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Sample records for maintains local virus

  1. The differentiated airway epithelium infected by influenza viruses maintains the barrier function despite a dramatic loss of ciliated cells.

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    Wu, Nai-Huei; Yang, Wei; Beineke, Andreas; Dijkman, Ronald; Matrosovich, Mikhail; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Thiel, Volker; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Meng, Fandan; Herrler, Georg

    2016-12-22

    Virus-host interactions in the respiratory epithelium during long term influenza virus infection are not well characterized. Therefore, we developed an air-liquid interface culture system for differentiated porcine respiratory epithelial cells to study the effect of virus-induced cellular damage. In our well-differentiated cells, α2,6-linked sialic acid is predominantly expressed on the apical surface and the basal cells mainly express α2,3-linked sialic acid. During the whole infection period, release of infectious virus was maintained at a high titre for more than seven days. The infected epithelial cells were subject to apoptosis resulting in the loss of ciliated cells together with a thinner thickness. Nevertheless, the airway epithelium maintained trans-epithelial electrical resistance and retained its barrier function. The loss of ciliated cells was compensated by the cells which contained the KRT5 basal cell marker but were not yet differentiated into ciliated cells. These specialized cells showed an increase of α2,3-linked sialic acid on the apical surface. In sum, our results help to explain the localized infection of the airway epithelium by influenza viruses. The impairment of mucociliary clearance in the epithelial cells provides an explanation why prior viral infection renders the host more susceptible to secondary co-infection by another pathogen.

  2. Establishing and maintaining cell polarity with mRNA localization in Drosophila.

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    Barr, Justinn; Yakovlev, Konstantin V; Shidlovskii, Yulii; Schedl, Paul

    2016-03-01

    How cell polarity is established and maintained is an important question in diverse biological contexts. Molecular mechanisms used to localize polarity proteins to distinct domains are likely context-dependent and provide a feedback loop in order to maintain polarity. One such mechanism is the localized translation of mRNAs encoding polarity proteins, which will be the focus of this review and may play a more important role in the establishment and maintenance of polarity than is currently known. Localized translation of mRNAs encoding polarity proteins can be used to establish polarity in response to an external signal, and to maintain polarity by local production of polarity determinants. The importance of this mechanism is illustrated by recent findings, including orb2-dependent localized translation of aPKC mRNA at the apical end of elongating spermatid tails in the Drosophila testis, and the apical localization of stardust A mRNA in Drosophila follicle and embryonic epithelia.

  3. Florida Investigates 2nd Possible Local Transmission of Zika Virus

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    ... html Florida Investigates 2nd Possible Local Transmission of Zika Virus If confirmed, cases would be first instances of ... Broward County, north of Miami. Infection with the Zika virus, which in most cases is transmitted by mosquitoes, ...

  4. The vaccinia virus E6 protein influences virion protein localization during virus assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Condit, Richard C., E-mail: condit@mgm.ufl.edu; Moussatche, Nissin

    2015-08-15

    Vaccinia virus mutants in which expression of the virion core protein gene E6R is repressed are defective in virion morphogenesis. E6 deficient infections fail to properly package viroplasm into viral membranes, resulting in an accumulation of empty immature virions and large aggregates of viroplasm. We have used immunogold electron microscopy and immunofluorescence confocal microscopy to assess the intracellular localization of several virion structural proteins and enzymes during E6R mutant infections. We find that during E6R mutant infections virion membrane proteins and virion transcription enzymes maintain a normal localization within viral factories while several major core and lateral body proteins accumulate in aggregated virosomes. The results support a model in which vaccinia virions are assembled from at least three substructures, the membrane, the viroplasm and a “pre-nucleocapsid”, and that the E6 protein is essential for maintaining proper localization of the seven-protein complex and the viroplasm during assembly. - Highlights: • Mutation of E6 disrupts association of viral membranes with viral core proteins • Mutation of E6 does not perturb viral membrane biosynthesis • Mutation of E6 does not perturb localization of viral transcription enzymes • Mutation of E6 causes mis-localization and aggregation of viral core proteins • Vaccinia assembly uses three subassemblies: membranes, viroplasm, prenucleocapsid.

  5. The Role of Local Government on Maintaining Religious Harmony in Riau Islands Province

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    Akmal Salim Ruhana

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on the Join Decree No. 9 and 8 of 2006, local governments have a special duty to maintain religious harmony in their spans of authorities. Factually, some of them have not been care enough on the duty, such as on facilitating FKUB (Forum Kerukunan Umat Beragama—the special body to maintain religious harmony. This research elaborated the roles of Local Government of Kepulauan Riau (include its local MoRA, Ministry of Religious Affairs on preserving harmony. The quasi-qualitative which was found data through literature study, observation, and interview, was written by descriptive-analytic method, found some results: The Kepri Local Government and its local MoRA have shown some positive roles. Though geographical difficulties and limited budget have drawbacks, but religious harmony was a reality in its society.

  6. Challenges of Generating and Maintaining Protective Vaccine-Induced Immune Responses for Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus in Pigs

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    Lyons, Nicholas A.; Lyoo, Young S.; King, Donald P.; Paton, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Vaccination can play a central role in the control of outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) by reducing both the impact of clinical disease and the extent of virus transmission between susceptible animals. Recent incursions of exotic FMD virus lineages into several East Asian countries have highlighted the difficulties of generating and maintaining an adequate immune response in vaccinated pigs. Factors that impact vaccine performance include (i) the potency, antigenic payload, and formulation of a vaccine; (ii) the antigenic match between the vaccine and the heterologous circulating field strain; and (iii) the regime (timing, frequency, and herd-level coverage) used to administer the vaccine. This review collates data from studies that have evaluated the performance of foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccines at the individual and population level in pigs and identifies research priorities that could provide new insights to improve vaccination in the future. PMID:27965966

  7. Florida Investigates 2 More Possible Cases of Zika Virus Local Transmission

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    ... html Florida Investigates 2 More Possible Cases of Zika Virus Local Transmission If all 4 are confirmed, they ... to see cases of local transmission of the Zika virus this summer in warm, humid southern states such ...

  8. Selection of maintaining, method for keeping of biologial purity, patternship and health, regarding viruses infection of distinguished potato breeding lines

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    Luiza MIKE

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A large number of potato varieties and distinguished breeding lines disappeared as an effect of nonfavourable climatically conditions and especially by viruses diseases, as well as other biological and viruses degeneration. To avoid the negative effect of degeneration on potato varieties and distinguished breeding lines, the method of selection for maintaining and multiplication of potato is applying in Romania in the frame of National Center for Maintaining of potato varieties and distinguished breeding lines Apa Rosie, Covasna County, which belong to the Station for Research and Development of Potato, Targu Secuiesc, Covasna County.In this center are maintained and multiplied all distinguished varieties and breeding centers from Romania (National Institute for research and Development of Potato and Sugar beet Brasov, Research and Development Station for Agriculture Suceava, Research and Development Station for Potato Targu Secuiesc, Research and development Station for Potato Miercurea Ciuc.Using the method of selection for maintaining it is possible an early identification of somatic mutations, disease (especially viruses infection by visual elimination or by serological testing.The viruses’ infection of potato leads to disturbed the metabolism of plants and produces anatomical – morphological alters as: mosaic, crinkle, rolling, browning of leaves and plants deformation.The disturbing of plant metabolism has as negative effect the reduction of vegetation period, decreasing the yield capacity, depreciation of physical and chemical quality of tubers.The genetically complex structure of cultivated potato (2n = 4x = 48 and strong segregation of long – expected characters in the obtained future progeny by sexual hybridization, complicated many times by nonfavourable linkage, are the backgrounds for initiation of maintain selection.

  9. West Nile virus genetic diversity is maintained during transmission by Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus mosquitoes.

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    Doug E Brackney

    Full Text Available Due to error-prone replication, RNA viruses exist within hosts as a heterogeneous population of non-identical, but related viral variants. These populations may undergo bottlenecks during transmission that stochastically reduce variability leading to fitness declines. Such bottlenecks have been documented for several single-host RNA viruses, but their role in the population biology of obligate two-host viruses such as arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses in vivo is unclear, but of central importance in understanding arbovirus persistence and emergence. Therefore, we tracked the composition of West Nile virus (WNV; Flaviviridae, Flavivirus populations during infection of the vector mosquito, Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus to determine whether WNV populations undergo bottlenecks during transmission by this host. Quantitative, qualitative and phylogenetic analyses of WNV sequences in mosquito midguts, hemolymph and saliva failed to document reductions in genetic diversity during mosquito infection. Further, migration analysis of individual viral variants revealed that while there was some evidence of compartmentalization, anatomical barriers do not impose genetic bottlenecks on WNV populations. Together, these data suggest that the complexity of WNV populations are not significantly diminished during the extrinsic incubation period of mosquitoes.

  10. Maintaining the Body's Immune System: Incidence of Latent Virus Shedding During Space Flight

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    Pierson, Duane; Bloomberg, Jacob; Lee, Angie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Your body protects you from illness with its own security system - the immune system. This system keeps illness at bay not only by mounting a defense against foreign organisms, but also by controlling the population of bacteria and viruses that normally live in your body. But there's no need to panic: certain microbes can actually exist in your body without causing illness. Some bacteria are even beneficial - like the E. coli in the large intestine that are an important source of vitamin K. While viruses are not exactly considered beneficial, they can also inhabit the human body without causing immediate harm or infection. A good example is the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1), more commonly known as cold sores or fever blisters. This virus infects 70 to 80 percent of all adults but remains latent much of the time. While latent, the virus within cells remains dormant. Activation of the dormant virus causes it to make copies of itself (known as replication) constantly detectable in body fluids such as urine or saliva in a process called shedding. When a person becomes sick or stressed, however, this weakened condition allows the virus to reactivate and multiply. These elevated levels may be enough to produce symptoms, but shedding can also occur without symptoms. This ability to shed without showing signs of infection, or asymptomatic shedding, is of great interest, as it increases the chances of infecting others. The stresses associated with space flight - adapting to microgravity, isolation from family and friends, living and working in a confined space, sleep deprivation, and busy schedules, to name but a few - may weaken astronauts' immune systems, leaving them at greater risk of viral reactivation. Members of the STS-107 crew will participate in this experiment, Incidence of Latent Viral Shedding in Space Flight, to help scientists understand how reactivation works in space, and at what level replication reaches before symptoms begin to show. This study also

  11. Migratory birds reinforce local circulation of avian influenza viruses.

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    Verhagen, Josanne H; van Dijk, Jacintha G B; Vuong, Oanh; Bestebroer, Theo; Lexmond, Pascal; Klaassen, Marcel; Fouchier, Ron A M

    2014-01-01

    Migratory and resident hosts have been hypothesized to fulfil distinct roles in infectious disease dynamics. However, the contribution of resident and migratory hosts to wildlife infectious disease epidemiology, including that of low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) in wild birds, has largely remained unstudied. During an autumn H3 LPAIV epizootic in free-living mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) - a partially migratory species - we identified resident and migratory host populations using stable hydrogen isotope analysis of flight feathers. We investigated the role of migratory and resident hosts separately in the introduction and maintenance of H3 LPAIV during the epizootic. To test this we analysed (i) H3 virus kinship, (ii) temporal patterns in H3 virus prevalence and shedding and (iii) H3-specific antibody prevalence in relation to host migratory strategy. We demonstrate that the H3 LPAIV strain causing the epizootic most likely originated from a single introduction, followed by local clonal expansion. The H3 LPAIV strain was genetically unrelated to H3 LPAIV detected both before and after the epizootic at the study site. During the LPAIV epizootic, migratory mallards were more often infected with H3 LPAIV than residents. Low titres of H3-specific antibodies were detected in only a few residents and migrants. Our results suggest that in this LPAIV epizootic, a single H3 virus was present in resident mallards prior to arrival of migratory mallards followed by a period of virus amplification, importantly associated with the influx of migratory mallards. Thus migrants are suggested to act as local amplifiers rather than the often suggested role as vectors importing novel strains from afar. Our study exemplifies that a multifaceted interdisciplinary approach offers promising opportunities to elucidate the role of migratory and resident hosts in infectious disease dynamics in wildlife.

  12. Migratory birds reinforce local circulation of avian influenza viruses.

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    Josanne H Verhagen

    Full Text Available Migratory and resident hosts have been hypothesized to fulfil distinct roles in infectious disease dynamics. However, the contribution of resident and migratory hosts to wildlife infectious disease epidemiology, including that of low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV in wild birds, has largely remained unstudied. During an autumn H3 LPAIV epizootic in free-living mallards (Anas platyrhynchos - a partially migratory species - we identified resident and migratory host populations using stable hydrogen isotope analysis of flight feathers. We investigated the role of migratory and resident hosts separately in the introduction and maintenance of H3 LPAIV during the epizootic. To test this we analysed (i H3 virus kinship, (ii temporal patterns in H3 virus prevalence and shedding and (iii H3-specific antibody prevalence in relation to host migratory strategy. We demonstrate that the H3 LPAIV strain causing the epizootic most likely originated from a single introduction, followed by local clonal expansion. The H3 LPAIV strain was genetically unrelated to H3 LPAIV detected both before and after the epizootic at the study site. During the LPAIV epizootic, migratory mallards were more often infected with H3 LPAIV than residents. Low titres of H3-specific antibodies were detected in only a few residents and migrants. Our results suggest that in this LPAIV epizootic, a single H3 virus was present in resident mallards prior to arrival of migratory mallards followed by a period of virus amplification, importantly associated with the influx of migratory mallards. Thus migrants are suggested to act as local amplifiers rather than the often suggested role as vectors importing novel strains from afar. Our study exemplifies that a multifaceted interdisciplinary approach offers promising opportunities to elucidate the role of migratory and resident hosts in infectious disease dynamics in wildlife.

  13. Coevolution of host and virus: cellular localization of virus in myxoma virus infection of resistant and susceptible European rabbits.

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    Best, S M; Collins, S V; Kerr, P J

    2000-11-10

    The coevolution of myxoma virus and the wild European rabbit in Australia and the development of resistance to myxomatosis in wild rabbits have been well described. However, the mechanism of resistance to myxomatosis in wild rabbits is not understood. To determine the basis of resistance, the pathogenesis of the virulent standard laboratory strain (SLS) and the attenuated Uriarra (Ur) strain of myxoma virus were examined in Australian wild rabbits that have been naturally selected in the field for resistance to myxomatosis and in laboratory rabbits which have never been selected for resistance. Virus was localized in tissue sections by immunofluorescence. In all cases virus antigen was initially present in dendritic cells of the dermis before localizing predominantly to the epidermis by Day 6. Antigen-containing cells were detected in the lymph nodes by 24 h after inoculation. Virus replication occurred predominantly in T lymphocytes of the paracortex but SLS also replicated in germinal centers. SLS replication induced loss of most lymphocytes from the lymph nodes of susceptible rabbits. Apoptosis of lymphocytes within the lymph nodes was a major feature of all infections. These apoptotic cells did not contain detectable viral antigen but were often adjacent to infected cells. Ongoing apoptosis of lymphocytes within lymph nodes was also a feature of the recovery phase when very few or no virus-infected cells could be detected. Differences between virulent and attenuated viruses in the wild and laboratory rabbits were predominantly in the degree of tissue pathology in the draining lymph node and distal lymph node and in the type of inflammatory responses, particularly in the skin. SLS infection of laboratory rabbits was associated with a very mild inflammatory response, often distant from the site of virus replication and comprised predominantly of neutrophils. In contrast, Ur-infected rabbits and SLS-infected wild rabbits had an intense inflammatory response

  14. Detection of respiratory viruses in shelter dogs maintained under varying environmental conditions

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    Francielle Liz Monteiro

    Full Text Available Abstract Three dog shelters in Rio Grande do Sul were investigated for associations between the occurrence of respiratory viruses and shelter environmental conditions. Nasal secretions randomly collected during the cold season were tested via PCR, and this data collection was followed by nucleotide sequencing of the amplicons. In shelter #1 (poor sanitary and nutritional conditions, high animal density and constant contact between dogs, 78% (58/74 of the nasal samples were positive, 35% (26/74 of which were in single infections and 44% (32/74 of which were in coinfections. Shelters #2 and #3 had satisfactory sanitary and nutritional conditions, outdoors exercise areas (#2 and animal clustering by groups (#3. In shelter #2, 9% (3/35 of the samples were positive for Canine parainfluenza virus (CPIV, and 6% (2/35 were positive for Canid herpesvirus 1 (CaHV-1. In shelter #3, 9% (7/77 of the samples were positive for Canine adenovirus type 2 (CAdV-2, and 1% (1/77 were positive for Canine distemper virus (CDV. The amplicon sequences (CPIV and CDV nucleoprotein gene; CAdV-2 E3 gene; CaHV-1 glycoprotein B gene showed 94-100% nucleotide identity with GenBank sequences. Our results demonstrate that CPIV, CAdV-2 and CDV are common in dog shelters and that their frequencies appear to be related with environmental and nutritional conditions. These results indicate the need for control/prevention measures, including vaccination and environmental management, to minimize these infections and improve dog health.

  15. Pathogenicity and immunogenicity local isolat infectious laryngo tracheitis virus

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    Risa Indriani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT is an acute and contagious respiratory diseases of chicken. The virus is Gallid herpes and belong to family herpesviridae. Two local strains of ILT virus those were BGR-6 and BKS-3 were isolated and their pathogenicity and immunogenicity were further observed after five time pareses on coris allantoic of specific pathogenic free embryonated eggs. The pathogenicity of both isolates to be possible for use as seed vaccine were detected based on pathogenicity indices and antibody response. Experimental specific pathogenic free chicken in isolator cages were infected by the isolates using103EID50. ILT virus per dose. Clinical syndromes, pathological anatomic lesions, and immunological response were observed in the infected chickens and another group at uninfected chickens as a control. Results showed that either BGR-6 or BKS-3 caused clinical signs with ITPI scores of 0,05 and 0,03 respectively and there were no mortality of infected chickens. The top antibody responces of BGR-6 and BKS-3 were observed at OD 0.90 and 0.44 respectively. It can be concluded that BGR-6 and BBS-3 had low ITPI scores, but BGR-6 gave higher antibody response and can be used as a candidate for seed vaccine.

  16. Local Circulation Maintains the Coexistence of Lake-dune Pattern in the Badain Jaran Desert

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    Zhang, Kecun; Cai, Diwen; Ao, Yinhuan; An, Zhishan; Guo, Zichen

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies proposed various hypotheses to the formation of the mega-dunes and water recharge of the lakes in the Badain Jaran Desert but left the coexistence of lake-dune pattern unsolved. This research found that the local circulation, generated from the differences of thermodynamic properties and the unique landscape settings between lakes and mega-dunes, can be applied to interpret the pattern.

  17. Maintaining a Local Data Integration System in Support of Weather Forecast Operations

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    Watson, Leela R.; Blottman, Peter F.; Sharp, David W.; Hoeth, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Since 2000, both the National Weather Service in Melbourne, FL (NWS MLB) and the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) have used a local data integration system (LDIS) as part of their forecast and warning operations. Each has benefited from 3-dimensional analyses that are delivered to forecasters every 15 minutes across the peninsula of Florida. The intent is to generate products that enhance short-range weather forecasts issued in support of NWS MLB and SMG operational requirements within East Central Florida. The current LDIS uses the Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Data Analysis System (ADAS) package as its core, which integrates a wide variety of national, regional, and local observational data sets. It assimilates all available real-time data within its domain and is run at a finer spatial and temporal resolution than current national- or regional-scale analysis packages. As such, it provides local forecasters with a more comprehensive and complete understanding of evolving fine-scale weather features. Recent efforts have been undertaken to update the LDIS through the formal tasking process of NASA's Applied Meteorology Unit. The goals include upgrading LDIS with the latest version of ADAS, incorporating new sources of observational data, and making adjustments to shell scripts written to govern the system. A series of scripts run a complete modeling system consisting of the preprocessing step, the main model integration, and the post-processing step. The preprocessing step prepares the terrain, surface characteristics data sets, and the objective analysis for model initialization. Data ingested through ADAS include (but are not limited to) Level II Weather Surveillance Radar- 1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) data from six Florida radars, Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) visible and infrared satellite imagery, surface and upper air observations throughout Florida from NOAA's Earth System Research Laboratory/Global Systems Division

  18. [Is local bone graft sufficient to maintain the surgical correction in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis curves?].

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    Mardomingo, A; Sánchez-Mariscal, F; Alvarez, P; Pizones, J; Zúñica, L; Izquierdo, E

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare postoperative clinical and radiological results in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis curves treated by posterior arthrodesis using autogenous bone graft from iliac crest (CI) versus only local autograft bone (HL). A retrospective matched cohort study was conducted on 73 patients (CI n=37 and HL n=36) diagnosed with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and treated surgically by posterior arthrodesis. The mean post-operative follow-up was 126 months in the CI group vs. 66 months in the HL group. The radiographic data collected consisted of preoperative, postoperative, and final follow-up antero-posterior and lateral full-length radiographs. Loss of correction and quality of arthrodesis were evaluated by comparing the scores obtained from the Spanish version of the SRS-22 questionnaire. There were significant differences in the post-operative results as regards the correction of the Cobb angle of the main curve (HL 61 ± 15% vs. CI 51 ± 14%, P<.004), however a greater loss of correction was found in the local bone group (CI 4.5 ± 7.3° vs. HL 8.5 ± 6.3°, P=.02). There were no significant differences as regards the correction of the Cobb angle of the main curve at the end of follow-up. There were no clinical differences between the two groups in the SRS-22 scores. At 5 years of follow-up, there was a statistically significant greater loss of radiographic correction at the end of final follow-up in the local bone graft group. However clinical differences were not observed as regards the SRS-22 scores. Copyright © 2013 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. FANCJ localization by mismatch repair is vital to maintain genomic integrity after UV irradiation.

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    Guillemette, Shawna; Branagan, Amy; Peng, Min; Dhruva, Aashana; Schärer, Orlando D; Cantor, Sharon B

    2014-02-01

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is critical for the repair of DNA lesions induced by UV radiation, but its contribution in replicating cells is less clear. Here, we show that dual incision by NER endonucleases, including XPF and XPG, promotes the S-phase accumulation of the BRCA1 and Fanconi anemia-associated DNA helicase FANCJ to sites of UV-induced damage. FANCJ promotes replication protein A phosphorylation and the arrest of DNA synthesis following UV irradiation. Interaction defective mutants of FANCJ reveal that BRCA1 binding is not required for FANCJ localization, whereas interaction with the mismatch repair (MMR) protein MLH1 is essential. Correspondingly, we find that FANCJ, its direct interaction with MLH1, and the MMR protein MSH2 function in a common pathway in response to UV irradiation. FANCJ-deficient cells are not sensitive to killing by UV irradiation, yet we find that DNA mutations are significantly enhanced. Thus, we considered that FANCJ deficiency could be associated with skin cancer. Along these lines, in melanoma we found several somatic mutations in FANCJ, some of which were previously identified in hereditary breast cancer and Fanconi anemia. Given that, mutations in XPF can also lead to Fanconi anemia, we propose collaborations between Fanconi anemia, NER, and MMR are necessary to initiate checkpoint activation in replicating human cells to limit genomic instability.

  20. Localization of the African swine fever virus attachment protein P12 in the virus particle by immunoelectron microscopy.

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    Carrascosa, A L; Saastre, I; González, P; Viñuela, E

    1993-03-01

    The African swine fever virus attachment protein p12 was localized in the virion by immunoelectron microscopy. Purified virus particles were incubated, before or after different treatments, with p12-specific monoclonal antibody 24BB7 and labeled with protein A-colloidal gold. Untreated virus particles showed labeling only in lateral protrusions that followed the external virus envelope. Mild treatment of African swine fever virions with the nonionic detergent octyl-glucoside or with ethanol onto the electron microscope grid resulted in a heavier and more homogeneous labeling of the virus particles. In contrast, the release of the external virus proteins by either octyl-glucoside or Nonidet-P40 and beta-mercaptoethanol generated a subviral fraction that was not labeled by 24BB7. Preembedding, labeling, and thin-sectioning experiments confirmed that the antigenic determinant recognized by 24BB7 was localized into the external region of the virus particle but required some disruption to make it more accessible. From these results we conclude that protein p12 is situated in a layer above the virus capsid with, at least, one epitope predominantly not exposed in the virion surface; this epitope may not be related to the virus ligand-cell receptor interaction.

  1. HMGB1-induced autophagy: a new pathway to maintain Treg function during chronic hepatitis B virus infection.

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    Cheng, Li-Sha; Li, Jing; Liu, Yun; Wang, Fu-Ping; Wang, Si-Qi; She, Wei-Min; Wu, Sheng-di; Qi, Xiao-Long; Zhou, Yong-Ping; Jiang, Wei

    2017-03-01

    High-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) protein, as one of the well-known damage-associated molecular pattern molecules (DAMPs), is enriched in chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and has a context-dependent role in autophagy, a highly conserved self-digestive process in response to environmental stress. Recent mouse studies indicate that autophagy is highly active in regulatory T (Treg)-cells. In the present study, we evaluated spontaneous and induced autophagy of peripheral Treg cells from 98 patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB), by measuring levels of lipidated form of microtubule-associated light chain 3 (LC3-II, marker for closed autophagosomes) and observing autophagic vacuoles (AV) with transmission electron microscope. No significant difference was found in spontaneous autophagy of either Treg or CD4(+) naive cells when comparing CHB patients with healthy subjects, apart from CHB-Treg showed significantly higher autophagic activity after activation by anti-CD3-CD28 beads. Besides, incubation of CHB-Treg cells with CHB-serum greatly maintained their autophagic behaviour, which could be significantly diminished by blocking HMGB1 with the neutralizing antibody. Further, we characterized time- and dose-dependent effects by recombinant HMGB1 protein on autophagy of CHB-Treg cells. We also documented a significant up-regulation of HMGB1 and its receptors [toll-like receptor (TLR4), receptor for advanced glycation end-product (RAGE)] in both peripheral and intra-hepatic microenvironments of CHB patients. Moreover, the RAGE-extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK) axis and rapamycin-sensitive components of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways were demonstrated in vitro to be involved in HMGB1-induced autophagy of Treg cells. Additionally, HMGB1-induced autophagy could maintain cell survival and functional stability of CHB-Treg cells. Our findings could open new perspectives in developing therapeutic strategies to activate specific anti

  2. Subcellular localization of the Vif protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

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    Goncalves, J.; Jallepalli, P; Gabuzda, D H

    1994-01-01

    The Vif (viral infectivity factor) protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has been shown to dramatically enhance the infectivity of HIV-1 virus particles during virus production. The subcellular localization of Vif was examined to elucidate cellular pathways which may be important for Vif function. Indirect immunofluorescence staining of Vif demonstrated a diffuse cytoplasmic distribution and showed that most Vif was not associated with the Golgi complex, a proposed site of lo...

  3. Localization of Transmissible and Nontransmissible Viruses in the Vector Nematode Xiphinema americanum.

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    Wang, Shouhua; Gergerich, Rose C; Wickizer, Sandra L; Kim, Kyung S

    2002-06-01

    ABSTRACT The inner lining of the food canal of nematodes that transmit plantinfecting viruses is regarded as the retention region of viruses. To characterize the location of transmissible and nontransmissible viruses in the vector nematode Xiphinema americanum, three nepoviruses, Tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV), Tomato ringspot virus(TomRSV), and Cherry leaf roll virus(CLRV), and one non-nematode-transmissible virus, Squash mosaic virus (SqMV), were evaluated for transmission efficiency and localization sites in the nematode. Transmission trials showed highest transmission efficiency for TomRSV (38% with 1 and 100% with 10 nematodes, respectively), intermediate efficiency for TRSV (27% with 1 and 65% with 10 nematodes, respectively), and no transmission for CLRV and SqMV. Electron microscopy and immunofluorescent labeling revealed that TRSV was primarily localized to the lining of the lumen of the stylet extension and the anterior esophagus, but only rarely in the triradiate lumen. Within a nematode population, particles of TRSV were no longer observed in these three regions 10 weeks after acquisition, and it is assumed that there was gradual and random loss of the virus from these areas. The percentage of nematodes that were labeled by virus-specific immunofluorescent labeling in a population of viruliferous nematodes decreased gradually after TRSV acquisition when the nematodes were placed on a nonhost of the virus, and the loss of immunofluorescent labeling paralleled the decrease in the ability of the nematode population to transmit the virus. TomRSV was localized only in the triradiate lumen based on thin-section electron microscopy. No virus-like particles were observed in any part of the food canal of nematodes that had fed on CLRV-infected plants. Virus-like particles that appeared to be partially degraded were observed only in the triradiate lumen of nematodes that had fed on SqMV-infected plants. These results clarified the status of localization of two

  4. Nowcast Predictions for Local Transmission of Chikungunya Virus

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    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Interactive visualization: http://www.cdc.gov/chikungunya/modeling/index.html. This dataset contains monthly predictions for the spread of chikungunya virus...

  5. Vital Signs: Preparing for Local Mosquito-Borne Transmission of Zika Virus--United States, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-08

    Widespread Zika virus transmission in the Region of the Americas since 2015 has heightened the urgency of preparing for the possibility of expansion of mosquito-borne transmission of Zika virus during the 2016 mosquito season. CDC and other U.S. government agencies have been working with state and local government partners on prevention and early detection of Zika virus infection and will increase these activities during April as part of their preparation for the anticipated emergence of mosquito-borne transmission of Zika virus in the continental United States.

  6. A poxvirus protein with a RING finger motif binds zinc and localizes in virus factories.

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    Upton, C; Schiff, L; Rice, S A; Dowdeswell, T; Yang, X; McFadden, G

    1994-07-01

    Shope fibroma virus (SFV) is a Leporipoxvirus closely related to the highly virulent myxoma virus. The DNA sequence of the BamHI N fragment of the SFV DNA genome was determined, and the single complete open reading frame (N1R) was characterized. The protein encoded by the N1R gene was found to contain a C3HC4 RING finger motif at the C terminus. This C3HC4 motif is the hallmark of a growing family of proteins, many of which are involved in regulation of gene expression, DNA repair, or DNA recombination. Complete homologs of the SFV N1R gene were also detected in variola virus, myxoma virus, and vaccinia virus strain IHD-W. In contrast, the gene is completely absent from vaccinia virus strain Copenhagen, and in vaccinia virus strain WR, the open reading frame is truncated prior to the zinc binding domain because of an 11-bp deletion, thus producing a frameshift and premature stop codon. Recombinant N1R protein from SFV was expressed in Escherichia coli and shown to bind zinc in a specific manner. Using fluorescence microscopy to visualize a peptide epitope tag (derived from ICP27 of herpes simplex virus) fused to the N terminus of the poxvirus proteins, we observed that the N1R protein of SFV and its homologs in myxoma virus and vaccinia virus IHD-W were localized primarily to the virus factories in the cytoplasm of infected cells and, to a lesser degree, the host cell nucleus. The truncated protein of vaccinia virus strain WR failed to localize in this manner but instead was observed throughout the cytoplasm.

  7. Alfalfa mosaic virus replicase proteins, P1 and P2, localize to the tonoplast in the presence of virus RNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, Amr [Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Present address: Genomics Facility, Agricultural Genetic Engineering Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Giza 12619 (Egypt); Hutchens, Heather M. [Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Howard Berg, R. [Integrated Microscopy Facility, Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, Saint Louis, MO 63132 (United States); Sue Loesch-Fries, L., E-mail: loeschfr@purdue.edu [Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2012-11-25

    To identify the virus components important for assembly of the Alfalfa mosaic virus replicase complex, we used live cell imaging of Arabidopsis thaliana protoplasts that expressed various virus cDNAs encoding native and GFP-fusion proteins of P1 and P2 replicase proteins and full-length virus RNAs. Expression of P1-GFP alone resulted in fluorescent vesicle-like bodies in the cytoplasm that colocalized with FM4-64, an endocytic marker, and RFP-AtVSR2, RabF2a/Rha1-mCherry, and RabF2b/Ara7-mCherry, all of which localize to multivesicular bodies (MVBs), which are also called prevacuolar compartments, that mediate traffic to the lytic vacuole. GFP-P2 was driven from the cytosol to MVBs when expressed with P1 indicating that P1 recruited GFP-P2. P1-GFP localized on the tonoplast, which surrounds the vacuole, in the presence of infectious virus RNA, replication competent RNA2, or P2 and replication competent RNA1 or RNA3. This suggests that a functional replication complex containing P1, P2, and a full-length AMV RNA assembles on MVBs to traffic to the tonoplast.

  8. Migratory birds reinforce local circulation of avian influenza viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, J.H.G.; Van Dijk, J.G.B.; Vuong, O.; Lexmond, P.; Klaassen, M.R.J.; Fouchier, R.A.M

    2014-01-01

    Migratory and resident hosts have been hypothesized to fulfil distinct roles in infectious disease dynamics. However, the contribution of resident and migratory hosts to wildlife infectious disease epidemiology, including that of low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) in wild birds, has largel

  9. Migratory birds reinforce local circulation of avian influenza viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H. Verhagen (Josanne); J.G.B. Dijk (Jacintha); O. Vuong (Spronken); T.M. Bestebroer (Theo); P. Lexmond (Pascal); M. Klaassen (Marcel); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractMigratory and resident hosts have been hypothesized to fulfil distinct roles in infectious disease dynamics. However, the contribution of resident and migratory hosts to wildlife infectious disease epidemiology, including that of low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) in wild birds

  10. Local persistence and global dissemination play a significant role in the circulation of influenza B viruses in Leyte Island, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuse, Yuki; Odagiri, Takashi; Tamaki, Raita; Kamigaki, Taro; Otomaru, Hirono; Opinion, Jamie; Santo, Arlene; Dolina-Lacaba, Donna; Daya, Edgard; Okamoto, Michiko; Saito-Obata, Mariko; Inobaya, Marianette; Tan, Alvin; Tallo, Veronica; Lupisan, Socorro; Suzuki, Akira; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2016-05-01

    The local and global transmission dynamics of influenza B virus is not completely understood mainly because of limited epidemiological and sequence data for influenza B virus. Here we report epidemiological and molecular characteristics of influenza B viruses from 2010 to 2013 in Leyte Island, Philippines. Phylogenetic analyses showed global dissemination of the virus among both neighboring and distant areas. The analyses also suggest that southeast Asia is not a distributor of influenza B virus and can introduce the virus from other areas. Furthermore, we found evidence on the local persistence of the virus over years in the Philippines. Taken together, both local persistence and global dissemination play a significant role in the circulation of influenza B virus.

  11. Comparative study on three locally developed live orf virus vaccines for sheep in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahdel M. Housawi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The epidemiology of orf virus infection in Saudi Arabia (SA has been researched since 1990. The results obtained during this period indicate that the disease is widespread, has great economic impact and that no vaccine has been used against it. The present study compares the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of three locally developed live orf virus vaccines. Two of them differ in their passage history in Vero cell culture and the third was used as a virulent virus in glycerine buffer. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, no similar comparative study has been conducted in the Middle East utilising three types of vaccines prepared from the same virus strain. Selection of the candidate seed orf virus and performance of the quality control tests were as laid out by the OIE for veterinary vaccine production. The vaccine seed virus was a field orf virus isolated from a previous orf outbreak in Saudi Arabia. A simple novel formula was developed to calculate the rate of reduction in the healing time (RHT % in the challenged sheep. This allowed direct comparison of the efficacy of the three types of vaccines employed in the present study. The efficacy of each vaccine was tested on a cohort of local Noemi sheep.

  12. Efficient escape from local optima in a highly rugged fitness landscape by evolving RNA virus populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervera, Héctor; Lalić, Jasna; Elena, Santiago F

    2016-08-17

    Predicting viral evolution has proven to be a particularly difficult task, mainly owing to our incomplete knowledge of some of the fundamental principles that drive it. Recently, valuable information has been provided about mutation and recombination rates, the role of genetic drift and the distribution of mutational, epistatic and pleiotropic fitness effects. However, information about the topography of virus' adaptive landscapes is still scarce, and to our knowledge no data has been reported so far on how its ruggedness may condition virus' evolvability. Here, we show that populations of an RNA virus move efficiently on a rugged landscape and scape from the basin of attraction of a local optimum. We have evolved a set of Tobacco etch virus genotypes located at increasing distances from a local adaptive optimum in a highly rugged fitness landscape, and we observed that few evolved lineages remained trapped in the local optimum, while many others explored distant regions of the landscape. Most of the diversification in fitness among the evolved lineages was explained by adaptation, while historical contingency and chance events contribution was less important. Our results demonstrate that the ruggedness of adaptive landscapes is not an impediment for RNA viruses to efficiently explore remote parts of it. © 2016 The Author(s).

  13. Detection of lymphoid leukosis tumors in white leghorn chickens of line ALV6 that is resistant to subgroups A and E avian leukosis virus and maintained under specific pathogen-free conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chickens from Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory (ADOL) line alv6 that is known to be resistant to infection with subgroups A and E avian leukosis virus (ALV) were vaccinated at hatch with a Marek’s disease (MD) vaccine containing serotypes 1, 2 and 3 MD viruses, and were maintained under specifi...

  14. Estimating risks of importation and local transmission of Zika virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyeongah Nah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. An international spread of Zika virus (ZIKV infection has attracted global attention. ZIKV is conveyed by a mosquito vector, Aedes species, which also acts as the vector species of dengue and chikungunya viruses. Methods. Arrival time of ZIKV importation (i.e., the time at which the first imported case was diagnosed in each imported country was collected from publicly available data sources. Employing a survival analysis model in which the hazard is an inverse function of the effective distance as informed by the airline transportation network data, and using dengue and chikungunya virus transmission data, risks of importation and local transmission were estimated. Results. A total of 78 countries with imported case(s have been identified, with the arrival time ranging from 1 to 44 weeks since the first ZIKV was identified in Brazil, 2015. Whereas the risk of importation was well explained by the airline transportation network data, the risk of local transmission appeared to be best captured by additionally accounting for the presence of dengue and chikungunya viruses. Discussion. The risk of importation may be high given continued global travel of mildly infected travelers but, considering that the public health concerns over ZIKV infection stems from microcephaly, it is more important to focus on the risk of local and widespread transmission that could involve pregnant women. The predicted risk of local transmission was frequently seen in tropical and subtropical countries with dengue or chikungunya epidemic experience.

  15. Estimating risks of importation and local transmission of Zika virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nah, Kyeongah; Mizumoto, Kenji; Miyamatsu, Yuichiro; Yasuda, Yohei; Kinoshita, Ryo; Nishiura, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Background. An international spread of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has attracted global attention. ZIKV is conveyed by a mosquito vector, Aedes species, which also acts as the vector species of dengue and chikungunya viruses. Methods. Arrival time of ZIKV importation (i.e., the time at which the first imported case was diagnosed) in each imported country was collected from publicly available data sources. Employing a survival analysis model in which the hazard is an inverse function of the effective distance as informed by the airline transportation network data, and using dengue and chikungunya virus transmission data, risks of importation and local transmission were estimated. Results. A total of 78 countries with imported case(s) have been identified, with the arrival time ranging from 1 to 44 weeks since the first ZIKV was identified in Brazil, 2015. Whereas the risk of importation was well explained by the airline transportation network data, the risk of local transmission appeared to be best captured by additionally accounting for the presence of dengue and chikungunya viruses. Discussion. The risk of importation may be high given continued global travel of mildly infected travelers but, considering that the public health concerns over ZIKV infection stems from microcephaly, it is more important to focus on the risk of local and widespread transmission that could involve pregnant women. The predicted risk of local transmission was frequently seen in tropical and subtropical countries with dengue or chikungunya epidemic experience.

  16. Localization and force analysis at the single virus particle level using atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chih-Hao [Institute of Applied Mechanics, Nation Taiwan University, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Horng, Jim-Tong [Department of Biochemistry, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa First Road, Kweishan, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China); Chang, Jeng-Shian [Institute of Applied Mechanics, Nation Taiwan University, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Chung-Fan [Graduate Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Chang Gung University, Kweishan, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China); Tseng, You-Chen [Institute of Applied Mechanics, Nation Taiwan University, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Lin, Shiming, E-mail: til@ntu.edu.tw [Institute of Applied Mechanics, Nation Taiwan University, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Center for Optoelectronic Biomedicine, College of Medicine, Nation Taiwan University, 1-1 Jen-Ai Road, Taipei 10051, Taiwan (China)

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Localization of single virus particle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Force measurements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Force mapping. -- Abstract: Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a vital instrument in nanobiotechnology. In this study, we developed a method that enables AFM to simultaneously measure specific unbinding force and map the viral glycoprotein at the single virus particle level. The average diameter of virus particles from AFM images and the specificity between the viral surface antigen and antibody probe were integrated to design a three-stage method that sets the measuring area to a single virus particle before obtaining the force measurements, where the influenza virus was used as the object of measurements. Based on the purposed method and performed analysis, several findings can be derived from the results. The mean unbinding force of a single virus particle can be quantified, and no significant difference exists in this value among virus particles. Furthermore, the repeatability of the proposed method is demonstrated. The force mapping images reveal that the distributions of surface viral antigens recognized by antibody probe were dispersed on the whole surface of individual virus particles under the proposed method and experimental criteria; meanwhile, the binding probabilities are similar among particles. This approach can be easily applied to most AFM systems without specific components or configurations. These results help understand the force-based analysis at the single virus particle level, and therefore, can reinforce the capability of AFM to investigate a specific type of viral surface protein and its distributions.

  17. Local Transmission of Zika Virus--Puerto Rico, November 23, 2015-January 28, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Dana L; Sharp, Tyler M; Torres, Jomil; Armstrong, Paige A; Munoz-Jordan, Jorge; Ryff, Kyle R; Martinez-Quiñones, Alma; Arias-Berríos, José; Mayshack, Marrielle; Garayalde, Glenn J; Saavedra, Sonia; Luciano, Carlos A; Valencia-Prado, Miguel; Waterman, Steve; Rivera-García, Brenda

    2016-02-19

    Zika virus, a mosquito-borne flavivirus, spread to the Region of the Americas (Americas) in mid-2015, and appears to be related to congenital microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome (1,2). On February 1, 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the occurrence of microcephaly cases in association with Zika virus infection to be a Public Health Emergency of International Concern.* On December 31, 2015, Puerto Rico Department of Health (PRDH) reported the first locally acquired (index) case of Zika virus disease in a jurisdiction of the United States in a patient from southeastern Puerto Rico. During November 23, 2015-January 28, 2016, passive and enhanced surveillance for Zika virus disease identified 30 laboratory-confirmed cases. Most (93%) patients resided in eastern Puerto Rico or the San Juan metropolitan area. The most frequently reported signs and symptoms were rash (77%), myalgia (77%), arthralgia (73%), and fever (73%). Three (10%) patients were hospitalized. One case occurred in a patient hospitalized for Guillain-Barré syndrome, and one occurred in a pregnant woman. Because the most common mosquito vector of Zika virus, Aedes aegypti, is present throughout Puerto Rico, Zika virus is expected to continue to spread across the island. The public health response in Puerto Rico is being coordinated by PRDH with assistance from CDC. Clinicians in Puerto Rico should report all cases of microcephaly, Guillain-Barré syndrome, and suspected Zika virus disease to PRDH. Other adverse reproductive outcomes, including fetal demise associated with Zika virus infection, should be reported to PRDH. To avoid infection with Zika virus, residents of and visitors to Puerto Rico, particularly pregnant women, should strictly follow steps to avoid mosquito bites, including wearing pants and long-sleeved shirts, using permethrin-treated clothing and gear, using an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-registered insect repellent, and ensuring that windows and doors

  18. The R35 residue of the influenza A virus NS1 protein has minimal effects on nuclear localization but alters virus replication through disrupting protein dimerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalime, Erin N.; Pekosz, Andrew, E-mail: apekosz@jhsph.edu

    2014-06-15

    The influenza A virus NS1 protein has a nuclear localization sequence (NLS) in the amino terminal region. This NLS overlaps sequences that are important for RNA binding as well as protein dimerization. To assess the significance of the NS1 NLS on influenza virus replication, the NLS amino acids were individually mutated to alanines and recombinant viruses encoding these mutations were rescued. Viruses containing NS1 proteins with mutations at R37, R38 and K41 displayed minimal changes in replication or NS1 protein nuclear localization. Recombinant viruses encoding NS1 R35A were not recovered but viruses containing second site mutations at position D39 in addition to the R35A mutation were isolated. The mutations at position 39 were shown to partially restore NS1 protein dimerization but had minimal effects on nuclear localization. These data indicate that the amino acids in the NS1 NLS region play a more important role in protein dimerization compared to nuclear localization. - Highlights: • Mutations were introduced into influenza NS1 NLS1. • NS1 R37A, R38A, K41A viruses had minimal changes in replication and NS1 localization. • Viruses from NS1 R35A rescue all contained additional mutations at D39. • NS1 R35A D39X mutations recover dimerization lost in NS1 R35A mutations. • These results reaffirm the importance of dimerization for NS1 protein function.

  19. Tissue localization, shedding, virus carriage, antibody response, and aerosol transmission of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) following inoculation of 4 week-old feeder pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) emerged in the U.S. in April 2013 and caused significant losses to the swine industry. The purpose of this investigation was to determine tissue localization, shedding patterns, virus carriage, antibody response, and aerosol transmission of PEDV following inocu...

  20. Local Nordic tobacco interests collaborated with multinational companies to maintain a united front and undermine tobacco control policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiilamo, Heikki; Glantz, Stanton A

    2013-03-01

    To analyse how local tobacco companies in the Nordic countries, individually and through National Manufacturers' Associations, cooperated with British American Tobacco and Philip Morris in denying the health hazards of smoking and undermining tobacco control. Analysis of tobacco control policies in the Nordic countries and tobacco industry documents. Nordic countries were early adopters of tobacco control policies. The multinational tobacco companies recognised this fact and mobilised to oppose these policies, in part because of fear that they would set unfavourable precedents. Since at least 1972, the Nordic tobacco companies were well informed about and willing to participate in the multinational companies activities to obscure the health dangers of smoking and secondhand smoke and to oppose tobacco control policies. Cooperation between multinational companies, Nordic national manufacturer associations and local companies ensured a united front on smoking and health issues in the Nordic area that was consistent with the positions that the multinational companies were taking. This cooperation delayed smoke-free laws and undermined other tobacco control measures. Local tobacco companies worked with multinational companies to undermine tobacco control in distant and small Nordic markets because of concern that pioneering policies initiated in Nordic countries would spread to bigger market areas. Claims by the local Nordic companies that they were not actively involved with the multinationals are not supported by the facts. These results also demonstrate that the industry appreciates the global importance of both positive and negative public health precedents in tobacco control.

  1. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) genome stability maintained over six passages through three different penaeid shrimp species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindhupriya, M; Saravanan, P; Otta, S K; Amarnath, C Bala; Arulraj, R; Bhuvaneswari, T; Praveena, P Ezhil; Jithendran, K P; Ponniah, A G

    2014-08-21

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) replicates rapidly, can be extremely pathogenic and is a common cause of mass mortality in cultured shrimp. Variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) sequences present in the open reading frame (ORF)94, ORF125 and ORF75 regions of the WSSV genome have been used widely as genetic markers in epidemiological studies. However, reports that VNTRs might evolve rapidly following even a single transmission through penaeid shrimp or other crustacean hosts have created confusion as to how VNTR data is interpreted. To examine VNTR stability again, 2 WSSV strains (PmTN4RU and LvAP11RU) with differing ORF94 tandem repeat numbers and slight differences in apparent virulence were passaged sequentially 6 times through black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon, Indian white shrimp Feneropenaeus indicus or Pacific white leg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. PCR analyses to genotype the ORF94, ORF125 and ORF75 VNTRs did not identify any differences from either of the 2 parental WSSV strains after multiple passages through any of the shrimp species. These data were confirmed by sequence analysis and indicate that the stability of the genome regions containing these VNTRs is quite high at least for the WSSV strains, hosts and number of passages examined and that the VNTR sequences thus represent useful genetic markers for studying WSSV epidemiology.

  2. Neutralizing Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) Induces β-Cell Survival by Maintaining PDX1 Protein Nuclear Localization*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardestani, Amin; Sauter, Nadine S.; Paroni, Federico; Dharmadhikari, Gitanjali; Cho, Jae-Hyoung; Lupi, Roberto; Marchetti, Piero; Oberholzer, José; Conte, Julie Kerr; Maedler, Kathrin

    2011-01-01

    The transcription factor PDX1 plays a critical role during β-cell development and in glucose-induced insulin gene transcription in adult β-cells. Acute glucose exposure leads to translocalization of PDX1 to the nucleoplasm, whereas under conditions of oxidative stress, PDX1 shuttles from the nucleus to the cytosol. Here we show that cytosolic PDX1 expression correlated with β-cell failure in diabetes. In isolated islets from patients with type 2 diabetes and from diabetic mice, we found opposite regulation of insulin and PDX1 mRNA; insulin was decreased in diabetes, but PDX1 was increased. This suggests that elevated PDX1 mRNA levels may be insufficient to regulate insulin. In diabetic islets, PDX1 protein was localized in the cytosol, whereas in non-diabetic controls, PDX1 was in the nucleus. In contrast, overexpression of either IL-1 receptor antagonist or shuttling-deficient PDX1 restored β-cell survival and function and PDX1 nuclear localization. Our results show that nuclear localization of PDX1 is essential for a functional β-cell and provides a novel mechanism of the protective effect of IL-1 receptor antagonist on β-cell survival and function. PMID:21393239

  3. Characterization of a nuclear localization signal in the foot-and-mouth disease virus polymerase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Aparicio, Maria Teresa; Rosas, Maria Flora [Centro de Biología Molecular, “Severo Ochoa” (CSIC-UAM), Cantoblanco 28049, Madrid (Spain); Sobrino, Francisco, E-mail: fsobrino@cbm.uam.es [Centro de Biología Molecular, “Severo Ochoa” (CSIC-UAM), Cantoblanco 28049, Madrid (Spain); Centro de Investigación en Sanidad Animal, INIA, Valdeolmos, 28130 Madrid (Spain)

    2013-09-15

    We have experimentally tested whether the MRKTKLAPT sequence in FMDV 3D protein (residues 16 to 24) can act as a nuclear localization signal (NLS). Mutants with substitutions in two basic residues within this sequence, K18E and K20E, were generated. A decreased nuclear localization was observed in transiently expressed 3D and its precursor 3CD, suggesting a role of K18 and K20 in nuclear targeting. Fusion of MRKTKLAPT to the green fluorescence protein (GFP) increased the nuclear localization of GFP, which was not observed when GFP was fused to the 3D mutated sequences. These results indicate that the sequence MRKTKLAPT can be functionally considered as a NLS. When introduced in a FMDV full length RNA replacements K18E and K20E led to production of revertant viruses that replaced the acidic residues introduced (E) by K, suggesting that the presence of lysins at positions 18 and 20 of 3D is essential for virus multiplication. - Highlights: • The FMDV 3D polymerase contains a nuclear localization signal. • Replacements K18E and K20E decrease nuclear localization of 3D and its precursor 3CD. • Fusion of the MRKTKLAPT 3D motif to GFP increases the nuclear localization of GFP. • Replacements K18E and K20E abolish the ability of MRKTKLAPT to relocate GFP. • RNAs harboring replacements K18E and K20E lead to recovery of revertant FMDVs.

  4. Nasty viruses, costly plasmids, population dynamics, and the conditions for establishing and maintaining CRISPR-mediated adaptive immunity in bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce R Levin

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Clustered, Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR abound in the genomes of almost all archaebacteria and nearly half the eubacteria sequenced. Through a genetic interference mechanism, bacteria with CRISPR regions carrying copies of the DNA of previously encountered phage and plasmids abort the replication of phage and plasmids with these sequences. Thus it would seem that protection against infecting phage and plasmids is the selection pressure responsible for establishing and maintaining CRISPR in bacterial populations. But is it? To address this question and provide a framework and hypotheses for the experimental study of the ecology and evolution of CRISPR, I use mathematical models of the population dynamics of CRISPR-encoding bacteria with lytic phage and conjugative plasmids. The results of the numerical (computer simulation analysis of the properties of these models with parameters in the ranges estimated for Escherichia coli and its phage and conjugative plasmids indicate: (1 In the presence of lytic phage there are broad conditions where bacteria with CRISPR-mediated immunity will have an advantage in competition with non-CRISPR bacteria with otherwise higher Malthusian fitness. (2 These conditions for the existence of CRISPR are narrower when there is envelope resistance to the phage. (3 While there are situations where CRISPR-mediated immunity can provide bacteria an advantage in competition with higher Malthusian fitness bacteria bearing deleterious conjugative plasmids, the conditions for this to obtain are relatively narrow and the intensity of selection favoring CRISPR weak. The parameters of these models can be independently estimated, the assumption behind their construction validated, and the hypotheses generated from the analysis of their properties tested in experimental populations of bacteria with lytic phage and conjugative plasmids. I suggest protocols for estimating these parameters and outline the

  5. Locally adapted fish populations maintain small-scale genetic differentiation despite perturbation by a catastrophic flood event

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Local adaptation to divergent environmental conditions can promote population genetic differentiation even in the absence of geographic barriers and hence, lead to speciation. Perturbations by catastrophic events, however, can distort such parapatric ecological speciation processes. Here, we asked whether an exceptionally strong flood led to homogenization of gene pools among locally adapted populations of the Atlantic molly (Poecilia mexicana, Poeciliidae) in the Cueva del Azufre system in southern Mexico, where two strong environmental selection factors (darkness within caves and/or presence of toxic H2S in sulfidic springs) drive the diversification of P. mexicana. Nine nuclear microsatellites as well as heritable female life history traits (both as a proxy for quantitative genetics and for trait divergence) were used as markers to compare genetic differentiation, genetic diversity, and especially population mixing (immigration and emigration) before and after the flood. Results Habitat type (i.e., non-sulfidic surface, sulfidic surface, or sulfidic cave), but not geographic distance was the major predictor of genetic differentiation. Before and after the flood, each habitat type harbored a genetically distinct population. Only a weak signal of individual dislocation among ecologically divergent habitat types was uncovered (with the exception of slightly increased dislocation from the Cueva del Azufre into the sulfidic creek, El Azufre). By contrast, several lines of evidence are indicative of increased flood-induced dislocation within the same habitat type, e.g., between different cave chambers of the Cueva del Azufre. Conclusions The virtual absence of individual dislocation among ecologically different habitat types indicates strong natural selection against migrants. Thus, our current study exemplifies that ecological speciation in this and other systems, in which extreme environmental factors drive speciation, may be little affected by temporary

  6. Local resource based approach to maintaining and preserving rural local access roads assets: Siyatentela institutional framework and governance case study discourses

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chakwizira, J

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available certain surface tolerances, and compacting material (World Bank, 2006). Local Resource Based Approaches & Institutional Responses Since the mid 80s, many developing countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America have begun implementing important road... by globalization, the growth of urbanization and the democratization processes that emerged post the 1970s era (World Bank, 2006). In Africa, Asia and Latin America, decentralization is considered as a key element in order 4th SARF / IRF Regional Conference...

  7. Field Investigation on the Prevalence of Avian Influenza Virus Infection in Some Localities in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah N. Alkhalaf

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to find out prevalence and types of avian influenza virus (AIV among broilers, native chickens, ducks and pigeons in Saudi Arabia. Field investigation was carried out in four localities including Al-Qassim, Hail, Al-Jouf and Northern Border regions. Serum sample, tracheal and cloacal swabs were collected from broilers (n=1561, layers (n=988, ducks (n=329 and pigeons (n=450 from these localities and tested for three different avian influenza viruses (H9, H5 and H3 using Enzyme linked immunosorbent (ELISA test, hamagglutination inhibition (HI test and polymerase chain reaction (PCR. All tested samples were negative for H5 and H3 viruses. In contrast, all positive results were found to be for H9 AI virus using PCR, ELISA and HI test. Chicken sera tested by ELISA for AIV revealed the highest positive samples in Northern Border regions (45.71%, followed by Al-Jouf (29.65%, Al-Qassim (23.98% and Hial (20.94% with non-significant difference (χ2=5.983; P=0.112. HI test carried out on duck sera revealed 35.90% prevalence of antibodies against AIV. PCR amplification resulted in 34.28 and 21.36% positive samples in ducks and chickens, respectively. The highest (45.71% PCR positive chicken samples were from Northern Border regions, followed by Al-Jouf (24.13%, Al-Qassim (19.30% and Hail (16.69% with significant difference (χ2=7.620; P=0.055. All tested pigeons samples were negative for the three virus serotypes included in the study.

  8. Virus interference on local scale viticulture: the case of Moll variety from Majorca (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Cretazzo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In Europe, many autochthonous grapevines (Vitis vinifera L. are only cultivated at local scale, but play a very important economic role due to their strict relation with terroir and wine tipicity. In this study, it was pursued to evaluate the influence of several factors on performance of Moll, the main autochthonous white variety of Majorca, by means of the database coming from a clonal preselection. The effects of multiple virus infections, vintage and vineyard components were studied by univariate linear models and principal component analysis, starting from measurement of production and must quality parameters of several vines located in 14 vineyards belonging to two appellations during four consecutive years (2001-2004. Absence of multiple virus infections, double cordon system, high clay content and Useful Water Reserve in soils have enhanced vine production without inducing considerable alterations in sugar accumulation in berries and acidity. Moll variety presented great viticultural and oenological potentials. Fertile and deep soils should be preferred in order to maximize production. Also, the use of certified propagation material is strongly recommended. However, further investigations are required to optimize must quality by opportune managements. This study does not provide only essential information to improve Moll cultivation in Majorca, but it also represents a useful example to analyze grapevine varieties that are endemically infected by viruses. In fact, in such situations, it may be supposed an insidious interference by viruses on terroir and wine tipicity.

  9. Increase in volume of dental local anaesthetic solution while maintaining the tissue lidocaine and adrenaline concentration does not increase acute postoperative pain after gingivectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanvold, K I; Vigen, E C; Jorkjend, L; Aass, A M; Skoglund, L A

    2008-04-01

    A randomised, single-blind, within-patient, crossover study was done in 45 patients (29 women and 16 men, mean age 49 years, range 37-71) who had bilateral "identical" gingivectomies. On one occasion a standard volume of local anaesthetic containing 2% lidocaine and 1/80,000 adrenaline was infiltrated into the mucosal tissue before operation. On the other, double the standard volume with 1% lidocaine and 1/160,000 adrenaline was infiltrated. The intensity of postoperative pain was recorded by the patients on a 100 mm visual analogue scale every hour for an 11-hour observation period. The time courses and the sum of pain intensity after injection of the double and standard volumes did not differ significantly. Doubling the volume of local anaesthetic while maintaining the total lidocaine and adrenaline concentration that was infiltrated does not influence the intensity of acute pain after gingivectomy.

  10. Subcellular localization and rearrangement of endoplasmic reticulum by Brome mosaic virus capsid protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamunusinghe, Devinka; Seo, Jang-Kyun; Rao, A L N

    2011-03-01

    Genome packaging in the plant-infecting Brome mosaic virus (BMV), a member of the alphavirus-like superfamily, as well as in other positive-strand RNA viruses pathogenic to humans (e.g., poliovirus) and animals (e.g., Flock House virus), is functionally coupled to replication. Although the subcellular localization site of BMV replication has been identified, that of the capsid protein (CP) has remained elusive. In this study, the application of immunofluorescence confocal microscopy to Nicotiana benthamiana leaves expressing replication-derived BMV CP as a green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion, in conjunction with antibodies to the CP and double-stranded RNA, a presumed marker of RNA replication, revealed that the subcellular localization sites of replication and CP overlap. Our temporal analysis by transmission electron microscopy of ultrastructural modifications induced in BMV-infected N. benthamiana leaves revealed a reticulovesicular network of modified endoplasmic reticulum (ER) incorporating large assemblies of vesicles derived from ER accumulated in the cytoplasm during BMV infection. Additionally, for the first time, we have found by ectopic expression experiments that BMV CP itself has the intrinsic property of modifying ER to induce vesicles similar to those present in BMV infections. The significance of CP-induced vesicles in relation to CP-organized viral functions that are linked to replication-coupled packaging is discussed.

  11. Characterization of nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and intracellular localization signals in Duck Enteritis Virus UL54.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chaoyue; Cheng, Anchun; Wang, Mingshu; Chen, Shun; Jia, Renyong; Zhu, Dekang; Liu, Mafeng; Sun, Kunfeng; Yang, Qiao; Chen, Xiaoyue

    2016-08-01

    Duck Enteritis virus (DEV) UL54 is a homolog of herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) trafficking protein ICP27, which plays an essential role in infection. In this study, DEV UL54 shuttling between the nucleus and cytoplasm was verified with a heterokaryon assay. One predicted nuclear export sequence (NES) (339-348 aa) was shown to be functional and chromosomal region maintenance 1 (CRM1)-dependent; however, the insensitivity of UL54 to Leptomycin B (LMB) and NES mutation suggests that other mechanisms are responsible for the observed nuclear export. Next, three non-classical nuclear localization sequences (NLSs), referred to as NLS1 (105-122 aa), NLS2 (169-192 aa) and NLS3 (257-274 aa), were identified. Furthermore, a recombinant DEV with the UL54 NLSs deleted (DEV- UL54 mNLSs) was constructed and showed that UL54 NLSs moderately affected DEV growth.

  12. Nuclear localization of Sindbis virus nonstructural protein nsP2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGXIAOZHONG; MINGXIAODING

    1993-01-01

    In early infection, approximately 10% of nonstructural protein nsP2 of Sindbis virus was transported into the nuclei of virus-infected BHK-21 cells. Nuclear asP2 was dominantly associated with nuclear matrix. During the course of infection, increasing amounts of nsP2 accumulated in the nuclear fraction. A prominent accumulation of nuclear nsP2 occurred early in infection, from 1 h to 3 h postinfection. Meanwhile. a weak NTPase activity was found to be associated with the immunocomplexed nsP2. Nuclear localization of nsP2 and its possible role were diseussed in relation to the inhibition of host macromolecular synthesis.

  13. Culex quinquefasciatus from Rio de Janeiro Is Not Competent to Transmit the Local Zika Virus.

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    Rosilainy Surubi Fernandes

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Americas have suffered a dramatic epidemic of Zika since May in 2015, when Zika virus (ZIKV was first detected in Brazil. Mosquitoes belonging to subgenus Stegomyia of Aedes, particularly Aedes aegypti, are considered the primary vectors of ZIKV. However, the rapid spread of the virus across the continent raised several concerns about the transmission dynamics, especially about potential mosquito vectors. The purpose of this work was to assess the vector competence of the house mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus from an epidemic Zika area, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, for local circulating ZIKV isolates.Culex quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti (positive control of ZIKV infection from Rio de Janeiro were orally exposed to two ZIKV strains isolated from human cases from Rio de Janeiro (Rio-U1 and Rio-S1. Fully engorged mosquitoes were held in incubators at 26 ± 1°C, 12 h:12 h light:dark cycle and 70 ± 10% humidity. For each combination mosquito population-ZIKV strain, 30 specimens were examined for infection, dissemination and transmission rates, at 7, 14 and 21 days after virus exposure by analyzing body (thorax plus abdomen, head and saliva respectively. Infection rates were minimal to completely absent in all Cx. quinquefasciatus-virus combinations and were significantly high for Ae. aegypti. Moreover, dissemination and transmission were not detected in any Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes whatever the incubation period and the ZIKV isolate. In contrast, Ae. aegypti ensured high viral dissemination and moderate to very high transmission.The southern house mosquito Cx. quinquefasciatus from Rio de Janeiro was not competent to transmit local strains of ZIKV. Thus, there is no experimental evidence that Cx. quinquefasciatus likely plays a role in the ZIKV transmission. Consequently, at least in Rio, mosquito control to reduce ZIKV transmission should remain focused on Ae. aegypti.

  14. Culex quinquefasciatus from Rio de Janeiro Is Not Competent to Transmit the Local Zika Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira-de-Brito, Anielly; de Miranda, Rafaella Moraes; Barbosa da Silva, Keli Antunes; de Castro, Marcia Gonçalves; Raphael, Lidiane M. S.; Failloux, Anna-Bella; Bonaldo, Myrna C.; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Background The Americas have suffered a dramatic epidemic of Zika since May in 2015, when Zika virus (ZIKV) was first detected in Brazil. Mosquitoes belonging to subgenus Stegomyia of Aedes, particularly Aedes aegypti, are considered the primary vectors of ZIKV. However, the rapid spread of the virus across the continent raised several concerns about the transmission dynamics, especially about potential mosquito vectors. The purpose of this work was to assess the vector competence of the house mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus from an epidemic Zika area, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, for local circulating ZIKV isolates. Methodology/Principal Findings Culex quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti (positive control of ZIKV infection) from Rio de Janeiro were orally exposed to two ZIKV strains isolated from human cases from Rio de Janeiro (Rio-U1 and Rio-S1). Fully engorged mosquitoes were held in incubators at 26 ± 1°C, 12 h:12 h light:dark cycle and 70 ± 10% humidity. For each combination mosquito population—ZIKV strain, 30 specimens were examined for infection, dissemination and transmission rates, at 7, 14 and 21 days after virus exposure by analyzing body (thorax plus abdomen), head and saliva respectively. Infection rates were minimal to completely absent in all Cx. quinquefasciatus-virus combinations and were significantly high for Ae. aegypti. Moreover, dissemination and transmission were not detected in any Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes whatever the incubation period and the ZIKV isolate. In contrast, Ae. aegypti ensured high viral dissemination and moderate to very high transmission. Conclusions/Significance The southern house mosquito Cx. quinquefasciatus from Rio de Janeiro was not competent to transmit local strains of ZIKV. Thus, there is no experimental evidence that Cx. quinquefasciatus likely plays a role in the ZIKV transmission. Consequently, at least in Rio, mosquito control to reduce ZIKV transmission should remain focused on Ae. aegypti. PMID

  15. Complete genome sequence of a J subgroup avian leukosis virus isolated from local commercial broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongxin; Xue, Chunyi; Ji, Jun; Chang, Shuang; Shang, Huiqin; Zhang, Lingjun; Ma, Jingyun; Bi, Yingzuo; Xie, Qingmei

    2012-11-01

    Subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) isolate GDKP1202 was isolated from a 50-day-old local yellow commercial broiler in the Guangdong province of China in 2012. Here we report the complete genomic sequence of the GDKP1202 isolate, which caused high mortality, serious growth suppression, thymic atrophy, and liver enlargement in commercial broilers. A novel potential binding site (5'-GGCACCTCC-3') for c-myb was identified in the GDKP1202 genome. These findings will provide additional insights into the molecular characteristics in the genomes and pathogenicity of ALV-J.

  16. Correction: Forrester, N.L.; Coffey, L.L.; Weaver, S.C. Arboviral Bottlenecks and Challenges to Maintaining Diversity and Fitness during Mosquito Transmission. Viruses 2014, 6, 3991–4004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi L. Forrester

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the original manuscript, Forrester, N.L.; Coffey, L.L.; Weaver, S.C. Arboviral Bottlenecks and Challenges to Maintaining Diversity and Fitness during Mosquito Transmission. Viruses 2014, 6, 3991–4004, Figure 1 contains an error, the third bottle was absent from the figure:[...

  17. Inactive vaccine derived from velogenic strain of local Newcastle disease virus .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darminto

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to evaluate an application of an inactive Newcastle disease (ND vaccine derived from velogenic strain of local Newcastle disease virus (NDV. In this research . the Ira strain of velogenic ND virus was grown in specific pathogen free (SPF eggs and then was inactivated by formalin at a final concentration of 1 :1,000 at 4°C. The inactive antigen was then emulsified with an oil adjuvant or aluminium hydroxide gel before being administered for vaccination in layers and compared to a commercial inactive ND vaccine . Results indicated that application of these inactivated ND vaccines for booster vaccination following vaccination with an active lentogenic ND virus in pullets nearly producing eggs, resulted in high antibody titre which persisted for considerable long period of time and capable of protecting layers from sick of ND and from reducing egg production . Hence, it could be concluded that the inactivated vaccine emulsified in either oil-adjuvant (lanolin-paraffin or aluminium hydroxide gel were considered to be highly immunogenic and capable of protecting layers from sick of ND and from reducing egg production

  18. Evidence of local adaptation in plant virus effects on host-vector interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauck, K E; De Moraes, C M; Mescher, M C

    2014-07-01

    host and apparently maladaptive with respect to virus transmission (e.g., host plant quality for aphids was significantly improved in this instance, and aphid dispersal was reduced). Taken together, these findings provide evidence of adaption by CMV to local hosts (including reduced infectivity and replication in novel versus native hosts) and further suggest that such adaptation may extend to effects on host-plant traits mediating interactions with aphid vectors. Thus, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that virus effects on host-vector interactions can be adaptive, and they suggest that multi-host pathogens may exhibit adaptation with respect to these and other effects on host phenotypes, perhaps especially in homogeneous monocultures.

  19. Maintaining Productivity of Rural Area in Indonesia: A Perspective of Total Customers Involvement from Design to Maintenance of a Local Wind Pump (LWP) Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudiantoro, Beny; Taufik, Ahmad

    2007-10-01

    A sustainable study development on a local wind pump (LWP) has been indicated as one of solutions for maintaining stable productivity of marginal societies (traditional farmers, peasant and tribes) in facing multi crisis happened in Indonesia. Moreover, the study is designed to assess the LWP by accommodating a total participation of the societies as targeted customers. The participation was formulated from design to maintenance stages of the LWP. The approaches of implementation a QFD method, a field survey and life skill training have been fitted to the formulation. In this article, significant achievements resulted by the approaches are reported. The QFD was adopted to classify all of the parameters, constraints and boundaries which were obtained by questionnaire to the customers. All of the parameters were plotted in to a house of quality matrix (HOQ) which contributed to manufacture criteria and as well as maintenance criteria. The field study was accomplished in order to assess an availability value of the LWP components. The life skill training was conducted to equip manufacturing skill to the customers. Throughout the study, it was observed that the LWP was manufactured by accommodating 90% of a local materials and local components available in district markets of Lampung province Indonesia. Throughout the survey, critical parameters for a sustainable development of the LWP have been defined, namely government protection, capital investment for supplying component and maintenance networking for supporting the LWP performance. The life skill training given to the customers affected to incremental value of reliability in terms of maintenance skill. As a result, the LWP was indicated as a local competitive product of renewable energy (RE) to the society.

  20. Basic amino acid mutations in the nuclear localization signal of hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus p23 inhibit virus long distance movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ruimin; Wong, Sek-Man

    2013-01-01

    The p23 is a unique protein in the Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus which belongs to Family Tombusviridae Genus Carmovirus. Our previous results showed that the p23 is indispensable for host-specific replication and is localized in the nucleus with a novel nuclear localization signal. To investigate additional function(s) of p23, mutations of basic amino acids lysine (K), arginine (R) and histidine (H) that abolish its nuclear localization, were introduced into a biologically active full-length cDNA clone p223 of HCRSV for testing its effects on virus replication and virus movement in vivo. Primer-specific reverse transcription-PCR was conducted to detect gene transcript level of p23 and viral coat protein separately. Virus replication and its coat protein expression were detected by fluorescent in situ hybridization and Western blot, respectively. The effect of p23 was further confirmed by using artificial microRNA inoculation-mediated silencing. Results showed that the two mutants were able to replicate in protoplasts but unable to move from inoculated leaves to newly emerged leaves. Both the p23 and the CP genes of HCRSV were detected in the newly emerged leaves of infected plants but CP was not detected by Western blot and no symptom was observed on those leaves at 19 days post inoculation. This study demonstrates that when p23 is prevented from entering the nucleus, it results in restriction of virus long distance movement which in turn abrogates symptom expression in the newly emerged leaves. We conclude that the p23 protein of HCRSV is required for virus long distance movement.

  1. Basic amino acid mutations in the nuclear localization signal of hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus p23 inhibit virus long distance movement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruimin Gao

    Full Text Available The p23 is a unique protein in the Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus which belongs to Family Tombusviridae Genus Carmovirus. Our previous results showed that the p23 is indispensable for host-specific replication and is localized in the nucleus with a novel nuclear localization signal. To investigate additional function(s of p23, mutations of basic amino acids lysine (K, arginine (R and histidine (H that abolish its nuclear localization, were introduced into a biologically active full-length cDNA clone p223 of HCRSV for testing its effects on virus replication and virus movement in vivo. Primer-specific reverse transcription-PCR was conducted to detect gene transcript level of p23 and viral coat protein separately. Virus replication and its coat protein expression were detected by fluorescent in situ hybridization and Western blot, respectively. The effect of p23 was further confirmed by using artificial microRNA inoculation-mediated silencing. Results showed that the two mutants were able to replicate in protoplasts but unable to move from inoculated leaves to newly emerged leaves. Both the p23 and the CP genes of HCRSV were detected in the newly emerged leaves of infected plants but CP was not detected by Western blot and no symptom was observed on those leaves at 19 days post inoculation. This study demonstrates that when p23 is prevented from entering the nucleus, it results in restriction of virus long distance movement which in turn abrogates symptom expression in the newly emerged leaves. We conclude that the p23 protein of HCRSV is required for virus long distance movement.

  2. El Niño-Southern Oscillation, local weather and occurrences of dengue virus serotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaodong; Clements, Archie C. A.; Williams, Gail; Devine, Gregor; Tong, Shilu; Hu, Wenbiao

    2015-11-01

    Severe dengue fever is usually associated with secondary infection by a dengue virus (DENV) serotype (1 to 4) that is different to the serotype of the primary infection. Dengue outbreaks only occur following importations of DENV in Cairns, Australia. However, the majority of imported cases do not result in autochthonous transmission in Cairns. Although DENV transmission is strongly associated with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) climate cycle and local weather conditions, the frequency and potential risk factors of infections with the different DENV serotypes, including whether or not they differ, is unknown. This study used a classification tree model to identify the hierarchical interactions between Southern Oscillation Index (SOI), local weather factors, the presence of imported serotypes and the occurrence of the four autochthonous DENV serotypes from January 2000-December 2009 in Cairns. We found that the 12-week moving average of SOI and the 2-week moving average of maximum temperature were the most important factors influencing the variation in the weekly occurrence of the four DENV serotypes, the likelihoods of the occurrence of the four DENV serotypes may be unequal under the same environmental conditions, and occurrence may be influenced by changes in global and local environmental conditions in Cairns.

  3. [GnRH analogues containing SV-40 virus T-antigen nuclear localization sequence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burov, S V; Iablokova, T V; Dorosh, M Iu; Kriviziuk, E V; Efremov, A M; Orlov, S V

    2010-01-01

    To improve the efficiency of anticancer drugs due to their delivery to intracellular targets a set of GnRH analogues containing nuclear localization signal (NLS) of SV-40 virus large T-antigen have been synthesized. NLS was attached to the parent molecule via ε-amino group of D-Lysine in position 1 or 6 of peptide sequence using orthogonal protection strategy. The biological activity studies revealed that incorporation of NLS moiety significantly increases cytotoxic activity of palmitoyl-containing GnRH analogues in vitro. The influence of tested peptides on tumor cells does not accompanied by the destruction of cell membrane, as confirmed in experiments with normal fibroblasts, used as a control.

  4. Cellular phenotype impacts human immunodeficiency virus type 1 viral protein R subcellular localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrucci Adriano

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 viral protein R (Vpr is a virion-associated regulatory protein that functions at several points within the viral life cycle and has been shown to accumulate primarily in the nucleus and at the nuclear envelope. However, most studies have investigated Vpr localization employing cell types irrelevant to HIV-1 pathogenesis. To gain a better understanding of how cellular phenotype might impact HIV-1 Vpr intracellular localization, Vpr localization was examined in several cell lines representing major cellular targets for HIV-1 infection within the peripheral blood, bone marrow, and central nervous system (CNS. Results Utilizing a green fluorescent protein-tagged Vpr, we detected Vpr mainly in foci inside the nucleus, at the nuclear envelope, and around the nucleoli, with dispersed accumulation in the cytoplasm of human endothelial kidney 293T cells. No differences were observed in Vpr localization pattern with respect to either the location of the tag (N- or C-terminus or the presence of other viral proteins. Subsequently, the Vpr localization pattern was explored in two primary HIV-1 target cells within the peripheral blood: the CD4+ T lymphocyte (represented by the Jurkat CD4+ T-cell line and the monocyte-macrophage (represented by the U-937 cell line. Vpr was found primarily in speckles within the cytoplasm of the Jurkat T cells, whereas it accumulated predominantly intranuclearly in U-937 monocytic cells. These patterns differ from that observed in a bone marrow progenitor cell line (TF-1, wherein Vpr localized mainly at the nuclear envelope with some intranuclear punctuate staining. Within the CNS, we examined two astroglioma cell lines and found that Vpr displayed a perinuclear and cytoplasmic distribution. Conclusions The results suggest that the pattern of Vpr localization depends on cellular phenotype, probably owing to interactions between Vpr and cell type-specific host

  5. Characterization of the Localized Immune Response in the Respiratory Tract of Ferrets following Infection with Influenza A and B Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolan, Louise A.; Rockman, Steve; Borg, Kathryn; Guarnaccia, Teagan; Reading, Patrick; Mosse, Jennifer; Kelso, Anne; Barr, Ian

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The burden of infection with seasonal influenza viruses is significant. Each year is typically characterized by the dominance of one (sub)type or lineage of influenza A or B virus, respectively. The incidence of disease varies annually, and while this may be attributed to a particular virus strain or subtype, the impacts of prior immunity, population differences, and variations in clinical assessment are also important. To improve our understanding of the impacts of seasonal influenza viruses, we directly compared clinical symptoms, virus shedding, and expression of cytokines, chemokines, and immune mediators in the upper respiratory tract (URT) of ferrets infected with contemporary A(H1N1)pdm09, A(H3N2), or influenza B virus. Gene expression in the lower respiratory tract (LRT) was also assessed. Clinical symptoms were minimal. Overall cytokine/chemokine profiles in the URT were consistent in pattern and magnitude between animals infected with influenza A and B viruses, and peak expression levels of interleukin-1α (IL-1α), IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12p40, alpha interferon (IFN-α), IFN-β, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) mRNAs correlated with peak levels of viral shedding. MCP1 and IFN-γ were expressed after the virus peak. Granzymes A and B and IL-10 reached peak expression as the virus was cleared and seroconversion was detected. Cytokine/chemokine gene expression in the LRT following A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infection reflected the observations seen for the URT but was delayed 2 or 3 days, as was virus replication. These data indicate that disease severities and localized immune responses following infection with seasonal influenza A and B viruses are similar, suggesting that other factors are likely to modulate the incidence and impact of seasonal influenza. IMPORTANCE Both influenza A and B viruses cocirculate in the human population, and annual influenza seasons are typically dominated by an influenza A virus subtype or an influenza B virus lineage

  6. Detection of Influenza Virus with Specific Subtype by Using Localized Surface Plasmons Excited on a Flat Metal Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Jun; Nagata, Kotaro; Ainai, Akira; Hasegawa, Hideki; Kano, Hiroshi

    2013-08-01

    We report on a method to determine subtype of influenza viruses by using surface plasmons localized in microscopic region on a flat metal surface. In this method, refractive index variation arisen from interactions between viruses and their monoclonal antibodies is measured. The developed sensor shows stability of refractive index in the order of 10-4 against sample exchange. In our experiment, A/H1N1 viruses are distinguished from A/H3N2 viruses by using monoclonal antibodies immobilized on the metal surface. Since the measurement probe has the volume of ˜6 al, the method has potential to handle multiple subtypes in the measurement of a sample with ultra small volume.

  7. The C-Terminus of Epstein-Barr Virus BRRF2 Is Required for its Proper Localization and Efficient Virus Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takahiro; Sakaida, Keiya; Yoshida, Masahiro; Masud, H. M. Abdullah Al; Sato, Yoshitaka; Goshima, Fumi; Kimura, Hiroshi; Murata, Takayuki

    2017-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a human gammaherpesvirus associated with several malignancies. We reported previously that an EBV lytic gene product BRRF2 is involved in the maturation of progeny virus. To analyze the domain(s) needed for efficient production of progeny, we prepared a series of deletion mutants and found two functional domains in the N- and C-terminal regions by complementation assays. Immunofluorescence analyses revealed that BRRF2 lacking the C-terminal region demonstrated aberrant localization in both the nucleus and cytoplasm, whereas wild-type BRRF2 was localized predominantly in the cytoplasm. We also confirmed that wild-type BRRF2 co-localized with Rab5, an endosomal marker, at least partly. Additionally, serine 511 of BRRF2 was phosphorylated during lytic infection; however, a mutant in which the serine was substituted with alanine still augmented the yield as efficiently as did wild-type BRRF2. These results showed that the C-terminal region of BRRF2 is involved in the predominant localization of BRRF2 to the cytoplasm and in the efficient production of infectious virus.

  8. Sphingosine kinase 2 is a chikungunya virus host factor co-localized with the viral replication complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, St Patrick; Tritsch, Sarah R; Kota, Krishna; Chiang, Chih-Yuan; Dong, Lian; Kenny, Tara; Brueggemann, Ernest E; Ward, Michael D; Cazares, Lisa H; Bavari, Sina

    2015-10-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a re-emerging alphavirus which causes severe and prolonged arthralgic febrile illness. The recent global spread of the virus and lack of approved therapeutic options makes it imperative to gain greater insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying CHIKV pathogenesis, in particular host factors recruited by the virus. In the current study, we identify sphingosine kinase 2 (SK2) as a CHIKV host factor co-localized with the viral replication complex (VRC) during infection. SK2 was demonstrated to co-localize with viral RNA and nonstructural proteins. Targeted impairment of SK2 expression or function significantly inhibited CHIKV infection. Furthermore, affinity purification-mass spectrometry studies revealed that SK2 associates with a number of proteins involved in cellular gene expression specifically during viral infection, suggesting a role in replication. Collectively these results identify SK2 as a novel CHIKV host factor.

  9. Local Mosquito-Borne Transmission of Zika Virus - Miami-Dade and Broward Counties, Florida, June-August 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likos, Anna; Griffin, Isabel; Bingham, Andrea M; Stanek, Danielle; Fischer, Marc; White, Stephen; Hamilton, Janet; Eisenstein, Leah; Atrubin, David; Mulay, Prakash; Scott, Blake; Jenkins, Patrick; Fernandez, Danielle; Rico, Edhelene; Gillis, Leah; Jean, Reynald; Cone, Marshall; Blackmore, Carina; McAllister, Janet; Vasquez, Chalmers; Rivera, Lillian; Philip, Celeste

    2016-09-30

    During the first 6 months of 2016, large outbreaks of Zika virus disease caused by local mosquito-borne transmission occurred in Puerto Rico and other U.S. territories, but local mosquito-borne transmission was not identified in the continental United States (1,2). As of July 22, 2016, the Florida Department of Health had identified 321 Zika virus disease cases among Florida residents and visitors, all occurring in either travelers from other countries or territories with ongoing Zika virus transmission or sexual contacts of recent travelers.* During standard case investigation of persons with compatible illness and laboratory evidence of recent Zika virus infection (i.e., a specimen positive by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction [rRT-PCR], or positive Zika immunoglobulin M [IgM] with supporting dengue serology [negative for dengue IgM antibodies and positive for dengue IgG antibodies], or confirmation of Zika virus neutralizing antibodies by plaque reduction neutralization testing [PRNT]) (3), four persons were identified in Broward and Miami-Dade counties whose infections were attributed to likely local mosquito-borne transmission. Two of these persons worked within 120 meters (131 yards) of each other but had no other epidemiologic connections, suggesting the possibility of a local community-based outbreak. Further epidemiologic and laboratory investigations of the worksites and surrounding neighborhood identified a total of 29 persons with laboratory evidence of recent Zika virus infection and likely exposure during late June to early August, most within an approximate 6-block area. In response to limited impact on the population of Aedes aegypti mosquito vectors from initial ground-based mosquito control efforts, aerial ultralow volume spraying with the organophosphate insecticide naled was applied over a 10 square-mile area beginning in early August and alternated with aerial larviciding with Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies

  10. Prevention of siderophore- mediated gut-derived sepsis due to P. aeruginosa can be achieved without iron provision by maintaining local phosphate abundance: role of pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerdes Svetlana

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During extreme physiological stress, the intestinal tract can be transformed into a harsh environment characterized by regio- spatial alterations in oxygen, pH, and phosphate concentration. When the human intestine is exposed to extreme medical interventions, the normal flora becomes replaced by pathogenic species whose virulence can be triggered by various physico-chemical cues leading to lethal sepsis. We previously demonstrated that phosphate depletion develops in the mouse intestine following surgical injury and triggers intestinal P. aeruginosa to express a lethal phenotype that can be prevented by oral phosphate ([Pi] supplementation. Results In this study we examined the role of pH in the protective effect of [Pi] supplementation as it has been shown to be increased in the distal gut following surgical injury. Surgically injured mice drinking 25 mM [Pi] at pH 7.5 and intestinally inoculated with P. aeruginosa had increased mortality compared to mice drinking 25 mM [Pi] at pH 6.0 (p C. elegans. Transcriptional analysis of P. aeruginosa demonstrated enhanced expression of various genes involved in media alkalization at pH 6.0 and a global increase in the expression of all iron-related genes at pH 7.5. Maintaining the pH at 6.0 via phosphate supplementation led to significant attenuation of iron-related genes as demonstrated by microarray and confirmed by QRT-PCR analyses. Conclusion Taken together, these data demonstrate that increase in pH in distal intestine of physiologically stressed host colonized by P. aeruginosa can lead to the expression of siderophore-related virulence in bacteria that can be prevented without providing iron by maintaining local phosphate abundance at pH 6.0. This finding is particularly important as provision of exogenous iron has been shown to have untoward effects when administered to critically ill and septic patients. Given that phosphate, pH, and iron are near universal cues that dictate

  11. Ultrastructural localization of human papilloma virus by nonradioactive in situ hybridization on tissue of human cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Multhaupt, H A; Rafferty, P A; Warhol, M J

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A nonradioactive in situ hybridization was developed to localize human papilloma virus (HPV) at the ultrastructural level. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Cervical biopsies from human uterine cervices clinically suspicious of condyloma were embedded in Lowicryl K4M at low temperature...... confirmed the specificity of the HPV positive signals. CONCLUSIONS: This study helps define the subcellular compartmentalization of HPV DNA in infected human cells....

  12. Epidemic Potential for Local Transmission of Zika Virus in 2015 and 2016 in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viennet, Elvina; Mincham, Gina; Frentiu, Francesca D; Jansen, Cassie C; Montgomery, Brian L; Harley, David; Flower, Robert L P; Williams, Craig R; Faddy, Helen M

    2016-12-13

    Zika virus could be transmitted in the state of Queensland, Australia, in parts of the state where the mosquito vectors are established. We assessed the epidemic potential of Zika in Queensland from January 2015 to August 2016, and estimate the epidemic potential from September to December 2016, by calculating the temperature-dependent relative vectorial capacity (rVc), based on empirical and estimated parameters. Through 2015, we estimated a rVc of 0.119, 0.152, 0.170, and 0.175, respectively in the major cities of Brisbane, Rockhampton, Cairns, and Townsville. From January to August 2016, the epidemic potential trend was similar to 2015, however the highest epidemic potential was in Cairns. During September to November 2016, the epidemic potential is consistently the highest in Cairns, followed by Townsville, Rockhampton and Brisbane. Then, from November to December 2016, Townsville has the highest estimated epidemic potential. We demonstrate using a vectorial capacity model that ZIKV could have been locally transmitted in Queensland, Australia during 2015 and 2016. ZIKV remains a threat to Australia for the upcoming summer, during the Brazilian Carnival season, when the abundance of vectors is relatively high. Understanding the epidemic potential of local ZIKV transmission will allow better management of threats to blood safety and assessment of public health risk.

  13. Local interleukin-10 production during respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis is associated with post-bronchiolitis wheeze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hodemaekers Hennie M

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is the most common cause of bronchiolitis in infants. Following RSV bronchiolitis, 50% of children develop post-bronchiolitis wheeze (PBW. Animal studies have suggested that interleukin (IL-10 plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of RSV bronchiolitis and subsequent airway hyperresponsiveness. Previously, we showed that ex vivo monocyte IL-10 production is a predictor of PBW. Additionally, heterozygosity of the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs1800872 in the IL10 promoter region was associated with protection against RSV bronchiolitis. Methods This study aimed to determine the in vivo role of IL-10 in RSV pathogenesis and recurrent wheeze in a new cohort of 235 infants hospitalized for RSV bronchiolitis. IL-10 levels in nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPAs were measured at the time of hospitalization and the IL10 SNP rs1800872 genotype was determined. Follow-up data were available for 185 children (79%. Results Local IL-10 levels during RSV infection turned out to be higher in infants that later developed physician diagnosed PBW as compared to infants without PBW in the first year after RSV infection (958 vs 692 pg/ml, p = 0.02. The IL10 promoter SNP rs1800872 was not associated with IL-10 concentration in NPAs. Conclusion The relationship between high local IL-10 levels during the initial RSV infection and physician diagnosed PBW provides further evidence of the importance of the IL-10 response during RSV bronchiolitis.

  14. Monoclonal antibodies against extra small virus show that it co-localizes with Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longyant, Siwaporn; Senapin, Saengchan; Sanont, Sirijantra; Wangman, Pradit; Chaivisuthangkura, Parin; Rukpratanporn, Sombat; Sithigorngul, Paisarn

    2012-07-25

    The capsid protein (CP) gene of extra small virus (XSV) expressed in Escherichia coli as a 42 kDa glutathione S-transferase (GST)-fusion protein (GST-XCP) or a 20 kDa His6-fusion protein (His6-XCP) were purified by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), combined, and used to immunize Swiss mice to produce monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Using dot blot, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry (IHC) methods, 4 MAbs specific to the XSV CP detected XSV in the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii without cross-reaction to host proteins or to proteins of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) or 5 of the most pathogenic viruses of penaeid shrimp. In dot blots, the combined MAbs could detect down to ~10 to 20 fmol µl-1 of purified GST-XCP protein, which was somewhat more sensitive compared to any single MAb. Used in conjunction with an MrNV-specific MAb, white tail disease (WTD) was diagnosed more effectively. However, the sensitivity at which the combined 4 MAbs detected XSV CP was 1000-fold lower than XSV RNA detected by RT-PCR. IHC analysis of M. rosenbergii tissue sections using the MAbs showed XSV infection to co-localize at variable loads with MrNV infection in heart and muscle cells as well as cells of connective tissues in the hepatopancreas. Since XSV histopathology remained prominent in tissues of some prawns in which MAb reactivity for MrNV was low compared to MAb reactivity for XSV, XSV might play some role in WTD severity.

  15. Further genetic localization of the transforming sequences of the p21 v-ras gene of Harvey murine sarcoma virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willumsen, B M; Ellis, R W; Scolnick, E M

    1984-01-01

    The sequences encoding the 21-kilodalton transforming protein (p21 ras) of Harvey murine sarcoma virus have previously been localized genetically to a 1.3-kilobase segment of the viral DNA (E. H. Chang, R. W. Ellis, E. M. Scolnick, and D. R. Lowy, Science 210:1249-1251, 1980). Within this segment...... of this open reading frame. By constructing a mutant of Harvey murine sarcoma virus DNA from which the first two ATG codons of this open reading frame have been deleted, we now show by transfection of the mutant viral DNA into NIH 3T3 cells that only the third ATG codon is necessary and sufficient...

  16. Local Risk Factors in Genital Human Papilloma Virus Infection in Cervical Smears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojiyi, EC; Dike, IE; Okeudo, C; Ejikem, C; Nzewuihe, AC; Agbata, A

    2013-01-01

    Background: Infection with human papilloma virus (HPV) is the main cause of cervical cancer, but the local risk factors have not been sufficiently assessed. Aim: The study is aimed at determining the prevalence and to evaluate the local risk factors of HPV infection in cervical smears at the Imo State University Teaching Hospital, Orlu, Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: The participants involved 445 randomly selected sexually active women attending the antenatal, postnatal, gynecology and family planning clinics in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the university between April 2004 and May 2012. A questionnaire assessing various socio-demographic characteristics of the participants was administered. The pap smears of the participants were examined microscopically for evidence of HPV infection. The SPSS version 17.0 (Chicago, Illinois, USA) was used to compute and analyze the results. The results were presented in tables as simple percentages. Tests of significance using the Chi-square and fisher exact tests were applied where appropriate. Results: The prevalence rate of HPV was 10.3%. The peak age-specific prevalence of 11.7% occurred in the 15-19 years age group. There were significant associations between the occurrence of HPV and multiple sexual partners, coital frequency, multiparity, contraceptive use, marital status, low socio-economic status, abnormal vaginal discharge, irregular menstruation, post-coital and post-menopausal bleeding, (P < 0.05). Conclusion: All sexually active women including teenagers should be screened for cervical HPV infection in an organized systematic program equipped with a good call and recall system. There is, therefore, a need to move emphasis from the current practice of opportunistic screening to a systematic screening of the whole population at risk despite cost implications. PMID:24380003

  17. Evidence of bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in three species of sympatric wild ungulates in Nevada: Life history strategies may maintain endemic infections in wild populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evidence for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection was detected in 2009-10 during a pneumonia die-off in Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis), and sympatric mountain goats (Oreamnos americanum) in adjacent mountain ranges in Elko County, Nevada. Seroprevalence to BVDV-1 ...

  18. Prokaryotic expression, localization and function of the infectious laryngotracheitis virus glycoprotein G

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Zhaogang; ZHANG Manfu

    2005-01-01

    The infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) glycoprotein G (gG) gene of E3 and Zhonghai strains was cloned, sequenced and compared with the gG gene of other Type I animal herpesviruses. To find the localization and the function of the gG in the infected cells, the 35 kD fusion protein (His-GG) was expressed by inserting the coding region of gG except for the signal peptide into pET30a (+). After purification of the His-GG fusion protein, the rats' antibody to the His-GG was prepared and purified by using the protein G Sepharose. Results of laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) detection showed that the ILTV gG was in the perinuclear region and membrane of chicken embryo liver (CEL) and kidney (CEK) cells, and that the gG accumulated more in the coalescent part than in the other parts of the adjacent CEL or CEK cells. The plaque size and the one-step growth curve tests suggested that the ILTV gG was required for viral growth by cell-to-cell direct infection in tissue-cultured CEL cells.

  19. Intracellular localization of Saffold virus Leader (L) protein differs in Vero and HEp-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yishi; Victorio, Carla Bianca Luena; Ng, Qimei; Prabakaran, Mookkan; Tan, Yee-Joo; Chua, Kaw Bing

    2016-10-12

    The Saffold virus (SAFV) genome is translated as a single long polyprotein precursor and co-translationally cleaved to yield 12 separate viral proteins. Little is known about the activities of SAFV proteins although their homologs in other picornaviruses have already been described. To further support research on functions and activities of respective viral proteins, we investigated the spatio-temporal distribution of SAFV proteins in Vero and HEp-2 cells that had been either transfected with plasmids that express individual viral proteins or infected with live SAFV. Our results revealed that, with the exception of the Leader (L) protein, all viral proteins were localized in the cytoplasm at all the time points assayed. The L protein was found in the cytoplasm at an early time point but was subsequently translocated to the nucleus of HEp-2, but not Vero, cells. This was observed in both transfected and infected cells. Further mutational analysis of L protein revealed that Threonine 58 of the Ser/Thr-rich domain of L protein is crucial for protein trafficking between the cytoplasm and nucleus in HEp-2 cells. These findings contribute to a deeper understanding and stimulate investigation of the differetial cellular responses of HEp-2 cells in comparison to other mammalian cell lines during SAFV infection.

  20. Localization of human immunodeficiency virus antigens in infected cells by scanning/transmission-immunogold techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, M.I.; Santa Maria, I.; de Andres, R.; Najera, R.

    1988-01-01

    An application of high resolution scanning/transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and gold-labelling techniques for the rapid detection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in infected cells has been developed. Experimental in vitro studies for detecting two HIV structural proteins, gp41 and p17, were performed following an indirect labeling procedure that uses monoclonal anti-p17 and anti-gp41 antibodies as primary antibodies and 40 nm gold-linked goat antimouse IgG as secondary antibodies. The cells were then studied by STEM in the scanning mode. Unambiguous localization of the viral antigens was possible by combining the three-dimensional image provided by the secondary electron image and the atomic number-dependent backscattered electron image for the identification of the gold marker. This technique combines both the morphological information and the rapid procedures of scanning electron microscopy with the precise and sensitive antigen detection provided by the use of STEM and immunological methods. The preliminary results of its application to the study of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from four anti-HIV-seropositive patients showing the presence of specific labeling in all of them suggest that it might prove useful for early detection of HIV infection before seroconversion, as well as for quantitative studies.

  1. Localization studies of two white spot syndrome virus structural proteins VP51 and VP76

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Feng

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract VP51 and VP76 are two structural proteins of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV. However, there is some controversy about their localization in the virion at present. In this study, we employ multiple approaches to reevaluate the location of VP51 and VP76. Firstly, we found VP51 and VP76 presence in viral nucleocapsids fraction by Western blotting. Secondly, after the high-salt treatment of nucleocapsids, VP51 and VP76 were still exclusively present in viral capsids by Western blotting and immunoelectron microscopy, suggesting two proteins are structural components of the viral capsid. To gather more evidence, we developed a method based on immunofluorescence flow cytometry. The results revealed that the mean fluorescence intensity of the viral capsids group was significantly higher than that of intact virions group after incubation with anti-VP51 or anti-VP76 serum and fluorescein isothiocyanate conjugated secondary antibody. All these results indicate that VP51 and VP76 are both capsid proteins of WSSV.

  2. Localized or Systemic {italic In Vivo} Heat-Inactivation of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV): A Mathematical Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennypacker, Carl R.; Perelson, A.S.; Nys, N.; Nelson, G.; Sessler, D.I.

    1993-12-15

    Temperatures as low as 42 C, maintained for a little as 25 minutes, inactivate {approx}25% of HIV. Furthermore, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected T-cells are more sensitive to heat than healthy lymphocytes and susceptibility increases when the cells are pre-sensitized by exposure to tumor necrosis factor. Thus, induction of a whole-body hyperthermia, or hyperthermia specifically limited to tissues having a high viral load, are potential antiviral therapies for acquired immunodeficiency disease (AIDS). Accordingly, we incorporated therapeutic hyperthermia into an existing mathematical model which evaluates the interaction between HIV and CD4{sup +} T cells. Given the assumptions and limitations of this model, the results indicate that a daily therapy, reducing the population of actively infected cells by 40% or infectious virus by 50%, would effectively reverse the depletion of T cells. In contrast, a daily reduction of 20% of either actively infected cells or infectious virus would have a marginal effect. However, reduction by 20% of both actively infected cells and infectious virus could restore T cell numbers, assuming that permanent damage had not been inflicted on the thymus. Whole-body hyperthermia seems unlikely to be clinically useful, unless it can be induced non-invasively without general anesthesia. In contrast, heating directed specifically to areas of viral concentration may be effective and have a suitable risk/benefit ratio.

  3. Serological Detection of Newcastle Disease Virus Antibodies in Local Chickens and Guinea Fowls in the Area of Kumasi, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OD Boakye

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Newcastle Disease (ND has been identified as a major constraint to local poultry production with its impact being felt more in rural poultry production which forms about 80% of Ghana poultry population. However documented evidence on ND virus activity in rural poultry in Ghana is still lacking. Hence, this study was conducted to evaluate the level of circulating antibodies against ND using the Haemagglutination Inhibition (HI technique. Sera collected from unvaccinated 292 chickens and 153 guinea fowls randomly selected from households and a live bird market in Kumasi and its environs were evaluated for Newcastle disease virus antibodies. Results showed 81.8 % (239/292 of local chickens and 24.2 % (37/153 of guinea fowls tested positive for ND antibodies. Comparison was made between the seroprevalence of ND antibodies in household and live bird market as well as between sexes. Significantly higher prevalence rate (p<0.05 was observed with chickens sampled from households compared to those from the live bird market. Higher ranges of titers were also observed in chickens from households than those from live bird markets. The presence of ND antibodies in these unvaccinated local chickens and guinea fowls indicated the presence of the virus amongst the rural poultry population, hence aneed for improvement in vaccine campaignand delivery against ND for rural poultry especially with the use of thermostable and improved oral or feed-based vaccine delivery systems.

  4. Isolation, identification and evolution analysis of a novel subgroup of avian leukosis virus isolated from a local Chinese yellow broiler in South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian leukosis virus (ALV) causes high mortality associated with tumor formation and decreased fertility, and results in major economic losses in the poultry industry worldwide. Recently, a putative novel ALV subgroup virus named ALV-K was observed in Chinese local chickens. In this study, a novel A...

  5. The prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and hepatitis C virus among injection drug users who use high risk inner-city locales in Miami, Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clyde B McCoy

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to estimate the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 and hepatitis C virus (HCV co-infection in hard-to-reach intravenous drug users, 199 subjects from high-risk inner-city locales, the so called "shooting galleries", were consented, interviewed, and tested in Miami, FL, US. Positive HIV-1 status was based on repeatedly reactive ELISA and confirmatory Western Blot. Positive HCV status was based on reactive ELISA and confirmatory polymerase chain reaction techniques. Overall, 50 (25% were not infected with either virus, 61 (31% were HIV-1/HCV co-infected, 17 (8% infected by HIV-1 only, and 71 (36% infected by HCV only. The results of the multivariable analyses showed that more years using heroin was the only significant risk factor for HCV only infection (odds ratio = 1.15; 95% confidence interval = 1.07, 1.24 and for HIV-1/HCV co-infection (odds ratio = 1.17; 95% confidence interval = 1.09, 1.26. This paper demonstrates that HIV-1/HCV co-infection is highly prevalent among so called "shooting galleries".

  6. Coat proteins of Rice tungro bacilliform virus and Mungbean yellow mosaic virus contain multiple nuclear-localization signals and interact with importin alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Peraza, O; Kirk, D; Seltzer, V; Veluthambi, K; Schmit, A C; Hohn, T; Herzog, E

    2005-06-01

    Transport of the viral genome into the nucleus is an obligatory step in the replication cycle of plant pararetro- and geminiviruses. In both these virus types, the multifunctional coat protein (CP) is thought to be involved in this process. Here, a green fluorescent protein tagging approach was used to demonstrate nuclear import of the CPs of Rice tungro bacilliform virus (RTBV) and Mungbean yellow mosaic virus--Vigna (MYMV) in Nicotiana plumbaginifolia protoplasts. In both cases, at least two nuclear localization signals (NLSs) were identified and characterized. The NLSs of RTBV CP are located within both N- and C-terminal regions (residues 479KRPK/497KRK and 744KRK/758RRK), and those of MYMV CP within the N-terminal part (residues 3KR and 41KRRR). The MYMV and RTBV CP NLSs resemble classic mono- and bipartite NLSs, respectively. However, the N-terminal MYMV CP NLS and both RTBV CP NLSs show peculiarities in the number and position of basic residues. In vitro pull-down assays revealed interaction of RTBV and MYMV CPs with the nuclear import factor importin alpha, suggesting that both CPs are imported into the nucleus via an importin alpha-dependent pathway. The possibility that this pathway could serve for docking of virions to the nucleus is discussed.

  7. Tissue localization, shedding, virus carriage, antibody response, and aerosol transmission of Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus following inoculation of 4-week-old feeder pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederwerder, Megan C; Nietfeld, Jerome C; Bai, Jianfa; Peddireddi, Lalitha; Breazeale, Barbara; Anderson, Joe; Kerrigan, Maureen A; An, Baoyan; Oberst, Richard D; Crawford, Kimberly; Lager, Kelly M; Madson, Darin M; Rowland, Raymond R R; Anderson, Gary A; Hesse, Richard A

    2016-11-01

    We determined tissue localization, shedding patterns, virus carriage, antibody response, and aerosol transmission of Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) following inoculation of 4-week-old feeder pigs. Thirty-three pigs were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups for the 42-day study: inoculated (group A; n = 23), contact transmission (group B; n = 5), and aerosol transmission (group C; n = 5). Contact transmission occurred rapidly to group B pigs whereas productive aerosol transmission failed to occur to group C pigs. Emesis was the first clinical sign noted at 3 days postinoculation (dpi) followed by mild to moderate diarrhea lasting 5 more days. Real-time PCR detected PEDV in fecal and nasal swabs, oral fluids, serum, and gastrointestinal and lymphoid tissues. Shedding occurred primarily during the first 2 weeks postinoculation, peaking at 5-6 dpi; however, some pigs had PEDV nucleic acid detected in swabs collected at 21 and 28 dpi. Antibody titers were measurable between 14 and 42 dpi. Although feces and intestines collected at 42 dpi were PEDV negative by PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively, small intestines from 70% of group A pigs were PCR positive. Although disease was relatively mild and transient in this age group, the results demonstrate that 4-week-old pigs are productively infected and can sustain virus replication for several weeks. Long-term shedding of PEDV in subclinically affected pigs should be considered an important source for PEDV transmission.

  8. Fluorescence in situ hybridizations (FISH) for the localization of viruses and endosymbiotic bacteria in plant and insect tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliot, Adi; Kontsedalov, Svetlana; Lebedev, Galina; Brumin, Marina; Cathrin, Pakkianathan Britto; Marubayashi, Julio Massaharu; Skaljac, Marisa; Belausov, Eduard; Czosnek, Henryk; Ghanim, Murad

    2014-02-24

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a name given to a variety of techniques commonly used for visualizing gene transcripts in eukaryotic cells and can be further modified to visualize other components in the cell such as infection with viruses and bacteria. Spatial localization and visualization of viruses and bacteria during the infection process is an essential step that complements expression profiling experiments such as microarrays and RNAseq in response to different stimuli. Understanding the spatiotemporal infections with these agents complements biological experiments aimed at understanding their interaction with cellular components. Several techniques for visualizing viruses and bacteria such as reporter gene systems or immunohistochemical methods are time-consuming, and some are limited to work with model organisms and involve complex methodologies. FISH that targets RNA or DNA species in the cell is a relatively easy and fast method for studying spatiotemporal localization of genes and for diagnostic purposes. This method can be robust and relatively easy to implement when the protocols employ short hybridizing, commercially-purchased probes, which are not expensive. This is particularly robust when sample preparation, fixation, hybridization, and microscopic visualization do not involve complex steps. Here we describe a protocol for localization of bacteria and viruses in insect and plant tissues. The method is based on simple preparation, fixation, and hybridization of insect whole mounts and dissected organs or hand-made plant sections, with 20 base pairs short DNA probes conjugated to fluorescent dyes on their 5' or 3' ends. This protocol has been successfully applied to a number of insect and plant tissues, and can be used to analyze expression of mRNAs or other RNA or DNA species in the cell.

  9. Early secretory pathway localization and lack of processing for hepatitis E virus replication protein pORF1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perttilä, Julia; Spuul, Pirjo; Ahola, Tero

    2013-04-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a positive-strand RNA virus and a major causative agent of acute sporadic and epidemic hepatitis. HEV replication protein is encoded by ORF1 and contains the predicted domains of methyltransferase (MT), protease, macro domain, helicase (HEL) and polymerase (POL). In this study, the full-length protein pORF1 (1693 aa) and six truncated variants were expressed by in vitro translation and in human HeLa and hepatic Huh-7 cells by using several vector systems. The proteins were visualized by three specific antisera directed against the MT, HEL and POL domains. In vitro translation of full-length pORF1 yielded smaller quantities of two fragments. However, these fragments were not observed after pORF1 expression and pulse-chase studies in human cells, and their production was not dependent on the predicted protease domain in pORF1. The weight of evidence supports the proposition that pORF1 is not subjected to specific proteolytic processing, which is unusual among animal positive-strand RNA viruses but common for plant viruses. pORF1 was membrane associated in cells and localized to a perinuclear region, where it partially overlapped with localization of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) marker BAP31 and was closely interspersed with staining of the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment marker protein ERGIC-53. Co-localization with BAP31 was enhanced by treatment with brefeldin A. Therefore, HEV may utilize modified early secretory pathway membranes for replication.

  10. Evidence of bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in three species of sympatric wild ungulates in Nevada: life history strategies may maintain endemic infections in wild populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peregrine Lee Wolff

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Evidence for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV infection was detected in 2009-10 while investigating a pneumonia die-off in Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis, and sympatric mountain goats (Oreamnos americanum in adjacent mountain ranges in Elko County, Nevada. Seroprevalence to BVDV-1 was 81% (N=32 in the bighorns and 100% (N=3 in the mountain goats. Serosurveillance from 2011 to 2015 of surviving bighorns and mountain goats as well as sympatric mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus, indicated a prevalence of 72% (N=45, 45% (N=51, and 51% (N=342 respectively. All species had antibody titers to BVDV1 and BVDV2. BVDV1 was isolated in cell culture from three bighorn sheep and a mountain goat kid. BVDV2 was isolated from two mule deer. Six deer (N=96 sampled in 2013 were positive for BVDV by antigen-capture ELISA on ear notch. Wild ungulates and cattle concurrently graze public and private lands in these two mountain ranges, thus providing potential for interspecies viral transmission. Like cattle, mule deer, mountain goats, and bighorn sheep can be infected with BVDV and can develop clinical disease including immunosuppression. Winter migration patterns that increase densities and species interaction during the first and second trimester of gestation may contribute to the long term maintenance of the virus in these wild ungulates. More studies are needed to determine the population level impacts of BVDV infection on these three species.

  11. Evidence of Bovine viral diarrhea virus Infection in Three Species of Sympatric Wild Ungulates in Nevada: Life History Strategies May Maintain Endemic Infections in Wild Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Peregrine L; Schroeder, Cody; McAdoo, Caleb; Cox, Mike; Nelson, Danielle D; Evermann, James F; Ridpath, Julia F

    2016-01-01

    Evidence for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection was detected in 2009-2010 while investigating a pneumonia die-off in Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis, canadensis), and sympatric mountain goats (Oreamnos americanum) in adjacent mountain ranges in Elko County, Nevada. Seroprevalence to BVDV-1 was 81% (N = 32) in the bighorns and 100% (N = 3) in the mountain goats. Serosurveillance from 2011 to 2015 of surviving bighorns and mountain goats as well as sympatric mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), indicated a prevalence of 72% (N = 45), 45% (N = 51), and 51% (N = 342) respectively. All species had antibody titers to BVDV1 and BVDV2. BVDV1 was isolated in cell culture from three bighorn sheep and a mountain goat kid. BVDV2 was isolated from two mule deer. Six deer (N = 96) sampled in 2013 were positive for BVDV by antigen-capture ELISA on a single ear notch. Wild ungulates and cattle concurrently graze public and private lands in these two mountain ranges, thus providing potential for interspecies viral transmission. Like cattle, mule deer, mountain goats, and bighorn sheep can be infected with BVDV and can develop clinical disease including immunosuppression. Winter migration patterns that increase densities and species interaction during the first and second trimester of gestation may contribute to the long term maintenance of the virus in these wild ungulates. More studies are needed to determine the population level impacts of BVDV infection on these three species.

  12. Local knowledge held by farmers in Eastern Tyrol (Austria) about the use of plants to maintain and improve animal health and welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Vogl, Christian R; Vogl-Lukasser, Brigitte; Walkenhorst, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background The sustainable management of animal health and welfare is of increasing importance to consumers and a key topic in the organic farming movement. Few systematic studies have been undertaken investigating farmers’ local knowledge related to this issue. Ethnoveterinary medicine (EVM) is a discipline focusing on local knowledge and folk methods in veterinary medicine, however most ethnoveterinarian studies primarily address the treatment of animal diseases. Very few studies have explo...

  13. Localization, Concentration, and Transmission Efficiency of Banana bunchy top virus in Four Asexual Lineages of Pentalonia aphids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Bressan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV is the most destructive pathogenic virus of banana plants worldwide. The virus is transmitted in a circulative non-propagative manner by the banana aphid, Pentalonia nigronervosa Coquerel. In this work, we examined the localization, accumulation, and transmission efficiency of BBTV in four laboratory-established lineages of Pentalonia aphids derived from four different host plants: taro (Colocasia esculenta, heliconia (Heliconia spp., red ginger (Alpinia purpurata, and banana (Musa sp.. Mitochondrial sequencing identified three and one lineages as Pentalonia caladii van der Goot, a recently proposed species, and P. nigronervosa, respectively. Microsatellite analysis separated the aphid lineages into four distinct genotypes. The transmission of BBTV was tested using leaf disk and whole-plant assays, both of which showed that all four lineages are competent vectors of BBTV, although the P. caladii from heliconia transmitted BBTV to the leaf disks at a significantly lower rate than did P. nigronervosa. The concentration of BBTV in dissected guts, haemolymph, and salivary glands was quantified by real-time PCR. The BBTV titer reached similar concentrations in the guts, haemolymph, and salivary glands of aphids from all four lineages tested. Furthermore, immunofluorescence assays showed that BBTV antigens localized to the anterior midguts and the principal salivary glands, demonstrating a similar pattern of translocations across the four lineages. The results reported in this study showed for the first time that P. caladii is a competent vector of BBTV.

  14. Localization, concentration, and transmission efficiency of Banana bunchy top virus in four asexual lineages of Pentalonia aphids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shizu; Greenwell, April M; Bressan, Alberto

    2013-02-22

    Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) is the most destructive pathogenic virus of banana plants worldwide. The virus is transmitted in a circulative non-propagative manner by the banana aphid, Pentalonia nigronervosa Coquerel. In this work, we examined the localization, accumulation, and transmission efficiency of BBTV in four laboratory-established lineages of Pentalonia aphids derived from four different host plants: taro (Colocasia esculenta), heliconia (Heliconia spp.), red ginger (Alpinia purpurata), and banana (Musa sp.). Mitochondrial sequencing identified three and one lineages as Pentalonia caladii van der Goot, a recently proposed species, and P. nigronervosa, respectively. Microsatellite analysis separated the aphid lineages into four distinct genotypes. The transmission of BBTV was tested using leaf disk and whole-plant assays, both of which showed that all four lineages are competent vectors of BBTV, although the P. caladii from heliconia transmitted BBTV to the leaf disks at a significantly lower rate than did P. nigronervosa. The concentration of BBTV in dissected guts, haemolymph, and salivary glands was quantified by real-time PCR. The BBTV titer reached similar concentrations in the guts, haemolymph, and salivary glands of aphids from all four lineages tested. Furthermore, immunofluorescence assays showed that BBTV antigens localized to the anterior midguts and the principal salivary glands, demonstrating a similar pattern of translocations across the four lineages. The results reported in this study showed for the first time that P. caladii is a competent vector of BBTV.

  15. Structural determination of importin alpha in complex with beak and feather disease virus capsid nuclear localization signal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, Edward I. [Charles Sturt University, School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Boorooma St., Wagga Wagga, New South Wales 2678 (Australia); EH Graham Centre for Agricultural Innovation (NSW Department of Primary Industries and Charles Sturt University), Boorooma St., Wagga Wagga, New South Wales 2678 (Australia); Dombrovski, Andrew K. [Charles Sturt University, School of Biomedical Sciences, Boorooma St., Wagga Wagga, New South Wales 2678 (Australia); Swarbrick, Crystall M.D. [Charles Sturt University, School of Biomedical Sciences, Boorooma St., Wagga Wagga, New South Wales 2678 (Australia); EH Graham Centre for Agricultural Innovation (NSW Department of Primary Industries and Charles Sturt University), Boorooma St., Wagga Wagga, New South Wales 2678 (Australia); Raidal, Shane R. [Charles Sturt University, School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Boorooma St., Wagga Wagga, New South Wales 2678 (Australia); EH Graham Centre for Agricultural Innovation (NSW Department of Primary Industries and Charles Sturt University), Boorooma St., Wagga Wagga, New South Wales 2678 (Australia); Forwood, Jade K., E-mail: jforwood@csu.edu.au [Charles Sturt University, School of Biomedical Sciences, Boorooma St., Wagga Wagga, New South Wales 2678 (Australia); EH Graham Centre for Agricultural Innovation (NSW Department of Primary Industries and Charles Sturt University), Boorooma St., Wagga Wagga, New South Wales 2678 (Australia)

    2013-09-06

    Highlights: •Circovirus capsid proteins contain large nuclear localization signals (NLS). •A method of nuclear import has not been elucidated. •Beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) capsid NLS was crystallized with importin α. •The structure showed BFDV NLS binding to the major site of importin α. •Result shows implications for mechanism of nuclear transport for all circoviruses. -- Abstract: Circoviruses represent a rapidly increasing genus of viruses that infect a variety of vertebrates. Replication requires shuttling viral molecules into the host cell nucleus, a process facilitated by capsid-associated protein (Cap). Whilst a nuclear localization signal (NLS) has been shown to mediate nuclear translocation, the mode of nuclear transport remains to be elucidated. To better understand this process, beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) Cap NLS was crystallized with nuclear import receptor importin-α (Impα). Diffraction yielded structural data to 2.9 Å resolution, and the binding site on both Impα and BFDV Cap NLS were well resolved. The binding mechanism for the major site is likely conserved across circoviruses as supported by the similarity of NLSs in circovirus Caps. This finding illuminates a crucial step for infection of host cells by this viral family, and provides a platform for rational drug design against the binding interface.

  16. Imported Zika Virus in a European City: How to Prevent Local Transmission?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan-Pau Millet

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: On February 1st 2016 the WHO declared the Zika Virus (ZIKV infection a worldwide public health emergency because of its rapid expansion and severe complications, such as Guillain-Barré Syndrome or microcephaly in newborn. The huge amount of people traveling to endemic areas and the presence of Aedes albopictus in Barcelona increase the risk of autochtonous transmission. The objective of this study was to describe the first ZIKV cases diagnosed in our city and to analyze the surveillance, prevention, and control measures implemented to avoid autochthonous transmission.Methods: An observational cross-sectional population-based study in Barcelona, Spain was performed.An analysis of the socio-demographic, epidemiological, clinical characteristics, and mosquito control activities of the ZIKV cases detected between January 1st and December 2016 was carried out using a specific ZIKV epidemiological survey of the Barcelona Public Health Agency.Results: A total of 118 notifications of possible ZIKV infections were received, and 44 corresponded to confirmed cases in Barcelona residents.Amongst these, the median age was 35 years and 57% were women. All cases were imported, 48% were Spanish-born and 52% foreign-born. Dominican Republic was the most visited country amongst foreign-born patients and Nicaragua amongst Spanish-born. The most frequent symptoms were exanthema, fever, and arthralgia. Among the 24 diagnosed women, 6 (25% were pregnant. There was one case of microcephaly outside Barcelona city. Entomological inspections were done at the homes of 19 cases (43.2% of the total and in 34 (77.3% public spaces. Vector activity was found in one case of the 44 confirmed cases, and 134 surveillance and vector control were carried out associated to imported ZIKV cases. In all cases prevention measures were recommended to avoid mosquito bites on infected cases.Conclusion: Epidemiological and entomological surveillance are essential for the

  17. Detection and localization of rabbit hepatitis e virus and antigen in systemic tissues from experimentally intraperitoneally infected rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jingjing; Zhao, Yue; She, Ruiping; Cao, Binbin; Xiao, Peng; Wu, Qiaoxing; Guo, Zhaojie; Ma, Longhuan; Soomro, Majid Hussain

    2014-01-01

    Rabbit hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a novel genotype of HEV, and is considered to pose a risk of zoonotic transmission. Research into the systemic distribution of rabbit HEV in rabbits during different periods of infection has rarely been reported. To better understand this virus, we infected rabbits with second-passage rabbit HEV via an intraperitoneal route. After inoculation, the infection showed two types, temporary and constant infection. The detection of HEV RNA in the feces varied with time, and serum antigen correlated with fecal HEV RNA. Viremia only appeared 72 days after inoculation. The rabbits remained antibody negative throughout the experimental period. When HEV was localized, several organs besides the liver were HEV RNA positive. Tissue antigen was observed immunohistochemically in the different cells of various organs, especially in parts of the small intestine and the characteristic rabbit gut-associated lymphoid tissue. These data provide valuable information for future research into the pathogenesis of HEV.

  18. Fluorescent in situ hybridization for the localization of viruses, bacteria and other microorganisms in insect and plant tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliot, Adi; Ghanim, Murad

    2016-04-01

    Methods for the localization of cellular components such as nucleic acids, proteins, cellular vesicles and more, and the localization of microorganisms including viruses, bacteria and fungi have become an important part of any research program in biological sciences that enable the visualization of these components in fixed and live tissues without the need for complex processing steps. The rapid development of microscopy tools and technologies as well as related fluorescent markers and fluorophores for many cellular components, and the ability to design DNA and RNA sequence-based molecular probes and antibodies which can be visualized fluorescently, have rapidly advanced this field. This review will focus on some of the localizations methods which have been used in plants and insect pests in agriculture, and other microorganisms, which are rapidly advancing the research in agriculture-related fields.

  19. A multi-tiered time-series modelling approach to forecasting respiratory syncytial virus incidence at the local level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaeder, M C; Fackler, J C

    2012-04-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of documented viral respiratory infections, and the leading cause of hospitalization, in young children. We performed a retrospective time-series analysis of all patients aged Forecasting models of weekly RSV incidence for the local community, inpatient paediatric hospital and paediatric intensive-care unit (PICU) were created. Ninety-five percent confidence intervals calculated around our models' 2-week forecasts were accurate to ±9·3, ±7·5 and ±1·5 cases/week for the local community, inpatient hospital and PICU, respectively. Our results suggest that time-series models may be useful tools in forecasting the burden of RSV infection at the local and institutional levels, helping communities and institutions to optimize distribution of resources based on the changing burden and severity of illness in their respective communities.

  20. The C-terminal 18 Amino Acid Region of Dengue Virus NS5 Regulates its Subcellular Localization and Contains a Conserved Arginine Residue Essential for Infectious Virus Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Ivan H. W.; Chan, Kitti W. K.; Zhao, Yongqian; Ooi, Eng Eong; Lescar, Julien; Jans, David A.; Forwood, Jade K.

    2016-01-01

    Dengue virus NS5 is the most highly conserved amongst the viral non-structural proteins and is responsible for capping, methylation and replication of the flavivirus RNA genome. Interactions of NS5 with host proteins also modulate host immune responses. Although replication occurs in the cytoplasm, an unusual characteristic of DENV2 NS5 is that it localizes to the nucleus during infection with no clear role in replication or pathogenesis. We examined NS5 of DENV1 and 2, which exhibit the most prominent difference in nuclear localization, employing a combination of functional and structural analyses. Extensive gene swapping between DENV1 and 2 NS5 identified that the C-terminal 18 residues (Cter18) alone was sufficient to direct the protein to the cytoplasm or nucleus, respectively. The low micromolar binding affinity between NS5 Cter18 and the nuclear import receptor importin-alpha (Impα), allowed their molecular complex to be purified, crystallised and visualized at 2.2 Å resolution using x-ray crystallography. Structure-guided mutational analysis of this region in GFP-NS5 clones of DENV1 or 2 and in a DENV2 infectious clone reveal residues important for NS5 subcellular localization. Notably, the trans conformation adopted by Pro-884 allows proper presentation for binding Impα and mutating this proline to Thr, as present in DENV1 NS5, results in mislocalizaion of NS5 to the cytoplasm without compromising virus fitness. In contrast, a single mutation to alanine at NS5 position R888, a residue conserved in all flaviviruses, resulted in a completely non-viable virus, and the R888K mutation led to a severely attenuated phentoype, even though NS5 was located in the nucleus. R888 forms a hydrogen bond with Y838 that is also conserved in all flaviviruses. Our data suggests an evolutionarily conserved function for NS5 Cter18, possibly in RNA interactions that are critical for replication, that is independent of its role in subcellular localization. PMID:27622521

  1. Localization of West Nile Virus in monkey brain: double staining antigens immunohistochemically of neurons, neuroglia cells and West Nile Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xianli; Ren, Junping; Xu, Fangling; Ferguson, Monique R; Li, Guangyu

    2009-11-15

    West Nile virus (WNV) can cause encephalitis or meningitis that affects brain tissue, which can also lead to permanent neurological damage that can be fatal. To our knowledge, no consistent double immunohistochemical staining of neurons, neuroglia cells, and WNV has yet been reported. To establish a method for performing double-label immunohistochemical detection of neurons, neuroglia cells and WNV, examining the pathological characteristics of WNV-infected neurons, neuroglia cells, and investigating distribution of WNV in monkey brain, paraffin-embedded monkey brain tissue were retrospectively studied by immunohistochemical staining of neurons, neuroglia cells and WNV. Antibodies against neuron-specific enolase (NSE), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and WNV were used to develop the method of double-label immunohistochemical staining, which allowed independent assessment of neuron status and WNV distribution. A range of immunohistochemical WNV infection in monkey brain was observed in both neurons and neuroglia cells in terms of the thickness of lesion staining, and the WNV staining was slightly higher in neuroglia cells than in neurons. All these findings suggest that WNV invasion in the brain plays a crucial role in neurological damage by inducing central nervous system (CNS) cell dysfunction or cell death directly.

  2. Selection of tomato plants resistant to a local Polish isolate of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czech, Andrzej S; Szklarczyk, Marek; Gajewski, Zbigniew; Zukowska, Ewa; Michalik, Barbara; Kobyłko, Tadeusz; Strzałka, Kazimierz

    2003-01-01

    We found that the Sw-5 gene confers resistance to one of the Polish isolates of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). A series of tomato breeding accessions was analysed along with standards of resistance and susceptibility to TSWV. The presence of the Sw-5 gene was determined using the available PCR marker. Subsequently plants from these accessions were grown in the presence of the TSWV isolate from Poland. Some of them developed severe symptoms of the TSWV disease. Expression of the virus proteins was also assayed in tissues of the investigated plants. We found general agreement between either lack or presence of the disease symptoms, virus proteins and resistance gene. Some observed discrepancies of these data are also discussed. Our results indicate that marker-assisted selection can be used for breeding of the TSWV-resistant tomato in Poland.

  3. Successive oral immunizations against Piscirickettsia salmonis and infectious salmon anemia virus are required to maintain a long-term protection in farmed salmonids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan eTobar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there is a growing demand to determine the protective status of vaccinated fish in order to prevent diseases outbreaks. A set of different parameters that include the infectious and immunological status of vaccinated salmonids from 622 Chilean farms were analyzed during 2011-2014. The aim of this study was to optimize the vaccination program of these centers through the determination of the protective state of vaccinated fish using oral immunizations. This state was measured by the association of the concentration of the immunoglobulin M (IgM in the serum and the mortality rate of vaccinated fish. Salmonids were vaccinated with different commercial mono- or polyvalent vaccines against SRS and ISAv, first by the intraperitoneal injection of oil-adjuvanted antigens and then by the stimulation of mucosal immunity using oral vaccines as booster. The results showed that high levels of specific IgM antibodies were observed after injectable vaccination, reaching a maximum concentration at 600-800 degree-days. Similar levels of antibodies were observed when oral immunizations were administrated. The high concentration of antibodies (above 2750 ng/mL for ISAv and 3500 ng/mL for SRS was maintained for a period of 800 degree-days after each vaccination procedure. In this regard, oral immunizations maintained a long-term high concentration of anti-SRS and anti-ISAv specific IgM antibodies. When the concentration of antibodies decreased below 2000 pg/mL, a window of susceptibility to SRS infection was observed in the farm, suggesting the close association between antibody levels and fish protective status. These results demonstrated that, in the field, several oral immunizations are essential to uphold a high level of specific anti-pathogens antibodies and, therefore, a protective status during the whole productive cycle.

  4. Localization of actin in Moloney murine leukemia virus by immunoelectron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nermut, M V; Wallengren, K; Pager, J

    1999-07-20

    Immunoelectron microscopy was used to detect actin in wild-type (wt) Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMuLV) and in virus-like particles (VLP) produced by recombinant Semliki Forest virus expressing only the MoMuLV gag polyprotein. Gold immunolabeling revealed the presence of actin on the surface of delipidized VLP and delipidized wt virus particles. Statistical evaluation of the number of colloidal gold particles per VLP revealed a large range of values and a prevalence of VLP with small numbers of gold particles. Labeling for actin was lost after prolonged treatment of VLP with 1% Nonidet-P40, high-pH buffer, or gelsolin. Gold immunolabeling with antibodies to gag proteins p15 (MA) and p12 and p30 (CA) was abundant and was not affected by treatment of VLP or wt virus with 1% Nonidet or gelsolin. VLP treated with a mixture of detergent and aldehyde fixatives showed more uniform and consistent labeling for actin than without fixatives. Negative staining or heavy metal shadowing revealed a globular surface of delipidized VLP. Stereomicrographs of gold-immunolabeled VLP showed that p15gag and p12gag were associated with the globular projections. Delipidized VLP were also well labeled with antibody to p30gag, which indicated that the gag shell permitted access of antibodies to p30gag and was therefore not a closely packed structure. Labeling for actin-binding proteins moesin and ezrin was negative in both the wt virus and the VLP. The absence of Gaussian distribution of actin in the sample of VLP suggests that actin is not a structural protein and its presence in MuLV virus particles may be fortuitous. This, however, does not rule out any possible role of actin in transport, assembly, budding, or release of virus particles, events which take place in the cytoplasm or at the plasma membrane. The site of actin in VLP is discussed in relation to the present knowledge of the molecular organization of the MuLV gag shell.

  5. Modelling local dispersal of Bluetongue virus serotype 8 using random walk.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbier, G.; Baldet, T.; Tran, A.; Hendrickx, G.; Guis, H.; Mintiens, K.; Elbers, A.R.W.; Staubach, C.

    2008-01-01

    The knowledge of the place where a disease is first introduced and from where it later spreads is a key element for the understanding of an epizootic. For a contagious disease, the main method is back tracing. For a vector-borne disease such as the Bluetongue virus serotype 8 epizootic that occurred

  6. Local interleukin-10 production during respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis is associated with post-bronchiolitis wheeze

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurhof, Annemieke; Janssen, Riny; de Groot, Hanneke; Hodemaekers, Hennie M.; de Klerk, Arja; Kimpen, Jan L. L.; Bont, Louis

    2011-01-01

    Background: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of bronchiolitis in infants. Following RSV bronchiolitis, 50% of children develop post-bronchiolitis wheeze (PBW). Animal studies have suggested that interleukin (IL)-10 plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of RSV bronchioli

  7. Local interleukin-10 production during respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis is associated with post-bronchiolitis wheeze

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurhof, Annemieke; Janssen, Riny; de Groot, Hanneke; Hodemaekers, Hennie M.; de Klerk, Arja; Kimpen, Jan L. L.; Bont, Louis

    2011-01-01

    Background: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of bronchiolitis in infants. Following RSV bronchiolitis, 50% of children develop post-bronchiolitis wheeze (PBW). Animal studies have suggested that interleukin (IL)-10 plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of RSV

  8. Localization of Avian Influenza Virus in Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Chicken Tissues by In Situ Hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wan-po; GU Chang-qin; BI Ding-ren; SONG Nian-hua; CHENG Guo-fu

    2005-01-01

    In this study, in situ hybridization (ISH) was developed to detect avian influenza virus (AIV) in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded chicken tissues. A cDNA probe corresponding to a region of AIV nucleoprotein (NP) gene was synthesized and labeled with digoxigenin. Probe specificity was determined by AIV infected MDCK cells in vitro and the results showed that strong cytoplasmic staining was only detected in AIV-infected cells. Various tissues were collected from 12 h to 3 5 days post-infection (PI) following inoculation with the H9N2 subtype AIV. AIV was localized in the epithelial cells of the duodenum and cartilage of the throat and trachea at 12 h PI. Tissues from uninfected chickens were negative. The finding of this study indicated ISH was a sensitive and specific technique to detect and localize AIV as well as to study AIV pathogenesis.

  9. Efficacy of coronary artery reconstruction in maintaining myocardial viability. Quntitative determination of local myocardial circulation with {sup 13}NH{sub 3} myocardial positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Satoshi; Takaba, Toshihiro [Showa Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine; Kume, Masato; Kashima, Toshitaka; Michihata, Tetsuro

    1996-04-01

    Thirty patients (280 areas) whose bypass grafts remained patent after surgical reconstruction of the coronary artery were examined. Before and after reconstruction, local myocardial blood circulation in infarcted regions and post-stenotic regions was measured by {sup 13}NH{sub 3} myocardial positron emission computed tomography (PET) at rest or during physical exercise in order to evaluate the efficacy of coronary artery reconstruction. Before operation, mean blood flow in post-stenotic regions (n=198) was 65{+-}15 ml/min/100 g at rest and 85{+-}23 ml/min/100 g during exercise. After coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), mean blood flow was increased to 78{+-}21 ml/min/100 g at rest (p, 0.01) and 105{+-}32 ml/min/100 g during exercise (p<0.01). In infarcted regions (n=82), mean blood flow before operation was 51{+-}23 ml/min/100 g at rest and 69{+-}23 ml/min/100 g during exercise. After CABG, it increased to 62{+-}19 ml/min/100 g at rest (p<0.01) and 81{+-}29 ml/min/100 g during exercise (p<0.01). Thus, significant increases in blood flow were observed in both post-stenotic and infarcted regions at rest and physical exercise after operation. The regions of infarction were divided into three groups based on local myocardial blood flow at rest before operation: Group I: greater than 45 ml/min/100 g (n=35); Group II: less than 45 ml/min/100 g (n=30) but greater than 30 ml/min/100 g; and Group III: less than 30 ml/min/100 g (n=30). The efficacy of reconstruction was compared among these groups. The group with preoperative myocardial blood flow greater than 30 ml/min/100 g had increased blood flow after operation, indicating myocardial viability. (author).

  10. Seroepizootiological investigations of animals from Obedska bara locality for presence of Avian influenza virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đuričić Bosiljka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The disease caused by Influenza viruses has been well known for a very long time. In the recent period there has been noted an occurrence of pandemics caused by Influenza viruses type A with a high rate of mortality. The ongoing pandemic caused by avian influenza virus serotype H9N9 began in Hong Kong in 1992, and another pandemic caused by serotype H5N1 began in China (Hong Kong in 1999. The world wide spreading of these viruses occurred due to migratory birds. Avian influenza was confirmed in Serbia in 2007. The goal of this study was to examine whether the avian influenza viruses type A circulate in the region of the Obedska bara marsh, which is a famous resort for many birds in Serbia, as well as many birds migrating from Europe to Africa and vice versa. The samples of blood sera of many animal species (123 samples from fowl, 64 samples from donkeys, 40 samples from horses were tested by serologic reaction of inhibition of haemmaglutination (IHA for the presence of antibodies to influenza A subtypes H5N1, H5N2, H5N3, H7N1 and H7N2. Also, the samples of blood sera of experimental chicken exposed to wild life in Obedska bara (sentinel species were tested. Antibodies to subtypes H5N1, H5N2, H5N3, H7N1 and H7N2 were found in chicken from Dec, Boljevci, Petrovcic and Kupinovo villages but no antibodies were found in blood sera from hams from Dobanovci, Jakovo, Becmen and Surcin villages. From 23 samples from ducks antibodies were detected in 3 samples, and from 22 geese blood sera antibodies were found in 4 samples. From a total of 40 horse blood sera tested one was tested positive, and from 64 donkey sera 17 were positive for the presence of antibodies for avian influenza type A. In blood sera of experimental chicken antibodies were found by subtype H5N1 with corrections with H5N2 and H7N1.

  11. Identification and Characterization of Nuclear Localization Signals within the Nucleocapsid Protein VP15 of White Spot Syndrome Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-juan LI; Hua-jun ZHANG; Cong ZHANG; Zheng-li SHI

    2009-01-01

    The nucleocapsid protein VP15 of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a basic DNA-binding protein. Three canonical bipartite nuclear localization signals (NLSs), called NLS1 (aa 11-27), NLS2 (aa 33-49) and NLS3 (44-60), have been detected in this protein, using the ScanProsite computer program. To determine the nuclear localization sequence of VP15, the full-length open reading frame, or the sequence of one of the three NLSs, was fused to the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene, and transiently expressed in insect Sf9 cells. Transfection with full-length VP15 resulted in GFP fluorescence being distributed exclusively in the nucleus. NLS 1 alone could also direct GFP to the nucleus, but less efficiently. Neither of the other two NLSs (NLS2 and 3) was functional when expressed alone, but exhibited similar activity to NLS1 when they were expressed as a fusion peptide. Furthermore, a mutated VP15, in which the two basic amino acids (11RR12) of NLSI were changed to two alanines (11AA12), caused GFP to be localized only in the cytoplasm of Sf9 cells. These results demonstrated that VP15, as a nuclear localization protein, needs cooperation between its three NLSs, and that the two residues (11RR12) of NLS1 play a key role in transporting the protein to the nucleus.

  12. The zebrafish tailbud contains two independent populations of midline progenitor cells that maintain long-term germ layer plasticity and differentiate in response to local signaling cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Row, Richard H; Tsotras, Steve R; Goto, Hana; Martin, Benjamin L

    2016-01-15

    Vertebrate body axis formation depends on a population of bipotential neuromesodermal cells along the posterior wall of the tailbud that make a germ layer decision after gastrulation to form spinal cord and mesoderm. Despite exhibiting germ layer plasticity, these cells never give rise to midline tissues of the notochord, floor plate and dorsal endoderm, raising the question of whether midline tissues also arise from basal posterior progenitors after gastrulation. We show in zebrafish that local posterior signals specify germ layer fate in two basal tailbud midline progenitor populations. Wnt signaling induces notochord within a population of notochord/floor plate bipotential cells through negative transcriptional regulation of sox2. Notch signaling, required for hypochord induction during gastrulation, continues to act in the tailbud to specify hypochord from a notochord/hypochord bipotential cell population. Our results lend strong support to a continuous allocation model of midline tissue formation in zebrafish, and provide an embryological basis for zebrafish and mouse bifurcated notochord phenotypes as well as the rare human congenital split notochord syndrome. We demonstrate developmental equivalency between the tailbud progenitor cell populations. Midline progenitors can be transfated from notochord to somite fate after gastrulation by ectopic expression of msgn1, a master regulator of paraxial mesoderm fate, or if transplanted into the bipotential progenitors that normally give rise to somites. Our results indicate that the entire non-epidermal posterior body is derived from discrete, basal tailbud cell populations. These cells remain receptive to extracellular cues after gastrulation and continue to make basic germ layer decisions. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. Membrane-bound steel factor maintains a high local concentration for mouse primordial germ cell motility, and defines the region of their migration.

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    Ying Gu

    Full Text Available Steel factor, the protein product of the Steel locus in the mouse, is a multifunctional signal for the primordial germ cell population. We have shown previously that its expression accompanies the germ cells during migration to the gonads, forming a "travelling niche" that controls their survival, motility, and proliferation. Here we show that these functions are distributed between the alternatively spliced membrane-bound and soluble forms of Steel factor. The germ cells normally migrate as individuals from E7.5 to E11.5, when they aggregate together in the embryonic gonads. Movie analysis of Steel-dickie mutant embryos, which make only the soluble form, at E7.5, showed that the germ cells fail to migrate normally, and undergo "premature aggregation" in the base of the allantois. Survival and directionality of movement is not affected. Addition of excess soluble Steel factor to Steel-dickie embryos rescued germ cell motility, and addition of Steel factor to germ cells in vitro showed that a fourfold higher dose was required to increase motility, compared to survival. These data show that soluble Steel factor is sufficient for germ cell survival, and suggest that the membrane-bound form provides a higher local concentration of Steel factor that controls the balance between germ cell motility and aggregation. This hypothesis was tested by addition of excess soluble Steel factor to slice cultures of E11.5 embryos, when migration usually ceases, and the germ cells aggregate. This reversed the aggregation process, and caused increased motility of the germ cells. We conclude that the two forms of Steel factor control different aspects of germ cell behavior, and that membrane-bound Steel factor controls germ cell motility within a "motility niche" that moves through the embryo with the germ cells. Escape from this niche causes cessation of motility and death by apoptosis of the ectopic germ cells.

  14. Seroprevalence of Avian Leukosis Virus Antigen Using ELISA Technique in Exotic Broilers and Nigerian Local Chickens in Zaria, Nigeria

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    N. A. Sani

    Full Text Available In an attempt to determine the seroprevalence of avian leukosis virus (ALV in exotic broiler chickens and Nigerian local chickens in Zaria, Nigeria, a total of 600 sera (300 from exotic broiler chickens and 300 from Nigerian local chickens, obtained from the live bird market in Zaria, Nigeria, were tested for ALV p27 antigen by the antigen capture-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ac-ELISA technique. The age range of the Nigerian local chickens sampled in this study was 6 – 24 months, while that of the exotic broiler chickens used in this study was 2-3 months. Fourteen out of the 300 sera obtained from the exotic broiler chickens tested positive to ALV p27 antigen, which represents 4.70%, while 180 of the 300 Nigerian local chicken sera were confirmed positive to the antigen, representing 60.00%. Thirteen (92.86% of the fourteen sera from the exotic broiler chickens were lowly positive (ELISA Units range of 10-20% to ALV p27 antigen, while only one (7.14% serum sample was moderately positive to ALV p27 antigen with an ELISA Unit of 29.33%. Of the 180 sera from the Nigerian local chickens that tested positive to ALV p27 antigen , 79 (43.89% were lowly positive with ELISA Units ranging from 10.67% to 21.33%, while 101 (56.11% serum samples were moderately positive to ALV p27 antigen with ELISA Units ranging from 28.0% to 73.33%. A higher seroprevalence of ALV was detected in Nigerian local chickens than the exotic broiler chickens. [Vet. World 2011; 4(8.000: 345-348

  15. Local impact of temperature and precipitation on West Nile virus infection in Culex species mosquitoes in northeast Illinois, USA

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    Haramis Linn

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Models of the effects of environmental factors on West Nile virus disease risk have yielded conflicting outcomes. The role of precipitation has been especially difficult to discern from existing studies, due in part to habitat and behavior characteristics of specific vector species and because of differences in the temporal and spatial scales of the published studies. We used spatial and statistical modeling techniques to analyze and forecast fine scale spatial (2000 m grid and temporal (weekly patterns of West Nile virus mosquito infection relative to changing weather conditions in the urban landscape of the greater Chicago, Illinois, region for the years from 2004 to 2008. Results Increased air temperature was the strongest temporal predictor of increased infection in Culex pipiens and Culex restuans mosquitoes, with cumulative high temperature differences being a key factor distinguishing years with higher mosquito infection and higher human illness rates from those with lower rates. Drier conditions in the spring followed by wetter conditions just prior to an increase in infection were factors in some but not all years. Overall, 80% of the weekly variation in mosquito infection was explained by prior weather conditions. Spatially, lower precipitation was the most important variable predicting stronger mosquito infection; precipitation and temperature alone could explain the pattern of spatial variability better than could other environmental variables (79% explained in the best model. Variables related to impervious surfaces and elevation differences were of modest importance in the spatial model. Conclusion Finely grained temporal and spatial patterns of precipitation and air temperature have a consistent and significant impact on the timing and location of increased mosquito infection in the northeastern Illinois study area. The use of local weather data at multiple monitoring locations and the integration of mosquito

  16. Local Mutational Pressures in Genomes of Zaire Ebolavirus and Marburg Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav Victorovich Khrustalev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Heterogeneities in nucleotide content distribution along the length of Zaire ebolavirus and Marburg virus genomes have been analyzed. Results showed that there is asymmetric mutational A-pressure in the majority of Zaire ebolavirus genes; there is mutational AC-pressure in the coding region of the matrix protein VP40, probably, caused by its high expression at the end of the infection process; there is also AC-pressure in the 3′-part of the nucleoprotein (NP coding gene associated with low amount of secondary structure formed by the 3′-part of its mRNA; in the middle of the glycoprotein (GP coding gene that kind of mutational bias is linked with the high amount of secondary structure formed by the corresponding fragment of RNA negative (− strand; there is relatively symmetric mutational AU-pressure in the polymerase (Pol coding gene caused by its low expression level. In Marburg virus all genes, including C-rich fragment of GP coding region, demonstrate asymmetric mutational A-bias, while the last gene (Pol demonstrates more symmetric mutational AU-pressure. The hypothesis of a newly synthesized RNA negative (− strand shielding by complementary fragments of mRNAs has been described in this work: shielded fragments of RNA negative (− strand should be better protected from oxidative damage and prone to ADAR-editing.

  17. Adaptation to abiotic conditions drives local adaptation in bacteria and viruses coevolving in heterogeneous environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorter, Florien A; Scanlan, Pauline D; Buckling, Angus

    2016-02-01

    Parasite local adaptation, the greater performance of parasites on their local compared with foreign hosts, has important consequences for the maintenance of diversity and epidemiology. While the abiotic environment may significantly affect local adaptation, most studies to date have failed either to incorporate the effects of the abiotic environment, or to separate them from those of the biotic environment. Here, we tease apart biotic and abiotic components of local adaptation using the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens and its viral parasite bacteriophage Φ2. We coevolved replicate populations of bacteria and phages at three different temperatures, and determined their performance against coevolutionary partners from the same and different temperatures. Crucially, we measured performance at different assay temperatures, which allowed us to disentangle adaptation to biotic and abiotic habitat components. Our results show that bacteria and phages are more resistant and infectious, respectively, at the temperature at which they previously coevolved, confirming that local adaptation to abiotic conditions can play a crucial role in determining parasite infectivity and host resistance. Our work underlines the need to assess host-parasite interactions across multiple relevant abiotic environments, and suggests that microbial adaption to local temperatures can create ecological barriers to dispersal across temperature gradients.

  18. Tissue localization of Toll-like receptors in biopsy specimens of liver from children infected with hepatitis C virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozer-Lisewska, I; Sluzewski, W; Kaczmarek, M; Jenek, R; Szczepanski, M; Figlerowicz, M; Kowala-Piaskowska, A; Zeromski, J

    2005-10-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLR) are important tools of innate immunity, localized mainly on cells of the immune system, but also have been shown on cells of other origin. In the current study, they have been searched in biopsy specimens of liver from children bearing chronic viral hepatitis of C type (HCV). TLR2, TLR3 and TLR4 were traced by means of polyclonal antibodies and avidin-biotin complex (ABC) immunohistochemistry. Besides, mRNA for TLR was looked for using specific primers and polymerase chain reaction. Several controls, including neutralization of primary antibody with respective blocking peptide, confirmed the specificity of the immunohistochemical reaction. All TLR tested could be visualized in a focal distribution in single hepatocytes and some cells of inflammatory infiltrates. There was no reaction whatsoever in liver samples not infected with hepatotropic virus. In molecular studies, mRNA for TLR2 and TLR4 was detected in both noninfected and hepatitis B virus-infected established cell lines of human hepatoma as well as in HCV(+) biopsy samples. These data indicate that TLR can be traced in liver cells, both at the protein and at the mRNA level. Their irregular and focal distribution in HCV(+), but not in HCV(-), liver suggests some role of TLR in the pathogenesis of chronic viral hepatitis, at least in children.

  19. Impact of Plasma Epstein-Barr Virus-DNA and Tumor Volume on Prognosis of Locally Advanced Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

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    Meng Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This retrospective study aims to examine the association of plasma Epstein-Barr virus- (EBV- DNA levels with the tumor volume and prognosis in patients with locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC. A total of 165 patients with newly diagnosed locally advanced NPC were identified from September 2011 to July 2012. EBV-DNA was detected using fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR amplification. The tumor volume was calculated by the systematic summation method of computer software. The median copy number of plasma EBV-DNA before treatment was 3790 copies/mL. The median gross tumor volume of the primary nasopharyngeal tumor (GTVnx, the lymph node lesions (GTVnd, and the total GTV before treatment were 72.46, 23.26, and 106.25 cm3, respectively; the EBV-DNA levels were significantly correlated with the GTVnd and the total GTV (P<0.01. The 2-year overall survival (OS rates in patients with positive and negative pretreatment plasma EBV-DNA were 100% and 98.4% (P=1.000, and the disease-free survival (DFS rates were 94.4% and 80.8% (P=0.044, respectively. These results indicate that high pretreatment plasma EBV-DNA levels in patients with locally advanced NPC are associated with the degree of lymph node metastasis, tumor burden, and poor prognosis.

  20. USEFULNESS OF THE GRAPEVINE VIRUS-INFECTED COLLECTION

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    Elena-Cocuţa Buciumeanu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to use the virus-infected material as reference in various studies, a grapevine virus collection was established at NRDIBH Ştefănşti-Argeş. The vines are infected with 1-3 of the main specific viruses of this crop: fanleaf virus, leafroll associated virus serotypes 1+3, fleck virus and virus A. Different lots of plants belonging to the same cultivar are infected with different viruses. The own rooted or grafted potted plants are maintained in an insect-proof greenhouse. The main goals of the study of grapevine under the influence of virus infection had in view: symptoms, in vitro behaviour of virus infected grapevine, virus elimination, plant positive control in the diagnostic process. The symptoms produced by viral infection can affect the whole plant (systemic symptoms or they are visible on certain parts of the plant (local symptoms. In vitro studies of virus infected grapevines comparatively with the healthy material aimed with the quantitative and qualitative aspects of the culture: multiplication and rooting rates, shoots elongation, abnormal cuttings and vitrification phenomena. Infected grapevine cultivars and clones were subjected to virus elimination through thermotherapy, chemotherapy or electrotherapy, combined with in vitro culture. The diagnosis of leafroll, fleck, vein necrosis and corky bark diseases have been done by in vitro micrografting, as rapid biological method of virus detection. Samples collected from infected vines were used as material testing for virus detection by ELISA in inter-laboratory comparisons and Iaboratory-performed validation.

  1. Processing and intracellular localization of rice stripe virus Pc2 protein in insect cells

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    Zhao, Shuling; Zhang, Gaozhan; Dai, Xuejuan; Hou, Yanling; Li, Min [College of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009 (China); Liang, Jiansheng, E-mail: jsliang@yzu.edu.cn [College of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009 (China); Liang, Changyong, E-mail: cyliang@yzu.edu.cn [College of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009 (China)

    2012-08-01

    Rice stripe virus (RSV) belongs to the genus Tenuivirus and its genome consists of four single-stranded RNAs encoding seven proteins. Here, we have analyzed the processing and membrane association of Pc2 encoded by vcRNA2 in insect cells. The enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) was fused to the Pc2 and used for the detection of Pc2 fusion proteins. The results showed that Pc2 was cleaved to produce two proteins named Pc2-N and Pc2-C. When expressed alone, either Pc2-N or Pc2-C could transport to the Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes independently. Further mutagenesis studies revealed that Pc2 contained three ER-targeting domains. The results led us to propose a model for the topology of the Pc2 in which an internal signal peptide immediately followed a cleavage site, and two transmembrane regions are contained.

  2. Localization of deformed wing virus infection in queen and drone Apis mellifera L

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    Colin Marc

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The distribution of deformed wing virus infection within the honey bee reproductive castes (queens, drones was investigated by in situ hybridization and immunohistology from paraffin embedded sections. Digoxygenin or CY5.5 fluorochrome end-labelled nucleotide probes hybridizing to the 3' portion of the DWV genome were used to identify DWV RNA, while a monospecific antibody to the DWV-VP1 structural protein was used to identify viral proteins and particles. The histological data were confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR of dissected organs. Results showed that DWV infection is not restricted to the digestive tract of the bee but spread in the whole body, including queen ovaries, queen fat body and drone seminal vesicles.

  3. Localization of deformed wing virus infection in queen and drone Apis mellifera L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fievet, Julie; Tentcheva, Diana; Gauthier, Laurent; de Miranda, Joachim; Cousserans, François; Colin, Marc Edouard; Bergoin, Max

    2006-03-28

    The distribution of deformed wing virus infection within the honey bee reproductive castes (queens, drones) was investigated by in situ hybridization and immunohistology from paraffin embedded sections. Digoxygenin or CY5.5 fluorochrome end-labelled nucleotide probes hybridizing to the 3' portion of the DWV genome were used to identify DWV RNA, while a monospecific antibody to the DWV-VP1 structural protein was used to identify viral proteins and particles. The histological data were confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR of dissected organs. Results showed that DWV infection is not restricted to the digestive tract of the bee but spread in the whole body, including queen ovaries, queen fat body and drone seminal vesicles.

  4. local

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    Abílio Amiguinho

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of socio-educational territorialisation in rural contexts is the topic of this text. The theme corresponds to a challenge to address it having as main axis of discussion either the problem of social exclusion or that of local development. The reasons to locate the discussion in this last field of analysis are discussed in the first part of the text. Theoretical and political reasons are there articulated because the question is about projects whose intentions and practices call for the political both in the theoretical debate and in the choices that anticipate intervention. From research conducted for several years, I use contributions that aim at discuss and enlighten how school can be a potential locus of local development. Its identification and recognition as local institution (either because of those that work and live in it or because of those that act in the surrounding context are crucial steps to progressively constitute school as a partner for development. The promotion of the local values and roots, the reconstruction of socio-personal and local identities, the production of sociabilities and the equation and solution of shared problems were the dimensions of a socio-educative intervention, markedly globalising. This scenario, as it is argued, was also, intentionally, one of transformation and of deliberate change of school and of the administration of the educative territoires.

  5. A nuclear localization of the infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus NV protein is necessary for optimal viral growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, M.K.; Moon, C.H.; Ko, M.S.; Lee, U.-H.; Cho, W.J.; Cha, S.J.; Do, J.W.; Heo, G.J.; Jeong, S.G.; Hahm, Y.S.; Harmache, A.; Bremont, M.; Kurath, G.; Park, J.-W.

    2011-01-01

    The nonvirion (NV) protein of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) has been previously reported to be essential for efficient growth and pathogenicity of IHNV. However, little is known about the mechanism by which the NV supports the viral growth. In this study, cellular localization of NV and its role in IHNV growth in host cells was investigated. Through transient transfection in RTG-2 cells of NV fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP), a nuclear localization of NV was demonstrated. Deletion analyses showed that the 32EGDL35 residues were essential for nuclear localization of NV protein, and fusion of these 4 amino acids to GFP directed its transport to the nucleus. We generated a recombinant IHNV, rIHNV-NV-ΔEGDL in which the 32EGDL35 was deleted from the NV. rIHNVs with wild-type NV (rIHNV-NV) or with the NV gene replaced with GFP (rIHNV-ΔNV-GFP) were used as controls. RTG-2 cells infected with rIHNV-ΔNV-GFP and rIHNV-NV-ΔEGDL yielded 12- and 5-fold less infectious virion, respectively, than wild type rIHNV-infected cells at 48 h post-infection (p.i.). While treatment with poly I:C at 24 h p.i. did not inhibit replication of wild-type rIHNVs, replication rates of rIHNV-ΔNV-GFP and rIHNV-NV-ΔEGDL were inhibited by poly I:C. In addition, both rIHNV-ΔNV and rIHNV-NV-ΔEGDL induced higher levels of expressions of both IFN1 and Mx1 than wild-type rIHNV. These data suggest that the IHNV NV may support the growth of IHNV through inhibition of the INF system and the amino acid residues of 32EGDL35 responsible for nuclear localization are important for the inhibitory activity of NV.

  6. A nuclear localization of the infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus NV protein is necessary for optimal viral growth.

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    Myeong Kyu Choi

    Full Text Available The nonvirion (NV protein of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV has been previously reported to be essential for efficient growth and pathogenicity of IHNV. However, little is known about the mechanism by which the NV supports the viral growth. In this study, cellular localization of NV and its role in IHNV growth in host cells was investigated. Through transient transfection in RTG-2 cells of NV fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP, a nuclear localization of NV was demonstrated. Deletion analyses showed that the (32EGDL(35 residues were essential for nuclear localization of NV protein, and fusion of these 4 amino acids to GFP directed its transport to the nucleus. We generated a recombinant IHNV, rIHNV-NV-ΔEGDL in which the (32EGDL(35 was deleted from the NV. rIHNVs with wild-type NV (rIHNV-NV or with the NV gene replaced with GFP (rIHNV-ΔNV-GFP were used as controls. RTG-2 cells infected with rIHNV-ΔNV-GFP and rIHNV-NV-ΔEGDL yielded 12- and 5-fold less infectious virion, respectively, than wild type rIHNV-infected cells at 48 h post-infection (p.i.. While treatment with poly I∶C at 24 h p.i. did not inhibit replication of wild-type rIHNVs, replication rates of rIHNV-ΔNV-GFP and rIHNV-NV-ΔEGDL were inhibited by poly I∶C. In addition, both rIHNV-ΔNV and rIHNV-NV-ΔEGDL induced higher levels of expressions of both IFN1 and Mx1 than wild-type rIHNV. These data suggest that the IHNV NV may support the growth of IHNV through inhibition of the INF system and the amino acid residues of (32EGDL(35 responsible for nuclear localization are important for the inhibitory activity of NV.

  7. Persistent foot-and-mouth disease virus infection in the nasopharynx of cattle: tissue-specific distribution and local cytokine expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissues obtained post-mortem from cattle persistently infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) were analyzed to characterize the tissue-specific localization of FMDV and partial transcriptome profiles for selected immunoregulatory cytokines. Analysis of 28 distinct anatomic sites from 21 st...

  8. Sulfated fucan oligosaccharides elicit defense responses in tobacco and local and systemic resistance against tobacco mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klarzynski, Olivier; Descamps, Valérie; Plesse, Bertrand; Yvin, Jean-Claude; Kloareg, Bernard; Fritig, Bernard

    2003-02-01

    Sulfated fucans are common structural components of the cell walls of marine brown algae. Using a fucan-degrading hydrolase isolated from a marine bacterium, we prepared sulfated fucan oligosaccharides made of mono- and disulfated fucose units alternatively bound by alpha-1,4 and alpha-1,3 glycosidic linkages, respectively. Here, we report on the elicitor activity of such fucan oligosaccharide preparations in tobacco. In suspension cell cultures, oligofucans at the dose of 200 microg ml(-1) rapidly induced a marked alkalinization of the extracellular medium and the release of hydrogen peroxide. This was followed within a few hours by a strong stimulation of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and lipoxygenase activities. Tobacco leaves treated with oligofucans locally accumulated salicylic acid (SA) and the phytoalexin scopoletin and expressed several pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins, but they displayed no symptoms of cell death. Fucan oligosaccharides also induced the systemic accumulation of SA and the acidic PR protein PR-1, two markers of systemic acquired resistance (SAR). Consistently, fucan oligosaccharides strongly stimulated both local and systemic resistance to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). The use of transgenic plants unable to accumulate SA indicated that, as in the SAR primed by TMV, SA is required for the establishment of oligofucan-induced resistance.

  9. Key motifs in EBV (Epstein-Barr virus)-encoded protein kinase for phosphorylation activity and nuclear localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershburg, Svetlana; Murphy, Leann; Marschall, Manfred; Gershburg, Edward

    2010-10-15

    A sole EBV (Epstein-Barr virus)-encoded protein kinase (EBV-PK) (the BGLF4 gene product) plays important roles in viral infection. Although a number of targets of this protein have been identified, the kinase itself remains largely unstudied with regard to its enzymology and structure. In the present study, site-directed mutagenesis has been employed to generate mutations targeting residues involved in nuclear localization of the EBV-PK, core residues in subdomain III of the protein kinase domain conserved in most protein kinases or residues in subdomain VIa conserved only within the HPK (herpesvirus-encoded protein kinase) group. Deletion of amino acids 389-391 resulted in exclusive cytoplasmic localization of the protein, indicating the involvement of this region in nuclear translocation of the EBV-PK. Mutations at the amino acids Glu113 (core component), Phe175, Leu178, Phe184, Leu185 and Asn186 (conserved in HPKs) resulted in loss of EBV-PK autophosphorylation, protein substrate [EBV EA-D (early antigen diffused)] phosphorylation, and ability to facilitate ganciclovir phosphorylation. These results reiterate the unique features of this group of kinases and present an opportunity for designing more specific antiviral compounds.

  10. Immunohistochemical localization of human papilloma virus in conjunctival neoplasias: A retrospective study

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    Sen Seema

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The extent of association of human papilloma virus (HPV in human conjunctival neoplasias has been debated in studies originating from different parts of the world, but no substantial evidence has been generated on Indian subjects. This prompted us to carry out a retrospective study on conjunctival neoplasias diagnosed over the past 12 years. Materials and Methods: Histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis of 65 specimens of ocular neoplasias and 30 normal controls diagnosed between 1991 and 2002 at a tertiary eye care hospital, was undertaken. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues were reviewed for confirming histopathological diagnosis, presence of koilocytosis and changes related to actinic keratosis. Immunohistochemical analysis was done using HPV-specific monoclonal antibodies. Clinicopathological correlation and the association of HPV antigen with the histopathological features were performed. Results: Out of the 65 cases analyzed, 35 were papillomas and 30 were ocular surface squamous neoplasias (OSSN. The mean age was 48 years with a male preponderance. Histologically, koilocytosis was observed in 17.1% of papillomas and 36.6% of OSSN. Actinic keratosis was present in 33% of OSSN. Immunohistochemically 17.1% conjunctival papillomas stained positive for HPV antigen, all cases of OSSN were negative for HPV. There was no correlation between koilocytosis or actinic keratosis and the detection of HPV antigen. Conclusions: The association between HPV and conjunctival neoplasias is variable in different geographical areas and also depends on the methods of detection used. This study warrants the need for applying more advanced techniques at a molecular level to determine the possible etiology of HPV in conjunctival neoplasias among Asian-Indians.

  11. Immunohistochemical localization of human papilloma virus in conjunctival neoplasias: A retrospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anjana; Panda, Anita

    2007-01-01

    Background: The extent of association of human papilloma virus (HPV) in human conjunctival neoplasias has been debated in studies originating from different parts of the world, but no substantial evidence has been generated on Indian subjects. This prompted us to carry out a retrospective study on conjunctival neoplasias diagnosed over the past 12 years. Materials and Methods: Histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis of 65 specimens of ocular neoplasias and 30 normal controls diagnosed between 1991 and 2002 at a tertiary eye care hospital, was undertaken. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues were reviewed for confirming histopathological diagnosis, presence of koilocytosis and changes related to actinic keratosis. Immunohistochemical analysis was done using HPV-specific monoclonal antibodies. Clinicopathological correlation and the association of HPV antigen with the histopathological features were performed. Results: Out of the 65 cases analyzed, 35 were papillomas and 30 were ocular surface squamous neoplasias (OSSN). The mean age was 48 years with a male preponderance. Histologically, koilocytosis was observed in 17.1% of papillomas and 36.6% of OSSN. Actinic keratosis was present in 33% of OSSN. Immunohistochemically 17.1% conjunctival papillomas stained positive for HPV antigen, all cases of OSSN were negative for HPV. There was no correlation between koilocytosis or actinic keratosis and the detection of HPV antigen. Conclusions: The association between HPV and conjunctival neoplasias is variable in different geographical areas and also depends on the methods of detection used. This study warrants the need for applying more advanced techniques at a molecular level to determine the possible etiology of HPV in conjunctival neoplasias among Asian-Indians. PMID:17699945

  12. Functional characterization of nuclear localization and export signals in hepatitis C virus proteins and their role in the membranous web.

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    Aviad Levin

    Full Text Available The hepatitis C virus (HCV is a positive strand RNA virus of the Flavivirus family that replicates in the cytoplasm of infected hepatocytes. Previously, several nuclear localization signals (NLS and nuclear export signals (NES have been identified in HCV proteins, however, there is little evidence that these proteins travel into the nucleus during infection. We have recently shown that nuclear pore complex (NPC proteins (termed nucleoporins or Nups are present in the membranous web and are required during HCV infection. In this study, we identify a total of 11 NLS and NES sequences in various HCV proteins. We show direct interactions between HCV proteins and importin α5 (IPOA5/kapα1, importin β3 (IPO5/kap β3, and exportin 1 (XPO1/CRM1 both in-vitro and in cell culture. These interactions can be disrupted using peptides containing the specific NLS or NES sequences of HCV proteins. Moreover, using a synchronized infection system, we show that these peptides inhibit HCV infection during distinct phases of the HCV life cycle. The inhibitory effects of these peptides place them in two groups. The first group binds IPOA5 and inhibits infection during the replication stage of HCV life cycle. The second group binds IPO5 and is active during both early replication and early assembly. This work delineates the entire life cycle of HCV and the active involvement of NLS sequences during HCV replication and assembly. Given the abundance of NLS sequences within HCV proteins, our previous finding that Nups play a role in HCV infection, and the relocation of the NLS double-GFP reporter in HCV infected cells, this work supports our previous hypothesis that NPC-like structures and nuclear transport factors function in the membranous web to create an environment conducive to viral replication.

  13. The Nerium oleander aphid Aphis nerii is tolerant to a local isolate of Aphid lethal paralysis virus (ALPV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrovsky, Aviv; Luria, Neta

    2013-04-01

    In a survey that was conducted during the year 2011, a local strain of Aphid lethal paralysis virus (ALPV) was identified and isolated from a wild population of Aphis nerii aphids living on Nerium oleander plants located in northern Israel. The new strain was tentatively named (ALPV-An). RNA extracted from the viral particles allowed the amplification and determination of the complete genome sequence. The virus genome is comprised of 9835 nucleotides. In a BLAST search analysis, the ALPV-An sequence showed 89 % nucleotide sequence identity with the whole genome of a South African ALPV and 96 and 94 % amino acid sequence identity with the ORF1 and ORF2 of that strain, respectively. In preliminary experiments, spray-applied, purified ALPV virions were highly pathogenic to the green peach aphid Myzus persicae; 95 % mortality was recorded 4 days post-infection. These preliminary results demonstrate the potential of ALPV for use as a biologic agent for some aphid control. Surprisingly, no visible ALPV pathogenic effects, such as morphological changes or paralysis, were observed in the A. nerii aphids infected with ALPV-An. The absence of clear ALPV symptoms in A. nerii led to the formulation of two hypotheses, which were partially examined in this study. The first hypothesis suggest that A. nerii is resistant or tolerant of ALPV, while the second hypothesis propose that ALPV-An may be a mild strain of ALPV. Currently, our results is in favor with the first hypothesis since ALPV-An is cryptic in A. nerii aphids and can be lethal for M. persicae aphids.

  14. Pathogenicity of local isolate virus BHV-1 as the aetiological agent of Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis in Bali Cattle

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    Rini I Damayanti

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis is a disease of cattle characterised by clinical signs of the upper respiratory tract, reproductive tract and nervous system. A study to define the pathogenicity of four BHV-1 local isolates has been conducted. Fourteen Bali cattle that were free of BHV-1 has been selected and divided into four treatment groups. Each group of three was infected with virus isolate I, II, III and IV respectively with approximately a dose of 108TCID50 /10 ml and two cattle were used as control animals. Isolate I and III were originated from semen from IBR positive bulls number G 867 and G 148 respectively whereas isolate II was collected from vaginal mucosa and isolate IV was from nasal mucosa of IBR positive cattle treated with dexamethasone. Clinical response, gross-pathological and histopathological changes were observed. Immunohistochemical staining was applied to detect the antigen in tissue section. The results show that the BHV-1 local isolates could produce IBR syndrome namely fever and changes in the respiratory and reproductive tracts even though the clinical responses seemed to be disappeared by 21 days PI. Grossly there were hyperaemic nasal and vaginal mucosa and pneumonia whereas histologically there were non suppurative rhinitis, tracheitis, pneumonia and vulvovaginitis. Immunohistochemically the antigen was detected in the nasal concha and trachea. Dexamethasone treatment at 60-64 days PI could produce less severe clinical features and the second necroppsy at 69 days PI also results in less severe pathological responses. The findings also suggest that the pathogenicity of BHV-1 local isolates were as follows: isolates I, II, IV and III.

  15. Npro of classical swine fever virus contributes to pathogenicity in pigs by preventing type I interferon induction at local replication sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Tomokazu; Nagashima, Naofumi; Ruggli, Nicolas; Summerfield, Artur; Kida, Hiroshi; Sakoda, Yoshihiro

    2014-04-17

    Classical swine fever (CSF) caused by CSF virus (CSFV) is a highly contagious disease of pigs. The viral protein Npro of CSFV interferes with alpha- and beta-interferon (IFN-α/β) induction by promoting the degradation of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3). During the establishment of the live attenuated CSF vaccine strain GPE-, Npro acquired a mutation that abolished its capacity to bind and degrade IRF3, rendering it unable to prevent IFN-α/β induction. In a previous study, we showed that the GPE- vaccine virus became pathogenic after forced serial passages in pigs, which was attributed to the amino acid substitutions T830A in the viral proteins E2 and V2475A and A2563V in NS4B. Interestingly, during the re-adaptation of the GPE- vaccine virus in pigs, the IRF3-degrading function of Npro was not recovered. Therefore, we examined whether restoring the ability of Npro to block IFN-α/β induction of both the avirulent and moderately virulent GPE--derived virus would enhance pathogenicity in pigs. Viruses carrying the N136D substitution in Npro regained the ability to degrade IRF3 and suppress IFN-α/β induction in vitro. In pigs, functional Npro significantly reduced the local IFN-α mRNA expression in lymphoid organs while it increased quantities of IFN-α/β in the circulation, and enhanced pathogenicity of the moderately virulent virus. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that functional Npro influences the innate immune response at local sites of virus replication in pigs and contributes to pathogenicity of CSFV in synergy with viral replication.

  16. Quantitative analysis of individual hepatocyte growth factor receptor clusters in influenza A virus infected human epithelial cells using localization microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiaoyun; Dierkes, Rüdiger; Kaufmann, Rainer; Cremer, Christoph

    2014-04-01

    In this report, we applied a special localization microscopy technique (Spectral Precision Distance/Spatial Position Determination Microscopy/SPDM) to quantitatively analyze the effect of influenza A virus (IAV) infection on the spatial distribution of individual HGFR (Hepatocyte Growth Factor Receptor) proteins on the membrane of human epithelial cells at the single molecule resolution level. We applied this SPDM method to Alexa 488 labeled HGFR proteins with two different ligands. The ligands were either HGF (Hepatocyte Growth Factor), or IAV. In addition, the HGFR distribution in a control group of mock-incubated cells without any ligands was investigated. The spatial distribution of 1×10(6) individual HGFR proteins localized in large regions of interest on membranes of 240 cells was quantitatively analyzed and found to be highly non-random. Between 21% and 24% of the HGFR molecules were located in 44,304 small clusters with an average diameter of 54nm. The mean density of HGFR molecule signals per individual cluster was very similar in control cells, in cells with ligand only, and in IAV infected cells, independent of the incubation time. From the density of HGFR molecule signals in the clusters and the diameter of the clusters, the number of HGFR molecule signals per cluster was estimated to be in the range between 4 and 11 (means 5-6). This suggests that the membrane bound HGFR clusters form small molecular complexes with a maximum diameter of few tens of nm, composed of a relatively low number of HGFR molecules. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Viral Membrane Proteins - Channels for Cellular Networking. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Subcellular localization of the stripe disease-specific protein encoded by rice stripe virus (RSV) in its vector, the small brown planthopper, Laodelphax striatellus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The stripe disease-specific protein (SP) encoded by the rice stripe virus (RSV) was successfully used as a localization signal of the virus in its vector, the small brown lanthopper, Laodelphax striatellus Fallen. Immunogold parficles in large numbers were detected in various parts of the viruliferous females: the ovum, surface of chorion, the midgut lumen, and the columnar cells. Whereas there was none of these particles in the non-viruliferous females and males,and testis of viruliferous males. Endosymbionts (mycetocytes)were abundant, harboring ovaries of both viruliferous and non-viruliferous females, but none in the testis of males. The results provided us with the direct proof that RSV is a ciruculative and propagative plant virus and it was transovarially transmitted alongside with endosymbionts of its vector. Therefore, we deem it a nice lead for future studies on the mechanism of RSV transmission and functioning of its viral proteins.

  18. Isolation, identification and evolution analysis of a novel subgroup of avian leukosis virus isolated from a local Chinese yellow broiler in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinjian; Lin, Wencheng; Chang, Shuang; Zhao, Peng; Zhang, Xinheng; Liu, Yang; Chen, Weiguo; Li, Baohong; Shu, Dingming; Zhang, Huanmin; Chen, Feng; Xie, Qingmei

    2016-10-01

    Avian leukosis virus (ALV) causes high mortality associated with tumor formation and decreased fertility, and results in major economic losses in the poultry industry worldwide. Recently, a putative novel ALV subgroup virus named ALV-K was observed in Chinese local chickens. In this study, a novel ALV strain named GD14LZ was isolated from a Chinese local yellow broiler in 2014. The proviral genome was sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed. The replication ability and pathogenicity of this virus were also evaluated. The complete proviral genome sequence of GD14LZ was 7482 nt in length, with a genetic organization typical of replication-competent type C retroviruses lacking viral oncogenes. Sequence analysis showed that the gag, pol and gp37 genes of GD14LZ have high sequence similarity to those of other ALV strains (A-E subgroups), especially to those of ALV-E. The gp85 gene of the GD14LZ isolate showed a low sequence similarity to those other ALV strains (A-E subgroups) but showed high similarity to strains previously described as ALV-K. Phylogenetic analysis of gp85 also suggested that the GD14LZ isolate was related to ALV-K strains. Further study showed that this isolate replicated more slowly and was less pathogenic than other ALV strains. These results indicate that the GD14LZ isolate belongs to the novel subgroup ALV-K and probably arose by recombination of ALV-K with endogenous viruses with low replication and pathogenicity. This virus might have existed in local Chinese chickens for a long time.

  19. Localization of the rabies virus antigen in Merkel cells in the follicle-sinus complexes of muzzle skins of rabid dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimatsu, Taichi; Shinozaki, Harumi; Kimitsuki, Kazunori; Shiwa, Nozomi; Manalo, Daria L; Perez, Rodolfo C; Dilig, Joselito E; Yamada, Kentaro; Boonsriroj, Hassadin; Inoue, Satoshi; Park, Chun-Ho

    2016-11-01

    The direct fluorescent antibody test (dFAT) on fresh brain tissues is the gold standard for rabies virus antigen detection in dogs. However, this method is laborious and holds a high risk of virus exposure for the experimenter. Skin biopsies are useful for the diagnosis of humans and animals. In mammals, the tactile hair, known as the follicle-sinus complex (FSC), is a specialized touch organ that is abundant in the muzzle skin. Each tactile hair is equipped with more than 2,000 sensory nerve endings. Therefore, this organ is expected to serve as an alternative postmortem diagnostic material. However, the target cells and localization of rabies virus antigen in the FSCs remain to be defined. In the present study, muzzle skins were obtained from 60 rabid dogs diagnosed with rabies by dFAT at the Research Institute of Tropical Medicine in the Philippines. In all dogs, virus antigen was clearly detected in a part of the outer root sheath at the level of the ring sinus of the FSCs, and the majority of cells were positive for the Merkel cell (MC) markers cytokeratin 20 and CAM5.2. Our results suggest that MCs in the FSCs of the muzzle skin are a target for virus replication and could serve as a useful alternative specimen source for diagnosis of rabies.

  20. Co-administration of inactivated avian influenza virus with CpG or rIL-2 strongly enhances the local immune response after intranasal immunization in chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaowen, Zhang; Qinghua, Yu; Xiaofei, Zhang; Qian, Yang

    2009-09-18

    Intranasal delivery of vaccines is the most effective means of inducing effective immunity in the upper respiratory tract as well as other mucosal lymphoid tissues. To evaluate the effects of the H5N2 inactivated virus with adjuvant, 120 one-day-old chicks were intranasal immunized with the H5N2 inactivated virus respectively mixed with adjuvant CpG or recombinant IL-2 (rIL-2). The local immunocompetent cells on the respiratory tract were detected. The results showed that the number of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs), CD3(+) T lymphocytes and mast cells in respiratory tract increased significantly respectively and the number of IgA and IgG secreting cells increased significantly after immunization. However, there was no significant change in the immunocompetent cells of the animals administrated H5N2 inactivated virus alone compared to the control group. Our results indicated that intranasal administration of H5N2 inactivated virus with adjuvant CpG or rIL-2 could be beneficial to the local immune response in the respiratory tract.

  1. Complete genome sequence and integrated protein localization and interaction map for alfalfa dwarf virus, which combines properties of both cytoplasmic and nuclear plant rhabdoviruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bejerman, Nicolás, E-mail: n.bejerman@uq.edu.au [Instituto de Patología Vegetal (IPAVE), Centro de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (CIAP), Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria INTA, Camino a 60 Cuadras k 5,5, Córdoba X5020ICA (Argentina); Queensland Alliance for Agriculture and Food Innovation, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072 (Australia); Giolitti, Fabián; Breuil, Soledad de; Trucco, Verónica; Nome, Claudia; Lenardon, Sergio [Instituto de Patología Vegetal (IPAVE), Centro de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (CIAP), Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria INTA, Camino a 60 Cuadras k 5,5, Córdoba X5020ICA (Argentina); Dietzgen, Ralf G. [Queensland Alliance for Agriculture and Food Innovation, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072 (Australia)

    2015-09-15

    Summary: We have determined the full-length 14,491-nucleotide genome sequence of a new plant rhabdovirus, alfalfa dwarf virus (ADV). Seven open reading frames (ORFs) were identified in the antigenomic orientation of the negative-sense, single-stranded viral RNA, in the order 3′-N-P-P3-M-G-P6-L-5′. The ORFs are separated by conserved intergenic regions and the genome coding region is flanked by complementary 3′ leader and 5′ trailer sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of the nucleoprotein amino acid sequence indicated that this alfalfa-infecting rhabdovirus is related to viruses in the genus Cytorhabdovirus. When transiently expressed as GFP fusions in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, most ADV proteins accumulated in the cell periphery, but unexpectedly P protein was localized exclusively in the nucleus. ADV P protein was shown to have a homotypic, and heterotypic nuclear interactions with N, P3 and M proteins by bimolecular fluorescence complementation. ADV appears unique in that it combines properties of both cytoplasmic and nuclear plant rhabdoviruses. - Highlights: • The complete genome of alfalfa dwarf virus is obtained. • An integrated localization and interaction map for ADV is determined. • ADV has a genome sequence similarity and evolutionary links with cytorhabdoviruses. • ADV protein localization and interaction data show an association with the nucleus. • ADV combines properties of both cytoplasmic and nuclear plant rhabdoviruses.

  2. Ergonomics Contribution in Maintainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teymourian, Kiumars; Seneviratne, Dammika; Galar, Diego

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe an ergonomics contribution in maintainability. The economical designs, inputs and training helps to increase the maintainability indicators for industrial devices. This analysis can be helpful, among other cases, to compare systems, to achieve a better design regarding maintainability requirements, to improve this maintainability under specific industrial environment and to foresee maintainability problems due to eventual changes in a device operation conditions. With this purpose, this work first introduces the notion of ergonomics and human factors, maintainability and the implementation of assessment of human postures, including some important postures to perform maintenance activities. A simulation approach is used to identify the critical posture of the maintenance personnel and implements the defined postures with minimal loads on the personnel who use the equipment in a practical scenario. The simulation inputs are given to the designers to improve the workplace/equipment in order to high level of maintainability. Finally, the work concludes summarizing the more significant aspects and suggesting future research.

  3. Use of genetically-encoded calcium indicators for live cell calcium imaging and localization in virus-infected cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Jacob L; Ramachandran, Nina K; Utama, Budi; Hyser, Joseph M

    2015-11-15

    Calcium signaling is a ubiquitous and versatile process involved in nearly every cellular process, and exploitation of host calcium signals is a common strategy used by viruses to facilitate replication and cause disease. Small molecule fluorescent calcium dyes have been used by many to examine changes in host cell calcium signaling and calcium channel activation during virus infections, but disadvantages of these dyes, including poor loading and poor long-term retention, complicate analysis of calcium imaging in virus-infected cells due to changes in cell physiology and membrane integrity. The recent expansion of genetically-encoded calcium indicators (GECIs), including blue and red-shifted color variants and variants with calcium affinities appropriate for calcium storage organelles like the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), make the use of GECIs an attractive alternative for calcium imaging in the context of virus infections. Here we describe the development and testing of cell lines stably expressing both green cytoplasmic (GCaMP5G and GCaMP6s) and red ER-targeted (RCEPIAer) GECIs. Using three viruses (rotavirus, poliovirus and respiratory syncytial virus) previously shown to disrupt host calcium homeostasis, we show the GECI cell lines can be used to detect simultaneous cytoplasmic and ER calcium signals. Further, we demonstrate the GECI expression has sufficient stability to enable long-term confocal imaging of both cytoplasmic and ER calcium during the course of virus infections.

  4. Assessment of Local Mosquito Species Incriminates Aedes aegypti as the Potential Vector of Zika Virus in Australia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hall-Mendelin, Sonja; Pyke, Alyssa T; Moore, Peter R; Mackay, Ian M; McMahon, Jamie L; Ritchie, Scott A; Taylor, Carmel T; Moore, Frederick A J; van den Hurk, Andrew F

    2016-01-01

    Within the last 10 years Zika virus (ZIKV) has caused unprecedented epidemics of human disease in the nations and territories of the western Pacific and South America, and continues to escalate in both endemic and non-endemic regions...

  5. Effects of the nuclear localization of the N(pro) protein of classical swine fever virus on its virulence in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongfeng; Shen, Liang; Sun, Yuan; Wang, Xiao; Li, Chao; Huang, Junhua; Chen, Jianing; Li, Lianfeng; Zhao, Bibo; Luo, Yuzi; Li, Su; Qiu, Hua-Ji

    2014-12-01

    The N(pro) protein of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is localized in the cytoplasm and nucleus. However, it is unknown whether the nuclear localization of N(pro) correlates with the virulence of CSFV in the host. Previously, we showed that the N(pro) protein fused with interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) was present only in the cytoplasm. Here, we generated and evaluated a recombinant CSFV vSM-IRF3 harboring the IRF3 gene inserted into the N(pro) gene of the highly virulent CSFV Shimen strain. Compared to the even nuclear and cytoplasmic distribution of the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-N(pro) fusion expressed by the recombinant CSFV EGFP-CSFV, vSM-IRF3 expressed an IRF3-N(pro) fusion protein that only was localized in the cytoplasm. vSM-IRF3 was markedly attenuated in vitro and in vivo, and the inoculated pigs were completely protected from lethal CSFV challenge, whereas the parental virus as well as EGFP-CSFV exhibited a typical virulent phenotype. Taken together, the nuclear localization of N(pro) plays a significant role in the CSFV replication and virulence.

  6. Incidence of virus infection in old vineyards of local grapevine varieties from Majorca: implications for clonal selection strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cretazzo, E.; Tomas, M.; Padilla, C.; Rossello, J.; Medrano, H.; Padilla, V.; Cifre, J.

    2010-07-01

    Three autochthonous grapevine varieties of Majorca (Spain) were analyzed for the presence of viruses listed by the international certification programs. Enzyme-Linked Immuno-Sorbent Assay (ELISA) screenings were performed in 193 vines from 46 vineyards included in a clonal selection. Virus-free vines were only 6.4%, 9.6% and 11.5%, in Manto Negro, Callet and Moll, respectively. Infections by grapevine leafroll associated viruses (GLRaVs) were ascertained in 71%, 78% and 60% of Manto Negro, Callet and Moll vines, respectively. Each variety was also highly infected by Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) and Grapevine fleck virus (GFkV). The percentage of plants displaying multiple infections was 58.4% in Manto Negro, 63.8% in Callet and 42.6% in Moll. Thus, it was very difficult to find virus-free clones with suitable agronomic characteristics to be considered as a reference for the grape market. In order to obtain certified propagation material under such conditions of endemic viral infection, sanitation should be the main focus in clonal selection processes. However, the time and financial requirements for proper sanitation process bring to consideration the need to use, at least temporarily, standard multiplication material while certified clones are achieved. (Author)

  7. Maintaining Learners’Motivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SI Zi-han

    2015-01-01

    Foreign language learning is a complex process and its success is determined by a variety of factors. The prime one of them is motivation ,which, as everyone knows, could be controlled by external forces so as to be taken advantage of. Motivation could prompt the learner to have his own learning goals and let him finish his learning task autonomously. All of that shows the im⁃portance of maintaining learners’motivation. This paper will demonstrate not only the definition and the types of motivation, but al⁃so the methods that could be used to stimulate and maintain the motivation.

  8. Neuroinflammation resulting from covert brain invasion by common viruses - a potential role in local and global neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majde, Jeannine A

    2010-08-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are a horrendous burden for their victims, their families, and society as a whole. For half a century scientists have pursued the hypothesis that these diseases involve a chronic viral infection in the brain. However, efforts to consistently detect a specific virus in brains of patients with such diseases as Alzheimer's or multiple sclerosis have generally failed. Neuropathologists have become increasingly aware that most patients with neurodegenerative diseases demonstrate marked deterioration of the brain olfactory bulb in addition to brain targets that define the specific disease. In fact, the loss of the sense of smell may precede overt neurological symptoms by many years. This realization that the olfactory bulb is a common target in neurodegenerative diseases suggests the possibility that microbes and/or toxins in inhaled air may play a role in their pathogenesis. With regard to inhaled viruses, neuropathologists have focused on those viruses that infect and kill neurons. However, a recent study shows that a respiratory virus with no neurotropic properties can rapidly invade the mouse olfactory bulb from the nasal cavity. Available data suggest that this strain of influenza is passively transported to the bulb via the olfactory nerves (mechanism unknown), and is taken up by glial cells in the outer layers of the bulb. The infected glial cells appear to be activated by the virus, secrete proinflammatory cytokines, and block further spread of virus within the brain. At the time that influenza symptoms become apparent (15 h post-infection), but not prior to symptom onset (10 h post-infection), proinflammatory cytokine-expressing neurons are increased in olfactory cortical pathways and hypothalamus as well as in the olfactory bulb. The mice go on to die of pneumonitis with severe acute phase and respiratory disease symptoms but no classical neurological symptoms. While much remains to be learned about this intranasal influenza

  9. Economy Maintains Good Health

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    China’s national economy has maintained rapid even growth in the first half of 2007, according to Xie Fuzhan, Commissioner of the National Bureau of Statistics. He was referring to major economic indicators of the January-June period that reveal that Chi

  10. Maintaining cell identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Comet, Itys; Riising, Eva M; Leblanc, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    trials. Several observations show that PRC2 can have both oncogenic and tumour-suppressive functions. We propose that these apparently opposing roles of PRC2 in cancer are a consequence of the molecular function of the complex in maintaining, rather than specifying, the transcriptional repression state...

  11. Identification of adaptive mutations in the influenza A virus non-structural 1 gene that increase cytoplasmic localization and differentially regulate host gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Forbes

    Full Text Available The NS1 protein of influenza A virus (IAV is a multifunctional virulence factor. We have previously characterized gain-of-function mutations in the NS1 protein arising from the experimental adaptation of the human isolate A/Hong Kong/1/1968(H3N2 (HK to the mouse. The majority of these mouse adapted NS1 mutations were demonstrated to increase virulence, viral fitness, and interferon antagonism, but differ in binding to the post-transcriptional processing factor cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor 30 (CPSF30. Because nuclear trafficking is a major genetic determinant of influenza virus host adaptation, we assessed subcellular localization and host gene expression of NS1 adaptive mutations. Recombinant HK viruses with adaptive mutations in the NS1 gene were assessed for NS1 protein subcellular localization in mouse and human cells using confocal microscopy and cellular fractionation. In human cells the HK wild-type (HK-wt virus NS1 protein partitioned equivalently between the cytoplasm and nucleus but was defective in cytoplasmic localization in mouse cells. Several adaptive mutations increased the proportion of NS1 in the cytoplasm of mouse cells with the greatest effects for mutations M106I and D125G. The host gene expression profile of the adaptive mutants was determined by microarray analysis of infected mouse cells to show either high or low extents of host-gene regulation (HGR or LGR phenotypes. While host genes were predominantly down regulated for the HGR group of mutants (D2N, V23A, F103L, M106I+L98S, L98S, M106V, and M106V+M124I, the LGR phenotype mutants (D125G, M106I, V180A, V226I, and R227K were characterized by a predominant up regulation of host genes. CPSF30 binding affinity of NS1 mutants did not predict effects on host gene expression. To our knowledge this is the first report of roles of adaptive NS1 mutations that impact intracellular localization and regulation of host gene expression.

  12. Identification of Adaptive Mutations in the Influenza A Virus Non-Structural 1 Gene That Increase Cytoplasmic Localization and Differentially Regulate Host Gene Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Nicole; Selman, Mohammed; Pelchat, Martin; Jia, Jian Jun; Stintzi, Alain; Brown, Earl G.

    2013-01-01

    The NS1 protein of influenza A virus (IAV) is a multifunctional virulence factor. We have previously characterized gain-of-function mutations in the NS1 protein arising from the experimental adaptation of the human isolate A/Hong Kong/1/1968(H3N2) (HK) to the mouse. The majority of these mouse adapted NS1 mutations were demonstrated to increase virulence, viral fitness, and interferon antagonism, but differ in binding to the post-transcriptional processing factor cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor 30 (CPSF30). Because nuclear trafficking is a major genetic determinant of influenza virus host adaptation, we assessed subcellular localization and host gene expression of NS1 adaptive mutations. Recombinant HK viruses with adaptive mutations in the NS1 gene were assessed for NS1 protein subcellular localization in mouse and human cells using confocal microscopy and cellular fractionation. In human cells the HK wild-type (HK-wt) virus NS1 protein partitioned equivalently between the cytoplasm and nucleus but was defective in cytoplasmic localization in mouse cells. Several adaptive mutations increased the proportion of NS1 in the cytoplasm of mouse cells with the greatest effects for mutations M106I and D125G. The host gene expression profile of the adaptive mutants was determined by microarray analysis of infected mouse cells to show either high or low extents of host-gene regulation (HGR or LGR) phenotypes. While host genes were predominantly down regulated for the HGR group of mutants (D2N, V23A, F103L, M106I+L98S, L98S, M106V, and M106V+M124I), the LGR phenotype mutants (D125G, M106I, V180A, V226I, and R227K) were characterized by a predominant up regulation of host genes. CPSF30 binding affinity of NS1 mutants did not predict effects on host gene expression. To our knowledge this is the first report of roles of adaptive NS1 mutations that impact intracellular localization and regulation of host gene expression. PMID:24391972

  13. Nuclear power plant maintainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seminara, J L; Parsons, S O

    1982-09-01

    In the mid-1970s a general awareness of human factors engineering deficiencies associated with power plant control rooms took shape and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) awarded the Lockheed Corporation a contract to review the human factors aspects of five representative operational control rooms and their associated simulators. This investigation revealed a host of major and minor deficiencies that assumed unforeseen dimensions in the post- Three Mile Island accident period. In the course of examining operational problems (Seminara et al, 1976) and subsequently the methods for overcoming such problems (Seminara et al, 1979, 1980) indications surfaced that power plants were far from ideal in meeting the needs of maintenance personnel. Accordingly, EPRI sponsored an investigation of the human factors aspects of power plant maintainability (Seminara, 1981). This paper provides an overview of the maintainability problems and issues encountered in the course of reviewing five nuclear power plants.

  14. Direct bonded space maintainers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, V L; Almeida, M A; Mello, H S; Keith, O

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate clinically a bonded space maintainer, which would reduce chair-side time and cost. Sixty appliances were fabricated from 0.7 mm stainless steel round wire and bonded using light-cured composite to the two teeth adjacent to the site of extraction of a posterior primary tooth. Twenty males and sixteen females (age range 5-9-years-old) were selected from the Pedodontic clinic of the State University of Rio de Janeiro. The sixty space maintainers were divided into two groups according to the site in which they were placed: a) absent first primary molar and b) absent second primary molar. Impressions and study models were obtained prior to and 6 months after bonding the appliances. During this period only 8.3% of failures were observed, most of them from occlusal or facial trauma. Student t-test did not show statistically significant alterations in the sizes of the maintained spaces during the trial period.

  15. Genome sequence variation in the constricta strain dramatically alters the protein interaction and localization map of Potato yellow dwarf virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genome sequence of the constricta strain of Potato yellow dwarf virus (CYDV) was determined to be 12,792 nucleotides long and organized into seven open reading frames with the gene order 3’-N-X-P-Y-M-G-L-5’, which encodes the nucleocapsid, phosphoprotein, movement, matrix, glycoprotein and RNA-d...

  16. Assessment of Local Mosquito Species Incriminates Aedes aegypti as the Potential Vector of Zika Virus in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall-Mendelin, Sonja; Pyke, Alyssa T; Moore, Peter R; Mackay, Ian M; McMahon, Jamie L; Ritchie, Scott A; Taylor, Carmel T; Moore, Frederick A J; van den Hurk, Andrew F

    2016-09-01

    Within the last 10 years Zika virus (ZIKV) has caused unprecedented epidemics of human disease in the nations and territories of the western Pacific and South America, and continues to escalate in both endemic and non-endemic regions. We evaluated the vector competence of Australian mosquitoes for ZIKV to assess their potential role in virus transmission. Mosquitoes were exposed to infectious blood meals containing the prototype African ZIKV strain. After 14 days incubation at 28°C and high relative humidity, infection, dissemination and transmission rates were assessed. Infection in Culex annulirostris and Cx. sitiens could not be detected. 8% of Cx. quinquefasciatus were infected, but the virus did not disseminate in this species. Despite having infection rates > 50%, Aedes notoscriptus and Ae. vigilax did not transmit ZIKV. In contrast, Ae. aegypti had infection and transmission rates of 57% and 27%, respectively. In susceptibility trials, the virus dose required to infect 50% (ID50) of Ae. aegypti was106.4 tissue culture infectious dose50 (TCID50)/mL. Additionally, a threshold viral load within the mosquito of at least 105.1 TCID50 equivalents/mL had to be reached before virus transmission occurred. We confirmed Ae. aegypti to be the most likely mosquito vector of ZIKV in Australia, although the restricted distribution of this species will limit the receptive zone to northern Queensland where this species occurs. Importantly, the role in ZIKV transmission of Culex and other Aedes spp. tested will be negligible. Despite being the implicated vector, the relatively high ID50 and need for a high titer disseminated infection in Ae. aegypti suggest that high mosquito population densities will be required to facilitate epidemic ZIKV transmission among the currently immunologically naïve human population in Australia.

  17. Assessment of Local Mosquito Species Incriminates Aedes aegypti as the Potential Vector of Zika Virus in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Hall-Mendelin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Within the last 10 years Zika virus (ZIKV has caused unprecedented epidemics of human disease in the nations and territories of the western Pacific and South America, and continues to escalate in both endemic and non-endemic regions. We evaluated the vector competence of Australian mosquitoes for ZIKV to assess their potential role in virus transmission.Mosquitoes were exposed to infectious blood meals containing the prototype African ZIKV strain. After 14 days incubation at 28°C and high relative humidity, infection, dissemination and transmission rates were assessed. Infection in Culex annulirostris and Cx. sitiens could not be detected. 8% of Cx. quinquefasciatus were infected, but the virus did not disseminate in this species. Despite having infection rates > 50%, Aedes notoscriptus and Ae. vigilax did not transmit ZIKV. In contrast, Ae. aegypti had infection and transmission rates of 57% and 27%, respectively. In susceptibility trials, the virus dose required to infect 50% (ID50 of Ae. aegypti was106.4 tissue culture infectious dose50 (TCID50/mL. Additionally, a threshold viral load within the mosquito of at least 105.1 TCID50 equivalents/mL had to be reached before virus transmission occurred.We confirmed Ae. aegypti to be the most likely mosquito vector of ZIKV in Australia, although the restricted distribution of this species will limit the receptive zone to northern Queensland where this species occurs. Importantly, the role in ZIKV transmission of Culex and other Aedes spp. tested will be negligible. Despite being the implicated vector, the relatively high ID50 and need for a high titer disseminated infection in Ae. aegypti suggest that high mosquito population densities will be required to facilitate epidemic ZIKV transmission among the currently immunologically naïve human population in Australia.

  18. Assessment of Local Mosquito Species Incriminates Aedes aegypti as the Potential Vector of Zika Virus in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall-Mendelin, Sonja; Pyke, Alyssa T.; Moore, Peter R.; Mackay, Ian M.; McMahon, Jamie L.; Ritchie, Scott A.; Taylor, Carmel T.; Moore, Frederick A.J.; van den Hurk, Andrew F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Within the last 10 years Zika virus (ZIKV) has caused unprecedented epidemics of human disease in the nations and territories of the western Pacific and South America, and continues to escalate in both endemic and non-endemic regions. We evaluated the vector competence of Australian mosquitoes for ZIKV to assess their potential role in virus transmission. Methodology/Principal Findings Mosquitoes were exposed to infectious blood meals containing the prototype African ZIKV strain. After 14 days incubation at 28°C and high relative humidity, infection, dissemination and transmission rates were assessed. Infection in Culex annulirostris and Cx. sitiens could not be detected. 8% of Cx. quinquefasciatus were infected, but the virus did not disseminate in this species. Despite having infection rates > 50%, Aedes notoscriptus and Ae. vigilax did not transmit ZIKV. In contrast, Ae. aegypti had infection and transmission rates of 57% and 27%, respectively. In susceptibility trials, the virus dose required to infect 50% (ID50) of Ae. aegypti was106.4 tissue culture infectious dose50 (TCID50)/mL. Additionally, a threshold viral load within the mosquito of at least 105.1 TCID50 equivalents/mL had to be reached before virus transmission occurred. Conclusions/Significance We confirmed Ae. aegypti to be the most likely mosquito vector of ZIKV in Australia, although the restricted distribution of this species will limit the receptive zone to northern Queensland where this species occurs. Importantly, the role in ZIKV transmission of Culex and other Aedes spp. tested will be negligible. Despite being the implicated vector, the relatively high ID50 and need for a high titer disseminated infection in Ae. aegypti suggest that high mosquito population densities will be required to facilitate epidemic ZIKV transmission among the currently immunologically naïve human population in Australia. PMID:27643685

  19. A systemic increase in the recombination frequency upon local infection of Arabidopsis thaliana plants with oilseed rape mosaic virus depends on plant age, the initial inoculum concentration and the time for virus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Youli; Kathiria, Palak; Kovalchuk, Igor

    2013-01-01

    In the past, we showed that local infection of tobacco leaves with either tobacco mosaic virus or oilseed rape mosaic virus (ORMV) resulted in a systemic increase in the homologous recombination frequency (HRF). Later on, we showed that a similar phenomenon occurs in Arabidopsis thaliana plants infected with ORMV. Here, we tested whether the time of removing the infected leaves as well as viral titer have any effect on the degree of changes in HRF in systemic tissues. An increase in HRF in systemic non-infected tissues was more pronounced when the infected leaves were detached from the infected plants at 60-96 h post-infection, rather than at earlier time. Next, we found that exposure to higher concentrations of inoculum was much more efficient in triggering an increase in HRF than exposure to lower concentrations. Finally, we showed that older plants exhibited a higher increase in HRF than younger plants. We found that an increase in genome instability in systemic tissues of locally infected plants depends on plant age, the concentration of initial inoculums and the time of viral replication.

  20. A systemic increase in the recombination frequency upon local infection of Arabidopsis thaliana plants with oilseed rape mosaic virus depends on plant age, the initial inoculum concentration and the time for virus replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youli eYao

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the past, we showed that local infection of tobacco leaves with either Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV or Oilseed rape mosaic virus (ORMV resulted in a systemic increase in the homologous recombination frequency (HRF. Later on, we showed that a similar phenomenon occurs in Arabidopsis thaliana plants infected with ORMV. Here, we tested whether the time of removing the infected leaves as well as viral titer have any effect on the degree of changes in HRF in systemic tissues. An increase in HRF in systemic non-infected tissues was more pronounced when the infected leaves were detached from the infected plants at 60-96 hours post infection, rather than at earlier time. Next, we found that exposure to higher concentrations of inoculum was much more efficient in triggering an increase in HRF than exposure to lower concentrations. Finally, we showed that older plants exhibited a higher increase in HRF than younger plants. We found that an increase in genome instability in systemic tissues of locally infected plants depends on plant age, the concentration of initial inoculums and the time of viral replication.

  1. Expression of self-complementary hairpin RNA under the control of the rolC promoter confers systemic disease resistance to plum pox virus without preventing local infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spena Angelo

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Homology-dependent selective degradation of RNA, or post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS, is involved in several biological phenomena, including adaptative defense mechanisms against plant viruses. Small interfering RNAs mediate the selective degradation of target RNA by guiding a multicomponent RNAse. Expression of self-complementary hairpin RNAs within two complementary regions separated by an intron elicits PTGS with high efficiency. Plum pox virus (PPV is the etiological agent of sharka disease in Drupaceae, although it can also be transmitted to herbaceous species (e.g. Nicotiana benthamiana. Once inside the plant, PPV is transmitted via plasmodesmata from cell to cell, and at longer distances, via phloem. The rolC promoter drives expression in phloem cells. RolC expression is absent in both epidermal and mesophyll cells. The aim of the present study was to confer systemic disease resistance without preventing local viral infection. Results In the ihprolC-PP197 gene (intron hair pin rolC PPV 197, a 197 bp sequence homologous to the PPV RNA genome (from base 134 to 330 was placed as two inverted repeats separated by the DNA sequence of the rolA intron. This hairpin construct is under the control of the rolC promoter.N. benthamiana plants transgenic for the ihprolC-PP197 gene contain siRNAs homologous to the 197 bp sequence. The transgenic progeny of ihprolC-PP197 plants are resistant to PPV systemic infection. Local infection is unaffected. Most (80% transgenic plants are virus free and symptomless. Some plants (20% contain virus in uninoculated apical leaves; however they show only mild symptoms of leaf mottling. PPV systemic resistance cosegregates with the ihprolC-PP197 transgene and was observed in progeny plants of all independent transgenic lines analyzed. SiRNAs of 23–25 nt homologous to the PPV sequence used in the ihprolC-PP197 construct were detected in transgenic plants before and after inoculation

  2. Class II integrase mutants with changes in putative nuclear localization signals are primarily blocked at a postnuclear entry step of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Richard; Limón, Ana; Devroe, Eric; Silver, Pamela A; Cherepanov, Peter; Engelman, Alan

    2004-12-01

    Integrase has been implicated in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) nuclear import. Integrase analyses, however, can be complicated by the pleiotropic nature of mutations: whereas class I mutants are integration defective, class II mutants display additional assembly and/or reverse transcription defects. We previously determined that HIV-1(V165A), originally reported as defective for nuclear import, was a class II mutant. Here we analyzed mutants containing changes in other putative nuclear localization signals, including (186)KRK(188)/(211)KELQKQITK(219) and Cys-130. Previous work established HIV-1(K186Q), HIV-1(Q214L/Q216L), and HIV-1(C130G) as replication defective, but phenotypic classification was unclear and nuclear import in nondividing cells was not addressed. Consistent with previous reports, most of the bipartite mutants studied here were replication defective. These mutants as well as HIV-1(V165A) synthesized reduced cDNA levels, but a normal fraction of mutant cDNA localized to dividing and nondividing cell nuclei. Somewhat surprisingly, recombinant class II mutant proteins were catalytically active, and class II Vpr-integrase fusion proteins efficiently complemented class I mutant virus. Since a class I Vpr-integrase mutant efficiently complemented class II mutant viruses under conditions in which class II Vpr-integrases failed to function, we conclude that classes I and II define two distinct complementation groups and suggest that class II mutants are primarily defective at a postnuclear entry step of HIV-1 replication. HIV-1(C130G) was also defective for reverse transcription, but Vpr-integrase(C130G) did not efficiently complement class I mutant HIV-1. Since HIV-1(C130A) grew like the wild type, we conclude that Cys-130 is not essential for replication and speculate that perturbation of integrase structure contributed to the pleiotropic HIV-1(C130G) phenotype.

  3. The hepatitis E virus ORF3 protein regulates the expression of liver-specific genes by modulating localization of hepatocyte nuclear factor 4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Chandra

    Full Text Available The hepatitis E virus (HEV is a small RNA virus and the cause of acute viral hepatitis E. The open reading frame 3 protein (pORF3 of HEV appears to be a pleiotropic regulatory protein that helps in the establishment, propagation and progression of viral infection. However, the global cellular effects of this protein remain to be explored. In the absence of traditional in vitro viral infection systems or efficient replicon systems, we made an adenovirus based ORF3 protein expression system to study its effects on host cell gene expression. We infected Huh7 hepatoma cells with recombinant adenoviruses expressing pORF3 and performed microarray-based gene expression analyses. Several genes down regulated in pORF3-expressing cells were found to be under regulation of the liver-enriched hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 (HNF4, which regulates hepatocyte-specific gene expression. While HNF4 localizes to the nucleus, its phosphorylation results in impaired nuclear localization of HNF4. Here we report that pORF3 increases HNF4 phosphorylation through the ERK and Akt kinases, which results in impaired nuclear translocation of HNF4 and subsequently the down modulation of HNF4-responsive genes in pORF3-expressing cells. We propose that modulation of several hepatocyte specific genes by pORF3 will create an environment favorable for viral replication and pathogenesis.

  4. In vivo subcellular localization of Mal de Rio Cuarto virus (MRCV) non-structural proteins in insect cells reveals their putative functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maroniche, Guillermo A.; Mongelli, Vanesa C.; Llauger, Gabriela; Alfonso, Victoria; Taboga, Oscar [Instituto de Biotecnologia, CICVyA, Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria (IB-INTA), Las cabanas y Los Reseros s/n. Hurlingham Cp 1686, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Vas, Mariana del, E-mail: mdelvas@cnia.inta.gov.ar [Instituto de Biotecnologia, CICVyA, Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria (IB-INTA), Las cabanas y Los Reseros s/n. Hurlingham Cp 1686, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2012-09-01

    The in vivo subcellular localization of Mal de Rio Cuarto virus (MRCV, Fijivirus, Reoviridae) non-structural proteins fused to GFP was analyzed by confocal microscopy. P5-1 showed a cytoplasmic vesicular-like distribution that was lost upon deleting its PDZ binding TKF motif, suggesting that P5-1 interacts with cellular PDZ proteins. P5-2 located at the nucleus and its nuclear import was affected by the deletion of its basic C-termini. P7-1 and P7-2 also entered the nucleus and therefore, along with P5-2, could function as regulators of host gene expression. P6 located in the cytoplasm and in perinuclear cloud-like inclusions, was driven to P9-1 viroplasm-like structures and co-localized with P7-2, P10 and {alpha}-tubulin, suggesting its involvement in viroplasm formation and viral intracellular movement. Finally, P9-2 was N-glycosylated and located at the plasma membrane in association with filopodia-like protrusions containing actin, suggesting a possible role in virus cell-to-cell movement and spread.

  5. Combined local and systemic immunization is essential for durable T-cell mediated heterosubtypic immunity against influenza A virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uddbäck, Ida Elin Maria; Pedersen, Line M I; Pedersen, Sara R

    2016-01-01

    The threat from unpredictable influenza virus pandemics necessitates the development of a new type of influenza vaccine. Since the internal proteins are highly conserved, induction of T cells targeting these antigens may provide the solution. Indeed, adenoviral (Ad) vectors expressing flu nucleop...... positioned in the lungs prior to challenge, but at the same time underscores an important back-up role for circulating antigen-specific cells with the capacity to expand and infiltrate the infected lungs....

  6. In situ localization and tissue distribution of the replication-associated proteins of Cucumber mosaic virus in tobacco and cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cillo, Fabrizio; Roberts, Ian M; Palukaitis, Peter

    2002-11-01

    The replication-associated proteins encoded by Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), the 1a and 2a proteins, were detected by immunogold labeling in two host species of this virus, tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus). In both hosts, the 1a and 2a proteins colocalized predominantly to the vacuolar membranes, the tonoplast. While plus-strand CMV RNAs were found distributed throughout the cytoplasm by in situ hybridization, minus-strand CMV RNAs were barely detectable but were found associated with the tonoplast. In both cucumber and tobacco, 2a protein was detected at higher densities than 1a protein. The 1a and 2a proteins also showed quantitative differences with regard to tissue distributions in tobacco and cucumber. About three times as much 2a protein was detected in CMV-infected cucumber tissues as in CMV-infected tobacco tissues. In tobacco, high densities of these proteins were observed only in vascular bundle cells of minor veins. In contrast, in cucumber, high densities of 1a and 2a proteins were observed in mesophyll cells, followed by epidermis cells, with only low levels being observed in vascular bundle cells. Differences were also observed in the distributions of 2a protein and capsid protein in vascular bundle cells of the two host species. These observations may represent differences in the relative rates of tissue infection in different hosts or differences in the extent of virus replication in vascular tissues of different hosts.

  7. Mutational Pressure in Zika Virus: Local ADAR-Editing Areas Associated with Pauses in Translation and Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrustalev, Vladislav V.; Khrustaleva, Tatyana A.; Sharma, Nitin; Giri, Rajanish

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) spread led to the recent medical health emergency of international concern. Understanding the variations in virus system is of utmost need. Using available complete sequences of ZIKV we estimated directions of mutational pressure along the length of consensus sequences of three lineages of the virus. Results showed that guanine usage is growing in ZIKV RNA plus strand due to adenine to guanine transitions, while adenine usage is growing due to cytosine to adenine transversions. Especially high levels of guanine have been found in two-fold degenerated sites of certain areas of RNA plus strand with high amount of secondary structure. The usage of cytosine in two-fold degenerated sites shows direct dependence on the amount of secondary structure in 52% (consensus sequence of East African ZIKV lineage)—32% (consensus sequence of epidemic strains) of the length of RNA minus strand. These facts are the evidences of ADAR-editing of both strands of ZIKV genome during pauses in replication. RNA plus strand can also be edited by ADAR during pauses in translation caused by the appearance of groups of rare codons. According to our results, RNA minus strand of epidemic ZIKV strain has lower number of points in which polymerase can be stalled (allowing ADAR-editing) compared to other strains. The data on preferable directions of mutational pressure in epidemic ZIKV strain is useful for future vaccine development and understanding the evolution of new strains. PMID:28275585

  8. Combined local and systemic immunization is essential for durable T-cell mediated heterosubtypic immunity against influenza A virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uddbäck, Ida Elin Maria; Pedersen, Line M I; Pedersen, Sara R;

    2016-01-01

    The threat from unpredictable influenza virus pandemics necessitates the development of a new type of influenza vaccine. Since the internal proteins are highly conserved, induction of T cells targeting these antigens may provide the solution. Indeed, adenoviral (Ad) vectors expressing flu...... (intranasal (i.n.)) immunization elicited delayed, but more lasting protection despite relatively inefficient immunization. However, by far, the most robust protection was induced by simultaneous, combined (i.n. + s.c.) vaccination, and, notably, in this case clinical protection lasted at least 8 months...

  9. Inherent dynamics within the Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic fever virus protease are localized to the same region as substrate interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenmesser, Elan Z.; Capodagli, Glenn; Armstrong, Geoffrey S.; Holliday, Michael; Isern, Nancy G.; Zhang, Fengli; Pegan, Scott D.

    2015-05-01

    Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is one of several lethal viruses that encodes for a viral ovarian tumor domain (vOTU), which serves to cleave and remove multiple proteins involved in cellular signaling such as ubiquitin (Ub) and interferon stimulated gene produce 15 (ISG15). Such manipulation of the host cell machinery serves to downregulate the host response and, therefore, complete characterization of these proteases is important. While several structures of the CCHFV vOTU protease have been solved, both free and bound to Ub and ISG15, few structural differences have been found and little insight has been gained as to the dynamic plasticity of this protease. Therefore, we have used NMR relaxation experiments to probe the dynamics of CCHV vOTU, both alone and in complex with Ub, thereby discovering a highly dynamic protease that exhibits conformational exchange within the same regions found to engage its Ub substrate. These experiments reveal a structural plasticity around the N-terminal regions of CCHV vOTU, which are unique to vOTUs, and provide a rationale for engaging multiple substrates with the same binding site.

  10. Localization of epitopes recognized by monoclonal antibodies that neutralized the H3N2 influenza viruses in man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Jun; Ohshima, Nobuko; Kubota-Koketsu, Ritsuko; Iba, Yoshitaka; Ota, Sayuri; Takase, Wakana; Yoshikawa, Tetsushi; Ishikawa, Toyokazu; Asano, Yoshizo; Okuno, Yoshinobu; Kurosawa, Yoshikazu

    2011-01-01

    Through extensive isolation of neutralizing mAbs against H3N2 influenza viruses representing the in vivo repertoire in a human donor, we examined the relationships between antigenic drift of influenza virus and protective antibodies generated in an infected individual. The majority of mAbs isolated from a donor born in 1960 were divided into three major groups with distinct strain specificity: 1968–1973, 1977–1993 and 1997–2003. In the present study, we developed a new method that allowed us to comprehensively determine the location of epitopes recognized by many mAbs. Original haemagglutinins (HAs) of several strains and chimaeric variants, in which one of the seven sites (A, B1, B2, C1, C2, D or E) was replaced by some other strain-derived sequence, were artificially expressed on the cell surface. The binding activity of mAbs to the HAs was examined by flow cytometry. By using this method, we determined the location of epitopes recognized by 98 different mAbs. Clones that neutralize the 1968–1973 strains bind to site B2/D, A or A/B1. While sites C, E and B were recognized by clones that neutralized the 1977–1993 strains, the majority of these clones bind to site C. Clones that neutralize the 1997–2003 strains bind to site B, A/B1, A/B2 or E/C2. PMID:21068214

  11. Expression of viral polymerase and phosphorylation of core protein determine core and capsid localization of the human hepatitis B virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deroubaix, Aurélie; Osseman, Quentin; Cassany, Aurélia; Bégu, Dominique; Ragues, Jessica; Kassab, Somar; Lainé, Sébastien; Kann, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Biopsies from patients show that hepadnaviral core proteins and capsids - collectively called core - are found in the nucleus and cytoplasm of infected hepatocytes. In the majority of studies, cytoplasmic core localization is related to low viraemia while nuclear core localization is associated with high viral loads. In order to better understand the molecular interactions leading to core localization, we analysed transfected hepatoma cells using immune fluorescence microscopy. We observed that expression of core protein in the absence of other viral proteins led to nuclear localization of core protein and capsids, while expression of core in the context of the other viral proteins resulted in a predominantly cytoplasmic localization. Analysis of which viral partner was responsible for cytoplasmic retention indicated that the HBx, surface proteins and HBeAg had no impact but that the viral polymerase was the major determinant. Further analysis revealed that ϵ, an RNA structure to which the viral polymerase binds, was essential for cytoplasmic retention. Furthermore, we showed that core protein phosphorylation at Ser 164 was essential for the cytoplasmic core localization phenotype, which is likely to explain differences observed between individual cells.

  12. Differentially expressed genes in a flock of Chinese local-breed chickens infected with a subgroup J avian leukosis virus using suppression subtractive hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiping Zhao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J is a new type of virus that mainly induces myeloid leukosis (ML in chickens. To further elucidate the pathogenesis of ALV-J infection and tumor development, expression profiles from the bone marrow tissue of 15 infected and 18 non-infected birds from a local-breed poultry-farm under naturally infected conditions, were analyzed by suppression-subtractive hybridization. The birds were diagnosed as ML+ (or ML- by specific ALV-J detection methods, involving serological tests for antigens and antibodies, and RT-PCR to detect viral RNA. A total of 59 partial gene sequences were revealed by differential screening of 496 forward and 384 reverse subtracted cDNA clones. Of these, 22 identified genes, including 8 up-regulated and 14 down-regulated, were related to immune functions, these genes being, MHC B-G antigen, translationally-controlled tumor protein (TPT1/TPTC, transferrin and ferritin, hemoglobin and Carbonic anhydrase. Four of the down-regulated genes were selected for further analysis, in view of their predicted roles in infection and immunity by real-time qRT-PCR, using RNA collected from the same birds as those used for SSH. The four genes were expressed at significantly lower levels (p < 0.001 in ALV-J infected birds than in non-infected ones.

  13. Differentially expressed genes in a flock of Chinese local-breed chickens infected with a subgroup J avian leukosis virus using suppression subtractive hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guiping; Zheng, Maiqing; Chen, Jilan; Wen, Jie; Wu, Chunmei; Li, Wenjuan; Liu, Libo; Zhang, Yuan

    2010-01-01

    Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) is a new type of virus that mainly induces myeloid leukosis (ML) in chickens. To further elucidate the pathogenesis of ALV-J infection and tumor development, expression profiles from the bone marrow tissue of 15 infected and 18 non-infected birds from a local-breed poultry-farm under naturally infected conditions, were analyzed by suppression-subtractive hybridization. The birds were diagnosed as ML+ (or ML-) by specific ALV-J detection methods, involving serological tests for antigens and antibodies, and RT-PCR to detect viral RNA. A total of 59 partial gene sequences were revealed by differential screening of 496 forward and 384 reverse subtracted cDNA clones. Of these, 22 identified genes, including 8 up-regulated and 14 down-regulated, were related to immune functions, these genes being, MHC B-G antigen, translationally-controlled tumor protein (TPT1/TPTC), transferrin and ferritin, hemoglobin and Carbonic anhydrase. Four of the down-regulated genes were selected for further analysis, in view of their predicted roles in infection and immunity by real-time qRT-PCR, using RNA collected from the same birds as those used for SSH. The four genes were expressed at significantly lower levels (p < 0.001) in ALV-J infected birds than in non-infected ones.

  14. Evidence for and Localization of Vegetative Viral DNA Replication by Autoradiographic Detection of RNA·DNA Hybrids in Sections of Tumors Induced by Shope Papilloma Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Gérard; Jeanteur, Philippe; Croissant, Odile

    1971-01-01

    The occurrence and localization of vegetative viral DNA replication was studied in sections of tumors induced by the rabbit Shope papilloma virus, in cottontail and domestic rabbit papillomas, in primary domestic rabbit carcinoma, and in transplantable VX2 carcinoma, by in situ hybridization of radioactive RNA complementary to viral DNA. Vegetative viral DNA replication and viral protein synthesis were compared by means of cytological hybridization and immunofluorescence techniques on adjacent frozen sections. Vegetative viral DNA replication is completely repressed in the proliferating cellular layers of these tumors, which suggests a provirus state of the viral genome, as in other cells transformed by oncogenic DNA viruses. Vegetative viral DNA replication is induced, after initiation of the keratinization, in cells of cottonail rabbit papillomas, where it is usually followed by viral protein synthesis; this illustrates the influence of the physiological state of the host cell on the control of viral functions. Vegetative viral DNA replication is deteced only in a few cells of domestic rabbit papillomas, at the end of the keratinization process; this observation provides indirect evidence that the DNA synthesis specifically induced in these tumors after the onset of keratinization reflects mostly the induction of cellular DNA synthesis. Images PMID:4331563

  15. Relative associations of cattle movements, local spread, and biosecurity with bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) seropositivity in beef and dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, M C; Woolhouse, M E J; Gunn, G J; Humphry, R W

    2013-11-01

    The success of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) eradication campaigns can be undermined by spread through local transmission pathways and poor farmer compliance with biosecurity recommendations. This work combines recent survey data with cattle movement data to explore the issues likely to impact on the success of BVDV control in Scotland. In this analysis, data from 249 beef suckler herds and 185 dairy herds in Scotland were studied retrospectively to determine the relative influence of cattle movements, local spread, and biosecurity on BVDV seropositivity. Multivariable logistic regression models revealed that cattle movement risk factors had approximately 3 times greater explanatory power than risk factors for local spread amongst beef suckler herds, but approximately the same explanatory power as risk factors for local spread amongst dairy herds. These findings are most likely related to differences in cattle husbandry practices and suggest that where financial prioritization is required, focusing on reducing movement-based risk is likely to be of greatest benefit when applied to beef suckler herds. The reported use of biosecurity measures such as purchasing cattle from BVDV accredited herds only, performing diagnostic screening at the time of sale, implementing isolation periods for purchased cattle, and installing double fencing on shared field boundaries had minimal impact on the risk of beef or dairy herds being seropositive for BVDV. Only 28% of beef farmers and 24% of dairy farmers with seropositive herds recognized that their cattle were affected by BVDV and those that did perceive a problem were no less likely to sell animals as replacement breeding stock and no more likely to implement biosecurity measures against local spread than farmers with no perceived problems. In relation to the current legislative framework for BVDV control in Scotland, these findings emphasize the importance of requiring infected herds take appropriate biosecurity measures

  16. Maintaining Web Cache Coherency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Document coherency is a challenging problem for Web caching. Once the documents are cached throughout the Internet, it is often difficult to keep them coherent with the origin document without generating a new traffic that could increase the traffic on the international backbone and overload the popular servers. Several solutions have been proposed to solve this problem, among them two categories have been widely discussed: the strong document coherency and the weak document coherency. The cost and the efficiency of the two categories are still a controversial issue, while in some studies the strong coherency is far too expensive to be used in the Web context, in other studies it could be maintained at a low cost. The accuracy of these analysis is depending very much on how the document updating process is approximated. In this study, we compare some of the coherence methods proposed for Web caching. Among other points, we study the side effects of these methods on the Internet traffic. The ultimate goal is to study the cache behavior under several conditions, which will cover some of the factors that play an important role in the Web cache performance evaluation and quantify their impact on the simulation accuracy. The results presented in this study show indeed some differences in the outcome of the simulation of a Web cache depending on the workload being used, and the probability distribution used to approximate updates on the cached documents. Each experiment shows two case studies that outline the impact of the considered parameter on the performance of the cache.

  17. Ebola Virus and Marburg Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseases and Conditions Ebola virus and Marburg virus By Mayo Clinic Staff Ebola virus and Marburg virus are related viruses that cause hemorrhagic ... Africa, where sporadic outbreaks have occurred for decades. Ebola virus and Marburg virus live in animal hosts, ...

  18. Ebola Virus and Marburg Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebola virus and Marburg virus Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Ebola virus and Marburg virus are related viruses that ... Africa, where sporadic outbreaks have occurred for decades. Ebola virus and Marburg virus live in animal hosts, ...

  19. Differential Cotton leaf crumple virus-VIGS-mediated gene silencing and viral genome localization in different Gossypium hirsutum genetic backgrounds

    KAUST Repository

    Idris, Ali

    2010-12-01

    A Cotton leaf crumple virus (CLCrV)-based gene silencing vector containing a fragment of the Gossypium hirsutum Magnesium chelatase subunit I was used to establish endogenous gene silencing in cotton of varied genetic backgrounds. Biolistic inoculation resulted in systemic and persistent photo-bleaching of the leaves and bolls of the seven cultivars tested, however, the intensity of silencing was variable. CLCrV-VIGS-mediated expression of green fluorescent protein was used to monitor the in planta distribution of the vector, indicating successful phloem invasion in all cultivars tested. Acala SJ-1, one of the cotton cultivars, was identified as a particularly optimal candidate for CLCrV-VIGS-based cotton reverse-genetics. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Type 1 Diabetes and Type 1 Interferonopathies: Localization of a Type 1 Common Thread of Virus Infection in the Pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie S.E. Jean-Baptiste

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes (T1D has been associated with both genetic and environmental factors. Increasing incidence of T1D worldwide is prompting researchers to adopt different approaches to explain the biology of T1D, beyond the presence and activity of autoreactive lymphocytes. In this review, we propose inflammatory pathways as triggers for T1D. Within the scope of those inflammatory pathways and in understanding the pathogenesis of disease, we suggest that viruses, in particular Coxsackieviruses, act by causing a type 1 interferonopathy within the pancreas and the microenvironment of the islet. As such, this connection and common thread represents an exciting platform for the development of new diagnostic, treatment and/or prevention options.

  1. Type 1 Diabetes and Type 1 Interferonopathies: Localization of a Type 1 Common Thread of Virus Infection in the Pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Baptiste, Virginie S E; Xia, Chang-Qing; Clare-Salzler, Michael J; Horwitz, Marc S

    2017-08-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) has been associated with both genetic and environmental factors. Increasing incidence of T1D worldwide is prompting researchers to adopt different approaches to explain the biology of T1D, beyond the presence and activity of autoreactive lymphocytes. In this review, we propose inflammatory pathways as triggers for T1D. Within the scope of those inflammatory pathways and in understanding the pathogenesis of disease, we suggest that viruses, in particular Coxsackieviruses, act by causing a type 1 interferonopathy within the pancreas and the microenvironment of the islet. As such, this connection and common thread represents an exciting platform for the development of new diagnostic, treatment and/or prevention options. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Localization of human T-cell lymphotropic virus-1 gag proviral sequences in dermato-immunological disorders with eosinophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, K; Marschalkó, Márta; Kemény, B; Horváth, A

    2005-01-01

    The mechanisms leading to the development of eosinophilia were investigated in 65 patients with immunodermatological disorders, including the role of eosinophilotactic cytokines and the possible involvement of human T-cell leukemia virus, HTLV. HTLV-1 gag proviral sequences were revealed in two cases of lymphoproliferative disorders such as angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia (ALHE) and CD4+ cutaneous lymphoma, respectively. Increased level of GM-CSF was detected in 33% of disorders studied. Elevated level of IL-5 and eotaxin was detected in 27% and 30%, respectively, of patients with bullous diseases. Elevated level of GM-CSF and eotaxin was found in 33% and 46%, respectively, of patients with inflammatory diseases. Neither of the four cytokines, however proved to be responsible alone or together for the induction of eosinophilia. The possible indirect role of human retroviruses through induction of eosinophilic chemotactic cytokines is hypothesized.

  3. Modulation of cell surface transport and lipid raft localization by the cytoplasmic tail of the influenza virus hemagglutinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scolari, Silvia; Imkeller, Katharina; Jolmes, Fabian; Veit, Michael; Herrmann, Andreas; Schwarzer, Roland

    2016-01-01

    Viral glycoproteins are highly variable in their primary structure, but on the other hand feature a high functional conservation to fulfil their versatile tasks during the pathogenic life cycle. Typically, all protein domains are optimized in that indispensable functions can be assigned to small conserved motifs or even individual amino acids. The cytoplasmic tail of many viral spike proteins, although of particular relevance for the virus biology, is often only insufficiently characterized. Hemagglutinin (HA), the receptor-binding protein of the influenza virus comprises a short cytoplasmic tail of 13 amino acids that exhibits three highly conserved palmitoylation sites. However, the particular importance of these modifications and the tail in general for intracellular trafficking and lateral membrane organization remains elusive. In this study, we generated HA core proteins consisting of transmembrane domain, cytoplasmic tail and a minor part of the ectodomain, tagged with a yellow fluorescent protein. Different mutation and truncation variants of these chimeric proteins were investigated using confocal microscopy, to characterize the role of cytoplasmic tail and palmitoylation for the intracellular trafficking to plasma membrane and Golgi apparatus. In addition, we assessed raft partitioning of the variants by Foerster resonance energy transfer with an established raft marker. We revealed a substantial influence of the cytoplasmic tail length on the intracellular distribution and surface exposure of the proteins. A complete removal of the tail hampers a physiological trafficking of the protein, whereas a partial truncation can be compensated by cytoplasmic palmitoylations. Plasma membrane raft partitioning on the other hand was found to imperatively require palmitoylations, and the cysteine at position 551 turned out to be of most relevance. Our data shed further light on the tight interconnection between cytoplasmic elements and intracellular trafficking and

  4. Modified bonded bridge space maintainer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liegeois, F; Limme, M

    1999-01-01

    The premature loss of primary teeth can create the need for space maintenance and restoration of function. This article presents a fixed bonded space maintainer, which allows space to be maintained with economy of dental tissues.

  5. Dengue virus transovarial transmission by Aedes aegypti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Dwi Hartanti

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Dengue is a disease that is caused by dengue virus and transmitted to humans through the bite of infected Aedes mosquitoes, especially Aedes aegypti. The disease is hyper-endemic in Southeast Asia, where a more severe form, dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF and dengue shock syndrome (DSS, is a major public health concern. The purpose of the present study was to find evidence of dengue virus transovarial transmision in local vectors in Jakarta. Fifteen Aedes larvae were collected in 2009 from two areas in Tebet subdistrict in South Jakarta, namely one area with the highest and one with the lowest DHF prevalence. All mosquitoes were reared inside two cages in the laboratory, eight mosquitoes in one cage and seven mosquitoes in another cage and given only sucrose solution as their food. The results showed that 20% of the mosquitoes were positive for dengue virus. Dengue virus detection with an immunohistochemical method demonstrated the occurrence of transovarial transmission in local DHF vectors in Tebet subdistrict. Transovarial dengue infection in Ae.aegypti larvae appeared to maintain or enhance epidemics. Further research is needed to investigate the relation of dengue virus transovarial transmission with DHF endemicity in Jakarta.

  6. Dengue virus transovarial transmission by Aedes aegypti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Dwi Hartanti

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Dengue is a disease that is caused by dengue virus and transmitted to humans through the bite of infected Aedes mosquitoes, especially Aedes aegypti. The disease is hyper-endemic in Southeast Asia, where a more severe form, dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF and dengue shock syndrome (DSS, is a major public health concern. The purpose of the present study was to find evidence of dengue virus transovarial transmision in local vectors in Jakarta. Fifteen Aedes larvae were collected in 2009 from two areas in Tebet subdistrict in South Jakarta, namely one area with the highest and one with the lowest DHF prevalence. All mosquitoes were reared inside two cages in the laboratory, eight mosquitoes in one cage and seven mosquitoes in another cage and given only sucrose solution as their food. The results showed that 20% of the mosquitoes were positive for dengue virus. Dengue virus detection with an immunohistochemical method demonstrated the occurrence of transovarial transmission in local DHF vectors in Tebet subdistrict. Transovarial dengue infection in Ae.aegypti larvae appeared to maintain or enhance epidemics. Further research is needed to investigate the relation of dengue virus transovarial transmission with DHF endemicity in Jakarta.

  7. Assessing optimal software architecture maintainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, Jan; Bengtsson, P.O.; Smedinga, Rein; Sousa, P; Ebert, J

    2000-01-01

    Over the last decade, several authors have studied the maintainability of software architectures. In particular, the assessment of maintainability has received attention. However, even when one has a quantitative assessment of the maintainability of a software architecture, one still does not have

  8. Assessing optimal software architecture maintainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, Jan; Bengtsson, P.O.; Smedinga, Rein; Sousa, P; Ebert, J

    2000-01-01

    Over the last decade, several authors have studied the maintainability of software architectures. In particular, the assessment of maintainability has received attention. However, even when one has a quantitative assessment of the maintainability of a software architecture, one still does not have a

  9. Zika Virus Disrupts Phospho-TBK1 Localization and Mitosis in Human Neuroepithelial Stem Cells and Radial Glia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Onorati

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms underlying Zika virus (ZIKV-related microcephaly and other neurodevelopment defects remain poorly understood. Here, we describe the derivation and characterization, including single-cell RNA-seq, of neocortical and spinal cord neuroepithelial stem (NES cells to model early human neurodevelopment and ZIKV-related neuropathogenesis. By analyzing human NES cells, organotypic fetal brain slices, and a ZIKV-infected micrencephalic brain, we show that ZIKV infects both neocortical and spinal NES cells as well as their fetal homolog, radial glial cells (RGCs, causing disrupted mitoses, supernumerary centrosomes, structural disorganization, and cell death. ZIKV infection of NES cells and RGCs causes centrosomal depletion and mitochondrial sequestration of phospho-TBK1 during mitosis. We also found that nucleoside analogs inhibit ZIKV replication in NES cells, protecting them from ZIKV-induced pTBK1 relocalization and cell death. We established a model system of human neural stem cells to reveal cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying neurodevelopmental defects associated with ZIKV infection and its potential treatment.

  10. Hydrophobic inactivation of influenza viruses confers preservation of viral structure with enhanced immunogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raviv, Yossef; Blumenthal, Robert; Tompkins, S Mark; Humberd, Jennifer; Hogan, Robert J; Viard, Mathias

    2008-05-01

    The use of inactivated influenza virus for the development of vaccines with broad heterosubtypic protection requires selective inactivation techniques that eliminate viral infectivity while preserving structural integrity. Here we tested if a hydrophobic inactivation approach reported for retroviruses could be applied to the influenza virus. By this approach, the transmembrane domains of viral envelope proteins are selectively targeted by the hydrophobic photoactivatable compound 1,5-iodonaphthyl-azide (INA). This probe partitions into the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope and upon far UV irradiation reacts selectively with membrane-embedded domains of proteins and lipids while the protein domains that localize outside the bilayer remain unaffected. INA treatment of influenza virus blocked infection in a dose-dependent manner without disrupting the virion or affecting neuraminidase activity. Moreover, the virus maintained the full activity in inducing pH-dependent lipid mixing, but pH-dependent redistribution of viral envelope proteins into the target cell membrane was completely blocked. These results indicate that INA selectively blocks fusion of the virus with the target cell membrane at the pore formation and expansion step. Using a murine model of influenza virus infection, INA-inactivated influenza virus induced potent anti-influenza virus serum antibody and T-cell responses, similar to live virus immunization, and protected against heterosubtypic challenge. INA treatment of influenza A virus produced a virus that is noninfectious, intact, and fully maintains the functional activity associated with the ectodomains of its two major envelope proteins, neuraminidase and hemagglutinin. When used as a vaccine given intranasally (i.n.), INA-inactivated influenza virus induced immune responses similar to live virus infection.

  11. Viruses isolated from Panamanian sloths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, C; Peralta, P H; Montgomery, G G

    1983-11-01

    Seven virus strains were isolated in Vero cells from whole blood samples from 80 wild-caught sloths, Bradypus variegatus and Choloepus hoffmanni, from Central Panamá. Four strains of at least two different serotypes are related to Changuinola virus; two of these were associated with prolonged or recrudescent viremias. One strain is an antigenic subtype of Punta Toro virus, and another, described here as Bradypus-4 virus, is a new, antigenically ungrouped virus. A second new virus from sloths, Utive virus, forms an antigenic complex within the Simbu serogroup with Utinga and Pintupo viruses. Tests on sequential plasma samples from radio-marked free-ranging sloths and from recently captured animals maintained in captivity showed that both species develop neutralizing antibodies following naturally acquired virus infections. Antibodies against the Changuinola and Simbu serogroup viruses are widespread in both sloth species and are especially prevalent in Choloepus, but are virtually absent in all other wild vertebrate species tested.

  12. Glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored membrane association of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus GP4 glycoprotein and its co-localization with CD163 in lipid rafts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Yijun [Department of Pathobiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2001 South Lincoln Ave, Urbana, IL 61802 (United States); Shandong Key Laboratory of Animal Disease Control and Breeding, Institute of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Jinan (China); Pattnaik, Asit K. [School of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences and the Nebraska Center for Virology, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68583-0900 (United States); Song, Cheng [Department of Pathobiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2001 South Lincoln Ave, Urbana, IL 61802 (United States); Yoo, Dongwan, E-mail: dyoo@illinois.edu [Department of Pathobiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2001 South Lincoln Ave, Urbana, IL 61802 (United States); Li, Gang, E-mail: dyoo@illinois.edu [Department of Pathobiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2001 South Lincoln Ave, Urbana, IL 61802 (United States); Institute of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2012-03-01

    The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) glycoprotein 4 (GP4) resembles a typical type I membrane protein in its structure but lacks a hydrophilic tail at the C-terminus, suggesting that GP4 may be a lipid-anchored membrane protein. Using the human decay-accelerating factor (DAF; CD55), a known glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI) lipid-anchored protein, chimeric constructs were made to substitute the GPI-anchor domain of DAF with the putative lipid-anchor domain of GP4, and their membrane association and lipase cleavage were determined in cells. The DAF-GP4 fusion protein was transported to the plasma membrane and was cleaved by phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC), indicating that the C-terminal domain of GP4 functions as a GPI anchor. Mutational studies for residues adjacent to the GPI modification site and characterization of respective mutant viruses generated from infectious cDNA clones show that the ability of GP4 for membrane association corresponded to virus viability and growth characteristics. The residues T158 ({omega} - 2, where {omega} is the GPI moiety at E160), P159 ({omega} - 1), and M162 ({omega} + 2) of GP4 were determined to be important for virus replication, with M162 being of particular importance for virus infectivity. The complete removal of the peptide-anchor domain in GP4 resulted in a complete loss of virus infectivity. The depletion of cholesterol from the plasma membrane of cells reduced the virus production, suggesting a role of lipid rafts in PRRSV infection. Remarkably, GP4 was found to co-localize with CD163 in the lipid rafts on the plasma membrane. Since CD163 has been reported as a cellular receptor for PRRSV and GP4 has been shown to interact with this receptor, our data implicates an important role of lipid rafts during entry of the virus.

  13. Study on the immune function in local mucosa post newcastile disease vaccination of chicken infected with chicken anemia virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Chickens were infected with CAV at one-day-old and 8 days later, the infected and uninfected chickens were vaccinated with La Sota vaccine. At 7\\, 14\\, 28 days post vaccination, the number of T cells and IgG, IgM and IgA antibody producing cells in Harderian gland and cecal tonsil, the content of IgG, IgM and IgA in tear, trachea fluid, intestinal fluid and bile as well as the hemoagglutination inhibition (HI) titer in tear and bile were detected. The results showed that the number of T cells and IgG, IgM and IgA antibody producing cells in Harderian gland and cecal consil, the content of IgG, IgM and IgA in tear, trachea fluid, intestinal fluid and bile as well as the HI titer in tear and bile post ND vaccination of CAV infected chickens were decreased significantly than those of uninfected vaccinated chickens. These indicated that the immune response function was markedly weakened in local mucosa of digestive and respiratory tract post ND vaccination of CAV-infected chickens.

  14. Structural basis for the regulation of nuclear import of Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) by phosphorylation of the nuclear localization signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakada, Ryohei; Hirano, Hidemi; Matsuura, Yoshiyuki

    2017-02-26

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) is expressed in every EBV-positive tumor and is essential for the maintenance, replication, and transcription of the EBV genome in the nucleus of host cells. EBNA1 is a serine phosphoprotein, and it has been shown that phosphorylation of S385 in the nuclear localization signal (NLS) of EBNA1 increases the binding affinity to the nuclear import adaptor importin-α1 as well as importin-α5, and stimulates nuclear import of EBNA1. To gain insights into how phosphorylation of the EBNA1 NLS regulates nuclear import, we have determined the crystal structures of two peptide complexes of importin-α1: one with S385-phosphorylated EBNA1 NLS peptide, determined at 2.0 Å resolution, and one with non-phosphorylated EBNA1 NLS peptide, determined at 2.2 Å resolution. The structures show that EBNA1 NLS binds to the major and minor NLS-binding sites of importin-α1, and indicate that the binding affinity of the EBNA1 NLS to the minor NLS-binding site could be enhanced by phosphorylation of S385 through electrostatic interaction between the phosphate group of phospho-S385 and K392 of importin-α1 (corresponding to R395 of importin-α5) on armadillo repeat 8.

  15. Persistent Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Infection in the Nasopharynx of Cattle; Tissue-Specific Distribution and Local Cytokine Expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M Pacheco

    Full Text Available Tissues obtained post-mortem from cattle persistently infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV were analyzed to characterize the tissue-specific localization of FMDV and partial transcriptome profiles for selected immunoregulatory cytokines. Analysis of 28 distinct anatomic sites from 21 steers infected with FMDV serotype A, O or SAT2, had the highest prevalence of overall viral detection in the dorsal nasopharynx (80.95% and dorsal soft palate (71.43%. FMDV was less frequently detected in laryngeal mucosal tissues, oropharyngeal mucosal sites, and lymph nodes draining the pharynx. Immunomicroscopy indicated that within persistently infected mucosal tissues, FMDV antigens were rarely detectable within few epithelial cells in regions of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT. Transcriptome analysis of persistently infected pharyngeal tissues by qRT-PCR for 14 cytokine genes indicated a general trend of decreased mRNA levels compared to uninfected control animals. Although, statistically significant differences were not observed, greatest suppression of relative expression (RE was identified for IP-10 (RE = 0.198, IFN-β (RE = 0.269, IL-12 (RE = 0.275, and IL-2 (RE = 0.312. Increased relative expression was detected for IL-6 (RE = 2.065. Overall, this data demonstrates that during the FMDV carrier state in cattle, viral persistence is associated with epithelial cells of the nasopharynx in the upper respiratory tract and decreased levels of mRNA for several immunoregulatory cytokines in the infected tissues.

  16. Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase-1 Localizes Hepatitis C Virus NS5A Protein to Lipid Droplets and Enhances NS5A Interaction with the Viral Capsid Core*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camus, Gregory; Herker, Eva; Modi, Ankit A.; Haas, Joel T.; Ramage, Holly R.; Farese, Robert V.; Ott, Melanie

    2013-01-01

    The triglyceride-synthesizing enzyme acyl CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) plays a critical role in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection by recruiting the HCV capsid protein core onto the surface of cellular lipid droplets (LDs). Here we find a new interaction between the non-structural protein NS5A and DGAT1 and show that the trafficking of NS5A to LDs depends on DGAT1 activity. DGAT1 forms a complex with NS5A and core and facilitates the interaction between both viral proteins. A catalytically inactive mutant of DGAT1 (H426A) blocks the localization of NS5A, but not core, to LDs in a dominant-negative manner and impairs the release of infectious viral particles, underscoring the importance of DGAT1-mediated translocation of NS5A to LDs in viral particle production. We propose a model whereby DGAT1 serves as a cellular hub for HCV core and NS5A proteins, guiding both onto the surface of the same subset of LDs, those generated by DGAT1. These results highlight the critical role of DGAT1 as a host factor for HCV infection and as a potential drug target for antiviral therapy. PMID:23420847

  17. Motavizumab, A Neutralizing Anti-Respiratory Syncytial Virus (Rsv Monoclonal Antibody Significantly Modifies The Local And Systemic Cytokine Responses Induced By Rsv In The Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafri Hasan S

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Motavizumab (MEDI-524 is a monoclonal antibody with enhanced neutralizing activity against RSV. In mice, motavizumab suppressed RSV replication which resulted in significant reduction of clinical parameters of disease severity. We evaluated the effect of motavizumab on the local and systemic immune response induced by RSV in the mouse model. Balb/c mice were intranasally inoculated with 106.5 PFU RSV A2 or medium. Motavizumab was given once intraperitoneally (1.25 mg/mouse as prophylaxis, 24 h before virus inoculation. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL and serum samples were obtained at days 1, 5 (acute and 28 (long-term post inoculation and analyzed with a multiplex assay (Beadlyte Upstate, NY for simultaneous quantitation of 18 cytokines: IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, KC (similar to human IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p40, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-17, TNF-α, MCP-1, RANTES, IFN-γ and GM-CSF. Overall, cytokine concentrations were lower in serum than in BAL samples. By day 28, only KC was detected in BAL specimens at low concentrations in all groups. Administration of motavizumab significantly reduced (p

  18. A Novel Polarization Maintaining Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    It introduces a novel elliptical jacket polarization maintaining fiber, whose SAP is like numeral "1". One preform can be drawn over 8km. Fiber's performances show that it is fit for fiber gyroscope and other sensors.

  19. A Novel Polarization Maintaining Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Benjamin Xue

    2003-01-01

    It introduces a novel elliptical jacket polarization maintaining fiber, whose SAP is like numeral "1" One preform can be drawn over 8km. Fiber's performances show that it is fit for fiber gyroscope and other sensors.

  20. Simple fixed functional space maintainer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goenka, Puneet; Sarawgi, Aditi; Marwah, Nikhil; Gumber, Parvind; Dutta, Samir

    2014-01-01

    Premature loss of a primary tooth is one of the most common etiology for malocclusion. Space maintainers are employed to prevent this complication. In anterior region, esthetics is an important concern along with function and space management. Fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) retained space maintainer solves all these purposes ef ficiently and ef fectively. In addition, the technique is simple and the appliance is very comfortable inside the oral cavity. Here is a case of premature loss of anterior primary tooth which was replaced by FRC retained esthetic functional space maintainer. The appliance was found to be functioning satisfactorily inside the oral cavity till the last visit (1 Year). How to cite this article: Goenka P, Sarawgi A, Marwah N, Gumber P, Dutta S. Simple Fixed Functional Space Maintainer. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(3):225-228.

  1. Marshal: Maintaining Evolving Models Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SIFT proposes to design and develop the Marshal system, a mixed-initiative tool for maintaining task models over the course of evolving missions. Marshal-enabled...

  2. How to maintain improved cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parlevliet, J.E.

    2007-01-01

    Improved cultivars loose their identity and healthiness unless maintained properly. Contaminating and degrading forces, such as outcrossing, volunteer plants, mixing, natural selection, mutation and seed-borne diseases, are at the root of this. Maintenance selection can prevent this deterioration.

  3. Simple Fixed Functional Space Maintainer

    OpenAIRE

    Goenka, Puneet; Sarawgi, Aditi; Marwah, Nikhil; Gumber, Parvind; Dutta, Samir

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT% Premature loss of a primary tooth is one of the most common etiology for malocclusion. Space maintainers are employed to prevent this complication. In anterior region, esthetics is an important concern along with function and space management. Fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) retained space maintainer solves all these purposes ef ficiently and ef fectively. In addition, the technique is simple and the appliance is very comfortable inside the oral cavity. Here is a case of premature ...

  4. Identification and immuno-electron microscopy localization of p40, a protein component of immunosuppressive virus-like particles from Leptopilina heterotoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Hsiling; Morales, Jorge; Govind, Shubha

    2009-01-01

    Lamellocytes are specialized larval blood cells of Drosophila that carry out encapsulation of metazoan pathogens such as parasitoid wasps. Large virus-like particles (VLPs) from two closely related virulent parasitoid wasp species, Leptopilina heterotoma and Leptopilina victoriae, suppress the host encapsulation response by promoting lysis of lamellocytes. The molecular basis of VLP–lamellocyte interaction and lamellocyte lysis is not understood. Here, it was shown that mature VLPs are composed of at least four major proteins. Polyclonal antisera against the most abundant L. heterotoma VLP protein, p40, cross-reacted with the most abundant L. victoriae VLP protein, p47.5. Immuno-electron microscopy (EM) of the long gland–reservoir complex revealed that p40 was expressed early in VLP biogenesis and was detected along with VLP precursors within the long gland cells and lumen. In the reservoir, VLPs had an angular core, resembled mature particles and p40 was detected outside the VLP cores. Immuno-EM staining of mature VLPs from both species localized the p40 and p47.5 proteins largely to the periphery of the VLPs and along the VLP spike-like projections. p40 staining was observed in VLP-treated host haemocytes. In vitro, anti-p40 antibody almost completely blocked the ability of L. heterotoma VLPs to promote lamellocyte lysis. Anti-p40 antibody blocked lysis by L. victoriae VLPs by >50 %. It is proposed that the VLP surface proteins p40 and p47.5 share antigenic determinants and significantly contribute to the strong virulence of their Hymenopteran hosts. PMID:16432035

  5. Co-translational localization of an LTR-retrotransposon RNA to the endoplasmic reticulum nucleates virus-like particle assembly sites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung H Doh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The transcript of retrovirus-like transposons functions as an mRNA for synthesis of capsid and replication proteins and as the genomic RNA of virus-like particles (VLPs, wherein the genome is replicated. Retrotransposon RNA and proteins coalesce in a cytoplasmic focus, or retrosome, to initiate VLP assembly, but it is not known how the retrosome is nucleated. We determined how the RNA and Gag protein of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ty1 retrotransposon are directed to the retrosome. We found that Ty1 RNA is translated in association with signal recognition particle (SRP, a universally conserved chaperone that binds specific ribosome-nascent chain (RNC complexes and targets the nascent peptide to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. Gag is translocated to the ER lumen; yet, it is also found in the cytoplasm, associated with SRP-RNC complexes. In the absence of ER translocation, Gag is synthesized but rapidly degraded, and Ty1 RNA does not coalesce in retrosomes. These findings suggest that Gag adopts a stable conformation in the ER lumen, is retrotranslocated to the cytoplasm, binds to Ty1 RNA on SRP-RNC complexes and multimerizes to nucleate retrosomes. Consistent with this model, we show that slowing the rate of co-translational ER translocation by limiting SRP increases the prevalence of retrosomes, while suppressing the translocation defect of srp hypomorphs by slowing translational elongation rapidly decreases retrosome formation. Thus, retrosomes are dynamic foci of Ty1 RNA-RNC complexes whose formation is modulated by the rate of co-translational ER translocation. Together, these findings suggest that translating Ty1 mRNA and the genomic RNA of VLPs originate in a single pool and moreover, that co-translational localization of Ty1 RNA nucleates the presumptive VLP assembly site. The separation of nascent Gag from its RNA template by transit through the ER allows Gag to bind translating Ty1 RNA without displaying a cis-preference for its encoding

  6. Co-infection of Avian Leukosis Virus and Salmonella pullorum with the Preliminary Eradication in Breeders of Chinese Local “ShouGuang” Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Qiang Huang, Jing Kai Xin, Cui Mao, Feng Zhong and Jia Qian Chai*

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The study was designed to investigate the infection status and to finish the preliminary eradication of avian leukosis virus (ALV and Salmonella pullorum (SP in breeders of Chinese local “ShouGuang” chickens. ALV antigen and antibody was tested via ELISA, and SP antibody was detected by serum plate agglutination test (SPAT. The etiology and pathology was also studied. The ALV-P27 antigen, ALV-A/B and SP antibody positive chickens were eliminated in turn, and then the negative were retained as the breeder flocks. The results showed that the positive rate of antigen to ALV-P27, antibody to ALV-A/B, ALV-J and SP was 57.8, 6.7, 0 and 17.8% in this breeder farm, respectively. The co-infection of ALV and SP was confirmed and the positive rate of both SP and ALV-P27 or ALV-A/B was 10 and 1%, respectively. There were obvious tumor nodules and lymphoid tumor cells in the comb, liver and spleen of the co-infected chickens. The degenerative and atrophic ovarian follicles, inflammatory cell infiltration in muscle biopsies were also found. The elimination rate of ALV-p27, ALV-A/B and SP positive chickens was 55.4, 13 and 6.1%, respectively. The final amount of the breeder conservation was 309 chickens. In conclusion, the co-infection of ALV-B and SP was found and more emphasis should be given on its prevention; the preliminary eradication of “ShouGuang” breeder chickens was finished.

  7. Virus de la influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Rivera

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available El virus de la influenza es un importante agente patógeno humano que causa infecciones respira-torias y una considerable morbimortalidad anual a nivel mundial. El virus puede circular esporádicamente durante brotes locales como parte de una epidemia estacional o puede generar una pandemia mundial.

  8. Maintaining the technological edge through local workforce collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnegan, Martha M.; Haugen, Celine

    2003-03-01

    Napa County California has been a pioneer in Industry Cluster Analysis and has worked with a wide variety of industries to resolve identified needs with economical and achievable solutions. The Napa Workforce Investment Area has developed practical approaches to generate sustained interest from students and has incorporated this into its routine services thereby insuring a continuous supply of new practitioners and reducing costs to business. Career development, linking students directly with specific businesses and industries as well as tuition assistance have been provided to insure the continuation of a highly skilled workforce within the region. Letting industry set the agenda in problem solving forums has proved a valuable tool in resolving workforce retention and skill upgrade issues as well. A result of this collaborative effort has been the development of new curriculum and the opening of new Industry Schools to meet industry needs for training and retraining workers for new occupations within industries. In order to assist the various industries and individual businesses to meet changing technology and retention needs, Napa provides skill upgrade training to incumbent workers at no or reduced costs to businesses. Extending these practices to the field of Photo Optics is now a matter of formula.

  9. Recrudescent infection supports Hendra virus persistence in Australian flying-fox populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Hsuan Wang

    Full Text Available Zoonoses from wildlife threaten global public health. Hendra virus is one of several zoonotic viral diseases that have recently emerged from Pteropus species fruit-bats (flying-foxes. Most hypotheses regarding persistence of Hendra virus within flying-fox populations emphasize horizontal transmission within local populations (colonies via urine and other secretions, and transmission among colonies via migration. As an alternative hypothesis, we explore the role of recrudescence in persistence of Hendra virus in flying-fox populations via computer simulation using a model that integrates published information on the ecology of flying-foxes, and the ecology and epidemiology of Hendra virus. Simulated infection patterns agree with infection patterns observed in the field and suggest that Hendra virus could be maintained in an isolated flying-fox population indefinitely via periodic recrudescence in a manner indistinguishable from maintenance via periodic immigration of infected individuals. Further, post-recrudescence pulses of infectious flying-foxes provide a plausible basis for the observed seasonal clustering of equine cases. Correct understanding of the infection dynamics of Hendra virus in flying-foxes is fundamental to effectively managing risk of infection in horses and humans. Given the lack of clear empirical evidence on how the virus is maintained within populations, the role of recrudescence merits increased attention.

  10. Vaccinia DNA ligase complements Saccharomyces cerevisiae cdc9, localizes in cytoplasmic factories and affects virulence and virus sensitivity to DNA damaging agents.

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, S M; Johnston, L H; Odell, M; Duncan, S A; Law, K M; Smith, G L

    1991-01-01

    The functional compatibility of vaccinia virus DNA ligase with eukaryotic counterparts was demonstrated by its ability to complement Saccharomyces cerevisiae cdc9. The vaccinia DNA ligase is a 63 kDa protein expressed early during infection that is non-essential for virus DNA replication and recombination in cultured cells. This implies complementation by a mammalian DNA ligase, yet no obvious recruitment of host DNA ligase I from the nucleus to the cytoplasm was observed during infection. An...

  11. Bulkloading and Maintaining XML Documents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, A.R.; Kersten, M.L.

    2002-01-01

    The popularity of XML as a exchange and storage format brings about massive amounts of documents to be stored, maintained and analyzed -- a challenge that traditionally has been tackled with Database Management Systems (DBMS). To open up the content of XML documents to analysis with declarative quer

  12. Assessment of Local Governments' Maintaining Stability at the Initial Stage: The Case of T County%地方政府维稳绩效的前期考核——以T县“矛盾纠纷排查调处”机制为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国强

    2012-01-01

    The Troubleshooting Procedure for Conflicts and Disputes (TPCD) is an important method local governments use to assess disturbances in their initial stage and maintain stability. This fieldwork-based paper focuses on T County in East China, provides a sketch of TPCD, analyzes the focus of assessment, explores the reasonableness of its results, and suggests an elimination model to explain assessment results. The paper concludes that two models of Chinese local governments exist : 1 ) championship model, in which the main motivation of local governments is to win rewards ; 2) elimination model, in which the main motivation of local governments is to avoid falling behind and then being punished severely. The TPCD assessment system of T County belongs to the latter.%“矛盾纠纷排查调处”工作考核作为地方政府维稳的前期考核,是理解政府维稳行为的重要角度。文章主要以T县为例,介绍了矛盾纠纷排查调处考核的基本内容,分析了考核的侧重点,探讨了考核结果的合理性问题,进而提出采用淘汰赛模式来解释考核结果。文章据此对中国地方政府之间的竞争问题,得出了一个基本判断,即在锦标赛模式下,地方政府的主要动机是获得奖励,故努力争先;在淘汰赛模式下,地方政府的主要动机是避免惩罚,故重在避免落后。

  13. Disturbance maintains alternative biome states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, Vinícius de L; Hirota, Marina; Oliveira, Rafael S; Pausas, Juli G

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms controlling the distribution of biomes remains a challenge. Although tropical biome distribution has traditionally been explained by climate and soil, contrasting vegetation types often occur as mosaics with sharp boundaries under very similar environmental conditions. While evidence suggests that these biomes are alternative states, empirical broad-scale support to this hypothesis is still lacking. Using community-level field data and a novel resource-niche overlap approach, we show that, for a wide range of environmental conditions, fire feedbacks maintain savannas and forests as alternative biome states in both the Neotropics and the Afrotropics. In addition, wooded grasslands and savannas occurred as alternative grassy states in the Afrotropics, depending on the relative importance of fire and herbivory feedbacks. These results are consistent with landscape scale evidence and suggest that disturbance is a general factor driving and maintaining alternative biome states and vegetation mosaics in the tropics.

  14. NMG documentation, part 3: maintainer`s guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritsch, F.N.; Dickinson, R.P. Jr.

    1996-07-01

    This is the third of a three-part report documenting NMG, the Numerical Mathematics Guide. Part I is aimed at the user of the systenL It contains an introduction, with an out- line of the complete report, and Chapter 1, User`s Point of View. Part II is aimed at the programmer and contains Chapter 2, How It Works. Part III is aimed at the maintainer of NMG and contains Chapter 3, Maintenance, and Chapter 4, Validation. Because its contents are so specialized, Part III will receive only limited distribution. Note that each chapter has its own page numbering and table of contents.

  15. Cloning and expression of the Chinese wheat mosaic virus RNA2 coat protein read- through and 19 ku cysteine- rich domains and localization of these proteins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The 5′-terminal (RTn) and 3′-terminal (RTc) halves of the coat protein readthrough domain and the 19 ku cysteine-rich protein of Chinese wheat mosaic virus (CWMV) were amplified by RT-PCR, cloned and expressed in E. coli. Antisera and monoclonal antibodies against these proteins were prepared by immunising these purified proteins to mice. Detection of RTn, RTc and 19 ku proteins in CWMV infected wheat sap and leaf tissue indicated that the RTn and RTc proteins were distributed on the surface of virus particles whereas the 19 ku protein was in the cytoplasm of the infected wheat cells.

  16. Control Inflation while Maintain Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Junsheng

    2008-01-01

    @@ Dragged by the U.S.subprime crisis and the soaring oil price, the global economy is slowing down,causing problems to China, the country which has continuously achieved miraculous economic growth.Apart from the accumulation of high inflation and risks of overheated economy, China is attacked by serious natural disasters ever since the beginning of 2008,including the snow disaster, the earthquake and the flood.It is obviously that China's priority now is to bring inflation under control so as to maintain the stable growth of economy.

  17. FAQ: West Nile Virus and Dead Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education Public Service Videos West Nile Virus & Dead Birds Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On This ... dead bird sightings to local authorities. How do birds get infected with West Nile virus? West Nile ...

  18. Managing Grant Maintained Primary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Tony; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The provision for schools to waive local education authority control and become self-governing was the most radical element of Britain's 1988 Education Reform Act. A survey of five opted-out primary schools shows that larger schools succeed better at self-governance because of economies of scale; clustering smaller schools into groups with single…

  19. Comparison of helper component-protease RNA silencing suppression activity, subcellular localization, and aggregation of three Korean isolates of Turnip mosaic virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2014, we performed a nationwide survey in Korean radish fields to investigate the distribution of Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV). Brassica chinensis sap-inoculated with TuMV-infected radish tissue showed different symptom severity with three isolates. In order to investigate variation among Korean Tu...

  20. Evaluation of sorivudine (BV-araU) versus acyclovir in the treatment of acute localized herpes zoster in human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodsworth, NJ; Boag, F; Burdge, D; Genereux, M; Borleffs, JCC; Evans, BA; Modai, J; Colebunders, R; Thomas, M; DeHertogh, D; Pacelli, L; Thomis, J; Knight, E.L.; McNulty, AM; Delaney, C; VanHove, D; Sacks, S; Gage, L; McLeod, A; DiazMitoma, F; Fong, J; MacFadden, D; Martel, A; Rachlis, A; Salit, [No Value; Shafran, S; Szabo, J; Toma, E; Deschenes, L; Gill, J; Lalonde, R; Kaufhold, R; Molina, JM; Dellamonica, P; Rozenbaum, W; Kolsters, FP; Meenhorst, PL; Danner, S; Sprenger, HG; EllisPegler, RB; Moragas, J; Moyle, G; Colman, J; Parnell, A; McLean, KA; Holmes, DA; Kitchen, C.M.R.; Linde, A; Dahl, H; Dwyer, D

    1997-01-01

    The clinical efficacy and safety of sorivudine as treatment for acute cutaneous tester in human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults was compared with that of acyclovir in a double-blinded randomized study, A total of 125 patients with laboratory-confirmed tester rash present for less than or equa

  1. A Conserved Domain in the Leader Proteinase of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus is Required for Proper Sub-Cellular Localization and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    The leader proteinase (Lpro) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is involved in antagonizing the innate immune response by blocking the expression of interferon (IFN) protein and by reducing the immediate-early induction of IFN beta mRNA and IFN stimulated genes. In addition to its role in shutti...

  2. Maintaining consistency in distributed systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birman, Kenneth P.

    1991-01-01

    In systems designed as assemblies of independently developed components, concurrent access to data or data structures normally arises within individual programs, and is controlled using mutual exclusion constructs, such as semaphores and monitors. Where data is persistent and/or sets of operation are related to one another, transactions or linearizability may be more appropriate. Systems that incorporate cooperative styles of distributed execution often replicate or distribute data within groups of components. In these cases, group oriented consistency properties must be maintained, and tools based on the virtual synchrony execution model greatly simplify the task confronting an application developer. All three styles of distributed computing are likely to be seen in future systems - often, within the same application. This leads us to propose an integrated approach that permits applications that use virtual synchrony with concurrent objects that respect a linearizability constraint, and vice versa. Transactional subsystems are treated as a special case of linearizability.

  3. Local impact of temperature and precipitation on West Nile virus infection in Culex species mosquitoes in northeast Illinois, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Haramis Linn; Walker Edward D; Brown William M; Sun Ting; Hamer Gabriel L; Chaves Luis F; Ruiz Marilyn O; Goldberg Tony L; Kitron Uriel D

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Models of the effects of environmental factors on West Nile virus disease risk have yielded conflicting outcomes. The role of precipitation has been especially difficult to discern from existing studies, due in part to habitat and behavior characteristics of specific vector species and because of differences in the temporal and spatial scales of the published studies. We used spatial and statistical modeling techniques to analyze and forecast fine scale spatial (2000 m gri...

  4. ECHO virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001340.htm ECHO virus To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Enteric cytopathic human orphan (ECHO) viruses are a group of viruses that lead to ...

  5. The Maintaining Stability Dilemma under Government Behavior Anomie --The consideration basing on removal behavior anonme of Chinese local govemment%政府行为失范下的维稳困境——基于转型期我国地方政府失范拆迁行为的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭辉安

    2012-01-01

    With the deepening of the social transfoumation and the rising of interest differentation degree, the group incidents increased obviously.Especially, various removal contradiction caused by local government behavior anomie emerge in endlessly recently, and get intensive increasingly, and make China failing into the maintaining stability dilemma.Therefore, regulating government behavior to mainain social stability and harmortiously is the important task we should face with at present.%随着我国社会转型的不断深入,利益分化程度不断加剧,各种群体性突发事件明显增多,特别是近几年来,由于地方政府行为失范所诱发的各种拆迁矛盾层出不穷,愈演愈烈,致使我国维稳陷入困境。为此,规范地方政府行为,维护社会稳定、和谐,是目前摆在我们面前的一个重大任务。

  6. Software Code Maintainability : A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berna Seref

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Software Maintainability is one of the most important quality attributes. To increase quality of a software, to manage software more efficient and to decrease cost of the software, maintainability, maintainability estimation and maintainability evaluation models have been proposed. However, the practical use of these models in software engineering tools and practice remained little due to their limitations or threats to validity. In this paper, results of our Literature Review about maintainability models, maintainability metrics and maintainability estimation are presented. Aim of this paper is providing a baseline for further searches and serving the needs of developers and customers.

  7. Purification of potato virus X and preparation of its antiserum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damadi, S M; Mosahebi, G H; Okhovvat, M

    2005-01-01

    Potato virus X (PVX) isolated from the potato leaf and tuber samples which were collected from various fields in Damavand and Ardabil. The initial isolations of the virus were made from potato by mechanical inoculation on Gomphrena globosa L. and Chenopodium spp. that produce local lesion, and then it causes mosaic on Nicotiana spp. and Datura stramonium L. An isolate of the virus inoculated to Nicotiana glutinosa L. and it was maintained throughout the work. Sap from infected N. glutinosa was ineffective after dilution to 10-6, 10 minutes at 70 degrees and 10 weeks at room temperature. The virus was readily purified from infected leaves and the best protocol was Moreira & Jones 1980 than the other 2 methods of Fribourg 1975 and Shepard & Shalla 1972. Antisera were prepared against native, degraded proteins and micro precipitin test showed that both antisera had a 1/512 titer. Precipitin lines with D - Protein antiserum was better of the native protein antiserum in agar double diffusion test than treated with SDS. The isolate of the virus was not transmitted by none of 2 species of Cuscuta but transmitted from infected leaves to healthy plants with sap inoculation without using Carburandum. This isolate showed positive reaction with gamaglubulin in kate received from CIP centre.

  8. Aedes (Stegomyia albopictus (Skuse: a potential vector of Zika virus in Singapore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Sze Jeslyn Wong

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV is a little known arbovirus until it caused a major outbreak in the Pacific Island of Yap in 2007. Although the virus has a wide geographic distribution, most of the known vectors are sylvatic Aedes mosquitoes from Africa where the virus was first isolated. Presently, Ae. aegypti is the only known vector to transmit the virus outside the African continent, though Ae. albopictus has long been a suspected vector. Currently, Ae. albopictus has been shown capable of transmitting more than 20 arboviruses and its notoriety as an important vector came to light during the recent chikungunya pandemic. The vulnerability of Singapore to emerging infectious arboviruses has stimulated our interest to determine the competence of local Ae. albopictus to transmit ZIKV.To determine the competence of Ae. albopictus to ZIKV, we orally infected local mosquito strains to a Ugandan strain virus. Fully engorged mosquitoes were maintained in an environmental chamber set at 29°C and 80-85%RH. Twelve mosquitoes were then sampled daily from day one to seven and on day 10 and 14 post infection (pi. Zika virus titre in the midgut and salivary glands of each mosquito were determined using tissue culture infectious dose50 assay, while transmissibility of the virus was determined by detecting viral antigen in the mosquito saliva by qRT-PCR. High dissemination and transmission rate of ZIKV were observed. By day 7-pi, all mosquitoes have disseminated infection and 73% of these mosquitoes have ZIKV in their saliva. By day 10-pi, all mosquitoes were potentially infectious.The study highlighted the potential of Ae. albopictus to transmit ZIKV and the possibility that the virus could be established locally. Nonetheless, the threat of ZIKV can be mitigated by existing dengue and chikungunya control program being implemented in Singapore.

  9. Enhancement of human papilloma virus type 16 E7 specific T cell responses by local invasive procedures in patients with (pre)malignant cervical neoplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Jeroen; van Baarle, D; Hoogeboom, BN; Reesink, N; Klip, H; Schuuring, E; Nijhuis, E; Pawlita, M; Bungener, L; de Vries-Idema, J; Nijman, H; Miedema, F; Daemen, T; van der Zee, A

    2006-01-01

    It has been suggested that local invasive procedures may alter the natural course of (pre)malignant cervical disease. This could be due to partial excision of the lesions, or via induction of cellular immunity against human papillomavirus (HPV) by the local invasive procedures. We studied the influe

  10. Functional interaction between herpes simplex virus type 2 gD and HVEM transiently dampens local chemokine production after murine mucosal infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miri Yoon

    Full Text Available Herpes virus entry mediator (HVEM is one of two principal receptors mediating herpes simplex virus (HSV entry into murine and human cells. It functions naturally as an immune signaling co-receptor, and may participate in enhancing or repressing immune responses depending on the natural ligand used. To investigate whether engagement of HVEM by HSV affects the in vivo response to HSV infection, we generated recombinants of HSV-2(333 that expressed wild-type gD (HSV-2/gD or mutant gD able to bind to nectin-1 (the other principal entry receptor but not HVEM. Replication kinetics and yields of the recombinant strains on Vero cells were indistinguishable from those of wild-type HSV-2(333. After intravaginal inoculation with mutant or wild-type virus, adult female C57BL/6 mice developed vaginal lesions and mortality in similar proportions, and mucosal viral titers were similar or lower for mutant strains at different times. Relative to HSV-2/gD, percentages of HSV-specific CD8(+ T-cells were similar or only slightly reduced after infection with the mutant strain HSV-2/gD-Δ7-15, in all tissues up to 9 days after infection. Levels of HSV-specific CD4(+ T-cells five days after infection also did not differ after infection with either strain. Levels of the cytokine IL-6 and of the chemokines CXCL9, CXCL10, and CCL4 were significantly lower in vaginal washes one day after infection with HSV-2/gD compared with HSV-2/gD-Δ7-15. We conclude that the interaction of HSV gD with HVEM may alter early innate events in the murine immune response to infection, without significantly affecting acute mortality, morbidity, or initial T-cell responses after lethal challenge.

  11. Maintaining quality in blood banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, E; Hewison, C; Nevalainen, D E; Lloyd, H L

    1995-03-01

    component will warrant redress. The degree of fault attributed to the producer will in part depend on whether they have met the best available standards at all stages in the preparation of the product. If a Transfusion Service can show that it's operation has external accreditation, particularly to an internationally recognised standard such as ISO 9000 and they can show that staff have been properly trained, that equipment is properly supplied and maintained and that the facility is appropriate to the work being carried out, then the liability that exists when something goes wrong will be reduced.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  12. Maintaining control is team's vital role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haywood, Liz; Frankel, Chris; Johns, Andrew

    2011-02-01

    In an environment where there is an ever-increasing use of reliable electronic control, it is easy to become complacent about the need for in-depth knowledge of how the controls actually work. After all, experts who can diagnose and fix such systems are only a phone call away, and a new unit can easily be fitted. Sometimes this is not the case at Bendigo Health, as we have a number of systems with a "black box" set of controls that can take days, or weeks, to fix, and cannot be fixed locally. To better manage and maintain our infrastructure, the Buildings & Infrastructure Department at Bendigo Health includes a number of employees who concentrate on building management systems (BMS). The BMS group plays a vital role in the complete lifecycle of projects that include control and monitoring of the plant within the hospital setting. A good example of this role was in the design, build, installation and commissioning, of two new negative pressure suites at Bendigo Health. The BMS group's involvement in this particular project included the door interlocking, the air conditioning and exhaust fan control, and a comprehensive alarm panel and overrides, all of which can be monitored centrally via the existing BMS system. The involvement of the BMS group, following the DHS guidelines, resulted in the architect and consulting engineers revisiting their designs and improving them to the benefit of both patient care and staff safety. The advantages of projects such as the negative pressure suites installed by the BMS group include the fact that that the hospital gains facilities that work correctly and according to industry guidelines; and the design, installation, and controls of the plant are understood by the people who will be maintaining the infrastructure. This paper will provide an overview of the work undertaken by the BMS group at Bendigo Health, using the negative pressure suites as an exemplar.

  13. Binding of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 UL20 to GODZ (DHHC3) Affects Its Palmitoylation and Is Essential for Infectivity and Proper Targeting and Localization of UL20 and Glycoprotein K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaohui; Mott, Kevin R; Wawrowsky, Kolja; Kousoulas, Konstantin G; Luscher, Bernhard; Ghiasi, Homayon

    2017-10-01

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) UL20 plays a crucial role in the envelopment of the cytoplasmic virion and its egress. It is a nonglycosylated envelope protein that is regulated as a γ1 gene. Two-hybrid and pulldown assays demonstrated that UL20, but no other HSV-1 gene-encoded proteins, binds specifically to GODZ (also known as DHHC3), a cellular Golgi apparatus-specific Asp-His-His-Cys (DHHC) zinc finger protein. A catalytically inactive dominant-negative GODZ construct significantly reduced HSV-1 replication in vitro and affected the localization of UL20 and glycoprotein K (gK) and their interactions but not glycoprotein C (gC). GODZ is involved in palmitoylation, and we found that UL20 is palmitoylated by GODZ using a GODZ dominant-negative plasmid. Blocking of palmitoylation using 2-bromopalmitate (2-BP) affected the virus titer and the interaction of UL20 and gK but did not affect the levels of these proteins. In conclusion, we have shown that binding of UL20 to GODZ in the Golgi apparatus regulates trafficking of UL20 and its subsequent effects on gK localization and virus replication. We also have demonstrated that GODZ-mediated UL20 palmitoylation is critical for UL20 membrane targeting and thus gK cell surface expression, providing new mechanistic insights into how UL20 palmitoylation regulates HSV-1 infectivity.IMPORTANCE HSV-1 UL20 is a nonglycosylated essential envelope protein that is highly conserved among herpesviruses. In this study, we show that (i) HSV-1 UL20 binds to GODZ (also known as DHHC3), a Golgi apparatus-specific Asp-His-His-Cys (DHHC) zinc finger protein; (ii) a GODZ dominant-negative mutant and an inhibitor of palmitoylation reduced HSV-1 titers and altered the localization of UL20 and glycoprotein K; and (iii) UL20 is palmitoylated by GODZ, and this UL20 palmitoylation is required for HSV-1 infectivity. Thus, blocking of the interaction of UL20 with GODZ, using a GODZ dominant-negative mutant or possibly GODZ shRNA, should be

  14. 民营化改革后铁路行业的价格规制及线路维持--以日本为例%Price Regulation and Institutional Design to Maintain Local Railway Network after Privatization Reform---Take Japan as An Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王惠贤; 李宏舟

    2014-01-01

    In view of the monopoly nature of railway companies and the transportation rights of residents after privatiza -tion, the Japanese government introduced price-cap regulation along with yardstick competition among regions , and maintained the integrity of the local railway network through various institutional designs .China's railway reform in 2013 is essentially to separate government administration from business management , which does not change the monopoly and non-profit nature of the railway transportation .Consequently , implementing market mechanism in pricing under the excuse of reform is lack of the-oretical basis .%鉴于民营化改革后的铁路运输公司仍具有区域垄断的性质,日本政府导入了区域间标尺竞争下的价格上限规制。该机制保留了收益率规制的某些特点,但通过横向比较和纵向比较引入了竞争机制。同样,为了保证居民的交通权,日本政府通过财政补贴和网运分离等制度设计,基本上维护了地方铁路网络的完整性。我国2013年铁路体制改革的实质是政企分开,改革本身并没有改变网运一体化下铁路运输的自然垄断性及其公益性,因此以政企分开为借口,完全实施市场机制是缺乏理论依据的。

  15. West Nile Virus in Resident Birds from Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Andrea; Sotomayor-Bonilla, Jesus; Monge, Otto; Ramírez, Abigaíl; Galindo, Francisco; Sarmiento-Silva, Rosa Elena; Gutiérrez-Espeleta, Gustavo A; Suzán, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) in the Americas is thought to be transported at large spatial scales by migratory birds and locally spread and amplified by resident birds. Local processes, including interspecific interactions and dominance of passerine species recognized as competent reservoirs, may boost infection and maintain endemic cycles. Change in species composition has been recognized as an important driver for infection dynamics. Due to migration and changes in species diversity and composition in wintering grounds, changes in infection prevalence are expected. To these changes, we used PCR to estimate the prevalence of WNV in wild resident birds during the dry and rainy seasons of 2012 in Yucatan, Mexico. Serum samples were obtained from 104 wild birds, belonging to six orders and 35 species. We detected WNV in 14 resident birds, representing 11 species and three orders. Prevalences by order was Passeriformes (27%), Columbiformes (6%), and Piciformes (33%). Resident birds positive to WNV from Yucatan may be indicative of local virus circulation and evidence of past virus transmission activity.

  16. Stochastic analysis of virus transport in aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Rehmann L.L.; Welty, C.; Harvey, R.W.

    1999-01-01

    A large-scale model of virus transport in aquifers is derived using spectral perturbation analysis. The effects of spatial variability in aquifer hydraulic conductivity and virus transport (attachment, detachment, and inactivation) parameters on large-scale virus transport are evaluated. A stochastic mean model of virus transport is developed by linking a simple system of local-scale free-virus transport and attached-virus conservation equations from the current literature with a random-field representation of aquifer and virus transport properties. The resultant mean equations for free and attached viruses are found to differ considerably from the local-scale equations on which they are based and include effects such as a free-virus effective velocity that is a function of aquifer heterogeneity as well as virus transport parameters. Stochastic mean free-virus breakthrough curves are compared with local model output in order to observe the effects of spatial variability on mean one-dimensional virus transport in three-dimensionally heterogeneous porous media. Significant findings from this theoretical analysis include the following: (1) Stochastic model breakthrough occurs earlier than local model breakthrough, and this effect is most pronounced for the least conductive aquifers studied. (2) A high degree of aquifer heterogeneity can lead to virus breakthrough actually preceding that of a conservative tracer. (3) As the mean hydraulic conductivity is increased, the mean model shows less sensitivity to the variance of the natural-logarithm hydraulic conductivity and mean virus diameter. (4) Incorporation of a heterogeneous colloid filtration term results in higher predicted concentrations than a simple first-order adsorption term for a given mean attachment rate. (5) Incorporation of aquifer heterogeneity leads to a greater range of virus diameters for which significant breakthrough occurs. (6) The mean model is more sensitive to the inactivation rate of viruses

  17. Localization of the Carnation Italian ringspot virus replication protein p36 to the mitochondrial outer membrane is mediated by an internal targeting signal and the TOM complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gidda Satinder K

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carnation Italian ringspot virus (CIRV is a positive-strand RNA virus that causes massive structural alterations of mitochondria in infected host cells, the most conspicuous being the formation of numerous internal vesicles/spherules that are derived from the mitochondrial outer membrane and serve as the sites for viral RNA replication. While the membrane-bound components of the CIRV replication complex, including a 36-kD RNA-binding protein (p36, are known to be essential for these changes in mitochondrial morphology and are relatively well characterized in terms of their roles in nascent viral RNA synthesis, how these proteins are specifically targeted and inserted into mitochondria is poorly defined. Results Here we report on the molecular signal responsible for sorting p36 to the mitochondrial outer membrane. Using a combination of gain-of-function assays with portions of p36 fused to reporter proteins and domain-swapping assays with p36 and another closely-related viral RNA-binding protein, p33, that sorts specifically to the peroxisomal boundary membrane, we show that the mitochondrial targeting information in p36 resides within its two transmembrane domains (TMDs and intervening hydrophilic loop sequence. Comprehensive mutational analysis of these regions in p36 revealed that the primary targeting determinants are the moderate hydrophobicity of both TMDs and the positively-charged face of an amphipathic helix within the intervening loop sequence. We show also using bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC that p36 interacts with certain components of the translocase complex in the mitochondrial outer membrane (TOM, but not with the sorting and assembly machinery (SAM. Conclusion Our results provide insight to how viruses, such as CIRV, exploit specific host-cell protein sorting pathways to facilitate their replication. The characterization of the targeting and insertion of p36 into the mitochondrial outer

  18. Survey of Blood Collection Centers and Implementation of Guidance for Prevention of Transfusion-Transmitted Zika Virus Infection--Puerto Rico, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Amber M; Sapiano, Mathew R P; Basavaraju, Sridhar V; Kuehnert, Matthew J; Rivera-Garcia, Brenda

    2016-04-15

    Since November 2015, Puerto Rico has reported active mosquito-borne transmission of Zika virus. Because of the potential for Zika virus to be transmitted through transfusion of blood components, and because a high percentage of persons infected with Zika virus are asymptomatic, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommended that blood collections cease in areas of the United States affected by active vector-borne transmission of Zika virus until laboratory screening of blood donations or pathogen reduction technology (PRT) for treatment of blood components can be implemented. To inform efforts to maintain the safety and availability of the blood supply in Puerto Rico, CDC, in collaboration with the Puerto Rico Department of Health, conducted a rapid assessment of blood collection and use on the island. A total of 139,369 allogeneic red blood cell (RBC) units, 45,243 platelet units, and 56,466 plasma units were collected in or imported to Puerto Rico during 2015, and 135,966 allogeneic RBC units, 13,526 therapeutic platelet units, and 25,775 plasma units were transfused. Because of the potential for local Zika virus transmission in areas with a competent mosquito vector, other areas of the United States should develop plans to ensure local blood safety and adequacy. Blood collection organizations and public health agencies should collaborate to maintain the safety and availability of local blood supplies in accordance with FDA guidance.

  19. Localization of Membrane-Associated Proteins in Vesicular Stomatitis Virus by Use of Hydrophobic Membrane Probes and Cross-Linking Reagents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakowski, Jack J.; Wagner, Robert R.

    1980-01-01

    The location of membrane-associated proteins of vesicular stomatitis virus was investigated by using two monofunctional and three bifunctional probes that differ in the degree to which they partition into membranes and in their specific group reactivity. Two hydrophobic aryl azide probes, [125I]5-iodonaphthyl-1-azide and [3H]pyrenesulfonylazide, readily partitioned into virion membrane and, when activated to nitrenes by UV irradiation, formed stable covalent adducts to membrane constituents. Both of these monofunctional probes labeled the glyco-protein G and matrix M proteins, but [125I]5-iodonaphthyl-1-azide also labeled the nucleocapsid N protein and an unidentified low-molecular-weight component. Protein labeling of intact virions was unaffected by the presence of cytochrome c or glutathione, but disruption of membrane by sodium dodecyl sulfate greatly enhanced the labeling of all viral proteins except G. Labeling of G protein was essentially restricted to the membrane-embedded, thermolysin-resistant tail fragment. Three bifunctional reagents, tartryl diazide, dimethylsuberimidate, and 4,4′-dithiobisphenylazide, were tested for their capacity to cross-link proteins to membrane phospholipids of virions grown in the presence of [3H]palmitate. Only G and M proteins of intact virions were labeled with 3H-phospholipid by these cross-linkers; the reactions were not affected by cytochrome c but were abolished by disruption of virus with sodium dodecyl sulfate. Dimethylsuberimidate, which reacts with free amino groups, cross-linked 3H-phospholipid to both G and M protein. In contrast, the hydrophilic tartryl diazide cross-linked phospholipid primarily to the M protein, whereas the hydrophobic 4,4′-dithiobisphenylazide cross-linked phospholipid primarily to the intrinsic G protein. These data support the hypothesis that the G protein traverses the virion membrane and that the M protein is membrane associated but does not penetrate very deeply, if at all. PMID:6255216

  20. Arteriolar niches maintain haematopoietic stem cell quiescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunisaki, Yuya; Bruns, Ingmar; Scheiermann, Christoph; Ahmed, Jalal; Pinho, Sandra; Zhang, Dachuan; Mizoguchi, Toshihide; Wei, Qiaozhi; Lucas, Daniel; Ito, Keisuke; Mar, Jessica C.; Bergman, Aviv; Frenette, Paul S.

    2013-01-01

    Cell cycle quiescence is a critical feature contributing to haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) maintenance. Although various candidate stromal cells have been identified as potential HSC niches, the spatial localization of quiescent HSCs in the bone marrow (BM) remains unclear. Here, using a novel approach that combines whole-mount confocal immunofluorescence imaging techniques and computational modelling to analyse significant tridimensional associations among vascular structures, stromal cells and HSCs, we show that quiescent HSCs associate specifically with small arterioles that are preferentially found in endosteal BM. These arterioles are ensheathed exclusively by rare NG2+ pericytes, distinct from sinusoid-associated LepR+ cells. Pharmacological or genetic activation of HSC cell cycle alters the distribution of HSCs from NG2+ peri-arteriolar niches to LepR+ peri-sinusoidal niches. Conditional depletion of NG2+ cells induces HSC cycling and reduces functional long-term repopulating HSCs in BM. These results thus indicate that arteriolar niches are indispensable to maintain HSC quiescence. PMID:24107994

  1. Arteriolar niches maintain haematopoietic stem cell quiescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunisaki, Yuya; Bruns, Ingmar; Scheiermann, Christoph; Ahmed, Jalal; Pinho, Sandra; Zhang, Dachuan; Mizoguchi, Toshihide; Wei, Qiaozhi; Lucas, Daniel; Ito, Keisuke; Mar, Jessica C; Bergman, Aviv; Frenette, Paul S

    2013-10-31

    Cell cycle quiescence is a critical feature contributing to haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) maintenance. Although various candidate stromal cells have been identified as potential HSC niches, the spatial localization of quiescent HSCs in the bone marrow remains unclear. Here, using a novel approach that combines whole-mount confocal immunofluorescence imaging techniques and computational modelling to analyse significant three-dimensional associations in the mouse bone marrow among vascular structures, stromal cells and HSCs, we show that quiescent HSCs associate specifically with small arterioles that are preferentially found in endosteal bone marrow. These arterioles are ensheathed exclusively by rare NG2 (also known as CSPG4)(+) pericytes, distinct from sinusoid-associated leptin receptor (LEPR)(+) cells. Pharmacological or genetic activation of the HSC cell cycle alters the distribution of HSCs from NG2(+) periarteriolar niches to LEPR(+) perisinusoidal niches. Conditional depletion of NG2(+) cells induces HSC cycling and reduces functional long-term repopulating HSCs in the bone marrow. These results thus indicate that arteriolar niches are indispensable for maintaining HSC quiescence.

  2. Sociable Robots through Self-maintained Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Schioler

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Research of autonomous mobile robots has mostly emphasized interaction and coordination that are natually inspired from biological behavior of birds, insects, and fish: flocking, foraging, collecting, and sharing. However, most research has been only focused on autonomous behaviors in order to perform robots like animals, whereas it is lacked of determinant to those behaviours: energy. Approaching to clusted amimal and the higher, collective and sharing food among individuals are major activity to keep society being. This paper issues an approach to sociable robots using self-maintained energy in cooperative mobile robots, which is dominantly inspired from swarm behavior of collecting and sharing food of honey-bee and ant. Autonomous mobile robots are usually equipped with a finite energy, thus they can operate in a finite time. To overcome the finitude, we describe practical deployment of mobile robots that are capable of carrying and exchanging fuel to other robots. Mechanism implementation including modular hardware and control architecture to demonstrate the capabicities of the approach is presented. Subsequently, the battery exchange algorithm basically based on probabilistic modeling of total energy on each robot located in its local vicinity is described. The paper is concluded with challenging works of chain of mobile robots, rescue, repair, and relation of heterogeneous robots.

  3. Sociable Robots Through Self-Maintained Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trung Dung Ngo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Research of autonomous mobile robots has mostly emphasized interaction and coordination that are natually inspired from biological behavior of birds, insects, and fish: flocking, foraging, collecting, and sharing. However, most research has been only focused on autonomous behaviors in order to perform robots like animals, whereas it is lacked of determinant to those behaviours: energy. Approaching to clusted amimal and the higher, collective and sharing food among individuals are major activity to keep society being. This paper issues an approach to sociable robots using self-maintained energy in cooperative mobile robots, which is dominantly inspired from swarm behavior of collecting and sharing food of honey-bee and ant. Autonomous mobile robots are usually equipped with a finite energy, thus they can operate in a finite time. To overcome the finitude, we describe practical deployment of mobile robots that are capable of carrying and exchanging fuel to other robots. Mechanism implementation including modular hardware and control architecture to demonstrate the capabicities of the approach is presented. Subsequently, the battery exchange algorithm basically based on probabilistic modeling of total energy on each robot located in its local vicinity is described. The paper is concluded with challenging works of chain of mobile robots, rescue, repair, and relation of heterogeneous robots.

  4. Bunias orientalis L. as a natural overwintering host OF Turnip mosaic virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Kobyłko

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A virus was isolated, using mechanical inoculation, from hill mustard (Bunias orientalis L. plants exhibiting yellow mottling and blistering on leaves, which were frequently accompanied by asymmetric leaf narrowing. It systemically infected certain plants from the family Brassicaceae (Brassica rapa, Bunias orientalis, Hesperis matronalis, Sinapis alba as well as Cleome spinosa and Nicotiana clevelandii, and locally Atriplex hortensis, Chenopodium quinoa, Ch. amaranticolor, N. tabacum. In the sap, it maintained infectivity for 3-4 days and lost it after heating for 10 min. at a temperature of 55 - 60oC or when diluted with water at 10-3. Virus particles were thread- like with a length of 675 - 710 nm. Based on an analysis of biological properties of the pathogen, serological response, particle morphology and data from field observations, it was identified as an isolate of Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV, and hill mustard was recognised as a natural overwintering host for this pathogen.

  5. Prognostic Value of Plasma Epstein-Barr Virus DNA for Local and Regionally Advanced Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Treated With Cisplatin-Based Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy in Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Hui; Tang, Lin-Quan; Guo, Shan-Shan; Chen, Qiu-Yan; Zhang, Lu; Liu, Li-Ting; Qian, Chao-Nan; Guo, Xiang; Xie, Dan; Zeng, Mu-Sheng; Mai, Hai-Qiang

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of plasma Epstein-Barr Virus DNA (EBV DNA) for local and regionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy in intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) era.In this observational study, 404 nonmetastatic local and regionally advanced NPC patients treated with IMRT and cisplatin-based concurrent chemotherapy were recruited. Blood samples were collected before treatment for examination of plasma EBV DNA levels. We evaluated the association of pretreatment plasma EBV DNA levels with progression-free survival rate (PFS), distant metastasis-free survival rate (DMFS), and overall survival rate (OS).Compared to patients with an EBV DNA level EBV DNA ≥ 4000  copies/mL had a lower rate of 3-year PFS (76%, 95% CI [68-84]) versus (93%, 95% CI [90-96], P EBV DNA levels (HR = 3.324, 95% CI, 1.80-6.138, P EBV DNA level was the only significant factor to predict DMFS (HR = 6.292, 95% CI, 2.647-14.956, P EBV DNA levels (HR = 3.753, 95% CI, 1.701-8.284, P EBV DNA levels still predicted a worse PFS, DMFS, and OS for the patients stage III or stage IVa-b, compared with those with low EBV DNA levels.Elevated plasma EBV DNA was still effective prognostic biomarker for local and regionally advanced NPC patients treated with IMRT and cisplatin-based concurrent chemotherapy. Future ramdomized clinical trials are needed to further evaluate whether plasma EBV DNA levels could be applied to guide concurrent chemotherapy regimen for local and regionally advanced NPC patients.

  6. Plasma membrane localization of Solanum tuberosum remorin from group 1, homolog 3 is mediated by conformational changes in a novel C-terminal anchor and required for the restriction of potato virus X movement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perraki, Artemis; Cacas, Jean-Luc; Crowet, Jean-Marc; Lins, Laurence; Castroviejo, Michel; German-Retana, Sylvie; Mongrand, Sébastien; Raffaele, Sylvain

    2012-10-01

    The formation of plasma membrane (PM) microdomains plays a crucial role in the regulation of membrane signaling and trafficking. Remorins are a plant-specific family of proteins organized in six phylogenetic groups, and Remorins of group 1 are among the few plant proteins known to specifically associate with membrane rafts. As such, they are valuable to understand the molecular bases for PM lateral organization in plants. However, little is known about the structural determinants underlying the specific association of group 1 Remorins with membrane rafts. We used a structure-function approach to identify a short C-terminal anchor (RemCA) indispensable and sufficient for tight direct binding of potato (Solanum tuberosum) REMORIN 1.3 (StREM1.3) to the PM. RemCA switches from unordered to α-helical structure in a nonpolar environment. Protein structure modeling indicates that RemCA folds into a tight hairpin of amphipathic helices. Consistently, mutations reducing RemCA amphipathy abolished StREM1.3 PM localization. Furthermore, RemCA directly binds to biological membranes in vitro, shows higher affinity for Detergent-Insoluble Membranes lipids, and targets yellow fluorescent protein to Detergent-Insoluble Membranes in vivo. Mutations in RemCA resulting in cytoplasmic StREM1.3 localization abolish StREM1.3 function in restricting potato virus X movement. The mechanisms described here provide new insights on the control and function of lateral segregation of plant PM.

  7. Characterization, Diagnosis & Management of Plant Viruses, Vol. 2. Horticultural Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Characterization of viruses in fruit tree crops is complicated due to the fact that many cultivated fruit crops are maintained through vegetative propagation and mixed infection of several viruses in a fruit tree is a common phenomenon. Viruses have undoubtedly infected fruit trees and cause diseas...

  8. Residues R{sup 199}H{sup 200} of prototype foamy virus transactivator Bel1 contribute to its binding with LTR and IP promoters but not its nuclear localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Qinglin; Tan, Juan [Key Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology (Ministry of Education) and Key Laboratory of Microbial Functional Genomics (Tianjin), College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Cui, Xiaoxu [Key Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology (Ministry of Education) and Key Laboratory of Microbial Functional Genomics (Tianjin), College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Centre Laboratory, TianJin 4th Centre Hospital, Tianjin 300140 (China); Luo, Di; Yu, Miao [Key Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology (Ministry of Education) and Key Laboratory of Microbial Functional Genomics (Tianjin), College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Liang, Chen [Lady Davis Institute, Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, QC, Canada H3T 1E2 (Canada); Departments of Medicine McGill University, Montreal, QC (Canada); Microbiology and Immunology, McGill University, Montreal, QC (Canada); Qiao, Wentao, E-mail: wentaoqiao@nankai.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology (Ministry of Education) and Key Laboratory of Microbial Functional Genomics (Tianjin), College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2014-01-20

    Prototype foamy virus encodes a transactivator called Bel1 that enhances viral gene transcription and is essential for PFV replication. Nuclear localization of Bel1 has been reported to rely on two proximal basic motifs R{sup 199}H{sup 200} and R{sup 221}R{sup 222}R{sup 223} that likely function together as a bipartite nuclear localization signal. In this study, we report that mutating R{sup 221}R{sup 222}R{sup 223}, but not R{sup 199}H{sup 200}, relocates Bel1 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, suggesting an essential role for R{sup 221}R{sup 222}R{sup 223} in the nuclear localization of Bel1. Although not affecting the nuclear localization of Bel1, mutating R{sup 199}H{sup 200} disables Bel1 from transactivating PFV promoters. Results of EMSA reveal that the R{sup 199}H{sup 200} residues are vital for the binding of Bel1 to viral promoter DNA. Moreover, mutating R{sup 199}H{sup 200} in Bel1 impairs PFV replication to a much greater extent than mutating R{sup 221}R{sup 222}R{sup 223}. Collectively, our findings suggest that R{sup 199}H{sup 200} directly participate in Bel1 binding to viral promoter DNA and are indispensible for Bel1 transactivation activity. - Highlights: • The R{sup 221}R{sup 222}R{sup 223} residues are essential for the nuclear localization of Bel1. • Although not affecting the nuclear localization of Bel1, mutating R{sup 199}H{sup 200} disables Bel1 from transactivating PFV promoters. • The R{sup 199}H{sup 200} residues directly participate in Bel1 binding to viral promoter DNA. • Mutating R{sup 199}H{sup 200} in Bel1 impairs PFV replication to a much greater extent than mutating R{sup 221}R{sup 222}R{sup 223}.

  9. Zika Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zika is a virus that is spread mostly by mosquitoes. A pregnant mother can pass it to ... through blood transfusions. There have been outbreaks of Zika virus in the United States, Africa, Southeast Asia, ...

  10. Chikungunya Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gaines, PhD, MPH, MA, CHES Differentiating Chikungunya From Dengue: A Clinical Challenge For Travelers CDC Travelers' Health Chikungunya Virus Home Prevention Transmission Symptoms & Treatment Geographic Distribution Chikungunya virus in ...

  11. Chikungunya virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikungunya virus infection; Chikungunya ... Where Chikungunya is found Before 2013, the virus was found in Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Indian and Pacific oceans. In late 2013, outbreaks occurred for the first time in the ...

  12. Development and evaluation of the TD97 measles virus vaccine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, K.; Morita, M.; Katoh, M.; Kidokoro, M.; Saika, S.; Yoshizawa, S.; Hashizume, S.; Horiuchi, K.; Okabe, N.; Shinozaki, T. (Chiba Serum Institute (Japan))

    1990-11-01

    The TD97 strain vaccine virus was prepared from the Tanabe strain measles virus by low-temperature passages in primary cell cultures and ultraviolet (UV) mutagenesis. The TD97 strain exhibited the following characteristics: highly temperature sensitive, neither multiplying nor forming any plaques at 40 degrees C in Vero cells; genetically stable, maintaining high temperature sensitivity after ten successive passages in CE cells at 30 degrees C or 35 degrees C; and M proteins of this virus about 1 KD slower in mobility in SDS-PAGE than that of the Tanabe strain. The TD97 strain was further confirmed to be attenuated by an inoculation test into primate brain. In field trials, 752 healthy children were inoculated with a live virus vaccine prepared with this strain, and the following results were obtained: the seroconversion rate was 97% (517/533), and the average HI antibody titer was 2(5.2). An antibody-increasing effect was also observed in children who were initially seropositive. In children who seroconverted, the rates of fever were 15.7% (55/351) for 37.5 degrees C or higher and 4.0% (14/351) for 39 degrees C or higher. The rash rate was 7.7% (27/351), and the incidence of local reaction was 5.4% (19/351). The TD97 strain is thus considered to be suitable in use for an attenuated measles vaccine.

  13. Erasure as a means of maintaining diglossia in Cyprus

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    The Greek speech community of Cyprus is characterized by classic diglossia, with the local varieties forming the L, and Standard Greek the H. It is argued here that this diglossic situation is maintained against what the sociopolitical and economic conditions would predict, because the prevailing linguistic ideology—according to which Cypriots are ethnically Greek, an ethnic identity that is primarily defined by the use of (an almost uniform) Greek language—has led to the erasure of diglossia...

  14. Space maintainers in dentistry: past to present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Vikas; Pandit, Inder Kumar; Srivastava, Nikhil; Gugnani, Neeraj; Sekhon, Harveen Kaur

    2013-10-01

    Early orthodontic interventions are often initiated in the developing dentition to promote favourable developmental changes. Interceptive orthodontic can eliminate or reduce the severity of a developing malocclusion, the complexity of orthodontic treatment, overall treatment time and cost. The safest way to prevent future malocclusions from tooth loss is to place a space maintainer that is effective and durable. An appropriate use of space maintainer is advocated to hold the space until the eruption of permanent teeth. This case report describes the various changing trends in use of space maintainers: conventional band and loop, prefabricated band with custom made loop and glass fibre reinforced composite resins as space maintainers.

  15. Localization and dynamic expression of a 27.8 kDa receptor protein for lymphocystis disease virus infection in sea bass ( Lateolabrax japonicus) tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ronghua; Sheng, Xiuzhen; Tang, Xiaoqian; Xing, Jing; Zhan, Wenbin

    2017-10-01

    Lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV) infects target cells by attaching to a 27.8 kDa receptor (27.8R) protein in flounder Paralichthys olivaceus, and anti-27.8R monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) have been developed. However, the 27.8R existence in tissues of sea bass ( Lateolabrax japonicus) and its role in LCDV infection have remained unclear. In this study, the results of western blotting demonstrated that the same 27.8R was shared by flounder and sea bass. LCDV-free sea bass individuals were intramuscularly injected with LCDV, and viral copies were detected in tissues from 3 h post infection and showed a time-dependent increase during 9 days infection. Distribution and synthesis of 27.8R in sea bass tissues were investigated by using anti-27.8R MAbs as probes. It was found that 27.8R was distributed in all the tested tissues. The levels of 27.8R protein were highest in gill and skin, then a bit lowly in stomach, head kidney and heart, followed by spleen, intestine, blood cells, gonad and liver, and least in kidney and brain in healthy sea bass. Upon LCDV infection, 27.8R synthesis was up-regulated in each tissue, and higher in the tissues with higher LCDV copies. The 27.8R and LCDV were detected in some peripheral blood leukocytes but not in red blood cells. These results suggested that 27.8R was widely distributed in sea bass tissues, and it served as a receptor and correlated with tissue tropism of LCDV infection. Furthermore, leukocytes had the potential of being a LCDV carrier and were responsible for a systemic infection of LCDV in sea bass.

  16. Population, Environmental, and Community Effects on Local Bank Vole (Myodes glareolus) Puumala Virus Infection in an Area with Low Human Incidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tersago, K; Schreurs, A; Linard, C

    2008-01-01

    regard the combination of a dilution effect, a possible threshold density that depends on local conditions, and a higher fragmentation of suitable bank vole habitat in our study area as plausible explanations for the sparse occurrence of PUUV infection and low prevalence detected. Thus, beside human...... habitat and tested for anti-PUUV IgG. Infection data were related to individual bank vole features, population demography, and environmental variables. Rare occurrence of PUUV infection was found and PUUV prevalence was low compared with data from the high NE incidence area in southern Belgium. Small...

  17. Investigation of the curvature induction and membrane localization of the influenza virus M2 protein using static and off-magic-angle spinning solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance of oriented bicelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tuo; Hong, Mei

    2015-04-07

    A wide variety of membrane proteins induce membrane curvature for function; thus, it is important to develop new methods to simultaneously determine membrane curvature and protein binding sites in membranes with multiple curvatures. We introduce solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods based on magnetically oriented bicelles and off-magic-angle spinning (OMAS) to measure membrane curvature and the binding site of proteins in mixed-curvature membranes. We demonstrate these methods on the influenza virus M2 protein, which not only acts as a proton channel but also mediates virus assembly and membrane scission. An M2 peptide encompassing the transmembrane (TM) domain and an amphipathic helix, M2(21-61), was studied and compared with the TM peptide (M2TM). Static (31)P NMR spectra of magnetically oriented 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC)/1,2-dihexanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DHPC) bicelles exhibit a temperature-independent isotropic chemical shift in the presence of M2(21-61) but not M2TM, indicating that the amphipathic helix confers the ability to generate a high-curvature phase. Two-dimensional (2D) (31)P spectra indicate that this high-curvature phase is associated with the DHPC bicelle edges, suggestive of the structure of budding viruses from the host cell. (31)P- and (13)C-detected (1)H relaxation times of the lipids indicate that the majority of M2(21-61) is bound to the high-curvature phase. Using OMAS experiments, we resolved the (31)P signals of lipids with identical headgroups based on their distinct chemical shift anisotropies. On the basis of this resolution, 2D (1)H-(31)P correlation spectra show that the amide protons in M2(21-61) correlate with the DMPC but not DHPC (31)P signal of the bicelle, indicating that a small percentage of M2(21-61) partitions into the planar region of the bicelles. These results show that the amphipathic helix induces high membrane curvature and localizes the protein to this phase, in good

  18. Investigation of the Curvature Induction and Membrane Localization of the Influenza Virus M2 Protein Using Static and Off-Magic-Angle Spinning Solid-State NMR of Oriented Bicelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tuo; Hong, Mei

    2015-01-01

    A wide variety of membrane proteins induce membrane curvature for function, thus it is important to develop new methods to simultaneously determine membrane curvature and protein binding sites in membranes with multiple curvatures. We introduce solid-state NMR methods based on magnetically oriented bicelles and off-magic-angle spinning (OMAS) to measure membrane curvature and the binding site of proteins in mixed-curvature membranes. We demonstrate these methods on the influenza virus M2 protein, which not only acts as a proton channel but also mediates virus assembly and membrane scission. An M2 peptide encompassing the transmembrane (TM) domain and an amphipathic helix, M2(21-61), was studied and compared with the TM peptide (M2TM). Static 31P NMR spectra of magnetically oriented DMPC/DHPC bicelles exhibit a temperature-independent isotropic chemical shift in the presence of M2(21-61) but not M2TM, indicating that the amphipathic helix confers the peptide with the ability to generate a high-curvature phase. 2D 31P spectra indicate that this high-curvature phase is associated with the DHPC bicelle edges, suggestive of the structure of budding viruses from the host cell. 31P- and 13C-detected 1H relaxation times of the lipids indicate that the majority of M2(21-61) is bound to the high-curvature phase. Using OMAS experiments, we resolved the 31P signals of lipids with identical headgroups based on their distinct chemical shift anisotropies. Based on this resolution, 2D 1H-31P correlation spectra show that the amide protons in M2(21-61) correlate with the DMPC but not the DHPC 31P signal of the bicelle, indicating that a small percentage of M2(21-61) partitions into the planar region of the bicelles. These results show that the M2 amphipathic helix induces high membrane curvature and localizes the protein to this phase, in excellent agreement with the membrane-scission function of the protein. These bicelle-based relaxation and OMAS solid-state NMR techniques are

  19. Weather, host and vector--their interplay in the spread of insect-borne animal virus diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, R F

    1980-08-01

    , B and C correspond to endemic and zones D and E to epidemic conditions.Similar zones can be recognized for African horse sickness, bluetongue, Ibaraki disease and bovine ephemeral fever - examples of diseases transmitted in a midge-mammal cycle. In zones A and B viruses are transported by infected midges carried on the wind in association with the movement of ITCZ and undergo cycles in young animals. In these zones and in zone C there is a continual movement of midges on the warm wind between one area and another, colonizing new sites or reinforcing populations of midges already present. Virus is introduced at times into fringe areas (zones D and E) and, as there is little resistance in the host, gives rise to clinical signs of disease. In some areas there is persistence during adverse conditions; in others, the virus is carried back to the endemic zones by infected midges or vectors.Examples of viruses maintained in a mosquito/biting fly-mammal cycle are Venezuelan equine encephalitis and vesicular stomatitis. These viruses enter a migratory cycle from a local cycle and the vectors in the migratory cycle are carried over long distances on the wind. Further examples of virus spread by movement of vectors include West Nile, Rift Valley fever, yellow fever, epizootic haemorrhagic disease of deer and Akabane viruses.In devising means of control it is essential to decide the relationship of host, vector and virus and the nature of the zone in which the area to be controlled lies. Because of the continual risk of reintroduction of infected vectors, it is preferable to protect the host by dipping, spraying or by vaccination rather than attempting to eliminate the local population of insects.

  20. Oral susceptibility of Singapore Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti (Linnaeus to Zika virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MeiZhi Irene Li

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV is a little known flavivirus that caused a major outbreak in 2007, in the South-western Pacific Island of Yap. It causes dengue-like syndromes but with milder symptoms. In Africa, where it was first isolated, ZIKV is mainly transmitted by sylvatic Aedes mosquitoes. The virus has also been isolated from Ae. aegypti and it is considered to be the vector involved in the urban transmission of the virus. Transmission of the virus by an African strain of Ae. aegypti has also been demonstrated under laboratory conditions. The aim of the present study is to describe the oral susceptibility of a Singapore strain of Ae. aegypti to ZIKV, under conditions that simulate local climate.To assess the receptivity of Singapore's Ae. aegypti to the virus, we orally exposed a local mosquito strain to a Ugandan strain of ZIKV. Upon exposure, fully engorged mosquitoes were maintained in an environmental chamber set at 29 °C and 70-75% RH. Eight mosquitoes were then sampled daily from day 1 to day 7, and subsequently on days 10 and 14 post exposure (pe. The virus titer of the midgut and salivary glands of each mosquito were determined using a tissue culture infectious dose(50 (TCID(50 assay. High midgut infection and salivary gland dissemination rates were observed. By day 5 after the infectious blood meal, ZIKV was found in the salivary glands of more than half of the mosquitoes tested (62%; and by day 10, all mosquitoes were potentially infective.This study showed that Singapore's urban Ae. aegypti are susceptible and are potentially capable of transmitting ZIKV. The virus could be established in Singapore should it be introduced. Nevertheless, Singapore's current dengue control strategy is applicable to control ZIKV.

  1. Tobacco mosaic virus movement protein enhances the spread of RNA silencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes Vogler

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic cells restrain the activity of foreign genetic elements, including viruses, through RNA silencing. Although viruses encode suppressors of silencing to support their propagation, viruses may also exploit silencing to regulate host gene expression or to control the level of their accumulation and thus to reduce damage to the host. RNA silencing in plants propagates from cell to cell and systemically via a sequence-specific signal. Since the signal spreads between cells through plasmodesmata like the viruses themselves, virus-encoded plasmodesmata-manipulating movement proteins (MP may have a central role in compatible virus:host interactions by suppressing or enhancing the spread of the signal. Here, we have addressed the propagation of GFP silencing in the presence and absence of MP and MP mutants. We show that the protein enhances the spread of silencing. Small RNA analysis indicates that MP does not enhance the silencing pathway but rather enhances the transport of the signal through plasmodesmata. The ability to enhance the spread of silencing is maintained by certain MP mutants that can move between cells but which have defects in subcellular localization and do not support the spread of viral RNA. Using MP expressing and non-expressing virus mutants with a disabled silencing suppressing function, we provide evidence indicating that viral MP contributes to anti-viral silencing during infection. Our results suggest a role of MP in controlling virus propagation in the infected host by supporting the spread of silencing signal. This activity of MP involves only a subset of its properties implicated in the spread of viral RNA.

  2. Herpes simplex virus induces the marked up-regulation of the zinc finger transcriptional factor INSM1, which modulates the expression and localization of the immediate early protein ICP0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimura Hiroshi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Herpes simplex viruses (HSVs rapidly shut off macromolecular synthesis in host cells. In contrast, global microarray analyses have shown that HSV infection markedly up-regulates a number of host cell genes that may play important roles in HSV-host cell interactions. To understand the regulatory mechanisms involved, we initiated studies focusing on the zinc finger transcription factor insulinoma-associated 1 (INSM1, a host cell protein markedly up-regulated by HSV infection. Results INSM1 gene expression in HSV-1-infected normal human epidermal keratinocytes increased at least 400-fold 9 h after infection; INSM1 promoter activity was also markedly stimulated. Expression and subcellular localization of the immediate early HSV protein ICP0 was affected by INSM1 expression, and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP assays revealed binding of INSM1 to the ICP0 promoter. Moreover, the role of INSM1 in HSV-1 infection was further clarified by inhibition of HSV-1 replication by INSM1-specific siRNA. Conclusions The results suggest that INSM1 up-regulation plays a positive role in HSV-1 replication, probably by binding to the ICP0 promoter.

  3. Sources and Information: Maintaining Institutional Integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Jim; Zwemer, Diane

    1985-01-01

    Provides an annotated bibliography of ERIC materials dealing with the community college mission, educational quality, maintaining an effective faculty, effects and management of retrenchment, and the state role in community college education. (LAL)

  4. Coastal Maintained Channels in US waters

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This layer shows coastal channels and waterways that are maintained and surveyed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). These channels are necessary...

  5. Permanent traffic counters maintained by the NMDOT

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — A point dataset representing the permanent traffic counters maintained by the NMDOT. Event mapped dataset by LRS info provided by Traffic group.

  6. Maintaining Contour Trees of Dynamic Terrains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, Pankaj K.; Mølhave, Thomas; Revsbæk, Morten

    2015-01-01

    We study the problem of maintaining the contour tree T of a terrain Sigma, represented as a triangulated xy-monotone surface, as the heights of its vertices vary continuously with time. We characterize the combinatorial changes in T and how they relate to topological changes in Sigma. We present...... a kinetic data structure (KDS) for maintaining T efficiently. It maintains certificates that fail, i.e., an event occurs, only when the heights of two adjacent vertices become equal or two saddle vertices appear on the same contour. Assuming that the heights of two vertices of Sigma become equal only O(1......) times and these instances can be computed in O(1) time, the KDS processes O(kappa + n) events, where n is the number of vertices in Sigma and kappa is the number of events at which the combinatorial structure of T changes, and processes each event in O(log n) time. The KDS can be extended to maintain...

  7. Space Maintainers in Dentistry: Past to Present

    OpenAIRE

    Setia, Vikas; Pandit, Inder Kumar; Srivastava, Nikhil; Gugnani, Neeraj; Sekhon, Harveen Kaur

    2013-01-01

    Early orthodontic interventions are often initiated in the developing dentition to promote favourable developmental changes. Interceptive orthodontic can eliminate or reduce the severity of a developing malocclusion, the complexity of orthodontic treatment, overall treatment time and cost. The safest way to prevent future malocclusions from tooth loss is to place a space maintainer that is effective and durable. An appropriate use of space maintainer is advocated to hold the space until the e...

  8. Free-end space maintainers: design, utilization and advantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbería, Elena; Lucavechi, Tania; Cárdenas, Dora; Maroto, Myriam

    2006-01-01

    Primary molars are a determining factor in the development of occlusion. Given their importance, when restorative treatment is notfeasible and a primary molar must be extracted, the practitioner should keep in mind the risk of losing space, and the consequent malocclusion. Preservation of the space can eliminate or reduce the needforprolonged orthodontic treatment. For that reason, there are various kinds of space maintainers and the pediatric dentist must decide which one to utilize, on the basis of general and local factors related to the child In the selection of a treatment option for space maintenance, the greatest complications occur when the first permanent molar has not yet erupted A large variety of appliances have been devised to deal with this situation. This article proposes the use of a removable space maintainer that is open on one end and can be employed to guide the first permanent molar, maintaining the integrity of the mucous membrane and serving as a prosthetic appliance, preventing the complications and contraindications often caused by sub-gingival maintainers.

  9. Computer Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Computer viruses are small software programs that are designed to spread from one computerto another and to interfere with computer operation.A virus might delete data on your computer,use your e-mail program to spread itself to othercomputers,or even erase everything on your hard disk.Viruses are most easily spread by attach-ments in e-mail messages or instant messaging messages.That is why it is essential that you never

  10. Maintaining Contour Trees of Dynamic Terrains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, Pankaj K.; Arge, Lars; Mølhave, Thomas

    We consider maintaining the contour tree T of a piecewise-linear triangulation M that is the graph of a time varying height function h:R2→R. We carefully describe the combinatorial change in T that happen as h varies over time and how these changes relate to topological changes in M. We present...... a kinetic data structure that maintains the contour tree of h over time. Our data structure maintains certificates that fail only when h(v)=h(u) for two adjacent vertices v and u in M, or when two saddle vertices lie on the same contour of M. A certificate failure is handled in O(log(n)) time. We also show...

  11. Phytophthora viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Guohong; Hillman, Bradley I

    2013-01-01

    Phytophthora sp. is a genus in the oomycetes, which are similar to filamentous fungi in morphology and habitat, but phylogenetically more closely related to brown algae and diatoms and fall in the kingdom Stramenopila. In the past few years, several viruses have been characterized in Phytophthora species, including four viruses from Phytophthora infestans, the late blight pathogen, and an endornavirus from an unnamed Phytophthora species from Douglas fir. Studies on Phytophthora viruses have revealed several interesting systems. Phytophthora infestans RNA virus 1 (PiRV-1) and PiRV-2 are likely the first members of two new virus families; studies on PiRV-3 support the establishment of a new virus genus that is not affiliated with established virus families; PiRV-4 is a member of Narnaviridae, most likely in the genus Narnavirus; and Phytophthora endornavirus 1 (PEV1) was the first nonplant endornavirus at the time of reporting. Viral capsids have not been found in any of the above-mentioned viruses. PiRV-1 demonstrated a unique genome organization that requires further examination, and PiRV-2 may have played a role in late blight resurgence in 1980s-1990s.

  12. Computer Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高振桥

    2002-01-01

    If you work with a computer,it is certain that you can not avoid dealing, with at least one computer virus.But how much do you know about it? Well,actually,a computer virus is not a biological' one as causes illnesses to people.It is a kind of computer program

  13. Maintaining collections with a flat budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara E Morris

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the various processes, methods and tough decisions made by the University of Kansas Libraries to provide library materials while maintaining a flat collections budget for over eight years. During this period, those responsible for the Libraries’ collections have implemented quick stop- gap measures, picked all the ‘low-hanging fruit’, and eventually canceled a large journal package. This case study will help other librarians facing the reality of maintaining collections at a time when budgets, changing formats and publication practices are all obstacles to providing patrons with what they need.

  14. Automated Methods to Maintain Aircraft Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauderdale, Todd

    2011-01-01

    The air traffic control system in the United States has a great track-record for safety. As more aircraft enter the system at a given time, the situation becomes more complex though. Researchers at NASA are attempting to leverage advances in many fields including optimization, data mining, and numerical modeling of systems to improve the air-transportation system maintaining safety while increasing throughput and reducing delays. This talk will give a brief overview of the research at NASA towards modernizing the air-transportation system. It will then focus on the specific area of automation tools for maintaining physical separation between aircraft known as Separation Assurance.

  15. Tomato marchitez virus, a new plant picorna-like virus from tomato related to tomato torrado virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, M.; Dullemans, A.M.; Heuvel, van den J.F.J.M.; Maris, P.C.; Vlugt, van der R.A.A.

    2008-01-01

    A new virus was isolated from a tomato plant from the state of Sinaloa in Mexico. This plant showed symptoms locally known as `marchitez disease¿: severe leaf necrosis, beginning at the base of the leaflets, and necrotic rings on the fruits. A virus was isolated from the infected plant consisting of

  16. Maintaining an Operational Flight Program (OFP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-10-01

    Monitor And Control ( PMAC ), as an example, allows a maintainer to interact with his running OFP. Other specialized environment testing might indicate...paths on the F-15’s Central Computer. Processor Peculiar Tests Specialized testing for unique features of ECSs. Programmable Monitor And Control ( PMAC

  17. How to Maintain a Social Reinforcement Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkin, Ronald; And Others

    This manual presents methodology for maintaining a social reinforcement system after supervisors in industrial environments have been trained in behavior modification theory and application. The maintenance manual discusses monitoring, evaluation, and integration of a company's employee performance system with the social reinforcement system…

  18. The randomized complexity of maintaining the minimum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Chaudhuri, Shiva; Radhakrishnan, Jaikumar

    1996-01-01

    The complexity of maintaining a set under the operations Insert, Delete and FindMin is considered. In the comparison model it is shown that any randomized algorithm with expected amortized cost t comparisons per Insert and Delete has expected cost at least n/(e22t)-1 comparisons for FindMin. If F...

  19. Maintaining Contour Trees of Dynamic Terrains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, Pankaj K.; Arge, Lars; Mølhave, Thomas

    We consider maintaining the contour tree T of a piecewise-linear triangulation M that is the graph of a time varying height function h:R2→R. We carefully describe the combinatorial change in T that happen as h varies over time and how these changes relate to topological changes in M. We present...

  20. Maintaining Hope in the Face of Evil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Geri

    2002-01-01

    P. G. Zimbardo (2001) and M. E. P. Seligman (in an interview with S. Carpenter, 2001) discuss evil and hope in response to the September 11, 2001, disaster. The implications for counseling are presented with an emphasis on how counselors can maintain hope for themselves and their clients in the face of evil. (Author)

  1. Maintaining ideal body weight counseling sessions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brammer, S.H.

    1980-10-09

    The purpose of this program is to provide employees with the motivation, knowledge and skills necessary to maintain ideal body weight throughout life. The target audience for this program, which is conducted in an industrial setting, is the employee 40 years of age or younger who is at or near his/her ideal body weight.

  2. Treating Problem Behaviors Maintained by Negative Reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipani, Ennio; Spooner, Fred

    1997-01-01

    Identifies four treatment techniques that may be applied when problem behavior is maintained by negative reinforcement: (1) functional communication training; (2) behavioral momentum; (3) differential reinforcement or an alternative escape behavior; and (4) errorless learning. Each of the techniques is defined, and applications and guidelines for…

  3. Maintaining Contour Trees of Dynamic Terrains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, Pankaj K.; Mølhave, Thomas; Revsbæk, Morten;

    2015-01-01

    We study the problem of maintaining the contour tree T of a terrain Sigma, represented as a triangulated xy-monotone surface, as the heights of its vertices vary continuously with time. We characterize the combinatorial changes in T and how they relate to topological changes in Sigma. We present ...

  4. How Do Positive Views Maintain Life Satisfaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Huei; Tsai, Ying-Mei; Chen, Lung Hung

    2009-01-01

    This study proposes three mediation pathways to explain how the positive views (perceived control, optimism and self-enhancement) proposed by Cummins and Nistico (Journal of Happiness Studies 3:37-69 2002) maintain life satisfaction. The three pathways were enhancing self-esteem, reducing have-want discrepancy and changing importance perceptions.…

  5. Maintaining strategic momentum : The CEO's agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.M. Maljers (Floris); C.W.F. Baden-Fuller (Charles); F.A.J. van den Bosch (Frans)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThe question of how the CEO of a large complex organization maintain strategic momentum is addressed. This represents a great challenge when there are no obvious external threats, and no obvious reasons for having a concerted action. The inherent tensions which exist between stability an

  6. Human cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus infection impact on {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT SUVmax, CT volumetric and KRAS-based parameters of patients with locally advanced rectal cancer treated with neoadjuvant therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sole, Claudio V. [Instituto de Radiomedicina, Department of Radiation Oncology, Santiago (Chile); School of Medicine Complutense University, Madrid (Spain); Calvo, Felipe A. [Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Department of Oncology, Madrid (Spain); School of Medicine Complutense University, Madrid (Spain); Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Institute for Sanitary Research, Madrid (Spain); Ferrer, Carlos [Hospital Provincial de Castellon, Institute of Oncology, Castellon de la Plana (Spain); School of Medicine Cardenal Herrera-CEU University, Castellon de la Plana (Spain); Alvarez, Emilio [School of Medicine Complutense University, Madrid (Spain); Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Department of Pathology, Madrid (Spain); Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Institute for Sanitary Research, Madrid (Spain); Carreras, Jose L. [School of Medicine Complutense University, Madrid (Spain); Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Department of Radiology and Medical Physics, Madrid (Spain); Ochoa, Enrique [Hospital Provincial de Castellon, Institute of Oncology, Castellon de la Plana (Spain)

    2014-10-01

    It has long been debated whether human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) are associated with rectal cancer. The gene products of HCMV and EBV contribute to cell-cycle progression, mutagenesis, angiogenesis and immune evasion. The aim of this prospective study was to analyse the association between infection of a tumour by HCMV and EBV and clinical, histological, metabolic ({sup 18}F-FDG uptake), volumetric (from CT) and molecular (KRAS status) features and long-term outcomes in a homogeneously treated group of patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. HCMV and EBV were detected in pretreatment biopsies using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to explore associations between viral infection and disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). We analysed 37 patients with a median follow-up of 74 months (range 5-173 months). Locoregional control, OS and DFS at 5 years were 93 %, 74 % and 71 %, respectively. Patients with HCMV/EBV coinfection had a significantly higher maximum standardized uptake value than patients without viral coinfection (p = 0.02). Significant differences were also observed in staging and percentage relative reduction in tumour volume between patients with and without HCMV infection (p < 0.01) and EBV infection (p < 0.01). KRAS wildtype status was significantly more frequently observed in patients with EBV infection (p <0.01) and HCMV/EBV co-infection (p = 0.04). No significant differences were observed in OS or DFS between patients with and without EBV infection (p = 0.88 and 0.73), HCMV infection (p = 0.84 and 0.79), and EBV/CMV coinfection (p = 0.24 and 0.39). This pilot study showed that viral infections were associated with metabolic staging differences, and differences in the evolution of metabolic and volumetric parameters and KRAS mutations. Further findings of specific features will help determine the best candidates for metabolic and volumetric staging and

  7. Computer viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1988-01-01

    The worm, Trojan horse, bacterium, and virus are destructive programs that attack information stored in a computer's memory. Virus programs, which propagate by incorporating copies of themselves into other programs, are a growing menace in the late-1980s world of unprotected, networked workstations and personal computers. Limited immunity is offered by memory protection hardware, digitally authenticated object programs,and antibody programs that kill specific viruses. Additional immunity can be gained from the practice of digital hygiene, primarily the refusal to use software from untrusted sources. Full immunity requires attention in a social dimension, the accountability of programmers.

  8. Operational handbook of the Bretby Maintainability Index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rushworth, A.M.; Mason, S.; Talbot, C. (British Coal Corporation, Stanhope Bretby (United Kingdom). Technical Services and Research Executive, Ergonomics Branch)

    1994-01-01

    A substantial proportion of the injuries and costs in the mining industry, and in industry generally, occur during maintenance activities, particularly in work involving plant and machinery. A common thread linking the cause of these accidents and losses is a general deficiency in machine design, particularly the ergonomic aspects. This report concerns the Bretby Maintainability Index (BMI) which provides a comprehensive method of analysing and quantifying machinery maintainability in terms of health and safety and the financial implications associated with excessive downtime. The health and safety implications of poor machine design are discussed, as are the cost implications. The concept of the BMI is outlined and information on its application is given. Its detailed features are presented and guidance notes are provided.

  9. Maintainability Prediction and Analysis Study. Revision A

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-07-01

    SS- 6b SECTION 1.0 INTRiODUCTION This document presents the results of a study to develop and document an improved maintainability prediction and...include operations on other RIs called out in the jth fault iscolation result . Tmujn Average time to perform the ruth corrective maintenance step for...of the study however, as the resulting time standards are used as Inputs In computing disassembly, interchange, and reassembly times for the

  10. Maintaining Multimedia Data in a Geospatial Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    ID (SRID). “The SRID is the spatial reference identification system. The SRID is part of a set of standards developed for cartography , surveying...in a GIS are stored in two-dimensional space, which adds to the complexities faced in simulating a databases’ workload when the data is three...benchmark testing. A. OVERVIEW In creating a GIS that maintains multimedia data, it is first important to note that the actual multimedia data is

  11. Maintaining Wolbachia in Cell-free Medium

    OpenAIRE

    Gamston, Courtney; Rasgon, Jason

    2007-01-01

    In this video protocol, procedures are demonstrated to (1) purify Wolbachia symbionts out of cultured mosquito cells, (2) use a fluorescent assay to ascertain the viability of the purified Wolbachia and (3) maintain the now extracellular Wolbachia in cell-free medium. Purified Wolbachia remain alive in the extracellular phase but do not replicate until re-inoculated into eukaryotic cells. Extracellular Wolbachia purified in this manner will remain viable for at least a week at ...

  12. Virus Silicification under Simulated Hot Spring Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidler, James R.; Stedman, Kenneth M.

    2010-07-01

    Silicification of organisms in silica-depositing environments can impact both their ecology and their presence in the fossil record. Although microbes have been silicified under laboratory and environmental conditions, viruses have not. Bacteriophage T4 was successfully silicified under laboratory conditions that closely simulated those found in silica-depositing hot springs. Virus morphology was maintained, and a clear elemental signature of phosphorus was detected by energy-dispersive X-ray spectrophotometry (EDS).

  13. Virus in Trichomonas--an ultrastructural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benchimol, Marlene; Monteiro, Sandra; Chang, T-H; Alderete, John F

    2002-09-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a flagellated, parasitic protozoan that inhabits the urogenital tract of humans. Approximately one-half of isolates of T. vaginalis are infected with a double-stranded (ds) RNA virus, which was described in the literature as a homogeneous population of icosahedral virus with isometric symmetry and 33 nm in diameter. The present study describes the heterogeneous virus population found in T. vaginalis isolate 347. This population comprises different virus sizes (33-200 nm) and shape (filamentous, cylindrical, and spherical particles). These observations were made in CsCl-purified virus fractions as well as the thin sections of parasites. Some viruses were only observed after slight changes in the technique where the sample was prepared by the negative staining carbon-film method directly onto freshly cleft mica. The VLPs were found in the cytoplasm closely associated with the Golgi complex, with some VLPs budding from the Golgi, and other VLPs were detected adjacent to the plasma membrane. Unidentified cytoplasmic inclusions were observed in the region close to the VLPs and Golgi. These results indicate that T. vaginalis organisms may be infected with different dsRNA viruses simultaneously and suggest that T. vaginalis may be a reservoir for several viruses. We also showed some steps in the route of T. vaginalis virus and some aspects of the cytopathology of this infection. Purified VLPs were transfected to virus-free T. vaginalis isolates. Our results demonstrate that TVV attach and penetrate into trichomonads through endocytic coated pits and are maintained within vacuoles during batch culture for several daily passages. Immediately after virus transfection, many cells were lysed, whereas some intact reminiscent cells were recruited forming large clusters. Virus particles were found outside the cells, and in coated pits, within vacuoles in the cytoplasm, and infrequently within the nucleus. The Golgi complex showed changes in its electron

  14. Pathogens Inactivated by Low-Energy-Electron Irradiation Maintain Antigenic Properties and Induce Protective Immune Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fertey, Jasmin; Bayer, Lea; Grunwald, Thomas; Pohl, Alexandra; Beckmann, Jana; Gotzmann, Gaby; Casado, Javier Portillo; Schönfelder, Jessy; Rögner, Frank-Holm; Wetzel, Christiane; Thoma, Martin; Bailer, Susanne M; Hiller, Ekkehard; Rupp, Steffen; Ulbert, Sebastian

    2016-11-23

    Inactivated vaccines are commonly produced by incubating pathogens with chemicals such as formaldehyde or β-propiolactone. This is a time-consuming process, the inactivation efficiency displays high variability and extensive downstream procedures are often required. Moreover, application of chemicals alters the antigenic components of the viruses or bacteria, resulting in reduced antibody specificity and therefore stimulation of a less effective immune response. An alternative method for inactivation of pathogens is ionizing radiation. It acts very fast and predominantly damages nucleic acids, conserving most of the antigenic structures. However, currently used irradiation technologies (mostly gamma-rays and high energy electrons) require large and complex shielding constructions to protect the environment from radioactivity or X-rays generated during the process. This excludes them from direct integration into biological production facilities. Here, low-energy electron irradiation (LEEI) is presented as an alternative inactivation method for pathogens in liquid solutions. LEEI can be used in normal laboratories, including good manufacturing practice (GMP)- or high biosafety level (BSL)-environments, as only minor shielding is necessary. We show that LEEI efficiently inactivates different viruses (influenza A (H3N8), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1)) and bacteria (Escherichia coli) and maintains their antigenicity. Moreover, LEEI-inactivated influenza A viruses elicit protective immune responses in animals, as analyzed by virus neutralization assays and viral load determination upon challenge. These results have implications for novel ways of developing and manufacturing inactivated vaccines with improved efficacy.

  15. Pathogens Inactivated by Low-Energy-Electron Irradiation Maintain Antigenic Properties and Induce Protective Immune Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fertey, Jasmin; Bayer, Lea; Grunwald, Thomas; Pohl, Alexandra; Beckmann, Jana; Gotzmann, Gaby; Casado, Javier Portillo; Schönfelder, Jessy; Rögner, Frank-Holm; Wetzel, Christiane; Thoma, Martin; Bailer, Susanne M.; Hiller, Ekkehard; Rupp, Steffen; Ulbert, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Inactivated vaccines are commonly produced by incubating pathogens with chemicals such as formaldehyde or β-propiolactone. This is a time-consuming process, the inactivation efficiency displays high variability and extensive downstream procedures are often required. Moreover, application of chemicals alters the antigenic components of the viruses or bacteria, resulting in reduced antibody specificity and therefore stimulation of a less effective immune response. An alternative method for inactivation of pathogens is ionizing radiation. It acts very fast and predominantly damages nucleic acids, conserving most of the antigenic structures. However, currently used irradiation technologies (mostly gamma-rays and high energy electrons) require large and complex shielding constructions to protect the environment from radioactivity or X-rays generated during the process. This excludes them from direct integration into biological production facilities. Here, low-energy electron irradiation (LEEI) is presented as an alternative inactivation method for pathogens in liquid solutions. LEEI can be used in normal laboratories, including good manufacturing practice (GMP)- or high biosafety level (BSL)-environments, as only minor shielding is necessary. We show that LEEI efficiently inactivates different viruses (influenza A (H3N8), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1)) and bacteria (Escherichia coli) and maintains their antigenicity. Moreover, LEEI-inactivated influenza A viruses elicit protective immune responses in animals, as analyzed by virus neutralization assays and viral load determination upon challenge. These results have implications for novel ways of developing and manufacturing inactivated vaccines with improved efficacy. PMID:27886076

  16. Powassan (POW) Virus Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professionals Related Topics For International Travelers Powassan (POW) Virus Basics Download this fact sheet formatted for print: ... POW) Virus Fact Sheet (PDF) What is Powassan virus? Powassan (POW) virus is a flavivirus that is ...

  17. Subcellular localization of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus in macrophages%发热伴血小板减少综合征病毒在巨噬细胞中的亚细胞定位

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩颖; 李逸翔; 金聪; 李川; 曲靖; 张福顺; 张全福; 梁米芳; 仇佩红

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the subcellular localization of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) in macrophages and understand the replication and assembly mechanism of SFTSV in host cells.Methods Using two types of human macrophage cell lines THP-1 and U937,the study analyzed the intracellular colocalization of SFTSV with Golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticulum by immunefluorescence staining and confocal microscopy.Results SFTSV infected macrophage cell lines THP-1 and U937.Immunofluorescence staining showed that the SFTSV nuclear protein colocalized with Golgi apparatus and closely surrounded by endoplasmic reticulum in the perinuclear region.Conclusion The results suggested that Golgi complex and endoplasmic reticulum are probably the sites for formation and maturation of SFTSV viral particles.%目的 发热伴血小板减少综合征病毒(SFTSV)是新发传染病发热伴血小板减少综合征的致病病原,为布尼亚病毒科白蛉病毒属一种新型病毒.通过研究发热伴血小板减少综合征病毒在巨噬细胞中的亚细胞定位,了解SFTSV在细胞内的复制组装机制.方法 应用两种人源巨噬细胞系THP-1细胞和U937细胞,通过免疫荧光共聚焦方法分析SFTSV感染巨噬细胞后与高尔基体和内质网的共定位.结果 SFTSV可特异性感染巨噬细胞,在SFTSV感染的巨噬细胞中SFTSV核蛋白与高尔基体共定位于核周,与内质网紧密相邻,但没有共定位.结论 在SFTSV感染的巨噬细胞中,内质网和高尔基体可能是病毒进行加工修饰及包装成熟的重要场所.

  18. A Danger Theory Based Mobile Virus Detection Model and Its Application in Inhibiting Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianliang Lu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available According to the propagation and destruction characteristics of mobile phone viruses, a virus detection model based on the Danger Theory is proposed. This model includes four phases: danger capture, antigen presentation, antibody generation and antibody distribution. In this model, local knowledge of mobile phones is exploited by the agents that are running in mobile phones to discover danger caused by viruses. The Antigen Presenting Cells (APCs present the antigen from mobile phones in the danger zone, and the Decision Center confirms the infection of viruses. After the antibody is generated by self-tolerating using the negative selection algorithm, the Decision Center distributes the antibody to mobile phones. Due to the distributed and cooperative mechanism of artificial immune system, the proposed model lowers the storage and computing consumption of mobile phones. The simulation results show that based on the mobile phone virus detection model, the proposed virus immunization strategy can effectively inhibit the propagation of mobile phone viruses.

  19. Identifying crucial parameter correlations maintaining bursting activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Doloc-Mihu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent experimental and computational studies suggest that linearly correlated sets of parameters (intrinsic and synaptic properties of neurons allow central pattern-generating networks to produce and maintain their rhythmic activity regardless of changing internal and external conditions. To determine the role of correlated conductances in the robust maintenance of functional bursting activity, we used our existing database of half-center oscillator (HCO model instances of the leech heartbeat CPG. From the database, we identified functional activity groups of burster (isolated neuron and half-center oscillator model instances and realistic subgroups of each that showed burst characteristics (principally period and spike frequency similar to the animal. To find linear correlations among the conductance parameters maintaining functional leech bursting activity, we applied Principal Component Analysis (PCA to each of these four groups. PCA identified a set of three maximal conductances (leak current, [Formula: see text]Leak; a persistent K current, [Formula: see text]K2; and of a persistent Na+ current, [Formula: see text]P that correlate linearly for the two groups of burster instances but not for the HCO groups. Visualizations of HCO instances in a reduced space suggested that there might be non-linear relationships between these parameters for these instances. Experimental studies have shown that period is a key attribute influenced by modulatory inputs and temperature variations in heart interneurons. Thus, we explored the sensitivity of period to changes in maximal conductances of [Formula: see text]Leak, [Formula: see text]K2, and [Formula: see text]P, and we found that for our realistic bursters the effect of these parameters on period could not be assessed because when varied individually bursting activity was not maintained.

  20. Store operations to maintain cache coherence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evangelinos, Constantinos; Nair, Ravi; Ohmacht, Martin

    2017-09-12

    In one embodiment, a computer-implemented method includes encountering a store operation during a compile-time of a program, where the store operation is applicable to a memory line. It is determined, by a computer processor, that no cache coherence action is necessary for the store operation. A store-without-coherence-action instruction is generated for the store operation, responsive to determining that no cache coherence action is necessary. The store-without-coherence-action instruction specifies that the store operation is to be performed without a cache coherence action, and cache coherence is maintained upon execution of the store-without-coherence-action instruction.

  1. Store operations to maintain cache coherence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evangelinos, Constantinos; Nair, Ravi; Ohmacht, Martin

    2017-08-01

    In one embodiment, a computer-implemented method includes encountering a store operation during a compile-time of a program, where the store operation is applicable to a memory line. It is determined, by a computer processor, that no cache coherence action is necessary for the store operation. A store-without-coherence-action instruction is generated for the store operation, responsive to determining that no cache coherence action is necessary. The store-without-coherence-action instruction specifies that the store operation is to be performed without a cache coherence action, and cache coherence is maintained upon execution of the store-without-coherence-action instruction.

  2. Storage methods to maintain a tulip collection

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnier, F.J.M.; Eikelboom, W.; Tuyl, van, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Collections of tulip genotypes are maintained by yearly planting, harvesting and storage of the bulbs. To optimise the maintenance, two methods were examined for their suitability to store bulbs for one or more growing seasons. Method 1: bulbs were stored after flower development at -2 °C. Method 2: bulbs were stored before the start of flower development at -0.5 °C, followed by a temperature regime of 4 weeks 25 °C, 6 weeks 20 °C and 16 weeks 5 °C, for development of sprouts. With the first ...

  3. Take Control of Maintaining Your Mac

    CERN Document Server

    Kissell, Joe

    2009-01-01

    Keep your Mac running smoothly with our easy maintenance program! Regular maintenance is necessary to avoid problems and to ensure your Mac runs at peak performance, but it's hard to know what to do and when to do it. Best-selling author Joe Kissell has now applied his commonsense approach to the task of maintaining your Mac, whether you use Tiger or Leopard! Learn how to start on the right foot; what you should do daily, weekly, monthly, and yearly; and how to prepare for Mac OS X updates. Joe even explains how to monitor your Mac's health and debunks common panaceas. Read this book to lea

  4. Computer Viruses. Technology Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponder, Tim, Comp.; Ropog, Marty, Comp.; Keating, Joseph, Comp.

    This document provides general information on computer viruses, how to help protect a computer network from them, measures to take if a computer becomes infected. Highlights include the origins of computer viruses; virus contraction; a description of some common virus types (File Virus, Boot Sector/Partition Table Viruses, Trojan Horses, and…

  5. Maintaining heterokaryosis in pseudo-homothallic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grognet, Pierre; Silar, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Among all the strategies displayed by fungi to reproduce and propagate, some species have adopted a peculiar behavior called pseudo-homothallism. Pseudo-homothallic fungi are true heterothallics, i.e., they need 2 genetically-compatible partners to mate, but they produce self-fertile mycelium in which the 2 different nuclei carrying the compatible mating types are present. This lifestyle not only enables the fungus to reproduce without finding a compatible partner, but also to cross with any mate it may encounter. However, to be fully functional, pseudo-homothallism requires maintaining heterokaryosis at every stage of the life cycle. We recently showed that neither the structure of the mating-type locus nor hybrid-enhancing effect due to the presence of the 2 mating types accounts for the maintenance of heterokaryosis in the pseudo-homothallic fungus P. anserina. In this addendum, we summarize the mechanisms creating heterokaryosis in P. anserina and 2 other well-known pseudo-homothallic fungi, Neurospora tetrasperma and Agaricus bisporus. We also discuss mechanisms potentially involved in maintaining heterokaryosis in these 3 species.

  6. Maintaining extensivity in evolutionary multiplex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Antonopoulos, Chris G

    2015-01-01

    In this Letter, we explore the role of network topology on its extensive character. We study analytically and numerically how the topology contributes to maintaining extensivity of entropy in multiplex networks, i.e. networks of subnetworks, by means of the sum of the positive Lyapunov exponents, $H_{KS}$, a quantity related to entropy. We show that extensivity relies not only on the interplay between the coupling strengths of the dynamics associated to the intra (short-range) and inter (long-range) interactions, but also on the sum of the intra-degrees of the nodes of the subnetworks. For the analytically treated networks of size $N$, if the sum of the intra-degrees (and the sum of inter-degrees) scales as $N^{\\theta+1}$, extensivity can be maintained if the intra-coupling (and the inter-coupling) strength scales as $N^{-\\theta}$, when evolution is driven by the maximization of $H_{KS}$. We then verify our analytical result by doing numerical simulations in multiplex networks formed by electrically and chemi...

  7. Experience of maintaining laboratory educational website's sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimenstein, Izak B.

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory methodology websites are specialized niche websites. The visibility of a niche website transforms it into an authority site on a particular “niche of knowledge.” This article presents some ways in which a laboratory methodology website can maintain its sustainability. The optimal composition of the website includes a basic content, a blog, and an ancillary part. This article discusses experimenting with the search engine optimization query results page. Strategic placement of keywords and even phrases, as well as fragmentation of the post's material, can improve the website's visibility to search engines. Hyperlinks open a chain reaction of additional links and draw attention to the previous posts. Publications in printed periodicals are a substantial part of a niche website presence on the Internet. Although this article explores a laboratory website on the basis of our hands-on expertise maintaining “Grossing Technology in Surgical Pathology” (www.grossing-technology.com) website with a high volume of traffic for more than a decade, the recommendations presented here for developing an authority website can be applied to other professional specialized websites. The authority websites visibility and sustainability are preconditions for aggregating them in a specialized educational laboratory portal. PMID:27688928

  8. Experience of maintaining laboratory educational website's sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimenstein, Izak B

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory methodology websites are specialized niche websites. The visibility of a niche website transforms it into an authority site on a particular "niche of knowledge." This article presents some ways in which a laboratory methodology website can maintain its sustainability. The optimal composition of the website includes a basic content, a blog, and an ancillary part. This article discusses experimenting with the search engine optimization query results page. Strategic placement of keywords and even phrases, as well as fragmentation of the post's material, can improve the website's visibility to search engines. Hyperlinks open a chain reaction of additional links and draw attention to the previous posts. Publications in printed periodicals are a substantial part of a niche website presence on the Internet. Although this article explores a laboratory website on the basis of our hands-on expertise maintaining "Grossing Technology in Surgical Pathology" (www.grossing-technology.com) website with a high volume of traffic for more than a decade, the recommendations presented here for developing an authority website can be applied to other professional specialized websites. The authority websites visibility and sustainability are preconditions for aggregating them in a specialized educational laboratory portal.

  9. [Epidemiological characteristics of Zika virus disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiandong; Li, Dexin

    2016-03-01

    Zika virus disease is an emerging mosquito-borne acute infectious disease caused by Zika virus, so far there have been no available vaccine or specific treatment. Currently, the outbreaks of Zika virus disease mainly occurs in the Americas, but the regional distribution of the disease is in rapid expansion, 34 countries and territories have reported autochthonous transmission of the virus. The illness is usually mild with very rarely death, but increased reports of birth defects and neurologic disorders in the areas affected by Zika virus has caused extensive concern worldwide. In China, the competent vectors for Zika virus are widely distributed, imported viraemic cases may become a source of local transmission of the virus. However, Zika virus disease is preventable, the spread of virus could be stopped when the effective prevention measures are taken. This paper summarizes the retrieval results from Medline database and the information from the reports of the governments of countries affected or health organizations about the epidemiological characteristics of Zika virus disease.

  10. Inmunoterapia local Local immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Lasa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available La inmunoterapia específica, junto con la evitación del alergeno y el tratamiento sintomático, forma parte del tratamiento de la patología alérgica. La modalidad más antigua, más conocida y mejor estudiada es la inmunoterapia subcutánea (ITSC, cuya eficacia tanto a corto como a largo plazo, ha sido ampliamente demostrada en numerosos estudios. Sin embargo, a pesar de haberse demostrado segura, no está exenta de efectos adversos y precisa ser administrada bajo supervisión de personal médico. Esto ha animado a buscar nuevas vías de administración de eficacia similar, con un buen perfil de seguridad, y de buena cumplimentación por parte del paciente. De las distintas alternativas estudiadas la más relevante es la inmunoterapia sublingual (ITSL. En ésta, se administra el antígeno en forma de gotas debajo de la lengua. Existen diferentes pautas de administración en función del alergeno implicado. La dosis óptima de tratamiento está aún sin determinar, hallándose en este momento en un rango amplio de dosis respecto a la inmunoterapia subcutánea. Su mecanismo de acción es poco conocido aunque en diversos estudios se han observado cambios inmunológicos. La ITSL ha mostrado un buen perfil de seguridad con escasos efectos secundarios, habitualmente de carácter local. Asimismo se han realizado distintos ensayos clínicos en los que se ha demostrado su eficacia en el tratamiento de la alergia respiratoria tanto en niños como en adultos. Por ello, aunque aún existen datos sin resolver respecto a esta vía de administración de inmunoterapia, ha sido propuesta por la OMS como una alternativa válida a la ITSC.Specific immunotherapy, together with avoidance of the allergen and symptomatic treatment, forms part of the treatment of allergic pathology. The oldest, best known and most studied form is subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT, whose efficacy, both in the short and the long term, has been widely demonstrated in numerous studies

  11. Ebola Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anusha Rangare Lakshman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The disease Ebola takes its name from the Ebola River situated near a village in the Democratic Republic of Congo, where the disease first appeared in 1976. It is caused by a virus from the Filoviridae family (filovirus. The present outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD concerns four countries in West Africa, namely Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone and Nigeria till date. Further to widespread transmission of the disease, it has been declared as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern by the World Health Organisation on 8 August 2014. As of 4 August 2014, countries have reported 1,711 cases (1,070 confirmed, 436 probable, 205 suspect, including 932 deaths. This review paper enlightens about the awareness of Ebola virus and its preventive measures. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2015; 24(3.000: 296-305

  12. Documenting localities

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, Richard J

    1996-01-01

    Now in paperback! Documenting Localities is the first effort to summarize the past decade of renewed discussion about archival appraisal theory and methodology and to provide a practical guide for the documentation of localities.This book discusses the continuing importance of the locality in American historical research and archival practice, traditional methods archivists have used to document localities, and case studies in documenting localities. These chapters draw on a wide range of writings from archivists, historians, material culture specialists, historic preservationists

  13. The critical power to maintain thermally stable molecular junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanlei; Xu, Zhiping

    2014-07-01

    With the rise of atomic-scale devices such as molecular electronics and scanning probe microscopies, energy transport processes through molecular junctions have attracted notable research interest recently. In this work, heat dissipation and transport across diamond/benzene/diamond molecular junctions are explored by performing atomistic simulations. We identify the critical power Pcr to maintain thermal stability of the junction through efficient dissipation of local heat. We also find that the molecule-probe contact features a power-dependent interfacial thermal resistance RK in the order of 109 kW-1. Moreover, both Pcr and RK display explicit dependence on atomic structures of the junction, force and temperature. For instance, Pcr can be elevated in multiple-molecule junctions, and streching the junction enhances RK by a factor of 2. The applications of these findings in molecular electronics and scanning probing measurements are discussed, providing practical guidelines in their rational design.

  14. Maintaining Aura's Orbit Requirements Under New Maneuver Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Megan; Petersen, Jeremy D.

    2014-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) Afternoon Constellation consists of five member missions (GCOM-W1, Aqua, CALIPSO, CloudSat, and Aura), each of which maintain a frozen, sun-synchronous orbit with a 16-day repeating ground track that follows the Worldwide Reference System-2 (WRS-2). Under nominal science operations for Aura, the propulsion system is oriented such that the resultant thrust vector is aligned 13.493 degrees away from the velocity vector along the yaw axis. When performing orbit maintenance maneuvers, the spacecraft performs a yaw slew to align the thrust vector in the appropriate direction. A new Drag Make Up (DMU) maneuver operations scheme has been implemented for Aura alleviating the need for the 13.493 degree yaw slew. The focus of this investigation is to assess the impact that no-slew DMU maneuver operations will have on Auras Mean Local Time (MLT) which drives the required along track separation between Aura and the constellation members, as well as Auras frozen orbit properties, eccentricity and argument of perigee. Seven maneuver strategies were analyzed to determine the best operational approach. A mirror pole strategy, with maneuvers alternating at the North and South poles, was implemented operationally to minimize impact to the MLT. Additional analysis determined that the mirror pole strategy could be further modified to include frozen orbit maneuvers and thus maintain both MLT and the frozen orbit properties under no-slew operations

  15. Maintaining the Telescope Bibliography at Gemini Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.

    2010-10-01

    The library profession benefits tremendously from ever-changing web technologies. In maintaining a telescope bibliography, web-publishing revolutionized the way librarians track relevant publications. Thanks to the search abilities provided by the NASA Astrophysics Data System, arXiv, publishers, as well as Google Scholar, and other such resources, online searching for Gemini-based publications has replaced the tedious perusing of print journals. However, we should keep in mind that online searching is neither flawless nor simple — different content providers require different search strategies. Sometimes the retrievals are not as complete as one expects. Information providers should be constantly improving their searching abilities in order to make the task of electronic publication tracking more reliable and efficient.

  16. [Maintaining solidarity: is mutuality the solution?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevers, J K M; Ploem, M C

    2013-01-01

    Solidarity is essentially the willingness to contribute to the community and its demands, which may even involve contributing more than one is expecting to receive. Another principle is mutuality: this refers to a balance between rights and obligations or between mutual obligations. In its advisory document 'The importance of mutuality......solidarity takes work!', The Dutch Council for Public Health and Health Care underlines the importance of ensuring solidarity within the Dutch health care system, e.g. by encouraging patients to take responsibility for their own health, possibly by introducing elements of mutuality. In our contribution, we comment on the Council's advice. Although we fully agree with the overall conclusion that solidarity should be maintained within the system, we do not see how the introduction of increased mutuality will contribute to this goal.

  17. Maintaining and troubleshooting your 3D printer

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining and Troubleshooting Your 3D Printer by Charles Bell is your guide to keeping your 3D printer running through preventive maintenance, repair, and diagnosing and solving problems in 3D printing. If you've bought or built a 3D printer such as a MakerBot only to be confounded by jagged edges, corner lift, top layers that aren't solid, or any of a myriad of other problems that plague 3D printer enthusiasts, then here is the book to help you get past all that and recapture the joy of creative fabrication. The book also includes valuable tips for builders and those who want to modify the

  18. Motives for maintaining personal journal blogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollenbaugh, Erin E

    2011-01-01

    Although much has been learned about political and news blogs, there has been a lack of research on personal journal blogs. They deserve further research attention because of the implications blogs have in many bloggers' immediate social networks, as well as the opportunities for scientific inquiry in a rich and evolving communication environment. This study explored bloggers' motives for maintaining personal journal blogs, or blogs that resemble diaries about one's personal life. Stemming from the uses and gratifications perspective, antecedents (age, sex, loneliness, disclosiveness) and blogging motives composed a model for predicting the amount of blog use. Seven motives emerged from online survey data: helping/informing, social connection, pass time, exhibitionism, archiving/organizing, professionalism, and get feedback. Age, sex, loneliness, and disclosiveness predicted different motives, and the total model (age, sex, loneliness, disclosiveness, and motives) was useful for explaining 13% of the variance in the amount of blog use.

  19. Heartwarming memories: Nostalgia maintains physiological comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xinyue; Wildschut, Tim; Sedikides, Constantine; Chen, Xiaoxi; Vingerhoets, Ad J J M

    2012-08-01

    Nostalgia, a sentimental longing or wistful affection for the past, is a predominantly positive and social emotion. Recent evidence suggests that nostalgia maintains psychological comfort. Here, we propose, and document in five methodologically diverse studies, a broader homeostatic function for nostalgia that also encompasses the maintenance of physiological comfort. We show that nostalgia--an emotion with a strong connotation of warmth--is triggered by coldness. Participants reported stronger nostalgia on colder (vs. warmer) days and in a cold (vs. neutral or warm) room. Nostalgia, in turn, modulates the interoceptive feeling of temperature. Higher levels of music-evoked nostalgia predicted increased physical warmth, and participants who recalled a nostalgic (vs. ordinary autobiographical) event perceived ambient temperature as higher. Finally, and consistent with the close central nervous system integration of temperature and pain sensations, participants who recalled a nostalgic (vs. ordinary autobiographical) event evinced greater tolerance to noxious cold.

  20. How homologous recombination maintains telomere integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacconi, Eliana M C; Tarsounas, Madalena

    2015-06-01

    Telomeres protect the ends of linear chromosomes against loss of genetic information and inappropriate processing as damaged DNA and are therefore crucial to the maintenance of chromosome integrity. In addition to providing a pathway for genome-wide DNA repair, homologous recombination (HR) plays a key role in telomere replication and capping. Consistent with this, the genomic instability characteristic of HR-deficient cells and tumours is driven in part by telomere dysfunction. Here, we discuss the mechanisms by which HR modulates the response to intrinsic cellular challenges that arise during telomere replication, as well as its impact on the assembly of telomere protective structures. How normal and tumour cells differ in their ability to maintain telomeres is deeply relevant to the search for treatments that would selectively eliminate cells whose capacity for HR-mediated repair has been compromised.

  1. Feijoeiro manteiga, planta-teste para os vírus de vira-cabeça e da necrose branca do fumo A bean variety useful as a local-lesion test plant for tomato spotted wilt and Brazilian tobacco streak viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Costa

    1957-01-01

    mistura de búfer e sulfito de sódio deu o maior aumento.Out of 200 bean varieties tested, plants of the var. Manteiga were the most sensitive to tomato spotted wilt (TSW and Brazilian tobacco streak (BTS viruses. The inoculated plants developed local chlorotic spots adequate for counts within 3-6 days after inoculation with the TSW virus; pin point or rings in 2-4 days following inoculation with the BTS virus. Bean plants with the primary leaves 2/3 expanded or slightly older gave better results for the TSW virus, whereas they were more sensitive to BTS virus when 2/3 expanded or slightly younger. The TSW virus did not become systemic in the bean plants. Most strains of the BTS virus also did not become systemic in the inoculated plants. A yellow strain of this virus usually did. Sodium sulfite at 0.01 M added to the infected tissues during extraction of the inoculum increased the number of lesions formed in the bean leaves inoculated with the TSW virus; the increase was greater when extraction was made in presence of phosphate buffer at pH 7 and at the concentration of 0.1 M. A mixture of buffer and sulfite did not cause a greater increase than buffer alone. Por the BTS virus the addition of sodium sulfite at 0.01 M during extraction gave a large increase in the number of lesions; buffer alone caused only a small increase, but a mixture of buffer and sodium sulfite gave the highest increase. Phosphate buffer at 0.05 M and with pH 7 or 8, added prior to extraction, gave a higher number of lesions in case of both viruses than the same concentration of buffer at pH 5 or 6. The use of butter at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 0.0125 M were tried and did not cause great differences in the number of local lesions, but the best ones seemed to be 0.05 or 0.025 M. Four concentrations of sodium sulfite, 0.1, 0.05, 0.025, and 0.0125 M were compared as diluents for the same inocula in presence of phosphate buffer. The two lowest ones gave the highest number of lesions for both

  2. Immunological responses against human papilloma virus and human papilloma virus induced laryngeal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitose, Shun-ichi; Sakazaki, T; Ono, T; Kurita, T; Mihashi, H; Nakashima, T

    2010-06-01

    This study aimed to clarify the local immune status in the larynx in the presence of infection or carcinogenesis associated with human papilloma virus. Cytological samples (for human papilloma virus detection) and laryngeal secretions (for immunoglobulin assessment) were obtained from 31 patients with laryngeal disease, during microscopic laryngeal surgery. On histological examination, 12 patients had squamous cell carcinoma, four had laryngeal papilloma and 15 had other benign laryngeal disease. Cytological samples were tested for human papilloma virus DNA using the Hybrid Capture 2 assay. High risk human papilloma virus DNA was detected in 25 per cent of patients (three of 12) with laryngeal cancer. Low risk human papilloma virus DNA was detected only in three laryngeal papilloma patients. The mean laryngeal secretion concentrations of immunoglobulins M, G and A and secretory immunoglobulin A in human papilloma virus DNA positive patients were more than twice those in human papilloma virus DNA negative patients. A statistically significant difference was observed between the secretory immunoglobulin A concentrations in the two groups. Patients with laryngeal cancer had higher laryngeal secretion concentrations of each immunoglobulin type, compared with patients with benign laryngeal disease. The study assessed the mean laryngeal secretion concentrations of each immunoglobulin type in the 12 laryngeal cancer patients, comparing human papilloma virus DNA positive patients (n = 3) and human papilloma virus DNA negative patients (n = 9); the mean concentrations of immunoglobulins M, G and A and secretory immunoglobulin A tended to be greater in human papilloma virus DNA positive cancer patients, compared with human papilloma virus DNA negative cancer patients. These results suggest that the local laryngeal immune response is activated by infection or carcinogenesis due to human papilloma virus. The findings strongly suggest that secretory IgA has inhibitory activity

  3. Eyes shut homolog is required for maintaining the ciliary pocket and survival of photoreceptors in zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Yu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the extracellular matrix protein eyes shut homolog (EYS cause photoreceptor degeneration in patients with retinitis pigmentosa 25 (RP25. Functions of EYS remain poorly understood, due in part to the lack of an EYS gene in mouse. We investigated the localization of vertebrate EYS proteins and engineered loss-of-function alleles in zebrafish. Immunostaining indicated that EYS localized near the connecting cilium/transition zone in photoreceptors. EYS also strongly localized to the cone outer segments and weakly to the rod outer segments and cone terminals in primate retinas. Analysis of mutant EYS zebrafish revealed disruption of the ciliary pocket in cone photoreceptors, indicating that EYS is required for maintaining the integrity of the ciliary pocket lumen. Mutant zebrafish exhibited progressive loss of cone and rod photoreceptors. Our results indicate that EYS protein localization is species-dependent and that EYS is required for maintaining ciliary pocket morphology and survival of photoreceptors in zebrafish.

  4. HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRUS — ONCOGENIC VIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. Mayansky

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The lecture is devoted to oncogenic viruses, particularly human papilloma virus. Papilloma viral infection is found in all parts of the globe and highly contagious. In addition to exhaustive current data on classification, specifics of papilloma viruses composition and epidemiology, the author describes in great detail the malignization mechanisms of papilloma viruses pockets. Also, issues of diagnostics and specific prevention and treatment of diseases caused by this virus are illustrated. Key words: oncogenic viruses, papilloma viruses, prevention, vaccination. (Pediatric Pharmacology. – 2010; 7(4:48-55

  5. [Ebola virus disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karwowska, Kornelia

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus disease is a zoonosis causing high mortality epidemics in both human and animal populations. The virus belongs to the Filoviride family. It is composed of a single-strand of RNA. Morbidity foci appear in sub-Saharan Africa. The most probable reservoir are fruit bats, which are local delicacy. The most common route of infection is via mucosa or damaged skin. The spread of disease is rapid due to dietary habits, funeral rites and the insufficient supply of disposable equipment in hospitals. The incubation period of the disease ranges from 2 to 21 days. The beginning is abrupt, dominated by influenza-like symptoms. The disease is staggering with the predominant multi-organ failure and shock. Present-day epidemic symptoms from digestive system in the form of vomiting and diarrhoea are dominant. Currently, the research on vaccine and experimental drug is in progress. The virus is damaged by standard disinfectants used in health care units. Epidemic, which broke out in February 2014, caused by the most dangerous type Zaire, is the greatest of the existing. Morbidity and mortality is underestimated due to numerous unreported cases.

  6. Prokaryotic expression and subcellular localization of Japanese encephalitis virus NS5 protein%乙型脑炎病毒NS5蛋白原核表达与亚细胞定位研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栗永茂; 曹胜波; 陈龙; 霍雨艳; 熊涛; 吴光旭

    2011-01-01

    The NS5 gene of Japanese encephalitis virus was amplified by PCR and cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pET-28a. The recombinant NS5 protein was expressed highly under induction of IPTG in the E. Coli. Using BALB/c female mice immuned with the purified recombinant NS5 protein, NS5 protein-specific polyclonal antibody were prepared. Meanwhile, BHK-21 cells were transfected with eukaryotic expression plasmid pcDNA-NS5-EGFP of NS5 gene and green fluorescent protein (EGFP) fusion expression. Finally, the subcellular localization of NS5 protein in BHK-21 cells was observed by using laser confocal fluorescence microscope. The result indicates that the protein particles are irregularly distributed in the whole cell and particularly in the cytoplasm.%目的 对乙型脑炎病毒NS5蛋白进行原核表达和亚细胞定位研究.方法 通过PCR扩增乙型脑炎病毒NS5基因,并将之克隆至原核表达载体pET-28a(+)中,构建的重组表达载体转化大肠杆菌感受态细胞,经IPTG诱导表达目的蛋白.将表达产物纯化后,免疫BALB/c小鼠,制备NS5蛋白特异性的多克隆抗体.同时,构建NS5基因与绿色荧光蛋白(EGFP)融合表达的真核表达质粒pcDNA-NS5-EGFP,将之转染BHK-21细胞,利用激光共聚焦荧光显微镜观察NS5蛋白在BHK-21细胞中的亚细胞定位.结果 NS5蛋白在大肠杆菌中获得了高效表达,表达蛋白分子量大小约为103kD,该蛋白在真核细胞中的表达呈颗粒状不均匀分布于整个细胞,且颗粒状主要分布在细胞质中.结论 成功表达乙型脑炎病毒NS5蛋白,并对NS5蛋白的亚细胞定位进行了分析,为进一步研究NS5蛋白提供依据.

  7. Oropuche virus: A virus present but ignored

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Mattar V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bunyaviruses are RNA viruses that affect animals and plants; they have five genera and four of them affect humans: Orthobunyavirus, Nairovirus, Phlebovirus and Hantavirus. All of them are Arbovirus, except Hantavirus. The Orthobunyaviruses comprise Oropouche, Tahyna, La Crosse virus, California encephalitis virus and Heartland virus recently discovered (1. Except for Heartland virus which is transmitted by ticks of the genus Amblyoma, these Phleboviruses have as vectors mosquitoes, which bite small mammals which are able to be as reservoirs amplifiers.

  8. Local architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Local architecture refers to structures built in the countryside,such as temples,memorial halls,residences, stores,pavilions, bridges,decorated archways, and wells. Because these structures were all built by focal craftsmen and villagers in the traditional local style, they are generally called local architecture.

  9. Comparative interactomics for virus-human protein-protein interactions: DNA viruses versus RNA viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durmuş, Saliha; Ülgen, Kutlu Ö

    2017-01-01

    Viruses are obligatory intracellular pathogens and completely depend on their hosts for survival and reproduction. The strategies adopted by viruses to exploit host cell processes and to evade host immune systems during infections may differ largely with the type of the viral genetic material. An improved understanding of these viral infection mechanisms is only possible through a better understanding of the pathogen-host interactions (PHIs) that enable viruses to enter into the host cells and manipulate the cellular mechanisms to their own advantage. Experimentally-verified protein-protein interaction (PPI) data of pathogen-host systems only became available at large scale within the last decade. In this study, we comparatively analyzed the current PHI networks belonging to DNA and RNA viruses and their human host, to get insights into the infection strategies used by these viral groups. We investigated the functional properties of human proteins in the PHI networks, to observe and compare the attack strategies of DNA and RNA viruses. We observed that DNA viruses are able to attack both human cellular and metabolic processes simultaneously during infections. On the other hand, RNA viruses preferentially interact with human proteins functioning in specific cellular processes as well as in intracellular transport and localization within the cell. Observing virus-targeted human proteins, we propose heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins and transporter proteins as potential antiviral therapeutic targets. The observed common and specific infection mechanisms in terms of viral strategies to attack human proteins may provide crucial information for further design of broad and specific next-generation antiviral therapeutics.

  10. Mental health services--maintaining strategic direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadyen, J A; Farrington, A

    1998-09-01

    AIM AND KEY ISSUES: This article reviews the theoretical basis of strategic management in an attempt to provide managers with a better understanding of the underpinning concepts and consequent actions they need to take to avoid loss of control and ultimate failure. The authors argue that community care for the severely mentally ill is failing and that in part the reason for this perceived failure is a closer allegiance to primary care that has shifted the focus away from mental illness. Such a shift, coupled with poor management and a desire by Community Mental Health Nurses (CMHNs) to retain a broad focus and maintain the 'autonomy' they gain when not held in the gravitational grasp of Consultant Psychiatrists, has resulted in strategic drift. The authors suggest 10 possible reasons to explain why CMHNs currently fail to meet the needs of the severely mentally ill. Among these are a lack of explicit strategic implementation plans, professional ambivalence and self-interest, poor management of resources and conflicting demands from key interest groups. It seems that mental health services in this country have reached the point where resistance to change should be crumbling in the face of perceived failure to deliver the required services. Whilst it could be argued that a major and potent source of internal change is performance gaps, few things force change more than sudden and unexpected information about poor organizational performance.

  11. MAVS maintains mitochondrial homeostasis via autophagy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaofeng; Sun, Liwei; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Li, Ying; Lin, Wei; Chen, Dahua; Sun, Qinmiao

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial antiviral signalling protein (MAVS) acts as a critical adaptor protein to transduce antiviral signalling by physically interacting with activated RIG-I and MDA5 receptors. MAVS executes its functions at the outer membrane of mitochondria to regulate downstream antiviral signalling, indicating that the mitochondria provides a functional platform for innate antiviral signalling transduction. However, little is known about whether and how MAVS-mediated antiviral signalling contributes to mitochondrial homeostasis. Here we show that the activation of MAVS is sufficient to induce autophagic signalling, which may mediate the turnover of the damaged mitochondria. Importantly, we find MAVS directly interacts with LC3 through its LC3-binding motif ‘YxxI’, suggesting that MAVS might act as an autophagy receptor to mediate mitochondrial turnover upon excessive activation of RLR signalling. Furthermore, we provide evidence that both MAVS self-aggregation and its interaction with TRAF2/6 proteins are important for MAVS-mediated mitochondrial turnover. Collectively, our findings suggest that MAVS acts as a potential receptor for mitochondria-associated autophagic signalling to maintain mitochondrial homeostasis. PMID:27551434

  12. Studies on equine infectious anemia virus transmission by insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issel, C J; Foil, L D

    1984-02-01

    There are several factors involved in the mechanical transmission of equine infectious anemia (EIA) virus by insects. Large hematophagous insects, especially tabanids, which feed from extravascular sites (ie, pool feeding) appear to be the most efficient vectors. The biology of the host-seeking and blood-feeding behavior of the vectors are important variables that have been overlooked in the mechanical transmission of pathogens like EIA virus. The biology, population levels, and diversity of the vectors, in addition to the clinical status and proximity of EIA virus-infected horses maintained with susceptible animals are all important variables that contribute to EIA virus transmission in nature.

  13. Solanum americanum: reservoir for Potato virus Y and Cucumber mosaic virus in sweet pepper crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Fecury Moura

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Weeds can act as important reservoirs for viruses. Solanum americanum (Black nightshade is a common weed in Brazil and samples showing mosaic were collected from sweet pepper crops to verify the presence of viruses. One sample showed mixed infection between Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV and Potato virus Y (PVY and one sample showed simple infection by PVY. Both virus species were transmitted by plant extract and caused mosaic in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Santa Clara, sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum cv. Magda, Nicotiana benthamiana and N. tabaccum TNN, and local lesions on Chenopodium quinoa, C. murale and C. amaranticolor. The coat protein sequences for CMV and PVY found in S. americanum are phylogenetically more related to isolates from tomato. We conclude that S. americanum can act as a reservoir for different viruses during and between sweet pepper crop seasons.

  14. Zika Virus Disease: A CDC Update for Pediatric Health Care Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karwowski, Mateusz P; Nelson, Jennifer M; Staples, J Erin; Fischer, Marc; Fleming-Dutra, Katherine E; Villanueva, Julie; Powers, Ann M; Mead, Paul; Honein, Margaret A; Moore, Cynthia A; Rasmussen, Sonja A

    2016-05-01

    Zika virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus discovered in Africa in 1947. Most persons with Zika virus infection are asymptomatic; symptoms when present are generally mild and include fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis. Since early 2015, Zika virus has spread rapidly through the Americas, with local transmission identified in 31 countries and territories as of February 29, 2016, including several US territories. All age groups are susceptible to Zika virus infection, including children. Maternal-fetal transmission of Zika virus has been documented; evidence suggests that congenital Zika virus infection is associated with microcephaly and other adverse pregnancy and infant outcomes. Perinatal transmission has been reported in 2 cases; 1 was asymptomatic, and the other had thrombocytopenia and a rash. Based on limited information, Zika virus infection in children is mild, similar to that in adults. The long-term sequelae of congenital, perinatal, and pediatric Zika virus infection are largely unknown. No vaccine to prevent Zika virus infection is available, and treatment is supportive. The primary means of preventing Zika virus infection is prevention of mosquito bites in areas with local Zika virus transmission. Given the possibility of limited local transmission of Zika virus in the continental United States and frequent travel from affected countries to the United States, US pediatric health care providers need to be familiar with Zika virus infection. This article reviews the Zika virus, its epidemiologic characteristics, clinical presentation, laboratory testing, treatment, and prevention to assist providers in the evaluation and management of children with possible Zika virus infection.

  15. Automated constraint placement to maintain pile shape

    KAUST Repository

    Hsu, Shu-Wei

    2012-11-01

    We present a simulation control to support art-directable stacking designs by automatically adding constraints to stabilize the stacking structure. We begin by adapting equilibrium analysis in a local scheme to find "stable" objects of the stacking structure. Next, for stabilizing the structure, we pick suitable objects from those passing the equilibrium analysis and then restrict their DOFs by managing the insertion of constraints on them. The method is suitable for controlling stacking behavior of large scale. Results show that our control method can be used in varied ways for creating plausible animation. In addition, the method can be easily implemented as a plug-in into existing simulation solvers without changing the fundamental operations of the solvers. © 2012 ACM.

  16. Phosphoinositides in the Hepatitis C Virus Life Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleem Siddiqui

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Eukaryotes possess seven different phosphoinositides (PIPs that help form the unique signatures of various intracellular membranes. PIPs serve as docking sites for the recruitment of specific proteins to mediate membrane alterations and integrate various signaling cascades. The spatio-temporal regulation of PI kinases and phosphatases generates distinct intracellular hubs of PIP signaling. Hepatitis C virus (HCV, like other plus-strand RNA viruses, promotes the rearrangement of intracellular membranes to assemble viral replication complexes. HCV stimulates enrichment of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P pools near endoplasmic reticulum (ER sites by activating PI4KIIIα, the kinase responsible for generation of ER-specific PI4P pools. Inhibition of PI4KIIIα abrogates HCV replication. PI4P, the most abundant phosphoinositide, predominantly localizes to the Golgi and plays central roles in Golgi secretory functions by recruiting effector proteins involved in transport vesicle generation. The PI4P effector proteins also include the lipid-transfer and structural proteins such as ceramide transfer protein (CERT, oxysterol binding protein (OSBP and Golgi phosphoprotein 3 (GOLPH3 that help maintain Golgi-membrane composition and structure. Depletion of Golgi-specific PI4P pools by silencing PI4KIIIβ, expression of dominant negative CERT and OSBP mutants, or silencing GOLPH3 perturb HCV secretion. In this review we highlight the role of PIPs and specifically PI4P in the HCV life cycle.

  17. Phosphoinositides in the hepatitis C virus life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishé, Bryan; Syed, Gulam; Siddiqui, Aleem

    2012-10-19

    Eukaryotes possess seven different phosphoinositides (PIPs) that help form the unique signatures of various intracellular membranes. PIPs serve as docking sites for the recruitment of specific proteins to mediate membrane alterations and integrate various signaling cascades. The spatio-temporal regulation of PI kinases and phosphatases generates distinct intracellular hubs of PIP signaling. Hepatitis C virus (HCV), like other plus-strand RNA viruses, promotes the rearrangement of intracellular membranes to assemble viral replication complexes. HCV stimulates enrichment of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P) pools near endoplasmic reticulum (ER) sites by activating PI4KIIIα, the kinase responsible for generation of ER-specific PI4P pools. Inhibition of PI4KIIIα abrogates HCV replication. PI4P, the most abundant phosphoinositide, predominantly localizes to the Golgi and plays central roles in Golgi secretory functions by recruiting effector proteins involved in transport vesicle generation. The PI4P effector proteins also include the lipid-transfer and structural proteins such as ceramide transfer protein (CERT), oxysterol binding protein (OSBP) and Golgi phosphoprotein 3 (GOLPH3) that help maintain Golgi-membrane composition and structure. Depletion of Golgi-specific PI4P pools by silencing PI4KIIIβ, expression of dominant negative CERT and OSBP mutants, or silencing GOLPH3 perturb HCV secretion. In this review we highlight the role of PIPs and specifically PI4P in the HCV life cycle.

  18. Plant Virus Metagenomics: Advances in Virus Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roossinck, Marilyn J; Martin, Darren P; Roumagnac, Philippe

    2015-06-01

    In recent years plant viruses have been detected from many environments, including domestic and wild plants and interfaces between these systems-aquatic sources, feces of various animals, and insects. A variety of methods have been employed to study plant virus biodiversity, including enrichment for virus-like particles or virus-specific RNA or DNA, or the extraction of total nucleic acids, followed by next-generation deep sequencing and bioinformatic analyses. All of the methods have some shortcomings, but taken together these studies reveal our surprising lack of knowledge about plant viruses and point to the need for more comprehensive studies. In addition, many new viruses have been discovered, with most virus infections in wild plants appearing asymptomatic, suggesting that virus disease may be a byproduct of domestication. For plant pathologists these studies are providing useful tools to detect viruses, and perhaps to predict future problems that could threaten cultivated plants.

  19. Reverse genetics of measles virus and resulting multivalent recombinant vaccines: applications of recombinant measles viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billeter, M A; Naim, H Y; Udem, S A

    2009-01-01

    An overview is given on the development of technologies to allow reverse genetics of RNA viruses, i.e., the rescue of viruses from cDNA, with emphasis on nonsegmented negative-strand RNA viruses (Mononegavirales), as exemplified for measles virus (MV). Primarily, these technologies allowed site-directed mutagenesis, enabling important insights into a variety of aspects of the biology of these viruses. Concomitantly, foreign coding sequences were inserted to (a) allow localization of virus replication in vivo through marker gene expression, (b) develop candidate multivalent vaccines against measles and other pathogens, and (c) create candidate oncolytic viruses. The vector use of these viruses was experimentally encouraged by the pronounced genetic stability of the recombinants unexpected for RNA viruses, and by the high load of insertable genetic material, in excess of 6 kb. The known assets, such as the small genome size of the vector in comparison to DNA viruses proposed as vectors, the extensive clinical experience of attenuated MV as vaccine with a proven record of high safety and efficacy, and the low production cost per vaccination dose are thus favorably complemented.

  20. Clinical significance of plasma epstein-barr virus DNA quantitative monitoring in the treatment and follow-up for locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma%血浆EB病毒DNA定量监测在局部晚期鼻咽癌治疗及随访中的临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张倩; 孙秀锦; 宋丹

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical significance of plasma epstein⁃barr virus DNA( EBV⁃DNA) quantitative moni⁃toring in the treatment and follow⁃up for locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Methods Plasma EBV⁃DNA levels of 156 locally advanced nasopharyngeal cancer patients were detected during concurrent radiochemotherapy with 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 weeks, and plasma EBV⁃DNA levels of patients with who plasma EBV⁃DNA⁃positive before the treatment and followed up were detected after 6, 12, 18, 24 months, using quantitative PCR technique. The efficacy and recurrence and metastasis situation during two years after treatment were evaluated respectively. Results Plasma EBV⁃DNA⁃positive rate of 156 patients was 91�0% (142/156) before concurrent radio⁃chemotherapy, and positive rate of 9�6% ( 15/156) after 8 weeks of the treatment. One hundred and twenty⁃seven out of 142 plasma EBV⁃DNA⁃positive patients with pre⁃treatment, plasma EBV⁃DNA levels showed a trend of decline from the treatment of 2 weeks. On 6 weeks of the treatment, DNA replication were not detected in 127 patients. The other plasma EBV⁃DNA level of 15 cases maintained the positive level after 8 weeks of the treatment. One hundred and nineteen cases were complete response and 37 cases were partial re⁃sponse, of which the plasma EBV⁃DNA positive rate of 8 weeks after the treatment was 3�4% (4/119) and 29�7% (11/37), respec⁃tively. 135 out of 142 patients with pre⁃treatment plasma EBV⁃DNA⁃positive were followed up for two years, 1⁃, 2⁃year recurrence rate was 14�1% (19/135) and 23�0% (31/135), respectively. By receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, 1⁃, 2⁃year plasma EBV⁃DNA levels were higher judged on accuracy of 1⁃, 2⁃year recurrence rate (Az1=0�944,Az2=0�925;P<0�05). Conclusion Quantification of plasma EBV⁃DNA level can better reflect the efficacy of locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma after comprehen⁃sive treatment

  1. Phomopsis longicolla RNA virus 1 - Novel virus at the edge of myco- and plant viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrabáková, Lenka; Koloniuk, Igor; Petrzik, Karel

    2017-06-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of a new RNA mycovirus in the KY isolate of Phomopsis longicolla Hobbs 1985 and its protoplasts subcultures p5, p9, and ME711 was discovered. The virus, provisionally named Phomopsis longicolla RNA virus 1 (PlRV1), was localized in mitochondria and was determined to have a genome 2822 nucleotides long. A single open reading frame could be translated in silico by both standard and mitochondrial genetic codes into a product featuring conservative domains for an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). The RdRp of PlRV1 has no counterpart among mycoviruses, but it is about 30% identical with the RdRp of plant ourmiaviruses. Recently, new mycoviruses related to plant ourmiaviruses and forming one clade with PlRV1 have been discovered. This separate clade could represent the crucial link between plant and fungal viruses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus ... Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your ...

  3. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus ... Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your ...

  4. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus ... Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your ...

  5. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus ... Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your ...

  6. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and ... Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your fetus ...

  7. Newcastle Disease Virus (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professionals Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research Newcastle Disease Virus (PDQ®)–Patient Version Overview Go to ... cancer (see Question 8 ). Questions and Answers About Newcastle Disease Virus What is Newcastle disease virus? Newcastle ...

  8. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and Pregnancy Page ... Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your fetus if you ...

  9. Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... share with twitter share with linkedin Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Respiratory syncytial virus, or RSV, is a ... States. Why Is the Study of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) a Priority for NIAID? In the United ...

  10. Computer Viruses: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmion, Dan

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the early history and current proliferation of computer viruses that occur on Macintosh and DOS personal computers, mentions virus detection programs, and offers suggestions for how libraries can protect themselves and their users from damage by computer viruses. (LRW)

  11. Virus Ebola Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suharyono Wuryadi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Virus Marburg dan Ebola diklasifikasikan sebagai virus yang sangat menular dan dimasukkan dalam klasifikasi sebagai virus/pathogen dengan derajat biosafety 4, sehingga untuk menanganinya diperlukan laboratorium khusus tingkat 4.

  12. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and ... Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your fetus ...

  13. Cytopathological characteristics of tomato spotted wilt virus isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rudzińska-Langwald

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The electron microscopy study revealed that four examined virus isolates in the cells of the infected host plant produced different inclusions depending on the virus isolate and the time of passaging by mechanical transmission. Numerous virus particle inclusions as well as viroplasm and filamentous inclusions typical for TSWV were present in the plant cells infected with TSWV isolate (PPR. This isolate was kept in N. rustica by 4 mechanical transmissions. A similar virus isolate but maintained for 2 years by mechanical transmission in Nicotiana plants (TI produced virus particle inclusions as well as amorphous inclusions typical for defective isolates. In plant cells infected with the same isolate but maintained by mechanical transmission one year longer (T2 no virus particle inclusions were produced. In the amorphous inclusions produced by this isolate virus particles were seen, but they were not surrounded by additional membrane. The isolate G induced only amorphous inclusions dispersed within the cytoplasm of infected cells. No virus particles were seen in the amorphous inclusions. The mechanical transmission of TSWV isolates in N. rustica plants reduced the number of virus particles present in the cytoplasm. The defectivenes of the isolate cause also the appearance of a new type of inclusion - the amorphous inclusions.

  14. Cost-effective solutions to maintaining smart grid reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Qiu

    As the aging power systems are increasingly working closer to the capacity and thermal limits, maintaining an sufficient reliability has been of great concern to the government agency, utility companies and users. This dissertation focuses on improving the reliability of transmission and distribution systems. Based on the wide area measurements, multiple model algorithms are developed to diagnose transmission line three-phase short to ground faults in the presence of protection misoperations. The multiple model algorithms utilize the electric network dynamics to provide prompt and reliable diagnosis outcomes. Computational complexity of the diagnosis algorithm is reduced by using a two-step heuristic. The multiple model algorithm is incorporated into a hybrid simulation framework, which consist of both continuous state simulation and discrete event simulation, to study the operation of transmission systems. With hybrid simulation, line switching strategy for enhancing the tolerance to protection misoperations is studied based on the concept of security index, which involves the faulted mode probability and stability coverage. Local measurements are used to track the generator state and faulty mode probabilities are calculated in the multiple model algorithms. FACTS devices are considered as controllers for the transmission system. The placement of FACTS devices into power systems is investigated with a criterion of maintaining a prescribed level of control reconfigurability. Control reconfigurability measures the small signal combined controllability and observability of a power system with an additional requirement on fault tolerance. For the distribution systems, a hierarchical framework, including a high level recloser allocation scheme and a low level recloser placement scheme, is presented. The impacts of recloser placement on the reliability indices is analyzed. Evaluation of reliability indices in the placement process is carried out via discrete event

  15. The challenges of maintaining indigenous ecological knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe McCarter

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Increased interest in indigenous ecological knowledge (IEK has led to concern that it is vulnerable amidst social and ecological change. In response, multiple authors have recommended the establishment of programs for the maintenance and revitalization of IEK systems. However, few studies have analyzed the methods, opportunities, and challenges of these programs. This is a critical gap, as IEK maintenance is challenging and will require layered and evidence-based solutions. We seek to build a foundation for future approaches to IEK maintenance. First, we present a systematic literature review of IEK maintenance programs (n = 39 and discuss the opportunities and challenges inherent in five broad groups of published approaches. Second, we use two case studies from the Republic of Vanuatu to illustrate these challenges in more depth. The first case study takes a community-based approach, which has inherent strengths (e.g., localized organization. It has, however, faced practical (e.g., funding and epistemological (changing modes of knowledge transmission challenges. The second case study seeks to facilitate IEK transmission within the formal school system. Although this model has potential, it has faced significant challenges (e.g., lack of institutional linkages. We conclude that supporting and strengthening IEK is important but that serious attention is needed to account for the social, situated, and dynamic nature of IEK. In closing, we use the review and case studies to propose four principles that may guide adaptive and flexible approaches for the future maintenance of IEK systems.

  16. Oncogenic viruses and cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guangxiang; George; Luo; Jing-hsiung; James; Ou

    2015-01-01

    <正>This special issue of the journal is dedicated to the important topic of oncogenic viruses and cancer.It contains seven review articles covering all known oncogenic viruses except for human T-lymphotropic virus type1(HTLV-1).These review articles are contributed by experts on specific viruses and their associated human cancers.Viruses account for about 20%of total human cancer cases.Although many viruses can cause various tumors in animals,only seven of them

  17. Local Helioseismology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gizon Laurent

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available We review the current status of local helioseismology, covering both theoretical and observational results. After a brief introduction to solar oscillations and wave propagation through inhomogeneous media, we describe the main techniques of local helioseismology: Fourier-Hankel decomposition, ring-diagram analysis, time-distance helioseismology, helioseismic holography, and direct modeling. We discuss local helioseismology of large-scale flows, the solar-cycle dependence of these flows, perturbations associated with regions of magnetic activity, and solar supergranulation.

  18. Understanding viruses: Philosophical investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeu, Thomas; Kostyrka, Gladys; Dupré, John

    2016-10-01

    Viruses have been virtually absent from philosophy of biology. In this editorial introduction, we explain why we think viruses are philosophically important. We focus on six issues (the definition of viruses, the individuality and diachronic identity of a virus, the possibility to classify viruses into species, the question of whether viruses are living, the question of whether viruses are organisms, and finally the biological roles of viruses in ecology and evolution), and we show how they relate to classic questions of philosophy of biology and even general philosophy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Transmission of foot-and-mouth disease SAT2 viruses at the wildlife-livestock interface of two major transfrontier conservation areas in southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Patricia Brito

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Over a decade ago, foot-and-mouth disease (FMD re-emerged in Southern Africa specifically, in beef exporting countries that had successfully maintained disease-free areas in the past. FMD virus (FMDV serotype SAT2 has been responsible for a majority of these outbreaks. Epidemiological studies have revealed the importance of the African buffalo as the major wildlife FMD reservoir in the region. We used phylogeographic analysis to study dynamics of FMD transmission between buffalo and domestic cattle at the interface of the major wildlife protected areas in the region currently encompassing two largest Transfrontier conservation areas (TFCA: Kavango-Zambezi (KAZA and Great Limpopo (GL. Results of this study showed restricted local occurrence of each FMD virus SAT2 topotypes I, II and III, with occasional virus migration from KAZA to GLTP. Origins of outbreaks in livestock are frequently attributed to wild buffalo as the origin, but our results suggest that transmission from cattle to buffalo also occurs. This study contributes to understand the major dynamics of transmission and genetic variation of FMD virus SAT2 in southern Africa, which will ultimately support designing efficient strategies for the control of FMD at a local and regional level.

  20. Maintaining space in localized ridge augmentation using guided bone regeneration with tenting screw technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasioti, Evdokia; Chiang, Tat Fai; Drew, Howard J

    2013-01-01

    Prosthetic guided implant surgery requires adequate ridge dimensions for proper implant placement. Various surgical procedures can be used to augment deficient alveolar ridges. Studies have examined new bone formation on deficient ridges, utilizing numerous surgical techniques and biomaterials. The goal is to develop time efficient techniques, which have low morbidity. A crucial factor for successful bone grafting procedures is space maintenance. The article discusses space maintenance tenting screws, used in conjunction with bone allografts and resorbable barrier membranes, to ensure uneventful guided bone regeneration (GBR) enabling optimal implant positioning. The technique utilized has been described in the literature to treat severely resorbed alveolar ridges and additionally can be considered in restoring the vertical and horizontal component of deficient extraction sites. Three cases are presented to illustrate the utilization and effectiveness of tenting screw technology in the treatment of atrophic extraction sockets and for deficient ridges.

  1. Variation in the degree of specialization can maintain local diversity in model communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiner, Jacob; Ziao, Sa

    2012-01-01

    is defined by a competitive ranking of all species. A highly specialist species is the top competitor in one patch type, but has a relatively low average ranking across different patch types, while a generalist species has a high average rank across patch types, but is not top competitor in any one patch...

  2. Natural scrub typhus antibody suppresses HIV CXCR4(X4 viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Watt

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Viral load generally rises in HIV-infected individuals with a concomitant infection, but falls markedly in some individuals with scrub typhus (ST, a common Asian rickettsial infection. ST infection appears to shift the viral population from CXCR4-using (X4 to CCR5-utilizing (R5 strains, and there is evidence of cross-reactivity between ST-specific antibodies and HIV-1. We examined the mechanism of ST suppression of HIV by measuring the effects of ST infection on X4 and R5 viruses in vivo and in vitro, and assessing the relative contributions of antibodies and chemokines to the inhibitory effect. In vivo, a single scrub typhus plasma infusion markedly reduced the subpopulation of HIV-1 viruses using the X4 co-receptor in all 8 recipients, and eliminated X4 viruses 6 patients. In vitro, the 14 ST sera tested all inhibited the replication of an X4 but not an R5 virus. This inhibitory effect was maintained if ST sera were depleted of chemokines but was lost upon removal of antibodies. Sera from ST-infected mice recognized a target that co-localized with X4 HIV gp120 in immunofluorescent experiments. These in vivo and in vitro data suggest that acute ST infection generates cross-reactive antibodies that produce potent suppression of CXCR4- but not CCR5-using HIV-1 viruses. ST suppression of HIV replication could reveal novel mechanisms that could be exploited for vaccination strategies, as well as aid in the development of fusion inhibitors and other new therapeutic regimens. This also appears to be the first instance where one pathogen is neutralized by antibody produced in response to infection by a completely unrelated organism.

  3. Natural Scrub Typhus Antibody Suppresses HIV CXCR4(X4) Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, George; Kantipong, Pacharee; Burnouf, Thierry; Shikuma, Cecilia; Philpott, Sean

    2013-01-22

    Viral load generally rises in HIV-infected individuals with a concomitant infection, but falls markedly in some individuals with scrub typhus (ST), a common Asian rickettsial infection. ST infection appears to shift the viral population from CXCR4-using (X4) to CCR5-utilizing (R5) strains, and there is evidence of cross-reactivity between ST-specific antibodies and HIV-1. We examined the mechanism of ST suppression of HIV by measuring the effects of ST infection on X4 and R5 viruses in vivo and in vitro, and assessing the relative contributions of antibodies and chemokines to the inhibitory effect. In vivo, a single scrub typhus plasma infusion markedly reduced the subpopulation of HIV-1 viruses using the X4 co-receptor in all 8 recipients, and eliminated X4 viruses 6 patients. In vitro, the 14 ST sera tested all inhibited the replication of an X4 but not an R5 virus. This inhibitory effect was maintained if ST sera were depleted of chemokines but was lost upon removal of antibodies. Sera from STinfected mice recognized a target that co-localized with X4 HIV gp120 in immunofluorescent experiments. These in vivo and in vitro data suggest that acute ST infection generates cross-reactive antibodies that produce potent suppression of CXCR4- but not CCR5-using HIV-1 viruses. ST suppression of HIV replication could reveal novel mechanisms that could be exploited for vaccination strategies, as well as aid in the development of fusion inhibitors and other new therapeutic regimens. This also appears to be the first instance where one pathogen is neutralized by antibody produced in response to infection by a completely unrelated organism.

  4. Effects of mutated replicase and movement protein genes on attenuation of tobacco mosaic virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨恭; 邱并生; 魏军亚; 刘广超

    2001-01-01

    Our previous reports showed that one opal mutation (UGA) and one ochre mutation (UAA) respectively located in the replicase and movement protein (MP) genes of the attenuated tomato mosaic virus K(ToMV-K) contribute to the viral attenuation. To explore a wider application of this attenuation pattern to other plant viruses, we have constructed three mutants which respectively contain one opal mutation of the replicase gene and/or one ochre mutation of the MP using PCR-mediated site-directed mutagenesis from a virulent tobacco mosaic virus isolated from China (TMV-Cv). Plant infection performed by in vitro transcripts revealed that the MP truncated mutant TMV-Cvmp and the replicase-MP truncated mutant TMV-Cvrase-mp were infectious on both local lesion (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi NC) and systemic (N. tabacum cv. K326) host plants, while the replicase truncated mutant TMV-Cvrase was non-infectious. The K326 plant infected by TMV- Cvrease-mp displayed only a little mild mosaic. By electronic microscopy (EM), plant re-inoculation, RNA Dot-blot, RT-PCR and sequencing we demonstrated that the progeny viruses of TMV-Cvmp and TMV-Cvrease-mp shared similar morphological character with TMV-Cv, owned the abilities to infect, replicate and propagate in the assayed plants, and maintained the mutated sites during infection. These data showed that both the opal and the ochre mutations are able to cooperatively induce the attenuated phenotypes of TMV-Cvrase-mp on plants, indicating that the mutation pattern of ToMV-K could be used to attenuate other virulent plant viruses.

  5. A Maintainability Prediction Method Considering Environmental Impacts and Cost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Maintainability prediction is one kind of primary maintainability action. Design deficiency would be found through predicting maintainability parameters under certain conditions. Now a maintainability prediction method that mainly considers maintenance time or maintenance man-hour is a kind of prediction method with a single index. With increasing product complexity and people's environmental consciousness, more attention is paid to environment impacts and maintenance cost or resource consumption in the maintenance process. It is necessary for a maintainability prediction method that can predict maintenance cost and maintenance environmental impacts. A new maintainability prediction method is presented in this paper based on analyzing existing maintainability prediction methods.The method is MABTCE (maintenance activity based timing/costing/environment impact assessment )and can predict maintenance time, maintenance costing and maintenance environmental impacts andthen improve maintainability design with prediction results.

  6. Influence of maintained hemodialysis on viral load in patients with end-stage renal disease with HBV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Huifang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In the patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD with hepatitis B virus (HBV infection who underwent hemodialysis, the viral load of HBV DNA is relatively low and stable. For this phenomenon, some studies suggest that hemodialysis can reduce the HBV DNA load. The mechanism, which remains unclear, may be as follows: when HBV DNA enters the dialysate through the dialysis membrane, it was adsorbed onto the dialysis membrane; some virus particles were destroyed, and antiviral substances were produced in the course of hemodialysis. At present, there is no consensus on the mechanism responsible for the influence of maintained hemodialysis on the viral load of HBV DNA. This article reviews the factors involved in the influence of maintained hemodialysis on the viral load in ESRD patients with HBV infection and the recent progress.

  7. Zika Virus: Common Questions and Answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igbinosa, Irogue I; Rabe, Ingrid B; Oduyebo, Titilope; Rasmussen, Sonja A

    2017-04-15

    Since local mosquito-borne transmission of Zika virus was first reported in Brazil in early 2015, the virus has spread rapidly, with active transmission reported in at least 61 countries and territories worldwide, including the United States. Zika virus infection during pregnancy is a cause of microcephaly and other severe brain anomalies. The virus is transmitted primarily through the bite of an infected Aedes mosquito, but other routes of transmission include sexual, mother-to-fetus during pregnancy, mother-to-infant at delivery, laboratory exposure, and, possibly, transfusion of blood products. Most persons with Zika virus infection are asymptomatic or have only mild symptoms; hospitalizations and deaths are rare. When symptoms are present, maculopapular rash, fever, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis are most common. Zika virus testing is recommended for persons with possible exposure (those who have traveled to or live in an area with active transmission, or persons who had sex without a condom with a person with possible exposure) if they have symptoms consistent with Zika virus disease. Testing is also recommended for pregnant women with possible exposure, regardless of whether symptoms are present. Treatment is supportive, and no vaccine is currently available. The primary methods of prevention include avoiding bites of infected Aedes mosquitoes and reducing the risk of sexual transmission. Pregnant women should not travel to areas with active Zika virus transmission, and men and women who are planning to conceive in the near future should consider avoiding nonessential travel to these areas. Condoms can reduce the risk of sexual transmission.

  8. Local food:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundbo, Donna Isabella Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Recently there has been more focus on food in general and local food in particular. But what is local food? And what are the perceptions of this concept according to theory and to providers and consumers of local food? This article first summarises and compares three different theoretical...... as expressed by a group of Danish providers and consumers is empirically investigated through interviews, observation and surveys. From this, qualitative and quantitative data are generated, the analysis of which shows how varied perceptions of local food are. The elements of which the perceptions consist...... are identified and then categorised according to whether they pertain to the food product itself or the production methods and facilities and whether they describe physical or social properties of local food. From this a model with four categories is developed. It is found that properties of the product are more...

  9. Virus replication cycle of white spot syndrome virus in secondary cell cultures from the lymphoid organ of Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenfeng; Desmarets, Lowiese M B; De Gryse, Gaëtan M A; Theuns, Sebastiaan; Van Tuan, Vo; Van Thuong, Khuong; Bossier, Peter; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2015-09-01

    The replication cycle of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) was investigated in secondary cell cultures from the lymphoid organ of Litopenaeus vannamei. The secondary cells formed a confluent monolayer at 24 h post-reseeding, and this monolayer could be maintained for 10 days with a viability of 90 %. Binding of WSSV to cells reached a maximum (73 ± 3 % of cells and 4.84 ± 0.2 virus particles per virus-binding cell) at 120 min at 4 °C. WSSV entered cells by endocytosis. The co-localization of WSSV and early endosomes was observed starting from 30 min post-inoculation (p.i.). Double indirect immunofluorescence staining showed that all cell-bound WSSV particles entered these cells in the period between 0 and 60 min p.i. and that the uncoating of WSSV occurred in the same period. After 1 h inoculation at 27 °C, the WSSV nucleocapsid protein VP664 and envelope protein VP28 started to be synthesized in the cytoplasm from 1 and 3 h p.i., and were transported into nuclei from 3 and 6 h p.i., respectively. The percentage of cells that were VP664- and VP28-positive in their nuclei peaked (50 ± 4 %) at 12 h p.i. Quantitative PCR showed that WSSV DNA started to be synthesized from 6 h p.i. In vivo titration of the supernatants showed that the progeny WSSV were released from 12 h p.i. and peaked at 18 h p.i. In conclusion, the secondary cell cultures from the lymphoid organ were proven to be ideal for examination of the replication cycle of WSSV.

  10. [Signaling molecules and pathways involved in maintaining the quiescence of primordial follicles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Liao-Liao; Xiang, Cheng; Zheng, Li-Ping

    2015-02-25

    Reproductive lifespan in female mammals is related to the size of primordial follicles pool, which relies on the balance between activated and quiescent primordial follicles. Therefore, the molecular mechanisms of recruiting and maintaining quiescence of primordial follicles have become hot research topics recently. Multiple studies have shown that genetic mutations, local ovarian autocrine and paracrine factors, proto-oncogene and tumor-suppressor genes are involved in the maintenance of balance between quiescent and activated primordial follicles. In the present review, we summarize recent research progress of the important signaling molecules and pathways that maintain the quiescence of primordial follicles.

  11. Involvement of the plant nucleolus in virus and viroid infections: parallels with animal pathosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taliansky, M E; Brown, J W S; Rajamäki, M L; Valkonen, J P T; Kalinina, N O

    2010-01-01

    The nucleolus is a dynamic subnuclear body with roles in ribosome subunit biogenesis, mediation of cell-stress responses, and regulation of cell growth. An increasing number of reports reveal that similar to the proteins of animal viruses, many plant virus proteins localize in the nucleolus to divert host nucleolar proteins from their natural functions in order to exert novel role(s) in the virus infection cycle. This chapter will highlight studies showing how plant viruses recruit nucleolar functions to facilitate virus translation and replication, virus movement and assembly of virus-specific ribonucleoprotein (RNP) particles, and to counteract plant host defense responses. Plant viruses also provide a valuable tool to gain new insights into novel nucleolar functions and processes. Investigating the interactions between plant viruses and the nucleolus will facilitate the design of novel strategies to control plant virus infections.

  12. Selective Inhibitor of Nuclear Export (SINE) Compounds Alter New World Alphavirus Capsid Localization and Reduce Viral Replication in Mammalian Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Lindsay; Pinkham, Chelsea; de la Fuente, Cynthia; Brahms, Ashwini; Shafagati, Nazly; Wagstaff, Kylie M; Jans, David A; Tamir, Sharon; Kehn-Hall, Kylene

    2016-11-01

    The capsid structural protein of the New World alphavirus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), interacts with the host nuclear transport proteins importin α/β1 and CRM1. Novel selective inhibitor of nuclear export (SINE) compounds, KPT-185, KPT-335 (verdinexor), and KPT-350, target the host's primary nuclear export protein, CRM1, in a manner similar to the archetypical inhibitor Leptomycin B. One major limitation of Leptomycin B is its irreversible binding to CRM1; which SINE compounds alleviate because they are slowly reversible. Chemically inhibiting CRM1 with these compounds enhanced capsid localization to the nucleus compared to the inactive compound KPT-301, as indicated by immunofluorescent confocal microscopy. Differences in extracellular versus intracellular viral RNA, as well as decreased capsid in cell free supernatants, indicated the inhibitors affected viral assembly, which led to a decrease in viral titers. The decrease in viral replication was confirmed using a luciferase-tagged virus and through plaque assays. SINE compounds had no effect on VEEV TC83_Cm, which encodes a mutated form of capsid that is unable to enter the nucleus. Serially passaging VEEV in the presence of KPT-185 resulted in mutations within the nuclear localization and nuclear export signals of capsid. Finally, SINE compound treatment also reduced the viral titers of the related eastern and western equine encephalitis viruses, suggesting that CRM1 maintains a common interaction with capsid proteins across the New World alphavirus genus.

  13. Zika Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Birth Defects Surveillance Mosquito Control Integrated Mosquito Management Zika Vector Control in the Continental US Potential Range in US For Professionals Surveillance & Control Disinsection ... Local Health Departments CDC Zika Interim Response Plan Top 10 Response Planning Tips ...

  14. Research on Maintainability Evaluation Model Based on Fuzzy Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Maintainability influencing attributes are analyzed, their weight and value calculating methods are given, and the maintainability fuzzy evaluation method is proposed based on the relative closeness. According to the maintenance task simulation operated in virtual environment, the maintainability virtual evaluation model is built by analyzing the maintenance task for each replaceable unit of product.At last, a case study is given based upon the main landing gear system of a certain type civil aircraft, and the result indicates that the model is suitable for maintainability qualitative evaluation and can support maintainability concurrent design.

  15. History and Diversity of Citrus leprosis virus Recorded in Herbarium Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, John S; Roy, Avijit; Fu, Shimin; Shao, Jonathan; Schneider, William L; Brlansky, Ronald H

    2015-09-01

    Leprosis refers to two diseases of citrus that present similar necrotic local lesions, often surrounded by chlorotic haloes on citrus. Two distinct viruses are associated with this disease, one that produces particles primarily in the nucleus of infected plant cells (Citrus leprosis virus nuclear type [CiLV-N]; Dichorhavirus) and another type that produces particles in the cytoplasm of infected plant cells (Citrus leprosis virus cytoplasmic type [CiLV-C]; Cilevirus). Both forms are transmitted by Brevipalpid mites and have bipartite, single-stranded, RNA genomes. CiLV-C and CiLV-N are present in South and Central America and as far north as parts of Mexico. Although leprosis disease was originally described from Florida, it disappeared from there in the 1960s. The United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service maintains preserved citrus specimens identified at inspection stations 50 or more years ago with symptoms of citrus leprosis. We isolated RNA from these samples and performed degradome sequencing. We obtained nearly full-length genome sequences of both a typical CiLV-C isolate intercepted from Argentina in 1967 and a distinct CiLV-N isolate obtained in Florida in 1948. The latter is a novel form of CiLV-N, not known to exist anywhere in the world today. We have also documented the previously unreported presence of CiLV-N in Mexico in the mid-20th century.

  16. Occurrence and distribution of pepper veinal mottle virus and cucumber mosaic virus in pepper in Ibadan, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arogundade Olawale

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Viral diseases constitute obstacles to pepper production in the world. In Nigeria, pepper plants are primarily affected by pepper veinal mottle virus (PVMV, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, Pepper leaf curl Virus (TLCV, Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV, Pepper mottle virus (PMV and a host of other viruses. The experiment was carried out with a diagnostic survey on the experimental field of the National Horticultural Research Institute, Ibadan, Nigeria and on pepper farms in six local government areas within Ibadan Oyo State, Nigeria, forty samples were collected from each of the farms. Diseased samples were obtained from the field and taken to the laboratory for indexing. In ELISA test some of the samples from the pepper farms showed positive reaction to single infection with PVMV (36.79%, CMV (22.14% while some others showed positive reaction to mixed infection of the two viruses (10% but some also negative reaction to PVMV and CMV antisera (31.07.

  17. Net Locality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Souza e Silva, Adriana Araujo; Gordon, Eric

    Provides an introduction to the new theory of Net Locality and the profound effect on individuals and societies when everything is located or locatable. Describes net locality as an emerging form of location awareness central to all aspects of digital media, from mobile phones, to Google Maps, to...... of emerging technologies, from GeoCities to GPS, Wi-Fi, Wiki Me, and Google Android....

  18. Net Locality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Souza e Silva, Adriana Araujo; Gordon, Eric

    Provides an introduction to the new theory of Net Locality and the profound effect on individuals and societies when everything is located or locatable. Describes net locality as an emerging form of location awareness central to all aspects of digital media, from mobile phones, to Google Maps, to...... of emerging technologies, from GeoCities to GPS, Wi-Fi, Wiki Me, and Google Android....

  19. West Nile virus in livestock and wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, R.G.; Ubico, S.R.; Bourne, D.; Komar, N.

    2002-01-01

    WN virus is one of the most ubiquitous arboviruses occurring over a broad geographical range and in a wide diversity of vertebrate host and vector species. The virus appears to be maintained in endemic foci on the African continent and is transported annually to temperate climates to the north in Europe and to the south in South Africa. Reports of clinical disease due to natural WN virus infection in wild or domestic animals were much less common than reports of infection (virus isolation or antibody detection). Until recently, records of morbidity and mortality in wild birds were confined to a small number of cases and infections causing encephalitis, sometimes fatal, in horses were reported infrequently. In the period 1996-2001, there was an increase in outbreaks of illness due to WN virus in animals as well as humans. Within the traditional range of WN virus, encephalitis was reported in horses in Italy in 1998 and in France in 2000. The first report of disease and deaths caused by WN virus infection in domestic birds was reported in Israel in 1997-1999, involving hundreds of young geese. In 1999 WN virus reached North America and caused an outbreak of encephalitis in humans in the New York area at the same time as a number of cases of equine encephalitis and deaths in American crows and a variety of other bird species, both North American natives and exotics. Multi-state surveillance for WN virus has been in place since April 2000 and has resulted in the detection of WN virus in thousands of dead birds from an increasing number of species in North America, and also in several species of mammals. The surveillance system that has developed in North America because of the utility of testing dead birds for the rapid detection of WN virus presence has been a unique integration of public health and wildlife health agencies. It has been suggested that the recent upsurge in clinical WN virus infection in wild and domestic animals as well as in humans may be related to

  20. Local Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Schlenker

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic approach posits that a presupposition must be satisfied in its local context. But how is a local context derived from the global one? Extant dynamic analyses must specify in the lexical entry of any operator what its 'Context Change Potential' is, and for this very reason they fail to be sufficiently explanatory. To circumvent the problem, we revise two assumptions of the dynamic approach: we take the update process to be derivative from a classical, non-dynamic semantics -- which obviates the need for dynamic lexical entries; and we deny that a local context encodes what the speech act participants 'take for granted.' Instead, we take the local context of an expression E in a sentence S to be the smallest domain that one may restrict attention to when assessing E without jeopardizing the truth conditions of S. To match the results of dynamic semantics, local contexts must be computed incrementally, using only information about the expressions that precede E. This version of the theory can be shown to be nearly equivalent to the dynamic theory of Heim 1983 -- but unlike the latter, it is entirely predictive. We also suggest that local contexts can, at some cost, be computed symmetrically, taking into account information about all of S (except E; this leads to gradient predictions, whose assessment is left for future research. doi:10.3765/sp.2.3 BibTeX info

  1. Onderzoekingen over het aantonen van aardappel-yN-virus met behulp van toetsplanten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokx, de J.A.

    1964-01-01

    Studies were conducted to determine some of the physical and biological properties of a new strain of virus Y, called virus Y N. Different methods of preserving the virus in vitro and conditions affecting local lesion formation on detached leaves of the test plants Solanum demissum hybrid

  2. Presence and Distribution of Oilseed Pumpkin Viruses and Molecular Detection of Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Vučurović

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, intensive spread of virus infections of oilseed pumpkin has resulted in significant economic losses in pumpkin crop production, which is currently expanding in our country. In 2007 and 2008, a survey for the presence and distribution of oilseed pumpkin viruses was carried out in order to identify viruses responsible for epidemics and incidences of very destructive symptoms on cucurbit leaves and fruits. Monitoring andcollecting samples of oil pumpkin, as well as other species such as winter and butternut squash and buffalo and bottle gourd with viral infection symptoms, was conducted in several localities of Vojvodina Province. The collected plant samples were tested by DAS-ELISA using polyclonal antisera specific for the detection of six most economically harmful pumpkin viruses: Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV, Watermelon mosaic virus (WMW, Squash mosaic virus (SqMV, Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV and Tobaccoringspot virus (TRSV that are included in A1 quarantine list of harmful organisms in Serbia.Identification of viruses in the collected samples indicated the presence of three viruses, ZYMV, WMV and CMV, in individual and mixed infections. Frequency of the identified viruses varied depending on locality and year of investigations. In 2007, WMV was the most frequent virus (94.2%, while ZYMV was prevalent (98.04% in 2008. High frequency of ZYMV determined in both years of investigation indicated the need for its rapid and reliable molecular detection. During this investigation, a protocol for ZYMVdetection was developed and optimized using specific primers CPfwd/Cprev and commercial kits for total RNA extraction, as well as for RT-PCR. In RT-PCR reaction using these primers, a DNA fragment of approximately 1100 bp, which included coat protein gene, was amplified in the samples of infected pumkin leaves. Although serological methods are still useful for large-scale testing of a great number of

  3. VirusPKT: A Search Tool For Assimilating Assorted Acquaintance For Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayanthi Manicassamy

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Viruses utilize various means to circumvent the immune detection in the biological systems. Several mathematical models have been investigated for the description of viral dynamics in the biological system of human and various other species. One common strategy for evasion and recognition of viruses is, through acquaintance in the systems by means of search engines. In this perspective a search tool have been developed to provide a wider comprehension about the structure and other details on viruses which have been narrated in this paper. This provides an adequate knowledge in evolution and building of viruses, its functions through information extraction from various websites. Apart from this, tool aim to automate the activities associated with it in a self-maintainable, self-sustainable, proactive one which has been evaluated through analysis made and have been discussed in this paper.

  4. VirusPKT: A Search Tool For Assimilating Assorted Acquaintance For Viruses

    CERN Document Server

    Manicassamy, Jayanthi

    2009-01-01

    Viruses utilize various means to circumvent the immune detection in the biological systems. Several mathematical models have been investigated for the description of viral dynamics in the biological system of human and various other species. One common strategy for evasion and recognition of viruses is, through acquaintance in the systems by means of search engines. In this perspective a search tool have been developed to provide a wider comprehension about the structure and other details on viruses which have been narrated in this paper. This provides an adequate knowledge in evolution and building of viruses, its functions through information extraction from various websites. Apart from this, tool aim to automate the activities associated with it in a self-maintainable, self-sustainable, proactive one which has been evaluated through analysis made and have been discussed in this paper.

  5. Understanding ebola virus transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judson, Seth; Prescott, Joseph; Munster, Vincent

    2015-02-03

    An unprecedented number of Ebola virus infections among healthcare workers and patients have raised questions about our understanding of Ebola virus transmission. Here, we explore different routes of Ebola virus transmission between people, summarizing the known epidemiological and experimental data. From this data, we expose important gaps in Ebola virus research pertinent to outbreak situations. We further propose experiments and methods of data collection that will enable scientists to fill these voids in our knowledge about the transmission of Ebola virus.

  6. Mammalian Pathogenesis and Transmission of H7N9 Influenza Viruses from Three Waves, 2013-2015

    OpenAIRE

    Jessica A Belser; Creager, Hannah M; Sun, Xiangjie; Gustin, Kortney M.; Jones, Tara; Shieh, Wun-Ju; Maines, Taronna R.; Terrence M Tumpey

    2016-01-01

    Three waves of human infection with H7N9 influenza viruses have concluded to date, but only viruses within the first wave (isolated between March and September 2013) have been extensively studied in mammalian models. While second- and third-wave viruses remain closely linked phylogenetically and antigenically, even subtle molecular changes can impart critical shifts in mammalian virulence. To determine if H7N9 viruses isolated from humans during 2013 to 2015 have maintained the phenotype firs...

  7. Newly Exerted T Cell Pressures on Mutated Epitopes following Transmission Help Maintain Consensus HIV-1 Sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily M Eriksson

    Full Text Available CD8+ T cells are important for HIV-1 virus control, but are also a major contributing factor that drives HIV-1 virus sequence evolution. Although HIV-1 cytotoxic T cell (CTL escape mutations are a common aspect during HIV-1 infection, less is known about the importance of T cell pressure in reversing HIV-1 virus back to a consensus sequences. In this study we aimed to assess the frequency with which reversion of transmitted mutations in T cell epitopes were associated with T cell responses to the mutation. This study included 14 HIV-1 transmission pairs consisting of a 'source' (virus-donor and a 'recipient' (newly infected individual. Non-consensus B sequence amino acids (mutations in T cell epitopes in HIV-1 gag regions p17, p24, p2 and p7 were identified in each pair and transmission of mutations to the recipient was verified with population viral sequencing. Longitudinal analyses of the recipient's viral sequence were used to identify whether reversion of mutations back to the consensus B sequence occurred. Autologous 12-mer peptides overlapping by 11 were synthesized, representing the sequence region surrounding each reversion and longitudinal analysis of T cell responses to source-derived mutated and reverted epitopes were assessed. We demonstrated that mutations in the source were frequently transmitted to the new host and on an average 17 percent of mutated epitopes reverted to consensus sequence in the recipient. T cell responses to these mutated epitopes were detected in 7 of the 14 recipients in whom reversion occurred. Overall, these findings indicate that transmitted non-consensus B epitopes are frequently immunogenic in HLA-mismatched recipients and new T cell pressures to T cell escape mutations following transmission play a significant role in maintaining consensus HIV-1 sequences.

  8. Dynamical Models for Computer Viruses Propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José R. C. Piqueira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, digital computer systems and networks are the main engineering tools, being used in planning, design, operation, and control of all sizes of building, transportation, machinery, business, and life maintaining devices. Consequently, computer viruses became one of the most important sources of uncertainty, contributing to decrease the reliability of vital activities. A lot of antivirus programs have been developed, but they are limited to detecting and removing infections, based on previous knowledge of the virus code. In spite of having good adaptation capability, these programs work just as vaccines against diseases and are not able to prevent new infections based on the network state. Here, a trial on modeling computer viruses propagation dynamics relates it to other notable events occurring in the network permitting to establish preventive policies in the network management. Data from three different viruses are collected in the Internet and two different identification techniques, autoregressive and Fourier analyses, are applied showing that it is possible to forecast the dynamics of a new virus propagation by using the data collected from other viruses that formerly infected the network.

  9. Analysis of virus genomes from glacial environments reveals novel virus groups with unusual host interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellas, Christopher M.; Anesio, Alexandre M.; Barker, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Microbial communities in glacial ecosystems are diverse, active, and subjected to strong viral pressures and infection rates. In this study we analyse putative virus genomes assembled from three dsDNA viromes from cryoconite hole ecosystems of Svalbard and the Greenland Ice Sheet to assess the potential hosts and functional role viruses play in these habitats. We assembled 208 million reads from the virus-size fraction and developed a procedure to select genuine virus scaffolds from cellular contamination. Our curated virus library contained 546 scaffolds up to 230 Kb in length, 54 of which were circular virus consensus genomes. Analysis of virus marker genes revealed a wide range of viruses had been assembled, including bacteriophages, cyanophages, nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses and a virophage, with putative hosts identified as Cyanobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, eukaryotic algae and amoebae. Whole genome comparisons revealed the majority of circular genome scaffolds (CGS) formed 12 novel groups, two of which contained multiple phage members with plasmid-like properties, including a group of phage-plasmids possessing plasmid-like partition genes and toxin-antitoxin addiction modules to ensure their replication and a satellite phage-plasmid group. Surprisingly we also assembled a phage that not only encoded plasmid partition genes, but a clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas adaptive bacterial immune system. One of the spacers was an exact match for another phage in our virome, indicating that in a novel use of the system, the lysogen was potentially capable of conferring immunity on its bacterial host against other phage. Together these results suggest that highly novel and diverse groups of viruses are present in glacial environments, some of which utilize very unusual life strategies and genes to control their replication and maintain a long-term relationship with their hosts

  10. Seroprevalence of Rift Valley fever virus in sheep and goats in Zambézia, Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomström, Anne-Lie; Scharin, Isabelle; Stenberg, Hedvig; Figueiredo, Jaquline; Nhambirre, Ofélia; Abilio, Ana; Berg, Mikael; Fafetine, José

    2016-01-01

    The Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a vector-borne virus that causes disease in ruminants, but it can also infect humans. In humans, the infection can be asymptomatic but can also lead to illness, ranging from a mild disease with fever, headache and muscle pain to a severe disease with encephalitis and haemorrhagic fever. In rare cases, death can occur. In infected animals, influenza-like symptoms can occur, and abortion and mortality in young animals are indicative of RVFV infection. Since the initial outbreak in Kenya in the 1930s, the virus has become endemic to most of sub-Saharan Africa. In 2000, the virus appeared in Yemen and Saudi Arabia; this was the first outbreak of RVF outside of Africa. Rift Valley fever epidemics are often connected to heavy rainfall, leading to an increased vector population and spread of the virus to animals and/or humans. However, the virus needs to be maintained during the inter-epidemic periods. In this study, we investigated the circulation of RVFV in small ruminants (goats and sheep) in Zambézia, Mozambique, an area with a close vector/wildlife/livestock/human interface. Between September and October 2013, 181 sheep and 187 goat blood samples were collected from eight localities in the central region of Zambézia, Mozambique. The samples were analysed for the presence of antibodies against RVFV using a commercial competitive ELISA. The overall seroprevalence was higher in sheep (44.2%) than goats (25.1%); however, there was a high variation in seroprevalence between different localities. The data indicate an increased seroprevalence for sheep compared to 2010, when a similar study was conducted in this region and in overlapping villages. No noticeable health problems in the herds were reported. This study shows an inter-epidemic circulation of RVFV in small ruminants in Zambézia, Mozambique. Neither outbreaks of RVF nor typical clinical signs of RVFV have been reported in the investigated herds, indicating subclinical

  11. Seroprevalence of Rift Valley fever virus in sheep and goats in Zambézia, Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Lie Blomström

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV is a vector-borne virus that causes disease in ruminants, but it can also infect humans. In humans, the infection can be asymptomatic but can also lead to illness, ranging from a mild disease with fever, headache and muscle pain to a severe disease with encephalitis and haemorrhagic fever. In rare cases, death can occur. In infected animals, influenza-like symptoms can occur, and abortion and mortality in young animals are indicative of RVFV infection. Since the initial outbreak in Kenya in the 1930s, the virus has become endemic to most of sub-Saharan Africa. In 2000, the virus appeared in Yemen and Saudi Arabia; this was the first outbreak of RVF outside of Africa. Rift Valley fever epidemics are often connected to heavy rainfall, leading to an increased vector population and spread of the virus to animals and/or humans. However, the virus needs to be maintained during the inter-epidemic periods. In this study, we investigated the circulation of RVFV in small ruminants (goats and sheep in Zambézia, Mozambique, an area with a close vector/wildlife/livestock/human interface. Materials and methods: Between September and October 2013, 181 sheep and 187 goat blood samples were collected from eight localities in the central region of Zambézia, Mozambique. The samples were analysed for the presence of antibodies against RVFV using a commercial competitive ELISA. Results and discussion: The overall seroprevalence was higher in sheep (44.2% than goats (25.1%; however, there was a high variation in seroprevalence between different localities. The data indicate an increased seroprevalence for sheep compared to 2010, when a similar study was conducted in this region and in overlapping villages. No noticeable health problems in the herds were reported. Conclusions: This study shows an inter-epidemic circulation of RVFV in small ruminants in Zambézia, Mozambique. Neither outbreaks of RVF nor typical clinical

  12. Phylogeographic Reconstructions of a Rift Valley Fever Virus Strain Reveals Transboundary Animal Movements from Eastern Continental Africa to the Union of the Comoros.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maquart, M; Pascalis, H; Abdouroihamane, S; Roger, M; Abdourahime, F; Cardinale, E; Cêtre-Sossah, C

    2016-04-01

    Major explosive outbreaks of Rift Valley fever (RVF), an arthropod borne zoonotic disease, occur in humans and animals with significant mortality and economic impact across continental Africa and the Indian Ocean region (Madagascar, the Comoros archipelago). Recently, sporadic human cases have been reported in Mayotte and Grande Comore, two islands belonging to the Comoros archipelago. To identify the hypothetical source of virus introduction in an inter-epidemic or a post-epidemic period, a longitudinal survey of livestock was set up in Comorian ruminant populations, known to be susceptible hosts. The phylogeographic genomic analysis has shown that RVF virus (RVFV) detected in a zebu collected in Anjouan in August 2011 seems to be related to the last known epidemic of RVF which occurred in East Africa and Madagascar (2007-2009). This result highlights the fact that RVFV is maintained within local livestock populations and transboundary animal movements from eastern continental Africa to Indian Ocean islands likely result in RVFV crossover.

  13. Isolation of eastern equine encephalitis virus in A549 and MRC-5 cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotomayor, E A; Josephson, S L

    1999-07-01

    Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) has been diagnosed either serologically or by virus isolation. Until now, the recovery of EEE virus has been delegated to reference laboratories with the expertise and resources needed to amplify the virus in a susceptible vertebrate host and/or to isolate and identify the virus in cell culture. We report a case in which EEE virus was recovered directly from a patient's cerebrospinal fluid in A549 and MRC-5 cell cultures. Many clinical virology laboratories routinely use these cells to recover adenovirus, herpes simplex virus, and enterovirus. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of isolation of EEE virus in A549 cell culture. This report demonstrates the possibility of recovery of EEE virus in cell culture without the necessity of bioamplification or maintaining unusual cell lines.

  14. Zika Virus: a Review from the Virus Basics to Proposed Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zammarchi, Lorenzo; Spinicci, Michele; Bartoloni, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    This review aims to summarize the body of knowledge available on Zika virus to date. A comprehensive review of the scientific literature on Zika virus was performed with the aim to stress relevant aspects for healthcare professionals in the non-endemic areas. For several years, the Zika virus infection was considered an extremely rare exotic disease with poor clinical relevance. However, Zika virus has recently gained the attention of the scientific community and public opinion since the virus spread to the Pacific islands and the South America in an unprecedented epidemic, and additionally due to the definitive evidence that the infection could be complicated by Guillain-Barré syndrome, passed through vertical transmission, and result in central nervous system abnormalities (including microcephaly) of the fetus. Studies and scientific evidence on the complications associated with Zika virus infection are growing day by day. It is advisable that the healthcare professionals working in non-endemic areas maintain full awareness on this issue in order to practice proper management of the imported cases of Zika virus infection. PMID:27872736

  15. ZIKA VIRUS: A REVIEW FROM THE VIRUS BASICS TO PROPOSED MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Zammarchi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This review aims to summarize the body of knowledge available on Zika virus to date. A comprehensive review of the scientific literature on Zika virus was performed with the aim to stress relevant aspects for healthcare professionals in non-endemic area. For several years, the Zika virus infection was considered an extremely rare exotic disease with poor clinical relevance. However, Zika virus has recently gained the attention of the scientific community and public opinion since the virus spread to the Pacific islands and the South America in an unprecedented epidemic, and additionally due to the definitive evidence that the infection could be complicated by Guillain-Barré syndrome, passed through vertical transmission, and result in central nervous system abnormalities (including microcephaly of the fetus. Studies and scientific evidences on the complications associated with Zika virus infection are growing day by day. It is advisable that the healthcare professionals working in non-endemic areas maintain full awareness on this issue in order to practice proper management of the imported cases of Zika virus infection.

  16. Manipulation of Cellular Processing Bodies and Their Constituents by Viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Pattnaik, Asit K.; Dinh, Phat X.

    2013-01-01

    The processing bodies (PBs) are a form of cytoplasmic aggregates that house the cellular RNA decay machinery as well as many RNA-binding proteins and mRNAs. The PBs are constitutively present in eukaryotic cells and are involved in maintaining cellular homeostasis by regulating RNA metabolism, cell signaling, and survival. Virus infections result in modification of the PBs and their constituents. Many viruses induce compositionally altered PBs, while many others use specific components of the...

  17. Locals Collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Hastings-King

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A locals collection is a set of parameters that are used to delimit data-mining operations. This piece uses a collection of locals from around Essex Massachusetts to shape and delimit an interrogation of post-reality in contemporary America. It explores the notion of crisis, the possibility of a crisis of empire that may or may not emerge in a media-space that does not allow crisis of empire to be mentioned and relations this maybe-crisis to the various levels of economic dysfunction that have become evident since late 2008. But mostly this piece explores ways in which particular stories about particular people do and do not link/link to these larger-scale narratives. This is the first of a potential series of locals collections that will mine the American post-real.

  18. Chikungunya virus induced sudden sensorineural hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhavana, Kranti; Tyagi, Isha; Kapila, Rajeev Kumar

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this study is to demonstrate the association of Chikungunya virus and sudden sensorineural hearing loss. In the case report described we had a case which developed sudden unilateral sensorineural hearing loss following chikungunya fever. A 15-year-old female presented to us with the complains of unilateral sudden onset of hearing loss following an episode of fever, arthralgia and rashes 1 month ago. At the time of these symptoms there were many cases of chikungunya fever in the city, three being in her locality. Clinically Chikungunya fever was suspected and a positive serological test further confirmed our diagnosis. The hearing loss could thus be attributed to Chikungunya virus. Viruses have always been implicated in causing sudden sensorineural hearing loss but Chikungunya virus as a cause has not been documented earlier making this case report a unique one.

  19. Localized shocks

    CERN Document Server

    Roberts, Daniel A; Susskind, Leonard

    2014-01-01

    We study products of precursors of spatially local operators, $W_{x_{n}}(t_{n}) ... W_{x_1}(t_1)$, where $W_x(t) = e^{-iHt} W_x e^{iHt}$. Using chaotic spin-chain numerics and gauge/gravity duality, we show that a single precursor fills a spatial region that grows linearly in $t$. In a lattice system, products of such operators can be represented using tensor networks. In gauge/gravity duality, they are related to Einstein-Rosen bridges supported by localized shock waves. We find a geometrical correspondence between these two descriptions, generalizing earlier work in the spatially homogeneous case.

  20. Hepatitis C Virus Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayhan Azadmanesh

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionHepatitis C virus (HCV is an important cause of chronic liver disease. HCV causes 20% of acute hepatitis cases, 70% of all chronic hepatitis cases, 40% of all cases of liver cirrhosis, 60% of hepatocellular carcinomas, and 30% of liver transplants in Europe(1. It is also recognized as the leading cause of liver transplantation in the world(2. Only 20% of infected individuals will recover from this viral infection, while the rest become chronically infected(3. While the majority of chronically infected individuals never exhibit symptoms, approximately 10-30% of these patients will eventually develop cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma, both of which are associated with significant morbidity and mortality(4.More than 170 million people worldwide are chronically infected with HCV. According to WHO report in 2002, chronic liver diseases were responsible for 1.4 million deaths, including 796,000 due to cirrhosis and 616,000 due to primary liver cancer. At least 20% of these deaths are probably attributable to HCV infection- more than 280,000 deaths(5, 6. The prevalence of chronic HCV infection in general population varies greatly in different parts of the world, being estimated between 0.1 and 5%, with a peak prevalence of 20- 25% in Egypt. HCV prevalence seems to be less than 1% in Iran, which is much lower than most of the neighboring countries(7. HCV was the first virus discovered by molecular cloning method without the direct use of biologic or biophysical methods. This was accomplished by extracting, copying into cDNA, and cloning all the nucleic acid from the plasma of a chimpanzee infected with non- A, non-B hepatitis by contaminated factor XIII concentrate(8. The HCV genome is a positive-sense, singlestranded RNA genome approximately 10 kb long. It has marked similarities to those of members of the genera Pestivirus and Flavivirus. Different HCV isolates from around the world show substantial nucleotide sequence variability

  1. Viruses infecting reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschang, Rachel E

    2011-11-01

    A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The impact of many viral infections on reptile health is not known. Koch's postulates have only been fulfilled for a limited number of reptilian viruses. As diagnostic testing becomes more sensitive, multiple infections with various viruses and other infectious agents are also being detected. In most cases the interactions between these different agents are not known. This review provides an update on viruses described in reptiles, the animal species in which they have been detected, and what is known about their taxonomic positions.

  2. A REVIEW ON CHIKUNGUNYA VIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vimal Kumar Birendra

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Mosquitoes transmit numerous arboviruses including dengue and chikungunya virus (CHIKV. Chikungunya is a re-emerging arthropod-borne viral disease caused by Chikungunya virus (CHIKV belonging to the Togaviridae family of genus Alphavirus. It is a virus with a single stranded, positive sense RNA, as its genome. It is maintained in a sylvatic and urban cycle involving humans and the mosquito species Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. It has a major health impact on humans as it causes fever, rashes, arthralgia and myalgia. Polyarthralgia is the most important feature of CHIKV infection which primarily affects the small joints of the wrists and fingers along with the large joints like shoulders and knees. Currently, there are no vaccines or treatment regimens available for CHIKV infection. The molecular mechanism underlying the chronic polyarthralgia observed in patients is not well understood. The abundance of bacteria from the Enterobacteriaceae family increased with CHIKV infection whereas the abundance of known insect endosymbionts like Wolbachia and Blattabacterium decreased. In this review we have summarized the CHIKV organization, replication, epidemiology, clinical manifestations and pathogenesis with emphasis on the arthralgia.

  3. Doctors Describe First U.S. Case of Locally Acquired Zika in Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Doctors Describe First U.S. Case of Locally Acquired Zika in Pregnancy Baby shows no signs of brain ... HealthDay News) -- The first case of locally acquired Zika virus in a pregnant woman in the United ...

  4. Epidemiology and neurological complications of infection by the Zika virus: a new emerging neurotropic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carod-Artal, Francisco J

    2016-04-01

    Introduccion. El actual brote epidemico por virus Zika se inicio en 2015 y en la actualidad afecta a 31 paises y territorios en America. Se revisan los aspectos epidemiologicos y clinicos asociados con la infeccion por virus Zika. Desarrollo. Desde 2007, 55 paises de America, Asia, Africa y Oceania han detectado transmision local del virus. La actual epidemia ha afectado a casi 1,5 millones de personas en Brasil. El 80% de los casos son asintomaticos. La enfermedad por virus Zika cursa con fiebre, exantema maculopapular, artralgias y conjuntivitis no purulenta. Los sintomas suelen ser autolimitados y duran una semana. Se ha descrito un aumento de la incidencia de los casos de microcefalia, lesiones retinianas y sindrome de Guillain-Barre asociados con el virus Zika. El sindrome de Guillain-Barre asociado al Zika en la Polinesia es una variante axonal motora pura. El ARN del virus Zika se ha identificado en muestras de tejido cerebral, placenta y liquido amniotico de niños con microcefalia y en perdidas fetales de mujeres infectadas por Zika durante el embarazo. Se recomienda realizar la prueba de reaccion en cadena de la polimerasa mediante transcriptasa inversa para detectar ARN virico y pruebas serologicas (IgM ELISA y anticuerpos neutralizantes) para confirmar una infeccion por Zika. El diagnostico diferencial incluye la infeccion por virus dengue y chikungunya. Conclusiones. Existe un conocimiento limitado sobre los mecanismos patogenicos implicados y las consecuencias a largo plazo de la infeccion por virus Zika en adultos y recien nacidos.

  5. Local language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monique Turkenburg

    2002-01-01

    Original title: Taal lokaal. Children of immigrants living in the Netherlands have for years had the opportunity to receive lessons in their mother tongue at primary school. Since 1998 this has been referred to as minority language teaching (OALT in Dutch), and has been the responsibility of local

  6. Cortical Polarity of the RING Protein PAR-2 Is Maintained by Exchange Rate Kinetics at the Cortical-Cytoplasmic Boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukinobu Arata

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cell polarity arises through the spatial segregation of polarity regulators. PAR proteins are polarity regulators that localize asymmetrically to two opposing cortical domains. However, it is unclear how the spatially segregated PAR proteins interact to maintain their mutually exclusive partitioning. Here, single-molecule detection analysis in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos reveals that cortical PAR-2 diffuses only short distances, and, as a result, most PAR-2 molecules associate and dissociate from the cortex without crossing into the opposing domain. Our results show that cortical PAR-2 asymmetry is maintained by the local exchange reactions that occur at the cortical-cytoplasmic boundary. Additionally, we demonstrate that local exchange reactions are sufficient to maintain cortical asymmetry in a parameter-free mathematical model. These findings suggest that anterior and posterior PAR proteins primarily interact through the cytoplasmic pool and not via cortical diffusion.

  7. Cortical Polarity of the RING Protein PAR-2 Is Maintained by Exchange Rate Kinetics at the Cortical-Cytoplasmic Boundary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arata, Yukinobu; Hiroshima, Michio; Pack, Chan-Gi; Ramanujam, Ravikrishna; Motegi, Fumio; Nakazato, Kenichi; Shindo, Yuki; Wiseman, Paul W; Sawa, Hitoshi; Kobayashi, Tetsuya J; Brandão, Hugo B; Shibata, Tatsuo; Sako, Yasushi

    2016-08-23

    Cell polarity arises through the spatial segregation of polarity regulators. PAR proteins are polarity regulators that localize asymmetrically to two opposing cortical domains. However, it is unclear how the spatially segregated PAR proteins interact to maintain their mutually exclusive partitioning. Here, single-molecule detection analysis in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos reveals that cortical PAR-2 diffuses only short distances, and, as a result, most PAR-2 molecules associate and dissociate from the cortex without crossing into the opposing domain. Our results show that cortical PAR-2 asymmetry is maintained by the local exchange reactions that occur at the cortical-cytoplasmic boundary. Additionally, we demonstrate that local exchange reactions are sufficient to maintain cortical asymmetry in a parameter-free mathematical model. These findings suggest that anterior and posterior PAR proteins primarily interact through the cytoplasmic pool and not via cortical diffusion.

  8. Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... education Fact Sheet PFS005: Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus AUGUST 2015 • Reasons for Getting Tested • Who Should ... For More Information • Glossary Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that ...

  9. Viruses in the sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suttle, Curtis A.

    2005-09-01

    Viruses exist wherever life is found. They are a major cause of mortality, a driver of global geochemical cycles and a reservoir of the greatest genetic diversity on Earth. In the oceans, viruses probably infect all living things, from bacteria to whales. They affect the form of available nutrients and the termination of algal blooms. Viruses can move between marine and terrestrial reservoirs, raising the spectre of emerging pathogens. Our understanding of the effect of viruses on global systems and processes continues to unfold, overthrowing the idea that viruses and virus-mediated processes are sidebars to global processes.

  10. Analysis of Virus Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Kalyani

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Security of wired and wireless networks is the most challengeable in today's computer world. The aim of this study was to give brief introduction about viruses and worms, their creators and characteristics of algorithms used by viruses. Here wired and wireless network viruses are elaborated. Also viruses are compared with human immune system. On the basis of this comparison four guidelines are given to detect viruses so that more secure systems are made. While concluding this study it is found that the security is most challengeable, thus it is required to make more secure models which automatically detect viruses and prevent the system from its affect.

  11. Hepatitis Delta Virus: A Peculiar Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Alves; Cristina Branco; Celso Cunha

    2013-01-01

    The hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is distributed worldwide and related to the most severe form of viral hepatitis. HDV is a satellite RNA virus dependent on hepatitis B surface antigens to assemble its envelope and thus form new virions and propagate infection. HDV has a small 1.7 Kb genome making it the smallest known human virus. This deceivingly simple virus has unique biological features and many aspects of its life cycle remain elusive. The present review endeavors to gather the available ...

  12. Zika Virus and Pregnancy: What Obstetric Health Care Providers Need to Know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meaney-Delman, Dana; Rasmussen, Sonja A; Staples, J Erin; Oduyebo, Titilope; Ellington, Sascha R; Petersen, Emily E; Fischer, Marc; Jamieson, Denise J

    2016-04-01

    Zika virus is a flavivirus transmitted by Aedes (Stegomyia) species of mosquitoes. In May 2015, the World Health Organization confirmed the first local transmission of Zika virus in the Americas in Brazil. The virus has spread rapidly to other countries in the Americas; as of January 29, 2016, local transmission has been detected in at least 22 countries or territories, including the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Zika virus can infect pregnant women in all three trimesters. Although pregnant women do not appear to be more susceptible to or more severely affected by Zika virus infection, maternal-fetal transmission has been documented. Several pieces of evidence suggest that maternal Zika virus infection is associated with adverse neonatal outcomes, most notably microcephaly. Because of the number of countries and territories with local Zika virus transmission, it is likely that obstetric health care providers will care for pregnant women who live in or have traveled to an area of local Zika virus transmission. We review information on Zika virus, its clinical presentation, modes of transmission, laboratory testing, effects during pregnancy, and methods of prevention to assist obstetric health care providers in caring for pregnant women considering travel or with a history of travel to areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission and pregnant women residing in areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission.

  13. Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Abe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Of 168 patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV infection-related liver disease, 20 patients who had received 100 mg of lamivudine plus 10 mg/day of adefovir dipivoxil (ADV (ADV group and 124 patients who had received 0.5 mg/day of entecavir or 100 mg/day of lamivudine (non-ADV group for >1 year were enrolled. For comparative analyses, 19 well-matched pairs were obtained from the groups by propensity scores. At the time of enrollment, serum creatinine and phosphate concentrations were similar between the ADV and non-ADV groups; however, urinary phosphate ( and serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP ( concentrations were significantly higher in the ADV group than in the non-ADV group. Serum BAP was significantly higher at the time of enrollment than before ADV administration in the ADV group (, although there was no significant change in serum BAP concentration in the non-ADV group. There was a significant positive correlation between the period of ADV therapy and ΔBAP (, . Serum BAP concentration increased before increase in serum creatinine concentration and was useful for early detection of adverse events and for developing adequate measures for continuing ADV for chronic HBV infection-related liver disease.

  14. Polarization maintaining large-mode area photonic crystal fibre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folkenberg, Jacob Riis; Nielsen, Martin Dybendal; Mortensen, N.A.

    2004-01-01

    We report on a polarization maintaining large mode area photonic crystal fiber. Unlike, previous work on polarization maintaining photonic crystal fibers, birefringence is introduced using stress applying parts. This has allowed us to realize fibers, which are both single mode at any wavelength a...

  15. 19 CFR 163.2 - Persons required to maintain records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... brokers. Each customs broker must also make and maintain records and make such records available in... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Persons required to maintain records. 163.2 Section 163.2 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...

  16. Surveying the factors that influence maintainability: research design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hordijk, W.T.B.; Wieringa, Roelf J.

    2005-01-01

    We want to explore and analyse design decisions that influence maintainability of software. Software maintainability is important because the effort expended on changes and fixes in software is a major cost driver. We take an empirical, qualitative approach, by investigating cases where a change has

  17. Coherent Beam Combination of Two Polarization Maintaining Ytterbium Fibre Amplifiers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Jing; XIAO Rui; JIANG Zong-Fu; CHENG Xiang-Ai; SHU Bai-Hong; CHEN Jin-Bao; LIU Ze-Jin

    2005-01-01

    @@ We investigate coherent beam combination of fibre laser beams by phase locking. Phase noise of a polarization maintaining ytterbium fibre amplifier is inspected with a fibre interferometer. In a feed back control loop, two fibre polarization maintaining ytterbium amplifiers are phase locked and coherent combined when the phase noise is properly controlled by a LiNO3 phase modulator.

  18. 34 CFR 668.163 - Maintaining and accounting for funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Accounting and internal control systems and financial records. (1) An institution must maintain accounting... financial records in accordance with the provisions under § 668.24. (e) Standard of conduct. An institution... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maintaining and accounting for funds. 668.163...

  19. The basic reproductive number of tick-borne encephalitis virus. An empirical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foppa, Ivo M

    2005-12-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is reciprocally transmitted between Ixodes ricinus ticks and small mammals. Recently, transmission between co-feeding ticks has been postulated as an epidemiological by important mechanism of perpetuating the agent. To empirically examine the question whether the "traditional" mode of transmission is sufficient to maintain enzootic TBEV transmission, the basic reproductive number R(0) of TBEV could be estimated under this model for sites in which TBEV is enzootic. I propose an empirical estimator of R(0) for TBEV which is based on longitudinal stage-specific local tick infestation densities assessed by live trapping of small mammals. A Gibbs sampler-based 95%-credibility interval is presented. When applied to published field data from TBEV enzootic sites sub-critical R(0) estimates are obtained for both sites. I discuss potential shortcomings of this method and possible implications of these findings on the discussion of supplemental mechanisms of transmission.

  20. A Case of Contagious Ecthyma (Orf Virus in a Nonmanipulated Laboratory Dorset Sheep (Ovis aries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwynne E. Kinley

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An approximately 5-month-old laboratory wether, originating from a local vendor with a closed flock and maintained on a preventative medicine plan, presented with a continuum of lesions from hemorrhagic papules, vesicles, and pustules, to multifocal necrotic scabs at the commissure of the lips, medial canthus of the left eye, and distal prepuce. A presumptive diagnosis of Orf virus (ORFV was made and the sheep was euthanized. A full necropsy was performed, and histopathological evaluation of affected tissues revealed multifocal-to-coalescing necrotizing and proliferative cheilitis and dermatitis with eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies. Electron microscopy findings revealed degenerate keratinocytes containing numerous typical 200–300 nm wide cytoplasmic parapoxvirus virions, confirming the diagnosis of ORFV. We believe that this animal developed a clinical case of ORFV either due to an adverse reaction to an ORFV vaccine, or this animal had a case of preexisting ORFV which manifested after arrival at our facility.

  1. Ebola hemorrhagic fever associated with novel virus strain, Uganda, 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamala, Joseph F; Lukwago, Luswa; Malimbo, Mugagga; Nguku, Patrick; Yoti, Zabulon; Musenero, Monica; Amone, Jackson; Mbabazi, William; Nanyunja, Miriam; Zaramba, Sam; Opio, Alex; Lutwama, Julius J; Talisuna, Ambrose O; Okware, Sam I

    2010-07-01

    During August 2007-February 2008, the novel Bundibugyo ebolavirus species was identified during an outbreak of Ebola viral hemorrhagic fever in Bundibugyo district, western Uganda. To characterize the outbreak as a requisite for determining response, we instituted a case-series investigation. We identified 192 suspected cases, of which 42 (22%) were laboratory positive for the novel species; 74 (38%) were probable, and 77 (40%) were negative. Laboratory confirmation lagged behind outbreak verification by 3 months. Bundibugyo ebolavirus was less fatal (case-fatality rate 34%) than Ebola viruses that had caused previous outbreaks in the region, and most transmission was associated with handling of dead persons without appropriate protection (adjusted odds ratio 3.83, 95% confidence interval 1.78-8.23). Our study highlights the need for maintaining a high index of suspicion for viral hemorrhagic fevers among healthcare workers, building local capacity for laboratory confirmation of viral hemorrhagic fevers, and institutionalizing standard precautions.

  2. Nucleocytoplasmic transport of nucleocapsid proteins of enveloped RNA viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu eWulan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Most viruses with non-segmented single stranded RNA genomes complete their life cycle in the cytoplasm of infected cells. However, despite undergoing replication in the cytoplasm, the structural proteins of some of these RNA viruses localize to the nucleus at specific times in the virus life cycle, primarily early in infection. Limited evidence suggests that this enhances successful viral replication by interfering with or inhibiting the host antiviral response. Nucleocapsid proteins of RNA viruses have a well-established, essential cytoplasmic role in virus replication and assembly. Intriguingly, nucleocapsid proteins of some RNA viruses also localize to the nucleus/nucleolus of infected cells. Their nuclear function is less well understood although significant advances have been made in recent years. This review will focus on the nucleocapsid protein of cytoplasmic enveloped RNA viruses, including their localization to the nucleus/nucleolus and function therein. A greater understanding of the nuclear localization of nucleocapsid proteins has the potential to enhance therapeutic strategies as it can be a target for the development of live-attenuated vaccines or antiviral drugs.

  3. Case Report: Emergence of bovine viral diarrhea virus persistently infected calves in a closed herd

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) continues to have significant economic impact on the cattle industry worldwide. The virus is primarily maintained in the cattle population due to persistently infected animals. Herd surveillance along with good vaccination programs and biosecurity practices are the...

  4. ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF SUBGROUP A AVIAN LEUKOSIS VIRUS FROM CHICKENS OF A LOCAL BREED%地方品系鸡中一株A亚群鸡白血病病毒的分离和鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱美真; 吴玉宝; 崔治中

    2009-01-01

    将种蛋孵化到9~11 d,分别制备成鸡胚成纤维细胞(chicken fibroblast cells,CEF)培养,再将其细胞上清接种对内源性白血病病毒(avian leukosis virus,ALV)有抵抗力的DF1细胞,从山东某地方品系种蛋中分离到一株外源性ALV,SDAU09E1.用PCR扩增其囊膜蛋白基因(env)并隆测序后,将其gp85序列与已发表的各亚群ALV比较分析表明,该毒株与A亚群6个毒株同源性最高,为89.1%~90.9%,而与已发表的鸡的A、C、D、E亚群ALV的gp85的同源性仅在73.2%~87.9%之间,与目前国内最常见的J亚群的gp85的同源性更是低至30.3%~32.4%.这是我国地方品系鸡群中第一次分离和鉴定出ALV-A及其gp85基因.

  5. Presence and distribution of pepper viruses in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Dragana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pepper is a very popular and profitable crop in Serbia and its production is growing rapidly as well as the importance of diseases caused by viruses. Virus infections interfere with development of pepper plants, reducing yield and fruit quality. More than 45 viruses have been isolated from pepper so far, and in our country the following are considered economically very important: Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV, Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV and Potato virus Y (PVY. During 2009, an investigation was conducted regarding the presence and distribution of pepper viruses in Serbia, which included a survey of different localities of transplant production, and both greenhouse and open field pepper crops. Collected samples were tested utilizing a double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA with polyclonal antisera specific for the detection of economically important pepper viruses: PVY, AMV, CMV, TSWV, TMV and Potato virus X (PVX. In the collected samples, presence of the four viruses (PVY, CMV, TSWV and AMV was confirmed in single and mixed infections. In tested transplant samples, the most frequently detected virus was CMV (18.18%, while PVY was the most frequent in samples collected in greenhouse and open field pepper crops (32.56% and 51.21% respectively. The presence of TSWV was detected only in greenhouse-grown pepper crops, while the presence of PVX and TMV was not detected during this investigation. The obtained results indicated that PVY and CMV were widely distributed and the most frequent viruses in pepper crops in Serbia. Future investigation should include their detailed biological and molecular characterization, as well as the implementation of appropriate control measures in pepper productions.

  6. Global Bifurcation of a Novel Computer Virus Propagation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianguo Ren

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In a recent paper by J. Ren et al. (2012, a novel computer virus propagation model under the effect of the antivirus ability in a real network is established. The analysis there only partially uncovers the dynamics behaviors of virus spread over the network in the case where around bifurcation is local. In the present paper, by mathematical analysis, it is further shown that, under appropriate parameter values, the model may undergo a global B-T bifurcation, and the curves of saddle-node bifurcation, Hopf bifurcation, and homoclinic bifurcation are obtained to illustrate the qualitative behaviors of virus propagation. On this basis, a collection of policies is recommended to prohibit the virus prevalence. To our knowledge, this is the first time the global bifurcation has been explored for the computer virus propagation. Theoretical results and corresponding suggestions may help us suppress or eliminate virus propagation in the network.

  7. Analysis of hepatitis C virus core/NS5A protein co-localization using novel cell culture systems expressing core-NS2 and NS5A of genotypes 1-7

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galli, Andrea; Scheel, Troels K H; Prentoe, Jannick C

    2013-01-01

    JFH1-based recombinants expressing core-NS2 and NS5A from genotypes 1-7, and analysed core and NS5A co-localization in infected cells. Huh7.5 cells were transfected with RNA of core-NS2/NS5A recombinants and putative adaptive mutations were analysed by reverse genetics. Adapted core-NS2/NS5A...

  8. Phylogenetic lineage of Tobacco leaf curl virus in Korea and estimation of recombination events implicated in their sequence variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jungan; Lee, Hyejung; Kim, Mi-Kyung; Kwak, Hae-Ryun; Auh, Chung-Kyoon; Lee, Kyeong-Yeoll; Kim, Sunghan; Choi, Hong-Soo; Lee, Sukchan

    2011-08-01

    New strains of Tobacco leaf curl virus (TbLCV) were isolated from tomato plants in four different local communities of Korea, and hence were designated TbLCV-Kr. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences of the whole genome and of individual ORFs of these viruses indicated that they are closely related to the Tobacco leaf curl Japan virus (TbLCJV) cluster, which includes Honeysuckle yellow vein virus (HYVV), Honeysuckle yellow vein mosaic virus (HYVMV), and TbLCJV isolates. Four putative recombination events were recognized within these virus sequences, suggesting that the sequence variations observed in these viruses may be attributable to intraspecific and interspecific recombination events involving some TbLCV-Kr isolates, Papaya leaf curl virus (PaLCV), and a local isolate of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV).

  9. Identification of a functional, CRM-1-dependent nuclear export signal in hepatitis C virus core protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cerutti

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is a major cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. HCV core protein is involved in nucleocapsid formation, but it also interacts with multiple cytoplasmic and nuclear molecules and plays a crucial role in the development of liver disease and hepatocarcinogenesis. The core protein is found mostly in the cytoplasm during HCV infection, but also in the nucleus in patients with hepatocarcinoma and in core-transgenic mice. HCV core contains nuclear localization signals (NLS, but no nuclear export signal (NES has yet been identified.We show here that the aa(109-133 region directs the translocation of core from the nucleus to the cytoplasm by the CRM-1-mediated nuclear export pathway. Mutagenesis of the three hydrophobic residues (L119, I123 and L126 in the identified NES or in the sequence encoding the mature core aa(1-173 significantly enhanced the nuclear localisation of the corresponding proteins in transfected Huh7 cells. Both the NES and the adjacent hydrophobic sequence in domain II of core were required to maintain the core protein or its fragments in the cytoplasmic compartment. Electron microscopy studies of the JFH1 replication model demonstrated that core was translocated into the nucleus a few minutes after the virus entered the cell. The blockade of nucleocytoplasmic export by leptomycin B treatment early in infection led to the detection of core protein in the nucleus by confocal microscopy and coincided with a decrease in virus replication.Our data suggest that the functional NLS and NES direct HCV core protein shuttling between the cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments, with at least some core protein transported to the nucleus. These new properties of HCV core may be essential for virus multiplication and interaction with nuclear molecules, influence cell signaling and the pathogenesis of HCV infection.

  10. Identification of a functional, CRM-1-dependent nuclear export signal in hepatitis C virus core protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerutti, Andrea; Maillard, Patrick; Minisini, Rosalba; Vidalain, Pierre-Olivier; Roohvand, Farzin; Pecheur, Eve-Isabelle; Pirisi, Mario; Budkowska, Agata

    2011-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. HCV core protein is involved in nucleocapsid formation, but it also interacts with multiple cytoplasmic and nuclear molecules and plays a crucial role in the development of liver disease and hepatocarcinogenesis. The core protein is found mostly in the cytoplasm during HCV infection, but also in the nucleus in patients with hepatocarcinoma and in core-transgenic mice. HCV core contains nuclear localization signals (NLS), but no nuclear export signal (NES) has yet been identified.We show here that the aa(109-133) region directs the translocation of core from the nucleus to the cytoplasm by the CRM-1-mediated nuclear export pathway. Mutagenesis of the three hydrophobic residues (L119, I123 and L126) in the identified NES or in the sequence encoding the mature core aa(1-173) significantly enhanced the nuclear localisation of the corresponding proteins in transfected Huh7 cells. Both the NES and the adjacent hydrophobic sequence in domain II of core were required to maintain the core protein or its fragments in the cytoplasmic compartment. Electron microscopy studies of the JFH1 replication model demonstrated that core was translocated into the nucleus a few minutes after the virus entered the cell. The blockade of nucleocytoplasmic export by leptomycin B treatment early in infection led to the detection of core protein in the nucleus by confocal microscopy and coincided with a decrease in virus replication.Our data suggest that the functional NLS and NES direct HCV core protein shuttling between the cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments, with at least some core protein transported to the nucleus. These new properties of HCV core may be essential for virus multiplication and interaction with nuclear molecules, influence cell signaling and the pathogenesis of HCV infection.

  11. Local Linearizability

    OpenAIRE

    Haas, Andreas; Henzinger, Thomas A.; Holzer, Andreas; Kirsch, Christoph M.; Lippautz, Michael; Payer, Hannes; Sezgin, Ali; Sokolova, Ana; Veith, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    The semantics of concurrent data structures is usually given by a sequential specification and a consistency condition. Linearizability is the most popular consistency condition due to its simplicity and general applicability. Nevertheless, for applications that do not require all guarantees offered by linearizability, recent research has focused on improving performance and scalability of concurrent data structures by relaxing their semantics. In this paper, we present local linearizability,...

  12. Tick-borne encephalitis virus replication, intracellular trafficking, and pathogenicity in human intestinal Caco-2 cell monolayers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Yu

    Full Text Available Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV is one of the most important vector-borne viruses in Europe and Asia. Its transmission mainly occurs by the bite of an infected tick. However, consuming milk products from infected livestock animals caused TBEV cases. To better understand TBEV transmission via the alimentary route, we studied viral infection of human intestinal epithelial cells. Caco-2 cells were used to investigate pathological effects of TBEV infection. TBEV-infected Caco-2 monolayers showed morphological changes including cytoskeleton rearrangements and cytoplasmic vacuolization. Ultrastructural analysis revealed dilatation of the rough endoplasmic reticulum and further enlargement to TBEV containing caverns. Caco-2 monolayers maintained an intact epithelial barrier with stable transepithelial electrical resistance (TER during early stage of infection. Concomitantly, viruses were detected in the basolateral medium, implying a transcytosis pathway. When Caco-2 cells were pre-treated with inhibitors of cellular pathways of endocytosis TBEV cell entry was efficiently blocked, suggesting that actin filaments (Cytochalasin and microtubules (Nocodazole are important for PI3K-dependent (LY294002 virus endocytosis. Moreover, experimental fluid uptake assay showed increased intracellular accumulation of FITC-dextran containing vesicles. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed co-localization of TBEV with early endosome antigen-1 (EEA1 as well as with sorting nexin-5 (SNX5, pointing to macropinocytosis as trafficking mechanism. In the late phase of infection, further evidence was found for translocation of virus via the paracellular pathway. Five days after infection TER was slightly decreased. Epithelial barrier integrity was impaired due to increased epithelial apoptosis, leading to passive viral translocation. These findings illuminate pathomechanisms in TBEV infection of human intestinal epithelial cells and viral transmission via the alimentary

  13. Acute bee paralysis virus [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Acute bee paralysis virus [gbvrl]: 14 CDS's (15780 codons) fields: [triplet] [frequ...osomal protein / MAP kinase List of codon usage for each CDS (format) Homepage Acute bee paralysis virus ...

  14. Zika Virus Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sheets Fact files Questions & answers Features Multimedia Contacts Zika virus Fact sheet Updated 6 September 2016 Key ... and last for 2-7 days. Complications of Zika virus disease Based on a systematic review of ...

  15. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... My ACOG ACOG Departments Donate Shop Career Connection Home Resources & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and Pregnancy Page Navigation ▼ ...

  16. Viruses and Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawson, James S., E-mail: james.lawson@unsw.edu.au; Heng, Benjamin [School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia)

    2010-04-30

    Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to identify viruses which may have a role in breast cancer. Despite these efforts, the establishment of conclusive evidence for such a role has been elusive. However, the development of extremely sophisticated new experimental techniques has allowed the recent development of evidence that human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus, mouse mammary tumor virus and bovine leukemia virus may each have a role in the causation of human breast cancers. This is potentially good news as effective vaccines are already available to prevent infections from carcinogenic strains of human papilloma virus, which causes cancer of the uterine cervix.

  17. Quasispecies of dengue virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosu, Takeshi

    2011-12-01

    Pathogenic viruses have RNA genomes that cause acute and chronic infections. These viruses replicate with high mutation rates and exhibit significant genetic diversity, so-called viral quasispecies. Viral quasispecies play an important role in chronic infectious diseases, but little is known about their involvement in acute infectious diseases such as dengue virus (DENV) infection. DENV, the most important human arbovirus, is a causative agent of dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). Accumulating observations suggest that DENV exists as an extremely diverse virus population, but its biological significance is unclear. In other virus diseases, quasispecies affect the therapeutic strategies using drugs and vaccines. Here, I describe the quasispecies of DENV and discuss the possible role of quasispecies in the pathogenesis of and therapeutic strategy against DENV infection in comparison with other viruses such as Hepatitis C virus, human immunodeficiency virus type 1, and poliovirus.

  18. Viruses and human cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallo, R.C.; Haseltine, W.; Klein, G.; Zur Hausen, H.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains papers on the following topics: Immunology and Epidemiology, Biology and Pathogenesis, Models of Pathogenesis and Treatment, Simian and Bovine Retroviruses, Human Papilloma Viruses, EBV and Herpesvirus, and Hepatitis B Virus.

  19. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and Pregnancy Page Navigation ▼ ACOG Pregnancy Book Patient Education FAQs Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to ...

  20. Tumorigenic DNA viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, G.

    1989-01-01

    The eighth volume of Advances in Viral Oncology focuses on the three major DNA virus groups with a postulated or proven tumorigenic potential: papillomaviruses, animal hepatitis viruses, and the Epstein-Bar virus. In the opening chapters, the contributors analyze the evidence that papillomaviruses and animal hepatitis viruses are involved in tumorigenesis and describe the mechanisms that trigger virus-host cell interactions. A detailed section on the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) - comprising more than half the book - examines the transcription and mRNA processing patterns of the virus genome; the mechanisms by which EBV infects lymphoid and epithelial cells; the immunological aspects of the virus; the actions of EBV in hosts with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome; and the involvement of EBV in the etiology of Burkitt's lymphoma.

  1. Hepatitis virus panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003558.htm Hepatitis virus panel To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The hepatitis virus panel is a series of blood tests used ...

  2. Comparing Effective Treatments for Attention-Maintained and Escape- Maintained Behaviors in Children with Behavior Disorders: Brief Review and Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lauren Worcester; T. F. McLaughlin

    2013-01-01

    This literature review compares treatment for attention-maintainedversus escape maintained aberrant behavior in children with behavior disorders. Specifically, studies utilizing time out procedures, differential reinforcement procedures, noncontingent reinforcement, and functional communication training are discussed. It was found that these are effective treatments for attention-maintained behaviors; while escape extinction, positive and negative reinforcement, functional communication trai...

  3. Avian influenza virus and Newcastle disease virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) severely impact poultry egg production. Decreased egg yield and hatchability, as well as misshapen eggs, are often observed during infection with AIV and NDV, even with low-virulence strains or in vaccinated flocks. Data suggest that in...

  4. Avian influenza virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza (AI) is caused by type A influenza virus, a member of the Orthomyxoviridae family. AI viruses are serologically categorized into 16 hemagglutinin (H1-H16) and 9 neuraminidase (N1-N9) subtypes. All subtypes have been identified in birds. Infections by AI viruses have been reported in ...

  5. Computer Virus Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajala, Judith B.

    2004-01-01

    A computer virus is a program--a piece of executable code--that has the unique ability to replicate. Like biological viruses, computer viruses can spread quickly and are often difficult to eradicate. They can attach themselves to just about any type of file, and are spread by replicating and being sent from one individual to another. Simply having…

  6. Virus diseases of fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Stanley W.

    1954-01-01

    Viruses are probably the cause of a wide spectrum of fish diseases. Although relatively few virus diseases of fish are known today, some of the diseases of unknown etiology, as well as some diseases presently accepted as due to bacteria, protozoa, fungi or nutritional deficiencies, possibly will be recognized eventually as virus diseases.

  7. What's West Nile Virus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Puberty Train Your Temper What's West Nile Virus? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's West Nile Virus? Print A A A en español ¿Qué es el Virus del Nilo Occidental? What exactly is the West ...

  8. The taxonomy of viruses should include viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calisher, Charles H

    2016-05-01

    Having lost sight of its goal, the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses has redoubled its efforts. That goal is to arrive at a consensus regarding virus classification, i.e., proper placement of viruses in a hierarchical taxonomic scheme; not an easy task given the wide variety of recognized viruses. Rather than suggesting a continuation of the bureaucratic machinations of the past, this opinion piece is a call for insertion of common sense in sorting out the avalanche of information already, and soon-to-be, accrued data. In this way information about viruses ideally would be taxonomically correct as well as useful to working virologists and journal editors, rather than being lost, minimized, or ignored.

  9. Use of porous space maintainers in staged mandibular reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henslee, Allan M; Spicer, Patrick P; Shah, Sarita R; Tatara, Alexander M; Kasper, F Kurtis; Mikos, Antonios G; Wong, Mark E

    2014-05-01

    The success of mandibular reconstructions depends not only on restoring the form and function of lost bone but also on the preservation of the overlying soft tissue layer. In this case study, 5 porous polymethylmethacrylate space maintainers fabricated via patient-specific molds were implanted initially to maintain the vitality of the overlying oral mucosa during staged mandibular reconstructions. Three of the 5 patients healed well; the other 2 patients developed dehiscences, likely due to a thin layer of soft tissue overlying the implant. The results presented provide evidence that a larger investigation of space maintainers fabricated using this method is warranted.

  10. Caveolin-1 interacts with the Gag precursor of murine leukaemia virus and modulates virus production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koester Mario

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Retroviral Gag determines virus assembly at the plasma membrane and the formation of virus-like particles in intracellular multivesicular bodies. Thereby, retroviruses exploit by interaction with cellular partners the cellular machineries for vesicular transport in various ways. Results The retroviral Gag precursor protein drives assembly of murine leukaemia viruses (MLV at the plasma membrane (PM and the formation of virus like particles in multivesicular bodies (MVBs. In our study we show that caveolin-1 (Cav-1, a multifunctional membrane-associated protein, co-localizes with Gag in a punctate pattern at the PM of infected NIH 3T3 cells. We provide evidence that Cav-1 interacts with the matrix protein (MA of the Gag precursor. This interaction is mediated by a Cav-1 binding domain (CBD within the N-terminus of MA. Interestingly, the CBD motif identified within MA is highly conserved among most other γ-retroviruses. Furthermore, Cav-1 is incorporated into MLV released from NIH 3T3 cells. Overexpression of a GFP fusion protein containing the putative CBD of the retroviral MA resulted in a considerable decrease in production of infectious retrovirus. Moreover, expression of a dominant-negative Cav-1 mutant affected retroviral titres significantly. Conclusion This study demonstrates that Cav-1 interacts with MLV Gag, co-localizes with Gag at the PM and affects the production of infectious virus. The results strongly suggest a role for Cav-1 in the process of virus assembly.

  11. Should we maintain baby hatches in our society?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asai Atsushi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A baby hatch called the “Stork’s Cradle” has been in place at Jikei Hospital in Kumamoto City, Japan, since May 10, 2007. Babyklappes were first established in Germany in 2000, and there are currently more than 90 locations. Attitudes regarding baby hatches are divided in Japan and neither opinions for nor against baby hatches have thus far been overwhelming. To consider the appropriateness of baby hatches, we present and examine the validity of each major objection to establishing baby hatches. Discussion There are various objections to baby hatches as follows: It violates a child’s right to know the identity of his or her biological parents by allowing anonymous birth; it neglects fulfillment of the biological parents’ basic obligation to raise their child and its very availability induces abandonment of infants; some people abuse it for very selfish reasons; it cannot save babies’ lives; the rights of one parent can be ignored if the other surrenders a child without his or her consent; it puts a baby in medical jeopardy; and it has no clear legal basis. The authors would argue that there are many plausible refutations for each objection mainly based on priority of child’s right to life, pregnant women’s vulnerability and necessity of anonymity, social responsibility to protect and raise children, differences between dropping a child off at a baby hatch and child neglect, limited function of social childcare center, inevitability of abuse by a minority of people, necessary distinction between outcomes that occur only because baby hatches exist and those that occur regardless of their existence, important local direct and upmost measures for women in trouble, and difference between ambiguous legality and illegality. Summary We argue that a certain number of baby hatches should continue to be established as a last resort, in a form that can maintain anonymity if the parent dropping the child off so desires. It

  12. Orsay, Santeuil and Le Blanc viruses primarily infect intestinal cells in Caenorhabditis nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Carl J; Renshaw, Hilary; Frezal, Lise; Jiang, Yanfang; Félix, Marie-Anne; Wang, David

    2014-01-05

    The discoveries of Orsay, Santeuil and Le Blanc viruses, three viruses infecting either Caenorhabditis elegans or its relative Caenorhabditis briggsae, enable the study of virus-host interactions using natural pathogens of these two well-established model organisms. We characterized the tissue tropism of infection in Caenorhabditis nematodes by these viruses. Using immunofluorescence assays targeting proteins from each of the viruses, and in situ hybridization, we demonstrate viral proteins and RNAs localize to intestinal cells in larval stage Caenorhabditis nematodes. Viral proteins were detected in one to six of the 20 intestinal cells present in Caenorhabditis nematodes. In Orsay virus-infected C. elegans, viral proteins were detected as early as 6h post-infection. The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and capsid proteins of Orsay virus exhibited different subcellular localization patterns. Collectively, these observations provide the first experimental insights into viral protein expression in any nematode host, and broaden our understanding of viral infection in Caenorhabditis nematodes.

  13. Understanding Ebola Virus Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Judson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available An unprecedented number of Ebola virus infections among healthcare workers and patients have raised questions about our understanding of Ebola virus transmission. Here, we explore different routes of Ebola virus transmission between people, summarizing the known epidemiological and experimental data. From this data, we expose important gaps in Ebola virus research pertinent to outbreak situations. We further propose experiments and methods of data collection that will enable scientists to fill these voids in our knowledge about the transmission of Ebola virus.

  14. Viruses of asparagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomassoli, Laura; Tiberini, Antonio; Vetten, Heinrich-Josef

    2012-01-01

    The current knowledge on viruses infecting asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) is reviewed. Over half a century, nine virus species belonging to the genera Ilarvirus, Cucumovirus, Nepovirus, Tobamovirus, Potexvirus, and Potyvirus have been found in this crop. The potyvirus Asparagus virus 1 (AV1) and the ilarvirus Asparagus virus 2 (AV2) are widespread and negatively affect the economic life of asparagus crops reducing yield and increasing the susceptibility to biotic and abiotic stress. The main properties and epidemiology of AV1 and AV2 as well as diagnostic techniques for their detection and identification are described. Minor viruses and control are briefly outlined.

  15. ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simmonds, Peter; Becher, Paul; Bukh, Jens

    2017-01-01

    The Flaviviridae is a family of small enveloped viruses with RNA genomes of 9000-13 000 bases. Most infect mammals and birds. Many flaviviruses are host-specific and pathogenic, such as hepatitis C virus in the genus Hepacivirus. The majority of known members in the genus Flavivirus are arthropod...... borne, and many are important human and veterinary pathogens (e.g. yellow fever virus, dengue virus). This is a summary of the current International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) report on the taxonomy of the Flaviviridae, which is available at www.ictv.global/report/flaviviridae....

  16. A cryogenic optical feedthrough using polarization maintaining fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, M J; Collins, C J; Speake, C C

    2016-03-01

    Polarization maintaining optical fibers can be used to transmit linearly polarized light over long distances but their use in cryogenic environments has been limited by their sensitivity to temperature changes and associated mechanical stress. We investigate experimentally how thermal stresses affect the polarization maintaining fibers and model the observations with Jones matrices. We describe the design, construction, and testing of a feedthrough and fiber termination assembly that uses polarization maintaining fiber to transmit light from a 633 nm HeNe laser at room temperature to a homodyne polarization-based interferometer in a cryogenic vacuum. We report on the efficiency of the polarization maintaining properties of the feedthrough assembly. We also report that, at cryogenic temperatures, the interferometer can achieve a sensitivity of 8 × 10(-10) rad/√Hz at 0.05 Hz using this feedthrough.

  17. 36 CFR 1222.34 - How must agencies maintain records?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT CREATION AND MAINTENANCE OF FEDERAL RECORDS Agency Recordkeeping Requirements... organizing and storing records; (b) Maintain electronic, audiovisual and cartographic, and microform records in accordance with 36 CFR parts 1236, 1237, and 1238 of this subchapter, respectively; (c)...

  18. Developing maintainability for fusion power systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahn, H.S.; Mantz, H.C.; Curtis, C.T.; Buchheit, R.J.; Green, W.M.; Zuckerman, D.S.

    1979-11-01

    The overall purpose of the study is to identify design features of fusion power reactors which contribute to the achievement of high levels of maintainability. Previous phases evaluated several commercial tokamak reactor design concepts. This final phase compares the maintainability of a tandem mirror reactor (TMR) commercial conceptual design with the most maintainable tokamak concept selected from earlier work. A series of maintainability design guidelines and desirable TMR design features are defined. The effects of scheduled and unscheduled maintenance for most of the reactor subsystems are defined. The comparison of the TMR and tokamak reactor maintenance costs and availabilities show that both reactors have similar costs for scheduled maintenance at 19.4 and 20.8 million dollars annually and similar scheduled downtime availability impacts, achieving approximate availabilities of 79% at optimized maintenance intervals and cost of electricity.

  19. Maintaining Students’ Involvement in a Math Lecture Using Countdown Timers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ann Krizzel A. Aban; Lauro L. Fontanil

    2015-01-01

    ...), to deliver their lectures. The non-stop use of these softwares, however, seems to have negative effects on the students when it comes to maintaining their involvement in a lecture discussion for they tend to be more passive spectators...

  20. Allocating SMART Reliability and Maintainability Goals to NASA Ground Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Amanda; Monaghan, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This paper will describe the methodology used to allocate Reliability and Maintainability (R&M) goals to Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) subsystems currently being designed or upgraded.

  1. Coastal Maintained Channels in US waters as of May 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This layer shows coastal channels and waterways that are maintained and surveyed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). These channels are necessary...

  2. An Improved Functional Hierarchy Frame Model for System Maintainability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Dai-Lin; CHEN Dong-lin; WANG Ru-gen; ZHU Xue-ping

    2003-01-01

    By means of analogy, this paper analyses the present functional hierarchy frame model for system maintainability, and presents an improved model. Practical application indicates that the improved model is visualized, more convenient and perfected over the pervious models.

  3. Limited elimination of two viruses by cryotherapy of pelargonium apices related to virus distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallard, A; Mallet, R; Chevalier, M; Grapin, A

    2011-01-01

    The possibility of eradicating the pelargonium flower break virus (PFBV) and pelargonium line pattern virus (PLPV) by cryotherapy of axillary shoot apices was investigated using five Pelargonium cultivars. Viruses were detected by DAS-ELISA and their location was determined by immunolocalization. Apex culture did not permit elimination of PFBV and only 15 percent regenerated plants of 'Stellar Artic' cultivar were ELISA PLPV-negative. Plants regenerated from cryotherapy-treated apices were tested by DAS-ELISA after a 3-month in vitro culture period. Viruses were not detected in 25 percent and 50 percent of the plants tested for PFBV and PLPV, respectively. However, immunolocalization carried out on apices originating from cryopreserved shoot tips sampled from DAS-ELISA negative plants showed that they were still virus-infected. Using immunolocalization, PFBV and PLPV could be detected in Pelargonium apices, even in the meristematic dome. However, viral particles were more numerous in basal zone cells than in meristematic cells. Our results demonstrate that PFBV and PLPV are present within meristematic cells and that cryopreservation can partly reduce the quantity of these viruses in Pelargonium plants but not eliminate them totally. Additional knowledge on localization and behaviour of viruses during cryopreservation is essential to optimize cryotherapy and plant genetic resource management.

  4. Band and loop space maintainer--made easy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, U A; Loius, J; Sajeev, R; Peter, J

    2004-09-01

    Space maintainers have been used in Pediatric Dentistry for many years. The use of these appliances, however, in terms of indications, contraindications, design and construction has gained little attention from researchers. This paper highlights the construction of a new technique of fabrication of band and loop space maintainer. The advantages of this new Direct technique or Single sitting technique over the conventional technique are discussed.

  5. Banded vs Bonded Space Maintainers: Finding Better Way Out

    OpenAIRE

    Setia, Vikas; Kumar Pandit, Inder; Srivastava, Nikhil; Gugnani, Neeraj; Gupta, Monika

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: Of this in vivo study was to evaluate various space maintainers in terms of survival rate, gingival health and presence of caries. Design: A total of 60 extraction sites in the age group of 4 to 9 years were divided into four groups and different space maintainers were placed in them viz (conventional band and loop, prefabricated band with custom made loop, Ribbond, Super splint). Results: Prefabricated bands with custom made loop showed maximum success rates (84.6%), whi...

  6. Serodiagnosis for Tumor Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Brian J.; Labo, Nazzarena; Miley, Wendell J.; Whitby, Denise

    2015-01-01

    The known human tumor viruses include the DNA viruses Epstein-Barr virus, Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus, Merkel cell polyomavirus, human papillomavirus, and hepatitis B virus. RNA tumor viruses include Human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type-1 and hepatitis C virus. The serological identification of antigens/antibodies in plasma serum is a rapidly progressing field with utility for both scientists and clinicians. Serology is useful for conducting seroepidemiology studies and to inform on the pathogenesis and host immune response to a particular viral agent. Clinically, serology is useful for diagnosing current or past infection and for aiding in clinical management decisions. Serology is useful for screening blood donations for infectious agents and for monitoring the outcome of vaccination against these viruses. Serodiagnosis of human tumor viruses has improved in recent years with increased specificity and sensitivity of the assays, as well as reductions in cost and the ability to assess multiple antibody/antigens in single assays. Serodiagnosis of tumor viruses plays an important role in our understanding of the prevalence and transmission of these viruses and ultimately in the ability to develop treatments/preventions for these globally important diseases. PMID:25843726

  7. [Latent infection of human herpes virus in hematopoietic system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ke-Fu; Ma, Xiao-Tong; Zheng, Guo-Guang; Song, Yu-Hua

    2008-12-01

    Up to date, eight types of human herpes viruses have been identified, all of which are ubiquitous, and usually establish latent infection in the host after primary infection. Since most of the herpes viruses are maintained in an asymptomatic form, they are often neglected. However, under some circumstances, these herpes viruses can cause fatal or severe diseases. Furthermore, the association of herpes viruses with hematopoietic malignancies is attracting researchers' attention. With the extensive development of hematopoietic stem cell and organ transplantation, reports regarding transplantation failure and complication caused by infection of human herpes virus has been increasing. Cytokine storm was firstly suggested as the mechanism of graft-versus-host diseases. In recent years, which has also been applied in the pathogenesis research of inflammation, and is supposed to play an important role in severe virus infection. In this paper, through discussing the possible role of latent infection of human herpes virus in the failure or complication of bone marrow or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and in refractory leukemia, the function and significance of latent infection of human herpes virus and the cytokine storm it caused were investigated.

  8. Maintaining dental records: Are we ready for forensic needs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhusudan Astekar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Dental remains are usually the last to get destroyed among body parts after death. They may be useful for personal identification in cases of mass disasters and decomposed unidentified bodies. Dental records may help in the identification of suspects in criminal investigations and in medicolegal cases. Maintenance of dental records is legally mandatory in most of the European and American countries. Unfortunately, the law is not very clear in India, and the awareness is very poor. Aims: To assess the awareness regarding the dental record maintenance among dentists in Rajasthan, to deduce the quality of average dental records kept by them and to evaluate the potential use of their maintained records, in any of forensic or medicolegal cases. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 100 dental practitioners of different cities in Rajasthan, India. Materials and Methods: Data were collected through a structured questionnaire, which was responded by the study population in the course of a telephonic interview. The questionnaire addressed on the mode of maintaining dental records in their regular practice. Statistical Analysis Used: The data so gathered were subjected for descriptive analysis. Results: As for knowledge or awareness about maintaining dental records, surprisingly a very low percentile (about 38% of surveyed dentists maintained records. Sixty-two percent of the dentists were maintaining no records at all. Conclusion : Nonmaintenance or poor quality of records maintained indicates that the dentists in Rajasthan are not prepared for any kind of forensic and medicolegal need if it arises.

  9. Local Professionals for Local Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Xiaojie

    2010-01-01

    @@ In the past three decades,the Chinese hotel industry has developed at a rapid pace,with the number of hotels-especially high star hotelsgrowing fast.In Beijing alone,there arc nearly 60 five-star hotels.With the development of the hotel industry.China has also begun to see the number of local hotel professionals,including senior managers,increase.Wen Xiaojie,Deputy General Manager and Owner's Representative of Sofitel Wanda Beijing,is among the most outstanding senior hotel managers.

  10. West Nile Virus and wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, P.P.; Griffing, S.; Caffrey, C.; Kilpatrick, A.M.; McLean, R.; Brand, C.; Saito, E.; Dupuis, A.P.; Kramer, Laura; Novak, R.

    2004-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) has spread rapidly across North America, resulting in human deaths and in the deaths of untold numbers of birds, mammals, and reptiles. The virus has reached Central America and the Caribbean and may spread to Hawaii and South America. Although tens of thousands of birds have died, and studies of some bird species show local declines, few regionwide declines can be attributed to WNV. Predicting future impacts of WNV on wildlife, and pinpointing what drives epidemics, will require substantial additional research into host susceptibility, reservoir competency, and linkages between climate, mosquitoes, and disease. Such work will entail a collaborative effort between scientists in governmental research groups, in surveillance and control programs, and in nongovernmental organizations. West Nile virus was not the first, and it will not be the last, exotic disease to be introduced to the New World. Its spread in North America highlights the need to strengthen animal monitoring programs and to integrate them with research on disease ecology.

  11. Iatrogenic colorectal Kaposi sarcoma complicating a refractory ulcerative colitis in a human immunodeficiency negative-virus patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzaoui, Lamine; Kilani, Houda; Bouassida, Mahdi; Mahmoudi, Moufida; Chalbi, Emna; Siai, Karima; Ezzine, Heykel; Touinsi, Hassen; Azzouz, Mohamed M'saddak; Sassi, Sadok

    2013-01-01

    Kaposi sarcoma is a mesenchymal tumor associated to a human herpes virus-8. It often occurs in human immunodeficiency virus-positive subjects. Colorectal localization is rare. We report the case of a colorectal Kaposi sarcoma complicating a refractory ulcerative colitis treated with surgery after the failure of immunomodulator therapy in a human immunodeficiency virus-negative heterosexual man.

  12. Detection of transient and persistent feline leukaemia virus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, O; Golder, M C; Stewart, M F

    1982-03-01

    A study was made of cats persistently or transiently viraemic with feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) following experimental oronasal infection. Cats of two ages were exposed to the virus. One group was infected when eight weeks old in the expectation that most of the cats would become persistently viraemic, and the second group when 16 weeks old, so that some would show signs of a transient infection and then recover. The periods following infection when virus was detectable in the blood and in the oropharynx were determined for each group. Three methods for detecting viraemia were compared: virus isolation, immunofluorescence on blood smears and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). There was good overall agreement among the three tests in detecting virus-positive cats. Virus was found sooner after infection by virus isolation than by the other methods, and virus appeared in the blood slightly sooner in cats which developed persistent viraemia than in transiently viraemic cats. Infectious FeLV was isolated from the oropharynx of all of the persistently viraemic cats, in most cases simultaneously with virus in the plasma. Virus was also isolated from the mouth of most transiently viraemic cats. Under field conditions such transient excretion of virus lasting only a few days would rarely be detected in a single sampling. This might explain how FeLV is maintained in free range urban cats in the absence of a large number of cats with persistent active FeLV infection. For routine diagnosis, immunofluorescence would appear to offer the best chance of differentiating transient and persistent infections by FeLV.

  13. Application perspectives of localization microscopy in virology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, C; Kaufmann, R; Gunkel, M; Polanski, F; Müller, P; Dierkes, R; Degenhard, S; Wege, C; Hausmann, M; Birk, U

    2014-07-01

    Localization microscopy approaches allowing an optical resolution down to the single-molecule level in fluorescence-labeled biostructures have already found a variety of applications in cell biology, as well as in virology. Here, we focus on some perspectives of a special localization microscopy embodiment, spectral precision distance/position determination microscopy (SPDM). SPDM permits the use of conventional fluorophores or fluorescent proteins together with standard sample preparation conditions employing an aqueous buffered milieu and typically monochromatic excitation. This allowed superresolution imaging and studies on the aggregation state of modified tobacco mosaic virus particles on the nanoscale with a single-molecule localization accuracy of better than 8 nm, using standard fluorescent dyes in the visible spectrum. To gain a better understanding of cell entry mechanisms during influenza A virus infection, SPDM was used in conjunction with algorithms for distance and cluster analyses to study changes in the distribution of virus particles themselves or in the distribution of infection-related proteins, the hepatocyte growth factor receptors, in the cell membrane on the single-molecule level. Not requiring TIRF (total internal reflection) illumination, SPDM was also applied to study the molecular arrangement of gp36.5/m164 glycoprotein (essentially associated with murine cytomegalovirus infection) in the endoplasmic reticulum and the nuclear membrane inside cells with single-molecule resolution. On the basis of the experimental evidence so far obtained, we finally discuss additional application perspectives of localization microscopy approaches for the fast detection and identification of viruses by multi-color SPDM and combinatorial oligonucleotide fluorescence in situ hybridization, as well as SPDM techniques for optimization of virus-based nanotools and biodetection devices.

  14. A comparison of virus genome sequences with their host silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xu-Dong; Yue, Ya-Jie; Wang, Wei; Li, Nan; Shen, Zhong-Yuan

    2016-01-15

    With the recent availability of the genomes of many viruses and the silkworm, Bombyx mori, as well as a variety of Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) programs, a new opportunity to gain insight into the interaction of viruses with the silkworm is possible. This study aims to determine the possible existence of sequence identities between the genomes of viruses and the silkworm and attempts to explain this phenomenon. BLAST searches of the genomes of viruses against the silkworm genome were performed using the resources of the National Center for Biotechnology Information. All studied viruses contained variable numbers of short regions with sequence identity to the genome of the silkworm. The short regions of sequence identity in the genome of the silkworm may be derived from the genomes of viruses in the long history of silkworm-virus interaction. This study is the first to compare these genomes, and may contribute to research on the interaction between viruses and the silkworm.

  15. Characterization of H3N6 avian influenza virus isolated from a wild white pelican in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simulundu, Edgar; Mweene, Aaron S; Tomabechi, Daisuke; Hang'ombe, Bernard M; Ishii, Akihiro; Suzuki, Yuka; Nakamura, Ichiro; Sawa, Hirofumi; Sugimoto, Chihiro; Ito, Kimihito; Kida, Hiroshi; Saiwana, Lewis; Takada, Ayato

    2009-01-01

    We characterized an influenza virus isolated from a great white pelican in Zambia. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all of its gene segments belonged to the Eurasian lineage and that they appear to have evolved in distinct geographical regions in Europe, Asia, and Africa, suggesting reassortment of virus genes maintained in wild aquatic birds whose flyways overlap across these continents. It is notable that this virus might possess some genes of the same origin as those of highly pathogenic H7 and H5 viruses isolated in Eurasia. The present study underscores the need for continued monitoring of avian influenza viruses in Eurasia and Africa.

  16. Tahyna virus genetics, infectivity, and immunogenicity in mice and monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitehead Stephen S

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tahyna virus (TAHV is a human pathogen of the California encephalitis virus (CEV serogroup (Bunyaviridae endemic to Europe, Asia, and Africa. TAHV maintains an enzootic life cycle with several species of mosquito vectors and hares, rabbits, hedgehogs, and rodents serving as small mammal amplifying hosts. Human TAHV infection occurs in summer and early fall with symptoms of fever, headache, malaise, conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, and nausea. TAHV disease can progress to CNS involvement, although unlike related La Crosse virus (LACV, fatalities have not been reported. Human infections are frequent with neutralizing antibodies present in 60-80% of the elderly population in endemic areas. Results In order to determine the genomic sequence of wild-type TAHV, we chose three TAHV isolates collected over a 26-year period from mosquitoes. Here we present the first complete sequence of the TAHV S, M, and L segments. The three TAHV isolates maintained a highly conserved genome with both nucleotide and amino acid sequence identity greater than 99%. In order to determine the extent of genetic relatedness to other members of the CEV serogroup, we compared protein sequences of TAHV with LACV, Snowshoe Hare virus (SSHV, Jamestown Canyon virus (JCV, and Inkoo virus (INKV. By amino acid comparison, TAHV was most similar to SSHV followed by LACV, JCV, and INKV. The sequence of the GN protein is most conserved followed by L, N, GC, NSS, and NSM. In a weanling Swiss Webster mouse model, all three TAHV isolates were uniformly neurovirulent, but only one virus was neuroinvasive. In rhesus monkeys, the virus was highly immunogenic even in the absence of viremia. Cross neutralization studies utilizing monkey immune serum demonstrated that TAHV is antigenically distinct from North American viruses LACV and JCV. Conclusions Here we report the first complete sequence of TAHV and present genetic analysis of new-world viruses, LACV, SSHV, and JCV with old

  17. Postmortem stability of Ebola virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Joseph; Bushmaker, Trenton; Fischer, Robert; Miazgowicz, Kerri; Judson, Seth; Munster, Vincent J

    2015-05-01

    The ongoing Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa has highlighted questions regarding stability of the virus and detection of RNA from corpses. We used Ebola virus-infected macaques to model humans who died of Ebola virus disease. Viable virus was isolated <7 days posteuthanasia; viral RNA was detectable for 10 weeks.

  18. Does reservoir host mortality enhance transmission of West Nile virus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foppa Ivo M

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since its 1999 emergence in New York City, West Nile virus (WNV has become the most important and widespread cause of mosquito-transmitted disease in North America. Its sweeping spread from the Atlantic to the Pacific coast was accompanied by widespread mortality among wild birds, especially corvids. Only sporadic avian mortality had previously been associated with this infection in the Old World. Here, we examine the possibility that reservoir host mortality may intensify transmission, both by concentrating vector mosquitoes on remaining hosts and by preventing the accumulation of "herd immunity". Results Inspection of the Ross-Macdonald expression of the basic reproductive number (R0 suggests that this quantity may increase with reservoir host mortality. Computer simulation confirms this finding and indicates that the level of virulence is positively associated with the numbers of infectious mosquitoes by the end of the epizootic. The presence of reservoir incompetent hosts in even moderate numbers largely eliminated the transmission-enhancing effect of host mortality. Local host die-off may prevent mosquitoes to "waste" infectious blood meals on immune host and may thus facilitate perpetuation and spread of transmission. Conclusion Under certain conditions, host mortality may enhance transmission of WNV and similarly maintained arboviruses and thus facilitate their emergence and spread. The validity of the assumptions upon which this argument is built need to be empirically examined.

  19. Does reservoir host mortality enhance transmission of West Nile virus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foppa, Ivo M; Spielman, Andrew

    2007-05-11

    Since its 1999 emergence in New York City, West Nile virus (WNV) has become the most important and widespread cause of mosquito-transmitted disease in North America. Its sweeping spread from the Atlantic to the Pacific coast was accompanied by widespread mortality among wild birds, especially corvids. Only sporadic avian mortality had previously been associated with this infection in the Old World. Here, we examine the possibility that reservoir host mortality may intensify transmission, both by concentrating vector mosquitoes on remaining hosts and by preventing the accumulation of "herd immunity". Inspection of the Ross-Macdonald expression of the basic reproductive number (R0) suggests that this quantity may increase with reservoir host mortality. Computer simulation confirms this finding and indicates that the level of virulence is positively associated with the numbers of infectious mosquitoes by the end of the epizootic. The presence of reservoir incompetent hosts in even moderate numbers largely eliminated the transmission-enhancing effect of host mortality. Local host die-off may prevent mosquitoes to "waste" infectious blood meals on immune host and may thus facilitate perpetuation and spread of transmission. Under certain conditions, host mortality may enhance transmission of WNV and similarly maintained arboviruses and thus facilitate their emergence and spread. The validity of the assumptions upon which this argument is built need to be empirically examined.

  20. Local Warming

    CERN Document Server

    Vanderbei, Robert J

    2012-01-01

    Using 55 years of daily average temperatures from a local weather station, I made a least-absolute-deviations (LAD) regression model that accounts for three effects: seasonal variations, the 11-year solar cycle, and a linear trend. The model was formulated as a linear programming problem and solved using widely available optimization software. The solution indicates that temperatures have gone up by about 2 degrees Fahrenheit over the 55 years covered by the data. It also correctly identifies the known phase of the solar cycle; i.e., the date of the last solar minimum. It turns out that the maximum slope of the solar cycle sinusoid in the regression model is about the same size as the slope produced by the linear trend. The fact that the solar cycle was correctly extracted by the model is a strong indicator that effects of this size, in particular the slope of the linear trend, can be accurately determined from the 55 years of data analyzed. The main purpose for doing this analysis is to demonstrate that it i...

  1. Rehydrate locally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djokoto, E

    1997-11-01

    In 1991, in the northern region of Ghana, during the cholera epidemic, 10 rural health centers replied to a questionnaire regarding cholera case referrals. The results were as follows: 6 centers referred serious cases to hospitals, 2 did not receive patients because of fear of infection, and 2 received all patients. Although no patients admitted to the rural health centers died, many of the referred patients did. Of 14 cases referred to a hospital, 3 died in transit, 4 died at the hospital, and 7 survived. Deaths might be prevented if patients were treated promptly and locally with oral rehydration solutions based on cereals and rice; these are easy to prepare, superior to, and more available than standard oral rehydration salts (ORS). One mother walked 5 miles to a rural health post with her sick baby on her back, only to find that the dehydrated child had died on the way. During the 1991 cholera epidemic in Ghana, the author treated several patients in their homes; all recovered. Prompt and frequent rehydration in the home is the best treatment for diarrhea and cholera.

  2. The Effects of High Temperature on Infection by Potato virus Y, Potato virus A, and Potato leafroll virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Bong Nam; Canto, Tomas; Tenllado, Francisco; Choi, Kyung San; Joa, Jae Ho; Ahn, Jeong Joon; Kim, Chun Hwan; Do, Ki Seck

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effects of temperature on acquisition of Potato virus Y-O (PVY-O), Potato virus A (PVA), and Potato leafroll virus (PLRV) by Myzus persicae by performing transmission tests with aphids that acquired each virus at different temperatures. Infection by PVY-O/PVA and PLRV increased with increasing plant temperature in Nicotiana benthamiana and Physalis floridana, respectively, after being transmitted by aphids that acquired them within a temperature range of 10–20°C. However, infection rates subsequently decreased. Direct qRT-PCR of RNA extracted from a single aphid showed that PLRV infection increased in the 10–20°C range, but this trend also declined shortly thereafter. We examined the effect of temperature on establishment of virus infection. The greatest number of plants became infected when N. benthamiana was held at 20°C after inoculation with PVY-O or PVA. The largest number of P. floridana plants became infected with PLRV when the plants were maintained at 25°C. PLRV levels were highest in P. floridana kept at 20–25°C. These results indicate that the optimum temperatures for proliferation of PVY-O/PVA and PLRV differed. Western blot analysis showed that accumulations of PVY-O and PVA coat proteins (CPs) were lower at 10°C or 15°C than at 20°C during early infection. However, accumulation increased over time. At 25°C or 30°C, the CPs of both viruses accumulated during early infection but disappeared as time passed. Our results suggest that symptom attenuation and reduction of PVY-O and PVA CP accumulation at higher temperatures appear to be attributable to increased RNA silencing. PMID:27493607

  3. STRATEGIES OF MAINTAINING PROFICIENCY BY TEACHERS OF ENGLISH IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junaidi Mistar, Alfan Zuhairini

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study are four-fold: (1 to identify the types of strategies to maintain proficiency used by teachers of English in Indonesia, (2 to know the intensity of use of the obtained strategy types, (3 to measure the inter-correlation in the use of the obtained strategy types, and (4 to investigate the effect of proficiency level on the use of maintaining strategies. The subjects were 93 teachers applying for S2 degree in 2010/2011 at the postgraduate program of the Islamic University of Malang. They were given two sets of instrument, a Likert-scale questionnaire of English proficiency maintaining strategies and a TOEFL test. Then, a factor analysis identified nine strategy categories, including language focusing, metacognitive and affective developing, reading and writing activating, language resource utilizing, cognitive processing, culture learning, social communicating, text analyzing, and radio listening strategies. These strategy types explained 63.84% of variances of maintaining strategies and they were used at high level of intensity. Moreover, the use of the nine strategy types were found to be inter-correlated with one another. Finally, no significant effect of proficiency level on strategy use was found, indicating that teachers with different level of proficiency reported using the same strategies of maintaining their proficiency.

  4. Maintaining Discovered Frequent Itemsets: Cases for Changeable Database and Support

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU XiaoPing(杜孝平); TANG ShiWei(唐世渭); Akifumi Makinouchi(牧之内顕文)

    2003-01-01

    Mining frequent itemsets from large databases has played an essential role inmany data mining tasks. It is also important to maintain the discovered frequent itemsets forthese data mining tasks when the database is updated. All algorithms proposed so far for the maintenance of discovered frequent itemsets are only performed with a fixed minimum support,which is the same as that used to obtain the discovered frequent itemsets. That is, users cannot change the minimum support even if the new results are unsatisfactory to the users. In thispaper two new complementary algorithms, FMP (First Maintaining Process) and RMP (Repeated Maintaining Process), are proposed to maintain discovered frequent itemsets in the case that new transaction data are added to a transaction database. Both algorithms allow users to change theminimum support for the maintenance processes. FMP is used for the first maintaining process, andwhen the result derived from the FMP is unsatisfactory, RMP will be performed repeatedly untilsatisfactory results are obtained. The proposed algorithms re-use the previous results to cut downthe cost of maintenance. Extensive experiments have been conducted to assess the performance of the algorithms. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithms are very resultful compared with the previous mining and maintenance algorithms for maintenance of discovered frequent itemsets.

  5. Maintaining Visual Attention over Time: Effects of Object Continuity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsumi Watanabe

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining visual attention in dynamic environments is an important function of the visual system. The visual system appears to modulate attentional state to identify a target embedded in a rapid sequence of nontargets; typically, target identification gets better as the number of preceding items increases and is maintained at this increased level. We examined the temporal characteristics of the visual system that contribute to maintaining attentional state. Inserting one-second temporal gap in the sequence reset the elevated attentional state. However, the results also suggested that the attentional state was maintained as long as the sequence was interpreted as a single event (i.e., the object continuity was maintained. It has been proposed that ‘object files’ keep track of visual items and accumulate information as they move and change. It is also known that objects' features (shape and/or color affect the distribution of attention within objects. In a separate set of experiments, we examined whether the change detection of feature-location binding in moving visual objects would affect the attentional distribution within objects by using a probe-detection paradigm. The results showed that the performance of irregularity detection did not influence the attentional distribution within objects. This finding implies that attentional distribution within objects occurs independent of object continuity.

  6. A morphing strategy to couple non-local to local continuum mechanics

    KAUST Repository

    Lubineau, Gilles

    2012-06-01

    A method for coupling non-local continuum models with long-range central forces to local continuum models is proposed. First, a single unified model that encompasses both local and non-local continuum representations is introduced. This model can be purely non-local, purely local or a hybrid depending on the constitutive parameters. Then, the coupling between the non-local and local descriptions is performed through a transition (morphing) affecting only the constitutive parameters. An important feature is the definition of the morphing functions, which relies on energy equivalence. This approach is useful in large-scale modeling of materials that exhibit strong non-local effects. The computational cost can be reduced while maintaining a reasonable level of accuracy. Efficiency, robustness and basic properties of the approach are discussed using one- and two-dimensional examples. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Nucleolar localization of influenza A NS1: striking differences between mammalian and avian cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazel-Sanchez Beryl

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In mammalian cells, nucleolar localization of influenza A NS1 requires the presence of a C-terminal nucleolar localization signal. This nucleolar localization signal is present only in certain strains of influenza A viruses. Therefore, only certain NS1 accumulate in the nucleolus of mammalian cells. In contrast, we show that all NS1 tested in this study accumulated in the nucleolus of avian cells even in the absence of the above described C-terminal nucleolar localization signal. Thus, nucleolar localization of NS1 in avian cells appears to rely on a different nucleolar localization signal that is more conserved among influenza virus strains.

  8. Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis C Virus Co-infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis C Virus Co-infection in Cameroon: ... were analyzed using molecular biology techniques that involved RT-PCR, ... There is evidence of genetic diversity of HIV and HCV; virulent hepatitis C virus ...

  9. Role Bending: Complex Relationships Between Viruses, Hosts, and Vectors Related to Citrus Leprosis, an Emerging Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Avijit; Hartung, John S; Schneider, William L; Shao, Jonathan; Leon, Guillermo; Melzer, Michael J; Beard, Jennifer J; Otero-Colina, Gabriel; Bauchan, Gary R; Ochoa, Ronald; Brlansky, Ronald H

    2015-07-01

    Citrus leprosis complex is an emerging disease in the Americas, associated with two unrelated taxa of viruses distributed in South, Central, and North America. The cytoplasmic viruses are Citrus leprosis virus C (CiLV-C), Citrus leprosis virus C2 (CiLV-C2), and Hibiscus green spot virus 2, and the nuclear viruses are Citrus leprosis virus N (CiLV-N) and Citrus necrotic spot virus. These viruses cause local lesion infections in all known hosts, with no natural systemic host identified to date. All leprosis viruses were believed to be transmitted by one species of mite, Brevipalpus phoenicis. However, mites collected from CiLV-C and CiLV-N infected citrus groves in Mexico were identified as B. yothersi and B. californicus sensu lato, respectively, and only B. yothersi was detected from CiLV-C2 and CiLV-N mixed infections in the Orinoco regions of Colombia. Phylogenetic analysis of the helicase, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 2 domains and p24 gene amino acid sequences of cytoplasmic leprosis viruses showed a close relationship with recently deposited mosquito-borne negevirus sequences. Here, we present evidence that both cytoplasmic and nuclear viruses seem to replicate in viruliferous Brevipalpus species. The possible replication in the mite vector and the close relationship with mosquito borne negeviruses are consistent with the concept that members of the genus Cilevirus and Higrevirus originated in mites and citrus may play the role of mite virus vector.

  10. Innovative scheduling to maintain clinical pharmacy services despite budget retrenchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, J; Schneider, P J; Moore, T D

    1984-02-01

    A process is described in which staff scheduling was adjusted to maintain pharmaceutical services while achieving a 7% cutback in personnel costs. The pharmacy department in a 1000-bed university hospital was unable to achieve the necessary cost savings through reductions in sick leave and overtime hours. The pharmacy administration developed a plan that required pharmacists to work four 10-hour shifts per week and resulted in reduced hours of service. The pharmacists objected and proposed an alternative plan in which clinical service was maintained for 16 hours on weekdays and 12 hours on weekends. Pharmacist teams worked one flexible shift per week. Pharmacists developed an innovative staffing plan that allowed them to maintain a high level of practice and acceptable working hours.

  11. Functional analysis screening for problem behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querim, Angie C; Iwata, Brian A; Roscoe, Eileen M; Schlichenmeyer, Kevin J; Ortega, Javier Virués; Hurl, Kylee E

    2013-01-01

    A common finding in previous research is that problem behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement continues to occur in the alone condition of a functional analysis (FA), whereas behavior maintained by social reinforcement typically is extinguished. Thus, the alone condition may represent an efficient screening procedure when maintenance by automatic reinforcement is suspected. We conducted a series of 5-min alone (or no-interaction) probes for 30 cases of problem behavior and compared initial predictions of maintenance or extinction to outcomes obtained in subsequent FAs. Results indicated that data from the screening procedure accurately predicted that problem behavior was maintained by automatic reinforcement in 21 of 22 cases and by social reinforcement in 7 of 8 cases. Thus, results of the screening accurately predicted the function of problem behavior (social vs. automatic reinforcement) in 28 of 30 cases.

  12. Equilateral pentagon polarization maintaining photonic crystal fibre with low nonlinearity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Han-Rui; Li Xu-You; Hong Wei; Hao Jin-Hui

    2012-01-01

    A new pentagon polarization maintaining photonic crystal fibre with low nonlinearity is introduced. The full vector finite element method was used to investigate the distribution and the effective area of modal field,the nonlinear properties,the effective indices of two orthogonal polarization modes and the birefringence of the new PM-PCF effectively.It is found that the birefringence of the new polarization maintaining photonic crystal fibre can easily achieve the order of 10-4,and it can obtain higher birefringence,larger effectively mode-field area and lower nonlinearity than traditional hexagonal polarization maintaining photonic crystal fibre with the same hole pitch,same hole diameter,and same ring number.It is important for sensing and communication applications,especially has potential application for fibre optical gyroscope.

  13. Deciphering Dynamics of Recent Epidemic Spread and Outbreak in West Africa: The Case of Ebola Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Ranjit Kumar; Roy, Parimita

    Recently, the 2014 Ebola virus (EBOV) outbreak in West Africa was the largest outbreak to date. In this paper, an attempt has been made for modeling the virus dynamics using an SEIR model to better understand and characterize the transmission trajectories of the Ebola outbreak. We compare the simulated results with the most recent reported data of Ebola infected cases in the three most affected countries Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone. The epidemic model exhibits two equilibria, namely, the disease-free and unique endemic equilibria. Existence and local stability of these equilibria are explored. Using central manifold theory, it is established that the transcritical bifurcation occurs when basic reproduction number passes through unity. The proposed Ebola epidemic model provides an estimate to the potential number of future cases. The model indicates that the disease will decline after peaking if multisectorial and multinational efforts to control the spread of infection are maintained. Possible implication of the results for disease eradication and its control are discussed which suggests that proper control strategies like: (i) transmission precautions, (ii) isolation and care of infectious Ebola patients, (iii) safe burial, (iv) contact tracing with follow-up and quarantine, and (v) early diagnosis are needed to stop the recurrent outbreak.

  14. Zika Virus and Patient Blood Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodnough, Lawrence T; Marques, Marisa B

    2017-01-01

    Sporadic Zika virus infections had only occurred in Africa and Asia until an outbreak in Micronesia (Oceania) in 2007. In 2013 to 2014, several outer Pacific Islands reported local outbreaks. Soon thereafter, the virus was likely introduced in Brazil from competing athletes from French Polynesia and other countries that participated in a competition there. Transmission is thought to have occurred through mosquito bites and spread to the immunologically naive population. Being also a flavivirus, the Zika virus is transmitted by the Aedes mosquito that is endemic in South and Central America that is also the vector of West Nile virus, dengue, and chikungunya. In less than a year, physicians in Brazil reported a many-fold increase in the number of babies born with microcephaly. Despite initial skepticism regarding the causal association of the Zika virus epidemic and birth defects, extensive basic and clinical research evidence has now confirmed this relationship. In the United States, more than 4000 travel-associated infections have been reported by the middle of 2016 to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Furthermore, many local mosquito-borne infections have occurred in Puerto Rico and Florida. Considering that the virus causes a viremia in which 80% of infected individuals have no symptoms, the potential for transfusion transmission from an asymptomatic blood donor is high if utilizing donor screening alone without testing. Platelet units have been shown to infect 2 patients via transfusion in Brazil. Although there was an investigational nucleic acid test available for testing donors, not all blood centers were initially required to participate. Subsequently, the US Food and Drug Administration issued a guidance in August 2016 that recommended universal nucleic acid testing for the Zika virus on blood donors.In this report, we review the potentially devastating effects of Zika virus infection during pregnancy and its implication in cases of Guillain

  15. Validation Effectiveness of Develop Maintainability Allocation on Aircraft Mechanical Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Husain W.M.S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Maintainability Allocation is a process to identify the allowable maximum task time for each individual component. Consequently, this provides clear pictures to the designers to design and identify potential design improvement within allowable maintenance allocation time limits. During the design process elements such as missteps or misapplications most commonly occur. Here, the authors propose having the maximum target for each individual maintainability component. The main objective of this paper is to present the validation process of developed Maintainability Allocation to potentially eliminate previous problems. The process of validation begins with analysed all the data collected from Service Difficulty Reports (SDR for selected aircraft. This is to understand the problems from existing aircraft before a new design is proposed through the process of Maintainability Allocation prediction. The validation processes have discovered the importance of utilising historical information such as feedback information. The second area is looking at the element of quantifying the data collected from aircraft feedback information which contains various types of information that could be used for future improvement. Validation process shows that feedback information has helped to identify the critical and sensitive components that need more attention for further improvement. The study shows that the aircraft maintenance related feedback information systems analyses were very useful for deciding maintainability effectiveness; these include planning, organising maintenance and design improvement. There is no doubt that feedback information has the ability to contribute an important role in design activities. The results also show that maintainability is an important measure that can be used as a guideline for managing efforts made for the improvement of aircraft components.

  16. Viruses in Antarctic lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepner, R. L. Jr; Wharton, R. A. Jr; Suttle, C. A.; Wharton RA, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Water samples collected from four perennially ice-covered Antarctic lakes during the austral summer of 1996-1997 contained high densities of extracellular viruses. Many of these viruses were found to be morphologically similar to double-stranded DNA viruses that are known to infect algae and protozoa. These constitute the first observations of viruses in perennially ice-covered polar lakes. The abundance of planktonic viruses and data suggesting substantial production potential (relative to bacteria] secondary and photosynthetic primary production) indicate that viral lysis may be a major factor in the regulation of microbial populations in these extreme environments. Furthermore, we suggest that Antarctic lakes may be a reservoir of previously undescribed viruses that possess novel biological and biochemical characteristics.

  17. Mechanical properties of viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pablo, Pedro J; Mateu, Mauricio G

    2013-01-01

    Structural biology techniques have greatly contributed to unveil the relationships between structure, properties and functions of viruses. In recent years, classic structural approaches are being complemented by single-molecule techniques such as atomic force microscopy and optical tweezers to study physical properties and functions of viral particles that are not accessible to classic structural techniques. Among these features are mechanical properties such as stiffness, intrinsic elasticity, tensile strength and material fatigue. The field of virus mechanics is contributing to materials science by investigating some physical parameters of "soft" biological matter and biological nano-objects. Virus mechanics studies are also starting to unveil the biological implications of physical properties of viruses. Growing evidence indicate that viruses are subjected to internal and external forces, and that they may have adapted to withstand and even use those forces. This chapter describes what is known on the mechanical properties of virus particles, their structural determinants, and possible biological implications, of which several examples are provided.

  18. Real-time dynamic imaging of virus distribution in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean E Hofherr

    Full Text Available The distribution of viruses and gene therapy vectors is difficult to assess in a living organism. For instance, trafficking in murine models can usually only be assessed after sacrificing the animal for tissue sectioning or extraction. These assays are laborious requiring whole animal sectioning to ascertain tissue localization. They also obviate the ability to perform longitudinal or kinetic studies in one animal. To track viruses after systemic infection, we have labeled adenoviruses with a near-infrared (NIR fluorophore and imaged these after intravenous injection in mice. Imaging was able to track and quantitate virus particles entering the jugular vein simultaneous with injection, appearing in the heart within 500 milliseconds, distributing in the bloodstream and throughout the animal within 7 seconds, and that the bulk of virus distribution was essentially complete within 3 minutes. These data provide the first in vivo real-time tracking of the rapid initial events of systemic virus infection.

  19. Encapsulation of bacteria and viruses in electrospun nanofibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salalha, W.; Kuhn, J.; Dror, Y.; Zussman, E.

    2006-09-01

    Bacteria and viruses were encapsulated in electrospun polymer nanofibres. The bacteria and viruses were suspended in a solution of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) in water and subjected to an electrostatic field of the order of 1 kV cm-1. Encapsulated bacteria in this work, (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus albus) and bacterial viruses (T7, T4, λ) managed to survive the electrospinning process while maintaining their viability at fairly high levels. Subsequently the bacteria and viruses remain viable during three months at -20 and -55 °C without a further decrease in number. The present results demonstrate the potential of the electrospinning process for the encapsulation and immobilization of living biological material.

  20. Encapsulation of bacteria and viruses in electrospun nanofibres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salalha, W [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technion, Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Kuhn, J [Faculty of Biology, Technion, Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Dror, Y [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technion, Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Zussman, E [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technion, Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

    2006-09-28

    Bacteria and viruses were encapsulated in electrospun polymer nanofibres. The bacteria and viruses were suspended in a solution of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) in water and subjected to an electrostatic field of the order of 1 kV cm{sup -1}. Encapsulated bacteria in this work (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus albus) and bacterial viruses (T7, T4, {lambda}) managed to survive the electrospinning process while maintaining their viability at fairly high levels. Subsequently the bacteria and viruses remain viable during three months at -20 and -55 deg. C without a further decrease in number. The present results demonstrate the potential of the electrospinning process for the encapsulation and immobilization of living biological material.