Medrano, Silvia; Scrable, Heidi
In the adult mammalian brain, neuronal turnover continues to replenish cells in existing neuronal circuits, such as those involved either in odor discrimination or in learning and memory, throughout life. With age, however, the capacity for neurogenesis diminishes and these functions become impaired. Neuronal turnover is a two-step process, which first generates excess neuronal progenitors and then eliminates all but the few that differentiate into fully functional neurons. This process requires a fine balance between cell proliferation and cell death. Altered activity of the tumor suppressor p53 can upset this balance by affecting the rate of cell proliferation, but not the rate of cell death, in neurogenic regions of the adult brain. Genetically engineered mice in which p53 activity is increased demonstrate that premature loss of neurogenic capacity is linked to accelerated organismal aging
Clift, Renee Tipton
This self-study describes the ways in which a move to a different state, university, and academic role has shaped my sense of self as a scholar, teacher educator, and college administrator. I draw from role theory and from conceptions of habitus and field to provide a conceptual lens for interpreting the data and my experiences. I then address two…
Perry, Rachel J; Shulman, Gerald I
For 20 years it has been known that concentrations of leptin, a hormone produced by the white adipose tissue (WAT) largely in proportion to body fat, drops precipitously with starvation, particularly in lean humans and animals. The role of leptin to suppress the thyroid and reproductive axes during a prolonged fast has been well defined; however, the impact of leptin on metabolic regulation has been incompletely understood. However emerging evidence suggests that, in starvation, hypoleptinemia increases activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, promoting WAT lipolysis, increasing hepatic acetyl-CoA concentrations, and maintaining euglycemia. In addition, leptin may be largely responsible for mediating a shift from a reliance upon glucose metabolism (absorption and glycogenolysis) to fat metabolism (lipolysis increasing gluconeogenesis) which preserves substrates for the brain, heart, and other critical organs. In this way a leptin-mediated glucose-fatty acid cycle appears to maintain glycemia and permit survival in starvation.
Borges, Sandra; Silva, Joana; Teixeira, Paula
The vaginal microbiota of healthy women consists typically of a diversity of anaerobic and aerobic microorganisms. Lactobacilli are the most prevalent and often numerically dominant microorganisms and are relevant as a barrier to infection. The capacity of lactobacilli to adhere and compete for adhesion sites in the vaginal epithelium and the capacity to produce antimicrobial compounds (hydrogen peroxide, lactic acid, bacteriocin-like substances), are important in the impairment of colonization by pathogens. This review summarizes the role of lactic acid bacteria in preventing illness of the host, including bacterial vaginosis, yeast vaginitis, urinary tract infection and sexually transmitted diseases. The administration of probiotics that colonize the vaginal tract can be important in maintaining a normal urogenital health and also to prevent or treat infections.
Errors in duplicating DNA can result in genomic instability, leading to various human diseases, such as cancer, immune system disorder, muscle dystrophy ...as cancer, immune system disorder, muscle dystrophy , and neurodegenerations. Thus, maintaining genomic integrity is vital to the normal growth of...31–38. Eberharter, A., R. Ferreira and P. Becker , 2005 Dynamic chro- matin: concerted nucleosome remodelling and acetylation. Biol. Chem. 386: 745
Full Text Available The physiological role of RASSF9, a member of the Ras-association domain family (RASSF, is currently unclear. Here, we report a mouse line in which an Epstein-Barr virus Latent Membrane Protein 1 (LMP1 transgene insertion has created a 7.2-kb chromosomal deletion, which abolished RASSF9 gene expression. The RASSF9-null mice exhibited interesting phenotypes that resembled human ageing, including growth retardation, short lifespan, less subcutaneous adipose layer and alopecia. In the wild-type mice, RASSF9 is predominantly expressed in the epidermal keratinocytes of skin, as determined by quantitative reverse-transcription PCR, immunofluorescence and in situ hybridization. In contrast, RASSF9-/- mice presented a dramatic change in epithelial organization of skin with increased proliferation and aberrant differentiation as detected by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation assays and immunofluorescence analyses. Furthermore, characteristic functions of RASSF9-/- versus wild type (WT mouse primary keratinocytes showed significant proliferation linked to a reduction of p21Cip1 expression under growth or early differentiation conditions. Additionally, in RASSF9-/- keratinocytes there was a drastic down-modulation of terminal differentiation markers, which could be rescued by infection with a recombinant adenovirus, Adv/HA-RASSF9. Our results indicate a novel and significant role of RASSF9 in epidermal homeostasis.
Kozono, Takuma; Tadahira, Kazuko; Okumura, Wataru; Itai, Nao; Tamura-Nakano, Miwa; Dohi, Taeko; Tonozuka, Takashi; Nishikawa, Atsushi
Jaw1/LRMP is characterized as a type II integral membrane protein that is localized to endoplasmic reticulum (ER), however, its physiological functions have been poorly understood. An alignment of amino acid sequence of Jaw1 with KASH proteins, outer nuclear membrane proteins, revealed that Jaw1 has a partial homology to the KASH domain. Here, we show that the function of Jaw1 is to maintain nuclear shape in mouse melanoma cell line. The siRNA-mediated knockdown of Jaw1 caused a severe defect in nuclear shape, and the defect was rescued by ectopic expression of siRNA-resistant Jaw1. Since co-immunoprecipitation assay indicates that Jaw1 interacts with SUN proteins that are inner nuclear proteins and microtubules, this study suggests that Jaw1 has a role in maintaining nuclear shape via interactions with SUN proteins and microtubules.
Islam, M Sirajul; Islam, M Shafiqul; Mahmud, Zahid H; Cairncross, Sandy; Clemens, John D; Collins, Andrew E
In Bangladesh, cholera is endemic and maintains a regular seasonal pattern. The role of phytoplankton in maintaining endemicity and seasonality of cholera was monitored in Matlab, Bangladesh. Phytoplankton and water samples were collected from two ponds bi-weekly for 1 year. The association of Vibrio cholerae O1 with phytoplankton was studied by culture and direct fluorescent antibody techniques. The bio-physicochemical parameters of water were measured and data for cases of cholera were collected from the records of Matlab hospital. The correlation of cholera cases with levels of phytoplankton, V. cholerae and bio-physicochemical parameters of water was carried out using Pearson's correlation coefficients. V. cholerae O1 survived for 48 days in association with Anabaena variabilis in a culturable state, but survived for a year in a viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state. V. cholerae survived for 12 and 32 days in a culturable state in control water (without algae) and water with algae, respectively. There was a significant correlation between changing levels of cholera cases in the community and the blue green algae and total phytoplankton in the aquatic environment. A significant correlation was also found between the cholera cases and chlorophyll-a and VBNC V. cholerae O1 in the aquatic environment. This study demonstrated the role of phytoplankton in maintaining endemicity and seasonality of cholera in Bangladesh. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Kumar, Purnima S; Mason, Matthew R
The existence of symbiotic relationships between bacteria and their hosts in various ecosystems have long been known to science. The human body also hosts vast numbers of bacteria in several habitats. Emerging evidence from the gastro-intestinal tract, genito-urinary tract and respiratory indicates that there are several health benefits to hosting a complex and diverse microbial community. Bacteria colonize the oral cavity within a few minutes after birth and form stable communities. Our knowledge of the oral microbiome has expanded exponentially with development of novel exploratory methods that allow us to examine diversity, structure, function, and topography without the need to cultivate the individual components of the biofilm. The purpose of this perspective, therefore, is to examine the strength of current evidence supporting a role for the oral microbiome in maintaining oral health. While several lines of evidence are emerging to suggest that indigenous oral microbiota may have a role in immune education and preventing pathogen expansion, much more work is needed to definitively establish whether oral bacteria do indeed contribute to sustaining oral health, and if so, the mechanisms underlying this role.
Purnima S Kumar
Full Text Available The existence of symbiotic relationships between bacteria in different ecosystems and their host niches have long been known to science. The human body also hosts vast numbers of bacteria in several habitats. Emerging evidence from the gastro-intestinal tract, genito-urinary tract and respiratory indicates that there are several health benefits to hosting a complex and diverse microbial community i. Bacteria colonize the oral cavity within a few minutes after birth and form stable communities . Our knowledge of the oral microbiome has expanded exponentially with development of novel exploratory methods that allow us to examine diversity, structure, function and topography without the need to cultivate the individual components of the biofilm. The purpose of this perspective, therefore, is to examine the strength of current evidence supporting a role for the oral microbiome in maintaining oral health. While several lines of evidence are emerging to suggest that indigenous oral microbiota may have a role in immune education and preventing pathogen expansion, much more work is needed to definitively establish whether oral bacteria do indeed contribute to sustaining oral health, and if so, the mechanisms underlying this role.
Beard Daniel A
Full Text Available Abstract Background The heart is capable of maintaining contractile function despite a transient decrease in blood flow and increase in cardiac ATP demand during systole. This study analyzes a previously developed model of cardiac energetics and oxygen transport to understand the roles of the creatine kinase system and myoglobin in maintaining the ATP hydrolysis potential during beat-to-beat transient changes in blood flow and ATP hydrolysis rate. Results The theoretical investigation demonstrates that elimination of myoglobin only slightly increases the predicted range of oscillation of cardiac oxygenation level during beat-to-beat transients in blood flow and ATP utilization. In silico elimination of myoglobin has almost no impact on the cytoplasmic ATP hydrolysis potential (ΔGATPase. In contrast, disabling the creatine kinase system results in considerable oscillations of cytoplasmic ADP and ATP levels and seriously deteriorates the stability of ΔGATPase in the beating heart. Conclusion The CK system stabilizes ΔGATPase by both buffering ATP and ADP concentrations and enhancing the feedback signal of inorganic phosphate in regulating mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation.
Full Text Available The Syrian crisis is considered the ‘world’s single largest crisis for almost a quarter of a century that has the biggest refugee population from a single conflict in a generation’ (UN High Commissioner for Refugees, 2016. The rapid adoption of Facebook among Syrians questions whether it helps in maintaining the social capital of a war-torn nation and a dispersed Syrian population worldwide. Data was collected by means of a Facebook survey from 964 Syrian users. Results indicated that Facebook enhanced social identity and social capital through facilitating communication, collaboration and resource sharing among dispersed Syrians inside and outside the country. However, the offline rift of the nation was extended to Facebook through promoting hate speech among opposed parties. Results of this study may advance the understanding of the role of Facebook on social capital in countries going through similar crisis situations.
The Syrian crisis is considered the 'world's single largest crisis for almost a quarter of a century that has the biggest refugee population from a single conflict in a generation' (UN High Commissioner for Refugees, 2016). The rapid adoption of Facebook among Syrians questions whether it helps in maintaining the social capital of a war-torn nation and a dispersed Syrian population worldwide. Data was collected by means of a Facebook survey from 964 Syrian users. Results indicated that Facebook enhanced social identity and social capital through facilitating communication, collaboration and resource sharing among dispersed Syrians inside and outside the country. However, the offline rift of the nation was extended to Facebook through promoting hate speech among opposed parties. Results of this study may advance the understanding of the role of Facebook on social capital in countries going through similar crisis situations.
Full Text Available Shear stress (SS is a biomechanical force that is determined by blood flow, vessel geometry, and fluid viscosity. Although a wide range of known vascular risk factors promote development of atherosclerosis, atherosclerotic changes occur predominately at specific sites within the arterial tree, suggesting a critical role for local factors within the vasculature. Atherosclerotic lesions develop predominantly at branches, bends, and bifurcations in the arterial tree because these sites are exposed to low or disturbed blood flow and low SS. Low SS predisposes arteries to atherosclerosis by causing endothelial dysfunction. A natural system of preexisting cerebral collateral arteries protects against ischemia by bypassing sites of arterial occlusion through a mechanism of arteriogenesis. The main trigger for arteriogenesis is impaired vascular homeostasis (VH in response to local changes in SS induced by ischemia. VH is a critical process for maintaining the physiological function of cerebral circulation. It is regulated through a complex biological system of blood flow hemodynamic and physiological responses to flow changes. Restoration of VH by increasing arteriogenesis and SS may provide a novel therapeutic target for stroke, especially in the elderly, who are more prone to VH impairment. In this review article, we discuss the mechanisms and structures necessary to maintain VH in brain circulation, the role of SS, and risk factors leading to atherosclerosis, including the effects of aging. We also discuss arteriogenesis as an adaptive and protective process in response to ischemic injury, the imaging techniques currently available to evaluate arterogenesis such as magnetic resonance imaging/positron emission tomography (MRI/PET, and the potential therapeutic approaches against ischemic injury that target arteriogenesis.
Angeloni, Nicholas L.; Bond, Christopher W.; Monsivais, Diana; Tang, Yi; Podlasek, Carol A.
Introduction Sonic hedgehog (SHH) is an essential regulator of smooth muscle apoptosis in the penis that has significant clinical potential as a therapy to suppress post-prostatectomy apoptosis, an underlying cause of erectile dysfunction (ED). Thus an understanding of how SHH signaling is regulated in the adult penis is essential to move the field of ED research forward and to develop new treatment strategies. We propose that hedgehog-interacting protein (HIP), which has been shown to bind SHH protein and to play a role in SHH regulation during embryogenesis of other organs, is a critical regulator of SHH signaling, penile morphology, and apoptosis induction. Aims We have examined HIP signaling in the penis and cavernous nerve (CN) during postnatal differentiation of the penis, in CN-injured, and a diabetic model of ED. Methods HIP localization/abundance and RNA abundance were examined by immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis and real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in Sprague-Dawley rats between the ages of 7 and 92 days old, in CN-injured Sprague-Dawley rats and in BioBreeding/Worcester diabetic rats. HIP signaling was perturbed in the pelvic ganglia and in the penis and TUNEL assay was performed in the penis. CN tie, lidocaine, and anti-kinesin experiments were performed to examine HIP signaling in the CN and penis. Results In this study we are the first to demonstrate that HIP undergoes anterograde transport to the penis via the CN, that HIP perturbation in the pelvic ganglia or the penis induces apoptosis, and that HIP plays a role in maintaining CN integrity, penile morphology, and SHH abundance. Conclusions These studies are significant because they show HIP involvement in cross-talk (signaling) between the pelvic ganglia and penis, which is integral for maintenance of penile morphology and they suggest a mechanism of how nerves may regulate target organ morphology and function. PMID:19515211
Michal Shoshkes Carmel
Full Text Available VICKZ (IGF2BP1,2,3/ZBP1/Vg1RBP/IMP1,2,3 proteins bind RNA and help regulate many RNA-mediated processes. In the midbrain region of early chick embryos, VICKZ is expressed in the neural folds and along the basal surface of the neural epithelium, but, upon neural tube closure, is down-regulated in prospective cranial neural crest (CNC cells, concomitant with their emigration and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT. Electroporation of constructs that modulate cVICKZ expression demonstrates that this down-regulation is both necessary and sufficient for CNC EMT. These results suggest that VICKZ down-regulation in CNC cell-autonomously promotes EMT and migration. Reduction of VICKZ throughout the embryo, however, inhibits CNC migration non-cell-autonomously, as judged by transplantation experiments in Xenopus embryos.Given the positive role reported for VICKZ proteins in promoting cell migration of chick embryo fibroblasts and many types of cancer cells, we have begun to look for specific mRNAs that could mediate context-specific differences. We report here that the laminin receptor, integrin alpha 6, is down-regulated in the dorsal neural tube when CNC cells emigrate, this process is mediated by cVICKZ, and integrin alpha 6 mRNA is found in VICKZ ribonucleoprotein complexes. Significantly, prolonged inhibition of cVICKZ in either the neural tube or the nascent dermomyotome sheet, which also dynamically expresses cVICKZ, induces disruption of these epithelia. These data point to a previously unreported role for VICKZ in maintaining epithelial integrity.
Angga Pandu Wijaya
Full Text Available Objective: This study aims to understand the interrelationship between customer experience, self-congruity, and customer loyalty in the fashion industry. Previous studies have examined the direct effect of self-congruity on loyalty without taking into account the factor of customers’ shopping experience, which may moderate customers’ impression of a fashion. Research Design & Methods: This study employed questionnaires distributed to 100 respondents. Collected data was processed using PLS-SEM. The target respondents were between 18-30 years old. Individuals in that age band have dynamic dressing styles, so interesting to study. In the present study, the data from the respondents was processed in order to determine the inner model, the outer model, and hypothesis testing. Findings: The results of this study suggest that customer experience plays a significant role in moderating the effect of self-congruity on customer loyalty. This means that even though customers feel comfortable with a store’s image, however if they have bad experience, such experience may cause these customers not to be loyal. Implications & Recommendations: Research reveals that consumers are very concerned towards their experience when shopping. Stores should provide service that can make their customers feel comfortable and pleased. Contribution & Value Added: This study provides new insights into attempts to maintain customer loyalty. Several research was studied on self-congruity and loyalty, yet this is the first study that depict how experience moderating self-congruity towards loyalty.
André A. de Waal
Full Text Available There is still a good deal of confusion in the literature about how the use of a performance management system affects overall organizational performance. Some researchers find that performance management enhances both the financial and non-financial results of an organization, while others do not find any positive effects or, at most, ambiguous effects. An important step toward getting more clarity in this relationship is to investigate the role performance management plays in creating and maintaining a high-performance organization (HPO. The purpose of this study is to integrate performance management analysis (PMA and high-performance organization (HPO. A questionnaire combining questions on PMA dimensions and HPO factors was administered to two European-based multinational firms. Based on 468 valid questionnaires, a correlation analysis was performed on the PMA dimensions and the HPO factors in order to test the impact of performance management on the factors of high organizational performance. The results show strong and significant correlations between all the PMA dimensions and all the HPO factors, indicating that a performance management system that fosters performance-driven behavior in the organization is of critical importance to strengthen overall financial and non-financial performance.
Jin, Jianliang; Lv, Xianhui; Chen, Lulu; Zhang, Wei; Li, Jinbo; Wang, Qian; Wang, Rong; Lu, Xiang; Miao, Dengshun
To determine whether Bmi-1 deficiency could lead to renal tubulointerstitial injury by mitochondrial dysfunction and increased oxidative stress in the kidney, 3-week-old Bmi-1-/- mice were treated with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC, 1 mg mL−1) in their drinking water, or pyrro-quinoline quinone (PQQ, 4 mg kg−1 diet) in their diet for 2 weeks, and their renal phenotypes were compared with vehicle-treated Bmi1-/- and wild-type mice. Bmi-1 was knocked down in human renal proximal tubular epithelial (HK2) cells which were treated with 1 mm NAC for 72 or 96 h, and their phenotypes were compared with control cells. Five-week-old vehicle-treated Bmi-1-/- mice displayed renal interstitial fibrosis, tubular atrophy, and severe renal function impairment with decreased renal cell proliferation, increased renal cell apoptosis and senescence, and inflammatory cell infiltration. Impaired mitochondrial structure, decreased mitochondrial numbers, and increased oxidative stress occurred in Bmi-1-/- mice; subsequently, this caused DNA damage, the activation of TGF-β1/Smad signaling, and the imbalance between extracellular matrix synthesis and degradation. Oxidative stress-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of renal tubular epithelial cells was enhanced in Bmi-1 knocked down HK2 cells. All phenotypic alterations caused by Bmi-1 deficiency were ameliorated by antioxidant treatment. These findings indicate that Bmi-1 plays a critical role in protection from renal tubulointerstitial injury by maintaining redox balance and will be a novel therapeutic target for preventing renal tubulointerstitial injury. PMID:24915841
Aro, I.; Mazour, T.
This paper provides information how International Atomic Energy Agency can assist Member States in maintaining and developing nuclear safety competence. The topics covered include the development of safety standards, organisation of nuclear safety related conferences, provision of safety reviews, organisation of training courses and topical workshops and publication of training related documents. Usefulness of these activities for competence development is discussed. (author)
Jonathan, Grace Katunge; Mbogo, Rosemary Wahu
The concern for health and safety is legitimate in every context of human enterprise. In schools, for teaching staff's safety to be guaranteed, the equipment available should be properly maintained and installation for nonexistent ones done according to the health and safety policies. With a focus on Mbooni West district, this paper reports the…
Nascimento, A.S. (Augusto S.); Peres, L.L. (Luisa L.); Faria, A.V.S. (Alessandra V.S.); R. Milani (Renato); R.A. Fraga-Silva (Rodrigo); Fernandes, C.C. (Celio da Costa); M.P. Peppelenbosch (Maikel); Ferreira-Halder, C.V. (Carmen V.); W.F. Zambuzzi (Willian)
textabstractBreast cancer is responsible for 25% of cancer cases and 15% of cancer death among women. Treatment is usually prolonged and hampered by the development of chemoresistance. The molecular mechanisms maintaining the chemoresistant phenotype remains, however, largely obscure. As kinase
Ingvarsson, Einar T.; Hanley, Gregory P.; Welter, Katherine M.
Functional analyses suggested that the disruptive behavior of three preschool children was maintained by escape from demands. While keeping the escape contingency intact, we conducted (a) a density analysis in which the children earned preferred items for task completion according to two schedules that varied in reinforcement density, and (b) a…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Central to establishing continuity of care is the development of a relationship between doctor and patient/caregiver. Transfer of information between these parties facilitates the development of continuity in general; and specifically informational continuity of care. We conducted a systematic review of published literature to gain a better understanding of the roles that different parties – specifically doctors, patients, family caregivers, and technology – play in establishing and maintaining informational continuity of care within family practice. Methods Relevant published articles were sought from five databases. Accepted articles were reviewed and appraised in a consistent way. Fifty-six articles were retained following title and abstract reviews. Of these, 28 were accepted for this review. Results No articles focused explicitly on the roles involved in establishing or maintaining informational continuity of care within family practice. Most informational continuity of care literature focused on the transfer of information between settings and not at the first point of contact. Numerous roles were, however, were interpreted using the data extracted from reviewed articles. Doctors are responsible for record keeping, knowing patients' histories, recalling accumulated knowledge, and maintaining confidentiality. Patients are responsible for disclosing personal and health details, transferring information to other practitioners (including new family doctors, and establishing trust. Both are responsible for developing a relationship of trust. Technology is an important tool of informational continuity of care through holding important information, providing search functions, and providing a space for recorded information. There is a significant gap in our knowledge about the roles that family caregivers play. Conclusion The number of roles identified and the interrelationships between them indicates that establishing and
Petry, Bradley; Serbonich, Nadine
School psychologists in Baltimore (MD) City Public Schools are engaged in efforts to expand their professional roles from a traditional to a more comprehensive model. In Baltimore, school psychologists had been in the traditional role as a special education-specific gatekeeper and service provider. Starting in 2013, a group of school…
Hebl, Michelle R; King, Eden B; Glick, Peter; Singletary, Sarah L; Kazama, Stephanie
A naturalistic field study investigated behavior toward pregnant (vs. nonpregnant) women in nontraditional (job applicant) and traditional (store customer) roles. Female confederates, who sometimes wore a pregnancy prosthesis, posed as job applicants or customers at retail stores. Store employees exhibited more hostile behavior (e.g., rudeness) toward pregnant (vs. nonpregnant) applicants and more benevolent behavior (e.g., touching, overfriendliness) toward pregnant (vs. nonpregnant) customers. A second experiment revealed that pregnant women are especially likely to encounter hostility (from both men and women) when applying for masculine as compared with feminine jobs. The combination of benevolence toward pregnant women in traditional roles and hostility toward those who seek nontraditional roles suggests a system of complementary interpersonal rewards and punishments that may discourage pregnant women from pursuing work that violates gender norms. (c) 2007 APA
Parke, Michael R; Seo, Myeong-Gu; Sherf, Elad N
Although past research has identified the effects of emotional intelligence on numerous employee outcomes, the relationship between emotional intelligence and creativity has not been well established. We draw upon affective information processing theory to explain how two facets of emotional intelligence-emotion regulation and emotion facilitation-shape employee creativity. Specifically, we propose that emotion regulation ability enables employees to maintain higher positive affect (PA) when faced with unique knowledge processing requirements, while emotion facilitation ability enables employees to use their PA to enhance their creativity. We find support for our hypotheses using a multimethod (ability test, experience sampling, survey) and multisource (archival, self-reported, supervisor-reported) research design of early career managers across a wide range of jobs. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.
Full Text Available Induction of intraoperative pupillary constriction, is predominantly a prostaglandin mediated process. The most potent antiprostaglandin NSAID, Flurbiprofen was used topically to study its efficacy against the above. In a prospective double blind clinical study, 50 brown eyes undergoing planned E.C.C.E., the pupils were dilated with 10% phenylephrine and 2% homatropine 1%/tropicamide. 25 eyes received 0.03% Flurbiprofen-Na+ eye drops 1/2 hourly starting two hours before surgery. The maintained intraoperative mydriasis in the two groups before anterior chamber entry (stage I vs at the end of complete cortex wash (stage III was: in control group (stage I 8.46 +/- 0.48 mm vs (stage III 3.56 +/- 0.43 mm (highly SS; in flurbiprofen group (stage I 8.60 +/- 0.48 mm vs (stage III 8.01 +/- 0.63 mm (NSS. The pupillary area available for surgical manipulation in the control group was significantly decreased from 56.18 mm2 in state I to 9.94 mm2 in stage III, while in flurbiprofen group it changed insignificantly from 58.05 mm2 in stage I to 50.24 mm2 in stage III. Postoperatively after cataract was observed in 44% eyes of control group as compared to only 8% of eyes of flurbiprofen group. Thus a maintained intraoperative mydriasis in flurbiprofen group led to better E.C.L.E. which is a mandatory prerequisite to preferred and better present day posterior chamber IOL implantation.
Schjønning, Per; Jensen, Johannes Lund; Bruun, Sander
Soil organic carbon (SOC) is believed to play a crucial role for many soil functions and ecosystem services. Despite much research, a lower threshold of SOC for sustainable crop production has not been identified across soil types. We addressed a comprehensive dataset with yields of winter wheat...
In healthcare institutions, work must continue 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. A team of nurses is needed to provide around-the-clock patient care, and this process requires transfer of patient care responsibilities, a process known as a "handoff." The present study explored the role of electronic health records in structuring handoff…
Dessalegn, Banchiamlack; Landau, Barbara
We investigated the effects of language on vision by focusing on a well-known problem: the binding and maintenance of color-location conjunctions. Four-year-olds performed a task in which they saw a target (e.g., a split square, red on the left and green on the right) followed by a brief delay and then were asked to find the target in an array including the target, its reflection (e.g., red on the right and green on the left), and a square with a different geometric split. Errors were overwhelmingly reflections. This finding shows that the children failed to maintain color-location conjunctions. Performance improved when targets were accompanied by sentences specifying color and direction (e.g., "the red is on the left"), but not when the conjunction was highlighted using a nonlinguistic cue (e.g., flashing, pointing, changes in size), nor when sentences specified a nondirectional relationship (e.g., "the red is touching the green"). The relation between children's matching performance and their long-term knowledge of directional terms suggests two distinct mechanisms by which language can temporarily bridge delays, providing more stable representations.
Over the past several years, operators of the world's nuclear plants have compiled an increasingly impressive record of operational performance. Among the many factors that have led to this improvement are the unprecedented cooperation and information exchange among the world's nuclear operators. This paper presents the World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO) operating experience program and WANO peer review program as examples of the kinds of interaction that are occurring around the globe to maintain and improve the nuclear safety culture. In addition, some unique features of WANO are discussed. WANO has established four programs to help its members communicate effectively with each other. These include the exchange of operating experiences, voluntary peer reviews, professional and technical development, and technical support and exchange. The operating experience program alerts members to events that have occurred at other NPPs and enables members to take appropriate actions to prevent event recurrence. When an event occurs at a plant, management at that plant analyses the event and completes an event report, which is then sent to the WANO regional center to which the plant belongs. After a regional center review and necessary iteration, the report is posted onto the WANO Web site to make it available to all WANO members. By the end of 2000, more than 1500 event reports had been posted. The WANO Peer Review Program is a unique opportunity for members to learn and share the best worldwide insights into safe and reliable nuclear operations. The peer review program has become one of WANO's most important activities containing all essential elements of WANO's mission. A WANO peer review team consists of 15 to 16 people with NPP experience; most team members are from countries outside the one that they are visiting. These teams of peers from plants around the world visit host plants upon request to identify strengths and areas for improvement, with a strong
Lindsay, Sally; Cagliostro, Elaine; Albarico, Mikhaela; Srikanthan, Dilakshan; Mortaji, Neda
Purpose There is a critical need for gender-specific vocational supports for young adults with disabilities as they transition to employment. We conducted a systematic review to explore the role of gender in securing and maintaining employment. Methods Systematic searches of seven databases identified 48 studies meeting our inclusion criteria. Using a narrative synthesis approach, these studies were analyzed in terms of the characteristics of the participants, methodology, results, and quality of the evidence. Results Among the 48 studies, 112,473 participants (56% male), mean age (of the total sample) was 21, represented across ten countries. Twenty-one studies reported that young men with disabilities had better employment outcomes than women with disabilities. Eight studies showed that females with disabilities had better employment outcomes than males. Five studies reported that there were no gender differences in employment outcomes for youth with various disabilities. With regards to maintaining employment, men with disabilities often work more hours and have better wages compared to women with disabilities. There are several gender-related barriers and facilitators to maintaining employment including social supports and gender role expectations. Conclusions Our findings highlight that there is a critical need for gender-specific vocational supports for young adults with disabilities.
Janet H C Yeo
Full Text Available We identified Mrpl44 in a search for mammalian proteins that contain RNase III domains. This protein was previously found in association with the mitochondrial ribosome of bovine liver extracts. However, the precise Mrpl44 localization had been unclear. Here, we show by immunofluorescence microscopy and subcellular fractionation that Mrpl44 is localized to the matrix of the mitochondria. We found that it can form multimers, and confirm that it is part of the large subunit of the mitochondrial ribosome. By manipulating its expression, we show that Mrpl44 may be important for regulating the expression of mtDNA-encoded genes. This was at the level of RNA expression and protein translation. This ultimately impacted ATP synthesis capability and respiratory capacity of cells. These findings indicate that Mrpl44 plays an important role in the regulation of the mitochondrial OXPHOS capacity.
Arason, Ari Jon; Jonsdottir, Hulda R; Halldorsson, Skarphedinn; Benediktsdottir, Berglind Eva; Bergthorsson, Jon Thor; Ingthorsson, Saevar; Baldursson, Olafur; Sinha, Satrajit; Gudjonsson, Thorarinn; Magnusson, Magnus K
The upper airways are lined with a pseudostratified bronchial epithelium that forms a barrier against unwanted substances in breathing air. The transcription factor p63, which is important for stratification of skin epithelium, has been shown to be expressed in basal cells of the lungs and its ΔN isoform is recognized as a key player in squamous cell lung cancer. However, the role of p63 in formation and maintenance of bronchial epithelia is largely unknown. The objective of the current study was to determine the expression pattern of the ΔN and TA isoforms of p63 and the role of p63 in the development and maintenance of pseudostratified lung epithelium in situ and in culture. We used a human bronchial epithelial cell line with basal cell characteristics (VA10) to model bronchial epithelium in an air-liquid interface culture (ALI) and performed a lentiviral-based silencing of p63 to characterize the functional and phenotypic consequences of p63 loss. We demonstrate that ΔNp63 is the major isoform in the human lung and its expression was exclusively found in the basal cells lining the basement membrane of the bronchial epithelium. Knockdown of p63 affected proliferation and migration of VA10 cells and facilitated cellular senescence. Expression of p63 is critical for epithelial repair as demonstrated by wound healing assays. Importantly, generation of pseudostratified VA10 epithelium in the ALI setup depended on p63 expression and goblet cell differentiation, which can be induced by IL-13 stimulation, was abolished by the p63 knockdown. After knockdown of p63 in primary bronchial epithelial cells they did not proliferate and showed marked senescence. We conclude that these results strongly implicate p63 in the formation and maintenance of differentiated pseudostratified bronchial epithelium.
Chakkalakal, D; Weißbach, L
Sexuality in the elderly is still a social taboo. A commitment by medical practices to address the topic of sexuality in later life is essential, given that the sexual health is part of the quality of life. Identification of barriers and discourse of effects in the physician's behavior when dealing with the sexuality of older people. Review and discussion of interdisciplinary literature and social discourse. Compilation of expert opinions. Although the introduction of phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors led to a removal of taboos concerning erectile dysfunction, the sexuality of older men became narrowed to physiological aspects. The elderly still complain that consultations concerning their sexuality receives too little attention in medical practice. Problems are boundaries of shame and disregard of the sexuality of elderly. Sexuality in old age will have to become more prominent in medical practices, due to demographic changes and changing self-images of the elderly. The social role of physicians enables straightforward discussions about sexuality. Taking a sexual history and choosing an active approach proved to be practicable to discuss sexual problems with older people.
Full Text Available This paper examines the economical impact of IPv6, Internet Protocol's next generation. Technically, IPv6 represents an upgrade, an evolution that offers the resources necessary for deeper and wider market penetration of the IP technology, to support the needs of a global economy, to build new products and new services. Politically and economically it has the potential of being a quiet revolution. Countries that trailed US into the information revolution recognize this opportunity to take a leading role in its next expansion phase and have developed national strategies to help better position their respective economies. Despite understanding the constraints imposed by the current version of IP, the private sector is currently inclined to largely ignore IPv6 because of its initial deployment costs and long term returns. Forced by high investor expectations to focus exclusively on the immediate bottom line it trades long term growth opportunities for short term benefits revolving around productivity increases. The paper analyses the importance of a National Strategy in driving IPv6 adoption and in closing a widening knowledge and deployment gap between US and countries such as China, Japan, Korea and the EU.
Sarah J. Casey
Full Text Available Mycobacterium species have a complex cAMP regulatory network indicated by the high number of adenylate cyclases annotated in their genomes. However the need for a high level of redundancy in adenylate cyclase genes remains unknown. We have used semiquantitiative RT-PCR to examine the expression of eight Mycobacterium smegmatis cyclases with orthologs in the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis, where cAMP has recently been shown to be important for virulence. All eight cyclases were transcribed in all environments tested, and only four demonstrated environmental-mediated changes in transcription. M. smegmatis genes MSMEG_0545 and MSMEG_4279 were upregulated during starvation conditions while MSMEG_0545 and MSMEG_4924 were downregulated in H2O2 and MSMEG_3780 was downregulated in low pH and starvation. Promoter fusion constructs containing M. tuberculosis H37Rv promoters showed consistent regulation compared to their M. smegmatis orthologs. Overall our findings indicate that while low levels of transcriptional regulation occur, regulation at the mRNA level does not play a major role in controlling cellular cyclase availability in a given environment.
Full Text Available The CENP-W/T complex was previously reported to be required for mitosis. HeLa cells depleted of CENP-W displayed profound mitotic defects, with mitotic timing delay, disorganized prometaphases and multipolar spindles as major phenotypic consequences. In this study, we examined the process of multipolar spindle formation induced by CENP-W depletion. Depletion of CENP-W in HeLa cells labeled with histone H2B and tubulin fluorescent proteins induced rapid fragmentation of originally bipolar spindles in a high proportion of cells. CENP-W depletion was associated with depletion of Hec1 at kinetochores. The possibility of promiscuous centrosomal duplication was ruled out by immunofluorescent examination of centrioles. However, centrioles were frequently observed to be abnormally split. In addition, a large proportion of the supernumerary poles lacked centrioles, but were positively stained with different centrosomal markers. These observations suggested that perturbation in spindle force distribution caused by defective kinetochores could contribute to a mechanical mechanism for spindle pole disruption. 'Spindle free' nocodazole arrested cells did not exhibit pole fragmentation after CENP-W depletion, showing that pole fragmentation is microtubule dependent. Inhibition of centrosome separation by monastrol reduced the incidence of spindle pole fragmentation, indicating that Eg5 plays a role in spindle pole disruption. Surprisingly, CENP-W depletion rescued the monopolar spindle phenotype of monastrol treatment, with an increased frequency of bipolar spindles observed after CENP-W RNAi. We overexpressed the microtubule cross-linking protein TPX2 to create spindle poles stabilized by the microtubule cross-linking activity of TPX2. Spindle pole fragmentation was suppressed in a TPX2-dependent fashion. We propose that CENP-W, by influencing proper kinetochore assembly, particularly microtubule docking sites, can confer spindle pole resistance to traction
Kaczmarczyk, Agnieszka; Sullivan, Kevin F.
The CENP-W/T complex was previously reported to be required for mitosis. HeLa cells depleted of CENP-W displayed profound mitotic defects, with mitotic timing delay, disorganized prometaphases and multipolar spindles as major phenotypic consequences. In this study, we examined the process of multipolar spindle formation induced by CENP-W depletion. Depletion of CENP-W in HeLa cells labeled with histone H2B and tubulin fluorescent proteins induced rapid fragmentation of originally bipolar spindles in a high proportion of cells. CENP-W depletion was associated with depletion of Hec1 at kinetochores. The possibility of promiscuous centrosomal duplication was ruled out by immunofluorescent examination of centrioles. However, centrioles were frequently observed to be abnormally split. In addition, a large proportion of the supernumerary poles lacked centrioles, but were positively stained with different centrosomal markers. These observations suggested that perturbation in spindle force distribution caused by defective kinetochores could contribute to a mechanical mechanism for spindle pole disruption. ‘Spindle free’ nocodazole arrested cells did not exhibit pole fragmentation after CENP-W depletion, showing that pole fragmentation is microtubule dependent. Inhibition of centrosome separation by monastrol reduced the incidence of spindle pole fragmentation, indicating that Eg5 plays a role in spindle pole disruption. Surprisingly, CENP-W depletion rescued the monopolar spindle phenotype of monastrol treatment, with an increased frequency of bipolar spindles observed after CENP-W RNAi. We overexpressed the microtubule cross-linking protein TPX2 to create spindle poles stabilized by the microtubule cross-linking activity of TPX2. Spindle pole fragmentation was suppressed in a TPX2-dependent fashion. We propose that CENP-W, by influencing proper kinetochore assembly, particularly microtubule docking sites, can confer spindle pole resistance to traction forces exerted
Kim, Dong-Hyun; Kwon, Sanghoon; Byun, Sangwon; Xiao, Zhen; Park, Sean; Wu, Shwu-Yuan; Chiang, Cheng-Ming; Kemper, Byron; Kemper, Jongsook Kim
Bile acids (BAs) are recently recognized signalling molecules that profoundly affect metabolism. Because of detergent-like toxicity, BA levels must be tightly regulated. An orphan nuclear receptor, Small Heterodimer Partner (SHP), plays a key role in this regulation, but how SHP senses the BA signal for feedback transcriptional responses is not clearly understood. We show an unexpected function of a nucleoporin, RanBP2, in maintaining BA homoeostasis through SUMOylation of SHP. Upon BA signalling, RanBP2 co-localizes with SHP at the nuclear envelope region and mediates SUMO2 modification at K68, which facilitates nuclear transport of SHP and its interaction with repressive histone modifiers to inhibit BA synthetic genes. Mice expressing a SUMO-defective K68R SHP mutant have increased liver BA levels, and upon BA- or drug-induced biliary insults, these mice exhibit exacerbated cholestatic pathologies. These results demonstrate a function of RanBP2-mediated SUMOylation of SHP in maintaining BA homoeostasis and protecting from the BA hepatotoxicity. PMID:27412403
Full Text Available Timely, and sometimes rapid, metabolic adaptation to changes in food supply is critical for survival as an organism moves from the fasted to the fed state, and vice versa. These transitions necessitate major metabolic changes to maintain energy homeostasis as the source of blood glucose moves away from ingested carbohydrates, through hepatic glycogen stores, towards gluconeogenesis. The integration of hepatic glycogen regulation with extra-hepatic energetics is a key aspect of these adaptive mechanisms. Here we use computational modeling to explore hepatic glycogen regulation under fed and fasting conditions in the context of a whole-body model. The model was validated against previous experimental results concerning glycogen phosphorylase a (active and glycogen synthase a dynamics. The model qualitatively reproduced physiological changes that occur during transition from the fed to the fasted state. Analysis of the model reveals a critical role for the inhibition of glycogen synthase phosphatase by glycogen phosphorylase a. This negative regulation leads to high levels of glycogen synthase activity during fasting conditions, which in turn increases substrate (futile cycling, priming the system for a rapid response once an external source of glucose is restored. This work demonstrates that a mechanistic understanding of the design principles used by metabolic control circuits to maintain homeostasis can benefit from the incorporation of mathematical descriptions of these networks into "whole-body" contextual models that mimic in vivo conditions.
Full Text Available The public tenders are very important instrument which the public sector uses to the allocation of great part of public expenditure for Welfare of citizens. Due to the the lack of resources and the optimal use of it in line with the public interest and the rights of tenderers tenders play a key role in the public sector operations they can be defined as an instrument to increase the effectiveness of the public sector as a whole. But with the conflict of interests of the public and private sector there needs to be transparency so that the rights of the parties to maintain and public confidence in the state increase. Transparency in Tenders cause the Suppliers that win the bids are those with the best product at the best price targeted at achieving the best outcome. This paper examines the concept and types of tenders for the effects of transparency in government tenders.
Brassey, Charlotte A; Kitchener, Andrew C; Withers, Philip J; Manning, Phillip L; Sellers, William I
The limb bones of an elephant are considered to experience similar peak locomotory stresses as a shrew. "Safety factors" are maintained across the entire range of body masses through a combination of robusticity of long bones, postural variation, and modification of gait. The relative contributions of these variables remain uncertain. To test the role of shape change, we undertook X-ray tomographic scans of the leg bones of 60 species of mammals and birds, and extracted geometric properties. The maximum resistible forces the bones could withstand before yield under compressive, bending, and torsional loads were calculated using standard engineering equations incorporating curvature. Positive allometric scaling of cross-sectional properties with body mass was insufficient to prevent negative allometry of bending (F(b) ) and torsional maximum force (F(t) ) (and hence decreasing safety factors) in mammalian (femur F(b) ∞M(b) (0.76) , F(t) ∞M(b) (0.80) ; tibia F(b) ∞M(b) (0.80) , F(t) ∞M(b) (0.76) ) and avian hindlimbs (tibiotarsus F(b) ∞M(b) (0.88) , F(t) ∞M(b) (0.89) ) with the exception of avian femoral F(b) and F(t) . The minimum angle from horizontal a bone must be held while maintaining a given safety factor under combined compressive and bending loads increases with M(b) , with the exception of the avian femur. Postural erectness is shown as an effective means of achieving stress similarity in mammals. The scaling behavior of the avian femur is discussed in light of unusual posture and kinematics. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Lack of physical activity causes bone loss and fractures not only in elderly people, but also in bedridden patients or otherwise inactive youth. This is fast becoming one of the most serious healthcare problems in the world. Osteocytes, cells buried within our bones, stimulate bone formation in the presence of mechanical stimuli, as well as bone degradation in the absence of such stimuli. As yet, we do not fully comprehend how osteocytes sense mechanical stimuli, and only know a fraction of the whole range of molecules that osteocytes subsequently produce to regulate bone formation and degradation in response to mechanical stimuli. This dramatically hampers the design of bone loss prevention strategies. In this review we will focus on the first step in the cascade of events leading to adaptation of bone mass to mechanical loading, i.e., on how osteocytes are able to perceive mechanical stimuli placed on whole bones. We will place particular emphasis on the role of the osteocyte cytoskeleton in mechanosensing. Given the crucial importance of osteocytes in maintaining a proper resistance against bone fracture, greater knowledge of the molecular mechanisms that govern the adaptive response of osteocytes to mechanical stimuli may lead to the development of new strategies towards fracture prevention and enhanced bone healing.
The author gives the general lines of a method for the allocation and for the evaluation of maintainability of complex systems which is to be developed during the conference. The maintainability objective is supposed to be formulated under the form of a mean time to repair (M.T.T.R.) [fr
Hossain, Akram; Yamaguchi, Fuminori; Matsuo, Tatsuhiro; Tsukamoto, Ikuko; Toyoda, Yukiyasu; Ogawa, Masahiro; Nagata, Yasuo; Tokuda, Masaaki
Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are the leading worldwide risk factors for mortality. The inextricably interlinked pathological progression from excessive weight gain, obesity, and hyperglycemia to T2DM, usually commencing from obesity, typically originates from overconsumption of sugar and high-fat diets. Although most patients require medications, T2DM is manageable or even preventable with consumption of low-calorie diet and maintaining body weight. Medicines like insulin, metformin, and thiazolidinediones that improve glycemic control; however, these are associated with weight gain, high blood pressure, and dyslipidemia. These situations warrant the attentive consideration of the role of balanced foods. Recently, we have discovered advantages of a rare sugar, D-allulose, a zero-calorie functional sweetener having strong anti-hyperlipidemic and anti-hyperglycemic effects. Study revealed that after oral administration in rats D-allulose readily entered the blood stream and was eliminated into urine within 24h. Cell culture study showed that D-allulose enters into and leaves the intestinal enterocytes via glucose transporters GLUT5 and GLUT2, respectively. In addition to D-allulose's short-term effects, the characterization of long-term effects has been focused on preventing commencement and progression of T2DM in diabetic rats. Human trials showed that D-allulose attenuates postprandial glucose levels in healthy subjects and in borderline diabetic subjects. The anti-hyperlipidemic effect of D-allulose, combined with its anti-inflammatory actions on adipocytes, is beneficial for the prevention of both obesity and atherosclerosis and is accompanied by improvements in insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance. Therefore, this review presents brief discussions focusing on physiological functions and potential benefits of D-allulose on obesity and T2DM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Winterton, Rachel; Warburton, Jeni
As a consequence of local population ageing, which is more pronounced in rural areas, the issue of maintaining a positive quality of life for rural older people is attracting significant attention. While environmental psychology theory has advocated the role of place identity in defining the self, there has been little applied research exploring…
Roelofsen, M.; Blok, V.; Wubben, E.F.M.
This chapter focuses on the maintenance of the CSR-identity of sustainable entrepreneurial firms (SEFs) during periods of business growth. Our aim is to explore to what extent corporate governance mechanisms can be seen as effective mechanisms to maintain the CSR-identity of growing SEFs. To this
Gheorghe Gh. IONESCU; Adina Letitia NEGRUSA
Maintaining positive work-force relationships includes in effective labor-management relations and making appropriate responses to current employee issues. Among the major current employee issues are protection from arbitrary dismissal, drug and alcohol abuse, privacy rights and family maters and they impact work. In our paper we discus two problems: first, the meanings of industrial democracy; second, the three principal operational concepts of industrial democracy (1) industrial democracy t...
% of the variance would have passed the stringent tests for inclusion in the ... genetic complication (e.g. a balanced lethal system) or in- compatibility of .... have important evolutionary roles (genes of large effect; du- plications ...
Ferber, Susanne; Emrich, Stephen M
Segregation and feature binding are essential to the perception and awareness of objects in a visual scene. When a fragmented line-drawing of an object moves relative to a background of randomly oriented lines, the previously hidden object is segregated from the background and consequently enters awareness. Interestingly, in such shape-from-motion displays, the percept of the object persists briefly when the motion stops, suggesting that the segregated and bound representation of the object is maintained in awareness. Here, we tested whether this persistence effect is mediated by capacity-limited working-memory processes, or by the amount of object-related information available. The experiments demonstrate that persistence is affected mainly by the proportion of object information available and is independent of working-memory limits. We suggest that this persistence effect can be seen as evidence for an intermediate, form-based memory store mediating between sensory and working memory.
Full Text Available Ozone Therapy is thought to be a non-pharmacological therapy, which makes use of oxygen and ozone, It is based on the ozone characteristics, such as the antibacterial and antimycotic, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory, of systemic modulation of homeostasy and of the optimization of the way the organs and systems function, but also of tissue bionourishing. Some of the beneficial effects of the ozone are: the enhancement of the oxygen supply in the tissues affected by inflammation and pain, the increase of the blood stream and the removal of the metabolic waste in the joints affected, the obstruction of the substances which maintain the inflammation and pain, an immunomodulatory action upon the whole body, the stimulation of the health improving mechanisms in the body, a mio-relaxing action and thus, a better joint mobility and a better body system functioning
Grognet, Pierre; Bidard, Frédérique; Kuchly, Claire; Tong, Laetitia Chan Ho; Coppin, Evelyne; Benkhali, Jinane Ait; Couloux, Arnaud; Wincker, Patrick; Debuchy, Robert; Silar, Philippe
Pseudo-homothallism is a reproductive strategy elected by some fungi producing heterokaryotic sexual spores containing genetically different but sexually compatible nuclei. This lifestyle appears as a compromise between true homothallism (self-fertility with predominant inbreeding) and complete heterothallism (with exclusive outcrossing). However, pseudohomothallic species face the problem of maintaining heterokaryotic mycelia to fully benefit from this lifestyle, as homokaryons are self-sterile. Here, we report on the structure of chromosome 1 in mat+ and mat- isolates of strain S of the pseudohomothallic fungus Podospora anserina. Chromosome 1 contains either one of the mat+ and mat- mating types of P. anserina, which is mostly found in nature as a mat+/mat- heterokaryotic mycelium harboring sexually compatible nuclei. We identified a "mat" region ∼0.8 Mb long, devoid of meiotic recombination and containing the mating-type idiomorphs, which is a candidate to be involved in the maintenance of the heterokaryotic state, since the S mat+ and S mat- strains have different physiology that may enable hybrid-vigor-like phenomena in the heterokaryons. The mat region contains 229 coding sequences. A total of 687 polymorphisms were detected between the S mat+ and S mat- chromosomes. Importantly, the mat region is colinear between both chromosomes, which calls for an original mechanism of recombination inhibition. Microarray analyses revealed that 10% of the P. anserina genes have different transcriptional profiles in S mat+ and S mat-, in line with their different phenotypes. Finally, we show that the heterokaryotic state is faithfully maintained during mycelium growth of P. anserina, yet mat+/mat+ and mat-/mat- heterokaryons are as stable as mat+/mat- ones, evidencing a maintenance of heterokaryosis that does not rely on fitness-enhancing complementation between the S mat+ and S mat- strains.
Nurasyikin, Y; Leong, C F; Fadhlullah, T M; Hafiz, W M; Nadiah, Z; Atieqah, A N; Ling, T J; Das, S
The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the temperature chain of red blood cells (RBC) returned unused blood bags using blood temperature indicator and ascertain the factors like transportation time, type, size of coolant box and number of bags per box. A total of 250 blood bags with the indicator were observed for the temperature changes with other factors like transportation time, type and size of coolant box and number of bags per box. The recordings were performed at several checkpoints located between the blood bank and the wards. Out of the 250 bags, 74 (29.6%) showed colour changes in which 64 (86.3%) were returned unused (RU) blood bags. The transportation time for these 74 bags was 818.3 ± 941.643 min, significantly higher than bags without colour changes, (p=0.02). Interestingly, 71.4% of the colour changes occurred within the ward. The 7 litre coolant box with an average of 1-5 blood bags per box had a statistically significant higher percentage of colour change with 59.2% compared to the 5 litre coolant box (p=0.05). This study showed that the temperature chain of blood bags was often not well maintained. These results could be mainly due to the non-adherence to the standard operating procedure (SOP) of blood transfusion and the usage of non-standardized coolant boxes.
Kafafy, Y.A.; Roushdy, H.M.; El Beih, N.M.; Hussien, E.M.
This work was conducted to evaluate the possible capability of the natural product propolis with its high anti oxidative capacity as a protector for bone marrow graft transplanted to pregnant rats 3 h post irradiation of 3 Gy gamma-rays. Different treatments were performed on days 7 or 13 of gestation and examined at the end of the gestation period. Irradiation significantly elevated serum AST, ALT, ALP, urea, uric acid and creatinine while it declined total proteins and albumin. Haematological parameters showed decrease in RBCs, Hb, Ht, WBCs and their differential counts. BMT (75 x 106 ± 5 cells) 3 h post-irradiation depressed AST, ALT and ALP but were still significantly different from the control. Urea, uric acid and creatinine declined approaching the control level. Less drop in total proteins and globulin and elevation in RBCs, Ht, Hb and WBCs were detected. Rats exposed to 3 Gy and treated with propolis (50 mg/ kg) showed results comparable and even exceeding those of BMT. Combined treatment of BMT and propolis accentuated the recovery process and could restore the physiological and haematological parameters and protect pregnancy which suggests that propolis maintained BMT graft so that they may have future potential value in patients subjected to irradiation and BMT
Crow, James F
Although molecular methods, such as QTL mapping, have revealed a number of loci with large effects, it is still likely that the bulk of quantitative variability is due to multiple factors, each with small effect. Typically, these have a large additive component. Conventional wisdom argues that selection, natural or artificial, uses up additive variance and thus depletes its supply. Over time, the variance should be reduced, and at equilibrium be near zero. This is especially expected for fitness and traits highly correlated with it. Yet, populations typically have a great deal of additive variance, and do not seem to run out of genetic variability even after many generations of directional selection. Long-term selection experiments show that populations continue to retain seemingly undiminished additive variance despite large changes in the mean value. I propose that there are several reasons for this. (i) The environment is continually changing so that what was formerly most fit no longer is. (ii) There is an input of genetic variance from mutation, and sometimes from migration. (iii) As intermediate-frequency alleles increase in frequency towards one, producing less variance (as p --> 1, p(1 - p) --> 0), others that were originally near zero become more common and increase the variance. Thus, a roughly constant variance is maintained. (iv) There is always selection for fitness and for characters closely related to it. To the extent that the trait is heritable, later generations inherit a disproportionate number of genes acting additively on the trait, thus increasing genetic variance. For these reasons a selected population retains its ability to evolve. Of course, genes with large effect are also important. Conspicuous examples are the small number of loci that changed teosinte to maize, and major phylogenetic changes in the animal kingdom. The relative importance of these along with duplications, chromosome rearrangements, horizontal transmission and polyploidy
Tâmara Dias Oliveira Machado
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Knowledge on synanthropic phlebotomines and their natural infection by Leishmania is necessary for the identification of potential areas for leishmaniasis occurrence. OBJECTIVE To analyse the occurrence of Phlebotominae in gallery forests and household units (HUs in the city of Palmas and to determine the rate of natural infection by trypanosomatids. METHODS Gallery forests and adjacent household areas were sampled on July (dry season and November (rainy season in 2014. The total sampling effort was 960 HP light traps and eight Shannon traps. Trypanosomatids were detected in Phlebotominae females through the amplification of the SSU rDNA region, and the positive samples were used in ITS1-PCR. Trypanosomatid species were identified using sequencing. FINDINGS A total of 1,527 sand flies representing 30 species were captured in which 949 (28 spp. and 578 (22 spp. were registered in July and November, respectively. In July, more specimens were captured in the gallery forests than in the HUs, and Nyssomyia whitmani was particularly frequent. In November, most of the specimens were found in the HUs, and again, Ny. whitmani was the predominant species. Lutzomyia longipalpis was commonly found in domestic areas, while Bichromomyia flaviscutellata was most frequent in gallery forests. Molecular analysis of 154 pools of females (752 specimens identified Leishmania amazonensis, L. infantum, and Crithidia fasciculata in Ny. whitmani, as well as L. amazonensis in Lu. longipalpis, Trypanosoma sp. and L. amazonensis in Pintomyia christenseni, and L. amazonensis in both Psathyromyia hermanlenti and Evandromyia walkeri. MAIN CONCLUSIONS These results show the importance of gallery forests in maintaining Phlebotominae populations in the dry month, as well as their frequent occurrence in household units in the rainy month. This is the first study to identify Leishmania, Trypanosoma, and Crithidia species in Phlebotominae collected in Palmas, Tocantins
Machado, Tâmara Dias Oliveira; Minuzzi-Souza, Thaís Tâmara Castro; Ferreira, Tauana de Sousa; Freire, Luciana Pereira; Timbó, Renata Velôzo; Vital, Tamires Emanuele; Nitz, Nadjar; Silva, Mariana Neiva; Santos, Alcinei de Souza; Sales, Nathyla Morgana Cunha; Obara, Marcos Takashi; Andrade, Andrey José de; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo
Knowledge on synanthropic phlebotomines and their natural infection by Leishmania is necessary for the identification of potential areas for leishmaniasis occurrence. To analyse the occurrence of Phlebotominae in gallery forests and household units (HUs) in the city of Palmas and to determine the rate of natural infection by trypanosomatids. Gallery forests and adjacent household areas were sampled on July (dry season) and November (rainy season) in 2014. The total sampling effort was 960 HP light traps and eight Shannon traps. Trypanosomatids were detected in Phlebotominae females through the amplification of the SSU rDNA region, and the positive samples were used in ITS1-PCR. Trypanosomatid species were identified using sequencing. A total of 1,527 sand flies representing 30 species were captured in which 949 (28 spp.) and 578 (22 spp.) were registered in July and November, respectively. In July, more specimens were captured in the gallery forests than in the HUs, and Nyssomyia whitmani was particularly frequent. In November, most of the specimens were found in the HUs, and again, Ny. whitmani was the predominant species. Lutzomyia longipalpis was commonly found in domestic areas, while Bichromomyia flaviscutellata was most frequent in gallery forests. Molecular analysis of 154 pools of females (752 specimens) identified Leishmania amazonensis, L. infantum, and Crithidia fasciculata in Ny. whitmani, as well as L. amazonensis in Lu. longipalpis, Trypanosoma sp. and L. amazonensis in Pintomyia christenseni, and L. amazonensis in both Psathyromyia hermanlenti and Evandromyia walkeri. These results show the importance of gallery forests in maintaining Phlebotominae populations in the dry month, as well as their frequent occurrence in household units in the rainy month. This is the first study to identify Leishmania, Trypanosoma, and Crithidia species in Phlebotominae collected in Palmas, Tocantins, Brazil.
Thairu, Margaret W; Brunet, Johanne
Flower colour varies within and among populations of the Rocky Mountain columbine, Aquilegia coerulea, in conjunction with the abundance of its two major pollinators, hawkmoths and bumble-bees. This study seeks to understand whether the choice of flower colour by these major pollinators can help explain the variation in flower colour observed in A. coerulea populations. Dual choice assays and experimental arrays of blue and white flowers were used to determine the preference of hawkmoths and bumble-bees for flower colour. A test was made to determine whether a differential preference for flower colour, with bumble-bees preferring blue and hawkmoths white flowers, could explain the variation in flower colour. Whether a single pollinator could maintain a flower colour polymorphism was examined by testing to see if preference for a flower colour varied between day and dusk for hawkmoths and whether bumble-bees preferred novel or rare flower colour morphs. Hawkmoths preferred blue flowers under both day and dusk light conditions. Naïve bumble-bees preferred blue flowers but quickly learned to forage randomly on the two colour morphs when similar rewards were presented in the flowers. Bees quickly learned to associate a flower colour with a pollen reward. Prior experience affected the choice of flower colour by bees, but they did not preferentially visit novel flower colours or rare or common colour morphs. Differences in flower colour preference between the two major pollinators could not explain the variation in flower colour observed in A. coerulea. The preference of hawkmoths for flower colour did not change between day and dusk, and bumble-bees did not prefer a novel or a rare flower colour morph. The data therefore suggest that factors other than pollinators may be more likely to affect the flower colour variation observed in A. coerulea. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government
Walmsley, Gemma L; Blot, Stéphane; Venner, Kerrie; Sewry, Caroline; Laporte, Jocelyn; Blondelle, Jordan; Barthélémy, Inès; Maurer, Marie; Blanchard-Gutton, Nicolas; Pilot-Storck, Fanny; Tiret, Laurent; Piercy, Richard J
Mutations in HACD1/PTPLA cause recessive congenital myopathies in humans and dogs. Hydroxyacyl-coA dehydratases are required for elongation of very long chain fatty acids, and HACD1 has a role in early myogenesis, but the functions of this striated muscle-specific enzyme in more differentiated skeletal muscle remain unknown. Canine HACD1 deficiency is histopathologically classified as a centronuclear myopathy (CNM). We investigated the hypothesis that muscle from HACD1-deficient dogs has membrane abnormalities in common with CNMs with different genetic causes. We found progressive changes in tubuloreticular and sarcolemmal membranes and mislocalized triads and mitochondria in skeletal muscle from animals deficient in HACD1. Furthermore, comparable membranous abnormalities in cultured HACD1-deficient myotubes provide additional evidence that these defects are a primary consequence of altered HACD1 expression. Our novel findings, including T-tubule dilatation and disorganization, associated with defects in this additional CNM-associated gene provide a definitive pathophysiologic link with these disorders, confirm that dogs deficient in HACD1 are relevant models, and strengthen the evidence for a unifying pathogenesis in CNMs via defective membrane trafficking and excitation-contraction coupling in muscle. These results build on previous work by determining further functional roles of HACD1 in muscle and provide new insight into the pathology and pathogenetic mechanisms of HACD1 CNM. Consequently, alterations in membrane properties associated with HACD1 mutations should be investigated in humans with related phenotypes. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Skin hyperpigmentation is characterized by increased melanin synthesis and deposition that can cause significant psychosocial and psychological distress. Although several cytokine-receptor signaling cascades contribute to the formation of ultraviolet B-induced cutaneous hyperpigmentation, their possible involvement in other types of skin hyperpigmentation has never been clearly addressed. Since our continuous studies using skin specimens from more than 30 subjects with ethnic skin diversity emphasized a consistent augmentation in the expression of endothelin-1 (ET-1 and its receptor (Endothelin B receptor, ET-B in hyperpigmented lesions, including senile lentigos (SLs, the precise function of ET-1 signaling was investigated in the present study. In line with previous studies, ET-1 significantly induced melanogenesis followed by increases in melanosome transport in melanocytes and in its transfer to keratinocytes while inhibition of ET-B function substantially depressed melanogenic ability in tissue-cultured SLs. Additionally, in agreement with a previous report that the formation of autophagosomes rather than melanosomes is stimulated according to starvation or defective melanosome production, ET-1 was found to remarkably augment the expression of components necessary for early melanosome formation, indicating its counteraction against autophagy-targeting melanosome degradation in melanocytes. Despite the lack of substantial impact of ET-1 on keratinocyte melanogenic functions, the expression of ET-1 was enhanced following melanosome uptake by keratinocytes. Taken together, our data suggest that ET-1 plays a substantial role in the development and/or maintenance of skin hyperpigmentation in reciprocal cooperation with increased melanosome incorporation.
Zeng, Ming; Paiardini, Mirko; Engram, Jessica C; Beilman, Greg J; Chipman, Jeffrey G; Schacker, Timothy W; Silvestri, Guido; Haase, Ashley T
Loss of the fibroblastic reticular cell (FRC) network in lymphoid tissues during HIV-1 infection has been shown to impair the survival of naive T cells and limit immune reconstitution after antiretroviral therapy. What causes this FRC loss is unknown. Because FRC loss correlates with loss of both naive CD4 and CD8 T-cell subsets and decreased lymphotoxin-β, a key factor for maintenance of FRC network, we hypothesized that loss of naive T cells is responsible for loss of the FRC network. To test this hypothesis, we assessed the consequences of antibody-mediated depletion of CD4 and CD8 T cells in rhesus macaques and sooty mangabeys. We found that only CD4 T-cell depletion resulted in FRC loss in both species and that this loss was caused by decreased lymphotoxin-β mainly produced by the CD4 T cells. We further found the same dependence of the FRC network on CD4 T cells in HIV-1-infected patients before and after antiretroviral therapy and in other immunodeficiency conditions, such as CD4 depletion in cancer patients induced by chemotherapy and irradiation. CD4 T cells thus play a central role in the maintenance of lymphoid tissue structure necessary for their own homeostasis and reconstitution.
Zhang, Baihao; Chikuma, Shunsuke; Hori, Shohei; Fagarasan, Sidonia; Honjo, Tasuku
PD-1 (programmed-death 1), an immune-inhibitory receptor required for immune self-tolerance whose deficiency causes autoimmunity with variable severity and tissue specificity depending on other genetic factors, is expressed on activated T cells, including the transcription factor FoxP3(+) Treg cells known to play critical roles in maintaining immune tolerance. However, whether PD-1 expression by the Treg cells is required for their immune regulatory function, especially in autoimmune settings, is still unclear. We found that mice with partial FoxP3 insufficiency developed early-onset lympho-proliferation and lethal autoimmune pancreatitis only when PD-1 is absent. The autoimmune phenotype was rescued by the transfer of FoxP3-sufficient T cells, regardless of whether they were derived from WT or PD-1-deficient mice, indicating that Treg cells dominantly protect against development of spontaneous autoimmunity without intrinsic expression of PD-1. The absence of PD-1 combined with partial FoxP3 insufficiency, however, led to generation of ex-FoxP3 T cells with proinflammatory properties and expansion of effector/memory T cells that contributed to the autoimmune destruction of target tissues. Altogether, the results suggest that PD-1 and FoxP3 work collaboratively in maintaining immune tolerance mostly through nonoverlapping pathways. Thus, PD-1 is modulating the activation threshold and maintaining the balance between regulatory and effector T cells, whereas FoxP3 is sufficient for dominant regulation through maintaining the integrity of the Treg function. We suggest that genetic or environmental factors that even moderately affect the expression of both PD-1 and FoxP3 can cause life-threatening autoimmune diseases by disrupting the T-cell homeostasis.
Zhang, Yong-Jiang; Holbrook, N Michele; Cao, Kun-Fang
The lowland tropical rainforests in Xishuangbanna, Southwest (SW) China, mark the northern limit of Asian tropics. Fog has been hypothesized to play a role in maintaining rainforests and tropical crop production in this region, but the physiological mechanism has not been studied. The goals of this study were to characterize the seasonal dynamics in photosynthesis and to assess the potential for fog to mitigate chilling-induced photodamage for tropical trees and crops in Xishuangbanna. We measured seasonal dynamics in light-saturated net photosynthetic rate (Aa), stomatal conductance (gs), intercellular CO2 concentration, quantum yield of Photosystem II (Fv/Fm) and maximum P700 changes (Pm; indicates the amount of active PSI complex), as well as chilling resistance and fog (light/shading) effects on low temperature-induced decline in Fv/Fm and Pm for native tree and introduced lower latitude tree or woody shrub species grown in a tropical botanical garden. Despite significant decreases in Aa, gs, Pm and Fv/Fm, most species maintained considerably high Aa during the cool season (2.51-14.6 μmol m(-2) s(-1)). Shaded leaves exposed to seasonal low temperatures had higher Fv/Fm than sun-exposed leaves in the cool season. All species could tolerate 1.4 °C in the dark, whereas a combined treatment of low temperature and high light caused a distinctly faster decline in Pm and Fv/Fm compared with low temperature treatment alone. Because fog persistence avoids or shortens the duration of high light condition in the morning when the temperatures are still low, our results provide support for the hypothesis that fog reduces chilling damage to tropical plants in this region and thus plays a role in maintaining tropical rainforests and agriculture in SW China. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Full Text Available Whole-genome sequencing (WGS of 228 isolates was used to elucidate the origin and dynamics of a long-term outbreak of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA sequence type 228 (ST228 SCCmec I that involved 1,600 patients in a tertiary care hospital between 2008 and 2012. Combining of the sequence data with detailed metadata on patient admission and movement confirmed that the outbreak was due to the transmission of a single clonal variant of ST228, rather than repeated introductions of this clone into the hospital. We note that this clone is significantly more frequently recovered from groin and rectal swabs than other clones (P < 0.0001 and is also significantly more transmissible between roommates (P < 0.01. Unrecognized MRSA carriers, together with movements of patients within the hospital, also seem to have played a major role. These atypical colonization and transmission dynamics can help explain how the outbreak was maintained over the long term. This “stealthy” asymptomatic colonization of the gut, combined with heightened transmissibility (potentially reflecting a role for environmental reservoirs, means the dynamics of this outbreak share some properties with enteric pathogens such as vancomycin-resistant enterococci or Clostridium difficile.
Brody, Sarah; Omer, Osama; McLoughlin, Jacinta; Stassen, Leo
Every year in Ireland over 400 people are diagnosed with head and neck cancer. Oral cancer, a specific type of head and neck cancer, is usually treated with surgery and often requires radiotherapy (RT). However, side effects of RT treatment, which include mucositis, xerostomia, radiation caries, trismus and osteoradionecrosis, can seriously compromise a patient's quality of life. Treatment for oral cancer patients is managed in a multidisciplinary team. General dental practitioners (GDPs), consultant/specialist dentists and oral-maxillofacial surgeons play an important role in these patients' care. Recent advances in the delivery of RT have not only improved locoregional control and survival rates, but have also reduced the incidence and severity of RT-associated side effects; however, no mode of RT delivery has successfully eliminated side effects. The role of dentists is essential in maintaining oral health and all patients should be dentally screened prior to commencing RT. Recent reports have attempted to standardise the quality of care for the oral cancer patient and have highlighted the significance of the role of the GDP. Despite the advancements in RT delivery, the dental team is still faced with a number of challenges, including the high number of patients lost to follow-up dental care, lack of an effective treatment for xerostomia, poor patient compliance, and a lack of standardised guidelines and funding. Addressing these challenges will involve increased communication between all members of the multidisciplinary team and increased involvement of the GDP, thereby ensuring that dental care continues to evolve concurrently with new methods of RT delivery.
Maddala, Rupalatha; Nagendran, Tharkika; de Ridder, Gustaaf G; Schey, Kevin L; Rao, Ponugoti Vasantha
role for LTCCs in regulation of expression, activity and stability of aquaporin-0, connexins, cytoskeletal proteins, and the mechanical properties of lens, all of which have a vital role in maintaining lens function and cytoarchitecture.
Lech, Maciej; Gröbmayr, Regina; Weidenbusch, Marc; Anders, Hans-Joachim
Most tissues harbor resident mononuclear phagocytes, that is, dendritic cells and macrophages. A classification that sufficiently covers their phenotypic heterogeneity and plasticity during homeostasis and disease does not yet exist because cell culture-based phenotypes often do not match those found in vivo. The plasticity of mononuclear phagocytes becomes obvious during dynamic or complex disease processes. Different data interpretation also originates from different conceptual perspectives. An immune-centric view assumes that a particular priming of phagocytes then causes a particular type of pathology in target tissues, conceptually similar to antigen-specific T-cell priming. A tissue-centric view assumes that changing tissue microenvironments shape the phenotypes of their resident and infiltrating mononuclear phagocytes to fulfill the tissue's need to maintain or regain homeostasis. Here we discuss the latter concept, for example, why different organs host different types of mononuclear phagocytes during homeostasis. We further discuss how injuries alter tissue environments and how this primes mononuclear phagocytes to enforce this particular environment, for example, to support host defense and pathogen clearance, to support the resolution of inflammation, to support epithelial and mesenchymal healing, and to support the resolution of fibrosis to the smallest possible scar. Thus, organ- and disease phase-specific microenvironments determine macrophage and dendritic cell heterogeneity in a temporal and spatial manner, which assures their support to maintain and regain homeostasis in whatever condition. Mononuclear phagocytes contributions to tissue pathologies relate to their central roles in orchestrating all stages of host defense and wound healing, which often become maladaptive processes, especially in sterile and/or diffuse tissue injuries. PMID:23251037
Wesp, R; Hesse, J; Keutmann, D; Wheaton, K
Recent theories suggest alternatives to the commonly held belief that the sole role of gestures is to communicate meaning directly to listeners. Evidence suggests that gestures may serve a cognitive function for speakers, possibly acting as lexical primes. We observed that participants gestured more often when describing a picture from memory than when the picture was present and that gestures were not influenced by manipulating eye contact of a listener. We argue that spatial imagery serves a short-term memory function during lexical search and that gestures may help maintain spatial images. When spatial imagery is not necessary, as in conditions of direct visual stimulation, reliance on gestures is reduced or eliminated.
Kim, Jiyeun Kate; Jang, Ho Am; Kim, Min Seon; Cho, Jae Hyun; Lee, Junbeom; Di Lorenzo, Flaviana; Sturiale, Luisa; Silipo, Alba; Molinaro, Antonio; Lee, Bok Luel
Lipopolysaccharide, the outer cell-wall component of Gram-negative bacteria, has been shown to be important for symbiotic associations. We recently reported that the lipopolysaccharide O-antigen of Burkholderia enhances the initial colonization of the midgut of the bean bug, Riptortus pedestris However, the midgut-colonizing Burkholderia symbionts lack the O-antigen but display the core oligosaccharide on the cell surface. In this study, we investigated the role of the core oligosaccharide, which directly interacts with the host midgut, in the Riptortus-Burkholderia symbiosis. To this end, we generated the core oligosaccharide mutant strains, Δ wabS , Δ wabO , Δ waaF, and Δ waaC, and determined the chemical structures of their oligosaccharides, which exhibited different compositions. The symbiotic properties of these mutant strains were compared with those of the wild-type and O-antigen-deficient Δ wbiG strains. Upon introduction into Riptortus via the oral route, the core oligosaccharide mutant strains exhibited different rates of colonization of the insect midgut. The symbiont titers in fifth-instar insects revealed significantly reduced population sizes of the inner core oligosaccharide mutant strains Δ waaF and Δ waaC These two strains also negatively affected host growth rate and fitness. Furthermore, R. pedestris individuals colonized with the Δ waaF and Δ waaC strains were vulnerable to septic bacterial challenge, similar to insects without a Burkholderia symbiont. Taken together, these results suggest that the core oligosaccharide from Burkholderia symbionts plays a critical role in maintaining a proper symbiont population and in supporting the beneficial effects of the symbiont on its host in the Riptortus-Burkholderia symbiosis. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
Haindl, Michal; Filip, Jiří; Vávra, Radomír
Roč. 2012, č. 90 (2012), s. 49-50 ISSN 0926-4981 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG11009; GA ČR GA102/08/0593; GA ČR GAP103/11/0335 Grant - others:CESNET(CZ) 360/2009 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : surface material appearance * BTF modelling * visual texture Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/RO/haindl-digital material appearance the curse of tera-bytes.pdf
Hudek, L; Bräu, L; Michalczyk, A A; Neilan, B A; Meeks, J C; Ackland, M L
Analysis of cellular response to zinc exposure provides insights into how organisms maintain homeostatic levels of zinc that are essential, while avoiding potentially toxic cytosolic levels. Using the cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme as a model, qRT-PCR analyses established a profile of the changes in relative mRNA levels of the ZntA-like zinc efflux transporter NpunR4017 in response to extracellular zinc. In cells treated with 18 μM of zinc for 1 h, NpunR4017 mRNA levels increased by up to 1300 % above basal levels. The accumulation and retention of radiolabelled (65)Zn by NpunR4107-deficient and overexpressing strains were compared to wild-type levels. Disruption of NpunR4017 resulted in a significant increase in zinc accumulation up to 24 % greater than the wild type, while cells overexpressing NpunR4107 accumulated 22 % less than the wild type. Accumulation of (65)Zn in ZntA(-) Escherichia coli overexpressing NpunR4017 was reduced by up to 21 %, indicating the capacity for NpunR4017 to compensate for the loss of ZntA. These findings establish the newly identified NpunR4017 as a zinc efflux transporter and a key transporter for maintaining zinc homeostasis in N. punctiforme.
Full Text Available Document coherency is a challenging problem for Web caching. Once the documents are cached throughout the Internet, it is often difficult to keep them coherent with the origin document without generating a new traffic that could increase the traffic on the international backbone and overload the popular servers. Several solutions have been proposed to solve this problem, among them two categories have been widely discussed: the strong document coherency and the weak document coherency. The cost and the efficiency of the two categories are still a controversial issue, while in some studies the strong coherency is far too expensive to be used in the Web context, in other studies it could be maintained at a low cost. The accuracy of these analysis is depending very much on how the document updating process is approximated. In this study, we compare some of the coherence methods proposed for Web caching. Among other points, we study the side effects of these methods on the Internet traffic. The ultimate goal is to study the cache behavior under several conditions, which will cover some of the factors that play an important role in the Web cache performance evaluation and quantify their impact on the simulation accuracy. The results presented in this study show indeed some differences in the outcome of the simulation of a Web cache depending on the workload being used, and the probability distribution used to approximate updates on the cached documents. Each experiment shows two case studies that outline the impact of the considered parameter on the performance of the cache.
Gonzalo, Jed D; Graaf, Deanna; Ahluwalia, Amarpreet; Wolpaw, Dan R; Thompson, Britta M
After emphasizing biomedical and clinical sciences for over a century, US medical schools are expanding experiential roles that allow students to learn about health care delivery while also adding value to patient care. After developing a program where all 1st-year medical students are integrated into interprofessional care teams to contribute to patient care, authors use a diffusion of innovations framework to explore and identify barriers, facilitators, and best practices for implementing value-added clinical systems learning roles. In 2016, authors conducted 32 clinical-site observations, 29 1:1 interviews with mentors, and four student focus-group interviews. Data were transcribed verbatim, and a thematic analysis was used to identify themes. Authors discussed drafts of the categorization scheme, and agreed upon results and quotations. Of 36 sites implementing the program, 17 (47%) remained, 8 (22%) significantly modified, and 11 (31%) withdrew from the program. Identified strategies for implementing value-added roles included: student education, patient characteristics, patient selection methods, activities performed, and resources. Six themes influencing program implementation and maintenance included: (1) educational benefit, (2) value added to patient care from student work, (3) mentor time and site capacity, (4) student engagement, (5) working relationship between school, site, and students, and, (6) students' continuity at the site. Health systems science is an emerging focus for medical schools, and educators are challenged to design practice-based roles that enhance education and add value to patient care. Health professions' schools implementing value-added roles will need to invest resources and strategize about best-practice strategies to guide efforts.
Teymourian, Kiumars; Seneviratne, Dammika; Galar, Diego
The objective of this paper is to describe an ergonomics contribution in maintainability. The economical designs, inputs and training helps to increase the maintainability indicators for industrial devices. This analysis can be helpful, among other cases, to compare systems, to achieve a better design regarding maintainability requirements, to improve this maintainability under specific industrial environment and to foresee maintainability problems due to eventual changes in a device operation conditions. With this purpose, this work first introduces the notion of ergonomics and human factors, maintainability and the implementation of assessment of human postures, including some important postures to perform maintenance activities. A simulation approach is used to identify the critical posture of the maintenance personnel and implements the defined postures with minimal loads on the personnel who use the equipment in a practical scenario. The simulation inputs are given to the designers to improve the workplace/equipment in order to high level of maintainability. Finally, the work concludes summarizing the more significant aspects and suggesting future research.
Dombek, Kenneth M; Kacherovsky, Nataly; Young, Elton T
In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a type 1 protein phosphatase complex composed of the Glc7 catalytic subunit and the Reg1 regulatory subunit represses expression of many glucose-regulated genes. Here we show that the Reg1-interacting proteins Bmh1, Bmh2, Ssb1, and Ssb2 have roles in glucose repression. Deleting both BMH genes causes partially constitutive ADH2 expression without significantly increasing the level of Adr1 protein, the major activator of ADH2 expression. Adr1 and Bcy1, the regulatory subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase, are both required for this effect indicating that constitutive expression in Deltabmh1Deltabmh2 cells uses the same activation pathway that operates in Deltareg1 cells. Deletion of both BMH genes and REG1 causes a synergistic relief from repression, suggesting that Bmh proteins also act independently of Reg1 during glucose repression. A two-hybrid interaction with the Bmh proteins was mapped to amino acids 187-232, a region of Reg1 that is conserved in different classes of fungi. Deleting this region partially releases SUC2 from glucose repression. This indicates a role for the Reg1-Bmh interaction in glucose repression and also suggests a broad role for Bmh proteins in this process. An in vivo Reg1-Bmh interaction was confirmed by copurification of Bmh proteins with HA(3)-TAP-tagged Reg1. The nonconventional heat shock proteins Ssb1 and Ssb2 are also copurified with HA(3)-TAP-tagged Reg1. Deletion of both SSB genes modestly decreases repression of ADH2 expression in the presence of glucose, suggesting that Ssb proteins, perhaps through their interaction with Reg1, play a minor role in glucose repression.
Do, Jeong-Su; Visperas, Anabelle; O'Brien, Rebecca L; Min, Booki
A proportional balance between αβ and γδ T-cell subsets in the periphery is exceedingly well maintained by a homeostatic mechanism. However, a cellular mechanism underlying the regulation remains undefined. We recently reported that a subset of developing γδ T cells spontaneously acquires interleukin (IL)-17-producing capacity even within naive animals through a transforming growth factor (TGF)β1-dependent mechanism, thus considered 'innate' IL-17-producing cells. Here, we report that γδ T cells generated within αβ T cell (or CD4 T cell)-deficient environments displayed altered cytokine profiles; particularly, 'innate' IL-17 expression was significantly impaired compared with those in wild-type mice. Impaired IL-17 production in γδ T cells was directly related to CD4 T-cell deficiency, because depletion of CD4 T cells in wild-type mice diminished and adoptive CD4 T-cell transfer into T-cell receptor β-/- mice restored IL-17 expression in γδ T cells. CD4 T cell-mediated IL-17 expression required TGFβ1. Moreover, Th17 but not Th1 or Th2 effector CD4 T cells were highly efficient in enhancing γδ T-cell IL-17 expression. Taken together, our results highlight a novel CD4 T cell-dependent mechanism that shapes the generation of IL-17+ γδ T cells in naive settings.
Full Text Available Abstract: This paper attempts to investigate how communications organization is conducted by Charoen Pokphand Company (a multinational poultry company to stop the shifting of competitorsâ€™ employees amid the high tendency of the employeesâ€™ shifting to competitorsâ€™ company. This study uses explanatory case study as research method with single case design. The analysis is carried out from the perspectives of organizational culture and internal communications functions of the organization in maintaining the employeesâ€™ loyalty. An analysis of the employeesâ€™ shifting case id based on several notions that organizational culture is very influential on the process of communication within the organization (Ruppel and Harington 2000, how cultural management affects on the communication (Bordow and More in McKenna 2006, and the effects of cultural subsystems on the employeesâ€™ loyalty (Eskildsen and Nussler 2000. Literature studies and interviews are performed to obtain data on several cases of employeesâ€™ shifting which have happened at Charoen Pokphand Company. The informant is an employee who has worked at Charoen Pokphand Company for eleven years and is often received offers to move to other competitorsâ€™ company. Offers which give better position and salary turn out to be unappealing when compared to the organizational culture and communication processes which provide work comfort. Â Abstrak: Makalah ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui lebih jauh tentang bagaimana komunikasi organisasi yang dilakukan PT. Charoen Pokphand Indonesia (sebuah perusahaan pakan ternak multinasional dalam upayanya mencegah migrasi karyawan kompetitor ditengah tingginya mobilitas migrasi karyawan ke perusahaan kompetitor. Metode studi kasus eksplanatori digunakan sebagai metode penelitian dan menggunakan desain studi kasus tunggal. Tulisan ini dibahas dari perspektif budaya organisasi dan fungsi komunikasi internal organisasi
Grace B. Villamor
Full Text Available Financial incentives can both support and undermine social norms compatible with environmental service enhancement. External co-investment - e.g., through incentives from programs to reduce emissions from deforestation and degradation (REDD and eco-certification - needs to synergize with local efforts by understanding local dynamics and conditions for free and prior informed consent. We assessed the perceptions and behavior of rubber agroforest farmers under existing conservation agreements as a step toward institutionalized reward schemes for agro-biodiversity using questionnaires and role-playing games (RPG. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to apply such a combination of methods to explore the perceptions of payments for environmental services (PES. Results revealed a strong conservation belief system and social norms in the research site, with indications that individual interest in converting old rubber agroforest to oil palm, with consequent private gain and loss of local social agro-biodiversity benefits, is suppressed in the social context of a role-playing game. In the game, all financial bids by external agents to secure an oil palm foothold in the village, were rejected despite indications of declining income in the village. Agents promoting an eco-certification scheme in the RPG had success and the responses obtained in the game can assist in the actual rollout of such a scheme without creating unrealistic expectations of its financial benefits. Co-investment schemes that require higher levels of trust and clarity of performance measures will have to address the potential discrepancy between individual preferences and community-level planning and decisions, while recognizing that social norms color the responses of individuals when presented with alternatives.
Izumikawa, Tomomi; Dejima, Katsufumi; Watamoto, Yukiko; Nomura, Kazuko H.; Kanaki, Nanako; Rikitake, Marika; Tou, Mai; Murata, Daisuke; Yanagita, Eri; Kano, Ai; Mitani, Shohei; Nomura, Kazuya; Kitagawa, Hiroshi
Chondroitin sulfate (CS)/chondroitin (Chn) chains are indispensable for embryonic cell division and cytokinesis in the early developmental stages in Caenorhabditis elegans and mice, whereas heparan sulfate (HS) is essential for axon guidance during nervous system development. These data indicate that the fundamental functions of CS and HS are conserved from worms to mammals and that the function of CS/Chn differs from that of HS. Although previous studies have shown that C. elegans produces HS and non-sulfated Chn, whether the organism produces CS remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that C. elegans produces a small amount of 4-O-sulfated Chn and report the identification of C41C4.1, an orthologue of the human chondroitin 4-O-sulfotransferase gene. Loss of C41C4.1 in C. elegans resulted in a decline in 4-O-sulfation of CS and an increase in the number of sulfated units in HS. C41C4.1 deletion mutants exhibited reduced survival rates after synchronization with sodium hypochlorite. Collectively, these results show for the first time that CS glycans are present in C. elegans and that the Chn 4-O-sulfotransferase responsible for the sulfation plays an important role in protecting nematodes from oxidative stress. PMID:27645998
Izumikawa, Tomomi; Dejima, Katsufumi; Watamoto, Yukiko; Nomura, Kazuko H; Kanaki, Nanako; Rikitake, Marika; Tou, Mai; Murata, Daisuke; Yanagita, Eri; Kano, Ai; Mitani, Shohei; Nomura, Kazuya; Kitagawa, Hiroshi
Chondroitin sulfate (CS)/chondroitin (Chn) chains are indispensable for embryonic cell division and cytokinesis in the early developmental stages in Caenorhabditis elegans and mice, whereas heparan sulfate (HS) is essential for axon guidance during nervous system development. These data indicate that the fundamental functions of CS and HS are conserved from worms to mammals and that the function of CS/Chn differs from that of HS. Although previous studies have shown that C. elegans produces HS and non-sulfated Chn, whether the organism produces CS remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that C. elegans produces a small amount of 4-O-sulfated Chn and report the identification of C41C4.1, an orthologue of the human chondroitin 4-O-sulfotransferase gene. Loss of C41C4.1 in C. elegans resulted in a decline in 4-O-sulfation of CS and an increase in the number of sulfated units in HS. C41C4.1 deletion mutants exhibited reduced survival rates after synchronization with sodium hypochlorite. Collectively, these results show for the first time that CS glycans are present in C. elegans and that the Chn 4-O-sulfotransferase responsible for the sulfation plays an important role in protecting nematodes from oxidative stress. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
Full Text Available Anaemia during pregnancy is most commonly observed and highly prevalent in South-East Asia. Various effective programmes have been laid down for its management, mainly daily supplementation of iron folic acid (IFA tablets. Following the same, standard obstetrical practice has included the IFA supplementation without requiring the determination of iron deficiency. In this study, a total of 120 primigravida (N = 60; non-anaemic (Hb > 11 g/dl and N = 60 anaemic (Hb = 8–11 g/dl were selected among those attending the Antenatal Clinic in Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi, India. They were supplemented with daily and weekly IFA tablets till 6 weeks postpartum. Corresponding changes in haemoglobin level on advance of pregnancy, side effects and compliance associated with daily and weekly IFA supplementation and its associations with iron status markers were studied. The inflammatory markers were also estimated. The statistical significance level (p < 0.05 between the groups were assessed by applying unpaired t-test using SPSS (version 16.0. The obtained results publicized the salutary role of daily IFA supplementation in improving the haemoglobin level and iron status markers in anaemic pregnant women though the levels could not reach up to the non-anaemic haemoglobin levels. However, weekly IFA supplementation seems to be a better approach in non-anaemic pregnant women where almost comparable results were obtained in terms of haematological parameters, gestation length and birth weight. Conclusion: Weekly IFA supplementation found to be as effective as daily supplementation in iron sufficient non-anaemic pregnant women whereas anaemic pregnant women should be prescribed daily IFA supplementation irrespective of iron replete/deplete state. Keywords: Anaemia, Iron folic acid supplementation, Iron status markers, Pregnancy
to understand the meaning of the narrated text. Results. The meaning of maintaining dignity was constituted in a sense of vulnerability to the self, and elucidated in three major interrelated themes: Being involved as a human being, being involved as the person one is and strives to become, and being involved...
Farb, Joshua N; Morrical, Scott W
Recombinases of the highly conserved RecA/Rad51 family play central roles in homologous recombination and DNA double-stranded break repair. RecA/Rad51 enzymes form presynaptic filaments on single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) that are allosterically activated to catalyze ATPase and DNA strand-exchange reactions. Information is conveyed between DNA- and ATP-binding sites, in part, by a highly conserved glutamine residue (Gln194 in Escherichia coli RecA) that acts as an allosteric switch. The T4 UvsX protein is a divergent RecA ortholog and contains histidine (His195) in place of glutamine at the allosteric switch position. UvsX and RecA catalyze similar strand-exchange reactions, but differ in other properties. UvsX produces both ADP and AMP as products of its ssDNA-dependent ATPase activity--a property that is unique among characterized recombinases. Details of the kinetics of ssDNA-dependent ATP hydrolysis reactions indicate that UvsX-ssDNA presynaptic filaments are asymmetric and contain two classes of ATPase active sites: one that generates ADP, and another that generates AMP. Active-site asymmetry is reduced by mutations at the His195 position, since UvsX-H195Q and UvsX-H195A mutants both exhibit stronger ssDNA-dependent ATPase activity, with lower cooperativity and markedly higher ADP/AMP product ratios, than wild-type UvsX. Reduced active-site asymmetry correlates strongly with reduced ssDNA-binding affinity and DNA strand-exchange activity in both H195Q and H195A mutants. These and other results support a model in which allosteric switch residue His195 controls the formation of an asymmetric conformation of UvsX-ssDNA filaments that is active in DNA strand exchange. The implications of our findings for UvsX recombination functions, and for RecA functions in general, are discussed.
Stephen, Louise A; Elmaghloob, Yasmin; Ismail, Shehab
The primary cilium is a sensory organelle that is vital in regulating several signalling pathways. Unlike most organelles cilia are open to the rest of the cell, not enclosed by membranes. The distinct protein composition is crucial to the function of cilia and many signalling proteins and receptors are specifically concentrated within distinct compartments. To maintain this composition, a mechanism is required to deliver proteins to the cilium whilst another must counter the entropic tendency of proteins to distribute throughout the cell. The combination of the two mechanisms should result in the concentration of ciliary proteins to the cilium. In this review we will look at different cellular mechanisms that play a role in maintaining the distinct composition of cilia, including regulation of ciliary access and trafficking of ciliary proteins to, from and within the cilium.
A set of principles for minimizing the construction schedule was established at the outset of the CANDU 300 programme. Consideration of these principles and other factors led to the development of the unique CANDU 300 station layout. The paper discusses the CANDU 300 station layout and construction methods. In summary, the station layout provides 360 deg. construction access to all buildings, separation of nuclear and non-nuclear systems, precise and minimal physical interfaces between buildings, accommodation of many contractors and construction activities without interference, and maximum flexibility in terms of constructional, financial and supply arrangements. The CANDU 300 further employs modularization, shop fabrication and advanced instrumentation (multiplexers, remote processors, data highways) to minimize construction time. Many of the CANDU 300 features that enhance constructability also contribute to maintainability. These include the 360 deg. access to all principal buildings, the uncluttered and spacious building layouts, the simplification of systems and the high level of modularization. The CANDU 300 has also been designed to facilitate the replacement of all key components, thereby offering an essentially unlimited station life. A prime example is a reduction in the fuel channel inlet end-fitting diameter such that the fuel channels can be shop assembled and easily replaced after the initial 40 years of operation, without an extended unit outage. Maintainability within the reactor building has been given particular attention in the CANDU 300 design; key features of other CANDU reactors (the ability to replace a heat transport system pump motor at power, for example) have been incorporated, while accessibility and maintainability of all systems and components have been enhanced. These and other aspects of maintainability are discussed. (author)
Several communications in this conference are concerned with nuclear plant reliability and maintainability; their titles are: maintenance optimization of stand-by Diesels of 900 MW nuclear power plants; CLAIRE: an event-based simulation tool for software testing; reliability as one important issue within the periodic safety review of nuclear power plants; design of nuclear building ventilation by the means of functional analysis; operation characteristic analysis for a power industry plant park, as a function of influence parameters
Thomas W. Culliney
Full Text Available In terms of species richness, arthropods may represent as much as 85% of the soil fauna. They comprise a large proportion of the meso- and macrofauna of the soil. Within the litter/soil system, five groups are chiefly represented: Isopoda, Myriapoda, Insecta, Acari, and Collembola, the latter two being by far the most abundant and diverse. Arthropods function on two of the three broad levels of organization of the soil food web: they are plant litter transformers or ecosystem engineers. Litter transformers fragment, or comminute, and humidify ingested plant debris, which is deposited in feces for further decomposition by micro-organisms, and foster the growth and dispersal of microbial populations. Large quantities of annual litter input may be processed (e.g., up to 60% by termites. The comminuted plant matter in feces presents an increased surface area to attack by micro-organisms, which, through the process of mineralization, convert its organic nutrients into simpler, inorganic compounds available to plants. Ecosystem engineers alter soil structure, mineral and organic matter composition, and hydrology. The burrowing by arthropods, particularly the subterranean network of tunnels and galleries that comprise termite and ant nests, improves soil porosity to provide adequate aeration and water-holding capacity below ground, facilitate root penetration, and prevent surface crusting and erosion of topsoil. Also, the movement of particles from lower horizons to the surface by ants and termites aids in mixing the organic and mineral fractions of the soil. The feces of arthropods are the basis for the formation of soil aggregates and humus, which physically stabilize the soil and increase its capacity to store nutrients.
Grinstead, N; Timoney, R
Describes the process used by the Mater Infirmorum Hospital in Belfast in 1992-1994 to achieve high quality care (Seamless Service), motivate staff to deliver and measure performance. Aims of the project include focusing the organization on the customer, improving teamwork and motivation at all levels. After comprehensive data collection from GPs, patients and staff management forums developed a full TQM strategy to gain support and maintain momentum including innovative staff events (every staff member was given the opportunity to attend) where multilevel, multidisciplinary workshops enabled staff to design customer care standards, develop teams and lead customer-driven change.
The Human Factors Design Guide for Maintainability provides guidance for systematically incorporating good human factors techniques into the design of power plants. The guide describes a means of developing a comprehensive program plan to ensure compliance with the human factors approaches specified by the utility. The guide also provides specific recommendations for design practices, with examples, bases, and references. The recommendations are formatted for easy use by nuclear power plant design teams and by utility personnel involved in specification and design review. The guide was developed under EPRI research project RP2166-4 and is currently being published
Full Text Available Alliance and relationship projects are increasingin number and represent a large pool of work. Tobe successful relationship style contracts dependon soft-dollar factors, particularly the participants'ability to work together within an agreedframework, generally they are not based on lowbid tendering. Participants should be prepared todo business in an open environment based ontrust and mutually agreed governance. Theresearch evaluates relationship maintenance inthe implementation phase of constructionalliances - a particular derivative of relationshipstyle contracts. To determine the factors thatcontribute to relationship maintenance forty-nineexperienced Australian alliance projectmanagers were interviewed. The main findingswere; the development of relationships early inthe project form building blocks of success fromwhich relationships are maintained and projectvalue added; quality facilitation plays animportant part in relationship maintenance and ahybrid organisation created as a result of alliancedevelopment overcomes destructiveorganisational boundaries. Relationshipmaintenance is integral to alliance project controland failure to formalise it and pay attention toprocess and past outcomes will undermine analliance project's potential for success.
Watson, Leela R.
Since 2000, both the National Weather Service Melbourne (NWS MLB) and the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) have used a local data integration system (LOIS) as part of their forecast and warning operations. The original LOIS was developed by the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) in 1998 (Manobianco and Case 1998) and has undergone subsequent improvements. Each has benefited from three-dimensional (3-D) analyses that are delivered to forecasters every 15 minutes across the peninsula of Florida. The intent is to generate products that enhance short-range weather forecasts issued in support of NWS MLB and SMG operational requirements within East Central Florida. The current LDIS uses the Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Data Analysis System (AD AS) package as its core, which integrates a wide variety of national, regional, and local observational data sets. It assimilates all available real-time data within its domain and is run at a finer spatial and temporal resolution than current national or regional-scale analysis packages. As such, it provides local forecasters with a more comprehensive understanding of evolving fine-scale weather features. Over the years, the LDIS has become problematic to maintain since it depends on AMU-developed shell scripts that were written for an earlier version of the ADAS software. The goals of this task were to update the NWS MLB/SMG LDIS with the latest version of ADAS, incorporate new sources of observational data, and upgrade and modify the AMU-developed shell scripts written to govern the system. In addition, the previously developed ADAS graphical user interface (GUI) was updated. Operationally, these upgrades will result in more accurate depictions of the current local environment to help with short-range weather forecasting applications, while also offering an improved initialization for local versions of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model used by both groups.
... and SCI • Depression and SCI • Taking Care of Pressure Sores • Maintaining Healthy Skin (Part I) • Maintaining Healthy Skin ( ... For information on establishing skin tolerance, see our “Pressure Sores” pamphlet.) Pressure releases in a wheelchair can be ...
Wolfe, W.A.; Nieuwhof, G.W.E.
AECL's reliability and maintainability program for nuclear generating stations is described. How the various resources of the company are organized to design and construct stations that operate reliably and safely is shown. Reliability and maintainability includes not only special mathematically oriented techniques, but also the technical skills and organizational abilities of the company. (author)
Full Text Available Izabela Kozicka, Tomasz Kostka Department of Geriatrics, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland Purpose: To assess the relative role of handgrip strength (HGS, quadriceps muscle power (Pmax, and optimal shortening velocity (υopt in maintaining functional abilities (FAs in older adults living in a long-term care home over a 1-year follow-up. Subjects and methods: Forty-one inactive older institutionalized adults aged 69.8±9.0 years participated in this study. HGS, Pmax, υopt, cognitive function using the Mini-Mental State Examination, depressive symptoms using the Geriatric Depression Scale, nutritional status using the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA, and physical activity (PA using the Seven-Day Physical Activity Recall Questionnaire were assessed at baseline and at 1-year follow-up. FAs were assessed with activities of daily living (ADL, instrumental ADL, and Timed Up & Go test. Results: Both at baseline and at follow-up, FAs were related to age, HGS, Pmax/kg, υopt, MNA, and PA. These associations were generally similar in both sexes. As revealed in multiple regression analysis, υopt was the strongest predictor of FA, followed by Pmax/kg, PA, and MNA. FA deteriorated after 1 year as measured by ADL and Timed Up & Go test. Pmax and υopt, but not HGS, also decreased significantly after 1 year. Nevertheless, 1-year changes in FAs were not related to changes in HGS, Pmax, υopt, or PA. Conclusion: The 1-year period of physical inactivity among older institutionalized adults was found to have a negative effect on their FAs, Pmax, and υopt. The present study demonstrates that Pmax and, especially, υopt correlated with FAs of older adults more than HGS, both at baseline and at follow-up. Despite this, 1-year natural fluctuations of PA, Pmax, and υopt are not significant enough to influence FAs in inactive institutionalized older adults. Keywords: aging, handgrip strength, institutionalization, functional status, physical activity
Harvey, E; Hewison, C; Nevalainen, D E; Lloyd, H L
Regulation of transfusion or blood banking facilities has followed, rather than preceded the regulation of the pharmaceutical industry and today we find, in Europe and the United States, the basic regulations developed for the pharmaceutical industry being extended to blood transfusion centres (BTC)*. In this article we explore the role of voluntary accreditation or registration to quality systems standards such as ISO 9000 and discuss how these can be used to advantage and how these standards can provide a substantial base for meeting legislative requirements. In the UK there is also a voluntary accreditation procedure available for all clinical laboratories, known as Clinical Pathology Accreditation (CPA). Comparisons between ISO 9000, CPA and other standards are made. We also discuss how voluntary registration, particularly to ISO 9000 can provide an excellent basis for moving into more extensive and progressive Total Quality Management (TQM) programmes which in turn bring a variety of benefits, not least of which is increased staff involvement in your organisation. Experience of the route to quality through voluntary accreditation suggests that external assessment delivers new insights into the organisation that cannot easily be supplanted by internal audit. In Europe legislation relating to pharmaceuticals has steadily increased in scope and in detailed requirements from those set out in the 1965 Directive 65/65/EEC. The legislative framework has steadily increased, bringing plasma and plasma products as well as others such as radiopharmaceuticals, into the product licensing requirements. The progression of legislation seems unlikely to cease and it is debatable how long the Medicines Control Agency (MCA) and its Inspectorate will accept that BTCs can operate at a level which is different from that of the majority of pharmaceutical manufacturers. The change in emphasis in legislation particularly in Europe means that harm that is caused to a patient by a blood
Voiculeț, C; Zară, O; Bogeanu, C; Văcăroiu, I; Aron, G
Background: Major acid-base variations during dialysis and the imbalances in serum calcium levels intensified by them play a role in cardiovascular damage of hemodialysis patients. Early vascular walls modifications can be objectified by determining the pulse wave velocity (PWV) - a marker of vascular stiffness that is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events. Material and methods: This was a prospective study conducted on 63 chronic hemodialysis patients with diuresis above 500 mL/ 24 hours and predialysis blood pressure below 160 mmHg (treatment controlled) randomized in two groups for 12 months - the study group receiving interdialitic oral sodium bicarbonate doses and control group, without oral sodium bicarbonate supplementation, but receiving higher bicarbonate prescriptions in dialysis. All the patients were monthly evaluated by biochemical tests (serum calcium, phosphate, iPTH, bicarbonate), the assessment of prescribed doses of phosphate binders being undergone. Two PWV determinations and chest X-ray exams for coronary calcifications were done - at the beginning and end of the study for every patient. Results: In the study group (n = 29), the mean age was 56.48 ± 12.78 years and the average duration of dialysis was 55.51 ± 34.53 months, the mean dialysis bicarbonate was 29.81 ± 1.41 mEq/ L and 27 of them (subgroup 0) had alkaline reserve (AR) 20-22 mEq/ L. The control group (n = 34) had a mean age of 57.35 ± 15.32 years and the mean dialysis duration 59.67 ± 34.79 months, with an average level of dialysis bicarbonate of 33 ± 2.2 mEq/ L necessary to maintain AR within guidelines. Depending on the mean AR obtained, this group was divided into three subgroups (subgroup 1, subgroup 2, and subgroup 3). There were statistically significant differences regarding the necessary of dialysis bicarbonate (p < 0.001), average serum calcium levels (p < 0.001) and serum phosphorus (p < 0.001), as well as PWV mean values and the number of vascular
In the mid-seventies EPRI initiated a research project to review the human factors aspects of nuclear power plant control rooms. In the course of investigating operator-control room interfaces in five operational control rooms, it became evident that many plant outages had either been caused or prolonged by human factors problems associated with maintenance activities. Consequently, as one of several follow-on projects, EPRI sponsored a review of nine power plants (five nuclear and four fossil) to examine the human factors aspects of plant maintainability. This survey revealed a wide variety of generic human factors problems that could negatively impact the effectiveness of plant maintenance personnel. It was clear that plant maintainability features deserved no less attention to human factors concerns than the operational features of the control room. This paper describes subsequent EPRI-initiated efforts to assist the utilities in conducting self-reviews of maintainability effectiveness and effect needed enhancements
The paper discusses the following aspects on the nuclear knowledge management: assimilation of knowledge management, recognition of the nuclear specificity, attracting young talents. Another feature which, possibly, differentiates nuclear from other high-tech industries is that time constraints in some nuclear development may very well exceed the duration of a generation of professionals. That means, not only maintaining scientific and technical knowledge, which, as a minimum, leads to maintain: a rigorous supervision of human resources in quality and quantity; anticipatory planning of human resources, with a special focus on succession planning concerning expertise positions; a steady and continuous effort in training and retraining programs. Maintaining the safety culture is also one of the major managerial duties. Taking full account of the nuclear specificity in knowledge maintenance and development in the AREVA group, requests a multifunctional approach, which combines efforts of Research and Innovation, and Human Resources departments, plus the group Nuclear inspectorate. It is acknowledged that the industry, basically, would readily rely on the capabilities of the academic world and research centers in ensuring that training and education in nuclear science and technologies are attuned to the evolving needs of the industry, in maintaining the proper educational programs and in fostering fruitful cooperations between them
Niang, Bénédicte; Coudre, Jean Pierre
To maintain the flow of hospital discharges, the patient's return home with support from a home nursing service is important. If any difficulties are identified, there are various programmes or good practices which can be put into place. The future law on adapting society to ageing also comprises a scheme combining home assistance and nursing care.
Full text: In my opinion good media relations are among the most valuable investments regarding the communications and Public Relations operations within an Organisation. This means, that all the work you put up in building and maintaining media relations, is worth all the efforts. It can mean the difference between success or failure. Although a reporter never would admit that he or she is easily influenced, the fact is that you would get better press in an emergency case if you have a positive personal relation to the reporter. So, in my opinion there is nothing more important, in building and maintaining media relations, than the face-to-face-contact. My experience of good personal relations to reporters is also that you're not only getting better press in emergency cases. You are more successful in getting published when you have something positive to say, too. Honesty and openness are two key-words in this context. I have never tried to manipulate and delude a reporter, since that definitely would ruin the relationship. I always try to be as straight forward as possible and underline what I can say and what I can't. That instead of presenting some forced lies. For me, it is also very important to create some kind of mid-field ground, where the reporter and I can meet unprejudiced. Sense of humour and distance, both to yourself and your organisation, are two main characteristics that are invaluable in order to create a good personal relationship with a reporter. But, I'm very accurate in emphasizing when I enter my role as a company representative. All in order to be regarded as correct, yet obliging. To be quick when it comes to returning calls is another vital component that gives the reporter a feeling that he or she is important enough to be contacted as soon as possible. This service-minded attitude is of course good for the relationship. Besides the more personal relation it's important to have a business-like relation, where you show a great deal of
Steam and condensate systems must be maintained with the same diligence as the boiler itself. Unfortunately, they often are not. The water treatment program, critical to keeping the boiler at peak efficiency and optimizing operating life, should not stop with the boiler. The program must encompass the steam and condensate system as well. A properly maintained condensate system maximizes condensate recovery, which is a cost-free energy source. The fuel needed to turn the boiler feedwater into steam has already been provided. Returning the condensate allows a significant portion of that fuel cost to be recouped. Condensate has a high heat content. Condensate is a readily available, economical feedwater source. Properly treated, it is very pure. Condensate improves feedwater quality and reduces makeup water demand and pretreatment costs. Higher quality feedwater means more reliable boiler operation
Dantas, Vinícius de L; Hirota, Marina; Oliveira, Rafael S; Pausas, Juli G
Understanding the mechanisms controlling the distribution of biomes remains a challenge. Although tropical biome distribution has traditionally been explained by climate and soil, contrasting vegetation types often occur as mosaics with sharp boundaries under very similar environmental conditions. While evidence suggests that these biomes are alternative states, empirical broad-scale support to this hypothesis is still lacking. Using community-level field data and a novel resource-niche overlap approach, we show that, for a wide range of environmental conditions, fire feedbacks maintain savannas and forests as alternative biome states in both the Neotropics and the Afrotropics. In addition, wooded grasslands and savannas occurred as alternative grassy states in the Afrotropics, depending on the relative importance of fire and herbivory feedbacks. These results are consistent with landscape scale evidence and suggest that disturbance is a general factor driving and maintaining alternative biome states and vegetation mosaics in the tropics. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.
The concept of improving nuclear safety versus maintaining it has been discussed at a number of nuclear regulators meetings in recent years. National reports have indicated that there are philosophical differences between NEA member countries about whether their regulatory approaches require licensees to continuously improve nuclear safety or to continuously maintain it. It has been concluded that, while the actual level of safety achieved in all member countries is probably much the same, this is difficult to prove in a quantitative way. In practice, all regulatory approaches require improvements to be made to correct deficiencies and when otherwise warranted. Based on contributions from members of the NEA Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA), this publication provides an overview of current nuclear regulatory philosophies and approaches, as well as insights into a selection of public perception issues. This publication's intended audience is primarily nuclear safety regulators, but government authorities, nuclear power plant operators and the general public may also be interested. (author)
Flynn, W.P.; Smith, G.
The New York Power Authority, after surveying available courses, decided to develop an in-house instructor training program. Following the principles of the Systems Approach to Training the course embodied the results of a job analysis resulting in a program containing instruction in Educational Philosophy, the Systems Approach to Training, Methods and Media, and Testing. The course content is covered through classroom instruction, on-the-job training, instructor evaluations, and assignments. Instructors completing the program continue to maintain skills with inservice training
Birman, Kenneth P.
In systems designed as assemblies of independently developed components, concurrent access to data or data structures normally arises within individual programs, and is controlled using mutual exclusion constructs, such as semaphores and monitors. Where data is persistent and/or sets of operation are related to one another, transactions or linearizability may be more appropriate. Systems that incorporate cooperative styles of distributed execution often replicate or distribute data within groups of components. In these cases, group oriented consistency properties must be maintained, and tools based on the virtual synchrony execution model greatly simplify the task confronting an application developer. All three styles of distributed computing are likely to be seen in future systems - often, within the same application. This leads us to propose an integrated approach that permits applications that use virtual synchrony with concurrent objects that respect a linearizability constraint, and vice versa. Transactional subsystems are treated as a special case of linearizability.
S. I. Ripa
Full Text Available Understanding of maintaining biological diversity mechanisms is important for elaborating methods for the restoration of natural forests that most fully implement ecosystem functions. The objectives of work are: to identify intact beech and dark coniferous-beech forests of the Carpathians on the basis of analyzing history of nature management and field studies; to characterize the population structure of the main tree species in the intact forests of the Carpathians; to determine the renewal of various species of trees, shrubs, herbs and bryophytes to treefall microsites in the forest types studied. The objects of the research are monodominant beech forests and mixed (dark coniferous-beech forests of the Ukrainian Carpathians, in which beech (Fagus sylvatica, white fir (Abies alba and European spruce (Picea abies are the main dominant of tree sinusia. Monodominant beech forests (the age of stands 250–350 years were studied on 9 sample plots (from 1 to 1.05 ha laid in the Ugolsky forest range of the Carpathian Biosphere Reserve at an altitude of 600 to 1000 m above sea level, and also on the 2 sample plots (from 1 to 1.09 hectares laid in the Lower Volovets forestry at an altitude of 600–800 meters above sea level. Uneven-aged dark coniferous-beech forest (the age of forest stands is 250–300 years old was explored on one sample plot (1.2 ha laid in the Podlisnivsky forestry of the Carpathian National Park at an altitude of 750 m above sea level. Population analysis of the main tree and shrub species as well as geobotanical releves was made on the sample plots. Treefall microsite complexes were investigated to identify the peculiarities in the location of tree undergrowth, herb and moss species in beech and mixed forests. The following elements of treefall microsite complex were singled out: treefall pit, treefall mound and tree trunk. At each treefall microsite complex the research was carried out according to the following scheme: an
Full Text Available Recent experimental and computational studies suggest that linearly correlated sets of parameters (intrinsic and synaptic properties of neurons allow central pattern-generating networks to produce and maintain their rhythmic activity regardless of changing internal and external conditions. To determine the role of correlated conductances in the robust maintenance of functional bursting activity, we used our existing database of half-center oscillator (HCO model instances of the leech heartbeat CPG. From the database, we identified functional activity groups of burster (isolated neuron and half-center oscillator model instances and realistic subgroups of each that showed burst characteristics (principally period and spike frequency similar to the animal. To find linear correlations among the conductance parameters maintaining functional leech bursting activity, we applied Principal Component Analysis (PCA to each of these four groups. PCA identified a set of three maximal conductances (leak current, [Formula: see text]Leak; a persistent K current, [Formula: see text]K2; and of a persistent Na+ current, [Formula: see text]P that correlate linearly for the two groups of burster instances but not for the HCO groups. Visualizations of HCO instances in a reduced space suggested that there might be non-linear relationships between these parameters for these instances. Experimental studies have shown that period is a key attribute influenced by modulatory inputs and temperature variations in heart interneurons. Thus, we explored the sensitivity of period to changes in maximal conductances of [Formula: see text]Leak, [Formula: see text]K2, and [Formula: see text]P, and we found that for our realistic bursters the effect of these parameters on period could not be assessed because when varied individually bursting activity was not maintained.
This presentation is answering the question: 'how does British Energy build and maintain its relationships with journalists in so many areas', not only the basic industrial correspondents that you would expect to have to deal with an industry British Energy, but those dealing with science and technology, the environment, personnel and training, city and financial, political, and on and on, and that is just the national press. Then add the local and regional media around power station sites - literally hundreds of contacts and you start to get an idea about the size of our media contact database. But it is managed it rather well. Every six months British Energy takes part in a survey run by one of the UK's leading market research companies who conducts a poll among journalists and then rate each company's performance. In the last three years British Energy has not been outside the top five in most categories, and in the top two in several. The answer is a lot of work over a long period of time. You cannot expect to build trusting relationships with a journalist overnight. At British Energy the key is being open and honest, and always available. Of course good media relations is not a one-way street, and there has to be some element of compromise if you are to achieve a relationship based on mutual trust
Vega, Rick B; Horton, Julie L; Kelly, Daniel P
The ultrastructure of the cardiac myocyte is remarkable for the high density of mitochondria tightly packed between sarcomeres. This structural organization is designed to provide energy in the form of ATP to fuel normal pump function of the heart. A complex system comprised of regulatory factors and energy metabolic machinery, encoded by both mitochondrial and nuclear genomes, is required for the coordinate control of cardiac mitochondrial biogenesis, maturation, and high-capacity function. This process involves the action of a transcriptional regulatory network that builds and maintains the mitochondrial genome and drives the expression of the energy transduction machinery. This finely tuned system is responsive to developmental and physiological cues, as well as changes in fuel substrate availability. Deficiency of components critical for mitochondrial energy production frequently manifests as a cardiomyopathic phenotype, underscoring the requirement to maintain high respiration rates in the heart. Although a precise causative role is not clear, there is increasing evidence that perturbations in this regulatory system occur in the hypertrophied and failing heart. This review summarizes current knowledge and highlights recent advances in our understanding of the transcriptional regulatory factors and signaling networks that serve to regulate mitochondrial biogenesis and function in the mammalian heart. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
Animals display incredibly diverse colour patterns, a testament to evolution's endless innovation in shaping life. In many species, the interplay between males and females in the pursuit of mates has driven the evolution of a myriad of colour forms, from the flashy peacock tail feathers to the tiniest colour markings in damselflies. In others, colour provides crypsis by allowing to blend into the background and to escape the eyes of predators. While the obvious benefits of this dazzling diversity for reproduction and survival seem straightforward, its maintenance is not. Theory predicts that genetic drift and various forms of selection reduce variation over time, making the persistence of colour variants over generations a puzzle. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Lindtke et al. () study the cryptic colour morphs of Timema cristinae walking sticks to shed light on the genetic architecture and mechanisms that allow colour polymorphism maintenance over long timescales. By combining genome-wide data with phenotyping information from natural populations, they were able to map the green and melanistic colour to one genomic region with highly reduced effective recombination rate between two main chromosomal variants, consistent with an inversion polymorphism. These two main chromosomal variants showed geographically widespread heterozygote excess, and genomic signatures consistent with long-term balancing selection. A younger chromosomal variant was detected for the third morph, the green-striped colour morphs, in the same genomic regions as the melanistic and the green-unstriped morphs. Together, these results suggest that the genetic architecture of cryptic T. cristinae morphs is caused by nonrecombining genomic blocks that have been maintained over extended time periods by balancing selection making this study one of the few available empirical examples documenting that balancing selection of various forms may play an important role in maintaining adaptive genetic
Haire, M.J.; Gift, E.H.
The need for collection of reliability, maintainability, and availability data adds a new dimension to the data acquisition requirements of equipment development tests. This report describes the reliability and maintainability data that are considered necessary to ensure that sufficient and high quality data exist for a comprehensive, quantitative evaluation of equipment and system availability. These necessary data are presented as a set of data collection forms. Three data acquisition forms are discussed: an inventory and technical data form, which is filed by the design engineer when the design is finished or the equipment is received; an event report form, which is completed by the senior test operator at each shutdown; and a maintainability report, which is a collaborative effort between senior operators and lead engineers and is completed on restart. In addition, elements of a reliability, maintainability evaluation program are described. Emphasis is placed on the role of data, its storage, and use in such a program
Miller, Marshall G; Thangthaeng, Nopporn; Poulose, Shibu M; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara
Population aging is leading to an increase in the incidence of age-related cognitive dysfunction and, with it, the health care burden of caring for older adults. Epidemiological studies have shown that consumption of fruits, nuts, and vegetables is positively associated with cognitive ability; however, these foods, which contain a variety of neuroprotective phytochemicals, are widely under-consumed. Surprisingly few studies have investigated the effects of individual plant foods on cognitive health but recent clinical trials have shown that dietary supplementation with individual foods, or switching to a diet rich in several of these foods, can improve cognitive ability. While additional research is needed, increasing fruit, nut, and vegetable intake may be an effective strategy to prevent or delay the onset of cognitive dysfunction during aging. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Full Text Available The treatment of breast cancer requires intensive methods. Depending on the severity of the disease surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or endocrine therapy is applied. In most cases these methods are combined, thus increasing the chances of recovery, but also intensifying side effects. Until recently, physical activity was contraindicated in the treatment of malignant tumours. Currently, an increasing number of studies confirm the beneficial effect of physical activity on the physical and mental state of people after the treatment of malignant tumours. The paper presents selected studies showing the impact of physical activity on the physical fitness of women treated for breast cancer. The authors draw attention to the difficulty of comparing the results of physical activity due to the use of different questionnaires and different methods. Furthermore, the paper includes recommendations on forms of exercise indicated for cancer patients, as well as situations that require restrictions or constitute a contraindication for physical activity.
The baseline parameters for serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. (hs-CRP) ... with kidney injury . Some of ... experiment to investigate the protective effects of glabridin on peritoneal function and RRF in PD patients. Figure 1: ... were recommended regular diet containing 1.0 - .... We are thankful to head department of.
Construcciones Aeronauticas. commonly referred to CASA, provides nearly $17.7 million in support of F-4 aircraft. (Note that although the F-4 was shown...COMPANY PREDOMINANT COSTLOCATION WORK ($000) British Aerospace U.K. F-111 18.619 Construcciones Spain F-4 17,697 Aeronauticas Hellenic Aerospace Greece J79
The purpose of the paper is to make the point of maintainability in France since 1971. The importance of maintainability is recalled. Publications in France from 1971 to 1975 show the interest arose by maintainability; their analysis permits to make clear the general plan followed by the studies and gives indications on the directions of actual efforts. Conclusion is drawn on the orientation of work at short, medium and long term [fr
Setia, Vikas; Pandit, Inder Kumar; Srivastava, Nikhil; Gugnani, Neeraj; Sekhon, Harveen Kaur
Early orthodontic interventions are often initiated in the developing dentition to promote favourable developmental changes. Interceptive orthodontic can eliminate or reduce the severity of a developing malocclusion, the complexity of orthodontic treatment, overall treatment time and cost. The safest way to prevent future malocclusions from tooth loss is to place a space maintainer that is effective and durable. An appropriate use of space maintainer is advocated to hold the space until the eruption of permanent teeth. This case report describes the various changing trends in use of space maintainers: conventional band and loop, prefabricated band with custom made loop and glass fibre reinforced composite resins as space maintainers.
The fundamental law of atomic energy, which strictly restricts the application of atomic energy to the peaceful use, was established in 1955 in Japan. Since then, during the past five decades, great efforts were made to develop atomic energy. So far 52 units of light water reactors, 29 BWRs and 23 PWRs, have been built and in operation, 5 units are under construction and 6 units are planed to be built. Total capacity of presently operated NPPs amounts to 45.7 Gwe and the nuclear energy shares 30 % of the total electricity generation in Japan. During the past 10 years, several accidents occur in the nuclear facilities of electric power companies, and JNC ( previously PNC ). In spite of these accidents, including the accident of Kansai Electric Power Co. this year, the important role of nuclear energy to sustain the lives of people in Japan is intact. In the nuclear energy projection, the construction of NPPs continues till 2010. Thereafter reconstructions of NPPs are foreseen in the decade 2030's for the replacement of present NPPs in operation after 60 years services. Attention has been directed to the technology preservation: how competence and expertise of nuclear engineering can be maintained till the next period of replacement construction, in particular, the period between years 2010 and 2030. The present paper reviews the status of nuclear engineering programs in universities in Japan. The nuclear education programs started in graduate schools in 1957 and expanded to undergraduate schools of major national universities. Presently nine universities are providing systematic nuclear education programs in their graduate schools, although the corresponding department have been changed their names from 'nuclear' to more broaden terms of 'quantum', 'energy' and 'system' in several universities. Under the conditions of shrinking nuclear industries, how to maintain the present education system is seriously concerned matter in the universities. The present paper
Humphrey, David A.
Tentative formulas for calculating the cost of maintaining educational communications equipment are proposed. The formulas are based on a survey of campuses of the State University of New York. The survey analyzed the types of equipment to be maintained, types of maintenance, who uses the equipment, who services the equipment, and the cost…
Bruschi, H.J.; Hochreiter, L.E.
The role of the university in maintaining and revitalizing the nuclear option should have four goals. First, it must attract highly skilled students who have an interest in math and science and help foster their interest in nuclear science and engineering. Next, it must present a state-of-the-art educational program that contains meaningful research to maintain these students. The third goal of nuclear engineering departments is to provide the nontechnical student a fair assessment of benefits and risks associated with commercial nuclear power relative to other sources of electricity. Lastly, it must effectively communicate to all students a compelling vision of nuclear power as a vital energy resource that will grow. The most difficult role for the university is to successfully convey a future for those in the nuclear science and engineering program
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This layer shows coastal channels and waterways that are maintained and surveyed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). These channels are necessary...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SIFT proposes to design and develop the Marshal system, a mixed-initiative tool for maintaining task models over the course of evolving missions. Marshal-enabled...
O'Toole, Sean M; Ferrer, Monica M; Mekonnen, Jennifer; Zhang, Haihan; Shima, Yasuyuki; Ladle, David R; Nelson, Sacha B
Neuronal cell identity is established during development and must be maintained throughout an animal's life (Fishell G, Heintz N. Neuron 80: 602-612, 2013). Transcription factors critical for establishing neuronal identity can be required for maintaining it (Deneris ES, Hobert O. Nat Neurosci 17: 899-907, 2014). Posttranscriptional regulation also plays an important role in neuronal differentiation (Bian S, Sun T. Mol Neurobiol 44: 359-373, 2011), but its role in maintaining cell identity is less established. To better understand how posttranscriptional regulation might contribute to cell identity, we examined the proprioceptive neurons in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG), a highly specialized sensory neuron class, with well-established properties that distinguish them from other neurons in the ganglion. By conditionally ablating Dicer in mice, using parvalbumin (Pvalb)-driven Cre recombinase, we impaired posttranscriptional regulation in the proprioceptive sensory neuron population. Knockout (KO) animals display a progressive form of ataxia at the beginning of the fourth postnatal week that is accompanied by a cell death within the DRG. Before cell loss, expression profiling shows a reduction of proprioceptor specific genes and an increased expression of nonproprioceptive genes normally enriched in other ganglion neurons. Furthermore, although central connections of these neurons are intact, the peripheral connections to the muscle are functionally impaired. Posttranscriptional regulation is therefore necessary to retain the transcriptional identity and support functional specialization of the proprioceptive sensory neurons. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We have demonstrated that selectively impairing Dicer in parvalbumin-positive neurons, which include the proprioceptors, triggers behavioral changes, a lack of muscle connectivity, and a loss of transcriptional identity as observed through RNA sequencing. These results suggest that Dicer and, most likely by extension, micro
Wu, Chia-Huei; Tsai, Ying-Mei; Chen, Lung Hung
This study proposes three mediation pathways to explain how the positive views (perceived control, optimism and self-enhancement) proposed by Cummins and Nistico (Journal of Happiness Studies 3:37-69 2002) maintain life satisfaction. The three pathways were enhancing self-esteem, reducing have-want discrepancy and changing importance perceptions.…
Agarwal, Pankaj K.; Mølhave, Thomas; Revsbæk, Morten
We study the problem of maintaining the contour tree T of a terrain Sigma, represented as a triangulated xy-monotone surface, as the heights of its vertices vary continuously with time. We characterize the combinatorial changes in T and how they relate to topological changes in Sigma. We present ...
Agarwal, Pankaj K.; Arge, Lars; Mølhave, Thomas
We consider maintaining the contour tree T of a piecewise-linear triangulation M that is the graph of a time varying height function h:R2→R. We carefully describe the combinatorial change in T that happen as h varies over time and how these changes relate to topological changes in M. We present a...
The maintainability of a manpower system is studied under a Markov framework. The classical method of controlling only one factor of flow is extended to highlight the case in which two factors are under control simultaneously. One special case of this extension, where recruitment of units faces partial embargo, is given, ...
Breckow, J.; Geringer, T.; Radiation Protection Academy Seibersdorf; Haug, T.
A survey is given on current initiatives, supranational in the EU and national in Germany and Switzerland, for education and training in radiation protection with the aim of maintaining and enlarging professional competence. Successively, individual studying possibilities and courses as well as some experiences with guidelines for professional knowledge in Germany are described. (orig.)
Boyles, Anna; Hunt, Sharon
It is estimated that around one in 500 people in the UK are living with a stoma, with approximately 21 000 operations that result in stoma formation being performed each year ( Colostomy Association, 2016 ). These people face a unique set of challenges in maintaining the integrity of their peristomal skin. This article explores the normal structure and function of skin and how the care and management of a stoma presents challenges for maintaining peristomal skin health. Particular focus is paid to the incidence of skin problems for those living with a stoma, whether it is temporary or permanent, and the factors that contribute to skin breakdown in this population. Wider factors such as the central role of the clinical nurse specialist and the impact of product usage on positive outcomes and health economics are also considered.
Jensen, Kim; Kristensen, Torsten Nygård; Heckmann, Lars-Henrik
Insects have a large potential for sustainably enhancing global food and feed production, and commercial insect production is a rising industry of high economic value. Insects suitable for production typically have fast growth, short generation time, efficient nutrient utilization, high...... reproductive potential, and thrive at high density. Insects may cost-efficiently convert agricultural and industrial food by-products into valuable protein once the technology is finetuned. However, since insect mass production is a new industry, the technology needed to efficiently farm these animals is still...... in a starting phase. Here, we discuss the challenges and precautions that need to be considered when breeding and maintaining high-quality insect populations for food and feed. This involves techniques typically used in domestic animal breeding programs including maintaining genetically healthy populations...
Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis (CF is an inherited disease that primarily affects the lungs and the digestive system, however, it also affects a number of other organs and systems. More than 90% of mortality of CF patients is due to lung complications. Healthy lungs are important for a long life for people with CF, We will discuss two important topics for maintaining respiratory health. Chronic use of drugs for maintaining respiratory health There are a number of drugs available to keep CF lungs healthy. We will discuss the science behind the recommendations for use of: Inhaled antibiotics Dornase alfa Azithromycin Hypertonic saline High-dose ibuprofen Ivacaftor CF Airway Clearance Therapies Airway Clearance therapy is very important to keeping CF lungs healthy. Our discussions cover the following topics such as the: Daily airway clearance Different techniques of airway clearance Effect of aerobic exercise on airway clearance
Martin, Alan; O'Hare, Gregory; Duffy, Brian; Schoen-Phelan, Bianca; Bradley, John
Virtual agents are traditionally constrained in their embod- iment, as they are restricted to one form of body. We propose allowing them to change their embodiment in order to expand their capabili- ties. This presents users with a number of di±culties in maintaining the identity of the agents, but these can be overcome by using identity cues, certain features that remain constant across embodiment forms. This pa- per outlines an experiment that examines these identity cues, and shows that th...
Kobayashi, Minoru; Inami, Ichiro.
The device of the present invention reduces the amount of leaching materials of ion exchange resins from a water processing system of a BWR tyep plant, improves the water quality of reactor water to maintain the water at high purity. That is, steams used for power generation are condensated in a condensate system. A condensate filter and a condensate desalter for cleaning the condensates are disposed. A resin storage hopper is disposed for supplying the ion exchange resins to the water processing system. A device for supplying a nitrogen gas or an inert gas is disposed in the hopper. With such a constitution, the ion exchange resins in the water processing system are maintained in a nitrogen gas or inert gas atmosphere or at a low dissolved oxygen level in an operation stage in the power plant. Accordingly, degradation of the ion exchange resins in the water processing system is suppressed and the amount of the leaching material from the resins is reduced. As a result, the amount of the resins leached into the reactor is reduced, so that the reactor water quality can be maintained at high purity. (I.S.)
Spiegel, Tali; De Bel, Vera; Steverink, Nardi
Purpose: This study aims to describe the interplay between the work trajectories and the passing patterns of individuals with degenerative eye conditions in different phases of their career, as well as the disease progression and the career and well-being outcomes associated with different works and
Spiegel, Tali; De Bel, Vera; Steverink, Nardi
Purpose: This study aims to describe the interplay between the work trajectories and the passing patterns of individuals with degenerative eye conditions in different phases of their career, as well as the disease progression and the career and well-being outcomes associated with different works and
To test divergent theoretical predictions as to the impact of having a younger or older, same-sex sibling or opposite-sex sibling on other gender constancy, Israeli kindergarten children in two-child families responded to a gender constancy task in which a male and female picture target engaged in counter-stereotypic toy play and adopted…
This paper provides specific examples and results from ongoing projects at Power Plants, and for offshore oil platforms. The paper describes the vital role maintainability has on plant availability. How the application of equipment maintainability principles, if addressed using state of the art computer tools and advanced business processes can bring annual return on investment results as high as 15 to 1. The maintenance process of today and for the future must provide for high plant availability at the lowest possible cost. The high cost of obtaining equipment reliability levels necessary to meet required availability demands has not proved to be sustainable. Therefore new business decision processes that address equipment failures as part of the maintenance process have been developed. Repair costs require that equipment failures be selective and controlled so that a high level of safety and plant availability is assurance. This can only be accomplished by the use of advanced computer tools in the hands of well trained maintenance-engineering specialist. The relationship between Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM), Condition Directed Planned Maintenance (CDPM), and maintainability is also presented
Evangelinos, Constantinos; Nair, Ravi; Ohmacht, Martin
In one embodiment, a computer-implemented method includes encountering a store operation during a compile-time of a program, where the store operation is applicable to a memory line. It is determined, by a computer processor, that no cache coherence action is necessary for the store operation. A store-without-coherence-action instruction is generated for the store operation, responsive to determining that no cache coherence action is necessary. The store-without-coherence-action instruction specifies that the store operation is to be performed without a cache coherence action, and cache coherence is maintained upon execution of the store-without-coherence-action instruction.
Evangelinos, Constantinos; Nair, Ravi; Ohmacht, Martin
In one embodiment, a computer-implemented method includes encountering a store operation during a compile-time of a program, where the store operation is applicable to a memory line. It is determined, by a computer processor, that no cache coherence action is necessary for the store operation. A store-without-coherence-action instruction is generated for the store operation, responsive to determining that no cache coherence action is necessary. The store-without-coherence-action instruction specifies that the store operation is to be performed without a cache coherence action, and cache coherence is maintained upon execution of the store-without-coherence-action instruction.
This paper describes the issues relating to human resources and maintaining capabilities in an organization. The sustaining elements are: vision and plan for excellence; invest in the plant; invest in human capital; find and fix problems. There is much discussion about knowledge transfer and retention that is mainly focused on technical attributes and proficiency. We are losing more people with the requisite managerial and leadership capability than we can develop and backfill at a Time when our industry is facing increased competition and decreased margins. We are vulnerable because this Increases our dependence on augmented staff for certain key leadership roles. Previous methods for developing people will take too long and does not appeal to current generation. A solution, not the only solution, but the one we have chosen is initial hiring of operators, maintainers and engineers, internal promotion for key roles (FLM, FSOS, Shift Supervisor, Section Manager, ANO) and focus on all three aspects of capability and looking for leadership traits. Look for ambition, drive, initiative and motivation. Identify, separate and stream. Take specific measures to accelerate growth.
Full Text Available Working in a rural community locates the professional in a wider social network as community members often expect more from their professionals; not only as service providers, but also as engaged members of the community. This can result in the rural social worker being highly visible both personally and professionally and it can also lead to overlapping relationships. These higher expectations can place stress on the worker in terms of maintaining accepted professional roles and a sense of professional identity. This qualitative study explores the first-hand experiences of a cross-section of service providers in more than a dozen communities within northwestern Ontario and northern Manitoba, Canada. The responses of the participants provide some insight into how rural practitioners maintain their professional identity when working within the unique demands of the rural and remote context. Recurring themes from the interviews suggest that these professionals craft their own informal decision-making processes to address intersecting roles, community gossip, and personal isolation, even while, in some cases, practicing in their home community. The findings provide greater understanding of the pressures and realities of working in small remote towns and the challenges of responding to the expectations and realities of relationships including the expectation of working with friends and family members of friends or colleagues: issues that have not been adequately studied in the literature to date.
Ramjist, S. [Ontario Power Generation, Darlington Nuclear Generating Station, Bowmanville, Ontario (Canada)
This paper describes the issues relating to human resources and maintaining capabilities in an organization. The sustaining elements are: vision and plan for excellence; invest in the plant; invest in human capital; find and fix problems. There is much discussion about knowledge transfer and retention that is mainly focused on technical attributes and proficiency. We are losing more people with the requisite managerial and leadership capability than we can develop and backfill at a Time when our industry is facing increased competition and decreased margins. We are vulnerable because this Increases our dependence on augmented staff for certain key leadership roles. Previous methods for developing people will take too long and does not appeal to current generation. A solution, not the only solution, but the one we have chosen is initial hiring of operators, maintainers and engineers, internal promotion for key roles (FLM, FSOS, Shift Supervisor, Section Manager, ANO) and focus on all three aspects of capability and looking for leadership traits. Look for ambition, drive, initiative and motivation. Identify, separate and stream. Take specific measures to accelerate growth.
Dimenstein, Izak B
Laboratory methodology websites are specialized niche websites. The visibility of a niche website transforms it into an authority site on a particular "niche of knowledge." This article presents some ways in which a laboratory methodology website can maintain its sustainability. The optimal composition of the website includes a basic content, a blog, and an ancillary part. This article discusses experimenting with the search engine optimization query results page. Strategic placement of keywords and even phrases, as well as fragmentation of the post's material, can improve the website's visibility to search engines. Hyperlinks open a chain reaction of additional links and draw attention to the previous posts. Publications in printed periodicals are a substantial part of a niche website presence on the Internet. Although this article explores a laboratory website on the basis of our hands-on expertise maintaining "Grossing Technology in Surgical Pathology" (www.grossing-technology.com) website with a high volume of traffic for more than a decade, the recommendations presented here for developing an authority website can be applied to other professional specialized websites. The authority websites visibility and sustainability are preconditions for aggregating them in a specialized educational laboratory portal.
Chen, Huayue; Iinuma, Mitsuo; Onozuka, Minoru; Kubo, Kin-Ya
Mastication (chewing) is important not only for food intake, but also for preserving and promoting the general health. Recent studies have showed that mastication helps to maintain cognitive functions in the hippocampus, a central nervous system region vital for spatial memory and learning. The purpose of this paper is to review the recent progress of the association between mastication and the hippocampus-dependent cognitive function. There are multiple neural circuits connecting the masticatory organs and the hippocampus. Both animal and human studies indicated that cognitive functioning is influenced by mastication. Masticatory dysfunction is associated with the hippocampal morphological impairments and the hippocampus-dependent spatial memory deficits, especially in elderly. Mastication is an effective behavior for maintaining the hippocampus-dependent cognitive performance, which deteriorates with aging. Therefore, chewing may represent a useful approach in preserving and promoting the hippocampus-dependent cognitive function in older people. We also discussed several possible mechanisms involved in the interaction between mastication and the hippocampal neurogenesis and the future directions for this unique fascinating research.
Grognet, Pierre; Silar, Philippe
Among all the strategies displayed by fungi to reproduce and propagate, some species have adopted a peculiar behavior called pseudo-homothallism. Pseudo-homothallic fungi are true heterothallics, i.e., they need 2 genetically-compatible partners to mate, but they produce self-fertile mycelium in which the 2 different nuclei carrying the compatible mating types are present. This lifestyle not only enables the fungus to reproduce without finding a compatible partner, but also to cross with any mate it may encounter. However, to be fully functional, pseudo-homothallism requires maintaining heterokaryosis at every stage of the life cycle. We recently showed that neither the structure of the mating-type locus nor hybrid-enhancing effect due to the presence of the 2 mating types accounts for the maintenance of heterokaryosis in the pseudo-homothallic fungus P. anserina. In this addendum, we summarize the mechanisms creating heterokaryosis in P. anserina and 2 other well-known pseudo-homothallic fungi, Neurospora tetrasperma and Agaricus bisporus. We also discuss mechanisms potentially involved in maintaining heterokaryosis in these 3 species.
Gevers, J K M; Ploem, M C
Solidarity is essentially the willingness to contribute to the community and its demands, which may even involve contributing more than one is expecting to receive. Another principle is mutuality: this refers to a balance between rights and obligations or between mutual obligations. In its advisory document 'The importance of mutuality......solidarity takes work!', The Dutch Council for Public Health and Health Care underlines the importance of ensuring solidarity within the Dutch health care system, e.g. by encouraging patients to take responsibility for their own health, possibly by introducing elements of mutuality. In our contribution, we comment on the Council's advice. Although we fully agree with the overall conclusion that solidarity should be maintained within the system, we do not see how the introduction of increased mutuality will contribute to this goal.
Statler, Irving C.; Billings, Charles E.
This paper addresses the special nature of the human-machine relationship during a trip to Mars. In particular, the potential for monotony and boredom during a long-duration space voyage and the effect on motivation and productivity can be important considerations to the health and welfare of the crew. For the voyage to Mars, a design may be considered that will purposefully maintain some level of workload for the crew as a preventive measure for the deterioration of productivity that comes with boredom. This paper speculates on these considerations, on the appropriate level of workload for maximum productivity, and on what might be done during the mission to alleviate the problems caused by monotony and boredom.
Zhou, Xinyue; Wildschut, Tim; Sedikides, Constantine; Chen, Xiaoxi; Vingerhoets, Ad J J M
Nostalgia, a sentimental longing or wistful affection for the past, is a predominantly positive and social emotion. Recent evidence suggests that nostalgia maintains psychological comfort. Here, we propose, and document in five methodologically diverse studies, a broader homeostatic function for nostalgia that also encompasses the maintenance of physiological comfort. We show that nostalgia--an emotion with a strong connotation of warmth--is triggered by coldness. Participants reported stronger nostalgia on colder (vs. warmer) days and in a cold (vs. neutral or warm) room. Nostalgia, in turn, modulates the interoceptive feeling of temperature. Higher levels of music-evoked nostalgia predicted increased physical warmth, and participants who recalled a nostalgic (vs. ordinary autobiographical) event perceived ambient temperature as higher. Finally, and consistent with the close central nervous system integration of temperature and pain sensations, participants who recalled a nostalgic (vs. ordinary autobiographical) event evinced greater tolerance to noxious cold.
Seminara, J.L.; Parsons, S.O.; Schmidt, W.J.; Gonzalez, W.R.; Dove, L.E.
Human factors engineering is an interdisciplinary science and technology concerned with shaping the design of machines, facilities, and operational environments to promote safe, efficient, and reliable performance on the part of operators and maintainers of equipment systems. The human factors aspects of five nuclear power plants and four fossil fuel plants were evaluated using such methods as a checklist guided observation system, structured interviews with maintenance personnel, direct observations of maintenance tasks, reviews of procedures, and analyses of maintenance errors or accidents by means of the critical incident technique. The study revealed a wide variety of human factors problem areas, most of which are extensively photodocumented. The study recommends that a more systematic and formal approach be adopted to ensure that future power plants are human engineered to the needs of maintenance personnel
Maintaining and Troubleshooting Your 3D Printer by Charles Bell is your guide to keeping your 3D printer running through preventive maintenance, repair, and diagnosing and solving problems in 3D printing. If you've bought or built a 3D printer such as a MakerBot only to be confounded by jagged edges, corner lift, top layers that aren't solid, or any of a myriad of other problems that plague 3D printer enthusiasts, then here is the book to help you get past all that and recapture the joy of creative fabrication. The book also includes valuable tips for builders and those who want to modify the
Prolog+CG is an implementation of Prolog with Conceptual Graphs as first-class datastructures, on a par with terms. As such, it lends itself well to applications in which reasoning with Conceptual Graphs and/or ontologies plays a role. It as originally developed by Prof. Dr. Adil Kabbaj, who......, we offer some general observations about the tenets that make Prolog+CG a success....
Mazlipah Mohd Ramlan; Ramzah Mohamed; Saipo Bahari Abdul Ratan
This paper discusses the activities of the Group Maintenance of Instrumentation and Automation Center. Maintenance of group activities is to provide maintenance service on equipment at the Malaysian Nuclear Agency. Category of equipment is maintained instrumentation / nuclear electronics, scientific, analytical, security, communications, audio visual and other related. Maintenance services is to support research and development and scientific services at Nuclear Malaysia. Equipment maintenance services including repair service (CM), periodic maintenance (PM), technical testing and calibration of new devices. The objective is to ensure that maintenance activities can be the hope of an equipment, extend the life of the operation of the equipment, reducing 'down time' and reduce maintenance costs. Among the challenges in managing the maintenance of equipment in Nuclear Malaysia is the lack of expertise in specific areas such as nuclear instrumentation, analytical instruments, the problem of the inability of local suppliers to provide after-sales service, lack of spares, maintenance and nothing less emphasis on preventive maintenance schedule is perfect. (author)
Trung Dung Ngo
Full Text Available Research of autonomous mobile robots has mostly emphasized interaction and coordination that are natually inspired from biological behavior of birds, insects, and fish: flocking, foraging, collecting, and sharing. However, most research has been only focused on autonomous behaviors in order to perform robots like animals, whereas it is lacked of determinant to those behaviours: energy. Approaching to clusted amimal and the higher, collective and sharing food among individuals are major activity to keep society being. This paper issues an approach to sociable robots using self-maintained energy in cooperative mobile robots, which is dominantly inspired from swarm behavior of collecting and sharing food of honey-bee and ant. Autonomous mobile robots are usually equipped with a finite energy, thus they can operate in a finite time. To overcome the finitude, we describe practical deployment of mobile robots that are capable of carrying and exchanging fuel to other robots. Mechanism implementation including modular hardware and control architecture to demonstrate the capabicities of the approach is presented. Subsequently, the battery exchange algorithm basically based on probabilistic modeling of total energy on each robot located in its local vicinity is described. The paper is concluded with challenging works of chain of mobile robots, rescue, repair, and relation of heterogeneous robots.
Full Text Available Research of autonomous mobile robots has mostly emphasized interaction and coordination that are natually inspired from biological behavior of birds, insects, and fish: flocking, foraging, collecting, and sharing. However, most research has been only focused on autonomous behaviors in order to perform robots like animals, whereas it is lacked of determinant to those behaviours: energy. Approaching to clusted amimal and the higher, collective and sharing food among individuals are major activity to keep society being. This paper issues an approach to sociable robots using self-maintained energy in cooperative mobile robots, which is dominantly inspired from swarm behavior of collecting and sharing food of honey-bee and ant. Autonomous mobile robots are usually equipped with a finite energy, thus they can operate in a finite time. To overcome the finitude, we describe practical deployment of mobile robots that are capable of carrying and exchanging fuel to other robots. Mechanism implementation including modular hardware and control architecture to demonstrate the capabicities of the approach is presented. Subsequently, the battery exchange algorithm basically based on probabilistic modeling of total energy on each robot located in its local vicinity is described. The paper is concluded with challenging works of chain of mobile robots, rescue, repair, and relation of heterogeneous robots.
Chung, Hachung; Kasper, Dennis Lee
In recent years there has been an explosion of interest to identify microbial inhabitants of human and understand their beneficial role in health. In the gut, a symbiotic host-microbial interaction has coevolved as bacteria make essential contributions to human metabolism and bacteria in turn benefits from the nutrient-rich niche in the intestine. To maintain host-microbe coexistence, the host must protect itself against microbial invasion, injury, and overreactions to foreign food antigens, and gut microbes need protection against competing microbes and the host immune system. Perturbation of this homeostatic coexistence has been strongly associated with human disease. This review discusses how gut bacteria regulate host innate and adaptive immunity, with emphasis on how this regulation contributes to host-microbe homeostasis in the gut. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Saad, Fred; Eastham, James
Prostate cancer (PC) is the most prevalent malignancy in men, with 604,506 new cases diagnosed yearly worldwide. Maintaining bone health is important during all stages of PC, including patients who experience bone loss from androgen-deprivation therapy and patients who develop bone metastases. Patients with bone metastases often experience severe bone pain and are at increased risk for potentially debilitating skeletal-related events. Bisphosphonates are a well-established treatment option for patients with bone metastases from solid tumors and bone lesions from multiple myeloma. Zoledronic acid (ZOL) is the only bisphosphonate (BP) that has been extensively studied in patients with castration-recurrent PC and is indicated for treating patients with bone metastases from PC in conjunction with standard antineoplastic therapy. This review will examine the breadth of evidence supporting a role for ZOL and emerging therapies in managing patients with PC throughout the disease continuum. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Michael M Scott
Full Text Available The neuronal coordination of metabolic homeostasis requires the integration of hormonal signals with multiple interrelated central neuronal circuits to produce appropriate levels of food intake, energy expenditure and fuel availability. Ghrelin, a peripherally produced peptide hormone, circulates at high concentrations during nutrient scarcity. Ghrelin promotes food intake, an action lost in ghrelin receptor null mice and also helps maintain fasting blood glucose levels, ensuring an adequate supply of nutrients to the central nervous system. To better understand mechanisms of ghrelin action, we have examined the roles of ghrelin receptor (GHSR expression in the mouse hindbrain. Notably, selective hindbrain ghrelin receptor expression was not sufficient to restore ghrelin-stimulated food intake. In contrast, the lowered fasting blood glucose levels observed in ghrelin receptor-deficient mice were returned to wild-type levels by selective re-expression of the ghrelin receptor in the hindbrain. Our results demonstrate the distributed nature of the neurons mediating ghrelin action.
Christoph W Korn
Full Text Available Living organisms need to maintain energetic homeostasis. For many species, this implies taking actions with delayed consequences. For example, humans may have to decide between foraging for high-calorie but hard-to-get, and low-calorie but easy-to-get food, under threat of starvation. Homeostatic principles prescribe decisions that maximize the probability of sustaining appropriate energy levels across the entire foraging trajectory. Here, predictions from biological principles contrast with predictions from economic decision-making models based on maximizing the utility of the endpoint outcome of a choice. To empirically arbitrate between the predictions of biological and economic models for individual human decision-making, we devised a virtual foraging task in which players chose repeatedly between two foraging environments, lost energy by the passage of time, and gained energy probabilistically according to the statistics of the environment they chose. Reaching zero energy was framed as starvation. We used the mathematics of random walks to derive endpoint outcome distributions of the choices. This also furnished equivalent lotteries, presented in a purely economic, casino-like frame, in which starvation corresponded to winning nothing. Bayesian model comparison showed that--in both the foraging and the casino frames--participants' choices depended jointly on the probability of starvation and the expected endpoint value of the outcome, but could not be explained by economic models based on combinations of statistical moments or on rank-dependent utility. This implies that under precisely defined constraints biological principles are better suited to explain human decision-making than economic models based on endpoint utility maximization.
Collier, I.; Wartel, R.
logging infrastructures. VOs indeed need to fulfil a new operational role and become fully active participants in the incident response process. We present an analysis of the changing requirements to maintain traceability for virtualised and cloud based workflows with particular reference to the work of the WLCG Traceability Working Group.
Esposito, C. R.; Liang, M.; Yuill, B. T.; Meselhe, E. A.
In river deltas, crevasses are the primary geomorphic feature that traverse the levee, connecting the river to its floodplain and facilitating the transfer of water, sediment, and chemical constituents from the trunk channel. Despite their fundamental position linking river and floodplain, the factors that are important to crevasse evolution are not well understood, and their enumeration is the subject of active research across multiple earth surface process subfields. Crevasses are often associated with a zone of intense scour proximal to the trunk channel. Surprisingly little is known about the morphological dynamics in this zone, but there is evidence from studies of river avulsion that scour zone evolution plays an important role in determining crevasse sustainability. Here we use Delft3D to simulate the development of managed crevasse splays - river diversions - for the purpose of landscape management in the Mississippi River Delta. Our model runs vary the erodibility of the substrate in the receiving basin and the extent and location of erosion protection along the conveyance channel. We find that substrate erodibility in the basin plays a critical role in determining the long-term performance of sediment diversions. Crevasses that create large scours tend to maintain their performance over several decades, but those that only create small scours are subject to rapidly declining performance as the scour pit fills in with coarse sediments. Finally, we compare the evolution of our modeled scour zone to the West Bay Sediment Diversion, where regular bathymetric surveys have documented the evolution of the scour zone since 2004.
Full Text Available In the editorial Introduction to Women, Science, and Technology: A Reader in Feminist Science Studies, published in 2001, can be found the exemplary statement that among the norms for acquiring scientific knowledge is “skepticism (all claims should be scrutinized for errors”. In this article, I address a section relating to historical contentions in the same volume that, I argue, fails to live up to this basic standard of scholarly research. It is now quite widely believed that Mileva Marić, Einstein’s first wife, played an active role in Einstein’s early scientific work until well after they married in 1903. Some commentators go so far as to argue that she coauthored his three major 1905 papers, while others contend that she solved the mathematical problems for him. I examine the claims made in relation to Marić in the section in question in the above-cited volume, and investigate the sources of the evidential claims that have been adduced to support them. I conclude that the several claims are without reliable evidential bases.
Fauzi, AM; Sudrajat, A.; Affandi, A.; Raditya, A.
This study investigates the portrayal of traditional political cultures in West Kalimantan Province, a growing of election process. Results showed that Political life in Indonesia leads to modern political culture after experiencing a change of paradigm of political life. Political life in Indonesia leads to modern political culture after experiencing a change of paradigm of political life. Beginning Indonesia’s independence in the Old Order Phase, the politics used using the ideological paradigm, subsequent to the New Order Period used the political paradigm of unification and simplification of political parties but in practice it became the strategy of the State’s rulers to facilitate subjugating its citizens. After entering the reform era, several phenomena of political culture are displayed, some are using modern paradigm by giving women the widest possible role in political parties, and so on. Besides that there is the opposite of displaying and practicing traditional political culture, this is as it runs in West Borneo Province. The change of political culture in the modern direction is different from the political culture of the citizens in terms of who will be chosen, most West Borneo Province residents determine their political choice by using traditional patterns.
Chen, Peili; Li, Yan Chun; Toback, F Gary
Dysregulated homeostasis of epithelial cells resulting in disruption of mucosal barrier function is an important pathogenic mechanism in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). We have characterized a novel gastric protein, Antrum Mucosal Protein (AMP)-18, that has pleiotropic properties; it is mitogenic, anti-apoptotic and can stimulate formation of tight junctions. A 21-mer synthetic peptide derived from AMP-18 exhibits the same biological functions as the full-length protein and is an effective therapeutic agent in mouse models of IBD. In this study we set out to characterize therapeutic mechanisms and identify molecular targets by which AMP-18 maintains and restores disrupted epithelial homeostasis in cultured intestinal epithelial cells and a mouse model of IBD. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, a pro-inflammatory cytokine known to mediate gastrointestinal (GI) mucosal injury in IBD, was used to induce intestinal epithelial cell injury, and study the effects of AMP-18 on apoptosis and the cell cycle. An apoptosis array used to search for targets of AMP-18 in cells exposed to TNF-α identified the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 WAF1/CIP1. Treatment with AMP-18 blunted increases in p21 expression and apoptosis, while reversing disturbed cell cycle kinetics induced by TNF-α. AMP-18 appears to act through PI3K/AKT pathways to increase p21 phosphorylation, thereby reducing its nuclear accumulation to overcome the antiproliferative effects of TNF-α. In vitamin D receptor-deficient mice with TNBS-induced IBD, the observed increase in p21 expression in colonic epithelial cells was suppressed by treatment with AMP peptide. The results indicate that AMP-18 can maintain and/or restore the homeostatic balance between proliferation and apoptosis in intestinal epithelial cells to protect and repair mucosal barrier homeostasis and function, suggesting a therapeutic role in IBD.
Full Text Available Dysregulated homeostasis of epithelial cells resulting in disruption of mucosal barrier function is an important pathogenic mechanism in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD. We have characterized a novel gastric protein, Antrum Mucosal Protein (AMP-18, that has pleiotropic properties; it is mitogenic, anti-apoptotic and can stimulate formation of tight junctions. A 21-mer synthetic peptide derived from AMP-18 exhibits the same biological functions as the full-length protein and is an effective therapeutic agent in mouse models of IBD. In this study we set out to characterize therapeutic mechanisms and identify molecular targets by which AMP-18 maintains and restores disrupted epithelial homeostasis in cultured intestinal epithelial cells and a mouse model of IBD. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, a pro-inflammatory cytokine known to mediate gastrointestinal (GI mucosal injury in IBD, was used to induce intestinal epithelial cell injury, and study the effects of AMP-18 on apoptosis and the cell cycle. An apoptosis array used to search for targets of AMP-18 in cells exposed to TNF-α identified the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 WAF1/CIP1. Treatment with AMP-18 blunted increases in p21 expression and apoptosis, while reversing disturbed cell cycle kinetics induced by TNF-α. AMP-18 appears to act through PI3K/AKT pathways to increase p21 phosphorylation, thereby reducing its nuclear accumulation to overcome the antiproliferative effects of TNF-α. In vitamin D receptor-deficient mice with TNBS-induced IBD, the observed increase in p21 expression in colonic epithelial cells was suppressed by treatment with AMP peptide. The results indicate that AMP-18 can maintain and/or restore the homeostatic balance between proliferation and apoptosis in intestinal epithelial cells to protect and repair mucosal barrier homeostasis and function, suggesting a therapeutic role in IBD.
of this guide is to provide organizational and technical information for integrating energy and high performance facility management into existing O&M practices. The guide allows users to adapt and implement suggested O&M strategies to address specific energy efficiency goals. It recognizes and expands on existing tools and resources that are widely used throughout the high performance school industry. External resources are referenced throughout the guide and are also listed within the EnergySmart Schools O&M Resource List (Appendix J). While this guide emphasizes the impact of the energy efficiency component of O&M, it encourages taking a holistic approach to maintaining a high-performance school. This includes considering various environmental factors where energy plays an indirect or direct role. For example, indoor air quality, site selection, building orientation, and water efficiency should be considered. Resources to support these overlapping aspects will be cited throughout the guide.
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How must cranes be maintained? 150.555 Section 150.555 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Operations § 150.555 How must cranes be maintained? Cranes must be operated, maintained, and tested in...
Pothier, N.E.; Crago, W.A.
Design, application, layout and administrative factors which affect valve maintainability in CANDU-PHW power reactors are identified and discussed. Some of these are illustrated by examples based on prototype reactor operation experience. Valve maintainability improvements resulting from laboratory development and maintainability analysis, have been incorporated in commercial CANDU-PHW nuclear generating stations. These, also, are discussed and illustrated. (author)
Full Text Available The ability to maintain representations in the absence of external sensory stimulation, such as in working memory, is critical for guiding human behavior. Human functional brain imaging studies suggest that visual working memory can recruit a network of brain regions from visual to parietal to prefrontal cortex. In this review, we focus on the maintenance of representations during visual working memory and discuss factors determining the topography of those representations. In particular, we review recent studies employing multi-voxel pattern analysis that demonstrate decoding of the maintained content in visual cortex, providing support for a ‘sensory recruitment’ model of visual working memory. However, there is some evidence that maintained content can also be decoded in areas outside of visual cortex, including parietal and frontal cortex. We suggest that the ability to maintain representations during working memory is a general property of cortex, not restricted to specific areas, and argue that it is important to consider the nature of the information that must be maintained. Such information-content is critically determined by the task and the recruitment of specific regions during visual working memory will be both task- and stimulus-dependent. Thus, the common finding of maintained information in visual, but not parietal or prefrontal, cortex may be more of a reflection of the need to maintain specific types of visual information and not of a privileged role of visual cortex in maintenance.
Lee, Sue-Hyun; Baker, Chris I
The ability to maintain representations in the absence of external sensory stimulation, such as in working memory, is critical for guiding human behavior. Human functional brain imaging studies suggest that visual working memory can recruit a network of brain regions from visual to parietal to prefrontal cortex. In this review, we focus on the maintenance of representations during visual working memory and discuss factors determining the topography of those representations. In particular, we review recent studies employing multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) that demonstrate decoding of the maintained content in visual cortex, providing support for a "sensory recruitment" model of visual working memory. However, there is some evidence that maintained content can also be decoded in areas outside of visual cortex, including parietal and frontal cortex. We suggest that the ability to maintain representations during working memory is a general property of cortex, not restricted to specific areas, and argue that it is important to consider the nature of the information that must be maintained. Such information-content is critically determined by the task and the recruitment of specific regions during visual working memory will be both task- and stimulus-dependent. Thus, the common finding of maintained information in visual, but not parietal or prefrontal, cortex may be more of a reflection of the need to maintain specific types of visual information and not of a privileged role of visual cortex in maintenance.
Lee, Sue-Hyun; Baker, Chris I.
The ability to maintain representations in the absence of external sensory stimulation, such as in working memory, is critical for guiding human behavior. Human functional brain imaging studies suggest that visual working memory can recruit a network of brain regions from visual to parietal to prefrontal cortex. In this review, we focus on the maintenance of representations during visual working memory and discuss factors determining the topography of those representations. In particular, we review recent studies employing multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) that demonstrate decoding of the maintained content in visual cortex, providing support for a “sensory recruitment” model of visual working memory. However, there is some evidence that maintained content can also be decoded in areas outside of visual cortex, including parietal and frontal cortex. We suggest that the ability to maintain representations during working memory is a general property of cortex, not restricted to specific areas, and argue that it is important to consider the nature of the information that must be maintained. Such information-content is critically determined by the task and the recruitment of specific regions during visual working memory will be both task- and stimulus-dependent. Thus, the common finding of maintained information in visual, but not parietal or prefrontal, cortex may be more of a reflection of the need to maintain specific types of visual information and not of a privileged role of visual cortex in maintenance. PMID:26912997
Forry, Nicole D.; Hofferth, Sandra L.
With the passage of welfare reform, support for low-income parents to not only obtain but also maintain work has become imperative. The role of child care subsidies in supporting parents' job tenure has received little attention in the literature. This article examines the association between receiving a child care subsidy and experiencing a child…
Wlodarczyk, Agnieszka I.; Sylantyev, Sergiy; Herd, Murray B.; Kersanté, Flavie; Lambert, Jeremy J.; Rusakov, Dmitri A.; Linthorst, Astrid C.E.; Semyanov, Alexey; Belelli, Delia; Pavlov, Ivan; Walker, Matthew C.
Activation of GABAA receptors (GABAARs) produces two forms of inhibition: ‘phasic’ inhibition generated by the rapid, transient activation of synaptic GABAARs by presynaptic GABA release, and tonic inhibition generated by the persistent activation of peri- or extrasynaptic GABAARs which can detect extracellular GABA. Such tonic GABAAR-mediated currents are particularly evident in dentate granule cells in which they play a major role in regulating cell excitability. Here we show that in rat dentate granule cells in ex-vivo hippocampal slices, tonic currents are predominantly generated by GABA-independent GABAA receptor openings. This tonic GABAAR conductance is resistant to the competitive GABAAR antagonist SR95531, which at high concentrations acts as a partial agonist, but can be blocked by an open channel blocker picrotoxin. When slices are perfused with 200 nM GABA, a concentration that is comparable to cerebrospinal fluid concentrations but is twice that measured by us in the hippocampus in vivo using zero-net-flux microdialysis, negligible GABA is detected by dentate granule cells. Spontaneously opening GABAARs, therefore, maintain dentate granule cell tonic currents in the face of low extracellular GABA concentrations. PMID:23447601
Wani, M.F.; Gandhi, O.P.
Maintainability of mechanical systems based on tribology is suggested and evaluated in this paper. Tribo-features of mechanical systems, which characterise maintainability are identified and are modelled in terms of tribo-maintainability digraph. The nodes in the digraph represent the tribo-features and edges represent the degree of influence among the features. A matrix, one to one representation of the digraph, is defined to develop system maintainability expression (SPF-t) based on the tribology. It is also useful in comparing the various design alternatives from tribo-maintainability point of view. Maintainability is evaluated from the tribo-maintainability index, obtained from SPF-t (i.e. permanent of the matrix) by substituting the numerical values of the features and their interdependence. A higher value of the index implies better maintainability of the systems. The proposed methodology also guides designers in enhancing the maintainability of a system by appropriately incorporating tribo-features. An example to illustrate the methodology is also presented
... States who fails or refuses to maintain such lights and other signals, or to obey any of the lawful rules... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Penalty for failure to maintain. 118.5 Section 118.5 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...
Lin, Yea-Pyng; Tsai, Yun-Fang
This article is a report of a study undertaken to understand how nurses maintain patients' dignity in clinical practice. Dignity is a core concept in nursing care and maintaining patients' dignity is critical to their recovery. In Western countries, measures to maintain dignity in patients' care include maintaining privacy of the body, providing spatial privacy, giving sufficient time, treating patients as a whole person and allowing patients to have autonomy. However, this is an under-studied topic in Asian countries. For this qualitative descriptive study, data were collected in Taiwan in 2009 using in-depth interviews with a purposive sample of 30 nurses from a teaching hospital in eastern Taiwan. The audiotaped interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using content analysis. Nurses' measures to maintain dignity in patient care were captured in five themes: respect, protecting privacy, emotional support, treating all patients alike and maintaining body image. Participants did not mention beneficence, a crucial element achieved through the professional care of nurses that can enhance the recovery of patients. In-service education to help nurses enhance dignity in patient care should emphasize emotional support, maintaining body image and treating all patients alike. Our model for maintaining dignity in patient care could be used to develop a clinical care protocol for nurses to use in clinical practice. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Lewis, John A.; Henry, Sallie M.
Maintainability must be integrated into software early in the development process. But for practical use, the techniques used must be as unobtrusive to the existing software development process as possible. This paper defines a methodology for integrating maintainability into large-scale software and describes an experiment which implemented the methodology into a major commercial software development environment.
Munoz, Gisela; Toon, T.; Toon, J.; Conner, A.; Adams, T.; Miranda, D.
This paper describes the methodology and value of modifying allocations to reliability and maintainability requirements for the NASA Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) programs subsystems. As systems progressed through their design life cycle and hardware data became available, it became necessary to reexamine the previously derived allocations. This iterative process provided an opportunity for the reliability engineering team to reevaluate allocations as systems moved beyond their conceptual and preliminary design phases. These new allocations are based on updated designs and maintainability characteristics of the components. It was found that trade-offs in reliability and maintainability were essential to ensuring the integrity of the reliability and maintainability analysis. This paper discusses the results of reliability and maintainability reallocations made for the GSDO subsystems as the program nears the end of its design phase.
body image; feeling recognised and valued as a person of worth; Abilities and opportunities for changing of lifevalues; to exert control; to form and maintain meaningful relationships and to participation in meaningful activity. Conclusion. Although there is no one way to maintain dignity, the themes...... dignity is maintained. Background. Elderly living in nursing homes are vulnerable which appeal to nursing care ethics and emphasise the importance of care for human dignity. There have been several attempts to define dignity as a theoretical concept, but few studies on how dignity is maintained from...... was used to understand the meaning of the narrated text. Findings. The residents’ experiences revealed one main theme and seven sub-themes contributing to maintain dignity. The overall theme was: Coping with vulnerability and the subthemes were: Attention and care for basic needs; preserving a positive...
Lauren Worcester; T. F. McLaughlin
This literature review compares treatment for attention-maintainedversus escape maintained aberrant behavior in children with behavior disorders. Specifically, studies utilizing time out procedures, differential reinforcement procedures, noncontingent reinforcement, and functional communication training are discussed. It was found that these are effective treatments for attention-maintained behaviors; while escape extinction, positive and negative reinforcement, functional communication trai...
Wright, Christian D; Jackson, Marin L; DeNardo, Dale F
Many xeric organisms maintain water balance by relying on dietary and metabolic water rather than free water, even when free water may be available. For such organisms, hydric state may influence foraging decisions, since meal consumption is meeting both energy and water demands. To understand foraging decisions it is vital to understand the role of dietary water in maintaining water balance. We investigated whether meal consumption was sufficient to maintain water balance in captive Gila monsters (Heloderma suspectum) at varying levels of dehydration. Gila monsters could not maintain water balance over long time scales through meal consumption alone. Animals fed a single meal took no longer to dehydrate than controls when both groups were deprived of free water. Additionally, meal consumption imparts an acute short-term hydric cost regardless of hydration state. Meal consumption typically resulted in a significant elevation in osmolality at 6 h post-feeding, and plasma osmolality never fell below pre-feeding levels despite high water content (~70%) of meals. These results failed to support our hypothesis that dietary water is valuable to Gila monsters during seasonal drought. When considered in conjunction with previous research, these results demonstrate that Gila monsters, unlike many xeric species, are heavily reliant on seasonal rainfall and the resulting free-standing water to maintain water balance.
En-Ju Chou; Liang-Yi Hung; Chieh-Ju C. Tang; Wen-Bin Hsu; Hsin-Yi Wu; Pao-Chi Liao; Tang K. Tang
CPAP is required for centriole elongation during S/G2 phase, but the role of CPAP in mitosis is incompletely understood. Here, we show that CPAP maintains spindle pole integrity through its phosphorylation by Aurora-A during mitosis. Depletion of CPAP induced a prolonged delay in mitosis, pericentriolar material (PCM) dispersion, and multiple mitotic abnormalities. Further studies demonstrated that CPAP directly interacts with and is phosphorylated by Aurora-A at serine 467 during mitosis. In...
Full Text Available This study explored the effectiveness of storytelling in supporting children with unusual physical traits. Participants were forty-eight children, aged 9 – 12 who, due to various eye diseases, wear eyeglasses. They completed various standardized self-report measures, both before and after participation, in one of the six intervention groups. The measures assessed shyness and social anxiety symptoms, loneliness and social dissatisfaction, perception of negative evaluation, satisfaction with one’s appearance, and anxiety regarding physical appearance. The intervention consisted of six 90-min group sessions and included both individual and group activities. The results lend support to the hypothesis that storytelling can significantly contribute to the emotional well-being of children, with a distinct physical appearance.
Zahn, H.S.; Mantz, H.C.; Curtis, C.T.; Buchheit, R.J.; Green, W.M.; Zuckerman, D.S.
The overall purpose of the study is to identify design features of fusion power reactors which contribute to the achievement of high levels of maintainability. Previous phases evaluated several commercial tokamak reactor design concepts. This final phase compares the maintainability of a tandem mirror reactor (TMR) commercial conceptual design with the most maintainable tokamak concept selected from earlier work. A series of maintainability design guidelines and desirable TMR design features are defined. The effects of scheduled and unscheduled maintenance for most of the reactor subsystems are defined. The comparison of the TMR and tokamak reactor maintenance costs and availabilities show that both reactors have similar costs for scheduled maintenance at 19.4 and 20.8 million dollars annually and similar scheduled downtime availability impacts, achieving approximate availabilities of 79% at optimized maintenance intervals and cost of electricity.
Oct 17, 2010 ... complicated that most teachers find it difficult to maintain and keep their ... gang fighting, drug abuse, unrest, smoking, armed robbery, students/ ... instance, both the principals' and teachers' leadership styles can affect the.
Nelson, M J; Collins, C J; Speake, C C
Polarization maintaining optical fibers can be used to transmit linearly polarized light over long distances but their use in cryogenic environments has been limited by their sensitivity to temperature changes and associated mechanical stress. We investigate experimentally how thermal stresses affect the polarization maintaining fibers and model the observations with Jones matrices. We describe the design, construction, and testing of a feedthrough and fiber termination assembly that uses polarization maintaining fiber to transmit light from a 633 nm HeNe laser at room temperature to a homodyne polarization-based interferometer in a cryogenic vacuum. We report on the efficiency of the polarization maintaining properties of the feedthrough assembly. We also report that, at cryogenic temperatures, the interferometer can achieve a sensitivity of 8 × 10(-10) rad/√Hz at 0.05 Hz using this feedthrough.
.... The thesis uses accepted economic analysis on the gains from international trade to show that the costs of maintaining such protectionist legislation are potentially high relative to the uncertain...
Zahn, H.S.; Mantz, H.C.; Curtis, C.T.; Buchheit, R.J.; Green, W.M.; Zuckerman, D.S.
The overall purpose of the study is to identify design features of fusion power reactors which contribute to the achievement of high levels of maintainability. Previous phases evaluated several commercial tokamak reactor design concepts. This final phase compares the maintainability of a tandem mirror reactor (TMR) commercial conceptual design with the most maintainable tokamak concept selected from earlier work. A series of maintainability design guidelines and desirable TMR design features are defined. The effects of scheduled and unscheduled maintenance for most of the reactor subsystems are defined. The comparison of the TMR and tokamak reactor maintenance costs and availabilities show that both reactors have similar costs for scheduled maintenance at 19.4 and 20.8 million dollars annually and similar scheduled downtime availability impacts, achieving approximate availabilities of 79% at optimized maintenance intervals and cost of electricity
Kosan, Christian; Godmann, Maren
All hematopoiesis cells develop from multipotent progenitor cells. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) have the ability to develop into all blood lineages but also maintain their stemness. Different molecular mechanisms have been identified that are crucial for regulating quiescence and self-renewal to maintain the stem cell pool and for inducing proliferation and lineage differentiation. The stem cell niche provides the microenvironment to keep HSC in a quiescent state. Furthermore, several trans...
Matsui, Takashi; Omuro, Hideki; Liu, Yu-Fan; Soya, Mariko; Shima, Takeru; McEwen, Bruce S; Soya, Hideaki
Brain glycogen stored in astrocytes provides lactate as an energy source to neurons through monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) to maintain neuronal functions such as hippocampus-regulated memory formation. Although prolonged exhaustive exercise decreases brain glycogen, the role of this decrease and lactate transport in the exercising brain remains less clear. Because muscle glycogen fuels exercising muscles, we hypothesized that astrocytic glycogen plays an energetic role in the prolonged-exercising brain to maintain endurance capacity through lactate transport. To test this hypothesis, we used a rat model of exhaustive exercise and capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry-based metabolomics to observe comprehensive energetics of the brain (cortex and hippocampus) and muscle (plantaris). At exhaustion, muscle glycogen was depleted but brain glycogen was only decreased. The levels of MCT2, which takes up lactate in neurons, increased in the brain, as did muscle MCTs. Metabolomics revealed that brain, but not muscle, ATP was maintained with lactate and other glycogenolytic/glycolytic sources. Intracerebroventricular injection of the glycogen phosphorylase inhibitor 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-d-arabinitol did not affect peripheral glycemic conditions but suppressed brain lactate production and decreased hippocampal ATP levels at exhaustion. An MCT2 inhibitor, α-cyano-4-hydroxy-cinnamate, triggered a similar response that resulted in lower endurance capacity. These findings provide direct evidence for the energetic role of astrocytic glycogen-derived lactate in the exhaustive-exercising brain, implicating the significance of brain glycogen level in endurance capacity. Glycogen-maintained ATP in the brain is a possible defense mechanism for neurons in the exhausted brain.
Full Text Available Premature loss could cause a problem with the tooth arrangement or the dental arch size. A space left by the primary tooth loss could cause migration of the adjacent teeth. As a result, space will be narrowed and undermined the eruption of the permanent teeth. The success of the space maintainer or space regainer usage due to the premature loss marked by space for the replacement of the permanent teeth. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the compliance of children in wearing a space maintainer or space regainer after insertion at Pedodontics Installation of Faculty of Dentistry Universitas Padjadjaran Dental Hospital, Bandung, Indonesia. The research method was descriptive survey technique. The sample consisted of 30 patients selected using the total sampling technique. Data were obtained with a questionnaire and statistically analyzed. The results showed that majority of the children uses the removable space maintainer or the space regainer daily was only about 23,3% overall. Most of the children only use the removable space maintainer or the space regainer for sometimes. The research concluded that the low rate of pedodontic patients compliance at Pedodontics Installation of Faculty of Dentistry Universitas Padjadjaran Dental Hospital in the usage of the removable space maintainer or the space regainer was usually caused by pain or discomfort. This fact was evidence of a low awareness of parents in preventing malocclusion to their children.
Junaidi Mistar, Alfan Zuhairini
Full Text Available The objectives of the present study are four-fold: (1 to identify the types of strategies to maintain proficiency used by teachers of English in Indonesia, (2 to know the intensity of use of the obtained strategy types, (3 to measure the inter-correlation in the use of the obtained strategy types, and (4 to investigate the effect of proficiency level on the use of maintaining strategies. The subjects were 93 teachers applying for S2 degree in 2010/2011 at the postgraduate program of the Islamic University of Malang. They were given two sets of instrument, a Likert-scale questionnaire of English proficiency maintaining strategies and a TOEFL test. Then, a factor analysis identified nine strategy categories, including language focusing, metacognitive and affective developing, reading and writing activating, language resource utilizing, cognitive processing, culture learning, social communicating, text analyzing, and radio listening strategies. These strategy types explained 63.84% of variances of maintaining strategies and they were used at high level of intensity. Moreover, the use of the nine strategy types were found to be inter-correlated with one another. Finally, no significant effect of proficiency level on strategy use was found, indicating that teachers with different level of proficiency reported using the same strategies of maintaining their proficiency.
One of the major problems faced by the fusion community is the development of the high level of reliability required to assure that fusion will be a viable commercial power source. Much of the responsibility for solving this problem falls directly on the designer in developing concepts that have a high level of maintainability. The problems are both near-term, in developing maintainability for next generation engineering oriented reactors; and long range, in developing full maintainability for the more commercial concepts with their required high level of on-line time. The near-time challenge will include development of unqiue design concepts to perform inspection, maintenance, replacement, and testing under the stringent conditions imposed by the next generation engineering oriented machines. The long range challenge will focus on basic design concepts that will enable the full mainatability required by commerical fusion
Kuban, D.P.; Martin, H.L.
A remotely maintainable force-reflecting servomanipulator concept is being developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory as part of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program. This new manipulator addresses requirements of advanced nuclear fuel reprocessing with emphasis on force reflection, remote maintainability, reliability, radiation tolerance, and corrosion resistance. The advanced servomanipulator is uniquely subdivided into remotely replaceable modules which will permit in situ manipulator repair by spare module replacement. Manipulator modularization and increased reliability are accomplished through a force transmission system that uses gears and torque tubes. Digital control algorithms and mechanical precision are used to offset the increased backlash, friction, and inertia resulting from the gear drives. This results in the first remotely maintainable force-reflecting servomanipulator in the world. 10 references, 4 figures, 1 table
Kosan, Christian; Godmann, Maren
All hematopoiesis cells develop from multipotent progenitor cells. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) have the ability to develop into all blood lineages but also maintain their stemness. Different molecular mechanisms have been identified that are crucial for regulating quiescence and self-renewal to maintain the stem cell pool and for inducing proliferation and lineage differentiation. The stem cell niche provides the microenvironment to keep HSC in a quiescent state. Furthermore, several transcription factors and epigenetic modifiers are involved in this process. These create modifications that regulate the cell fate in a more or less reversible and dynamic way and contribute to HSC homeostasis. In addition, HSC respond in a unique way to DNA damage. These mechanisms also contribute to the regulation of HSC function and are essential to ensure viability after DNA damage. How HSC maintain their quiescent stage during the entire life is still matter of ongoing research. Here we will focus on the molecular mechanisms that regulate HSC function. PMID:26798358
Kappler, J. R.; Folsom, A. B.
Maintainability must be designed into long-duration spacecraft and equipment to provide the required high probability of mission success with the least cost and weight. The ability to perform repairs quickly and easily in a space environment can be achieved by imposing specific maintainability design criteria on spacecraft equipment design and installation. A study was funded to investigate and define design criteria for electronic equipment that would permit rapid removal and replacement in a space environment. The results of the study are discussed together with subsequent simulated zero-g demonstration tests of a mockup with new concepts for packaging.
Full Text Available Summary: Microglia play key roles in brain development, homeostasis, and function, and it is widely assumed that the adult population is long lived and maintained by self-renewal. However, the precise temporal and spatial dynamics of the microglial population are unknown. We show in mice and humans that the turnover of microglia is remarkably fast, allowing the whole population to be renewed several times during a lifetime. The number of microglial cells remains steady from late postnatal stages until aging and is maintained by the spatial and temporal coupling of proliferation and apoptosis, as shown by pulse-chase studies, chronic in vivo imaging of microglia, and the use of mouse models of dysregulated apoptosis. Our results reveal that the microglial population is constantly and rapidly remodeled, expanding our understanding of its role in the maintenance of brain homeostasis. : The mechanism or mechanisms underlying microglial homeostasis are unknown. Askew et al. show that microglia self-renewal is maintained by coupled proliferation and apoptosis, resulting in a stable microglia number over a mouse or human lifetime. Keywords: self-renewal, BrdU, CSF1R, CX3CR1, Macgreen, Vav-Bcl2, RNA-seq
Ananieva, Elitsa A; Van Horn, Cynthia G; Jones, Meghan R; Hutson, Susan M
Unlike other amino acids, the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) largely bypass first-pass liver degradation due to a lack of hepatocyte expression of the mitochondrial branched-chain aminotransferase (BCATm). This sets up interorgan shuttling of BCAAs and liver-skeletal muscle cooperation in BCAA catabolism. To explore whether complete liver catabolism of BCAAs may impact BCAA shuttling in peripheral tissues, the BCATm gene was stably introduced into mouse liver. Two transgenic mouse lines with low and high hepatocyte expression of the BCATm transgene (LivTg-LE and LivTg-HE) were created and used to measure liver and plasma amino acid concentrations and determine whether the first two BCAA enzymatic steps in liver, skeletal muscle, heart and kidney were impacted. Expression of the hepatic BCATm transgene lowered the concentrations of hepatic BCAAs while enhancing the concentrations of some nonessential amino acids. Extrahepatic BCAA metabolic enzymes and plasma amino acids were largely unaffected, and no growth rate or body composition differences were observed in the transgenic animals as compared to wild-type mice. Feeding the transgenic animals a high-fat diet did not reverse the effect of the BCATm transgene on the hepatic BCAA catabolism, nor did the high-fat diet cause elevation in plasma BCAAs. However, the high-fat-diet-fed BCATm transgenic animals experienced attenuation in the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway in the liver and had impaired blood glucose tolerance. These results suggest that complete liver BCAA metabolism influences the regulation of glucose utilization during diet-induced obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Emslie, Carol; Hunt, Kate; Lyons, Antonia
Men drink more heavily and are more likely to die from alcohol-related causes than women. Most alcohol research focuses on young drinkers. We describe the context of men's drinking in midlife and explore how alcohol is associated with the construction of masculinities. Qualitative research was used to examine the social context of drinking alcohol. We conducted 15 focus groups (single and mixed sex) with respondents in the west of Scotland, United Kingdom. Here we focus on the findings from 22 men aged 28 to 52 years. Men regarded drinking pints of beer in the pub together as an "act of friendship" and this functioned as a hegemonically appropriate way to communicate with and support each other. However, male friends also constructed some nonhegemonic behaviors as forgivable-and indeed acceptable-while drinking alcohol together. This included practices such as the explicit discussion of emotions and mental health and the consumption of "feminine" drinks under certain circumstances (e.g., in private, with close friends). This exploration of drinking reveals the fluidity of gender constructions-and the strategic ways in which men take up positions around hegemonic masculinity-in midlife. The close interweaving of drinking pints in the pub with notions of male friendship could lead to both health-damaging (excessive drinking) and potentially health-promoting (social support) behaviors. Health promotion experts need to be sensitive to cultural constructions of gender to address the high rates of drinking in this age group. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Full Text Available As current kidney replacement therapies are not efficient enough for end-stage renal disease (ESRD treatment, a bioartificial kidney (BAK device, based on conditionally immortalized human proximal tubule epithelial cells (ciPTEC, could represent an attractive solution. The active transport activity of such a system was recently demonstrated. In addition, endocrine functions of the cells, such as vitamin D activation, are relevant. The organic anion transporter 1 (OAT-1 overexpressing ciPTEC line presented 1α-hydroxylase (CYP27B1, 24-hydroxylase (CYP24A1 and vitamin D receptor (VDR, responsible for vitamin D activation, degradation and function, respectively. The ability to produce and secrete 1α,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D3, was shown after incubation with the precursor, 25-hydroxy-vitamin D3. The beneficial effect of vitamin D on cell function and behavior in uremic conditions was studied in the presence of an anionic uremic toxins mixture. Vitamin D could restore cell viability, and inflammatory and oxidative status, as shown by cell metabolic activity, interleukin-6 (IL-6 levels and reactive oxygen species (ROS production, respectively. Finally, vitamin D restored transepithelial barrier function, as evidenced by decreased inulin-FITC leakage in biofunctionalized hollow fiber membranes (HFM carrying ciPTEC-OAT1. In conclusion, the protective effects of vitamin D in uremic conditions and proven ciPTEC-OAT1 endocrine function encourage the use of these cells for BAK application.
used were as follows: CK-14 ( Covance ); E-cadherin (R&D Systems); p63 (Santa Cruz Biotechnology); ROBO1 (Abcam); Myc (9E10); tubulin (Sigma); GAPDH...AF64, Covance ), anti-SMA (1A4, Sigma), anti-Ki67 (Santa Cruz Biotechnology), anti-CXCR4 (Abcam), anti-SDF1 (Santa Cruz Biotechnology), anti-SLIT3
Sinha, Rajeshwari; Khare, Sunil K.
Search for new industrial enzymes having novel properties continues to be a desirable pursuit in enzyme research. The halophilic organisms inhabiting under saline/ hypersaline conditions are considered as promising source of useful enzymes. Their enzymes are structurally adapted to perform efficient catalysis under saline environment wherein n0n-halophilic enzymes often lose their structure and activity. Haloenzymes have been documented to be polyextremophilic and withstand high temperature, pH, organic solvents, and chaotropic agents. However, this stability is modulated by salt. Although vast amount of information have been generated on salt mediated protection and structure function relationship in halophilic proteins, their clear understanding and correct perspective still remain incoherent. Furthermore, understanding their protein architecture may give better clue for engineering stable enzymes which can withstand harsh industrial conditions. The article encompasses the current level of understanding about haloadaptations and analyzes structural basis of their enzyme stability against classical denaturants. PMID:24782853
Men'shikov, V V
The external evaluation of quality of clinical laboratory examinations was gradually introduced in USSR medical laboratories since 1970s. In Russia, in the middle of 1990 a unified all-national system of external evaluation quality was organized known as the Federal center of external evaluation of quality at the basis of laboratory of the state research center of preventive medicine. The main positions of policy in this area were neatly formulated in the guidance documents of ministry of Health. Nowadays, the center of external evaluation of quality proposes 100 and more types of control studies and permanently extends their specter starting from interests of different disciplines of clinical medicine. The consistent participation of laboratories in the cycles of external evaluation of quality intrinsically promotes improvement of indicators of properness and precision of analysis results and increases reliability of laboratory information. However, a significant percentage of laboratories does not participate at all in external evaluation of quality or takes part in control process irregularly and in limited number of tests. The managers of a number of medical organizations disregard the application of the proposed possibilities to increase reliability of laboratory information and limit financing of studies in the field of quality control. The article proposes to adopt the national standard on the basis of ISO 17043 "Evaluation of compliance. The common requirements of professional competence testing".
Acton, Peter M; Fox, James F; Campbell, J Elliott; Jones, Alice L; Rowe, Harold; Martin, Darren; Bryson, Sebastian
Mountaintop coal mining (MCM) in the Southern Appalachian forest region greatly impacts both soil and aquatic ecosystems. Policy and practice currently in place emphasize water quality and soil stability but do not consider upland soil health. Here we report soil organic carbon (SOC) measurements and other soil quality indicators for reclaimed soils in the Southern Appalachian forest region to quantify the health of the soil ecosystem. The SOC sequestration rate of the MCM soils was 1.3 MgC ha(-1) yr(-1) and stocks ranged from 1.3 ± 0.9 to 20.9 ± 5.9 Mg ha(-1) and contained only 11% of the SOC of surrounding forest soils. Comparable reclaimed mining soils reported in the literature that are supportive of soil ecosystem health had SOC stocks 2.5-5 times greater than the MCM soils and sequestration rates were also 1.6-3 times greater. The high compaction associated with reclamation in this region greatly reduces both the vegetative rooting depth and infiltration of the soil and increases surface runoff, thus bypassing the ability of soil to naturally filter groundwater. In the context of environmental sustainability of MCM, it is proposed that the entire watershed ecosystem be assessed and that a revision of current policy be conducted to reflect the health of both water and soil.
Sutradhar, S.; Basu, S.; Paul, R.
Cell division through proper spindle formation is one of the key puzzles in cell biology. In most mammalian cells, chromosomes spontaneously arrange to achieve a stable bipolar spindle during metaphase which eventually ensures proper segregation of the DNA into the daughter cells. In this paper, we present a robust three-dimensional mechanistic model to investigate the formation and maintenance of a bipolar mitotic spindle in mammalian cells under different physiological constraints. Using realistic parameters, we test spindle viability by measuring the spindle length and studying the chromosomal configuration. The model strikingly predicts a feature of the spindle instability arising from the insufficient intercentrosomal angular separation and impaired sliding of the interpolar microtubules. In addition, our model successfully reproduces chromosomal patterns observed in mammalian cells, when activity of different motor proteins is perturbed.
Omer, F M; Kurtzhals, J A; Riley, E M
on the one hand and prevention of immune-mediated pathology on the other. In this article, Fakhereldin Omer, Jørgen Kurtzhals and Eleanor Riley review the immunoregulatory properties of TGF-beta in the context of parasitic infections. Data from murine malaria infections suggest that TGF-beta modifies...
Tyler, Elizabeth; Manica, Andrea; Jiddawi, Narriman S.; Speight, Martin R.
1. Completely banning fishing from coral reefs is now accepted to have significant benefits for marine biodiversity and in many cases, fisheries. However, the benefits of regulating fishing on coral reefs, by restricting the methods used
A successful life cycle of engineering components begins during the design to select the best materials for a given application, designing for economical maintenance, and accommodating NDE inspections. NDE in the nuclear industry is part of the defense in depth to insure structural integrity of components. High reliability NDE is needed to reliably detect and accurately characterize the failure modes that have occurred in nuclear components. The move toward risk-informed inservice inspection programs focusses the NDE on the most safety significant components. The use of performance demonstration testing is leading to improved inservice inspections through screening out ineffective procedure/equipment/personnel. (orig.)
Full Text Available Human intestinal microflora is part of the human body and performs numerous function. Considerable research interest is in the field of probiotics for the prevention of kidney stones, which is one of the most common urological diseases.Urolithiasis is one of the most common urological diseases. This is polyetiological disease congenital and acquired character with complex physical and chemical processes that occur not only in the urinary system, but also the whole body. None of the treatments does not guarantee full recovery of the patient and often leads to relapse. The open methods of removal stones yield news minimally invasive the technologys. Development of stone formation depends on the presence of many factors, metabolic disorders, chronic urinary tract infections, genetic disorders and more. Most have the following metabolic disorders as hypercalciuria, hiperurikuria, hipotsytraturia , hyperoxaluria and hipomahniuria. Among all types of urolithiasis kaltsiyoksalatnyy ranked first in the prevalence rate - about 75.0 - 85.0 % of cases. Dietary restriction by oxalates іs the unreliable method of preventing disease. Although there is evidence for the growth inhibition normobiocenosis representatives, which in turn enhances the absorption of salts of oxalic acid oxalate in the application of sodium , magnesium and cobalt in their intragastric administration. Recently published many papers on the impact on the level of oxalate intestinal microflora. The first publications appeared on the influence of gram-negative obligate anaerobes O. formigenes the concentration of oxalate in the urine. This anaerobic bacteria living in the colon, its prevalence - 46.0 % - 77.0 % of the adult population. O. formigenes reveals the symbiotic interaction with the human body by reducing absorption of oxalate in the intestinal cavity with subsequent decrease in their concentration in plasma and urine. O. formigenes has two key enzymes - oksalyl - koadecarboxylase and formyl - koatransferase performing metabolic conversion of oxalate in the cavity of the colon.The polymerase chain reaction has advantages over previously adopted methods - culture and photometric in the diagnosis of the presence of O. formigenes. The taking of antibiotics reduces of O. formigenes in the colon. The microorganism is resistant to amoxicillin, ceftriaxone, vancomycin and is sensitive to ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, azitromitsyn, clindamycin, doxycycline, gentamicin levofloxacin, tetracycline and metranidazol. In the metabolism of oxalate involved and other microorganisms. There are studies that prove the value of other taxonomic groups oxalate degradation: E. coli, Lactobacillus spp. There is the concept that the use of probiotics is capable of degradation of oxalate in the gut and reducing their absorption in the gastrointestinal tract. There is investigated microbiological method for the treatment of urolithiasis and hyperoxaluria through the use of probiotic O. formigenes (at the stage of clinical trials. This method is not traumatic, it can be efficient, cost-effective and environmentally safe. Implicitly that Lactobacillus spp. and E. coli, along with O. formigenes, are promising targets for further research and their application in the field of biotechnological production. To improve the efficiency and expanding the range of their application further work in search and development of new probiotics , given the requirements for food and pharmaceuticals that will effectively dostato prevent or reduce the number of recurrent stone formation.
Hollister, H.; Trauth, C.A. Jr.
Historically, the Department of Energy and its predecessors have used and supported the development of systems safety programs, practices, and principles, finding them by and large adequate, effective, and managerially efficient. Today, attempts are bing made to resolve increasingly complex environmental, safety, and health problems by turning to increasingly complex and detailed regulation as the primary governmental answer. It is increasingly doubtful that such an approach will provide management of these issues and problems that is either effective or efficient. Challenge is issued to those in systems safety to develop and apply systems safety principles and practices more broadly to total operational systems and not just to hardware and to environmental and health protection and not just to safety, so that the total universe of environmental, safety, and health can be managed effectively and efficiently with encouragement of innovation and creativity, using a relatively brief and concise, but adequate, regulatory base
1. Completely banning fishing from coral reefs is now accepted to have significant benefits for marine biodiversity and in many cases, fisheries. However, the benefits of regulating fishing on coral reefs, by restricting the methods used, or the total amount of fishing, are less well understood, even though such regulations are much more likely to be supported by fishermen. 2. This study assesses whether banning illegal, destructive fishing methods and reducing the numbers of fishermen visiting from outside an area benefits a coral reef fishery, despite unregulated fishing by local fishermen using non-destructive methods. 3. The abundance, biomass, mean length, and species richness of nine commercially important fish families are compared across ten independent patch reefs inside and outside the 470km2 Menai Bay Conservation Area in Zanzibar, Tanzania. 4. Even after taking into account the effect of differences in habitat and the distance between reefs, 61% (±19.7%) more fish species were found in regulated than unregulated reefs. Fish abundance, biomass, and length were not affected, suggesting that banning destructive fishing may improve biodiversity, but that further regulations may be required to improve fish stocks. © 2011 John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.
Hanula, James L. [Dept. of Agriculture Forest Service, Athens, GA (United States). Southern Research Station; Horn, Scott [Dept. of Agriculture Forest Service, Athens, GA (United States). Southern Research Station; Wade, Dale D. [Dept. of Agriculture Forest Service, Athens, GA (United States). Southern Research Station
Dead wood is a major component of forests and contributes to overall diversity, primarily by supporting insects that feed directly on or in it. Further, a variety of organisms benefit by feeding on those insects. What is not well known is how or whether dead wood influences the composition of the arthropod community that is not solely dependent on it as a food resource, or whether woody debris influences prey available to generalist predators. One group likely to be affected by dead wood is ground-dwelling arthropods. We studied the effect of adding large dead wood to unburned and frequently burned pine stands to determine if dead wood was used more when the litter and understory plant community are removed. We also studied the effect of annual removal of dead wood from large (10-ha) plots over a 5-year period on ground-dwelling arthropods. In related studies, we examined the relationships among an endangered woodpecker that forages for prey on live trees, its prey, and dead wood in the forest. Finally, the results of these and other studies show that dead wood can influence the abundance and diversity of the ground-dwelling arthropod community and of prey available to generalist predators not foraging directly on dead trees.
Kassmann, Celia M; Quintes, Susanne; Rietdorf, Jens; Möbius, Wiebke; Sereda, Michael Werner; Nientiedt, Tobias; Saher, Gesine; Baes, Myriam; Nave, Klaus-Armin
Demyelinating diseases of the nervous system cause axon loss but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Here we show by confocal and electron microscopy that in myelin-forming glia peroxisomes are associated with myelin membranes. When peroxisome biogenesis is experimentally perturbed in Pex5 conditional mouse mutants, myelination by Schwann cells appears initially normal. However, in nerves of older mice paranodal loops become physically unstable and develop swellings filled with vesicles and electron-dense material. This novel model of a demyelinating neuropathy demonstrates that peroxisomes serve an important function in the peripheral myelin compartment, required for long-term axonal integrity. Copyright © 2011 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background/Aims: The maximum lifespan of the naked mole rat is over 28.3 years, which exceeds that of any other rodent species, suggesting that age-related changes in its body composition and functionality are either attenuated or delayed in this extraordinarily long-lived species. However, the mechanisms underlying the aging process in this species are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated whether long-lived naked mole rats display more autophagic activity than short-lived mice. Methods: Hepatic stellate cells isolated from naked mole rats were treated with 50 nM rapamycin or 20 mM 3-methyladenine (3-MA for 12 or 24 h. Expression of the autophagy marker proteins LC3-II and beclin 1 was measured with western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The induction of apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry. Results: Our results demonstrate that one-day-old naked mole rats have higher levels of autophagy than one-day-old short-lived C57BL/6 mice, and that both adult naked mole rats (eight months old and adult C57BL/6 mice (eight weeks old have high basal levels of autophagy, which may be an important mechanism inhibiting aging and reducing the risk of age-related diseases. Conclusion: Here, we report that autophagy facilitated the survival of hepatic stellate cells from the naked mole rat, and that treatment with 3-MA or rapamycin increased the ratio of apoptotic cells to normal hepatic stellate cells.
Harbert, S.; Duvall, A. R.; Tucker, G. E.
Geomorphic landforms, such as shutter ridges, offset river terraces, and deflected stream channels, are often used to assess the activity and slip rates of strike-slip faults. However, in some systems, such as parts of the Marlborough Fault System (South Island, NZ), an active strike-slip fault does not leave a strong landscape signature. Here we explore the factors that dampen or enhance the landscape signature of strike-slip faulting using the Channel-Hillslope Integrated Landscape Development model (CHILD). We focus on variables affecting the length of channel offsets, which enhance the signature of strike-slip motion, and the frequency of stream captures, which eliminate offsets and reduce this signature. We model a strike-slip fault that passes through a mountain ridge, offsetting streams that drain across this fault. We use this setup to test the response of channel offset length and capture frequency to fault characteristics, such as slip rate and ratio of lateral to vertical motion, and to landscape characteristics, such as relief contrasts controlled by erodibility. Our experiments show that relief downhill of the fault, whether generated by differential uplift across the fault or by an erodibility contrast, has the strongest effect on offset length and capture frequency. This relief creates shutter ridges, which block and divert streams while being advected along a fault. Shutter ridges and the streams they divert have long been recognized as markers of strike-slip motion. Our results show specifically that the height of shutter ridges is most responsible for the degree to which they create long channel offsets by preventing stream captures. We compare these results to landscape metrics in the Marlborough Fault System, where shutter ridges are common and often lithologically controlled. We compare shutter ridge length and height to channel offset length in order to assess the influence of relief on offset channel features in a real landscape. Based on our model and field results, we conclude that vertical relief is important for generating and preserving offset features that are viewed as characteristic of a strike-slip fault. Therefore, the geomorphic expression of a fault may be dependent on characteristics of the surrounding landscape rather than primarily a function of the nature of slip on the fault.
Prasetya, Farid Adi
One of literary works, a novel, may be reflects social phenomenon. The correlation between literary works and social phenomenon includes an analysis towards a novel entitled Hard Times by Charles Dickens, which covers a social phenomenon. The overall image of Hard Times is a society of industrial city namely Coketown, which has unequal economic condition. Through characters that appear in the novel, it can be analyzed, Hard Times reflects social clashes that are triggered by economic conditio...
Lewis, Rebecca J.
Institutional diversity is a long-held value in U.S. higher education with origins dating back 300 years to pre-Revolutionary colonial colleges. Institutional diversity is still valued today, but Institutional theory predicts that institutional organizations, such as universities, will homogenize without intervention to prevent loss of diversity.…
John G. Mexal; Nabil Khadduri
Water management is one of the most important factors in achieving the target seedling. Water is required for cell growth, nutrient transport, cooling through transpiration, and in small amounts for the photosynthetic reaction. Furthermore, judicious use of limiting water availability during the hardening phase can induce budset and increase seedling cold hardiness....
Shonil A. Bhagwat
Full Text Available Although it is widely believed that an important function of protected areas is to conserve species that are unable to survive elsewhere, there are very few empirical studies in which a comparison is made between biodiversity of protected areas and that of the cultivated landscape surrounding them. We examined the diversity of trees, birds, and macrofungi at 58 sites in three land-use types in a tree-covered landscape in Kodagu district in the Western Ghats of India. Ten forest reserve sites in the formal protected area, and 25 sacred groves and 23 coffee plantations in the neighboring cultivated landscape were sampled. A total of 215 tree, 86 bird, and 163 macrofungus species were recorded. The forest reserve had a large number of trees that were restricted in their distribution, and the sacred groves had a large number of macrofungi. We observed that deciduous trees and non-forest-dwelling birds increased, and evergreen trees and forest-dwelling birds decreased with increasing intensity of land management. We found that trees having non-timber uses and macrofungi useful to the local people, as well as those with medicinal properties, were abundant in sacred groves. We found no significant differences in the distribution of endemic and threatened birds across the three land-use types. Although endemic trees were more abundant in the forest reserve than in sacred groves, threatened trees were more abundant in sacred groves than in the forest reserve. We attribute the high diversity in sacred groves to the native tree cover in shade coffee plantations. We conclude that informal protected areas are as important as formal ones for biodiversity conservation in Kodagu. We recommend that a conservation strategy that recognizes informal protection traditions is essential for successful biodiversity conservation in regions where formal reserves are surrounded by a matrix of cultivated land.
Roger D. Ottmar; Mark D. Schaaf; Ernesto Alvarado
Fire is the single most important ecological disturbance process throughout the interior Pacific Northwest (Mutch and others 1993; Agee 1994). It is also a natural process that helps maintain a diverse ecological landscape. Fire suppression and timber harvesting have drastically altered this process during the past 50 to 90 years. Natural resource specialists generally...
Møller, Anders; Schwarz, Mathias Romme
Although numerous frameworks for web application programming have been developed in recent years, writing web applications remains a challenging task. Guided by a collection of classical design principles, we propose yet another framework. It is based on a simple but flexible server-oriented arch...... services.The resulting framework provides a novel foundation for developing maintainable and secure web applications....
... base. 321.3 Section 321.3 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PREPAREDNESS MAINTENANCE OF THE MOBILIZATION BASE (DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, MARITIME ADMINISTRATION) § 321.3 Maintaining the mobilization base. (a) Facilities...
Sedney, Mary Anne
Children's grief narratives in popular films were examined for their portrayal of connection-maintaining strategies with the deceased. Comparisons were made between strategies found in actual parentally bereaved children and in child characters in films. Implications of these filmed grief narratives for models of grieving and for practice are discussed.
Knapp, Kenneth J.; Maurer, Christopher; Plachkinova, Miloslava
Much has been published about developing a cybersecurity curriculum for institutes of higher learning (IHL). Now that a growing number of IHLs globally offer such programs, a need exists on how to guide, maintain, and improve the relevancy of existing curricula. Just as cybersecurity professionals must be hone their skills continually to keep with…
Fahland, D.; Mendling, J.; Reijers, H.A.; Weber, B.; Weidlich, M.; Zugal, S.; Rinderle-Ma, S.; Sadiq, S.; Leymann, F.
The rise of interest in declarative languages for process modeling both justifies and demands empirical investigations into their presumed advantages over more traditional, imperative alternatives. Our concern in this paper is with the ease of maintaining business process models, for example due to
The key to maintaining stake holder confidence is competence and having the resources necessary to not only carry out regulatory functions effectively, but also to keep the public informed and respond to their questions. This does not come cheap but it is a price well worth paying. (N.C.)
Carsten, A.L.; Brooks, A.; Commerford, S.L.; Cronkite, E.P.
The possible genetic (dominant lethal mutations (DLM) and cytogenetic changes in the regenerating liver) and somatic (hematopoietic stem cell changes, growth and nonspecific life time shortening) effects in mice maintained on tritiated water (HTO) over two generations was investigated. Results to date are summarized
... the Freedom of Information Act (5 U.S.C. 552). (b) An accounting of each disclosure shall be retained..., whichever is longer. (c) The Board shall make the accounting of disclosure of a record pertaining to an... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maintaining records of disclosure. 200.11 Section 200.11...
Reza, M.; Dominguez, A.O.; Schavemaker, P.H.; Kling, W.L.
This paper presents the concept of an empty network and shows how the power balance can be maintained in such a system. In this study, an empty network is defined as a power system in which no rotating mass is present; all generators are grid-connected via power electronic interfaces. One generator
Hochmueller, K.; Wandelt, E.
Two processes for maintaining the quality of the mineralized water in storage tanks are considered. A slight overpressure of nitrogen can be created above the water, or the air flowing in the tank can be cleaned by passing it through a soda-containing lime filter [fr
Discusses the introduction and implementation of the 1988 Education Reform Act for England and Wales. Traces the attempts of several existing private schools to become grant maintained (eligible for various forms of government support). Most private and faith-based schools have not been successful in this endeavor. Discusses the reasons for this.…
Jeanne C. Chambers; Burton K. Pendleton; Donald W. Sada; Steven M. Ostoja; Matthew L. Brooks
Managers in southern Nevada are challenged with determining appropriate goals and objectives and developing viable approaches for maintaining and restoring sustainable ecosystems in a time of rapid socio-ecological and environmental change. Sustainable or âhealthyâ ecosystems supply clean air, water and habitat for a diverse array of plants and animals. As described in...
Gawali, Ajay R.
Software maintenance and support costs account for up to 60% of the overall software life cycle cost and often burdens tightly budgeted information technology (IT) organizations. Agile software development approach delivers business value early, but implications on software maintainability are still unknown. The purpose of this quantitative study…
flow programme to maintain dry ewes during the winter in a system where their lambs were weaned onto .... IVDOM of the combined values of the January and February oesophageal and hand-cut foggage samples and ... The ability of the grazing animal to select material of higher quality than hand-cut samples of the.
... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Records maintained by Certifying Authority. 115.12 Section 115.12 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CARGO CONTAINER AND ROAD VEHICLE CERTIFICATION PURSUANT TO INTERNATIONAL CUSTOMS...
Keywords: Prostate cancer, Cancer stem-like cells, Oct-4, CD133, Multi-drug resistance1 (MDR1). Received: 7 ... mechanisms in maintaining the self-renewal and drug resistant ... (platelet-derived growth factor α receptor). This suggests that ...
Setia, Vikas; Kumar Pandit, Inder; Srivastava, Nikhil; Gugnani, Neeraj; Gupta, Monika
Of this in vivo study was to evaluate various space maintainers in terms of survival rate, gingival health and presence of caries. A total of 60 extraction sites in the age group of 4 to 9 years were divided into four groups and different space maintainers were placed in them viz (conventional band and loop, prefabricated band with custom made loop, Ribbond, Super splint). Prefabricated bands with custom made loop showed maximum success rates (84.6%), while super splint (33.33%) was found to be least successful. In terms of gingival health, prefabricated band with custom made loop reported minimum cases with poor gingival health (27.2%), while maximum cases with poor gingival health (50%) were reported with Super splint. None of the space maintainers developed caries at the end of 9 months. How to cite this article: Setia v, Pandit IK, Srivastava N, Gugnani N, Gupta M. Banded vs Bonded Space Maintainers: Finding Better Way Out. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(2):97-104.
Gnaur, Dorina; Huttel, Hans
One of the emerging challenges in academia is that of developing and maintaining teaching qualifications in a setting where teaching staff is often temporary and with diverse backgrounds. At Aalborg University, project-organized problem-based learning is at the heart of all degree programmes...
Benz, Jacob M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Smartt, Heidi A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tanner, Jennifer E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); MacDougall, Matthew R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
This report examines supplemental tools that can be used in addition to optical surveillance cameras to maintain CoK in low-to-no light conditions, and increase the efficiency and effectiveness of spent fuel CoK, including item counting and ID verification, in challenging conditions.
Adnot, Serge; Meriaux, Pierre.
A method has been developed for defining the contribution of Maintainability and the Maintenance Studies to Safety evaluation problems. The efficiency of this method is shown and results obtained are given for two theoretical examples approximating reality. For repairable systems, the risk defined according to such given safety criterion, becomes a characteristic of the systems in operation [fr
Measures to address these challenges have resulted in wide disparities in curriculum design teaching methods, number and composition of instructors. Inspite of the challenges, the Department of Human Anatomy of the University of Nairobi (UON) maintained excellence of teaching for over 40yrs. This article describes the ...
Li, Wei; Ma, Lei; Yang, Guang; Gan, Wen-Biao
The functions and underlying mechanisms of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep remain unclear. Here we show that REM sleep prunes newly formed postsynaptic dendritic spines of layer 5 pyramidal neurons in the mouse motor cortex during development and motor learning. This REM sleep-dependent elimination of new spines facilitates subsequent spine formation during development and when a new motor task is learned, indicating a role for REM sleep in pruning to balance the number of new spines formed over time. Moreover, REM sleep also strengthens and maintains newly formed spines, which are critical for neuronal circuit development and behavioral improvement after learning. We further show that dendritic calcium spikes arising during REM sleep are important for pruning and strengthening new spines. Together, these findings indicate that REM sleep has multifaceted functions in brain development, learning and memory consolidation by selectively eliminating and maintaining newly formed synapses via dendritic calcium spike-dependent mechanisms.
Yeaman, Sam; Jarvis, Andy
Genetic variation is of fundamental importance to biological evolution, yet we still know very little about how it is maintained in nature. Because many species inhabit heterogeneous environments and have pronounced local adaptations, gene flow between differently adapted populations may be a persistent source of genetic variation within populations. If this migration–selection balance is biologically important then there should be strong correlations between genetic variance within populations and the amount of heterogeneity in the environment surrounding them. Here, we use data from a long-term study of 142 populations of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) to compare levels of genetic variation in growth response with measures of climatic heterogeneity in the surrounding region. We find that regional heterogeneity explains at least 20% of the variation in genetic variance, suggesting that gene flow and heterogeneous selection may play an important role in maintaining the high levels of genetic variation found within natural populations. PMID:16769628
Henkel, Paul Jacob; Marvanova, Marketa
Continuing professional education (CPE) plays an important role in continuing professional development of pharmacists for providing quality pharmaceutical care but also to maintain professional and organizational vitality and meet changing community/population needs. The study objective was to describe and understand factors of importance in selection of CPE credit hours among Upper Midwest pharmacists. A cross-sectional study of licensed pharmacists ( n = 1239) in Iowa, Minnesota, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota included completion of a questionnaire on demographics and CPE decision-making. Factor analysis, t -test, and multivariate analyses were performed using Stata 10.1. Pharmacists placed greatest importance on maintaining licensure (mean = 2.72/3.00), personal interest (mean = 2.57), and self-improvement (mean = 2.42). Community/population need (mean = 1.83) was rated as slightly more important ( p market, but more importantly to ensure continued provision of quality pharmaceutical care and patient education.
Ishii, Keiko; Miyamoto, Yuri; Rule, Nicholas O; Toriyama, Rie
We examined how cultural values of harmony and uniqueness are represented and maintained through physical media (i.e., colorings of geometric patterns) and how individuals play an active role in selecting and maintaining such cultural values. We found that colorings produced by European American adults and children were judged as more unique, whereas colorings produced by Japanese adults and children were judged as more harmonious, reflecting cultural differences in values. Harmony undergirded Japanese participants' preferences for colorings, whereas uniqueness undergirded European American participants' preferences for colorings. These cultural differences led participants to prefer own-culture colorings over other-culture colorings. Moreover, bicultural participants' preferences acculturated according to their identification with their host culture. Furthermore, child rearers in Japan and Canada gave feedback about the children's colorings that were consistent with their culture's values. These findings suggest that simple geometric patterns can embody cultural values that are socialized and reinforced from an early age.
Tompkins, Catherine J; Ihara, Emily S; Cusick, Alison; Park, Nan Sook
Social support is a key component of well-being for older adults, particularly for those who have moved from independent living to assisted living involving a transformation of roles, relationships, and responsibilities. Twenty-nine assisted-living facility residents were interviewed to understand the perceived continuity of relationships with family and friends. An inductive approach to thematic analysis revealed 1 main theme and 3 subthemes. The main theme that emerged was: maintaining connections but wanting more. Residents appreciated maintaining connections with family and friends, but often expressed feelings of discontentment with the continuity of former relationships. The subthemes included: appreciating family and friends, waiting for more, and losing control. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
Beldiman, M.-A.; Mârţu, I.; Leiţoiu, B.; Luchian, I.; Lupescu, O.; Bârcă, E. S.
Currently, inside the oral cavity, the dental space maintainers are subjected to forces exerted on them when performing various functions; therefore, it is important to know how each of these mechanisms behave and respond to forces that are applied directly to them. The mechanical properties of the materials used in dentistry are defined by a set of characteristics representing the behaviour of their particular working conditions and it is qualitatively expressed by a number of parameters.The study aimed to determine the pressing force that can be taken by four 4 types of space maintainers frequently used in practice - fixed and removable, applied on four samples realized with human teeth extracted for orthodontic purposes. Static tests were carried out on a machine type short WDW-5 EC with a maximum force of 5 kN and a loading speed of 5 mm/min by a special testing machine, with an innovative appliance; data recording was automatically performed, using a computer with a special program that present the specific diagrams. Experimental determinations included the following aspects: to determine the maximum force that can be supported by each sample, and to observe the deformations. The values obtained indicate that the best option in terms of behavior under the conditions specified is the removable appliance, and the less functional version is the fixed space maintainer using brackets. According to tests conducted, the fracture strength was found to be more important for fixed space maintainers (band and loop, for example) so, in practice is using more frequent these types of space maintainers.
Pei, Ming; Luo, Junming; Chen, Qian
Summary Objective Cartilage-specific extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins have been proposed to play key roles in modulating cellular phenotypes during chondrogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells. Matrilin (MATN) 1 and 3 are among the most up-regulated ECM proteins during chondrogenesis. The aim of this study was to analyze their roles in chondrogenesis of mesenchymal fibroblasts from synovium. Methods Primary synovial fibroblasts (SFBs) were purified from porcine synovium and incubated in pellet culture for 18 days. Chondrogenesis of SFB was analyzed by histological staining with safranin-O/fast green, and by quantifying glycosaminoglycans with dimethylmethylene blue assay. The mRNA levels of chondrogenic markers including collagen II, aggrecan, and Sox 9 were quantified by real-time RT-PCR, while the protein levels of Col II and matrilins were determined by western blot analysis. Results SFBs underwent chondrogenesis after incubation with TGF-β1 for three days; however, this process was attenuated during the subsequent incubation period. Expression of a MATN1 or 3 cDNA maintained and further enhanced chondrogenesis of SFBs as shown by increased cartilaginous matrix areas, elevated amount of glycosaminoglycans, and stimulated expression of chondrogenic markers. Conclusion Our findings suggest a novel function for MATN1 and 3 to maintain and enhance chondrogenesis of mesenchymal fibroblasts initiated by TGF-β. Our results also support a critical role of cartilage-specific ECM proteins to modulate cellular phenotypes in the microenvironment during chondrogenic differentiation. PMID:18282772
Pei, M; Luo, J; Chen, Q
Cartilage-specific extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins have been proposed to play key roles in modulating cellular phenotypes during chondrogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells. Matrilin (MATN)1 and MATN3 are among the most up-regulated ECM proteins during chondrogenesis. The aim of this study was to analyze their roles in chondrogenesis of mesenchymal fibroblasts from synovium. Primary synovial fibroblasts (SFBs) were purified from porcine synovium and incubated in pellet culture for 18 days. Chondrogenesis of SFB was analyzed by histological staining with safranin-O/fast green, and by quantifying glycosaminoglycans (GAG) with dimethylmethylene blue assay. The mRNA levels of chondrogenic markers including collagen II, aggrecan, and Sox 9 were quantified by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, while the protein levels of Col II and MATNs were determined by western blot analysis. SFBs underwent chondrogenesis after incubation with transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) for 3 days; however, this process was attenuated during the subsequent incubation period. Expression of a Matn1 or Matn3 cDNA maintained and further enhanced chondrogenesis of SFBs as shown by increased cartilaginous matrix areas, elevated amount of GAG, and stimulated expression of chondrogenic markers. Our findings suggest a novel function for MATN1 and MATN3 to maintain and enhance chondrogenesis of mesenchymal fibroblasts initiated by TGF-beta. Our results also support a critical role of cartilage-specific ECM proteins to modulate cellular phenotypes in the microenvironment during chondrogenic differentiation.
Nicholson, Arwen E.; Wilkinson, David M.; Williams, Hywel T. P.; Lenton, Timothy M.
The search for habitable exoplanets inspires the question - how do habitable planets form? Planet habitability models traditionally focus on abiotic processes and neglect a biotic response to changing conditions on an inhabited planet. The Gaia hypothesis postulates that life influences the Earth's feedback mechanisms to form a self-regulating system, and hence that life can maintain habitable conditions on its host planet. If life has a strong influence, it will have a role in determining a planet's habitability over time. We present the ExoGaia model - a model of simple `planets' host to evolving microbial biospheres. Microbes interact with their host planet via consumption and excretion of atmospheric chemicals. Model planets orbit a `star' that provides incoming radiation, and atmospheric chemicals have either an albedo or a heat-trapping property. Planetary temperatures can therefore be altered by microbes via their metabolisms. We seed multiple model planets with life while their atmospheres are still forming and find that the microbial biospheres are, under suitable conditions, generally able to prevent the host planets from reaching inhospitable temperatures, as would happen on a lifeless planet. We find that the underlying geochemistry plays a strong role in determining long-term habitability prospects of a planet. We find five distinct classes of model planets, including clear examples of `Gaian bottlenecks' - a phenomenon whereby life either rapidly goes extinct leaving an inhospitable planet or survives indefinitely maintaining planetary habitability. These results suggest that life might play a crucial role in determining the long-term habitability of planets.
Bhattacharya, Sriya; Mukherjee, Bandhan; Doré, Jules J. E.; Yuan, Qi; Harley, Carolyn W.; McLean, John H.
Histone deacetylase (HDAC) plays a role in synaptic plasticity and long-term memory formation. We hypothesized that trichostatin-A (TSA), an HDAC inhibitor, would promote long-term odor preference memory and maintain enhanced GluA1 receptor levels that have been hypothesized to support memory. We used an early odor preference learning model in…
Full Text Available ish fillet is one of fisheries products that easily deteriorated; hence handling techniques are needed to maintain the freshness. Ultrasonic wave have been widely applied to some of food products for maintaining freshness through microbial inactivation, however the ultrasonic application to fisheries products has not been reported. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of ultrasonic wave on fish freshness. The stages of the study were sample preparation, sonication, freshness parameters examination and histology observation. Ultrasonic wave did not affectthe organoleptic value and the TVB, but affected the pH value and the TPC. The sample in which the TPC value was found significantly different, were further observed after 48 and 96 hours storage. The result showed that the TPC value of sonicated sample for 9 minutes was lower to that of without sonication. Histology analysis showed, however, sonication made the structure of muscle fiber less compact and deformation of myomer was found.
Bignell, D.T.; Burns, R.
High level radioactive waste facilities must maintain compliance with all regulatory requirements, even those requirements that have been promulgated after the facility was placed into operation. Facilities must aggressively pursue compliance because environmental laws often impose strict liability for violations; therefore, an honest mistake is no defense. Radioactive waste management is constantly under the public microscope, particularly those facilities that handle high-level radioactive waste. The Savannah River Site has effectively met the challenges of regulatory compliance in its HLRW facilities and plans are being formulated to meet future regulatory requirements as well. Understanding, aggressively achieving, and clearly demonstrating compliance is essential for the continued operations of radioactive waste management facilities. This paper examines how HLRW facilities are impacted by regulatory requirements and how compliance in this difficult area is achieved and maintained
Khusnul Qhotimah Yuliatuty
Full Text Available Using exhibition for the final project in Sociolinguistic study is really interesting for Universitas Siswa Bangsa Internasional students, especially for 2011 English Department students. Exhibition becomes interesting because this is the new thing to conduct the final project for English Department students’ cohort 2011 at Universitas Siswa Bangsa Internasional. The lecturer divides the students into pairs and each pairs should master one content or topic in Sociolinguistic study. The students will do the exhibition about the topic that they get in a pairs. The lecturer also gives the students rubric sheet to fill by the visitors. The exhibition will make the students prepare themselves well because they will face many questions about the content which will be delivered by them. Beside, this exhibition also maintains students’ fluency in speaking English because they will explain and answer the questions from visitors with English. This paper tries to focus on how exhibition examination can maintain students’ fluency in speaking English.
Gächter, Simon; Kölle, Felix; Quercia, Simone
Social cooperation often requires collectively beneficial but individually costly restraint to maintain a public good1-4, or it needs costly generosity to create one1,5. Status quo effects6 predict that maintaining a public good is easier than providing a new one. Here we show experimentally and with simulations that even under identical incentives, low levels of cooperation (the 'tragedy of the commons'2) are systematically more likely in Maintenance than Provision. Across three series of experiments, we find that strong and weak positive reciprocity, known to be fundamental tendencies underpinning human cooperation7-10, are substantially diminished under Maintenance compared to Provision. As we show in a fourth experiment, the opposite holds for negative reciprocity ('punishment'). Our findings suggest that incentives to avoid the 'tragedy of the commons' need to contend with dilemma-specific reciprocity.
Hanczyc, Martin M.; Parrilla, Juan M.; Nicholson, Arwen
We present a robotic platform based on the open source RepRap 3D printer that can print and maintain chemical artificial life in the form of a dynamic, chemical droplet. The robot uses computer vision, a self-organizing map, and a learning program to automatically categorize the behavior of the d......We present a robotic platform based on the open source RepRap 3D printer that can print and maintain chemical artificial life in the form of a dynamic, chemical droplet. The robot uses computer vision, a self-organizing map, and a learning program to automatically categorize the behavior...... confluence of chemical, artificial intelligence, and robotic approaches to artificial life....
Hanczyc, Martin; Parrilla, Juan M.; Nicholson, Arwen
We present a robotic platform based on the open source RepRap 3D printer that can print and maintain chemical artificial life in the form of a dynamic, chemical droplet. The robot uses computer vision, a self-organizing map, and a learning program to automatically categorize the behavior of the d......We present a robotic platform based on the open source RepRap 3D printer that can print and maintain chemical artificial life in the form of a dynamic, chemical droplet. The robot uses computer vision, a self-organizing map, and a learning program to automatically categorize the behavior...... confluence of chemical, artificial intelligence, and robotic approaches to artificial life....
The purpose of this thesis is to investigate how customer relationship management can be applied in maintaining customer loyalty. The study will assist the case company to find the way to develop a long-term relationship with existing customers. The better relationship with customers, the higher customer loyalty will be obtained. The theoretical background of the thesis begins with general view of customer relationship management, which embodies the concept of managing customer relations...
James M. Otis
Full Text Available Presentation of drug-associated cues provokes craving and drug seeking, and elimination of these associative memories would facilitate recovery from addiction. Emotionally salient memories are maintained during retrieval, as particular pharmacologic or optogenetic perturbations of memory circuits during retrieval, but not after, can induce long-lasting memory impairments. For example, in rats, inhibition of noradrenergic beta-receptors, which control intrinsic neuronal excitability, in the prelimbic medial prefrontal cortex (PL-mPFC can cause long-term memory impairments that prevent subsequent cocaine-induced reinstatement. The physiologic mechanisms that allow noradrenergic signaling to maintain drug-associated memories during retrieval, however, are unclear. Here we combine patch-clamp electrophysiology ex vivo and behavioral neuropharmacology in vivo to evaluate the mechanisms that maintain drug-associated memory during retrieval in rats. Consistent with previous studies, we find that cocaine experience increases the intrinsic excitability of pyramidal neurons in PL-mPFC. In addition, we now find that this intrinsic plasticity positively predicts the retrieval of a cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP memory, suggesting that such plasticity may contribute to drug-associated memory retrieval. In further support of this, we find that pharmacological blockade of a cAMP-dependent signaling cascade, which allows noradrenergic signaling to elevate neuronal excitability, is required for memory maintenance during retrieval. Thus, inhibition of PL-mPFC neuronal excitability during memory retrieval not only leads to long-term deficits in the memory, but this memory deficit provides protection against subsequent cocaine-induced reinstatement. These data reveal that PL-mPFC intrinsic neuronal excitability maintains a cocaine-associated memory during retrieval and suggest a unique mechanism whereby drug-associated memories could be targeted
Robert Phan; Elan Kaplan; Jemma K. Porrett; Yik-Hong Ho; Warren M. Rozen
Introduction: Abdominoplasty and abdominal hernia repair are often carried out in two-stage procedures, and those describing single-stage surgery require careful dissection to preserve often only partial blood supply to the umbilicus to maintain its viability. This paper aims to describe the surgical method of laparoscopic umbilical hernia repair in association with abdominoplasty. Case presentation: A patient presents with an incisional hernia at a previous periumbilical port site of size 14...
Shlichta, Paul J.
A ballast system is disclosed for a glove box including a fixed platform on which is mounted an inflatable bag on top of which resides a cover and a weight. The variable gas volume of the inflatable bag communicates with that of the glove box via a valved tube. The weight and the gas volume are selected to maintain a relatively constant pressure in the glove box despite variations in the glove box volume while avoiding the use of complicated valving apparatus.
we consider ad-hoc networks of robotic agents with double integrator dynamics. For such networks, the connectivity maintenance problems are: (i) do...connectivity-maintaining controls in a distributed fashion? The proposed solution is based on three contributions. First, we define and characterize...hoc networks of mobile autonomous agents. This loose ter- minology refers to groups of robotic agents with limited mobility and communica- tion
Wensel, R.; Wittich, K.C.
Equipment in nuclear plants has historically contained whatever elastomer each component supplier traditionally used for corresponding non-nuclear service. The resulting proliferation of elastomer compounds, many of which are far from optimal for the service conditions (e.g., pressure, temperature, radiation, etc.), has multiplied the costs to provide station reliability, maintainability and safety. Cost-effective improvements are being achieved in CANDU plants by upgrading and standardizing on a handful of high performing elastomer compounds. These upgraded materials offer significant gains in service life over the materials they replace (often by factors of 2 or more). This rationalization of elastomer compounds also facilitates the EQ process for safety-related equipment. Detailed test data on aging is currently being generated for these specific elastomers, encompassing the conditions and media (air, water, oil) common in CANDU service. Two key elements characterize this testing. First, each result is specific to the compound used in the test, and second, it is specific to the tested failure mode (e.g., compression set, extrusion, fracture, etc.). Having fewer, but more thoroughly tested compounds, avoids the penalty (associated with poorly characterized materials) of having to replace parts prematurely because of conservatism, while maintaining safe, reliable service. This paper provides an overview of this approach covering: the benefits of compound rationalization; and the how and why of establishing relevant failure criteria; appropriate quality assurance to maintain EQ; procurement, storage and handling guidelines; and monitoring and predicting in-service degradation. (author)
One of the major problems faced by the fusion community is the development of the high level of reliability required to assure that fusion will be a viable commercial power source. Much of the responsibility for solving this problem falls directly on the designer in developing concepts that have a high level of maintainability for the next generation engineering oriented reactors; and long range, in developing full maintainability for the more complicated commercial concepts with their required high level of on-line time. The near-term challenge will include development of unique design concepts to perform inspection, maintenance, replacement, and testing under the stringent conditions imposed by the next generation engineering oriented machines. The long range challenge will focus on basic design concepts that will enable the full maintainability required by commercial fusion. In addition to the purely technical challenges, the fusion community is also faced with the problem of developing programmatic means to assure that reactor maintenance issues are given proper and timely emphasis as the nuclear phase of fusion is approached
Full Text Available All hematopoiesis cells develop from multipotent progenitor cells. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC have the ability to develop into all blood lineages but also maintain their stemness. Different molecular mechanisms have been identified that are crucial for regulating quiescence and self-renewal to maintain the stem cell pool and for inducing proliferation and lineage differentiation. The stem cell niche provides the microenvironment to keep HSC in a quiescent state. Furthermore, several transcription factors and epigenetic modifiers are involved in this process. These create modifications that regulate the cell fate in a more or less reversible and dynamic way and contribute to HSC homeostasis. In addition, HSC respond in a unique way to DNA damage. These mechanisms also contribute to the regulation of HSC function and are essential to ensure viability after DNA damage. How HSC maintain their quiescent stage during the entire life is still matter of ongoing research. Here we will focus on the molecular mechanisms that regulate HSC function.
T J Carr
Full Text Available Despite the growing impetus for international collaborative research teams (ICRT, there are relatively few resources available to guide and support researchers through the processes of establishing and maintaining ICRTs. In particular, no articles were found that provided researchers’ firsthand accounts of being a member of such a team. Having access to such personal accounts can help both experienced and novice researchers learn more directly about what to expect, as well as the benefits, challenges, pitfalls, and success strategies for establishing and maintaining ICRTs. The authors used phenomenological autobiographical reflective journaling to capture their experiences as members of ICRTs. In this article we provide an overview of key themes that emerged from the analysis of our reflections as members of ICRTs. These themes include: benefits, challenges, and strategies for success. Our aim is to share our first-hand experiences of what it is like to establish and participate in ICRT. It is not our intention to provide readers with prescriptive guidelines on how to set up and maintain ICRTs. Every ICRT is unique and some of these ideas may or may not apply in every case. Instead, we are describing what worked for us, hoping that others may benefit from our experience. Consequently, we suggest that the focus of ICRT should be on the benefits thereof which promote and encourage interaction between disciplines, transfer of knowledge and techniques and personal and professional development. Keywords: international, collaborative, research, teams, interdisciplinary
Full Text Available The complex structure of human skin and its physicochemical properties turn it into an efficient outermost defence line against exogenous factors, and help maintain homeostasis of the human body. This role is played by the epidermal barrier with its major part – stratum corneum. The condition of the epidermal barrier depends on individual and environmental factors. The most important biophysical parameters characterizing the status of this barrier are the skin pH, epidermal hydration, transepidermal water loss and sebum excretion. The knowledge of biophysical skin processes may be useful for the implementation of prophylactic actions whose aim is to restore the barrier function.
Reynolds, Raymond F.
Key points Reaching movements can be perturbed by vestibular input, but the function of this response is unclear.Here, we applied galvanic vestibular stimulation concurrently with real body movement while subjects maintained arm position either fixed in space or fixed with respect to their body.During the fixed‐in‐space conditions, galvanic vestibular stimulation caused large changes in arm trajectory consistent with a compensatory response to maintain upper‐limb accuracy in the face of body movement.Galvanic vestibular stimulation responses were absent during the body‐fixed task, demonstrating task dependency in vestibular control of the upper limb.The results suggest that the function of vestibular‐evoked arm movements is to maintain the accuracy of the upper limb during unpredictable body movement, but only when reaching in an earth‐fixed reference frame. Abstract When using our arms to interact with the world, unintended body motion can introduce movement error. A mechanism that could detect and compensate for such motion would be beneficial. Observations of arm movements evoked by vestibular stimulation provide some support for this mechanism. However, the physiological function underlying these artificially evoked movements is unclear from previous research. For such a mechanism to be functional, it should operate only when the arm is being controlled in an earth‐fixed rather than a body‐fixed reference frame. In the latter case, compensation would be unnecessary and even deleterious. To test this hypothesis, subjects were gently rotated in a chair while being asked to maintain their outstretched arm pointing towards either earth‐fixed or body‐fixed memorized targets. Galvanic vestibular stimulation was applied concurrently during rotation to isolate the influence of vestibular input, uncontaminated by inertial factors. During the earth‐fixed task, galvanic vestibular stimulation produced large polarity‐dependent corrections in arm
Taniguchi, Yoshie; Yoshioka, Noriko; Nakata, Kazue; Nishizawa, Takashi; Inagawa, Hiroyuki; Kohchi, Chie; Soma, Gen-Ichiro
Every organism possesses a mechanism for maintaining homeostasis. We have focused on the immune system as a system that helps maintain homeostasis of the body, and particularly on the intestine as the largest organ of immunity in the body. We have also focused our research on the mechanism that responds to foreign substances in the intestine, especially the toll-like receptors (TLR). The activation of myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88) signal transduction as a response to TLR in the intestine is believed to contribute to the maintenance of homeostasis of the body through the homeostasis of the intestine. Furthermore, significant findings were reported in which signal transduction from TLR4 was essential for the maintenance and regulation of the intestine. These results strongly suggest the possibility that homeostasis in the intestine is maintained by TLR4, and signaling by TLR4 after exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) probably has a role in regulating homeostasis. It is expected that the prevention and treatment of various diseases using TLR4 will continue to develop. As LPS is a substance that enhances the activity of TLR4, it will also attract attention as a valuable substance in its own right.
This Project Management Plan presents the overall plan, description, mission, and workscope for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) maintain safe and compliant conditions project at PFP. This plan presents the overall description, mission, work scope, and planning for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Maintain Safe and Compliant Conditions Project at PFP. This project includes all tasks required to maintain the safety boundary for the PFP Complex, except for the 2736-2 Vault Complex and the 234-52 vaults and vault-type rooms. The intent of this plan is to describe how this project will be managed and integrated with the stabilization, and deactivation activities. This plan supplements the overall integrated plan presented in the Plutonium Finishing Plant Integrated Project Management Plan (IPMP), HNF-3617, Rev. 0. This is the top-level definitive project management document that specifies the technical (work scope), schedule, and cost baselines that will manage the execution of this project. It describes the organizational approach and roles/responsibilities implemented to execute the project. This plan is under configuration management and any deviations must be authorized by appropriate change control action
Sen, George L; Reuter, Jason A; Webster, Daniel E; Zhu, Lilly; Khavari, Paul A
Progenitor cells maintain self-renewing tissues throughout life by sustaining their capacity for proliferation while suppressing cell cycle exit and terminal differentiation. DNA methylation provides a potential epigenetic mechanism for the cellular memory needed to preserve the somatic progenitor state through repeated cell divisions. DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) maintains DNA methylation patterns after cellular replication. Although dispensable for embryonic stem cell maintenance, the role for DNMT1 in maintaining the progenitor state in constantly replenished somatic tissues, such as mammalian epidermis, is unclear. Here we show that DNMT1 is essential for epidermal progenitor cell function. DNMT1 protein was found enriched in undifferentiated cells, where it was required to retain proliferative stamina and suppress differentiation. In tissue, DNMT1 depletion led to exit from the progenitor cell compartment, premature differentiation and eventual tissue loss. Genome-wide analysis showed that a significant portion of epidermal differentiation gene promoters were methylated in self-renewing conditions but were subsequently demethylated during differentiation. Furthermore, UHRF1 (refs 9, 10), a component of the DNA methylation machinery that targets DNMT1 to hemi-methylated DNA, is also necessary to suppress premature differentiation and sustain proliferation. In contrast, Gadd45A and B, which promote active DNA demethylation, are required for full epidermal differentiation gene induction. These data demonstrate that proteins involved in the dynamic regulation of DNA methylation patterns are required for progenitor maintenance and self-renewal in mammalian somatic tissue.
Saito, Ryota; Yamasaki, Tokiwa; Nagai, Yoko; Wu, Jinzhan; Kajiho, Hiroaki; Yokoi, Tadashi; Noda, Eiichiro; Nishina, Sachiko; Niwa, Hitoshi; Azuma, Noriyuki; Katada, Toshiaki; Nishina, Hiroshi
Embryonic stem (ES) cells maintain pluripotency by self-renewal. Several homeoproteins, including Oct3/4 and Nanog, are known to be key factors in maintaining the self-renewal capacity of ES cells. However, other genes required for the mechanisms underlying this process are still unclear. Here we report the identification by in silico analysis of a homeobox-containing gene, CrxOS, that is specifically expressed in murine ES cells and is essential for their self-renewal. ES cells mainly express the short isoform of endogenous CrxOS. Using a polyoma-based episomal expression system, we demonstrate that overexpression of the CrxOS short isoform is sufficient for maintaining the undifferentiated morphology of ES cells and stimulating their proliferation. Finally, using RNA interference, we show that CrxOS is essential for the self-renewal of ES cells, and provisionally identify foxD3 as a downstream target gene of CrxOS. To our knowledge, ours is the first delineation of the physiological role of CrxOS in ES cells.
Jessica R. Sushinsky
Full Text Available Experiences of nature contribute to human health and well-being, yet as the world's population continues to concentrate in towns and cities there is mounting concern that these experiences are diminishing. Despite this, little is known about how we can maintain experiences of nature as cities grow. Here, we quantify how people's opportunities to experience nature might change with future urban growth in the city of Brisbane, Australia. We simulated the addition of 84,642 houses under compact and sprawling growth scenarios and modeled changes in people's opportunities to experience nature by estimating changes in backyard size, public green space provision, and bird species richness close to households. We discovered that the form of urban growth could strongly influence people's opportunities to experience nature in a way that is highly nonrandom across the socioeconomic gradient. Under a sprawling pattern of development, with low residential densities and few interstitial green spaces, our models suggest severe declines in access to public green space and bird species richness around people's homes. These declines are predicted to be concentrated in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas of the city. Compact development leads to greater reductions in backyard size, but smaller declines in access to public green space and bird species richness. Our results point to a difficult trade-off; residential infill will maintain larger green spaces and higher overall bird diversity but reduce backyard sizes, impacting people's opportunities to experience nature in a different way. Careful planning is needed to balance the availability of public and private urban green spaces to ensure that the opportunities for people to experience nature are maintained as urbanization continues.
Ann Krizzel A. Aban
Full Text Available Involving students in a lecture is an important but not an easy task that every lecturer must encourage. This task becomes even greater in a math class that is composed of eighty to a hundred sixty students. In 2007, the University of the Philippines Los Baños (UPLB started offering some of its basic math courses in lecture-recitation set-up. This shift and many other factors drove most math instructors of UPLB to widely use presentation software, such as the PowerPoint (PPT, to deliver their lectures. The non-stop use of these softwares, however, seems to have negative effects on the students when it comes to maintaining their involvement in a lecture discussion for they tend to be more passive spectators. On the other hand, adding countdown timers strategically on some parts of the discussion seems to lessen such negative effects. This study determined the effectiveness of using countdown timers in maintaining students’ involvement in a lecture of MATH 27 (Analytic Geometry and Calculus II, a course in UPLB commonly taken by sophomore students. Results show that the effectiveness of countdown timers, as perceived by the students, is independent to students’ genders and degree programs, but is dependent to the colleges where the students belong to. Also, some effects of countdown timers are significantly correlated to various data from students’ profiles. It was concluded in the study that the use of countdown timers is effective in maintaining student’s involvement in MATH 27 lectures and might also be useful in other math lecture classes
Kordestani Ghaleenoe, N.
Full Text Available Despite allocating huge budgets to civil engineering projects, detailed planning, and employing human resources, project managers still face time, cost, and quality constraints. Most of these challenges are due to a lack of integration of different project phases and the limitations of the presence of construction and maintenance contractors in the initial stages of the project. Considering the benefits of applying constructability, operability, and maintainability (COM concepts, many problems caused by lack of coordination, or duplications and weakness in management, and also time and extra costs due to lack of presence of construction and maintenance contractors in the early stages of the project are resolvable. In this regard, various studies have investigated the benefits of applying these concepts; however, there has been no comprehensive analysis of the benefits of COM. As a result of focus on the benefits of implementation of these concepts and evaluating the effect of each of these strategies and benefits, from different perspectives during various time periods, managers can increase project efficiency and productivity, and improve their performance, through using concepts and strategies of their implementation. This research aims to evaluate the trend of studies on the benefits of implementing constructability, operability, and maintainability in the construction industry. For that, the in-depth literature review method is applied. For qualitative analysis of the obtained information, descriptive analysis has been used. Then, the data was coded, and classified using Excel Software for quantitative data analysis. Finally, the charts presented were evaluated according to the classified fields of study. The necessity of performing such a study is significant because of the fact that a large share of a project’s problems, such as lack of plans’ integration and weakness of administrative system, and increasing time and cost, are due to
Communication is a fundamental element of care at every level of nursing practice. It is important, therefore, for nurse managers to create environments that promote and encourage good communication, and help nurses to develop their communication skills formally and informally. This article discusses the effects of communication on the quality of care. It examines nurses' professional duty to maintain good communication skills and how managers can help them do this. It also discusses nurse managers' communication skills in the context of leadership style, conflict resolution and self-awareness. Finally, it considers the notion of shared governance as good practice.
Herseth, Andrew; Goldsmith-Grinspoon, Jennifer; Scott, Pataya
Operating and maintaining a tornado safe room can be critical to the effective continuity of business operations because a firm's most valuable asset is its people. This paper describes aspects of operations and maintenance (O&M) for existing tornado safe rooms as well as a few planning and design aspects that affect the ultimate operation of a safe room for situations where a safe room is planned, but not yet constructed. The information is based on several Federal Emergency Management Agency safe room publications that provide guidance on emergency management and operations, as well as the design and construction of tornado safe rooms.
Møller, Anders; Schwarz, Mathias Romme
Although numerous frameworks for web application programming have been developed in recent years, writing web applications remains a challenging task. Guided by a collection of classical design principles, we propose yet another framework. It is based on a simple but flexible server......-oriented architecture that coherently supports general aspects of modern web applications, including dynamic XML construction, session management, data persistence, caching, and authentication, but it also simplifies programming of server-push communication and integration of XHTML-based applications and XML-based web...... services.The resulting framework provides a novel foundation for developing maintainable and secure web applications....
Rauf, B.; Vélez López, M. C.; Thoumany, P.; Pizzocaro, M.; Calonico, D.
The distribution of ultra-narrow linewidth laser radiation is an integral part of many challenging metrological applications. Changes in the optical pathlength induced by environmental disturbances compromise the stability and accuracy of optical fibre networks distributing the laser light and call for active phase noise cancellation. Here we present a laboratory scale optical (at 578 nm) fibre network featuring all polarisation maintaining fibres in a setup with low optical powers available and tracking voltage-controlled oscillators implemented. The stability and accuracy of this system reach performance levels below 1 × 10-19 after 10 000 s of averaging.
Sofia Kälvemark Sporrong
Full Text Available Social Pharmacy (SP is a multidisciplinary field to promote the adequate use of medicine. The field of SP is increasingly important due to a numbers of new trends all posing challenges to society. The SP group at the University of Copenhagen has for several years used a broad approach to SP teaching and research, often illustrated by the four levels: individual, group, organizational, and societal. In this paper the relevance of maintaining a broad approach to SP research is argued for and examples of the importance of such type of research is presented.
Stewart ampersand Stevenson, a major supplier of gas turbine powered cogeneration systems to worldwide markets, established plant management, operations and maintenance capabilities in 1985 in order to provide complete service capability to the customer. As of the fall of 1993, twenty-two individual cogeneration facilities are now being operated and maintained by this company with a total capacity of 1100+ MW. More than 300 plant management and operating personnel are employed in this operation. To date, activities have been concentrated in North and South America. Negotiations are in process in a number of other areas including the Pacific Rim, China, and several Middle East countries. 7 figs
Potts, D. [BC Council of Forest Industries, Vancouver, BC (Canada)
The availability of abundant low cost electric power has been a driving force behind British Columbia's economic growth. BC's low cost power resources can create a natural competitive economic advantage for the province. Electricity, as a publicly owned resource can offer many competitive advantages for business in British Columbia, if managed correctly. However, it was noted that meaningful economic advantages can only be realized if the existing power resources in the province are operated efficiently and priced at or close to cost. In the 1980s, the Joint Industry Electricity Steering Committee (JIESC) was formed following the regulation of BC Hydro by BC Utilities Commission. It became clear that maintaining low rates for electricity was a public issue that needed input from other governmental forums if JIESC was to be successful. The major sectors represented by JIESC include pulp and paper, mining, and electrochemicals. This paper listed each member company. In order to turn BC's economy around and re-establish the province as a leading economy in Canada, the following recommendations have been proposed for the short term: (1) maintain an ample supply of low cost power for the future, (2) remove the provincial sales tax on the purchase of electric power used for manufacturing and processing, (3) extend the current rate freeze, (4) initiate a long-term resource acquisition and transmission expansion strategy to assure the availability of ample supplies of low cost power. Recommendations for the long term include: (1) maintain regulated cost based rates, (2) develop ample low cost power, (3) utilize downstream benefits, (4) provide a role for the private sector, (5) maintain adequate transmission facilities, (6) reduce government revenues, and (7) instill customer driven management. 3 figs.
The availability of abundant low cost electric power has been a driving force behind British Columbia's economic growth. BC's low cost power resources can create a natural competitive economic advantage for the province. Electricity, as a publicly owned resource can offer many competitive advantages for business in British Columbia, if managed correctly. However, it was noted that meaningful economic advantages can only be realized if the existing power resources in the province are operated efficiently and priced at or close to cost. In the 1980s, the Joint Industry Electricity Steering Committee (JIESC) was formed following the regulation of BC Hydro by BC Utilities Commission. It became clear that maintaining low rates for electricity was a public issue that needed input from other governmental forums if JIESC was to be successful. The major sectors represented by JIESC include pulp and paper, mining, and electrochemicals. This paper listed each member company. In order to turn BC's economy around and re-establish the province as a leading economy in Canada, the following recommendations have been proposed for the short term: (1) maintain an ample supply of low cost power for the future, (2) remove the provincial sales tax on the purchase of electric power used for manufacturing and processing, (3) extend the current rate freeze, (4) initiate a long-term resource acquisition and transmission expansion strategy to assure the availability of ample supplies of low cost power. Recommendations for the long term include: (1) maintain regulated cost based rates, (2) develop ample low cost power, (3) utilize downstream benefits, (4) provide a role for the private sector, (5) maintain adequate transmission facilities, (6) reduce government revenues, and (7) instill customer driven management. 3 figs
Zhu, Jianhong; Wang, Handong; Sun, Qing; Ji, Xiangjun; Zhu, Lin; Cong, Zixiang; Zhou, Yuan; Liu, Huandong; Zhou, Mengliang
Glioblastomas are deadly cancers that display a functional cellular hierarchy maintained by self-renewing glioma stem cells (GSCs). Self-renewal is a complex biological process necessary for maintaining the glioma stem cells. Nuclear factor rythroid 2-related factor 2(Nrf2) plays a significant role in protecting cells from endogenous and exogenous stresses. Nrf2 is a key nuclear transcription factor that regulates antioxidant response element (ARE)-containing genes. Previous studies have demonstrated the significant role of Nrf2 in the proliferation of glioblastoma, and in their resistance to radioactive therapies. We examined the effect of knocking down Nrf2 in GSCs. Nrf2 expression was down-regulated by shRNA transinfected with lentivirus. Expression levels of Nestin, Nrf2, BMI-1, Sox2 and Cyclin E were assessed by western blotting, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and immunohistochemistry analysis. The capacity for self-renewal in vitro was assessed by genesis of colonies. The capacity for self-renewal in vivo was analyzed by tumor genesis of xenografts in nude mice. Knockdown of Nrf2 inhibited the proliferation of GSCs, and significantly reduced the expression of BMI-1, Sox2 and CyclinE. Knocking down of Nrf2 changed the cell cycle distribution of GSCs by causing an uncharacteristic increase in the proportion of cells in the G2 phase and a decrease in the proportion of cells in the S phase of the cell cycle. Nrf2 is required to maintain the self-renewal of GSCs, and its down-regulation can attenuate the self-renewal of GSCs significantly
Izak B Dimenstein
Full Text Available Laboratory methodology websites are specialized niche websites. The visibility of a niche website transforms it into an authority site on a particular "niche of knowledge." This article presents some ways in which a laboratory methodology website can maintain its sustainability. The optimal composition of the website includes a basic content, a blog, and an ancillary part. This article discusses experimenting with the search engine optimization query results page. Strategic placement of keywords and even phrases, as well as fragmentation of the post′s material, can improve the website′s visibility to search engines. Hyperlinks open a chain reaction of additional links and draw attention to the previous posts. Publications in printed periodicals are a substantial part of a niche website presence on the Internet. Although this article explores a laboratory website on the basis of our hands-on expertise maintaining "Grossing Technology in Surgical Pathology" (www.grossing-technology.com website with a high volume of traffic for more than a decade, the recommendations presented here for developing an authority website can be applied to other professional specialized websites. The authority websites visibility and sustainability are preconditions for aggregating them in a specialized educational laboratory portal.
Full Text Available Computational and experimental research has revealed that auditory sensory predictions are derived from regularities of the current environment by using internal generative models. However, so far, what has not been addressed is how the auditory system handles situations giving rise to redundant or even contradictory predictions derived from different sources of information. To this end, we measured error signals in the event-related brain potentials (ERPs in response to violations of auditory predictions. Sounds could be predicted on the basis of overall probability, i.e., one sound was presented frequently and another sound rarely. Furthermore, each sound was predicted by an informative visual cue. Participants' task was to use the cue and to discriminate the two sounds as fast as possible. Violations of the probability based prediction (i.e., a rare sound as well as violations of the visual-auditory prediction (i.e., an incongruent sound elicited error signals in the ERPs (Mismatch Negativity [MMN] and Incongruency Response [IR]. Particular error signals were observed even in case the overall probability and the visual symbol predicted different sounds. That is, the auditory system concurrently maintains and tests contradictory predictions. Moreover, if the same sound was predicted, we observed an additive error signal (scalp potential and primary current density equaling the sum of the specific error signals. Thus, the auditory system maintains and tolerates functionally independently represented redundant and contradictory predictions. We argue that the auditory system exploits all currently active regularities in order to optimally prepare for future events.
Brooks, Linton; McKane, Tom
After the world entered the nuclear age, civilian and military organizations have witnessed the slow emergence of nuclear cultures, defined as the set of values and knowledge, shared among the national security community, about the relative importance of nuclear weapons in the country's defense posture, the distinctive features of nuclear weapons in terms of security, safety and operational requirements, and the workings of deterrence. Nuclear cultures have helped to ensure some level of coherence in policy-making and, most importantly, to maintain safe and effective deterrents. At a national level, however, each nuclear culture is confronted with significant challenges, such as generational change, decreasing levels of understanding or attention among the political and military leadership, insufficient funding or a growing inability to meet manpower requirements in both the nuclear weapons complexes and the armed forces. This paper looks at the United States and United Kingdom's recent efforts to maintain their nuclear culture, and at the key challenges these two countries face while pursuing this aim. (authors)
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to discuss how everyday life changes for the family in the event of chronic illness or disability. It changes physically due to loss of body function and socially due to time and other constraints related to treatment or lack of mobility. Equally important, there is a psychological impact due to the uncertainty of the future. The article will explore how family participation can help to maintain well-being in everyday life. The family should therefore focus on their own needs as much as on the needs of the family members who are ill. In order to maintain well-being in everyday life, it is crucial for the family to create routines and spend time doing things that they enjoy. By doing this, the family will create a rhythm of well-being regardless of the critical family situation. Family members and professional caregivers also need to come together at the beginning and during the illness or disability event to discuss changes that could be made day-to-day for all those involved, thereby making for an easier transition into care giving.
Mullan, D. J.; Cheng, Q. Q.
We use a time-dependent hydrodynamics code to follow the propagation of acoustic waves into the corona of an M dwarf star. An important qualitative difference between M dwarfs and stars such as the Sun is that the acoustic spectrum in M dwarfs is expected to peak at periods close to the acoustic cutoff P(sub A): this allows more effective penetration of waves into the corona. In our code, radiative losses in the photosphere, chromosphere, and corona are computed using Rosseland mean opacities, Mg II kappa and Ly alpha emission, and optically thin emissivities respectively. We find that acoustic heating can maintain a corona with a temperature of order 0.7-1 x 10(exp 6) K and a surface X-ray flux as large as 10(exp 5)ergs/sq cm/s. In a recent survey of X-rays from M dwarfs, some (20%-30%) of the stars lie at or below this limiting X-ray flux: we suggest that such stars may be candidates for acoustically maintained coronae.
Yamamoto, Hitoshi; Okada, Isamu
Although there is much support for the punishment system as a sophisticated approach to resolving social dilemmas, more than a few researchers have also pointed out the limitations of such an approach. Second-order free riding is a serious issue facing the punishment system. Various pioneering works have suggested that an anti-social behavior or noise stemming from a mutation may, surprisingly, be helpful for avoiding second-order freeloaders. In this work, we show through mathematical analysis and an agent-based simulation of a model extending the meta-norms game that the coercive introduction of a small number of non-cooperators can maintain a cooperative regime robustly. This paradoxical idea was inspired by the effect of a vaccine, which is a weakened pathogen injected into a human body to create antibodies and ward off infection by that pathogen. Our expectation is that the coercive introduction of a few defectors, i.e., a social vaccine, will help maintain a highly cooperative regime because it will ensure that the punishment system works.
Lutes, Aracely A; Neaves, William B; Baumann, Diana P; Wiegraebe, Winfried; Baumann, Peter
Although bisexual reproduction has proven to be highly successful, parthenogenetic all-female populations occur frequently in certain taxa, including the whiptail lizards of the genus Aspidoscelis. Allozyme analysis revealed a high degree of fixed heterozygosity in these parthenogenetic species, supporting the view that they originated from hybridization events between related sexual species. It has remained unclear how the meiotic program is altered to produce diploid eggs while maintaining heterozygosity. Here we show that meiosis commences with twice the number of chromosomes in parthenogenetic versus sexual species, a mechanism that provides the basis for generating gametes with unreduced chromosome content without fundamental deviation from the classic meiotic program. Our observation of synaptonemal complexes and chiasmata demonstrate that a typical meiotic program occurs and that heterozygosity is not maintained by bypassing recombination. Instead, fluorescent in situ hybridization probes that distinguish between homologues reveal that bivalents form between sister chromosomes, the genetically identical products of the first of two premeiotic replication cycles. Sister chromosome pairing provides a mechanism for the maintenance of heterozygosity, which is critical for offsetting the reduced fitness associated with the lack of genetic diversity in parthenogenetic species.
Wang, Changcao; Lu, Xin
How can altruism evolve or be maintained in a selfish world? Hamilton's rule shows that the former process will occur when rb > c -the benefits to the recipients of an altruistic act b , weighted by the relatedness between the social partners r , exceed the costs to the altruists c -drives altruistic genotypes spreading against nonaltruistic ones. From this rule, we infer that altruistic genotypes will persist in a population by forming a stable heritable polymorphism with nonaltruistic genotypes if rb = c makes inclusive fitness of the two morphs equal. We test this prediction using the data of 12 years of study on a cooperatively breeding bird, the Tibetan ground tit Pseudopodoces humilis , where helping is performed by males only and kin-directed. Individual variation in ever acting as a helper was heritable ( h 2 = 0.47), and the resultant altruism polymorphism remained stable as indicated by low-level annual fluctuation of the percentage of helpers among all adult males (24-28%). Helpers' indirect fitness gains from increased lifetime reproductive success of related breeders statistically fully compensated for their lifetime direct fitness losses, suggesting that rb = c holds. While our work provides a fundamental support for Hamilton's idea, it highlights the equivalent inclusive fitness returns to altruists and nonaltruists mediated by rb = c as a theoretically and realistically important mechanism to maintain social polymorphism.
Szilágyi, András; Kun, Ádám; Szathmáry, Eörs
The error threshold of replication limits the selectively maintainable genome size against recurrent deleterious mutations for most fitness landscapes. In the context of RNA replication a distinction between the genotypic and the phenotypic error threshold has been made; where the latter concerns the maintenance of secondary structure rather than sequence. RNA secondary structure is treated as a proxy for function. The phenotypic error threshold allows higher per digit mutation rates than its genotypic counterpart, and is known to increase with the frequency of neutral mutations in sequence space. Here we show that the degree of neutrality, i.e. the frequency of nearest-neighbour (one-step) neutral mutants is a remarkably accurate proxy for the overall frequency of such mutants in an experimentally verifiable formula for the phenotypic error threshold; this we achieve by the full numerical solution for the concentration of all sequences in mutation-selection balance up to length 16. We reinforce our previous result that currently known ribozymes could be selectively maintained by the accuracy known from the best available polymerase ribozymes. Furthermore, we show that in silico stabilizing selection can increase the mutational robustness of ribozymes due to the fact that they were produced by artificial directional selection in the first place. Our finding offers a better understanding of the error threshold and provides further insight into the plausibility of an ancient RNA world.
James, Sigrid; Monn, Amy R; Palinkas, Lawrence A; Leslie, Laurel K
To better understand the nature of sibling relationships among children in foster or adoptive placement and the challenges and processes involved in maintaining these relationships, we conducted an exploratory analysis of data collected from semi-structured interviews with caregivers of 14 foster and adopted children in San Diego County. We identified three patterns of placement histories and living situations which appeared to impact the degree of contact maintained with siblings: (1) children who had never lived together and were not currently placed together; (2) children who at some point lived with or were placed together with their siblings, but were now separated from them; and (3) children who had lived with their siblings all their life and were placed together with at least some of their siblings at the time of the interview. Children's current living situations and placement histories, caregivers' experiences and perceptions of feasibility and desirability of sibling contact, and the sibling relationship itself are primary determinants in the development and maintenance of contact between siblings. Implications for child welfare policy and practice are discussed.
Full Text Available Water polo is the only sports game that takes place in the water. During the outplay, a vertical body position with the two basic mechanisms of the leg work - a breaststroke leg kick and an eggbeater leg kick, prevails. Starting from the significance of a vertical position during the game play, the methods of assessing physical preparedness of the athletes of all the categories also include the evaluation of maintaining a vertical position and consequently the load of the leg muscles. The measurements are performed during the maintenance of a vertical position (swimming in place through one of the specified mechanisms of leg work, i.e. a vertical position technique. The aim of this paper was to determine the application of different mechanisms of the leg kicks in maintaining a vertical position with young water polo players in relation to their position. The study included 29 selected junior water polo players (age_15.8 ± 0.8 years; BH_185.2 ± 5.3cm and BW_81.7 ± 7.7kg. The measurements were performed during the tests of swimming in place at the maximum intensity lasting 10 seconds, by the breaststroke and eggbeater leg kicks. The isometric tensiometry tests were used for the measurements. The results were analysed by the application of descriptive statistics, and the kinetic selection characteristic was defined by the application of discriminant analysis. Higher average values were achieved with the breaststroke leg kick technique Fmax, ImpF and RFD (avgFmaxLEGGBK =157.46±19.93N; avgImpF_LEGGBK =45.43±10.64Ns; avgRFD_LEGGBK=337.85±80.73N/s; avgFmaxLBKICK=227.18±49.17N; avgImpF_LBKICK=55.99±14.59Ns; avgRFD_LBKICK=545.47±159.15N/s. After discriminant analysis, the results have shown that the eggbeater leg kick is a selection technique, whereas the force - Fmax is a kinetic selection variable. Based on the obtained results and the analyses performed it may be concluded that a training factor dominant for maintaining a vertical position by
Wilson, Zane J.; Gold, Saul L.; Koontz, Ron F.; Lavine, Ted L.
Large accelerators for high energy physics research traditionally have been designed using informal best design, engineering, and management practices to achieve acceptable levels of operational availability. However, the Next Linear Collider(NLC) project presents a particular challenge for operational availability due to the unprecedented size and complexity of the accelerator systems required to achieve the physics goals of high center-of-mass energy and high luminosity. Formal reliability and maintainability analysis, design, and implementation will be required to achieve acceptable operational availability for the high energy physics research program. This paper introduces some of the basic concepts of reliability analysis and applies them to the 2.6-cm microwave power system of the two 10-km-long, 250-GeV linacs that are currently proposed for the NLC design.
Zoch, David R.
In many planning and scheduling environments, it is desirable to be able to view and manipulate plans at different levels of abstraction, allowing the users the option of viewing and manipulating either a very detailed representation of the plan or a high-level more abstract version of the plan. Generating a detailed plan from a more abstract plan requires domain-specific planning/scheduling knowledge; the reverse process of generating a high-level plan from a detailed plan Reverse Plan Maintenance, or RPM) requires having the system remember the actions it took based on its domain-specific knowledge and its reasons for taking those actions. This reverse plan maintenance process is described as implemented in a specific planning and scheduling tool, The Mission Operations Planning Assistant (MOPA), as well as the applications of RPM to other planning and scheduling problems; emphasizing the knowledge that is needed to maintain the correspondence between the different hierarchical planning levels.
Full Text Available A ship navigating on the surface of the water may experience greater resistance, adversely affect-ing its speed and leading to energy loss. The added resistance of surface ships in both still water and waves are investigated, and the computation method of total speed loss is presented. An autopilot system is intro-duced to constrain the speed loss, and course keeping and rudder roll stabilization sliding mode control laws are proposed according to a compact control strategy. The two working conditions of "heading" and "heading plus anti-roll" are discussed, including roll stabilization, heading error, speed maintenance and rudder abrasion. The results show that the speed can be effectively maintained using this method, and from a commercial point of view, the fin-rudder roll stabilization control is not recommended for vessels equipped with both fins and rudders.
Walling, R.C.; Patel, J.B.; Strunk, A.J.
The DOE General Design Criteria for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Westinghouse Savannah River Site (WSRS) requires the NFPA National Fire Codes to be incorporated into the design and simultaneously maintain process confinement integrity to prevent the release of radioactivity. Although the NFPA Standard for the Installation of Air Conditioning and Ventilation Systems, NFPA 90, requires fire dampers (FD) in HVAC duct penetrations of two hour rated fire barriers, closure of fire dampers at DWPF may compromise the integrity of the process confinement system. This leads to the need for an overall risk assessment to determine the value of 39 fire dampers that are identified later in the study as capable of a confinement system upset
Full Text Available Early orthodontic interventions are often initiated in the developing dentition to promote favorable developmental changes. Interceptive orthodontic can eliminate or reduce the severity of a developing malocclusion, the complexity of orthodontic treatment, overall treatment time and cost. Premature loss of deciduous tooth or teeth can often destroy the integrity of normal occlusion. There are many space regaining and maintaining devices mentioned in literature. In this article, I present a simple space regaining method by a piece of nickel titanium (NiTi wire bonded between the teeth in active loop form, and the unique shape memory property of NiTi wire will upright or move the teeth and the lost space can be regained easily.
Dhekne, R.D.; Long, S.E.; Moore, W.H.; Frazier, O.H.
Many patients receiving cyclosporine (CSA) develop hepatic dysfunction or pancreatitis. The authors reviewed 106 records of cardiac transplant patients maintained on CSA. Eleven patients underwent 16 hepatobiliary scans (HBSs) for abdominal pain and/or abnormal liver function. Of 16 HBSs, ten demonstrated normal gallbladder visualization. Follow-up in all cases confirmed scan findings. Five patients had no gallbladder visualization; confirmation of acute cholecystitis was obtained by surgery in two and by autopsy in three. One patient had previous cholecystectomy. The authors found HPS useful for evaluating acute cholecystitis in patients receiving CSA with or without associated drug-related pancreatitis and hepatic insufficiency and suggest that HBS can assist in the selection of patients for CSA dose adjustment
Lyu, Fei; Zhang, Jing; Wei, Qianqian; Gao, Fei; Ding, Yuting; Liu, Shulai
Effects of gamma radiation combined with cinnamon oil on quality of Northern Snakehead fish fillets were observed during storage at 4 °C. Fish fillets were treated with 1-5 kGy gamma radiation, 0.05-0.5% cinnamon oil or the combination of radiation and cinnamon oil. The antimicrobial activity increased with radiation dose and cinnamon oil concentration. During storage, the combination of 1 kGy radiation and 0.5% cinnamon oil displayed better inhibiting activities on aerobic plate counts, total volatile basic nitrogen, thiobarbituric acid reaction substances than 1 kGy radiation or 0.5% cinnamon oil used alone. Moreover, the combination could arrive at the similar inhibiting activities of cinnamon oil with higher concentration of 0.5% or radiation with higher dose of 5 kGy. Thus, the combination could decrease the radiation dose and cinnamon oil concentration without decreasing the effect of them on maintaining fish quality.
Seminara, J.L.; Parsons, S.O.
Human factors engineering is an interdisciplinary science and technology concerned with shaping the design of machines, facilities, and operational environments to promote safe, efficient, and reliable performance on the part of operators and maintainers of equipment systems. The human factors aspects of five nuclear power plants and four fossil fuel plants were evaluated using such methods as a check list guided observation system, structured interviews with maintenance personnel, direct observation of maintenance tasks, reviews of procedures, and analyses of maintenance errors or accidents by means of the critical incident technique. The study revealed a wide variety of human factors problem areas, most of which are extensively photodocumented. The study recommends that a more systematic and formal approach to ensure that future power plants are human engineered to the needs of maintenance personnel
Ngo, Trung Dung; Schiøler, Henrik
society, collecting and sharing are experimentally recognized as the highest property. This paper issues an approach to sociable robots using self-maintained energy in robot society, which is naturally inspired from swarm behavior of honey-bee and ant. Typically, autonomous mobile robots are usually......Research of sociable robots has emphasized interaction and coordination of mobile robots with inspiration from natural behavior of birds, insects, and fish: flocking, foraging, collecting, sharing and so forth. However, the animal behaviors are looking for food towards survival. In an animal...... equipped with a finite energy, thus they can operate in a finite time. To overcome the limitation, we describe practical deployment of a group of mobile robot with the possibility of carrying and exchanging fuel, e.g. battery to other robots. Early implementation that includes modular hardware and control...
Yu Haiyang [Universite de technologie de Troyes, ISTIT, Rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 TROYES (France)]. E-mail: Haiyang.YU@utt.fr; Yalaoui, Farouk [Universite de technologie de Troyes, ISTIT, Rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 TROYES (France); Chatelet, Eric [Universite de technologie de Troyes, ISTIT, Rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 TROYES (France); Chu Chengbin [Universite de technologie de Troyes, ISTIT, Rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 TROYES (France); Management School, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei (China)
This paper considers a framework to optimally design a maintainable cold-standby system. Not only the maintenance policy is to be determined, but also the reliability character of the components will be taken into account. Hence, the mean time to failure of the components and the policy time of good-as-new maintenances are proposed as decision variables. Following probability analyses, the system cost rate and the system availability are formulated as the optimization object and the constraint, respectively. Then, this optimization problem is directly resolved by recognizing its underlying properties. Moreover, the resolving procedure is found to be independent of the failure distributions of the components and the forms of the system cost, which is illustrated through a numerical example. As a conclusion, an exact method is successfully established to minimize the cost rate of a cold-standby system with the given maintenance facility.
Yu Haiyang; Yalaoui, Farouk; Chatelet, Eric; Chu Chengbin
This paper considers a framework to optimally design a maintainable cold-standby system. Not only the maintenance policy is to be determined, but also the reliability character of the components will be taken into account. Hence, the mean time to failure of the components and the policy time of good-as-new maintenances are proposed as decision variables. Following probability analyses, the system cost rate and the system availability are formulated as the optimization object and the constraint, respectively. Then, this optimization problem is directly resolved by recognizing its underlying properties. Moreover, the resolving procedure is found to be independent of the failure distributions of the components and the forms of the system cost, which is illustrated through a numerical example. As a conclusion, an exact method is successfully established to minimize the cost rate of a cold-standby system with the given maintenance facility
Irvin, A.D.; Young, E.R.; Adams, P.J.V.
Blood infected with Babesia rodhaini, B major or B divergens was irradiated to different absorbed doses between 0 and 120 krad, and then maintained in vitro in the presence of 3 H hypoxanthine for 24 h. The effects of irradiation were measured by the ability of the parasites to incorporate 3 H hypoxanthine and, in the case of B rodhaini, by the ability of the parasite to infect mice. B major and B divergens were slightly more radioresistant than B rodhaini, but all showed a progressive fall in ability to incorporate 3 H hypoxanthine with increasing does of irradiation when there was increased uptake of 3 H hypoxanthine. In the case of B rodhaini there was close correlation between the ability of the parasites to incorporate 3 H hypoxanthine and their infectivity for mice. Both types of activity were abolished at doses of 40 krad and above. (author)
Gasparyan, Armen Yuri; Gerasimov, Alexey N; Voronov, Alexander A; Kitas, George D
This article overviews currently available options for rewarding peer reviewers. Rewards and incentives may help maintain the quality and integrity of scholarly publications. Publishers around the world implemented a variety of financial and nonfinancial mechanisms for incentivizing their best reviewers. None of these is proved effective on its own. A strategy of combined rewards and credits for the reviewers1 creative contributions seems a workable solution. Opening access to reviews and assigning publication credits to the best reviews is one of the latest achievements of digitization. Reviews, posted on academic networking platforms, such as Publons, add to the transparency of the whole system of peer review. Reviewer credits, properly counted and displayed on individual digital profiles, help distinguish the best contributors, invite them to review and offer responsible editorial posts.
Full Text Available Consumption of a hypercaloric diet upregulates microglial innate immune reactivity along with a higher expression of lipoprotein lipase (Lpl within the reactive microglia in the mouse brain. Here, we show that knockdown of the Lpl gene specifically in microglia resulted in deficient microglial uptake of lipid, mitochondrial fuel utilization shifting to glutamine, and significantly decreased immune reactivity. Mice with knockdown of the Lpl gene in microglia gained more body weight than control mice on a high-carbohydrate high-fat (HCHF diet. In these mice, microglial reactivity was significantly decreased in the mediobasal hypothalamus, accompanied by downregulation of phagocytic capacity and increased mitochondrial dysmorphologies. Furthermore, HCHF-diet-induced POMC neuronal loss was accelerated. These results show that LPL-governed microglial immunometabolism is essential to maintain microglial function upon exposure to an HCHF diet. In a hypercaloric environment, lack of such an adaptive immunometabolic response has detrimental effects on CNS regulation of energy metabolism.
Caesarean section rates continue to increase worldwide. The appropriate caesarean section rate remains a topic of debate among women and professionals. Evidence-based medicine has not provided an answer and depends on interpretation of the literature. Overall caesarean section rates are unhelpful, and caesarean section rates should not be judged in isolation from other outcomes and epidemiological characteristics. Better understanding of caesarean section rates, their consequences and their benefits will improve care, and enable learning between delivery units nationally and internationally. To achieve and maintain an appropriate caesarean section rate requires a Multidisciplinary Quality Assurance Programme in each delivery unit, recognising caesarean section rates as one of many factors that determine quality. Women will always choose the type of delivery that seems safest to them and their babies. Professionals need to monitor the quality of their practice continuously in a standardised way to ensure that women can make the right choice.
Nouri, M R; Kennedy, D B
Premature loss of a primary second molar may lead to space loss in the dental arch. This space loss tends to be more severe in unfavourable malocclusions. The distal shoe space maintainer (DSSM) may be beneficial in controlling the path of eruption of an unerupted permanent first molar from the primary into the early mixed dentition. This article describes the technique for achieving optimal fit of a chairside-fabricated band and DSSM in a single visit by contouring the distal shoe blade, and by extending it to the mesial surface of the permanent first molar. Upon the eruption of the permanent first molar DSSM may be modified to a reverse band-and-loop, or replaced by a lingual holding arch.
This paper reports that the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, which has agreed to maintain its present combined production of 24.2 million b/d of oil in the fourth quarter, will soon see the first pullout of a member. The 13 member group will shrink to 12, probably in November, when Ecuador withdraws. Ecuador President Sixto Duran Ballen issued notice of the pullout Sept. 17, a little more than 1 month after he took office. Ecuador, strapped for cash, wants to save OPEC membership dues reported to be $2-3 million/year. It plans to remain an associate member, although it wasn't immediately clear what that means. No other countries are regarded as associate members
Chandler, Phillip T; Greig, Matthew; Comfort, Paul; McMahon, John J
Chandler, PT, Greig, M, Comfort, P, and McMahon, JJ. Variability of plyometric and ballistic exercise technique maintains jump performance. J Strength Cond Res 32(6): 1571-1582, 2018-The aim of this study was to investigate changes in vertical jump technique over the course of a training session. Twelve plyometric and ballistic exercise-trained male athletes (age = 23.4 ± 4.6 years, body mass = 78.7 ± 18.8 kg, height = 177.1 ± 9.0 cm) performed 3 sets of 10 repetitions of drop jump (DJ), rebound jump (RJ) and squat jump (SJ). Each exercise was analyzed from touchdown to peak joint flexion and peak joint flexion to take-off. Squat jump was analyzed from peak joint flexion to take-off only. Jump height, flexion and extension time and range of motion, and instantaneous angles of the ankle, knee, and hip joints were measured. Separate 1-way repeated analyses of variance compared vertical jump technique across exercise sets and repetitions. Exercise set analysis found that SJ had lower results than DJ and RJ for the angle at peak joint flexion for the hip, knee, and ankle joints and take-off angle of the hip joint. Exercise repetition analysis found that the ankle joint had variable differences for the angle at take-off, flexion, and extension time for RJ. The knee joint had variable differences for flexion time for DJ and angle at take-off and touchdown for RJ. There was no difference in jump height. Variation in measured parameters across repetitions highlights variable technique across plyometric and ballistic exercises. This did not affect jump performance, but likely maintained jump performance by overcoming constraints (e.g., level of rate coding).
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The sclera maintains and protects the eye ball, which receives visual inputs. Although the sclera does not contribute significantly to visual perception, scleral diseases such as refractory scleritis, scleral perforation and pathological myopia are considered incurable or difficult to cure. The aim of this study is to identify characteristics of the human sclera as one of the connective tissues derived from the neural crest and mesoderm. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have demonstrated microarray data of cultured human infant scleral cells. Hierarchical clustering was performed to group scleral cells and other mesenchymal cells into subcategories. Hierarchical clustering analysis showed similarity between scleral cells and auricular cartilage-derived cells. Cultured micromasses of scleral cells exposed to TGF-betas and BMP2 produced an abundant matrix. The expression of cartilage-associated genes, such as Indian hedge hog, type X collagen, and MMP13, was up-regulated within 3 weeks in vitro. These results suggest that human 'sclera'-derived cells can be considered chondrocytes when cultured ex vivo. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our present study shows a chondrogenic potential of human sclera. Interestingly, the sclera of certain vertebrates, such as birds and fish, is composed of hyaline cartilage. Although the human sclera is not a cartilaginous tissue, the human sclera maintains chondrogenic potential throughout evolution. In addition, our findings directly explain an enigma that the sclera and the joint cartilage are common targets of inflammatory cells in rheumatic arthritis. The present global gene expression database will contribute to the clarification of the pathogenesis of developmental diseases such as high myopia.
Cubik, Jakub; Kepak, Stanislav; Doricak, Jan; Vašinek, Vladimir; Liner, Andrej; Papes, Martin
The interferometers composed of optical fibers are due to its high sensitivity capable of to measure various influences affecting the fiber. These influences may be bending or different sorts of fiber deformations, vibration, temperature, etc. In this case the vibration is the measured quantity, which is evaluated by analyzing the interference fringes representing changes in the fiber. Was used a Mach-Zehnder interferometer composed of the polarization maintaining elements. The polarization maintaining elements were used because of high sensitivity to polarization state inside the interferometer. The light was splitted into the two optical paths, where the first one is the reference fiber and it is separated from the actual phenomenon, and the second one is measuring fiber, which is directly exposed to vibration transmission from the underlying surface. The light source was narrowband DFB laser serating at a wavelength of 1550nm and as a detector an InGaAs PIN photodiode were used in this measurement. The electrical signal from the photodiode was amplified and fed into the measuring card. On the incoming signal the FFT was applied, which performs the transformation into the frequency domain and the results were further evaluated by software. We were evaluating the characteristic frequencies and their amplitude ratios. The frequency responses are unique for a given phenomenon, thus it is possible to identify recurring events by the characteristic frequencies and their amplitude ratios. The frequency range was limited by the properties of the used speaker, by the frequency characteristics of the filter in the amplifier and used resonant element. For the experiment evaluation the repeated impact of the various spherical objects on the surface board was performed and measured. The stability of amplitude and frequency and also the frequency range was verified in this measurement.
Hyun Woo Choi
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Differentiated cells can be reprogrammed into pluripotency by transduction of four defined transcription factors. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells are expected to be useful for regenerative medicine as well as basic research. Recently, the report showed that mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF cells are not essential for reprogramming. However, in using fibroblasts as donor cells for reprogramming, individual fibroblasts that had failed to reprogram could function as feeder cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Here, we show that adult mouse neural stem cells (NSCs, which are not functional feeder cells, can be reprogrammed into iPS cells using defined four factors (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc under feeder-free conditions. The iPS cells, generated from NSCs expressing the Oct4-GFP reporter gene, could proliferate for more than two months (passage 20. Generated and maintained without feeder cells, these iPS cells expressed pluripotency markers (Oct4 and Nanog, the promoter regions of Oct4 and Nanog were hypomethylated, could differentiated into to all three germ layers in vitro, and formed a germline chimera. These data indicate that NSCs can achieve and maintain pluripotency under feeder-free conditions. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This study suggested that factors secreted by feeder cells are not essential in the initial/early stages of reprogramming and for pluripotency maintenance. This technology might be useful for a human system, as a feeder-free reprogramming system may help generate iPS cells of a clinical grade for tissue or organ regeneration.
As the aging power systems are increasingly working closer to the capacity and thermal limits, maintaining an sufficient reliability has been of great concern to the government agency, utility companies and users. This dissertation focuses on improving the reliability of transmission and distribution systems. Based on the wide area measurements, multiple model algorithms are developed to diagnose transmission line three-phase short to ground faults in the presence of protection misoperations. The multiple model algorithms utilize the electric network dynamics to provide prompt and reliable diagnosis outcomes. Computational complexity of the diagnosis algorithm is reduced by using a two-step heuristic. The multiple model algorithm is incorporated into a hybrid simulation framework, which consist of both continuous state simulation and discrete event simulation, to study the operation of transmission systems. With hybrid simulation, line switching strategy for enhancing the tolerance to protection misoperations is studied based on the concept of security index, which involves the faulted mode probability and stability coverage. Local measurements are used to track the generator state and faulty mode probabilities are calculated in the multiple model algorithms. FACTS devices are considered as controllers for the transmission system. The placement of FACTS devices into power systems is investigated with a criterion of maintaining a prescribed level of control reconfigurability. Control reconfigurability measures the small signal combined controllability and observability of a power system with an additional requirement on fault tolerance. For the distribution systems, a hierarchical framework, including a high level recloser allocation scheme and a low level recloser placement scheme, is presented. The impacts of recloser placement on the reliability indices is analyzed. Evaluation of reliability indices in the placement process is carried out via discrete event
Full Text Available Periodontal disease has been involved in a variety of systemic disorders and suspected as a potential risk factor for fetal growth restriction. Periodontal pathogenic bacteria may actively regulate embryonic development, implantation and placental trophoblast cell invasion. This study aimed to analyze the role of TNF-α, IL-10 and caspase-3 to maintain fetal growth in Porphyromonasgingivalis-infected pregnant rats. Female rats were infected with live-Porphyromonas gingivalis at concentration of 2x109 cells/ml into subgingival sulcus area of the maxillary first molar before and during pregnancy. They were sacrificed on gestational day (GD-14 and GD20. The weight and length of placentas and fetuses were evaluated. The expression of TNF-α, IL-10 and caspase-3 in macrophages and trophoblast cells were detected by immunohistochemistry. On GD14, TNF-α (R2=0.416;P=0.000 and IL-10 (R2=0.187;P=0.012 had an important role to increase expression of caspase-3 in the placenta, but only TNF-α (R2=0.393;P=0.000 was able to increase the expression of caspase-3 on GD20. TNF-α and caspase-3 also had an important role (P0.000. The increasing expressions of TNF-α and IL-10 did not only enhance immune protection, but also maintained the trophoblast cells survival by regulating expression of caspase-3. Porphyromonas gingivalis infection in maternal periodontal tissue can lead to decrease in placental weight, fetal weight and fetal length which mediated by increasing expression of TNF-α, IL-10 and caspase-3 in the placenta.
Kisfalvi, Veronika; Oliver, David
The increasing popularity of experiential learning in management education raises a number of new opportunities and challenges for instructors, particularly with regard to shifting instructor roles and attention to learning through one's emotions. In this article, we draw on psychodynamics--in particular D. W. Winnicott's notions of…
Discussion of academic cheating and plagiarism focuses on occurrences in online courses, based on experiences at Baker College (Michigan). Highlights include tools to fight plagiarism; using search engines to detect plagiarism; digital paper mills; plagiarism detection companies; and the role of administrators and faculty. (LRW)
Cozijnsen, M.R.; Stevens, N.L.; van Tilburg, T.G.
This study examines the consequences of retirement for the continuation of work-related personal ties. The hypothesis is that their inclusion in personal networks after retirement has become more likely because these relationships have become less role based in today's social-cultural context. Data
This manual presents a series of recommended techniques that can increase overall operational effectiveness of both flight and ground based NASA systems. It provides a set of tools that minimizes risk associated with: (1) restoring failed functions (both ground and flight based); (2) conducting complex and highly visible maintenance operations; and (3) sustaining a technical capability to support the NASA mission using aging equipment or facilities. It considers (1) program management - key elements of an effective maintainability effort; (2) design and development - techniques that have benefited previous programs; (3) analysis and test - quantitative and qualitative analysis processes and testing techniques; and (4) operations and operational design techniques that address NASA field experience. This document is a valuable resource for continuous improvement ideas in executing the systems development process in accordance with the NASA 'better, faster, smaller, and cheaper' goal without compromising safety.
Ford, J.L.; Senechal, R.R.; Altenhein, G.D.; Harvey, R.P.
In today's energy sector there is ever increasing pressure on utilities to operate power plants at high capacity factors. To ensure nuclear power is competitive into the next century, it is imperative that strategic design improvements be made to enhance the performance of nuclear power plants. There are a number of factors that affect a nuclear power plant's performance; lifetime maintenance is one of the major contributors. The maturing of digital technology has afforded ABB the opportunity to make significant design improvements in the area of maintainability. In keeping with ABB's evolutionary advanced nuclear plant design approach, digital technology has systematically been incorporated into the control and protection systems of the most recent Korean nuclear units in operation and under construction. One example of this was the multi-functional design team approach that was utilized for the development of ABB's Digital Plant Protection System (DPPS). The design team consisted of engineers, maintenance technicians, procurement specialists and manufacturing personnel in order to provide a complete perspective on all facets of the design. The governing design goals of increased reliability and safety, simplicity of design, use of off-the-shelf products and reduced need for periodic surveillance testing were met with the selection of proven ABB-Advant Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) as the heart of the DPPS. The application of digital PLC technology allows operation for extended periods without requiring routine maintenance or re-calibration. A well documented commercial dedication program approved by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC) as part of the System 80+ TM Advanced Light Water Reactor Design Certification Program, allowed the use of off-the shelf products in the design of the safety protection system. In addition, a number of mechanical and electrical improvements were made which support maintainability. The result is a DPPS
Comsa, Olivia; Meglea, Claudia; Paraschiva, M. V.; Banutoiu, Maria; Popescu, C.
possible measures envisaged at European level should especially support those candidate countries that are using nuclear power. All states must have their own access to the appropriate nuclear education and research programmes. This support is important for the whole European nuclear community to ensure the continued safe operation and decommissioning of nuclear plants in the future. Another aspect to be taken fully into consideration is the fact that assuring nuclear education and training and maintaining nuclear competence necessitates the existence of a significant infrastructure. This costly infrastructure has lasted several decades but over the past few years has undergone many changes in response to the needs of a changing nuclear sector. An appropriate infrastructure, which meets future needs, has to be maintained, but this has to be in a sustainable way and with the necessary means. Steps need to be taken to proactively define what are an appropriate infrastructure and the possible measures, which can be used to ensure its continued support. (authors)
Tye-Murray, Nancy; Spry, Jacqueline L; Mauzé, Elizabeth
The goals of this investigation were to gauge how hearing loss affects the self-perceived job performance and psycho-emotional status of professionals in the workforce and to develop a profile of their aural rehabilitation needs. Forty-eight participants who had at least a high school education and who hold salaried positions participated in one of seven focus groups. Participants first answered questions about a hypothetical executive who had hearing loss and considered how she might react to various communication issues. They then addressed questions about their own work-related predicaments. The sessions were audiovideo recorded and later transcribed for analysis. Unlike workers who have occupational hearing loss, the professionals in this investigation seem not to experience an inordinate degree of stigmatization in their workplaces, although most believe that hearing loss has negatively affected their job performance. Some of the participants believe that they have lost their "competitive edge," and some believe that they have been denied promotions because of hearing loss. However, most report that they have overcome their hearing-related difficulties by various means, and many have developed a determination and stamina to remain active in the workforce. The majority of the participants seemed to be unfamiliar with the Americans with Disability Act, Public Law 101-336. The overriding theme to emerge is that professionals desire to maintain their competency to perform their jobs and will do what they have to do to "get the job done." The situations of professionals who have hearing loss can be modeled, with a central theme of maintaining job competency or a competitive edge. It is hypothesized that five factors affect professionals' abilities to continue their optimal work performance in the face of hearing loss: (a) self-concept and sense of internal locus of control, (b) use of hearing assistive technology, (c) supervisor's and co-workers' perceptions and
Cédile, Oriane; Østerby Jørgensen, Line; Frank, Ida
Thymic dendritic cells (DC) play a role in central tolerance. Three thymic DC subtypes have been described: plasmacytoid DC (pDC) and two conventional DC (cDC), CD8α+ Sirpα- DC and Sirpα+ CD8α- cDC. Both pDC and Sirpα+ cDC can take up antigen in periphery and migrate into the thymus in response t...... by CCL2 or CCR2 deficiency. Although some thymic progenitors expressed CCR2, this did not include those that give rise to pDC. Based on these results, we propose that CCR2 is involved in pDC homeostasis but its ligand CCL2 does not play a major role....
Iason, Glenn R.; O'Reilly-Wapstra, Julianne M.; Brewer, Mark J.; Summers, Ron W.; Moore, Ben D.
A central issue in our understanding of the evolution of the diversity of plant secondary metabolites (PSMs) is whether or not compounds are functional, conferring an advantage to the plant, or non-functional. We examine the hypothesis that the diversity of monoterpene PSMs within a plant species (Scots pine Pinus sylvestris) may be explained by different compounds acting as defences against high-impact herbivores operating at different life stages. We also hypothesize that pairwise coevolution, with uncorrelated interactions, is more likely to result in greater PSM diversity, than diffuse coevolution. We tested whether up to 13 different monoterpenes in Scots pine were inhibitory to herbivory by slugs (Arion ater), bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus), red deer (Cervus elaphus) and capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus), each of which attack trees at a different life stage. Plants containing more α-pinene were avoided by both slugs and capercaillie, which may act as reinforcing selective agents for this dominant defensive compound. Herbivory by red deer and capercaillie were, respectively, weakly negatively associated with δ3-carene, and strongly negatively correlated with the minor compound β-ocimene. Three of the four herbivores are probably contributory selective agents on some of the terpenes, and thus maintain some, but by no means all, of the phytochemical diversity in the species. The correlated defensive function of α-pinene against slugs and capercaillie is consistent with diffuse coevolutionary processes. PMID:21444308
Di Rienzi, Sara C; Lindstrom, Kimberly C; Mann, Tobias; Noble, William S; Raghuraman, M K; Brewer, Bonita J
Origins of replication present a paradox to evolutionary biologists. As a collection, they are absolutely essential genomic features, but individually are highly redundant and nonessential. It is therefore difficult to predict to what extent and in what regard origins are conserved over evolutionary time. Here, through a comparative genomic analysis of replication origins and chromosomal replication patterns in the budding yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lachancea waltii, we assess to what extent replication origins survived genomic change produced from 150 million years of evolution. We find that L. waltii origins exhibit a core consensus sequence and nucleosome occupancy pattern highly similar to those of S. cerevisiae origins. We further observe that the overall progression of chromosomal replication is similar between L. waltii and S. cerevisiae. Nevertheless, few origins show evidence of being conserved in location between the two species. Among the conserved origins are those surrounding centromeres and adjacent to histone genes, suggesting that proximity to an origin may be important for their regulation. We conclude that, over evolutionary time, origins maintain sequence, structure, and regulation, but are continually being created and destroyed, with the result that their locations are generally not conserved.
Prolonged exercise and heavy training are associated with depressed immune function which can increase the risk of picking up minor infections. To maintain robust immunity, athletes should eat a well-balanced diet sufficient to meet their energy, carbohydrate, protein, and micronutrient requirements. Dietary deficiencies of protein and specific micronutrients have long been associated with immune dysfunction and an adequate intake of iron, zinc, and vitamins A, D, E, B6 and B12 is particularly important in the maintenance of immune function. Consuming carbohydrate during prolonged strenuous exercise attenuates rises in stress hormones and appears to limit the degree of exercise-induced immune depression. Similar effects can be seen with daily ingestion of high-dose antioxidant vitamin supplements, though concerns have been expressed that excessive antioxidant intake may impair exercise training adaptations. It is safe to say with reasonable confidence that individual amino acids, colostrum, Echinacea, and zinc are unlikely to boost immunity or reduce infection risk in athletes. The ingestion of carbohydrate during exercise and daily consumption of probiotic and plant polyphenol (e.g. quercetin)-containing supplements or foodstuffs (e.g. non-alcoholic beer) currently offer the best chance of success. This approach is likely to be most effective for individuals who are particularly prone to illness. Copyright © 2013 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.
Peishel, F.L.; Mouring, R.W.; Schrock, S.L.
Equipment racks have been used to support process equipment in radioactive facilities for many years. Improvements in the design of these racks have evolved relatively slowly primarily as a result of limitations in the capabilities of maintenance equipment; that is, tasks could only be approached from above using bridge cranes with viewing primarily through periscopes. In recent years, however, technological advances have been made by the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in bridge-mounted servomanipulators with onboard auxiliary hoists and television viewing systems. These advances permit full cell coverage by the manipulator arms which, in turn, allow maintenance tasks to be approached horizontally as well as from above. Maintainable equipment items can be stacked vertically on a rack because total overhead access is less important and maintenance tasks that would not have been attempted in the past can now be performed. These advances permit greater flexibility in the design and cell layout of the racks and lead to concepts that could significantly increase the availability of a facility. The evolution of rack design and a description of the alternative concepts based on present maintenance systems capabilities are presented in this paper. 13 refs., 11 figs
Lemay, Edward P; Melville, Michael C
Six studies demonstrate that perceivers' desire to bond with targets motivates perceivers to misconstrue their own self-disclosure in ways that maintain perceivers' security in targets' care and commitment. Perceivers who strongly valued relationships with targets reported high levels of global self-disclosure, consistent with many findings suggesting salutary effects of disclosure. However, these same perceivers reported low self-disclosure of needs and desires in hypothetical (Study 1) and actual (Study 2) situations characterized by targets' unresponsive behavior. Similarly, in daily report (Study 3) and behavioral observation (Study 4) studies, perceivers who valued relationships with targets perceived high levels of self-disclosure when targets were responsive, but they perceived low self-disclosure when targets were unresponsive, and these perceptions seemed partly illusory. In turn, these perceptions of low self-disclosure in situations characterized by partners' unresponsive behavior predicted decreased perceptions of diagnosticity of targets' behavior (Studies 1-3) and buffered the negative affective and interpersonal effects of unresponsive behavior (Study 4). Experimental manipulations (Studies 5 and 6) demonstrated the motivational nature of perceived self-disclosure. Collectively, the results suggest that a desire to bond with targets motivates perceivers to downplay the diagnosticity of targets' unresponsive behavior through diminishing their self-disclosure, in turn preserving perceivers' trust in targets' care and commitment.
Wright, T. [CitiPower Ltd., Melbourne, VIC (Australia)
The current market environment in the electricity industry is one of changing regulations with many of the rules being developed. There is a great deal of customer confusion and uncertainty with some customers unaware of their contestable status and many are insecure about mixing retail and distribution supplies. This paper discusses customer retention and maintaining the competitive edge in the retail market. It draws on some conclusions from a survey released by the Australian Chamber of Manufacturers entitled `Customer feedback on Victoria`s competitive electricity market`. An overview is presented of the retail market in Australia which is one of very strong price-based competition, with as yet little differentiation. A process is described for retaining customers which involves asking the customer what he/she wants in a language which they understand. The best way to determine customer needs is through a combination of internal and external sources. Enhancing customer loyalty and differentiating and marketing the product are also discussed. As the market matures, customer retention and satisfaction will be based on value added services at a reasonable cost. (author). 6 figs.
Barsanti, P.; Di Palo, L.; Grimaldi, G.
In 1987 the local leak rate test (LLRT) results of the primary containment were revised, with the following main goals: to highlight recurring problems, leading to lack of leak tightness of the primary containment; to individuate the pertinent degradation mechanisms; to assess the corrective actions already implemented and to plan further improvements, if necessary; and to optimize the preventive maintenance program on the containment, particularly the inspection frequency. All LLRTs in the past operating period, both before (as found) and after (as left) maintenance were analyzed, in terms of leakage rate and equivalent area of leak, for each penetration. Corrective actions already implemented included replacement of some valves with better quality type one, passivation of the carbon steel pipes and improvement of the pertinent surveillance procedures. Long term corrective actions, now under consideration, will include the following: more extensive passivation of pipes, carrying humid air, so that oxidation could be drastically reduced; better chemistry control in fluid systems; extensive replacement of the butterfly valves presently used; implementation of the LLRT practice, such to quantitatively measure the leakage rate, also in presence of large leak; and reduction of the time interval between periodical tests, on the basis of the results of the previous ones. Following these guidelines, future overall leakage tests would be performed in as found condition, aimed to verify the effectiveness of the entire maintenance and testing program of the primary containment and of its capability to maintain leak tightness during the time between two subsequent tests
Korte, R; Rehle, T; Merkle, A
International cooperation with Third World countries aims at reducing the high morbidity and mortality of the population to a tolerable level. The main health problems are caused by poverty. Thus, the range of diseases in tropical countries can be explained more readily by the socio-economic situation than solely by the climate. Health services, in Africa in particular, have had to reduce drastically their budgets in the last ten years and now have only approximately 1/1000th of the funds usually available in industrialised countries. High population growth reduces the resources available per head, increases infection potential and worsens living conditions. Control strategies must take account of these circumstances in order to achieve the required sustained effect within the framework of primary health care. The example of the control of several infectious diseases, such as schistosomiasis, pneumonia, malaria and AIDS, is used to show that control programmes can be effective but, in the current conditions, can hardly be maintained without outside support. In the future, diseases caused by environmental problems and new life styles as a result of industrialization, urbanization and slum growth will move dramatically into the foreground.
Wu, Chongde; Zhang, Juan; Wang, Miao; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian
Lactobacillus casei strains have traditionally been recognized as probiotics and frequently used as adjunct culture in fermented dairy products where lactic acid stress is a frequently encountered environmental condition. We have investigated the effect of lactic acid stress on the cell membrane of L. casei Zhang [wild type (WT)] and its acid-resistant mutant Lbz-2. Both strains were grown under glucose-limiting conditions in chemostats; following challenge by low pH, the cell membrane stress responses were investigated. In response to acid stress, cell membrane fluidity decreased and its fatty acid composition changed to reduce the damage caused by lactic acid. Compared with the WT, the acid-resistant mutant exhibited numerous survival advantages, such as higher membrane fluidity, higher proportions of unsaturated fatty acids, and higher mean chain length. In addition, cell integrity analysis showed that the mutant maintained a more intact cellular structure and lower membrane permeability after environmental acidification. These results indicate that alteration in membrane fluidity, fatty acid distribution, and cell integrity are common mechanisms utilized by L. casei to withstand severe acidification and to reduce the deleterious effect of lactic acid on the cell membrane. This detailed comparison of cell membrane responses between the WT and mutant add to our knowledge of the acid stress adaptation and thus enable new strategies to be developed aimed at improving the industrial performance of this species under acid stress.
Ramadan, W. A.; Wahba, H. H.; Shams El-Din, M. A.; Abd El-Sadek, I. G.
In this paper, the cross-section images, of two different types of polarization maintaining (PM) optical fibers, are employed to estimate the optical phase variation due to transverse optical rays passing through these optical fibers. An adaptive algorithm is proposed to recognize the different areas constituting the PM optical fibers cross-sections. These areas are scanned by a transverse beam to calculate the optical paths for given values of refractive indices. Consequently, the optical phases across the PM optical fibers could be recovered. PM optical fiber is immersed in a matching fluid and set in the object arm of Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The produced interferograms are analyzed to extract the optical phases caused by the PM optical fibers. The estimated optical phases could be optimized to be in good coincidence with experimentally extracted ones. This has been achieved through changing of the PM optical fibers refractive indices to retrieve the correct values. The correct refractive indices values are confirmed by getting the best fit between the estimated and the extracted optical phases. The presented approach is a promising one because it provides a quite direct and accurate information about refractive index, birefringence and beat length of PM optical fibers comparing with different techniques handle the same task.
Turer, Emre; McAlpine, William; Wang, Kuan-Wen; Lu, Tianshi; Li, Xiaohong; Tang, Miao; Zhan, Xiaoming; Wang, Tao; Zhan, Xiaowei; Bu, Chun-Hui; Murray, Anne R; Beutler, Bruce
Creatine, a nitrogenous organic acid, replenishes cytoplasmic ATP at the expense of mitochondrial ATP via the phosphocreatine shuttle. Creatine levels are maintained by diet and endogenous synthesis from arginine and glycine. Glycine amidinotransferase (GATM) catalyzes the rate-limiting step of creatine biosynthesis: the transfer of an amidino group from arginine to glycine to form ornithine and guanidinoacetate. We screened 36,530 third-generation germline mutant mice derived from N -ethyl- N -nitrosourea-mutagenized grandsires for intestinal homeostasis abnormalities after oral administration of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). Among 27 colitis susceptibility phenotypes identified and mapped, one was strongly correlated with a missense mutation in Gatm in a recessive model of inheritance, and causation was confirmed by CRISPR/Cas9 gene targeting. Supplementation of homozygous Gatm mutants with exogenous creatine ameliorated the colitis phenotype. CRISPR/Cas9-targeted ( Gatm c/c ) mice displayed a normal peripheral immune response and immune cell homeostasis. However, the intestinal epithelium of the Gatm c/c mice displayed increased cell death and decreased proliferation during DSS treatment. In addition, Gatm c/c colonocytes showed increased metabolic stress in response to DSS with higher levels of phospho-AMPK and lower levels of phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (phospho-mTOR). These findings establish an in vivo requirement for rapid replenishment of cytoplasmic ATP within colonic epithelial cells in the maintenance of the mucosal barrier after injury.
Donnelly, John; Kaaihue, Maarit
Medical practices that take full advantage of today's online consumer-driven culture will leave other practices in their wake. With today's modern consumers looking to the Internet more and more for finding medical solutions for their family, it is imperative that your practice uses all of the tools available for creating and maintaining its online presence. We all know that having a functional Web site these days is a necessity for practically any business in any industry; however, taking your online presence further by using a few techniques can set up your practice for great success. Your online marketing should help your practice with managing patient relationships at all levels. To best reach this goal, continually analyzing data and updating your online marketing approach will help further drive leads and conversions. Using a few search engine optimization techniques as well as optimal design and marketing methods will allow you to more easily find prospective patients, build trust and credibility with your current patients, and manage your reputation.
Fernanda de Paula Rossini
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to evaluate the use of peripheral venous catheters based on microbiological analysis of devices (dressing and three-way stopcocks and thus contribute to the prevention and infection control. Methods: this was a prospective study of microbiological analysis of 30 three-way stopcocks (external surfaces and lumens and 30 dressing used in maintaining the peripheral venous catheters of hospitalized adult patients. Results: all external surfaces, 40% of lumens, and 86.7% of dressing presented bacterial growth. The main species isolated in the lumen were 50% coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, 14.3% Staphylococcus aureus, and 14.3% Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Fifty nine percent of multidrug-resistant bacteria were isolated of the three-way stopcocks, 42% of the lumens, and 44% of the dressing with a predominance of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus resistant to methicillin. Besides, 18% gram-negative bacteria with resistance to carbapenems were identified from multidrug-resistant bacteria on the external surfaces of the three-way stopcocks. Conclusion: it is important to emphasize the isolation of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and gram-negative bacteria resistant to methicillin and carbapenems in samples of devices, respectively, which reinforces the importance of nursing care in the maintenance of the biologically safe environment as well as prevention and infection control practices.
Machuzak, J. S.; Gentile, L. C.; Burke, W. J.; Holeman, E. G.; Ober, D. M.; Wilson, G. R.
The first Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) spacecraft was launched in 1972; the last is scheduled to fly in 2020. Presently, there is no replacement for the space-weather monitoring sensors that now fly on DMSP. The present suite has provided comprehensive, long-term records that constitute a critical component of the US space weather corporate memory. Evolving operational needs and research accomplishments justify continued collection of space environmental data. Examples include measurements to: (1) Monitor the Dst index in real time as a driver of next-generation satellite drag models; (2) Quantify electromagnetic energy fluxes from deep space to the ionosphere/ thermosphere that heat neutrals, drive disturbance-dynamo winds and degrade precise orbit determinations; (3) Determine strengths of stormtime electric fields at high and low latitudes that lead to severe blackouts and spacecraft anomalies; (4) Specify variability of plasma density irregularities, equatorial plasma bubbles, and the Appleton anomaly to improve reliability of communication, navigation and surveillance links; (5) Characterize energetic particle fluxes responsible for auroral clutter and radar degradation; (6) Map regions of L-Band scintillation for robust GPS applications; and (7) Update the World Magnetic Field Model needed to maintain guidance system superiority. These examples illustrate the utility of continued space environment awareness. Comprehensive assessments of both operational requirements and research advances are needed to make informed selections of sensors and spacecraft that support future capabilities. A proposed sensor set and satellite constellation to provide the needed measurement capabilities will be presented.
Davies, K W; Svejcar, T J; Bates, J D
Historical disturbance regimes are often considered a critical element in maintaining native plant communities. However, the response of plant communities to disturbance may be fundamentally altered as a consequence of invasive plants, climate change, or prior disturbances. The appropriateness of historical disturbance patterns under modern conditions and the interactions among disturbances are issues that ecologists must address to protect and restore native plant communities. We evaluated the response of Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis (Beetle & A. Young) S.L. Welsh plant communities to their historical disturbance regime compared to other disturbance regimes. The historical disturbance regime of these plant communities was periodic fires with minimal grazing by large herbivores. We also investigated the influence of prior disturbance (grazing) on the response of these communities to subsequent disturbance (burning). Treatments were: (1) ungrazed (livestock grazing excluded since 1936) and unburned, (2) grazed and unburned, (3) ungrazed and burned (burned in 1993), and (4) grazed and burned. The ungrazed-burned treatment emulated the historical disturbance regime. Vegetation cover, density, and biomass production were measured the 12th, 13th, and 14th year post-burning. Prior to burning the presence of Bromus tectorum L., an exotic annual grass, was minimal (resilience to more severe disturbances. Modern deviations from historical conditions can alter ecosystem response to disturbances, thus restoring the historical disturbance regime may not be an appropriate strategy for all ecosystems.
Jessica L. Yorzinski
Full Text Available Predation is a major source of natural selection on primates and may have shaped attentional processes that allow primates to rapidly detect dangerous animals. Because ancestral humans were subjected to predation, a process that continues at very low frequencies, we examined the visual processes by which men and women detect dangerous animals (snakes and lions. We recorded the eye movements of participants as they detected images of a dangerous animal (target among arrays of nondangerous animals (distractors as well as detected images of a nondangerous animal (target among arrays of dangerous animals (distractors. We found that participants were quicker to locate targets when the targets were dangerous animals compared with nondangerous animals, even when spatial frequency and luminance were controlled. The participants were slower to locate nondangerous targets because they spent more time looking at dangerous distractors, a process known as delayed disengagement, and looked at a larger number of dangerous distractors. These results indicate that dangerous animals capture and maintain attention in humans, suggesting that historical predation has shaped some facets of visual orienting and its underlying neural architecture in modern humans.
Yorzinski, Jessica L; Penkunas, Michael J; Platt, Michael L; Coss, Richard G
Predation is a major source of natural selection on primates and may have shaped attentional processes that allow primates to rapidly detect dangerous animals. Because ancestral humans were subjected to predation, a process that continues at very low frequencies, we examined the visual processes by which men and women detect dangerous animals (snakes and lions). We recorded the eye movements of participants as they detected images of a dangerous animal (target) among arrays of nondangerous animals (distractors) as well as detected images of a nondangerous animal (target) among arrays of dangerous animals (distractors). We found that participants were quicker to locate targets when the targets were dangerous animals compared with nondangerous animals, even when spatial frequency and luminance were controlled. The participants were slower to locate nondangerous targets because they spent more time looking at dangerous distractors, a process known as delayed disengagement, and looked at a larger number of dangerous distractors. These results indicate that dangerous animals capture and maintain attention in humans, suggesting that historical predation has shaped some facets of visual orienting and its underlying neural architecture in modern humans.
Gold, Brian T; Kim, Chobok; Johnson, Nathan F; Kryscio, Richard J; Smith, Charles D
Recent behavioral data have shown that lifelong bilingualism can maintain youthful cognitive control abilities in aging. Here, we provide the first direct evidence of a neural basis for the bilingual cognitive control boost in aging. Two experiments were conducted, using a perceptual task-switching paradigm, including a total of 110 participants. In Experiment 1, older adult bilinguals showed better perceptual switching performance than their monolingual peers. In Experiment 2, younger and older adult monolinguals and bilinguals completed the same perceptual task-switching experiment while functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed. Typical age-related performance reductions and fMRI activation increases were observed. However, like younger adults, bilingual older adults outperformed their monolingual peers while displaying decreased activation in left lateral frontal cortex and cingulate cortex. Critically, this attenuation of age-related over-recruitment associated with bilingualism was directly correlated with better task-switching performance. In addition, the lower blood oxygenation level-dependent response in frontal regions accounted for 82% of the variance in the bilingual task-switching reaction time advantage. These results suggest that lifelong bilingualism offsets age-related declines in the neural efficiency for cognitive control processes.
Full Text Available A good understanding of organizational constraints is vital to facilitate organizational development as the sustainable development of organizations can be constrained by the organization itself. In this study, bibliometric methods were adopted to investigate the research status and trends of organizational constraints. The findings showed that there were 1138 articles and reviews, and 52 high-frequency keywords related to organizational constraints during the period 1980–2016. The research cores were “constraints”, “learning”, “institution”, and “behavior” in the co-occurrence network, and “constraints” played the most significant role. The 52 high-frequency keywords were classified into six clusters: “change and decision-making”, “supply chain and sustainability”, “human system and performance”, “culture and relations”, “entrepreneur and resource”, and “learning and innovation”. Furthermore, the indicators of organizational development (e.g., innovation, supply chain, decision-making, performance, sustainability, and employee behavior were found to be significantly related to the organizational constraints. Based on these findings, future trends were proposed to maintain the sustainability of organizations. This study investigated the state of the art in terms of organizational constraints and provided valuable references for maintaining the sustainable development of organizations.
Hor, Esther Sl; Subramaniam, Sivasangari; Koay, Jun Min; Bharathy, Arokiamary; Vasudevan, Umadevi; Panickulam, Joseph J; Ng, InnTiong; Arif, Nor Hayati; Russell, Vincent
To evaluate the monitoring of metabolic parameters among outpatients maintained on antipsychotic medications in a general hospital setting in Malaysia and to assess the impact of a local monitoring protocol. By performing a baseline audit of files from a random sample of 300 patients prescribed antipsychotic medications for at least 1 year; we determined the frequency of metabolic monitoring. The findings informed the design of a new local protocol, on which clinical staff was briefed. We re-evaluated metabolic monitoring immediately after implementation, in a small sample of new referrals and current patients. We explored staff perceptions of the initiative with a follow-up focus group, 6 months post-implementation. The baseline audit revealed a sub-optimal frequency of metabolic parameter recording. Re-audit, following implementation of the new protocol, revealed improved monitoring but persisting deficits. Dialogue with the clinical staff led to further protocol modification, clearer definition of staff roles and use of a standard recording template. Focus group findings revealed positive perceptions of the initiative, but persisting implementation barriers, including cultural issues surrounding waist circumference measurement. Responding to challenges in achieving improved routine metabolic monitoring of patients maintained on antipsychotics required on-going dialogue with the clinical staff, in order to address both service pressures and cultural concerns. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.
Voorhies, Alexander A.; Lorenzi, Hernan A.
Astronauts will face a host of challenges on long-duration space missions like a human expedition to Mars, including the difficulty of maintaining a balanced and healthy microbiome. The human microbiome is the collection of all microorganisms residing in and on a human host, and it plays an essential role in keeping humans healthy. However, imbalances in the microbiome have also been linked to many human diseases. Space travel has been shown to alter the microbiome of astronauts in ways that are not yet completely understood. Here we review past and current microbiology and microbiome research with the aim of determining the extent of change to the human microbiome caused by space travel and implications for astronaut health. We also address several challenges that will need to be overcome in order to facilitate long-duration human exploration missions. These challenges include maintaining environmental conditions that favor healthy microbiomes, controlling the microbial organisms astronauts are exposed to, the impact of galactic cosmic radiation on the microbiome, and medical interventions that can potentially damage the microbiome.
Cao, Jia; Meng, Shumei; Ma, Anlin; Radovick, Sally; Wondisford, Fredric E.
Because hepatic glycogenolysis maintains euglycemia during early fasting, proper hepatic glycogen synthesis in the fed/postprandial states is critical. It has been known for decades that gluconeogenesis is essential for hepatic glycogen synthesis; however, the molecular mechanism remains unknown. In this report, we show that depletion of hepatic p300 reduces glycogen synthesis, decreases hepatic glycogen storage, and leads to relative hypoglycemia. We previously reported that insulin suppressed gluconeogenesis by phosphorylating cAMP response element binding protein-binding protein (CBP) at S436 and disassembling the cAMP response element-binding protein-CBP complex. However, p300, which is closely related to CBP, lacks the corresponding S436 phosphorylation site found on CBP. In a phosphorylation-competent p300G422S knock-in mouse model, we found that mutant mice exhibited reduced hepatic glycogen content and produced significantly less glycogen in a tracer incorporation assay in the postprandial state. Our study demonstrates the important and unique role of p300 in glycogen synthesis through maintaining basal gluconeogenesis. PMID:23770612
Kim, Hyunbae; Zheng, Ze; Walker, Paul D; Kapatos, Gregory; Zhang, Kezhong
Cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein, hepatocyte specific (CREBH), is a liver-enriched, endoplasmic reticulum-tethered transcription factor known to regulate the hepatic acute-phase response and lipid homeostasis. In this study, we demonstrate that CREBH functions as a circadian transcriptional regulator that plays major roles in maintaining glucose homeostasis. The proteolytic cleavage and posttranslational acetylation modification of CREBH are regulated by the circadian clock. Functionally, CREBH is required in order to maintain circadian homeostasis of hepatic glycogen storage and blood glucose levels. CREBH regulates the rhythmic expression of the genes encoding the rate-limiting enzymes for glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis, including liver glycogen phosphorylase (PYGL), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 (PCK1), and the glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit (G6PC). CREBH interacts with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) to synergize its transcriptional activities in hepatic gluconeogenesis. The acetylation of CREBH at lysine residue 294 controls CREBH-PPARα interaction and synergy in regulating hepatic glucose metabolism in mice. CREBH deficiency leads to reduced blood glucose levels but increases hepatic glycogen levels during the daytime or upon fasting. In summary, our studies revealed that CREBH functions as a key metabolic regulator that controls glucose homeostasis across the circadian cycle or under metabolic stress. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.
Alexander Arnot Voorhies
Full Text Available Astronauts will face a host of challenges on long-duration space missions like a human expedition to Mars, including the difficulty of maintaining a balanced and healthy microbiome. The human microbiome is the collection of all microorganisms residing in and on a human host, and it plays an essential role in keeping humans healthy. However, imbalances in the microbiome have also been linked to many human diseases. Space travel has been shown to alter the microbiome of astronauts in ways that are not yet completely understood. Here we review past and current microbiology and microbiome research with the aim of determining the extent of change to the human microbiome caused by space travel and implications for astronaut health. We also address several challenges that will need to be overcome in order to facilitate long-duration human exploration missions. These challenges include maintaining environmental conditions that favor healthy microbiomes, controlling the microbial organisms astronauts are exposed to, the impact of galactic cosmic radiation on the microbiome, and medical interventions that can potentially damage the microbiome.
Bak, Lasse K; Schousboe, Arne; Sonnewald, Ursula
Glucose is the primary energy substrate for the adult mammalian brain. However, lactate produced within the brain might be able to serve this purpose in neurons. In the present study, the relative significance of glucose and lactate as substrates to maintain neurotransmitter homeostasis was inves......Glucose is the primary energy substrate for the adult mammalian brain. However, lactate produced within the brain might be able to serve this purpose in neurons. In the present study, the relative significance of glucose and lactate as substrates to maintain neurotransmitter homeostasis...... was investigated. Cultured cerebellar (primarily glutamatergic) neurons were superfused in medium containing [U-13C]glucose (2.5 mmol/L) and lactate (1 or 5 mmol/L) or glucose (2.5 mmol/L) and [U-13C]lactate (1 mmol/L), and exposed to pulses of N-methyl-D-aspartate (300 micromol/L), leading to synaptic activity...... significantly during induced depolarization. In contrast, at both concentrations of extracellular lactate, the metabolism of [U-13C]glucose was increased during neuronal depolarization. The role of glucose and lactate as energy substrates during vesicular release as well as transporter-mediated influx...
Voorhies, Alexander A.; Lorenzi, Hernan A., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Infectious Disease, J. Craig Venter Institute, Rockville, MD (United States)
Astronauts will face a host of challenges on long-duration space missions like a human expedition to Mars, including the difficulty of maintaining a balanced and healthy microbiome. The human microbiome is the collection of all microorganisms residing in and on a human host, and it plays an essential role in keeping humans healthy. However, imbalances in the microbiome have also been linked to many human diseases. Space travel has been shown to alter the microbiome of astronauts in ways that are not yet completely understood. Here we review past and current microbiology and microbiome research with the aim of determining the extent of change to the human microbiome caused by space travel and implications for astronaut health. We also address several challenges that will need to be overcome in order to facilitate long-duration human exploration missions. These challenges include maintaining environmental conditions that favor healthy microbiomes, controlling the microbial organisms astronauts are exposed to, the impact of galactic cosmic radiation on the microbiome, and medical interventions that can potentially damage the microbiome.
Chou, En-Ju; Hung, Liang-Yi; Tang, Chieh-Ju C; Hsu, Wen-Bin; Wu, Hsin-Yi; Liao, Pao-Chi; Tang, Tang K
CPAP is required for centriole elongation during S/G2 phase, but the role of CPAP in mitosis is incompletely understood. Here, we show that CPAP maintains spindle pole integrity through its phosphorylation by Aurora-A during mitosis. Depletion of CPAP induced a prolonged delay in mitosis, pericentriolar material (PCM) dispersion, and multiple mitotic abnormalities. Further studies demonstrated that CPAP directly interacts with and is phosphorylated by Aurora-A at serine 467 during mitosis. Interestingly, the dispersal of the PCM was effectively rescued by ectopic expression of wild-type CPAP or a phospho-mimic CPAP-S467D mutant, but not a non-phosphorylated CPAP-S467A mutant. Finally, we found that CPAP-S467D has a low affinity for microtubule binding but a high affinity for PCM proteins. Together, our results support a model wherein CPAP is required for proper mitotic progression, and phosphorylation of CPAP by Aurora-A is essential for maintaining spindle pole integrity. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kärkkäinen, Ulla; Mustelin, Linda; Raevuori, Anu; Kaprio, Jaakko; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna
To assess factors associated with successful weight maintenance over ten years in a prospective general population sample of young adults. Our study comprised 2452 women and 2227 men born in 1975-1979 (mean age at baseline 24 years, attrition 27.1%). Weight maintenance was defined as weight maintained within ±5% of baseline body mass index (BMI). We examined the role of various sociodemographic and lifestyle factors in successful weight maintenance. Relatively few young adults were able to maintain their weight over ten years (28.6% of women vs. 23.0% of men); net weight loss was uncommon (7.5% and 3.8%). Most participants gained weight (mean annual weight gain was 0.9 kg in women and 1.0 kg in men). Among women, exercise was associated with successful weight maintenance, but having two or more children, frequent use of sweet drinks, irregular eating, history of dieting (intentional weight loss) and low life satisfaction were associated with weight gain. Among men, higher baseline BMI and higher education were associated with successful weight maintenance, whereas irregular eating, history of dieting and smoking were associated with weight gain. Only about a quarter of young adults were able to resist weight gain. Regular eating and having no history of dieting were associated with successful weight maintenance in young women and men. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Auger, Catherine J.; Coss, Dylan; Auger, Anthony P.; Forbes-Lorman, Robin M.
Although some DNA methylation patterns are altered by steroid hormone exposure in the developing brain, less is known about how changes in steroid hormone levels influence DNA methylation patterns in the adult brain. Steroid hormones act in the adult brain to regulate gene expression. Specifically, the expression of the socially relevant peptide vasopressin (AVP) within the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) of adult brain is dependent upon testosterone exposure. Castration dramatically reduces and testosterone replacement restores AVP expression within the BST. As decreases in mRNA expression are associated with increases in DNA promoter methylation, we explored the hypothesis that AVP expression in the adult brain is maintained through sustained epigenetic modifications of the AVP gene promoter. We find that castration of adult male rats resulted in decreased AVP mRNA expression and increased methylation of specific CpG sites within the AVP promoter in the BST. Similarly, castration significantly increased estrogen receptor α (ERα) mRNA expression and decreased ERα promoter methylation within the BST. These changes were prevented by testosterone replacement. This suggests that the DNA promoter methylation status of some steroid responsive genes in the adult brain is actively maintained by the presence of circulating steroid hormones. The maintenance of methylated or demethylated states of some genes in the adult brain by the presence of steroid hormones may play a role in the homeostatic regulation of behaviorally relevant systems. PMID:21368111
Full Text Available CPAP is required for centriole elongation during S/G2 phase, but the role of CPAP in mitosis is incompletely understood. Here, we show that CPAP maintains spindle pole integrity through its phosphorylation by Aurora-A during mitosis. Depletion of CPAP induced a prolonged delay in mitosis, pericentriolar material (PCM dispersion, and multiple mitotic abnormalities. Further studies demonstrated that CPAP directly interacts with and is phosphorylated by Aurora-A at serine 467 during mitosis. Interestingly, the dispersal of the PCM was effectively rescued by ectopic expression of wild-type CPAP or a phospho-mimic CPAP-S467D mutant, but not a non-phosphorylated CPAP-S467A mutant. Finally, we found that CPAP-S467D has a low affinity for microtubule binding but a high affinity for PCM proteins. Together, our results support a model wherein CPAP is required for proper mitotic progression, and phosphorylation of CPAP by Aurora-A is essential for maintaining spindle pole integrity.
There are many external influences in today's market force that impair the relationship between the pain medicine specialist and the patient, and ultimately prevent optimal quality of care. This article explores the ethical challenges facing the pain medicine specialist in today's increasingly "business" environment and will offer solutions for maintaining the professionalism of pain medicine. Four commonly encountered bioethical principles in the practice of pain medicine are reviewed: beneficence, nonmaleficence, justice, and autonomy. The following ethical challenges of the pain medicine specialist are reviewed: practicing outside ones specialty area, practice characteristics, the consultant role, the economic lure of aggressive intervention, not evaluating for and treating comorbid psychopathology, reimbursement pressures, workers' compensation, and use of unproven methods. Solutions offered include collegial associations, social responsibility, legislative initiatives, pain education, interdisciplinary evaluation and treatment, improved relationships with third-party payers, reduced racial disparities, and ethics education. Ethics is the "roadmap" that enables the pain medicine specialist to navigate the increasingly murky waters of practicing pain management today by maintaining the professionalism necessary to combat today's "business" pressures. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Cardoso, Silvio Domingos; Chantal, Reynaud-Delaître; Da Silveira, Marcos; Pruski, Cédric
Knowledge Organization Systems (KOS) play a key role in enriching biomedical information in order to make it machine-understandable and shareable. This is done by annotating medical documents, or more specifically, associating concept labels from KOS with pieces of digital information, e.g., images or texts. However, the dynamic nature of KOS may impact the annotations, thus creating a mismatch between the evolved concept and the associated information. To solve this problem, methods to maintain the quality of the annotations are required. In this paper, we define a framework based on rules, background knowledge and change patterns to drive the annotation adaption process. We evaluate experimentally the proposed approach in realistic cases-studies and demonstrate the overall performance of our approach in different KOS considering the precision, recall, F1-score and AUC value of the system.
De Dreu, Carsten K W; Nijstad, Bernard A; Baas, Matthijs; Wolsink, Inge; Roskes, Marieke
Anecdotes from creative eminences suggest that executive control plays an important role in creativity, but scientific evidence is sparse. Invoking the Dual Pathway to Creativity Model, the authors hypothesize that working memory capacity (WMC) relates to creative performance because it enables persistent, focused, and systematic combining of elements and possibilities (persistence). Study 1 indeed showed that under cognitive load, participants performed worse on a creative insight task. Study 2 revealed positive associations between time-on-task and creativity among individuals high but not low in WMC, even after controlling for general intelligence. Study 3 revealed that across trials, semiprofessional cellists performed increasingly more creative improvisations when they had high rather than low WMC. Study 4 showed that WMC predicts original ideation because it allows persistent (rather than flexible) processing. The authors conclude that WMC benefits creativity because it enables the individual to maintain attention focused on the task and prevents undesirable mind wandering.
A principal goal of computerisation of medical records is to join up care services for patients, so that their records can follow them wherever they go and thereby reduce delays, duplications, risks and errors, and costs. Healthcare records are increasingly being stored electronically, which has created the necessary conditions for them to be readily sharable. However simply driving the implementation of electronic medical records is not sufficient, as recent developments have demonstrated (1): there remain significant obstacles. The three main obstacles relate to (a) record accessibility (knowing where event records are and being able to access them), (b) maintaining privacy (ensuring that only those authorised by the patient can access and extract meaning from the records) and (c) assuring the functionality of the shared information (ensuring that the records can be shared non-proprietorially across platforms without loss of meaning, and that their authenticity and trustworthiness are demonstrable). These constitute a set of issues that need new thinking, since existing systems are struggling to deliver them. The solution to this puzzle lies in three main parts. Clearly there is only one environment suited to such widespread sharing, which is the World Wide Web, so this is the communications basis. Part one requires that a sharable synoptic record is created for each care event and stored in standard web-format and in readily accessible locations, on 'the web' or in 'the cloud'. To maintain privacy these publicly-accessible records must be suitably protected either stripped of identifiers (names, addresses, dates, places etc.) and/or encrypted: either way the record must be tagged with a tag that means nothing to anyone, but serves to identify and authenticate a specific record when retrieved. For ease of retrieval patients must hold an index of care events, records and web locations (plus any associated information for each such as encryption keys, context etc
Maram S. Jaradat
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of academic advising on changing or maintaining majors in university degrees. It is also a goal of the study to determine which semester students change their majors and whether advising contributes to that change. Through this correlational study, the researchers explored students’ perceptions about the academic advising they received and the relationship of its absence on students’ major change. The participants were 1725 undergraduate students from all year levels. The survey used to collect the data for this study is: the Influences on Choice of Major survey. Based on the findings, it was found that university advisors have a very poor effect on students’ decisions to select their majors as 45.6% of the 1725 participants indicated no influence of advising in their survey answers. Whereas career advancement opportunities, students’ interests, and job opportunities indicate a strong effect on their majors’ selections, as they score the highest means of 3.76, 3.73, and 3.64, respectively. In addition, findings show that students are most likely changing their majors in their second year, and specifically in the second semester. Second year major change scored 36.9% in the second semester and 30.9% in the first semester. More importantly, results indicate that there is a positive significant correlation between college advisors and major change in the second year (p = 0.000. It is to researchers’ understanding based on the findings that when students receive enough academic advising in the first year of study, and this advising continues steadily into the next year, the probability of students changing their majors decreases greatly.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determinate whether a surgical protocol with immediate extensive debridement, closed irrigation system and antibiotic therapy would be effective to achieve healing of deep wound infection without removing the instrumentation.METHODS: Prospective cohort study with 19 patients presenting degenerative spinal stenosis or degenerative spondylolisthesis, who developed infection after posterior lumbar arthrodesis. The diagnosis was confirmed by a microbial culture from subfascial lumbar fluid and/or blood. Patients were treated with a protocol of wound exploration, extensive flushing and debridement, placement of a closed irrigation system that was maintained for five days and intravenous antibiotics. The instrumentation system was not removed.RESULTS: Mean age was 59.31 (±13.17 years old and most patients were female (94.7%; 18/19. The mean period for the identification of the infection was 2 weeks and 57.9% underwent a single wound exploration. White blood count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein showed a significant decrease post-treatment when compared to pre-treatment values. A significant reduction of erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein was also observed at the final evaluation. No laboratory test was useful to predict the need for more than one debridement.CONCLUSION: Patients with wound infection after instrumentation can be treated without removal of the instrumentation through wound exploration, extensive flushing, debridement of necrotic tissue, closed irrigation system during 5 days and proper antibiotic therapy. The blood tests were not useful to predict surgical re-interventions.
Shao, Zuoyi; Puche, Adam C; Shipley, Michael T
Odor signals are transmitted to the olfactory bulb by olfactory nerve (ON) synapses onto mitral/tufted cells (MTCs) and external tufted cells (ETCs); ETCs provide additional feed-forward excitation to MTCs. Both are strongly regulated by intraglomerular inhibition that can last up to 1 s and, when blocked, dramatically increases ON-evoked MC spiking. Intraglomerular inhibition thus limits the magnitude and duration of MC spike responses to sensory input. In vivo, sensory input is repetitive, dictated by sniffing rates from 1 to 8 Hz, potentially summing intraglomerular inhibition. To investigate this, we recorded MTC responses to 1- to 8-Hz ON stimulation in slices. Inhibitory postsynaptic current area (charge) following each ON stimulation was unchanged from 1 to 5 Hz and modestly paired-pulse attenuated at 8 Hz, suggesting there is no summation and only limited decrement at the highest input frequencies. Next, we investigated frequency independence of intraglomerular inhibition on MC spiking. MCs respond to single ON shocks with an initial spike burst followed by reduced spiking decaying to baseline. Upon repetitive ON stimulation peak spiking is identical across input frequencies but the ratio of peak-to-minimum rate before the stimulus (max-min) diminishes from 30:1 at 1 Hz to 15:1 at 8 Hz. When intraglomerular inhibition is selectively blocked, peak spike rate is unchanged but trough spiking increases markedly decreasing max-min firing ratios from 30:1 at 1 Hz to 2:1 at 8 Hz. Together, these results suggest intraglomerular inhibition is relatively frequency independent and can "sharpen" MC responses to input across the range of frequencies. This suggests that glomerular circuits can maintain "contrast" in MC encoding during sniff-sampled inputs.
Full Text Available The advent of social media has shaken the very foundations of how we share information, with Twitter, Facebook, and Linkedin among many well-known social networking platforms that facilitate information generation and distribution. However, the maximum 140-character restriction in Twitter encourages users to (sometimes deliberately write somewhat informally in most cases. As a result, machine translation (MT of user-generated content (UGC becomes much more difficult for such noisy texts. In addition to translation quality being affected, this phenomenon may also negatively impact sentiment preservation in the translation process. That is, a sentence with positive sentiment in the source language may be translated into a sentence with negative or neutral sentiment in the target language. In this paper, we analyse both sentiment preservation and MT quality per se in the context of UGC, focusing especially on whether sentiment classification helps improve sentiment preservation in MT of UGC. We build four different experimental setups for tweet translation (i using a single MT model trained on the whole Twitter parallel corpus, (ii using multiple MT models based on sentiment classification, (iii using MT models including additional out-of-domain data, and (iv adding MT models based on the phrase-table fill-up method to accompany the sentiment translation models with an aim of improving MT quality and at the same time maintaining sentiment polarity preservation. Our empirical evaluation shows that despite a slight deterioration in MT quality, our system significantly outperforms the Baseline MT system (without using sentiment classification in terms of sentiment preservation. We also demonstrate that using an MT engine that conveys a sentiment different from that of the UGC can even worsen both the translation quality and sentiment preservation.
Jung, Yeon Sub
CPS(Computerized Procedure System) has been introduced in advanced nuclear power plant worldwide. Korean CPS complies with this trend. It has been applied to Shinkori3,4 and all their successors including BNPP1,2,3,4. CPS is designed by KHNP CRI, and developed by Westinghouse or Doosan. Initial design has been improved by reflecting operator experience, human factor V and V, and advanced engineering method. Design improvement makes CPS differ from plant to plant. For example CPS in Shinhanul cannot interpret CP(Computerized Procedure) of ShinKori3, 4. Different CPS makes it difficult to utilize CP and train operators. Therefore it is important to keep CPS in single version. Note that typical text editors in the office are kept in single version. On the other hand, plant monitoring systems in main control room are actually different. Because CPS is positioned between text editor and monitoring system, goal to maintain CPS in single version is not an easy task. From Shinkori3,4, lots of improvements are achieved in CPS. This improvement surely makes operation easy and will not introduce human errors. Side effect of improvement is that PXS and CPS ES may not be compatible among nuclear power plants. So the side effect should be avoided by minimizing change of XML. Initial XML had been developed for Shinkori3,4. The XML has been modified slightly for Shinhanul1,2. PXS and CPS ES are being developed for the same version for all nuclear power plants of APR1400
Carsten, A.L.; Commerford, S.L.; Cronkite, E.P.; Brooks, A.
Somatic and genetic effects of the continuous ingestion of tritiated water (HTO) at concentrations of 0.3, 1.0 and 3.0 μCi/ml were investigated in mice of the Hale-Stoner-Brookhaven strain. At these levels, there was no measurable somatic effect. Although genetic effects as measured by dominant lethal mutation (DLM) assay indicated a significant effect (P>0.01) on the number of viable embryos and early deaths in the 3.0 μCi/ml HTO group and on the number of viable embryos in the 1.0 μCi/ml HTO group, no genetic effects were significantly noted in the 0.3 μCi/ml HTO group. Liver cytogenetic studies showed a significant increase in the number of abnormal cells in the 3.0 μCi/ml HTO group. A reduction in bone marrow stem cells, without an attendant reduction in total marrow cellularity, was noted in the 3.0 and 1.0 μCi/ml HTO groups. There was no significant difference in any of the DLM parameters between animals maintained on 3.0 μCi/ml of HTO and animals exposed to the equivalent 137 Cs gamma dose (22 hours/day exposure). Consideration of the relative amounts and biological half lives of tritium present in the nucleus as water, DNA and histone suggests that after transient exposure to tritiated water, nearly all significant radiation damage can be attributed to tritium present in the nucleus as water. These data suggest that hazards from tritium attendant with normal reactor operation should not at this time be considered as a deterrent to the further development of fission and/or fusion reactor technology. (Namekawa, K.)
For a nuclear power plant operator, it is crucial to guarantee the safe and economic operation of the power plant as well as to look after the general acceptability of nuclear power. As to human resources management, this requires continuous maintenance and enhancement of the performance of the individuals and organisation. To this end, several development projects have recently been implemented by Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) at the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant, which consists of twin 840 MWe BWR units that commenced their operation in 1978 and 1980. Systematic initial and continuing training programmes are needed to maintain the technical and managerial skills and know-how at a high level. The present stabile state of nuclear power, i.e. operation of ageing plants with personnel ageing as well, requires a variety of actions to reinforce the training efforts. At Olkiluoto NPP, we have carried out an extensive modernization programme that allowed the personnel to strengthen their knowledge and supplement it with the most recent results of development. We have also closely monitored the NPP development projects of the vendors, which has added to the preservation of know-how and understanding of advanced nuclear power technology. We have close contacts to the research institutes and universities, and have performed R and D activities to limited extent. In addition to the projects mentioned above, a co-ordinated development programme, 'TVO 2002', was initiated last year. The main objective of this programme is to ensure the functional preconditions and the competitiveness of the company in a changing environment. The management and operational procedures will be developed in such a way that the goals set for year 2002 will be achieved. The programme is organised as ten projects, which cover a variety of development subjects. One of the focal areas includes projects that can be characterised with the words 'Survey of competencies' and 'Preservation of know
Safie, Fayssal M.
The United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is in the midst of an effort to design and build a safe and affordable heavy lift vehicle to go to the moon and beyond. To achieve that, NASA is seeking more innovative and efficient approaches to reduce cost while maintaining an acceptable level of safety and mission success. One area that has the potential to contribute significantly to achieving NASA safety and affordability goals is Reliability and Maintainability (R&M) engineering. Inadequate reliability or failure of critical safety items may directly jeopardize the safety of the user(s) and result in a loss of life. Inadequate reliability of equipment may directly jeopardize mission success. Systems designed to be more reliable (fewer failures) and maintainable (fewer resources needed) can lower the total life cycle cost. The Department of Defense (DOD) and industry experience has shown that optimized and adequate levels of R&M are critical for achieving a high level of safety and mission success, and low sustainment cost. Also, lessons learned from the Space Shuttle program clearly demonstrated the importance of R&M engineering in designing and operating safe and affordable launch systems. The Challenger and Columbia accidents are examples of the severe impact of design unreliability and process induced failures on system safety and mission success. These accidents demonstrated the criticality of reliability engineering in understanding component failure mechanisms and integrated system failures across the system elements interfaces. Experience from the shuttle program also shows that insufficient Reliability, Maintainability, and Supportability (RMS) engineering analyses upfront in the design phase can significantly increase the sustainment cost and, thereby, the total life cycle cost. Emphasis on RMS during the design phase is critical for identifying the design features and characteristics needed for time efficient processing
Mareninova, Olga A; Sendler, Matthias; Malla, Sudarshan Ravi; Yakubov, Iskandar; French, Samuel W; Tokhtaeva, Elmira; Vagin, Olga; Oorschot, Viola; Lüllmann-Rauch, Renate; Blanz, Judith; Dawson, David; Klumperman, Judith; Lerch, Markus M; Mayerle, Julia; Gukovsky, Ilya; Gukovskaya, Anna S
The pathogenic mechanism of pancreatitis is poorly understood. Recent evidence implicates defective autophagy in pancreatitis responses; however, the pathways mediating impaired autophagy in pancreas remain largely unknown. Here, we investigate the role of lysosome associated membrane proteins (LAMPs) in pancreatitis. We analyzed changes in LAMPs in experimental models and human pancreatitis, and the underlying mechanisms: LAMP de-glycosylation and degradation. LAMP cleavage by cathepsin B (CatB) was analyzed by mass spectrometry. We used mice deficient in LAMP-2 to assess its role in pancreatitis. Pancreatic levels of LAMP-1 and LAMP-2 greatly decrease across various pancreatitis models and in human disease. Pancreatitis does not trigger LAMPs' bulk de-glycosylation, but induces their degradation via CatB-mediated cleavage of LAMP molecule close to the boundary between luminal and transmembrane domains. LAMP-2 null mice spontaneously develop pancreatitis that begins with acinar cell vacuolization due to impaired autophagic flux, and progresses to severe pancreas damage characterized by trypsinogen activation, macrophage-driven inflammation, and acinar cell death. LAMP-2 deficiency causes a decrease in pancreatic digestive enzymes content, stimulates the basal and inhibits CCK-induced amylase secretion by acinar cells. The effects of LAMP-2 knockout and acute cerulein pancreatitis overlap, which corroborates the pathogenic role of LAMP decrease in experimental pancreatitis models. The results indicate a critical role for LAMPs, particularly LAMP-2, in maintaining pancreatic acinar cell homeostasis, and provide evidence that defective lysosomal function, resulting in impaired autophagy, leads to pancreatitis. Mice with LAMP-2 deficiency present a novel genetic model of human pancreatitis caused by lysosomal/autophagic dysfunction.
Full Text Available Abstract Background A baby hatch called the “Stork’s Cradle” has been in place at Jikei Hospital in Kumamoto City, Japan, since May 10, 2007. Babyklappes were first established in Germany in 2000, and there are currently more than 90 locations. Attitudes regarding baby hatches are divided in Japan and neither opinions for nor against baby hatches have thus far been overwhelming. To consider the appropriateness of baby hatches, we present and examine the validity of each major objection to establishing baby hatches. Discussion There are various objections to baby hatches as follows: It violates a child’s right to know the identity of his or her biological parents by allowing anonymous birth; it neglects fulfillment of the biological parents’ basic obligation to raise their child and its very availability induces abandonment of infants; some people abuse it for very selfish reasons; it cannot save babies’ lives; the rights of one parent can be ignored if the other surrenders a child without his or her consent; it puts a baby in medical jeopardy; and it has no clear legal basis. The authors would argue that there are many plausible refutations for each objection mainly based on priority of child’s right to life, pregnant women’s vulnerability and necessity of anonymity, social responsibility to protect and raise children, differences between dropping a child off at a baby hatch and child neglect, limited function of social childcare center, inevitability of abuse by a minority of people, necessary distinction between outcomes that occur only because baby hatches exist and those that occur regardless of their existence, important local direct and upmost measures for women in trouble, and difference between ambiguous legality and illegality. Summary We argue that a certain number of baby hatches should continue to be established as a last resort, in a form that can maintain anonymity if the parent dropping the child off so desires. It
Kashlan, Osama N; Wilson, Thomas J; Chaudhary, Neeraj; Gemmete, Joseph J; Stetler, William R; Dunnick, N Reed; Thompson, B Gregory; Pandey, Aditya S
extrapolation over a 1-year period, the 3 policy changes decreased costs by an estimated $323,561.34. Simple cost-saving policies can lead to substantial reductions in costs of neurointerventional procedures while maintaining high levels of quality and growth of services.
Cox, S. J. D.; Yu, J.
Shared vocabularies are an important aid to geoscience data interoperability. Many organizations maintain useful vocabularies, with Geologic Surveys having a particularly long history of vocabulary and lexicon development. However, the mode of publication is heterogeneous, ranging from PDFs and HTML web pages, spreadsheets and CSV, through various user-interfaces and APIs. Update and maintenance ranges from tightly-governed and externally opaque, through various community processes, all the way to crowd-sourcing ('folksonomies'). A general expectation, however, is for greater harmonization and vocabulary re-use. In order to be successful this requires (a) standardized content formalization and APIs (b) transparent content maintenance and versioning. We have been trialling a combination of software dealing with registration, search and linking. SKOS is designed for formalizing multi-lingual, hierarchical vocabularies, and has been widely adopted in earth and environmental sciences. SKOS is an RDF vocabulary, for which SPARQL is the standard low-level API. However, for interoperability between SKOS vocabulary sources, a SKOS-based API (i.e. based on the SKOS predicates prefLabel, broader, narrower, etc) is required. We have developed SISSvoc for this purpose, and used it to deploy a number of vocabularies on behalf of the IUGS, ICS, NERC, OGC, the Australian Government, and CSIRO projects. SISSvoc Search provides simple search UI on top of one or more SISSvoc sources. Content maintenance is composed of many elements, including content-formalization, definition-update, and mappings to related vocabularies. Typically there is a degree of expert judgement required. In order to provide confidence in users, two requirements are paramount: (i) once published, a URI that denotes a vocabulary item must remain dereferenceable; (ii) the history and status of the content denoted by a URI must be available. These requirements match the standard 'registration' paradigm which is
Constance Qiao Xin Yeo
Full Text Available p53 tumor suppressor maintains genomic stability, typically acting through cell-cycle arrest, senescence, and apoptosis. We discovered a function of p53 in preventing conflicts between transcription and replication, independent of its canonical roles. p53 deficiency sensitizes cells to Topoisomerase (Topo II inhibitors, resulting in DNA damage arising spontaneously during replication. Topoisomerase IIα (TOP2A-DNA complexes preferentially accumulate in isogenic p53 mutant or knockout cells, reflecting an increased recruitment of TOP2A to regulate DNA topology. We propose that p53 acts to prevent DNA topological stress originating from transcription during the S phase and, therefore, promotes normal replication fork progression. Consequently, replication fork progression is impaired in the absence of p53, which is reversed by transcription inhibition. Pharmacologic inhibition of transcription also attenuates DNA damage and decreases Topo-II-DNA complexes, restoring cell viability in p53-deficient cells. Together, our results demonstrate a function of p53 that may underlie its role in tumor suppression.
Full Text Available Microbial pattern molecules in the intestine play immunoregulatory roles via diverse pattern recognition receptors. However, the role of the cytosolic DNA sensor AIM2 in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis is unknown. Here, we show that Aim2−/− mice are highly susceptible to dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis that is associated with microbial dysbiosis as represented by higher colonic burden of commensal Escherichia coli. Colonization of germ-free mice with Aim2−/− mouse microbiota leads to higher colitis susceptibility. In-depth investigation of AIM2-mediated host defense responses reveals that caspase-1 activation and IL-1β and IL-18 production are compromised in Aim2−/− mouse colons, consistent with defective inflammasome function. Moreover, IL-18 infusion reduces E. coli burden as well as colitis susceptibility in Aim2−/− mice. Altered microbiota in inflammasome-defective mice correlate with reduced expression of several antimicrobial peptides in intestinal epithelial cells. Together, these findings implicate DNA sensing by AIM2 as a regulatory mechanism for maintaining intestinal homeostasis.
Lombardi, M.L.; Knecht, D.A.; Lee, J.
The survival of Dictyostelium cells depends on their ability to efficiently chemotax, either towards food or to form multicellular aggregates. Although the involvement of Ca 2+ signaling during chemotaxis is well known, it is not clear how this regulates cell movement. Previously, fish epithelial keratocytes have been shown to display transient increases in intracellular calcium ([Ca 2+ ] i ) that are mediated by stretch-activated calcium channels (SACs), which play a role in retraction of the cell body [J. Lee, A. Ishihara, G. Oxford, B. Johnson, and K. Jacobson, Regulation of cell movement is mediated by stretch-activated calcium channels. Nature, 1999. 400(6742): p. 382-6.]. To investigate the involvement of SACs in Dictyostelium movement we performed high resolution calcium imaging in wild-type (NC4A2) Dictyostelium cells to detect changes in [Ca 2+ ] i . We observed small, brief, Ca 2+ transients in randomly moving wild-type cells that were dependent on both intracellular and extracellular sources of calcium. Treatment of cells with the SAC blocker gadolinium (Gd 3+ ) inhibited transients and decreased cell speed, consistent with the involvement of SACs in regulating Dictyostelium motility. Additional support for SAC activity was given by the increase in frequency of Ca 2+ transients when Dictyostelium cells were moving on a more adhesive substratum or when they were mechanically stretched. We conclude that mechano-chemical signaling via SACs plays a major role in maintaining the rapid movement of Dictyostelium cells
Ríos, M; Foretz, M; Viollet, B; Prieto, A; Fraga, M; García-Caballero, T; Costoya, J A; Señarís, R
Metabolic adaptations are essential during tumour growth to maintain the high proliferation levels exhibited by cancer cells. In this study, we examined the transformations that occurred in the lipid metabolism in astrocytic tumours, and the possible role of the fuel-sensing enzyme AMPK. Metabolic targets might help design new and effective drugs for cancer. To accomplish this objective, we studied both mice and human astrocytic tumours. We first used a mouse model of astrocytoma driven by oncogenic H-RasV12 and/or with PTEN deletion based on the common constitutive activation of the Raf/MEK/ERK and PI3K/AKT cascades in human astrocytomas. We then confirmed the results in human glioblastoma cell lines and in glioblastoma tissue samples from patients. We show that the high levels of activated AMPK, observed in astrocytic tumours, increase extracellular lipid internalisation and reduce energy expenditure by inhibiting 'de novo' fatty acid (FA) synthesis, which allows tumour cells to obtain building blocks and energy to be able to create new organelles and new cells. Our findings demonstrate that AMPK plays a crucial role in glioblastoma cell growth and suggest that blocking lipoprotein receptors could potentially be used as a plausible therapeutic approach for these and other type of tumours with high levels of AMPK. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Maintenance of skeletal muscle mass is regulated by the balance between anabolic and catabolic processes. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR is an evolutionarily conserved serine/threonine kinase, and is known to play vital roles in protein synthesis. Recent findings have continued to refine our understanding of the function of mTOR in maintaining skeletal muscle mass. mTOR controls the anabolic and catabolic signaling of skeletal muscle mass, resulting in the modulation of muscle hypertrophy and muscle wastage. This review will highlight the fundamental role of mTOR in skeletal muscle growth by summarizing the phenotype of skeletal-specific mTOR deficiency. In addition, the evidence that mTOR is a dual regulator of anabolism and catabolism in skeletal muscle mass will be discussed. A full understanding of mTOR signaling in the maintenance of skeletal muscle mass could help to develop mTOR-targeted therapeutics to prevent muscle wasting.
Huo, Yi; Li, Bing-Yi; Lin, Zhi-Feng; Wang, Wei; Jiang, Xiao-Xia; Chen, Xu; Xi, Wen-Jin; Yang, An-Gang; Chen, Si-Yi; Wang, Tao
BACKGROUND Histone H2A deubiquitinase MYSM1 has recently been shown to be essential for hematopoiesis and hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) function in both mice and humans. However, conventional MYSM1 knockouts cause partial embryonic lethality and growth retardation, and it is difficult to convincingly remove the effects of environmental factors on HSC differentiation and function. MATERIAL AND METHODS MYSM1 conditional knockout (cKO) mice were efﬁciently induced by using the Vav1-cre transgenic system. The Vav-Cre MYSM1 cKO mice were then analyzed to verify the intrinsic role of MYSM1 in hematopoietic cells. RESULTS MYSM1 cKO mice were viable and were born at normal litter sizes. At steady state, we observed a defect in hematopoiesis, including reduced bone marrow cellularity and abnormal HSC function. MYSM1 deletion drives HSCs from quiescence into rapid cycling, and MYSM1-deﬁcient HSCs display impaired engraftment. In particular, the immature cycling cKO HSCs have elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and are prone to apoptosis, resulting in the exhaustion of the stem cell pool during stress response to 5-FU. CONCLUSIONS Our study using MYSM1 cKO mice confirms the important role of MYSM1 in maintaining HSC quiescence and survival.
Cheng, Wei-Hung; Huang, Kuo-Yang; Huang, Po-Jung; Hsu, Jo-Hsuan; Fang, Yi-Kai; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun; Tang, Petrus
Iron plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of Trichomonas vaginalis, the causative agent of highly prevalent human trichomoniasis. T. vaginalis resides in the vaginal region, where the iron concentration is constantly changing. Hence, T. vaginalis must adapt to variations in iron availability to establish and maintain an infection. The free radical signaling molecules reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) have been proven to participate in iron deficiency in eukaryotes. However, little is known about the roles of these molecules in iron-deficient T. vaginalis. T. vaginalis cultured in iron-rich and -deficient conditions were collected for all experiments in this study. Next generation RNA sequencing was conducted to investigate the impact of iron on transcriptome of T. vaginalis. The cell viabilities were monitored after the trophozoites treated with the inhibitors of nitric oxide (NO) synthase (L-NG-monomethyl arginine, L-NMMA) and proteasome (MG132). Hydrogenosomal membrane potential was measured using JC-1 staining. We demonstrated that NO rather than ROS accumulates in iron-deficient T. vaginalis. The level of NO was blocked by MG132 and L-NMMA, indicating that NO production is through a proteasome and arginine dependent pathway. We found that the inhibition of proteasome activity shortened the survival of iron-deficient cells compared with untreated iron-deficient cells. Surprisingly, the addition of arginine restored both NO level and the survival of proteasome-inhibited cells, suggesting that proteasome-derived NO is crucial for cell survival under iron-limited conditions. Additionally, NO maintains the hydrogenosomal membrane potential, a determinant for cell survival, emphasizing the cytoprotective effect of NO on iron-deficient T. vaginalis. Collectively, we determined that NO produced by the proteasome prolonged the survival of iron-deficient T. vaginalis via maintenance of the hydrogenosomal functions. The findings in this
Treasure, Janet; Crane, Anna; McKnight, Rebecca; Buchanan, Emmakate; Wolfe, Melissa
The aim of this paper is to reflect on the way that we as clinicians may play an inadvertent role in perpetuating eating disordered behaviour. This is considered within the theoretical framework of Schmidt and Treasures' maintenance model of anorexia nervosa (AN). The model includes four main domains; interpersonal factors, pro-AN beliefs, emotional style and thinking style. Interpersonal reactions are of particular relevance as clinicians (as with family members) may react with high expressed emotion and unknowingly encourage eating disorder behaviours to continue. Hostility in the form of coercive refeeding in either a hospital or outpatient setting may strengthen conditioned food avoidance and pessimism may hamper motivation to change. Negative schema common to eating disorders, for example low self-esteem, perfectionism and striving for social value may augment existing or initiate new eating disorder behaviour. Services can become a reinforcing influence by providing an overly protective, palliating environment which ensures safety, security and acceptance whilst reducing loneliness and isolation. This stifles the need for an individual to develop their own sense of responsibility, autonomy and independence allowing avoidance to dominate. Furthermore, the highly structured environment of inpatient care supports the rigid attention to detail and inflexibility that is characteristic of people with eating disorders, and allows these negative behaviours to thrive. Careful planning of service provision, reflective practice, supervision and regular team feedback is essential to prevent iatrogenic harm. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.
Partida-Martinez, Laila P; Monajembashi, Shamci; Greulich, Karl-Otto; Hertweck, Christian
Bacterial endosymbionts play essential roles for many organisms, and thus specialized mechanisms have evolved during evolution that guarantee the persistence of the symbiosis during or after host reproduction. The rice seedling blight fungus Rhizopus microsporus represents a unique example of a mutualistic life form in which a fungus harbors endobacteria (Burkholderia sp.) for the production of a phytotoxin. Here we report the unexpected observation that in the absence of endosymbionts, the host is not capable of vegetative reproduction. Formation of sporangia and spores is restored only upon reintroduction of endobacteria. To monitor this process, we succeeded in GFP labeling cultured endosymbionts. We also established a laserbeam transformation technique for the first controlled introduction of bacteria into fungi to observe their migration to the tips of the aseptate hyphae. The persistence of this fungal-bacterial mutualism through symbiont-dependent sporulation is intriguing from an evolutionary point of view and implies that the symbiont produces factors that are essential for the fungal life cycle. Reproduction of the host has become totally dependent on endofungal bacteria, which in return provide a highly potent toxin for defending the habitat and accessing nutrients from decaying plants. This scenario clearly highlights the significance for a controlled maintenance of this fungal-bacterial symbiotic relationship.
Full Text Available Aims: To compare the clinical efficacy of two space maintainers namely, conventional band and loop and Fiber Reinforced Composite Resin (FRCR space maintainers . Subjects and Methods: Thirty healthy children, aged 5 to 8 years were selected having at least two deciduous molars in different quadrants indicated for extraction or lost previously. FRCR space maintainer was placed in one quadrant and in the other quadrant band and loop space maintainer was cemented. All the patients were recalled at 1 st , 3 rd , and 6 th months for evaluation of both types of space maintainer. Patient acceptability, time taken, and clinical efficacy was recorded. Statistical analysis used: The observations thus obtained were subjected to statistical analysis using Chi- square test and Mann-Whitney U test. Results: Patient acceptability was greater in Group I (FRCR in comparison to Group II (band and loop space maintainer. The time taken by Group I was significantly lower as compared to that of Group II. In Group I, debonding of enamel, composite was the most common complication leading to failure followed by debonding of fiber composite. In Group II, cement loss was the most common complication leading to failure followed by slippage of band and fracture of loop. The success rates of Groups I and Group II weares 63.3% and 36.7%, respectively. Conclusion: The study concluded that FRCRFiber Reinforced Composite Resin (Ribbond space maintainers can be considered as viable alternative to the conventional band and loop space maintainers.
Karen P. Scott
Full Text Available Background: The intestinal microbiota composition varies between healthy and diseased individuals for numerous diseases. Although any cause or effect relationship between the alterations in the gut microbiota and disease is not always clear, targeting the intestinal microbiota might offer new possibilities for prevention and/or treatment of disease. Objective: Here we review some examples of manipulating the intestinal microbiota by prebiotics, probiotics, and fecal microbial transplants. Results: Prebiotics are best known for their ability to increase the number of bifidobacteria. However, specific prebiotics could potentially also stimulate other species they can also stimulate other species associated with health, like Akkermansia muciniphila, Ruminococcus bromii, the Roseburia/Enterococcus rectale group, and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. Probiotics have beneficial health effects for different diseases and digestive symptoms. These effects can be due to the direct effect of the probiotic bacterium or its products itself, as well as effects of the probiotic on the resident microbiota. Probiotics can influence the microbiota composition as well as the activity of the resident microbiota. Fecal microbial transplants are a drastic intervention in the gut microbiota, aiming for total replacement of one microbiota by another. With numerous successful studies related to antibiotic-associated diarrhea and Clostridium difficile infection, the potential of fecal microbial transplants to treat other diseases like inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, and metabolic and cardiovascular disorders is under investigation. Conclusions: Improved knowledge on the specific role of gut microbiota in prevention and treatment of disease will help more targeted manipulation of the intestinal microbiota. Further studies are necessary to see the (long term effects for health of these interventions.
Vasconcelos, Vitor Vieira
This article discusses how new contributions from hydrogeological science in the 20th and 21st centuries have allowed for a better understanding of the processes that affect the maintenance of river flows. Moreover, the way in which this knowledge has been conveyed beyond academia and has been gradually incorporated into public policy for natural resource management is also discussed. This article explains the development of several approaches used to understand the relationships among the management of aquifers, vegetation and river flows, including water balance, aquifer recharge, the piston effect, seasonal effects, and safe and sustainable yields. Additionally, the current challenges regarding the modeling of hydrological processes that integrate groundwater and surface waters are discussed. Examples of studies applied in Brazil that demonstrate these processes and stimulate thought regarding water management strategies are presented. In light of the case studies, it is possible to propose different strategies, each adapted for specific hydrogeological context to maximize aquifer recharge or base flow maintenance. Based on these strategies, the role of infiltration ponds and other artificial recharge techniques is re-evaluated in the context of the mitigation of environmental impacts on the maintenance of river flows. Proposals for the improvement of public policies regarding the payment of related environmental services to stimulate investment in aquifer recharge and the maintenance of base flow, for which the goal is to attain win-win-win situations for the environment, farmers and water users, while preventing land speculation, are discussed. Lastly, a conceptual model for the dissemination of hydrogeological knowledge in public policies is provided, and its challenges and possibilities are discussed.
Budiul Berghian, A.; Vasiu, T.; Birtok Baneasa, C.
The study analyses the ability to be maintained or rehabilitation of Dacia 1304, 1,9D utility vehicle. The paper comprises the determination of its maintainability using the Weibull++8 specialized software.
Organizational structure of the German power plant 'Gemeinschaftskernkraftwerk Grohnde GmbH'. The plant characteristics of the tasks and duties and definition of competence. Measures to maintain competence. The experience by the realization of training programs to maintain competence. (orig.)
Ardelyan, N. V; Bychkov, V. L; Gordeev, O. A; Klimov, A. I
Development of plasma technologies for problems of external and internal gas dynamics is impossible without the detailed studies of different discharge types both self maintained and non-self maintained improvement...
Rossini, Fernanda de Paula; Andrade, Denise de; Santos, Lissandra Chaves de Sousa; Ferreira, Adriano Menis; Tieppo, Caroline; Watanabe, Evandro
to evaluate the use of peripheral venous catheters based on microbiological analysis of devices (dressing and three-way stopcocks) and thus contribute to the prevention and infection control. this was a prospective study of microbiological analysis of 30 three-way stopcocks (external surfaces and lumens) and 30 dressing used in maintaining the peripheral venous catheters of hospitalized adult patients. all external surfaces, 40% of lumens, and 86.7% of dressing presented bacterial growth. The main species isolated in the lumen were 50% coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, 14.3% Staphylococcus aureus, and 14.3% Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Fifty nine percent of multidrug-resistant bacteria were isolated of the three-way stopcocks, 42% of the lumens, and 44% of the dressing with a predominance of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus resistant to methicillin. Besides, 18% gram-negative bacteria with resistance to carbapenems were identified from multidrug-resistant bacteria on the external surfaces of the three-way stopcocks. it is important to emphasize the isolation of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and gram-negative bacteria resistant to methicillin and carbapenems in samples of devices, respectively, which reinforces the importance of nursing care in the maintenance of the biologically safe environment as well as prevention and infection control practices. avaliar o uso de cateteres venosos periféricos com base em análises microbiológicas de dispositivos (curativos e torneiras de três vias - T3Vs) e assim contribuir para a prevenção e controle de infecção. estudo prospectivo de análise microbiológica de 30 T3Vs (superfícies externas e lúmens) e 30 curativos utilizados na manutenção dos cateteres venosos periféricos de pacientes adultos hospitalizados. todas as superfícies externas, 40% dos lúmens e 86,7% dos curativos apresentaram crescimento bacteriano. As principais espécies isoladas no lúmen foram 50% Staphylococcus coagulase-negativa, 14
Tzeng, W.-P.; Frey, Teryl K.
Rubella virus (RUB) replicons are derivatives of the RUB infectious cDNA clone that retain the nonstructural open reading frame (NS-ORF) that encodes the replicase proteins but not the structural protein ORF (SP-ORF) that encodes the virion proteins. RUB defective interfering (DI) RNAs contain deletions within the SP-ORF and thus resemble replicons. DI RNAs often retain the 5' end of the capsid protein (C) gene that has been shown to modulate virus-specific RNA synthesis. However, when replicons either with or without the C gene were passaged serially in the presence of wt RUB as a source of the virion proteins, it was found that neither replicon was maintained and DI RNAs were generated. The majority DI RNA species contained in-frame deletions in the SP-ORF leading to a fusion between the 5' end of the C gene and the 3' end of the E1 glycoprotein gene. DI infectious cDNA clones were constructed and transcripts from these DI infectious cDNA clones were maintained during serial passage with wt RUB. The C-E1 fusion protein encoded by the DI RNAs was synthesized and was required for maintenance of the DI RNA during serial passage. This is the first report of a functional novel gene product resulting from deletion during DI RNA generation. Thus far, the role of the C-E1 fusion protein in maintenance of DI RNAs during serial passage remained elusive as it was found that the fusion protein diminished rather than enhanced DI RNA synthesis and was not incorporated into virus particles
Naser, Joseph; Torok, Raymond; Shankar, Ramesh
Deregulation of the electric utilities has made a major impact on nuclear power plants. To be competitive, more emphasis is being put on cost-effective production of electricity with a more critical look at whether a system should be modernized due to obsolescence, reliability, or productivity concerns. Instrumentation and control (I and C) systems play an important role in reducing the cost of producing electricity while maintaining or enhancing safety. Systems that are well designed, reliable, enhance productivity, and are cost-effective to operate and maintain can reduce the overall costs. Modern technology with its ability to better provide and use real-time information offers an effective platform for modernizing systems. At the same time, new technology brings new challenges and issues, especially for safety systems in nuclear power plants. To increase competitiveness, it is important to take advantage of the opportunities offered by modern technology and to address the new challenges and issues in a cost-effective manner. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and its member utilities have been working together with other members of the nuclear industry since 1990 to address I and C modernization and maintenance issues. The EPRI I and C Program has developed a life-cycle management approach for I and C systems that involves the optimization of maintenance, monitoring, and capital resources to sustain safety and performance throughout the plant life. Strategic planning methodologies and implementation guidelines addressing digital I and C issues in nuclear power plants have been developed. Work is ongoing in diverse areas to support the design, implementation, and operation of new digital systems. Technology transfer is an integral part of this I and C program
Hutchison, Katrina; Sparrow, Robert
One day soon it may be possible to replace a failing heart, liver, or kidney with a long-lasting mechanical replacement or perhaps even with a 3-D printed version based on the patient's own tissue. Such artificial organs could make transplant waiting lists and immunosuppression a thing of the past. Supposing that this happens, what will the ongoing care of people with these implants involve? In particular, how will the need to maintain the functioning of artificial organs over an extended period affect patients and their doctors and the responsibilities of those who manufacture such devices? Drawing on lessons from the history of the cardiac pacemaker, this article offers an initial survey of the ethical issues posed by the need to maintain and service artificial organs. We briefly outline the nature and history of cardiac pacemakers, with a particular focus on the need for technical support, maintenance, and replacement of these devices. Drawing on the existing medical literature and on our conversations and correspondence with cardiologists, regulators, and manufacturers, we describe five sources of ethical issues associated with pacemaker maintenance: the location of the devices inside the human body, such that maintenance generates surgical risks; the complexity of the devices, which increases the risk of harms to patients as well as introducing potential injustices in access to treatment; the role of software-particularly software that can be remotely accessed-in the functioning of the devices, which generates privacy and security issues; the impact of continual development and improvement of the device; and the influence of commercial interests in the context of a medical device market in which there are several competing products. Finally, we offer some initial suggestions as to how these questions should be answered. © 2016 The Hastings Center.
Nguyen, Diep M N; Schut, Gerrit J; Zadvornyy, Oleg A; Tokmina-Lukaszewska, Monika; Poudel, Saroj; Lipscomb, Gina L; Adams, Leslie A; Dinsmore, Jessica T; Nixon, William J; Boyd, Eric S; Bothner, Brian; Peters, John W; Adams, Michael W W
Electron bifurcation has recently gained acceptance as the third mechanism of energy conservation in which energy is conserved through the coupling of exergonic and endergonic reactions. A structure-based mechanism of bifurcation has been elucidated recently for the flavin-based enzyme NADH-dependent ferredoxin NADP + oxidoreductase I (NfnI) from the hyperthermophillic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus. NfnI is thought to be involved in maintaining the cellular redox balance, producing NADPH for biosynthesis by recycling the two other primary redox carriers, NADH and ferredoxin. The P. furiosus genome encodes an NfnI paralog termed NfnII, and the two are differentially expressed, depending on the growth conditions. In this study, we show that deletion of the genes encoding either NfnI or NfnII affects the cellular concentrations of NAD(P)H and particularly NADPH. This results in a moderate to severe growth phenotype in deletion mutants, demonstrating a key role for each enzyme in maintaining redox homeostasis. Despite their similarity in primary sequence and cofactor content, crystallographic, kinetic, and mass spectrometry analyses reveal that there are fundamental structural differences between the two enzymes, and NfnII does not catalyze the NfnI bifurcating reaction. Instead, it exhibits non-bifurcating ferredoxin NADP oxidoreductase-type activity. NfnII is therefore proposed to be a bifunctional enzyme and also to catalyze a bifurcating reaction, although its third substrate, in addition to ferredoxin and NADP(H), is as yet unknown. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
Full Text Available Skeletal muscle regeneration and long term maintenance is directly link to the balance between self-renewal and differentiation of resident adult stem cells known as satellite cells. In turn, satellite cell fate is influenced by a functional interaction between the transcription factor Pax7 and members of the MyoD family of muscle regulatory factors. Thus, changes in the Pax7-to-MyoD protein ratio may act as a molecular rheostat fine-tuning acquisition of lineage identity while preventing precocious terminal differentiation. Pax7 is expressed in quiescent and proliferating satellite cells, while its levels decrease sharply in differentiating progenitors Pax7 is maintained in cells (reacquiring quiescence. While the mechanisms regulating Pax7 levels based on differentiation status are not well understood, we have recently described that Pax7 levels are directly regulated by the ubiquitin-ligase Nedd4, thus promoting proteasome-dependent Pax7 degradation in differentiating satellite cells. Here we show that Pax7 levels are maintained in proliferating muscle progenitors by a mechanism involving casein kinase 2-dependent Pax7 phosphorylation at S201. Point mutations preventing S201 phosphorylation or casein kinase 2 inhibition result in decreased Pax7 protein in proliferating muscle progenitors. Accordingly, this correlates directly with increased Pax7 ubiquitination. Finally, Pax7 down regulation induced by casein kinase 2 inhibition results in precocious myogenic induction, indicating early commitment to terminal differentiation. These observations highlight the critical role of post translational regulation of Pax7 as a molecular switch controlling muscle progenitor fate.
Full Text Available Chronic hypoxia causes pulmonary hypertension associated with structural alterations in pulmonary vessels and sustained vasoconstriction. The transcriptional mechanisms responsible for these distinctive changes are unclear. We have previously reported that CREB1 is activated in the lung in response to alveolar hypoxia but not in other organs. To directly investigate the role of α and Δ isoforms of CREB1 in the regulation of pulmonary vascular resistance we examined the responses of mice in which these isoforms of CREB1 had been inactivated by gene mutation, leaving only the β isoform intact (CREB(αΔ mice. Here we report that expression of CREB regulated genes was altered in the lungs of CREB(αΔ mice. CREB(αΔ mice had greater pulmonary vascular resistance than wild types, both basally in normoxia and following exposure to hypoxic conditions for three weeks. There was no difference in rho kinase mediated vasoconstriction between CREB(αΔ and wild type mice. Stereological analysis of pulmonary vascular structure showed characteristic wall thickening and lumen reduction in hypoxic wild-type mice, with similar changes observed in CREB(αΔ. CREB(αΔ mice had larger lungs with reduced epithelial surface density suggesting increased pulmonary compliance. These findings show that α and Δ isoforms of CREB1 regulate homeostatic gene expression in the lung and that normal activity of these isoforms is essential to maintain low pulmonary vascular resistance in both normoxic and hypoxic conditions and to maintain the normal alveolar structure. Interventions that enhance the actions of α and Δ isoforms of CREB1 warrant further investigation in hypoxic lung diseases.
Mehta, Ranjana K; Rhee, Joohyun
Stress due to cognitive demands and fatigue have shown to impair motor performance in older adults; however, the effect of social stress and its influence on prefrontal cortex (PFC) functioning in older adults during upper extremity motor performance tasks is not known. The present study explored the after-effects of an acute social stress bout on neural strategies, measured using PFC and hand/arm muscle activation, and adopted by younger and older adults to maintain handgrip force control. Nine older [74.1 (6.5) years; three men, six women] and ten younger [24.2 (5.0) years, four men, six women] adults performed handgrip force control trials at 30% maximum voluntary contractions before and after the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). PFC activity was measured using functional near infrared spectroscopy and muscle activity from the flexor and extensor carpi radialis (FCR/ECR) was measured using electromyography. In general, aging was associated with decreased force steadiness and force complexity with a concomitant increase in bilateral PFC activity. While motor performance remained comparable before and after the TSST stress session in both age groups, the associated neural strategies differed between groups. While the stress condition was associated with lower FCR and ECR activity in younger adults despite no change in the PFC activation, stress was associated with increases in FCR activity in older adults. This stress-related compensatory neural strategy of increasing hand/arm muscle activation, potentially via the additional recruitment of the stress-motor neural circuitry, may have played a role in maintaining motor performance in older adults.
Bak, Lasse K; Schousboe, Arne; Sonnewald, Ursula; Waagepetersen, Helle S
Glucose is the primary energy substrate for the adult mammalian brain. However, lactate produced within the brain might be able to serve this purpose in neurons. In the present study, the relative significance of glucose and lactate as substrates to maintain neurotransmitter homeostasis was investigated. Cultured cerebellar (primarily glutamatergic) neurons were superfused in medium containing [U-13C]glucose (2.5 mmol/L) and lactate (1 or 5 mmol/L) or glucose (2.5 mmol/L) and [U-13C]lactate (1 mmol/L), and exposed to pulses of N-methyl-D-aspartate (300 micromol/L), leading to synaptic activity including vesicular release. The incorporation of 13C label into intracellular lactate, alanine, succinate, glutamate, and aspartate was determined by mass spectrometry. The metabolism of [U-13C]lactate under non-depolarizing conditions was high compared with that of [U-13C]glucose; however, it decreased significantly during induced depolarization. In contrast, at both concentrations of extracellular lactate, the metabolism of [U-13C]glucose was increased during neuronal depolarization. The role of glucose and lactate as energy substrates during vesicular release as well as transporter-mediated influx and efflux of glutamate was examined using preloaded D-[3H]aspartate as a glutamate tracer and DL-threo-beta-benzyloxyaspartate to inhibit glutamate transporters. The results suggest that glucose is essential to prevent depolarization-induced reversal of the transporter (efflux), whereas vesicular release was unaffected by the choice of substrate. In conclusion, the present study shows that glucose is a necessary substrate to maintain neurotransmitter homeostasis during synaptic activity and that synaptic activity does not induce an upregulation of lactate metabolism in glutamatergic neurons.
Birgitte Skov Jensen, Lone; Larsen, Kristian; Konradsen, Hanne
by maintaining a distinction between possible and impossible topics to counseling. Three subcategories explaining the effort that maintain the impossible and possible topics separated were identified: (a) an effort to maintain the diseased lungs as the main task in counseling, (b) navigating interactions...
Robert B. Harrison; Douglas A. Maguire; Deborah Page-Dumroese
Maintaining adequate nutrient supply to maintain or enhance tree vigor and forest growth requires conservation of topsoil and soil organic matter. Sometimes nutrient amendments are also required to supplement inherent nutrient-pool limitations or replenish nutrients removed in harvested material. The goal is to maintain the productive potential of the soil and, when...
Chen Lu; Cai Jianguo
Maintainability of a mechanical system is one of the system design parameters that has a great impact in terms of ease of maintenance. In this article, based on the definition of the terms of maintenance and maintainability, an important tool of Design for Maintenance is developed as a way to improve maintainability through design. A set of standard and organized guidelines is provided and maintainability factors in terms of physical design, logistics support and ergonomics are identified. As a specific application of design review, a methodology so called Vector Projection Method is developed to evaluate the maintainability of the mechanical system. Lastly, an example is discussed
Enriquez-Rios, Vanessa; Dumitrache, Lavinia C; Downing, Susanna M; Li, Yang; Brown, Eric J; Russell, Helen R; McKinnon, Peter J
The DNA damage response (DDR) orchestrates a network of cellular processes that integrates cell-cycle control and DNA repair or apoptosis, which serves to maintain genome stability. DNA-PKcs (the catalytic subunit of the DNA-dependent kinase, encoded by PRKDC), ATM (ataxia telangiectasia, mutated), and ATR (ATM and Rad3-related) are related PI3K-like protein kinases and central regulators of the DDR. Defects in these kinases have been linked to neurodegenerative or neurodevelopmental syndromes. In all cases, the key neuroprotective function of these kinases is uncertain. It also remains unclear how interactions between the three DNA damage-responsive kinases coordinate genome stability, particularly in a physiological context. Here, we used a genetic approach to identify the neural function of DNA-PKcs and the interplay between ATM and ATR during neurogenesis. We found that DNA-PKcs loss in the mouse sensitized neuronal progenitors to apoptosis after ionizing radiation because of excessive DNA damage. DNA-PKcs was also required to prevent endogenous DNA damage accumulation throughout the adult brain. In contrast, ATR coordinated the DDR during neurogenesis to direct apoptosis in cycling neural progenitors, whereas ATM regulated apoptosis in both proliferative and noncycling cells. We also found that ATR controls a DNA damage-induced G 2 /M checkpoint in cortical progenitors, independent of ATM and DNA-PKcs. These nonoverlapping roles were further confirmed via sustained murine embryonic or cortical development after all three kinases were simultaneously inactivated. Thus, our results illustrate how DNA-PKcs, ATM, and ATR have unique and essential roles during the DDR, collectively ensuring comprehensive genome maintenance in the nervous system. The DNA damage response (DDR) is essential for prevention of a broad spectrum of different human neurologic diseases. However, a detailed understanding of the DDR at a physiological level is lacking. In contrast to many in
Compeer, M. G.; Janssen, G. M. J.; De Mey, J. G. R.
, but relaxed ET-1-induced contractions in MRA. A PLC inhibitor prevented contractile responses to ET-1 and ET-2 in MRA and BA, and relaxed ET-1- and ET-2-induced responses in MRA and ET-1 effects in BA. A Rho-kinase inhibitor did not modify sensitivity, maximum and maintenance of responses to both peptides...... in both arteries but relaxed ET-2, but not ET-1, effects in MRA and ET-1 effects in BA. Conclusions and ImplicationsPLC played a key role in arterial contractile responses to ETs, but ET-1 and ET-2 initiated and maintained vasoconstriction through different mechanisms, and these differed between MRA...
Full Text Available Anorexia nervosa (AN is a serious psychiatric disorder characterized by severe restriction of energy intake and dangerously low body weight. Other domains of functioning are affected, including social functioning. Although difficulties within this domain have started to be acknowledged by the literature, some important gaps remain to be filled. Do social difficulties predate the onset of the illness? What difficulties in particular are relevant for the development and maintenance of the illness? The aim of this study is to combine the use of quantitative and qualitative methods to answer these questions. Ninety participants with lifetime AN (88 women and 2 men completed an online survey assessing memories of involuntary submissiveness within the family, fear of negative evaluation from others, perceived lack of social competence, feelings of social belonging, eating disorder symptoms, and work and social adjustment. Participants also answered three open questions regarding their experience of social relationships before and after the illness onset. The findings provided support for the hypothesized relationships between the study variables. Involuntary submissiveness and fear of negative evaluation predicted eating disorder symptoms and these associations were partially mediated by perceived lack of social competence. Two-thirds of the sample recalled early social difficulties before illness onset and recognized that these had played a role in the development of the illness. A larger proportion of participants stated that the eating disorder had affected their social relationships in a negative way. This study sheds some light on patients’ perspective on the predisposing and maintaining role that social difficulties play in AN and identifies key psychological variables that could be targeted in treatment.
Full Text Available Ocular coloboma is a sight-threatening malformation caused by failure of the choroid fissure to close during morphogenesis of the eye, and is frequently associated with additional anomalies, including microphthalmia and cataracts. Although Hedgehog signaling is known to play a critical role in choroid fissure closure, genetic regulation of this pathway remains poorly understood. Here, we show that the transcription factor Sox11 is required to maintain specific levels of Hedgehog signaling during ocular development. Sox11-deficient zebrafish embryos displayed delayed and abnormal lens formation, coloboma, and a specific reduction in rod photoreceptors, all of which could be rescued by treatment with the Hedgehog pathway inhibitor cyclopamine. We further demonstrate that the elevated Hedgehog signaling in Sox11-deficient zebrafish was caused by a large increase in shha transcription; indeed, suppressing Shha expression rescued the ocular phenotypes of sox11 morphants. Conversely, over-expression of sox11 induced cyclopia, a phenotype consistent with reduced levels of Sonic hedgehog. We screened DNA samples from 79 patients with microphthalmia, anophthalmia, or coloboma (MAC and identified two novel heterozygous SOX11 variants in individuals with coloboma. In contrast to wild type human SOX11 mRNA, mRNA containing either variant failed to rescue the lens and coloboma phenotypes of Sox11-deficient zebrafish, and both exhibited significantly reduced transactivation ability in a luciferase reporter assay. Moreover, decreased gene dosage from a segmental deletion encompassing the SOX11 locus resulted in microphthalmia and related ocular phenotypes. Therefore, our study reveals a novel role for Sox11 in controlling Hedgehog signaling, and suggests that SOX11 variants contribute to pediatric eye disorders.
Maria J Aristizabal
Full Text Available RNA polymerase II (RNAPII contains a unique C-terminal domain that is composed of heptapeptide repeats and which plays important regulatory roles during gene expression. RNAPII is responsible for the transcription of most protein-coding genes, a subset of non-coding genes, and retrotransposons. Retrotransposon transcription is the first step in their multiplication cycle, given that the RNA intermediate is required for the synthesis of cDNA, the material that is ultimately incorporated into a new genomic location. Retrotransposition can have grave consequences to genome integrity, as integration events can change the gene expression landscape or lead to alteration or loss of genetic information. Given that RNAPII transcribes retrotransposons, we sought to investigate if the RNAPII-CTD played a role in the regulation of retrotransposon gene expression. Importantly, we found that the RNAPII-CTD functioned to maintaining genome integrity through inhibition of retrotransposon gene expression, as reducing CTD length significantly increased expression and transposition rates of Ty1 elements. Mechanistically, the increased Ty1 mRNA levels in the rpb1-CTD11 mutant were partly due to Cdk8-dependent alterations to the RNAPII-CTD phosphorylation status. In addition, Cdk8 alone contributed to Ty1 gene expression regulation by altering the occupancy of the gene-specific transcription factor Ste12. Loss of STE12 and TEC1 suppressed growth phenotypes of the RNAPII-CTD truncation mutant. Collectively, our results implicate Ste12 and Tec1 as general and important contributors to the Cdk8, RNAPII-CTD regulatory circuitry as it relates to the maintenance of genome integrity.
Wang, Zhenyu; Leng, Jiali; Zhao, Yuguang; Yu, Dehai; Xu, Feng; Song, Qingxu; Qu, Zhigang; Zhuang, Xinming; Liu, Yi
Mechanical load can regulate disc nucleus pulposus (NP) biology in terms of cell viability, matrix homeostasis and cell phenotype. N-cadherin (N-CDH) is a molecular marker of NP cells. This study investigated the role of N-CDH in maintaining NP cell phenotype, NP matrix synthesis and NP cell viability under high-magnitude compression. Rat NP cells seeded on scaffolds were perfusion-cultured using a self-developed perfusion bioreactor for 5 days. NP cell biology in terms of cell apoptosis, matrix biosynthesis and cell phenotype was studied after the cells were subjected to different compressive magnitudes (low- and high-magnitudes: 2% and 20% compressive deformation, respectively). Non-loaded NP cells were used as controls. Lentivirus-mediated N-CDH overexpression was used to further investigate the role of N-CDH under high-magnitude compression. The 20% deformation compression condition significantly decreased N-CDH expression compared with the 2% deformation compression and control conditions. Meanwhile, 20% deformation compression increased the number of apoptotic NP cells, up-regulated the expression of Bax and cleaved-caspase-3 and down-regulated the expression of Bcl-2, matrix macromolecules (aggrecan and collagen II) and NP cell markers (glypican-3, CAXII and keratin-19) compared with 2% deformation compression. Additionally, N-CDH overexpression attenuated the effects of 20% deformation compression on NP cell biology in relation to the designated parameters. N-CDH helps to restore the cell viability, matrix biosynthesis and cellular phenotype of NP cells under high-magnitude compression. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.
Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Myers, Sarah L; Walker, Stacy E; Kirby, Jessica
Professional commitment, or one's affinity and loyalty to a career, has become a topic of interest in athletic training. The expanding research on the topic, however, has omitted newly credentialed athletic trainers (ATs). For an impressionable group of practitioners, transitioning to clinical practice can be stressful. To explore the professional commitment of newly credentialed ATs in the secondary school setting. Secondary school. Qualitative study. A total of 31 newly credentialed ATs (6 men, 25 women; mean age = 24 ± 3 years) participated. Of these, 17 ATs (4 men, 13 women; mean age = 25 ± 4 years) were employed full time in the secondary school setting, and 14 ATs (2 men, 12 women; mean age = 23.0 ± 2.0 years) were graduate assistant students in the secondary school setting. All participants completed semistructured interviews, which focused on their experiences in the secondary school setting and transitioning into the role and setting. Transcripts were analyzed using the phenomenologic approach. Creditability was established by peer review, member checks, and researcher triangulation. Four main findings related to the professional commitment of newly credentialed ATs in the secondary school setting were identified. Work-life balance, professional relationships formed with the student-athletes, enjoyment gained from working in the secondary school setting, and professional responsibility emerged as factors facilitating commitment. Affective commitment is a primary facilitator of professional commitment. Newly credentialed ATs who enjoy their jobs and have time to engage in nonwork roles are able to maintain a positive professional commitment. Our findings align with the previous literature and help strengthen our understanding that rejuvenation and passion are important to professional commitment.
McNulty, James K; Meltzer, Andrea L; Makhanova, Anastasia; Maner, Jon K
Two longitudinal studies of 233 newlywed couples suggest that automatic attentional and evaluative biases regarding attractive relationship alternatives can help people maintain relationships by avoiding infidelity. Both studies assessed participants' tendency to automatically disengage attention from photos of attractive, opposite sex individuals; one study assessed participants' tendency to devalue those individuals by comparing their attractiveness evaluations to evaluations made by single people, and both studies assessed infidelity and relationship status multiple times for approximately three years. Several sources of devaluation emerged, but only participants' history of short-term sex predicted both biases; having more short-term sexual partners was associated with being slower to disengage attention from attractive alternatives, and, among men, evaluating such individuals more positively. In turn, both processes exerted indirect effects on relationship dissolution by predicting infidelity; being 100 ms faster to disengage attention from attractive alternatives or rating them 2 scale points lower in attractiveness was associated with a decrease in the odds of infidelity of approximately 50%; the effect of devaluation on infidelity was stronger among participants who evidenced steeper declines in marital satisfaction. These associations emerged because unfaithful individuals took longer to disengage attention from attractive alternatives compared with other social targets and did not differ from singles in their evaluations of those alternatives. Among several other predictors of infidelity, partner attractiveness was associated with a decrease in the odds of infidelity among men but not women. These findings suggest a role for basic psychological processes in predicting infidelity, highlight the critical role of automatic processes in relationship functioning, and suggest novel ways to promote relationship success. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA
Full Text Available Maintenance of plastid and mitochondrial genome stability is crucial for photosynthesis and respiration, respectively. Recently, we have reported that RECA1 maintains mitochondrial genome stability by suppressing gross rearrangements induced by aberrant recombination between short dispersed repeats in the moss Physcomitrella patens. In this study, we studied a newly identified P. patens homolog of bacterial RecG helicase, RECG, some of which is localized in both plastid and mitochondrial nucleoids. RECG partially complements recG deficiency in Escherichia coli cells. A knockout (KO mutation of RECG caused characteristic phenotypes including growth delay and developmental and mitochondrial defects, which are similar to those of the RECA1 KO mutant. The RECG KO cells showed heterogeneity in these phenotypes. Analyses of RECG KO plants showed that mitochondrial genome was destabilized due to a recombination between 8-79 bp repeats and the pattern of the recombination partly differed from that observed in the RECA1 KO mutants. The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA instability was greater in severe phenotypic RECG KO cells than that in mild phenotypic ones. This result suggests that mitochondrial genomic instability is responsible for the defective phenotypes of RECG KO plants. Some of the induced recombination caused efficient genomic rearrangements in RECG KO mitochondria. Such loci were sometimes associated with a decrease in the levels of normal mtDNA and significant decrease in the number of transcripts derived from the loci. In addition, the RECG KO mutation caused remarkable plastid abnormalities and induced recombination between short repeats (12-63 bp in the plastid DNA. These results suggest that RECG plays a role in the maintenance of both plastid and mitochondrial genome stability by suppressing aberrant recombination between dispersed short repeats; this role is crucial for plastid and mitochondrial functions.
Full Text Available During embryogenesis, the neural stem cells (NSC of the developing cerebral cortex are located in the ventricular zone (VZ lining the cerebral ventricles. They exhibit apical and basal processes that contact the ventricular surface and the pial basement membrane, respectively. This unique architecture is important for VZ physical integrity and fate determination of NSC daughter cells. In addition, the shorter apical process is critical for interkinetic nuclear migration (INM, which enables VZ cell mitoses at the ventricular surface. Despite their importance, the mechanisms required for NSC adhesion to the ventricle are poorly understood. We have shown previously that one class of candidate adhesion molecules, laminins, are present in the ventricular region and that their integrin receptors are expressed by NSC. However, prior studies only demonstrate a role for their interaction in the attachment of the basal process to the overlying pial basement membrane. Here we use antibody-blocking and genetic experiments to reveal an additional and novel requirement for laminin/integrin interactions in apical process adhesion and NSC regulation. Transient abrogation of integrin binding and signalling using blocking antibodies to specifically target the ventricular region in utero results in abnormal INM and alterations in the orientation of NSC divisions. We found that these defects were also observed in laminin alpha2 deficient mice. More detailed analyses using a multidisciplinary approach to analyse stem cell behaviour by expression of fluorescent transgenes and multiphoton time-lapse imaging revealed that the transient embryonic disruption of laminin/integrin signalling at the VZ surface resulted in apical process detachment from the ventricular surface, dystrophic radial glia fibers, and substantial layering defects in the postnatal neocortex. Collectively, these data reveal novel roles for the laminin/integrin interaction in anchoring embryonic NSCs
Brody, Matthew J; Feng, Li; Grimes, Adrian C; Hacker, Timothy A; Olson, Timothy M; Kamp, Timothy J; Balijepalli, Ravi C; Lee, Youngsook
We previously reported that the cardiomyocyte-specific leucine-rich repeat containing protein (LRRC)10 has critical functions in the mammalian heart. In the present study, we tested the role of LRRC10 in the response of the heart to biomechanical stress by performing transverse aortic constriction on Lrrc10-null (Lrrc10(-/-)) mice. Mild pressure overload induced severe cardiac dysfunction and ventricular dilation in Lrrc10(-/-) mice compared with control mice. In addition to dilation and cardiomyopathy, Lrrc10(-/-) mice showed a pronounced increase in heart weight with pressure overload stimulation and a more dramatic loss of cardiac ventricular performance, collectively suggesting that the absence of LRRC10 renders the heart more disease prone with greater hypertrophy and structural remodeling, although rates of cardiac fibrosis and myocyte dropout were not different from control mice. Lrrc10(-/-) cardiomyocytes also exhibited reduced contractility in response to β-adrenergic stimulation, consistent with loss of cardiac ventricular performance after pressure overload. We have previously shown that LRRC10 interacts with actin in the heart. Here, we show that His(150) of LRRC10 was required for an interaction with actin, and this interaction was reduced after pressure overload, suggesting an integral role for LRRC10 in the response of the heart to mechanical stress. Importantly, these experiments demonstrated that LRRC10 is required to maintain cardiac performance in response to pressure overload and suggest that dysregulated expression or mutation of LRRC10 may greatly sensitize human patients to more severe cardiac disease in conditions such as chronic hypertension or aortic stenosis. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.
Full Text Available While modulation of regulatory T cell (Treg function and adoptive Treg transfer are being explored as therapeutic modalities in the context of autoimmune diseases, transplantation and cancer, their role in HIV-1 pathogenesis remains less well defined. Controversy persists regarding their beneficial or detrimental effects in HIV-1 disease, which warrants further detailed exploration. Our objectives were to investigate if functional CD4(+ Tregs can be isolated and expanded from HIV-1-infected individuals for experimental or potential future therapeutic use and to determine phenotype and suppressive capacity of expanded Tregs from HIV-1 positive blood and tissue. Tregs and conventional T cell controls were isolated from blood and gut-associated lymphoid tissue of individuals with HIV-1 infection and healthy donors using flow-based cell-sorting. The phenotype of expanded Tregs was assessed by flow-cytometry and quantitative PCR. T-cell receptor ß-chain (TCR-β repertoire diversity was investigated by deep sequencing. Flow-based T-cell proliferation and chromium release cytotoxicity assays were used to determine Treg suppressive function. Tregs from HIV-1 positive individuals, including infants, were successfully expanded from PBMC and GALT. Expanded Tregs expressed high levels of FOXP3, CTLA4, CD39 and HELIOS and exhibited a highly demethylated TSDR (Treg-specific demethylated region, characteristic of Treg lineage. The TCRß repertoire was maintained following Treg expansion and expanded Tregs remained highly suppressive in vitro. Our data demonstrate that Tregs can be expanded from blood and tissue compartments of HIV-1+ donors with preservation of Treg phenotype, function and TCR repertoire. These results are highly relevant for the investigation of potential future therapeutic use, as currently investigated for other disease states and hold great promise for detailed studies on the role of Tregs in HIV-1 infection.
Cardi, Valentina; Mallorqui-Bague, Núria; Albano, Gaia; Monteleone, Alessio Maria; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando; Treasure, Janet
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a serious psychiatric disorder characterized by severe restriction of energy intake and dangerously low body weight. Other domains of functioning are affected, including social functioning. Although difficulties within this domain have started to be acknowledged by the literature, some important gaps remain to be filled. Do social difficulties predate the onset of the illness? What difficulties in particular are relevant for the development and maintenance of the illness? The aim of this study is to combine the use of quantitative and qualitative methods to answer these questions. Ninety participants with lifetime AN (88 women and 2 men) completed an online survey assessing memories of involuntary submissiveness within the family, fear of negative evaluation from others, perceived lack of social competence, feelings of social belonging, eating disorder symptoms, and work and social adjustment. Participants also answered three open questions regarding their experience of social relationships before and after the illness onset. The findings provided support for the hypothesized relationships between the study variables. Involuntary submissiveness and fear of negative evaluation predicted eating disorder symptoms and these associations were partially mediated by perceived lack of social competence. Two-thirds of the sample recalled early social difficulties before illness onset and recognized that these had played a role in the development of the illness. A larger proportion of participants stated that the eating disorder had affected their social relationships in a negative way. This study sheds some light on patients' perspective on the predisposing and maintaining role that social difficulties play in AN and identifies key psychological variables that could be targeted in treatment.
Buffet, Pierre A; Milon, Geneviève; Brousse, Valentine; Correas, Jean-Michel; Dousset, Bertrand; Couvelard, Anne; Kianmanesh, Reza; Farges, Olivier; Sauvanet, Alain; Paye, François; Ungeheuer, Marie-Noëlle; Ottone, Catherine; Khun, Huot; Fiette, Laurence; Guigon, Ghislaine; Huerre, Michel; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile; David, Peter H
The spleen plays a central role in the pathophysiology of several potentially severe diseases such as inherited red cell membrane disorders, hemolytic anemias, and malaria. Research on these diseases is hampered by ethical constraints that limit human spleen tissue explorations. We identified a surgical situation--left splenopancreatectomy for benign pancreas tumors--allowing spleen retrieval at no risk for patients. Ex vivo perfusion of retrieved intact spleens for 4 to 6 hours maintained a preserved parenchymal structure, vascular flow, and metabolic activity. Function preservation was assessed by testing the ability of isolated-perfused spleens to retain Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes preexposed to the antimalarial drug artesunate (Art-iRBCs). More than 95% of Art-iRBCs were cleared from the perfusate in 2 hours. At each transit through isolated-perfused spleens, parasite remnants were removed from 0.2% to 0.23% of Art-iRBCs, a proportion consistent with the 0.02% to 1% pitting rate previously established in artesunate-treated patients. Histologic analysis showed that more than 90% of Art-iRBCs were retained and processed in the red pulp, providing the first direct evidence of a zone-dependent parasite clearance by the human spleen. Human-specific physiologic or pathophysiologic mechanisms involving clearing or processing functions of the spleen can now be experimentally explored in a human tissue context.
Constantino, Larissa; Galant, Letícia Selinger; Vuolo, Francieli; Guarido, Karla Lorena; Kist, Luiza Wilges; de Oliveira, Giovanna Medeiros Tavares; Pasquali, Matheus Augusto de Bittencourt; de Souza, Cláudio Teodoro; da Silva-Santos, José Eduardo; Bogo, Maurício Reis; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca; Ritter, Cristiane; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe
Extracellular superoxide dismutase (ECSOD) protects nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability by decreasing superoxide levels and preventing peroxynitrite generation, which is important in maintaining renal blood flow and in preventing acute kidney injury. However, the profile of ECSOD expression after sepsis is not fully understood. Therefore, we intended to evaluate the content and gene expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) isoforms in the renal artery and their relation to renal blood flow. Sepsis was induced in Wistar rats by caecal ligation and perforation. Several times after sepsis induction, renal blood flow (12, 24 and 48 h); the renal arterial content of SOD isoforms, nitrotyrosine, endothelial and inducible nitric oxide synthase (e-NOS and i-NOS), and phosphorylated vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (pVASP); and SOD activity (3, 6 and 12 h) were measured. The influence of a SOD inhibitor was also evaluated. An increase in ECSOD content was associated with decreased 3-nitrotyrosine levels. These events were associated with an increase in pVASP content and maintenance of renal blood flow. Moreover, previous treatment with a SOD inhibitor increased nitrotyrosine content and reduced renal blood flow. ECSOD appears to have a major role in decreasing peroxynitrite formation in the renal artery during the early stages of sepsis development, and its application can be important in renal blood flow control and maintenance during septic insult.
Full Text Available Many meiotic systems in female animals include a lengthy arrest in G2 that separates the end of pachytene from nuclear envelope breakdown (NEB. However, the mechanisms by which a meiotic cell can arrest for long periods of time (decades in human females have remained a mystery. The Drosophila Matrimony (Mtrm protein is expressed from the end of pachytene until the completion of meiosis I. Loss-of-function mtrm mutants result in precocious NEB. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments reveal that Mtrm physically interacts with Polo kinase (Polo in vivo, and multidimensional protein identification technology mass spectrometry analysis reveals that Mtrm binds to Polo with an approximate stoichiometry of 1:1. Mutation of a Polo-Box Domain (PBD binding site in Mtrm ablates the function of Mtrm and the physical interaction of Mtrm with Polo. The meiotic defects observed in mtrm/+ heterozygotes are fully suppressed by reducing the dose of polo+, demonstrating that Mtrm acts as an inhibitor of Polo. Mtrm acts as a negative regulator of Polo during the later stages of G2 arrest. Indeed, both the repression of Polo expression until stage 11 and the inactivation of newly synthesized Polo by Mtrm until stage 13 play critical roles in maintaining and properly terminating G2 arrest. Our data suggest a model in which the eventual activation of Cdc25 by an excess of Polo at stage 13 triggers NEB and entry into prometaphase.
This article discusses the results of a study made by the 'ProKlimA' project group on the various factors that contribute to the so-called 'Sick Building Syndrome'. This study, made between 1994 and 2000, was initiated by the suspicion cast on ventilation and air-conditioning systems as being the cause of irritations to the skin, eyes, nose, mouth and throat, headaches and general uneasiness. An overview of the results of the study made at a total of 4,592 workplaces in 14 office buildings is given that cover physical, technical, chemical, biological, psychological and medicinal aspects of the problem. Air-quality aspects are examined and psychosocial factors - that had a higher level of influence than expected - are discussed. The author stresses the importance of the findings that confirm that a well-maintained air-conditioning system that conforms to modern hygiene standards attains a better subjective rating and that workplace design and good personnel motivation play a very important role in avoiding the 'Sick Building Syndrome'.
Steven J Del Signore
Full Text Available Lowe Syndrome is a developmental disorder characterized by eye, kidney, and neurological pathologies, and is caused by mutations in the phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphatase OCRL. OCRL plays diverse roles in endocytic and endolysosomal trafficking, cytokinesis, and ciliogenesis, but it is unclear which of these cellular functions underlie specific patient symptoms. Here, we show that mutation of Drosophila OCRL causes cell-autonomous activation of hemocytes, which are macrophage-like cells of the innate immune system. Among many cell biological defects that we identified in docrl mutant hemocytes, we pinpointed the cause of innate immune cell activation to reduced Rab11-dependent recycling traffic and concomitantly increased Rab7-dependent late endosome traffic. Loss of docrl amplifies multiple immune-relevant signals, including Toll, Jun kinase, and STAT, and leads to Rab11-sensitive mis-sorting and excessive secretion of the Toll ligand Spåtzle. Thus, docrl regulation of endosomal traffic maintains hemocytes in a poised, but quiescent state, suggesting mechanisms by which endosomal misregulation of signaling may contribute to symptoms of Lowe syndrome.
Samonds, Jason M; Bonds, A B
Visual cortical cells demonstrate both oscillation and synchronization, although the underlying causes and functional significance of these behaviors remain uncertain. We simultaneously recorded single-unit activity with microelectrode arrays in supragranular layers of area 17 of cats paralyzed and anesthetized with propofol and N(2)O. Rate-normalized autocorrelograms of 24 cells reveal bursting (100%) and gamma oscillation (63%). Renewal density analysis, used to explore the source of oscillation, suggests a contribution from extrinsic influences such as feedback. However, a bursting refractory period, presumably membrane-based, could also encourage oscillatory firing. When we investigated the source of synchronization for 60 cell pairs we found only moderate correlation of synchrony with bursts and oscillation. We did, nonetheless, discover a possible functional role for oscillation. In all cases of cross-correlograms that exhibited oscillation, the strength of the synchrony was maintained throughout the stimulation period. When no oscillation was apparent, 75% of the cell pairs showed decay in their synchronization. The synchrony between cells is strongly dependent on similar response onset latencies. We therefore propose that structured input, which yields tight organization of latency, is a more likely candidate for the source of synchronization than oscillation. The reliable synchrony at response onset could be driven by spatial and temporal correlation of the stimulus that is preserved through the earlier stages of the visual system. Oscillation then contributes to maintenance of the synchrony to enhance reliable transmission of the information for higher cognitive processing.
Avila-Luna, Alberto; Gálvez-Rosas, Arturo; Durand-Rivera, Alfredo; Ramos-Languren, Laura-Elisa; Ríos, Camilo; Arias-Montaño, José-Antonio; Bueno-Nava, Antonio
Dopamine (DA) modulates motor coordination, and its depletion, as in Parkinson's disease, produces motor impairment. The basal ganglia, cerebellum and cerebral cortex are interconnected, have functional roles in motor coordination, and possess dopamine D 1 receptors (D 1 Rs), which are expressed at a particularly high density in the basal ganglia. In this study, we examined whether the activation of D 1 Rs modulates motor coordination and balance in the rat using a beam-walking test that has previously been used to detect motor coordination deficits. The systemic administration of the D 1 R agonist SKF-38393 at 2, 3, or 4 mg/kg did not alter the beam-walking scores, but the subsequent administration of the D 1 R antagonist SCH-23390 at 1 mg/kg did produce deficits in motor coordination, which were reversed by the full agonist SKF-82958. The co-administration of SKF-38393 and SCH-23390 did not alter the beam-walking scores compared with the control group, but significantly prevented the increase in beam-walking scores induced by SCH-23390. The effect of the D 1 R agonist to prevent and reverse the effect of the D 1 R antagonist in beam-walking scores is an indicator that the function of D 1 Rs is necessary to maintain motor coordination and balance in rats. Our results support that D 1 Rs mediate the SCH-23390-induced deficit in motor coordination.
Ouji, Yukiteru, E-mail: email@example.com; Nakamura-Uchiyama, Fukumi; Yoshikawa, Masahide, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Highlights: •First report on effects of various Wnts on DP cells. •Wnt-10b promoted trichogenesis, while Wnt-3a showed to a limited extent. •Canonical Wnts, specifically Wnt-10b, is important for DP cells maintenance. -- Abstract: Although Wnts are expressed in hair follicles (HFs) and considered to be crucial for maintaining dermal papilla (DP) cells, the functional differences among them remain largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effects of Wnts (Wnt-3a, 5a, 10b, 11) on the proliferation of mouse-derived primary DP cells in vitro as well as their trichogenesis-promoting ability using an in vivo skin reconstitution protocol. Wnt-10b promoted cell proliferation and trichogenesis, while Wnt-3a showed those abilities to a limited extent, and Wnt-5a and 11 had no effects. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of these Wnts on cultured DP cells obtained from versican-GFP transgenic mice and found that Wnt-10b had a potent ability to sustain their GFP-positivity. These results suggest that canonical Wnts, specifically Wnt-10b, play important roles in the maintenance of DP cells and trichogenesis.
This paper provides a brief introduction to CEOS theory, a comprehensive theory for understanding hard to maintain behaviour change. The name CEOS is an acronym for Context, Executive, and Operational Systems theory. Behaviour is theorised to be the result of the moment by moment interaction between internal needs (operational processes) in relation to environmental conditions, and for humans this is augmented by goal-directed, executive action which can transcend immediate contingencies. All behaviour is generated by operational processes. Goal-directed behaviours only triumph over contingency-generated competing behaviours when operational processes have been sufficiently activated to support them. Affective force can be generated around executive system (ES) goals from such things as memories of direct experience, vicarious experience, and emotionally charged communications mediated through stories the person generates. This paper makes some refinements and elaborations of the theory, particularly around the role of feelings, and of the importance of stories and scripts for facilitating executive action. It also sketches out how it reconceptualises a range of issues relevant to behaviour change. CEOS provides a framework for understanding the limitations of both informational and environmental approaches to behaviour change, the need for self-regulatory strategies and for taking into account more basic aspects of human functioning. © 2016 The Authors. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Association of Applied Psychology.
Narang, Akhil; Arora, Vineet M
Background Residency programs face many challenges in educating learners. The millennial generation’s learning preferences also force us to reconsider how to reach physicians in training. Social media is emerging as a viable tool for advancing curricula in graduate medical education. Objective The authors sought to understand how social media enhances a residency program’s educational mission. Methods While chief residents in the 2013-2014 academic year, two of the authors (PB, AN) maintained a Twitter feed for their academic internal medicine residency program. Participants included the chief residents and categorical internal medicine house staff. Results At the year’s end, the authors surveyed residents about uses and attitudes toward this initiative. Residents generally found the chief residents’ tweets informative, and most residents (42/61, 69%) agreed that Twitter enhanced their overall education in residency. Conclusions Data from this single-site intervention corroborate that Twitter can strengthen a residency program’s educational mission. The program’s robust following on Twitter outside of the home program also suggests a need for wider adoption of social media in graduate medical education. Improved use of data analytics and dissemination of these practices to other programs would lend additional insight into social media’s role in improving residents’ educational experiences. PMID:27731845
Chen, Dan; Ito, Satoko; Hyodo, Toshinori; Asano-Inami, Eri; Yuan, Hong; Senga, Takeshi
DEPDC1 (DEP domain containing 1) is overexpressed in multiple cancers and is associated with cell cycle progression. In this report, we have investigated the expression, localization, phosphorylation and function of DEPDC1 during mitosis. DEPDC1 has two isoforms (isoform a and isoform b), and both of them are increased in mitosis and degraded once cells exit mitosis. DEPDC1a is localized to the centrosome in metaphase, whereas DEPDC1b is localized to the entire cell cortex during mitosis. DEPDC1a, but not DEPDC1b, was required for the integrity of centrosome and organization of the bipolar spindle. Mass spectrometry and biochemical analyses revealed phosphorylation of DEPDC1 at Ser110. The phosphorylation of Ser110 is essential for localization of DEPDC1a to the centrosome. Consistently, non-phosphorylation mutants of DEPDC1a did not rescue disruption of centrosome organization by depletion of endogenous DEPDC1. Our results show a novel role for DEPDC1 in maintaining centrosome integrity during mitosis for the accurate distribution of chromosomes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Henkens, Tom; Papeleu, Peggy; Elaut, Greetje; Vinken, Mathieu; Rogiers, Vera; Vanhaecke, Tamara
Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDI) have been shown to increase differentiation-related gene expression in several tumor-derived cell lines by hyperacetylating core histones. Effects of HDI on primary cultured cells, however, have hardly been investigated. In the present study, the ability of trichostatin A (TSA), a prototype hydroxamate HDI, to counteract the loss of liver-specific functions in primary rat hepatocyte cultures has been investigated. Upon exposure to TSA, it was found that the cell viability of the cultured hepatocytes and their albumin secretion as a function of culture time were increased. TSA-treated hepatocytes also better maintained cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated phase I biotransformation capacity, whereas the activity of phase II glutathione S-transferases (GST) was not affected. Western blot and qRT-PCR analysis of CYP1A1, CYP2B1 and CYP3A11 protein and mRNA levels, respectively, further revealed that TSA acts at the transcriptional level. In addition, protein expression levels of the liver-enriched transcription factors (LETFs) hepatic nuclear factor 4 alpha (HNF4α) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha (C/EBPα) were accordingly increased by TSA throughout culture time. In conclusion, these findings indicate that TSA plays a major role in the preservation of the differentiated hepatic phenotype in culture. It is suggested that the effects of TSA on CYP gene expression are mediated via controlling the expression of LETFs
T. V. Parpan
Full Text Available The forest cover of the Carpathians has been deeply transformed by productive activities over the past centuries. The forest cover, age and species structure of its ecosystems have been changed. Beech and fir forests were replaced by spruce monocultures. Consequently, nitrogen and mineral elements cycles changed, the genetic and population structures altered and the eco-stabilizing function of forests decreased. These negative trends make it desirable to process the bioecological principles of maintenance the stability of mountain forest ecosystems. The proposed bioecological principles of support and recovery of stability of forest ecosystems are part of the paradigm of mountain dendrology and silviculture. The strategy is based on maintaining bio-ecological and population-genetical features of the main forest forming species, evolutionary typological classification of the forests, landscape and environmental specifics of the mountain part of the Ukrainian Carpathians, features of virgin, old growth and anthropogenically disturbed forest structures, as well as performing the functional role of forest ecosystems. Support for landscape ecosystem stability involves the conservation, selective, health and gradual cutting, formation of forest stands which are close to natural conditions and focusing on natural regeneration (a basis for stable mountain forest ecosystems.
CSR understandings and practices, including ways corporations communicate about CSR, are in constant flux due to innovation and changing stakeholder expectations, which in turn are influenced by inevitable changes in social, political and economic circumstances. In this paper, focus in on the gro......CSR understandings and practices, including ways corporations communicate about CSR, are in constant flux due to innovation and changing stakeholder expectations, which in turn are influenced by inevitable changes in social, political and economic circumstances. In this paper, focus...... in on the growing expectation that companies address large, global issues (Stohl, Stohl & Popova, 2009). Through a case study of a unique and innovative CSR campaign that addresses global climate change, this paper revisits the understanding of CSR as a shift in roles and responsibilities between corporations...... are recognized and maintained in CSR campaigns, challenges to a company’s credibility and reputation can arise. Key words: corporate social responsibility, corporate communication, cross-sector partnerships, corporate sustainability, campaigns, collaboration Paper type: case study Googins, B. K., Rochlin, S. A...
Willmott, Keith R; Robinson Willmott, Julia C; Elias, Marianne; Jiggins, Chris D
Mimicry is one of the best-studied examples of adaptation, and recent studies have provided new insights into the role of mimicry in speciation and diversification. Classical Müllerian mimicry theory predicts convergence in warning signal among protected species, yet tropical butterflies are exuberantly diverse in warning colour patterns, even within communities. We tested the hypothesis that microhabitat partitioning in aposematic butterflies and insectivorous birds can lead to selection for different colour patterns in different microhabitats and thus help maintain mimicry diversity. We measured distribution across flight height and topography for 64 species of clearwing butterflies (Ithomiini) and their co-mimics, and 127 species of insectivorous birds, in an Amazon rainforest community. For the majority of bird species, estimated encounter rates were non-random for the two most abundant mimicry rings. Furthermore, most butterfly species in these two mimicry rings displayed the warning colour pattern predicted to be optimal for anti-predator defence in their preferred microhabitats. These conclusions were supported by a field trial using butterfly specimens, which showed significantly different predation rates on colour patterns in two microhabitats. We therefore provide the first direct evidence to support the hypothesis that different mimicry patterns can represent stable, community-level adaptations to differing biotic environments. © 2017 The Author(s).
Magee, Susanna R; Radlinski, Heidi; Nothnagle, Melissa
The United States has a growing shortage of maternity care providers. Family medicine maternity care fellowships can address this growing problem by training family physicians to manage high-risk pregnancies and perform cesarean deliveries. This paper describes the impact of one such program-the Maternal Child Health (MCH) Fellowship through the Department of Family Medicine at Brown University and the careers of its graduates over 20 years (1991--2011). Fellowship graduates were mailed a survey regarding their training, current practice and teaching roles, and career satisfaction. Seventeen of 23 fellows (74%) responded to the survey. The majority of our fellowship graduates provide maternity care. Half of our respondents are primary surgeons in cesarean sections, and the majority of these work in community hospitals. Nearly all of our graduates maintain academic appointments and teach actively in their respective departments of family medicine. Our maternal child health fellowship provides family physicians with the opportunity to develop advanced skills needed to provide maternity care for underserved communities and teaching skills to train the next generation of maternal child health care providers.
Brad J. Niles
Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS are produced during normal metabolism and can function as signaling molecules. However, ROS at elevated levels can damage cells. Here, we identify the conserved target of rapamycin complex 2 (TORC2/Ypk1 signaling module as an important regulator of ROS in the model eukaryotic organism, S. cerevisiae. We show that TORC2/Ypk1 suppresses ROS produced both by mitochondria as well as by nonmitochondrial sources, including changes in acidification of the vacuole. Furthermore, we link vacuole-related ROS to sphingolipids, essential components of cellular membranes, whose synthesis is also controlled by TORC2/Ypk1 signaling. In total, our data reveal that TORC2/Ypk1 act within a homeostatic feedback loop to maintain sphingolipid levels and that ROS are a critical regulatory signal within this system. Thus, ROS sensing and signaling by TORC2/Ypk1 play a central physiological role in sphingolipid biosynthesis and in the maintenance of cell growth and viability.
Gotoh, Hitoshi; Nomura, Tadashi; Ono, Katsuhiko
Large amounts of energy are required when cells undergo cell proliferation and differentiation for mammalian neuronal development. Early neonatal mice face transient starvation and use stored energy for survival or to support development. Glycogen is a branched polysaccharide that is formed by glucose, and serves as an astrocytic energy store for rapid energy requirements. Although it is present in radial glial cells and astrocytes, the role of glycogen during development remains unclear. In the present study, we demonstrated that glycogen accumulated in glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST)+ astrocytes in the subventricular zone and rostral migratory stream. Glycogen levels markedly decreased after birth due to the increase of glycogen phosphorylase, an essential enzyme for glycogen metabolism. In primary cultures and in vivo, the inhibition of glycogen phosphorylase decreased the proliferation of astrocytic cells. The number of cells in the G1 phase increased in combination with the up-regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors or down-regulation of the phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein (pRB), a determinant for cell cycle progression. These results suggest that glycogen accumulates in astrocytes located in specific areas during the prenatal stage and is used as an energy source to maintain normal development in the early postnatal stage.
Grabowski, Melissa M; Svrzikapa, Nenad; Tissenbaum, Heidi A
Bloom syndrome is caused by mutation of the Bloom helicase (BLM), a member of the RecQ helicase family. Loss of BLM function results in genomic instability that causes a high incidence of cancer. It has been demonstrated that BLM is important for maintaining genomic stability by playing a role in DNA recombination and repair; however, the exact function of BLM is not clearly understood. To determine the mechanism by which BLM controls genomic stability in vivo, we examined the phenotypes caused by mutation of the C. elegans BLM helicase ortholog, HIM-6. We find that the loss of HIM-6 leads to genomic instability as evidenced by an increased number of genomic insertions and deletions, which results in visible random mutant phenotypes. In addition to the mutator phenotype, him-6 mutants have a low brood size, a high incidence of males, a shortened life span, and an increased amount of germ line apoptosis. Upon exposure to high temperature, him-6 mutants that are serially passed become sterile demonstrating a mortal germ line phenotype. Our data suggest a model in which loss of HIM-6 results in genomic instability due to an increased number of DNA lesions, which either cannot be repaired and/or are introduced by low fidelity recombination events. The increased level of genomic instability that leads to him-6(ok412) mutants having a shortened life span.
Moreu De Leon, Pedro; González-Prida Díaz, Vicente; Barberá Martínez, Luis; Crespo Márquez, Adolfo
The objective of this paper is to describe a procedure to obtain maintainability indicators for industrial devices. This analysis can be helpful, among other cases, to compare systems, to achieve a better design regarding maintainability requirements, to improve this maintainability under specific industrial environment and to foresee maintainability problems due to eventual changes in a device operation conditions. This maintainability assessment can be carried out at any stage of the industrial asset life cycle. With this purpose, this work first introduces the notion of maintainability and the implementation of assessment indicators, including some important requirements to perform that. Then, a brief literature review is presented, including the definition of the main concepts, which are later used in the paper. After studying the maintenance levels and the maintainability attributes, both terms are linked, leading all this analysis to the assessment of the maintainability indicators. It follows a discussion about the information obtained through the maintainability assessment process and its computation into several maintainability indicators. The paper includes a case study, which implements the defined assessment into a practical scenario. Finally, the work concludes summarizing the more significant aspects and suggesting future researches.
Kizawa, Hideki; Nagao, Eri; Shimamura, Mitsuru; Zhang, Guangyuan; Torii, Hitoshi
The liver plays a central role in metabolism. Although many studies have described in vitro liver models for drug discovery, to date, no model has been described that can stably maintain liver function. Here, we used a unique, scaffold-free 3D bio-printing technology to construct a small portion of liver tissue that could stably maintain drug, glucose, and lipid metabolism, in addition to bile acid secretion. This bio-printed normal human liver tissue maintained expression of several kinds of hepatic drug transporters and metabolic enzymes that functioned for several weeks. The bio-printed liver tissue displayed glucose production via cAMP/protein kinase A signaling, which could be suppressed with insulin. Bile acid secretion was also observed from the printed liver tissue, and it accumulated in the culture medium over time. We observed both bile duct and sinusoid-like structures in the bio-printed liver tissue, which suggested that bile acid secretion occurred via a sinusoid-hepatocyte-bile duct route. These results demonstrated that our bio-printed liver tissue was unique, because it exerted diverse liver metabolic functions for several weeks. In future, we expect our bio-printed liver tissue to be applied to developing new models that can be used to improve preclinical predictions of long-term toxicity in humans, generate novel targets for metabolic liver disease, and evaluate biliary excretion in drug development.
Stoll, Elizabeth A; Karapavlovic, Nevena; Rosa, Hannah; Woodmass, Michael; Rygiel, Karolina; White, Kathryn; Turnbull, Douglass M; Faulkes, Chris G
The naked mole-rat (NMR) Heterocephalus glaber is an exceptionally long-lived rodent, living up to 32 years in captivity. This extended lifespan is accompanied by a phenotype of negligible senescence, a phenomenon of very slow changes in the expected physiological characteristics with age. One of the many consequences of normal aging in mammals is the devastating and progressive loss of skeletal muscle, termed sarcopenia, caused in part by respiratory enzyme dysfunction within the mitochondria of skeletal muscle fibers. Here we report that NMRs avoid sarcopenia for decades. Muscle fiber integrity and mitochondrial ultrastructure are largely maintained in aged animals. While mitochondrial Complex IV expression and activity remains stable, Complex I expression is significantly decreased. We show that aged naked mole-rat skeletal muscle tissue contains some mitochondrial DNA rearrangements, although the common mitochondrial DNA deletions associated with aging in human and other rodent skeletal muscles are not present. Interestingly, NMR skeletal muscle fibers demonstrate a significant increase in mitochondrial DNA copy number. These results have intriguing implications for the role of mitochondria in aging, suggesting Complex IV, but not Complex I, function is maintained in the long-lived naked mole rat, where sarcopenia is avoided and healthy muscle function is maintained for decades.
Carataș Maria Alina
Internal audit function has a key role in assessing cyber disruptions as part of strategic risks and identifying the operational control gaps on the business level, working with management at developing and maintaining an adaptive capacity to different types of risks building and improving business continuity.
universities and research institutions. International organizations like EC, OECD/NEA, IAEA are encouraged to strengthen nuclear educational networks; provide scholarships, fellowships, and traineeships as part of their funding policy. In addition to these general recommendations specific actions related to the management of radiological emergencies are necessary. These include activities to better use of the potential of self protection in the population; this includes strengthening and improving public awareness and understanding of radiological dangers and risk; maintain critical groups in areas (e.g. biological dosimetry, medical treatment of highly exposed persons) where local, regional or national means are or will soon become subcritical by integration and networking of specialised organizations at national, regional, and supra-national/international scale; establish task forces to cope with special needs in a radiological emergencies (e.g. aerial monitoring, measurement of special radionuclides, treatment of high active waste). This might require cross boarder or international organizational arrangements; share information between all competent and responsible organizations in a way, which is agreed and which clearly defines the roles and the responsibilities of the partners involved to avoid duplication of efforts and to make best use of the information available; establish and maintain high levels of specialised education and training by establishing standards and generic procedures (e.g. IAEA TECDOC 1092) and organising training which fit for purpose at local and regional level. Training and education should make use of new technical developments like e-learning. Activities of this kind have already been initiated; they should be strengthened and further developed in the framework of a master plan which provides a transparent basis of any action over a period of a decade. Beyond these urgent activities a long term strategy is required. lt has to address basic
Tamano, Haruna; Minamino, Tatsuya; Fujii, Hiroaki; Takada, Shunsuke; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Ando, Masaki; Takeda, Atsushi
There is no evidence on the precise role of synaptic Zn2+ signaling on the retention and recall of recognition memory. On the basis of the findings that intracellular Zn2+ signaling in the dentate gyrus is required for object recognition, short-term memory, the present study deals with the effect of spatiotemporally blocking Zn2+ signaling in the dentate gyrus after LTP induction and learning. Three-day-maintained LTP was impaired 1 day after injection of clioquinol into the dentate gyrus, which transiently reduced intracellular Zn2+ signaling in the dentate gyrus. The irreversible impairment was rescued not only by co-injection of ZnCl2 , which ameliorated the loss of Zn2+ signaling, but also by pre-injection of Jasplakinolide, a stabilizer of F-actin, prior to clioquinol injection. Simultaneously, 3-day-old space recognition memory was impaired 1 day after injection of clioquinol into the dentate gyrus, but not by pre-injection of Jasplakinolide. Jasplakinolide also rescued both impairments of 3-day-maintained LTP and 3-day-old memory after injection of ZnAF-2DA into the dentate gyrus, which blocked intracellular Zn2+ signaling in the dentate gyrus. The present paper indicates that the blockade and/or loss of intracellular Zn2+ signaling in the dentate gyrus coincidently impair maintained LTP and recognition memory. The mechanism maintaining LTP via intracellular Zn2+ signaling in dentate granule cells, which may be involved in the formation of F-actin, may retain space recognition memory. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Asmone, A. S.; Chew, M. Y. L.
Accurately predicting maintainability has been a challenge due to the complex nature of buildings, yet it is an important research area with a rising necessity. This paper explores the use of multicriteria decision making approach for merging maintainability and sustainability elements into building grading systems to attain long-term sustainability in the building industry. The paper conducts a systematic literature review on multicriteria decision analysis approach and builds on the existing knowledge of maintainability to achieve this. A conceptual framework is developed to bridge the gap between building operations and maintenance with green facilities management by forecasting green maintainability at the design stage.
Bosveld, Floris; Ainslie, Anna; Bellaïche, Yohanns
Centrosomes nucleate microtubules and are tightly coupled to the bipolar spindle to ensure genome integrity, cell division orientation and centrosome segregation. While the mechanisms of centrosome-dependent microtubule nucleation and bipolar spindle assembly have been the focus of numerous works, less is known about the mechanisms ensuring the centrosome-spindle coupling. The conserved NuMA protein (Mud in Drosophila ) is best known for its role in spindle orientation. Here, we analyzed the role of Mud and two of its interactors, Asp and Dynein, in the regulation of centrosome numbers in Drosophila epithelial cells. We found that Dynein and Mud mainly initiate centrosome-spindle coupling prior to nuclear envelope breakdown (NEB) by promoting correct centrosome positioning or separation, while Asp acts largely independently of Dynein and Mud to maintain centrosome-spindle coupling. Failure in the centrosome-spindle coupling leads to mis-segregation of the two centrosomes into one daughter cell, resulting in cells with supernumerary centrosomes during subsequent divisions. Altogether, we propose that Dynein, Mud and Asp operate sequentially during the cell cycle to ensure efficient centrosome-spindle coupling in mitosis, thereby preventing centrosome mis-segregation to maintain centrosome number. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
Cai, Yi; Tsai, Hsing-Chen; Yen, Ray-Whay Chiu; Zhang, Yang W; Kong, Xiangqian; Wang, Wei; Xia, Limin; Baylin, Stephen B
Reversing DNA methylation abnormalities and associated gene silencing, through inhibiting DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) is an important potential cancer therapy paradigm. Maximizing this potential requires defining precisely how these enzymes maintain genome-wide, cancer-specific DNA methylation. To date, there is incomplete understanding of precisely how the three DNMTs, 1, 3A, and 3B, interact for maintaining DNA methylation abnormalities in cancer. By combining genetic and shRNA depletion strategies, we define not only a dominant role for DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) but also distinct roles of 3A and 3B in genome-wide DNA methylation maintenance. Lowering DNMT1 below a threshold level is required for maximal loss of DNA methylation at all genomic regions, including gene body and enhancer regions, and for maximally reversing abnormal promoter DNA hypermethylation and associated gene silencing to reexpress key genes. It is difficult to reach this threshold with patient-tolerable doses of current DNMT inhibitors (DNMTIs). We show that new approaches, like decreasing the DNMT targeting protein, UHRF1, can augment the DNA demethylation capacities of existing DNA methylation inhibitors for fully realizing their therapeutic potential. © 2017 Cai et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.
The task of managing a government-funded program has changed significantly from the days when a program manager managed the funds and depended on reports from a contractor to measure the program's progress. Today's manager of waste management program must be personally involved in every aspect of the program. The successful manager of a waste management program will lead the development of management controls to ensure successful accomplishment of project objectives. This paper describes the responsibilities of the project manager, the quality assurance staff and how they interface to develop and implement a quality assurance program for a waste management program
Full Text Available The relationship between the consumption of meat and health is multifaceted, and it needs to be analyzed in detail, with specific attention to the relevant differences that characterize the effects of the different meat types, as yet considered by only a limited literature. A variable but moderate energy content, highly digestible proteins (with low levels of collagen of good nutritional quality, unsaturated lipids (mainly found in the skin and easily removed, B-group vitamins (mainly thiamin, vitamin B6, and pantothenic acid, and minerals (like iron, zinc, and copper make poultry meat a valuable food. Epidemiological studies performed across the world, in highly diverse populations with different food preferences and nutritional habits, provide solid information on the association between poultry consumption, within a balanced diet, and good health. Consumption of poultry meat, as part of a vegetable-rich diet, is associated with a risk reduction of developing overweight and obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Also, white meat (and poultry in particular is considered moderately protective or neutral on cancer risk. The relevance of poultry meat for humans also has been recognized by the UN Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO, who considers this widely available, relatively inexpensive food to be particularly useful in developing countries, where it can help to meet shortfalls in essential nutrients. Moreover, poultry meat consumption also contributes to the overall quality of the diet in specific ages and conditions (prior to conception, during pregnancy up to the end of breastfeeding, during growth, and in the geriatric age and is suitable for those who have an increased need for calorie and protein compared to the general population.
Bettina F Piko
Full Text Available Health is a state of homeostasis of four principle kinds, namely, biochemical, physiological, psychological, and social. In this article, we complete this theory with a fifth element, namely, spiritual balance. Existential attitudes have been found to be closely related to identity formation, moral development, value-related attitudes, personal goals, and lifestyle choices. Meaning in life and searching for meaning serve better health since they may encourage people to engage in health-promoting behaviors and avoid health-risking behaviors, such as obesity and eating disorders. The meaning-making model proposes that people’s perceptions may contribute to content/discontent with life, body, and the world.
Marangoni, Franca; Corsello, Giovanni; Cricelli, Claudio; Ferrara, Nicola; Ghiselli, Andrea; Lucchin, Lucio; Poli, Andrea
The relationship between the consumption of meat and health is multifaceted, and it needs to be analyzed in detail, with specific attention to the relevant differences that characterize the effects of the different meat types, as yet considered by only a limited literature. A variable but moderate energy content, highly digestible proteins (with low levels of collagen) of good nutritional quality, unsaturated lipids (mainly found in the skin and easily removed), B-group vitamins (mainly thiamin, vitamin B6, and pantothenic acid), and minerals (like iron, zinc, and copper) make poultry meat a valuable food. Epidemiological studies performed across the world, in highly diverse populations with different food preferences and nutritional habits, provide solid information on the association between poultry consumption, within a balanced diet, and good health. Consumption of poultry meat, as part of a vegetable-rich diet, is associated with a risk reduction of developing overweight and obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Also, white meat (and poultry in particular) is considered moderately protective or neutral on cancer risk. The relevance of poultry meat for humans also has been recognized by the UN Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), who considers this widely available, relatively inexpensive food to be particularly useful in developing countries, where it can help to meet shortfalls in essential nutrients. Moreover, poultry meat consumption also contributes to the overall quality of the diet in specific ages and conditions (prior to conception, during pregnancy up to the end of breastfeeding, during growth, and in the geriatric age) and is suitable for those who have an increased need for calorie and protein compared to the general population. PMID:26065493
Gabay, Michael; Boucher, Bradley A
A wide variety of topical hemostats are approved as adjunctive therapies in the maintenance of hemostasis during surgical procedures in which conventional methods are insufficient or not practical. A multidisciplinary approach to the selection and application of these agents requires input from all members of the surgical team including surgeons, perioperative nurses, blood bank specialists, and pharmacists. However, pharmacist knowledge regarding topical hemostats may be limited based on lack of formal education within college of pharmacy curricula as well as their use being predominantly in the operating room setting. Furthermore, some of these agents might be procured through central supply rather than the hospital pharmacy. Topical hemostats include agents that act as a mechanical barrier to bleeding and provide a physical matrix for clotting, biologically active agents that catalyze coagulation, combination therapies, and synthetic sealants and adhesives. Although many of the topical hemostats were approved for use before the requirement for clinical trials, this review provides an overview of the available clinical evidence regarding the appropriate uses and safety considerations associated with these agents. Proper use of these agents is vital to achieving the best clinical outcomes. Specifically, knowledge of the contraindications and potential adverse events associated with topical hemostats can help prevent unwanted outcomes. Therefore, an understanding of the benefits and potential risks associated with these agents will allow hospital pharmacists to assist in the development and implementation of institutional policies regarding the safe and effective use of hemostatic agents commonly used in the surgical suite. © 2013 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.
Klein-Nulend, J.; Bacabac, R.G.; Bakker, A.D.
Lack of physical activity causes bone loss and fractures not only in elderly people, but also in bedridden patients or otherwise inactive youth. This is fast becoming one of the most serious healthcare problems in the world. Osteocytes, cells buried within our bones, stimulate bone formation in the
Marangoni, Franca; Corsello, Giovanni; Cricelli, Claudio; Ferrara, Nicola; Ghiselli, Andrea; Lucchin, Lucio; Poli, Andrea
The relationship between the consumption of meat and health is multifaceted, and it needs to be analyzed in detail, with specific attention to the relevant differences that characterize the effects of the different meat types, as yet considered by only a limited literature. A variable but moderate energy content, highly digestible proteins (with low levels of collagen) of good nutritional quality, unsaturated lipids (mainly found in the skin and easily removed), B-group vitamins (mainly thiamin, vitamin B6, and pantothenic acid), and minerals (like iron, zinc, and copper) make poultry meat a valuable food. Epidemiological studies performed across the world, in highly diverse populations with different food preferences and nutritional habits, provide solid information on the association between poultry consumption, within a balanced diet, and good health. Consumption of poultry meat, as part of a vegetable-rich diet, is associated with a risk reduction of developing overweight and obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Also, white meat (and poultry in particular) is considered moderately protective or neutral on cancer risk. The relevance of poultry meat for humans also has been recognized by the UN Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), who considers this widely available, relatively inexpensive food to be particularly useful in developing countries, where it can help to meet shortfalls in essential nutrients. Moreover, poultry meat consumption also contributes to the overall quality of the diet in specific ages and conditions (prior to conception, during pregnancy up to the end of breastfeeding, during growth, and in the geriatric age) and is suitable for those who have an increased need for calorie and protein compared to the general population.
Wang, Hang; Li, Qinggang; Liu, Juan; Mendelsohn, Cathy; Salant, David J.; Lu, Weining
Antenatal hydronephrosis and vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) are common renal tract birth defects. We recently showed that disruption of the Robo2 gene is associated with VUR in humans and antenatal hydronephrosis in knockout mice. However, the natural history, causal relationship and developmental origins of these clinical conditions remain largely unclear. Although the hydronephrosis phenotype in Robo2 knockout mice has been attributed to the coexistence of ureteral reflux and obstruction in the same mice, this hypothesis has not been tested experimentally. Here we used noninvasive high-resolution micro-ultrasonography and pathological analysis to follow the progression of antenatal hydronephrosis in individual Robo2-deficient mice from embryo to adulthood. We found that hydronephrosis progressed continuously after birth with no spontaneous resolution. With the use of a microbubble ultrasound contrast agent and ultrasound-guided percutaneous aspiration, we demonstrated that antenatal hydronephrosis in Robo2-deficient mice is caused by high-grade VUR resulting from a dilated and incompetent ureterovesical junction rather than ureteral obstruction. We further documented Robo2 expression around the developing ureterovesical junction and identified early dilatation of ureteral orifice structures as a potential fetal origin of antenatal hydronephrosis and VUR. Our results thus demonstrate that Robo2 is crucial for the formation of a normal ureteral orifice and for the maintenance of an effective anti-reflux mechanism. This study also establishes a reproducible genetic mouse model of progressive antenatal hydronephrosis and primary high-grade VUR. PMID:21949750
Bhattacharya, Satya Sundar; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Das, Subhasish; Uchimiya, Minori; Jeon, Byong Hun; Kwon, Eilhann; Szulejko, Jan E
Among the numerous sources of greenhouse gases, emissions of CO2 are considerably affected by changes in the extent and type of land use, e.g., intensive agriculture, deforestation, urbanization, soil erosion, or wetland drainage. As a feasible option to control emissions from the terrestrial ecosystems, the scientific community has explored the possibility of enhancing soil carbon (C) storage capacity. Thus, restoration of damaged lands through conservation tillage, crop rotation, cover cropping, reforestation, sub-soiling of compacted lands, sustainable water management practices, and organic manuring are the major antidotes against attenuation of soil organic C (SOC) stocks. In this research, we focused on the effect of various man-made activities on soil biotic organics (e.g., green-, farm-yard manure, and composts) to understand how C fluxes from various sources contribute to the establishment of a new equilibrium in the terrestrial ecosystems. Although such inputs substitute a portion of chemical fertilizers, they all undergo activities that augment the rate and extent of decay to deplete the SOC bank. Here, we provide perspectives on the balancing factors that control the mineralization rate of organic matter. Our arguments are placed in the background of different land use types and their impacts on forests, agriculture, urbanization, soil erosion, and wetland destruction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ge Sun; Peter V. Caldwell; Steven G. McNulty
The goal of this study was to test the sensitivity of water yield to forest thinning and other forest management/disturbances and climate across the conterminous United States (CONUS). Leaf area index (LAI) was selected as a key parameter linking changes in forest ecosystem structure and functions. We used the Water Supply Stress Index model to examine water yield...
Muller-Karger, F. E.; Iken, K.; Miller, R. J.; Duffy, J. E.; Chavez, F.; Montes, E.
The U.S. Federal government (NOAA, NASA, BOEM, and the Smithsonian Institution), academic researchers, and private partners are laying the foundation for a Marine Biodiversity Observation Network (MBON). The goals of the network are to: 1) Observe and understand life, from microbes to whales, in different coastal and continental shelf habitats; 2) Define an efficient set of observations required for implementing a useful MBON; 3) Develop technology for biodiversity assessments including emerging environmental DNA (eDNA), remote sensing, and image analysis methods to coordinate with classical sampling; 4) Integrate and synthesize information in coordination with the Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS), the international Group on Earth Observations Biodiversity Observation Network(GEO BON), and the Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS) sponsored by UNESCO's Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC); and 5) Understand the linkages between marine biodiversity, ecosystem processes, and the social-economic context of a region. Pilot projects have been implemented within three NOAA National Marine Sanctuaries (Florida Keys, Monterey Bay, and Channel Islands), the wider Santa Barbara Channel, in the Chukchi Sea, and through the Smithsonian's Tennenbaum Marine Observatories Network (TMON) at several sites in the U.S. and collaborating countries. Together, these MBON sites encompass a wide range of marine environments, including deep sea, continental shelves, and coastal habitats including estuaries, wetlands, and coral reefs. The present MBON partners are open to growth of the MBON through additional collaborations. Given these initiatives, GEO BON is proposing an MBON effort that spans from pole to pole, with a pathfinder effort among countries in the Americas. By specializing in coastal ecosystems—where marine biodiversity and people are concentrated and interact most—the MBON and TMON initiatives aim to provide policymakers with the science to support innovative solutions and advance management and protection of our oceans. The initiative contributes to addressing U.N. Sustainable Development Goal 14 to conserve and sustainably use marine resources. The MBON will facilitate and enable regional biodiversity assessments.
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Application to system of records maintained by Government contractors. 1.30 Section 1.30 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury DISCLOSURE OF RECORDS Privacy Act § 1.30 Application to system of records maintained...
... maintaining and inspecting aids to navigation? 150.705 Section 150.705 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: OPERATIONS Aids to Navigation § 150.705 What are the requirements for maintaining and inspecting aids to navigation? (a) All...
... and maintaining sanitation and good management practices for the control of Salmonella and Mycoplasma... Sanitation Procedures § 147.26 Procedures for establishing isolation and maintaining sanitation and good management practices for the control of Salmonella and Mycoplasma infections. (a) The following procedures...
Cleveland, J.W.; Regenie, T.R.; Wilson, R.J.
Environmental qualification and equipment warrantee insurance stipulations should be supplemented with a reliable maintainability program structured to identify and control fast failing subcomponents within critical equipment. Anticipation of equipment subcomponent failures can control unnecessary plant off-line occurrences. Incorporation of reliability, availability, and maintainability considerations into plant maintenance policies on power generation and safety related items have positive cost benefit advantages
...) All your accounting and other financial records; (2) All minutes of meetings of directors.... (a) Maintaining your accounting records. You must establish and maintain your accounting records.... You must keep the following records at your principal place of business or, in the case of paragraph...
... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for maintaining current knowledge of waters to be navigated. 11.713 Section 11.713 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN REQUIREMENTS FOR OFFICER ENDORSEMENTS Professional Requirements for Pilots § 11.713 Requirements for maintaining curren...
Ebner, Nina; Rohrmeister, Klaudia; Winklbaur, Bernadette; Baewert, Andjela; Jagsch, Reinhold; Peternell, Alexandra; Thau, Kenneth; Fischer, Gabriele
Neonates born to opioid-maintained mothers are at risk of developing neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS), which often requires pharmacological treatment. This study examined the effect of opioid maintenance treatment on the incidence and timing of NAS, and compared two different NAS treatments (phenobarbital versus morphine hydrochloride). Fifty-three neonates born to opioid-maintained mothers were included in this study. The mothers received methadone (n=22), slow-release oral morphine (n=17) or buprenorphine (n=14) throughout pregnancy. Irrespective of maintenance treatment, all neonates showed APGAR scores comparable to infants of non-opioid dependent mothers. No difference was found between the three maintenance groups regarding neonatal weight, length or head circumference. Sixty percent (n=32) of neonates required treatment for NAS [68% in the methadone-maintained group (n=15), 82% in the morphine-maintained group (n=14), and 21% in the buprenorphine-maintained group (n=3)]. The mean duration from birth to requirement of NAS treatment was 33 h for the morphine-maintained group, 34 h for the buprenorphine-maintained group and 58 h for the methadone-maintained group. In neonates requiring NAS treatment, those receiving morphine required a significantly shorter mean duration of treatment (9.9 days) versus those treated with phenobarbital (17.7 days). Results suggest that morphine hydrochloride is preferable for neonates suffering NAS due to opioid withdrawal.
... take to maintain electronic information systems? 1236.26 Section 1236.26 Parks, Forests, and Public... electronic information systems? (a) Agencies must maintain inventories of electronic information systems and... electronic information systems that is adequate to: (1) Specify all technical characteristics necessary for...
Duncan, Jason E.; Lytle, Nikki K.; Zuniga, Alfredo; Goldstein, Lawrence S. B.
Axonal transport, a form of long-distance, bi-directional intracellular transport that occurs between the cell body and synaptic terminal, is critical in maintaining the function and viability of neurons. We have identified a requirement for the stathmin (stai) gene in the maintenance of axonal microtubules and regulation of axonal transport in Drosophila . The stai gene encodes a cytosolic phosphoprotein that regulates microtubule dynamics by partitioning tubulin dimers between pools of soluble tubulin and polymerized microtubules, and by directly binding to microtubules and promoting depolymerization. Analysis of stai function in Drosophila , which has a single stai gene, circumvents potential complications with studies performed in vertebrate systems in which mutant phenotypes may be compensated by genetic redundancy of other members of the stai gene family. This has allowed us to identify an essential function for stai in the maintenance of the integrity of axonal microtubules. In addition to the severe disruption in the abundance and architecture of microtubules in the axons of stai mutant Drosophila , we also observe additional neurological phenotypes associated with loss of stai function including a posterior paralysis and tail-flip phenotype in third instar larvae, aberrant accumulation of transported membranous organelles in stai deficient axons, a progressive bang-sensitive response to mechanical stimulation reminiscent of the class of Drosophila mutants used to model human epileptic seizures, and a reduced adult lifespan. Reductions in the levels of Kinesin-1, the primary anterograde motor in axonal transport, enhance these phenotypes. Collectively, our results indicate that stai has an important role in neuronal function, likely through the maintenance of microtubule integrity in the axons of nerves of the peripheral nervous system necessary to support and sustain long-distance axonal transport. PMID:23840848
Burokas, Aurelijus; Martín-García, Elena; Espinosa-Carrasco, Jose; Erb, Ionas; McDonald, Jerome; Notredame, Cedric; Dierssen, Mara; Maldonado, Rafael
A major problem in treating obesity is the high rate of relapse to abnormal food-taking habits after maintaining an energy balanced diet. Alterations of eating behavior such as compulsive-like behavior and lack of self-control over food intake play a critical role in relapse. In this study, we used an operant paradigm of food-seeking behavior on two different diet-induced obesity models, a free-choice chocolate-mixture diet and a high-fat diet with face validity for a rapid development of obesity or for unhealthy food regularly consumed in our societies. A reduced operant performance and motivation for the hedonic value of palatable chocolate pellets was revealed in both obesity mouse models. However, only mice exposed to high-fat diet showed an increased compulsive-like behavior in the absence of the reinforcer further characterized by impaired operant learning, enhanced impulsivity and intensified inflexibility. We used principal component analysis to globally identify the specific behaviors responsible for the differences among diet groups. Learning impairment and inflexible behaviors contributed to a first principal component, explaining the largest proportion of the variance in the high-fat diet mice phenotype. Reinforcement, impulsion and compulsion were the main contributors to the second principal component explaining the differences in the chocolate-mixture mice behavioral phenotype. These behaviors were not exclusive of chocolate group because some high-fat individuals showed similar values on this component. These data indicate that extended access to hypercaloric diets differentially modifies operant behavior learning, behavioral flexibility, impulsive-like and compulsive-like behavior, and these effects were dependent on the exposure to each specific diet. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Introduction Stromal-epithelial interactions play a fundamental role in tissue homeostasis, controlling cell proliferation and differentiation. Not surprisingly, aberrant stromal-epithelial interactions contribute to malignancies. Studies of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying these interactions require ex vivo experimental model systems that recapitulate the complexity of human tissue without compromising the differentiation and proliferation potentials of human primary cells. Methods We isolated and characterized human breast epithelial and mesenchymal precursors from reduction mammoplasty tissue and tagged them with lentiviral vectors. We assembled heterotypic co-cultures and compared mesenchymal and epithelial cells to cells in corresponding monocultures by analyzing growth, differentiation potentials, and gene expression profiles. Results We show that heterotypic culture of non-immortalized human primary breast epithelial and mesenchymal precursors maintains their proliferation and differentiation potentials and constrains their growth. We further describe the gene expression profiles of stromal and epithelial cells in co-cultures and monocultures and show increased expression of the tumor growth factor beta (TGFβ) family member inhibin beta A (INHBA) in mesenchymal cells grown as co-cultures compared with monocultures. Notably, overexpression of INHBA in mesenchymal cells increases colony formation potential of epithelial cells, suggesting that it contributes to the dynamic reciprocity between breast mesenchymal and epithelial cells. Conclusions The described heterotypic co-culture system will prove useful for further characterization of the molecular mechanisms mediating interactions between human normal or neoplastic breast epithelial cells and the stroma, and will provide a framework to test the relevance of the ever-increasing number of oncogenomic alterations identified in human breast cancer. PMID:24916766
Paul, Jean François; Virag, Ronald
There are men who suffer from unsustainable erections without any identified cause of erectile dysfunction, raising the question if anatomical alterations could be involved. Since early anatomical studies, it has been proposed that to achieve full penile rigidity, the blood must be blocked inside the penis by compression of the deep dorsal vein (DDV), the main venous collector under pubic symphysis. Using a recently developed caverno computed tomography (CT) scan technique, allowing the evaluation of the venous drainage of the corpora cavernosa (CC) during erection, we have studied some anatomical conditions of this important part of the erectile phenomenon. Puboischial rami angles were measured in axial CT images and calculated strictly on the upper insertion point of the CC, using axial submillimeter slices in 37 patients divided into 3 groups depending on the results of the caverno CT scan: (i) no leak; (ii) superficial veins leaking; and (iii) drainage through the DDV and/or preprostatic plexus. In addition same angles were measured in two randomly unselected populations of men (N = 30), and women (N = 23) who underwent pelvic CT scan for various reasons, unrelated to their sexual or genital condition. The angles made by both puboischial rami were measured in patients with and without veno-occlusive dysfunction and in unselected samples of men and women. There is a significantly wider angle made by both puboischial rami in men without complete erection and without evidence of anomalous venous drainage (group 3) (72.2° ± 4.7° standard deviation [SD]), compared with both men with normal erection (group 1) (57.5 ± 5° SD) P drainage (group 2) (57.7 ± 6° SD) P < 0.00001. If confirmed in larger samples, these results raise new questions on the mechanism and the role of these significant anatomical variations, yet unknown, in maintaining or not full rigid erections. © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.
Han, Yan; Wu, Chunlei; Wang, Jing; Liu, Na
The major cause of death in osteosarcoma is the invasion and metastasis. Better understanding of the molecular mechanism of osteosarcoma invasion is essential in developing effective tumor-suppressive therapies. Interaction between chemokine receptors plays a crucial role in regulating osteosarcoma invasion. Here, we investigated the relationship between CXCR7 and CXCR4 in osteosarcoma invasion induced by bone marrow microenvironment. Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were co-cultured with osteosarcoma cells to mimic actual bone marrow microenvironment. Osteosarcoma cell invasion and CXCL12/CXCR4 activation were observed within this co-culture model. Interestingly, in this co-culture model, osteosarcoma cell invasion was not inhibited by suppressing CXCR4 expression with neutralizing antibody or specific inhibitor AMD3100. Downstream signaling extracellular signal-regulated kinase and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 were not significantly affected by CXCR4 inhibition. However, suppressing CXCR4 led to CXCR7 upregulation. Constitutive expression of CXCR7 could maintain osteosarcoma cell invasion when CXCR4 was suppressed. Simultaneously, inhibiting CXCR4 and CXCR7 compromised osteosarcoma invasion in co-culture system and suppressed extracellular signal-regulated kinase and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 signals. Moreover, bone marrow microenvironment, not CXCL12 alone, is required for CXCR7 activation after CXCR4 suppression. Taken together, suppressing CXCR4 is not enough to impede osteosarcoma invasion in bone marrow microenvironment since CXCR7 is activated to sustain invasion. Therefore, inhibiting both CXCR4 and CXCR7 could be a promising strategy in controlling osteosarcoma invasion.
Full Text Available The Resistance to Powdery Mildew 8 (RPW8 locus confers broad-spectrum resistance to powdery mildew in Arabidopsis thaliana. There are four Homologous to RPW8s (BrHRs in Brassica rapa and three in B. oleracea (BoHRs. B. napus (Bn is derived from diploidization of a hybrid between B. rapa and B. oleracea, thus should have seven homologs of RPW8 (BnHRs. It is unclear whether these genes are still maintained or lost in B. napus after diploidization and how they might have been evolved. Here we reported the identification and sequence polymorphisms of BnHRs from a set of B. napus accessions. Our data indicated that while the BoHR copy from B. oleracea is highly conserved, the BrHR copy from B. rapa is relatively variable in the B. napus genome owing to multiple evolutionary events, such as gene loss, point mutation, insertion, deletion and intragenic recombination. Given the overall high sequence homology of BnHR genes, it is not surprising that both intragenic recombination between two orthologs and two paralogs were detected in B. napus, which may explain the loss of BoHR genes in some B. napus accessions. When ectopically expressed in Arabidopsis, a C-terminally truncated version of BnHRa and BnHRb, as well as the full length BnHRd fused with YFP at their C-termini could trigger cell death in the absence of pathogens and enhanced resistance to powdery mildew disease. Moreover, subcellular localization analysis showed that both BnHRa-YFP and BnHRb-YFP were mainly localized to the extra-haustorial membrane (EHM encasing the haustorium of powdery mildew. Taken together, our data suggest that the duplicated BnHR genes might have been subjected to differential selection and at least some may play a role in defense and could serve as resistance resource in engineering disease-resistant plants.
Li, Qin; Li, Jing; Sun, Jin-Long; Ma, Xian-Feng; Wang, Ting-Ting; Berkey, Robert; Yang, Hui; Niu, Ying-Ze; Fan, Jing; Li, Yan; Xiao, Shunyuan; Wang, Wen-Ming
The Resistance to Powdery Mildew 8 (RPW8) locus confers broad-spectrum resistance to powdery mildew in Arabidopsis thaliana. There are four Homologous to RPW8s (BrHRs) in Brassica rapa and three in Brassica oleracea (BoHRs). Brassica napus (Bn) is derived from diploidization of a hybrid between B. rapa and B. oleracea, thus should have seven homologs of RPW8 (BnHRs). It is unclear whether these genes are still maintained or lost in B. napus after diploidization and how they might have been evolved. Here, we reported the identification and sequence polymorphisms of BnHRs from a set of B. napus accessions. Our data indicated that while the BoHR copy from B. oleracea is highly conserved, the BrHR copy from B. rapa is relatively variable in the B. napus genome owing to multiple evolutionary events, such as gene loss, point mutation, insertion, deletion, and intragenic recombination. Given the overall high sequence homology of BnHR genes, it is not surprising that both intragenic recombination between two orthologs and two paralogs were detected in B. napus, which may explain the loss of BoHR genes in some B. napus accessions. When ectopically expressed in Arabidopsis, a C-terminally truncated version of BnHRa and BnHRb, as well as the full length BnHRd fused with YFP at their C-termini could trigger cell death in the absence of pathogens and enhanced resistance to powdery mildew disease. Moreover, subcellular localization analysis showed that both BnHRa-YFP and BnHRb-YFP were mainly localized to the extra-haustorial membrane encasing the haustorium of powdery mildew. Taken together, our data suggest that the duplicated BnHR genes might have been subjected to differential selection and at least some may play a role in defense and could serve as resistance resource in engineering disease-resistant plants.
Zachary C Ruhe
Full Text Available Contact-dependent growth inhibition (CDI systems are widespread amongst Gram-negative bacteria where they play important roles in inter-cellular competition and biofilm formation. CDI+ bacteria use cell-surface CdiA proteins to bind neighboring bacteria and deliver C-terminal toxin domains. CDI+ cells also express CdiI immunity proteins that specifically neutralize toxins delivered from adjacent siblings. Genomic analyses indicate that cdi loci are commonly found on plasmids and genomic islands, suggesting that these Type 5 secretion systems are spread through horizontal gene transfer. Here, we examine whether CDI toxin and immunity activities serve to stabilize mobile genetic elements using a minimal F plasmid that fails to partition properly during cell division. This F plasmid is lost from Escherichia coli populations within 50 cell generations, but is maintained in ~60% of the cells after 100 generations when the plasmid carries the cdi gene cluster from E. coli strain EC93. By contrast, the ccdAB "plasmid addiction" module normally found on F exerts only a modest stabilizing effect. cdi-dependent plasmid stabilization requires the BamA receptor for CdiA, suggesting that plasmid-free daughter cells are inhibited by siblings that retain the CDI+ plasmid. In support of this model, the CDI+ F plasmid is lost rapidly from cells that carry an additional cdiI immunity gene on a separate plasmid. These results indicate that plasmid stabilization occurs through elimination of non-immune cells arising in the population via plasmid loss. Thus, genetic stabilization reflects a strong selection for immunity to CDI. After long-term passage for more than 300 generations, CDI+ plasmids acquire mutations that increase copy number and result in 100% carriage in the population. Together, these results show that CDI stabilizes genetic elements through a toxin-mediated surveillance mechanism in which cells that lose the CDI system are detected and eliminated by
Nagaria, Pratik; Robert, Carine; Rassool, Feyruz V
Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) represent the point of origin of all cells in a given organism and must protect their genomes from both endogenous and exogenous genotoxic stress. DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are one of the most lethal forms of damage, and failure to adequately repair DSBs would not only compromise the ability of SCs to self-renew and differentiate, but will also lead to genomic instability and disease. Herein, we describe the mechanisms by which ESCs respond to DSB-inducing agents such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ionizing radiation, compared to somatic cells. We will also discuss whether the DSB response is fully reprogrammed in induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and the role of the DNA damage response (DDR) in the reprogramming of these cells. ESCs have distinct mechanisms to protect themselves against DSBs and oxidative stress compared to somatic cells. The response to damage and stress is crucial for the maintenance of self-renewal and differentiation capacity in SCs. iPSCs appear to reprogram some of the responses to genotoxic stress. However, it remains to be determined if iPSCs also retain some DDR characteristics of the somatic cells of origin. The mechanisms regulating the genomic integrity in ESCs and iPSCs are critical for its safe use in regenerative medicine and may shed light on the pathways and factors that maintain genomic stability, preventing diseases such as cancer. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Biochemistry of Stem Cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Motonishi, Shuta; Wada, Takehiko; Ishimoto, Yu; Ohse, Takamoto; Matsusaka, Taiji; Kubota, Naoto; Shimizu, Akira; Kadowaki, Takashi; Tobe, Kazuyuki
Recent studies have highlighted the renoprotective effect of sirtuin1 (SIRT1), a deacetylase that contributes to cellular regulation. However, the pathophysiologic role of SIRT1 in podocytes remains unclear. Here, we investigated the function of SIRT1 in podocytes. We first established podocyte-specific Sirt1 knockout (SIRT1pod−/−) mice. We then induced glomerular disease by nephrotoxic serum injection. The increase in urinary albumin excretion and BUN and the severity of glomerular injury were all significantly greater in SIRT1pod−/− mice than in wild-type mice. Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence showed a significant decrease in podocyte-specific proteins in SIRT1pod−/− mice, and electron microscopy showed marked exacerbation of podocyte injury, including actin cytoskeleton derangement in SIRT1pod−/− mice compared with wild-type mice. Protamine sulfate-induced podocyte injury was also exacerbated by podocyte-specific SIRT1 deficiency. In vitro, actin cytoskeleton derangement in H2O2-treated podocytes became prominent when the cells were pretreated with SIRT1 inhibitors. Conversely, this H2O2-induced derangement was ameliorated by SIRT1 activation. Furthermore, SIRT1 activation deacetylated the actin-binding and -polymerizing protein cortactin in the nucleus and facilitated deacetylated cortactin localization in the cytoplasm. Cortactin knockdown or inhibition of the nuclear export of cortactin induced actin cytoskeleton derangement and dissociation of cortactin from F-actin, suggesting the necessity of cytoplasmic cortactin for maintenance of the actin cytoskeleton. Taken together, these findings indicate that SIRT1 protects podocytes and prevents glomerular injury by deacetylating cortactin and thereby, maintaining actin cytoskeleton integrity. PMID:25424328
Judy Mill RN, PhD
Full Text Available Nurses are knowledgeable about issues that affect quality and equity of care and are well qualified to inform policy, yet their expertise is seldom acknowledged and their input infrequently invited. In 2007, a large multidisciplinary team of researchers and decision-makers from Canada and five low- and middle-income countries (Barbados, Jamaica, Uganda, Kenya, and South Africa received funding to implement a participatory action research (PAR program entitled “Strengthening Nurses' Capacity for HIV Policy Development in sub-Saharan Africa and the Caribbean.” The goal of the research program was to explore and promote nurses' involvement in HIV policy development and to improve nursing practice in countries with a high HIV disease burden. A core element of the PAR program was the enhancement of the research capacity, and particularly qualitative capacity, of nurses through the use of mentorship, role-modeling, and the enhancement of institutional support. In this article we: (a describe the PAR program and research team; (b situate the research program by discussing attitudes to qualitative research in the study countries; (c highlight the incremental formal and informal qualitative research capacity building initiatives undertaken as part of this PAR program; (d describe the approaches used to maintain rigor while implementing a complex research program; and (e identify strategies to ensure that capacity building was locally-owned. We conclude with a discussion of challenges and opportunities and provide an informal analysis of the research capacity that was developed within our international team using a PAR approach.
Smirnova, D; Walters, J; Fine, J; Muchnik-Rozanov, Y; Paz, M; Lerner, V; Belmaker, R H; Bersudsky, Y
Due to the large migrations over the past three decades, large numbers of individuals with schizophrenia are learning a second language and being seen in clinics in that second language. We conducted within-subject comparisons to clarify the contribution of clinical, linguistic and bilingual features in the first and second languages of bilinguals with schizophrenia. Ten bilingual Russian(L1) and Hebrew(L2) proficient patients, who developed clinical schizophrenia after achieving proficiency in both languages, were selected from 60 candidates referred for the study; they were resident in Israel 7-32 years with 3-10 years from immigration to diagnosis. Clinical, linguistic and fluency markers were coded in transcripts of clinical interviews. There was a trend toward more verbal productivity in the first language (L1) than the second language (L2). Clinical speech markers associated with thought disorder and cognitive impairment (blocking and topic shift) were similar in both languages. Among linguistic markers of schizophrenia, Incomplete syntax and Speech role reference were significantly more frequent in L2 than L1; Lexical repetition and Unclear reference demonstrated a trend in the same direction. For fluency phenomena, Discourse markers were more prevalent in L1 than L2, and Codeswitching was similar across languages, showing that the patients were attuned to the socio-pragmatics of language use. More frequent linguistic markers of schizophrenia in L2 show more impairment in the syntactic/semantic components of language, reflecting greater thought and cognitive dysfunction. Patients are well able to acquire a second language. Nevertheless, schizophrenia finds expression in that language. Finally, more frequent fluency markers in L1 suggests motivation to maintain fluency, evidenced in particular by codeswitched L2 lexical items, a compensatory resource. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tahimic, Candice; Bahl, Disha; Shirazi-Fard, Yasaman; Marsh, Timothy; Schreurs, Anne-Sofie; Rael, Victoria E.; Glikbarg, Chloe; Debnath, Jayantha; Globus, Ruth K.
Weightlessness and radiation, two unique elements of space, profoundly decreases bone mass. This bone loss is attributed to increased activity of bone-resorbing osteoclasts and functional changes in bone-forming osteoblasts, cells that give rise to mature osteocytes. Our long-term goal is to identify signaling pathways that may be targeted to mitigate bone loss in scenarios of space exploration, radiotherapy and accidental radiation exposure. We have previously shown that exposure of MLO-Y4 osteocyte-like cells to simulated space radiation (56Fe) increased the expression of the pro-osteoclastogenic gene rankl and decreased protein levels of LC3B-II, a key player in autophagy. In this current study, we aimed to further elucidate the role of autophagy in maintaining structural integrity of the skeleton. We hypothesize that loss of autophagy in bone leads to an imbalance in pro-osteoclastogenic and pro-osteogenic signals, resulting in net bone loss. To test our hypothesis we performed global postnatal deletion of Atg12 using tamoxifeninducible Cre recombinase under the control of the CAG promoter. Six-week-old CAGCreERT2/ FloxAtg12 animals were treated daily with Tamoxifen or Vehicle (Control, oil only) for five days and euthanasia performed two weeks after the onset of treatment. Percent change in body weights (prior to treatment and at euthanasia) was not significantly different between treatment groups within the same gender. Compared to Vehicle (Control) groups, Tamoxifen (Atg12 iKO) groups showed decreased LC3B-I to II conversion and increased p62 protein levels, consistent with loss of autophagy. Quantitative PCR revealed increased expression of proosteoclastogenic cytokines mcp1 and rankl in bone and marrow respectively in male iKOs compared to male controls. Expression levels of these genes were not significantly altered in the Atg12 iKO females compared to females controls. Microcomputed tomography of tibiae revealed decreased cortical bone volume, cortical
Full Text Available Laboratory conditions nullify the extrinsic factors that determine the wild expected lifespan and release the intrinsic or potential lifespan. Thus, wild animals reared in a laboratory often show an increased lifespan, and consequently an increased senescence phase. Senescence is associated with a broad suite of physiological changes, including a decreased responsiveness of the circadian system. The time-keeping hormone melatonin, an important chemical player in this system, is suspected to have an anti-aging role. The Greater White-toothed shrew Crocidura russula is an ideal study model to address questions related to aging and associated changes in biological functions: its lifespan is short and is substantially increased in captivity; daily and seasonal rhythms, while very marked the first year of life, are dramatically altered during the senescence process which starts during the second year. Here we report on an investigation of the effects of melatonin administration on locomotor activity of aging shrews.1 The diel fluctuations of melatonin levels in young, adult and aging shrews were quantified in the pineal gland and plasma. In both, a marked diel rhythm (low diurnal concentration; high nocturnal concentration was present in young animals but then decreased in adults, and, as a result of a loss in the nocturnal production, was absent in old animals. 2 Daily locomotor activity rhythm was monitored in pre-senescent animals that had received either a subcutaneous melatonin implant, an empty implant or no implant at all. In non-implanted and sham-implanted shrews, the rhythm was well marked in adults. A marked degradation in both period and amplitude, however, started after the age of 14-16 months. This pattern was considerably delayed in melatonin-implanted shrews who maintained the daily rhythm for significantly longer.This is the first long term study (>500 days observation of the same individuals that investigates the effects of
Endo, Hiroko; Yukawa, Shintaro
Endo and Yukawa (2012) investigated the process of maintaining anger and demonstrated that a sense of unintegration of thoughts maintained anger by promoting recurrent thinking and avoidance behavior. Our present study examined how personality characteristics and situational factors affected the process of maintaining anger. Undergraduates (N=713) wrote about an anger episode, and completed questionnaires assessing their sense of unintegration of thoughts, recurrent thinking, avoidance behaviors, and maintaining anger. The questionnaires also assessed personality characteristics such as difficulty in identifying feelings, and situational factors such as the need for maintaining relationships, anger arousability, and meaning-making for the anger episode. The results of covariance structure analysis indicated that difficulties in identifying feelings and anger arousability contributed to maintaining anger by increasing the sense of unintegration of thoughts just after the episode. However, the need for maintaining relationships directly reduced the sense of unintegration of thoughts just after the episode, and indirectly decreased the present sense of unintegration of thoughts by meaning-making. Moreover, although recurrent thinking promoted the current sense of unintegration of thoughts, it also provided meaning.
Fuller, G.M.; Zahn, H.S.; Mantz, H.C.; Kaletta, G.R.; Waganer, L.M.; Carosella, L.A.; Conlee, J.L.
In this second phase the impact of unscheduled maintenance, several vacuum wall arrangements, and maintenance of other reactor interfacing subsystems and maintenance equipment are added to the evaluation of the maintainability of the fusion power reactor concepts. Four concepts are normalized to common performance parameters and evaluated for their capability to achieve availability and cost of electricity goals considering both scheduled and unscheduled maintenance. The results of this evaluation are used to generate a series of maintainability design guidelines and to select the more desirable features and design options which are used to configure a preliminary reactor concept having improved maintainability
Maintaining a PC is important, and troubleshooting a PC can be a challenge. Dan Gookin is great at explaining how to handle common PC problems, and he's provided a complete, plain-English manual in Troubleshooting & Maintaining Your PC All-in-One For Dummies. Liberally laced with Dan's famous humor and clear instructions, Troubleshooting & Maintaining Your PC All-in-One For Dummies is divided into six minibooks covering hardware, software, laptops, Internet, networking, and maintenance. Each one gives you some background on what causes common problems, to help you understand what's wrong as we
Full Text Available Information and collaboration patterns embedded in social networks play key roles in multilevel and polycentric modes of governance. However, modeling the dynamics of such social networks in multilevel settings has been seldom addressed in the literature. Here we use an adaptive social network model to elaborate the interplay between a central and a local government in order to maintain a polycentric governance. More specifically, our analysis explores in what ways specific policy choices made by a central agent affect the features of an emerging social network composed of local organizations and local users. Using two types of stylized policies, adaptive co-management and adaptive one-level management, we focus on the benefits of multi-level adaptive cooperation for network management. Our analysis uses viability theory to explore and to quantify the ability of these policies to achieve specific network properties. Viability theory gives the family of policies that enables maintaining the polycentric governance unlike optimal control that gives a unique blueprint. We found that the viability of the policies can change dramatically depending on the goals and features of the social network. For some social networks, we also found a very large difference between the viability of the adaptive one-level management and adaptive co-management policies. However, results also show that adaptive co-management doesn’t always provide benefits. Hence, we argue that applying viability theory to governance networks can help policy design by analyzing the trade-off between the costs of adaptive co-management and the benefits associated with its ability to maintain desirable social network properties in a polycentric governance framework.
.... According to one interpretation, decisions in the 199Os to reduce purchases of new equipment left the military with aging fleets of ships, aircraft, and armored vehicles that are increasingly expensive to maintain...
We are providing this report for your information and use. The audit was made at your request to examine the imprest funds maintained within the Office of the Inspector General, DoD, Arlington, Virginia...
Albashiry, N.M.; Voogt, J.M.; Pieters, J.M.
The Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET) curriculum requires continuous renewal and constant involvement of stakeholders in the redesign process. Due to a lack of curriculum design expertise, TVET institutions in developing contexts encounter challenges maintaining and advancing the
... DEMONSTRATION PROJECTS TO INCREASE CLIENT CHOICE PROGRAM What Post-Award Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee... maintain the records that the Secretary requires to conduct an evaluation of projects funded under this...
This project furthered the development of three strategies that could positively impact maintaining post-seismic operations of lifeline corridors. In Year 1, most of the focus : was on the development of the three individual strategies. In Year 2, a ...
Barabadi, Abbas; Barabady, Javad; Markeset, Tore
Traditional parametric methods for assessing maintainability most often only consider time to repair (TTR) as a single explanatory variable. However, to predict availability more precisely for high availability systems, a better model is needed to quantify the effect of operational environment on maintainability. The proportional repair model (PRM), which is developed based on proportional hazard model (PHM), may be used to analyze maintainability in the present of covariates. In the PRM, the effect of covariates is considered to be time independent. However this assumption may not be valid for some situations. The aim of this paper is to develop the Cox regression model and its extension in the presence of time-dependent covariates for determining maintainability. A simple case study is used to demonstrate how the model can be applied in a real case.
Conclusion: Normal testosterone levels maintain CC smooth muscle content and do not influence elastic fibers, collagen content and apoptotic index. Further studies should be performed in order to investigate the mechanisms by which androgen mediates its effects on CC structure.
Pandita, Raj K; Chow, Tracy T; Udayakumar, Durga; Bain, Amanda L; Cubeddu, Liza; Hunt, Clayton R; Shi, Wei; Horikoshi, Nobuo; Zhao, Yong; Wright, Woodring E; Khanna, Kum Kum; Shay, Jerry W; Pandita, Tej K
Proliferating mammalian stem and cancer cells express telomerase [telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT)] in an effort to extend chromosomal G-overhangs and maintain telomere ends. Telomerase-expressing cells also have higher levels of the single-stranded DNA-binding protein SSB1, which has a critical role in DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. Here, we report that SSB1 binds specifically to G-strand telomeric DNA in vitro and associates with telomeres in vivo. SSB1 interacts with the TERT catalytic subunit and regulates its interaction with telomeres. Deletion of SSB1 reduces TERT interaction with telomeres and leads to G-overhang loss. Although SSB1 is recruited to DSB sites, we found no corresponding change in TERT levels at these sites, implying that SSB1-TERT interaction relies upon a specific chromatin structure or context. Our findings offer an explanation for how telomerase is recruited to telomeres to facilitate G-strand DNA extension, a critical step in maintaining telomere ends and cell viability in all cancer cells. Cancer Res; 75(5); 858-69. ©2015 AACR. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.
Pandita, Raj K.; Chow, Tracy T.; Udayakumar, Durga; Bain, Amanda L.; Cubeddu, Liza; Hunt, Clayton R.; Shi, Wei; Horikoshi, Nobuo; Zhao, Yong; Wright, Woodring E.; Khanna, Kum Kum; Shay, Jerry W.; Pandita, Tej K.
Proliferating mammalian stem and cancer cells express telomerase (TERT) in an effort to extend chromosomal G-overhangs and maintain telomere ends. Telomerase-expressing cells also have higher levels of the single-stranded DNA binding protein SSB1, which has a critical role in DNA double-strand break repair. Here we report that SSB1 binds specifically to G-strand telomeric DNA in vitro and associates with telomeres in vivo. SSB1 interacted with the TERT catalytic subunit and regulates its interaction with telomeres. Deletion of SSB1 reduced TERT interaction with telomeres and lead to G-overhang loss. While SSB1 was recruited to DSB sites, we found no corresponding change in TERT levels at these sites, implying that SSB1-TERT interaction relied upon a specific chromatin structure or context. Our findings offer an explanation for how telomerase is recruited to telomeres to facilitate G-strand DNA extension, a critical step in maintaining telomere ends and cell viability in all cancer cells. PMID:25589350
E, Guangqi; Cao, Ying; Bhattacharya, Santanu; Dutta, Shamit; Wang, Enfeng; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata
Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) is one of the most important factors controlling angiogenesis. Although the functions of exogenous VEGF-A have been widely studied, the roles of endogenous VEGF-A remain unclear. Here we focused on the mechanistic functions of endogenous VEGF-A in endothelial cells. We found that it is complexed with VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR-2) and maintains a basal expression level for VEGFR-2 and its downstream signaling activation. Endogenous VEGF-A also controls expression of key endothelial specific genes including VEGFR-2, Tie-2, and vascular endothelial cadherin. Of importance, endogenous VEGF-A differs from exogenous VEGF-A by regulating VEGFR-2 transcription through mediation of FoxC2 binding to the FOX:ETS motif, and the complex formed by endogenous VEGF-A with VEGFR-2 is localized within the EEA1 (early endosome antigen 1) endosomal compartment. Taken together, our results emphasize the importance of endogenous VEGF-A in endothelial cells by regulating key vascular proteins and maintaining the endothelial homeostasis. PMID:22167188
Tran, Khiem A; Zhang, Xianming; Predescu, Dan; Huang, Xiaojia; Machado, Roberto F; Göthert, Joachim R; Malik, Asrar B; Valyi-Nagy, Tibor; Zhao, You-Yang
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) formed by brain endothelial cells interconnected by tight junctions is essential for the homeostasis of the central nervous system. Although studies have shown the importance of various signaling molecules in BBB formation during development, little is known about the molecular basis regulating the integrity of the adult BBB. Using a mouse model with tamoxifen-inducible endothelial cell-restricted disruption of ctnnb1 (iCKO), we show here that endothelial β-catenin signaling is essential for maintaining BBB integrity and central nervous system homeostasis in adult mice. The iCKO mice developed severe seizures accompanied by neuronal injury, multiple brain petechial hemorrhages, and central nervous system inflammation, and all had postictal death. Disruption of endothelial β-catenin induced BBB breakdown and downregulation of the specific tight junction proteins claudin-1 and -3 in adult brain endothelial cells. The clinical relevance of the data is indicated by the observation of decreased expression of claudin-1 and nuclear β-catenin in brain endothelial cells of hemorrhagic lesions of hemorrhagic stroke patients. These results demonstrate the prerequisite role of endothelial β-catenin in maintaining the integrity of adult BBB. The results suggest that BBB dysfunction secondary to defective β-catenin transcription activity is a key pathogenic factor in hemorrhagic stroke, seizure activity, and central nervous system inflammation. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
Kadar, K S; McKenna, L; Francis, K
Ageing and problems concerning the aged are an increasing and concerning reality in developing and underdeveloped countries such as Indonesia. Improving service quality is important to promote and maintain wellness of older persons, especially in rural areas. To explore programs and services offered to the elderly in a rural area of Indonesia to support them in promoting and maintaining their wellness. To describe roles and practices of health professionals and teams responsible for delivering services to older people. Action research was used with mixed method data collection (interview and survey). Results demonstrated that activities related to the elderly health programs were limited due to budget and facilities. Practices of health staff for elderly in the community focused on intervention tasks, rather than prevention. Lack of available information on the range of programs and services implemented in Indonesia for the elderly in community settings was a limitation of this study. Programs and services for older people have been implemented in Indonesia. However, these do not yet meet their needs, especially in rural areas. There is a need for greater focus on health promotion and illness prevention. Findings contribute to development of international knowledge in community health nursing, as these issues may not be only relevant to Indonesia. It is timely for governments, including in Indonesia, to evaluate health workforce needs in the community and appropriate educational qualifications for delivering optimal health services for older people. © 2014 International Council of Nurses.
Srivastava, Nikhil; Grover, Jyotika; Panthri, Prerna
ABSTRACT Despite the best efforts in prevention, premature loss of primary teeth continues to be a common problem in pediatric dentistry, resulting in disruption of arch integrity and adversely affecting the proper alignment of permanent successors. Space maintainers (SMs) are special appliances used for maintaining space created due to premature loss of primary teeth. Band and loop SM is mostly indicated for the premature loss of single primary molar, but this appliance has a number of limit...
Carreno, Victor A.
Pair-wise Trajectory Management (PTM) is a cockpit based delegated responsibility separation standard. When an air traffic service provider gives a PTM clearance to an aircraft and the flight crew accepts the clearance, the flight crew will maintain spacing and separation from a designated aircraft. A PTM along track algorithm will receive state information from the designated aircraft and from the own ship to produce speed guidance for the flight crew to maintain spacing and separation
Tseng, Po-Hsing.; Pilcher, Nick.
Maintaining port safety in full conformity with IMO standards is a requisite for every port and country. To do this, understanding the challenges and human factors involved is key. To date, much research has shed valuable light on these factors and considered how to address them. One aspect that is often noted is that both maintaining port safety and researching port safety presents numerous challenges. This paper considers both these aspects in the context of a case study of port safety in K...
Full Text Available Background: The present study is conducted to evaluate and compare the clinical performance of conventional band and loop space maintainer and fiber reinforced composite resin (FRCR space maintainers. Materials and Methods: A total of 45 extraction sites in the age group of 6–9 years having premature loss of primary molars or indicated for extraction were selected for the study. The patients were randomly divided into three groups as Group I, in which conventional band and loop space maintainer was given, Group II and Group III (FRCR, in which FRCR (everStick CandB and impregnated glass fibers (Interlig space maintainers were given, respectively. Patients were recalled at 3, 6, and 12-month interval for evaluation of all the three types of space maintainer. Results: Overall success rate of Group I was 86.7%, for Group II was 80%, and for Group III was 73.3% at the end of the study. Patient acceptability was significantly higher in Group II and Group III (FRCR as compared to Group I (Conventional band and loop. In Group I, cement loss and fracture of loop, whereas in Group II and Group III, debonding at enamel composite was the most common failure followed by debonding at fiber composite and fiber fracture. FRCR space maintainers were found to be cost-effective as compared to Group I. More linear changes and angular changes were recorded in Group I as compared to Group II and Group III but difference was not significant (P > 0.05. Conclusion: Only single (buccal surface application of FRCR space maintainers showed almost equal clinical efficacy compared to conventional band and loop space maintainer with significantly better patient acceptability, less cost, and time taken.
This manual provides the necessary guidance to contractor generator groups for developing and maintaining documentation of their pollution prevention (P2) program activities. Preparation of program documentation will demonstrate compliance with contractor and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requirements, as well as state and federal regulations. Contractor waste generator groups are no longer required to prepare and update facility waste minimization plans. Developing and maintaining program documentation replace this requirement
This paper presents a model for understanding behaviour of agents using and/or contributing to open source software. The model illustrates behaviour of agents under three licenses regimes: 1) The GPL, The BSD and 3) The Microsoft EULA. The latter license is not an open source license...... licenses induce different incentives and dynamics for maintainer and user-developer and the paper explains, from an economic standpoint, the mechanisms that ensure programs are developed and maintained under the three license regimes....
Sen, George L.; Reuter, Jason A.; Webster, Daniel E.; Zhu, Lilly; Khavari, Paul A.
Progenitor cells maintain self-renewing tissues throughout life by sustaining their capacity for proliferation while suppressing cell cycle exit and terminal differentiation1,2. DNA methylation3,4,5 provides a potential epigenetic mechanism for the cellular memory needed to preserve the somatic progenitor state through repeated cell divisions. DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1)6,7 maintains DNA methylation patterns after cellular replication. Although dispensable for embryonic stem cell maintena...
Scolari, Lara; Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin; Turchinovich, Dmitry
A polarization maintaining filter based on a liquid-crystal-photonic-bandgap-fiber is demonstrated. Its polarization extinction ratio is 14 dB at 1550 nm. Its tunability is 150 nm.......A polarization maintaining filter based on a liquid-crystal-photonic-bandgap-fiber is demonstrated. Its polarization extinction ratio is 14 dB at 1550 nm. Its tunability is 150 nm....
Ronchieri, Elisabetta; Grazia Pia, Maria; Canaparo, Marco
Over time computer scientists have been provided metrics to measure software maintainability. In existing literature, a large number of references can be found about this topic; nevertheless, a lack of quantitative assessment of maintainability metrics has been observed. In this paper, we summarize the challenges of adopting code measurements in the context of physics software system. In this pilot study, we have used Geant4 - a twenty-year-old software system - to conduct this research and set the grounds for further discussion.
Full Text Available CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cells involved in the regulation of self- tolerance and normality of homeostasis. CD122 deficient mice are model animals that have an abnormal immune system characteristically have a high number of activated T cells and TER-119 cell decreased. Here we showed evidence that the transfer of CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cells derived from normal mice to CD122- defficient neonates prevent the development of activated memory T cells and elicit TER-119 differentiation. Bone marrow reconstitution derived from CD122-/- mice to normal mice resulting tolerance to individual that genetically different. Importantly, CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cells derived from normal mice can replace CD4+ CD25+ cells derived from CD122-/- mice. The results of this experiment suggest that regulatory T cells from normal mice exert a critical role in maintaining peripheral tolerance and controlling hematopoietic disorder.