 38 figs, 29 tabs

  7. Interactive Stable Ray Tracing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dal Corso, Alessandro; Salvi, Marco; Kolb, Craig

    2017-01-01

    Interactive ray tracing applications running on commodity hardware can suffer from objectionable temporal artifacts due to a low sample count. We introduce stable ray tracing, a technique that improves temporal stability without the over-blurring and ghosting artifacts typical of temporal post-pr...

  8. The Stable Concordance Genus

    OpenAIRE

    Kearney, M. Kate

    2013-01-01

    The concordance genus of a knot is the least genus of any knot in its concordance class. Although difficult to compute, it is a useful invariant that highlights the distinction between the three-genus and four-genus. In this paper we define and discuss the stable concordance genus of a knot, which describes the behavior of the concordance genus under connected sum.

  9. Stable radiographic scanning agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Stable compositions which are useful in the preparation of Technetium-99m-based scintigraphic agents are discussed. They are comprised of ascorbic acid or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester thereof in combination with a pertechnetate reducing agent or dissolved in oxidized pertechnetate-99m (sup(99m)TcO 4 - ) solution

  10. Some stable hydromagnetic equilibria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J L; Oberman, C R; Kulsrud, R M; Frieman, E A [Project Matterhorn, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1958-07-01

    We have been able to find and investigate the properties of equilibria which are hydromagnetically stable. These equilibria can be obtained, for example, by wrapping conductors helically around the stellarator tube. Systems with I = 3 or 4 are indicated to be optimum for stability purposes. In some cases an admixture of I = 2 fields can be advantageous for achieving equilibrium. (author)

  11. Common antigenic determinants of haemoglobin as basis of immunological cross-reactivity between chironomid species (Diptera, Chironomidae): studies with human and animal sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baur, X; Dewair, M; Haegele, K; Prelicz, H; Scholl, A; Tichy, H

    1983-01-01

    Chironomids, of which approximately 10,000 species exist, are reported to cause severe immediate type allergic diseases in man. In the present study, immunological cross-reactivity between 14 chironomid species from different continents was proven by RAST inhibition, double immunodiffusion and a new allergoprint technique, based upon PAGE separation of insect crude extracts. Using isolated chironomid haemoglobins and sera of sensitized persons, as well as rabbit antibodies against larval crude extract or against the haemoglobin fraction of Chironomus thummi, it could be proven that cross-reactivity derives at least predominantly from haemoglobin components with common antigenic determinants in the different species. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:6197219

  12. Building and maintaining media contacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenton, Bob

    2000-01-01

    This presentation is answering the question: 'how does British Energy build and maintain its relationships with journalists in so many areas', not only the basic industrial correspondents that you would expect to have to deal with an industry British Energy, but those dealing with science and technology, the environment, personnel and training, city and financial, political, and on and on, and that is just the national press. Then add the local and regional media around power station sites - literally hundreds of contacts and you start to get an idea about the size of our media contact database. But it is managed it rather well. Every six months British Energy takes part in a survey run by one of the UK's leading market research companies who conducts a poll among journalists and then rate each company's performance. In the last three years British Energy has not been outside the top five in most categories, and in the top two in several. The answer is a lot of work over a long period of time. You cannot expect to build trusting relationships with a journalist overnight. At British Energy the key is being open and honest, and always available. Of course good media relations is not a one-way street, and there has to be some element of compromise if you are to achieve a relationship based on mutual trust

  13. Cross-sectional relationship between haemoglobin concentration and measures of physical and cognitive function in an older rural South African population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Collin F; Davies, Justine I; Gomez-Olive, F Xavier; Hands, Katherine J; Kahn, Kathleen; Kobayashi, Lindsay C; Tipping, Brent; Tollman, Stephen M; Wade, Alisha; Witham, Miles D

    2018-04-21

    Age cohort differences in haemoglobin concentrations and associations with physical and cognitive performance among populations of lower income and middle-income countries have not previously been described. We examined the association between these factors among older men and women in rural South Africa. We analysed cross-sectional data from a population-based study of rural South African men and women aged 40 and over (n=4499), with data drawn from questionnaire responses, a cognitive battery, objective physical function tests and blood tests. Anaemia was defined as a haemoglobin concentration age, grip strength, walk speed and a latent cognitive function z-score for men and women separately. We used unadjusted correlations and linear models to adjust for comorbidities and inflammation. In total, 1042 (43.0%) women and 833 (40.1%) men were anaemic. Haemoglobin concentrations were inversely correlated with age for men but not for women; in adjusted analyses, haemoglobin was 0.3 g/dL lower per decade older for men (95% CI 0.2 to 0.4 g/dL). In adjusted analyses, haemoglobin concentration was independently associated with grip strength in women (B=0.391, 95% CI 0.177 to 0.605), but this did not reach significance in men (B=0.266, 95% CI -0.019 to 0.552); no associations were observed between haemoglobin levels and walk speed or cognitive score. Anaemia was prevalent in this study population of middle-aged and older, rural South African adults, but in contrast to high-income countries, it was not associated with poor physical or cognitive function. Our findings need to be replicated in other populations. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Prevalence of positive urinary dipstick analysis (leucocyte esterase, nitrite, haemoglobin, or glucose) in a population of 3645 adult subjects--consequence for measurement of urinary albumin excretion rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P; Jensen, J S; Borch-Johnsen, K

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess prevalence of positive urinary dipstick analysis for leucocyte esterase, nitrite, haemoglobin, or glucose in the general population and measure the urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) in subjects with or without a positive dipstick analysis. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study...... of 3645 subjects. SETTING: An unselected urban population study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence data of positive dipstick analyses and UAER values. RESULTS: Prevalence data of a positive dipstick analysis were 12%, 4%, 3% and 6%, respectively, for leucocyte esterase, nitrite, haemoglobin, and glucose...

  15. Sense of Humor, Stable Affect, and Psychological Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnie Cann

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A good sense of humor has been implicated as a quality that could contribute to psychological well-being. The mechanisms through which sense of humor might operate include helping to reappraise threats, serving as a character strength, or facilitating happiness. The current research attempts to integrate these possibilities by examining whether a good sense of humor might operate globally by helping to maintain a more stable positive affect. Stable positive affect has been shown to facilitate more effective problem solving and to build resilience. However, not all humor is adaptive humor, so we also examine the roles that different styles of humor use might play. Individual differences in humor styles were used to predict stable levels of affect. Then, in a longitudinal design, humor styles and stable affect were used to predict subsequent resilience and psychological health. The results indicated that stable affect was related to resilience and psychological well-being, and that a sense of humor that involves self-enhancing humor, humor based on maintaining a humorous perspective about one’s experiences, was positively related to stable positive affect, negatively related to stable negative affect, and was mediated through stable affect in influencing resilience, well-being and distress. Thus, while a good sense of humor can lead to greater resilience and better psychological health, the current results, focusing on stable affect, find only self-enhancing humor provides reliable benefits.

  16. Evolutionary Stable Strategy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... Every behaviourally responsive animal (including us) make decisions. These can be simple behavioural decisions such aswhere to feed, what to feed, how long to feed, decisions related to finding, choosing and competing for mates, or simply maintaining ones territory. All these are conflict situations ...

  17. Deworming drugs for soil-transmitted intestinal worms in children: effects on nutritional indicators, haemoglobin, and school performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor-Robinson, David C; Maayan, Nicola; Soares-Weiser, Karla; Donegan, Sarah; Garner, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends treating all school children at regular intervals with deworming drugs in areas where helminth infection is common. As the intervention is often claimed to have important health, nutrition, and societal effects beyond the removal of worms, we critically evaluated the evidence on benefits. Objectives To summarize the effects of giving deworming drugs to children to treat soil-transmitted helminths on weight, haemoglobin, and cognition; and the evidence of impact on physical well-being, school attendance, school performance, and mortality. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register (14 April 2015); Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), published in the Cochrane Library (2015, Issue 4); MEDLINE (2000 to 14 April 2015); EMBASE (2000 to 14 April 2015); LILACS (2000 to 14 April 2015); the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT); and reference lists, and registers of ongoing and completed trials up to 14 April 2015. Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs comparing deworming drugs for soil-transmitted helminths with placebo or no treatment in children aged 16 years or less, reporting on weight, haemoglobin, and formal tests of intellectual development. We also sought data on school attendance, school performance, and mortality. We included trials that combined health education with deworming programmes. Data collection and analysis At least two review authors independently assessed the trials, evaluated risk of bias, and extracted data. We analysed continuous data using the mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Where data were missing, we contacted trial authors. We used outcomes at time of longest follow-up. The evidence quality was assessed using GRADE. This edition of the Cochrane Review adds the DEVTA trial from India, and draws on an independent analytical replication of a trial from

  18. Stable isotope analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tibari, Elghali; Taous, Fouad; Marah, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    This report presents results related to stable isotopes analysis carried out at the CNESTEN DASTE in Rabat (Morocco), on behalf of Senegal. These analyzes cover 127 samples. These results demonstrate that Oxygen-18 and Deuterium in water analysis were performed by infrared Laser spectroscopy using a LGR / DLT-100 with Autosampler. Also, the results are expressed in δ values (‰) relative to V-SMOW to ± 0.3 ‰ for oxygen-18 and ± 1 ‰ for deuterium.

  19. Forensic Stable Isotope Biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerling, Thure E.; Barnette, Janet E.; Bowen, Gabriel J.; Chesson, Lesley A.; Ehleringer, James R.; Remien, Christopher H.; Shea, Patrick; Tipple, Brett J.; West, Jason B.

    2016-06-01

    Stable isotopes are being used for forensic science studies, with applications to both natural and manufactured products. In this review we discuss how scientific evidence can be used in the legal context and where the scientific progress of hypothesis revisions can be in tension with the legal expectations of widely used methods for measurements. Although this review is written in the context of US law, many of the considerations of scientific reproducibility and acceptance of relevant scientific data span other legal systems that might apply different legal principles and therefore reach different conclusions. Stable isotopes are used in legal situations for comparing samples for authenticity or evidentiary considerations, in understanding trade patterns of illegal materials, and in understanding the origins of unknown decedents. Isotope evidence is particularly useful when considered in the broad framework of physiochemical processes and in recognizing regional to global patterns found in many materials, including foods and food products, drugs, and humans. Stable isotopes considered in the larger spatial context add an important dimension to forensic science.

  20. Maintaining quality in blood banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, E; Hewison, C; Nevalainen, D E; Lloyd, H L

    1995-03-01

    component will warrant redress. The degree of fault attributed to the producer will in part depend on whether they have met the best available standards at all stages in the preparation of the product. If a Transfusion Service can show that it's operation has external accreditation, particularly to an internationally recognised standard such as ISO 9000 and they can show that staff have been properly trained, that equipment is properly supplied and maintained and that the facility is appropriate to the work being carried out, then the liability that exists when something goes wrong will be reduced.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  1. Building and maintaining media relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oesterberg, Anders

    2000-01-01

    Full text: In my opinion good media relations are among the most valuable investments regarding the communications and Public Relations operations within an Organisation. This means, that all the work you put up in building and maintaining media relations, is worth all the efforts. It can mean the difference between success or failure. Although a reporter never would admit that he or she is easily influenced, the fact is that you would get better press in an emergency case if you have a positive personal relation to the reporter. So, in my opinion there is nothing more important, in building and maintaining media relations, than the face-to-face-contact. My experience of good personal relations to reporters is also that you're not only getting better press in emergency cases. You are more successful in getting published when you have something positive to say, too. Honesty and openness are two key-words in this context. I have never tried to manipulate and delude a reporter, since that definitely would ruin the relationship. I always try to be as straight forward as possible and underline what I can say and what I can't. That instead of presenting some forced lies. For me, it is also very important to create some kind of mid-field ground, where the reporter and I can meet unprejudiced. Sense of humour and distance, both to yourself and your organisation, are two main characteristics that are invaluable in order to create a good personal relationship with a reporter. But, I'm very accurate in emphasizing when I enter my role as a company representative. All in order to be regarded as correct, yet obliging. To be quick when it comes to returning calls is another vital component that gives the reporter a feeling that he or she is important enough to be contacted as soon as possible. This service-minded attitude is of course good for the relationship. Besides the more personal relation it's important to have a business-like relation, where you show a great deal of

  2. Validation of the Hemo_Control instrument for determination of B-haemoglobin concentration in primary health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aakre, Kristin; Bliksrud, Yngve; Frøyshov, Bess

    2009-01-01

    of the Hemo_Control instrument were calculated after measuring the concentration of venous samples under standardized conditions; by experienced laboratory technicians in a hospital laboratory, and venous and capillary samples under conditions similar to where the instrument is intended for use; by personnel...... was lower than the quality goal of +/- 5% considered acceptable for patient care. High within series imprecision (5.5%) was observed for measurements of capillary blood samples in one of the primary care centres, whereas adequate analytical performance was obtained at the other centre. The Hemo_Control......OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the analytical performance of a new portable haemoglobinometer, Hemo_Control (EKF-diagnostic, GmbH, Germany), which measures haemoglobin concentration in venous and capillary samples. METHOD: The within series and between series imprecision...

  3. [Peroxynitrite effect on the haemoglobin oxygen affinity in vitro in presence of different partial pressure of carbon dioxide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepuro, T L; Zinchuk, V V

    2011-08-01

    Peroxynitrite (ONOO-) besides its toxic possesses regulatory action that includes the modulation of oxygen binding properties of blood. The aim of this work was to estimate ONOO- effect on the haemoglobin oxygen affinity (HOA) in vitro in presence of different partial pressure of carbon dioxide (CO2). The ONOO- presence in venous blood in conditions of hypercapnia induced oxyhaemoglobin dissociation curve shift leftward while in hypocapnic conditions the result of a different character was obtained. The revealed effect of ONOO- is realized, possibly, through various modifications ofhaemoglobin whose formation is dependent on the CO2 pressure. The ONOO- influences the HOA in different manner that can be important in regulation of blood oxygenation in lungs and maintenance of oxygen consumption in tissues.

  4. Preferred temperature of juvenile Atlantic cod Gadus morhua with different haemoglobin genotypes at normoxia and moderate hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, M.F.; Steffensen, J.F.

    2003-01-01

    .2+/-1.5 degrees C while HbI-1 cod preferred 15.4+/-1.1 degrees C, and this preference was significant. The effect of hypoxia (35% oxygen saturation) on the preferred temperature was also measured. Previous studies showed that the preferred temperature of fish decreases during hypoxia, and this was the case for Hb......I-1 cod, which preferred 9.8+/-1.8 degrees C during hypoxia, whereas HbI-2 cod did not show this effect. The results indicate that environmental temperature changes will lead to a distributional change in the different haemoglobin types of Atlantic cod, global warming providing an advantage for HbI-1...... cod. However, since HbI-1 cod prefer a low temperature under hypoxic conditions, a combination of increased water temperature and hypoxia could be unfavourable for Atlantic cod stocks....

  5. Effect of moderate hypoxia at three acclimation temperatures on stress responses in Atlantic cod with different haemoglobin types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Methling, Caroline; Aluru, Neelakanteswar; Vijayan, Mathilakath M

    2010-01-01

    in a difference in stress response to hypoxia exposure. Two hsp70-isoforms (labelled a and b) were detected and they differed in expression in the gills but not in the liver of Atlantic cod. Acclimation temperature significantly affected the expression of hsp70 in the liver, and in an isoform-specific manner...... in the gills. Hypoxia exposure increased the expression of hsp70 in the liver, but not the gills, of cod and this response was not influenced by the acclimation temperature. The expression of hsp70 in both tissues did not differ between fish with different haemoglobin types. Acclimation temperature...... hypoxic exposure influence the organismal and cellular stress responses in Atlantic cod. We hypothesise that HbI-2 fish are more tolerant to short-term hypoxic episodes than HbI-1 fish, and this adaptation may be independent of tissue hsp70 expression....

  6. Position statement of the Australian Diabetes Society: individualisation of glycated haemoglobin targets for adults with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, N Wah; Conn, Jennifer J; d'Emden, Michael C; Gunton, Jenny E; Jenkins, Alicia J; Ross, Glynis P; Sinha, Ashim K; Andrikopoulos, Sofianos; Colagiuri, Stephen; Twigg, Stephen M

    2009-09-21

    Tight glycaemic control reduces the risk of development and progression of organ complications in people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. In this position statement, the Australian Diabetes Society recommends a general target glycated haemoglobin (HbA(1c)) level of position statement also provides guidelines for the individualisation of glycaemic targets to a tighter or lesser degree, with a recommended target HbA(1c) level of diabetes and its duration, pregnancy, diabetes medication being taken, presence of cardiovascular disease, risk of and problems from hypoglycaemia, and comorbidities. Management of diabetes also includes: adequate control of other cardiovascular risk factors, including weight, blood pressure and lipid serum levels; antiplatelet therapy; and smoking cessation.

  7. Activating mitochondrial function and haemoglobin expression with EH-201, an inducer of erythropoietin in neuronal cells, reverses memory impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horng, Lin-Yea; Hsu, Pei-Lun; Chen, Li-Wen; Tseng, Wang-Zou; Hsu, Kai-Tin; Wu, Chia-Ling; Wu, Rong-Tsun

    2015-10-01

    Memory impairment can be progressive in neurodegenerative diseases, and physiological ageing or brain injury, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress are critical components of these issues. An early clinical study has demonstrated cognitive improvement during erythropoietin treatment in patients with chronic renal failure. As erythropoietin cannot freely cross the blood-brain barrier, we tested EH-201 (2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-d-glucoside, also known as TSG), a low MW inducer of erythropoietin, for its therapeutic effects on memory impairment in models of neurodegenerative diseases, physiological ageing or brain injury. The effects of EH-201 were investigated in astrocytes and PC12 neuronal-like cells. In vivo, we used sleep-deprived (SD) mice as a stress model, amyloid-β (Aβ)-injected mice as a physiological ageing model and kainic acid (KA)-injected mice as a brain damage model to assess the therapeutic effects of EH-201. EH-201 induced expression of erythropoietin, PPAR-γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) and haemoglobin in astrocytes and PC12 neuronal-like cells. In vivo, EH-201 treatment restored memory impairment, as assessed by the passive avoidance test, in SD, Aβ and KA mouse models. In the hippocampus of mice given EH-201 in their diet, levels of erythropoietin, PGC-1α and haemoglobin were increased The induction of endogenous erythropoietin in neuronal cells by inducers such as EH-201 might be a therapeutic strategy for memory impairment in neurodegenerative disease, physiological ageing or traumatic brain injury. © 2015 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The British Pharmacological Society.

  8. Trimester-specific reference intervals for haemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)) in pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, Catherine

    2011-11-26

    Abstract Background: Diabetes in pregnancy imposes additional risks to both mother and infant. These increased risks are considered to be primarily related to glycaemic control which is monitored by means of glycated haemoglobin (HbA(1c)). The correlation of HbA(1c) with clinical outcomes emphasises the need to measure HbA(1c) accurately, precisely and for correct interpretation, comparison to appropriately defined reference intervals. Since July 2010, the HbA(1c) assay in Irish laboratories is fully metrologically traceable to the IFCC standard. The objective was to establish trimester-specific reference intervals in pregnancy for IFCC standardised HbA(1c) in non-diabetic Caucasian women. Methods: The authors recruited 311 non-diabetic Caucasian pregnant (n=246) and non-pregnant women (n=65). A selective screening based on risk factors for gestational diabetes was employed. All subjects had a random plasma glucose <7.7 mmol\\/L and normal haemoglobin level. Pregnancy trimester was defined as trimester 1 (T1, n=40) up to 12 weeks +6 days, trimester 2 (T2, n=106) 13-27 weeks +6 days, trimester 3 (T3, n=100) >28 weeks to term. Results: The normal HbA(1c) reference interval for Caucasian non-pregnant women was 29-37 mmol\\/mol (Diabetes Control and Complications Trial; DCCT: 4.8%-5.5%), T1: 24-36 mmol\\/mol (DCCT: 4.3%-5.4%), T2: 25-35 mmol\\/mol (DCCT: 4.4%-5.4%) and T3: 28-39 mmol\\/mol (DCCT: 4.7%-5.7%). HbA(1c) was significantly decreased in trimesters 1 and 2 compared to non-pregnant women. Conclusions: HbA(1c) trimester-specific reference intervals are required to better inform the management of pregnancies complicated by diabetes.

  9. Self-care activities and glycated haemoglobin in Iranian patients with type 2 diabetes: can coping styles and social support have a buffering role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shayeghian, Zeinab; Aguilar-Vafaie, Maria E; Besharat, Mohammad Ali; Amiri, Parisa; Parvin, Mahmoud; Gillani, Kobra Roohi; Hassanabadi, Hamidreza

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes self-care is a key element in the overall management of diabetes. However, the importance of psychosocial factors for successful disease management is under investigated. This study aimed at exploring the role of coping styles and social support in the relationship between self-care activities and glycated haemoglobin in patients with type 2 diabetes. One hundred adults (60% female, aged 40-70 years) with type 2 diabetes completed questionnaires assessing self-care activities, coping styles and social support. In addition, a blood test was performed to obtain glycated haemoglobin levels. Result showed significant relationships of glycated haemoglobin with self-care activities, coping styles and social support. Regression analysis indicated that social support had a moderating role on the relationship between self-care activities and glycated haemoglobin, such that, at very high levels of social support the association, between Self-Care and HbA1c disappears. Findings indicate that health care providers, within the context of the Iranian social and cultural situation, should pay more attention to psychosocial factors when addressing self-care activities. Delineation of the role of coping styles and social support might be useful for identifying patients in need of particular counselling and support for improving self-care activities and HbA1c levels.

  10. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of haemoglobin from mongoose (Helogale parvula) in two different crystal forms induced by pH variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed Abubakkar, M; Saraboji, K; Ponnuswamy, M N

    2013-02-01

    Haemoglobin (Hb) is a respiratory pigment; it is a tetrameric protein that ferries oxygen from the lungs to tissues and transports carbon dioxide on the return journey. The oxygen affinity of haemoglobin is regulated by the concentration of oxygen surrounding it and several efforts have revealed the shapes of Hb in different states and with different functions. However, study of the molecular basis of Hbs from low-oxygen-affinity species is critically needed in order to increase the understanding of the mechanism behind oxygen adaptation. The present study reports the preliminary crystallographic study of low-oxygen-affinity haemoglobin from mongoose, a burrowing mammal. Haemoglobin from mongoose was purified by anion-exchange chromatography, crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method and diffraction data sets were collected from monoclinic (2.3 Å resolution) and orthorhombic (2.9 Å resolution) crystal forms obtained by pH variation. The monoclinic and orthorhombic asymmetric units contained half and a whole biological molecule, respectively.

  11. The predictive value of current haemoglobin levels for incident tuberculosis and/or mortality during long-term antiretroviral therapy in South Africa: a cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhoff, Andrew D.; Wood, Robin; Cobelens, Frank G.; Gupta-Wright, Ankur; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Lawn, Stephen D.

    2015-01-01

    Low haemoglobin concentrations may be predictive of incident tuberculosis (TB) and death in HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART), but data are limited and inconsistent. We examined these relationships retrospectively in a long-term South African ART cohort with multiple

  12. Different functional modulation by heterotropic ligands (2,3-diphosphoglycerate and chlorides) of the two haemoglobins from fallow-deer (Dama dama).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeletti, M; Pucciarelli, S; Priori, A M; Canofeni, S; Barra, D; Fioretti, E; Coletta, M

    2001-02-01

    Two haemoglobin components have been identified and purified from fallow-deer (Dama dama) erythrocytes. They are present in similar amounts and the two tetrameric molecules share the same alpha chain, while two different beta chains are detected in the two components. The beta chains differ by 14 residues, even though they both have 145 amino-acid residues, which account for a molecular mass of 16,023 and 16,064 Da, respectively, while alpha chain has 141 residues, yielding a molecular mass of 15,142 Da. Compared with human Hb, the N-terminal region of both beta chains shows deletion of Val beta 1 and the replacement of His beta 2 by a methionyl residue, a modification which is common to most ruminant haemoglobins. Although both isolated components show a low intrinsic affinity for oxygen, meaningful differences between the two haemoglobins have been found with respect to the effect of heterotropic effectors, such as 2,3-diphosphoglycerate and chloride ions. In view of the high sequence homology between the two components, the different effect of heterotropic ligands has been tentatively correlated to possible localized structural variations between beta chains of the two haemoglobin components.

  13. Randomised feasibility study of a more liberal haemoglobin trigger for red blood cell transfusion compared to standard practice in anaemic cancer patients treated with chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yakymenko, D.; Frandsen, K. B.; Christensen, I. J.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The primary objective of this feasibility study was to identify quality of life (QoL) scores and symptom scales as tools for measuring patient-reported outcomes (PRO) associated with haemoglobin level in chemotherapy-treated cancer patients. Secondary objectives included comparing QoL......-An, FACT-An TOI, fatigue and dyspnoea. Conclusions: QoL scores of physical and functional domains as well as self-reported anaemia-related symptoms correlated well with haemoglobin level in chemotherapy-treated cancer patients.......Objectives: The primary objective of this feasibility study was to identify quality of life (QoL) scores and symptom scales as tools for measuring patient-reported outcomes (PRO) associated with haemoglobin level in chemotherapy-treated cancer patients. Secondary objectives included comparing Qo......L and symptoms between randomisation arms. Background: Anaemia in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy is associated with decreased QoL. One treatment option is red blood cell transfusion (RBCT). However, the optimal haemoglobin trigger for transfusion is unknown. Methods: Patients were randomised...

  14. The effect on haemoglobin of the use of iron cooking pots in rural Malawian households in an area with high malaria prevalence: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geerligs, Paul Prinsen; Brabin, Bernard; Mkumbwa, Albert; Broadhead, Robin; Cuevas, Luis E

    2003-04-01

    Innovative low-cost sustainable strategies are required to reduce the high prevalence of iron-deficiency anaemia in developing countries. We undertook a community-based randomized controlled intervention trial to assess the effects of cooking in iron or aluminium cooking pots in Malawian households in an area with high malaria prevalence. Analysis was by intention to treat and consistency of use. The primary outcomes were change in haemoglobin and iron status. The study population comprised 164 participants eating from aluminium cooking pots and 158 from iron cooking pots. The mean haemoglobin change was significantly increased after 6 weeks in adults who consistently ate from an iron cooking pot (+3.6 g/l compared to -3.2 g/l, mean difference between groups 6.8 g/l, 95% CI +0.86, +12.74). In children, no significant haemoglobin change was observed in consistent pot users, although they showed a significant reduction in iron deficiency (iron 8.6 ZP/g and aluminium 10.8 ZP/g, mean difference 2.2 ZP/g, 95% CI +1.08, +3.32). Rural Malawian adults in a high malaria transmission area who consistently consume food prepared in iron cooking pots show a significant rise in haemoglobin after 6 weeks use. Children showed a reduction in iron deficiency, but no significant improvement in haemoglobin, possibly because of their high malaria parasite prevalence. Using iron cooking pots in developing countries could provide an innovative way to prevent iron deficiency and anaemia in malarious areas where regular iron supplementation is problematic.

  15. Theory of stable allocations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelić Svetlana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Swedish Royal Academy awarded the 2012 Nobel Prize in Economics to Lloyd Shapley and Alvin Roth, for the theory of stable allocations and the practice of market design. These two American researchers worked independently from each other, combining basic theory and empirical investigations. Through their experiments and practical design they generated a flourishing field of research and improved the performance of many markets. Born in 1923 in Cambridge, Massachusetts, Shapley defended his doctoral thesis at Princeton University in 1953. For many years he worked at RAND, and for more than thirty years he was a professor at UCLA University. He published numerous scientific papers, either by himself or in cooperation with other economists.

  16. Evolution of maintainability in France since 1971

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guyot, Christian.

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to make the point of maintainability in France since 1971. The importance of maintainability is recalled. Publications in France from 1971 to 1975 show the interest arose by maintainability; their analysis permits to make clear the general plan followed by the studies and gives indications on the directions of actual efforts. Conclusion is drawn on the orientation of work at short, medium and long term [fr

  17. Space maintainers in dentistry: past to present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Vikas; Pandit, Inder Kumar; Srivastava, Nikhil; Gugnani, Neeraj; Sekhon, Harveen Kaur

    2013-10-01

    Early orthodontic interventions are often initiated in the developing dentition to promote favourable developmental changes. Interceptive orthodontic can eliminate or reduce the severity of a developing malocclusion, the complexity of orthodontic treatment, overall treatment time and cost. The safest way to prevent future malocclusions from tooth loss is to place a space maintainer that is effective and durable. An appropriate use of space maintainer is advocated to hold the space until the eruption of permanent teeth. This case report describes the various changing trends in use of space maintainers: conventional band and loop, prefabricated band with custom made loop and glass fibre reinforced composite resins as space maintainers.

  18. Hamilton's inclusive fitness maintains heritable altruism polymorphism through rb = c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changcao; Lu, Xin

    2018-02-20

    How can altruism evolve or be maintained in a selfish world? Hamilton's rule shows that the former process will occur when rb > c -the benefits to the recipients of an altruistic act b , weighted by the relatedness between the social partners r , exceed the costs to the altruists c -drives altruistic genotypes spreading against nonaltruistic ones. From this rule, we infer that altruistic genotypes will persist in a population by forming a stable heritable polymorphism with nonaltruistic genotypes if rb = c makes inclusive fitness of the two morphs equal. We test this prediction using the data of 12 years of study on a cooperatively breeding bird, the Tibetan ground tit Pseudopodoces humilis , where helping is performed by males only and kin-directed. Individual variation in ever acting as a helper was heritable ( h 2 = 0.47), and the resultant altruism polymorphism remained stable as indicated by low-level annual fluctuation of the percentage of helpers among all adult males (24-28%). Helpers' indirect fitness gains from increased lifetime reproductive success of related breeders statistically fully compensated for their lifetime direct fitness losses, suggesting that rb = c holds. While our work provides a fundamental support for Hamilton's idea, it highlights the equivalent inclusive fitness returns to altruists and nonaltruists mediated by rb = c as a theoretically and realistically important mechanism to maintain social polymorphism.

  19. A Systematic Review of Known Mechanisms of Hydroxyurea-induced Foetal Haemoglobin for Treatment of Sickle Cell Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pule, Gift D.; Mowla, Shaheen; Novitzky, Nicolas; Wiysonge, Charles S.; Wonkam, Ambroise

    2016-01-01

    Aims To report on molecular mechanisms of foetal haemoglobin (HbF) induction by hydroxyurea (HU) for the treatment of Sickle Cell Disease (SCD). Study Design Systematic review. Results Studies have provided consistent associations between genomic variations in HbF-promoting loci and variable HbF level in response to HU. Numerous signal transduction pathways have been implicated, through the identification of key genomic variants in BCL11A, HBS1L-MYB, SAR1 or XmnI polymorphism that predispose the response to the treatment, and signal transduction pathways, that modulate γ-globin expression (cAMP/cGMP; Giα/JNK/Jun; methylation and microRNA). Three main molecular pathways have been reported: 1) Epigenetic modifications, transcriptional events and signalling pathways involved in HU-mediated response, 2) Signalling pathways involving HU-mediated response and 3) Post-transcriptional pathways (regulation by microRNAs). Conclusions The complete picture of HU-mediated mechanisms of HbF production in SCD remains elusive. Research on post-transcriptional mechanisms could lead to therapeutic targets that may minimize alterations to the cellular transcriptome. PMID:26327494

  20. Distribution of glycated haemoglobin and its determinants in Korean youth and young adults: a nationwide population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Ji-Young; Hwang, Seung-Sik; Kim, Jae Hyun; Lee, Young Ah; Lee, Seong Yong; Shin, Choong Ho; Yang, Sei Won

    2018-01-31

    The present study aimed to describe the distribution of and to investigate the factors associated with glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) values in Korean youth (10-19 years old) and young adults (20-29 years old). Data from the Korea Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2011-2015) were used. A total of 6,418 participants (male 3,140 [53.2%]) aged 10-29 years were included in the analysis. Percentiles of HbA1c were calculated and HbA1c values were compared according to age, sex, and associated factors. The mean HbA1c values (% [mmol/mol]) were 5.42 ± 0.01 (35.7 ± 0.1) for youths and 5.32 ± 0.01 (34.7 ± 0.1) for young adults (P distribution of HbA1c values in Korean youth and young adults. There were significant differences in the level of HbA1c according to age and sex.

  1. Effect of dietary Fe-deficiency on growth organ weight, haemoglobin formation and 59Fe-retention in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, R.K.; Gautam, D.

    1985-01-01

    Rats of the experimental group consuming diets adequate in all respects, but deficient in iron (5 ppm iron in contrast to 50 ppm iron for the control group) were found to suffer from moderate to severe anaemia (Hb 7.39 ± 0.2 g/100 ml, in contrast to 13.88 ± 0.19 g/100 ml for the control group; PCV per cent 27.88 ± 0.76 in contrast to 43.82 ± 0.65 for the control group) whereas they had satisfactory growth rates and normal outward appearance in all respects. However, their spleen and heart weight/g of body weight were also found to be significantly reduced, though liver and kidney weights remained normal. Their 59 Fe retention was considerably more than that of the control group indicating iron absorption and uptake were entirely dependent on iron-storage or haemoglobin status of the body. The results indicated that even for almost normal growth and a deceptive normal outward appearance a subject could be actually morbid because of Fe-deficiency anaemia under conditions of otherwise adequate diets and sedentary activity. (author)

  2. Changes in levels of haemoglobin A1c during the first 6 years after diagnosis of clinical type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivarius, Niels de Fine; Siersma, V.; Hansen, Lars Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    in HbA(1c) was investigated in a multivariate mixed model. RESULTS: During the first year after diabetes diagnosis, HbA(1c) dropped to near normal average level and then started rising almost linearly. A sharp rise in long-term glycaemic level was observed in approximately a quarter of the patients......OBJECTIVE: To assess the variability in levels of glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA(1c)) during the first six years after diagnosis of clinical type 2 diabetes in relation to possible predictors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data were from a population-based sample from general practice of 581 newly diagnosed...... diabetic patients aged 40 or over. Estimation of HbA(1c) was centralized. The changes in levels of HbA(1c) were described by HbA(1c) at diagnosis and a regression line fitted to the HbA(1c) measurements after 1-year follow-up for each patient. The predictive effect of patient characteristics for changes...

  3. Alpha- and beta-cell abnormalities in haemoglobin A1c-defined prediabetes and type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calanna, Salvatore; Scicali, Roberto; Di Pino, Antonino

    2014-01-01

    New recommendations for the use of glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) to diagnose prediabetes and type 2 diabetes have changed the constitution of the two populations. We aimed to investigate the pathophysiological characteristics of individuals with HbA1c-defined prediabetes and type 2 diabetes......, respectively. Ten subjects with HbA1c-defined prediabetes, i.e. HbA1c from 5.7 to 6.4 % (39-46 mmol/mol), eight newly diagnosed patients with HbA1c-defined type 2 diabetes [HbA1c ≥6.5 % (≥48 mmol/mol)], and ten controls with HbA1c lower than 5.7 % (.... Subjects with HbA1c-defined prediabetes showed significantly lower insulinogenic index (P = 0.02), disposition index (P = 0.001), and glucagon suppression compared with controls; and similar (P = NS) insulinogenic index and glucagon suppression and higher disposition index (P = 0.02) compared to HbA1c...

  4. Comparative clinical evaluation of glycosylated haemoglobin level in healthy and chronic periodontitis patients: A chairside diagnostic method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasa, T S; Agrawal, Parul; Goyal, Pravesh; Farista, Sana; Sowmya, N K; Deonani, Sushmita

    2015-01-01

    Glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) level can consequently be interpreted as an average of the blood glucose present over the past 3-4 months. Periodontitis is associated with glycemic control in patients with diabetes. The purpose of this study was to determine the level of HbA1c in healthy and periodontitis patients who were previously not diagnosed with diabetes mellitus. A total of 40 patients were selected for study and divided into two groups. Group 1 included patients with a healthy periodontium, and Group 2 included patients suffering from chronic periodontitis. Finger stick blood was collected by special collection unit (A1CNOW+® Bayer Health Care, Tarrytown New York, USA), for estimating level of HbA1c. Both groups showed similar HbA1c levels clinically with slight increase in levels in the test group, but was statistically significant (test--5.66 ± 0.35%, control--5.17 ± 0.3% P = 0.003). Indians are at a high-risk of developing periodontitis and diabetes. These data suggest a possible link between periodontitis and glycemic control in nondiabetic individuals, periodontal disease may be a potential contributor to the development of type 2 diabetes.

  5. Comparative clinical evaluation of glycosylated haemoglobin level in healthy and chronic periodontitis patients: A chairside diagnostic method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T S Srinivasa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective and Background: Glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c level can consequently be interpreted as an average of the blood glucose present over the past 3-4 months. Periodontitis is associated with glycemic control in patients with diabetes. The purpose of this study was to determine the level of HbA1c in healthy and periodontitis patients who were previously not diagnosed with diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 patients were selected for study and divided into two groups. Group 1 included patients with a healthy periodontium, and Group 2 included patients suffering from chronic periodontitis. Finger stick blood was collected by special collection unit (A1CNOW +® Bayer Health Care, Tarrytown New York, USA, for estimating level of HbA1c. Result: Both groups showed similar HbA1c levels clinically with slight increase in levels in the test group, but was statistically significant (test - 5.66 ± 0.35%, control - 5.17 ± 0.3% P = 0.003. Conclusion: Indians are at a high-risk of developing periodontitis and diabetes. These data suggest a possible link between periodontitis and glycemic control in nondiabetic individuals, periodontal disease may be a potential contributor to the development of type 2 diabetes.

  6. France's Administrative Tertiary: Stable Numbers for Occupations in Flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaroutzos, Olivier; Meriot, Sylvie-Anne

    1995-01-01

    During the past decade, the number of jobs in France's administrative service sector has remained stable. General administrative work has become more infrequent; however, the basic occupations of secretary and accountancy have been maintained. Although the number of typists has declined, the number of "secretarial" jobs has increased…

  7. The Cost of Maintaining Educational Communications Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, David A.

    Tentative formulas for calculating the cost of maintaining educational communications equipment are proposed. The formulas are based on a survey of campuses of the State University of New York. The survey analyzed the types of equipment to be maintained, types of maintenance, who uses the equipment, who services the equipment, and the cost…

  8. Restoration of Haemoglobin Level Using Hydrodynamic Gene Therapy with Erythropoietin Does Not Alleviate the Disease Progression in an Anaemic Mouse Model for TGFβ1-Induced Chronic Kidney Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lea Hougaard; Wogensen, Lise; Marcussen, N.

    2015-01-01

    . The experiment is conducted by hydrodynamic gene transfer of a plasmid encoding murine Epo in a transgenic mouse model that overexpresses TGF-β1 locally in the kidneys. This model develops anaemia due to chronic kidney disease characterised by thickening of the glomerular basement membrane, deposition...... of mesangial matrix and mild interstitial fibrosis. A group of age matched wildtype littermates are treated accordingly. After a single hydrodynamic administration of plasmid DNA containing murine EPO gene, sustained high haemoglobin levels are observed in both transgenic and wildtype mice from 7.5 ± 0.6 mmol...... treatment in this model of chronic kidney disease normalises haemoglobin levels but has no effect on kidney fibrosis or function....

  9. A comparison of post-op haemoglobin levels and allogeneic blood transfusion rates following total knee arthroplasty without drainage or with reinfusion drains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Shariff; Bhattacharya, Rajarshi; Bhavikatti, Mainudden; Dawson, Matthew

    2010-02-01

    The effects of re-infusion drains on the rate of allogeneic blood transfusion and post-op haemoglobin levels in Total Knee Arthroplasty were examined. A group of 22 patients undergoing primary Total Knee Arthroplasty using a CBCII Constavac Stryker re-infusion drainage system were compared with a group of 30 patients, matched for age, sex and type of prosthesis but without any drain usage. The re-infusion drain.group had a significantly lower day 1 and day 3 post-operative haemoglobin compared to the non-drainage group. The re-infusion drain group had a higher allogenic transfusion rate compared to the non-drainage group. There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding the rate of wound and transfusion related complications and mean length of post-operative stay. We found that reinfusion drains were ineffective in reducing allogeneic transfusion requirements as compared with non-drainage in total knee arthroplasty.

  10. Rapid screening for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and haemoglobin polymorphisms in Africa by a simple high-throughput SSOP-ELISA method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevold, Anders; Vestergaard, Lasse S; Lusingu, John

    2005-01-01

    was available. METHODS: A simple and rapid technique was developed to detect the most prominent single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the HbB and G6PD genes. The method is able to detect the different haemoglobin polymorphisms A, S, C and E, as well as G6PD polymorphisms B, A and A- based on PCR......-amplification followed by a hybridization step using sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes (SSOPs) specific for the SNP variants and quantified by ELISA. RESULTS: The SSOP-ELISA method was found to be specific, and compared well to the commonly used PCR-RFLP technique. Identical results were obtained in 98......% (haemoglobin) and 95% (G6PD) of the tested 90 field samples from a high-transmission area in Tanzania, which were used to validate the new technique. CONCLUSION: The simplicity and accuracy of the new methodology makes it suitable for application in settings where resources are limited. It would serve...

  11. One-dimensional stable distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Zolotarev, V M

    1986-01-01

    This is the first book specifically devoted to a systematic exposition of the essential facts known about the properties of stable distributions. In addition to its main focus on the analytic properties of stable laws, the book also includes examples of the occurrence of stable distributions in applied problems and a chapter on the problem of statistical estimation of the parameters determining stable laws. A valuable feature of the book is the author's use of several formally different ways of expressing characteristic functions corresponding to these laws.

  12. Stable isotope research pool inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-12-01

    This report contains a listing of electromagnetically separated stable isotopes which are available for distribution within the United States for non-destructive research use from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory on a loan basis. This inventory includes all samples of stable isotopes in the Materials Research Collection and does not designate whether a sample is out on loan or in reprocessing

  13. Coastal Maintained Channels in US waters

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This layer shows coastal channels and waterways that are maintained and surveyed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). These channels are necessary...

  14. Marshal: Maintaining Evolving Models, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SIFT proposes to design and develop the Marshal system, a mixed-initiative tool for maintaining task models over the course of evolving missions. Marshal-enabled...

  15. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency and Haemoglobin Drop after Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine Use for Intermittent Preventive Treatment of Malaria during Pregnancy in Ghana - A Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Owusu

    Full Text Available Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine (SP is still the only recommended antimalarial for use in intermittent preventive treatment of malaria during pregnancy (IPTp in some malaria endemic countries including Ghana. SP has the potential to cause acute haemolysis in G6PD deficient people resulting in significant haemoglobin (Hb drop but there is limited data on post SP-IPTp Hb drop. This study determined the difference, if any in proportions of women with significant acute haemoglobin drop between G6PD normal, partial deficient and full deficient women after SP-IPTp.Prospectively, 1518 pregnant women who received SP for IPTp as part of their normal antenatal care were enrolled. Their G6PD status were determined at enrollment followed by assessments on days 3, 7,14 and 28 to document any adverse effects and changes in post-IPTp haemoglobin (Hb levels. The three groups were comparable at baseline except for their mean Hb (10.3 g/dL for G6PD normal, 10.8 g/dL for G6PD partial deficient and 10.8 g/dL for G6PD full defect women.The prevalence of G6PD full defect was 2.3% and 17.0% for G6PD partial defect. There was no difference in the proportions with fractional Hb drop ≥ 20% as compared to their baseline value post SP-IPTp among the 3 groups on days 3, 7, 14. The G6PD full defect group had the highest median fractional drop at day 7. There was a weak negative correlation between G6PD activity and fractional Hb drop. There was no statistical difference between the three groups in the proportions of those who started the study with Hb ≥ 8g/dl whose Hb level subsequently fell below 8g/dl post-SP IPTp. No study participant required transfusion or hospitalization for severe anaemia.There was no significant difference between G6PD normal and deficient women in proportions with significant acute haemoglobin drop post SP-IPTp and lower G6PD enzyme activity was not strongly associated with significant acute drug-induced haemoglobin drop post SP-IPTp but a larger

  16. Altitude training and haemoglobin mass from the optimised carbon monoxide rebreathing method determined by a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Christopher J; Sharpe, Ken; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Saunders, Philo U; Humberstone, Clare E; Robertson, Eileen Y; Wachsmuth, Nadine B; Clark, Sally A; McLean, Blake D; Friedmann-Bette, Birgit; Neya, Mitsuo; Pottgiesser, Torben; Schumacher, Yorck O; Schmidt, Walter F

    2013-12-01

    To characterise the time course of changes in haemoglobin mass (Hbmass) in response to altitude exposure. This meta-analysis uses raw data from 17 studies that used carbon monoxide rebreathing to determine Hbmass prealtitude, during altitude and postaltitude. Seven studies were classic altitude training, eight were live high train low (LHTL) and two mixed classic and LHTL. Separate linear-mixed models were fitted to the data from the 17 studies and the resultant estimates of the effects of altitude used in a random effects meta-analysis to obtain an overall estimate of the effect of altitude, with separate analyses during altitude and postaltitude. In addition, within-subject differences from the prealtitude phase for altitude participant and all the data on control participants were used to estimate the analytical SD. The 'true' between-subject response to altitude was estimated from the within-subject differences on altitude participants, between the prealtitude and during-altitude phases, together with the estimated analytical SD. During-altitude Hbmass was estimated to increase by ∼1.1%/100 h for LHTL and classic altitude. Postaltitude Hbmass was estimated to be 3.3% higher than prealtitude values for up to 20 days. The within-subject SD was constant at ∼2% for up to 7 days between observations, indicative of analytical error. A 95% prediction interval for the 'true' response of an athlete exposed to 300 h of altitude was estimated to be 1.1-6%. Camps as short as 2 weeks of classic and LHTL altitude will quite likely increase Hbmass and most athletes can expect benefit.

  17. Bridging Theory and Experiment to Address Structural Properties of Truncated Haemoglobins: Insights from Thermobifida fusca HbO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Barry D; Boechi, Leonardo; Boffi, Alberto; Estrin, Dario E; Smulevich, Giulietta

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, we will discuss the paradigmatic case of Thermobifida fusca (Tf-trHb) HbO in its ferrous and ferric states and its behaviour towards a battery of possible ligands. This choice was dictated by the fact that it has been one of the most extensively studied truncated haemoglobins, both in terms of spectroscopic and molecular dynamics studies. Tf-trHb typifies the structural properties of group II trHbs, as the active site is characterized by a highly polar distal environment in which TrpG8, TyrCD1, and TyrB10 provide three potential H-bond donors in the distal cavity capable of stabilizing the incoming ligands. The role of these residues in key topological positions, and their interplay with the iron-bound ligands, has been addressed in studies carried out on the CO, F(-), OH(-), CN(-), and HS(-) adducts formed with the wild-type protein and a combinatorial set of mutants, in which the distal polar residues, TrpG8, TyrCD1, and TyrB10, have been singly, doubly, or triply replaced by a Phe residue. In this context, such a complete analysis provides an excellent benchmark for the investigation of the relationship between protein structure and function, allowing one to translate physicochemical properties of the active site into the observed functional behaviour. Tf-trHb will be compared with other members of the group II trHbs and, more generally, with members of the other trHb subgroups. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Crystallization and preliminary structural analysis of the giant haemoglobin from Glossoscolex paulistus at 3.2 Å

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachega, J. F. R., E-mail: bachega@ursa.if.sc.usp.br; Bleicher, L.; Horjales, E. R. [Centro de Biotecnologia Molecular Estrutural, Instituto de Fisica de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, São Carlos - SP, CEP 13566-590 (Brazil); Santiago, P. S. [Instituto de Química de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, São Carlos - SP, CEP 13566-590 (Brazil); Garratt, R. C. [Centro de Biotecnologia Molecular Estrutural, Instituto de Fisica de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, São Carlos - SP, CEP 13566-590 (Brazil); Tabak, M., E-mail: bachega@ursa.if.sc.usp.br [Instituto de Química de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, São Carlos - SP, CEP 13566-590 (Brazil)

    2011-01-01

    Diffraction data to 3.2 Å from crystals of the 3.6 MDa erythrocruorin from a Brazilian earthworm represent the highest resolution reported to date for similar complexes. An unambiguous molecular replacement solution shows the particle to belong to the type I class. Glossoscolex paulistus is a free-living earthworm encountered in south-east Brazil. Its oxygen transport requirements are undertaken by a giant extracellular haemoglobin, or erythrocruorin (HbGp), which has an approximate molecular mass of 3.6 MDa and, by analogy with its homologue from Lumbricus terrestris (HbLt), is believed to be composed of a total of 180 polypeptide chains. In the present work the full 3.6 MDa particle in its cyanomet state was purified and crystallized using sodium citrate or PEG8000 as precipitant. The crystals contain one-quarter of the full particle in the asymmetric unit of the I222 cell and have parameters of a = 270.8 Å, b = 320.3 Å and c = 332.4 Å. Diffraction data were collected to 3.15 Å using synchrotron radiation on beamline X29A at the Brookhaven National Laboratory and represent the highest resolution data described to date for similar erythrocruorins. The structure was solved by molecular replacement using a search model corresponding to one-twelfth of its homologue from HbLt. This revealed that HbGp belongs to the type I class of erythrocruorins and provided an interpretable initial electron density map in which many features including the haem groups and disulfide bonds could be identified.

  19. Haemoglobin Fontainebleau (HBA2: c. 64G>C) in Oman: molecular and haematological characteristics and interaction with various haemoglobinopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daar, Shahina; Al Zadjali, Shoaib; Alkindi, Salam; Wali, Yasser; Al-Rawas, Abdulhakeem; Al-Haddabi, Humood; Al-Riyami, Arwa Z

    2018-04-01

    To describe the laboratory features of haemoglobin Fontainebleau (Hb FB) and its interactions with various α and β globin gene mutations in the Omani population. Over a period of 10 years, a total of 94 blood samples were suspected to have an α variant on HPLC at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman. Molecular testing was performed using PCR based techniques to define the variant and to analyse other interacting mutations in either α or β globin genes. Of 94 subjects, molecular analysis confirmed the Hb FB variant in 55 samples (38 non-cord and 17 cord blood). A total of 36/38 non-cord samples were heterozygous for the variant, while all 17 cord blood samples were heterozygotes. A total of 43/55 individuals had a concomitant α and/or β globin gene mutation. Hb FB is the the most common α variant in the Omani population. We report the different HPLC profiles of this variant that we observed, with and without other haemoglobinopathies in non-cord and cord blood samples. This is the first report describing the HPLC profiles of this α globin chain variant on 1 year follow-up testing of cord blood samples. With careful analysis by HPLC, it is possible not only to identify Hb FB but also to predict any concomitant α and/or β globin gene mutations. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Malaria in Pregnancy Is a Predictor of Infant Haemoglobin Concentrations during the First Year of Life in Benin, West Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Accrombessi

    Full Text Available Anaemia is an increasingly recognized health problem in Africa, particularly in infants and pregnant women. Although malaria is known to be the main risk factor of anaemia in both groups, the consequences of maternal factors, particularly malaria in pregnancy (MiP, on infant haemoglobin (Hb concentrations during the first months of life are still unclear.We followed-up a cohort of 1005 Beninese pregnant women from the beginning of pregnancy until delivery. A subsample composed of the first 400 offspring of these women were selected at birth and followed until the first year of life. Placental histology and blood smear at 1st clinical antenatal visit (ANC, 2nd ANC and delivery were used to assess malaria during pregnancy. Infant Hb concentrations were measured at birth, 6, 9 and 12 months of age. A mixed multi-level model was used to assess the association between MiP and infant Hb variations during the first 12 months of life.Placental malaria (difference mean [dm] = - 2.8 g/L, 95% CI [-5.3, -0.3], P = 0.03 and maternal peripheral parasitaemia at delivery (dm = - 4.6 g/L, 95% CI [-7.9, -1.3], P = 0.007 were the main maternal factors significantly associated with infant Hb concentrations during the first year of life. Poor maternal nutritional status and malaria infection during infancy were also significantly associated with a decrease in infant Hb.Antimalarial control and nutritional interventions before and during pregnancy should be reinforced to reduce specifically the incidence of infant anaemia, particularly in Sub-Saharan countries.

  1. Stable configurations in social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronski, Jared C.; DeVille, Lee; Ferguson, Timothy; Livesay, Michael

    2018-06-01

    We present and analyze a model of opinion formation on an arbitrary network whose dynamics comes from a global energy function. We study the global and local minimizers of this energy, which we call stable opinion configurations, and describe the global minimizers under certain assumptions on the friendship graph. We show a surprising result that the number of stable configurations is not necessarily monotone in the strength of connection in the social network, i.e. the model sometimes supports more stable configurations when the interpersonal connections are made stronger.

  2. Development of Stable Isotope Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Do Young; Kim, Cheol Jung; Han, Jae Min

    2009-03-01

    KAERI has obtained an advanced technology with singular originality for laser stable isotope separation. Objectives for this project are to get production technology of Tl-203 stable isotope used for medical application and are to establish the foundation of the pilot system, while we are taking aim at 'Laser Isotope Separation Technology to make resistance to the nuclear proliferation'. And we will contribute to ensuring a nuclear transparency in the world society by taking part in a practical group of NSG and being collaboration with various international groups related to stable isotope separation technology

  3. Stable isotope research pool inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-03-01

    This report contains a listing of electromagnetically separated stable isotopes which are available at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for distribution for nondestructive research use on a loan basis. This inventory includes all samples of stable isotopes in the Research Materials Collection and does not designate whether a sample is out on loan or is in reprocessing. For some of the high abundance naturally occurring isotopes, larger amounts can be made available; for example, Ca-40 and Fe-56

  4. French days on stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    These first French days on stable isotopes took place in parallel with the 1. French days of environmental chemistry. Both conferences had common plenary sessions. The conference covers all aspects of the use of stable isotopes in the following domains: medicine, biology, environment, tracer techniques, agronomy, food industry, geology, petroleum geochemistry, cosmo-geochemistry, archaeology, bio-geochemistry, hydrology, climatology, nuclear and particle physics, astrophysics, isotope separations etc.. Abstracts available on CD-Rom only. (J.S.)

  5. Stable isotope research pool inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This report contains a listing of electromagnetically separated stable isotopes which are available for distribution within the United States for nondestructive research use from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory on a loan basis. This inventory includes all samples of stable isotopes in the Material Research Collection and does not designate whether a sample is out on loan or in reprocessing. For some of the high abundance naturally occurring isotopes, larger amounts can be made available; for example, Ca-40 and Fe-56

  6. Pharmaceuticals labelled with stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumbiegel, P.

    1986-11-01

    The relatively new field of pharmaceuticals labelled with stable isotopes is reviewed. Scientific, juridical, and ethical questions are discussed concerning the application of these pharmaceuticals in human medicine. 13 C, 15 N, and 2 H are the stable isotopes mainly utilized in metabolic function tests. Methodical contributions are given to the application of 2 H, 13 C, and 15 N pharmaceuticals showing new aspects and different states of development in the field under discussion. (author)

  7. The influence of carbon monoxide bolus on the measurement of total haemoglobin mass using the optimized CO-rebreathing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, G; Richardson, A J; Maxwell, N S; Pringle, J S M; Ingham, S A; Fudge, B W

    2014-01-01

    The optimized carbon monoxide (CO) rebreathing method (oCOR-method) is routinely used to measure total haemoglobin mass (tHbmass). The tHbmass measure is subject to a test-retest typical error of ∼2%, mostly from the precision of carboxyhaemoglobin (HbCO) measurement. We hypothesized that tHbmass would be robust to differences in the bolus of CO administered during the oCOR-method. Twelve participants (ten males and two females; age 27 ± 6 yr, height 177 ± 11 cm and mass 73.9 ± 12.1 kg) completed the oCOR-method on four occasions. Different bolus of CO were administered (LOW: 0.6 ml kg −1 ; MED 1 : 1.0 ml kg −1  and HIGH: 1.4 ml kg −1 ); to determine the reliability of MED 1 , a second trial was conducted (MED 2 ). tHbmass was found to be significantly less from the HIGH CO bolus (776 ± 148 g) when compared to the LOW CO (791 ± 149 g) or MED 1  CO (788 ± 149 g) trials. MED 2  CO was 785 ± 150 g. The measurement of tHbmass is repeatable to within 0.8%, but a small and notable difference was seen when using a HIGH CO bolus (1.4 to 1.9% less), potentially due to differences in CO uptake kinetics. Previously, an improved precision of the oCOR-method was thought to require a higher bolus of CO (i.e. larger ▵%HbCO), as commercial hemoximeters only estimate %HbCO levels to a single decimal place (usually ± 0.1%). With the new hemoximeter used in this study, a bolus of 1.0 ml kg −1  allows adequate precision with acceptable safety. (note)

  8. Defining a glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) level that predicts increased risk of penile implant infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habous, Mohamad; Tal, Raanan; Tealab, Alaa; Soliman, Tarek; Nassar, Mohammed; Mekawi, Zenhom; Mahmoud, Saad; Abdelwahab, Osama; Elkhouly, Mohamed; Kamr, Hatem; Remeah, Abdallah; Binsaleh, Saleh; Ralph, David; Mulhall, John

    2018-02-01

    To re-evaluate the role of diabetes mellitus (DM) as a risk factor for penile implant infection by exploring the association between glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels and penile implant infection rates and to define a threshold value that predicts implant infection. We conducted a multicentre prospective study including all patients undergoing penile implant surgery between 2009 and 2015. Preoperative, perioperative and postoperative management were identical for the entire cohort. Univariate analysis was performed to define predictors of implant infection. The HbA1c levels were analysed as continuous variables and sequential analysis was conducted using 0.5% increments to define a threshold level predicting implant infection. Multivariable analysis was performed with the following factors entered in the model: DM, HbA1C level, patient age, implant type, number of vascular risk factors (VRFs), presence of Peyronie's disease (PD), body mass index (BMI), and surgeon volume. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was generated to define the optimal HbA1C threshold for infection prediction. In all, 902 implant procedures were performed over the study period. The mean patient age was 56.6 years. The mean HbA1c level was 8.0%, with 81% of men having a HbA1c level of >6%. In all, 685 (76%) implants were malleable and 217 (24%) were inflatable devices; 302 (33.5%) patients also had a diagnosis of PD. The overall infection rate was 8.9% (80/902). Patients who had implant infection had significantly higher mean HbA1c levels, 9.5% vs 7.8% (P HbA1c level, we found infection rates were: 1.3% with HbA1c level of 9.5% (P HbA1c level, whilst a high-volume surgeon had a protective effect and was associated with a reduced infection risk. Using ROC analysis, we determined that a HbA1c threshold level of 8.5% predicted infection with a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 65%. Uncontrolled DM is associated with increased risk of infection after penile implant surgery

  9. Haemoglobin changes and risk of anaemia following treatment for uncomplicated falciparum malaria in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwang, Julien; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Ndiaye, Jean-Louis; Djimdé, Abdoulaye A; Dorsey, Grant; Mårtensson, Andreas A; Karema, Corine; Olliaro, Piero L

    2017-06-23

    Anaemia is common in malaria. It is important to quantitate the risk of anaemia and to distinguish factors related to the natural history of disease from potential drug toxicity. Individual-patient data analysis based on nine randomized controlled trials of treatments of uncomplicated falciparum malaria from 13 sub-Saharan African countries. Risk factors for reduced haemoglobin (Hb) concentrations and anaemia on presentation and after treatment were analysed using mixed effect models. Eight thousand eight hundred ninety-seven patients (77.0% <5 years-old) followed-up through 28 days treated with artemisinin combination therapy (ACT, 90%, n = 7968) or non-ACT. At baseline, under 5's had the highest risk of anaemia (77.6% vs. 32.8%) and higher parasitaemia (43,938 μl) than older subjects (2784 μl). Baseline anaemia increased the risk of parasitological recurrence. Hb began to fall after treatment start. In under 5's the estimated nadir was ~35 h (range 29-48), with a drop of -12.8% from baseline (from 9.8 g/dl to 8.7 g/dl, p = 0.001); in under 15's, the mean Hb decline between day 0-3 was -4.7% (from 9.4 to 9.0 g/dl, p = 0.001). The degree of Hb loss was greater in patients with high pre-treatment Hb and parasitaemia and with slower parasite reduction rates, and was unrelated to age. Subsequently, Hb increased linearly (+0.6%/day) until day 28, to reach +13.8% compared to baseline. Severe anaemia (<5 g/dl, 2 per 1000 patients) was transient and all patients recovered after day 14, except one case of very severe anaemia associated with parasite recurrence at day 28. There was no systematic difference in Hb concentrations between treatments and no case of delayed anaemia. On presentation with acute malaria young children with high parasitaemia have the highest risk of anaemia. The majority of patients experience a drop in Hb while on treatment as early as day 1-2, followed by a linear increase through follow-up. The degree of the early Hb dip is

  10. Stable isotope measurements of atmospheric CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, J.W.C.; Ferretti, D.F.; Vaughn, B.H.; Francey, R.J.; Allison, C.E.

    2002-01-01

    The measurement of stable carbon isotope ratios of atmospheric carbon dioxide, δ 13 CO 2 are useful for partitioning surface-atmospheric fluxes into terrestrial and oceanic components. δC 18 OO also has potential for segregating photosynthetic and respiratory fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems. Here we describe in detail the techniques for making these measurements. The primary challenge for all of the techniques used to measure isotopes of atmospheric CO 2 is to achieve acceptable accuracy and precision and to maintain them over the decades needed to observe carbon cycle variability. The keys to success such an approach are diligent intercalibrations of laboratories from around the world, as well as the use of multiple techniques such as dual inlet and GC-IRMS and the intercomparison of such measurements. We focus here on two laboratories, the Stable Isotope Lab at the Institute for Arctic and Alpine Research (INSTAAR) at the University of Colorado is described and the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation - Atmospheric Research (CSIRO). Different approaches exist at other laboratories (e.g. programs operated by Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) and The Center for Atmospheric and Oceanic Studies, Toboku University (TU)) however these are not discussed here. Finally, we also discuss the recently developed Gas Chromatography - Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (GC-IRMS) technique which holds significant promise for measuring ultra-small samples of gas with good precision. (author)

  11. Stable statistical representations facilitate visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Jennifer E; Melcher, David

    2014-10-01

    Observers represent the average properties of object ensembles even when they cannot identify individual elements. To investigate the functional role of ensemble statistics, we examined how modulating statistical stability affects visual search. We varied the mean and/or individual sizes of an array of Gabor patches while observers searched for a tilted target. In "stable" blocks, the mean and/or local sizes of the Gabors were constant over successive displays, whereas in "unstable" baseline blocks they changed from trial to trial. Although there was no relationship between the context and the spatial location of the target, observers found targets faster (as indexed by faster correct responses and fewer saccades) as the global mean size became stable over several displays. Building statistical stability also facilitated scanning the scene, as measured by larger saccadic amplitudes, faster saccadic reaction times, and shorter fixation durations. These findings suggest a central role for peripheral visual information, creating context to free resources for detailed processing of salient targets and maintaining the illusion of visual stability.

  12. How Do Positive Views Maintain Life Satisfaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Huei; Tsai, Ying-Mei; Chen, Lung Hung

    2009-01-01

    This study proposes three mediation pathways to explain how the positive views (perceived control, optimism and self-enhancement) proposed by Cummins and Nistico (Journal of Happiness Studies 3:37-69 2002) maintain life satisfaction. The three pathways were enhancing self-esteem, reducing have-want discrepancy and changing importance perceptions.…

  13. Maintaining Contour Trees of Dynamic Terrains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, Pankaj K.; Mølhave, Thomas; Revsbæk, Morten

    2015-01-01

    We study the problem of maintaining the contour tree T of a terrain Sigma, represented as a triangulated xy-monotone surface, as the heights of its vertices vary continuously with time. We characterize the combinatorial changes in T and how they relate to topological changes in Sigma. We present ...

  14. Maintaining Contour Trees of Dynamic Terrains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, Pankaj K.; Arge, Lars; Mølhave, Thomas

    We consider maintaining the contour tree T of a piecewise-linear triangulation M that is the graph of a time varying height function h:R2→R. We carefully describe the combinatorial change in T that happen as h varies over time and how these changes relate to topological changes in M. We present a...

  15. Maintainability of manpower system with restricted recruitment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The maintainability of a manpower system is studied under a Markov framework. The classical method of controlling only one factor of flow is extended to highlight the case in which two factors are under control simultaneously. One special case of this extension, where recruitment of units faces partial embargo, is given, ...

  16. Competence in radiation protection - acquisition, maintaining, extending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breckow, J.; Geringer, T.; Radiation Protection Academy Seibersdorf; Haug, T.

    2007-01-01

    A survey is given on current initiatives, supranational in the EU and national in Germany and Switzerland, for education and training in radiation protection with the aim of maintaining and enlarging professional competence. Successively, individual studying possibilities and courses as well as some experiences with guidelines for professional knowledge in Germany are described. (orig.)

  17. Targeting, Monitoring and Effect of Oral Iron Therapy on Haemoglobin Levels in Older Patients Discharged to Primary Care from Inpatient Rehabilitation: A Cohort Study Using Routinely Collected Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Zach; Hands, Katherine J; Witham, Miles D

    2016-08-01

    Oral iron is commonly prescribed to older patients with suspected or confirmed iron-deficiency anaemia; however, few studies have examined the effectiveness of oral iron therapy in the real world in this population. We therefore determined the prevalence of iron deficiency in older people prescribed oral iron, examined the response mounted to therapy and ascertained predictors of response to oral iron. We analysed a routinely collected, linked dataset from older patients who had undergone inpatient rehabilitation between 1999 and 2011. An initial analysis examined patients within this cohort who were prescribed iron after rehabilitation and derived three groups based upon their ferritin and transferrin indices: probably, possibly and not iron deficient. A second analysis compared pre- and post-treatment haemoglobin to determine the degree of response to iron therapy across each category of deficiency. Finally, patient demographics, linked biochemistry data and comorbid disease based on International Classification of Disease (ICD-10) codes from previous hospital admissions were used in regression modelling to evaluate factors affecting response to therapy. A total of 490 patients were prescribed oral iron within 90 days of rehabilitation discharge. Of these, 413 (84 %) had iron indices performed; 94 (23 %) were possibly deficient, 224 (54 %) were probably deficient, and 95 (23 %) were not deficient. Of the 490 patients, 360 had both pre- and post-treatment haemoglobin data and iron indices; probably deficient patients mounted a slightly greater response to oral iron (17 vs. 12 g/L for not deficient; p < 0.05). Only pre-treatment haemoglobin, mean cell volume and lower gastrointestinal pathology were significant predictors of a response to oral iron therapy. Notably, acid-suppressant use was not a predictor of response. We conclude that many older patients are exposed to oral iron without good evidence of either iron deficiency or a significant response to

  18. Diagnostic applications of newborn screening for α-thalassaemias, haemoglobins E and H disorders using isoelectric focusing on dry blood spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindatanmanusan, Punyanuch; Riolueang, Suchada; Glomglao, Waraporn; Sukontharangsri, Yaowapa; Chamnanvanakij, Sangkae; Torcharus, Kitti; Viprakasit, Vip

    2014-03-01

    Neonatal screening for haemoglobin (Hb) disorders is a standard of care in several developed countries with the main objective to detect Hb S. Such practice has not been established in Thailand where α-thalassaemia and haemoglobin E (Hb E) are highly prevalent. Early identification of thalassaemias could be helpful and strengthen the programme for prevention and control for severe thalassaemias. Data from isoelectric focusing (IEF) and Isoscan® for detecting types and amount (%) of each haemoglobin in 350 newborn's dried blood spots were analysed and compared with the comprehensive genotype analysis by DNA studies as a gold standard. Based on genetic profiles, there were 10 different categories: (1) normal (n = 227), (2) α(+)-thalassaemia trait (n = 14), (3) α(0)-thalassaemia trait (n = 13), (4) β(0)-thalassaemia trait (n = 7), (5) Hb E trait (n = 72), (6) Hb E trait with α(0)-thalassaemia or homozygous α(+)-thalassaemia (n = 5), (7) Hb E trait with α(+)-thalassaemia trait (n = 5), (8) homozygous Hb E (n = 3), (9) homozygous Hb E with α(0)-thalassaemia trait (n = 1) and (10) Hb H disease (n = 3). The presence of Hb Bart's and Hb E were used to identify cases with α-thalassaemia and Hb E, respectively. We set 0.25% of Hb Bart's and 1.5% of Hb E as a cut-off level to detect α(+)-thalassaemia trait (sensitivity 92.86% and specificity 74.0%) and Hb E trait with 100% of both sensitivity and specificity for IEF diagnosis. Although molecular diagnosis seems to be better for definitive diagnosis of thalassaemia syndromes at birth, however, using our reference range described herein, IEF can be applied in a resource-limiting setting with acceptable reliability.

  19. Meat and cancer: haemoglobin and haemin in a low-calcium diet promote colorectal carcinogenesis at the aberrant crypt stage in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Fabrice; Taché, Sylviane; Petit, Claude R; Van Der Meer, Roelof; Corpet, Denis E

    2003-01-01

    High intake of red meat, but not of white meat, is associated with an increased risk of colon cancer. However, red meat does not promote cancer in rodents. Haemin, added to low-calcium diets, increases colonic proliferation, and haemoglobin, added to high-fat diets, increases the colon tumour incidence in rats, an effect possibly due to peroxyl radicals. We thus speculated that haem might be the promoting agent in meat, and that prevention strategies could use calcium and antioxidants. These hypotheses were tested in rats at the aberrant crypt foci (ACF) stage at 100 days. F344 rats (n=124) were given an injection of azoxymethane and were then randomised to 11 groups fed with low-calcium (20μmol/g) AIN76-based diets, containing 5% safflower oil. Haemin (0.25, 0.5 and 1.5μmol/g) or haemoglobin (1.5 and 3 μmol haem/g) was added to five experimental diets, compared to a control diet without haem. Three other high-haemin diets (1.5μmol/g) were supplemented with calcium (250μmol/g), antioxidant butylated hydroxyanisole and rutin (0.05% each), and olive oil, which replaced safflower oil. Faecal water was assayed for lipid peroxidation by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs) test, and for cytolytic activity. Haemin strikingly increased the ACF size, dose-dependently, from 2.6 to 11.4 crypts/ACF (all p<0.001). The high-haemin diet also increased the number of ACF per colon (p<0.001). Promotion was associated with increased faecal water TBARs and cytotoxicity. Calcium, olive oil, and antioxidants each inhibited the haemin-induced ACF promotion, and normalised the faecal TBARs and cytotoxicity. The haemoglobin diets increased the number of ACF and faecal TBARs, but not the ACF size or the faecal cytotoxicity. In conclusion, dietary haemin is the most potent known ACF promoter. Haemoglobin is also a potent promoter of colorectal carcinogenesis. The results suggest that myoglobin in red meat could promote colon cancer. Diets high in calcium, or in oxidation

  20. Breeding and maintaining high-quality insects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim; Kristensen, Torsten Nygård; Heckmann, Lars-Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Insects have a large potential for sustainably enhancing global food and feed production, and commercial insect production is a rising industry of high economic value. Insects suitable for production typically have fast growth, short generation time, efficient nutrient utilization, high...... reproductive potential, and thrive at high density. Insects may cost-efficiently convert agricultural and industrial food by-products into valuable protein once the technology is finetuned. However, since insect mass production is a new industry, the technology needed to efficiently farm these animals is still...... in a starting phase. Here, we discuss the challenges and precautions that need to be considered when breeding and maintaining high-quality insect populations for food and feed. This involves techniques typically used in domestic animal breeding programs including maintaining genetically healthy populations...

  1. Maintaining Respiratory Health in Cystic Fibrosis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Modaresi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis (CF is an inherited disease that primarily affects the lungs and the digestive system, however, it also affects a number of other organs and systems. More than 90% of mortality of  CF patients is due to lung complications.  Healthy lungs are important for a long life for people with CF, We will discuss two important topics for maintaining respiratory health. Chronic use of drugs for maintaining respiratory health There are a number of drugs available to keep CF lungs healthy. We will discuss the science behind the recommendations for use of: Inhaled antibiotics Dornase alfa Azithromycin Hypertonic saline High-dose ibuprofen Ivacaftor CF Airway Clearance Therapies Airway Clearance therapy is very important to keeping CF lungs healthy. Our discussions cover the following topics such as the: Daily airway clearance Different techniques of airway clearance Effect of aerobic exercise on airway clearance  

  2. Maintaining the Identify of Dynamically Embodied Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Alan; O'Hare, Gregory; Duffy, Brian; Schoen-Phelan, Bianca; Bradley, John

    2005-01-01

    Virtual agents are traditionally constrained in their embod- iment, as they are restricted to one form of body. We propose allowing them to change their embodiment in order to expand their capabili- ties. This presents users with a number of di±culties in maintaining the identity of the agents, but these can be overcome by using identity cues, certain features that remain constant across embodiment forms. This pa- per outlines an experiment that examines these identity cues, and shows that th...

  3. [Current Treatment of Stable Angina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toggweiler, Stefan; Jamshidi, Peiman; Cuculi, Florim

    2015-06-17

    Current therapy for stable angina includes surgical and percutaneous revascularization, which has been improved tremendously over the last decades. Smoking cessation and regular exercise are the cornerstone for prevention of further cerebrovascular events. Medical treatment includes treatment of cardiovascular risk factors and antithrombotic management, which can be a challenge in some patients. Owing to the fact the coronary revascularization is readily accessible these days in many industrialized countries, the importance of antianginal therapy has decreased over the past years. This article presents a contemporary overview of the management of patients with stable angina in the year 2015.

  4. Water quality maintaining device of power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Minoru; Inami, Ichiro.

    1994-01-01

    The device of the present invention reduces the amount of leaching materials of ion exchange resins from a water processing system of a BWR tyep plant, improves the water quality of reactor water to maintain the water at high purity. That is, steams used for power generation are condensated in a condensate system. A condensate filter and a condensate desalter for cleaning the condensates are disposed. A resin storage hopper is disposed for supplying the ion exchange resins to the water processing system. A device for supplying a nitrogen gas or an inert gas is disposed in the hopper. With such a constitution, the ion exchange resins in the water processing system are maintained in a nitrogen gas or inert gas atmosphere or at a low dissolved oxygen level in an operation stage in the power plant. Accordingly, degradation of the ion exchange resins in the water processing system is suppressed and the amount of the leaching material from the resins is reduced. As a result, the amount of the resins leached into the reactor is reduced, so that the reactor water quality can be maintained at high purity. (I.S.)

  5. Stable radio frequency dissemination by simple hybrid frequency modulation scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Longqiang; Wang, Rong; Lu, Lin; Zhu, Yong; Wu, Chuanxin; Zhang, Baofu; Wang, Peizhang

    2014-09-15

    In this Letter, we propose a fiber-based stable radio frequency transfer system by a hybrid frequency modulation scheme. Creatively, two radio frequency signals are combined and simultaneously transferred by only one laser diode. One frequency component is used to detect the phase fluctuation, and the other one is the derivative compensated signal providing a stable frequency for the remote end. A proper ratio of the frequencies of the components is well maintained by parameter m to avoid interference between them. Experimentally, a stable 200 MHz signal is transferred over 100 km optical fiber with the help of a 1 GHz detecting signal, and fractional instability of 2×10(-17) at 10(5) s is achieved.

  6. Making reasonable decisions: a qualitative study of medical decision making in the care of patients with a clinically significant haemoglobin disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, Helen J; Kerridge, Ian

    2015-10-01

    Therapies utilized in patients with clinically significant haemoglobin disorders appear to vary between clinicians and units. This study aimed to investigate the processes of evidence implementation and medical decision making in the care of such patients in NSW, Australia. Using semi-structured interviews, 11 haematologists discussed their medical decision-making processes with particular attention paid to the use of published evidence. Transcripts were thematically analysed by a single investigator on a line-by-line basis. Decision making surrounding the care of patients with significant haemoglobin disorders varied and was deeply contextual. Three main determinants of clinical decision making were identified - factors relating to the patient and to their illness, factors specific to the clinician and the institution in which they were practising and factors related to the notion of evidence and to utility and role of evidence-based medicine in clinical practice. Clinicians pay considerable attention to medical decision making and evidence incorporation and attempt to tailor these to particular patient contexts. However, the patient context is often inferred and when discordant with the clinician's own contexture can lead to discomfort with decision recommendations. Clinicians strive to improve comfort through the use of experience and trustworthy evidence. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Trend overtime of total haemoglobin, iron metabolism and trace minerals in veal calves fed high amounts of two different solid feeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Lisa Stefani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fifty Polish Friesian veal calves were administrated high amounts of two different solid feeds (maize grain and a mix diet containing 10% of straw and 8% of soy in addition to the traditional milk replacer diet. Compared to the mix diet, maize grain had a lower content of iron, copper and zinc and a minor fibre level. Effects of the two diets on calves’ blood haemoglobin, iron, iron metabolism parameters, copper and zinc concentrations were studied. Haemoglobin concentration resulted higher at the end of the fattening for calves fed the mix diet, as expected. Values remained, however, within ranges that allowed acceptable carcass paleness. Haematic iron, unsaturated iron binding capacity (UIBC and total iron binding capacity (TIBC levels were not significantly different between the two solid feeds. Lower copper and zinc blood concentrations resulted for calves fed the mix diet were likely due to the feed fibre interfering with the bioavailability of the two minerals, according to what happens for iron.

  8. Validity and reliability of haemoglobin colour scale and its comparison with clinical signs in diagnosing anaemia in pregnancy in Ahmedabad, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, D V; Vyas, S; Shukla, A; Tiwari, H; Bhatt, G; Gupta, K

    2012-07-01

    This study compared the validity of the haemoglobin colour scale (HCS) and clinical signs in diagnosing anaemia against Sahli's haemoglobinometer method as the gold standard, and assessed the reliability of HCS. The sample comprised 129 pregnant women recruited from 6 urban health centres in Ahmedabad. The prevalence of anaemia was 69.8% by Sahli's method, 78.3% by HCS and 89.9% by clinical signs; there was no statistically significant difference between Sahli's method and HCS whereas there was between Sahlis method and clinical signs. The mean haemoglobin level by Sahli's method and HCS differed significantly. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of HCS was 83.3%, 33.3%, 74.3% and 46.4% respectively and that of clinical signs was 91.1%, 12.8%, 70.7% and 38.5% respectively. Interobserver agreement for HCS was moderate (K = 0.43). Clinical signs are better than HCS for diagnosing anaemia. HCS can be used in the field provided assessors are adequately trained.

  9. Possibility of stable quark stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowers, R.L.; Gleeson, A.M.; Pedigo, R.D.

    1976-08-01

    A recent zero temperature equation of state which contains quark-partons separated from conventional baryons by a phase transition is used to investigate the stability of quark stars. The sensitivity to the input physics is also considered. The conclusions, which are found to be relatively model independent, indicate that a separately identifiable class of stable objects called quark stars does not exist

  10. Radiation-stable polyolefin compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rekers, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    This invention relates to compositions of olefinic polymers suitable for high energy radiation treatment. In particular, the invention relates to olefinic polymer compositions that are stable to sterilizing dosages of high energy radiation such as a gamma radiation. Stabilizers are described that include benzhydrol and benzhydrol derivatives; these stabilizers may be used alone or in combination with secondary antioxidants or synergists

  11. C-reactive protein and serum creatinine, but not haemoglobin A1c, are independent predictors of coronary heart disease risk in non-diabetic Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, Agus; Tai, E Shyong; Tan, Vincent Y; Welsh, Alan H; Liew, Reginald; Naidoo, Nasheen; Wu, Yi; Yuan, Jian-Min; Koh, Woon P; van Dam, Rob M

    2016-08-01

    In western populations, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), and to a lesser degree serum creatinine and haemoglobin A1c, predict risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). However, data on Asian populations that are increasingly affected by CHD are sparse and it is not clear whether these biomarkers can be used to improve CHD risk classification. We conducted a nested case-control study within the Singapore Chinese Health Study cohort, with incident 'hard' CHD (myocardial infarction or CHD death) as an outcome. We used data from 965 men (298 cases, 667 controls) and 528 women (143 cases, 385 controls) to examine the utility of hsCRP, serum creatinine and haemoglobin A1c in improving the prediction of CHD risk over and above traditional risk factors for CHD included in the ATP III model. For each sex, the performance of models with only traditional risk factors used in the ATP III model was compared with models with the biomarkers added using weighted Cox proportional hazards analysis. The impact of adding these biomarkers was assessed using the net reclassification improvement index. For men, loge hsCRP (hazard ratio 1.25, 95% confidence interval: 1.05; 1.49) and loge serum creatinine (hazard ratio 4.82, 95% confidence interval: 2.10; 11.04) showed statistically significantly associations with CHD risk when added to the ATP III model. We did not observe a significant association between loge haemoglobin A1c and CHD risk (hazard ratio 1.83, 95% confidence interval: 0.21; 16.06). Adding hsCRP and serum creatinine to the ATP III model improved risk classification in men with a net gain of 6.3% of cases (p-value = 0.001) being reclassified to a higher risk category, while it did not significantly reduce the accuracy of classification for non-cases. For women, squared hsCRP was borderline significantly (hazard ratio 1.01, 95% confidence interval: 1.00; 1.03) and squared serum creatinine was significantly (hazard ratio 1.81, 95% confidence interval: 1.49; 2

  12. Identifying crucial parameter correlations maintaining bursting activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Doloc-Mihu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent experimental and computational studies suggest that linearly correlated sets of parameters (intrinsic and synaptic properties of neurons allow central pattern-generating networks to produce and maintain their rhythmic activity regardless of changing internal and external conditions. To determine the role of correlated conductances in the robust maintenance of functional bursting activity, we used our existing database of half-center oscillator (HCO model instances of the leech heartbeat CPG. From the database, we identified functional activity groups of burster (isolated neuron and half-center oscillator model instances and realistic subgroups of each that showed burst characteristics (principally period and spike frequency similar to the animal. To find linear correlations among the conductance parameters maintaining functional leech bursting activity, we applied Principal Component Analysis (PCA to each of these four groups. PCA identified a set of three maximal conductances (leak current, [Formula: see text]Leak; a persistent K current, [Formula: see text]K2; and of a persistent Na+ current, [Formula: see text]P that correlate linearly for the two groups of burster instances but not for the HCO groups. Visualizations of HCO instances in a reduced space suggested that there might be non-linear relationships between these parameters for these instances. Experimental studies have shown that period is a key attribute influenced by modulatory inputs and temperature variations in heart interneurons. Thus, we explored the sensitivity of period to changes in maximal conductances of [Formula: see text]Leak, [Formula: see text]K2, and [Formula: see text]P, and we found that for our realistic bursters the effect of these parameters on period could not be assessed because when varied individually bursting activity was not maintained.

  13. Store operations to maintain cache coherence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evangelinos, Constantinos; Nair, Ravi; Ohmacht, Martin

    2017-08-01

    In one embodiment, a computer-implemented method includes encountering a store operation during a compile-time of a program, where the store operation is applicable to a memory line. It is determined, by a computer processor, that no cache coherence action is necessary for the store operation. A store-without-coherence-action instruction is generated for the store operation, responsive to determining that no cache coherence action is necessary. The store-without-coherence-action instruction specifies that the store operation is to be performed without a cache coherence action, and cache coherence is maintained upon execution of the store-without-coherence-action instruction.

  14. Store operations to maintain cache coherence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evangelinos, Constantinos; Nair, Ravi; Ohmacht, Martin

    2017-09-12

    In one embodiment, a computer-implemented method includes encountering a store operation during a compile-time of a program, where the store operation is applicable to a memory line. It is determined, by a computer processor, that no cache coherence action is necessary for the store operation. A store-without-coherence-action instruction is generated for the store operation, responsive to determining that no cache coherence action is necessary. The store-without-coherence-action instruction specifies that the store operation is to be performed without a cache coherence action, and cache coherence is maintained upon execution of the store-without-coherence-action instruction.

  15. Experience of maintaining laboratory educational website's sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimenstein, Izak B

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory methodology websites are specialized niche websites. The visibility of a niche website transforms it into an authority site on a particular "niche of knowledge." This article presents some ways in which a laboratory methodology website can maintain its sustainability. The optimal composition of the website includes a basic content, a blog, and an ancillary part. This article discusses experimenting with the search engine optimization query results page. Strategic placement of keywords and even phrases, as well as fragmentation of the post's material, can improve the website's visibility to search engines. Hyperlinks open a chain reaction of additional links and draw attention to the previous posts. Publications in printed periodicals are a substantial part of a niche website presence on the Internet. Although this article explores a laboratory website on the basis of our hands-on expertise maintaining "Grossing Technology in Surgical Pathology" (www.grossing-technology.com) website with a high volume of traffic for more than a decade, the recommendations presented here for developing an authority website can be applied to other professional specialized websites. The authority websites visibility and sustainability are preconditions for aggregating them in a specialized educational laboratory portal.

  16. Maintaining ancient organelles: mitochondrial biogenesis and maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Rick B; Horton, Julie L; Kelly, Daniel P

    2015-05-22

    The ultrastructure of the cardiac myocyte is remarkable for the high density of mitochondria tightly packed between sarcomeres. This structural organization is designed to provide energy in the form of ATP to fuel normal pump function of the heart. A complex system comprised of regulatory factors and energy metabolic machinery, encoded by both mitochondrial and nuclear genomes, is required for the coordinate control of cardiac mitochondrial biogenesis, maturation, and high-capacity function. This process involves the action of a transcriptional regulatory network that builds and maintains the mitochondrial genome and drives the expression of the energy transduction machinery. This finely tuned system is responsive to developmental and physiological cues, as well as changes in fuel substrate availability. Deficiency of components critical for mitochondrial energy production frequently manifests as a cardiomyopathic phenotype, underscoring the requirement to maintain high respiration rates in the heart. Although a precise causative role is not clear, there is increasing evidence that perturbations in this regulatory system occur in the hypertrophied and failing heart. This review summarizes current knowledge and highlights recent advances in our understanding of the transcriptional regulatory factors and signaling networks that serve to regulate mitochondrial biogenesis and function in the mammalian heart. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Chewing Maintains Hippocampus-Dependent Cognitive Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huayue; Iinuma, Mitsuo; Onozuka, Minoru; Kubo, Kin-Ya

    2015-01-01

    Mastication (chewing) is important not only for food intake, but also for preserving and promoting the general health. Recent studies have showed that mastication helps to maintain cognitive functions in the hippocampus, a central nervous system region vital for spatial memory and learning. The purpose of this paper is to review the recent progress of the association between mastication and the hippocampus-dependent cognitive function. There are multiple neural circuits connecting the masticatory organs and the hippocampus. Both animal and human studies indicated that cognitive functioning is influenced by mastication. Masticatory dysfunction is associated with the hippocampal morphological impairments and the hippocampus-dependent spatial memory deficits, especially in elderly. Mastication is an effective behavior for maintaining the hippocampus-dependent cognitive performance, which deteriorates with aging. Therefore, chewing may represent a useful approach in preserving and promoting the hippocampus-dependent cognitive function in older people. We also discussed several possible mechanisms involved in the interaction between mastication and the hippocampal neurogenesis and the future directions for this unique fascinating research.

  18. Maintaining heterokaryosis in pseudo-homothallic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grognet, Pierre; Silar, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Among all the strategies displayed by fungi to reproduce and propagate, some species have adopted a peculiar behavior called pseudo-homothallism. Pseudo-homothallic fungi are true heterothallics, i.e., they need 2 genetically-compatible partners to mate, but they produce self-fertile mycelium in which the 2 different nuclei carrying the compatible mating types are present. This lifestyle not only enables the fungus to reproduce without finding a compatible partner, but also to cross with any mate it may encounter. However, to be fully functional, pseudo-homothallism requires maintaining heterokaryosis at every stage of the life cycle. We recently showed that neither the structure of the mating-type locus nor hybrid-enhancing effect due to the presence of the 2 mating types accounts for the maintenance of heterokaryosis in the pseudo-homothallic fungus P. anserina. In this addendum, we summarize the mechanisms creating heterokaryosis in P. anserina and 2 other well-known pseudo-homothallic fungi, Neurospora tetrasperma and Agaricus bisporus. We also discuss mechanisms potentially involved in maintaining heterokaryosis in these 3 species.

  19. Automated constraint placement to maintain pile shape

    KAUST Repository

    Hsu, Shu-Wei

    2012-11-01

    We present a simulation control to support art-directable stacking designs by automatically adding constraints to stabilize the stacking structure. We begin by adapting equilibrium analysis in a local scheme to find "stable" objects of the stacking structure. Next, for stabilizing the structure, we pick suitable objects from those passing the equilibrium analysis and then restrict their DOFs by managing the insertion of constraints on them. The method is suitable for controlling stacking behavior of large scale. Results show that our control method can be used in varied ways for creating plausible animation. In addition, the method can be easily implemented as a plug-in into existing simulation solvers without changing the fundamental operations of the solvers. © 2012 ACM.

  20. Toward Practical Secure Stable Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riazi M. Sadegh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Stable Matching (SM algorithm has been deployed in many real-world scenarios including the National Residency Matching Program (NRMP and financial applications such as matching of suppliers and consumers in capital markets. Since these applications typically involve highly sensitive information such as the underlying preference lists, their current implementations rely on trusted third parties. This paper introduces the first provably secure and scalable implementation of SM based on Yao’s garbled circuit protocol and Oblivious RAM (ORAM. Our scheme can securely compute a stable match for 8k pairs four orders of magnitude faster than the previously best known method. We achieve this by introducing a compact and efficient sub-linear size circuit. We even further decrease the computation cost by three orders of magnitude by proposing a novel technique to avoid unnecessary iterations in the SM algorithm. We evaluate our implementation for several problem sizes and plan to publish it as open-source.

  1. Stable isotope research pool inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-08-01

    This report contains a listing of electromagnetically separated stable isotopes which are available at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for distribution for nondestructive research use on a loan basis. This inventory includes all samples of stable isotopes in the Research Materials Collection and does not designate whether a sample is out on loan or is in reprocessing. For some of the high-abundance, naturally occurring isotopes, larger amounts can be made available; for example, Ca-40 and Fe-56. All requests for the loan of samples should be submitted with a summary of the purpose of the loan to: Iotope Distribution Office, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box X, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831. Requests from non-DOE contractors and from foreign institutions require DOE approval

  2. Stable isotopes and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krouse, H.R.

    1990-01-01

    Whereas traditionally, stable isotope research has been directed towards resource exploration and development, it is finding more frequent applications in helping to assess the impacts of resource utilization upon ecosystems. Among the many pursuits, two themes are evident: tracing the transport and conversions of pollutants in the environment and better understanding of the interplay among environmental receptors, e.g. food web studies. Stable isotope data are used primarily to identify the presence of pollutants in the environment and with a few exceptions, the consequence of their presence must be assessed by other techniques. Increasing attention has been given to the isotopic composition of humans with many potential applications in areas such as paleodiets, medicine, and criminology. In this brief overview examples are used from the Pacific Rim to illustrate the above concepts. 26 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  3. Towards stable acceleration in LINACS

    CERN Document Server

    Dubrovskiy, A D

    2014-01-01

    Ultra-stable and -reproducible high-energy particle beams with short bunches are needed in novel linear accelerators and, in particular, in the Compact Linear Collider CLIC. A passive beam phase stabilization system based on a bunch compression with a negative transfer matrix element R56 and acceleration at a positive off-crest phase is proposed. The motivation and expected advantages of the proposed scheme are outlined.

  4. Stable Structures for Distributed Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Eugen DUMITRASCU; Ion IVAN

    2008-01-01

    For distributed applications, we define the linear, tree and graph structure types with different variants and modalities to aggregate them. The distributed applications have assigned structures that through their characteristics influence the costs of stages for developing cycle and the costs for exploitation, transferred to each user. We also present the quality characteristics of a structure for a stable application, which is focused on stability characteristic. For that characteristic we ...

  5. The effects of an overnight holding of whole blood at room temperature on haemoglobin modification and in vitro markers of red blood cell aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckstein, M; Zimmermann, R; Roth, T; Hauck-Dlimi, B; Strasser, E F; Xiang, W

    2015-05-01

    Some effects of the red blood cell (RBC) storage lesion are well documented whereas others are not. Whether a period of room temperature hold (RTH) during RBC production enhances the RBC storage lesion has remained controversial. In this study, we compared whole blood (WB)-derived RBCs produced after 24-h RTH with rapidly cooled (RC) RBCs and tested them for classical metabolic markers and signs of oxidative damage. SAGM-RBCs were prepared from mixed and split pairs (n = 12) of WB units. RBCs prepared after a 24-h period of RTH on day+1 after collection (RTH-RBCs) were compared with RC-RBCs. All RBCs were stored at 4°C for 42 days with assay of in vitro variables on days+1, +15, +22, +29 and +42. The study examined standard quality parameters, glutathione, catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities, and indicative markers of oxidative cell damage including post-translational haemoglobin modification, malondialdehyde (MDA), and phosphatidylserine expression. RTH-RBCs exhibited decreased levels of potassium (1·98 ± 0·26 vs. 5·23 ± 0·65 mmol/l) and of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) on day+1 compared with RC-RBCs. Haemolysis rate on day+42 was higher in RTH-RBCs than in RC-RBCs (0·52 ± 0·13 vs. 0·37 ± 0·12%). The phosphatidylserine expression amounted to 0·25 ± 0·20% in RTH-RBCs and 0·07 ± 0·12% in RC-RBCs. Haemoglobin modification was not different between both RBC groups. RTH-RBCs showed slightly higher MDA concentration on days +29 and +42. RC-RBCs and RTH-RBCs show only small differences of classical in vitro parameters and no relevant differences in antioxidative metabolism and oxidative haemoglobin modification. These findings do not explain the loss observed in in vivo survival studies with RBCs. © 2015 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  6. The predictive value of current haemoglobin levels for incident tuberculosis and/or mortality during long-term antiretroviral therapy in South Africa: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkhoff, Andrew D; Wood, Robin; Cobelens, Frank G; Gupta-Wright, Ankur; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Lawn, Stephen D

    2015-04-02

    Low haemoglobin concentrations may be predictive of incident tuberculosis (TB) and death in HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART), but data are limited and inconsistent. We examined these relationships retrospectively in a long-term South African ART cohort with multiple time-updated haemoglobin measurements. Prospectively collected clinical data on patients receiving ART for up to 8 years in a community-based cohort were analysed. Time-updated haemoglobin concentrations, CD4 counts and HIV viral loads were recorded, and TB diagnoses and deaths from all causes were ascertained. Anaemia severity was classified using World Health Organization criteria. TB incidence and mortality rates were calculated and Poisson regression models were used to identify independent predictors of incident TB and mortality, respectively. During a median follow-up of 5.0 years (IQR, 2.5-5.8) of 1,521 patients, 476 cases of incident TB and 192 deaths occurred during 6,459 person-years (PYs) of follow-up. TB incidence rates were strongly associated with time-updated anaemia severity; those without anaemia had a rate of 4.4 (95%CI, 3.8-5.1) cases/100 PYs compared to 10.0 (95%CI, 8.3-12.1), 26.6 (95%CI, 22.5-31.7) and 87.8 (95%CI, 57.0-138.2) cases/100 PYs in those with mild, moderate and severe anaemia, respectively. Similarly, mortality rates in those with no anaemia or mild, moderate and severe time-updated anaemia were 1.1 (95%CI, 0.8-1.5), 3.5 (95%CI, 2.7-4.8), 11.8 (95%CI, 9.5-14.8) and 28.2 (95%CI, 16.5-51.5) cases/100 PYs, respectively. Moderate and severe anaemia (time-updated) during ART were the strongest independent predictors for incident TB (adjusted IRR = 3.8 [95%CI, 3.0-4.8] and 8.2 [95%CI, 5.3-12.7], respectively) and for mortality (adjusted IRR = 6.0 [95%CI, 3.9-9.2] and adjusted IRR = 8.0 [95%CI, 3.9-16.4], respectively). Increasing severity of anaemia was associated with exceptionally high rates of both incident TB and mortality during

  7. Quantitative spatially resolved measurement of tissue chromophore concentrations using photoacoustic spectroscopy: application to the measurement of blood oxygenation and haemoglobin concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufer, Jan; Delpy, Dave; Elwell, Clare; Beard, Paul

    2007-01-01

    A new approach based on pulsed photoacoustic spectroscopy for non-invasively quantifying tissue chromophore concentrations with high spatial resolution has been developed. The technique is applicable to the quantification of tissue chromophores such as oxyhaemoglobin (HbO2) and deoxyhaemoglobin (HHb) for the measurement of physiological parameters such as blood oxygen saturation (SO2) and total haemoglobin concentration. It can also be used to quantify the local accumulation of targeted contrast agents used in photoacoustic molecular imaging. The technique employs a model-based inversion scheme to recover the chromophore concentrations from photoacoustic measurements. This comprises a numerical forward model of the detected time-dependent photoacoustic signal that incorporates a multiwavelength diffusion-based finite element light propagation model to describe the light transport and a time-domain acoustic model to describe the generation, propagation and detection of the photoacoustic wave. The forward model is then inverted by iteratively fitting it to measurements of photoacoustic signals acquired at different wavelengths to recover the chromophore concentrations. To validate this approach, photoacoustic signals were generated in a tissue phantom using nanosecond laser pulses between 740 nm and 1040 nm. The tissue phantom comprised a suspension of intralipid, blood and a near-infrared dye in which three tubes were immersed. Blood at physiological haemoglobin concentrations and oxygen saturation levels ranging from 2% to 100% was circulated through the tubes. The signal amplitude from different temporal sections of the detected photoacoustic waveforms was plotted as a function of wavelength and the forward model fitted to these data to recover the concentrations of HbO2 and HHb, total haemoglobin concentration and SO2. The performance was found to compare favourably to that of a laboratory CO-oximeter with measurement resolutions of ±3.8 g l-1 (±58 µM) and ±4

  8. Quantitative spatially resolved measurement of tissue chromophore concentrations using photoacoustic spectroscopy: application to the measurement of blood oxygenation and haemoglobin concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laufer, Jan; Delpy, Dave; Elwell, Clare; Beard, Paul [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, Malet Place Engineering Building, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2007-01-07

    A new approach based on pulsed photoacoustic spectroscopy for non-invasively quantifying tissue chromophore concentrations with high spatial resolution has been developed. The technique is applicable to the quantification of tissue chromophores such as oxyhaemoglobin (HbO{sub 2}) and deoxyhaemoglobin (HHb) for the measurement of physiological parameters such as blood oxygen saturation (SO{sub 2}) and total haemoglobin concentration. It can also be used to quantify the local accumulation of targeted contrast agents used in photoacoustic molecular imaging. The technique employs a model-based inversion scheme to recover the chromophore concentrations from photoacoustic measurements. This comprises a numerical forward model of the detected time-dependent photoacoustic signal that incorporates a multiwavelength diffusion-based finite element light propagation model to describe the light transport and a time-domain acoustic model to describe the generation, propagation and detection of the photoacoustic wave. The forward model is then inverted by iteratively fitting it to measurements of photoacoustic signals acquired at different wavelengths to recover the chromophore concentrations. To validate this approach, photoacoustic signals were generated in a tissue phantom using nanosecond laser pulses between 740 nm and 1040 nm. The tissue phantom comprised a suspension of intralipid, blood and a near-infrared dye in which three tubes were immersed. Blood at physiological haemoglobin concentrations and oxygen saturation levels ranging from 2% to 100% was circulated through the tubes. The signal amplitude from different temporal sections of the detected photoacoustic waveforms was plotted as a function of wavelength and the forward model fitted to these data to recover the concentrations of HbO{sub 2} and HHb, total haemoglobin concentration and SO{sub 2}. The performance was found to compare favourably to that of a laboratory CO-oximeter with measurement resolutions of {+-}3

  9. Quantitative spatially resolved measurement of tissue chromophore concentrations using photoacoustic spectroscopy: application to the measurement of blood oxygenation and haemoglobin concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laufer, Jan; Delpy, Dave; Elwell, Clare; Beard, Paul

    2007-01-01

    A new approach based on pulsed photoacoustic spectroscopy for non-invasively quantifying tissue chromophore concentrations with high spatial resolution has been developed. The technique is applicable to the quantification of tissue chromophores such as oxyhaemoglobin (HbO 2 ) and deoxyhaemoglobin (HHb) for the measurement of physiological parameters such as blood oxygen saturation (SO 2 ) and total haemoglobin concentration. It can also be used to quantify the local accumulation of targeted contrast agents used in photoacoustic molecular imaging. The technique employs a model-based inversion scheme to recover the chromophore concentrations from photoacoustic measurements. This comprises a numerical forward model of the detected time-dependent photoacoustic signal that incorporates a multiwavelength diffusion-based finite element light propagation model to describe the light transport and a time-domain acoustic model to describe the generation, propagation and detection of the photoacoustic wave. The forward model is then inverted by iteratively fitting it to measurements of photoacoustic signals acquired at different wavelengths to recover the chromophore concentrations. To validate this approach, photoacoustic signals were generated in a tissue phantom using nanosecond laser pulses between 740 nm and 1040 nm. The tissue phantom comprised a suspension of intralipid, blood and a near-infrared dye in which three tubes were immersed. Blood at physiological haemoglobin concentrations and oxygen saturation levels ranging from 2% to 100% was circulated through the tubes. The signal amplitude from different temporal sections of the detected photoacoustic waveforms was plotted as a function of wavelength and the forward model fitted to these data to recover the concentrations of HbO 2 and HHb, total haemoglobin concentration and SO 2 . The performance was found to compare favourably to that of a laboratory CO-oximeter with measurement resolutions of ±3.8 g l -1 (±58

  10. [Maintaining solidarity: is mutuality the solution?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevers, J K M; Ploem, M C

    2013-01-01

    Solidarity is essentially the willingness to contribute to the community and its demands, which may even involve contributing more than one is expecting to receive. Another principle is mutuality: this refers to a balance between rights and obligations or between mutual obligations. In its advisory document 'The importance of mutuality......solidarity takes work!', The Dutch Council for Public Health and Health Care underlines the importance of ensuring solidarity within the Dutch health care system, e.g. by encouraging patients to take responsibility for their own health, possibly by introducing elements of mutuality. In our contribution, we comment on the Council's advice. Although we fully agree with the overall conclusion that solidarity should be maintained within the system, we do not see how the introduction of increased mutuality will contribute to this goal.

  11. Maintaining human productivity during Mars transit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statler, Irving C.; Billings, Charles E.

    1989-01-01

    This paper addresses the special nature of the human-machine relationship during a trip to Mars. In particular, the potential for monotony and boredom during a long-duration space voyage and the effect on motivation and productivity can be important considerations to the health and welfare of the crew. For the voyage to Mars, a design may be considered that will purposefully maintain some level of workload for the crew as a preventive measure for the deterioration of productivity that comes with boredom. This paper speculates on these considerations, on the appropriate level of workload for maximum productivity, and on what might be done during the mission to alleviate the problems caused by monotony and boredom.

  12. Heartwarming memories: Nostalgia maintains physiological comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xinyue; Wildschut, Tim; Sedikides, Constantine; Chen, Xiaoxi; Vingerhoets, Ad J J M

    2012-08-01

    Nostalgia, a sentimental longing or wistful affection for the past, is a predominantly positive and social emotion. Recent evidence suggests that nostalgia maintains psychological comfort. Here, we propose, and document in five methodologically diverse studies, a broader homeostatic function for nostalgia that also encompasses the maintenance of physiological comfort. We show that nostalgia--an emotion with a strong connotation of warmth--is triggered by coldness. Participants reported stronger nostalgia on colder (vs. warmer) days and in a cold (vs. neutral or warm) room. Nostalgia, in turn, modulates the interoceptive feeling of temperature. Higher levels of music-evoked nostalgia predicted increased physical warmth, and participants who recalled a nostalgic (vs. ordinary autobiographical) event perceived ambient temperature as higher. Finally, and consistent with the close central nervous system integration of temperature and pain sensations, participants who recalled a nostalgic (vs. ordinary autobiographical) event evinced greater tolerance to noxious cold.

  13. Human factors review of power plant maintainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seminara, J.L.; Parsons, S.O.; Schmidt, W.J.; Gonzalez, W.R.; Dove, L.E.

    1980-10-01

    Human factors engineering is an interdisciplinary science and technology concerned with shaping the design of machines, facilities, and operational environments to promote safe, efficient, and reliable performance on the part of operators and maintainers of equipment systems. The human factors aspects of five nuclear power plants and four fossil fuel plants were evaluated using such methods as a checklist guided observation system, structured interviews with maintenance personnel, direct observations of maintenance tasks, reviews of procedures, and analyses of maintenance errors or accidents by means of the critical incident technique. The study revealed a wide variety of human factors problem areas, most of which are extensively photodocumented. The study recommends that a more systematic and formal approach be adopted to ensure that future power plants are human engineered to the needs of maintenance personnel

  14. Maintaining and troubleshooting your 3D printer

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining and Troubleshooting Your 3D Printer by Charles Bell is your guide to keeping your 3D printer running through preventive maintenance, repair, and diagnosing and solving problems in 3D printing. If you've bought or built a 3D printer such as a MakerBot only to be confounded by jagged edges, corner lift, top layers that aren't solid, or any of a myriad of other problems that plague 3D printer enthusiasts, then here is the book to help you get past all that and recapture the joy of creative fabrication. The book also includes valuable tips for builders and those who want to modify the

  15. Balancing selection maintains cryptic colour morphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellenreuther, Maren

    2017-11-01

    Animals display incredibly diverse colour patterns, a testament to evolution's endless innovation in shaping life. In many species, the interplay between males and females in the pursuit of mates has driven the evolution of a myriad of colour forms, from the flashy peacock tail feathers to the tiniest colour markings in damselflies. In others, colour provides crypsis by allowing to blend into the background and to escape the eyes of predators. While the obvious benefits of this dazzling diversity for reproduction and survival seem straightforward, its maintenance is not. Theory predicts that genetic drift and various forms of selection reduce variation over time, making the persistence of colour variants over generations a puzzle. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Lindtke et al. () study the cryptic colour morphs of Timema cristinae walking sticks to shed light on the genetic architecture and mechanisms that allow colour polymorphism maintenance over long timescales. By combining genome-wide data with phenotyping information from natural populations, they were able to map the green and melanistic colour to one genomic region with highly reduced effective recombination rate between two main chromosomal variants, consistent with an inversion polymorphism. These two main chromosomal variants showed geographically widespread heterozygote excess, and genomic signatures consistent with long-term balancing selection. A younger chromosomal variant was detected for the third morph, the green-striped colour morphs, in the same genomic regions as the melanistic and the green-unstriped morphs. Together, these results suggest that the genetic architecture of cryptic T. cristinae morphs is caused by nonrecombining genomic blocks that have been maintained over extended time periods by balancing selection making this study one of the few available empirical examples documenting that balancing selection of various forms may play an important role in maintaining adaptive genetic

  16. Red blood cells free α-haemoglobin pool: a biomarker to monitor the β-thalassemia intermedia variability. The ALPHAPOOL study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasseur, Corinne; Domingues-Hamdi, Elisa; Ledudal, Katia; Le Corvoisier, Philippe; Barau, Caroline; Ghaleh, Bijan; Rialland, Amandine; Pissard, Serge; Galactéros, Frédéric; Baudin-Creuza, Véronique

    2017-10-01

    The severity of β-thalassaemia (β-thal) intermedia is mainly correlated to the degree of imbalanced α/non α-globin chain synthesis. The phenotypic diversity of β-thal depends on this imbalance and reflects all possible combinations of α- and β-globin genotypes, levels of fetal haemoglobin (HbF) and co-inheritance of other modulating factors. This study aimed to demonstrate the validity of a new surrogate of α/non α-globin biosynthetic ratio by measuring the soluble α-Hb pool in lysed red blood cells. Our results confirm that the α-Hb pool measurement allows a good discrimination between β-thal intermedia patients, controls and α-thal patients (P intermedia patients and may be clinically useful for monitoring the evolution of the disequilibrium of globin synthesis in response to treatments. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. A quantitative analysis of the effects of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, adenosine triphosphate and inositol hexaphosphate on the oxygen dissociation curve of human haemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodford, P J; St-Louis, J; Wootton, R

    1978-01-01

    1. Oxygen dissociation curves have been measured for human haemoglobin solutions with different concentrations of the allosteric effectors 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, adenosine triphosphate and inositol hexaphosphate. 2. Each effector produces a concentration dependent right shift of the oxygen dissociation curve, but a point is reached where the shift is maximal and increasing the effector concentration has no further effect. 3. Mathematical models based on the Monod, Wyman & Changeux (1965) treatment of allosteric proteins have been fitted to the data. For each compound the simple two-state model and its extension to take account of subunit inequivalence were shown to be inadequate, and a better fit was obtained by allowing the effector to lower the oxygen affinity of the deoxy conformational state as well as binding preferentially to this conformation. PMID:722582

  18. Benefits of combination of insulin degludec and liraglutide are independent of baseline glycated haemoglobin level and duration of type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodbard, Helena W; Buse, John B; Woo, Vincent C

    2016-01-01

    liraglutide, irrespective of baseline HbA1c. In DUAL II, insulin dose and hypoglycaemia rate were similar with IDegLira and IDeg (maximum dose limited to 50 U) independent of baseline HbA1c. The reduction in HbA1c with IDegLira was independent of disease duration and previous insulin dose but varied depending...... of disease progression stage including baseline glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), disease duration and previous insulin dose. RESULTS: Across four categories of baseline HbA1c (≤7.5-9.0%), HbA1c reductions were significantly greater with IDegLira (1.1-2.5%) compared with IDeg or liraglutide alone in DUAL I...

  19. Shelf-stable foods through irradiation processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    This survey has been produced from a database on analytical reference materials of biological and environmental origin, which is maintained at the International Atomic Energy Agency. It is an updated version of earlier reports, the last published in 1990. The information presented refers mostly to reference materials for trace element constituents; however, information is also included on a number of other selected measurands of relevance to IAEA programmes, i.e. radionuclides, stable isotopes, anions, cations, organometallic compounds and organic contaminants. The database presently contains over 10,000 analyte values for 455 measurands in 650 reference materials produced by 30 different suppliers. Additional information on the cost of the materials, the unit size supplied, and recommended minimum weight of material for analysis is also provided, if this information is available to the authors. It is expected that this survey will help analysts to select reference materials for quality assurance purposes that match as closely as possible, with respect to matrix type and concentrations of the measurands of interest, their samples to be analyzed. 22 refs, 2 tabs.

  20. Organized polysaccharide fibers as stable drug carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janaswamy, Srinivas; Gill, Kristin L.; Campanella, Osvaldo H.; Pinal, Rodolfo

    2013-01-01

    Many challenges arise during the development of new drug carrier systems, and paramount among them are safety, solubility and controlled release requirements. Although synthetic polymers are effective, the possibility of side effects imposes restrictions on their acceptable use and dose limits. Thus, a new drug carrier system that is safe to handle and free from side effects is very much in need and food grade polysaccharides stand tall as worthy alternatives. Herein, we demonstrate for the first time the feasibility of sodium iota-carrageenan fibers and their distinctive water pockets to embed and release a wide variety of drug molecules. Structural analysis has revealed the existence of crystalline network in the fibers even after encapsulating the drug molecules, and iota-carrageenan maintains its characteristic and reproducible double helical structure suggesting that the composites thus produced are reminiscent of cocrystals. The melting properties of iota-carrageenan:drug complexes are distinctly different from those of either drug or iota-carrageenan fiber. The encapsulated drugs are released in a sustained manner from the fiber matrix. Overall, our research provides an elegant opportunity for developing effective drug carriers with stable network toward enhancing and/or controlling bioavailability and extending shelf-life of drug molecules using GRAS excipients, food polysaccharides, that are inexpensive and non–toxic. PMID:23544530

  1. Shelf-stable foods through irradiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    This survey has been produced from a database on analytical reference materials of biological and environmental origin, which is maintained at the International Atomic Energy Agency. It is an updated version of earlier reports, the last published in 1990. The information presented refers mostly to reference materials for trace element constituents; however, information is also included on a number of other selected measurands of relevance to IAEA programmes, i.e. radionuclides, stable isotopes, anions, cations, organometallic compounds and organic contaminants. The database presently contains over 10,000 analyte values for 455 measurands in 650 reference materials produced by 30 different suppliers. Additional information on the cost of the materials, the unit size supplied, and recommended minimum weight of material for analysis is also provided, if this information is available to the authors. It is expected that this survey will help analysts to select reference materials for quality assurance purposes that match as closely as possible, with respect to matrix type and concentrations of the measurands of interest, their samples to be analyzed. 22 refs, 2 tabs

  2. Male sterility of triticale lines generated through recombination of triticale and rye maintainers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Warzecha

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Triticum timopheevi cytoplasmic male sterility (cms system in triticale (xTriticosecale Wittmack suffers from a low frequency of maintainers and environmental instability of the male sterility. On the other hand, the Pampa cms system in rye (Secale cereale exhibits strong male sterility and a low frequency of restorers. Here, we report generating hybrids between maintainers of the T. timopheevi cms system in triticale and maintainers of the rye Pampa cms system. Ten hybrids were obtained. Their hybridity was verified by PCR (polymerase chain reaction using ISSR (inter simple sequence repeats primers. The cms maintaining ability of F2 individuals and their progeny was tested. The F2 plants were crossed to male sterile lines of triticale carrying the T. timopheevi cytoplasm. Among 180 G1 offspring of these crosses, 71 (39.4% were completely male sterile. Fourteen F2 individuals (7.8%, as well as their F2S1 and progeny, generated stable male sterility in G1, G1BC1 and G1BC2 generations after the crosses. Our results suggest that it is possible to produce a more stable cms system in triticale based on the T. timopheevi cytoplasm as compared to the existing one.

  3. Effects of nitrite exposure on functional haemoglobin levels, bimodal respiration, and swimming performance in the facultative air-breathing fish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefevre, Sjannie, E-mail: sjannie.lefevre@biology.au.dk [Zoophysiology, Department of Biological Sciences, Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark); Jensen, Frank B. [Department of Biology, University of Southern Denmark, Odense (Denmark); Huong, Do.T.T. [College of Aquaculture and Fisheries, Can Tho University, Can Tho City (Viet Nam); Wang, Tobias [Zoophysiology, Department of Biological Sciences, Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark); Phuong, Nguyen T. [College of Aquaculture and Fisheries, Can Tho University, Can Tho City (Viet Nam); Bayley, Mark [Zoophysiology, Department of Biological Sciences, Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark)

    2011-07-15

    In this study we investigated nitrite (NO{sub 2}{sup -}) effects in striped catfish, a facultative air-breather. Fish were exposed to 0, 0.4, and 0.9 mM nitrite for 0, 1, 2, 4, and 7 days, and levels of functional haemoglobin, methaemoglobin (metHb) and nitrosyl haemoglobin (HbNO) were assessed using spectral deconvolution. Plasma concentrations of nitrite, nitrate, chloride, potassium, and sodium were also measured. Partitioning of oxygen consumption was determined to reveal whether elevated metHb (causing functional hypoxia) induced air-breathing. The effects of nitrite on maximum oxygen uptake (MO{sub 2max}) and critical swimming speed (U{sub crit}) were also assessed. Striped catfish was highly tolerant to nitrite exposure, as reflected by a 96 h LC{sub 50} of 1.65 mM and a moderate nitrite uptake into the blood. Plasma levels of nitrite reached a maximum after 1 day of exposure, and then decreased, never exceeding ambient levels. MetHb, HbNO and nitrate (a nitrite detoxification product) also peaked after 1 day and then decreased. Only high levels of nitrite and metHb caused reductions in MO{sub 2max} and U{sub crit}. The response of striped catfish contrasts with that seen in most other fish species and discloses efficient mechanisms of combating nitrite threats. Furthermore, even though striped catfish is an efficient air-breather, this species has the ability to sustain aerobic scope and swimming performance without air-breathing, even when faced with nitrite-induced reductions in blood oxygen carrying capacity. Our study is the first to confirm that high levels of nitrite and metHb reduce MO{sub 2max} and thereby aerobic scope, while more moderate elevations fail to do so. Further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the low nitrite accumulation in striped catfish.

  4. Effects of nitrite exposure on functional haemoglobin levels, bimodal respiration, and swimming performance in the facultative air-breathing fish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefevre, Sjannie; Jensen, Frank B; Huong, Do T T; Wang, Tobias; Phuong, Nguyen T; Bayley, Mark

    2011-07-01

    In this study we investigated nitrite (NO₂⁻) effects in striped catfish, a facultative air-breather. Fish were exposed to 0, 0.4, and 0.9 mM nitrite for 0, 1, 2, 4, and 7 days, and levels of functional haemoglobin, methaemoglobin (metHb) and nitrosyl haemoglobin (HbNO) were assessed using spectral deconvolution. Plasma concentrations of nitrite, nitrate, chloride, potassium, and sodium were also measured. Partitioning of oxygen consumption was determined to reveal whether elevated metHb (causing functional hypoxia) induced air-breathing. The effects of nitrite on maximum oxygen uptake (MO(2max)) and critical swimming speed (U(crit)) were also assessed. Striped catfish was highly tolerant to nitrite exposure, as reflected by a 96 h LC₅₀ of 1.65 mM and a moderate nitrite uptake into the blood. Plasma levels of nitrite reached a maximum after 1 day of exposure, and then decreased, never exceeding ambient levels. MetHb, HbNO and nitrate (a nitrite detoxification product) also peaked after 1 day and then decreased. Only high levels of nitrite and metHb caused reductions in MO(2max) and U(crit). The response of striped catfish contrasts with that seen in most other fish species and discloses efficient mechanisms of combating nitrite threats. Furthermore, even though striped catfish is an efficient air-breather, this species has the ability to sustain aerobic scope and swimming performance without air-breathing, even when faced with nitrite-induced reductions in blood oxygen carrying capacity. Our study is the first to confirm that high levels of nitrite and metHb reduce MO(2max) and thereby aerobic scope, while more moderate elevations fail to do so. Further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the low nitrite accumulation in striped catfish. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of nitrite exposure on functional haemoglobin levels, bimodal respiration, and swimming performance in the facultative air-breathing fish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefevre, Sjannie; Jensen, Frank B.; Huong, Do.T.T.; Wang, Tobias; Phuong, Nguyen T.; Bayley, Mark

    2011-01-01

    In this study we investigated nitrite (NO 2 - ) effects in striped catfish, a facultative air-breather. Fish were exposed to 0, 0.4, and 0.9 mM nitrite for 0, 1, 2, 4, and 7 days, and levels of functional haemoglobin, methaemoglobin (metHb) and nitrosyl haemoglobin (HbNO) were assessed using spectral deconvolution. Plasma concentrations of nitrite, nitrate, chloride, potassium, and sodium were also measured. Partitioning of oxygen consumption was determined to reveal whether elevated metHb (causing functional hypoxia) induced air-breathing. The effects of nitrite on maximum oxygen uptake (MO 2max ) and critical swimming speed (U crit ) were also assessed. Striped catfish was highly tolerant to nitrite exposure, as reflected by a 96 h LC 50 of 1.65 mM and a moderate nitrite uptake into the blood. Plasma levels of nitrite reached a maximum after 1 day of exposure, and then decreased, never exceeding ambient levels. MetHb, HbNO and nitrate (a nitrite detoxification product) also peaked after 1 day and then decreased. Only high levels of nitrite and metHb caused reductions in MO 2max and U crit . The response of striped catfish contrasts with that seen in most other fish species and discloses efficient mechanisms of combating nitrite threats. Furthermore, even though striped catfish is an efficient air-breather, this species has the ability to sustain aerobic scope and swimming performance without air-breathing, even when faced with nitrite-induced reductions in blood oxygen carrying capacity. Our study is the first to confirm that high levels of nitrite and metHb reduce MO 2max and thereby aerobic scope, while more moderate elevations fail to do so. Further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the low nitrite accumulation in striped catfish.

  6. Bilirubin concentration is positively associated with haemoglobin concentration and inversely associated with albumin to creatinine ratio among Indigenous Australians: eGFR Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J T; Barzi, F; Hoy, W E; Jones, G R D; Rathnayake, G; Majoni, S W; Thomas, M A B; Sinha, A; Cass, A; MacIsaac, R J; O'Dea, K; Maple-Brown, L J

    2017-12-01

    Low serum bilirubin concentrations are reported to be strongly associated with cardio-metabolic disease, but this relationship has not been reported among Indigenous Australian people who are known to be at high risk for diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD). serum bilirubin will be negatively associated with markers of chronic disease, including CKD and anaemia among Indigenous Australians. A cross-sectional analysis of 594 adult Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (TSI) people in good health or with diabetes and markers of CKD. Measures included urine albumin: creatinine ratio (ACR), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), haemoglobin (Hb) and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c). Diabetes was defined by medical history, medications or HbA1c≥6.5% or ≥48mmol/mol. Anaemia was defined as Hbbilirubin was performed. Participants mean (SD) age was 45.1 (14.5) years, and included 62.5% females, 71.7% Aboriginal, 41.1% with diabetes, 16.7% with anaemia, 41% with ACR>3mg/mmol and 18.2% with eGFRbilirubin concentration was lower in females than males (6 v 8μmol/L, pbilirubin; Hb and cholesterol (both positively related) and ACR, triglycerides, Aboriginal ethnicity and female gender (all inversely related). Serum bilirubin concentrations were positively associated with Hb and total cholesterol, and inversely associated with ACR. Further research to determine reasons explaining lower bilirubin concentrations among Aboriginal compared with TSI participants are needed. Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Sustainability of the effects of medicinal iron and iron rich food supplementation on haemoglobin, intelligence quotient and growth of school aged girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Jain

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Anaemia in school aged girls is an important but neglected issue. Since iron supplementation programmes have had little reported success in reducing anaemia, interest is turning to food based approaches that have higher potential for achieving far reaching benefits. The purpose of the study was to observe sustainability of the effect of iron and food supplementation on haemoglobin (Hb, intelligence quotient (IQ and growth of the subjects. At baseline, estimation of haemoglobin (Hb, red cell indices, serum iron, total iron binding capacity, serum transferrin saturation and serum ferritin was done. IQ, weight and height were measured using standard procedures. Anaemic subjectswere divided into three groups, viz., (i twice weekly supplementation of iron folic acid syrup (53 mg iron/week; (ii daily supplementation of 4 niger seed and defatted soyaflour biscuits plus 2 lemons (45 mg iron/week and (iii control. Non anaemic group(NAC was not intervened. Endline data was collected after 120 days. Follow up for Hb, IQ, weight and height was done 4 months after cessation of supplementation. The prevalence of anaemia was 77% in the study population; 46% subjects had mild anaemia and 32% had moderate anaemia. Iron status was lower in anaemic subjects (p<0.001.Iron supplementation was more effective in raising Hb and building iron stores than iron rich food supplementation. Iron supplementation improved IQ but did not bring about catch up of anaemics to non anaemics. Iron rich food supplementation was better than medicinal iron in promoting growth in anaemic girls. The impact of iron rich food supplementation on Hb, IQ and growth sustained for 4 months while that of medicinal iron did not. Effects of food supplementation are sustainable for 4 months, therefore, this strategy holds more potential to control anaemia, in school aged girls.

  8. Haemoglobin adducts of acrylonitrile and ethylene oxide in acrylonitrile workers, dependent on polymorphisms of the glutathione transferases GSTT1 and GSTM1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thier, R; Lewalter, J; Kempkes, M; Selinski, S; Brüning, T; Bolt, H M

    1999-01-01

    Fifty-nine persons with industrial handling of low levels of acrylonitrile (AN) were studied. As part of a medical surveillance programme an extended haemoglobin adduct monitoring [N-(cyanoethyl)valine, CEV; N-(methyl)valine. MV: N-(hydroxyethyl)valine, HEV] was performed. Moreover, the genetic states of the polymorphic glutathione transferases GSTM1 and GSTT1 were assayed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Repetitive analyses of CEV and MV in subsequent years resulted in comparable values (means, 59.8 and 70.3 microg CEV/1 blood; 6.7 and 6.7 microg MV/1 blood). Hence, the industrial AN exposures were well below current official standards. Monitoring the haemoglobin adduct CEV appears as a suitable means of biomonitoring and medical surveillance under such exposure conditions. There was also no apparent correlation between the CEV and HEV or CEV and MV adduct levels. The MV and HEV values observed represented background levels, which apparently are not related to any occupational chemical exposure. There was no consistent effect of the genetic GSTM1 or GSTT1 state on CEV adduct levels induced by acrylonitrile exposure. Therefore, neither GSTM1 nor GSTT1 appears as a major AN metabolizing isoenzyme in humans. The low and physiological background levels of MV were also not influenced by the genetic GSTM1 state, but the MV adduct levels tended to be higher in GSTT1- individuals compared to GSTT1 + persons. With respect to the background levels of HEV adducts observed, there was no major influence of the GSTM1 state, but GST- individuals displayed adduct levels that were about 1/3 higher than those of GSTT1 + individuals. The coincidence with known differences in rates of background sister chromatid exchange between GSTT1- and GSTT1 + persons suggests that the lower ethylene oxide (EO) detoxification rate in GSTT1- persons, indicated by elevated blood protein hydroxyethyl adduct levels, leads to an increased genotoxic effect of the physiological EO background.

  9. Maintaining nuclear competence and expertise in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Y.

    2004-01-01

    The fundamental law of atomic energy, which strictly restricts the application of atomic energy to the peaceful use, was established in 1955 in Japan. Since then, during the past five decades, great efforts were made to develop atomic energy. So far 52 units of light water reactors, 29 BWRs and 23 PWRs, have been built and in operation, 5 units are under construction and 6 units are planed to be built. Total capacity of presently operated NPPs amounts to 45.7 Gwe and the nuclear energy shares 30 % of the total electricity generation in Japan. During the past 10 years, several accidents occur in the nuclear facilities of electric power companies, and JNC ( previously PNC ). In spite of these accidents, including the accident of Kansai Electric Power Co. this year, the important role of nuclear energy to sustain the lives of people in Japan is intact. In the nuclear energy projection, the construction of NPPs continues till 2010. Thereafter reconstructions of NPPs are foreseen in the decade 2030's for the replacement of present NPPs in operation after 60 years services. Attention has been directed to the technology preservation: how competence and expertise of nuclear engineering can be maintained till the next period of replacement construction, in particular, the period between years 2010 and 2030. The present paper reviews the status of nuclear engineering programs in universities in Japan. The nuclear education programs started in graduate schools in 1957 and expanded to undergraduate schools of major national universities. Presently nine universities are providing systematic nuclear education programs in their graduate schools, although the corresponding department have been changed their names from 'nuclear' to more broaden terms of 'quantum', 'energy' and 'system' in several universities. Under the conditions of shrinking nuclear industries, how to maintain the present education system is seriously concerned matter in the universities. The present paper

  10. Organic synthesis with stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daub, G.H.; Kerr, V.N.; Williams, D.L.; Whaley, T.W.

    1978-01-01

    Some general considerations concerning organic synthesis with stable isotopes are presented. Illustrative examples are described and discussed. The examples include DL-2-amino-3-methyl- 13 C-butanoic-3,4- 13 C 2 acid (DL-valine- 13 C 3 ); methyl oleate-1- 13 C; thymine-2,6- 13 C 2 ; 2-aminoethanesulfonic- 13 C acid (taurine- 13 C); D-glucose-6- 13 C; DL-2-amino-3-methylpentanoic-3,4- 13 C 2 acid (DL-isoleucine- 13 C 2 ); benzidine- 15 N 2 ; and 4-ethylsulfonyl-1-naphthalene-sulfonamide- 15 N

  11. Stable isotopes - separation and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockhart, I.M.

    1980-01-01

    In this review, methods used for the separation of stable isotopes ( 12 C, 13 C, 14 N, 15 N, 16 O, 17 O, 18 O, 34 S) will be described. The synthesis of labelled compounds, techniques for detection and assay, and areas of application will also be discussed. Particular attention will be paid to the isotopes of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen; to date, sulphur isotopes have only assumed a minor role. The field of deuterium chemistry is too extensive for adequate treatment; it will therefore be essentially excluded. (author)

  12. Stable agents for imaging investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tofe, A.J.

    1976-01-01

    This invention concerns highly stable compounds useful in preparing technetium 99m based scintiscanning exploration agents. The compounds of this invention include a pertechnetate reducing agent or a solution of oxidized pertechnetate and an efficient proportion, sufficient to stabilize the compounds in the presence of oxygen and of radiolysis products, of ascorbic acid or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester of this acid. The invention also concerns a perfected process for preparing a technetium based exploration agent, consisting in codissolving the ascorbic acid or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester of such an acid and a pertechnetate reducing agent in a solution of oxidized pertechnetate [fr

  13. Maintaining Gamma Spectrometer and its challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazlipah Mohd Ramlan; Ramzah Mohamed; Saipo Bahari Abdul Ratan

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the activities of the Group Maintenance of Instrumentation and Automation Center. Maintenance of group activities is to provide maintenance service on equipment at the Malaysian Nuclear Agency. Category of equipment is maintained instrumentation / nuclear electronics, scientific, analytical, security, communications, audio visual and other related. Maintenance services is to support research and development and scientific services at Nuclear Malaysia. Equipment maintenance services including repair service (CM), periodic maintenance (PM), technical testing and calibration of new devices. The objective is to ensure that maintenance activities can be the hope of an equipment, extend the life of the operation of the equipment, reducing 'down time' and reduce maintenance costs. Among the challenges in managing the maintenance of equipment in Nuclear Malaysia is the lack of expertise in specific areas such as nuclear instrumentation, analytical instruments, the problem of the inability of local suppliers to provide after-sales service, lack of spares, maintenance and nothing less emphasis on preventive maintenance schedule is perfect. (author)

  14. Sociable Robots Through Self-Maintained Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trung Dung Ngo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Research of autonomous mobile robots has mostly emphasized interaction and coordination that are natually inspired from biological behavior of birds, insects, and fish: flocking, foraging, collecting, and sharing. However, most research has been only focused on autonomous behaviors in order to perform robots like animals, whereas it is lacked of determinant to those behaviours: energy. Approaching to clusted amimal and the higher, collective and sharing food among individuals are major activity to keep society being. This paper issues an approach to sociable robots using self-maintained energy in cooperative mobile robots, which is dominantly inspired from swarm behavior of collecting and sharing food of honey-bee and ant. Autonomous mobile robots are usually equipped with a finite energy, thus they can operate in a finite time. To overcome the finitude, we describe practical deployment of mobile robots that are capable of carrying and exchanging fuel to other robots. Mechanism implementation including modular hardware and control architecture to demonstrate the capabicities of the approach is presented. Subsequently, the battery exchange algorithm basically based on probabilistic modeling of total energy on each robot located in its local vicinity is described. The paper is concluded with challenging works of chain of mobile robots, rescue, repair, and relation of heterogeneous robots.

  15. Sociable Robots through Self-maintained Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Schioler

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Research of autonomous mobile robots has mostly emphasized interaction and coordination that are natually inspired from biological behavior of birds, insects, and fish: flocking, foraging, collecting, and sharing. However, most research has been only focused on autonomous behaviors in order to perform robots like animals, whereas it is lacked of determinant to those behaviours: energy. Approaching to clusted amimal and the higher, collective and sharing food among individuals are major activity to keep society being. This paper issues an approach to sociable robots using self-maintained energy in cooperative mobile robots, which is dominantly inspired from swarm behavior of collecting and sharing food of honey-bee and ant. Autonomous mobile robots are usually equipped with a finite energy, thus they can operate in a finite time. To overcome the finitude, we describe practical deployment of mobile robots that are capable of carrying and exchanging fuel to other robots. Mechanism implementation including modular hardware and control architecture to demonstrate the capabicities of the approach is presented. Subsequently, the battery exchange algorithm basically based on probabilistic modeling of total energy on each robot located in its local vicinity is described. The paper is concluded with challenging works of chain of mobile robots, rescue, repair, and relation of heterogeneous robots.

  16. The role of genetic variants in CYP2C8, LPIN1, PPARGC1A and PPARγ on the trough steady-state plasma concentrations of rosiglitazone and on glycosylated haemoglobin A1c in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stage, Tore B; Christensen, Mette M H; Feddersen, Søren

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms in CYP2C8, LPIN1, PPARGC1A and PPARγ on rosiglitazone's (i) trough steady-state plasma concentration (C(ss,min)), (ii) on glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and (iii) the risk of developing adverse eve...

  17. Stability and reproducibility of ADVIA 120-measured red blood cell and platelet parameters in dogs, cats, and horses, and the use of reticulocyte haemoglobin content (CH(R)) in the diagnosis of iron deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, M.; van Leeuwen, M.W.; Teske, E.

    2009-01-01

    Tijdschr Diergeneeskd. 2009 Apr 1;134(7):272-8. Stability and reproducibility of ADVIA 120-measured red blood cell and platelet parameters in dogs, cats, and horses, and the use of reticulocyte haemoglobin content (CH(R)) in the diagnosis of iron deficiency. Prins M, van Leeuwen MW, Teske E.

  18. Stable cosmology in chameleon bigravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Felice, Antonio; Mukohyama, Shinji; Oliosi, Michele; Watanabe, Yota

    2018-02-01

    The recently proposed chameleonic extension of bigravity theory, by including a scalar field dependence in the graviton potential, avoids several fine-tunings found to be necessary in usual massive bigravity. In particular it ensures that the Higuchi bound is satisfied at all scales, that no Vainshtein mechanism is needed to satisfy Solar System experiments, and that the strong coupling scale is always above the scale of cosmological interest all the way up to the early Universe. This paper extends the previous work by presenting a stable example of cosmology in the chameleon bigravity model. We find a set of initial conditions and parameters such that the derived stability conditions on general flat Friedmann background are satisfied at all times. The evolution goes through radiation-dominated, matter-dominated, and de Sitter eras. We argue that the parameter space allowing for such a stable evolution may be large enough to encompass an observationally viable evolution. We also argue that our model satisfies all known constraints due to gravitational wave observations so far and thus can be considered as a unique testing ground of gravitational wave phenomenologies in bimetric theories of gravity.

  19. Stable Heavy Hadrons in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Mackeprang, Rasmus

    2007-01-01

    Several extensions to the SM feature heavy long-lived particles with masses of O(10^2-10^3 GeV) and mean lifetimes fulfilling $CT \\geq 10m$. Among such theories are supersymmetric scenarios as well as extra-dimensional models in which the heavy new particles are seen as Kaluza-Klein excitations of the well-known SM particles. Such particles will, from the point of view of a collider experiment be seen as stable. This thesis is concerned with the case where the exotic heavy particles emph{can} be considered stable while traversing the detector. Specifically the case is considered where the particles in question carry the charge of the strong nuclear force, commonly referred to as emph{colour charge}. A simulation kit has been developed using GEANT4. This framework is the current standard in experimental particle physics for the simulation of interactions of particles with matter, and it is used extensively for detector simulation. The simulation describes the interactions of these particles with matter which i...

  20. Maintaining homeostasis by decision-making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph W Korn

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Living organisms need to maintain energetic homeostasis. For many species, this implies taking actions with delayed consequences. For example, humans may have to decide between foraging for high-calorie but hard-to-get, and low-calorie but easy-to-get food, under threat of starvation. Homeostatic principles prescribe decisions that maximize the probability of sustaining appropriate energy levels across the entire foraging trajectory. Here, predictions from biological principles contrast with predictions from economic decision-making models based on maximizing the utility of the endpoint outcome of a choice. To empirically arbitrate between the predictions of biological and economic models for individual human decision-making, we devised a virtual foraging task in which players chose repeatedly between two foraging environments, lost energy by the passage of time, and gained energy probabilistically according to the statistics of the environment they chose. Reaching zero energy was framed as starvation. We used the mathematics of random walks to derive endpoint outcome distributions of the choices. This also furnished equivalent lotteries, presented in a purely economic, casino-like frame, in which starvation corresponded to winning nothing. Bayesian model comparison showed that--in both the foraging and the casino frames--participants' choices depended jointly on the probability of starvation and the expected endpoint value of the outcome, but could not be explained by economic models based on combinations of statistical moments or on rank-dependent utility. This implies that under precisely defined constraints biological principles are better suited to explain human decision-making than economic models based on endpoint utility maximization.

  1. Stable isotope mass spectrometry in petroleum exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, Manju

    1997-01-01

    The stable isotope mass spectrometry plays an important role to evaluate the stable isotopic composition of hydrocarbons. The isotopic ratios of certain elements in petroleum samples reflect certain characteristics which are useful for petroleum exploration

  2. Stable rotating dipole solitons in nonlocal media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez-Aguayo, Servando; Skupin, Stefan; Desyatnikov, Anton S.

    2006-01-01

    We present the first example of stable rotating two-soliton bound states in nonlinear optical media with nonlocal response. We show that, in contrast to media with local response, nonlocality opens possibilities to generate stable azimuthons.......We present the first example of stable rotating two-soliton bound states in nonlinear optical media with nonlocal response. We show that, in contrast to media with local response, nonlocality opens possibilities to generate stable azimuthons....

  3. Tempered stable laws as random walk limits

    OpenAIRE

    Chakrabarty, Arijit; Meerschaert, Mark M.

    2010-01-01

    Stable laws can be tempered by modifying the L\\'evy measure to cool the probability of large jumps. Tempered stable laws retain their signature power law behavior at infinity, and infinite divisibility. This paper develops random walk models that converge to a tempered stable law under a triangular array scheme. Since tempered stable laws and processes are useful in statistical physics, these random walk models can provide a basic physical model for the underlying physical phenomena.

  4. Stable States of Biological Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukalov, V. I.; Sornette, D.; Yukalova, E. P.; Henry, J.-Y.; Cobb, J. P.

    2009-04-01

    A novel model of biological organisms is advanced, treating an organism as a self-consistent system subject to a pathogen flux. The principal novelty of the model is that it describes not some parts, but a biological organism as a whole. The organism is modeled by a five-dimensional dynamical system. The organism homeostasis is described by the evolution equations for five interacting components: healthy cells, ill cells, innate immune cells, specific immune cells, and pathogens. The stability analysis demonstrates that, in a wide domain of the parameter space, the system exhibits robust structural stability. There always exist four stable stationary solutions characterizing four qualitatively differing states of the organism: alive state, boundary state, critical state, and dead state.

  5. Super-stable Poissonian structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we characterize classes of Poisson processes whose statistical structures are super-stable. We consider a flow generated by a one-dimensional ordinary differential equation, and an ensemble of particles ‘surfing’ the flow. The particles start from random initial positions, and are propagated along the flow by stochastic ‘wave processes’ with general statistics and general cross correlations. Setting the initial positions to be Poisson processes, we characterize the classes of Poisson processes that render the particles’ positions—at all times, and invariantly with respect to the wave processes—statistically identical to their initial positions. These Poisson processes are termed ‘super-stable’ and facilitate the generalization of the notion of stationary distributions far beyond the realm of Markov dynamics. (paper)

  6. Super-stable Poissonian structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2012-10-01

    In this paper we characterize classes of Poisson processes whose statistical structures are super-stable. We consider a flow generated by a one-dimensional ordinary differential equation, and an ensemble of particles ‘surfing’ the flow. The particles start from random initial positions, and are propagated along the flow by stochastic ‘wave processes’ with general statistics and general cross correlations. Setting the initial positions to be Poisson processes, we characterize the classes of Poisson processes that render the particles’ positions—at all times, and invariantly with respect to the wave processes—statistically identical to their initial positions. These Poisson processes are termed ‘super-stable’ and facilitate the generalization of the notion of stationary distributions far beyond the realm of Markov dynamics.

  7. Periodicity of the stable isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Boeyens, J C A

    2003-01-01

    It is demonstrated that all stable (non-radioactive) isotopes are formally interrelated as the products of systematically adding alpha particles to four elementary units. The region of stability against radioactive decay is shown to obey a general trend based on number theory and contains the periodic law of the elements as a special case. This general law restricts the number of what may be considered as natural elements to 100 and is based on a proton:neutron ratio that matches the golden ratio, characteristic of biological and crystal growth structures. Different forms of the periodic table inferred at other proton:neutron ratios indicate that the electronic configuration of atoms is variable and may be a function of environmental pressure. Cosmic consequences of this postulate are examined. (author)

  8. Stable massive particles at colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairbairn, M.; /Stockholm U.; Kraan, A.C.; /Pennsylvania U.; Milstead, D.A.; /Stockholm U.; Sjostrand, T.; /Lund U.; Skands, P.; /Fermilab; Sloan, T.; /Lancaster U.

    2006-11-01

    We review the theoretical motivations and experimental status of searches for stable massive particles (SMPs) which could be sufficiently long-lived as to be directly detected at collider experiments. The discovery of such particles would address a number of important questions in modern physics including the origin and composition of dark matter in the universe and the unification of the fundamental forces. This review describes the techniques used in SMP-searches at collider experiments and the limits so far obtained on the production of SMPs which possess various colour, electric and magnetic charge quantum numbers. We also describe theoretical scenarios which predict SMPs, the phenomenology needed to model their production at colliders and interactions with matter. In addition, the interplay between collider searches and open questions in cosmology such as dark matter composition are addressed.

  9. The Myopic Stable Set for Social Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demuynck, Thomas; Herings, P. Jean-Jacques; Saulle, Riccardo; Seel, Christian

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a new solution concept for models of coalition formation, called the myopic stable set. The myopic stable set is defined for a very general class of social environments and allows for an infinite state space. We show that the myopic stable set exists and is non-empty. Under minor

  10. Effectiveness and risks of stable iodine prophylaxis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waight, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    The factors upon which the efficacy of stable iodine prophylaxis depends are reviewed, with particular reference to the dose of stable iodine, the timing of the dose, the influence of dietary iodine and the impact of the other prospective actions. The risks of stable iodine ingestion are estimated, and their application to the principle of Justification in outlined. (Author)

  11. Temperature and Humidity Control in Livestock Stables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael; Andersen, Palle; Nielsen, Kirsten M.

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes temperature and humidity control of a livestock stable. It is important to have a correct air flow pattern in the livestock stable in order to achieve proper temperature and humidity control as well as to avoid draught. In the investigated livestock stable the air flow...

  12. Stable solid state reference electrodes for high temperature water chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayaweera, P.; Millett, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    A solid state electrode capable of providing a stable reference potential under a wide range of temperatures and chemical conditions has been demonstrated. The electrode consists of a zirconia or yttria-stabilized zirconia tube packed with an inorganic polymer electrolyte and a silver/silver chloride sensing element. The sensing element is maintained near room temperature by a passive cooling heat sink. The electrode stability was demonstrated by testing it in high temperature (280 C) aqueous solutions over extended periods of time. This reference electrode is useful in many applications, particularly for monitoring the chemistry in nuclear and fossil power plants

  13. Ferroelectric nanostructure having switchable multi-stable vortex states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumov, Ivan I [Fayetteville, AR; Bellaiche, Laurent M [Fayetteville, AR; Prosandeev, Sergey A [Fayetteville, AR; Ponomareva, Inna V [Fayetteville, AR; Kornev, Igor A [Fayetteville, AR

    2009-09-22

    A ferroelectric nanostructure formed as a low dimensional nano-scale ferroelectric material having at least one vortex ring of polarization generating an ordered toroid moment switchable between multi-stable states. A stress-free ferroelectric nanodot under open-circuit-like electrical boundary conditions maintains such a vortex structure for their local dipoles when subject to a transverse inhomogeneous static electric field controlling the direction of the macroscopic toroidal moment. Stress is also capable of controlling the vortex's chirality, because of the electromechanical coupling that exists in ferroelectric nanodots.

  14. Uncertainty principle and the stable interpretation of spectrometric experiment results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhukovskij, E.L.

    1984-01-01

    Two stable forms for recording least-swuare method used for evaluation of parameters durmng automated processing and interpretation of various type spectra were derived on the basis of the Kramer-Rao inequality. Spectra described by linear equations are considered for which parameter evaluations are recorded in a final form. It is shown that the suggested form of the interpreting functional is maintained for the spectra of different nature (NMR-, IR-, UV-, RS- and mass-spectra), their parameters depending nonlinearly on the wave number

  15. Thermally stable nanoparticles on supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldan Cuenya, Beatriz; Naitabdi, Ahmed R.; Behafarid, Farzad

    2012-11-13

    An inverse micelle-based method for forming nanoparticles on supports includes dissolving a polymeric material in a solvent to provide a micelle solution. A nanoparticle source is dissolved in the micelle solution. A plurality of micelles having a nanoparticle in their core and an outer polymeric coating layer are formed in the micelle solution. The micelles are applied to a support. The polymeric coating layer is then removed from the micelles to expose the nanoparticles. A supported catalyst includes a nanocrystalline powder, thin film, or single crystal support. Metal nanoparticles having a median size from 0.5 nm to 25 nm, a size distribution having a standard deviation .ltoreq.0.1 of their median size are on or embedded in the support. The plurality of metal nanoparticles are dispersed and in a periodic arrangement. The metal nanoparticles maintain their periodic arrangement and size distribution following heat treatments of at least 1,000.degree. C.

  16. Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c ) and fasting plasma glucose relationships in sea-level and high-altitude settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazo-Alvarez, J C; Quispe, R; Pillay, T D; Bernabé-Ortiz, A; Smeeth, L; Checkley, W; Gilman, R H; Málaga, G; Miranda, J J

    2017-06-01

    Higher haemoglobin levels and differences in glucose metabolism have been reported among high-altitude residents, which may influence the diagnostic performance of HbA 1c . This study explores the relationship between HbA 1c and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) in populations living at sea level and at an altitude of > 3000 m. Data from 3613 Peruvian adults without a known diagnosis of diabetes from sea-level and high-altitude settings were evaluated. Linear, quadratic and cubic regression models were performed adjusting for potential confounders. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed and concordance between HbA 1c and FPG was assessed using a Kappa index. At sea level and high altitude, means were 13.5 and 16.7 g/dl (P > 0.05) for haemoglobin level; 41 and 40 mmol/mol (5.9% and 5.8%; P < 0.01) for HbA 1c ; and 5.8 and 5.1 mmol/l (105 and 91.3 mg/dl; P < 0.001) for FPG, respectively. The adjusted relationship between HbA 1c and FPG was quadratic at sea level and linear at high altitude. Adjusted models showed that, to predict an HbA 1c value of 48 mmol/mol (6.5%), the corresponding mean FPG values at sea level and high altitude were 6.6 and 14.8 mmol/l (120 and 266 mg/dl), respectively. An HbA 1c cut-off of 48 mmol/mol (6.5%) had a sensitivity for high FPG of 87.3% (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 76.5 to 94.4) at sea level and 40.9% (95% CI 20.7 to 63.6) at high altitude. The relationship between HbA 1c and FPG is less clear at high altitude than at sea level. Caution is warranted when using HbA 1c to diagnose diabetes mellitus in this setting. © 2017 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Diabetes UK.

  17. Moltex Energy's stable salt reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Sullivan, R.; Laurie, J.

    2016-01-01

    A stable salt reactor is a molten salt reactor in which the molten fuel salt is contained in fuel rods. This concept was invented in 1951 and re-discovered and improved recently by Moltex Energy Company. The main advantage of using molten salt fuel is that the 2 problematic fission products cesium and iodine do not exist in gaseous form but rather in a form of a salt that present no danger in case of accident. Another advantage is the strongly negative temperature coefficient for reactivity which means the reactor self-regulates. The feasibility studies have been performed on a molten salt fuel composed of sodium chloride and plutonium/uranium/lanthanide/actinide trichloride. The coolant fluid is a mix of sodium and zirconium fluoride salts that will need low flow rates. The addition of 1 mol% of metal zirconium to the coolant fluid reduces the risk of corrosion with standard steels and the addition of 2% of hafnium reduces the neutron dose. The temperature of the coolant is expected to reach 650 Celsius degrees at the exit of the core. This reactor is designed to be modular and it will be able to burn actinides. (A.C.)

  18. Rare stable isotopes in meteorites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, G.C.

    1981-01-01

    Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) using accelerators has been applied with success to cosmic ray exposure ages and terrestrial residence times of meteorites by measuring cosmogenic nuclides of Be, Cl, and I. It is proposed to complement this work with experiments on rare stable isotopes, in the hope of setting constraints on the processes of solar nebula/meteoritic formation. The relevant species can be classified as: a) daughter products of extinct nuclides (halflife less than or equal to 2 x 10 8 y) -chronology of the early solar system; b) products of high temperature astrophysical processes - different components incorporated into the solar nebula; and c) products of relatively low temperature processes, stellar winds and cosmic ray reactions - early solar system radiation history. The use of micron-scale primary ion beams will allow detailed sampling of phases within meteorites. Strategies of charge-state selection, molecular disintegration and detection should bring a new set of targets within analytical range. The developing accelerator field is compared to existing (keV energy) ion microprobes

  19. Stable piecewise polynomial vector fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Pessoa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Let $N={y>0}$ and $S={y<0}$ be the semi-planes of $mathbb{R}^2$ having as common boundary the line $D={y=0}$. Let $X$ and $Y$ be polynomial vector fields defined in $N$ and $S$, respectively, leading to a discontinuous piecewise polynomial vector field $Z=(X,Y$. This work pursues the stability and the transition analysis of solutions of $Z$ between $N$ and $S$, started by Filippov (1988 and Kozlova (1984 and reformulated by Sotomayor-Teixeira (1995 in terms of the regularization method. This method consists in analyzing a one parameter family of continuous vector fields $Z_{epsilon}$, defined by averaging $X$ and $Y$. This family approaches $Z$ when the parameter goes to zero. The results of Sotomayor-Teixeira and Sotomayor-Machado (2002 providing conditions on $(X,Y$ for the regularized vector fields to be structurally stable on planar compact connected regions are extended to discontinuous piecewise polynomial vector fields on $mathbb{R}^2$. Pertinent genericity results for vector fields satisfying the above stability conditions are also extended to the present case. A procedure for the study of discontinuous piecewise vector fields at infinity through a compactification is proposed here.

  20. Stable Structures for Distributed Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen DUMITRASCU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available For distributed applications, we define the linear, tree and graph structure types with different variants and modalities to aggregate them. The distributed applications have assigned structures that through their characteristics influence the costs of stages for developing cycle and the costs for exploitation, transferred to each user. We also present the quality characteristics of a structure for a stable application, which is focused on stability characteristic. For that characteristic we define the estimated measure indicators for a level. The influence of the factors of stability and the ways for increasing it are thus identified, and at the same time the costs of development stages, the costs of usage and the costs of maintenance to be keep on between limits that assure the global efficiency of application. It is presented the base aspects for distributed applications: definition, peculiarities and importance. The aspects for the development cycle of distributed application are detailed. In this article, we alongside give the mechanisms for building the defined structures and analyze the complexity of the defined structures for a distributed application of a virtual store.

  1. 33 CFR 150.555 - How must cranes be maintained?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How must cranes be maintained? 150.555 Section 150.555 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Operations § 150.555 How must cranes be maintained? Cranes must be operated, maintained, and tested in...

  2. Valve maintainability in CANDU-PHW nuclear generating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pothier, N.E.; Crago, W.A.

    1977-09-01

    Design, application, layout and administrative factors which affect valve maintainability in CANDU-PHW power reactors are identified and discussed. Some of these are illustrated by examples based on prototype reactor operation experience. Valve maintainability improvements resulting from laboratory development and maintainability analysis, have been incorporated in commercial CANDU-PHW nuclear generating stations. These, also, are discussed and illustrated. (author)

  3. Nudging toward a stable retirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroncke, Charles

    2018-01-01

    The classical economics perspective is that public policy should be used to allow, not hinder, economic freedom. In some cases it may be possible for government to gently nudge individuals to change their behavior without hindering freedom. One example is a change from the default on pension program enrollment forms from "not contribute" to "contribute." This is generally viewed as a good nudge that gets people to do what the majority of people view as generally the correct behavior. However, a choice to contribute to a pension fund is not always in the individual's best interest - thus, it is a nudge, not a mandate. To maintain personal liberty, individuals should be fully informed about the consequences of their choice and the motives of the political authority. Saving for retirement is a complex issue, and pension contribution decisions are often made with little foresight or information. Pension contribution nudges may not always be freedom preserving because of complexity and unintended consequences. The benefits, risks, and limitations of default contribution pension nudges are discussed.

  4. Advanced thermally stable jet fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schobert, H.H.

    1999-01-31

    The Pennsylvania State University program in advanced thermally stable coal-based jet fuels has five broad objectives: (1) Development of mechanisms of degradation and solids formation; (2) Quantitative measurement of growth of sub-micrometer and micrometer-sized particles suspended in fuels during thermal stressing; (3) Characterization of carbonaceous deposits by various instrumental and microscopic methods; (4) Elucidation of the role of additives in retarding the formation of carbonaceous solids; (5) Assessment of the potential of production of high yields of cycloalkanes by direct liquefaction of coal. Future high-Mach aircraft will place severe thermal demands on jet fuels, requiring the development of novel, hybrid fuel mixtures capable of withstanding temperatures in the range of 400--500 C. In the new aircraft, jet fuel will serve as both an energy source and a heat sink for cooling the airframe, engine, and system components. The ultimate development of such advanced fuels requires a thorough understanding of the thermal decomposition behavior of jet fuels under supercritical conditions. Considering that jet fuels consist of hundreds of compounds, this task must begin with a study of the thermal degradation behavior of select model compounds under supercritical conditions. The research performed by The Pennsylvania State University was focused on five major tasks that reflect the objectives stated above: Task 1: Investigation of the Quantitative Degradation of Fuels; Task 2: Investigation of Incipient Deposition; Task 3: Characterization of Solid Gums, Sediments, and Carbonaceous Deposits; Task 4: Coal-Based Fuel Stabilization Studies; and Task 5: Exploratory Studies on the Direct Conversion of Coal to High Quality Jet Fuels. The major findings of each of these tasks are presented in this executive summary. A description of the sub-tasks performed under each of these tasks and the findings of those studies are provided in the remainder of this volume

  5. The association of haemoglobin A{sub 1C} levels with the clinical and CT characteristics of Klebsiella pneumoniae liver abscesses in patients with diabetes mellitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hong-Hau [Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Taipei (China); Tri-Service General Hospital Songshan Branch. National Defense Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Taipei (China); Tsai, Shih-Hung [Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Department of Emergency Medicine, Taipei (China); Yu, Chih-Yung; Hsu, Hsian-He; Liu, Chang-Hsien; Huang, Guo-Shu; Chang, Wei-Chou [Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Taipei (China); Lin, Jung-Chung [Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Taipei (China); Cheng, Wei-Tung; Chen, Ching-Yang [Tri-Service General Hospital Songshan Branch. National Defense Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Taipei (China); Tung, Ho-Jui [Asia University, Department of Healthcare Administration, Taichung (China)

    2014-05-15

    To compare the characteristics of Klebsiella pneumoniae liver abscesses (KPLA) in diabetic patients with different levels of glycaemic control. The institutional review board approved this retrospective study. A total of 221 patients with KPLA were included. Clinical features of KPLA were compared. We divided the 120 diabetic patients with KPLA into three subgroups based on haemoglobin A{sub 1C} (HbA{sub 1C}) concentration (good, HbA{sub 1C} ≤ 7.0 %; suboptimal, 7.0 % < HbA{sub 1C} ≤ 9.0 %; poor, HbA{sub 1C} > 9.0 %). In this study, we used a semiautomated quantitative method to assess the gas and total abscess volumes in KPLA. Statistical analysis was performed with the chi-squared test and one-way analysis of variance. The mortality rate did not significantly differ between the nondiabetic and diabetic groups. However, patients with poor glycaemic control had significantly more complications and therefore a longer hospital stay (P < 0.05). In our study, CT and quantitative analyses found that patients in the group with poor glycaemic control had a significantly higher incidence of gas formation and hepatic venous thrombophlebitis and a higher gas-to-abscess volume ratio than patients with suboptimal and good glycaemic control (P < 0.05). Diabetic patients with a high HbA{sub 1C} concentration (>9.0 %) have an association with hepatic venous thrombophlebitis, gas formation and metastatic infection complications associated with KPLA. (orig.)

  6. Mapping of calf muscle oxygenation and haemoglobin content during dynamic plantar flexion exercise by multi-channel time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torricelli, Alessandro; Quaresima, Valentina; Pifferi, Antonio; Biscotti, Giovanni; Spinelli, Lorenzo; Taroni, Paola; Ferrari, Marco; Cubeddu, Rinaldo

    2004-01-01

    A compact and fast multi-channel time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy system for tissue oximetry was developed. It employs semiconductor laser and fibre optics for delivery of optical signals. Photons are collected by eight 1 mm fibres and detected by a multianode photomultiplier. A time-correlated single photon counting board is used for the parallel acquisition of time-resolved reflectance curves. Estimate of the reduced scattering coefficient is achieved by fitting with a standard model of diffusion theory, while the modified Lambert-Beer law is used to assess the absorption coefficient. In vivo measurements were performed on five healthy volunteers to monitor spatial changes in calf muscle (medial and lateral gastrocnemius; MG, LG) oxygen saturation (SmO 2 ) and total haemoglobin concentration (tHb) during dynamic plantar flexion exercise performed at 50% of the maximal voluntary contraction. At rest SmO 2 was 73.0 ± 0.9 and 70.5 ± 1.7% in MG and LG, respectively (P = 0.045). At the end of the exercise, SmO 2 decreased (69.1 ± 1.8 and 63.8 ± 2.1% in MG and LG, respectively; P 2 and tHb

  7. Ultrasound-guided diffuse optical tomography (DOT) of invasive breast carcinoma: Does tumour total haemoglobin concentration contribute to the prediction of axillary lymph node status?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Qingli, E-mail: qinglizhu@gmail.com [Department of Diagnostic Ultrasound, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Shuaifuyuan 1, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100730 (China); Xiao, Mengsu, E-mail: xiaomengsu_2000@sina.com [Department of Diagnostic Ultrasound, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Shuaifuyuan 1, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100730 (China); You, Shanshan, E-mail: shanshan_0531@sina.com [Department of Diagnostic Ultrasound, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Shuaifuyuan 1, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100730 (China); Zhang, Jing, E-mail: zhang.jing1029@163.com [Department of Diagnostic Ultrasound, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Shuaifuyuan 1, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100730 (China); Jiang, Yuxin, E-mail: yuxinjiangxh@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Diagnostic Ultrasound, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Shuaifuyuan 1, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100730 (China); Lai, Xingjian, E-mail: lxjpumch@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Diagnostic Ultrasound, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Shuaifuyuan 1, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100730 (China); Dai, Qing, E-mail: qingdai_2000@yahoo.com [Department of Diagnostic Ultrasound, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Shuaifuyuan 1, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100730 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Objectives: To prospectively study the ultrasound-guided near-infrared diffuse optical tomography (DOT) findings of the total haemoglobin concentration (THC) detected in invasive breast carcinomas and its contribution to the prediction of axillary lymph node (LN) status. Methods: A total of 195 invasive breast carcinomas were prospectively studied with DOT before surgery. Lumpectomy or mastectomy with full axillary nodal dissection was performed. Tumour size and THC level were correlated with LN status by a logistic regression analysis. Results: One hundred twenty-four patients (63.59%) was LN(-) and 71 (36.41%) was LN(+). The average THC was significantly higher in the LN(+) group than in the LN(-) group (252.94 {+-} 69.19 {mu}mol/L versus 203.86 {+-} 83.13 {mu}mol/L, P = 0.01). A multivariate analysis showed an independent relationship between the probability of axillary metastasis, elevated THC level (P = 0.01), and tumour size (P = 0.001). The odds ratio with THC {>=} 140 {mu}mol/L was 13.651 (1.781-104.560), whereas that of tumour size with a 1 cm increment was only 1.777 (1.283-2.246). Conclusions: The THC level and the tumour size are independent and preoperative predictors of axillary nodal status; these variables may improve the diagnosis of patients with lymph node metastasis.

  8. The association of haemoglobin A1C levels with the clinical and CT characteristics of Klebsiella pneumoniae liver abscesses in patients with diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hong-Hau; Tsai, Shih-Hung; Yu, Chih-Yung; Hsu, Hsian-He; Liu, Chang-Hsien; Huang, Guo-Shu; Chang, Wei-Chou; Lin, Jung-Chung; Cheng, Wei-Tung; Chen, Ching-Yang; Tung, Ho-Jui

    2014-01-01

    To compare the characteristics of Klebsiella pneumoniae liver abscesses (KPLA) in diabetic patients with different levels of glycaemic control. The institutional review board approved this retrospective study. A total of 221 patients with KPLA were included. Clinical features of KPLA were compared. We divided the 120 diabetic patients with KPLA into three subgroups based on haemoglobin A 1C (HbA 1C ) concentration (good, HbA 1C ≤ 7.0 %; suboptimal, 7.0 % 1C ≤ 9.0 %; poor, HbA 1C > 9.0 %). In this study, we used a semiautomated quantitative method to assess the gas and total abscess volumes in KPLA. Statistical analysis was performed with the chi-squared test and one-way analysis of variance. The mortality rate did not significantly differ between the nondiabetic and diabetic groups. However, patients with poor glycaemic control had significantly more complications and therefore a longer hospital stay (P 1C concentration (>9.0 %) have an association with hepatic venous thrombophlebitis, gas formation and metastatic infection complications associated with KPLA. (orig.)

  9. Coinfection of intestinal schistosomiasis and malaria and association with haemoglobin levels and nutritional status in school children in Mara region, Northwestern Tanzania: a cross-sectional exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinung'hi, Safari M; Mazigo, Humphrey D; Dunne, David W; Kepha, Stella; Kaatano, Godfrey; Kishamawe, Coleman; Ndokeji, Samuel; Angelo, Teckla; Nuwaha, Fred

    2017-11-09

    Schistosomiasis represents a major public health problem in Tanzania despite ongoing national control efforts. This study examined whether intestinal schistosomiasis is associated with malaria and assessed the contribution of intestinal schistosomiasis and malaria on anaemia and undernutrition in school children in Mara region, North-western Tanzania. Stool samples were collected from each of 928 school children randomly selected from 5 schools and examined for intestinal schistosomiasis using the Kato Katz method. Finger prick blood samples were collected and examined for malaria parasites and haemoglobin concentrations using the Giemsa stain and Haemocue methods, respectively. Nutritional status was assessed by taking anthropometric measurements. The overall prevalence and infection intensity of S. mansoni was 85.6% (794/928) and 192 (100-278), respectively. The prevalence of malaria was 27.4% (254/928) with significant differences among villages (χ 2  = 96.11, p malaria are prevalent in Mara region. Coinfections of these parasites as well as chronic undernutrition were also common. We recommend Mara region to be included in national schistosomiasis control programmes.

  10. Impact of a new sampling buffer on faecal haemoglobin stability in a colorectal cancer screening programme by the faecal immunochemical test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazzini, Grazia; Ventura, Leonardo; Rubeca, Tiziana; Rapi, Stefano; Cellai, Filippo; Di Dia, Pietro P; Mallardi, Beatrice; Mantellini, Paola; Zappa, Marco; Castiglione, Guido

    2017-07-01

    Haemoglobin (Hb) stability in faecal samples is an important issue in colorectal cancer screening by the faecal immunochemical test (FIT) for Hb. This study evaluated the performance of the FIT-Hb (OC-Sensor Eiken) used in the Florence screening programme by comparing two different formulations of the buffer, both in an analytical and in a clinical setting. In the laboratory simulation, six faecal pools (three in each buffer type) were stored at different temperatures and analysed eight times in 10 replicates over 21 days. In the clinical setting, 7695 screenees returned two samples, using both the old and the new specimen collection device (SCD). In the laboratory simulation, 5 days from sample preparation with the buffer of the old SCD, the Hb concentration decreased by 40% at room temperature (25°C, range 22-28°C) and up to 60% at outside temperature (29°C, range 16-39°C), whereas with the new one, Hb concentration decreased by 10%. In the clinical setting, a higher mean Hb concentration with the new SCD compared with the old one was found (6.3 vs. 5.0 µg Hb/g faeces, respectively, Pbuffer under laboratory conditions, but no difference was found in the clinical performance. In our study, only marginal advantages arise from the new buffer. Improvements in sample stability represent a significant target in the screening setting.

  11. Population Games, Stable Games, and Passivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Fox

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The class of “stable games”, introduced by Hofbauer and Sandholm in 2009, has the attractive property of admitting global convergence to equilibria under many evolutionary dynamics. We show that stable games can be identified as a special case of the feedback-system-theoretic notion of a “passive” dynamical system. Motivated by this observation, we develop a notion of passivity for evolutionary dynamics that complements the definition of the class of stable games. Since interconnections of passive dynamical systems exhibit stable behavior, we can make conclusions about passive evolutionary dynamics coupled with stable games. We show how established evolutionary dynamics qualify as passive dynamical systems. Moreover, we exploit the flexibility of the definition of passive dynamical systems to analyze generalizations of stable games and evolutionary dynamics that include forecasting heuristics as well as certain games with memory.

  12. Maintaining the know-how after opt-out consensus: chances and limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritz, P.

    2003-01-01

    Within the next decades, nuclear safety and repository research will continue to be a necessary and integral constituent of the society's provident research. Yet, it is very difficult to maintain this competence in a politically complex environment with the scarce funds available. For its purpose, the Federal Government has appointed an evaluation commission, the chairmanship of which lies with the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology. In its report of January 2001, the commission emphasised that efforts to adequately maintain competence in nuclear engineering, including industry-independent expert knowledge, will only meet with success, if the Federal Republic of Germany and the federal states contribute to a sufficient and stable financing of non-university research. (orig.) [de

  13. Maternal glycated haemoglobin, pre-gestational weight, pregnancy weight gain and risk of large-for-gestational-age babies: a Danish cohort study of 209 singleton Type 1 diabetic pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gunnar Lauge; Dethlefsen, Claus; Møller, Anna Margrethe

    2007-01-01

    between glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and relative risk of delivering an LGA baby was quantified based on logistic regression models and stratified analysis controlling for the five covariates. Results We included 209 singleton pregnancies with assessable HbA1c values of which 59% [95% confidence interval......Aims To examine the association between maternal glycated haemoglobin in the second half of diabetic pregnancies and the relative risk of delivering large-for-gestational-age (LGA) babies, controlling for maternal body mass index (BMI) before pregnancy, weight gain, age, White class and smoking...... (CI) 52-65%] terminated with an LGA baby. Increasing levels of HbA1c, BMI and weight gain were all associated with increasing risk of delivering an LGA baby. Analyses stratified according to maternal BMI showed that the association between HbA1c and risk of delivering an LGA baby was restricted...

  14. The stable nonequilibrium state of bicarbonate aqueous systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voeikov, V. L.; Vilenskaya, N. D.; Ha, Do Minh; Malyshenko, S. I.; Buravleva, E. V.; Yablonskaya, O. I.; Timofeev, K. N.

    2012-09-01

    Data obtained by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and chemiluminescence analysis indicate that in aqueous solutions of bicarbonates, superoxide radical and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) are constantly produced. The stationary level of the superoxide radical is found to increase when a solution is illuminated. Reactions involving ROS are shown to be accompanied by the generation of electron excitation energy, keeping bicarbonate solutions in a stable nonequilibrium state. The system can emit part of this energy. Variations in emitting activity are found to correlate with variations in the cosmophysical factors. The emitting activity of solutions is found to vary in the presence of low and ultralow concentrations of hydrated fullerenes. It is noted that the phenomenon of spontaneous charge separation in aqueous systems (G. H. Pollack) could play a role in maintaining a stable nonequilibrium state in bicarbonate systems where the reactions with ROS participation are catalyzed by forms of carbonate. It is concluded that the abovementioned properties of bicarbonate aqueous systems most likely keep living matter whose structural basis is formed by these systems in a stable excited state, thereby making it highly sensitive to the action of external factors with low and ultralow intensities.

  15. Applications of stable isotopes in clinical pharmacology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellekens, Reinout C A; Stellaard, Frans; Woerdenbag, Herman J; Frijlink, Henderik W; Kosterink, Jos G W

    2011-01-01

    This review aims to present an overview of the application of stable isotope technology in clinical pharmacology. Three main categories of stable isotope technology can be distinguished in clinical pharmacology. Firstly, it is applied in the assessment of drug pharmacology to determine the

  16. Stable isotopes and biomarkers in microbial ecology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschker, H.T.S.; Middelburg, J.J.

    2002-01-01

    The use of biomarkers in combination with stable isotope analysis is a new approach in microbial ecology and a number of papers on a variety of subjects have appeared. We will first discuss the techniques for analysing stable isotopes in biomarkers, primarily gas chromatography-combustion-isotope

  17. Modelling stable atmospheric boundary layers over snow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, H.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Thesis entitled:

    Modelling Stable Atmospheric Boundary Layers over Snow

    H.A.M. Sterk

    Wageningen, 29th of April, 2015

    Summary

    The emphasis of this thesis is on the understanding and forecasting of the Stable Boundary Layer (SBL) over snow-covered surfaces. SBLs

  18. Gas phase thermal diffusion of stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eck, C.F.

    1979-01-01

    The separation of stable isotopes at Mound Facility is reviewed from a historical perspective. The historical development of thermal diffusion from a laboratory process to a separation facility that handles all the noble gases is described. In addition, elementary thermal diffusion theory and elementary cascade theory are presented along with a brief review of the uses of stable isotopes

  19. Structure of acid-stable carmine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Naoki; Kawasaki, Yoko; Sato, Kyoko; Aoki, Hiromitsu; Ichi, Takahito; Koda, Takatoshi; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Maitani, Tamio

    2002-02-01

    Acid-stable carmine has recently been distributed in the U.S. market because of its good acid stability, but it is not permitted in Japan. We analyzed and determined the structure of the major pigment in acid-stable carmine, in order to establish an analytical method for it. Carminic acid was transformed into a different type of pigment, named acid-stable carmine, through amination when heated in ammonia solution. The features of the structure were clarified using a model compound, purpurin, in which the orientation of hydroxyl groups on the A ring of the anthraquinone skeleton is the same as that of carminic acid. By spectroscopic means and the synthesis of acid-stable carmine and purpurin derivatives, the structure of the major pigment in acid-stable carmine was established as 4-aminocarminic acid, a novel compound.

  20. Maintainability design and evaluation of mechanical systems based on tribology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wani, M.F.; Gandhi, O.P.

    2002-01-01

    Maintainability of mechanical systems based on tribology is suggested and evaluated in this paper. Tribo-features of mechanical systems, which characterise maintainability are identified and are modelled in terms of tribo-maintainability digraph. The nodes in the digraph represent the tribo-features and edges represent the degree of influence among the features. A matrix, one to one representation of the digraph, is defined to develop system maintainability expression (SPF-t) based on the tribology. It is also useful in comparing the various design alternatives from tribo-maintainability point of view. Maintainability is evaluated from the tribo-maintainability index, obtained from SPF-t (i.e. permanent of the matrix) by substituting the numerical values of the features and their interdependence. A higher value of the index implies better maintainability of the systems. The proposed methodology also guides designers in enhancing the maintainability of a system by appropriately incorporating tribo-features. An example to illustrate the methodology is also presented

  1. [Introduction of capillary glycosylated haemoglobin determination in a Primary Care Health Area: Multicentre study of the evolution of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Sánchez, M Á; Cervantes-Cuesta, M Á; Brocal-Ibañez, P; Salmeron-Arjona, E; León-Martínez, L P; Cerezo-Sanmartin, M

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of a joint intervention that included educational components, self-assessment, and information to optimise diabetes control through the introduction of instant capillary glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) determination in Primary Care. A multicentre prospective descriptive study was carried out over 3years in 10Primary Care Centres of the Area VII Murcia East. At the end of the study there were 804 patients with type 2 diabetes (DM2). Patients were divided into 4 groups based on initial values of HbA1c, and if changes in their treatment were needed. HbA1c, body mass index, and blood pressure were monitored. A financial assessment was also performed on the impact of the implementation of a protocol to measure instant capillary RESULTS: A significant reduction was observed in HbA1c values. The initial HbA1c mean value was 7.4±1.4%, which decreased to a final value of 6.9±1.0% (P<.001). At the end of the study, 71.4% of patients included reached diabetic control objectives. In addition, the financial assessment demonstrated that the implementation of this diabetes control system led to a decrease of the 24.7% in spending on glucose strips after the first year of study in Area VII Murcia Health Service. The introduction of capillary HbA1c determination in Primary Care has demonstrated to improve diabetes control and the efficiency of the health personnel. Furthermore, a reduction in the health costs of patients with DM2 was also shown. Copyright © 2016 SECA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Two-step counterdiffusion protocol for the crystallization of haemoglobin II from Lucina pectinata in the pH range 4–9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieves-Marrero, Carlos A.; Ruiz-Martínez, Carlos R.; Estremera-Andújar, Rafael A.; González-Ramírez, Luis A.; López-Garriga, Juan; Gavira, José A.

    2010-01-01

    oxyHbII crystals have been grown at pH 4, 5, 8 and 9 by capillary counterdiffusion technique by a two-step protocol: (i) mini screen (searching step) and (ii) pH screen (optimization step). Lucina pectinata haemoglobin II (HbII) transports oxygen in the presence of H 2 S to the symbiotic system in this bivalve mollusc. The composition of the haem pocket at the distal site includes TyrB10 and GlnE7, which are very common in other haem proteins. Obtaining crystals of oxyHbII at various pH values is required in order to elucidate the changes in the conformations of TyrB10 and GlnE7 and structural scenarios induced by changes in pH. Here, the growth of crystals of oxyHbII using the capillary counterdiffusion (CCD) technique at various pH values using a two-step protocol is reported. In the first step, a mini-screen was used to validate sodium formate as the best precipitating reagent for the growth of oxyHbII crystals. The second step, a pH screen typically used for optimization, was used to produce crystals in the pH range 4–9. Very well faceted prismatic ruby-red crystals were obtained at all pH values. X-ray data sets were acquired using synchrotron radiation of wavelength 0.886 Å (for the crystals obtained at pH 5) and 0.908 Å (for those obtained at pH 4, 8 and 9) to maximum resolutions of 3.30, 1.95, 1.85 and 2.00 Å for the crystals obtained at pH 4, 5, 8 and 9, respectively. All of the crystals were isomorphous and belonged to space group P4 2 2 1 2

  3. The importance of haemoglobin level and effect of transfusion in HNSCC patients treated with radiotherapy - Results from the randomized DAHANCA 5 study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoff, Camilla Molich; Hansen, Hanne Sand; Overgaard, Marie; Grau, Cai; Johansen, Jorgen; Bentzen, Jens; Overgaard, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose: Patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and a low level of haemoglobin (Hb) often have a poor response to radiation which may be related to hypoxia induced radioresistance. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prognostic significance of low Hb level and its modification by transfusion in HNSCC patients treated with radiotherapy. The study was performed as a subrandomization in the DAHANCA 5 trial. Material and methods: Patients were randomized to treatment with the hypoxic radiosensitizer nimorazole or placebo, and in addition, patients with 'low' pre-irradiation Hb values (females < 13 g/dL; males < 14.5 g/dL) were subrandomized to plus or minus transfusion. Transfusion was given with packed red blood cells with the aim to achieve a Hb level in the 'high' value range. Results: A total of 414 patients were included, 243 patients had high Hb levels and 171 patients had low Hb levels. Of the low Hb patients, 82 were randomized to receive transfusion and 89 not to receive transfusion. The treatment arms were well balanced. In the majority of patients, transfusion resulted in increased Hb levels although this tended to decline throughout treatment. Patients with high Hb levels had a significantly better probability of locoregional control, disease-specific survival and overall survival compared to 'low Hb no transfusion' patients. In the low Hb group, transfusion did not improve the outcome in locoregional control, disease-specific survival or overall survival. In multivariate analyses, T and N classifications were significant for all outcome measures, whereas there was no significant influence of transfusion or Hb level on endpoints. Conclusion: The univariate prognostic significance of high Hb level was demonstrated in patients with HNSCC treated with radiotherapy; however, transfusion prior to and during treatment did not improve the outcome in patients with low Hb values.

  4. Concordance of haemoglobin A1c, blood pressure and C-reactive protein between children and their parents in Chinese households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, F; Howard, A G; Herring, A H; Adair, L S; Thompson, A L; Popkin, B M; Aiello, A E; Zhang, B; Gordon-Larsen, P

    2017-10-01

    China has the world's highest diabetes prevalence, which along with hypertension and inflammation continues to grow particularly among children. Little is known about the strength of the association of these cardiometabolic risk factors between parents and their children; thus, the potential of household-based strategies to reduce risk is unknown. The objective of the study is to examine the parent-child association for haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), blood pressure (BP) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in a large, geographically diverse Chinese sample. In 940 parent-child pairs (children aged 7-17 years) who participated in the 2009 China Health and Nutrition Survey, we measured each individual's HbA1c and CRP using fasting blood and BP. We used sex-specific random-effects linear regression to examine the parent-child association for these risk factors, accounting for within-family clustering. Child's HbA1c was positively associated with parental HbA1c. Beta coefficients ranged from 0.06 (95% CI 0.03-0.12) for father-daughter to 0.43 (95% CI 0.28-0.58) for mother-son pairs. We also detected a positive mother-daughter association for BP and positive father-child associations for CRP. The statistically significant parent-child association for HbA1c, BP and CRP in Chinese families suggests that household-based interventions could be useful for confronting the high rates of diabetes, hypertension and inflammation in China. © 2016 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd on behalf of World Obesity Federation.

  5. 33 CFR 118.5 - Penalty for failure to maintain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... States who fails or refuses to maintain such lights and other signals, or to obey any of the lawful rules... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Penalty for failure to maintain. 118.5 Section 118.5 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...

  6. Maintaining patients' dignity during clinical care: a qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yea-Pyng; Tsai, Yun-Fang

    2011-02-01

    This article is a report of a study undertaken to understand how nurses maintain patients' dignity in clinical practice. Dignity is a core concept in nursing care and maintaining patients' dignity is critical to their recovery. In Western countries, measures to maintain dignity in patients' care include maintaining privacy of the body, providing spatial privacy, giving sufficient time, treating patients as a whole person and allowing patients to have autonomy. However, this is an under-studied topic in Asian countries. For this qualitative descriptive study, data were collected in Taiwan in 2009 using in-depth interviews with a purposive sample of 30 nurses from a teaching hospital in eastern Taiwan. The audiotaped interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using content analysis. Nurses' measures to maintain dignity in patient care were captured in five themes: respect, protecting privacy, emotional support, treating all patients alike and maintaining body image. Participants did not mention beneficence, a crucial element achieved through the professional care of nurses that can enhance the recovery of patients. In-service education to help nurses enhance dignity in patient care should emphasize emotional support, maintaining body image and treating all patients alike. Our model for maintaining dignity in patient care could be used to develop a clinical care protocol for nurses to use in clinical practice. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. A Methodology for Integrating Maintainability Using Software Metrics

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, John A.; Henry, Sallie M.

    1989-01-01

    Maintainability must be integrated into software early in the development process. But for practical use, the techniques used must be as unobtrusive to the existing software development process as possible. This paper defines a methodology for integrating maintainability into large-scale software and describes an experiment which implemented the methodology into a major commercial software development environment.

  8. Ballooning stable high beta tokamak equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuda, Takashi; Azumi, Masafumi; Kurita, Gen-ichi; Takizuka, Tomonori; Takeda, Tatsuoki

    1981-04-01

    The second stable regime of ballooning modes is numerically studied by using the two-dimensional tokamak transport code with the ballooning stability code. Using the simple FCT heating scheme, we find that the plasma can locally enter this second stable regime. And we obtained equilibria with fairly high beta (β -- 23%) stable against ballooning modes in a whole plasma region, by taking into account of finite thermal diffusion due to unstable ballooning modes. These results show that a tokamak fusion reactor can operate in a high beta state, which is economically favourable. (author)

  9. Development of stable isotope manufacturing in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokidychev, A.; Pokidycheva, M.

    1999-01-01

    For the past 25 years, Russia has relied heavily on the electromagnetic separation process for the production of middle and heavy mass stable isotopes. The separation of most light isotopes had been centered in Georgia which, after the collapse of the USSR, left Russia without this capability. In the mid-1970s, development of centrifuge technology for the separation of stable isotopes was begun. Alternative techniques such as laser separation, physical-chemical methods, and ion cyclotron resonance have also been investigated. Economic considerations have played a major role in the development and current status of the stable isotope enrichment capabilities of Russia

  10. Evolving Reliability and Maintainability Allocations for NASA Ground Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Gisela; Toon, T.; Toon, J.; Conner, A.; Adams, T.; Miranda, D.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology and value of modifying allocations to reliability and maintainability requirements for the NASA Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) programs subsystems. As systems progressed through their design life cycle and hardware data became available, it became necessary to reexamine the previously derived allocations. This iterative process provided an opportunity for the reliability engineering team to reevaluate allocations as systems moved beyond their conceptual and preliminary design phases. These new allocations are based on updated designs and maintainability characteristics of the components. It was found that trade-offs in reliability and maintainability were essential to ensuring the integrity of the reliability and maintainability analysis. This paper discusses the results of reliability and maintainability reallocations made for the GSDO subsystems as the program nears the end of its design phase.

  11. Maintaining dignity. The perspective of nursing home residents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høy, Bente

    2016-01-01

    body image; feeling recognised and valued as a person of worth; Abilities and opportunities for changing of lifevalues; to exert control; to form and maintain meaningful relationships and to participation in meaningful activity. Conclusion. Although there is no one way to maintain dignity, the themes...... dignity is maintained. Background. Elderly living in nursing homes are vulnerable which appeal to nursing care ethics and emphasise the importance of care for human dignity. There have been several attempts to define dignity as a theoretical concept, but few studies on how dignity is maintained from...... was used to understand the meaning of the narrated text. Findings. The residents’ experiences revealed one main theme and seven sub-themes contributing to maintain dignity. The overall theme was: Coping with vulnerability and the subthemes were: Attention and care for basic needs; preserving a positive...

  12. Stable Isotope Group 1982 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, M.K.

    1983-06-01

    The work of the Stable Isotope Group of the Institute of Nuclear Sciences during 1982, in the fields of isotope geology, isotope hydrology, geochronology, isotope biology and mass spectrometer instrumentation, is described

  13. Bartolome Island, Galapagos Stable Oxygen Calibration Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Galapagos Coral Stable Oxygen Calibration Data. Sites: Bartolome Island: 0 deg, 17'S, 90 deg 33' W. Champion Island: 1 deg, 15'S, 90 deg, 05' W. Urvina Bay (Isabela...

  14. Stable Isotope Group 1983 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, M.K.

    1984-06-01

    The work of the Stable Isotope Group of the Institute of Nuclear Sciences in the fields of isotope geology, isotope hydrology, geochronology, isotope biology and related fields, and mass spectrometer instrumentation, during 1983, is described

  15. Comparing Effective Treatments for Attention-Maintained and Escape- Maintained Behaviors in Children with Behavior Disorders: Brief Review and Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lauren Worcester; T. F. McLaughlin

    2013-01-01

    This literature review compares treatment for attention-maintainedversus escape maintained aberrant behavior in children with behavior disorders. Specifically, studies utilizing time out procedures, differential reinforcement procedures, noncontingent reinforcement, and functional communication training are discussed. It was found that these are effective treatments for attention-maintained behaviors; while escape extinction, positive and negative reinforcement, functional communication trai...

  16. Coupled Proliferation and Apoptosis Maintain the Rapid Turnover of Microglia in the Adult Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine Askew

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Microglia play key roles in brain development, homeostasis, and function, and it is widely assumed that the adult population is long lived and maintained by self-renewal. However, the precise temporal and spatial dynamics of the microglial population are unknown. We show in mice and humans that the turnover of microglia is remarkably fast, allowing the whole population to be renewed several times during a lifetime. The number of microglial cells remains steady from late postnatal stages until aging and is maintained by the spatial and temporal coupling of proliferation and apoptosis, as shown by pulse-chase studies, chronic in vivo imaging of microglia, and the use of mouse models of dysregulated apoptosis. Our results reveal that the microglial population is constantly and rapidly remodeled, expanding our understanding of its role in the maintenance of brain homeostasis. : The mechanism or mechanisms underlying microglial homeostasis are unknown. Askew et al. show that microglia self-renewal is maintained by coupled proliferation and apoptosis, resulting in a stable microglia number over a mouse or human lifetime. Keywords: self-renewal, BrdU, CSF1R, CX3CR1, Macgreen, Vav-Bcl2, RNA-seq

  17. Stable atomic hydrogen: Polarized atomic beam source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niinikoski, T.O.; Penttilae, S.; Rieubland, J.M.; Rijllart, A.

    1984-01-01

    We have carried out experiments with stable atomic hydrogen with a view to possible applications in polarized targets or polarized atomic beam sources. Recent results from the stabilization apparatus are described. The first stable atomic hydrogen beam source based on the microwave extraction method (which is being tested ) is presented. The effect of the stabilized hydrogen gas density on the properties of the source is discussed. (orig.)

  18. Relationship between mean corpuscular haemoglobin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-demographic data implicate illiteracy, low household income, poor diet and inadequate antenatal care for the observed reduction in MCHC among the group A subjects. Thus, MCHC and pALP can be used to monitor fetoplacental health. Albeit, the public should be educated on the importance of healthy diet and ...

  19. Magnetohydrodynamically stable plasma with supercritical current density at the axis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdakov, A. V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 11 Lavrentjev Avenue, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State Technical University, 20 Karl Marks Avenue, 630092 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Postupaev, V. V., E-mail: V.V.Postupaev@inp.nsk.su; Sudnikov, A. V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 11 Lavrentjev Avenue, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, 2 Pirogova st., 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2014-05-15

    In this work, an analysis of magnetic perturbations in the GOL-3 experiment is given. In GOL-3, plasma is collectively heated in a multiple-mirror trap by a high-power electron beam. During the beam injection, the beam-plasma interaction maintains a high-level microturbulence. This provides an unusual radial profile of the net current (that consists of the beam current, current of the preliminary discharge, and the return current). The plasma core carries supercritical current density with the safety factor well below unity, but as a whole, the plasma is stable with q(a) ≈ 4. The net plasma current is counter-directed to the beam current; helicities of the magnetic field in the core and at the edge are of different signs. This forms a system with a strong magnetic shear that stabilizes the plasma core in good confinement regimes. We have found that the most pronounced magnetic perturbation is the well-known n = 1, m = 1 mode for both stable and disruptive regimes.

  20. Heavy element stable isotope ratios. Analytical approaches and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanimizu, Masaharu; Sohrin, Yoshiki; Hirata, Takafumi

    2013-01-01

    Continuous developments in inorganic mass spectrometry techniques, including a combination of an inductively coupled plasma ion source and a magnetic sector-based mass spectrometer equipped with a multiple-collector array, have revolutionized the precision of isotope ratio measurements, and applications of inorganic mass spectrometry for biochemistry, geochemistry, and marine chemistry are beginning to appear on the horizon. Series of pioneering studies have revealed that natural stable isotope fractionations of many elements heavier than S (e.g., Fe, Cu, Zn, Sr, Ce, Nd, Mo, Cd, W, Tl, and U) are common on Earth, and it had been widely recognized that most physicochemical reactions or biochemical processes induce mass-dependent isotope fractionation. The variations in isotope ratios of the heavy elements can provide new insights into past and present biochemical and geochemical processes. To achieve this, the analytical community is actively solving problems such as spectral interference, mass discrimination drift, chemical separation and purification, and reduction of the contamination of analytes. This article describes data calibration and standardization protocols to allow interlaboratory comparisons or to maintain traceability of data, and basic principles of isotope fractionation in nature, together with high-selectivity and high-yield chemical separation and purification techniques for stable isotope studies.

  1. Local Search Approaches in Stable Matching Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toby Walsh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The stable marriage (SM problem has a wide variety of practical applications, ranging from matching resident doctors to hospitals, to matching students to schools or, more generally, to any two-sided market. In the classical formulation, n men and n women express their preferences (via a strict total order over the members of the other sex. Solving an SM problem means finding a stable marriage where stability is an envy-free notion: no man and woman who are not married to each other would both prefer each other to their partners or to being single. We consider both the classical stable marriage problem and one of its useful variations (denoted SMTI (Stable Marriage with Ties and Incomplete lists where the men and women express their preferences in the form of an incomplete preference list with ties over a subset of the members of the other sex. Matchings are permitted only with people who appear in these preference lists, and we try to find a stable matching that marries as many people as possible. Whilst the SM problem is polynomial to solve, the SMTI problem is NP-hard. We propose to tackle both problems via a local search approach, which exploits properties of the problems to reduce the size of the neighborhood and to make local moves efficiently. We empirically evaluate our algorithm for SM problems by measuring its runtime behavior and its ability to sample the lattice of all possible stable marriages. We evaluate our algorithm for SMTI problems in terms of both its runtime behavior and its ability to find a maximum cardinality stable marriage. Experimental results suggest that for SM problems, the number of steps of our algorithm grows only as O(n log(n, and that it samples very well the set of all stable marriages. It is thus a fair and efficient approach to generate stable marriages. Furthermore, our approach for SMTI problems is able to solve large problems, quickly returning stable matchings of large and often optimal size, despite the

  2. Local descriptive body weight and dietary norms, food availability, and 10-year change in glycosylated haemoglobin in an Australian population-based biomedical cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne J. Carroll

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individual-level health outcomes are shaped by environmental risk conditions. Norms figure prominently in socio-behavioural theories yet spatial variations in health-related norms have rarely been investigated as environmental risk conditions. This study assessed: 1 the contributions of local descriptive norms for overweight/obesity and dietary behaviour to 10-year change in glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c, accounting for food resource availability; and 2 whether associations between local descriptive norms and HbA1c were moderated by food resource availability. Methods HbA1c, representing cardiometabolic risk, was measured three times over 10 years for a population-based biomedical cohort of adults in Adelaide, South Australia. Residential environmental exposures were defined using 1600 m participant-centred road-network buffers. Local descriptive norms for overweight/obesity and insufficient fruit intake (proportion of residents with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 [n = 1890] or fruit intake of <2 serves/day [n = 1945], respectively were aggregated from responses to a separate geocoded population survey. Fast-food and healthful food resource availability (counts were extracted from a retail database. Separate sets of multilevel models included different predictors, one local descriptive norm and either fast-food or healthful food resource availability, with area-level education and individual-level covariates (age, sex, employment status, education, marital status, and smoking status. Interactions between local descriptive norms and food resource availability were tested. Results HbA1c concentration rose over time. Local descriptive norms for overweight/obesity and insufficient fruit intake predicted greater rates of increase in HbA1c. Neither fast-food nor healthful food resource availability were associated with change in HbA1c. Greater healthful food resource availability reduced the rate of increase in HbA1c

  3. Comparison of total haemoglobin mass measured with the optimized carbon monoxide rebreathing method across different Radiometer™ ABL-80 and OSM-3 hemoximeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, G; Richardson, A J; Maxwell, N S; Pringle, J S M

    2014-01-01

    A new Radiometer™ hemoximeter (ABL-80) has recently become available to measure carboxyhaemoglobin concentration for the optimized CO-rebreathing method (oCOR-method). Within the English Institute of Sport (EIS), hemoximeters are used in three different laboratories; therefore, precision and agreement of total haemoglobin mass (tHbmass) determination across sites is essential, and comparison to the previous model OSM-3 is desirable. Six male and one female (age 30  ±  6 years, body mass 78.1  ±  10.6 kg) undertook the oCOR-method. Venous blood (∼2 ml) was sampled immediately before and at 7 min during the oCOR-method; with seven replicates from each time point simultaneously analysed on five different Radiometer™ hemoximeters [OSM-3(1), OSM-3(2), ABL-80(1), ABL-80(2) and ABL-80(3)]. There were no differences (p > 0.05) between Δ%HbCO or mean tHbmass analysed with five different hemoximeters (OSM-3(1): 886  ±  167 g; OSM-3(2): 896  ±  160 g: ABL-80(1): 904  ±  157 g; ABL-80(2): 906  ±  163 g: ABL-80(3): 906  ±  162 g). However, the Bland–Altman plot revealed that there was closer agreement between ABL-80 machines for tHbmass than for the OSM-3. The variance (i.e. % error) across replicate samples decreased as the number of samples increased, with the error derived from the ‘worse-case’ scenario (single samples) being 1.2 to 1.6 fold greater in the OSM-3 than the ABL-80. Although there were no differences in the average tHbmass measured with five different hemoximeters, the new ABL-80 were in better agreement with each other compared to the old OSM-3. Previously, five replicates were required to achieve a low error using the OSM-3; however, three replicates are sufficient with the ABL-80 model to produce an error of ≤ 1% in tHbmass. (note)

  4. Developing maintainability for fusion power systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahn, H.S.; Mantz, H.C.; Curtis, C.T.; Buchheit, R.J.; Green, W.M.; Zuckerman, D.S.

    1979-11-01

    The overall purpose of the study is to identify design features of fusion power reactors which contribute to the achievement of high levels of maintainability. Previous phases evaluated several commercial tokamak reactor design concepts. This final phase compares the maintainability of a tandem mirror reactor (TMR) commercial conceptual design with the most maintainable tokamak concept selected from earlier work. A series of maintainability design guidelines and desirable TMR design features are defined. The effects of scheduled and unscheduled maintenance for most of the reactor subsystems are defined. The comparison of the TMR and tokamak reactor maintenance costs and availabilities show that both reactors have similar costs for scheduled maintenance at 19.4 and 20.8 million dollars annually and similar scheduled downtime availability impacts, achieving approximate availabilities of 79% at optimized maintenance intervals and cost of electricity.

  5. Reliability and maintainability data acquisition in equipment development tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haire, M.J.; Gift, E.H.

    1983-10-01

    The need for collection of reliability, maintainability, and availability data adds a new dimension to the data acquisition requirements of equipment development tests. This report describes the reliability and maintainability data that are considered necessary to ensure that sufficient and high quality data exist for a comprehensive, quantitative evaluation of equipment and system availability. These necessary data are presented as a set of data collection forms. Three data acquisition forms are discussed: an inventory and technical data form, which is filed by the design engineer when the design is finished or the equipment is received; an event report form, which is completed by the senior test operator at each shutdown; and a maintainability report, which is a collaborative effort between senior operators and lead engineers and is completed on restart. In addition, elements of a reliability, maintainability evaluation program are described. Emphasis is placed on the role of data, its storage, and use in such a program

  6. 399 Maintaining Discipline and Orderliness in Secondary Education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2010-10-17

    Oct 17, 2010 ... complicated that most teachers find it difficult to maintain and keep their ... gang fighting, drug abuse, unrest, smoking, armed robbery, students/ ... instance, both the principals' and teachers' leadership styles can affect the.

  7. A cryogenic optical feedthrough using polarization maintaining fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, M J; Collins, C J; Speake, C C

    2016-03-01

    Polarization maintaining optical fibers can be used to transmit linearly polarized light over long distances but their use in cryogenic environments has been limited by their sensitivity to temperature changes and associated mechanical stress. We investigate experimentally how thermal stresses affect the polarization maintaining fibers and model the observations with Jones matrices. We describe the design, construction, and testing of a feedthrough and fiber termination assembly that uses polarization maintaining fiber to transmit light from a 633 nm HeNe laser at room temperature to a homodyne polarization-based interferometer in a cryogenic vacuum. We report on the efficiency of the polarization maintaining properties of the feedthrough assembly. We also report that, at cryogenic temperatures, the interferometer can achieve a sensitivity of 8 × 10(-10) rad/√Hz at 0.05 Hz using this feedthrough.

  8. The Costs and Benefits of Maintaining the Buy American Act

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hirschman, Keith

    1998-01-01

    .... The thesis uses accepted economic analysis on the gains from international trade to show that the costs of maintaining such protectionist legislation are potentially high relative to the uncertain...

  9. Developing maintainability for fusion power systems. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahn, H.S.; Mantz, H.C.; Curtis, C.T.; Buchheit, R.J.; Green, W.M.; Zuckerman, D.S.

    1979-11-01

    The overall purpose of the study is to identify design features of fusion power reactors which contribute to the achievement of high levels of maintainability. Previous phases evaluated several commercial tokamak reactor design concepts. This final phase compares the maintainability of a tandem mirror reactor (TMR) commercial conceptual design with the most maintainable tokamak concept selected from earlier work. A series of maintainability design guidelines and desirable TMR design features are defined. The effects of scheduled and unscheduled maintenance for most of the reactor subsystems are defined. The comparison of the TMR and tokamak reactor maintenance costs and availabilities show that both reactors have similar costs for scheduled maintenance at 19.4 and 20.8 million dollars annually and similar scheduled downtime availability impacts, achieving approximate availabilities of 79% at optimized maintenance intervals and cost of electricity

  10. Genetic and Epigenetic Mechanisms That Maintain Hematopoietic Stem Cell Function

    OpenAIRE

    Kosan, Christian; Godmann, Maren

    2015-01-01

    All hematopoiesis cells develop from multipotent progenitor cells. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) have the ability to develop into all blood lineages but also maintain their stemness. Different molecular mechanisms have been identified that are crucial for regulating quiescence and self-renewal to maintain the stem cell pool and for inducing proliferation and lineage differentiation. The stem cell niche provides the microenvironment to keep HSC in a quiescent state. Furthermore, several trans...

  11. Innovative lightweight substrate for stable optical benches and mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugi Grond, E.; Herren, A.; Mérillat, S.; Fermé, J. J.

    2017-11-01

    High precision space optics, such as spectrometers, relay optics, and filters, require ultra stable, lightweight platforms. These equipped platforms have on one side to survive the launch loads, on the other side they have to maintain their stability also under the varying thermal loads occurring in space. Typically such platforms have their equipment (prisms, etalons, beam expanders, etc.) mounted by means of classical bonding, hydro-catalytic bonding or optical contacting. Therefore such an optical bench requires to provide an excellent flatness, minimal roughness and is usually made of the same material as the equipment it carries (glass, glass ceramics). For space systems, mass is a big penalty, therefore such optical platforms are in most cases light weighted by means of machining features (i.e. pockets). Besides of being not extremely mass efficient, such pockets reduce the load carrying capability of the base material significantly. The challenge for Oerlikon Space, in this context, was to develop, qualify and deliver such optical benches, providing a substantial mass reduction compared to actual light weighted systems, while maintaining most of the full load carrying capacity of the base material. Additionally such a substrate can find an attractive application for mirror substrates. The results of the first development and of the first test results will be presented.

  12. Quality of life, physical function and MRI T2* in elderly low-risk MDS patients treated to a haemoglobin level of ≥120 g/L with darbepoetin alfa ± filgrastim or erythrocyte transfusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson-Ehle, Herman; Birgegård, Gunnar; Samuelsson, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Anaemia in low-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) is associated with reduced quality of life (QoL). Response to treatment with erythropoietin ± granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is associated with improved QoL, but whether transfusion therapy with higher haemoglobin (Hb) target levels...... has similar effects is unknown. The objective for this prospective phase II Nordic multicentre trial was to assess QoL, response rate and physical function in elderly anaemic MDS patients treated to a target Hb level of >120 g/L....

  13. Metabolic studies in man using stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faust, H.; Jung, K.; Krumbiegel, P.

    1993-01-01

    In this project, stable isotope compounds and stable isotope pharmaceuticals were used (with emphasis on the application of 15 N) to study several aspects of nitrogen metabolism in man. Of the many methods available, the 15 N stable isotope tracer technique holds a special position because the methodology for application and nitrogen isotope analysis is proven and reliable. Valid routine methods using 15 N analysis by emission spectrometry have been demonstrated. Several methods for the preparation of biological material were developed during our participation in the Coordinated Research Programme. In these studies, direct procedures (i.e. use of diluted urine as a samples without chemical preparation) or rapid isolation methods were favoured. Within the scope of the Analytical Quality Control Service (AQCS) enriched stable isotope reference materials for medical and biological studies were prepared and are now available through the International Atomic Energy Agency. The materials are of special importance as the increasing application of stable isotopes as tracers in medical, biological and agricultural studies has focused interest on reliable measurements of biological material of different origin. 24 refs

  14. Studies on the mechanism of stable graft--host tolerance in canine and human radiation chimeras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storb, R.; Tsoi, M.S.; Weiden, P.L.; Graham, T.C.; Thomas, E.D.

    1976-01-01

    In studies with dogs, marrow donors were immunized against their chimeras by repeated skin grafts which they rejected. Lymphocytes from chimeras and donors were tested for cell inhibition by exposure to skin fibroblasts from chimeras and donors. Results were not compatible with the concept that tolerance in radiation chimeras is maintained by serum-blocking factors. They provide circumstantial evidence against the possibility that the stable chimeric state is the result of the deletion of a close or inactivation of donor lymphocytes specifically responsive for host antigens. They are most consistent with the possibility that a suppressor-cell population is responsible for the maintenance of tolerance. Human recipients of marrow transplants were tested with the cell inhibition assay. Although the incidence of positive cell inhibition and blocking was somewhat higher than in the dog, results were not compatible with the concept that serum blocking is the sole mechanism for maintaining the stable chimeric state in human patients

  15. Perspective: Highly stable vapor-deposited glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, M. D.

    2017-12-01

    This article describes recent progress in understanding highly stable glasses prepared by physical vapor deposition and provides perspective on further research directions for the field. For a given molecule, vapor-deposited glasses can have higher density and lower enthalpy than any glass that can be prepared by the more traditional route of cooling a liquid, and such glasses also exhibit greatly enhanced kinetic stability. Because vapor-deposited glasses can approach the bottom of the amorphous part of the potential energy landscape, they provide insights into the properties expected for the "ideal glass." Connections between vapor-deposited glasses, liquid-cooled glasses, and deeply supercooled liquids are explored. The generality of stable glass formation for organic molecules is discussed along with the prospects for stable glasses of other types of materials.

  16. Concentration of stable elements in food products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montford, M.A.; Shank, K.E.; Hendricks, C.; Oakes, T.W.

    1980-01-01

    Food samples were taken from commercial markets and analyzed for stable element content. The concentrations of most stable elements (Ag, Al, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hf, I, K, La, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sr, Ta, Th, Ti, V, Zn, Zr) were determined using multiple-element neutron activation analysis, while the concentrations of other elements (Cd, Hg, Ni, Pb) were determined using atomic absorption. The relevance of the concentrations found are noted in relation to other literature values. An earlier study was extended to include the determination of the concentration of stable elements in home-grown products in the vicinity of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Comparisons between the commercial and local food-stuff values are discussed

  17. Stable Chimeras and Independently Synchronizable Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young Sul; Nishikawa, Takashi; Motter, Adilson E.

    2017-08-01

    Cluster synchronization is a phenomenon in which a network self-organizes into a pattern of synchronized sets. It has been shown that diverse patterns of stable cluster synchronization can be captured by symmetries of the network. Here, we establish a theoretical basis to divide an arbitrary pattern of symmetry clusters into independently synchronizable cluster sets, in which the synchronization stability of the individual clusters in each set is decoupled from that in all the other sets. Using this framework, we suggest a new approach to find permanently stable chimera states by capturing two or more symmetry clusters—at least one stable and one unstable—that compose the entire fully symmetric network.

  18. On some topological properties of stable measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Carsten Krabbe

    1996-01-01

    Summary The paper shows that the set of stable probability measures and the set of Rational Beliefs relative to a given stationary measure are closed in the strong topology, but not closed in the topology of weak convergence. However, subsets of the set of stable probability measures which...... are characterized by uniformity of convergence of the empirical distribution are closed in the topology of weak convergence. It is demonstrated that such subsets exist. In particular, there is an increasing sequence of sets of SIDS measures who's union is the set of all SIDS measures generated by a particular...... system and such that each subset consists of stable measures. The uniformity requirement has a natural interpretation in terms of plausibility of Rational Beliefs...

  19. Faster and Simpler Approximation of Stable Matchings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Paluch

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We give a 3 2 -approximation algorithm for finding stable matchings that runs in O(m time. The previous most well-known algorithm, by McDermid, has the same approximation ratio but runs in O(n3/2m time, where n denotes the number of people andm is the total length of the preference lists in a given instance. In addition, the algorithm and the analysis are much simpler. We also give the extension of the algorithm for computing stable many-to-many matchings.

  20. Moving stable solitons in Galileon theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masoumi, Ali; Xiao Xiao

    2012-01-01

    Despite the no-go theorem Endlich et al. (2011) which rules out static stable solitons in Galileon theory, we propose a family of solitons that evade the theorem by traveling at the speed of light. These domain-wall-like solitons are stable under small fluctuations-analysis of perturbation shows neither ghost-like nor tachyon-like instabilities, and perturbative collision of these solitons suggests that they pass through each other asymptotically, which maybe an indication of the integrability of the theory itself.

  1. Bordism, stable homotopy and adams spectral sequences

    CERN Document Server

    Kochman, Stanley O

    1996-01-01

    This book is a compilation of lecture notes that were prepared for the graduate course "Adams Spectral Sequences and Stable Homotopy Theory" given at The Fields Institute during the fall of 1995. The aim of this volume is to prepare students with a knowledge of elementary algebraic topology to study recent developments in stable homotopy theory, such as the nilpotence and periodicity theorems. Suitable as a text for an intermediate course in algebraic topology, this book provides a direct exposition of the basic concepts of bordism, characteristic classes, Adams spectral sequences, Brown-Peter

  2. Stable isotopes in Lithuanian bioarcheological material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skipityte, Raminta; Jankauskas, Rimantas; Remeikis, Vidmantas

    2015-04-01

    Investigation of bioarcheological material of ancient human populations allows us to understand the subsistence behavior associated with various adaptations to the environment. Feeding habits are essential to the survival and growth of ancient populations. Stable isotope analysis is accepted tool in paleodiet (Schutkowski et al, 1999) and paleoenvironmental (Zernitskaya et al, 2014) studies. However, stable isotopes can be useful not only in investigating human feeding habits but also in describing social and cultural structure of the past populations (Le Huray and Schutkowski, 2005). Only few stable isotope investigations have been performed before in Lithuanian region suggesting a quite uniform diet between males and females and protein intake from freshwater fish and animal protein. Previously, stable isotope analysis has only been used to study a Stone Age population however, more recently studies have been conducted on Iron Age and Late medieval samples (Jacobs et al, 2009). Anyway, there was a need for more precise examination. Stable isotope analysis were performed on human bone collagen and apatite samples in this study. Data represented various ages (from 5-7th cent. to 18th cent.). Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis on medieval populations indicated that individuals in studied sites in Lithuania were almost exclusively consuming C3 plants, C3 fed terrestrial animals, and some freshwater resources. Current investigation demonstrated social differences between elites and country people and is promising in paleodietary and daily life reconstruction. Acknowledgement I thank prof. dr. G. Grupe, Director of the Anthropological and Palaeoanatomical State Collection in Munich for providing the opportunity to work in her laboratory. The part of this work was funded by DAAD. Antanaitis-Jacobs, Indre, et al. "Diet in early Lithuanian prehistory and the new stable isotope evidence." Archaeologia Baltica 12 (2009): 12-30. Le Huray, Jonathan D., and Holger

  3. Unconditionally stable microwave Si-IMPATT amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seddik, M.M.

    1986-07-01

    The purpose of this investigation has been the development of an improved understanding of the design and analysis of microwave reflection amplifiers employing the negative resistance property of the IMPATT devices. Unconditionally stable amplifier circuit using a Silicon IMPATT diode is designed. The problems associated with the design procedures and the stability criterion are discussed. A computer program is developed to perform the computations. The stable characteristics of a reflection-type Si-IMPATT amplifier, such as gain, frequency and bandwidth are examined. It was found that at large signal drive levels, 7 dB gain with bandwidth of 800 MHz at 22,5 mA was obtained. (author)

  4. Morphogenetic and chemical stability of long-term maintained Agrobacterium-mediated transgenic Catharanthus roseus plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Priyanka; Sharma, Abhishek; Khan, Shamshad Ahmad; Mathur, Ajay Kumar; Shanker, Karuna

    2015-01-01

    Transgenic Catharanthus roseus plants (transgenic Dhawal [DT] and transgenic Nirmal [NT]) obtained from the Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Agrobacterium rhizognenes-mediated transformations, respectively, have been maintained in vitro for 5 years. Plants were studied at regular intervals for various parameters such as plant height, leaf size, multiplication rate, alkaloid profile and presence of marker genes. DT plant gradually lost the GUS gene expression and it was not detected in the fifth year while NT plant demonstrated the presence of genes rolA, rolB and rolC even in the fifth year, indicating the more stable nature of Ri transgene. Vindoline content in the DT was two times more than in non-transformed control plants. Alkaloid and tryptophan profiles were almost constant during the 5 years. The cluster analysis revealed that the DT plant is more close to the control Nirmal plant followed by NT plant.

  5. External carotid artery flow maintains near infrared spectroscopy-determined frontal lobe oxygenation during ephedrine administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, H; Rasmussen, P; Sato, K

    2014-01-01

    O₂ by 10.5 (8.2-12.9%; Padministration of ephedrine while SinvosO₂ and SavO₂ decreased [by 3.1 (0.7-4.5%; P=0.017) and 2.1 (0.5-3.3%; P=0.......012)] as arterial carbon dioxide pressure decreased (P=0.003). ICAf was stable and ECAf increased by 11 (4-18%; P=0.005) with administration of ephedrine while SskinO₂ did not change. CONCLUSIONS: The effect of phenylephrine on ScO₂ is governed by a decrease in external carotid blood flow since it increases...... cerebral blood flow as determined by flow in the internal carotid artery. In contrast, ScO₂ is largely maintained with administration of ephedrine because blood flow to extracerebral tissue increases....

  6. Acquiring and maintaining a normal oral microbiome: current perspective.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaura, E.; Nicu, E.A.; Krom, B.P.; Keijser, B.J.

    2014-01-01

    The oral microbiota survives daily physical and chemical perturbations from the intake of food and personal hygiene measures, resulting in a long-term stable microbiome. Biological properties that confer stability in the microbiome are important for the prevention of dysbiosis-a microbial shift

  7. Acquiring and maintaining a normal oral microbiome : Current perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaura, E.; Nicu, E.A.; Krom, B.P.; Keijser, B.J.F.

    2014-01-01

    The oral microbiota survives daily physical and chemical perturbations from the intake of food and personal hygiene measures, resulting in a long-term stable microbiome. Biological properties that confer stability in the microbiome are important for the prevention of dysbiosis—a microbial shift

  8. Compliance evaluation of removable space maintainer or space regainer usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Revanti Ramadhani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Premature loss could cause a problem with the tooth arrangement or the dental arch size. A space left by the primary tooth loss could cause migration of the adjacent teeth. As a result, space will be narrowed and undermined the eruption of the permanent teeth. The success of the space maintainer or space regainer usage due to the premature loss marked by space for the replacement of the permanent teeth. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the compliance of children in wearing a space maintainer or space regainer after insertion at Pedodontics Installation of Faculty of Dentistry Universitas Padjadjaran Dental Hospital, Bandung, Indonesia. The research method was descriptive survey technique. The sample consisted of 30 patients selected using the total sampling technique. Data were obtained with a questionnaire and statistically analyzed. The results showed that majority of the children uses the removable space maintainer or the space regainer daily was only about 23,3% overall. Most of the children only use the removable space maintainer or the space regainer for sometimes. The research concluded that the low rate of pedodontic patients compliance at Pedodontics Installation of Faculty of Dentistry Universitas Padjadjaran Dental Hospital in the usage of the removable space maintainer or the space regainer was usually caused by pain or discomfort. This fact was evidence of a low awareness of parents in preventing malocclusion to their children.

  9. STRATEGIES OF MAINTAINING PROFICIENCY BY TEACHERS OF ENGLISH IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junaidi Mistar, Alfan Zuhairini

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study are four-fold: (1 to identify the types of strategies to maintain proficiency used by teachers of English in Indonesia, (2 to know the intensity of use of the obtained strategy types, (3 to measure the inter-correlation in the use of the obtained strategy types, and (4 to investigate the effect of proficiency level on the use of maintaining strategies. The subjects were 93 teachers applying for S2 degree in 2010/2011 at the postgraduate program of the Islamic University of Malang. They were given two sets of instrument, a Likert-scale questionnaire of English proficiency maintaining strategies and a TOEFL test. Then, a factor analysis identified nine strategy categories, including language focusing, metacognitive and affective developing, reading and writing activating, language resource utilizing, cognitive processing, culture learning, social communicating, text analyzing, and radio listening strategies. These strategy types explained 63.84% of variances of maintaining strategies and they were used at high level of intensity. Moreover, the use of the nine strategy types were found to be inter-correlated with one another. Finally, no significant effect of proficiency level on strategy use was found, indicating that teachers with different level of proficiency reported using the same strategies of maintaining their proficiency.

  10. From Coordination Cages to a Stable Crystalline Porous Hydrogen-Bonded Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, Zhanfeng [State Key Lab of Structure Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, CAS, Fuzhou 350002 P. R. China; Liu, Guoliang [State Key Lab of Structure Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, CAS, Fuzhou 350002 P. R. China; Chen, Yu-Sheng [ChemMatCARS, Center for Advanced Radiation Sources, The University of Chicago, Argonne Illinois 60439 USA; Yuan, Daqiang [State Key Lab of Structure Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, CAS, Fuzhou 350002 P. R. China; Chen, Banglin [Department of Chemistry, University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio Texas 78249-0698 USA

    2017-03-20

    A stable framework has been constructed through multiple charge-assisted H-bonds between cationic coordination cages and chloride ions. The framework maintained its original structure upon desolvation, which has been established by single-crystal structure analysis. This is the first fully characterized stable porous framework based on coordination cages after desolvation, with a moderately high Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area of 1201 m2 g-1. This work will not only give a light to construct stable porous frameworks based on coordination cages and thus broaden their applications, but will also provide a new avenue to the assembly of other porous materials such as porous organic cages and hydrogen-bonded organic frameworks (HOFs) through non covalent bonds.

  11. The calcineurin activity profiles of cyclosporin and tacrolimus are different in stable renal transplant patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koefoed-Nielsen, Pernille Bundgaard; Karamperis, Nikolaos; Jørgensen, Kaj Anker

    2006-01-01

    in determining optimal doses. Forty stable renal transplant patients were investigated three times in a 6-month period. Blood samples were drawn at 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 h after oral intake of tacrolimus (FK) or cyclosporin at days 1 and 180. At day 90, one blood sample at trough level (FK) or C2 level (cyclosporin A...... significantly different effects on calcineurin activity in renal transplant patients with stable, well-functioning grafts and that tacrolimus-treated patients can maintain good, stable graft function with minimal CaN inhibition.......Cyclosporin and tacrolimus remain the cornerstone immunosuppressive drugs in organ transplantation. Dosing and monitoring these drugs is based on pharmacokinetic protocols, but measuring a pharmacodynamic parameter, calcineurin phosphatase (CaN) activity, could be a valuable supplement...

  12. Challenges of designing fusion reactors for remote maintainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, L.S.

    1981-01-01

    One of the major problems faced by the fusion community is the development of the high level of reliability required to assure that fusion will be a viable commercial power source. Much of the responsibility for solving this problem falls directly on the designer in developing concepts that have a high level of maintainability. The problems are both near-term, in developing maintainability for next generation engineering oriented reactors; and long range, in developing full maintainability for the more commercial concepts with their required high level of on-line time. The near-time challenge will include development of unqiue design concepts to perform inspection, maintenance, replacement, and testing under the stringent conditions imposed by the next generation engineering oriented machines. The long range challenge will focus on basic design concepts that will enable the full mainatability required by commerical fusion

  13. Advanced remotely maintainable force-reflecting servomanipulator concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuban, D.P.; Martin, H.L.

    1984-01-01

    A remotely maintainable force-reflecting servomanipulator concept is being developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory as part of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program. This new manipulator addresses requirements of advanced nuclear fuel reprocessing with emphasis on force reflection, remote maintainability, reliability, radiation tolerance, and corrosion resistance. The advanced servomanipulator is uniquely subdivided into remotely replaceable modules which will permit in situ manipulator repair by spare module replacement. Manipulator modularization and increased reliability are accomplished through a force transmission system that uses gears and torque tubes. Digital control algorithms and mechanical precision are used to offset the increased backlash, friction, and inertia resulting from the gear drives. This results in the first remotely maintainable force-reflecting servomanipulator in the world. 10 references, 4 figures, 1 table

  14. Genetic and Epigenetic Mechanisms That Maintain Hematopoietic Stem Cell Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosan, Christian; Godmann, Maren

    2016-01-01

    All hematopoiesis cells develop from multipotent progenitor cells. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) have the ability to develop into all blood lineages but also maintain their stemness. Different molecular mechanisms have been identified that are crucial for regulating quiescence and self-renewal to maintain the stem cell pool and for inducing proliferation and lineage differentiation. The stem cell niche provides the microenvironment to keep HSC in a quiescent state. Furthermore, several transcription factors and epigenetic modifiers are involved in this process. These create modifications that regulate the cell fate in a more or less reversible and dynamic way and contribute to HSC homeostasis. In addition, HSC respond in a unique way to DNA damage. These mechanisms also contribute to the regulation of HSC function and are essential to ensure viability after DNA damage. How HSC maintain their quiescent stage during the entire life is still matter of ongoing research. Here we will focus on the molecular mechanisms that regulate HSC function. PMID:26798358

  15. petrography, compositional characteristics and stable isotope ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    Subsurface samples of the predominantly carbonate Ewekoro Formation, obtained from Ibese core hole within the Dahomey basin were used in this study. Investigations entail petrographic, elemental composition as well as stable isotopes (carbon and oxygen) geochemistry in order to deduce the different microfacies and ...

  16. Working conditions remain stable in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtman, I.; Hooftman, W.

    2008-01-01

    Despite significant changes in the national questionnaires on work and health, the quality of work as well as health complaints in the Netherlands appear to be relatively stable. Pace of work seems to be on the increase again and more people are working in excess of their contractual hours.

  17. Thermally stable sintered porous metal articles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gombach, A.L.; Thellmann, E.L.

    1980-01-01

    A sintered porous metal article is provided which is essentially thermally stable at elevated temperatures. In addition, a method for producing such an article is also provided which method comprises preparing a blend of base metal particles and active dispersoid particles, forming the mixture into an article of the desired shape, and heating the so-formed article at sintering temperatures

  18. TOF for heavy stable particle identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C.Y.

    1983-01-01

    Searching for heavy stable particle production in a new energy region of hadron-hadron collisions is of fundamental theoretical interest. Observation of such particles produced in high energy collisions would indicate the existence of stable heavy leptons or any massive hadronic system carrying new quantum numbers. Experimentally, evidence of its production has not been found for PP collisions either at FNAL or at the CERN ISR for √S = 23 and 62 GeV respectively. However, many theories beyond the standard model do predict its existence on a mass scale ranging from 50 to a few hundred GeV. If so, it would make a high luminosity TeV collider an extremely ideal hunting ground for searching the production of such a speculated object. To measure the mass of a heavy stable charged particle, one usually uses its time of flight (TOF) and/or dE/dX information. For heavy neutral particle, one hopes it may decay at some later time after its production. Hence a pair of jets or a jet associated with a high P/sub t/ muon originated from some places other than the interacting point (IP) of the colliding beams may be a good signal. In this note, we examine the feasibility of TOF measurement on a heavy stable particle produced in PP collisions at √S = 1 TeV and a luminosity of 10 33 cm -2 sec -1 with a single arm spectrometer pointing to the IP

  19. Axisymmetric MHD stable sloshing ion distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berk, H.L.; Dominguez, N.; Roslyakov, G.V.

    1986-07-01

    The MHD stability of a sloshing ion distribution is investigated in a symmetric mirror cell. Fokker-Planck calculations show that stable configurations are possible for ion injection energies that are at least 150 times greater than the electron temperture. Special axial magnetic field profiles are suggested to optimize the favorable MHD properties

  20. Exact simulation of max-stable processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombry, Clément; Engelke, Sebastian; Oesting, Marco

    2016-06-01

    Max-stable processes play an important role as models for spatial extreme events. Their complex structure as the pointwise maximum over an infinite number of random functions makes their simulation difficult. Algorithms based on finite approximations are often inexact and computationally inefficient. We present a new algorithm for exact simulation of a max-stable process at a finite number of locations. It relies on the idea of simulating only the extremal functions, that is, those functions in the construction of a max-stable process that effectively contribute to the pointwise maximum. We further generalize the algorithm by Dieker & Mikosch (2015) for Brown-Resnick processes and use it for exact simulation via the spectral measure. We study the complexity of both algorithms, prove that our new approach via extremal functions is always more efficient, and provide closed-form expressions for their implementation that cover most popular models for max-stable processes and multivariate extreme value distributions. For simulation on dense grids, an adaptive design of the extremal function algorithm is proposed.

  1. Unconditionally stable integration of Maxwell's equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwer, J.G.; Bochev, Mikhail A.

    Numerical integration of Maxwell's equations is often based on explicit methods accepting a stability step size restriction. In literature evidence is given that there is also a need for unconditionally stable methods, as exemplified by the successful alternating direction implicit finite difference

  2. Unconditionally stable integration of Maxwell's equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G. Verwer (Jan); M.A. Botchev

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractNumerical integration of Maxwell''s equations is often based on explicit methods accepting a stability step size restriction. In literature evidence is given that there is also a need for unconditionally stable methods, as exemplified by the successful alternating direction

  3. Unconditionally stable integration of Maxwell's equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G. Verwer (Jan); M.A. Botchev

    2009-01-01

    textabstractNumerical integration of Maxwell’s equations is often based on explicit methods accepting a stability step size restriction. In literature evidence is given that there is also a need for unconditionally stable methods, as exemplified by the successful alternating direction implicit –

  4. Method of producing thermally stable uranium carbonitrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugajin, M.; Takahashi, I.

    1975-01-01

    A thermally stable uranium carbonitride can be produced by adding tungsten and/or molybdenum in the amount of 0.2 wt percent or more, preferably 0.5 wt percent or more, to a pure uranium carbonitride. (U.S.)

  5. Champion Island, Galapagos Stable Oxygen Calibration Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Galapagos Coral Stable Oxygen Calibration Data. Sites: Bartolome Island: 0 deg, 17 min S, 90 deg 33 min W. Champion Island: 1 deg, 15 min S, 90 deg, 05 min W. Urvina...

  6. 26 S proteasomes function as stable entities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendil, Klavs B; Hartmann-Petersen, Rasmus; Tanaka, Keiji

    2002-01-01

    , shuttles between a free state and the 26-S proteasome, bringing substrate to the complex. However, S5a was not found in the free state in HeLa cells. Besides, all subunits in PA700, including S5a, exchanged at similar low rates. It therefore seems that 26-S proteasomes function as stable entities during...

  7. Formal derivation of a stable marriage algorithm.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, A.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper the well-known Stable Marriage Problem is considered once again. The name of this programming problem comes from the terms in which it was first described [2]: A certain community consists of n men and n women. Each person ranks those of the opposite sex in accordance with his or

  8. Global analyses of evolutionary dynamics and exhaustive search for social norms that maintain cooperation by reputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsuki, Hisashi; Iwasa, Yoh

    2007-02-07

    Reputation formation is a key to understanding indirect reciprocity. In particular, the way to assign reputation to each individual, namely a norm that describes who is good and who is bad, greatly affects the possibility of sustained cooperation in the population. Previously, we have exhaustively studied reputation dynamics that are able to maintain a high level of cooperation at the ESS. However, this analysis examined the stability of monomorphic population and did not investigate polymorphic population where several strategies coexist. Here, we study the evolutionary dynamics of multiple behavioral strategies by replicator dynamics. We exhaustively study all 16 possible norms under which the reputation of a player in the next round is determined by the action of the self and the reputation of the opponent. For each norm, we explore evolutionary dynamics of three strategies: unconditional cooperators, unconditional defectors, and conditional cooperators. We find that only three norms, simple-standing, Kandori, and shunning, can make conditional cooperation evolutionarily stable, hence, realize sustained cooperation. The other 13 norms, including scoring, ultimately lead to the invasion by defectors. Also, we study the model in which private reputation errors exist to a small extent. In this case, we find the stable coexistence of unconditional and conditional cooperators under the three norms.

  9. Systematic review and meta-analysis of method comparison studies of Masimo pulse co-oximeters (Radical-7™ or Pronto-7™) and HemoCue® absorption spectrometers (B-Hemoglobin or 201+) with laboratory haemoglobin estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiscock, R; Kumar, D; Simmons, S W

    2015-05-01

    We assessed agreement in haemoglobin measurement between Masimo pulse co-oximeters (Rad-7™ and Pronto-7™) and HemoCue® photometers (201+ or B-Hemoglobin) with laboratory-based determination and identified 39 relevant studies (2915 patients in Masimo group and 3084 patients in HemoCue group). In the Masimo group, the overall mean difference was -0.03 g/dl (95% prediction interval -0.30 to 0.23) and 95% limits of agreement -3.0 to 2.9 g/dl compared to 0.08 g/dl (95% prediction interval -0.04 to 0.20) and 95% limits of agreement -1.3 to 1.4 g/dl in the HemoCue group. Only B-Hemoglobin exhibited bias (0.53, 95% prediction interval 0.27 to 0.78). The overall standard deviation of difference was larger (1.42 g/dl versus 0.64 g/dl) for Masimo pulse co-oximeters compared to HemoCue photometers. Masimo devices and HemoCue 201+ both provide an unbiased, pooled estimate of laboratory haemoglobin. However, Masimo devices have lower precision and wider 95% limits of agreement than HemoCue devices. Clinicians should carefully consider these limits of agreement before basing transfusion or other clinical decisions on these point-of-care measurements alone.

  10. Maintainability design criteria for packaging of spacecraft replaceable electronic equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappler, J. R.; Folsom, A. B.

    1972-01-01

    Maintainability must be designed into long-duration spacecraft and equipment to provide the required high probability of mission success with the least cost and weight. The ability to perform repairs quickly and easily in a space environment can be achieved by imposing specific maintainability design criteria on spacecraft equipment design and installation. A study was funded to investigate and define design criteria for electronic equipment that would permit rapid removal and replacement in a space environment. The results of the study are discussed together with subsequent simulated zero-g demonstration tests of a mockup with new concepts for packaging.

  11. The Nature of Stable Insomnia Phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Vivek; Roth, Thomas; Drake, Christopher L.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: We examined the 1-y stability of four insomnia symptom profiles: sleep onset insomnia; sleep maintenance insomnia; combined onset and maintenance insomnia; and neither criterion (i.e., insomnia cases that do not meet quantitative thresholds for onset or maintenance problems). Insomnia cases that exhibited the same symptom profile over a 1-y period were considered to be phenotypes, and were compared in terms of clinical and demographic characteristics. Design: Longitudinal. Setting: Urban, community-based. Participants: Nine hundred fifty-four adults with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition based current insomnia (46.6 ± 12.6 y; 69.4% female). Interventions: None. Measurements and results: At baseline, participants were divided into four symptom profile groups based on quantitative criteria. Follow-up assessment 1 y later revealed that approximately 60% of participants retained the same symptom profile, and were hence judged to be phenotypes. Stability varied significantly by phenotype, such that sleep onset insomnia (SOI) was the least stable (42%), whereas combined insomnia (CI) was the most stable (69%). Baseline symptom groups (cross-sectionally defined) differed significantly across various clinical indices, including daytime impairment, depression, and anxiety. Importantly, however, a comparison of stable phenotypes (longitudinally defined) did not reveal any differences in impairment or comorbid psychopathology. Another interesting finding was that whereas all other insomnia phenotypes showed evidence of an elevated wake drive both at night and during the day, the “neither criterion” phenotype did not; this latter phenotype exhibited significantly higher daytime sleepiness despite subthreshold onset and maintenance difficulties. Conclusions: By adopting a stringent, stability-based definition, this study offers timely and important data on the longitudinal trajectory of specific insomnia phenotypes. With

  12. Strontium stable isotope behaviour accompanying basalt weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, K. W.; Parkinson, I. J.; Gíslason, S. G. R.

    2016-12-01

    The strontium (Sr) stable isotope composition of rivers is strongly controlled by the balance of carbonate to silicate weathering (Krabbenhöft et al. 2010; Pearce et al. 2015). However, rivers draining silicate catchments possess distinctly heavier Sr stable isotope values than their bedrock compositions, pointing to significant fractionation during weathering. Some have argued for preferential release of heavy Sr from primary phases during chemical weathering, others for the formation of secondary weathering minerals that incorporate light isotopes. This study presents high-precision double-spike Sr stable isotope data for soils, rivers, ground waters and estuarine waters from Iceland, reflecting both natural weathering and societal impacts on those environments. The bedrock in Iceland is dominantly basaltic, d88/86Sr ≈ +0.27, extending to lighter values for rhyolites. Geothermal waters range from basaltic Sr stable compositions to those akin to seawater. Soil pore waters reflect a balance of input from primary mineral weathering, precipitation and litter recycling and removal into secondary phases and vegetation. Rivers and ground waters possess a wide range of d88/86Sr compositions from +0.101 to +0.858. Elemental and isotope data indicate that this fractionation primarily results from the formation or dissolution of secondary zeolite (d88/86Sr ≈ +0.10), but also carbonate (d88/86Sr ≈ +0.22) and sometimes anhydrite (d88/86Sr ≈ -0.73), driving the residual waters to heavier or lighter values, respectively. Estuarine waters largely reflect mixing with seawater, but are also be affected by adsorption onto particulates, again driving water to heavy values. Overall, these data indicate that the stability and nature of secondary weathering phases, exerts a strong control on the Sr stable isotope composition of silicate rivers. [1] Krabbenhöft et al. (2010) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 74, 4097-4109. [2] Pearce et al. (2015) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 157, 125-146.

  13. Influencia del ejercicio físico aeróbico durante el embarazo en los niveles de hemoglobina y de hierro maternos. (Influence of the physical aerobic exercise during pregnancy in the maternal haemoglobin and iron levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Stirling

    2008-04-01

    coexist without maternal-foetal conflicts and without the pregnancy outcome are altered. Especially when day by day, they are more the women that want to continue training in some way, during their pregnancy. The aim of this investigation is to know the influence of the moderate aerobic exercise developed during the second and third pregnancy trimesters on haemoglobin and iron maternal levels. Materials and methods: An experimental design was used. It included a total of 142 pregnant. Cases Group: integrated by 72 women. Control Group: integrated by 70 women. The studied maternal parameters were: iron levels, haemoglobin level, gestational age, type of delivery. Foetal: birth weight, size, cranial perimeter, Apgar test (1´y 5´. Results: Results show not significant differences between both groups at statistical level (p menor que 0.05, cases group (exercise present similar results related to haemoglobin levels: 12.1 ± 0.8 and iron: 65.90 ± 7.1 that the control group: haemoglobin: 12.3 ± 0.8 and iron: 66.42 ± 8.4. The birth weight was inferior in the case group inside nor- mal values (-142.1grs.. Conclusion: The moderate and aerobic exercise developed during the second and third pregnancy trimester seems not to influence in maternal haemoglobin and iron levels.

  14. Modified formulation of CPDA for storage of whole blood, and of SAGM for storage of red blood cells, to maintain the concentration of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurup, P A; Arun, P; Gayathri, N S; Dhanya, C R; Indu, A R

    2003-11-01

    A dramatic decrease in the level of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) takes place during the storage of whole blood (WB) in CPDA (citrate-phosphate-dextrose-adenine) and a similar decrease occurs during the storage of red blood cells (RBCs) in SAGM (saline-adenine-glucose-mannitol). The aim of the present study was to prevent this decrease by modifying CPDA and SAGM. The pH of WB anticoagulant or RBC preservative solution was maintained at 7.6 by autoclaving the dextrose solution separately, by incorporating ascorbic acid and nicotinic acid into both CPDA and SAGM (to produce modified CPDA and SAGM solutions), and by reducing the concentration of adenine and adding citrate to the modified SAGM solution. The concentration of 2,3-DPG in WB after 28 days of storage in modified CPDA, and in RBCs stored in modified SAGM, was compared with that in WB or RBCs stored in unmodified solutions. The initial 2,3-DPG levels were maintained after 28 days in the modified formulations [10.63 +/- 2.58 microM/g of haemoglobin (Hb) in the case of modified CPDA and 12.07 +/- 1.47 microM/g of Hb in the case of modified SAGM], whereas in standard CPDA and SAGM solutions, the concentration of 2,3-DPG decreased to very low levels (0.86 +/- 0.97 microM/g Hb for CPDA and 0.12 +/- 0.008 for SAGM). Our modification in the formulation of CPDA or SAGM is effective in arresting the dramatic decrease in the level of 2,3-DPG that occurs during storage of WB and RBCs in unmodified solutions.

  15. In Vitro Culture Conditions for Maintaining a Complex Population of Human Gastrointestinal Tract Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bong-Soo Kim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A stable intestinal microbiota is important in maintaining human physiology and health. Although there have been a number of studies using in vitro and in vivo approaches to determine the impact of diet and xenobiotics on intestinal microbiota, there is no consensus for the best in vitro culture conditions for growth of the human gastrointestinal microbiota. To investigate the dynamics and activities of intestinal microbiota, it is important for the culture conditions to support the growth of a wide range of intestinal bacteria and maintain a complex microbial community representative of the human gastrointestinal tract. Here, we compared the bacterial community in three culture media: brain heart infusion broth and high- and low-carbohydrate medium with different growth supplements. The bacterial community was analyzed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE, pyrosequencing and real-time PCR. Based on the molecular analysis, this study indicated that the 3% fecal inoculum in low-concentration carbohydrate medium with 1% autoclaved fecal supernatant provided enhanced growth conditions to conduct in vitro studies representative of the human intestinal microbiota.

  16. Development of a Safety Management Web Tool for Horse Stables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppälä, Jarkko; Kolstrup, Christina Lunner; Pinzke, Stefan; Rautiainen, Risto; Saastamoinen, Markku; Särkijärvi, Susanna

    2015-11-12

    Managing a horse stable involves risks, which can have serious consequences for the stable, employees, clients, visitors and horses. Existing industrial or farm production risk management tools are not directly applicable to horse stables and they need to be adapted for use by managers of different types of stables. As a part of the InnoEquine project, an innovative web tool, InnoHorse, was developed to support horse stable managers in business, safety, pasture and manure management. A literature review, empirical horse stable case studies, expert panel workshops and stakeholder interviews were carried out to support the design. The InnoHorse web tool includes a safety section containing a horse stable safety map, stable safety checklists, and examples of good practices in stable safety, horse handling and rescue planning. This new horse stable safety management tool can also help in organizing work processes in horse stables in general.

  17. Smoke considerations for using fire in maintaining healthy forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger D. Ottmar; Mark D. Schaaf; Ernesto Alvarado

    1996-01-01

    Fire is the single most important ecological disturbance process throughout the interior Pacific Northwest (Mutch and others 1993; Agee 1994). It is also a natural process that helps maintain a diverse ecological landscape. Fire suppression and timber harvesting have drastically altered this process during the past 50 to 90 years. Natural resource specialists generally...

  18. JWIG: Yet Another Framework for Maintainable and Secure Web Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Anders; Schwarz, Mathias Romme

    2009-01-01

    Although numerous frameworks for web application programming have been developed in recent years, writing web applications remains a challenging task. Guided by a collection of classical design principles, we propose yet another framework. It is based on a simple but flexible server-oriented arch...... services.The resulting framework provides a novel foundation for developing maintainable and secure web applications....

  19. 44 CFR 321.3 - Maintaining the mobilization base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... base. 321.3 Section 321.3 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PREPAREDNESS MAINTENANCE OF THE MOBILIZATION BASE (DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, MARITIME ADMINISTRATION) § 321.3 Maintaining the mobilization base. (a) Facilities...

  20. Maintaining connections in children's grief narratives in popular film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedney, Mary Anne

    2002-04-01

    Children's grief narratives in popular films were examined for their portrayal of connection-maintaining strategies with the deceased. Comparisons were made between strategies found in actual parentally bereaved children and in child characters in films. Implications of these filmed grief narratives for models of grieving and for practice are discussed.

  1. Maintaining a Cybersecurity Curriculum: Professional Certifications as Valuable Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Kenneth J.; Maurer, Christopher; Plachkinova, Miloslava

    2017-01-01

    Much has been published about developing a cybersecurity curriculum for institutes of higher learning (IHL). Now that a growing number of IHLs globally offer such programs, a need exists on how to guide, maintain, and improve the relevancy of existing curricula. Just as cybersecurity professionals must be hone their skills continually to keep with…

  2. Declarative versus imperative process modeling languages : the issue of maintainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fahland, D.; Mendling, J.; Reijers, H.A.; Weber, B.; Weidlich, M.; Zugal, S.; Rinderle-Ma, S.; Sadiq, S.; Leymann, F.

    2010-01-01

    The rise of interest in declarative languages for process modeling both justifies and demands empirical investigations into their presumed advantages over more traditional, imperative alternatives. Our concern in this paper is with the ease of maintaining business process models, for example due to

  3. Maintaining public confidence in UK nuclear safety regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, L.

    2001-01-01

    The key to maintaining stake holder confidence is competence and having the resources necessary to not only carry out regulatory functions effectively, but also to keep the public informed and respond to their questions. This does not come cheap but it is a price well worth paying. (N.C.)

  4. Genetic and somatic effects in animals maintained on tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carsten, A.L.; Brooks, A.; Commerford, S.L.; Cronkite, E.P.

    1981-01-01

    The possible genetic (dominant lethal mutations (DLM) and cytogenetic changes in the regenerating liver) and somatic (hematopoietic stem cell changes, growth and nonspecific life time shortening) effects in mice maintained on tritiated water (HTO) over two generations was investigated. Results to date are summarized

  5. 4 CFR 200.11 - Maintaining records of disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the Freedom of Information Act (5 U.S.C. 552). (b) An accounting of each disclosure shall be retained..., whichever is longer. (c) The Board shall make the accounting of disclosure of a record pertaining to an... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maintaining records of disclosure. 200.11 Section 200.11...

  6. Maintaining the power balance in an "empty network"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reza, M.; Dominguez, A.O.; Schavemaker, P.H.; Kling, W.L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the concept of an empty network and shows how the power balance can be maintained in such a system. In this study, an empty network is defined as a power system in which no rotating mass is present; all generators are grid-connected via power electronic interfaces. One generator

  7. Maintaining of the demineralized water quality in storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hochmueller, K.; Wandelt, E.

    1981-03-01

    Two processes for maintaining the quality of the mineralized water in storage tanks are considered. A slight overpressure of nitrogen can be created above the water, or the air flowing in the tank can be cleaned by passing it through a soda-containing lime filter [fr

  8. Sponsored Grant-maintained Schools: Extending the Franchise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walford, Geoffrey

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the introduction and implementation of the 1988 Education Reform Act for England and Wales. Traces the attempts of several existing private schools to become grant maintained (eligible for various forms of government support). Most private and faith-based schools have not been successful in this endeavor. Discusses the reasons for this.…

  9. Maintaining and restoring sustainable ecosystems in southern Nevada [Chapter 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanne C. Chambers; Burton K. Pendleton; Donald W. Sada; Steven M. Ostoja; Matthew L. Brooks

    2013-01-01

    Managers in southern Nevada are challenged with determining appropriate goals and objectives and developing viable approaches for maintaining and restoring sustainable ecosystems in a time of rapid socio-ecological and environmental change. Sustainable or “healthy” ecosystems supply clean air, water and habitat for a diverse array of plants and animals. As described in...

  10. Impact of Agile Software Development Model on Software Maintainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawali, Ajay R.

    2012-01-01

    Software maintenance and support costs account for up to 60% of the overall software life cycle cost and often burdens tightly budgeted information technology (IT) organizations. Agile software development approach delivers business value early, but implications on software maintainability are still unknown. The purpose of this quantitative study…

  11. The evaluation of kikuyu foggage for maintaining dry ewes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DeVilliersJ

    flow programme to maintain dry ewes during the winter in a system where their lambs were weaned onto .... IVDOM of the combined values of the January and February oesophageal and hand-cut foggage samples and ... The ability of the grazing animal to select material of higher quality than hand-cut samples of the.

  12. 19 CFR 115.12 - Records maintained by Certifying Authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Records maintained by Certifying Authority. 115.12 Section 115.12 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CARGO CONTAINER AND ROAD VEHICLE CERTIFICATION PURSUANT TO INTERNATIONAL CUSTOMS...

  13. Oct-4 expression maintained stem cell properties in prostate cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Keywords: Prostate cancer, Cancer stem-like cells, Oct-4, CD133, Multi-drug resistance1 (MDR1). Received: 7 ... mechanisms in maintaining the self-renewal and drug resistant ... (platelet-derived growth factor α receptor). This suggests that ...

  14. Banded vs Bonded Space Maintainers: Finding Better Way Out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Vikas; Kumar Pandit, Inder; Srivastava, Nikhil; Gugnani, Neeraj; Gupta, Monika

    2014-05-01

    Of this in vivo study was to evaluate various space maintainers in terms of survival rate, gingival health and presence of caries. A total of 60 extraction sites in the age group of 4 to 9 years were divided into four groups and different space maintainers were placed in them viz (conventional band and loop, prefabricated band with custom made loop, Ribbond, Super splint). Prefabricated bands with custom made loop showed maximum success rates (84.6%), while super splint (33.33%) was found to be least successful. In terms of gingival health, prefabricated band with custom made loop reported minimum cases with poor gingival health (27.2%), while maximum cases with poor gingival health (50%) were reported with Super splint. None of the space maintainers developed caries at the end of 9 months. How to cite this article: Setia v, Pandit IK, Srivastava N, Gugnani N, Gupta M. Banded vs Bonded Space Maintainers: Finding Better Way Out. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(2):97-104.

  15. A Platform for Developing and Maintaining Competences in PBL Supervision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gnaur, Dorina; Huttel, Hans

    2017-01-01

    One of the emerging challenges in academia is that of developing and maintaining teaching qualifications in a setting where teaching staff is often temporary and with diverse backgrounds. At Aalborg University, project-organized problem-based learning is at the heart of all degree programmes...

  16. Maintaining Continuity of Knowledge of Spent Fuel Pools: Tool Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benz, Jacob M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Smartt, Heidi A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tanner, Jennifer E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); MacDougall, Matthew R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-08-30

    This report examines supplemental tools that can be used in addition to optical surveillance cameras to maintain CoK in low-to-no light conditions, and increase the efficiency and effectiveness of spent fuel CoK, including item counting and ID verification, in challenging conditions.

  17. Contribution of maintainability and maintenance to problems of safety evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adnot, Serge; Meriaux, Pierre.

    1977-10-01

    A method has been developed for defining the contribution of Maintainability and the Maintenance Studies to Safety evaluation problems. The efficiency of this method is shown and results obtained are given for two theoretical examples approximating reality. For repairable systems, the risk defined according to such given safety criterion, becomes a characteristic of the systems in operation [fr

  18. Maintaining excellence in teaching of human anatomy: University of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measures to address these challenges have resulted in wide disparities in curriculum design teaching methods, number and composition of instructors. Inspite of the challenges, the Department of Human Anatomy of the University of Nairobi (UON) maintained excellence of teaching for over 40yrs. This article describes the ...

  19. Mechanical properties of different types of space maintainers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldiman, M.-A.; Mârţu, I.; Leiţoiu, B.; Luchian, I.; Lupescu, O.; Bârcă, E. S.

    2015-11-01

    Currently, inside the oral cavity, the dental space maintainers are subjected to forces exerted on them when performing various functions; therefore, it is important to know how each of these mechanisms behave and respond to forces that are applied directly to them. The mechanical properties of the materials used in dentistry are defined by a set of characteristics representing the behaviour of their particular working conditions and it is qualitatively expressed by a number of parameters.The study aimed to determine the pressing force that can be taken by four 4 types of space maintainers frequently used in practice - fixed and removable, applied on four samples realized with human teeth extracted for orthodontic purposes. Static tests were carried out on a machine type short WDW-5 EC with a maximum force of 5 kN and a loading speed of 5 mm/min by a special testing machine, with an innovative appliance; data recording was automatically performed, using a computer with a special program that present the specific diagrams. Experimental determinations included the following aspects: to determine the maximum force that can be supported by each sample, and to observe the deformations. The values obtained indicate that the best option in terms of behavior under the conditions specified is the removable appliance, and the less functional version is the fixed space maintainer using brackets. According to tests conducted, the fracture strength was found to be more important for fixed space maintainers (band and loop, for example) so, in practice is using more frequent these types of space maintainers.

  20. Dicer maintains the identity and function of proprioceptive sensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Sean M; Ferrer, Monica M; Mekonnen, Jennifer; Zhang, Haihan; Shima, Yasuyuki; Ladle, David R; Nelson, Sacha B

    2017-03-01

    Neuronal cell identity is established during development and must be maintained throughout an animal's life (Fishell G, Heintz N. Neuron 80: 602-612, 2013). Transcription factors critical for establishing neuronal identity can be required for maintaining it (Deneris ES, Hobert O. Nat Neurosci 17: 899-907, 2014). Posttranscriptional regulation also plays an important role in neuronal differentiation (Bian S, Sun T. Mol Neurobiol 44: 359-373, 2011), but its role in maintaining cell identity is less established. To better understand how posttranscriptional regulation might contribute to cell identity, we examined the proprioceptive neurons in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG), a highly specialized sensory neuron class, with well-established properties that distinguish them from other neurons in the ganglion. By conditionally ablating Dicer in mice, using parvalbumin (Pvalb)-driven Cre recombinase, we impaired posttranscriptional regulation in the proprioceptive sensory neuron population. Knockout (KO) animals display a progressive form of ataxia at the beginning of the fourth postnatal week that is accompanied by a cell death within the DRG. Before cell loss, expression profiling shows a reduction of proprioceptor specific genes and an increased expression of nonproprioceptive genes normally enriched in other ganglion neurons. Furthermore, although central connections of these neurons are intact, the peripheral connections to the muscle are functionally impaired. Posttranscriptional regulation is therefore necessary to retain the transcriptional identity and support functional specialization of the proprioceptive sensory neurons. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We have demonstrated that selectively impairing Dicer in parvalbumin-positive neurons, which include the proprioceptors, triggers behavioral changes, a lack of muscle connectivity, and a loss of transcriptional identity as observed through RNA sequencing. These results suggest that Dicer and, most likely by extension, micro

  1. Early embryonic chromosome instability results in stable mosaic pattern in human tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasmik Mkrtchyan

    Full Text Available The discovery of copy number variations (CNV in the human genome opened new perspectives on the study of the genetic causes of inherited disorders and the aetiology of common diseases. Here, a single-cell-level investigation of CNV in different human tissues led us to uncover the phenomenon of mitotically derived genomic mosaicism, which is stable in different cell types of one individual. The CNV mosaic ratios were different between the 10 individuals studied. However, they were stable in the T lymphocytes, immortalized B lymphoblastoid cells, and skin fibroblasts analyzed in each individual. Because these cell types have a common origin in the connective tissues, we suggest that mitotic changes in CNV regions may happen early during embryonic development and occur only once, after which the stable mosaic ratio is maintained throughout the differentiated tissues. This concept is further supported by a unique study of immortalized B lymphoblastoid cell lines obtained with 20 year difference from two subjects. We provide the first evidence of somatic mosaicism for CNV, with stable variation ratios in different cell types of one individual leading to the hypothesis of early embryonic chromosome instability resulting in stable mosaic pattern in human tissues. This concept has the potential to open new perspectives in personalized genetic diagnostics and can explain genetic phenomena like diminished penetrance in autosomal dominant diseases. We propose that further genomic studies should focus on the single-cell level, to better understand the aetiology of aging and diseases mediated by somatic mutations.

  2. Fundamentals of the LISA stable flight formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhurandhar, S V; Nayak, K Rajesh; Koshti, S; Vinet, J-Y

    2005-01-01

    The joint NASA-ESA mission, LISA, relies crucially on the stability of the three-spacecraft constellation. Each of the spacecraft is in heliocentric orbit forming a stable triangle. In this paper we explicitly show with the help of the Clohessy-Wiltshire equations that any configuration of spacecraft lying in the planes making angles of ±60 0 with the ecliptic and given suitable initial velocities within the plane, can be made stable in the sense that the inter-spacecraft distances remain constant to first order in the dimensions of the configuration compared with the distance to the Sun. Such analysis would be useful in order to carry out theoretical studies on the optical links, simulators, etc

  3. A model for a stable coronal loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoven, G.V.; Chiuderi, C.; Giachetti, R.

    1977-01-01

    We present here a new plasma-physics model of a stable active-region arch which corresponds to the structure observed in the EUV. Pressure gradients are seen, so that the equilibrium magnetic field must depart from the force-free form valid in the surrounding corona. We take advantage of the data and of the approximate cylindrical symmetry to develop a modified form of the commonly assumed sheared-spiral structure. The dynamic MHD behavior of this new pressure/field model is then evaluated by the Newcomb criterion, taken from controlled-fusion physics, and the results show short-wavelength stability in a specific parameter range. Thus we demonstrate the possibility, for pressure profiles with widths of the order of the magnetic-field scale, that such arches can persist for reasonable periods. Finally, the spatial proportions and magnetic fields of a characteristic stable coronal loop are described

  4. Utilization of stable isotopes in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-11-01

    The ten lectures given at this round table are presented together with a discussion. Five lectures, relating to studies in which deuterium oxide was employed as a tracer of body water, dealt with pulmonary water measurements in man and animals, the total water pool in adipose subjects, and liquid compartments in children undergoing hemodyalisis. The heavy water is analysed by infrared spectrometry and a new double spectrodoser is described. Two studies using 13 C as tracer, described the diagnosis of liver troubles and diabetes respectively. A general review of the perspectives of the application of stable isotopes in clinical medicine is followed by a comparison of the use of stable and radioactive isotopes in France [fr

  5. Stable isotope enrichment: Current and future potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tracy, J.G.; Aaron, W.S.

    1992-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) operates the Isotope Enrichment Facility for the purpose of providing enriched stable isotopes, selected radioactive isotopes (including the actinides), and isotope-related materials and services for use in various research applications. ORNL is responsible for isotope enrichment and the distribution of approximately 225 nongaseous stable isotopes from 50 multi-isotopic elements. Many enriched isotope products are of prime importance in the fabrication of nuclear targets and the subsequent production of special radionuclides. State-of-the-art techniques to achieve special isotopic, chemical, and physical requirements are performed at ORNL This report describes the status and capabilities of the Isotope Enrichment Facility and the Isotope Research Materials Laboratory as well as emphasizing potential advancements in enrichment capabilities

  6. Stable plastid transformation in Scoparia dulcis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralikrishna, Narra; Srinivas, Kota; Kumar, Kalva Bharath; Sadanandam, Abbagani

    2016-10-01

    In the present investigation we report stable plastid transformation in Scoparia dulcis L., a versatile medicinal herb via particle gun method. The vector KNTc, harbouring aadA as a selectable marker and egfp as a reporter gene which were under the control of synthetic promoter pNG1014a, targets inverted repeats, trnR / t rnN of the plastid genome. By use of this heterologous vector, recovery of transplastomic lines with suitable selection protocol have been successfully established with overall efficiency of two transgenic lines for 25 bombarded leaf explants. PCR and Southern blot analysis demonstrated stable integration of foreign gene into the target sequences. The results represent a significant advancement of the plastid transformation technology in medicinal plants, which relevantly implements a change over in enhancing and regulating of certain metabolic pathways.

  7. On The Roman Domination Stable Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajian Majid

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A Roman dominating function (or just RDF on a graph G = (V,E is a function f : V → {0, 1, 2} satisfying the condition that every vertex u for which f(u = 0 is adjacent to at least one vertex v for which f(v = 2. The weight of an RDF f is the value f(V (G = Pu2V (G f(u. The Roman domination number of a graph G, denoted by R(G, is the minimum weight of a Roman dominating function on G. A graph G is Roman domination stable if the Roman domination number of G remains unchanged under removal of any vertex. In this paper we present upper bounds for the Roman domination number in the class of Roman domination stable graphs, improving bounds posed in [V. Samodivkin, Roman domination in graphs: the class RUV R, Discrete Math. Algorithms Appl. 8 (2016 1650049].

  8. Design of optically stable image reflector system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chung-Yu

    2013-08-01

    The design of a partially optically stable (POS) reflector system, in which the exit ray direction and image pose are unchanged as the reflector system rotates about a specific directional vector, was presented in an earlier study by the current group [Appl. Phys. B100, 883-890 (2010)]. The present study further proposes an optically stable image (OSI) reflector system, in which not only is the optical stability property of the POS system retained, but the image position and total ray path length are also fixed. An analytical method is proposed for the design of OSI reflector systems comprising multiple reflectors. The validity of the proposed approach is demonstrated by means of two illustrative examples.

  9. Formation of stable radicals during perfluoroalkane radiolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allayarov, S.R.; Demidov, S.V.; Kiryukhin, D.P.; Mikhajlov, A.I.; Barkalov, I.M.

    1984-01-01

    Accumulation and stabilization kinetics of perfluoroalkyls during α-radiolysis ( 60 Co) of perfluoralkanes (PFA) in a wide temperature range for different PFA fractions differing in the average molecular weight, is investigated. It is noted that low temperature (PFA) radiolysis (77 K) is of a linear nature of accumulation of stabilized radicals up to doses of approximately 700 KGy. In the case of PFA radiolysis at 300 K radiation yields of stable radicals are somewhat lower than at 47 K and at doses of 200-300 KGy, their accumulation ceases. It is shown that kinetics of formation and accumulation of stable radicals does not depend on molecular mass and PFA fraction viscosity. Perfluoroalkyl stability is explained by intra molecular conformation spheric insulation of the free valency. Perfluoroalkyl stability in different PFA fractions in a wide time range in different media is investigated

  10. Stable isotope enrichment - current and future potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tracy, J.G.; Aaron, W.S.

    1993-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) operates the Isotope Enrichment Facility for the purpose of providing enriched stable isotopes, selected radioactive isotopes (including the actinides), and isotope-related materials and services for use in various research applications. ORNL is responsible for isotope enrichment and the distribution of approximately 225 nongaseous stable isotopes from 50 multi-isotopic elements. Many enriched isotope products are of prime importance in the fabrication of nuclear targets and the subsequent production of special radionuclides. State-of-the-art techniques to achieve special isotopic, chemical, and physical requirements are performed at ORNL. This report describes the status and capabilities of the Isotope Enrichment Facility and the Isotope Research Materials Laboratory as well as emphasizing potential advancements in enrichment capabilities. (orig.)

  11. Optimization of Parameters of Asymptotically Stable Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Guerman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with numerical methods of parameter optimization for asymptotically stable systems. We formulate a special mathematical programming problem that allows us to determine optimal parameters of a stabilizer. This problem involves solutions to a differential equation. We show how to chose the mesh in order to obtain discrete problem guaranteeing the necessary accuracy. The developed methodology is illustrated by an example concerning optimization of parameters for a satellite stabilization system.

  12. Multi-Stable Morphing Cellular Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-14

    stiffness on critical buckling load and arch stres - ses. It should be noted that although the arches in these studies snapped-through, they did not...switch roles in moving the VMT back from the second to the first stable equilibrium state. A prototype is designed and fabricated and the transition...pulling forward on the insert on the right blade and assisting its deployment. During this process the cable 3-4-1 goes slack and plays no role , but if

  13. The nature of stable insomnia phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Vivek; Roth, Thomas; Drake, Christopher L

    2015-01-01

    We examined the 1-y stability of four insomnia symptom profiles: sleep onset insomnia; sleep maintenance insomnia; combined onset and maintenance insomnia; and neither criterion (i.e., insomnia cases that do not meet quantitative thresholds for onset or maintenance problems). Insomnia cases that exhibited the same symptom profile over a 1-y period were considered to be phenotypes, and were compared in terms of clinical and demographic characteristics. Longitudinal. Urban, community-based. Nine hundred fifty-four adults with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition based current insomnia (46.6 ± 12.6 y; 69.4% female). None. At baseline, participants were divided into four symptom profile groups based on quantitative criteria. Follow-up assessment 1 y later revealed that approximately 60% of participants retained the same symptom profile, and were hence judged to be phenotypes. Stability varied significantly by phenotype, such that sleep onset insomnia (SOI) was the least stable (42%), whereas combined insomnia (CI) was the most stable (69%). Baseline symptom groups (cross-sectionally defined) differed significantly across various clinical indices, including daytime impairment, depression, and anxiety. Importantly, however, a comparison of stable phenotypes (longitudinally defined) did not reveal any differences in impairment or comorbid psychopathology. Another interesting finding was that whereas all other insomnia phenotypes showed evidence of an elevated wake drive both at night and during the day, the 'neither criterion' phenotype did not; this latter phenotype exhibited significantly higher daytime sleepiness despite subthreshold onset and maintenance difficulties. By adopting a stringent, stability-based definition, this study offers timely and important data on the longitudinal trajectory of specific insomnia phenotypes. With the exception of daytime sleepiness, few clinical differences are apparent across stable phenotypes.

  14. Strongly stable real infinitesimally symplectic mappings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cushman, R.; Kelley, A.

    We prove that a mapA εsp(σ,R), the set of infinitesimally symplectic maps, is strongly stable if and only if its centralizerC(A) insp(σ,R) contains only semisimple elements. Using the theorem that everyB insp(σ,R) close toA is conjugate by a real symplectic map to an element ofC(A), we give a new

  15. A belief-based evolutionarily stable strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Xinyang; Wang, Zhen; Liu, Qi; Deng, Yong; Mahadevan, Sankaran

    2014-01-01

    As an equilibrium refinement of the Nash equilibrium, evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) is a key concept in evolutionary game theory and has attracted growing interest. An ESS can be either a pure strategy or a mixed strategy. Even though the randomness is allowed in mixed strategy, the selection probability of pure strategy in a mixed strategy may fluctuate due to the impact of many factors. The fluctuation can lead to more uncertainty. In this paper, such uncertainty involved in mixed st...

  16. Mechanical Properties of Stable Glasses Using Nanoindentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Sarah; Liu, Tianyi; Jiang, Yijie; Ablajan, Keyume; Zhang, Yue; Walsh, Patrick; Turner, Kevin; Fakhraai, Zahra

    Glasses with enhanced stability over ordinary, liquid quenched glasses have been formed via the process of Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) by using a sufficiently slow deposition rate and a substrate temperature slightly below the glass transition temperature. These stable glasses have been shown to exhibit higher density, lower enthalpy, and better kinetic stability over ordinary glass, and are typically optically birefringent, due to packing and orientational anisotropy. Given these exceptional properties, it is of interest to further investigate how the properties of stable glasses compare to those of ordinary glass. In particular, the mechanical properties of stable glasses remain relatively under-investigated. While the speed of sound and elastic moduli have been shown to increase with increased stability, little is known about their hardness and fracture toughness compared to ordinary glasses. In this study, glasses of 9-(3,5-di(naphthalen-1-yl)phenyl)anthracene were deposited at varying temperatures relative to their glass transition temperature, and their mechanical properties measured by nanoindentation. Hardness and elastic modulus of the glasses were compared across substrate temperatures. After indentation, the topography of these films were studied using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) in order to further compare the relationship between thermodynamic and kinetic stability and mechanical failure. Z.F. and P.W. acknowledge funding from NSF(DMREF-1628407).

  17. Detonation of Meta-stable Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhl, Allen; Kuhl, Allen L.; Fried, Laurence E.; Howard, W. Michael; Seizew, Michael R.; Bell, John B.; Beckner, Vincent; Grcar, Joseph F.

    2008-05-31

    We consider the energy accumulation in meta-stable clusters. This energy can be much larger than the typical chemical bond energy (~;;1 ev/atom). For example, polymeric nitrogen can accumulate 4 ev/atom in the N8 (fcc) structure, while helium can accumulate 9 ev/atom in the excited triplet state He2* . They release their energy by cluster fission: N8 -> 4N2 and He2* -> 2He. We study the locus of states in thermodynamic state space for the detonation of such meta-stable clusters. In particular, the equilibrium isentrope, starting at the Chapman-Jouguet state, and expanding down to 1 atmosphere was calculated with the Cheetah code. Large detonation pressures (3 and 16 Mbar), temperatures (12 and 34 kilo-K) and velocities (20 and 43 km/s) are a consequence of the large heats of detonation (6.6 and 50 kilo-cal/g) for nitrogen and helium clusters respectively. If such meta-stable clusters could be synthesized, they offer the potential for large increases in the energy density of materials.

  18. Clinically stable angina pectoris is not necessarily associated with histologically stable atherosclerotic plaques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wal, A. C.; Becker, A. E.; Koch, K. T.; Piek, J. J.; Teeling, P.; van der Loos, C. M.; David, G. K.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the extent of plaque inflammation in culprit lesions of patients with chronic stable angina. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Amsterdam reference centre. SUBJECTS: 89 consecutive patients who underwent directional coronary atherectomy, 58 of whom met the following

  19. Multivariate Stable Isotope Analysis to Determine Linkages between Benzocaine Seizures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, H. F.; Meier-Augenstein, W.; Collins, M.; Salouros, H.; Cunningham, A.; Harrison, M.

    2012-04-01

    In July 2010, a woman was jailed for nine years in the UK after the prosecution successfully argued that attempting to import a cutting agent was proof of involvement in a conspiracy to supply Cocaine. That landmark ruling provided law enforcement agencies with much greater scope to tackle those involved in this aspect of the drug trade, specifically targeting those importing the likes of benzocaine or lidocaine. Huge quantities of these compounds are imported into the UK and between May and August 2010, four shipments of Benzocaine amounting to more then 4 tons had been seized as part of Operation Kitley, a joint initiative between the UK Border Agency and the Serious Organised Crime Agency (SOCA). By diluting cocaine, traffickers can make it go a lot further for very little cost, leading to huge profits. In recent years, dealers have moved away from inert substances, like sugar and baby milk powder, in favour of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), including anaesthetics like Benzocaine and Lidocaine. Both these mimic the numbing effect of cocaine, and resemble it closely in colour, texture and some chemical behaviours, making it easier to conceal the fact that the drug has been diluted. API cutting agents have helped traffickers to maintain steady supplies in the face of successful interdiction and even expand the market in the UK, particularly to young people aged from their mid teens to early twenties. From importation to street-level, the purity of the drug can be reduced up to a factor of 80 and street level cocaine can have a cocaine content as low as 1%. In view of the increasing use of Benzocaine as cutting agent for Cocaine, a study was carried out to investigate if 2H, 13C, 15N and 18O stable isotope signatures could be used in conjunction with multivariate chemometric data analysis to determine potential linkage between benzocaine exhibits seized from different locations or individuals to assist with investigation and prosecution of drug

  20. Influence of maintained hemodialysis on viral load in patients with end-stage renal disease with HBV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Huifang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In the patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD with hepatitis B virus (HBV infection who underwent hemodialysis, the viral load of HBV DNA is relatively low and stable. For this phenomenon, some studies suggest that hemodialysis can reduce the HBV DNA load. The mechanism, which remains unclear, may be as follows: when HBV DNA enters the dialysate through the dialysis membrane, it was adsorbed onto the dialysis membrane; some virus particles were destroyed, and antiviral substances were produced in the course of hemodialysis. At present, there is no consensus on the mechanism responsible for the influence of maintained hemodialysis on the viral load of HBV DNA. This article reviews the factors involved in the influence of maintained hemodialysis on the viral load in ESRD patients with HBV infection and the recent progress.