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Sample records for main-sequence eclipsing binaries

  1. ABSOLUTE PROPERTIES OF THE PRE-MAIN-SEQUENCE ECLIPSING BINARY STAR NP PERSEI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacy, Claud H. Sandberg [Physics Department, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States); Fekel, Francis C.; Muterspaugh, Matthew W. [Center of Excellence in Information Systems, Tennessee State University, Nashville, TN 37209 (United States); Pavlovski, Krešimir [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Bijenička cesta 32, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Torres, Guillermo, E-mail: clacy@uark.edu, E-mail: fekel@evans.tsuniv.edu, E-mail: pavlovski@phy.hr, E-mail: gtorres@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: matthew1@coe.tsuniv.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2016-07-01

    NP Per is a well-detached, 2.2 day eclipsing binary whose components are both pre-main-sequence stars that are still contracting toward the main-sequence phase of evolution. We report extensive photometric and spectroscopic observations with which we have determined their properties accurately. Their surface temperatures are quite different: 6420 ± 90 K for the larger F5 primary star and 4540 ± 160 K for the smaller K5e star. Their masses and radii are 1.3207 ± 0.0087 solar masses and 1.372 ± 0.013 solar radii for the primary, and 1.0456 ± 0.0046 solar masses and 1.229 ± 0.013 solar radii for the secondary. The orbital period is variable over long periods of time. A comparison of the observations with current stellar evolution models from MESA indicates that the stars cannot be fit at a single age: the secondary appears significantly younger than the primary. If the stars are assumed to be coeval and to have the age of the primary (17 Myr), then the secondary is larger and cooler than predicted by current models. The H α spectral line of the secondary component is completely filled by, presumably, chromospheric emission due to a magnetic activity cycle.

  2. YSOVAR: SIX PRE-MAIN-SEQUENCE ECLIPSING BINARIES IN THE ORION NEBULA CLUSTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales-Calderon, M.; Stauffer, J. R.; Rebull, L. M. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Stassun, K. G. [Physics and Astronomy Department, Vanderbilt University, 1807 Station B, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Vrba, F. J. [U. S. Naval Observatory, Flagstaff Station, 10391 W. Naval Observatory Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001-8521 (United States); Prato, L. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Hillenbrand, L. A.; Carpenter, J. M. [Astronomy Department, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Terebey, S.; Angione, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, California State University at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90032 (United States); Covey, K. R. [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, 226 Space Sciences Building, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Terndrup, D. M. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Gutermuth, R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Song, I. [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-2451 (United States); Plavchan, P. [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Marchis, F. [SETI Institute, Carl Sagan Center, 189 N San Bernado Av, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Garcia, E. V. [Department of Physics, Fisk University, 1000 17th Ave. N, Nashville, TN 37208 (United States); Margheim, S. [Gemini Observatory, Southern Operations Center, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Luhman, K. L. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Irwin, J. M., E-mail: mariamc@cab.inta-csic.es [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2012-07-10

    Eclipsing binaries (EBs) provide critical laboratories for empirically testing predictions of theoretical models of stellar structure and evolution. Pre-main-sequence (PMS) EBs are particularly valuable, both due to their rarity and the highly dynamic nature of PMS evolution, such that a dense grid of PMS EBs is required to properly calibrate theoretical PMS models. Analyzing multi-epoch, multi-color light curves for {approx}2400 candidate Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC) members from our Warm Spitzer Exploration Science Program YSOVAR, we have identified 12 stars whose light curves show eclipse features. Four of these 12 EBs are previously known. Supplementing our light curves with follow-up optical and near-infrared spectroscopy, we establish two of the candidates as likely field EBs lying behind the ONC. We confirm the remaining six candidate systems, however, as newly identified ONC PMS EBs. These systems increase the number of known PMS EBs by over 50% and include the highest mass ({theta}{sup 1} Ori E, for which we provide a complete set of well-determined parameters including component masses of 2.807 and 2.797 M{sub Sun }) and longest-period (ISOY J053505.71-052354.1, P {approx} 20 days) PMS EBs currently known. In two cases ({theta}{sup 1} Ori E and ISOY J053526.88-044730.7), enough photometric and spectroscopic data exist to attempt an orbit solution and derive the system parameters. For the remaining systems, we combine our data with literature information to provide a preliminary characterization sufficient to guide follow-up investigations of these rare, benchmark systems.

  3. YSOVAR: SIX PRE-MAIN-SEQUENCE ECLIPSING BINARIES IN THE ORION NEBULA CLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales-Calderón, M.; Stauffer, J. R.; Rebull, L. M.; Stassun, K. G.; Vrba, F. J.; Prato, L.; Hillenbrand, L. A.; Carpenter, J. M.; Terebey, S.; Angione, J.; Covey, K. R.; Terndrup, D. M.; Gutermuth, R.; Song, I.; Plavchan, P.; Marchis, F.; García, E. V.; Margheim, S.; Luhman, K. L.; Irwin, J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Eclipsing binaries (EBs) provide critical laboratories for empirically testing predictions of theoretical models of stellar structure and evolution. Pre-main-sequence (PMS) EBs are particularly valuable, both due to their rarity and the highly dynamic nature of PMS evolution, such that a dense grid of PMS EBs is required to properly calibrate theoretical PMS models. Analyzing multi-epoch, multi-color light curves for ∼2400 candidate Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC) members from our Warm Spitzer Exploration Science Program YSOVAR, we have identified 12 stars whose light curves show eclipse features. Four of these 12 EBs are previously known. Supplementing our light curves with follow-up optical and near-infrared spectroscopy, we establish two of the candidates as likely field EBs lying behind the ONC. We confirm the remaining six candidate systems, however, as newly identified ONC PMS EBs. These systems increase the number of known PMS EBs by over 50% and include the highest mass (θ 1 Ori E, for which we provide a complete set of well-determined parameters including component masses of 2.807 and 2.797 M ☉ ) and longest-period (ISOY J053505.71–052354.1, P ∼ 20 days) PMS EBs currently known. In two cases (θ 1 Ori E and ISOY J053526.88–044730.7), enough photometric and spectroscopic data exist to attempt an orbit solution and derive the system parameters. For the remaining systems, we combine our data with literature information to provide a preliminary characterization sufficient to guide follow-up investigations of these rare, benchmark systems.

  4. Empirical tests of pre-main-sequence stellar evolution models with eclipsing binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stassun, Keivan G.; Feiden, Gregory A.; Torres, Guillermo

    2014-06-01

    We examine the performance of standard pre-main-sequence (PMS) stellar evolution models against the accurately measured properties of a benchmark sample of 26 PMS stars in 13 eclipsing binary (EB) systems having masses 0.04-4.0 M⊙ and nominal ages ≈1-20 Myr. We provide a definitive compilation of all fundamental properties for the EBs, with a careful and consistent reassessment of observational uncertainties. We also provide a definitive compilation of the various PMS model sets, including physical ingredients and limits of applicability. No set of model isochrones is able to successfully reproduce all of the measured properties of all of the EBs. In the H-R diagram, the masses inferred for the individual stars by the models are accurate to better than 10% at ≳1 M⊙, but below 1 M⊙ they are discrepant by 50-100%. Adjusting the observed radii and temperatures using empirical relations for the effects of magnetic activity helps to resolve the discrepancies in a few cases, but fails as a general solution. We find evidence that the failure of the models to match the data is linked to the triples in the EB sample; at least half of the EBs possess tertiary companions. Excluding the triples, the models reproduce the stellar masses to better than ∼10% in the H-R diagram, down to 0.5 M⊙, below which the current sample is fully contaminated by tertiaries. We consider several mechanisms by which a tertiary might cause changes in the EB properties and thus corrupt the agreement with stellar model predictions. We show that the energies of the tertiary orbits are comparable to that needed to potentially explain the scatter in the EB properties through injection of heat, perhaps involving tidal interaction. It seems from the evidence at hand that this mechanism, however it operates in detail, has more influence on the surface properties of the stars than on their internal structure, as the lithium abundances are broadly in good agreement with model predictions. The

  5. LUMINOSITY DISCREPANCY IN THE EQUAL-MASS, PRE-MAIN-SEQUENCE ECLIPSING BINARY PAR 1802: NON-COEVALITY OR TIDAL HEATING?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gómez Maqueo Chew, Yilen; Stassun, Keivan G.; Hebb, Leslie; Prša, Andrej; Stempels, Eric; Barnes, Rory; Heller, René; Mathieu, Robert D.

    2012-01-01

    Parenago 1802, a member of the ∼1 Myr Orion Nebula Cluster, is a double-lined, detached eclipsing binary in a 4.674 day orbit, with equal-mass components (M 2 /M 1 = 0.985 ± 0.029). Here we present extensive VI C JHK S light curves (LCs) spanning ∼15 yr, as well as a Keck/High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer (HIRES) optical spectrum. The LCs evince a third light source that is variable with a period of 0.73 days, and is also manifested in the high-resolution spectrum, strongly indicating the presence of a third star in the system, probably a rapidly rotating Classical T Tauri star. We incorporate this third light into our radial velocity and LC modeling of the eclipsing pair, measuring accurate masses (M 1 = 0.391 ± 0.032 and M 2 = 0.385 ± 0.032 M ☉ ), radii (R 1 = 1.73 ± 0.02 and R 2 = 1.62 ± 0.02 R ☉ ), and temperature ratio (T eff,1 /T eff,2 = 1.0924 ± 0.0017). Thus, the radii of the eclipsing stars differ by 6.9% ± 0.8%, the temperatures differ by 9.2% ± 0.2%, and consequently the luminosities differ by 62% ± 3%, despite having masses equal to within 3%. This could be indicative of an age difference of ∼3 × 10 5 yr between the two eclipsing stars, perhaps a vestige of the binary formation history. We find that the eclipsing pair is in an orbit that has not yet fully circularized, e = 0.0166 ± 0.003. In addition, we measure the rotation rate of the eclipsing stars to be 4.629 ± 0.006 days; they rotate slightly faster than their 4.674 day orbit. The non-zero eccentricity and super-synchronous rotation suggest that the eclipsing pair should be tidally interacting, so we calculate the tidal history of the system according to different tidal evolution theories. We find that tidal heating effects can explain the observed luminosity difference of the eclipsing pair, providing an alternative to the previously suggested age difference.

  6. LUMINOSITY DISCREPANCY IN THE EQUAL-MASS, PRE-MAIN-SEQUENCE ECLIPSING BINARY PAR 1802: NON-COEVALITY OR TIDAL HEATING?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez Maqueo Chew, Yilen; Stassun, Keivan G.; Hebb, Leslie [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Prsa, Andrej [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Villanova University, Villanova, PA 19085 (United States); Stempels, Eric [Department of Astronomy and Space Physics, Uppsala University, SE-752 67 Uppsala (Sweden); Barnes, Rory [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Heller, Rene [Leibniz-Institut fuer Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, 14482 Potsdam (Germany); Mathieu, Robert D., E-mail: yilen.gomez@vanderbilt.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2012-01-20

    Parenago 1802, a member of the {approx}1 Myr Orion Nebula Cluster, is a double-lined, detached eclipsing binary in a 4.674 day orbit, with equal-mass components (M{sub 2}/M{sub 1} = 0.985 {+-} 0.029). Here we present extensive VI{sub C} JHK{sub S} light curves (LCs) spanning {approx}15 yr, as well as a Keck/High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer (HIRES) optical spectrum. The LCs evince a third light source that is variable with a period of 0.73 days, and is also manifested in the high-resolution spectrum, strongly indicating the presence of a third star in the system, probably a rapidly rotating Classical T Tauri star. We incorporate this third light into our radial velocity and LC modeling of the eclipsing pair, measuring accurate masses (M{sub 1} = 0.391 {+-} 0.032 and M{sub 2} = 0.385 {+-} 0.032 M{sub Sun }), radii (R{sub 1} = 1.73 {+-} 0.02 and R{sub 2} = 1.62 {+-} 0.02 R{sub Sun }), and temperature ratio (T{sub eff,1}/T{sub eff,2} = 1.0924 {+-} 0.0017). Thus, the radii of the eclipsing stars differ by 6.9% {+-} 0.8%, the temperatures differ by 9.2% {+-} 0.2%, and consequently the luminosities differ by 62% {+-} 3%, despite having masses equal to within 3%. This could be indicative of an age difference of {approx}3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} yr between the two eclipsing stars, perhaps a vestige of the binary formation history. We find that the eclipsing pair is in an orbit that has not yet fully circularized, e = 0.0166 {+-} 0.003. In addition, we measure the rotation rate of the eclipsing stars to be 4.629 {+-} 0.006 days; they rotate slightly faster than their 4.674 day orbit. The non-zero eccentricity and super-synchronous rotation suggest that the eclipsing pair should be tidally interacting, so we calculate the tidal history of the system according to different tidal evolution theories. We find that tidal heating effects can explain the observed luminosity difference of the eclipsing pair, providing an alternative to the previously suggested age

  7. Orbital motion in pre-main sequence binaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, G. H. [The CHARA Array of Georgia State University, Mount Wilson Observatory, Mount Wilson, CA 91023 (United States); Prato, L. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Simon, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Patience, J., E-mail: schaefer@chara-array.org [Astrophysics Group, School of Physics, University of Exeter, Exeter, EX4 4QL (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-01

    We present results from our ongoing program to map the visual orbits of pre-main sequence (PMS) binaries in the Taurus star forming region using adaptive optics imaging at the Keck Observatory. We combine our results with measurements reported in the literature to analyze the orbital motion for each binary. We present preliminary orbits for DF Tau, T Tau S, ZZ Tau, and the Pleiades binary HBC 351. Seven additional binaries show curvature in their relative motion. Currently, we can place lower limits on the orbital periods for these systems; full solutions will be possible with more orbital coverage. Five other binaries show motion that is indistinguishable from linear motion. We suspect that these systems are bound and might show curvature with additional measurements in the future. The observations reported herein lay critical groundwork toward the goal of measuring precise masses for low-mass PMS stars.

  8. On the Roche constants for main-sequence binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannuzzi, M.A.

    1979-01-01

    The ratios C 1 /C 2 of the constants defining the equipotential surfaces which describe the external forms of the components of a close binary system have been calculated on the basis of evolutionary models. Theoretical systems have been considered allowing for a wide range of input parameters (masses and separation) and taking into account the evolutionary effects on the radii of the stars during their Main-Sequence lifetime. The systems have not undergone any transfer of matter and are representative of detached binaries with Main-sequence components. The ratios of the constants are confined in limited intervals and, for the highest values of the mass-ratios, they are clustered around the unit. (Auth.)

  9. Eclipsing binaries in open clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Southworth, John; Clausen, J.V.

    2006-01-01

    Stars: fundamental parameters - Stars : binaries : eclipsing - Stars: Binaries: spectroscopic - Open clusters and ass. : general Udgivelsesdato: 5 August......Stars: fundamental parameters - Stars : binaries : eclipsing - Stars: Binaries: spectroscopic - Open clusters and ass. : general Udgivelsesdato: 5 August...

  10. White dwarf-main sequence binaries from LAMOST: the DR5 catalogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, J.-J.; Rebassa-Mansergas, A.; Parsons, S. G.; Liu, X.-W.; Luo, A.-L.; Kong, X.; Zhang, H.-T.

    2018-03-01

    We present the data release (DR) 5 catalogue of white dwarf-main sequence (WDMS) binaries from the Large Area Multi-Object fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST). The catalogue contains 876 WDMS binaries, of which 757 are additions to our previous LAMOST DR1 sample and 357 are systems that have not been published before. We also describe a LAMOST-dedicated survey that aims at obtaining spectra of photometrically-selected WDMS binaries from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) that are expected to contain cool white dwarfs and/or early type M dwarf companions. This is a population under-represented in previous SDSS WDMS binary catalogues. We determine the stellar parameters (white dwarf effective temperatures, surface gravities and masses, and M dwarf spectral types) of the LAMOST DR5 WDMS binaries and make use of the parameter distributions to analyse the properties of the sample. We find that, despite our efforts, systems containing cool white dwarfs remain under-represented. Moreover, we make use of LAMOST DR5 and SDSS DR14 (when available) spectra to measure the Na I λλ 8183.27, 8194.81 absorption doublet and/or Hα emission radial velocities of our systems. This allows identifying 128 binaries displaying significant radial velocity variations, 76 of which are new. Finally, we cross-match our catalogue with the Catalina Surveys and identify 57 systems displaying light curve variations. These include 16 eclipsing systems, two of which are new, and nine binaries that are new eclipsing candidates. We calculate periodograms from the photometric data and measure (estimate) the orbital periods of 30 (15) WDMS binaries.

  11. WHITE-DWARF-MAIN-SEQUENCE BINARIES IDENTIFIED FROM THE LAMOST PILOT SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Juanjuan; Luo Ali; Li Yinbi; Wei Peng; Zhao Jingkun; Zhao Yongheng; Song Yihan; Zhao Gang

    2013-01-01

    We present a set of white-dwarf-main-sequence (WDMS) binaries identified spectroscopically from the Large sky Area Multi-Object fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST, also called the Guo Shou Jing Telescope) pilot survey. We develop a color selection criteria based on what is so far the largest and most complete Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) DR7 WDMS binary catalog and identify 28 WDMS binaries within the LAMOST pilot survey. The primaries in our binary sample are mostly DA white dwarfs except for one DB white dwarf. We derive the stellar atmospheric parameters, masses, and radii for the two components of 10 of our binaries. We also provide cooling ages for the white dwarf primaries as well as the spectral types for the companion stars of these 10 WDMS binaries. These binaries tend to contain hot white dwarfs and early-type companions. Through cross-identification, we note that nine binaries in our sample have been published in the SDSS DR7 WDMS binary catalog. Nineteen spectroscopic WDMS binaries identified by the LAMOST pilot survey are new. Using the 3σ radial velocity variation as a criterion, we find two post-common-envelope binary candidates from our WDMS binary sample

  12. AK Sco: a tidally induced atmospheric dynamo in a pre-main sequence binary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez de Castro, A. I.

    2009-02-01

    AK Sco is a unique source: a 10-30 Myrs old pre-main sequence spectroscopic binary composed by two nearly equal F5 stars that at periastron are separated by barely eleven stellar radii so, the stellar magnetospheres fill the Roche lobe at periastron. The orbit is not yet circularized (e = 0.47) and very strong tides are expected. This makes of AK Sco, the ideal laboratory to study the effect of gravitational tides in the stellar magnetic field building up during pre-main sequence evolution. Evidence of this effect is reported in this contribution.

  13. Discovery and characterization of 3000+ main-sequence binaries from APOGEE spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Badry, Kareem; Ting, Yuan-Sen; Rix, Hans-Walter; Quataert, Eliot; Weisz, Daniel R.; Cargile, Phillip; Conroy, Charlie; Hogg, David W.; Bergemann, Maria; Liu, Chao

    2018-05-01

    We develop a data-driven spectral model for identifying and characterizing spatially unresolved multiple-star systems and apply it to APOGEE DR13 spectra of main-sequence stars. Binaries and triples are identified as targets whose spectra can be significantly better fit by a superposition of two or three model spectra, drawn from the same isochrone, than any single-star model. From an initial sample of ˜20 000 main-sequence targets, we identify ˜2500 binaries in which both the primary and secondary stars contribute detectably to the spectrum, simultaneously fitting for the velocities and stellar parameters of both components. We additionally identify and fit ˜200 triple systems, as well as ˜700 velocity-variable systems in which the secondary does not contribute detectably to the spectrum. Our model simplifies the process of simultaneously fitting single- or multi-epoch spectra with composite models and does not depend on a velocity offset between the two components of a binary, making it sensitive to traditionally undetectable systems with periods of hundreds or thousands of years. In agreement with conventional expectations, almost all the spectrally identified binaries with measured parallaxes fall above the main sequence in the colour-magnitude diagram. We find excellent agreement between spectrally and dynamically inferred mass ratios for the ˜600 binaries in which a dynamical mass ratio can be measured from multi-epoch radial velocities. We obtain full orbital solutions for 64 systems, including 14 close binaries within hierarchical triples. We make available catalogues of stellar parameters, abundances, mass ratios, and orbital parameters.

  14. Binary pulsar PSR 1718-19 contains a stripped main-sequence turn-off star

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwitter, T.

    1993-05-01

    Lyne et al. (1993) have recently announced the discovery of a 1-second globular cluster pulsar, 1718-19, in a 6.2-hour binary system which is embedded in a cloud of material originating from the companion star. However the incident flux of the pulsar's radiation on the companion is too low to ablate it and a main sequence companion is too small to fill its Roche lobe. Here I argue that the companion is a stripped turn-off star of 0.2-0.4 solar masses (M sun ) and with approx. 0.1M sun helium core. It has approx. 1.8-times larger radius than a main sequence star of equal mass. Its position in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram overlaps that of a ∼ 0.65M sun main-sequence star. The evolutionary state of the companion and the highly magnetized slowly rotating neutron star place the system on the verge of the low mass X-ray binary phase. (author). 19 refs, 2 figs

  15. Absolute dimensions and masses of eclipsing binaries. V. IQ Persei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacy, C.H.; Frueh, M.L.; McDonald Observatory, Austin)

    1985-01-01

    New photometric and spectroscopic observations of the 1.7 day eclipsing binary IQ Persei (B8 + A6) have been analyzed to yield very accurate fundamental properties of the system. Reticon spectroscopic observations obtained at McDonald Observatory were used to determine accurate radial velocities of both stars in this slightly eccentric large light-ratio binary. A new set of VR light curves obtained at McDonald Observatory were analyzed by synthesis techniques, and previously published UBV light curves were reanalyzed to yield accurate photometric orbits. Orbital parameters derived from both sets of photometric observations are in excellent agreement. The absolute dimensions, masses, luminosities, and apsidal motion period (140 yr) derived from these observations agree well with the predictions of theoretical stellar evolution models. The A6 secondary is still very close to the zero-age main sequence. The B8 primary is about one-third of the way through its main-sequence evolution. 27 references

  16. Radial Velocities of 41 Kepler Eclipsing Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Rachel A.; Gies, Douglas R.; Guo, Zhao; Williams, Stephen J.

    2017-12-01

    Eclipsing binaries are vital for directly determining stellar parameters without reliance on models or scaling relations. Spectroscopically derived parameters of detached and semi-detached binaries allow us to determine component masses that can inform theories of stellar and binary evolution. Here we present moderate resolution ground-based spectra of stars in close binary systems with and without (detected) tertiary companions observed by NASA’s Kepler mission and analyzed for eclipse timing variations. We obtain radial velocities and spectroscopic orbits for five single-lined and 35 double-lined systems, and confirm one false positive eclipsing binary. For the double-lined spectroscopic binaries, we also determine individual component masses and examine the mass ratio {M}2/{M}1 distribution, which is dominated by binaries with like-mass pairs and semi-detached classical Algol systems that have undergone mass transfer. Finally, we constrain the mass of the tertiary component for five double-lined binaries with previously detected companions.

  17. The Benchmark Eclipsing Binary V530 Ori

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torres, Guillermo; Lacy, Claud H. Sandberg; Pavlovski, Kresimir

    2015-01-01

    We report accurate measurements of the physical properties (mass, radius, temperature) of components of the G+M eclipsing binary V530 On. The M-type secondary shows a larger radius and a cooler temperature than predicted by standard stellar evolution models, as has been found for many other low...

  18. Eclipsing binaries observed with the WIRE satellite I. Discovery and photometric analysis of the new bright A0 IV eclipsing binary psi centauri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruntt, Hans; Southworth, J.; Penny, A. J.

    2006-01-01

    Stars: fundamental parameters, binaries: close, eclipsing, techniques: photometric Udgivelsesdato: Sep.......Stars: fundamental parameters, binaries: close, eclipsing, techniques: photometric Udgivelsesdato: Sep....

  19. HII 2407: AN ECLIPSING BINARY REVEALED BY K2 OBSERVATIONS OF THE PLEIADES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, Trevor J.; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.; Zhang, Celia; Riddle, Reed L. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Stauffer, John; Rebull, L. M. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Cody, Ann Marie [NASA Ames Research Center, Mountain View, CA 94035 (United States); Conroy, Kyle; Stassun, Keivan G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Pope, Benjamin; Aigrain, Suzanne; Gillen, Ed [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Cameron, Andrew Collier [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Barrado, David [Centro de Astrobiología, INTA-CSIC, Dpto. Astrofísica, ESAC Campus, P.O. Box 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid (Spain); Isaacson, Howard; Marcy, Geoffrey W. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Ziegler, Carl; Law, Nicholas M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3255 (United States); Baranec, Christoph, E-mail: tjd@astro.caltech.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa, Hilo, HI 96720-2700 (United States)

    2015-11-20

    The star HII 2407 is a member of the relatively young Pleiades star cluster and was previously discovered to be a single-lined spectroscopic binary. It is newly identified here within Kepler/K2 photometric time series data as an eclipsing binary system. Mutual fitting of the radial velocity and photometric data leads to an orbital solution and constraints on fundamental stellar parameters. While the primary has arrived on the main sequence, the secondary is still pre-main sequence and we compare our results for the M/M{sub ⊙} and R/R{sub ⊙} values with stellar evolutionary models. We also demonstrate that the system is likely to be tidally synchronized. Follow-up infrared spectroscopy is likely to reveal the lines of the secondary, allowing for dynamically measured masses and elevating the system to benchmark eclipsing binary status.

  20. Digitizing Villanova University's Eclipsing Binary Card Catalogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Giannina; Dalton, Briana; Conroy, Kyle; Prsa, Andrej

    2018-01-01

    Villanova University’s Department of Astrophysics and Planetary Science has years of hand-written archival data on Eclipsing Binaries at its disposal. This card catalog began at Princeton in the 1930’s with notable contributions from scientists such as Henry Norris Russel. During World War II, the archive was moved to the University of Pennsylvania, which was one of the world centers for Eclipsing Binary research, consequently, the contributions to the catalog during this time were immense. It was then moved to University of Florida at Gainesville before being accepted by Villanova in the 1990’s. The catalog has been kept in storage since then. The objective of this project is to digitize this archive and create a fully functional online catalog that contains the information available on the cards, along with the scan of the actual cards. Our group has built a database using a python-powered infrastructure to contain the collected data. The team also built a prototype web-based searchable interface as a front-end to the catalog. Following the data-entry process, information like the Right Ascension and Declination will be run against SIMBAD and any differences between values will be noted as part of the catalog. Information published online from the card catalog and even discrepancies in information for a star, could be a catalyst for new studies on these Eclipsing Binaries. Once completed, the database-driven interface will be made available to astronomers worldwide. The group will also acquire, from the database, a list of referenced articles that have yet to be found online in order to further pursue their digitization. This list will be comprised of references in the cards that were neither found on ADS nor online during the data-entry process. Pursuing the integration of these references to online queries such as ADS will be an ongoing process that will contribute and further facilitate studies on Eclipsing Binaries.

  1. Relativistic apsidal motion in eccentric eclipsing binaries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wolf, M.; Claret, L.; Kotková, Lenka; Kučáková, Hana; Kocián, R.; Brát, L.; Svoboda, P.; Šmelcer, L.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 509, January (2010), A18/1-A18/14 ISSN 0004-6361 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA205/04/2063; GA ČR(CZ) GA205/06/0217 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : binaries eclipsing Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.410, year: 2010

  2. AN M DWARF COMPANION TO AN F-TYPE STAR IN A YOUNG MAIN-SEQUENCE BINARY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eigmüller, Ph.; Csizmadia, Sz.; Erikson, A.; Fridlund, M.; Pasternacki, Th.; Rauer, H. [Institute of Planetary Research, German Aerospace Center Rutherfordstr. 2, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Eislöffel, J.; Lehmann, H.; Hartmann, M.; Hatzes, A. [Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg Sternwarte 5, D-07778 Tautenburg (Germany); Tkachenko, A. [Instituut voor Sterrenkunde, KU Leuven Celestijnenlaan 200D, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Voss, H., E-mail: philipp.eigmueller@dlr.de [Universitat de Barcelona, Department of Astronomy and Meteorology Martí i Franquès, 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-03-15

    Only a few well characterized very low-mass M dwarfs are known today. Our understanding of M dwarfs is vital as these are the most common stars in our solar neighborhood. We aim to characterize the properties of a rare F+dM stellar system for a better understanding of the low-mass end of the Hertzsprung–Russel diagram. We used photometric light curves and radial velocity follow-up measurements to study the binary. Spectroscopic analysis was used in combination with isochrone fitting to characterize the primary star. The primary star is an early F-type main-sequence star with a mass of (1.493 ± 0.073) M{sub ⊙} and a radius of (1.474 ± 0.040) R{sub ⊙}. The companion is an M dwarf with a mass of (0.188 ± 0.014) M{sub ⊙} and a radius of (0.234 ± 0.009) R{sub ⊙}. The orbital period is (1.35121 ± 0.00001) days. The secondary star is among the lowest-mass M dwarfs known to date. The binary has not reached a 1:1 spin–orbit synchronization. This indicates a young main-sequence binary with an age below ∼250 Myr. The mass–radius relation of both components are in agreement with this finding.

  3. DISTANCES TO FOUR SOLAR NEIGHBORHOOD ECLIPSING BINARIES FROM ABSOLUTE FLUXES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R. E.; Van Hamme, W.

    2009-01-01

    Eclipsing binary (EB)-based distances are estimated for four solar neighborhood EBs by means of the Direct Distance Estimation (DDE) algorithm. Results are part of a project to map the solar neighborhood EBs in three dimensions, independently of parallaxes, and provide statistical comparisons between EB and parallax distances. Apart from judgments on adopted temperature and interstellar extinction, DDE's simultaneous light-velocity solutions are essentially objective and work as well for semidetached (SD) and overcontact binaries as for detached systems. Here, we analyze two detached and two SD binaries, all double lined. RS Chamaeleontis is a pre-main-sequence (MS), detached EB with weak δ Scuti variations. WW Aurigae is detached and uncomplicated, except for having high metallicity. RZ Cassiopeiae is SD and has very clear δ Scuti variations and several peculiarities. R Canis Majoris (R CMa) is an apparently simple but historically problematic SD system, also with weak δ Scuti variations. Discussions include solution rules and strategies, weighting, convergence, and third light problems. So far there is no indication of systematic band dependence among the derived distances, so the adopted band-calibration ratios seem consistent. Agreement of EB-based and parallax distances is typically within the overlapped uncertainties, with minor exceptions. We also suggest an explanation for the long-standing undermassiveness problem of R CMa's hotter component, in terms of a fortuitous combination of low metallicity and evolution slightly beyond the MS.

  4. YSOVAR: Six Pre-main-sequence Eclipsing Binaries in the Orion Nebula Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ISOY J053446.01−044922.1i V1448 Ori 17.43c 15.61c 13.88 13.26 12.95 12.73 12.66 12.91 . . . K5c 0.5424125 ISOY J053605.95−050041.2i 2MASS J05360595...identified 12 EB candidates. Four of them, 2MASS 05352184−0546085 (Stassun et al. 2006), V1174 Ori (Stassun et al. 2004), Par1802 (Cargile et al. 2008...Zero points for the photometry were established by reference to data for non-variable stars in our FOV from the Two Micron All Sky Survey ( 2MASS

  5. Absolute dimensions of eclipsing binaries XXVII. V1130 tauri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jens Viggo; Olsen, E, H.; Helt, B. E.

    2010-01-01

    stars: evolution / stars: fundamental parameters / stars: individual: V1130¿Tau / binaries: eclipsing / techniques: photometric / techniques: radial velocities Udgivelsesdato: 17 Feb.......stars: evolution / stars: fundamental parameters / stars: individual: V1130¿Tau / binaries: eclipsing / techniques: photometric / techniques: radial velocities Udgivelsesdato: 17 Feb....

  6. Kepler eclipsing binary stars. IV. Precise eclipse times for close binaries and identification of candidate three-body systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conroy, Kyle E.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Prša, Andrej; Orosz, Jerome A.; Welsh, William F.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.

    2014-01-01

    We present a catalog of precise eclipse times and analysis of third-body signals among 1279 close binaries in the latest Kepler Eclipsing Binary Catalog. For these short-period binaries, Kepler's 30 minute exposure time causes significant smearing of light curves. In addition, common astrophysical phenomena such as chromospheric activity, as well as imperfections in the light curve detrending process, can create systematic artifacts that may produce fictitious signals in the eclipse timings. We present a method to measure precise eclipse times in the presence of distorted light curves, such as in contact and near-contact binaries which exhibit continuously changing light levels in and out of eclipse. We identify 236 systems for which we find a timing variation signal compatible with the presence of a third body. These are modeled for the light travel time effect and the basic properties of the third body are derived. This study complements J. A. Orosz et al. (in preparation), which focuses on eclipse timing variations of longer period binaries with flat out-of-eclipse regions. Together, these two papers provide comprehensive eclipse timings for all binaries in the Kepler Eclipsing Binary Catalog, as an ongoing resource freely accessible online to the community.

  7. AK SCO, FIRST DETECTION OF A HIGHLY DISTURBED ATMOSPHERE IN A PRE-MAIN-SEQUENCE CLOSE BINARY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez de Castro, Ana I.

    2009-01-01

    AK Sco is a unique source: a ∼10 Myr old pre-main-sequence (PMS) spectroscopic binary composed of two nearly equal F5 stars that at periastron are separated by barely 11 stellar radii, so the stellar magnetospheres fill the Roche lobe at periastron. The orbit is not yet circularized (e = 0.47) and very strong tides are expected. This makes AK Sco the ideal laboratory to study the effect of gravitational tides in the stellar magnetic field building up during PMS evolution. In this Letter, the detection of a highly disturbed (σ ≅ 100 km s -1 ) and very dense atmosphere (n e = 1.6 x 10 10 cm -3 ) is reported. Significant line broadening blurs any signs of ion belts or bow shocks in the spectrum of the atmospheric plasma. The radiative losses cannot be accounted for solely by the dissipation of energy from the tidal wave propagating in the stellar atmosphere or by the accreting material. The release of internal energy from the star seems to be the most likely source of the plasma heating. This is the first clear indication of a highly disturbed atmosphere surrounding a PMS close binary.

  8. AK Sco, First Detection of a Highly Disturbed Atmosphere in a Pre-Main-Sequence Close Binary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez de Castro, Ana I.

    2009-06-01

    AK Sco is a unique source: a ~10 Myr old pre-main-sequence (PMS) spectroscopic binary composed of two nearly equal F5 stars that at periastron are separated by barely 11 stellar radii, so the stellar magnetospheres fill the Roche lobe at periastron. The orbit is not yet circularized (e = 0.47) and very strong tides are expected. This makes AK Sco the ideal laboratory to study the effect of gravitational tides in the stellar magnetic field building up during PMS evolution. In this Letter, the detection of a highly disturbed (σ sime 100 km s-1) and very dense atmosphere (n e = 1.6 × 1010 cm-3) is reported. Significant line broadening blurs any signs of ion belts or bow shocks in the spectrum of the atmospheric plasma. The radiative losses cannot be accounted for solely by the dissipation of energy from the tidal wave propagating in the stellar atmosphere or by the accreting material. The release of internal energy from the star seems to be the most likely source of the plasma heating. This is the first clear indication of a highly disturbed atmosphere surrounding a PMS close binary.

  9. The Age of Upper Scorpius from Eclipsing Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Trevor; Hillenbrand, Lynne

    2018-01-01

    The Upper Scorpius OB association is the nearest region of recent massive star formation and thus an important benchmark for investigations concerning astrophysical timescales. Classical estimates of the association age based on the kinematics of high-mass members and a Hertzsprung-Russell (H-R) diagram of the full stellar population established an age of 5 Myr. However, recent analyses based on the H-R diagram for intermediate- and high-mass members suggest an older age of 11 Myr. Importantly, the H-R diagram ages of stars in Upper Scorpius (and other clusters of a similar age) are mass-dependent, such that low-mass members appear younger than their high-mass counterparts. Here we report an age that is self-consistent in the mass range of 0.3–5 M⊙, and based on the fundamentally-determined masses and radii of eclipsing binaries (EBs). We present nine EBs in Upper Scorpius, four of which are newly reported here and all of which were discovered from K2 photometry. Joint fitting of the eclipse photometry and radial velocities from newly acquired Keck-I/HIRES spectra yields precise masses and radii for those systems that are spectroscopically double-lined. We identify one of the EB components as a slowly pulsating B-star. We use these EBs to develop an empirical mass-radius relation for pre-main-sequence stars, and to evaluate the predictions of widely-used stellar evolutionary models. Our results are consistent with previous studies that indicate most models underestimate the masses of low-mass stars by tens of percent based on H-R diagram analyses. Models including the effects of magnetic fields produce better agreement between the observed bulk and radiative parameters of these young, low-mass stars. From the orbital elements and photometrically inferred rotation periods, we consider the dynamical states of several binaries and compare with expectations from tidal dissipation theories.

  10. Eclipsing binary stars with a δ Scuti component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahraman Aliçavuş, F.; Soydugan, E.; Smalley, B.; Kubát, J.

    2017-09-01

    Eclipsing binaries with a δ Sct component are powerful tools to derive the fundamental parameters and probe the internal structure of stars. In this study, spectral analysis of six primary δ Sct components in eclipsing binaries has been performed. Values of Teff, v sin I, and metallicity for the stars have been derived from medium-resolution spectroscopy. Additionally, a revised list of δ Sct stars in eclipsing binaries is presented. In this list, we have only given the δ Sct stars in eclipsing binaries to show the effects of the secondary components and tidal-locking on the pulsations of primary δ Sct components. The stellar pulsation, atmospheric and fundamental parameters (e.g. mass, radius) of 92 δ Sct stars in eclipsing binaries have been gathered. Comparison of the properties of single and eclipsing binary member δ Sct stars has been made. We find that single δ Sct stars pulsate in longer periods and with higher amplitudes than the primary δ Sct components in eclipsing binaries. The v sin I of δ Sct components is found to be significantly lower than that of single δ Sct stars. Relationships between the pulsation periods, amplitudes and stellar parameters in our list have been examined. Significant correlations between the pulsation periods and the orbital periods, Teff, log g, radius, mass ratio, v sin I and the filling factor have been found.

  11. MARVELS Radial Velocity Solutions to Seven Kepler Eclipsing Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heslar, Michael Francis; Thomas, Neil B.; Ge, Jian; Ma, Bo; Herczeg, Alec; Reyes, Alan; SDSS-III MARVELS Team

    2016-01-01

    Eclipsing binaries serve momentous purposes to improve the basis of understanding aspects of stellar astrophysics, such as the accurate calculation of the physical parameters of stars and the enigmatic mass-radius relationship of M and K dwarfs. We report the investigation results of 7 eclipsing binary candidates, initially identified by the Kepler mission, overlapped with the radial velocity observations from the SDSS-III Multi-Object APO Radial-Velocity Exoplanet Large-Area Survey (MARVELS). The RV extractions and spectroscopic solutions of these eclipsing binaries were generated by the University of Florida's 1D data pipeline with a median RV precision of ~60-100 m/s, which was utilized for the DR12 data release. We performed the cross-reference fitting of the MARVELS RV data and the Kepler photometric fluxes obtained from the Kepler Eclipsing Binary Catalog (V2) and modelled the 7 eclipsing binaries in the BinaryMaker3 and PHOEBE programs. This analysis accurately determined the absolute physical and orbital parameters of each binary. Most of the companion stars were determined to have masses of K and M dwarf stars (0.3-0.8 M⊙), and allowed for an investigation into the mass-radius relationship of M and K dwarfs. Among the cases are KIC 9163796, a 122.2 day period "heartbeat star", a recently-discovered class of eccentric binaries known for tidal distortions and pulsations, with a high eccentricity (e~0.75) and KIC 11244501, a 0.29 day period, contact binary with a double-lined spectrum and mass ratio (q~0.45). We also report on the possible reclassification of 2 Kepler eclipsing binary candidates as background eclipsing binaries based on the analysis of the flux measurements, flux ratios of the spectroscopic and photometric solutions, the differences in the FOVs, the image processing of Kepler, and RV and spectral analysis of MARVELS.

  12. Physics Of Eclipsing Binaries. II. Towards the Increased Model Fidelity

    OpenAIRE

    Prša, Andrej; Conroy, Kyle E.; Horvat, Martin; Pablo, Herbert; Kochoska, Angela; Bloemen, Steven; Giammarco, Joseph; Hambleton, Kelly M.; Degroote, Pieter

    2016-01-01

    The precision of photometric and spectroscopic observations has been systematically improved in the last decade, mostly thanks to space-borne photometric missions and ground-based spectrographs dedicated to finding exoplanets. The field of eclipsing binary stars strongly benefited from this development. Eclipsing binaries serve as critical tools for determining fundamental stellar properties (masses, radii, temperatures and luminosities), yet the models are not capable of reproducing observed...

  13. OGLE II Eclipsing Binaries In The LMC: Analysis With Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devinney, Edward J.; Prsa, A.; Guinan, E. F.; DeGeorge, M.

    2011-01-01

    The Eclipsing Binaries (EBs) via Artificial Intelligence (EBAI) Project is applying machine learning techniques to elucidate the nature of EBs. Previously, Prsa, et al. applied artificial neural networks (ANNs) trained on physically-realistic Wilson-Devinney models to solve the light curves of the 1882 detached EBs in the LMC discovered by the OGLE II Project (Wyrzykowski, et al.) fully automatically, bypassing the need for manually-derived starting solutions. A curious result is the non-monotonic distribution of the temperature ratio parameter T2/T1, featuring a subsidiary peak noted previously by Mazeh, et al. in an independent analysis using the EBOP EB solution code (Tamuz, et al.). To explore this and to gain a fuller understanding of the multivariate EBAI LMC observational plus solutions data, we have employed automatic clustering and advanced visualization (CAV) techniques. Clustering the OGLE II data aggregates objects that are similar with respect to many parameter dimensions. Measures of similarity for example, could include the multidimensional Euclidean Distance between data objects, although other measures may be appropriate. Applying clustering, we find good evidence that the T2/T1 subsidiary peak is due to evolved binaries, in support of Mazeh et al.'s speculation. Further, clustering suggests that the LMC detached EBs occupying the main sequence region belong to two distinct classes. Also identified as a separate cluster in the multivariate data are stars having a Period-I band relation. Derekas et al. had previously found a Period-K band relation for LMC EBs discovered by the MACHO Project (Alcock, et al.). We suggest such CAV techniques will prove increasingly useful for understanding the large, multivariate datasets increasingly being produced in astronomy. We are grateful for the support of this research from NSF/RUI Grant AST-05-75042 f.

  14. The spectrographic orbit of the eclipsing binary HH Carinae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandrini, C.H.; Mendez, R.H.; Niemela, V.S.; Ferrer, O.E.

    1985-01-01

    We present a radial velocity study of the eclipsing binary system HH Carinae, and determine for the first time its spectrographic orbital elements. Using the results of a previous photometric study by Soderhjelm, we also determine the values of the masses and dimensions of the binary components. (author)

  15. IUE observations of the eclipsing binary Epsilon Aurigae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hack, M.; Selvelli, P.L.

    1978-01-01

    It is stated that the eclipsing binary Epsilon Aur is a most peculiar binary system and it has not been explained satisfactorily. Observations of this system using the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) collected at the Villafranca Satellite Tracking Station of the European Space Agency are here reported. (author)

  16. The Open Cluster NGC 6811: An Eclipsing Binary, the Turnoff, and Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandquist, Eric L.; Jessen-Hansen, Jens; Shetrone, Matthew D.

    . The cluster's turnoff also falls completely within the instability strip, and the majority of the brightest main sequence stars have now been identified as δ Scuti pulsators. The eclipsing binary KIC 9777062/Sanders 195 is a cluster member slightly fainter than the turnoff, containing one star that falls...... stars to produce an improved age determination.We gratefully acknowledge support from the NSF to E.L.S. under grant AST-0908536 and for M.L. as part of the REU program at San Diego State University under grant AST-0850564, and from NASA under grants NNX12AC88G and NNX13AC19G....

  17. THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF INTERACTIVE BINARY STARS TO DOUBLE MAIN-SEQUENCE TURNOFFS AND DUAL RED CLUMP OF INTERMEDIATE-AGE STAR CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Wuming; Bi Shaolan; Tian Zhijia; Li Tanda; Liu Kang; Meng Xiangcun

    2011-01-01

    Double or extended main-sequence turnoffs (DMSTOs) and dual red clump (RC) were observed in intermediate-age clusters, such as in NGC 1846 and 419. The DMSTOs are interpreted as that the cluster has two distinct stellar populations with differences in age of about 200-300 Myr but with the same metallicity. The dual RC is interpreted as a result of a prolonged star formation. Using a stellar population-synthesis method, we calculated the evolution of a binary-star stellar population. We found that binary interactions and merging can reproduce the dual RC in the color-magnitude diagrams of an intermediate-age cluster, whereas in actuality only a single population exists. Moreover, the binary interactions can lead to an extended main-sequence turnoff (MSTO) rather than DMSTOs. However, the rest of the main sequence, subgiant branch, and first giant branch are hardly spread by the binary interactions. Part of the observed dual RC and extended MSTO may be the results of binary interactions and mergers.

  18. A DEEPLY ECLIPSING DETACHED DOUBLE HELIUM WHITE DWARF BINARY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, S. G.; Marsh, T. R.; Gaensicke, B. T.; Drake, A. J.; Koester, D.

    2011-01-01

    Using Liverpool Telescope+RISE photometry we identify the 2.78 hr period binary star CSS 41177 as a detached eclipsing double white dwarf binary with a 21,100 K primary star and a 10,500 K secondary star. This makes CSS 41177 only the second known eclipsing double white dwarf binary after NLTT 11748. The 2 minute long primary eclipse is 40% deep and the secondary eclipse 10% deep. From Gemini+GMOS spectroscopy, we measure the radial velocities of both components of the binary from the Hα absorption line cores. These measurements, combined with the light curve information, yield white dwarf masses of M 1 = 0.283 ± 0.064 M sun and M 2 = 0.274 ± 0.034 M sun , making them both helium core white dwarfs. As an eclipsing, double-lined spectroscopic binary, CSS 41177 is ideally suited to measuring precise, model-independent masses and radii. The two white dwarfs will merge in roughly 1.1 Gyr to form a single sdB star.

  19. Absolute dimensions of solar-type eclipsing binaries III. EW orionis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jens Viggo; Bruntt, H.; Olsen, E. H.

    2010-01-01

    stars: evolution / stars: fundamental parameters / stars: abundances / binaries: eclipsing / techniques: photometric / techniques: spectroscopic Udgivelsesdato: 23 Feb.......stars: evolution / stars: fundamental parameters / stars: abundances / binaries: eclipsing / techniques: photometric / techniques: spectroscopic Udgivelsesdato: 23 Feb....

  20. The age-metallicity relation in the solar neighbourhood from a pilot sample of white dwarf-main sequence binaries

    OpenAIRE

    Rebassa-Mansergas, A.; Anguiano, B.; García-Berro, E.; Freeman, K. C.; Cojocaru, R.; Manser, C. J.; Pala, A. F.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Liu, X. -W.

    2016-01-01

    The age–metallicity relation (AMR) is a fundamental observational constraint for understanding how the Galactic disc formed and evolved chemically in time. However, there is not yet an agreement on the observational properties of the AMR for the solar neighbourhood, primarily due to the difficulty in obtaining accurate stellar ages for individual field stars. We have started an observational campaign for providing the much needed observational input by using wide white-dwarf–main-sequence (WD...

  1. Eclipsing binary stars with a delta Scuti component

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alicavus, F.K.; Soydugan, E.; Smalley, B.; Kubát, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 470, č. 1 (2017), s. 915-931 ISSN 0035-8711 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-01116S Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : stars * eclipsing binaries * fundamental parameters Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 4.961, year: 2016

  2. The O-type eclipsing binary SZ Camelopardalis revisited

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mayer, P.; Drechsel, H.; Kubát, Jiří; Šlechta, Miroslav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 524, Dec (2010), A1/1-A1/5 ISSN 0004-6361 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : eclipsing binaries * early-type stars * fundamental parameters Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.410, year: 2010

  3. Apsidal Motion in Eccentric Eclipsing Binary WW Camelopardalis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wolf, M.; Kotková, Lenka; Kocián, R.; Dřevěný, R.; Hanžl, D.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 139, č. 3 (2010), s. 1028-1030 ISSN 0004-6256 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/0003 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : eclipsing Binaries * WW Camelopardali Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.548, year: 2010

  4. A New Orbit for the Eclipsing Binary V577 Oph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Elizabeth J.; Barnes, Thomas G., III; Skillen, Ian; Montemayor, Thomas J.

    2017-09-01

    Pulsating stars in eclipsing binary systems are unique objects for providing constraints on stellar models. To fully leverage the information available from the binary system, full orbital radial velocity curves must be obtained. We report 23 radial velocities for components of the eclipsing binary V577 Oph, whose primary star is a δ Sct variable. The velocities cover a nearly complete orbit and a time base of 20 years. We computed orbital elements for the binary and compared them to the ephemeris computed by Creevey et al. The comparison shows marginally different results. In particular, a change in the systemic velocity by -2 km s-1 is suggested by our results. We compare this systemic velocity difference to that expected due to reflex motion of the binary in response to the third body in the system. The systemic velocity difference is consistent with reflex motion, given our mass determination for the eclipsing binary and the orbital parameters determined by Volkov & Volkova for the three-body orbit. We see no evidence for the third body in our spectra, but we do see strong interstellar Na D lines that are consistent in strength with the direction and expected distance of V577 Oph.

  5. A New Orbit for the Eclipsing Binary V577 Oph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffery, Elizabeth J. [Physics Department, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, CA 93407 (United States); Barnes, Thomas G. III; Montemayor, Thomas J. [The University of Texas at Austin, McDonald Observatory, 1 University Station, C1402, Austin, TX 78712-0259 (United States); Skillen, Ian, E-mail: ejjeffer@calpoly.edu, E-mail: tgb@astro.as.utexas.edu, E-mail: tm@astro.as.utexas.edu, E-mail: wji@ing.iac.es [Isaac Newton Group, Apartado de Correos 321, E-38700 Santa Cruz de La Palma, Canary Islands (Spain)

    2017-09-01

    Pulsating stars in eclipsing binary systems are unique objects for providing constraints on stellar models. To fully leverage the information available from the binary system, full orbital radial velocity curves must be obtained. We report 23 radial velocities for components of the eclipsing binary V577 Oph, whose primary star is a δ Sct variable. The velocities cover a nearly complete orbit and a time base of 20 years. We computed orbital elements for the binary and compared them to the ephemeris computed by Creevey et al. The comparison shows marginally different results. In particular, a change in the systemic velocity by −2 km s{sup −1} is suggested by our results. We compare this systemic velocity difference to that expected due to reflex motion of the binary in response to the third body in the system. The systemic velocity difference is consistent with reflex motion, given our mass determination for the eclipsing binary and the orbital parameters determined by Volkov and Volkova for the three-body orbit. We see no evidence for the third body in our spectra, but we do see strong interstellar Na D lines that are consistent in strength with the direction and expected distance of V577 Oph.

  6. A NEW CLASS OF NASCENT ECLIPSING BINARIES WITH EXTREME MASS RATIOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moe, Maxwell; Stefano, Rosanne Di, E-mail: mmoe@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-10, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2015-03-10

    Early B-type main-sequence (MS) stars (M {sub 1} ≈ 5-16 M {sub ☉}) with closely orbiting low-mass stellar companions (q = M {sub 2}/M {sub 1} < 0.25) can evolve to produce Type Ia supernovae, low-mass X-ray binaries, and millisecond pulsars. However, the formation mechanism and intrinsic frequency of such close extreme mass-ratio binaries have been debated, especially considering none have hitherto been detected. Utilizing observations of the Large Magellanic Cloud galaxy conducted by the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment, we have discovered a new class of eclipsing binaries in which a luminous B-type MS star irradiates a closely orbiting low-mass pre-MS companion that has not yet fully formed. The primordial pre-MS companions have large radii and discernibly reflect much of the light they intercept from the B-type MS primaries (ΔI {sub refl} ≈ 0.02-0.14 mag). For the 18 definitive MS + pre-MS eclipsing binaries in our sample with good model fits to the observed light-curves, we measure short orbital periods P = 3.0-8.5 days, young ages τ ≈ 0.6-8 Myr, and small secondary masses M {sub 2} ≈ 0.8-2.4 M {sub ☉} (q ≈ 0.07-0.36). The majority of these nascent eclipsing binaries are still associated with stellar nurseries, e.g., the system with the deepest eclipse ΔI {sub 1} = 2.8 mag and youngest age τ = 0.6 ± 0.4 Myr is embedded in the bright H II region 30 Doradus. After correcting for selection effects, we find that (2.0 ± 0.6)% of B-type MS stars have companions with short orbital periods P = 3.0-8.5 days and extreme mass ratios q ≈ 0.06-0.25. This is ≈10 times greater than that observed for solar-type MS primaries. We discuss how these new eclipsing binaries provide invaluable insights, diagnostics, and challenges for the formation and evolution of stars, binaries, and H II regions.

  7. A YOUNG ECLIPSING BINARY AND ITS LUMINOUS NEIGHBORS IN THE EMBEDDED STAR CLUSTER Sh 2-252E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lester, Kathryn V.; Gies, Douglas R.; Guo, Zhao, E-mail: lester@chara.gsu.edu, E-mail: gies@chara.gsu.edu, E-mail: guo@chara.gsu.edu [Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, P.O. Box 5060, Atlanta, GA 30302-5060 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    We present a photometric and light curve analysis of an eccentric eclipsing binary in the K2 Campaign 0 field, which resides in Sh 2-252E, a young star cluster embedded in an H ii region. We describe a spectroscopic investigation of the three brightest stars in the crowded aperture to identify which is the binary system. We find that none of these stars are components of the eclipsing binary system, which must be one of the fainter nearby stars. These bright cluster members all have remarkable spectra: Sh 2-252a (EPIC 202062176) is a B0.5 V star with razor sharp absorption lines, Sh 2-252b is a Herbig A0 star with disk-like emission lines, and Sh 2-252c is a pre-main-sequence star with very red color.

  8. KEPLER ECLIPSING BINARY STARS. III. CLASSIFICATION OF KEPLER ECLIPSING BINARY LIGHT CURVES WITH LOCALLY LINEAR EMBEDDING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matijevič, Gal; Prša, Andrej; Orosz, Jerome A.; Welsh, William F.; Bloemen, Steven; Barclay, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    We present an automated classification of 2165 Kepler eclipsing binary (EB) light curves that accompanied the second Kepler data release. The light curves are classified using locally linear embedding, a general nonlinear dimensionality reduction tool, into morphology types (detached, semi-detached, overcontact, ellipsoidal). The method, related to a more widely used principal component analysis, produces a lower-dimensional representation of the input data while preserving local geometry and, consequently, the similarity between neighboring data points. We use this property to reduce the dimensionality in a series of steps to a one-dimensional manifold and classify light curves with a single parameter that is a measure of 'detachedness' of the system. This fully automated classification correlates well with the manual determination of morphology from the data release, and also efficiently highlights any misclassified objects. Once a lower-dimensional projection space is defined, the classification of additional light curves runs in a negligible time and the method can therefore be used as a fully automated classifier in pipeline structures. The classifier forms a tier of the Kepler EB pipeline that pre-processes light curves for the artificial intelligence based parameter estimator.

  9. Photometric study of the pulsating, eclipsing binary OO DRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, X. B.; Deng, L. C.; Tian, J. F.; Wang, K.; Yan, Z. Z.; Luo, C. Q.; Sun, J. J.; Liu, Q. L.; Xin, H. Q.; Zhou, Q.; Luo, Z. Q.

    2014-01-01

    We present a comprehensive photometric study of the pulsating, eclipsing binary OO Dra. Simultaneous B- and V-band photometry of the star was carried out on 14 nights. A revised orbital period and a new ephemeris were derived from the data. The first photometric solution of the binary system and the physical parameters of the component stars are determined. They reveal that OO Dra could be a detached system with a less-massive secondary component nearly filling its Roche lobe. By subtracting the eclipsing light changes from the data, we obtained the intrinsic pulsating light curves of the hotter, massive primary component. A frequency analysis of the residual light yields two confident pulsation modes in both B- and V-band data with the dominant frequency detected at 41.865 c/d. A brief discussion concerning the evolutionary status and the pulsation nature of the binary system is finally given.

  10. Investigation of eclipsing binary stars exhibiting calcium II emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, J.P.

    1974-01-01

    Three color photometry of some eclipsing binaries showing Calcium II emission is reported. A highly stable and accurate d.c. amplifier, and a new type digital averaging system are described. Past and current light curves of SS Boo, RS CVn, WY Cnc, WW Dra, UV Psc, Z Her, SS Cam, RW UMa, AR Lac, and RT Lac are discussed with particular emphasis on asymmetries in the heights of the maxima and variations in the depths of the minima. Both RS CVn and SS Boo show nearly sinusoidal variation outside eclipse. Spectra of SS Boo and RS CVn are discussed. The suggestion is made that many of these systems belong to a new category of variable eclipsing binary star. It is pointed out that most double line eclipsing binaries with late-type sub-giant secondary components fall into this group, and that many of the characteristics of this group are not easily explained on the basis of existing data and theory. Possible models are discussed and the need for future photometric and spectroscopic study is emphasized. (U.S.)

  11. White dwarfs in the WTS: Eclipsing binaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burleigh M.R.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We have identified photometric white dwarf candidates in the WFCAM transit survey through a reduced proper motion versus colour approach. Box-fitting with parameters adjusted to detect the unique signature of a white dwarf + planet/brown dwarf transit/eclipse event was performed, as well as looking for variability due to the irradiation of the companions atmosphere by the white dwarf's high UV flux. We have also performed a simple sensitivity analysis in order to assess the ability of the survey to detect companions to white dwarfs via the transit method.

  12. Kepler Eclipsing Binary Stars. I. Catalog and Principal Characterization of 1879 Eclipsing Binaries in the First Data Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prša, Andrej; Batalha, Natalie; Slawson, Robert W.; Doyle, Laurance R.; Welsh, William F.; Orosz, Jerome A.; Seager, Sara; Rucker, Michael; Mjaseth, Kimberly; Engle, Scott G.; Conroy, Kyle; Jenkins, Jon; Caldwell, Douglas; Koch, David; Borucki, William

    2011-03-01

    The Kepler space mission is devoted to finding Earth-size planets orbiting other stars in their habitable zones. Its large, 105 deg2 field of view features over 156,000 stars that are observed continuously to detect and characterize planet transits. Yet, this high-precision instrument holds great promise for other types of objects as well. Here we present a comprehensive catalog of eclipsing binary stars observed by Kepler in the first 44 days of operation, the data being publicly available through MAST as of 2010 June 15. The catalog contains 1879 unique objects. For each object, we provide its Kepler ID (KID), ephemeris (BJD0, P 0), morphology type, physical parameters (T eff, log g, E(B - V)), the estimate of third light contamination (crowding), and principal parameters (T 2/T 1, q, fillout factor, and sin i for overcontacts, and T 2/T 1, (R 1 + R 2)/a, esin ω, ecos ω, and sin i for detached binaries). We present statistics based on the determined periods and measure the average occurrence rate of eclipsing binaries to be ~1.2% across the Kepler field. We further discuss the distribution of binaries as a function of galactic latitude and thoroughly explain the application of artificial intelligence to obtain principal parameters in a matter of seconds for the whole sample. The catalog was envisioned to serve as a bridge between the now public Kepler data and the scientific community interested in eclipsing binary stars.

  13. KEPLER ECLIPSING BINARY STARS. I. CATALOG AND PRINCIPAL CHARACTERIZATION OF 1879 ECLIPSING BINARIES IN THE FIRST DATA RELEASE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prsa, Andrej; Engle, Scott G.; Conroy, Kyle; Batalha, Natalie; Rucker, Michael; Mjaseth, Kimberly; Slawson, Robert W.; Doyle, Laurance R.; Welsh, William F.; Orosz, Jerome A.; Seager, Sara; Jenkins, Jon; Caldwell, Douglas; Koch, David; Borucki, William

    2011-01-01

    The Kepler space mission is devoted to finding Earth-size planets orbiting other stars in their habitable zones. Its large, 105 deg 2 field of view features over 156,000 stars that are observed continuously to detect and characterize planet transits. Yet, this high-precision instrument holds great promise for other types of objects as well. Here we present a comprehensive catalog of eclipsing binary stars observed by Kepler in the first 44 days of operation, the data being publicly available through MAST as of 2010 June 15. The catalog contains 1879 unique objects. For each object, we provide its Kepler ID (KID), ephemeris (BJD 0 , P 0 ), morphology type, physical parameters (T eff , log g, E(B - V)), the estimate of third light contamination (crowding), and principal parameters (T 2 /T 1 , q, fillout factor, and sin i for overcontacts, and T 2 /T 1 , (R 1 + R 2 )/a, esin ω, ecos ω, and sin i for detached binaries). We present statistics based on the determined periods and measure the average occurrence rate of eclipsing binaries to be ∼1.2% across the Kepler field. We further discuss the distribution of binaries as a function of galactic latitude and thoroughly explain the application of artificial intelligence to obtain principal parameters in a matter of seconds for the whole sample. The catalog was envisioned to serve as a bridge between the now public Kepler data and the scientific community interested in eclipsing binary stars.

  14. PHYSICS OF ECLIPSING BINARIES. II. TOWARD THE INCREASED MODEL FIDELITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prša, A.; Conroy, K. E.; Horvat, M.; Kochoska, A.; Hambleton, K. M. [Villanova University, Dept. of Astrophysics and Planetary Sciences, 800 E Lancaster Avenue, Villanova PA 19085 (United States); Pablo, H. [Université de Montréal, Pavillon Roger-Gaudry, 2900, boul. Édouard-Montpetit Montréal QC H3T 1J4 (Canada); Bloemen, S. [Radboud University Nijmegen, Department of Astrophysics, IMAPP, P.O. Box 9010, 6500 GL, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Giammarco, J. [Eastern University, Dept. of Astronomy and Physics, 1300 Eagle Road, St. Davids, PA 19087 (United States); Degroote, P. [KU Leuven, Instituut voor Sterrenkunde, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium)

    2016-12-01

    The precision of photometric and spectroscopic observations has been systematically improved in the last decade, mostly thanks to space-borne photometric missions and ground-based spectrographs dedicated to finding exoplanets. The field of eclipsing binary stars strongly benefited from this development. Eclipsing binaries serve as critical tools for determining fundamental stellar properties (masses, radii, temperatures, and luminosities), yet the models are not capable of reproducing observed data well, either because of the missing physics or because of insufficient precision. This led to a predicament where radiative and dynamical effects, insofar buried in noise, started showing up routinely in the data, but were not accounted for in the models. PHOEBE (PHysics Of Eclipsing BinariEs; http://phoebe-project.org) is an open source modeling code for computing theoretical light and radial velocity curves that addresses both problems by incorporating missing physics and by increasing the computational fidelity. In particular, we discuss triangulation as a superior surface discretization algorithm, meshing of rotating single stars, light travel time effects, advanced phase computation, volume conservation in eccentric orbits, and improved computation of local intensity across the stellar surfaces that includes the photon-weighted mode, the enhanced limb darkening treatment, the better reflection treatment, and Doppler boosting. Here we present the concepts on which PHOEBE is built and proofs of concept that demonstrate the increased model fidelity.

  15. The 1984 eclipse of the symbiotic binary SY Muscae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, S. J.; Michalitisianos, A. G.; Lutz, J. H.; Kafatos, M.

    1985-01-01

    Data from IUE spectra obtained with the 10 x 20-arcsec aperture on May 13, 1984, and optical spectrophotometry obtained with an SIT vidicon on the 1.5-m telescope at CTIO on April 29-May 1, 1984, are reported for the symbiotic binary SY Mus. The data are found to be consistent with a model of a red-giant secondary of 60 solar radii which completely eclipses the hot primary every 627 d but only partially eclipses the 75-solar-radius He(+) region surrounding the primary. The distance to SY Mus is estimated as 1.3 kpc. It is suggested that the large Balmer decrement in eclipse, with (H-alpha)/(H-beta) = 8.3 and (H-beta)/(H-gamma) = 1.5, is associated with an electron density of about 10 to the 10th/cu cm.

  16. DISCOVERY OF A RED GIANT WITH SOLAR-LIKE OSCILLATIONS IN AN ECLIPSING BINARY SYSTEM FROM KEPLER SPACE-BASED PHOTOMETRY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hekker, S.; Debosscher, J.; De Ridder, J.; Aerts, C.; Van Winckel, H.; Beck, P. G.; Blomme, J.; Huber, D.; Hidas, M. G.; Stello, D.; Bedding, T. R.; Gilliland, R. L.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Kjeldsen, H.; Brown, T. M.; Borucki, W. J.; Koch, D.; Jenkins, J. M.; Southworth, J.; Pigulski, A.

    2010-01-01

    Oscillating stars in binary systems are among the most interesting stellar laboratories, as these can provide information on the stellar parameters and stellar internal structures. Here we present a red giant with solar-like oscillations in an eclipsing binary observed with the NASA Kepler satellite. We compute stellar parameters of the red giant from spectra and the asteroseismic mass and radius from the oscillations. Although only one eclipse has been observed so far, we can already determine that the secondary is a main-sequence F star in an eccentric orbit with a semi-major axis larger than 0.5 AU and orbital period longer than 75 days.

  17. TIDALLY INDUCED PULSATIONS IN KEPLER ECLIPSING BINARY KIC 3230227

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Zhao; Gies, Douglas R. [Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, P.O. Box 5060, Atlanta, GA 30302-5060 (United States); Fuller, Jim, E-mail: guo@astro.gsu.edu, E-mail: gies@chara.gsu.edu, E-mail: jfuller@caltech.edu [TAPIR, Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, Mailcode 350-17, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2017-01-01

    KIC 3230227 is a short period (P  ≈ 7.0 days) eclipsing binary with a very eccentric orbit ( e  = 0.6). From combined analysis of radial velocities and Kepler light curves, this system is found to be composed of two A-type stars, with masses of M {sub 1} = 1.84 ± 0.18  M {sub ⊙}, M {sub 2} = 1.73 ± 0.17  M {sub ⊙} and radii of R {sub 1} = 2.01 ± 0.09  R {sub ⊙}, R {sub 2} = 1.68 ± 0.08 R {sub ⊙} for the primary and secondary, respectively. In addition to an eclipse, the binary light curve shows a brightening and dimming near periastron, making this a somewhat rare eclipsing heartbeat star system. After removing the binary light curve model, more than 10 pulsational frequencies are present in the Fourier spectrum of the residuals, and most of them are integer multiples of the orbital frequency. These pulsations are tidally driven, and both the amplitudes and phases are in agreement with predictions from linear tidal theory for l  = 2, m  = −2 prograde modes.

  18. TIDALLY INDUCED PULSATIONS IN KEPLER ECLIPSING BINARY KIC 3230227

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Zhao; Gies, Douglas R.; Fuller, Jim

    2017-01-01

    KIC 3230227 is a short period (P  ≈ 7.0 days) eclipsing binary with a very eccentric orbit ( e  = 0.6). From combined analysis of radial velocities and Kepler light curves, this system is found to be composed of two A-type stars, with masses of M 1  = 1.84 ± 0.18  M ⊙ , M 2  = 1.73 ± 0.17  M ⊙ and radii of R 1  = 2.01 ± 0.09  R ⊙ , R 2  = 1.68 ± 0.08 R ⊙ for the primary and secondary, respectively. In addition to an eclipse, the binary light curve shows a brightening and dimming near periastron, making this a somewhat rare eclipsing heartbeat star system. After removing the binary light curve model, more than 10 pulsational frequencies are present in the Fourier spectrum of the residuals, and most of them are integer multiples of the orbital frequency. These pulsations are tidally driven, and both the amplitudes and phases are in agreement with predictions from linear tidal theory for l  = 2, m  = −2 prograde modes.

  19. A Comprehensive Catalog of Galactic Eclipsing Binary Stars with Eccentric Orbits Based on Eclipse Timing Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, C.-H.; Kreiner, J. M.; Zakrzewski, B.; Ogłoza, W.; Kim, H.-W.; Jeong, M.-J.

    2018-04-01

    A comprehensive catalog of 623 galactic eclipsing binary (EB) systems with eccentric orbits is presented with more than 2830 times of minima determined from the archived photometric data by various sky-survey projects and new photometric measurements. The systems are divided into two groups according to whether the individual system has a GCVS name or not. All the systems in both groups are further classified into three categories (D, A, and A+III) on the basis of their eclipse timing diagrams: 453 D systems showing just constantly displaced secondary minima, 139 A systems displaying only apsidal motion (AM), and 31 A+III systems exhibiting both AM and light-time effects. AM parameters for 170 systems (A and A+III systems) are consistently calculated and cataloged with basic information for all systems. Some important statistics for the AM parameters are discussed and compared with those derived for the eccentric EB systems in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds.

  20. Ten Kepler eclipsing binaries containing the third components

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zasche, P.; Wolf, M.; Kučáková, H.; Vraštil, J.; Juryšek, Jakub; Mašek, Martin; Jelínek, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 149, č. 6 (2015), s. 1-11, č. článku 197. ISSN 0004-6256 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13007 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 283783 - GLORIA Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : eclipsing binaries * KIC 2305372 * KIC 3440230 * KIC 5513861 * KIC 5621294 * KIC 7630658 * KIC 8553788 * KIC 9007918 * KIC 9402652 * KIC 10581918 * KIC 10686876 Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 4.617, year: 2015

  1. The G+M eclipsing binary v530 orionis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torres, Guillermo; Lacy, Claud H Sandberg; Pavlovski, Krešimir

    2014-01-01

    We report extensive photometric and spectroscopic observations of the 6.1 day period, G+M-type detached double-lined eclipsing binary V530 Ori, an important new benchmark system for testing stellar evolution models for low-mass stars. We determine accurate masses and radii for the components...... in the primary spectrum shows the system to have a slightly subsolar abundance, with [Fe/H] = –0.12 ± 0.08. A comparison with theory reveals that standard models underpredict the radius and overpredict the temperature of the secondary, as has been found previously for other M dwarfs. On the other hand, models...

  2. Physical elements of the eclipsing binary δ Orionis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mayer, P.; Harmanec, P.; Wolf, M.; Božić, H.; Šlechta, Miroslav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 520, Sep-Oct (2010), A89/1-A89/12 ISSN 0004-6361 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/06/0584 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA205/06/0304; GA ČR(CZ) GAP209/10/0715 Program:GA Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : eclipsing binaries * early-type stars * fundamental parameters Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.410, year: 2010

  3. A Photometric Study of Three Eclipsing Binary Stars (Poster abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, A.

    2016-12-01

    (Abstract only) As part of a program to study eclipsing binary stars that exhibit the O'Connell Effect (OCE) we are observing a selection of binary stars in a long term study. The OCE is a difference in maximum light across the ligthcurve possibly cause by starspots. We observed for 7 nights at McDonald Observatory using the 30-inch telescope in July 2015, and used the same telescope remotely for a total of 20 additional nights in August, October, December, and January. We will present lightcurves for three stars from this study, characterize the OCE for these stars, and present our model results for the physical parameters of the star making up each of these systems.

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Parameters of 529 Kepler eclipsing binaries (Kjurkchieva+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjurkchieva, D.; Vasileva, D.; Atanasova, T.

    2017-11-01

    We reviewed the Kepler eclipsing binary catalog (Prsa et al. 2011, Cat. J/AJ/141/83; Slawson et al. 2011, Cat. J/AJ/142/160; Matijevic et al. 2012) to search for detached eclipsing binaries with eccentric orbits. (5 data files).

  5. Fourier techniques for an analysis of eclipsing binary light curves. Pt. 6b

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demircan, O.

    1980-01-01

    This is a continuation of a previous paper which appeared in this journal (Demircan, 1980b) and aims at ascertaining some other relations between the integral transforms of the light curves of eclipsing binary systems. The appropriate use of these relations should facilitate the numerical computations for an analysis of eclipsing binary light curves by different Fourier techniques. (orig.)

  6. MESA models for the evolutionary status of the epsilon Aurigae disk-eclipsed binary system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stencel, Robert E.; Gibson, Justus

    2018-06-01

    The brightest member of the class of disk-eclipsed binary stars is the Algol-like long-period binary, epsilon Aurigae (HD 31964, F0Iap + disk, http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9907E..17S ). Using MESA (Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics, version 9575), we have made an evaluation of its evolutionary state. We sought to satisfy several observational constraints, including: (1) requiring evolutionary tracks to pass close to the current temperature and luminosity of the primary star; (2) obtaining a period near the observed value of 27.1 years; (3) matching a mass function of 3.0; (4) concurrent Roche lobe overflow and mass transfer; (5) an isotopic ratio 12C / 13C = 5 and, (6) matching the interferometrically determined angular diameter. A MESA model starting with binary masses of 9.85 + 4.5 solar masses, with a 100 day initial period, produces a 1.2 + 10.6 solar masses result having a 547 day period, plus a single digit 12C / 13C ratio. These values were reached near an age of 20 Myr, when the donor star comes close to the observed luminosity and temperature for epsilon Aurigae A, as a post-RGB/pre-AGB star. Contemporaneously, the accretor then appears as an upper main sequence, early B-type star. This benchmark model can provide a basis for further exploration of this interacting binary, and other long period binary stars. This report has been submitted to MNRAS, along with a parallel investigation of mass transfer stream and disk sub-structure. The authors are grateful to the estate of William Herschel Womble for the support of astronomy at the University of Denver.

  7. New inclination changing eclipsing binaries in the Magellanic Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juryšek, J.; Zasche, P.; Wolf, M.; Vraštil, J.; Vokrouhlický, D.; Skarka, M.; Liška, J.; Janík, J.; Zejda, M.; Kurfürst, P.; Paunzen, E.

    2018-01-01

    Context. Multiple stellar systems are unique laboratories for astrophysics. Analysis of their orbital dynamics, if well characterized from their observations, may reveal invaluable information about the physical properties of the participating stars. Unfortunately, there are only a few known and well described multiple systems, this is even more so for systems located outside the Milky Way galaxy. A particularly interesting situation occurs when the inner binary in a compact triple system is eclipsing. This is because the stellar interaction, typically resulting in precession of orbital planes, may be observable as a variation of depth of the eclipses on a long timescale. Aims: We aim to present a novel method to determine compact triples using publicly available photometric data from large surveys. Here we apply it to eclipsing binaries (EBs) in Magellanic Clouds from OGLE III database. Our tool consists of identifying the cases where the orbital plane of EB evolves in accord with expectations from the interaction with a third star. Methods: We analyzed light curves (LCs) of 26121 LMC and 6138 SMC EBs with the goal to identify those for which the orbital inclination varies in time. Archival LCs of the selected systems, when complemented by our own observations with Danish 1.54-m telescope, were thoroughly analyzed using the PHOEBE program. This provided physical parameters of components of each system. Time dependence of the EB's inclination was described using the theory of orbital-plane precession. By observing the parameter-dependence of the precession rate, we were able to constrain the third companion mass and its orbital period around EB. Results: We identified 58 candidates of new compact triples in Magellanic Clouds. This is the largest published sample of such systems so far. Eight of them were analyzed thoroughly and physical parameters of inner binary were determined together with an estimation of basic characteristics of the third star. Prior to our

  8. Discovery of 36 eclipsing EL CVn binaries found by the Palomar Transient Factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Roestel, J.; Kupfer, T.; Ruiz-Carmona, R.; Groot, P. J.; Prince, T. A.; Burdge, K.; Laher, R.; Shupe, D. L.; Bellm, E.

    2018-04-01

    We report on the discovery and analysis of 36 new eclipsing EL CVn-type binaries, consisting of a core helium-composition pre-white dwarf (pre-He-WD) and an early-type main-sequence companion. This more than doubles the known population of these systems. We have used supervised machine learning methods to search 0.8 million light curves from the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF), combined with Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System (Pan-STARRS) and Two-Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS) colours. The new systems range in orbital periods from 0.46 to 3.8 d and in apparent brightness from ˜14 to 16 mag in the PTF R or g΄ filters. For 12 of the systems, we obtained radial velocity curves with the Intermediate Dispersion Spectrograph at the Isaac Newton Telescope. We modelled the light curves, radial velocity curves and spectral energy distributions to determine the system parameters. The radii (0.3-0.7 R⊙) and effective temperatures (8000-17 000 K) of the pre-He-WDs are consistent with stellar evolution models, but the masses (0.12-0.28 M⊙) show more variance than models have predicted. This study shows that using machine learning techniques on large synoptic survey data is a powerful way to discover substantial samples of binary systems in short-lived evolutionary stages.

  9. Properties of an eclipsing double white dwarf binary NLTT 11748

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, David L.; Walker, Arielle N.; Marsh, Thomas R.; Bours, Madelon C. P.; Breedt, Elmé; Bildsten, Lars; Copperwheat, Chris M.; Dhillon, Vik S.; Littlefair, Stuart P.; Howell, Steve B.; Shporer, Avi; Steinfadt, Justin D. R.

    2014-01-01

    We present high-quality ULTRACAM photometry of the eclipsing detached double white dwarf binary NLTT 11748. This system consists of a carbon/oxygen white dwarf and an extremely low mass (<0.2 M ☉ ) helium-core white dwarf in a 5.6 hr orbit. To date, such extremely low-mass white dwarfs, which can have thin, stably burning outer layers, have been modeled via poorly constrained atmosphere and cooling calculations where uncertainties in the detailed structure can strongly influence the eventual fates of these systems when mass transfer begins. With precise (individual precision ≈1%), high-cadence (≈2 s), multicolor photometry of multiple primary and secondary eclipses spanning >1.5 yr, we constrain the masses and radii of both objects in the NLTT 11748 system to a statistical uncertainty of a few percent. However, we find that overall uncertainty in the thickness of the envelope of the secondary carbon/oxygen white dwarf leads to a larger (≈13%) systematic uncertainty in the primary He WD's mass. Over the full range of possible envelope thicknesses, we find that our primary mass (0.136-0.162 M ☉ ) and surface gravity (log (g) = 6.32-6.38; radii are 0.0423-0.0433 R ☉ ) constraints do not agree with previous spectroscopic determinations. We use precise eclipse timing to detect the Rømer delay at 7σ significance, providing an additional weak constraint on the masses and limiting the eccentricity to ecos ω = (– 4 ± 5) × 10 –5 . Finally, we use multicolor data to constrain the secondary's effective temperature (7600 ± 120 K) and cooling age (1.6-1.7 Gyr).

  10. Properties of an eclipsing double white dwarf binary NLTT 11748

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, David L.; Walker, Arielle N. [Physics Department, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53211 (United States); Marsh, Thomas R.; Bours, Madelon C. P.; Breedt, Elmé [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Bildsten, Lars [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Kohn Hall, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Copperwheat, Chris M. [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, IC2, Liverpool Science Park, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF (United Kingdom); Dhillon, Vik S.; Littlefair, Stuart P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Howell, Steve B. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Shporer, Avi [California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Steinfadt, Justin D. R., E-mail: kaplan@uwm.edu [Department of Physics, Broida Hall, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)

    2014-01-10

    We present high-quality ULTRACAM photometry of the eclipsing detached double white dwarf binary NLTT 11748. This system consists of a carbon/oxygen white dwarf and an extremely low mass (<0.2 M {sub ☉}) helium-core white dwarf in a 5.6 hr orbit. To date, such extremely low-mass white dwarfs, which can have thin, stably burning outer layers, have been modeled via poorly constrained atmosphere and cooling calculations where uncertainties in the detailed structure can strongly influence the eventual fates of these systems when mass transfer begins. With precise (individual precision ≈1%), high-cadence (≈2 s), multicolor photometry of multiple primary and secondary eclipses spanning >1.5 yr, we constrain the masses and radii of both objects in the NLTT 11748 system to a statistical uncertainty of a few percent. However, we find that overall uncertainty in the thickness of the envelope of the secondary carbon/oxygen white dwarf leads to a larger (≈13%) systematic uncertainty in the primary He WD's mass. Over the full range of possible envelope thicknesses, we find that our primary mass (0.136-0.162 M {sub ☉}) and surface gravity (log (g) = 6.32-6.38; radii are 0.0423-0.0433 R {sub ☉}) constraints do not agree with previous spectroscopic determinations. We use precise eclipse timing to detect the Rømer delay at 7σ significance, providing an additional weak constraint on the masses and limiting the eccentricity to ecos ω = (– 4 ± 5) × 10{sup –5}. Finally, we use multicolor data to constrain the secondary's effective temperature (7600 ± 120 K) and cooling age (1.6-1.7 Gyr).

  11. Revised photometric elements of the eclipsing binary TW Dra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giuricin, G.; Mardirossian, F.; Predolin, F.

    1980-01-01

    The photoelectric light curves of TW Dra obtained by Baglow (1952) and by Waltser (1978) have been re-analysed by means of Wood's (1972) model in order to obtain accurate photometric elements. Significantly different elements have resulted from the two sets of observations, but more confidence can be given to the elements deduced from Walter's (1978) data. Radii and luminosities have been computed with the aid of Popper's (1978) new values for masses. TW Dra is confirmed to be a typical sd-system, having a distrinctly oversized and overluminous secondary. Interestingly, the primary appears to be slightly more luminous than expected for a Main-Sequences star, in agreement with theoretical predictions for present primaries of mass-exchange binaries systems. (orig.)

  12. LB 3459, an O-type subdwarf eclipsing binary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilkenny, D.; Penfold, J.E.; Hilditch, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    Four-colour photometry of the short-period eclipsing binary system LB 3459 confirms features seen in earlier less-detailed data. An analysis of all the observational data suggests the system to be an O-type subdwarf plus a hot white dwarf rather than two sdO stars. A value of 0.03 is obtained for the linear limb-darkening coefficient of the primary and estimates of the absolute magnitudes of the two components give a distance of 70 +- 25 pc for the system. The primary and secondary may have radii as small as 0.04 solar radius and 0.02 solar radius respectively, indicating a component separation of only 0.25 solar radius. Several unsolved problems connected with the nature and evolution of the LB 3459 system are noted. (author)

  13. Determination of the axial rotation rate using apsidal motion for early-type eclipsing binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaliullin, Kh. F.; Khaliullina, A. I.

    2007-11-01

    Because the modern theory of stellar structure and evolution has a sound observational basis, we can consider that the apsidal parameters k2 computed in terms of this theory correctly reflect the radial density distribution in stars of different masses and spectral types. This allows us to address the problem of apsidal motion in close binary systems in a new way. Unlike the traditional approach, in this paper we use the observed apsidal periods Uobs to estimate the angular axial velocities of components, ωr, at fixed model values of k2. We use this approach to analyse the observational data for 28 eclipsing systems with known Uobs and early-type primaries (M >= 1.6 Msolar or Te >= 6000 K). We measure the age of the system in units of the synchronization time, t/tsyn. Our analysis yielded the following results. (i) There is a clear correlation between ωr/ωsyn and t/tsyn: the younger a star, the higher the angular velocity of its axial rotation in units of ωsyn, the angular velocity at pseudo-synchronization. This correlation is more significant and obvious if the synchronization time, tsyn, is computed in terms of the Zahn theory. (ii) This observational fact implies that the synchronization of early-type components in close binary systems continues on the main sequence. The synchronization times for the inner layers of the components (i.e. those that are responsible for apsidal motion) are about 1.6 and 3.1 dex longer than those predicted by the theories of Zahn and Tassoul, respectively. The average initial angular velocities (for the zero-age main sequence) are equal to ω0/ωsyn ~ 2.0. The dependence of the parameter E2 on stellar mass probably needs to be refined in the Zahn theory. (iii) Some components of the eclipsing systems of the sample studied show radially differential axial rotation. This is consistent with the Zahn theory, which predicts that the synchronization starts at the surface, where radiative damping of dynamical tides occurs, and

  14. Main sequence mass loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunish, W.M.; Guzik, J.A.; Willson, L.A.; Bowen, G.

    1987-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that variable stars may experience mass loss, driven, at least in part, by oscillations. The class of stars we are discussing here are the δ Scuti variables. These are variable stars with masses between about 1.2 and 2.25 M/sub θ/, lying on or very near the main sequence. According to this theory, high rotation rates enhance the rate of mass loss, so main sequence stars born in this mass range would have a range of mass loss rates, depending on their initial rotation velocity and the amplitude of the oscillations. The stars would evolve rapidly down the main sequence until (at about 1.25 M/sub θ/) a surface convection zone began to form. The presence of this convective region would slow the rotation, perhaps allowing magnetic braking to occur, and thus sharply reduce the mass loss rate. 7 refs

  15. Analysis of 45-years of Eclipse Timings of the Hyades (K2 V+ DA) Eclipsing Binary V471 Tauri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchioni, Lucas; Guinan, Edward; Engle, Scott

    2018-01-01

    V471 Tau is an important detached 0.521-day eclipsing binary composed of a K2 V and a hot DA white dwarf star. This system resides in the Hyades star cluster located approximately 153 Ly from us. V471 Tau is considered to be the end-product of common-envelope binary star evolution and is currently a pre-CV system. V471 Tau serves as a valuable astrophysical laboratory for studying stellar evolution, white dwarfs, stellar magnetic dynamos, and possible detection of low mass companions using the Light Travel Time (LTT) Effects. Since its discovery as an eclipsing binary in 1970, photometry has been carried out and many eclipse timings have been determined. We have performed an analysis of the available photometric data available on V471 Tauri. The binary system has been the subject of analyses regarding the orbital period. From this analysis several have postulated the existence of a third body in the form of a brown dwarf that is causing periodic variations in the system’s apparent period. In this study we combine ground based data with photometry secured recently from the Kepler K2 mission. After detrending and phasing the available data, we are able to compare the changing period of the eclipsing binary system against predictions on the existence of this third body. The results of the analysis will be presented. This research is sponsored by grants from NASA and NSF for which we are very grateful.

  16. Reanalysis of the radii of the Benchmark eclipsing binary V578 Mon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, E. V.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Torres, Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    V578 Mon is an eclipsing binary system in which both stars have masses above 10 M ☉ determined with an accuracy better than 3%. It is one of only five such massive eclipsing binaries known that also possess eccentric orbits and measured apsidal motions, thus making it an important benchmark for theoretical stellar evolution models. However, recently reported determinations of the radii of V578 Mon differ significantly from previously reported values. We reanalyze the published data for V578 Mon and trace the discrepancy to the use of an incorrect formulation for the stellar potentials in the most recent analysis. Here we report corrected radii for this important benchmark eclipsing binary.

  17. Physical Properties of the LMC Eclipsing Binary Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prsa, Andrej; Devinney, E. J.; Guinan, E. F.; Engle, S. G.; DeGeorge, M.

    2009-01-01

    To date, three independent studies have devised an automatic procedure to analyse and extract the principal parameters of 2581 detached eclipsing binary stars from the OGLE photometric survey of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC): Devor (2005), Tamuz et al. (2006), and Prsa et al. (2008). For time efficiency, Devor used a simple model of two spherical, limb-darkened stars without tidal or reflection physics. Tamuz et al.'s approach employs a more realistic EBOP model, which is still limited in handling proximity physics. Our study used a back-propagating neural network that was trained on the light curves computed by a modern Wilson-Devinney code. The three approaches are confronted and correlations in the results are sought that indicate the degree of reliability of the obtained results. A database of solutions consistent across all three studies is presented. We assess the suitability of each method for other morphology types (i.e. semi-detached and overcontact binaries) and we overview the practical limitations of these methods for the upcoming survey data. This research is supported by NFS/RUI Grant No. AST-05-07542, which we gratefully acknowledge.

  18. EPIC 219217635: A Doubly Eclipsing Quadruple System Containing an Evolved Binary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borkovits, T.; Albrecht, S.; Rappaport, S.

    2018-01-01

    We have discovered a doubly eclipsing, bound, quadruple star system in the field of K2 Campaign 7. EPIC 219217635 is a stellar image with Kp = 12.7 that contains an eclipsing binary (‘EB’) with PA = 3.59470 d and a second EB with PB = 0.61825 d. We have obtained followup radial-velocity (‘RV’) sp...

  19. Spectral and photometric analysis of the eclipsing binary epsilon Aurigae prior to and during the 2009-2011 eclipse

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chadima, P.; Harmanec, P.; Bennett, P.D.; Kloppenborg, B.; Stencel, R.; Yang, S.; Božić, H.; Šlechta, Miroslav; Kotková, Lenka; Wolf, M.; Škoda, Petr; Votruba, Viktor; Hopkins, J.L.; Buil, C.; Sudar, D.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 530, June (2011), A146/1-A146/13 ISSN 0004-6361 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : variables stars * binaries * eclipsing Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.587, year: 2011

  20. XMM-NEWTON MONITORING OF THE CLOSE PRE-MAIN-SEQUENCE BINARY AK SCO. EVIDENCE OF TIDE-DRIVEN FILLING OF THE INNER GAP IN THE CIRCUMBINARY DISK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez de Castro, Ana Ines [S. D. Astronomia y Geodesia and Instituto de Matematica Interdisciplinar, Fac. de CC Matematicas, Universidad Complutense, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Lopez-Santiago, Javier [Departamento de Astrofisica, Fac de CC Fisicas, Universidad Complutense, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Talavera, Antonio [European Space Astronomy Center, Villanueva de la Canada, E-28691, Madrid (Spain); Sytov, A. Yu.; Bisikalo, D. [Institute of Astronomy of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pyatnitskaya St. 48, 109017 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2013-03-20

    AK Sco stands out among pre-main-sequence binaries because of its prominent ultraviolet excess, the high eccentricity of its orbit, and the strong tides driven by it. AK Sco consists of two F5-type stars that get as close as 11 R{sub *} at periastron passage. The presence of a dense (n{sub e} {approx} 10{sup 11} cm{sup -3}) extended envelope has been unveiled recently. In this article, we report the results from an XMM-Newton-based monitoring of the system. We show that at periastron, X-ray and UV fluxes are enhanced by a factor of {approx}3 with respect to the apastron values. The X-ray radiation is produced in an optically thin plasma with T {approx} 6.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} K and it is found that the N{sub H} column density rises from 0.35 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 21} cm{sup -2} at periastron to 1.11 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 21} cm{sup -2} at apastron, in good agreement with previous polarimetric observations. The UV emission detected in the Optical Monitor band seems to be caused by the reprocessing of the high-energy magnetospheric radiation on the circumstellar material. Further evidence of the strong magnetospheric disturbances is provided by the detection of line broadening of 278.7 km s{sup -1} in the N V line with Hubble Space Telescope/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph. Numerical simulations of the mass flow from the circumbinary disk to the components have been carried out. They provide a consistent scenario with which to interpret AK Sco observations. We show that the eccentric orbit acts like a gravitational piston. At apastron, matter is dragged efficiently from the inner disk border, filling the inner gap and producing accretion streams that end as ring-like structures around each component of the system. At periastron, the ring-like structures come into contact, leading to angular momentum loss, and thus producing an accretion outburst.

  1. Eclipsing binary stars with extreme light curve asymmetries mined from large astronomical surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papageorgiou Athanasios

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The O’Connell effect is one of the most perplexing challenges in binary studies as it has not been convincingly explained. Furthermore, a simple method to obtain essential parameters for eclipsing binaries exhibiting this effect and to extract information describing the asymmetry in the light curve maxima is needed. We have developed an automated program that characterizes the morphology of light curves by depth of both minima, height of both maxima and curvature outside the eclipses.

  2. Physics of Eclipsing Binaries: Modelling in the new era of ultra-high precision photometry

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlovski, K.; Bloemen, S.; Degroote, P.; Conroy, K.; Hambleton, Kelly; Giammarco, J.M.; Pablo, H.; Prša, A.; Tkachenko, A.; Torres, G.

    2013-01-01

    Recent ultra-high precision observations of eclipsing binaries, especially data acquired by the Kepler satellite, have made accurate light curve modelling increasingly challenging but also more rewarding. In this contribution, we discuss low-amplitude signals in light curves that can now be used to derive physical information about eclipsing binaries but that were unaccessible before the Kepler era. A notable example is the detection of Doppler beaming, which leads to an increase in flux when...

  3. Introducing adapted Nelder & Mead's downhill simplex method to a fully automated analysis of eclipsing binaries

    OpenAIRE

    Prsa, A.; Zwitter, T.

    2004-01-01

    Eclipsing binaries are extremely attractive objects because absolute physical parameters (masses, luminosities, radii) of both components may be determined from observations. Since most efforts to extract these parameters were based on dedicated observing programs, existing modeling code is based on interactivity. Gaia will make a revolutionary advance in shear number of observed eclipsing binaries and new methods for automatic handling must be introduced and thoroughly tested. This paper foc...

  4. Physics of Eclipsing Binaries: Motivation for the New-Age Modeling Suite

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlovski, K.; Prša, A.; Degroote, P.; Conroy, K.; Bloemen, S.; Hambleton, Kelly; Giammarco, J.; Pablo, H.; Tkachenko, A.; Torres, G.

    2013-01-01

    Recent ultra-high precision observations of eclipsing binaries, especially data acquired by the Kepler satellite, have made accurate light curve modelling increasingly challenging but also more rewarding. In this contribution, we discuss low-amplitude signals in light curves that can now be used to derive physical information about eclipsing binaries but that were unaccessible before the Kepler era. A notable example is the detection of Doppler beaming, which leads to an increase in flux when...

  5. KEPLER ECLIPSING BINARIES WITH DELTA SCUTI/GAMMA DORADUS PULSATING COMPONENTS. I. KIC 9851944

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Zhao; Gies, Douglas R.; Matson, Rachel A. [Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, P.O. Box 5060, Atlanta, GA 30302-5060 (United States); Hernández, Antonio García, E-mail: guo@chara.gsu.edu, E-mail: gies@chara.gsu.edu, E-mail: rmatson@chara.gssu.edu, E-mail: agh@astro.up.pt [Instituto de Astrofísica e Ciências do Espaco, Universidade do Porto, CAUP, Rua das Estrelas, PT4150-762 Porto (Portugal)

    2016-07-20

    KIC 9851944 is a short-period ( P = 2.16 days) eclipsing binary in the Kepler field of view. By combining the analysis of Kepler photometry and phase-resolved spectra from Kitt Peak National Observatory and Lowell Observatory, we determine the atmospheric and physical parameters of both stars. The two components have very different radii (2.27 R {sub ⊙}, 3.19 R {sub ⊙}) but close masses (1.76 M {sub ⊙}, 1.79 M {sub ⊙}) and effective temperatures (7026, 6902 K), indicating different evolutionary stages. The hotter primary is still on the main sequence (MS), while the cooler and larger secondary star has evolved to the post-MS, burning hydrogen in a shell. A comparison with coeval evolutionary models shows that it requires solar metallicity and a higher mass ratio to fit the radii and temperatures of both stars simultaneously. Both components show δ Scuti-type pulsations, which we interpret as p -modes and p and g mixed modes. After a close examination of the evolution of δ Scuti pulsational frequencies, we make a comparison of the observed frequencies with those calculated from MESA/GYRE.

  6. On the mass-spectrum relation for the main sequence stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svechnikov, M.A.; Tajdakova, T.A.

    1984-01-01

    From 240 main-sequence stars with well-determined masses, a new mass-spectrum relation is obtained, which differs appreciably in certain intervals of spectral types from the mass-spectrum relations of Allen and Trimble. The accuracy of mass determination for the components of eclipsing binary systems of different types from their spectra given in the General Catalogue of Variable Stars (3rd edition) and in its supplements is evaluated

  7. Artificial Intelligence and the Brave New World of Eclipsing Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devinney, E.; Guinan, E.; Bradstreet, D.; DeGeorge, M.; Giammarco, J.; Alcock, C.; Engle, S.

    2005-12-01

    The explosive growth of observational capabilities and information technology over the past decade has brought astronomy to a tipping point - we are going to be deluged by a virtual fire hose (more like Niagara Falls!) of data. An important component of this deluge will be newly discovered eclipsing binary stars (EBs) and other valuable variable stars. As exploration of the Local Group Galaxies grows via current and new ground-based and satellite programs, the number of EBs is expected to grow explosively from some 10,000 today to 8 million as GAIA comes online. These observational advances will present a unique opportunity to study the properties of EBs formed in galaxies with vastly different dynamical, star formation, and chemical histories than our home Galaxy. Thus the study of these binaries (e.g., from light curve analyses) is expected to provide clues about the star formation rates and dynamics of their host galaxies as well as the possible effects of varying chemical abundance on stellar evolution and structure. Additionally, minimal-assumption-based distances to Local Group objects (and possibly 3-D mapping within these objects) shall be returned. These huge datasets of binary stars will provide tests of current theories (or suggest new theories) regarding binary star formation and evolution. However, these enormous data will far exceed the capabilities of analysis via human examination. To meet the daunting challenge of successfully mining this vast potential of EBs and variable stars for astrophysical results with minimum human intervention, we are developing new data processing techniques and methodologies. Faced with an overwhelming volume of data, our goal is to integrate technologies of Machine Learning and Pattern Processing (Artificial Intelligence [AI]) into the data processing pipelines of the major current and future ground- and space-based observational programs. Data pipelines of the future will have to carry us from observations to

  8. Spectrophotometric study of the AN And eclipsing binary star

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rachkovskaya, T.M.

    1979-01-01

    The spectrum of eclipsing binary AN And has been studied using spectrograms with dispersion of 6-15 A/mm. The experiments have been carried out in 1967 and 1976 in the Crimea astrophysical laboratory. The equivalent widths of hydrogen and metallic lines were found to be 1.3-1.5 times stronger on the spectrograms in 1976 in comparison with those in 1967. The calcium spectral type Sp(KCa2)=A9, F0 was found to be earlier than the metallic one Sp(M)=F2-F5. The rotation velocity supposes the synchronism of axial and orbital rotation. Enchancement of titanium, strontiUm, conium and a deficit of magnesium and chromium is observed in the atmosphere of the star as compared with the Sun. The turbulence velocity is equal to 9.4 km/s. The velocity of the system centre-of-mass is equal to (-5.6 km/s) and the half of the amplitude of the main component beam velocity is equal to 72 km/s

  9. A 12 MINUTE ORBITAL PERIOD DETACHED WHITE DWARF ECLIPSING BINARY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Warren R.; Kilic, Mukremin; Kenyon, Scott J.; Hermes, J. J.; Winget, D. E.; Prieto, Carlos Allende

    2011-01-01

    We have discovered a detached pair of white dwarfs (WDs) with a 12.75 minute orbital period and a 1315 km s -1 radial velocity amplitude. We measure the full orbital parameters of the system using its light curve, which shows ellipsoidal variations, Doppler boosting, and primary and secondary eclipses. The primary is a 0.25 M sun tidally distorted helium WD, only the second tidally distorted WD known. The unseen secondary is a 0.55 M sun carbon-oxygen WD. The two WDs will come into contact in 0.9 Myr due to loss of energy and angular momentum via gravitational wave radiation. Upon contact the systems may merge (yielding a rapidly spinning massive WD), form a stable interacting binary, or possibly explode as an underluminous Type Ia supernova. The system currently has a gravitational wave strain of 10 -22 , about 10,000 times larger than the Hulse-Taylor pulsar; this system would be detected by the proposed Laser Interferometer Space Antenna gravitational wave mission in the first week of operation. This system's rapid change in orbital period will provide a fundamental test of general relativity.

  10. Absolute parameters of southern detached eclipsing binary: HD 53570

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sürgit, D.

    2018-05-01

    In this study, we conducted the first analysis of spectroscopic and photometric observations of the eclipsing binary star HD 53570. Spectroscopic observations of HD 53570 were made at the Sutherland Station of the South African Astronomical Observatory in 2013 and 2014. The radial velocities of the components were determined using the cross-correlation technique. The spectroscopic mass ratio obtained for the system was 1.13 ( ± 0.07). The All Sky Automated Survey V light curve of HD 53570 was analyzed using the Wilson-Devinney code combined with the Monte Carlo search method. The final model showed that HD 53570 has a detached configuration. The mass and radii of the primary and secondary components of HD 53570 were derived as 1.06 ( ± 0.07) M⊙, 1.20 ( ± 0.16) M⊙, and 1.42 ( ± 0.14) R⊙, 2.07 ( ± 0.16) R⊙, respectively. The distance of HD 53570 was computed as 248 ( ± 38) pc considering interstellar extinction. The evolutionary status of the component stars was also investigated using Geneva evolutionary models.

  11. Age and helium content of the open cluster NGC 6791 from multiple eclipsing binary members. II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, K.; VandenBerg, D. A.; Bruntt, H.

    2012-01-01

    Models of stellar structure and evolution can be constrained by measuring accurate parameters of detached eclipsing binaries in open clusters. Multiple binary stars provide the means to determine helium abundances in these old stellar systems, and in turn, to improve estimates of their age. In th...

  12. THE PHASES DIFFERENTIAL ASTROMETRY DATA ARCHIVE. II. UPDATED BINARY STAR ORBITS AND A LONG PERIOD ECLIPSING BINARY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muterspaugh, Matthew W.; O'Connell, J.; Hartkopf, William I.; Lane, Benjamin F.; Williamson, M.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Konacki, Maciej; Burke, Bernard F.; Colavita, M. M.; Shao, M.; Wiktorowicz, Sloane J.

    2010-01-01

    Differential astrometry measurements from the Palomar High-precision Astrometric Search for Exoplanet Systems have been combined with lower precision single-aperture measurements covering a much longer timespan (from eyepiece measurements, speckle interferometry, and adaptive optics) to determine improved visual orbits for 20 binary stars. In some cases, radial velocity observations exist to constrain the full three-dimensional orbit and determine component masses. The visual orbit of one of these binaries-α Com (HD 114378)-shows that the system is likely to have eclipses, despite its very long period of 26 years. The next eclipse is predicted to be within a week of 2015 January 24.

  13. ON THE PULSATIONAL-ORBITAL-PERIOD RELATION OF ECLIPSING BINARIES WITH δ-SCT COMPONENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, X. B.; Luo, C. Q. [Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Fu, J. N. [Department of Astronomy, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2013-11-01

    We have deduced a theoretical relation between the pulsation and orbital-periods of pulsating stars in close binaries based on their Roche lobe filling. It appears to be of a simple linear form, with the slope as a function of the pulsation constant, the mass ratio, and the filling factor for an individual system. Testing the data of 69 known eclipsing binaries containing δ-Sct-type components yields an empirical slope of 0.020 ± 0.006 for the P{sub pul}-P{sub orb} relation. We have further derived the upper limit of the P{sub pul}/P{sub orb} ratio for the δ-Sct stars in eclipsing binaries with a value of 0.09 ± 0.02. This value could serve as a criterion to distinguish whether or not a pulsator in an eclipsing binary pulsates in the p-mode. Applying the deduced P{sub pul}-P{sub orb} relation, we have computed the dominant pulsation constants for 37 δ-Sct stars in eclipsing systems with definite photometric solutions. These ranged between 0.008 and 0.033 days with a mean value of about 0.014 days, indicating that δ-Sct stars in eclipsing binaries mostly pulsate in the fourth or fifth overtones.

  14. The fidelity of Kepler eclipsing binary parameters inferred by the neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holanda, N.; da Silva, J. R. P.

    2018-04-01

    This work aims to test the fidelity and efficiency of obtaining automatic orbital elements of eclipsing binary systems, from light curves using neural network models. We selected a random sample with 78 systems, from over 1400 eclipsing binary detached obtained from the Kepler Eclipsing Binaries Catalog, processed using the neural network approach. The orbital parameters of the sample systems were measured applying the traditional method of light curve adjustment with uncertainties calculated by the bootstrap method, employing the JKTEBOP code. These estimated parameters were compared with those obtained by the neural network approach for the same systems. The results reveal a good agreement between techniques for the sum of the fractional radii and moderate agreement for e cos ω and e sin ω, but orbital inclination is clearly underestimated in neural network tests.

  15. Project DWARF - using eclipsing binaries for searching for exoplanets and brown dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudak, V.; Parimucha, Š.

    2016-12-01

    Project DWARF is a long-term observation campaign for about 60 selected eclipsing binaries aimed for detection of exoplanets or other objects (brown dwarfs) in low-mass detached binaries of different types (low-mass eclipsing binaries with M and K components, short-period binaries with sdB or sdO component, post-common-envelope systems containing a white dwarf). Existence of other bodies in systems are determined by analysing of O-C diagrams, constructed from observed minima times of binaries. Objects are selected with intention to determine minima with high precision. About 40 observatories are involved into the network at present time, mostly situated in Europe. The observations are made by small or middle class telescopes with apertures of 20-200 cm. In this contribution we give information about current status of the project, we present main goals and results of 4 years observations.

  16. KIC 6048106: an Algol-type eclipsing system with long-term magnetic activity and hybrid pulsations - I. Binary modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadi Ghadim, A.; Lampens, P.; Jassur, M.

    2018-03-01

    The A-F-type stars and pulsators (δ Scuti-γ Dor) are in a critical regime where they experience a transition from radiative to convective transport of energy in their envelopes. Such stars can pulsate in both gravity and acoustic modes. Hence, the knowledge of their fundamental parameters along with their observed pulsation characteristics can help in improving the stellar models. When residing in a binary system, these pulsators provide more accurate and less model-dependent stellar parameters than in the case of their single counterparts. We present a light-curve model for the eclipsing system KIC 6048106 based on the Kepler photometry and the code PHOEBE. We aim to obtain accurate physical parameters and tough constraints for the stellar modelling of this intermediate-mass hybrid pulsator. We performed a separate modelling of three light-curve segments which show a distinct behaviour due to a difference in activity. We also analysed the Kepler Eclipse Time Variations (ETVs). KIC 6048106 is an Algol-type binary with F5-K5 components, a near-circular orbit and a 1.56-d period undergoing variations of the order of Δ P/P˜eq 3.60× 10^{-7} in 287 ± 7 d. The primary component is a main-sequence star with M1 = 1.55 ± 0.11 M⊙, R1 = 1.57 ± 0.12 R⊙. The secondary is a much cooler subgiant with M2 = 0.33 ± 0.07 M⊙, R2 = 1.77 ± 0.16 R⊙. Many small near-polar spots are active on its surface. The second quadrature phase shows a brightness modulation on a time-scale 290 ± 7 d, in good agreement with the ETV modulation. This study reveals a stable binary configuration along with clear evidence of a long-term activity of the secondary star.

  17. The Wolf-Rayet eclipsing binary HD 5980 in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breysacher, J.; Moffat, A.F.J.

    1982-01-01

    The Wolf-Rayet star HD 5980, which is probably associated with the bright HII region NGC 346 of the Small Magellanic Cloud, was found to be an eclipsing binary by Hoffmann, Stift and Moffat (1978). Breysacher and Perrier (1980) determined the orbital period, P=19.26 +- 0.003d, of the system whose light curve reveals a strongly eccentric orbit (e=0.47 for i=80 0 ). The behaviour of the light curve outside the eclipses shows that one is dealing with a rather complex binary system. An analysis of the spectroscopic data is presented here. (Auth.)

  18. Photoelectric elements of the eclipsing binary XY Ceti

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, R.K.; Padalia, T.D.

    1975-01-01

    The absolute elements of the system XY Ceti have been obtained on the basis of the spectroscopic elements given by Popper (1971) and the photoelectric elements derived previously. The colours of the components have been obtained. Both components are found to lie fairly on the Main Sequence. The primary component of the system, however, is slightly more evolved as it shows a tendency to drift away from the Main Sequence. The spectral classes now assigned are A5V (primary) and A7V (secondary). The values of Roche constants indicate that the system is a detached one. (Auth.)

  19. EXPECTED LARGE SYNOPTIC SURVEY TELESCOPE (LSST) YIELD OF ECLIPSING BINARY STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prsa, Andrej; Pepper, Joshua; Stassun, Keivan G.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we estimate the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) yield of eclipsing binary stars, which will survey ∼20,000 deg 2 of the southern sky during a period of 10 years in six photometric passbands to r ∼ 24.5. We generate a set of 10,000 eclipsing binary light curves sampled to the LSST time cadence across the whole sky, with added noise as a function of apparent magnitude. This set is passed to the analysis-of-variance period finder to assess the recoverability rate for the periods, and the successfully phased light curves are passed to the artificial-intelligence-based pipeline ebai to assess the recoverability rate in terms of the eclipsing binaries' physical and geometric parameters. We find that, out of ∼24 million eclipsing binaries observed by LSST with a signal-to-noise ratio >10 in mission lifetime, ∼28% or 6.7 million can be fully characterized by the pipeline. Of those, ∼25% or 1.7 million will be double-lined binaries, a true treasure trove for stellar astrophysics.

  20. A white dwarf companion to the main-sequence star 4 Omicron(1) Orionis and the binary hypothesis for the origin of peculiar red giants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ake, Thomas B.; Johnson, Hollis R.

    1988-01-01

    Ultraviolet spectra of the peculiar red giants (PRGs) called MS stars are investigated, and the discovery of a white dwarf (WD) companion to the MS star 4 Omicron(1) Orionis is reported. The observations and data analysis are discussed and compared with those for field WDs in order to derive parameters for the WD and the luminosity of the primary. Detection limits for the other MS stars investigated are derived, and the binary hypothesis for PRGs is reviewed.

  1. ACCURATE MASSES FOR THE PRIMARY AND SECONDARY IN THE ECLIPSING WHITE DWARF BINARY NLTT 11748

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilic, Mukremin; Brown, Warren R.; Kenyon, S. J.; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Agueeros, M. A.; Camilo, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    We measure the radial velocity curve of the eclipsing detached white dwarf binary NLTT 11748. The primary exhibits velocity variations with a semi-amplitude of 273 km s -1 and an orbital period of 5.641 hr. We do not detect any spectral features from the secondary star or any spectral changes during the secondary eclipse. We use our composite spectrum to constrain the temperature and surface gravity of the primary to be T eff = 8690 ± 140 K and log g = 6.54 ± 0.05, which correspond to a mass of 0.18 M sun . For an inclination angle of 89. 0 9 derived from the eclipse modeling, the mass function requires a 0.76 M sun companion. The merger time for the system is 7.2 Gyr. However, due to the extreme mass ratio of 0.24, the binary will most likely create an AM CVn system instead of a merger.

  2. B and V photometry and analysis of the eclipsing binary RZ CAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riazi, N.; Bagheri, M. R.; Faghihi, F.

    1994-01-01

    Photoelectric light curves of the eclipsing binary RZ Cas are presented for B and V filters. The light curves are analyzed for light and geometrical elements, starting with a previously suggested preliminary method. The approximate results thus obtained are then optimised through the Wilson-Devinney computer programs.

  3. The O-type eclipsing contact binary LY Aurigae - member of a quadruple system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mayer, P.; Drechsel, H.; Harmanec, P.; Yang, S.; Šlechta, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 559, November (2013), A22/1-A22/8 ISSN 0004-6361 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : early-type stars * binaries * eclipsing Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.479, year: 2013

  4. The K2 M67 Study: A Curiously Young Star in an Eclipsing Binary in an Old Open Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandquist, Eric L.; Mathieu, Robert D.; Quinn, Samuel N.; Pollack, Maxwell L.; Latham, David W.; Brown, Timothy M.; Esselstein, Rebecca; Aigrain, Suzanne; Parviainen, Hannu; Vanderburg, Andrew; Stello, Dennis; Somers, Garrett; Pinsonneault, Marc H.; Tayar, Jamie; Orosz, Jerome A.; Bedin, Luigi R.; Libralato, Mattia; Malavolta, Luca; Nardiello, Domenico

    2018-04-01

    We present an analysis of a slightly eccentric (e = 0.05), partially eclipsing, long-period (P = 69.73 days) main-sequence binary system (WOCS 12009, Sanders 1247) in the benchmark old open cluster M67. Using Kepler K2 and ground-based photometry, along with a large set of new and reanalyzed spectra, we derived highly precise masses (1.111 ± 0.015 and 0.748 ± 0.005 M ⊙) and radii (1.071 ± 0.008 ± 0.003 and 0.713 ± 0.019 ± 0.026 R ⊙, with statistical and systematic error estimates) for the stars. The radius of the secondary star is in agreement with theory. The primary, however, is approximately 15% smaller than reasonable isochrones for the cluster predict. Our best explanation is that the primary star was produced from the merger of two stars, as this can also account for the nondetection of photospheric lithium and its higher temperature relative to other cluster main-sequence stars at the same V magnitude. To understand the dynamical characteristics (low measured rotational line broadening of the primary star and low eccentricity of the current binary orbit), we believe that the most probable (but not the only) explanation is the tidal evolution of a close binary within a primordial triple system (possibly after a period of Kozai–Lidov oscillations), leading to merger approximately 1 Gyr ago. This star appears to be a future blue straggler that is being revealed as the cluster ages and the most massive main-sequence stars die out. Based on observations made at Kitt Peak National Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation; with the Tillinghast Reflector Echelle Spectrograph (TRES) on the 1.5 m Tillinghast telescope, located at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory’s Fred L. Whipple Observatory on Mt. Hopkins in Arizona; the HARPS-N spectrograph on the Italian Telescopio Nazionale

  5. ANALYSIS OF DETACHED ECLIPSING BINARIES NEAR THE TURNOFF OF THE OPEN CLUSTER NGC 7142

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandquist, Eric L.; Serio, Andrew W.; Orosz, Jerome [San Diego State University, Department of Astronomy, San Diego, CA 92182 (United States); Shetrone, Matthew, E-mail: esandquist@mail.sdsu.edu, E-mail: aserio@gemini.edu, E-mail: jorosz@mail.sdsu.edu, E-mail: shetrone@astro.as.utexas.edu [University of Texas, McDonald Observatory, HC75 Box 1337-L Fort Davis, TX 79734 (United States)

    2013-08-01

    We analyze extensive BVR{sub C}I{sub C} photometry and radial velocity measurements for three double-lined deeply eclipsing binary stars in the field of the old open cluster NGC 7142. The short period (P = 1.9096825 days) detached binary V375 Cep is a high probability cluster member, and has a total eclipse of the secondary star. The characteristics of the primary star (M = 1.288 {+-} 0.017 M{sub Sun }) at the cluster turnoff indicate an age of 3.6 Gyr (with a random uncertainty of 0.25 Gyr), consistent with earlier analysis of the color-magnitude diagram. The secondary star (M = 0.871 {+-} 0.008 M{sub Sun }) is not expected to have evolved significantly, but its radius is more than 10% larger than predicted by models. Because this binary system has a known age, it is useful for testing the idea that radius inflation can occur in short period binaries for stars with significant convective envelopes due to the inhibition of energy transport by magnetic fields. The brighter star in the binary also produces a precision estimate of the distance modulus, independent of reddening estimates: (m - M){sub V} = 12.86 {+-} 0.07. The other two eclipsing binary systems are not cluster members, although one of the systems (V2) could only be conclusively ruled out as a present or former member once the stellar characteristics were determined. That binary is within 0. Degree-Sign 5 of edge-on, is in a fairly long-period eccentric binary, and contains two almost indistinguishable stars. The other binary (V1) has a small but nonzero eccentricity (e = 0.038) in spite of having an orbital period under 5 days.

  6. Towards a Fundamental Understanding of Short Period Eclipsing Binary Systems Using Kepler Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prsa, Andrej

    Kepler's ultra-high precision photometry is revolutionizing stellar astrophysics. We are seeing intrinsic phenomena on an unprecedented scale, and interpreting them is both a challenge and an exciting privilege. Eclipsing binary stars are of particular significance for stellar astrophysics because precise modeling leads to fundamental parameters of the orbiting components: masses, radii, temperatures and luminosities to better than 1-2%. On top of that, eclipsing binaries are ideal physical laboratories for studying other physical phenomena, such as asteroseismic properties, chromospheric activity, proximity effects, mass transfer in close binaries, etc. Because of the eclipses, the basic geometry is well constrained, but a follow-up spectroscopy is required to get the dynamical masses and the absolute scale of the system. A conjunction of Kepler photometry and ground- based spectroscopy is a treasure trove for eclipsing binary star astrophysics. This proposal focuses on a carefully selected set of 100 short period eclipsing binary stars. The fundamental goal of the project is to study the intrinsic astrophysical effects typical of short period binaries in great detail, utilizing Kepler photometry and follow-up spectroscopy to devise a robust and consistent set of modeling results. The complementing spectroscopy is being secured from 3 approved and fully funded programs: the NOAO 4-m echelle spectroscopy at Kitt Peak (30 nights; PI Prsa), the 10- m Hobby-Eberly Telescope high-resolution spectroscopy (PI Mahadevan), and the 2.5-m Sloan Digital Sky Survey III spectroscopy (PI Mahadevan). The targets are prioritized by the projected scientific yield. Short period detached binaries host low-mass (K- and M- type) components for which the mass-radius relationship is sparsely populated and still poorly understood, as the radii appear up to 20% larger than predicted by the population models. We demonstrate the spectroscopic detection viability in the secondary

  7. Preliminary study of light variations of the eclipsing binary AB Cassiopeiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, H.; Manchester Univ.

    1980-01-01

    Preliminary study of the eclipsing binary AB Cas is presented here by using the photometric observational data. The primary component is one of the delta Sct variables with period of 0.sup(d)054, and whether the oscillation is of a radial mode or of a non-radial one is discussed. Two colour indices (B - V and U - B) data and the light curve analysis suggest that this binary system is a typical Algol type binary system, in which the primary component is near the ZAMS with about 2.3 Msub(sun) and the secondary one is a subgiant star with about 0.5 Msub(sun). (orig.)

  8. Modeling Radial Velocities and Eclipse Photometry of the Kepler Target KIC 4054905: an Oscillating Red Giant in an Eclipsing Binary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benbakoura, M.; Gaulme, P.; McKeever, J.; Beck, P. G.; Jackiewicz, J.; García, R. A.

    2017-12-01

    Asteroseismology is a powerful tool to measure the fundamental properties of stars and probe their interiors. This is particularly efficient for red giants because their modes are well detectable and give information on their deep layers. However, the seismic relations used to infer the mass and radius of a star have been calibrated on the Sun. Therefore, it is crucial to assess their accuracy for red giants which are not perfectly homologous to it. We study eclipsing binaries with a giant component to test their validity. We identified 16 systems for which we intend to compare the dynamical masses and radii obtained by combined photometry and spectroscopy to the values obtained from asteroseismology. In the present work, we illustrate our approach on a system from our sample.

  9. Age and helium content of the eclipsing binary AI Phoenicis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VandenBerg, D.A.; Hrivnak, B.J.

    1985-01-01

    Comparisons of new theoretical isochrones for heavy-element abundances Z = 0.0169 (solar) and Z = 0.04 with recently published parameters of AI Phoenicis suggest that this system has an age of approximately (3.6 +- 0.7) x 10 9 yr and a helium content of Y = 0.38 +- 0.05. The indicated uncertainty is largely due to the lack of precise knowledge about the metallicity of the binary, since the fits to the data by both sets of isochrones are exceedingly good. The high helium content, which is required in order to reproduce the observed mass-luminosity relation, is suggested to be comparable with the values generally derived for binaries if the latter are adjusted to take into account the effect of the new Los Alamos opacities

  10. New BV light curves of the eclipsing binary 44i Bootis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rovithis, P.; Rovithis-Livaniou, H.

    1990-01-01

    The eclipsing binary 44i Bootis, the fainter component of the visual binary ADS 9494, has been observed during 1980 as well as during 1988. The observations were made with the 48-inch Cassegrain reflector at the Kryonerion Station of the National Observatory of Athens, Greece. The individual observations of 44i Bootis are presented for years 1980 and 1988 and are also discussed. A linear as well as a quadratic least square fitting to the O-C diagram of 44i Boo for the last decade is given in which it is shown that the period of the system continues to increase

  11. Photometric study of the eclipsing binary U Sagittae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNamara, D.H.; Feltz, K.A. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The geometric and photometric elements of the eclipsing star U Sge have been derived from uvby observations secured in 1973-74. The ''best'' elements are r 1 = 0.296, r 2 = 0.225, i = 90 0 ; and L 1 = 0.130, L 2 = 0.870 in yellow light where the subscript 1 refers to the G2 IV-III component and the subscript 2 refers to the B8 V component. Radii and masses of the two stars can be derived by assuming that the larger star fills its Roche lobe. This assumption yields r 1 = 3.32 R/sub solar mass/, r 2 = 2.52 R/sub solar mass/, M 1 = 1.4 solar mass, and M 2 = 3.5 solar mass. The absolute magnitudes are found by two different methods and yield M/sub v/ = -0/sup m/4 for the B star and M/sub v/ = + 1.8/sup m/ for the G star. If corrections for radiative interactions are made, the absolute magnitude of the G star is M/sub v/ is approximately equal + 2.2/sup m/. Observational data secured in the u filter suggest that Balmer continuum emission can be detected from an emitting gas stream or disk. The gas must be concentrated near the following hemisphere of the B Star. The m 1 measurements of the secondary component suggest a metal deficiency of [Fe/H] = -0.6

  12. Interfacing modeling suite Physics Of Eclipsing Binaries 2.0 with a Virtual Reality Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harriett, Edward; Conroy, Kyle; Prša, Andrej; Klassner, Frank

    2018-01-01

    To explore alternate methods for modeling eclipsing binary stars, we extrapolate upon PHOEBE’s (PHysics Of Eclipsing BinariEs) capabilities in a virtual reality (VR) environment to create an immersive and interactive experience for users. The application used is Vizard, a python-scripted VR development platform for environments such as Cave Automatic Virtual Environment (CAVE) and other off-the-shelf VR headsets. Vizard allows the freedom for all modeling to be precompiled without compromising functionality or usage on its part. The system requires five arguments to be precomputed using PHOEBE’s python front-end: the effective temperature, flux, relative intensity, vertex coordinates, and orbits; the user can opt to implement other features from PHOEBE to be accessed within the simulation as well. Here we present the method for making the data observables accessible in real time. An Occulus Rift will be available for a live showcase of various cases of VR rendering of PHOEBE binary systems including detached and contact binary stars.

  13. Period Study and Analyses of 2017 Observations of the Totally Eclipsing, Solar Type Binary, MT Camelopardalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Danny R.; Samec, Ronald G.; Caton, Daniel B.

    2018-06-01

    We report here on a period study and the analysis of BVRcIc light curves (taken in 2017) of MT Cam (GSC03737-01085), which is a solar type (T ~ 5500K) eclipsing binary. D. Caton observed MT Cam on 05, 14, 15, 16, and 17, December 2017 with the 0.81-m reflector at Dark Sky Observatory. Six times of minimum light were calculated from four primary eclipses and two secondary eclipses:HJD I = 24 58092.4937±0.0002, 2458102.74600±0.0021, 2458104.5769±0.0002, 2458104.9434±0.0029HJD II = 2458103.6610±0.0001, 2458104.7607±0.0020,Six times of minimum light were also calculated from data taken by Terrell, Gross, and Cooney, in their 2016 and 2004 observations (reported in IBVS #6166; TGC, hereafter). In addition, six more times of minimum light were taken from the literature. From all 18 times of minimum light, we determined the following light elements:JD Hel Min I=2458102.7460(4) + 0.36613937(5) EWe found the orbital period was constant over the 14 years spanning all observations. We note that TGC found a slightly increasing period. However, our results were obtained from a period study rather than comparison of observations from only two epochs by the Wilson-Devinney (W-D) Program. A BVRcIc Johnson-Cousins filtered simultaneous W-D Program solution gives a mass ratio (0.3385±0.0014) very nearly the same as TGC’s (0.347±0.003), and a component temperature difference of only ~40 K. As with TGC, no spot was needed in the modeling. Our modeling (beginning with Binary Maker 3.0 fits) was done without prior knowledge of TGC’s. This shows the agreement achieved when independent analyses are done with the W-D code. The present observations were taken 1.8 years later than the last curves by TGC, so some variation is expected.The Roche Lobe fill-out of the binary is ~13% and the inclination is ~83.5 degrees. The system is a shallow contact W-type W UMa Binary, albeit, the amplitudes of the primary and secondary eclipse are very nearly identical. An eclipse duration of ~21

  14. γ DORADUS PULSATIONS IN THE ECLIPSING BINARY STAR KIC 6048106

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Woo, E-mail: jwlee@kasi.re.kr [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 34113 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-20

    We present the Kepler photometry of KIC 6048106, which is exhibiting the O’Connell effect and multiperiodic pulsations. Including a starspot on either of the components, light-curve synthesis indicates that this system is a semi-detached Algol with a mass ratio of 0.211, an orbital inclination of 73.°9, and a large temperature difference of 2534 K. To examine in detail both the spot variations and pulsations, we separately analyzed the Kepler time-series data at the interval of an orbital period in an iterative way. The results reveal that the variable asymmetries of the light maxima can be interpreted as the changes with time of a magnetic cool spot on the secondary component. Multiple frequency analyses were performed in the outside-eclipse light residuals after removal of the binarity effects from the observed Kepler data. We detected 30 frequencies with signal to noise amplitude ratios larger than 4.0, of which six ( f {sub 2}– f {sub 6} and f {sub 10}) can be identified as high-order (17 ≤  n  ≤ 25) low-degree ( ℓ  = 2) gravity-mode pulsations that were stable during the observing run of 200 days. In contrast, the other frequencies may be harmonic and combination terms. For the six frequencies, the pulsation periods and pulsation constants are in the ranges of 0.352–0.506 days and 0.232–0.333 days, respectively. These values and the position on the Hertzsprung–Russell diagram demonstrate that the primary star is a γ Dor variable. The evolutionary status and the pulsation nature of KIC 6048106 are discussed.

  15. AN X-RAY AND OPTICAL LIGHT CURVE MODEL OF THE ECLIPSING SYMBIOTIC BINARY SMC3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Mariko; Hachisu, Izumi; Mikołajewska, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Some binary evolution scenarios for Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) include long-period binaries that evolve to symbiotic supersoft X-ray sources in their late stage of evolution. However, symbiotic stars with steady hydrogen burning on the white dwarf's (WD) surface are very rare, and the X-ray characteristics are not well known. SMC3 is one such rare example and a key object for understanding the evolution of symbiotic stars to SNe Ia. SMC3 is an eclipsing symbiotic binary, consisting of a massive WD and red giant (RG), with an orbital period of 4.5 years in the Small Magellanic Cloud. The long-term V light curve variations are reproduced as orbital variations in the irradiated RG, whose atmosphere fills its Roche lobe, thus supporting the idea that the RG supplies matter to the WD at rates high enough to maintain steady hydrogen burning on the WD. We also present an eclipse model in which an X-ray-emitting region around the WD is almost totally occulted by the RG swelling over the Roche lobe on the trailing side, although it is always partly obscured by a long spiral tail of neutral hydrogen surrounding the binary in the orbital plane.

  16. High-Resolution Infrared Spectroscopic Observations of the Upper Scorpius Eclipsing Binary EPIC 203868608

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marshall C.; Mace, Gregory N.; Kim, Hwihyun; Kaplan, Kyle; McLane, Jacob; Sokal, Kimberly R.

    2017-06-01

    EPIC 203868608 is a source in the ~10 Myr old Upper Scorpius OB association. Using K2 photometry and ground-based follow-up observations, David et al. (2016) found that it consists of two brown dwarfs with a tertiary object at a projected separation of ~20 AU; the former objects appear to be a double-lined eclipsing binary with a period of 4.5 days. This is one of only two known eclipsing SB2s where both components are below the hydrogen-burning limit. We present additional follow-up observations of this system from the IGRINS high-resolution near-infrared spectrograph at McDonald Observatory. Our measured radial velocities do not follow the orbital solution presented by David et al. (2016). Instead, our combined IGRINS plus literature radial velocity dataset appears to indicate a period significantly different than that of the eclipsing binary obvious from the K2 light curve. We will discuss possible scenarios to account for the conflicting observations of this system.

  17. Giants of eclipse the ζ [Zeta] Aurigae stars and other binary systems

    CERN Document Server

    Griffin, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    The zeta Aurigae stars are the rare but illustrious sub-group of binary stars that undergo the dramatic phenomenon of "chromospheric eclipse". This book provides detailed descriptions of the ten known systems, illustrates them richly with examples of new spectra, and places them in the context of stellar structure and evolution. Comprised of a large cool giant plus a small hot dwarf, these key eclipsing binaries reveal fascinating changes in their spectra very close to total eclipse, when the hot star shines through differing heights of the "chromosphere", or outer atmosphere, of the giant star. The phenomenon provides astrophysics with the means of analyzing the outer atmosphere of a giant star and how that material is shed into space. The physics of these critical events can be explained qualitatively, but it is more challenging to extract hard facts from the observations, and tough to model the chromosphere in any detail. The book offers current thinking on mechanisms for heating a star's chromosphere an...

  18. HD 66051: the first eclipsing binary hosting an early-type magnetic star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochukhov, O.; Johnston, C.; Alecian, E.; Wade, G. A.

    2018-05-01

    Early-type magnetic stars are rarely found in close binary systems. No such objects were known in eclipsing binaries prior to this study. Here we investigated the eclipsing, spectroscopic double-lined binary HD 66051, which exhibits out-of-eclipse photometric variations suggestive of surface brightness inhomogeneities typical of early-type magnetic stars. Using a new set of high-resolution spectropolarimetric observations, we discovered a weak magnetic field on the primary and found intrinsic, element-dependent variability in its spectral lines. The magnetic field structure of the primary is dominated by a nearly axisymmetric dipolar component with a polar field strength Bd ≈ 600 G and an inclination with respect to the rotation axis of βd = 13°. A weaker quadrupolar component is also likely to be present. We combined the radial velocity measurements derived from our spectra with archival optical photometry to determine fundamental masses (3.16 and 1.75 M⊙) and radii (2.78 and 1.39 R⊙) with a 1-3% precision. We also obtained a refined estimate of the effective temperatures (13000 and 9000 K) and studied chemical abundances for both components with the help of disentangled spectra. We demonstrate that the primary component of HD 66051 is a typical late-B magnetic chemically peculiar star with a non-uniform surface chemical abundance distribution. It is not an HgMn-type star as suggested by recent studies. The secondary is a metallic-line star showing neither a strong, global magnetic field nor intrinsic spectral variability. Fundamental parameters provided by our work for this interesting system open unique possibilities for probing interior structure, studying atomic diffusion, and constraining binary star evolution.

  19. TESTING THE ASTEROSEISMIC SCALING RELATIONS FOR RED GIANTS WITH ECLIPSING BINARIES OBSERVED BY KEPLER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaulme, P.; McKeever, J.; Jackiewicz, J.; Rawls, M. L. [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, P.O. Box 30001, MSC 4500, Las Cruces, NM 88003-8001 (United States); Corsaro, E. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DRF-CNRS, Université Paris 7 Diderot, IRFU/SAp, Centre de Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Mosser, B. [LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Université Denis Diderot, F-92195 Meudon (France); Southworth, J. [Astrophysics Group, Keele University, Staffordshire, ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Mahadevan, S.; Bender, C.; Deshpande, R., E-mail: gaulme@nmsu.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Given the potential of ensemble asteroseismology for understanding fundamental properties of large numbers of stars, it is critical to determine the accuracy of the scaling relations on which these measurements are based. From several powerful validation techniques, all indications so far show that stellar radius estimates from the asteroseismic scaling relations are accurate to within a few percent. Eclipsing binary systems hosting at least one star with detectable solar-like oscillations constitute the ideal test objects for validating asteroseismic radius and mass inferences. By combining radial velocity (RV) measurements and photometric time series of eclipses, it is possible to determine the masses and radii of each component of a double-lined spectroscopic binary. We report the results of a four-year RV survey performed with the échelle spectrometer of the Astrophysical Research Consortium’s 3.5 m telescope and the APOGEE spectrometer at Apache Point Observatory. We compare the masses and radii of 10 red giants (RGs) obtained by combining radial velocities and eclipse photometry with the estimates from the asteroseismic scaling relations. We find that the asteroseismic scaling relations overestimate RG radii by about 5% on average and masses by about 15% for stars at various stages of RG evolution. Systematic overestimation of mass leads to underestimation of stellar age, which can have important implications for ensemble asteroseismology used for Galactic studies. As part of a second objective, where asteroseismology is used for understanding binary systems, we confirm that oscillations of RGs in close binaries can be suppressed enough to be undetectable, a hypothesis that was proposed in a previous work.

  20. Artificial Intelligence Approach to the Determination of Physical Properties of Eclipsing Binaries. I. The EBAI Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prša, A.; Guinan, E. F.; Devinney, E. J.; DeGeorge, M.; Bradstreet, D. H.; Giammarco, J. M.; Alcock, C. R.; Engle, S. G.

    2008-11-01

    Achieving maximum scientific results from the overwhelming volume of astronomical data to be acquired over the next few decades demands novel, fully automatic methods of data analysis. Here we concentrate on eclipsing binary (EB) stars, a prime source of astrophysical information, of which only some hundreds have been rigorously analyzed, but whose numbers will reach millions in a decade. We describe the artificial neural network (ANN) approach which is able to surmount the human bottleneck and permit EB-based scientific yield to keep pace with future data rates. The ANN, following training on a sample of 33,235 model light curves, outputs a set of approximate model parameters [T2/T1, (R1 + R2)/a, esin ω , ecos ω , and sin i] for each input light curve data set. The obtained parameters can then be readily passed to sophisticated modeling engines. We also describe a novel method polyfit for preprocessing observational light curves before inputting their data to the ANN and present the results and analysis of testing the approach on synthetic data and on real data including 50 binaries from the Catalog and Atlas of Eclipsing Binaries (CALEB) database and 2580 light curves from OGLE survey data. The success rate, defined by less than a 10% error in the network output parameter values, is approximately 90% for the OGLE sample and close to 100% for the CALEB sample—sufficient for a reliable statistical analysis. The code is made available to the public. Our approach is applicable to EB light curves of all classes; this first paper in the eclipsing binaries via artificial intelligence (EBAI) series focuses on detached EBs, which is the class most challenging for this approach.

  1. Light equation in eclipsing binary CV Boo: third body candidate in elliptical orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogomazov, A. I.; Kozyreva, V. S.; Satovskii, B. L.; Krushevska, V. N.; Kuznyetsova, Y. G.; Ehgamberdiev, S. A.; Karimov, R. G.; Khalikova, A. V.; Ibrahimov, M. A.; Irsmambetova, T. R.; Tutukov, A. V.

    2016-12-01

    A short period eclipsing binary star CV Boo is tested for the possible existence of additional bodies in the system with a help of the light equation method. We use data on the moments of minima from the literature as well as from our observations during 2014 May-July. A variation of the CV Boo's orbital period is found with a period of {≈}75 d. This variation can be explained by the influence of a third star with a mass of {≈}0.4 M_{⊙} in an eccentric orbit with e≈0.9. A possibility that the orbital period changes on long time scales is discussed. The suggested tertiary companion is near the chaotic zone around the central binary, so CV Boo represents an interesting example to test its dynamical evolution. A list of 14 minima moments of the binary obtained from our observations is presented.

  2. RED GIANTS IN ECLIPSING BINARY AND MULTIPLE-STAR SYSTEMS: MODELING AND ASTEROSEISMIC ANALYSIS OF 70 CANDIDATES FROM KEPLER DATA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaulme, P.; McKeever, J.; Rawls, M. L.; Jackiewicz, J.; Mosser, B.; Guzik, J. A.

    2013-01-01

    Red giant stars are proving to be an incredible source of information for testing models of stellar evolution, as asteroseismology has opened up a window into their interiors. Such insights are a direct result of the unprecedented data from space missions CoRoT and Kepler as well as recent theoretical advances. Eclipsing binaries are also fundamental astrophysical objects, and when coupled with asteroseismology, binaries provide two independent methods to obtain masses and radii and exciting opportunities to develop highly constrained stellar models. The possibility of discovering pulsating red giants in eclipsing binary systems is therefore an important goal that could potentially offer very robust characterization of these systems. Until recently, only one case has been discovered with Kepler. We cross-correlate the detected red giant and eclipsing-binary catalogs from Kepler data to find possible candidate systems. Light-curve modeling and mean properties measured from asteroseismology are combined to yield specific measurements of periods, masses, radii, temperatures, eclipse timing variations, core rotation rates, and red giant evolutionary state. After using three different techniques to eliminate false positives, out of the 70 systems common to the red giant and eclipsing-binary catalogs we find 13 strong candidates (12 previously unknown) to be eclipsing binaries, one to be a non-eclipsing binary with tidally induced oscillations, and 10 more to be hierarchical triple systems, all of which include a pulsating red giant. The systems span a range of orbital eccentricities, periods, and spectral types F, G, K, and M for the companion of the red giant. One case even suggests an eclipsing binary composed of two red giant stars and another of a red giant with a δ-Scuti star. The discovery of multiple pulsating red giants in eclipsing binaries provides an exciting test bed for precise astrophysical modeling, and follow-up spectroscopic observations of many of the

  3. Light curve of the CX Cep eclipsing binary system and characteristics of a Wolf-Rayet star

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipunova, N.A.; Cherepashchuk, A.M.

    1982-01-01

    The photoelectric B, V, R observations of the eclipsing Wolf-Rayet binary CX Cep (WN 5 + 08V, V approximately equal to 12sup(m),1, p approximately equal to 2sup(d),127) have been carried out. The physical characteristics of the WN 5 star, the core radius r 0 =(4.5+-2.5) Rsub(S) (Rsub(S) is the Sun radius) and the brightness temperature of the core Tsub(b)>50 000 K, are determined from the analysis of the light curve lambdasub(eff) approximately equal to 6 000 A. These characteristics are close to those of the WN 5 star in the eclipsing Wolf-Rayet binary V 444 Cyg. The results of the interpretation of the light curves of two eclipsing Wolf-Rayet binaries (V 444 Cyg and CX Cep) confirm the conclusions of the modern theory of evolution of massive close binary systems [ru

  4. Gaia eclipsing binary and multiple systems. Supervised classification and self-organizing maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Süveges, M.; Barblan, F.; Lecoeur-Taïbi, I.; Prša, A.; Holl, B.; Eyer, L.; Kochoska, A.; Mowlavi, N.; Rimoldini, L.

    2017-07-01

    Context. Large surveys producing tera- and petabyte-scale databases require machine-learning and knowledge discovery methods to deal with the overwhelming quantity of data and the difficulties of extracting concise, meaningful information with reliable assessment of its uncertainty. This study investigates the potential of a few machine-learning methods for the automated analysis of eclipsing binaries in the data of such surveys. Aims: We aim to aid the extraction of samples of eclipsing binaries from such databases and to provide basic information about the objects. We intend to estimate class labels according to two different, well-known classification systems, one based on the light curve morphology (EA/EB/EW classes) and the other based on the physical characteristics of the binary system (system morphology classes; detached through overcontact systems). Furthermore, we explore low-dimensional surfaces along which the light curves of eclipsing binaries are concentrated, and consider their use in the characterization of the binary systems and in the exploration of biases of the full unknown Gaia data with respect to the training sets. Methods: We have explored the performance of principal component analysis (PCA), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), Random Forest classification and self-organizing maps (SOM) for the above aims. We pre-processed the photometric time series by combining a double Gaussian profile fit and a constrained smoothing spline, in order to de-noise and interpolate the observed light curves. We achieved further denoising, and selected the most important variability elements from the light curves using PCA. Supervised classification was performed using Random Forest and LDA based on the PC decomposition, while SOM gives a continuous 2-dimensional manifold of the light curves arranged by a few important features. We estimated the uncertainty of the supervised methods due to the specific finite training set using ensembles of models constructed

  5. THE PALOMAR TRANSIENT FACTORY ORION PROJECT: ECLIPSING BINARIES AND YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Eyken, Julian C.; Ciardi, David R.; Akeson, Rachel L.; Beichman, Charles A.; Von Braun, Kaspar; Gelino, Dawn M.; Kane, Stephen R.; Plavchan, Peter; RamIrez, Solange V.; Rebull, Luisa M.; Stauffer, John R.; Hoard, D. W.; Boden, Andrew F.; Howell, Steve B.; Bloom, Joshua S.; Cenko, S. Bradley; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Law, Nicholas M.; Nugent, Peter E.

    2011-01-01

    The Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) Orion project is one of the experiments within the broader PTF survey, a systematic automated exploration of the sky for optical transients. Taking advantage of the wide (3. 0 5 x 2. 0 3) field of view available using the PTF camera installed at the Palomar 48 inch telescope, 40 nights were dedicated in 2009 December to 2010 January to perform continuous high-cadence differential photometry on a single field containing the young (7-10 Myr) 25 Ori association. Little is known empirically about the formation of planets at these young ages, and the primary motivation for the project is to search for planets around young stars in this region. The unique data set also provides for much ancillary science. In this first paper, we describe the survey and the data reduction pipeline, and present some initial results from an inspection of the most clearly varying stars relating to two of the ancillary science objectives: detection of eclipsing binaries and young stellar objects. We find 82 new eclipsing binary systems, 9 of which are good candidate 25 Ori or Orion OB1a association members. Of these, two are potential young W UMa type systems. We report on the possible low-mass (M-dwarf primary) eclipsing systems in the sample, which include six of the candidate young systems. Forty-five of the binary systems are close (mainly contact) systems, and one of these shows an orbital period among the shortest known for W UMa binaries, at 0.2156509 ± 0.0000071 days, with flat-bottomed primary eclipses, and a derived distance that appears consistent with membership in the general Orion association. One of the candidate young systems presents an unusual light curve, perhaps representing a semi-detached binary system with an inflated low-mass primary or a star with a warped disk, and may represent an additional young Orion member. Finally, we identify 14 probable new classical T-Tauri stars in our data, along with one previously known (CVSO 35) and

  6. Probing the low-stellar-mass domain with Kepler and APOGEE observations of eclipsing binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prsa, Andrej; Hambleton, Kelly

    2018-01-01

    Observations of low-mass stars (M models, where observed radii can be inflated by as much as 5-15% as compared to model predictions. One of the proposed explanations for this discrepancy that is gaining traction are stellar magnetic fields impeding the onset of convection and the subsequent bloating of the star. Here we present modeling analysis results of two benchmark eclipsing binaries, KIC 3003991 and KIC 2445134, with low mass companions (M ~ 0.2 MSun and M ~ 0.5 MSun, respectively). The models are based on Kepler photometry and APOGEE spectroscopy. APOGEE is a part of the Sloan spectroscopic survey that observes in the near-infrared, providing greater sensitivity towards fainter, red companions. We combine the binary modeling software PHOEBE with emcee, an affine invariant Markov chain Monte Carlo sampler; celerite, a Gaussian process library; and our own codes to create a modeling suite capable of modeling correlated noise, shot noise, nuisance astrophysical signals (such as spots) and the full set of eclipsing binary parameters. The results are obtained within a probabilistic framework, with robust mass and radius uncertainties ~1-4%. We overplot the derived masses, radii and temperatures over evolutionary models and note stellar size bloating w.r.t. model predictions for both systems. This work has been funded by the NSF grant #1517460.

  7. Physical Properties and Evolution of the Eclipsing Binary System XZ Canis Minoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poochaum, R.; Komonjinda, S.; Soonthornthum, B.; Rattanasoon, S.

    2010-07-01

    This research aims to study the eclipse binary system so that its physical properties and evolution can be determined and used as an example to teach high school astronomy. The study of an eclipsing binary system XZ Canis Minoris (XZ CMi) was done at Sirindhorn Observatory, Chiang Mai University using a 0.5-meter reflecting telescope with CCD photometric system (2184×1417 pixel) in B V and R bands of UVB System. The data obtained were used to construct the light curve for each wavelength band and to compute the times of its light minima. New elements were derived using observations with linear to all available minima. As a result, linear ephemeris is HDJmin I = .578 808 948+/-0.000 000 121+2450 515.321 26+/-0.001 07 E, and the new orbital period of XZ CMi is 0.578 808 948+/-0.000 000 121 day. The values obtained were used with the previously published times of minima to get O-C curve of XZ CMi. The result revealed that the orbital period of XZ CMi is continuously decreased at a rate of 0.007 31+/-0.000 57 sec/year. This result indicates that the binary stars are moving closer continuously. From the O-C residuals, there is significant change to indicate the existence of the third body or magnetic activity cycle on the star. However, further analysis of the physical properties of XZ CMi is required.

  8. A Long-Period Totally Eclipsing Binary Star at the Turnoff of the Open Cluster NGC 6819 Discovered with Kepler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandquist, Eric L.; Mathieu, Robert D.; Brogaard, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    We present the discovery of the totally eclipsing long-period (P = 771.8 d) binary system WOCS 23009 in the old open cluster NGC 6819 that contains both an evolved star near central hydrogen exhaustion and a low-mass (0.45 Msun) star. This system was previously known to be a single-lined spectros......We present the discovery of the totally eclipsing long-period (P = 771.8 d) binary system WOCS 23009 in the old open cluster NGC 6819 that contains both an evolved star near central hydrogen exhaustion and a low-mass (0.45 Msun) star. This system was previously known to be a single......-lined spectroscopic binary, but the discovery of an eclipse near apastron using data from the Kepler space telescope makes it clear that the system has an inclination that is very close to 90 degrees. Although the secondary star has not been identified in spectra, the mass of the primary star can be constrained using...... other eclipsing binaries in the cluster. The combination of total eclipses and a mass constraint for the primary star allows us to determine a reliable mass for the secondary star and radii for both stars, and to constrain the cluster age. Unlike well-measured stars of similar mass in field binaries...

  9. V773 Cas, QS Aql, and BR Ind: eclipsing binaries as parts of multiple systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zasche, P.; Juryšek, Jakub; Nemravová, J.; Uhlář, R.; Svoboda, P.; Wolf, M.; Hoňková, K.; Mašek, Martin; Prouza, Michael; Čechura, Jan; Korčáková, D.; Šlechta, Miroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 153, č. 1 (2017), 1-7, č. článku 36. ISSN 0004-6256 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015038; GA MŠk LG15014; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-17501S; GA MŠk LG14013 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:67985815 Keywords : binaries * eclipsing stars * spectroscopy Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 2.609, year: 2016

  10. Stellar Obliquity and Magnetic Activity of Planet-hosting Stars and Eclipsing Binaries Based on Transit Chord Correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Fei; Winn, Joshua N.; Berta-Thompson, Zachory; Sanchis-Ojeda, Roberto; Albrecht, Simon

    2018-04-01

    The light curve of an eclipsing system shows anomalies whenever the eclipsing body passes in front of active regions on the eclipsed star. In some cases, the pattern of anomalies can be used to determine the obliquity Ψ of the eclipsed star. Here we present a method for detecting and analyzing these patterns, based on a statistical test for correlations between the anomalies observed in a sequence of eclipses. Compared to previous methods, ours makes fewer assumptions and is easier to automate. We apply it to a sample of 64 stars with transiting planets and 24 eclipsing binaries for which precise space-based data are available, and for which there was either some indication of flux anomalies or a previously reported obliquity measurement. We were able to determine obliquities for 10 stars with hot Jupiters. In particular we found Ψ ≲ 10° for Kepler-45, which is only the second M dwarf with a measured obliquity. The other eight cases are G and K stars with low obliquities. Among the eclipsing binaries, we were able to determine obliquities in eight cases, all of which are consistent with zero. Our results also reveal some common patterns of stellar activity for magnetically active G and K stars, including persistently active longitudes.

  11. KMTNet Time-series Photometry of the Doubly Eclipsing Binary Stars Located in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Kyeongsoo; Koo, Jae-Rim; Lee, Jae Woo; Kim, Seung-Lee; Lee, Chung-Uk; Park, Jang-Ho; Kim, Hyoun-Woo; Lee, Dong-Joo; Kim, Dong-Jin; Han, Cheongho

    2018-05-01

    We report the results of photometric observations for doubly eclipsing binaries OGLE-LMC-ECL-15674 and OGLE-LMC-ECL-22159, both of which are composed of two pairs (designated A&B) of a detached eclipsing binary located in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The light curves were obtained by high-cadence time-series photometry using the Korea Microlensing Telescope Network 1.6 m telescopes located at three southern sites (CTIO, SAAO, and SSO) between 2016 September and 2017 January. The orbital periods were determined to be 1.433 and 1.387 days for components A and B of OGLE-LMC-ECL-15674, respectively, and 2.988 and 3.408 days for OGLE-LMC-ECL-22159A and B, respectively. Our light curve solutions indicate that the significant changes in the eclipse depths of OGLE-LMC-ECL-15674A and B were caused by variations in their inclination angles. The eclipse timing diagrams of the A and B components of OGLE-LMC-ECL-15674 and OGLE-LMC-ECL-22159 were analyzed using 28, 44, 28, and 26 new times of minimum light, respectively. The apsidal motion period of OGLE-LMC-ECL-15674B was estimated by detailed analysis of eclipse timings for the first time. The detached eclipsing binary OGLE-LMC-ECL-15674B shows a fast apsidal period of 21.5 ± 0.1 years.

  12. Multi-band photometric study of the short-period eclipsing binary GR Boo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Daimei; Zhang, Liyun; Han, Xianming L.; Lu, Hongpeng

    2017-05-01

    We present BVRI light curves with complete phase coverage for the short-period (p = 0.377day) eclipsing binary star GR Boo. We carried out the observations using the SARA 90 cm telescope located at Kitt Peak National Observatory. We obtained six new light curve minimum times. By fitting all of the available O-C minimum times, we obtained an updated ephemeris that shows the orbital period of GR Boo is decreasing at a rate of P˙ = - 2.36 ×10-7 days/year. This decrease in its period can be explained by either mass transfer from the more massive component to the less massive one, or angular momentum exchange due to magnetic activities. We also obtained a set of revised orbital parameters using the Wilson & Devinney program. And finally, we concluded that GR Boo is a contact binary with a dark spot.

  13. A Double-line M-dwarf Eclipsing Binary from CSS × SDSS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chien-Hsiu

    2017-01-01

    Eclipsing binaries offer a unique opportunity to determine basic stellar properties. With the advent of wide-field camera and all-sky time-domain surveys, thousands of eclipsing binaries have been charted via light curve classification, yet their fundamental properties remain unexplored mainly due to the extensive efforts needed for spectroscopic follow-ups. In this paper, we present the discovery of a short-period ( P  = 0.313 day), double-lined M-dwarf eclipsing binary, CSSJ114804.3+255132/SDSSJ114804.35+255132.6, by cross-matching binary light curves from the Catalina Sky Survey and spectroscopically classified M dwarfs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We obtain follow-up spectra using the Gemini telescope, enabling us to determine the mass, radius, and temperature of the primary and secondary component to be M 1  = 0.47 ± 0.03(statistic) ± 0.03(systematic) M ⊙ , M 2  = 0.46 ± 0.03(statistic) ± 0.03(systematic) M ⊙ , R 1  = 0.52 ± 0.08(statistic) ± 0.07(systematic) R ⊙ , R 2  =0.60 ± 0.08(statistic) ± 0.08(systematic) R ⊙ , T 1  = 3560 ± 100 K, and T 2  = 3040 ± 100 K, respectively. The systematic error was estimated using the difference between eccentric and non-eccentric fits. Our analysis also indicates that there is definitively third-light contamination (66%) in the CSS photometry. The secondary star seems inflated, probably due to tidal locking of the close secondary companion, which is common for very short-period binary systems. Future spectroscopic observations with high resolution will narrow down the uncertainties of stellar parameters for both components, rendering this system as a benchmark for studying fundamental properties of M dwarfs.

  14. A Double-line M-dwarf Eclipsing Binary from CSS × SDSS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chien-Hsiu, E-mail: leech@naoj.org [Subaru Telescope, NAOJ, 650 N Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Eclipsing binaries offer a unique opportunity to determine basic stellar properties. With the advent of wide-field camera and all-sky time-domain surveys, thousands of eclipsing binaries have been charted via light curve classification, yet their fundamental properties remain unexplored mainly due to the extensive efforts needed for spectroscopic follow-ups. In this paper, we present the discovery of a short-period ( P  = 0.313 day), double-lined M-dwarf eclipsing binary, CSSJ114804.3+255132/SDSSJ114804.35+255132.6, by cross-matching binary light curves from the Catalina Sky Survey and spectroscopically classified M dwarfs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We obtain follow-up spectra using the Gemini telescope, enabling us to determine the mass, radius, and temperature of the primary and secondary component to be M {sub 1} = 0.47 ± 0.03(statistic) ± 0.03(systematic) M {sub ⊙}, M {sub 2} = 0.46 ± 0.03(statistic) ± 0.03(systematic) M {sub ⊙}, R {sub 1} = 0.52 ± 0.08(statistic) ± 0.07(systematic) R {sub ⊙}, R {sub 2} =0.60 ± 0.08(statistic) ± 0.08(systematic) R {sub ⊙}, T {sub 1} = 3560 ± 100 K, and T {sub 2} = 3040 ± 100 K, respectively. The systematic error was estimated using the difference between eccentric and non-eccentric fits. Our analysis also indicates that there is definitively third-light contamination (66%) in the CSS photometry. The secondary star seems inflated, probably due to tidal locking of the close secondary companion, which is common for very short-period binary systems. Future spectroscopic observations with high resolution will narrow down the uncertainties of stellar parameters for both components, rendering this system as a benchmark for studying fundamental properties of M dwarfs.

  15. Learning a Novel Detection Metric for the Detection of O’Connell Effect Eclipsing Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Kyle; Haber, Rana; Knote, Matthew; Caballero-Nieves, Saida Maria; Peter, Adrian; Petit, Véronique

    2018-01-01

    With the advent of digital astronomy, new benefits and new challenges have been presented to the modern day astronomer. No longer can the astronomer rely on manual processing, instead the profession as a whole has begun to adopt more advanced computational means. Here we focus on the construction and application of a novel time-domain signature extraction methodology and the development of a supporting supervised pattern detection algorithm for the targeted identification of eclipsing binaries which demonstrate a feature known as the O’Connell Effect. A methodology for the reduction of stellar variable observations (time-domain data) into Distribution Fields (DF) is presented. Push-Pull metric learning, a variant of LMNN learning, is used to generate a learned distance metric for the specific detection problem proposed. The metric will be trained on a set of a labelled Kepler eclipsing binary data, in particular systems showing the O’Connell effect. Performance estimates will be presented, as well the results of the detector applied to an unlabeled Kepler EB data set; this work is a crucial step in the upcoming era of big data from the next generation of big telescopes, such as LSST.

  16. APSIDAL MOTION AND A LIGHT CURVE SOLUTION FOR 13 LMC ECCENTRIC ECLIPSING BINARIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zasche, P.; Wolf, M.; Vraštil, J.; Pilarcik, L. [Astronomical Institute, Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, CZ-180 00 Praha 8, V Holešovičkách 2 (Czech Republic)

    2015-12-15

    New CCD observations for 13 eccentric eclipsing binaries from the Large Magellanic Cloud were carried out using the Danish 1.54 m telescope located at the La Silla Observatory in Chile. These systems were observed for their times of minimum and 56 new minima were obtained. These are needed for accurate determination of the apsidal motion. Besides that, in total 436 times of minimum were derived from the photometric databases OGLE and MACHO. The O – C diagrams of minimum timings for these B-type binaries were analyzed and the parameters of the apsidal motion were computed. The light curves of these systems were fitted using the program PHOEBE, giving the light curve parameters. We derived for the first time relatively short periods of the apsidal motion ranging from 21 to 107 years. The system OGLE-LMC-ECL-07902 was also analyzed using the spectra and radial velocities, resulting in masses of 6.8 and 4.4 M{sub ⊙} for the eclipsing components. For one system (OGLE-LMC-ECL-20112), the third-body hypothesis was also used to describe the residuals after subtraction of the apsidal motion, resulting in a period of about 22 years. For several systems an additional third light was also detected, which makes these systems suspect for triplicity.

  17. GJ 3236: A NEW BRIGHT, VERY LOW MASS ECLIPSING BINARY SYSTEM DISCOVERED BY THE MEARTH OBSERVATORY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irwin, Jonathan; Charbonneau, David; Berta, Zachory K.; Quinn, Samuel N.; Latham, David W.; Torres, Guillermo; Blake, Cullen H.; Burke, Christopher J.; Esquerdo, Gilbert A.; Fueresz, Gabor; Mink, Douglas J.; Nutzman, Philip; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew H.; Calkins, Michael L.; Falco, Emilio E.; Bloom, Joshua S.; Starr, Dan L.

    2009-01-01

    We report the detection of eclipses in GJ 3236, a bright (I = 11.6), very low mass binary system with an orbital period of 0.77 days. Analysis of light and radial velocity curves of the system yielded component masses of 0.38 ± 0.02 M sun and 0.28 ± 0.02 M sun . The central values for the stellar radii are larger than the theoretical models predict for these masses, in agreement with the results for existing eclipsing binaries, although the present 5% observational uncertainties limit the significance of the larger radii to approximately 1σ. Degeneracies in the light curve models resulting from the unknown configuration of surface spots on the components of GJ 3236 currently dominate the uncertainties in the radii, and could be reduced by obtaining precise, multiband photometry covering the full orbital period. The system appears to be tidally synchronized and shows signs of high activity levels as expected for such a short orbital period, evidenced by strong Hα emission lines in the spectra of both components. These observations probe an important region of mass-radius parameter space around the predicted transition to fully convective stellar interiors, where there are a limited number of precise measurements available in the literature.

  18. V773 Cas, QS Aql, AND BR Ind: ECLIPSING BINARIES AS PARTS OF MULTIPLE SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zasche, P.; Juryšek, J.; Nemravová, J.; Wolf, M.; Korčáková, D. [Astronomical Institute, Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, CZ-180 00, Praha 8, V Holešovičkách 2 (Czech Republic); Uhlař, R. [Private Observatory, Pohoří 71, CZ-254 01, Jílové u Prahy (Czech Republic); Svoboda, P. [Private Observatory, Výpustky 5, CZ-614 00, Brno (Czech Republic); Hoňková, K. [Variable Star and Exoplanet Section of Czech Astronomical Society, Vsetínská 941/78, CZ-757 01, Valašské Meziříčí (Czech Republic); Mašek, M.; Prouza, M. [Institute of Physics, The Czech Academy of Sciences, Na Slovance 1999/2, CZ-182 21, Praha (Czech Republic); Čechura, J.; Šlechta, M., E-mail: zasche@sirrah.troja.mff.cuni.cz [Astronomical Institute, The Czech Academy of Sciences, CZ-251 65, Ondřejov (Czech Republic)

    2017-01-01

    Eclipsing binaries remain crucial objects for our understanding of the universe. In particular, those that are components of multiple systems can help us solve the problem of the formation of these systems. Analysis of the radial velocities together with the light curve produced for the first time precise physical parameters of the components of the multiple systems V773 Cas, QS Aql, and BR Ind. Their visual orbits were also analyzed, which resulted in slightly improved orbital elements. What is typical for all these systems is that their most dominant source is the third distant component. The system V773 Cas consists of two similar G1-2V stars revolving in a circular orbit and a more distant component of the A3V type. Additionally, the improved value of parallax was calculated to be 17.6 mas. Analysis of QS Aql resulted in the following: the inner eclipsing pair is composed of B6V and F1V stars, and the third component is of about the B6 spectral type. The outer orbit has high eccentricity of about 0.95, and observations near its upcoming periastron passage between the years 2038 and 2040 are of high importance. Also, the parallax of the system was derived to be about 2.89 mas, moving the star much closer to the Sun than originally assumed. The system BR Ind was found to be a quadruple star consisting of two eclipsing K dwarfs orbiting each other with a period of 1.786 days; the distant component is a single-lined spectroscopic binary with an orbital period of about 6 days. Both pairs are moving around each other on their 148 year orbit.

  19. Discovery of two eclipsing X-ray binaries in M 51

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Song; Soria, Roberto; Urquhart, Ryan; Liu, Jifeng

    2018-04-01

    We discovered eclipses and dips in two luminous (and highly variable) X-ray sources in M 51. One (CXOM51 J132943.3+471135) is an ultraluminous supersoft source, with a thermal spectrum at a temperature of about 0.1 keV and characteristic blackbody radius of about 104 km. The other (CXOM51 J132946.1+471042) has a two-component spectrum with additional thermal-plasma emission; it approached an X-ray luminosity of 1039erg s-1 during outbursts in 2005 and 2012. From the timing of three eclipses in a series of Chandra observations, we determine the binary period (52.75 ± 0.63 hr) and eclipse fraction (22% ± 0.1%) of CXOM51 J132946.1+471042. We also identify a blue optical counterpart in archival Hubble Space Telescope images, consistent with a massive donor star (mass of ˜20-35M⊙). By combining the X-ray lightcurve parameters with the optical constraints on the donor star, we show that the mass ratio in the system must be M_2/M_1 ≳ 18, and therefore the compact object is most likely a neutron star (exceeding its Eddington limit in outburst). The general significance of our result is that we illustrate one method (applicable to high-inclination sources) of identifying luminous neutron star X-ray binaries, in the absence of X-ray pulsations or phase-resolved optical spectroscopy. Finally, we discuss the different X-ray spectral appearance expected from super-Eddington neutron stars and black holes at high viewing angles.

  20. A main sequence for quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marziani, Paola; Dultzin, Deborah; Sulentic, Jack W.; Del Olmo, Ascensión; Negrete, C. A.; Martínez-Aldama, Mary L.; D'Onofrio, Mauro; Bon, Edi; Bon, Natasa; Stirpe, Giovanna M.

    2018-03-01

    The last 25 years saw a major step forward in the analysis of optical and UV spectroscopic data of large quasar samples. Multivariate statistical approaches have led to the definition of systematic trends in observational properties that are the basis of physical and dynamical modeling of quasar structure. We discuss the empirical correlates of the so-called “main sequence” associated with the quasar Eigenvector 1, its governing physical parameters and several implications on our view of the quasar structure, as well as some luminosity effects associated with the virialized component of the line emitting regions. We also briefly discuss quasars in a segment of the main sequence that includes the strongest FeII emitters. These sources show a small dispersion around a well-defined Eddington ratio value, a property which makes them potential Eddington standard candles.

  1. A Main Sequence for Quasars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Marziani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The last 25 years saw a major step forward in the analysis of optical and UV spectroscopic data of large quasar samples. Multivariate statistical approaches have led to the definition of systematic trends in observational properties that are the basis of physical and dynamical modeling of quasar structure. We discuss the empirical correlates of the so-called “main sequence” associated with the quasar Eigenvector 1, its governing physical parameters and several implications on our view of the quasar structure, as well as some luminosity effects associated with the virialized component of the line emitting regions. We also briefly discuss quasars in a segment of the main sequence that includes the strongest FeII emitters. These sources show a small dispersion around a well-defined Eddington ratio value, a property which makes them potential Eddington standard candles.

  2. Gravity Modes Reveal the Internal Rotation of a Post-mass-transfer Gamma Doradus/Delta Scuti Hybrid Pulsator in Kepler Eclipsing Binary KIC 9592855

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Z.; Gies, D. R.; Matson, R. A.

    2017-12-01

    We report the discovery of a post-mass-transfer Gamma Doradus/Delta Scuti hybrid pulsator in the eclipsing binary KIC 9592855. This binary has a circular orbit, an orbital period of 1.2 days, and contains two stars of almost identical masses ({M}1=1.72 {M}⊙ ,{M}2=1.71 {M}⊙ ). However, the cooler secondary star is more evolved ({R}2=1.96 {R}⊙ ), while the hotter primary is still on the zero-age-main-sequence ({R}1=1.53 {R}⊙ ). Coeval models from single-star evolution cannot explain the observed masses and radii, and binary evolution with mass-transfer needs to be invoked. After subtracting the binary light curve, the Fourier spectrum shows low-order pressure-mode pulsations, and more dominantly, a cluster of low-frequency gravity modes at about 2 day-1. These g-modes are nearly equally spaced in period, and the period spacing pattern has a negative slope. We identify these g-modes as prograde dipole modes and find that they stem from the secondary star. The frequency range of unstable p-modes also agrees with that of the secondary. We derive the internal rotation rate of the convective core and the asymptotic period spacing from the observed g-modes. The resulting values suggest that the core and envelope rotate nearly uniformly, i.e., their rotation rates are both similar to the orbital frequency of this synchronized binary.

  3. Oscillating red giants in eclipsing binary systems: empirical reference value for asteroseismic scaling relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Themeßl, N.; Hekker, S.; Southworth, J.; Beck, P. G.; Pavlovski, K.; Tkachenko, A.; Angelou, G. C.; Ball, W. H.; Barban, C.; Corsaro, E.; Elsworth, Y.; Handberg, R.; Kallinger, T.

    2018-05-01

    The internal structures and properties of oscillating red-giant stars can be accurately inferred through their global oscillation modes (asteroseismology). Based on 1460 days of Kepler observations we perform a thorough asteroseismic study to probe the stellar parameters and evolutionary stages of three red giants in eclipsing binary systems. We present the first detailed analysis of individual oscillation modes of the red-giant components of KIC 8410637, KIC 5640750 and KIC 9540226. We obtain estimates of their asteroseismic masses, radii, mean densities and logarithmic surface gravities by using the asteroseismic scaling relations as well as grid-based modelling. As these red giants are in double-lined eclipsing binaries, it is possible to derive their independent dynamical masses and radii from the orbital solution and compare it with the seismically inferred values. For KIC 5640750 we compute the first spectroscopic orbit based on both components of this system. We use high-resolution spectroscopic data and light curves of the three systems to determine up-to-date values of the dynamical stellar parameters. With our comprehensive set of stellar parameters we explore consistencies between binary analysis and asteroseismic methods, and test the reliability of the well-known scaling relations. For the three red giants under study, we find agreement between dynamical and asteroseismic stellar parameters in cases where the asteroseismic methods account for metallicity, temperature and mass dependence as well as surface effects. We are able to attain agreement from the scaling laws in all three systems if we use Δνref, emp = 130.8 ± 0.9 μHz instead of the usual solar reference value.

  4. SARA South Observations and Analysis of the Solar Type, Totally Eclipsing, Over Contact Binary, PY Aquarii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Heather; Samec, Ronald G.; Caton, Daniel Bruce; Van Hamme, Walter

    2018-01-01

    PY Aqr (GSC 05191-00853) is a solar Type (T ~ 5750K) eclipsing binary. It was observed in July to October, 2017 at Cerro Tololo in remote mode with the 0.6-m SARA South reflector. Two times of minimum light were calculated from our present observations, a primary and a secondary eclipse:HJD Min I = 2457951.7762±0.0006 HJD Min II = 2458019.5295±00.0003. Both weighted as 1.0.In addition, four timings were determined from online data given in IBVS 5600 and five observations at minima were determined from archived All Sky Automated Survey Data:HJD Min I = 2452908.3165, 2452912.33612 HJD Min II = 2452877.5621, 2452913.34465. All weighted as 0.5.ASAS Observations at minima: 2452094.688, 2453478.882, 2453266.576, 2452093.685 and 54729.600. Each weighted as 0.10The following linear and quadratic ephemerides were determined from all available times of minimum light:JD Hel Min I=2452951.7443±0.0008d + 0.402093441±0.000000099 X E {1} JD Hel Min I=2452951.7439±0.0007d + 0.4020912±0.0000007 X E +0.00000000018 ± 0.00000000006 X E2 {2}A BVRI Bessell filtered simultaneous Wilson-Devinney Program (W-D) solution reveals that the system has a mass ratio of ~0.34 and a component temperature difference of only ~40 K. One low luminosity (Tfact ~ 0.94, ~66 degree radius) large cool region of spots was iterated on the primary component in the WD Synthetic Light Curve computations. It appears in the Southern Hemisphere (colatitude 155 degrees). The Roche Lobe fill-out of the binary is ~17%. The inclination is ~86 degrees. An eclipse duration of ~10 minutes was determined for the primary eclipse and the light curve solution. Additional and more detailed information is given in this report.

  5. DETERMINING THE AGE OF THE KEPLER OPEN CLUSTER NGC 6819 WITH A NEW TRIPLE SYSTEM AND OTHER ECLIPSING BINARY STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewer, Lauren N.; Sandquist, Eric L.; Jeffries, Mark W. Jr.; Orosz, Jerome A.

    2016-01-01

    As part of our study of the old (∼2.5 Gyr) open cluster NGC 6819 in the Kepler field, we present photometric (Kepler and ground-based BVR C I C ) and spectroscopic observations of the detached eclipsing binary WOCS 24009 (Auner 665; KIC 5023948) with a short orbital period of 3.6 days. WOCS 24009 is a triple-lined system, and we verify that the brightest star is physically orbiting the eclipsing binary using radial velocities and eclipse timing variations. The eclipsing binary components have masses M B  = 1.090 ± 0.010 M ⊙ and M C  = 1.075 ± 0.013 M ⊙ , and radii R B  = 1.099 ± 0.006 ± 0.005 R ⊙ and R C  = 1.069 ± 0.006 ± 0.013 R ⊙ . The bright non-eclipsing star resides at the cluster turnoff, and ultimately its mass will directly constrain the turnoff mass: our preliminary determination is M A  = 1.251 ± 0.057 M ⊙ . A careful examination of the light curves indicates that the fainter star in the eclipsing binary undergoes a very brief period of total eclipse, which enables us to precisely decompose the light of the three stars and place them in the color–magnitude diagram (CMD). We also present improved analysis of two previously discussed detached eclipsing stars in NGC 6819 (WOCS 40007 and WOCS 23009) en route to a combined determination of the cluster’s distance modulus (m − M) V  = 12.38 ± 0.04. Because this paper significantly increases the number of measured stars in the cluster, we can better constrain the age of the CMD to be 2.21 ± 0.10 ± 0.20 Gyr. Additionally, using all measured eclipsing binary star masses and radii, we constrain the age to 2.38 ± 0.05 ± 0.22 Gyr. The quoted uncertainties are estimates of measurement and systematic uncertainties (due to model physics differences and metal content), respectively

  6. Chemical evolution of high-mass stars in close binaries. II. The evolved component of the eclipsing binary V380 Cygni

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavlovski, K.; Tamajo, E.; Koubský, Pavel; Southworth, J.; Yang, S.; Kolbas, V.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 400, č. 2 (2009), s. 791-804 ISSN 0035-8711 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : binaries star s * eclipsing * fundamental parameters Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 5.103, year: 2009

  7. Discovery of an Accreting Millisecond Pulsar in the Eclipsing Binary System SWIFT J1749.4-2807

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altamirano, D.; Cavecchi, Y.; Patruno, A.; Watts, A.; Linares, M.; Degenaar, N.; Kalamkar, M.; van der Klis, M.; Rea, N.; Casella, P.; Padilla, M. Armas; Kaur, R.; Yang, Y. J.; Soleri, P.; Wijnands, R.

    2011-01-01

    We report on the discovery and the timing analysis of the first eclipsing accretion-powered millisecond X-ray pulsar (AMXP): SWIFT J1749.4-2807. The neutron star rotates at a frequency of similar to 517.9 Hz and is in a binary system with an orbital period of 8.8 hr and a projected semimajor axis of

  8. Magnetic Inflation and Stellar Mass. I. Revised Parameters for the Component Stars of the Kepler Low-mass Eclipsing Binary T-Cyg1-12664

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Eunkyu; Muirhead, Philip S. [Department of Astronomy and Institute for Astrophysical Research, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Swift, Jonathan J. [The Thacher School, 5025 Thacher Road Ojai, CA 93023 (United States); Baranec, Christoph; Atkinson, Dani [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaiì at Mānoa, Hilo, HI 96720-2700 (United States); Law, Nicholas M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3255 (United States); Riddle, Reed [California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Mace, Gregory N. [McDonald Observatory and The University of Texas, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400, Austin, TX 78712-1205 (United States); DeFelippis, Daniel, E-mail: eunkyuh@bu.edu [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Several low-mass eclipsing binary stars show larger than expected radii for their measured mass, metallicity, and age. One proposed mechanism for this radius inflation involves inhibited internal convection and starspots caused by strong magnetic fields. One particular eclipsing binary, T-Cyg1-12664, has proven confounding to this scenario. Çakırlı et al. measured a radius for the secondary component that is twice as large as model predictions for stars with the same mass and age, but a primary mass that is consistent with predictions. Iglesias-Marzoa et al. independently measured the radii and masses of the component stars and found that the radius of the secondary is not in fact inflated with respect to models, but that the primary is, which is consistent with the inhibited convection scenario. However, in their mass determinations, Iglesias-Marzoa et al. lacked independent radial velocity measurements for the secondary component due to the star’s faintness at optical wavelengths. The secondary component is especially interesting, as its purported mass is near the transition from partially convective to a fully convective interior. In this article, we independently determined the masses and radii of the component stars of T-Cyg1-12664 using archival Kepler data and radial velocity measurements of both component stars obtained with IGRINS on the Discovery Channel Telescope and NIRSPEC and HIRES on the Keck Telescopes. We show that neither of the component stars is inflated with respect to models. Our results are broadly consistent with modern stellar evolutionary models for main-sequence M dwarf stars and do not require inhibited convection by magnetic fields to account for the stellar radii.

  9. Determination of the Fundamental Properties of the Eclipsing Binary V541 Cygni

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGruder, Chima; Torres, Guillermo; Siverd, Robert; Pepper, Joshua; Rodriguez, Joseph; KELT Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    We report new high-resolution spectroscopic observations of the B-type detached spectroscopic eclipsing binary V541 Cygni (e = 0.465 and P =15.34 days). We combine analysis of these new spectra with analysis of V-band photometry from the literature to obtain the most precise measurements of the fundamental properties of the stars to date (yielding ~1% errors in the masses and ~2% for the radii). A comparison with current stellar evolution models indicates good fits for an age of ~ 200 million years and [Fe/H] ~ -0.2. Available eclipse timings gathered over 40 years were used to re-determine the apsidal motion of the system, dω/dt = 0.993 degs/cent, which is larger than what theory suggests.The SAO REU program was funded in part by the National Science Foundation REU and Department of Defense ASSURE programs under NSF Grant no. 1262851, and by the Smithsonian Institution.

  10. Low-mass Pre-He White Dwarf Stars in Kepler Eclipsing Binaries with Multi-periodic Pulsations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X. B.; Fu, J. N.; Liu, N.; Luo, C. Q.; Ren, A. B.

    2017-12-01

    We report the discovery of two thermally bloated low-mass pre-He white dwarfs (WDs) in two eclipsing binaries, KIC 10989032 and KIC 8087799. Based on the Kepler long-cadence photometry, we determined comprehensive photometric solutions of the two binary systems. The light curve analysis reveals that KIC 10989032 is a partially eclipsed detached binary system containing a probable low-mass WD with the temperature of about 10,300 K. Having a WD with the temperature of about 13,300, KKIC 8087799 is typical of an EL CVn system. By utilizing radial velocity measurements available for the A-type primary star of KIC 10989032, the mass and radius of the WD component are determined to be 0.24+/- 0.02 {M}⊙ and 0.50+/- 0.01 {R}⊙ , respectively. The values of mass and radius of the WD in KIC 8087799 are estimated as 0.16 ± 0.02 M ⊙ and 0.21 ± 0.01 R ⊙, respectively, according to the effective temperature and mean density of the A-type star derived from the photometric solution. We therefore introduce KIC 10989032 and KIC 8087799 as the eleventh and twelfth dA+WD eclipsing binaries in the Kepler field. Moreover, both binaries display marked multi-periodic pulsations superimposed on binary effects. A preliminary frequency analysis is applied to the light residuals when subtracting the synthetic eclipsing light curves from the observations, revealing that the light pulsations of the two systems are both due to the δ Sct-type primaries. We hence classify KIC 10989032 and KIC 8087799 as two WD+δ Sct binaries.

  11. Photometric Follow-up of Eclipsing Binary Candidates from KELT and Kepler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Soto, Aylin; Rodriguez, Joseph E.; Bieryla, Allyson; KELT survey

    2018-01-01

    Eclipsing binaries (EBs) are incredibly valuable, as they provide the opportunity to precisely measure fundamental stellar parameters without the need for stellar models. Therefore, we can use EBs to directly test stellar evolution models. Constraining the stellar properties of stars is important since they directly influence our understanding of any planets orbiting them. Using the Harvard University's Clay 0.4m telescope and Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory’s 1.2m telescope on Mount Hopkins, Arizona, we conducted follow-up multi-band photometric observations of EB candidates from the Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope (KELT) survey and the Kepler mission. We will present our follow-up observations and AstroImageJ analysis on these 5 EB systems.

  12. Photometric and spectroscopic analysis of the eclipsing binary DS Andromedae - a member of NGC 752

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiller, S.J.; Milone, E.F.

    1988-01-01

    Complete BVRI light curves and radial-velocity curves of both components of the 1.01 d period eclipsing binary DS And are presented. The Wilson-Devinney synthetic light curve program is used to determine the absolute parameters of this system, and it is confirmed that the primary component is nearly filling its Roche lobe. The distance modulus and systemic velocity conclusively establish cluster membership. The age of NGC 752, determined by fitting the theoretical isochrones of VandenBerg (1985) to the C-M diagram of Cannon (1970), is assigned to DS And. This enables a showing that, although the primary component is nearly filling its Roche lobe, it has thus far evolved as a single isolated star. 54 references

  13. Eclipse in the binary system of the CI Cyg symbiotic star

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belyakina, T S

    1979-01-01

    Photoelectric photometry and spectral observations of the symbiotic star CI Cyg were carried out at the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory from April, 1975 through December, 1976. The instrumental photometric system used was close to the UBV. Considerable light variations and spectral changes have been recorded during the period of the observations. Yellow, blue and ultraviolet amplitudes were equal to 2.3, 3.0 and 3sub(m).3 correspondingly. The brightness of CI Cyg reached maximal value in June - July, 1975 when spectrum was F5 with Hsub(..cap alpha..) and Hsub(..beta..) in emission. A sharp and deep minimum in the light curves of CI Cyg was observed during the period of the highest brightness. It was caused by the eclipse of the hot component by the cold one in the binary system.

  14. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF THE LOW-MASS ECLIPSING BINARY NSVS 02502726

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Woo; Youn, Jae-Hyuck; Kim, Seung-Lee; Lee, Chung-Uk, E-mail: jwlee@kasi.re.kr, E-mail: jhyoon@kasi.re.kr, E-mail: slkim@kasi.re.kr, E-mail: leecu@kasi.re.kr [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-01

    NSVS 02502726 has been known as a double-lined, detached eclipsing binary that consists of two low-mass stars. We obtained BVRI photometric follow-up observations in 2009 and 2011 to measure improved physical properties of the binary star. Each set of light curves, including the 2008 data given by Cakirli et al., was simultaneously analyzed with the previously published radial velocity curves using the Wilson-Devinney binary code. The conspicuous seasonal light variations of the system are satisfactorily modeled by a two-spot model with one starspot on each component and by changes of the spot parameters with time. Based on 23 eclipse timings calculated from the synthetic model and one ephemeris epoch, an orbital period study of NSVS 02502726 reveals that the period has experienced a continuous decrease of -5.9 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} day yr{sup -1} or a sinusoidal variation with a period and semi-amplitude of 2.51 yr and 0.0011 days, respectively. The timing variations could be interpreted as either the light-travel-time effect due to the presence of an unseen third body, or as the combination of this effect and angular momentum loss via magnetic stellar wind braking. Individual masses and radii of both components are determined to be M{sub 1} = 0.689 {+-} 0.016 M{sub Sun }, M{sub 2} = 0.341 {+-} 0.009 M{sub Sun }, R{sub 1} = 0.707 {+-} 0.007 R{sub Sun }, and R{sub 2} = 0.657 {+-} 0.008 R{sub Sun }. The results are very different from those of Cakirli et al. with the primary's radius (0.674 {+-} 0.006 R{sub Sun }) smaller the secondary's (0.763 {+-} 0.007 R{sub Sun }). We compared the physical parameters presented in this paper with current low-mass stellar models and found that the measured values of the primary star are best fitted to a 79 Myr isochrone. The primary is in good agreement with the empirical mass-radius relation from low-mass binaries, but the secondary is oversized by about 85%.

  15. Optical eclipses and precessional effects in the X-ray binary system HD 77581=4U 0900-40

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khruzina, T.S.; Cherepashchuk, A.M.

    1982-01-01

    The longperiod (P=93.3sup(d)) variability of the amplitude and shape of the optical light curves of the X-ray binary HD 77581 has been discovered from the analysis of all published photometric data. The 93.3-day period is presumably the period of the forced precession of the rotational axis of the optical star. It is shown that the system HD 77581 appears to be an eclipsing binary in the optical range with the amplitude of the ellipsoidal variability approximately 0sup(m).04 and the depth of the eclipse reaching approximately 0sup(m).04. The eclipses are caused by the gaseous streams and the accreting structure, the orientation of which in the binary system is varying with the precession period of the optical star. The estimates of the parameters of the system are obtained. It is shown that the parameter of the Roche Lobe filling for the optical star is μ < 1. The mass of the neutron star is Msub(x)=(1.6+-0.3) Msub(Sun), where Msub(Sun) is the solar mass. The forced precession of the optical star is connected with the non-perpendicularity of its rotational axis to the orbit plane of the binary system. This non-perpendicularity may be a result of supernova explosion in a close binary system

  16. Absolute Properties of the Pulsating Post-mass Transfer Eclipsing Binary OO Draconis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Woo; Hong, Kyeongsoo; Koo, Jae-Rim; Park, Jang-Ho

    2018-01-01

    OO Dra is a short-period Algol system with a δ Sct-like pulsator. We obtained time-series spectra between 2016 February and May to derive the fundamental parameters of the binary star and to study its evolutionary scenario. The radial velocity (RV) curves for both components were presented, and the effective temperature of the hotter and more massive primary was determined to be {T}{eff,1}=8260+/- 210 K by comparing the disentangling spectrum and the Kurucz models. Our RV measurements were solved with the BV light curves of Zhang et al. using the Wilson-Devinney binary code. The absolute dimensions of each component are determined as follows: M 1 = 2.03 ± 0.06 {M}⊙ , M 2 = 0.19 ± 0.01 {M}⊙ , R 1 = 2.08 ± 0.03 {R}⊙ , R 2 = 1.20 ± 0.02 {R}⊙ , L 1 = 18 ± 2 {L}⊙ , and L 2 = 2.0 ± 0.2 {L}⊙ . Comparison with stellar evolution models indicated that the primary star resides inside the δ Sct instability strip on the main sequence, while the cool secondary component is noticeably overluminous and oversized. We demonstrated that OO Dra is an oscillating post-mass transfer R CMa-type binary; the originally more massive star became the low-mass secondary component through mass loss caused by stellar wind and mass transfer, and the gainer became the pulsating primary as the result of mass accretion. The R CMa stars, such as OO Dra, are thought to have formed by non-conservative binary evolution and ultimately to evolve into EL CVn stars.

  17. Chromospheric activity of periodic variable stars (including eclipsing binaries) observed in DR2 LAMOST stellar spectral survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liyun; Lu, Hongpeng; Han, Xianming L.; Jiang, Linyan; Li, Zhongmu; Zhang, Yong; Hou, Yonghui; Wang, Yuefei; Cao, Zihuang

    2018-05-01

    The LAMOST spectral survey provides a rich databases for studying stellar spectroscopic properties and chromospheric activity. We cross-matched a total of 105,287 periodic variable stars from several photometric surveys and databases (CSS, LINEAR, Kepler, a recently updated eclipsing star catalogue, ASAS, NSVS, some part of SuperWASP survey, variable stars from the Tsinghua University-NAOC Transient Survey, and other objects from some new references) with four million stellar spectra published in the LAMOST data release 2 (DR2). We found 15,955 spectra for 11,469 stars (including 5398 eclipsing binaries). We calculated their equivalent widths (EWs) of their Hα, Hβ, Hγ, Hδ and Caii H lines. Using the Hα line EW, we found 447 spectra with emission above continuum for a total of 316 stars (178 eclipsing binaries). We identified 86 active stars (including 44 eclipsing binaries) with repeated LAMOST spectra. A total of 68 stars (including 34 eclipsing binaries) show chromospheric activity variability. We also found LAMOST spectra of 12 cataclysmic variables, five of which show chromospheric activity variability. We also made photometric follow-up studies of three short period targets (DY CVn, HAT-192-0001481, and LAMOST J164933.24+141255.0) using the Xinglong 60-cm telescope and the SARA 90-cm and 1-m telescopes, and obtained new BVRI CCD light curves. We analyzed these light curves and obtained orbital and starspot parameters. We detected the first flare event with a huge brightness increase of more than about 1.5 magnitudes in R filter in LAMOST J164933.24+141255.0.

  18. IUE observations of long period eclipsing binaries: a study of accretion onto non-degenerate stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plavec, M.J.

    1980-01-01

    It has long been thought that β Lyrae is a unique system, by virtue of its UV spectrum and its nature. The author argues that a whole class of interacting long-period binaries exists, similar to β Lyrae. According to IUE observations made in 1978-79 this group comprises: RX Cas, SX Cas, V 367 Cyg, W Cru, β Lyr, and W Ser. AR Pav is a transition case linking them with the symbiotics. The author also suggests that HD 218393 (KX And), HD 72754, and HD 51480 are their non-eclipsing counterparts. The whole group is called the W Serpentis stars. These systems are mass-transfering binaries (case B) in which the mass transfer rate is relatively high, probably on the order 10 -6 to 10 -4 solar masses/year. They display an ultraviolet continuum with a color temperature definitely higher than the one observed in the optical region. Even more characteristical is the presence of strong emission lines of N V, C IV, Si IV, Fe III, Al III, and lower ions of C and Si. The author discusses these phenomena on the assumption that they are due to accretion onto non-degenerate stars. (Auth.)

  19. The first orbital parameters and period variation of the short-period eclipsing binary AQ Boo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuai; Zhang, Liyun; Pi, Qingfeng; Han, Xianming L.; Zhang, Xiliang; Lu, Hongpeng; Wang, Daimei; Li, TongAn

    2016-10-01

    We obtained the first VRI CCD light curves of the short-period contact eclipsing binary AQ Boo, which was observed on March 22 and April 19 in 2014 at Xinglong station of National Astronomical Observatories, and on January 20, 21 and February 28 in 2015 at Kunming station of Yunnan Observatories of Chinese Academy of Sciences, China. Using our six newly obtained minima and the minima that other authors obtained previously, we revised the ephemeris of AQ Boo. By fitting the O-C (observed minus calculated) values of the minima, the orbital period of AQ Boo shows a decreasing tendency P˙ = - 1.47(0.17) ×10-7 days/year. We interpret the phenomenon by mass transfer from the secondary (more massive) component to the primary (less massive) one. By using the updated Wilson & Devinney program, we also derived the photometric orbital parameters of AQ Boo for the first time. We conclude that AQ Boo is a near contact binary with a low contact factor of 14.43%, and will become an over-contact system as the mass transfer continues.

  20. LBT Discovery of a Yellow Supergiant Eclipsing Binary in the Dwarf Galaxy Holmberg IX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, J. L.; Stanek, K. Z.; Kochanek, C. S.; Weisz, D. R.; Baruffolo, A.; Bechtold, J.; Burwitz, V.; De Santis, C.; Gallozzi, S.; Garnavich, P. M.; Giallongo, E.; Hill, J. M.; Pogge, R. W.; Ragazzoni, R.; Speziali, R.; Thompson, D. J.; Wagner, R. M.

    2008-01-01

    In a variability survey of M81 using the Large Binocular Telescope we have discovered a peculiar eclipsing binary (MV ~ - 7.1) in the field of the dwarf galaxy Holmberg IX. It has a period of 271 days, and the light curve is well fit by an overcontact model in which both stars are overflowing their Roche lobes. It is composed of two yellow supergiants (V - Isimeq 1 mag, Teffsimeq 4800 K), rather than the far more common red or blue supergiants. Such systems must be rare. While we failed to find any similar systems in the literature, we did, however, note a second example. The SMC F0 supergiant R47 is a bright (MV ~ - 7.5) periodic variable whose All Sky Automated Survey (ASAS) light curve is well fit as a contact binary with a 181 day period. We propose that these systems are the progenitors of supernovae like SN 2004et and SN 2006ov, which appeared to have yellow progenitors. The binary interactions (mass transfer, mass loss) limit the size of the supergiant to give it a higher surface temperature than an isolated star at the same core evolutionary stage. We also discuss the possibility of this variable being a long-period Cepheid. Based on data acquired using the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). The LBT is an international collaboration among institutions in the United States, Italy and Germany. LBT Corporation partners are The University of Arizona on behalf of the Arizona university system; Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Italy; LBT Beteiligungsgesellschaft, Germany, representing the Max-Planck Society, the Astrophysical Institute Potsdam, and Heidelberg University; The Ohio State University, and The Research Corporation, on behalf of The University of Notre Dame, University of Minnesota, and University of Virginia.

  1. A CHANDRA OBSERVATION OF THE ECLIPSING WOLF-RAYET BINARY CQ Cep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skinner, Stephen L. [CASA, Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0389 (United States); Zhekov, Svetozar A. [Space Research and Technology Institute, Akad. G. Bonchev Str., Sofia, 1113 (Bulgaria); Güdel, Manuel [Dept. of Astrophysics, Univ. of Vienna, Türkenschanzstr. 17, A-1180 Vienna (Austria); Schmutz, Werner, E-mail: stephen.skinner@colorado.edu, E-mail: szhekov@space.bas.bg, E-mail: manuel.guedel@univie.ac.at, E-mail: werner.schmutz@pmodwrc.ch [Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos and World Radiation Center (PMOD/WRC), Dorfstrasse 33, CH-7260 Davos Dorf (Switzerland)

    2015-02-01

    The short-period (1.64 d) near-contact eclipsing WN6+O9 binary system CQ Cep provides an ideal laboratory for testing the predictions of X-ray colliding wind shock theory at close separation where the winds may not have reached terminal speeds before colliding. We present results of a Chandra X-ray observation of CQ Cep spanning ∼1 day during which a simultaneous Chandra optical light curve was acquired. Our primary objective was to compare the observed X-ray properties with colliding wind shock theory, which predicts that the hottest shock plasma (T ≳ 20 MK) will form on or near the line-of-centers between the stars. The X-ray spectrum is strikingly similar to apparently single WN6 stars such as WR 134 and spectral lines reveal plasma over a broad range of temperatures T ∼ 4-40 MK. A deep optical eclipse was seen as the O star passed in front of the Wolf-Rayet star and we determine an orbital period P {sub orb} = 1.6412400 d. Somewhat surprisingly, no significant X-ray variability was detected. This implies that the hottest X-ray plasma is not confined to the region between the stars, at odds with the colliding wind picture and suggesting that other X-ray production mechanisms may be at work. Hydrodynamic simulations that account for such effects as radiative cooling and orbital motion will be needed to determine if the new Chandra results can be reconciled with the colliding wind picture.

  2. Apsidal motion of the eccentric eclipsing binary DI Herculis: An apparent discrepancy with general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinan, E.F.; Maloney, F.P.

    1985-01-01

    In 1959, Rudkjobing called attention to the 8th magnitude, eccentric eclipsing binary DI Herculis as an important test case for studying relativistic apsidal motion, since the theoretical relativistic apsidal motion is greater than that expected from the classical effects (i.e., from the tidal and rotational deformation of the stellar components). Excellent determinations of the orbital and stellar parameters of the system have been made by Popper (1982) from the combined analysis of the system's radial-velocity data and UBV light curves of Martynov and Khaliullin (1980), which permit the theoretical relativistic and classical components of the apsidal motion to be determined with reasonable certainty: omega-dot/sup theor//sub GR/ = 2X34/100 yr and omega-dot/sup theor//sub CL/ = 1X93/100 yr. Least-squares solutions of the timings of primary and secondary minima, extending over an 84-yr interval, and including eclipse timings obtained as recently as 1984, yield a small advance of periastron omega-dot/sup obs/ = 0X65/100 yr +- 0X18/100 yr. The observed advance of the periastron is about one-seventh the theoretical value of omega-dot/sup theor//sub GR+CL/ = 4X27/100 yr that is expected from the combined relativistic and classical effects, and results in a discrepancy of -3X62/100 yr, a value which has a magnitude of approx.20 sigma. Classical mechanisms that can possibly explain this apparent discrepancy are discussed, along with the possibility that there may be problems with general relativity

  3. REFINED NEUTRON STAR MASS DETERMINATIONS FOR SIX ECLIPSING X-RAY PULSAR BINARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawls, Meredith L.; Orosz, Jerome A.; McClintock, Jeffrey E.; Torres, Manuel A. P.; Bailyn, Charles D.; Buxton, Michelle M.

    2011-01-01

    We present an improved method for determining the mass of neutron stars in eclipsing X-ray pulsar binaries and apply the method to six systems, namely, Vela X-1, 4U 1538-52, SMC X-1, LMC X-4, Cen X-3, and Her X-1. In previous studies to determine neutron star mass, the X-ray eclipse duration has been approximated analytically by assuming that the companion star is spherical with an effective Roche lobe radius. We use a numerical code based on Roche geometry with various optimizers to analyze the published data for these systems, which we supplement with new spectroscopic and photometric data for 4U 1538-52. This allows us to model the eclipse duration more accurately and thus calculate an improved value for the neutron star mass. The derived neutron star mass also depends on the assumed Roche lobe filling factor β of the companion star, where β = 1 indicates a completely filled Roche lobe. In previous work a range of β between 0.9 and 1.0 was usually adopted. We use optical ellipsoidal light-curve data to constrain β. We find neutron star masses of 1.77 ± 0.08 M sun for Vela X-1, 0.87 ± 0.07 M sun for 4U 1538-52 (eccentric orbit), 1.00 ± 0.10 M sun for 4U 1538-52 (circular orbit), 1.04 ± 0.09 M sun for SMC X-1, 1.29 ± 0.05 M sun for LMC X-4, 1.49 ± 0.08 M sun for Cen X-3, and 1.07 ± 0.36 M sun for Her X-1. We discuss the limits of the approximations that were used to derive the earlier mass determinations, and we comment on the implications our new masses have for observationally refining the upper and lower bounds of the neutron star mass distribution.

  4. Chandra Observations of the Eclipsing Wolf-Rayet Binary CQ CepOver a Full Orbital Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Steve L.; Guedel, Manuel; Schmutz, Werner; Zhekov, Svetozar

    2018-06-01

    We present results of Chandra X-ray observations and simultaneous optical light curves of the short-period (1.64 d) eclipsing WN6+O9 binary system CQ Cep obtained in 2013 and 2017 covering a full binary orbit. Our primary objective was to compare the observed X-ray properties with colliding wind shock theory, which predicts that the hottest shock plasma (T > 20 MK) will form on or near the line-of-centers between the stars. Thus, X-ray variability is expected during eclipses when the hottest plasma is occulted. The X-ray spectrum is strikingly similar to apparently single WN6 stars such as WR 134 and spectral lines reveal plasma over a broad range of temperatures T ~ 4 - 40 MK. Both primary and secondary optical eclipses were clearly detected and provide an accurate orbital period determination (P = 1.6412 d). The X-ray emission remained remarkably steady throughout the orbit and statistical tests give a low probability of variability. The lack of significant X-ray variabililty during eclipses indicates that the X-ray emission is not confined along the line-of-centers but is extended on larger spatial scales, contrary to colliding wind predictions.

  5. The Surface Brightness-color Relations Based on Eclipsing Binary Stars: Toward Precision Better than 1% in Angular Diameter Predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graczyk, Dariusz; Gieren, Wolfgang; Konorski, Piotr; Pietrzyński, Grzegorz; Storm, Jesper; Nardetto, Nicolas; Gallenne, Alexandre; Maxted, Pierre F. L.; Kervella, Pierre; Kołaczkowski, Zbigniew

    2017-01-01

    In this study we investigate the calibration of surface brightness–color (SBC) relations based solely on eclipsing binary stars. We selected a sample of 35 detached eclipsing binaries with trigonometric parallaxes from Gaia DR1 or Hipparcos whose absolute dimensions are known with an accuracy better than 3% and that lie within 0.3 kpc from the Sun. For the purpose of this study, we used mostly homogeneous optical and near-infrared photometry based on the Tycho-2 and 2MASS catalogs. We derived geometric angular diameters for all stars in our sample with a precision better than 10%, and for 11 of them with a precision better than 2%. The precision of individual angular diameters of the eclipsing binary components is currently limited by the precision of the geometric distances (∼5% on average). However, by using a subsample of systems with the best agreement between their geometric and photometric distances, we derived the precise SBC relations based only on eclipsing binary stars. These relations have precisions that are comparable to the best available SBC relations based on interferometric angular diameters, and they are fully consistent with them. With very precise Gaia parallaxes becoming available in the near future, angular diameters with a precision better than 1% will be abundant. At that point, the main uncertainty in the total error budget of the SBC relations will come from transformations between different photometric systems, disentangling of component magnitudes, and for hot OB stars, the main uncertainty will come from the interstellar extinction determination. We argue that all these issues can be overcome with modern high-quality data and conclude that a precision better than 1% is entirely feasible.

  6. The EB factory project. I. A fast, neural-net-based, general purpose light curve classifier optimized for eclipsing binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paegert, Martin; Stassun, Keivan G.; Burger, Dan M.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new neural-net-based light curve classifier and provide it with documentation as a ready-to-use tool for the community. While optimized for identification and classification of eclipsing binary stars, the classifier is general purpose, and has been developed for speed in the context of upcoming massive surveys such as the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope. A challenge for classifiers in the context of neural-net training and massive data sets is to minimize the number of parameters required to describe each light curve. We show that a simple and fast geometric representation that encodes the overall light curve shape, together with a chi-square parameter to capture higher-order morphology information results in efficient yet robust light curve classification, especially for eclipsing binaries. Testing the classifier on the ASAS light curve database, we achieve a retrieval rate of 98% and a false-positive rate of 2% for eclipsing binaries. We achieve similarly high retrieval rates for most other periodic variable-star classes, including RR Lyrae, Mira, and delta Scuti. However, the classifier currently has difficulty discriminating between different sub-classes of eclipsing binaries, and suffers a relatively low (∼60%) retrieval rate for multi-mode delta Cepheid stars. We find that it is imperative to train the classifier's neural network with exemplars that include the full range of light curve quality to which the classifier will be expected to perform; the classifier performs well on noisy light curves only when trained with noisy exemplars. The classifier source code, ancillary programs, a trained neural net, and a guide for use, are provided.

  7. The Surface Brightness-color Relations Based on Eclipsing Binary Stars: Toward Precision Better than 1% in Angular Diameter Predictions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graczyk, Dariusz; Gieren, Wolfgang [Millennium Institute of Astrophysics (MAS) (Chile); Konorski, Piotr [Obserwatorium Astronomiczne, Uniwersytet Warszawski, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478, Warsaw (Poland); Pietrzyński, Grzegorz [Universidad de Concepción, Departamento de Astronomia, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Storm, Jesper [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam, An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Nardetto, Nicolas [Université Côte d’Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur, CNRS, Laboratoire Lagrange, UMR7293, Nice (France); Gallenne, Alexandre [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Córdova 3107, Casilla 19001, Santiago 19 (Chile); Maxted, Pierre F. L. [Astrophysics Group, Keele University, Staffordshire, ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Kervella, Pierre [Unidad Mixta Internacional Franco-Chilena de Astronomía (CNRS UMI 3386), Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Camino El Observatorio 1515, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Kołaczkowski, Zbigniew, E-mail: darek@astro-udec.cl, E-mail: darek@ncac.torun.pl [Instytut Astronomiczny, Uniwersytet Wrocławski, Kopernika 11, 51-622 Wrocław (Poland)

    2017-03-01

    In this study we investigate the calibration of surface brightness–color (SBC) relations based solely on eclipsing binary stars. We selected a sample of 35 detached eclipsing binaries with trigonometric parallaxes from Gaia DR1 or Hipparcos whose absolute dimensions are known with an accuracy better than 3% and that lie within 0.3 kpc from the Sun. For the purpose of this study, we used mostly homogeneous optical and near-infrared photometry based on the Tycho-2 and 2MASS catalogs. We derived geometric angular diameters for all stars in our sample with a precision better than 10%, and for 11 of them with a precision better than 2%. The precision of individual angular diameters of the eclipsing binary components is currently limited by the precision of the geometric distances (∼5% on average). However, by using a subsample of systems with the best agreement between their geometric and photometric distances, we derived the precise SBC relations based only on eclipsing binary stars. These relations have precisions that are comparable to the best available SBC relations based on interferometric angular diameters, and they are fully consistent with them. With very precise Gaia parallaxes becoming available in the near future, angular diameters with a precision better than 1% will be abundant. At that point, the main uncertainty in the total error budget of the SBC relations will come from transformations between different photometric systems, disentangling of component magnitudes, and for hot OB stars, the main uncertainty will come from the interstellar extinction determination. We argue that all these issues can be overcome with modern high-quality data and conclude that a precision better than 1% is entirely feasible.

  8. BINARIES DISCOVERED BY THE MUCHFUSS PROJECT: SDSS J08205+0008-AN ECLIPSING SUBDWARF B BINARY WITH A BROWN DWARF COMPANION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geier, S.; Schaffenroth, V.; Drechsel, H.; Heber, U.; Kupfer, T.; Tillich, A.; Oestensen, R. H.; Smolders, K.; Degroote, P.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Barlow, B. N.; Gaensicke, B. T.; Marsh, T. R.; Napiwotzki, R.

    2011-01-01

    Hot subdwarf B stars (sdBs) are extreme horizontal branch stars believed to originate from close binary evolution. Indeed about half of the known sdB stars are found in close binaries with periods ranging from a few hours to a few days. The enormous mass loss required to remove the hydrogen envelope of the red-giant progenitor almost entirely can be explained by common envelope ejection. A rare subclass of these binaries are the eclipsing HW Vir binaries where the sdB is orbited by a dwarf M star. Here, we report the discovery of an HW Vir system in the course of the MUCHFUSS project. A most likely substellar object (≅0.068 M sun ) was found to orbit the hot subdwarf J08205+0008 with a period of 0.096 days. Since the eclipses are total, the system parameters are very well constrained. J08205+0008 has the lowest unambiguously measured companion mass yet found in a subdwarf B binary. This implies that the most likely substellar companion has not only survived the engulfment by the red-giant envelope, but also triggered its ejection and enabled the sdB star to form. The system provides evidence that brown dwarfs may indeed be able to significantly affect late stellar evolution.

  9. Spectroscopic and photometric study of the eclipsing interacting binary V495 Centauri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales Guzmán, J. A.; Mennickent, R. E.; Djurašević, G.; Araya, I.; Curé, M.

    2018-05-01

    Double Periodic Variables (DPV) are among the new enigmas of semidetached eclipsing binaries. These are intermediate-mass binaries characterized by a long photometric period lasting on average 33 times the orbital period. We present a spectroscopic and photometric study of the DPV V495 Cen based on new high-resolution spectra and the ASAS V-band light curve. We have determined an improved orbital period of 33.492 ± 0.002 d and a long period of 1283 d. We find a cool evolved star of M2=0.91± 0.2 M_{⊙}, T2 = 6000 ± 250 K and R2=19.3 ± 0.5 R_{⊙} and a hot companion of M1= 5.76± 0.3 M_{⊙}, T1 = 16960 ± 400 K and R=4.5± 0.2 R_{⊙}. The mid-type B dwarf is surrounded by a concave and geometrically thick disc, of radial extension Rd= 40.2± 1.3 R_{⊙} contributing ˜11 per cent to the total luminosity of the system at the V band. The system is seen under inclination 84.8° ± 0.6° and it is at a distance d = 2092 ± 104.6 pc. The light-curve analysis suggests that the mass transfer stream impacts the external edge of the disc forming a hot region 11 per cent hotter than the surrounding disc material. The persistent V < R asymmetry of the Hα emission suggests the presence of a wind and the detection of a secondary absorption component in He I lines indicates a possible wind origin in the hotspot region.

  10. Testing the white dwarf mass-radius relationship with eclipsing binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, S. G.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Marsh, T. R.; Ashley, R. P.; Bours, M. C. P.; Breedt, E.; Burleigh, M. R.; Copperwheat, C. M.; Dhillon, V. S.; Green, M.; Hardy, L. K.; Hermes, J. J.; Irawati, P.; Kerry, P.; Littlefair, S. P.; McAllister, M. J.; Rattanasoon, S.; Rebassa-Mansergas, A.; Sahman, D. I.; Schreiber, M. R.

    2017-10-01

    We present high-precision, model-independent, mass and radius measurements for 16 white dwarfs in detached eclipsing binaries and combine these with previously published data to test the theoretical white dwarf mass-radius relationship. We reach a mean precision of 2.4 per cent in mass and 2.7 per cent in radius, with our best measurements reaching a precision of 0.3 per cent in mass and 0.5 per cent in radius. We find excellent agreement between the measured and predicted radii across a wide range of masses and temperatures. We also find the radii of all white dwarfs with masses less than 0.48 M⊙ to be fully consistent with helium core models, but they are on average 9 per cent larger than those of carbon-oxygen core models. In contrast, white dwarfs with masses larger than 0.52 M⊙ all have radii consistent with carbon-oxygen core models. Moreover, we find that all but one of the white dwarfs in our sample have radii consistent with possessing thick surface hydrogen envelopes (10-5 ≥ MH/MWD ≥ 10-4), implying that the surface hydrogen layers of these white dwarfs are not obviously affected by common envelope evolution.

  11. Star-spot distributions and chromospheric activity on the RS CVn type eclipsing binary SV Cam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şenavcı, H. V.; Bahar, E.; Montes, D.; Zola, S.; Hussain, G. A. J.; Frasca, A.; Işık, E.; Yörükoǧlu, O.

    2018-06-01

    Using a time series of high-resolution spectra and high-quality multi-colour photometry, we reconstruct surface maps of the primary component of the RS CVn type rapidly rotating eclipsing binary, SV Cam (F9V + K4V). We measure a mass ratio, q, of 0.641(2) using our highest quality spectra and obtain surface brightness maps of the primary component, which exhibit predominantly high-latitude spots located between 60° - 70° latitudes with a mean filling factor of ˜35%. This is also indicated by the R-band light curve inversion, subjected to rigourous numerical tests. The spectral subtraction of the Hα line reveals strong activity of the secondary component. The excess Hα absorption detected near the secondary minimum hints to the presence of cool material partially obscuring the primary star. The flux ratios of Ca II IRT excess emission indicate that the contribution of chromospheric plage regions associated with star-spots is dominant, even during the passage of the filament-like absorption feature.

  12. Revising the Model of Eclipsing Binary Stars for the Kepler Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prsa, Andrej

    2010-01-01

    The French-led mission CoRoT (Baglin et al. 2007) and NASA's Kepler mission (Borucki et al. 2007) have achieved unprecedented photometric accuracy, enabling us to glean stellar variability on scales that have yet to be understood. To employ the full power of eclipsing binary models requires substantial revision of the currently available codes such as WD (Wilson & Devinney 1971) or PHOEBE (Prsa & Zwitter 2005). One of the most important aspects of theoretical light curve computation is stellar surface discretization. Until now, surface elements were determined by equidistant partitioning along co-latitude and longitude; this scheme is inefficient and produces numerical artifacts when stellar distortion is significant (i.e. semi-detached and overcontact systems). In its place we propose a method that relies on equidistant partitioning along equipotentials. This way surface elements cover the stars most uniformly. We further propose two alternatives for the starting vertex of discretization: the stellar pole and the back radius. The partitioning method with both alternatives is explained in detail and differences from the original scheme are discussed.

  13. Chemical Composition of RR Lyn - an Eclipsing Binary System with Am and λ Boo Type Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Yeuncheol; Yushchenko, Alexander V.; Doikov, Dmytry N.; Gopka, Vira F.; Yushchenko, Volodymyr O.

    2017-06-01

    High-resolution spectroscopic observations of the eclipsing binary system RR Lyn were made using the 1.8 m telescope at the Bohuynsan Optical Astronomical Observatory in Korea. The spectral resolving power was R = 82,000, with a signal to noise ratio of S/N > 150. We found the effective temperatures and surface gravities of the primary and secondary components to be equal to Teff = 7,920 & 7,210 K and log(g) = 3.80 & 4.16, respectively. The abundances of 34 and 17 different chemical elements were found in the atmospheric components. Correlations between the derived abundances with condensation temperatures and the second ionization potentials of these elements are discussed. The primary component is a typical metallic line star with the abundances of light and iron group elements close to solar values, while elements with atomic numbers Z > 30 are overabundant by 0.5-1.5 dex with respect to solar values. The secondary component is a λ Boo type star. In this type of stars, CNO abundances are close to solar values, while the abundance pattern shows a negative correlation with condensation temperatures.

  14. Nitrogen chronology of massive main sequence stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Köhler, K.; Borzyszkowski, M.; Brott, I.; Langer, N.; de Koter, A.

    2012-01-01

    Context. Rotational mixing in massive main sequence stars is predicted to monotonically increase their surface nitrogen abundance with time. Aims. We use this effect to design a method for constraining the age and the inclination angle of massive main sequence stars, given their observed luminosity,

  15. Discovery of a Red Giant with Solar-like Oscillations in an Eclipsing Binary System from Kepler Space-based Photometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hekker, S.; Debosscher, J.; Huber, D.

    2010-01-01

    Oscillating stars in binary systems are among the most interesting stellar laboratories, as these can provide information on the stellar parameters and stellar internal structures. Here we present a red giant with solar-like oscillations in an eclipsing binary observed with the NASA Kepler...

  16. THE PERIOD VARIATION OF AND A SPOT MODEL FOR THE ECLIPSING BINARY AR BOOTIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Woo; Youn, Jae-Hyuck; Lee, Chung-Uk; Kim, Seung-Lee; Koch, Robert H.

    2009-01-01

    New CCD photometric observations of the eclipsing system AR Boo were obtained from 2006 February to 2008 April. The star's photometric properties are derived from detailed studies of the period variability and of all available light curves. We find that over about 56 yr the orbital period of the system has varied due to a combination of an upward parabola and a sinusoid rather than in a monotonic fashion. Mass transfer from the less massive primary to the more massive secondary component is likely responsible for at least a significant part of the secular period change. The cyclical variation with a period of 7.57 yr and a semi-amplitude of 0.0015 d can be produced either by a light-travel-time effect due to an unseen companion with a scaled mass of M 3 sin i 3 = 0.081 M sun or by a magnetic period modulation in the secondary star. Historical light curves of AR Boo, as well as our own, display season-to-season light variability, which are best modeled by including both a cool spot and a hot one on the secondary star. We think that the spots express magnetic dynamo-related activity and offer limited support for preferring the magnetic interpretation of the 7.57 yr cycle over the third-body interpretation. Our solutions confirm that AR Boo belongs to the W-subtype contact binary class, consisting of a hotter, less massive primary star with a spectral type of G9 and a companion of spectral type K1.

  17. Pulsar emission amplified and resolved by plasma lensing in an eclipsing binary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Main, Robert; Yang, I-Sheng; Chan, Victor; Li, Dongzi; Lin, Fang Xi; Mahajan, Nikhil; Pen, Ue-Li; Vanderlinde, Keith; van Kerkwijk, Marten H

    2018-05-01

    Radio pulsars scintillate because their emission travels through the ionized interstellar medium along multiple paths, which interfere with each other. It has long been realized that, independent of their nature, the regions responsible for the scintillation could be used as 'interstellar lenses' to localize pulsar emission regions 1,2 . Most such lenses, however, resolve emission components only marginally, limiting results to statistical inferences and detections of small positional shifts 3-5 . As lenses situated close to their source offer better resolution, it should be easier to resolve emission regions of pulsars located in high-density environments such as supernova remnants 6 or binaries in which the pulsar's companion has an ionized outflow. Here we report observations of extreme plasma lensing in the 'black widow' pulsar, B1957+20, near the phase in its 9.2-hour orbit at which its emission is eclipsed by its companion's outflow 7-9 . During the lensing events, the observed radio flux is enhanced by factors of up to 70-80 at specific frequencies. The strongest events clearly resolve the emission regions: they affect the narrow main pulse and parts of the wider interpulse differently. We show that the events arise naturally from density fluctuations in the outer regions of the outflow, and we infer a resolution of our lenses that is comparable to the pulsar's radius, about 10 kilometres. Furthermore, the distinct frequency structures imparted by the lensing are reminiscent of what is observed for the repeating fast radio burst FRB 121102, providing observational support for the idea that this source is observed through, and thus at times strongly magnified by, plasma lenses 10 .

  18. Three aspects of stellar evolution near the main sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, J.C.

    1979-05-01

    Three problems of stellar evolution are considered: the gap in the HR diagram of M67, the evolutionary status of RS CVn binaries and the solar neutrino problem. The physical basis of the Eggleton stellar evolution computer program is described. The program was used to calculate a grid of evolutionary tracks for models with masses between 0.7 and 1.29 solar masses. The more massive stars considered here have expanding convective cores during their main sequence evolution. The isochrone of the old galactic cluster M67 has a gap at the top of its main sequence because of the rapid evolution of stars at hydrogen exhaustion. RS CVn binaries present a complex collection of observational phenomena although they appear to be detached binaries. Their evolutionary status has remained controversial because of their high space density. Here it is shown that a post main sequence interpretation is satisfactory. Models of the Sun with metal poor interiors have been proposed in an attempt to resolve the solar neutrino problem. Here the evolution of two such models is calculated in detail, including a gradual contamination of the surface convection zone to produce the observed metal abundance, giving fully consistent models of the Sun as it is observed. (author)

  19. Magnetic inhibition of convection and the fundamental properties of low-mass stars. II. Fully convective main-sequence stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feiden, Gregory A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Chaboyer, Brian, E-mail: gregory.a.feiden@gmail.com, E-mail: brian.chaboyer@dartmouth.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, 6127 Wilder Laboratory, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    We examine the hypothesis that magnetic fields are inflating the radii of fully convective main-sequence stars in detached eclipsing binaries (DEBs). The magnetic Dartmouth stellar evolution code is used to analyze two systems in particular: Kepler-16 and CM Draconis. Magneto-convection is treated assuming stabilization of convection and also by assuming reductions in convective efficiency due to a turbulent dynamo. We find that magnetic stellar models are unable to reproduce the properties of inflated fully convective main-sequence stars, unless strong interior magnetic fields in excess of 10 MG are present. Validation of the magnetic field hypothesis given the current generation of magnetic stellar evolution models therefore depends critically on whether the generation and maintenance of strong interior magnetic fields is physically possible. An examination of this requirement is provided. Additionally, an analysis of previous studies invoking the influence of star spots is presented to assess the suggestion that star spots are inflating stars and biasing light curve analyses toward larger radii. From our analysis, we find that there is not yet sufficient evidence to definitively support the hypothesis that magnetic fields are responsible for the observed inflation among fully convective main-sequence stars in DEBs.

  20. The Reflection Effect on the Eclipsing Binary by the Wilson and Devinney's Model and Russell and Merrill's Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Hee Choea

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available The reflection effect on three types of eclipsing binaries has been analyzed Wilson and Devinney's model and Russell and Merrill's model. The reflection effect was displayed on the theoretical light curves for the various conditions using the Wilson and Devinney's light curve program. Two models were compared after the rectifing the theoretical light curves including the reflection effect with the Russell and Merrill's method. The result shows that two models have an agreement on the reflection effect just in cases of the small difference in temperature and albedo between two stars in the system.

  1. Ultraviolet, optical and infra-red observations of the Wolf-Rayet contact-eclipsing binary CQ Cephei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stickland, D.J.; Budding, E.; Howarth, I.D.; Willis, A.J.; Jameson, R.; Sherrington, M.R.; Bromage, G.E.; Burton, W.M.

    1984-01-01

    The present study on wolf-rayet contact-eclipsing binary CQ Cephei is an attempt to combine the best observational previous results with an extensive set of UV data from the IUE Satellite and with new IR photometric data. The orbital variations of the CQ Cep system are investigated as well as the secondary component. The early studies of CQ Cep are reviewed, and the observations used in the present analysis described. Continuum energy distribution, interstellar extinction, photometric variability, light curves, time dependence of the emission and absorption line spectra and models for the CQ Cept system are discussed. (U.K.)

  2. LUT REVEALS AN ALGOL-TYPE ECLIPSING BINARY WITH THREE ADDITIONAL STELLAR COMPANIONS IN A MULTIPLE SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, L.-Y.; Zhou, X.; Qian, S.-B.; Li, L.-J.; Liao, W.-P.; Tian, X.-M.; Wang, Z.-H. [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), P.O. Box 110, 650011 Kunming (China); Hu, J.-Y., E-mail: zhuly@ynao.ac.cn [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100012 Beijing (China)

    2016-04-15

    A complete light curve of the neglected eclipsing binary Algol V548 Cygni in the UV band was obtained with the Lunar-based Ultraviolet Telescope in 2014 May. Photometric solutions are obtained using the Wilson–Devinney method. It is found that solutions with and without third light are quite different. The mass ratio without third light is determined to be q = 0.307, while that derived with third light is q = 0.606. It is shown that V548 Cygni is a semi-detached binary where the secondary component is filling the critical Roche lobe. An analysis of all available eclipse times suggests that there are three cyclic variations in the O–C diagram that are interpreted by the light travel-time effect via the presence of three additional stellar companions. This is in agreement with the presence of a large quantity of third light in the system. The masses of these companions are estimated as m sin i′ ∼ 1.09, 0.20, and 0.52 M{sub ⊙}. They are orbiting the central binary with orbital periods of about 5.5, 23.3, and 69.9 years, i.e., in 1:4:12 resonance orbit. Their orbital separations are about 4.5, 13.2, and 26.4 au, respectively. Our photometric solutions suggest that they contribute about 32.4% to the total light of the multiple system. No obvious long-term changes in the orbital period were found, indicating that the contributions of the mass transfer and the mass loss due to magnetic braking to the period variations are comparable. The detection of three possible additional stellar components orbiting a typical Algol in a multiple system make V548 Cygni a very interesting binary to study in the future.

  3. Accurate Masses, Radii, and Temperatures for the Eclipsing Binary V2154 Cyg, and Tests of Stellar Evolution Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Jane; Torres, Guillermo

    2018-01-01

    We report new spectroscopic observations of the F-type triple system V2154 Cyg, in which two of the stars form an eclipsing binary with a period of 2.6306303 ± 0.0000038 days. We combine the results from our spectroscopic analysis with published light curves in the uvby Strömgren passbands to derive the first reported absolute dimensions of the stars in the eclipsing binary. The masses and radii are measured with high accuracy to better than 1.5% precision. For the primary and secondary respectively, we find that the masses are 1.269 ± 0.017 M⊙ and 0.7542 ± 0.0059 M⊙, the radii are 1.477 ± 0.012 R⊙ and 0.7232 ± 0.0091R⊙, and the temperatures are 6770 ± 150 K and 5020 ± 150 K. Current models of stellar evolution agree with the measured properties of the primary, but the secondary is larger than predicted. This may be due to activity in the secondary, as has been shown for other systems with a star of similar mass with this same discrepancy.The SAO REU program is funded by the National Science Foundation REU and Department of Defense ASSURE programs under NSF Grant AST-1659473, and by the Smithsonian Institution. GT acknowledges partial support for this work from NSF grant AST-1509375.

  4. Substellar companions in low-mass eclipsing binaries NSVS 01286630, NSVS 02502726, and NSVS 07453183

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wolf, M.; Zasche, P.; Kučáková, Hana; Vraštil, J.; Hornoch, Kamil; Šmelcer, L.; Bílek, F.; Pilarčík, L.; Chrastina, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 587, March (2016), A82/1-A82/8 ISSN 0004-6361 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : stars * fundamental parameters * eclipsing Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy , Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.378, year: 2014

  5. Four-colour photometry of eclipsing binaries. XXXII. Light curves of V1031 Orionis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clausen, J V; Nordstroem, B; Andersen, J [Copenhagen Univ. Observatory, (DK); Nordstroem, B; Andersen, J [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (US)

    1989-12-01

    Complete uvby light curves are presented for the bright, southern, A-type triple system V1031 Orionis which consists of two well-separated eclipsing components in a circular orbit and a third component at an angular distance of about 0.16 sec. The light curves contain 1280 points in each colour, obtained from 1980 to 1983.

  6. Four-colour photometry of eclipsing binaries. XXXII. Light curves of V1031 Orionis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clausen, J.V.; Nordstroem, B.; Andersen, J.; Nordstroem, B.; Andersen, J.

    1989-01-01

    Complete uvby light curves are presented for the bright, southern, A-type triple system V1031 Orionis which consists of two well-separated eclipsing components in a circular orbit and a third component at an angular distance of about 0.16 sec. The light curves contain 1280 points in each colour, obtained from 1980 to 1983

  7. ECLIPSING BINARY SCIENCE VIA THE MERGING OF TRANSIT AND DOPPLER EXOPLANET SURVEY DATA-A CASE STUDY WITH THE MARVELS PILOT PROJECT AND SuperWASP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, Scott W.; Ge Jian; De Lee, Nathan M.; Zhao Bo; Wan Xiaoke; Guo Pengcheng; Maxted, Pierre F. L.; Anderson, David R.; Hellier, Coel; Hebb, Leslie; Stassun, Keivan G.; Cargile, Phillip A.; Gary, Bruce; Ghezzi, Luan; Wisniewski, John; Porto de Mello, G. F.; Ferreira, Leticia; West, Richard G.; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Pollacco, Don

    2011-01-01

    Exoplanet transit and Doppler surveys discover many binary stars during their operation that can be used to conduct a variety of ancillary science. Specifically, eclipsing binary stars can be used to study the stellar mass-radius relationship and to test predictions of theoretical stellar evolution models. By cross-referencing 24 binary stars found in the MARVELS Pilot Project with SuperWASP photometry, we find two new eclipsing binaries, TYC 0272-00458-1 and TYC 1422-01328-1, which we use as case studies to develop a general approach to eclipsing binaries in survey data. TYC 0272-00458-1 is a single-lined spectroscopic binary for which we calculate a mass of the secondary and radii for both components using reasonable constraints on the primary mass through several different techniques. For a primary mass of M 1 = 0.92 ± 0.1 M sun , we find M 2 = 0.610 ± 0.036 M sun , R 1 = 0.932 ± 0.076 R sun , and R 2 = 0.559 ± 0.102 R sun , and find that both stars have masses and radii consistent with model predictions. TYC 1422-01328-1 is a triple-component system for which we can directly measure the masses and radii of the eclipsing pair. We find that the eclipsing pair consists of an evolved primary star (M 1 = 1.163 ± 0.034 M sun , R 1 = 2.063 ± 0.058 R sun ) and a G-type dwarf secondary (M 2 = 0.905 ± 0.067 M sun , R 2 = 0.887 ± 0.037 R sun ). We provide the framework necessary to apply this analysis to much larger data sets.

  8. The double main sequence of Omega Centauri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedin, L. R.; Piotto, G.; Anderson, J.; King, I. R.; Cassisi, S.; Momany, Y.

    Recent, high precision photometry of Omega Centauri, the biggest Galactic globular cluster, has been obtained with Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The color magnitude diagram reveals an unexpected bifurcation of colors in the main sequence (MS). The newly found double MS, the multiple turnoffs and subgiant branches, and other sequences discovered in the past along the red giant branch of this cluster add up to a fascinating but frustrating puzzle. Among the possible explanations for the blue main sequence an anomalous overabundance of helium is suggested. The hypothesis will be tested with a set of FLAMES@VLT data we have recently obtained (ESO DDT program), and with forthcoming ACS@HST images. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  9. Full Phase Multi-Band Study of Eclipsing Binaries 1SWASP J061850.43+220511.9 and 2MASSJ07095549+3643564

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terheide, Rachel; Zhang, Liyun; Han, Xianming; Lu, Hongpeng

    2018-01-01

    We present full-phase VRI-band light curves for eclipsing binary 1SWASP J061850.43+220511.9, and full-phase BVRI-band light curves for eclipsing binary 2MASS J07095549+3643564. The observations were conducted using the 0.94-m Holcomb Observatory telescope located on Butler University Campus in Indianapolis, Indiana, and the 0.6-m SARA telescope located at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory in Chile. We obtained key system parameters for both eclipsing binaries. For 1SWASP J061850.43+220511.9, the period is 0.21482 ±0.00053 days compared to 0.21439 days from an older study (Lohr et. al), the system mass ratio is found as 2.50 and the system is classified as EW type. Similarly, for 2MASS J07095549+3643564, we obtained a linear ephemeris and a physical model for the first time. We found its period to be 0.22297 ±0.00032 days, as compared to 0.446092 days and 0.11152 days from previous research (Drake et. al 2014, Hartman et. al 2011). 2MASS J07095549+3643564 is classified as a W Uma type eclipsing binary.

  10. Post-main-sequence planetary system evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veras, Dimitri

    2016-01-01

    The fates of planetary systems provide unassailable insights into their formation and represent rich cross-disciplinary dynamical laboratories. Mounting observations of post-main-sequence planetary systems necessitate a complementary level of theoretical scrutiny. Here, I review the diverse dynamical processes which affect planets, asteroids, comets and pebbles as their parent stars evolve into giant branch, white dwarf and neutron stars. This reference provides a foundation for the interpretation and modelling of currently known systems and upcoming discoveries. PMID:26998326

  11. Main-sequence photometry in NGC 2808

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buonanno, R.; Corsi, C.E.; Fusi Pecci, F.; Harris, W.E.

    1984-01-01

    We have obtained a color-magnitude diagram for the southern globular cluster NGC 2808, to V/sub lim/approx. =21 (about 2 mag below the main-sequence turnoff). The internal photographic errors are sigma/sub V/approx. =0.02, sigma/sub B/-Vapprox. =0.03, small enough to permit a precise definition of the turnoff region and an estimate of the ''cosmic scatter'' along the main sequence. Fitting of the CMD to VandenBerg's [Astrophys. J. Suppl. 51, 29 (1983)] isochrones shows that an excellent match to the observations is achieved for model parameters of Yapprox. =0.2, Zapprox. =0.003 ([Fe/H]approx. =-0.8), and an age of (16 +- 2) billion years. All these characteristics are within the expected range from other observational constraints; no new clues from the main-sequence data alone have arisen to help explain the presence of the anomalous blue horizontal-branch stars

  12. Suzaku observation of the eclipsing high mass X-ray binary pulsar XTE J1855-026

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devasia, Jincy; Paul, Biswajit

    2018-02-01

    We report results from analysis performed on an eclipsing supergiant high mass X-ray binary pulsar XTE J1855-026 observed with the X-ray Imaging Spectrometer (XIS) on-board Suzaku Observatory in April 2015. Suzaku observed this source for a total effective exposure of ˜ 87 ks just before an eclipse. Pulsations are clearly observed and the pulse profiles of XTE J1855-026 did not show significant energy dependence during this observation consistent with previous reports. The time averaged energy spectrum of XTE J1855-026 in the 1.0-10.5 keV energy range can be well fitted with a partial covering power law model modified with interstellar absorption along with a black-body component for soft excess and a gaussian for iron fluorescence line emision. The hardness ratio evolution during this observation indicated significant absorption of soft X-rays in some segments of the observation. For better understanding of the reason behind this, we performed time-resolved spectroscopy in the 2.5-10.5 keV energy band which revealed significant variations in the spectral parameters, especially the hydrogen column density and iron line equivalent width with flux. The correlated variations in the spectral parameters indicate towards the presence of clumps in the stellar wind of the companion star accounting for the absorption of low energy X-rays in some time segments.

  13. The magnetic field and the evolution of element spots on the surface of the HgMn eclipsing binary ARAur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubrig, S.; Savanov, I.; Ilyin, I.; González, J. F.; Korhonen, H.; Lehmann, H.; Schöller, M.; Granzer, T.; Weber, M.; Strassmeier, K. G.; Hartmann, M.; Tkachenko, A.

    2010-10-01

    The system ARAur is a young late B-type double-lined eclipsing binary with a primary star of HgMn peculiarity. We applied the Doppler imaging method to reconstruct the distribution of Fe and Y over the surface of the primary using spectroscopic time series obtained in 2005 and from 2008 October to 2009 February. The results show a remarkable evolution of the element distribution and overabundances. Measurements of the magnetic field with the moment technique using several elements reveal the presence of a longitudinal magnetic field of the order of a few hundred gauss in both stellar components and a quadratic field of the order of 8kG on the surface of the primary star. Based on observations obtained at the 2.56-m Nordic Optical Telescope on La Palma, the Karl-Schwarzschild-Observatorium in Tautenburg and the STELLA robotic telescope on Tenerife. E-mail: shubrig@aip.de

  14. THE ROMER DELAY AND MASS RATIO OF THE sdB+dM BINARY 2M 1938+4603 FROM KEPLER ECLIPSE TIMINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barlow, Brad N.; Wade, Richard A.; Liss, Sandra E. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2012-07-10

    The eclipsing binary system 2M 1938+4603 consists of a pulsating hot subdwarf B star and a cool M dwarf companion in an effectively circular three-hour orbit. The light curve shows both primary and secondary eclipses, along with a strong reflection effect from the cool companion. Here, we present constraints on the component masses and eccentricity derived from the Romer delay of the secondary eclipse. Using six months of publicly available Kepler photometry obtained in short-cadence mode, we fit model profiles to the primary and secondary eclipses to measure their centroid values. We find that the secondary eclipse arrives on average 2.06 {+-} 0.12 s after the midpoint between primary eclipses. Under the assumption of a circular orbit, we calculate from this time delay a mass ratio of q = 0.2691 {+-} 0.0018 and individual masses of M{sub sd} = 0.372 {+-} 0.024 M{sub Sun} and M{sub c} = 0.1002 {+-} 0.0065 M{sub Sun} for the sdB and M dwarf, respectively. These results differ slightly from those of a previously published light-curve modeling solution; this difference, however, may be reconciled with a very small eccentricity, ecos {omega} Almost-Equal-To 0.00004. We also report a decrease in the orbital period of P-dot = (-1.23 {+-} 0.07) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -10}.

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Detached M dwarf eclipsing binaries in WTS (Birkby+, 2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkby, J.; Nefs, B.; Hodgkin, S.; Kovacs, G.; Sipocz, B.; Pinfield, D.; Snellen, I.; Mislis, D.; Murgas, F.; Lodieu, N.; de Mooij, E.; Goulding, N.; Cruz, P.; Stoev, H.; Cappetta, M.; Palle, E.; Barrado, D.; Saglia, R.; Martin, E.; Pavlenko, Y.

    2013-04-01

    We identified our new MEBs using observations from the WTS (WFCAM Transit Survey). The WTS is an ongoing photometric monitoring campaign that operates on the 3.8-m United Kingdom Infrared Telescope (UKIRT) at Mauna Kea, Hawaii. The survey began on 2007 August 5, and the eclipsing systems presented in this paper are all found in just one of the four WTS fields. Photometric follow-up observations to help test and refine our light-curve models were obtained in the Sloan i band using the Wide-Field Camera (WFC) on the 2.5-m INT at Roque de Los Muchachos, La Palma. (6 data files).

  16. The "Cool Algol" BD+05 706 : Photometric observations of a new eclipsing double-lined spectroscopic binary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschall, L. A.; Torres, G.; Neuhauser, R.

    1998-05-01

    BVRI Observations of the star BD+05 706, carried out between January, 1997, and April 1998 using the 0.4m reflector and Photometrics CCD camera at the Gettysburg College Observatory, show that the star is an eclipsing binary system with a light curve characteristic of a class of semi-detached binaries known as the "cool Algols". These results are in good agreement with the previous report of BD+05 706 as a cool Algol by Torres, Neuhauser, and Wichmann,(Astron. J., 115, May 1998) who based their classification on the strong X-ray emission detected by Rosat and on a series of spectroscopic observations of the radial velocities of both components of the system obtained at the Oak Ridge Observatory, the Fred L. Whipple Observatory, and the Multiple Mirror Telescope. Only 10 other examples of cool Algols are known, and the current photometric light curve, together with the radial velocity curves obtained previously, allows us to derive a complete solution for the physical parameters of each component, providing important constraints on models for these interesting systems.

  17. BD -22 5866: A Low-Mass, Quadruple-lined Spectroscopic and Eclipsing Binary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkolnik, Evgenya; Liu, Michael C.; Reid, I. Neill; Hebb, Leslie; Cameron, Andrew C.; Torres, Carlos A.; Wilson, David M.

    2008-08-01

    We report our discovery of an extremely rare, low-mass, quadruple-lined spectroscopic binary BD -22 5866 (=NLTT 53279, integrated spectral type = M0 V), found during an ongoing search for the youngest M dwarfs in the solar neighborhood. From the cross-correlation function, we are able to measure relative flux levels, estimate the spectral types of the components, and set upper limits on the orbital periods and separations. The resulting system is hierarchical, composed of a K7 + K7 binary and an M1 + M2 binary with semimajor axes of aAsin iA system was unresolved with published adaptive optics imaging, limits the projected physical separation of the two binaries at the time of the observation to dABlesssim 4.1 AU at the photometric distance of 51 pc. The maximum observed radial velocity difference between the A and B binaries limits the orbit to aABsin iAB systems, we speculate that an early dynamical process reduced the size of the system, such as the interaction of the two binaries with a circumquadruple disk. Intensive photometric, spectroscopic, and interferometric monitoring, as well as a parallax measurement of this rare quadruple system, is certainly warranted. Based on observations collected at the W. M. Keck Observatory and the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT). The Keck Observatory is operated as a scientific partnership between the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and NASA, and was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. The CFHT is operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii.

  18. A Multi-wavelength Study of the Close M-dwarf Eclipsing Binary System BX Tri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdelwitz, V.; Czesla, S.; Robrade, J.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.

    2015-01-01

    We present the first detailed X-ray study of the close dMe binary system BX Tri, whose optical variation has been continously monitored in the frame of the DWARF project (Pribulla et al.(2012)). We observed BX Tri with XMM-Newton for two full orbital periods and confirm that the system is an ultra-active M-dwarf binary showing frequent flares and an X-ray luminosity close to the saturation limit. The strong magnetic activity could have influenced the angular momentum evolution of the system via magnetic braking.

  19. HD 66051, an eclipsing binary hosting a highly peculiar, HgMn-related star.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemczura, Ewa; Hümmerich, Stefan; Castelli, Fiorella; Paunzen, Ernst; Bernhard, Klaus; Hambsch, Franz-Josef; Hełminiak, Krzysztof

    2017-07-19

    HD 66051 is an eclipsing system with an orbital period of about 4.75 d that exhibits out-of-eclipse variability with the same period. New multicolour photometric observations confirm the longevity of the secondary variations, which we interpret as a signature of surface inhomogeneities on one of the components. Using archival and newly acquired high-resolution spectra, we have performed a detailed abundance analysis. The primary component is a slowly rotating late B-type star (T eff  = 12500 ± 200 K; log g = 4.0, v sin i = 27 ± 2 km s -1 ) with a highly peculiar composition reminiscent of the singular HgMn-related star HD 65949, which seems to be its closest analogue. Some light elements as He, C, Mg, Al are depleted, while Si and P are enhanced. Except for Ni, all the iron-group elements, as well as most of the heavy elements, and in particular the REE elements, are overabundant. The secondary component was estimated to be a slowly rotating A-type star (T eff  ~ 8000 K; log g = 4.0, v sin i ~ 18 km s -1 ). The unique configuration of HD 66051 opens up intriguing possibilities for future research, which might eventually and significantly contribute to the understanding of such diverse phenomena as atmospheric structure, mass transfer, magnetic fields, photometric variability and the origin of chemical anomalies observed in HgMn stars and related objects.

  20. The orbital elements and physical properties of the eclipsing binary BD+36 degrees 3317, a probable member of delta Lyrae cluster

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kiran, E.; Harmanec, P.; Degirmenci, O.L.; Wolf, M.; Nemravová, J.; Šlechta, Miroslav; Koubský, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 587, March (2016), A127/1-A127/9 ISSN 0004-6361 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP209/10/0715; GA(CZ) GA15-02112S Program:GA Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : binaries * eclipsing * fundamental parameters Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.378, year: 2014

  1. Physical Properties and Evolutionary States of EA-type Eclipsing Binaries Observed by LAMOST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, S.-B.; Zhang, J.; He, J.-J.; Zhu, L.-Y.; Zhao, E.-G.; Shi, X.-D.; Zhou, X.; Han, Z.-T.

    2018-03-01

    About 3196 EA-type binaries (EAs) were observed by LAMOST by 2017 June 16 and their spectral types were derived. Meanwhile, the stellar atmospheric parameters of 2020 EAs were determined. In this paper, those EAs are cataloged and their physical properties and evolutionary states are investigated. The period distribution of EAs suggests that the period limit of tidal locking for the close binaries is about 6 days. It is found that the metallicity of EAs is higher than that of EW-type binaries (EWs), indicating that EAs are generally younger than EWs and they are the progenitors of EWs. The metallicities of long-period EWs (0.4values of Log (g) are usually smaller than those of EAs. These support the evolutionary process that EAs evolve into long-period EWs through the combination of angular momentum loss (AML) via magnetic braking and case A mass transfer. For short-period EWs, their metallicities are lower than those of EAs, while their gravitational accelerations are higher. These reveal that they may be formed from cool short-period EAs through AML via magnetic braking with little mass transfer. For some EWs with high metallicities, they may be contaminated by material from the evolution of unseen neutron stars and black holes or they have third bodies that may help them to form rapidly through a short timescale of pre-contact evolution. The present investigation suggests that the modern EW populations may have formed through a combination of these mechanisms.

  2. A Bright Short Period M-M Eclipsing Binary from the KELT Survey: Magnetic Activity and the Mass-Radius Relationship for M Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubin, Jack B.; Rodriguez, Joseph E.; Zhou, George; Conroy, Kyle E.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Collins, Karen; Stevens, Daniel J.; Labadie-Bartz, Jonathan; Stockdale, Christopher; Myers, Gordon; Colón, Knicole D.; Bento, Joao; Kehusmaa, Petri; Petrucci, Romina; Jofré, Emiliano; Quinn, Samuel N.; Lund, Michael B.; Kuhn, Rudolf B.; Siverd, Robert J.; Beatty, Thomas G.; Harlingten, Caisey; Pepper, Joshua; Gaudi, B. Scott; James, David; Jensen, Eric L. N.; Reichart, Daniel; Kedziora-Chudczer, Lucyna; Bailey, Jeremy; Melville, Graeme

    2017-08-01

    We report the discovery of KELT J041621-620046, a moderately bright (J ˜ 10.2) M-dwarf eclipsing binary system at a distance of 39 ± 3 pc. KELT J041621-620046 was first identified as an eclipsing binary using observations from the Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope (KELT) survey. The system has a short orbital period of ˜1.11 days and consists of components with {M}1={0.447}+0.052-0.047 {M}⊙ and {M}2={0.399}+0.046-0.042 {M}⊙ in nearly circular orbits. The radii of the two stars are {R}1={0.540}+0.034-0.032 {R}⊙ and {\\text{}}{R}2=0.453+/- 0.017 {R}⊙ . Full system and orbital properties were determined (to ˜10% error) by conducting an EBOP (Eclipsing Binary Orbit Program) global modeling of the high precision photometric and spectroscopic observations obtained by the KELT Follow-up Network. Each star is larger by 17%-28% and cooler by 4%-10% than predicted by standard (non-magnetic) stellar models. Strong Hα emission indicates chromospheric activity in both stars. The observed radii and temperature discrepancies for both components are more consistent with those predicted by empirical relations that account for convective suppression due to magnetic activity.

  3. UBVRc Ic ANALYSIS OF THE RECENTLY DISCOVERED TOTALLY ECLIPSING EXTREME MASS RATIO BINARY V1853 ORIONIS, AND A STATISTICAL LOOK AT 25 OTHER EXTREME MASS RATIO SOLAR-TYPE CONTACT BINARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samec, R. G.; Labadorf, C. M.; Hawkins, N. C.; Faulkner, D. R.; Van Hamme, W.

    2011-01-01

    We present precision CCD light curves, a period study, photometrically derived standard magnitudes, and a five-color simultaneous Wilson code solution of the totally eclipsing, yet shallow amplitude (A v ∼ 0.4 mag) eclipsing, binary V1853 Orionis. It is determined to be an extreme mass ratio, q = 0.20, W-type W UMa overcontact binary. From our standard star observations, we find that the variable is a late-type F spectral-type dwarf, with a secondary component of about 0.24 solar masses (stellar type M5V). Its long eclipse duration (41 minutes) as compared to its period, 0.383 days, attests to the small relative size of the secondary. Furthermore, it has reached a Roche lobe fill-out of ∼50% of its outer critical lobe as it approaches its final stages of binary star evolution, that of a fast spinning single star. Finally, a summary of about 25 extreme mass ratio solar-type binaries is given.

  4. CIRCUMSTELLAR ENVIRONMENT AND EFFECTIVE TEMPERATURE OF THE YOUNG SUBSTELLAR ECLIPSING BINARY 2MASS J05352184-0546085

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanty, Subhanjoy; Stassun, Keivan G.; Mathieu, Robert D.

    2009-01-01

    We present new Spitzer IRAC/PU/MIPS photometry from 3.6 to 24 μm, and new Gemini GMOS photometry at 0.48 μm, of the young brown dwarf eclipsing binary 2MASS J05352184-0546085, located in the Orion Nebula Cluster. No excess disk emission is detected. The measured fluxes at λ ≤ 8 μm are within 1σ (∼ -10 M sun ) if it extends in to within ∼0.1 AU of the binary (the approximate tidal truncation radius), or it must be optically thick with a large inner hole, >0.6-10 AU in radius depending on degree of flaring. The consequence in all cases is that disk accretion is likely to be negligible or absent. This supports the recent proposal that the strong Hα emission in the primary (more massive) brown dwarf results from chromospheric activity, and thereby bolsters the hypothesis that the surprising T eff inversion observed between the components is due to strong magnetic fields on the primary. Our data also set constraints on the T eff of the components independent of spectral type, and thereby on models of the aforementioned magnetic field effects. We discuss the consequences for the derived fundamental properties of young brown dwarfs and very low mass stars in general. Specifically, if very active isolated young brown dwarfs and very low mass stars suffer the same activity/field related effects as the 2M0535-05 primary, the low-mass stellar/substellar initial mass function currently derived from standard evolutionary tracks may be substantially in error.

  5. Low-mass eclipsing binaries in the WFCAM Transit Survey: the persistence of the M-dwarf radius inflation problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Patricia; Diaz, Marcos; Birkby, Jayne; Barrado, David; Sipöcz, Brigitta; Hodgkin, Simon

    2018-06-01

    We present the characterization of five new short-period low-mass eclipsing binaries (LMEBs) from the WFCAM Transit Survey. The analysis was performed by using the photometric WFCAM J-mag data and additional low- and intermediate-resolution spectroscopic data to obtain both orbital and physical properties of the studied sample. The light curves and the measured radial velocity curves were modelled simultaneously with the JKTEBOP code, with Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations for the error estimates. The best-model fit have revealed that the investigated detached binaries are in very close orbits, with orbital separations of 2.9 ≤ a ≤ 6.7 R⊙ and short periods of 0.59 ≤ Porb ≤ 1.72 d, approximately. We have derived stellar masses between 0.24 and 0.72 M⊙ and radii ranging from 0.42 to 0.67 R⊙. The great majority of the LMEBs in our sample has an estimated radius far from the predicted values according to evolutionary models. The components with derived masses of M < 0.6 M⊙ present a radius inflation of {˜ }9 per cent or more. This general behaviour follows the trend of inflation for partially radiative stars proposed previously. These systems add to the increasing sample of low-mass stellar radii that are not well-reproduced by stellar models. They further highlight the need to understand the magnetic activity and physical state of small stars. Missions like TESS will provide many such systems to perform high-precision radius measurements to tightly constrain low-mass stellar evolution models.

  6. Chemical Composition of RR Lyn – an Eclipsing Binary System with Am and λ Boo Type Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeuncheol Jeong

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution spectroscopic observations of the eclipsing binary system RR Lyn were made using the 1.8 m telescope at the Bohuynsan Optical Astronomical Observatory in Korea. The spectral resolving power was R = 82,000, with a signal to noise ratio of S/N > 150. We found the effective temperatures and surface gravities of the primary and secondary components to be equal to Teff = 7,920 & 7,210 K and log(g = 3.80 & 4.16, respectively. The abundances of 34 and 17 different chemical elements were found in the atmospheric components. Correlations between the derived abundances with condensation temperatures and the second ionization potentials of these elements are discussed. The primary component is a typical metallic line star with the abundances of light and iron group elements close to solar values, while elements with atomic numbers Z > 30 are overabundant by 0.5–1.5 dex with respect to solar values. The secondary component is a λ Boo type star. In this type of stars, CNO abundances are close to solar values, while the abundance pattern shows a negative correlation with condensation temperatures.

  7. Intrinsic light variation in very close eclipsing binary systems with distorted components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binnendijk, L.

    1974-01-01

    Using the theory of distorted components in very close binaries, the semiaxes are computed for several possible models. The coefficients of limb darkening and the gravity effect are found as weighted mean values of the results of several theoretical investigations. A simple linear relation is found between the coefficient of limb darkening and the logarithm of the effective temperature in the spectral interval A0 to K0. The Fourier series for the intrinsic light variation of such distorted components is given for any polytropic index. The influence of the tidal bulge is described in detail. (IAA)

  8. STELLAR DIAMETERS AND TEMPERATURES. II. MAIN-SEQUENCE K- AND M-STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyajian, Tabetha S.; McAlister, Harold A.; Jones, Jeremy; White, Russel; Henry, Todd; Gies, Douglas; Jao, Wei-Chun; Parks, J. Robert [Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, P.O. Box 4106, Atlanta, GA 30302-4106 (United States); Von Braun, Kaspar; Kane, Stephen R.; Ciardi, David [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, California Institute of Technology, MC 100-22, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Van Belle, Gerard [Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Ten Brummelaar, Theo A.; Schaefer, Gail; Sturmann, Laszlo; Sturmann, Judit [The CHARA Array, Mount Wilson Observatory, Mount Wilson, CA 91023 (United States); Muirhead, Philip S. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Lopez-Morales, Mercedes [Institut de Ciencies de L' Espai (CSIC-IEEC), E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Ridgway, Stephen [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 26732, Tucson, AZ 85726-6732 (United States); Rojas-Ayala, Barbara [Department of Astrophysics, Division of Physical Sciences, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10024 (United States); and others

    2012-10-01

    suggest that the models over account for the effects that the stellar metallicity may have on the astrophysical properties of an object. By comparing the interferometrically measured radii for the single star population to those of eclipsing binaries, we find that for a given mass, single and binary star radii are indistinguishable. However, we also find that for a given radius, the literature temperatures for binary stars are systematically lower compared to our interferometrically derived temperatures of single stars by {approx}200 to 300 K. The nature of this offset is dependent on the validation of binary star temperatures, where bringing all measurements to a uniform and correctly calibrated temperature scale is needed to identify any influence stellar activity may have on the physical properties of a star. Lastly, we present an empirically determined H-R diagram using fundamental properties presented here in combination with those in Boyajian et al. for a total of 74 nearby, main-sequence, A- to M-type stars, and define regions of habitability for the potential existence of sub-stellar mass companions in each system.

  9. Photometric study of an eclipsing binary in the field of M37

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priya Devarapalli Shanti; Sriram Kandulapati; Rao Pasagada Vivekananda

    2014-01-01

    CCD photometric observations with B and V passbands were performed on the contact binary V3 in the field of open cluster M37. The solutions were obtained for data from both B and V passbands along with R passband given by Hartman et al. using the Wilson-Devinney code. The positive O'Connell effect was observed in all the three passbands and its associated cool spot parameters were derived. The results indicate that the spot parameters have not shown any significant variability during the last four years. The spot radius was found to be 40° and located close to the equator of the secondary component. The absolute parameters of the system were derived using the empirical relations given by Gazeas et al. (research papers)

  10. Further Evidence of a Brown Dwarf Orbiting the Post-Common Envelope Eclipsing Binary V470 Cam (HS 0705+6700

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogensberger David

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Several post-common envelope binaries have slightly increasing, decreasing or oscillating orbital periods. One of several possible explanations is light travel-time changes, caused by the binary centre-of-mass being perturbed by the gravitational pull of a third body. Further studies are necessary because it is not clear how a third body could have survived subdwarf progenitor mass-loss at the tip of the Red Giant Branch, or formed subsequently. Thirty-nine primary eclipse times for V470 Cam were secured with the Philip Wetton Telescope during the period 2016 November 25th to 2017 January 27th. Available eclipse timings suggest a brown dwarf tertiary having a mass of at least 0.0236(40 M⊙, an elliptical orbit with an eccentricity of 0.376(98 and an orbital period of 11.77(67 years about the binary centreof- mass. The mass and orbit suggest a hybrid formation, in which some ejected material from the subdwarf progenitor was accreted on to a precursor tertiary component, although additional observations would be needed to confirm this interpretation and investigate other possible origins for the binary orbital period change.

  11. The Light-time Effect in the Eclipsing Binaries with Early-type Components U CrB and RW Tau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaliullina, A. I.

    2018-04-01

    A detailed study of the orbital-period variations of the Algol-type eclipsing binaries with earlyspectral- type primary components U CrB and RW Tau has been performed. The period variations in both systems can be described as a superposition of secular and cyclic variations of the period. A secular period increase at a rate of 2.58d × 10-7/year is observed for U CrB, which can be explained if there is a uniform flow of matter from the lower-mass to the higher-mass component, with the total angular momentum conserved. RW Tau features a secular period decrease at a rate of -8.6d × 10-7/year; this could be due to a loss of angular momentum by the binary due to magnetic braking. The cyclic orbital-period variations of U CrB and RWTau can be explained by the motion of the eclipsing binary systems along their long-period orbits. In U CrB, this implies that the eclipsing binary moves with a period of 91.3 years around a third body with mass M 3 > 1.13 M ⊙; in RW Tau, the period of the motion around the third body is 66.6 years, and the mass of the third body is M 3 > 1.24 M ⊙. It also cannot be ruled out that the variations are due to the magnetic cycles of the late-type secondaries. The residual period variations could be a superposition of variations due to non-stationary ejection of matter and effects due to magnetic cycles.

  12. OGLE-LMC-ECL-11893: The discovery of a long-period eclipsing binary with a circumstellar disk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Subo [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Yi He Yuan Road 5, Hai Dian District, Beijing 100871 (China); Katz, Boaz [Institute for Advanced Study, 1 Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Prieto, Jose L. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, 4 Ivy Lane, Peyton Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Udalski, Andrzej; Kozlowski, Szymon [Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warszawa (Poland); Street, R. A.; Tsapras, Y. [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, 6740 Cortona Drive, suite 102, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States); Bramich, D. M. [Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute, Qatar Foundation, Tornado Tower, Floor 19, P.O. Box 5825, Doha (Qatar); Hundertmark, M.; Horne, K.; Dominik, M.; Jaimes, R. Figuera [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Snodgrass, C. [Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany)

    2014-06-10

    We report the serendipitous discovery of a disk-eclipse system OGLE-LMC-ECL-11893. The eclipse occurs with a period of 468 days, a duration of about 15 days, and a deep (up to Δm{sub I} ≈ 1.5), peculiar, and asymmetric profile. A possible origin of such an eclipse profile involves a circumstellar disk. The presence of the disk is confirmed by the H-α line profile from the follow-up spectroscopic observations, and the star is identified as Be/Ae type. Unlike the previously known disk-eclipse candidates, the eclipses of OGLE-LMC-ECL-11893 retain the same shape throughout the span of ∼17 yr (13 orbital periods), indicating no measurable orbital precession of the disk.

  13. ABSOLUTE DIMENSIONS OF THE G7+K7 ECLIPSING BINARY STAR IM VIRGINIS: DISCREPANCIES WITH STELLAR EVOLUTION MODELS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, Juan Carlos; Torres, Guillermo; Marschall, Laurence A.; Brehm, William

    2009-01-01

    We report extensive spectroscopic and differential photometric BVRI observations of the active, detached, 1.309-day double-lined eclipsing binary IM Vir, composed of a G7-type primary and a K7 secondary. With these observations, we derive accurate absolute masses and radii of M 1 = 0.981 ± 0.012 M sun , M 2 = 0.6644 ± 0.0048 M sun , R 1 = 1.061 ± 0.016 R sun , and R 2 = 0.681 ± 0.013 R sun for the primary and secondary, with relative errors under 2%. The effective temperatures are 5570 ± 100 K and 4250 ± 130 K, respectively. The significant difference in mass makes this a favorable case for comparison with stellar evolution theory. We find that both stars are larger than the models predict, by 3.7% for the primary and 7.5% for the secondary, as well as cooler than expected, by 100 K and 150 K, respectively. These discrepancies are in line with previously reported differences in low-mass stars, and are believed to be caused by chromospheric activity, which is not accounted for in current models. The effect is not confined to low-mass stars: the rapidly rotating primary of IM Vir joins the growing list of objects of near-solar mass (but still with convective envelopes) that show similar anomalies. The comparison with the models suggests an age of 2.4 Gyr for the system, and a metallicity of [Fe/H] ∼-0.3 that is consistent with other indications, but requires confirmation.

  14. New Low-mass Eclipsing Binary Systems in Praesepe Discovered by K2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillen, Edward; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.; David, Trevor J.; Aigrain, Suzanne; Rebull, Luisa; Stauffer, John; Cody, Ann Marie; Queloz, Didier

    2017-11-01

    We present the discovery and characterization of four low-mass (Msystems in the sub-Gyr old Praesepe open cluster using Kepler/K2 time series photometry and Keck/HIRES spectroscopy. We present a new Gaussian process EB model, GP-EBOP, as well as a method of simultaneously determining effective temperatures and distances for EBs. Three of the reported systems (AD 3814, AD 2615 and AD 1508) are detached and double-lined, and precise solutions are presented for the first two. We determine masses and radii to 1%-3% precision for AD 3814 and to 5%-6% for AD 2615. Together with effective temperatures determined to ˜50 K precision, we test the PARSEC v1.2 and BHAC15 stellar evolution models. Our EB parameters are more consistent with the PARSEC models, primarily because the BHAC15 temperature scale is hotter than our data over the mid-M-dwarf mass range probed. Both ADs 3814 and 2615, which have orbital periods of 6.0 and 11.6 days, are circularized but not synchronized. This suggests that either synchronization proceeds more slowly in fully convective stars than the theory of equilibrium tides predicts, or magnetic braking is currently playing a more important role than tidal forces in the spin evolution of these binaries. The fourth system (AD 3116) comprises a brown dwarf transiting a mid-M-dwarf, which is the first such system discovered in a sub-Gyr open cluster. Finally, these new discoveries increase the number of characterized EBs in sub-Gyr open clusters by 20% (40%) below M< 1.5 M ⊙ (M< 0.6 M ⊙).

  15. Discovery of a Detached, Eclipsing 40 Minute Period Double White Dwarf Binary and a Friend: Implications for He+CO White Dwarf Mergers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Warren R.; Kilic, Mukremin; Kosakowski, Alekzander; Gianninas, A.

    2017-01-01

    We report the discovery of two detached double white dwarf (WD) binaries, SDSS J082239.546+304857.19 and SDSS J104336.275+055149.90, with orbital periods of 40 and 46 minutes, respectively. The 40 minute system is eclipsing; it is composed of a 0.30 M ⊙ and a 0.52 M ⊙ WD. The 46 minute system is a likely LISA verification binary. The short 20 ± 2 Myr and ∼34 Myr gravitational-wave merger times of the two binaries imply that many more such systems have formed and merged over the age of the Milky Way. We update the estimated Milky Way He+CO WD binary merger rate and affirm our previously published result: He+CO WD binaries merge at a rate at least 40 times greater than the formation rate of stable mass-transfer AM CVn binaries, and so the majority must have unstable mass-transfer. The implication is that spin–orbit coupling in He+CO WD mergers is weak, or perhaps nova-like outbursts drive He+CO WDs into merger, as proposed by Shen.

  16. Discovery of a Detached, Eclipsing 40 Minute Period Double White Dwarf Binary and a Friend: Implications for He+CO White Dwarf Mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Warren R.; Kilic, Mukremin; Kosakowski, Alekzander; Gianninas, A.

    2017-09-01

    We report the discovery of two detached double white dwarf (WD) binaries, SDSS J082239.546+304857.19 and SDSS J104336.275+055149.90, with orbital periods of 40 and 46 minutes, respectively. The 40 minute system is eclipsing; it is composed of a 0.30 M ⊙ and a 0.52 M ⊙ WD. The 46 minute system is a likely LISA verification binary. The short 20 ± 2 Myr and ˜34 Myr gravitational-wave merger times of the two binaries imply that many more such systems have formed and merged over the age of the Milky Way. We update the estimated Milky Way He+CO WD binary merger rate and affirm our previously published result: He+CO WD binaries merge at a rate at least 40 times greater than the formation rate of stable mass-transfer AM CVn binaries, and so the majority must have unstable mass-transfer. The implication is that spin-orbit coupling in He+CO WD mergers is weak, or perhaps nova-like outbursts drive He+CO WDs into merger, as proposed by Shen. Based on observations obtained at the MMT Observatory, a joint facility of the Smithsonian Institution and the University of Arizona, and on observations obtained with the Apache Point Observatory 3.5 m telescope, which is owned and operated by the Astrophysical Research Consortium.

  17. Discovery of a Detached, Eclipsing 40 Minute Period Double White Dwarf Binary and a Friend: Implications for He+CO White Dwarf Mergers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Warren R. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kilic, Mukremin; Kosakowski, Alekzander; Gianninas, A., E-mail: wbrown@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: kilic@ou.edu, E-mail: alexg@nhn.ou.edu [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 W. Brooks Street, Norman, OK 73019 (United States)

    2017-09-20

    We report the discovery of two detached double white dwarf (WD) binaries, SDSS J082239.546+304857.19 and SDSS J104336.275+055149.90, with orbital periods of 40 and 46 minutes, respectively. The 40 minute system is eclipsing; it is composed of a 0.30 M {sub ⊙} and a 0.52 M {sub ⊙} WD. The 46 minute system is a likely LISA verification binary. The short 20 ± 2 Myr and ∼34 Myr gravitational-wave merger times of the two binaries imply that many more such systems have formed and merged over the age of the Milky Way. We update the estimated Milky Way He+CO WD binary merger rate and affirm our previously published result: He+CO WD binaries merge at a rate at least 40 times greater than the formation rate of stable mass-transfer AM CVn binaries, and so the majority must have unstable mass-transfer. The implication is that spin–orbit coupling in He+CO WD mergers is weak, or perhaps nova-like outbursts drive He+CO WDs into merger, as proposed by Shen.

  18. Study of the mass-luminosity in binary stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gimenez, A.; Zamorano, J.

    1986-01-01

    The results of a study of the mass-luminosity relation for main-sequence stars are presented as obtained from the latest data provided by the analysis of eclipsing and visual binary systems. The derived numerical values are discussed in light of their practical use and possible parametrizations indicated by internal structure homologous models. Finally, the astrophysical significance of our results is evaluated and they are compared to available theoretical models. (author)

  19. Did A Planet Survive A Post-Main Sequence Evolutionary Event?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorber, Rebecca; Jang-Condell, Hannah; Zimmerman, Mara

    2018-06-01

    The GL86 is star system approximately 10 pc away with a main sequence K- type ~ 0.77 M⊙ star (GL 86A) with a white dwarf ~0.49 M⊙ companion (GL86 B). The system has a ~ 18.4 AU semi-major axis, an orbital period of ~353 yrs, and an eccentricity of ~ 0.39. A 4.5 MJ planet orbits the main sequence star with a semi-major axis of 0.113 AU, an orbital period of 15.76 days, in a near circular orbit with an eccentricity of 0.046. If we assume that this planet was formed during the time when the white dwarf was a main sequence star, it would be difficult for the planet to have remained in a stable orbit during the post-main sequence evolution of GL86 B. The post-main sequence evolution with planet survival will be examined by modeling using the program Mercury (Chambers 1999). Using the model, we examine the origins of the planet: whether it formed before or after the post-main sequence evolution of GL86B. The modeling will give us insight into the dynamical evolution of, not only, the binary star system, but also the planet’s life cycle.

  20. The Effect of Starspots on Accurate Radius Determination of the Low-Mass Double-Lined Eclipsing Binary Gu Boo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windmiller, G.; Orosz, J. A.; Etzel, P. B.

    2010-04-01

    GU Boo is one of only a relatively small number of well-studied double-lined eclipsing binaries that contain low-mass stars. López-Morales & Ribas present a comprehensive analysis of multi-color light and radial velocity curves for this system. The GU Boo light curves presented by López-Morales & Ribas had substantial asymmetries, which were attributed to large spots. In spite of the asymmetry, López-Morales & Ribas derived masses and radii accurate to sime2%. We obtained additional photometry of GU Boo using both a CCD and a single-channel photometer and modeled the light curves with the ELC software to determine if the large spots in the light curves give rise to systematic errors at the few percent level. We also modeled the original light curves from the work of López-Morales & Ribas using models with and without spots. We derived a radius of the primary of 0.6329 ± 0.0026 R sun, 0.6413 ± 0.0049 R sun, and 0.6373 ± 0.0029 R sun from the CCD, photoelectric, and López-Morales & Ribas data, respectively. Each of these measurements agrees with the value reported by López-Morales & Ribas (R 1 = 0.623 ± 0.016 R sun) at the level of ≈2%. In addition, the spread in these values is ≈1%-2% from the mean. For the secondary, we derive radii of 0.6074 ± 0.0035 R sun, 0.5944 ± 0.0069 R sun, and 0.5976 ± 0.0059 R sun from the three respective data sets. The López-Morales & Ribas value is R 2 = 0.620 ± 0.020 R sun, which is ≈2%-3% larger than each of the three values we found. The spread in these values is ≈2% from the mean. The systematic difference between our three determinations of the secondary radius and that of López-Morales & Ribas might be attributed to differences in the modeling process and codes used. Our own fits suggest that, for GU Boo at least, using accurate spot modeling of a single set of multi-color light curves results in radii determinations accurate at the ≈2% level.

  1. THE EFFECT OF STARSPOTS ON ACCURATE RADIUS DETERMINATION OF THE LOW-MASS DOUBLE-LINED ECLIPSING BINARY GU Boo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Windmiller, G.; Orosz, J. A.; Etzel, P. B.

    2010-01-01

    GU Boo is one of only a relatively small number of well-studied double-lined eclipsing binaries that contain low-mass stars. Lopez-Morales and Ribas present a comprehensive analysis of multi-color light and radial velocity curves for this system. The GU Boo light curves presented by Lopez-Morales and Ribas had substantial asymmetries, which were attributed to large spots. In spite of the asymmetry, Lopez-Morales and Ribas derived masses and radii accurate to ≅2%. We obtained additional photometry of GU Boo using both a CCD and a single-channel photometer and modeled the light curves with the ELC software to determine if the large spots in the light curves give rise to systematic errors at the few percent level. We also modeled the original light curves from the work of Lopez-Morales and Ribas using models with and without spots. We derived a radius of the primary of 0.6329 ± 0.0026 R sun , 0.6413 ± 0.0049 R sun , and 0.6373 ± 0.0029 R sun from the CCD, photoelectric, and Lopez-Morales and Ribas data, respectively. Each of these measurements agrees with the value reported by Lopez-Morales and Ribas (R 1 = 0.623 ± 0.016 R sun ) at the level of ∼2%. In addition, the spread in these values is ∼1%-2% from the mean. For the secondary, we derive radii of 0.6074 ± 0.0035 R sun , 0.5944 ± 0.0069 R sun , and 0.5976 ± 0.0059 R sun from the three respective data sets. The Lopez-Morales and Ribas value is R 2 = 0.620 ± 0.020 R sun , which is ∼2%-3% larger than each of the three values we found. The spread in these values is ∼2% from the mean. The systematic difference between our three determinations of the secondary radius and that of Lopez-Morales and Ribas might be attributed to differences in the modeling process and codes used. Our own fits suggest that, for GU Boo at least, using accurate spot modeling of a single set of multi-color light curves results in radii determinations accurate at the ∼2% level.

  2. Observations and light curve solutions of the eclipsing binaries USNO-B1.0 1395-0370184 and USNO-B1.0 1395-0370731

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjurkchieva D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present follow-up photometric observations in Sloan filters g', i' of the newly discovered eclipsing stars USNO-B1.0 1395-0370184 and USNO-B1.0 1395-0370731. Our data revealed that their orbital periods are considerably bigger than the previous values. This result changed the classification of USNO-B1.0 1395-0370184 from ultrashort-period binary (P=0.197 d to short-period system (P=0.251 d. The light curve solutions of our observations revealed that USNOB1.0 1395-0370184 and USNO-B1.0 1395-0370731 are overcontact binaries in which components are K dwarfs, close in masses and radii. The light curve distortions were reproduced by cool spots with angular radius of around 20°.

  3. Reflected eclipses on circumbinary planets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deeg H.J.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A photometric method to detect planets orbiting around shortperiodic binary stars is presented. It is based on the detection of eclipse-signatures in the reflected light of circumbinary planets. Amplitudes of such ’reflected eclipses’ will depend on the orbital configurations of binary and planet relative to the observer. Reflected eclipses will occur with a period that is distinct from the binary eclipses, and their timing will also be modified by variations in the light-travel time of the eclipse signal. For the sample of eclipsing binaries found by the Kepler mission, reflected eclipses from close circumbinary planets may be detectable around at least several dozen binaries. A thorough detection effort of such reflected eclipses may then detect the inner planets present, or give solid limits to their abundance.

  4. The Lower Main Sequence of Stars in the Solar Neighborhood: Model Predictions Versus Observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartašiūtė S.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We have used the Simbad database and VizieR catalogue access tools to construct the observational color-absolute magnitude diagrams of nearby K-M dwarfs with precise Hipparcos parallaxes (σπ/π ≤ 0:05. Particular attention has been paid to removing unresolved double/multiple stars and variables. In addition to archival data, we have made use of nearly 2000 new radial-velocity measurements of K-M dwarfs to identify spectroscopic binary candidates. The main sequences, cleaned from unresolved binaries, variable stars, and old population stars which can also widen the sequence due to their presumably lower metallicity, were compared to available solar-metallicity models. Significant offsets of most of the model main-sequence lines are seen with respect to observational data, especially for the lower-mass stars. Only the location and slope of the Victoria-Regina and, partly, BaSTI isochrones match the data quite well.

  5. LP 133-373: A New Chromospherically Active Eclipsing dMe Binary with a Distant, Cool White Dwarf Companion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaccaro, T.R.; Rudkin, M.; Kawka, Adela; Vennes, S.; Oswalt, T.D.; Silver, I.; Wood, M.; Smith, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 661, č. 2 (2007), s. 1112-1118 ISSN 0004-637X R&D Projects: GA ČR GP205/05/P186 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : eclipsing stars * late-type stars * white dwarf s Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 6.405, year: 2007

  6. The evolution of coronal activity in main sequence cool stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    Stars spend most of their lifetime and show the least amount of nuclear evolution on the main sequence. However, the x-ray luminosities of cool star coronas change by orders of magnitude as a function of main sequence age. Such coronal evolution is discussed in relation to our knowledge of the solar corona, solar and stellar flares, stellar rotation and binarity. The relevance of X-ray observations to current speculations on stellar dynamos is also considered

  7. The Orbital and Physical Parameters, and the Distance of the Eclipsing Binary System OGLE-LMC-ECL-25658 in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgueta, S. S.; Graczyk, D.; Gieren, W.; Pietrzyński, G.; Thompson, I. B.; Konorski, P.; Pilecki, B.; Villanova, S.; Udalski, A.; Soszyński, I.; Suchomska, K.; Karczmarek, P.; Górski, M.; Wielgórski, P.

    2016-08-01

    We present an analysis of a new detached eclipsing binary, OGLE-LMC-ECL-25658, in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). The system consists of two late G-type giant stars on an eccentric orbit with an orbital period of ˜200 days. The system shows total eclipses and the components have similar temperatures, making it ideal for a precise distance determination. Using multi-color photometric and high resolution spectroscopic data, we have performed an analysis of light and radial velocity curves simultaneously using the Wilson-Devinney code. We derived orbital and physical parameters of the binary with a high precision of \\lt 1%. The masses and surface metallicities of the components are virtually the same and equal to 2.23+/- 0.02 {M}⊙ and [{Fe}/{{H}}]\\=\\-0.63+/- 0.10 dex. However, their radii and rates of rotation show a distinct trace of differential stellar evolution. The distance to the system was calculated using an infrared calibration between V-band surface brightness and (V-K) color, leading to a distance modulus of (m-M)\\=\\18.452+/- 0.023 (statistical) ± 0.046 (systematic). Because OGLE-LMC-ECL-25658 is located relatively far from the LMC barycenter, we applied a geometrical correction for its position in the LMC disk using the van der Marel et al. model of the LMC. The resulting barycenter distance to the galaxy is {d}{{LMC}}\\=\\50.30+/- 0.53 (stat.) kpc, and is in perfect agreement with the earlier result of Pietrzyński et al.

  8. The quest for stable circumbinary companions to post-common envelope sdB eclipsing binaries. Does the observational evidence support their existence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulley, D.; Faillace, G.; Smith, D.; Watkins, A.; von Harrach, S.

    2018-03-01

    Context. Period variations have been detected in a number of eclipsing close compact binary subdwarf B stars (sdBs) and these have often been interpreted as being caused by circumbinary massive planets or brown dwarfs. According to canonical binary models, the majority of sdB systems are produced from low mass stars with degenerate cores where helium is ignited in flashes. Various evolutionary scenarios have been proposed for these stars, but a definite mechanism remains to be established. Equally puzzling is the formation of these putative circumbinary objects which must have formed from the remaining post-common envelope circumbinary disk or survived its evolution. Aim. In this paper we review the eclipse time variations (ETVs) exhibited by seven such systems (EC 10246-2707, HS 0705+6700, HS 2231+2441, J08205+0008, NSVS 07826147, NSVS 14256825, and NY Vir) and explore whether there is conclusive evidence that the ETVs observed over the last two decades can reliably predict the presence of one or more circumbinary bodies. Methods: We report 246 new observations of the seven sdB systems made between 2013 September and 2017 July using a worldwide network of telescopes. We combined our new data with previously published measurements to analyse the ETVs of these systems. Results: Our data show that period variations cannot be modelled simply on the basis of circumbinary objects. This implies that more complex processes may be taking place in these systems. These difficulties are compounded by the secondary star not being spectroscopically visible. From ETVs, it has historically been suggested that five of the seven binary systems reported here had circumbinary objects. Based on our recent observations and analysis, only three systems remain serious contenders. We find agreement with other observers that at least a decade of observations is required to establish reliable ephemerides. With longer observational baselines it is quite conceivable that the data will support

  9. Main sequences defined by Hyades and field stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upgren, A.R.

    1978-01-01

    The author reviews the main sequences defined by members of the Hyades cluster and by the field stars in the solar neighborhood. For this purpose, the discussion is limited primarily to the stars of the lower portions of the main sequence, especially those of spectral classes K and early M. There are two reasons for emphasis on the faint red dwarf stars. First, the value of a parallax depends on its size or, more accurately, on the error in parallax divided by the parallax itself. Large parallaxes of high precision occur in large numbers only for stars inhabiting the lower main sequence. Furthermore, brighter stars of earlier spectral classes are more likely to be influenced by evolutionary effects which may differ between the Hyades and field stars, and which are difficult to calibrate. (Auth.)

  10. Stochastically excited oscillations on the upper main sequence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antoci, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Convective envelopes in stars on the main sequence are usually connected only with stars of spectral types F5 or later. However, observations as well as theory indicate that the convective outer layers in earlier stars, despite being shallow, are still effective and turbulent enough to stochastic......Convective envelopes in stars on the main sequence are usually connected only with stars of spectral types F5 or later. However, observations as well as theory indicate that the convective outer layers in earlier stars, despite being shallow, are still effective and turbulent enough...... Pulsating B and Be stars, all in the context of solar-like oscillations....

  11. Circumstellar Material on and off the Main Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Amy; Debes, John H.; Deming, Drake

    2017-06-01

    There is evidence of circumstellar material around main sequence, giant, and white dwarf stars that originates from the small-body population of planetary systems. These bodies tell us something about the chemistry and evolution of protoplanetary disks and the planetary systems they form. What happens to this material as its host star evolves off the main sequence, and how does that inform our understanding of the typical chemistry of rocky bodies in planetary systems? In this talk, I will discuss the composition(s) of circumstellar material on and off the main sequence to begin to answer the question, “Is Earth normal?” In particular, I look at three types of debris disks to understand the typical chemistry of planetary systems—young debris disks, debris disks around giant stars, and dust around white dwarfs. I will review the current understanding on how to infer dust composition for each class of disk, and present new work on constraining dust composition from infrared excesses around main sequence and giant stars. Finally, dusty and polluted white dwarfs hold a unique key to our understanding of the composition of rocky bodies around other stars. In particular, I will discuss WD1145+017, which has a transiting, disintegrating planetesimal. I will review what we know about this system through high speed photometry and spectroscopy and present new work on understanding the complex interplay of physics that creates white dwarf pollution from the disintegration of rocky bodies.

  12. The Factory and the Beehive. III. PTFEB132.707+19.810, A Low-mass Eclipsing Binary in Praesepe Observed by PTF and K2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Adam L.; Douglas, Stephanie T.; Mann, Andrew W.; Agüeros, Marcel A.; Law, Nicholas M.; Covey, Kevin R.; Feiden, Gregory A.; Rizzuto, Aaron C.; Howard, Andrew W.; Isaacson, Howard; Gaidos, Eric; Torres, Guillermo; Bakos, Gaspar

    2017-08-01

    Theoretical models of stars constitute the fundamental bedrock upon which much of astrophysics is built, but large swaths of model parameter space remain uncalibrated by observations. The best calibrators are eclipsing binaries in clusters, allowing measurement of masses, radii, luminosities, and temperatures for stars of known metallicity and age. We present the discovery and detailed characterization of PTFEB132.707+19.810, a P = 6.0 day eclipsing binary in the Praesepe cluster (τ ˜ 600-800 Myr [Fe/H] = 0.14 ± 0.04). The system contains two late-type stars (SpT P = M3.5 ± 0.2; SpT S = M4.3 ± 0.7) with precise masses ({M}p=0.3953+/- 0.0020 M ⊙ {M}s=0.2098 +/- 0.0014 M ⊙) and radii ({R}p=0.363+/- 0.008 R ⊙ {R}s=0.272+/- 0.012 R ⊙). Neither star meets the predictions of stellar evolutionary models. The primary has the expected radius but is cooler and less luminous, while the secondary has the expected luminosity but is cooler and substantially larger (by 20%). The system is not tidally locked or circularized. Exploiting a fortuitous 4:5 commensurability between P orb and {P}{rot,{prim}}, we demonstrate that fitting errors from the unknown spot configuration only change the inferred radii by ≲1%-2%. We also analyze subsets of data to test the robustness of radius measurements; the radius sum is more robust to systematic errors and preferable for model comparisons. We also test plausible changes in limb darkening and find corresponding uncertainties of ˜1%. Finally, we validate our pipeline using extant data for GU Boo, finding that our independent results match previous radii to within the mutual uncertainties (2%-3%). We therefore suggest that the substantial discrepancies are astrophysical; since they are larger than those for old field stars, they may be tied to the intermediate age of PTFEB132.707+19.810.

  13. Magnetic Activity and Period Variation Studies of the Short-period Eclipsing Binaries. II. V1101 Her, AD Phe, and NSV 455 (J011636.15-394955.7)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Qing-feng; Zhang, Li-yun; Bi, Shao-lan; Han, Xianming L.; Wang, Dai-mei; Lu, Hong-peng

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we present new BVRI light curves of short-period contact eclipsing binaries V1101 Her and AD Phe from our observations carried out from 2014 to 2015 using the SARA KP and SARA CT telescopes. There is an eclipsing binary located at α(2000) = 01h16m36.ˢ15 and δ(2000) = -39°49‧55.″7 in the field of view of AD Phe. We derived an updated ephemeris and found there a cyclic variation overlaying a continuous period increase (V1101 Her) and decrease (AD Phe). This kind of cyclic variation may be attributed to the light time effect via the presence of the third body or magnetic activity cycle. The orbital period increase suggests that V1101 Her is undergoing a mass-transfer from the primary to the secondary component (dM 1/dt = 2.64(±0.11) × 10-6 M ⊙ yr-1) with the third body (P 3 = 13.9(±1.9) years), or 2.81(±0.07) × 10-6 M ⊙ yr-1 for an increase andmagnetic cycle (12.4(±0.5) years). The long-term period decrease suggests that AD Phe is undergoing a mass-transfer from the secondary component to the primary component at a rate of -8.04(±0.09) × 10-8 M ⊙ yr-1 for a period decrease and the third body (P 3 = 56.2(±0.8) years), or -7.11(±0.04) × 10-8 M ⊙ yr-1 for a decrease and magnetic cycle (50.3(±0.5) years). We determined their orbital and geometrical parameters. For AD Phe, we simultaneously analyzed our BVRI light curves and the spectroscopic observations obtained by Duerbeck & Rucinski. The spectral type of V1101 Her was classified as G0 ± 2V by LAMOST stellar spectra survey. The asymmetry of the R-band light curve of AD Phe obtained by McFarlane & Hilditch in 1987 is explained by a cool spot on the primary component.

  14. THE ARAUCARIA PROJECT: A STUDY OF THE CLASSICAL CEPHEID IN THE ECLIPSING BINARY SYSTEM OGLE LMC562.05.9009 IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gieren, Wolfgang; Pilecki, Bogumił; Pietrzyński, Grzegorz; Graczyk, Dariusz; Górski, Marek; Taormina, Mónica; Gallenne, Alexandre, E-mail: wgieren@astro-udec.cl, E-mail: pilecki@astrouw.edu.pl, E-mail: pietrzyn@astrouw.edu.pl [Universidad de Concepción, Departamento de Astronomía, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); and others

    2015-12-10

    We present a detailed study of the classical Cepheid in the double-lined, highly eccentric eclipsing binary system OGLE-LMC562.05.9009. The Cepheid is a fundamental mode pulsator with a period of 2.988 days. The orbital period of the system is 1550 days. Using spectroscopic data from three 4–8-m telescopes and photometry spanning 22 years, we were able to derive the dynamical masses and radii of both stars with exquisite accuracy. Both stars in the system are very similar in mass, radius, and color, but the companion is a stable, non-pulsating star. The Cepheid is slightly more massive and bigger (M{sub 1} = 3.70 ± 0.03 M{sub ⊙}, R{sub 1} = 28.6 ± 0.2 R{sub ⊙}) than its companion (M{sub 2} = 3.60 ± 0.03 M{sub ⊙}, R{sub 2} = 26.6 ± 0.2 R{sub ⊙}). Within the observational uncertainties both stars have the same effective temperature of 6030 ± 150 K. Evolutionary tracks place both stars inside the classical Cepheid instability strip, but it is likely that future improved temperature estimates will move the stable giant companion just beyond the red edge of the instability strip. Within current observational and theoretical uncertainties, both stars fit on a 205 Myr isochrone arguing for their common age. From our model, we determine a value of the projection factor of p = 1.37 ± 0.07 for the Cepheid in the OGLE-LMC562.05.9009 system. This is the second Cepheid for which we could measure its p-factor with high precision directly from the analysis of an eclipsing binary system, which represents an important contribution toward a better calibration of Baade-Wesselink methods of distance determination for Cepheids.

  15. Solar Luminosity on the Main Sequence, Standard Model and Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayukov, S. V.; Baturin, V. A.; Gorshkov, A. B.; Oreshina, A. V.

    2017-05-01

    Our Sun became Main Sequence star 4.6 Gyr ago according Standard Solar Model. At that time solar luminosity was 30% lower than current value. This conclusion is based on assumption that Sun is fueled by thermonuclear reactions. If Earth's albedo and emissivity in infrared are unchanged during Earth history, 2.3 Gyr ago oceans had to be frozen. This contradicts to geological data: there was liquid water 3.6-3.8 Gyr ago on Earth. This problem is known as Faint Young Sun Paradox. We analyze luminosity change in standard solar evolution theory. Increase of mean molecular weight in the central part of the Sun due to conversion of hydrogen to helium leads to gradual increase of luminosity with time on the Main Sequence. We also consider several exotic models: fully mixed Sun; drastic change of pp reaction rate; Sun consisting of hydrogen and helium only. Solar neutrino observations however exclude most non-standard solar models.

  16. Solar-Type Activity in Main-Sequence Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Gershberg, Roald E

    2005-01-01

    Solar-type activity over the whole range of the electromagnetic spectrum is a phenomenon inherent in the majority of low- and moderate-mass main sequence stars. In this monograph observational results are summarized in a systematic and comprehensive fashion. The analysis of the various manifestations of such stellar activity leads to the identification of these phenomena with macroscopic non-linear processes in a magnetized plasma. Comparative study of flare stars and the Sun has become increasingly fruitful and is presently an active field of research involving stellar and solar physicists, experts in plasma physics and high-energy astrophysicists. This book will provide them with both an introduction and overview of observational results from the first optical photometry and spectroscopy, from the satellite telescopes International Ultraviolet Explorer to Hubble Space Telescope, XMM-Newton and Chandra, as well as with the present physical interpretation of solar-type activity in main sequence stars. Gershbe...

  17. Additional measurements of pre-main-sequence stellar rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, L.; Stauffer, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    New rotational-velocity measurements for pre-main-sequence stars in the Taurus-Auriga molecular cloud are reported. Rotational velocities or upper limits of 10 km/s are now available for 90 percent of the T Tauri stars with V less than 14.7 in the catalog of Cohen and Kuhi. Measurements of 'continuum emission' stars, thought to be accreting high-angular-momentum material from a circumstellar disk, show that these objects are not especially rapid rotators. The results confirm earlier findings that angular-momentum loss proceeds very efficiently in the earliest stages of star formation, and suggest that stars older than about one million yr contract to the main sequence at nearly constant angular momentum. The slow rotation of T Tauri stars probably requires substantial angular-momentum loss via a magnetically coupled wind. 35 references

  18. Lithium depletion and rotation in main-sequence stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balachandran, S.

    1990-01-01

    Lithium abundances were measured in nearly 200 old disk-population F stars to examine the effects of rotational braking on the depletion of Li. The sample was selected to be slightly evolved off the main sequence so that the stars have completed all the Li depletion they will undergo on the main sequence. A large scatter in Li abundances in the late F stars is found, indicating that the Li depletion is not related to age and spectral type alone. Conventional depletion mechanisms like convective overshoot and microscopic diffusion are unable to explain Li depletion in F stars with thin convective envelopes and are doubly taxed to explain such a scatter. No correlation is found between Li abundance and the present projected rotational velocity and some of the most rapid rotators are undepleted, ruling out meridional circulation as the cause of Li depletion. There is a somewhat larger spread in Li abundances in the spun-down late F stars compared to the early F stars which should remain rotationally unaltered on the main sequence. 85 refs

  19. 2MASS J0516288+260738: Discovery of the first eclipsing late K + Brown dwarf binary system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuh, S. L.; Handler, G.; Drechsel, H.; Hauschildt, P.; Dreizler, S.; Medupe, R.; Karl, C.; Napiwotzki, R.; Kim, S.-L.; Park, B.-G.; Wood, M. A.; Paparó, M.; Szeidl, B.; Virághalmy, G.; Zsuffa, D.; Hashimoto, O.; Kinugasa, K.; Taguchi, H.; Kambe, E.; Leibowitz, E.; Ibbetson, P.; Lipkin, Y.; Nagel, T.; Göhler, E.; Pretorius, M. L.

    2003-11-01

    We report the discovery of a new eclipsing system less than one arcminute south of the pulsating DB white dwarf KUV 05134+2605. The object could be identified with the point source 2MASS J0516288+260738 published by the Two Micron All Sky Survey. We present and discuss the first light curves as well as some additional colour and spectral information. The eclipse period of the system is 1.29 d, and, assuming this to be identical to the orbital period, the best light curve solution yields a mass ratio of m2/m1=0.11, a radius ratio of r2/r1~ 1 and an inclination of 74o. The spectral anaylsis results in a Teff=4200 K for the primary. On this basis, we suggest that the new system probably consists of a late K + Brown dwarf (which would imply a system considerably younger than ~0.01 Gyr to have r2/r1~ 1), and outline possible future observations. This paper uses observations made at the Bohyunsan Optical Astronomy Observatory of Korea Astronomy Observatory, at the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO), at the 0.9 m telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory recommissioned by the Southeastern Association for Research in Astronomy (SARA), at Gunma Astronomical Observatory established by Gunma prefecture, Japan, at the Florence and George Wise Observatory, operated by the Tel-Aviv University, Israel and at Piszkésteto, the mountain station of Konkoly Observatory of the Hungarian Academy of Science, Hungary. This publication makes use of data products from the Two Micron All Sky Survey, a joint project of the University of Massachusetts and the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center / California Institute of Technology, funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the National Science Foundation. The Digitized Sky Survey was produced at the Space Telescope Science Institute under US Government grant NAG W-2166. The images of these surveys are based on photographic data obtained using the Oschin Schmidt Telescope on Palomar Mountain and the UK

  20. V346 Centauri: early-type eclipsing binary with apsidal motion and abrupt change of orbital period

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mayer, P.; Harmanec, P.; Wolf, M.; Nemravová, J.; Prsa, A.; Frémat, Y.; Zejda, M.; Liška, J.; Juryšek, Jakub; Hoňková, K.; Mašek, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 591, Jul (2016), 1-9, č. článku A129. E-ISSN 1432-0746 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LG15014; GA MŠk(CZ) LG13007; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-17501S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : early-type stars * binaries * close stars Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 5.014, year: 2016

  1. ON THE MULTIPLICITY OF THE ZERO-AGE MAIN-SEQUENCE O STAR HERSCHEL 36

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias, Julia I.; Barba, Rodolfo H.; Gamen, Roberto C.; Morrell, Nidia I.; Apellaniz, Jesus MaIz; Alfaro, Emilio J.; Sota, Alfredo; Walborn, Nolan R.; Bidin, Christian Moni

    2010-01-01

    We present the analysis of high-resolution optical spectroscopic observations of the zero-age main-sequence O star Herschel 36 spanning six years. This star is definitely a multiple system, with at least three components detected in its spectrum. Based on our radial-velocity (RV) study, we propose a picture of a close massive binary and a more distant companion, most probably in wide orbit about each other. The orbital solution for the binary, whose components we identify as O9 V and B0.5 V, is characterized by a period of 1.5415 ± 0.0006 days. With a spectral type O7.5 V, the third body is the most luminous component of the system and also presents RV variations with a period close to 498 days. Some possible hypotheses to explain the variability are briefly addressed and further observations are suggested.

  2. Possible evidence for metal accretion onto the surfaces of metal-poor main-sequence stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattori, Kohei; Yoshii, Yuzuru [Institute of Astronomy, School of Science, University of Tokyo, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Beers, Timothy C. [National Optical Astronomy Observatories, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Carollo, Daniela [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, Sydney, 2109 NSW (Australia); Lee, Young Sun, E-mail: khattori@ioa.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The entire evolution of the Milky Way, including its mass-assembly and star-formation history, is imprinted onto the chemo-dynamical distribution function of its member stars, f(x, v, [X/H]), in the multi-dimensional phase space spanned by position, velocity, and elemental abundance ratios. In particular, the chemo-dynamical distribution functions for low-mass stars (e.g., G- or K-type dwarfs) are precious tracers of the earliest stages of the Milky Way's formation, since their main-sequence lifetimes approach or exceed the age of the universe. A basic tenet of essentially all previous analyses is that the stellar metallicity, usually parameterized as [Fe/H], is conserved over time for main-sequence stars (at least those that have not been polluted due to mass transfer from binary companions). If this holds true, any correlations between metallicity and kinematics for long-lived main-sequence stars of different masses, effective temperatures, or spectral types must strictly be the same, since they reflect the same mass-assembly and star-formation histories. By analyzing a sample of nearby metal-poor halo and thick-disk stars on the main sequence, taken from Data Release 8 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we find that the median metallicity of G-type dwarfs is systematically higher (by about 0.2 dex) than that of K-type dwarfs having the same median rotational velocity about the Galactic center. If it can be confirmed, this finding may invalidate the long-accepted assumption that the atmospheric metallicities of long-lived stars are conserved over time.

  3. V2368 Ophiuchi: an eclipsing and double-lined spectroscopic binary used as a photometric comparison star for U Ophiuchi

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Harmanec, P.; Božić, H.; Mayer, P.; Eenens, P.; Brož, M.; Wolf, M.; Yang, S.; Šlechta, Miroslav; Ruždjak, D.; Sudar, D.; Ak, H.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 531, July (2011), A49/1-A49/10 ISSN 0004-6361 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD205/08/H005; GA ČR GAP209/10/0967 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA205/06/0304 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : early-type stars * close binaries stars Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.587, year: 2011

  4. Phenomenological Modeling of Newly Discovered Eclipsing Binary 2MASS J18024395 + 4003309 = VSX J180243.9+400331

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan L. Andronov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a by-product of our long term photometric monitoring of cataclysmic variables. 2MASS J18024395 +4003309 = VSX J180243.9 +400331 was discovered in the field of the intermediate polar V1323 Her observed using the Korean 1-m telescope located at Mt. Lemmon, USA. An analysis of the two-color VR CCD observations of this variable covers all the phase intervals for the first time. The light curves show this object can be classified as an Algol-type variable with tidally distorted components, and an asymmetry of the maxima (the O’Connell effect. The periodogram analysis confirms the cycle numbering of Andronov et al. (2012 and for the initial approximation, the ephemeris is used as follows: Min I. BJD = 2456074.4904+0.3348837E . For phenomenological modeling, we used the trigonometric polynomial approximation of statistically optimal degree, and a recent method “NAV” (“New Algol Variable” using local specific shapes for the eclipse. Methodological aspects and estimates of the physical parameters based on analysis of phenomenological parameters are presented. As results of our phenomenological model, we obtained for the inclination i=90°, M1=0.745M◉, M2=0.854M◉, M=M1+M2=1.599M◉, the orbital separation a=1.65·109m=2.37R◉ and relative radii r1=R1/a=0.314 and r2=R2/a=0.360. These estimates may be used as preliminary starting values for further modeling using extended physical models based on the Wilson & Devinney (1971 code and it's extensions

  5. Phenomenological Modeling of Newly Discovered Eclipsing Binary 2MASS J18024395 + 4003309 = VSX J180243.9+400331

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andronov, Ivan L.; Kim, Yonggi; Kim, Young-Hee; Yoon, Joh-Na; Chinarova, Lidia L.; Tkachenko, Mariia G.

    2015-06-01

    We present a by-product of our long term photometric monitoring of cataclysmic variables. 2MASS J18024395 +4003309 = VSX J180243.9 +400331 was discovered in the field of the intermediate polar V1323 Her observed using the Korean 1-m telescope located at Mt. Lemmon, USA. An analysis of the two-color VR CCD observations of this variable covers all the phase intervals for the first time. The light curves show this object can be classified as an Algol-type variable with tidally distorted components, and an asymmetry of the maxima (the O'Connell effect). The periodogram analysis confirms the cycle numbering of Andronov et al. (2012) and for the initial approximation, the ephemeris is used as follows: Min I. BJD = 2456074.4904+0.3348837E . For phenomenological modeling, we used the trigonometric polynomial approximation of statistically optimal degree, and a recent method "NAV" ("New Algol Variable") using local specific shapes for the eclipse. Methodological aspects and estimates of the physical parameters based on analysis of phenomenological parameters are presented. As results of our phenomenological model, we obtained for the inclination i=90°, M1=0.745M⊙, M2=0.854M⊙, M=M1+M2=1.599M⊙, the orbital separation a=1.65°109m=2.37R⊙ and relative radii r1=R1/a=0.314 and r2=R2/a=0.360. These estimates may be used as preliminary starting values for further modeling using extended physical models based on the Wilson & Devinney (1971) code and it's extensions

  6. Infrared photometry of upper main sequence stars in M39

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manteiga, M.; Martinez-Roger, C.; Morales, C.; Sabau, L.

    1991-01-01

    Infrared photometry of 19 Main sequence stars in the open cluster M39 is presented. Infrared-infrared and optical-infrared colour-colour and colour-magnitude diagrams are presented and compared with mean intrinsic colours for Population I stars. An interstellar reddening of E(B - V) = 0.01 is obtained by analysis of the colour-colour diagrams. Comparison with a set of theoretical isochrones leads to an age estimate for the cluster between 2.4 and 4.8 x 10 8 years

  7. Infrared photometry of upper main sequence stars in M39

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manteiga, M.; Martinez-Roger, C. (Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, Tenerife, (ES)); Morales, C.; Sabau, L. (Instituto de Tecnica Aeroespacial, Madrid, (ES))

    1991-03-01

    Infrared photometry of 19 Main sequence stars in the open cluster M39 is presented. Infrared-infrared and optical-infrared colour-colour and colour-magnitude diagrams are presented and compared with mean intrinsic colours for Population I stars. An interstellar reddening of E(B - V) = 0.01 is obtained by analysis of the colour-colour diagrams. Comparison with a set of theoretical isochrones leads to an age estimate for the cluster between 2.4 and 4.8 x 10{sup 8} years.

  8. Photometric monitoring of pre-main sequence stars - 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, A.; Davies, J.K.; Kilkenny, D.; Bode, M.F.

    1989-01-01

    A discussion is presented of the infrared and optical photometric variability of the pre-main sequence stars BF Ori and UX Ori. In the former case, the reddening that occurs during decline, at both optical and infrared wavelengths, is consistent with variable extinction by circumstellar grains having an interstellar-like reddening law. While in the case of UX Ori, the data suggest variability due to starspots. In both cases, a study of the polarimetric variability would be valuable to confirm these conclusions. (author)

  9. NEAR-INFRARED LIGHT CURVES OF THE BROWN DWARF ECLIPSING BINARY 2MASS J05352184-0546085: CAN SPOTS EXPLAIN THE TEMPERATURE REVERSAL?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Maqueo Chew, Yilen; Stassun, Keivan G.; Prsa, Andrej; Mathieu, Robert D.

    2009-01-01

    We present near-infrared JHK S light curves for the double-lined eclipsing binary system Two Micron All Sky Survey J05352184 - 0546085, in which both components have been shown to be brown dwarfs with an age of ∼1 Myr. We analyze these light curves together with the previously published I C -band light curve and radial velocities to provide refined measurements of the system's physical parameters. The component masses and radii are here determined with an accuracy of ∼6.5% and ∼1.5%, respectively. In addition, we confirm the previous surprising finding that the primary brown dwarf has a cooler effective temperature than its lower mass companion. Next, we perform a detailed study of the residual variations in the out-of-eclipse phases of the light curves to ascertain the properties of any inhomogeneities (e.g., spots) on the surfaces of the brown dwarfs. Our analysis reveals two low-amplitude (∼0.02 mag) periodic signals, one attributable to the rotation of the primary with a period of 3.293 ± 0.001 d and the other to the rotation of the secondary with a period of 14.05 ± 0.05 d. Both periods are consistent with the measured vsin i and radii. Finally, we explore the effects on the derived physical parameters of the system when spots are included in the modeling of the light curves. The observed low-amplitude rotational modulations are well fitted by cool spots covering a small fraction (∼<10%) of the brown dwarfs' surfaces. Such small spots negligibly affect the physical properties of the brown dwarfs, and thus by themselves cannot explain the primary's unexpectedly low surface temperature. To mimic the observed ∼200 K suppression of the primary's temperature, our model requires that the primary possesses a very large spot coverage fraction of ∼65%. These spots must in addition be symmetrically distributed on the primary's surface so as not to produce photometric variations larger than observed. Altogether, a spot configuration in which the primary

  10. HAT-TR-318-007: A Double-lined M Dwarf Binary with Total Secondary Eclipses Discovered by HATNet and Observed by K2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, J. D.; Quinn, S. N.; Bakos, G. Á.; Torres, G.; Kovács, G.; Latham, D. W.; Noyes, R. W.; Shporer, A.; Fulton, B. J.; Esquerdo, G. A.; Everett, M. E.; Penev, K.; Bhatti, W.; Csubry, Z.

    2018-03-01

    We report the discovery by the HATNet survey of HAT-TR-318-007, a P=3.34395390+/- 0.00000020 day period detached double-lined M dwarf binary with total secondary eclipses. We combine radial velocity (RV) measurements from TRES/FLWO 1.5 m and time-series photometry from HATNet, FLWO 1.2 m, BOS 0.8 m, and NASA K2 Campaign 5, to determine the masses and radii of the component stars: MA=0.448+/-0.011 M⊙N, MB=0.2721-0.0042+0.0041 M⊙N, RA=0.4548-0.0036+0.0035 R⊙N, and RB=0.2913-0.0024+0.0023 R⊙N. We obtained a FIRE/Magellan near-infrared spectrum of the primary star during a total secondary eclipse, and we use this to obtain disentangled spectra of both components. We determine spectral types of STA=M 3.71+/- 0.69 and STB=M 5.01+/- 0.73 and effective temperatures of Teff, A= 3190+/-110 K and Teff, B=3100+/- 110 K for the primary and secondary star, respectively. We also measure a metallicity of [Fe/H] = +0.298+/- 0.080 for the system. We find that the system has a small, but significant, nonzero eccentricity of 0.0136+/- 0.0026. The K2 light curve shows a coherent variation at a period of 3.41315-0.00032+0.00030 days, which is slightly longer than the orbital period, and which we demonstrate comes from the primary star. We interpret this as the rotation period of the primary. We perform a quantitative comparison between the Dartmouth stellar evolution models and the seven systems, including HAT-TR-318-007, that contain M dwarfs with 0.2 M⊙N< M< 0.5 M⊙N, have metallicity measurements, and have masses and radii determined to better than 5% precision. Discrepancies between the predicted and observed masses and radii are found for three of the systems.

  11. Pre-main sequence sun: a dynamic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, M.J.; Winkler, K.H.A.

    1979-01-01

    The classical pre-main sequence evolutionary behavior found by Hayashi and his coworkers for the Sun depends crucially on the choice of initial conditions. The Hayashi picture results from beginning the calculation with an already centrally condensed, highly Jeans unstable object not terribly far removed from the stellar state initially. The present calculation follows the work of Larson in investigating the hydrodynamic collapse and self-gravitational accretion of an initially uniform, just Jeans unstable interstellar gas-dust cloud. The resulting picture for the early history of the Sun is quite different from that found by Hayashi. A rather small (R approx. = 2 R/sub sun/), low-luminosity (L greater than or equal to L/sub sun/) protostellar core develops. A fully convective stellar core, characteristic of Hayashi's work, is not found during the accretion process, and can only develop, if at all, in the subsequent pre-main sequence Kelvin-Helmholtz contraction of the core. 3 figures, 1 table

  12. Analysis of the change of period and the photometry of the minima of the eclipsing binary system TX Ursae Maioris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreiner, J.M.; Tremko, J.

    1980-01-01

    Changes were investigated in the shape of the light curve of the close binary TX Ursae Maioris in the vicinity of the primary minimum and changes in the period were analysed. It was proved that the change in the shape of the light curve was asymmetric and the effect on determining the minimum epoch was established. The hypothesis of the existence of the effect of the rotation of the line of apsides was disproved. It was found that processes leading to a change in the period occurred at least three times. In the first approximation the values of the periods in all intervals are constant. The run of the last change indicates that it did not occur suddenly but over a period of several years. The light changes during the recent period can be expressed by a linear ephemeris derived from the photoelectric epochs of the minimum. (author)

  13. Pre-main-sequence disk accretion in Z Canis Majoris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, L.; Kenyon, S.J.; Hewett, R.; Edwards, S.; Strom, K.M.; Strom, S.E.; Stauffer, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    It is suggested that the pre-main-sequence object Z CMa is a luminous accretion disk, similar in many respects to the FU Orionis variables. Z CMa shows the broad, doubled optical absorption lines expected from a rapidly rotating accretion disk. The first overtone CO absorption detected in Z CMa is blue-shifted, suggesting line formation in a disk wind. Accretion at rates about 0.001 solar mass/yr over 100 yr is required to explain the luminosity of Z CMa. The large amount of material accreted (0.1 solar mass/yr) indicates that Z CMa is in a very early stage of stellar evolution, possibly in an initial phase of massive disk accretion. 41 references

  14. Main-sequence turnoff of the Draco dwarf galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stetson, P.B.; Mcclure, R.D.; Vandenberg, D.A.; Victoria Univ., Canada)

    1985-01-01

    Deep photometry on the B,V system for 182 stars in the dwarf spheroidal galaxy in Draco was obtained with a CCD camera at the Cassegrain focus of the Canada-France-Hawaii 3.6-m telescope. Draco's main-sequence turnoff if found near V(to) = 23.5, which is about 3.4 magnitudes below the galaxy's horizontal branch. This leads to the interpretation that Draco is not measurably younger than the clusters or Ursa Minor: the age of Draco is about 18 Gyr according to current star-revolution chronologies. No blue stragglers are definitely detected in Draco, and it is concluded that any young population in Draco probably represents less than 10 percent of the total. 30 references

  15. Pre-main-sequence disk accretion in Z Canis Majoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, L.; Kenyon, S. J.; Hewett, R.; Edwards, S.; Strom, K. M.; Strom, S. E.; Stauffer, J. R.

    1989-01-01

    It is suggested that the pre-main-sequence object Z CMa is a luminous accretion disk, similar in many respects to the FU Orionis variables. Z CMa shows the broad, doubled optical absorption lines expected from a rapidly rotating accretion disk. The first overtone CO absorption detected in Z CMa is blue-shifted, suggesting line formation in a disk wind. Accretion at rates about 0.001 solar mass/yr over 100 yr is required to explain the luminosity of Z CMa. The large amount of material accreted (0.1 solar mass/yr) indicates that Z CMa is in a very early stage of stellar evolution, possibly in an initial phase of massive disk accretion.

  16. KEPLER OBSERVATIONS OF THREE PRE-LAUNCH EXOPLANET CANDIDATES: DISCOVERY OF TWO ECLIPSING BINARIES AND A NEW EXOPLANET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, Steve B.; Rowe, Jason F.; Bryson, Stephen T.; Sherry, William; Von Braun, Kaspar; Ciardi, David R.; Feldmeier, John J.; Horch, Elliott; Van Belle, Gerard T.

    2010-01-01

    Three transiting exoplanet candidate stars were discovered in a ground-based photometric survey prior to the launch of NASA's Kepler mission. Kepler observations of them were obtained during Quarter 1 of the Kepler mission. All three stars are faint by radial velocity follow-up standards, so we have examined these candidates with regard to eliminating false positives and providing high confidence exoplanet selection. We present a first attempt to exclude false positives for this set of faint stars without high-resolution radial velocity analysis. This method of exoplanet confirmation will form a large part of the Kepler mission follow-up for Jupiter-sized exoplanet candidates orbiting faint stars. Using the Kepler light curves and pixel data, as well as medium-resolution reconnaissance spectroscopy and speckle imaging, we find that two of our candidates are binary stars. One consists of a late-F star with an early M companion, while the other is a K0 star plus a late M-dwarf/brown dwarf in a 19 day elliptical orbit. The third candidate (BOKS-1) is an r = 15 G8V star hosting a newly discovered exoplanet with a radius of 1.12 R Jupiter in a 3.9 day orbit.

  17. New Insights into the Formation of the Blue Main Sequence in NGC 1850

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yujiao; Li, Chengyuan; Deng, Licai; de Grijs, Richard; Milone, Antonino P.

    2018-06-01

    Recent discoveries of bimodal main sequences (MSs) associated with young clusters (with ages ≲1 Gyr) in the Magellanic Clouds have drawn a lot of attention. One of the prevailing formation scenarios attributes these split MSs to a bimodal distribution in stellar rotation rates, with most stars belonging to a rapidly rotating population. In this scenario, only a small fraction of stars populating a secondary blue sequence are slowly or non-rotating stars. Here, we focus on the blue MS in the young cluster NGC 1850. We compare the cumulative number fraction of the observed blue-MS stars to that of the high-mass-ratio binary systems at different radii. The cumulative distributions of both populations exhibit a clear anti-correlation, characterized by a highly significant Pearson coefficient of ‑0.97. Our observations are consistent with the possibility that blue-MS stars are low-mass-ratio binaries, and therefore their dynamical disruption is still ongoing. High-mass-ratio binaries, on the other hand, are more centrally concentrated.

  18. The V Band Empirical Mass-Luminosity Relation for Main Sequence Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, F.; Fu, Y. N.

    2010-01-01

    Stellar mass is an indispensable parameter in the studies of stellar physics and stellar dynamics. On the one hand, the most reliable way to determine the stellar dynamical mass is via orbital determination of binaries. On the other hand, however, most stellar masses have to be estimated by using the mass-luminosity relation (MLR). Therefore, it is important to obtain the empirical MLR through fitting the data of stellar dynamical mass and luminosity. The effect of metallicity can make this relation disperse in the V-band, but studies show that this is mainly limited to the case when the stellar mass is less than 0.6M⊙. Recently, many relevant data have been accumulated for main sequence stars with larger mass, which make it possible to significantly improve the corresponding MLR. Using a fitting method which can reasonably assign weight to the observational data including two quantities with different dimensions, we obtain a V-band MLR based on the dynamical masses and luminosities of 203 main sequence stars. Compared with the previous work, the improved MLR is statistically significant, and the relative error of mass estimation reaches about 5%. Therefore, our MLR is useful not only in studies of statistical nature, but also in studies of concrete stellar systems, such as the long-term dynamical study and the short-term positioning study of a specific multiple star system.

  19. The V-band Empirical Mass-luminosity Relation for Main Sequence Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Fang; Fu, Yan-Ning

    2010-07-01

    Stellar mass is an indispensable parameter in the studies of stellar physics and stellar dynamics. On the one hand, the most reliable way to determine the stellar dynamical mass is via orbital determinations of binaries. On the other hand, however, most stellar masses have to be estimated by using the mass luminosity relation (MLR). Therefore, it is important to obtain the empirical MLR through fitting the data of stellar dynamical mass and luminosity. The effect of metallicity can make this relation disperse in the V-band, but studies show that this is mainly limited to the case when the stellar mass is less than 0.6M⊙ Recently, many relevant data have been accumulated for main sequence stars with larger masses, which make it possible to significantly improve the corresponding MLR. Using a fitting method which can reasonably assign weights to the observational data including two quantities with different dimensions, we obtain a V-band MLR based on the dynamical masses and luminosities of 203 main sequence stars. In comparison with the previous work, the improved MLR is statistically significant, and the relative error of mass estimation reaches about 5%. Therefore, our MLR is useful not only in the studies of statistical nature, but also in the studies of concrete stellar systems, such as the long-term dynamical study and the short-term positioning study of a specific multiple star system.

  20. Metallicity and ultraviolet excesses of late main sequence stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suchkov, A.A.; Marsakov, V.A.; Shevelev, Yu.G.

    1987-01-01

    The comparison of the characteristics of ultraviolet (UV) excesses δ(U-B) and metallicity [Fe/H] distributions of F, G, and K dwarfs reveals a number of discrepancies. It is shown that they can be eliminated if we assume that UV excesses of K and late G dwarfs, and [Fe/H] values from detailed analysis for F dwarfs are underestimated. Such an assumption enables to account for low values of for F, K and late G dwarfs, and for the difference of the free terms in the metallicity - UV-excess relation for these stars as compared to early G dwarfs. In this case the F5-F9 dwarfs turn out to be more metal-rich (by 0.1 in [Fe/H]) than G and K dwarfs, and the metallicity of the Hyades cluster turns out to be larger than the solar one, [Fe/H] Hyades =+0.1. The ''conditional'' metallicity - UV-excess calibrations are obtained for four groups of main-sequence stars: F5-F9, G0-G4, G5-G9, K0-K5

  1. Pre-main-sequence evolution of the sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gough, D.

    1980-01-01

    The phase of solar evolution after the dynamical collapse is considered. The physics of the Kelvin-Helmholtz phase of gravitational collapse is described, attention being given to the early stages of the star when it was completely convective. It is noted that subsequently, a radiative core developed and evolution was controlled by the rate at which heat can diffuse through it by radiative transfer. Since the study of the Kelvin-Helmholtz contraction alone does not give enough information regarding the state of the sun when it first settled down to approximate hydrostatic equilibrium, other stars are studied, and information on the sun is obtained by analogy. Many young solar-type stars, such as the T Tauri stars, are not in the completely convective Hayashi (1961) phase hence it is proposed that the sun was completely mixed soon after its formation, which has some bearing on the sun's chemical structure. It is suggested that the surface of the sun was very nonuniform compared with the photosphere of today. The simple solar evolution model presented gives a good guide to the general way in which the sun contracted to the main sequence

  2. On the Statistical Properties of the Lower Main Sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelou, George C.; Bellinger, Earl P.; Hekker, Saskia; Basu, Sarbani

    2017-01-01

    Astronomy is in an era where all-sky surveys are mapping the Galaxy. The plethora of photometric, spectroscopic, asteroseismic, and astrometric data allows us to characterize the comprising stars in detail. Here we quantify to what extent precise stellar observations reveal information about the properties of a star, including properties that are unobserved, or even unobservable. We analyze the diagnostic potential of classical and asteroseismic observations for inferring stellar parameters such as age, mass, and radius from evolutionary tracks of solar-like oscillators on the lower main sequence. We perform rank correlation tests in order to determine the capacity of each observable quantity to probe structural components of stars and infer their evolutionary histories. We also analyze the principal components of classic and asteroseismic observables to highlight the degree of redundancy present in the measured quantities and demonstrate the extent to which information of the model parameters can be extracted. We perform multiple regression using combinations of observable quantities in a grid of evolutionary simulations and appraise the predictive utility of each combination in determining the properties of stars. We identify the combinations that are useful and provide limits to where each type of observable quantity can reveal information about a star. We investigate the accuracy with which targets in the upcoming TESS and PLATO missions can be characterized. We demonstrate that the combination of observations from GAIA and PLATO will allow us to tightly constrain stellar masses, ages, and radii with machine learning for the purposes of Galactic and planetary studies.

  3. HABITABLE ZONES OF POST-MAIN SEQUENCE STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, Ramses M.; Kaltenegger, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Once a star leaves the main sequence and becomes a red giant, its Habitable Zone (HZ) moves outward, promoting detectable habitable conditions at larger orbital distances. We use a one-dimensional radiative-convective climate and stellar evolutionary models to calculate post-MS HZ distances for a grid of stars from 3700 to 10,000 K (∼M1 to A5 stellar types) for different stellar metallicities. The post-MS HZ limits are comparable to the distances of known directly imaged planets. We model the stellar as well as planetary atmospheric mass loss during the Red Giant Branch (RGB) and Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) phases for super-Moons to super-Earths. A planet can stay between 200 million years up to 9 Gyr in the post-MS HZ for our hottest and coldest grid stars, respectively, assuming solar metallicity. These numbers increase for increased stellar metallicity. Total atmospheric erosion only occurs for planets in close-in orbits. The post-MS HZ orbital distances are within detection capabilities of direct imaging techniques.

  4. HABITABLE ZONES OF POST-MAIN SEQUENCE STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, Ramses M.; Kaltenegger, Lisa [Carl Sagan Institute, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2016-05-20

    Once a star leaves the main sequence and becomes a red giant, its Habitable Zone (HZ) moves outward, promoting detectable habitable conditions at larger orbital distances. We use a one-dimensional radiative-convective climate and stellar evolutionary models to calculate post-MS HZ distances for a grid of stars from 3700 to 10,000 K (∼M1 to A5 stellar types) for different stellar metallicities. The post-MS HZ limits are comparable to the distances of known directly imaged planets. We model the stellar as well as planetary atmospheric mass loss during the Red Giant Branch (RGB) and Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) phases for super-Moons to super-Earths. A planet can stay between 200 million years up to 9 Gyr in the post-MS HZ for our hottest and coldest grid stars, respectively, assuming solar metallicity. These numbers increase for increased stellar metallicity. Total atmospheric erosion only occurs for planets in close-in orbits. The post-MS HZ orbital distances are within detection capabilities of direct imaging techniques.

  5. On the Statistical Properties of the Lower Main Sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelou, George C.; Bellinger, Earl P.; Hekker, Saskia [Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany); Basu, Sarbani [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States)

    2017-04-20

    Astronomy is in an era where all-sky surveys are mapping the Galaxy. The plethora of photometric, spectroscopic, asteroseismic, and astrometric data allows us to characterize the comprising stars in detail. Here we quantify to what extent precise stellar observations reveal information about the properties of a star, including properties that are unobserved, or even unobservable. We analyze the diagnostic potential of classical and asteroseismic observations for inferring stellar parameters such as age, mass, and radius from evolutionary tracks of solar-like oscillators on the lower main sequence. We perform rank correlation tests in order to determine the capacity of each observable quantity to probe structural components of stars and infer their evolutionary histories. We also analyze the principal components of classic and asteroseismic observables to highlight the degree of redundancy present in the measured quantities and demonstrate the extent to which information of the model parameters can be extracted. We perform multiple regression using combinations of observable quantities in a grid of evolutionary simulations and appraise the predictive utility of each combination in determining the properties of stars. We identify the combinations that are useful and provide limits to where each type of observable quantity can reveal information about a star. We investigate the accuracy with which targets in the upcoming TESS and PLATO missions can be characterized. We demonstrate that the combination of observations from GAIA and PLATO will allow us to tightly constrain stellar masses, ages, and radii with machine learning for the purposes of Galactic and planetary studies.

  6. DISSECTING THE QUASAR MAIN SEQUENCE: INSIGHT FROM HOST GALAXY PROPERTIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Jiayi; Shen, Yue

    2015-01-01

    The diverse properties of broad-line quasars appear to follow a well-defined main sequence along which the optical Fe ii strength increases. It has been suggested that this sequence is mainly driven by the Eddington ratio (L/L Edd ) of the black hole (BH) accretion. Shen and Ho demonstrated with quasar clustering analysis that the average BH mass decreases with increasing Fe ii strength when quasar luminosity is fixed, consistent with this suggestion. Here we perform an independent test by measuring the stellar velocity dispersion σ * (hence, the BH mass via the M–σ * relation) from decomposed host spectra in low-redshift Sloan Digital Sky Survey quasars. We found that at fixed quasar luminosity, σ * systematically decreases with increasing Fe ii strength, confirming that the Eddington ratio increases with Fe ii strength. We also found that at fixed luminosity and Fe ii strength, there is little dependence of σ * on the broad Hβ FWHM. These new results reinforce the framework that the Eddington ratio and orientation govern most of the diversity seen in broad-line quasar properties

  7. Common Warm Dust Temperatures Around Main Sequence Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Farisa; Rieke, George; Werner, Michael; Stapelfeldt, Karl; Bryden, Geoffrey; Su, Kate

    2011-01-01

    We compare the properties of warm dust emission from a sample of main-sequence A-type stars (B8-A7) to those of dust around solar-type stars (F5-KO) with similar Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Spectrograph/MIPS data and similar ages. Both samples include stars with sources with infrared spectral energy distributions that show evidence of multiple components. Over the range of stellar types considered, we obtain nearly the same characteristic dust temperatures (∼ 190 K and ∼60 K for the inner and outer dust components, respectively)-slightly above the ice evaporation temperature for the inner belts. The warm inner dust temperature is readily explained if populations of small grains are being released by sublimation of ice from icy planetesimals. Evaporation of low-eccentricity icy bodies at ∼ 150 K can deposit particles into an inner/warm belt, where the small grains are heated to dust Temperatures of -190 K. Alternatively, enhanced collisional processing of an asteroid belt-like system of parent planetesimals just interior to the snow line may account for the observed uniformity in dust temperature. The similarity in temperature of the warmer dust across our B8-KO stellar sample strongly suggests that dust-producing planetesimals are not found at similar radial locations around all stars, but that dust production is favored at a characteristic temperature horizon.

  8. The G+M eclipsing binary V530 Orionis: a stringent test of magnetic stellar evolution models for low-mass stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Guillermo [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Lacy, Claud H. Sandberg [Department of Physics, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States); Pavlovski, Krešimir [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Bijenicka cesta 32, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Feiden, Gregory A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Sabby, Jeffrey A. [Physics Department, Southern Illinois University Edwardsville, Edwardsville, IL 62026 (United States); Bruntt, Hans [Stellar Astrophysics Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Clausen, Jens Viggo, E-mail: gtorres@cfa.harvard.edu [Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen University, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark)

    2014-12-10

    We report extensive photometric and spectroscopic observations of the 6.1 day period, G+M-type detached double-lined eclipsing binary V530 Ori, an important new benchmark system for testing stellar evolution models for low-mass stars. We determine accurate masses and radii for the components with errors of 0.7% and 1.3%, as follows: M {sub A} = 1.0038 ± 0.0066 M {sub ☉}, M {sub B} = 0.5955 ± 0.0022 M {sub ☉}, R {sub A} = 0.980 ± 0.013 R {sub ☉}, and R {sub B} = 0.5873 ± 0.0067 R {sub ☉}. The effective temperatures are 5890 ± 100 K (G1 V) and 3880 ± 120 K (M1 V), respectively. A detailed chemical analysis probing more than 20 elements in the primary spectrum shows the system to have a slightly subsolar abundance, with [Fe/H] = –0.12 ± 0.08. A comparison with theory reveals that standard models underpredict the radius and overpredict the temperature of the secondary, as has been found previously for other M dwarfs. On the other hand, models from the Dartmouth series incorporating magnetic fields are able to match the observations of the secondary star at the same age as the primary (∼3 Gyr) with a surface field strength of 2.1 ± 0.4 kG when using a rotational dynamo prescription, or 1.3 ± 0.4 kG with a turbulent dynamo approach, not far from our empirical estimate for this star of 0.83 ± 0.65 kG. The observations are most consistent with magnetic fields playing only a small role in changing the global properties of the primary. The V530 Ori system thus provides an important demonstration that recent advances in modeling appear to be on the right track to explain the long-standing problem of radius inflation and temperature suppression in low-mass stars.

  9. ON THE EVOLUTIONARY AND PULSATION MASS OF CLASSICAL CEPHEIDS. III. THE CASE OF THE ECLIPSING BINARY CEPHEID CEP0227 IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prada Moroni, P. G.; Gennaro, M.; Bono, G.; Pietrzyński, G.; Gieren, W.; Pilecki, B.; Graczyk, D.; Thompson, I. B.

    2012-01-01

    We present a new Bayesian approach to constrain the intrinsic parameters (stellar mass and age) of the eclipsing binary system—CEP0227—in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). We computed several sets of evolutionary models covering a broad range in chemical compositions and in stellar mass. Independent sets of models were also constructed either by neglecting or by including a moderate convective core overshooting (β ov = 0.2) during central hydrogen-burning phases. Sets of models were also constructed either by neglecting or by assuming a canonical (η = 0.4, 0.8) or an enhanced (η = 4) mass-loss rate. The most probable solutions were computed in three different planes: luminosity-temperature, mass-radius, and gravity-temperature. By using the Bayes factor, we found that the most probable solutions were obtained in the gravity-temperature plane with a Gaussian mass prior distribution. The evolutionary models constructed by assuming a moderate convective core overshooting (β ov = 0.2) and a canonical mass-loss rate (η = 0.4) give stellar masses for the primary (Cepheid)—M = 4.14 +0.04 –0.05 M ☉ —and for the secondary—M = 4.15 +0.04 –0.05 M ☉ —that agree at the 1% level with dynamical measurements. Moreover, we found ages for the two components and for the combined system—t = 151 +4 –3 Myr—that agree at the 5% level. The solutions based on evolutionary models that neglect the mass loss attain similar parameters, while those ones based on models that either account for an enhanced mass loss or neglect convective core overshooting have lower Bayes factors and larger confidence intervals. The dependence on the mass-loss rate might be the consequence of the crude approximation we use to mimic this phenomenon. By using the isochrone of the most probable solution and a Gaussian prior on the LMC distance, we found a true distance modulus—18.53 +0.02 –0.02 mag—and a reddening value—E(B – V) = 0.142 +0.005 –0.010 mag—that agree quite

  10. Eclipse of epsilon Aurigae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Matthew R.

    2009-07-01

    The bright, long-period, eclipsing binary star epsilon Aurigae is predicted to begin its next eclipse late July or early August of 2009. Epsilon Aurigae is now past solar conjunction and has reappeared as a morning object. All observers -- both visual and instrumental -- are encouraged to contribute observations of the eclipse during the next two years, beginning immediately for morning observers. Observations are urgently requested right now because it is less likely to be observed in the morning, and the eclipse will begin within the next month. The AAVSO is participating in a global campaign to record this eclipse as part of the International Year of Astronomy 2009 celebrations, organized by the Citizen Sky project (http://www.citizensky.org). For experienced visual observers, please observe this star on a weekly basis, using charts available via VSP from the AAVSO website. For novice visual observers, we recommend participating in this observing program by following the Citizen Sky 10-Star tutorial program, which provides a simple training experience in variable star observing. Photoelectric observers belonging to the AAVSO PEP-V program may submit data as usual via the WebObs feature of the AAVSO website Blue&Gold section. Photoelectric observers may also contribute reduced observations in all filters (including infrared J- and H-bands) directly to the AAVSO via WebObs. Observers using wide-field CCD and DSLR systems are also encouraged to participate; avoid saturating the star. For those with narrower-field systems (D Jeffrey Hopkins are co-leading the precision photometry efforts.

  11. THE QUADRUPLE PRE-MAIN-SEQUENCE SYSTEM LkCa 3: IMPLICATIONS FOR STELLAR EVOLUTION MODELS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, Guillermo; Latham, David W.; Ruíz-Rodríguez, Dary; Prato, L.; Wasserman, Lawrence H.; Badenas, Mariona; Schaefer, G. H.; Mathieu, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery that the pre-main-sequence (PMS) object LkCa 3 in the Taurus-Auriga star-forming region is a hierarchical quadruple system of M stars. It was previously known to be a close (∼0.''5) visual pair, with one component being a moderately eccentric 12.94 day single-lined spectroscopic binary. A re-analysis of archival optical spectra complemented by new near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy shows both visual components to be double lined; the second one has a period of 4.06 days and a circular orbit. In addition to the orbital elements, we determine optical and NIR flux ratios, effective temperatures, and projected rotational velocities for all four stars. Using existing photometric monitoring observations of the system that had previously revealed the rotational period of the primary in the longer-period binary, we also detect the rotational signal of the primary in the 4.06 day binary, which is synchronized with the orbital motion. With only the assumption of coevality, a comparison of all of these constraints with current stellar evolution models from the Dartmouth series points to an age of 1.4 Myr and a distance of 133 pc, consistent with previous estimates for the region and suggesting that the system is on the near side of the Taurus complex. Similar comparisons of the properties of LkCa 3 and the well-known quadruple PMS system GG Tau with the widely used models from the Lyon series for a mixing length parameter of α ML = 1.0 strongly favor the Dartmouth models

  12. Eclipsed neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Full text: The total solar eclipse visible in Southern Asia on 24 October provided an opportunity for an unusual physics experiment. At face value, the levels of solar neutrinos detected on the Earth's surface are difficult to understand and suggest that perhaps the composition of solar neutrinos oscillates between different neutrino types on their journey. In this way neutrinos originating in the Sun as electrontype could convert into heavy neutrinos, which could subsequently disintegrate into an electron-neutrino and a photon. In certain neutrino scenarios, such a photon would have an energy corresponding to that of visible light, and in principle should be detectable if there are enough of them. The problem is that they would normally be swamped by the copious photons of sunlight. The 24 October solar eclipse provided a chance to check this out. A team led by François Vannucci, spokesman of the Nomad neutrino experiment at CERN, en route to the 'Rencontres du Vietnam' physics meeting in Ho Chi Minh Ville, set up a CCD-equipped telescope. To insure against cloud cover, a second telescope followed the eclipse in the desert of Rajastan, India, where the eclipse was to last only half as long, but the chance of cloud was minimal. No background solar signal was seen, or, expressed in physics terms, if solar radiation has any heavy neutrino component, then less than a millionth of it disintegrates into an electron neutrino and a visible photon before it arrives at the Earth. The negative result also has implications for candidate massive, unstable neutrinos from other sources, notably a component of the missing 'dark matter' of the Universe. The next such eclipse should be visible in North Asia in 1997, when hopefully better measurements will be made

  13. Evolution Models of Helium White Dwarf–Main-sequence Star Merger Remnants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xianfei; Bi, Shaolan [Department of Astronomy, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, 100875 (China); Hall, Philip D.; Jeffery, C. Simon, E-mail: zxf@bnu.edu.cn [Armagh Observatory, College Hill, Armagh BT61 9DG (United Kingdom)

    2017-02-01

    It is predicted that orbital decay by gravitational-wave radiation and tidal interaction will cause some close binary stars to merge within a Hubble time. The merger of a helium-core white dwarf with a main-sequence (MS) star can produce a red giant branch star that has a low-mass hydrogen envelope when helium is ignited and thus become a hot subdwarf. Because detailed calculations have not been made, we compute post-merger models with a stellar evolution code. We find the evolutionary paths available to merger remnants and find the pre-merger conditions that lead to the formation of hot subdwarfs. We find that some such mergers result in the formation of stars with intermediate helium-rich surfaces. These stars later develop helium-poor surfaces owing to diffusion. Combining our results with a model population and comparing to observed stars, we find that some observed intermediate helium-rich hot subdwarfs can be explained as the remnants of the mergers of helium-core white dwarfs with low-mass MS stars.

  14. THE MULTIPLE PRE-MAIN-SEQUENCE SYSTEM HBC 515 IN L1622

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reipurth, Bo; Aspin, Colin; Herbig, George

    2010-01-01

    The bright pre-main-sequence star HBC 515 (HD 288313) located in the L1622 cometary cloud in Orion has been studied extensively with optical/infrared imaging and ultraviolet/optical/infrared spectroscopy. The spectra indicate that HBC 515 is a weakline T Tauri star (TTS) of spectral type K2V. Adaptive optics imaging in the K band reveals that HBC 515 is a binary with two equally bright components separated by 0.''5. A very faint third component is found 5'' to the northwest. Spitzer IRAC and MIPS observations show that at mid-infrared wavelengths this third source dominates the system, suggesting that it is a protostar still embedded in the nascent cloud of HBC 515. The close association of a weakline TTS with a newborn protostar in a multiple system is noteworthy. Two nearby TTSs are likely associated with the HBC 515 multiple system, and the dynamical evolution of the complex that would lead to such a configuration is considered.

  15. Evolution Models of Helium White Dwarf–Main-sequence Star Merger Remnants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xianfei; Bi, Shaolan; Hall, Philip D.; Jeffery, C. Simon

    2017-01-01

    It is predicted that orbital decay by gravitational-wave radiation and tidal interaction will cause some close binary stars to merge within a Hubble time. The merger of a helium-core white dwarf with a main-sequence (MS) star can produce a red giant branch star that has a low-mass hydrogen envelope when helium is ignited and thus become a hot subdwarf. Because detailed calculations have not been made, we compute post-merger models with a stellar evolution code. We find the evolutionary paths available to merger remnants and find the pre-merger conditions that lead to the formation of hot subdwarfs. We find that some such mergers result in the formation of stars with intermediate helium-rich surfaces. These stars later develop helium-poor surfaces owing to diffusion. Combining our results with a model population and comparing to observed stars, we find that some observed intermediate helium-rich hot subdwarfs can be explained as the remnants of the mergers of helium-core white dwarfs with low-mass MS stars.

  16. THE EVOLVED MAIN-SEQUENCE CHANNEL: HST AND LBT OBSERVATIONS OF CSS 120422:111127+571239

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, M.; Callanan, P. [Department of Physics, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland); Garnavich, P.; Littlefield, C. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Szkody, P. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Pogge, R. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 W. 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43202 (United States)

    2015-12-20

    The “evolved main-sequence (EMS)” channel is thought to contribute significantly to the population of AM CVn-type systems in the Galaxy, and also to the number of cataclysmic variables (CVs) detected below the period minimum for hydrogen rich systems. CSS 120422:J111127+571239 was discovered by the Catalina Sky Survey in 2012 April. Its period was found to be 56 minutes, well below the minimum, and the optical spectrum is clearly depleted in hydrogen relative to helium, but still has two orders of magnitude more hydrogen than AM CVn stars. Doppler tomography of the Hα line hinted at a spiral structure existing in the disk. Here we present spectroscopy of CSS 120422:J111127+571239 using the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph FUV instrument on the Hubble Space Telescope and using the MODS spectrograph on the Large Binocular Telescope. The UV spectrum shows Si iv, N v, and He ii, but no detectable C iv. The anomalous nitrogen/carbon ratio is seen in a small number of other CVs and confirms a unique binary evolution. We also present and compare the optical spectrum of V418 Ser and advocate that it is also an EMS system.

  17. Lithium evolution in metal-poor stars: from Pre-Main Sequence to the Spite plateau

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Xiaoting; Bressan, Alessandro; Molaro, Paolo; Marigo, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Lithium abundance derived in metal-poor main sequence stars is about three times lower than the value of primordial Li predicted by the standard Big Bang nucleosynthesis when the baryon density is taken from the CMB or the deuterium measurements. This disagreement is generally referred as the lithium problem. We here reconsider the stellar Li evolution from the pre-main sequence to the end of the main sequence phase by introducing the effects of convective overshooting and residual mass accre...

  18. 1982-1984 Eclipse of Epsilon Aurigae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stencel, R.E.

    1985-09-01

    A workshop proceedings concerned with the new data collected during the 1982-1984 eclipse period of the 27-year system Epsilon Aurigae is presented. This binary star has been a classic problem in astrophysics because the opaque eclipsing object is nonstellar, and probably disk shaped. Invited papers concerning the history of the system, optical, infrared and ultraviolet photometry, optical polarimetry and ultraviolet spectroscopy are included. An invited paper concerning comprehensive theoretical interpretation in the context of stellar evolution also is included

  19. Multi-Messenger Astronomy: White Dwarf Binaries, LISA and GAIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Michael; Breivik, Katelyn; Larson, Shane L.

    2017-01-01

    The discovery of gravitational waves has ushered in a new era in astronomy. The low-frequency band covered by the future LISA detector provides unprecedented opportunities for multi-messenger astronomy. With the Global Astrometric Interferometer for Astrophysics (GAIA) mission, we expect to discover about 1,000 eclipsing binary systems composed of a WD and a main sequence star - a sizeable increase from the approximately 34 currently known binaries of this type. In advance of the first GAIA data release and the launch of LISA within the next decade, we used the Binary Stellar Evolution (BSE) code simulate the evolution of White Dwarf Binaries (WDB) in a fixed galaxy population of about 196,000 sources. Our goal is to assess the detectability of a WDB by LISA and GAIA using the parameters from our population synthesis, we calculate GW strength h, and apparent GAIA magnitude G. We can then use a scale factor to make a prediction of how many multi- messenger sources we expect to be detectable by both LISA and GAIA in a galaxy the size of the Milky Way. We create binaries 10 times to ensure randomness in distance assignment and average our results. We then determined whether or not astronomical chirp is the difference between the total chirp and the GW chirp. With Astronomical chirp and simulations of mass transfer and tides, we can gather more information about the internal astrophysics of stars in ultra-compact binary systems.

  20. Spectroscopic and asteroseismic analysis of the remarkable main-sequence A star KIC 11145123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada-Hidai, Masahide; Kurtz, Donald W.; Shibahashi, Hiromoto; Murphy, Simon J.; Takata, Masao; Saio, Hideyuki; Sekii, Takashi

    2017-10-01

    A spectroscopic analysis was carried out to clarify the properties of KIC 11145123 - the first main-sequence star with a directly measured core-to-surface rotation profile - based on spectra observed with the High Dispersion Spectrograph (HDS) of the Subaru telescope. The atmospheric parameters (Teff = 7600 K, log g = 4.2, ξ = 3.1 km s-1 and [Fe/H] = -0.71 dex), the radial and rotation velocities, and elemental abundances were obtained by analysing line strengths and fitting line profiles, which were calculated with a 1D LTE model atmosphere. The main properties of KIC 11145123 are: (1) a low [Fe/H] = -0.71 ± 0.11 dex and a high radial velocity of -135.4 ± 0.2 km s-1. These are remarkable among late-A stars. Our best asteroseismic models with this low [Fe/H] have slightly high helium abundance and low masses of 1.4 M⊙. All of these results strongly suggest that KIC 11145123 is a Population II blue straggler; (2) the projected rotation velocity confirms the asteroseismically predicted slow rotation of the star; (3) comparisons of abundance patterns between KIC 11145123 and Am, Ap, and blue stragglers show that KIC 11145123 is neither an Am star nor an Ap star, but has abundances consistent with a blue straggler. We conclude that the remarkably long 100-d rotation period of this star is a consequence of it being a blue straggler, but both pathways for the formation of blue stragglers - merger and mass loss in a binary system - pose difficulties for our understanding of the exceedingly slow rotation. In particular, we show that there is no evidence of any secondary companion star, and we put stringent limits on the possible mass of any such purported companion through the phase modulation technique.

  1. Spectral irradiance curve calculations for any type of solar eclipse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deepak, A.; Merrill, J.E.

    1974-01-01

    A simple procedure is described for calculating the eclipse function (EF), alpha, and hence the spectral irradiance curve (SIC), (1-alpha), for any type of solar eclipse: namely, the occultation (partial/total) eclipse and the transit (partial/annular) eclipse. The SIC (or the EF) gives the variation of the amount (or the loss) of solar radiation of a given wavelength reaching a distant observer for various positions of the moon across the sun. The scheme is based on the theory of light curves of eclipsing binaries, the results of which are tabulated in Merrill's Tables, and is valid for all wavelengths for which the solar limb-darkening obeys the cosine law: J = /sub c/(1 - X + X cost gamma). As an example of computing the SIC for an occultation eclipse which may be total, the calculations for the March 7, 1970, eclipse are described in detail. (U.S.)

  2. Tracing early stellar evolution with asteroseismology: pre-main sequence stars in NGC 2264

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zwintz Konstanze

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Asteroseismology has been proven to be a successful tool to unravel details of the internal structure for different types of stars in various stages of their main sequence and post-main sequence evolution. Recently, we found a relation between the detected pulsation properties in a sample of 34 pre-main sequence (pre-MS δ Scuti stars and the relative phase in their pre-MS evolution. With this we are able to demonstrate that asteroseismology is similarly powerful if applied to stars in the earliest stages of evolution before the onset of hydrogen core burning.

  3. Revised physical elements of the astrophysically important O9.5+O9.5V eclipsing binary system Y Cygni

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Harmanec, P.; Holmgren, D. E.; Wolf, M.; Božić, H.; Guinan, E. F.; Kang, Y. W.; Mayer, P.; McCook, G.; Nemravová, J.; Yang, S.; Šlechta, Miroslav; Ruzdjak, D.; Sudar, D.; Svoboda, P.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 563, March (2014), A120/1-A120/12 ISSN 0004-6361 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/06/0584 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : binaries: spectroscopic * stars: fundamental parameters Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.378, year: 2014

  4. Magnetic fields in O-, B- and A-type stars on the main sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Briquet Maryline

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review, the latest observational results on magnetic fields in main-sequence stars with radiative envelopes are summarised together with the theoretical works aimed at explaining them.

  5. Eclipse models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, F.C.

    1989-01-01

    Three existing eclipse models for the PSR 1957 + 20 pulsar are discussed in terms of their requirements and the information they yield about the pulsar wind: the interacting wind from a companion model, the magnetosphere model, and the occulting disk model. It is shown out that the wind model requires an MHD wind from the pulsar, with enough particles that the Poynting flux of the wind can be thermalized; in this model, a large flux of energetic radiation from the pulsar is required to accompany the wind and drive the wind off the companion. The magnetosphere model requires an EM wind, which is Poynting flux dominated; the advantage of this model over the wind model is that the plasma density inside the magnetosphere can be orders of magnitude larger than in a magnetospheric tail blown back by wind interaction. The occulting disk model also requires an EM wind so that the interaction would be pushed down onto the companion surface, minimizing direct interaction of the wind with the orbiting macroscopic particles

  6. The geometry of the eclipse of a pointlike star by a Roche-lobe-filling companion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanan, G.A.; Middleditch, J.; Nelson, J.E.

    1976-01-01

    For binary systems of this type, which may be representative of certain X-ray sources, the eclipse duration defines a relation between the mass ratio and orbital inclination of the system; we have derived and tabulated this relation. Eclipse geometry for binary systems in which both stars fill their Roche lobes is also discussed briefly

  7. Pre-main sequence masses and the age spread in the Orion cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNamara, B.J.

    1975-01-01

    The spread in formation times for stars earlier than GO in the Orion cluster is investigated. The range of stellar ages in this cluster is found to extend from at least 10 6 years to about 10 7 years. On the basis of this evidence and the similarity of the color--magnitude diagrams of other young clusters to the Orion cluster, it is suggested that the current method of dating these clusters (from the point at which the most massive stars just reach the zero-age main sequence) might not be valid. The masses of forty-one pre-main sequence stars within the ranges 4.05 less than or equal to log(Te) less than or equal to 3.77 and 0.6 less than or equal to log (L/L/sub sun/) less than or equal to 2.1 are determined from observed effective temperatures, luminosities, and gravities. These masses were then compared with those expected from Iben's (1965) pre-main sequence evolutionary calculations. In most cases, the agreement between these values was found to be within the observational errors. Finally, the pre-main sequence stars possessing infrared excesses are found to be apparently among the most massive and youngest stars still contracting toward the zero-age main sequence

  8. Fourier analysis of the light curves of eclipsing variables. XI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopal, Z.

    1977-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to introduce a new definition of the loss of light suffered by mutual eclipses of the components of close binary systems: namely, as a cross-correlation of two apertures representing the eclipsing and eclipsed discs. The advantages of such a strategy over the more conventional (geometrical) approach are (a) greater symmetry of the respective expressions; (b) greater affinity of expressions arising from distortion with those expressing the light changes due to eclipses of spherical stars; and (c) greater freedom in dealing with the effects of particular distribution of brightness over the disc of the star undergoing eclipse (generalized limb-darkening), as well as of possible semi-transparency of the eclipsing component (Wolf-Rayet stars). In point of fact, none of these tasks could be handled with equal ease by any other technique; nor could the corresponding loss of light be so automated by any other approach. (Auth.)

  9. Some properties of spectral binary stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krajcheva, Z.T.; Popova, E.I.; Tutukov, A.V.; Yungel'son, L.R.; AN SSSR, Moscow. Astronomicheskij Sovet)

    1978-01-01

    Statistical investigations of spectra binary stars are carried out. Binary systems consisting of main sequence stars are considered. For 826 binary stars masses of components, ratios of component masses, semiaxes of orbits and orbital angular momenta are calculated. The distributions of these parameters and their correlations are analyzed. The dependences of statistical properties of spectral binary stars on their origin and evolution are discussed

  10. A near-infrared survey for pre-main sequence stars in Taurus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Mercedes; Kenyon, Scott J.; Hartmann, Lee

    1994-01-01

    We present a near-infrared survey of approximately 2 sq deg covering parts of L1537, L1538, and Heiles cloud 2 in the Taurus-Auriga molecular cloud. Although this study is more sensitive than previous attempts to identify pre-main sequence stars in Taurus-Auriga, our survey regions contain only one new optically visible, young star. We did find several candidate embedded protostars; additional 10 micrometer photometry is necessary to verify the pre-main sequence nature of these sources. Our results--combined with those of previous surveys--show that the L1537/L1538 clouds contain no pre-main sequence stars. These two clouds are less dense than the active star formation sites in Taurus-Auriga, which suggests a cloud must achieve a threshold density to form stars.

  11. On precise ZAMSs, the solar color, and pre-main-sequence lithium depletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenberg, D.A.; Poll, H.E.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes a semiempirical main-sequence-fitting method for the determination of distances to stellar systems, which uses a ZAMS locus carefully normalized to the sun, and whose shape is defined by a quartic over the color range for (B-V)0 values between 0.2 and 1.0 such that the morphology of the Pleiades C-M diagram is accurately reproduced. Using this technique, distances were derived for a number of star clusters. It was found that the observed depletion of lithium among cool main-sequence stars in the Hyades and Pleiades can be matched quite well by the present models. Calculations also show that the depletion of Li at a fixed T(eff) along the main sequence is a sensitive function of Fe/H. 98 refs

  12. Young and Waltzing Binary Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-10-01

    stars heat up enough to start nuclear burning. When infant stars in RXJ 0529.4+0041 eventually reach middle-age, their sizes will most likely also be quite similar to that of the Sun. The significance of RXJ 0529.4+0041 Few systems are known for which such precise determinations of the stellar parameters have ever been possible - and this binary system represents the first case where both the components are such young stars . A detailed comparison of the derived stellar parameters with current models for the evolution of young stars shows fairly good agreement for the primary component. However, there are certain discrepancies in the case of the secondary component, showing that the current models for the early stages of lower-mass stars must still be refined. More information Part of the results described in this press release are described in more detail in a scientific article ( "RXJ 0529.4+0041: a low-mass pre-main sequence eclipsing-spectroscopic binary" by E. Covino et al.) that has been published in the European research journal Astronomy & Astrophysics (Vol. 361, p. 49). Notes [1] The team consists of Elvira Covino (Principal Investigator), Juan M. Alcalá , Rosita Paladino (all Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Napoli, Italy), Antonio Frasca , Santo Catalano , Ettore Marilli (all Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, Italy) and Michael Sterzik (ESO-Chile). [2] One solar mass corresponds to 1.99 10 30 kg, or about 330,000 times the mass of the Earth. The Sun is about 4500 million years old and its total lifetime is of the order of 12-13,000 million years. It is an interesting thought that if the Sun would have been somewhat heavier, its total lifetime might have been too short for living organisms to develop on the Earth. In fact, the biological evolution that ultimately lead to the emergence of human beings apparently lasted about 4 billion years; this corresponds to the total lifetime of a star that is only about 20 % heavier than the Sun. Note also the

  13. Effects of main-sequence mass loss on stellar and galactic chemical evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzik, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    L.A. Willson, G.H. Bowen and C. Struck-Marcell have proposed that 1 to 3 solar mass stars may experience evolutionarily significant mass loss during the early part of their main-sequence phase. The suggested mass-loss mechanism is pulsation, facilitated by rapid rotation. Initial mass-loss rates may be as large as several times 10 -9 M mass of sun/yr, diminishing over several times 10 8 years. The author attempts to test this hypothesis by comparing some theoretical implications with observations. Three areas are addressed: Solar models, cluster HR diagrams, and galactic chemical evolution. Mass-losing solar models were evolved that match the Sun's luminosity and radius at its present age. The most extreme viable models have initial mass 2.0 M 0 , and mass-loss rates decreasing exponentially over 2-3 x 10 8 years. Evolution calculations incorporating main-sequence mass loss were completed for a grid of models with initial masses 1.25 to 2.0 M mass of sun and mass loss timescales 0.2 to 2.0 Gry. Cluster HR diagrams synthesized with these models confirm the potential for the hypothesis to explain observed spreads or bifurcations in the upper main sequence, blue stragglers, anomalous giants, and poor fits of main-sequence turnoffs by standard isochrones. Simple closed galactic chemical evolution models were used to test the effects of main-sequence mass loss on the F and G dwarf distribution. Stars between 3.0 M mass of sun and a metallicity-dependent lower mass are assumed to lose mass. The models produce a 30 to 60% increase in the stars to stars-plus-remnants ratio, with fewer early-F dwarfs and many more late-F dwarfs remaining on the main sequence to the present

  14. Effects of mass loss on the evolution of massive stars. I. Main-sequence evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dearborn, D.S.P.; Blake, J.B.; Hainebach, K.L.; Schramm, D.N.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of mass loss on the evolution and surface composition of massive stars during main-sequence evolution are examined. While some details of the evolutionary track depend on the formula used for the mass loss, the results appear most sensitive to the total mass removed during the main-sequence lifetime. It was found that low mass-loss rates have very little effect on the evolution of a star; the track is slightly subluminous, but the lifetime is almost unaffected. High rates of mass loss lead to a hot, high-luminosity stellar model with a helium core surrounded by a hydrogen-deficient (Xapprox.0.1) envelope. The main-sequence lifetime is extended by a factor of 2--3. These models may be identified with Wolf-Rayet stars. Between these mass-loss extremes are intermediate models which appear as OBN stars on the main sequence. The mass-loss rates required for significant observable effects range from 8 x 10 -7 to 10 -5 M/sub sun/ yr -1 , depending on the initial stellar mass. It is found that observationally consistent mass-loss rates for stars with M> or =30 M/sub sun/ may be sufficiently high that these stars lose mass on a time scale more rapidly than their main-sequence core evolution time. This result implies that the helium cores resulting from the main-sequence evolution of these massive stars may all be very similar to that of a star of Mapprox.30 M/sub sun/ regardless of the zero-age mass

  15. The origin of the RS CVn binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biermann, P.

    1976-01-01

    Six possible origins for the RS CVn binaries are considered based on the following possibilities. RS CVn binaries might now be either pre-main-sequence or post-main-sequence. A pre-main-sequence binary might not always have been a binary but might have resulted from fission of a rapidly rotating single pre-main-sequence star. The main-sequence counterparts might be either single stars or binaries. To decide which of the six origins is possible, the following observed data for the RS CVn binaries are considered: total mass, total angular momentum, lack of observed connection with regions of star formation, large space density, kinematical age, and the visual companion of WW Dra. In addition lifetimes and space densities of single stars and other types of binaries are considered. The only origin possible is that the RS CVn binaries are in a thermal phase following fission of a main-sequence single star. In this explanation the single star had a rapidly rotating core which became unstable due to the core contraction which made it begin to evolve off the main sequence. The present Be stars might be examples of such parent single stars. (Auth.)

  16. Reconciling mass functions with the star-forming main sequence via mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhardt, Charles L.; Yurk, Dominic; Capak, Peter

    2017-06-01

    We combine star formation along the 'main sequence', quiescence and clustering and merging to produce an empirical model for the evolution of individual galaxies. Main-sequence star formation alone would significantly steepen the stellar mass function towards low redshift, in sharp conflict with observation. However, a combination of star formation and merging produces a consistent result for correct choice of the merger rate function. As a result, we are motivated to propose a model in which hierarchical merging is disconnected from environmentally independent star formation. This model can be tested via correlation functions and would produce new constraints on clustering and merging.

  17. Magnetic braking in Solar-type close binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maceroni, C.; Rucinski, S. M.

    In tidally locked binaries the angular momentum loss by magnetic braking affects the orbital period. While this effect is too small to be detected in individual systems, its signature can be seen in shape of the orbital period distribution of suitable samples. As a consequence information on the braking mechanisms can be obtained - at least in principle - from the analysis of the distributions, the main problems being the selection of a large and homogeneous sample of binaries and the appropriate treatment of the observational biases. New large databases of variable stars are becoming available as by-products of microlensing projects, which have the advantage of joining, for the first time, sample richness and homogeneity. We report the main results of the analysis of the eclipsing binaries in OGLE-I catalog, that contains several thousands variables detected in a pencil-beam search volume towards the Baade's Window. By means of an automatic filtering algorithm we extracted a sample of 74 detached, equal-mass, main-sequence binary stars with short orbital periods (i.e., in the range 0.19 braking law. The results suggest an AML braking law very close to the "saturated" one, with a very weak dependence on the period. However we are still far from constraining the precise value of the slope, because of the important role played by the observational bias.

  18. The Star-forming Main Sequence of Dwarf Low Surface Brightness Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaugh, Stacy S.; Schombert, James M.; Lelli, Federico

    2017-12-01

    We explore the star-forming properties of late-type, low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies. The star-forming main sequence ({SFR}-{M}* ) of LSB dwarfs has a steep slope, indistinguishable from unity (1.04 ± 0.06). They form a distinct sequence from more massive spirals, which exhibit a shallower slope. The break occurs around {M}* ≈ {10}10 {M}⊙ , and can also be seen in the gas mass—stellar mass plane. The global Kennicutt-Schmidt law ({SFR}-{M}g) has a slope of 1.47 ± 0.11 without the break seen in the main sequence. There is an ample supply of gas in LSB galaxies, which have gas depletion times well in excess of a Hubble time, and often tens of Hubble times. Only ˜ 3 % of this cold gas needs be in the form of molecular gas to sustain the observed star formation. In analogy with the faint, long-lived stars of the lower stellar main sequence, it may be appropriate to consider the main sequence of star-forming galaxies to be defined by thriving dwarfs (with {M}* {10}10 {M}⊙ ) are weary giants that constitute more of a turn-off population.

  19. The main sequence of NGC 6231 and the calibration of absolute magnitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrison, R.F.

    1978-01-01

    The author presents a discussion of a new approach to the calibration of absolute magnitudes for MK spectral types. With the addition of the NGC 6231 main sequence down to A0, the material for the cluster fitting method using very carefully determined MK types is complete. (Auth.)

  20. Oscillation mode linewidths of main-sequence and subgiant stars observed by Kepler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appourchaux, T.; Benomar, O.; Gruberbauer, M.

    2012-01-01

    Solar-like oscillations have been observed by {{\\it Kepler}} and CoRoT in several solar-type stars. We study the variations of stellar p-mode linewidth as a function of effective temperature. Time series of 9 months of Kepler data have been used. The power spectra of 42 cool main-sequence stars a...

  1. IRAS IDENTIFICATION OF PRE-MAIN-SEQUENCE STARS IN THE CHAMELEON-II ASSOCIATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PRUSTI, T; WHITTET, DCB; ASSENDORP, R; WESSELIUS, PR

    We report the results of a search for new pre-main sequence candidates in the Chamaeleon II dark cloud based on three IRAS catalogues (the Point Source Catalog, the Serendipitous Survey Catalog and the Faint Source Survey). A total of 30 sources were selected. Twelve of these display IRAS colours

  2. Relation of chromospheric activity to convection, rotation, and pre-main-sequence evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilliland, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    Pre-main-sequence, or T Tauri, stars are characterized by much larger fluxes of nonradiative origin than their main-sequence counterparts. As a class, the T Tauri stars have only moderate rotation rates, making an explanation of their chromospheric properties based on rapid rotation problematic. The recent success of correlating nonradiative fluxes to the Rossby number, Ro = P/sub rot//tau/sub conv/, a central parameter of simple dynamo theories of magnetic field generation, has led to the suggestion that the same relation might be of use in explaining the pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars if tau/sub conv/ is very large. We show that tau/sub conv/ does depend strongly on evolutionary effects above the main sequence (MS), but that this dependence alone cannot account for the high observed nonradiative fluxes. The acoustic flux is also strongly dependent on PMS evolutionary state, and when coupled to the parameterization of magnetic activity based on Ro, these two mechanisms seem capable of explaining the high observed level of chromospheric activity in T Tauri stars. The moment of inertia decreases by two to three order of magnitude during PMS evolution. Since young MS stars do not rotate two to three orders of magnitude faster than PMS stars, rapid loss or redistribution of angular momentum must occur

  3. The SAMI Galaxy Survey: spatially resolving the main sequence of star formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medling, Anne M.; Cortese, Luca; Croom, Scott M.; Green, Andrew W.; Groves, Brent; Hampton, Elise; Ho, I.-Ting; Davies, Luke J. M.; Kewley, Lisa J.; Moffett, Amanda J.; Schaefer, Adam L.; Taylor, Edward; Zafar, Tayyaba; Bekki, Kenji; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Bloom, Jessica V.; Brough, Sarah; Bryant, Julia J.; Catinella, Barbara; Cecil, Gerald; Colless, Matthew; Couch, Warrick J.; Drinkwater, Michael J.; Driver, Simon P.; Federrath, Christoph; Foster, Caroline; Goldstein, Gregory; Goodwin, Michael; Hopkins, Andrew; Lawrence, J. S.; Leslie, Sarah K.; Lewis, Geraint F.; Lorente, Nuria P. F.; Owers, Matt S.; McDermid, Richard; Richards, Samuel N.; Sharp, Robert; Scott, Nicholas; Sweet, Sarah M.; Taranu, Dan S.; Tescari, Edoardo; Tonini, Chiara; van de Sande, Jesse; Walcher, C. Jakob; Wright, Angus

    2018-04-01

    We present the ˜800 star formation rate maps for the Sydney-AAO Multi-object Integral field spectrograph (SAMI) Galaxy Survey based on H α emission maps, corrected for dust attenuation via the Balmer decrement, that are included in the SAMI Public Data Release 1. We mask out spaxels contaminated by non-stellar emission using the [O III]/H β, [N II]/H α, [S II]/H α, and [O I]/H α line ratios. Using these maps, we examine the global and resolved star-forming main sequences of SAMI galaxies as a function of morphology, environmental density, and stellar mass. Galaxies further below the star-forming main sequence are more likely to have flatter star formation profiles. Early-type galaxies split into two populations with similar stellar masses and central stellar mass surface densities. The main-sequence population has centrally concentrated star formation similar to late-type galaxies, while galaxies >3σ below the main sequence show significantly reduced star formation most strikingly in the nuclear regions. The split populations support a two-step quenching mechanism, wherein halo mass first cuts off the gas supply and remaining gas continues to form stars until the local stellar mass surface density can stabilize the reduced remaining fuel against further star formation. Across all morphologies, galaxies in denser environments show a decreased specific star formation rate from the outside in, supporting an environmental cause for quenching, such as ram-pressure stripping or galaxy interactions.

  4. Formation of a contact binary star system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullen, E.F.F.

    1974-01-01

    The process of forming a contact binary star system is investigated in the light of current knowledge of the W Ursae Majoris type eclipsing binaries and the current rotational braking theories for contracting stars. A preliminary stage of mass transfer is proposed and studied through the use of a computer program which calculates evolutionary model sequences. The detailed development of both stars is followed in these calculations, and findings regarding the internal structure of the star which is receiving the mass are presented. Relaxation of the mass-gaining star is also studied; for these stars of low mass and essentially zero age, the star eventually settles to a state very similar to a zero-age main sequence star of the new mass. A contact system was formed through these calculations; it exhibits the general properties of a W Ursae Majoris system. The initial masses selected for the calculation were 1.29 M/sub solar mass/ and 0.56 M/sub solar mass/. An initial mass transfer rate of about 10 -10 solar masses per year gradually increased to about 10 -8 solar masses per year. After about 2.5 x 10 7 years, the less massive star filled its Roche lobe and an initial contact system was obtained. The final masses were 1.01359 M/sub solar mass/ and 0.83641 M/sub solar mass/. The internal structure of the secondary component is considerably different from that of a main sequence star of the same mass

  5. Effects of Main-Sequence Mass Loss on Stellar and Galactic Chemical Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzik, Joyce Ann

    1988-06-01

    L. A. Willson, G. H. Bowen and C. Struck -Marcell have proposed that 1 to 3 solar mass stars may experience evolutionarily significant mass loss during the early part of their main-sequence phase. The suggested mass-loss mechanism is pulsation, facilitated by rapid rotation. Initial mass-loss rates may be as large as several times 10^{-9}M o/yr, diminishing over several times 10^8 years. We attempted to test this hypothesis by comparing some theoretical implications with observations. Three areas are addressed: Solar models, cluster HR diagrams, and galactic chemical evolution. Mass-losing solar models were evolved that match the Sun's luminosity and radius at its present age. The most extreme viable models have initial mass 2.0 M o, and mass-loss rates decreasing exponentially over 2-3 times 10^8 years. Compared to a constant -mass model, these models require a reduced initial ^4He abundance, have deeper envelope convection zones and higher ^8B neutrino fluxes. Early processing of present surface layers at higher interior temperatures increases the surface ^3He abundance, destroys Li, Be and B, and decreases the surface C/N ratio following first dredge-up. Evolution calculations incorporating main-sequence mass loss were completed for a grid of models with initial masses 1.25 to 2.0 Mo and mass loss timescales 0.2 to 2.0 Gyr. Cluster HR diagrams synthesized with these models confirm the potential for the hypothesis to explain observed spreads or bifurcations in the upper main sequence, blue stragglers, anomalous giants, and poor fits of main-sequence turnoffs by standard isochrones. Simple closed galactic chemical evolution models were used to test the effects of main-sequence mass loss on the F and G dwarf distribution. Stars between 3.0 M o and a metallicity -dependent lower mass are assumed to lose mass. The models produce a 30 to 60% increase in the stars to stars-plus -remnants ratio, with fewer early-F dwarfs and many more late-F dwarfs remaining on the main

  6. Corot 310266512: A Light Curve With Primary, Secondary And Tertiary Eclipses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Fernández Javier

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the photometric study of an interesting target in the CoRoT exoplanet database: CoRoT 310266512. Its light curve shows primary, secondary and tertiary eclipses that suggests the presence of at least three celestial bodies. The primary and secondary eclipses have the same orbital period, 7.42 days, and the tertiary eclipse has an orbital period of 3.27 days. Two of the tertiary eclipses fall within a primary eclipse and a secondary eclipse. The properties of the light curve indicate the presence of two physically separated systems. The primary and secondary eclipses corresponds to a binary system (System I. The tertiary eclipses correspond to a star-planet system or a star-dwarf system (System II. Some parameters of these two systems are obtained from JKTEBOP [1] program.

  7. Rotation in moderate-mass pre-main-sequence radiative track G stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcnamara, B.

    1990-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that the observed high-mass radiative track velocity histograms for pre-main-sequence stars differ significantly. In the Vogel and Kuhi (1981) study, these stars were found to possess a rather broad distribution of rotational velocities with a moderate peak at low velocities. In contrast, Smith et al. (1983), found a very sharply peaked distribution located at low values of v sin i. The difference in these velocity distributions is shown to be due to inadequate allowance for field stars in the Smith, et al., work. Once these stars are removed, the high-mass velocity distributions of the two regions are remarkably similar. This result suggests that a unique velocity distribution might be used in modeling very young stars. Assuming that the Orion Ic proto-F stars continue to contract in a homologous fashion, their average current rotational velocity is in agreement with that expected for zero-age main sequence F stars. 27 refs

  8. BVI CCD photometry of the broad main-sequence globular cluster NGC 1851

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcaino, G.; Liller, W.; Alvarado, F.; Wenderoth, E.

    1990-01-01

    Three-color CCD C-M diagrams are presented for the globular cluster NGC 1851, showing an extreme breadth of the main-sequence, similar to that of Omega Centauri. It is found that the main-sequence turnoff points are located at V(TO) = 19.44 + or - 0.10, with colors at B-V = 0.54 + or - 0.02, V-I = 0.61 + or - 0.02, and B-I = 1.15 + or - 0.03. The best fit to the VandenBerg and Bell (1985) isochrones is shown to be all C-M diagrams with Y = 0.20, Fe/H abundance ratio = -1.27, and (m-M)v = 15.45. It is concluded that NGC 1851 has a Delta V(TO - HB) = 3.34 + or - 0.10 and an age of 16 + or - 2 Gyr. 29 refs

  9. Radio emission from pre-main-sequence stars in Corona Australis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, A.

    1987-01-01

    The central region of the Corona Australis molecular cloud surrounding the stars R and TY CrA has been studied using the VLA at 6 cm. Eleven radio sources are detected including five associated with pre-main-sequence objects. The most striking is associated with the near-IR source IRS 7 and shows a complex structure comprising two strong pointlike sources positioned either side of the deeply embedded IR source and two extended lobes of radio emission. The IRS 7 radio source appears to be similar to that associated with Lynds 1551 IRS 5 but has a considerably larger angular size. The other detected sources include the massive pre-main-sequence star TY CrA, the near-IR sources IRS 1 and IRS 5, and the Herbig-Haro object HH 101. The stars R and T CrA were not detected. 35 references

  10. Mass loss from pre-main-sequence accretion disks. I - The accelerating wind of FU Orionis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvet, Nuria; Hartmann, Lee; Kenyon, Scott J.

    1993-01-01

    We present evidence that the wind of the pre-main-sequence object FU Orionis arises from the surface of the luminous accretion disk. A disk wind model calculated assuming radiative equilibrium explains the differential behavior of the observed asymmetric absorption-line profiles. The model predicts that strong lines should be asymmetric and blueshifted, while weak lines should be symmetric and double-peaked due to disk rotation, in agreement with observations. We propose that many blueshifted 'shell' absorption features are not produced in a true shell of material, but rather form in a differentially expanding wind that is rapidly rotating. The inference of rapid rotation supports the proposal that pre-main-sequence disk winds are rotationally driven.

  11. Turbulence and the Li abundance in main sequence and giant stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charbonneau, P.; Michaud, G.

    1990-01-01

    Calculations of Li burning via turbulent transport are conducted to determine the extent to which observed Li abundances in first ascent giants constrain the various turbulence parameterizations used to model the main-sequence surface Li abundance evolution. A full time-dependent solution to the transport equation is performed, including nuclear reaction terms and evolutionary effects. It is found that turbulence can lead to the extreme Li underabundances observed in giants of M67 and NGC 752. Consideration is given to the possibility of using observations of Li abundances to discriminate between turbulent particle transport and meridional circulation transport. Numerical solutions of the turbulent diffusion coefficient of Vauclair (1988) is used to model the Hyades Li abundance gap. The astrophysical implications of the results for main-sequence and giant stars are discussed. 36 refs

  12. RADIO AND MID-INFRARED PROPERTIES OF COMPACT STARBURSTS: DISTANCING THEMSELVES FROM THE MAIN SEQUENCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, E. J. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Stierwalt, S.; Armus, L. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, MC 314-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Condon, J. J. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Evans, A. S., E-mail: emurphy@obs.carnegiescience.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, 530 McCormick Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States)

    2013-05-01

    We investigate the relationship between 8.44 GHz brightness temperatures and 1.4 to 8.44 GHz radio spectral indices with 6.2 {mu}m polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission and 9.7 {mu}m silicate absorption features for a sample of 36 local luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies. We find that galaxies having small 6.2 {mu}m PAH equivalent widths (EQWs), which signal the presence of weak PAH emission and/or an excess of very hot dust, also have flat spectral indices. The three active galactic nuclei (AGN) identified through their excessively large 8.44 GHz brightness temperatures are also identified as AGN via their small 6.2 {mu}m PAH EQWs. We also find that the flattening of the radio spectrum increases with increasing silicate optical depth, 8.44 GHz brightness temperature, and decreasing size of the radio source even after removing potential AGN, supporting the idea that compact starbursts show spectral flattening as the result of increased free-free absorption. These correlations additionally suggest that the dust obscuration in these galaxies must largely be coming from the vicinity of the compact starburst itself, and is not distributed throughout the (foreground) disk of the galaxy. Finally, we investigate the location of these infrared-bright systems relative to the main sequence (star formation rate versus stellar mass) of star-forming galaxies in the local universe. We find that the radio spectral indices of galaxies flatten with increasing distance above the main sequence, or in other words, with increasing specific star formation rate. This indicates that galaxies located above the main sequence, having high specific star formation rates, are typically compact starbursts hosting deeply embedded star formation that becomes more optically thick in the radio and infrared with increased distance above the main sequence.

  13. 13-colour photometry of pre-main sequence stars: preliminary report and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavarria-K, C; de Lara, E [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City. Inst. de Astronomia

    1981-01-01

    Broad (UBVRI) and intermediate (13-colour) band photometry of 160 stars selected mainly from the Herbig Rao catalogue are being carried on currently, mainly to complement the published data of these stars in the optical window (for example shortward of the Balmer and longward of the Paschen discontinuities). The 13-colour photometric system and its applications to pre-main sequences stars are briefly discussed. First results are presented.

  14. Carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen abundances in main-sequence stars. II. 20 F and G stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clegg, R.E.S.; Lambert, D.L.; Tomkin, J.

    1981-01-01

    High-resolution Reticon spectra of red and near-infrared C I, N I, and O I lines have been analyzed to determine C, N, and O abundances in a sample of 20 F and G main-sequence stars. Their iron abundances, which have been determined from analysis of additional Reticon spectra of red Fe I lines, cover the range -0.9< or =[Fe/H]< or =+0.4. Sulfur abundances have also been obtained

  15. THE 'MAIN SEQUENCE' OF EXPLOSIVE SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS: DISCOVERY AND INTERPRETATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falconer, David A; Moore, Ronald L; Adams, Mitzi [Space Science Office, VP62, Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Gary, G. Allen [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States)], E-mail: David.falconer@msfc.nasa.gov

    2009-08-01

    We examine the location and distribution of the production of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and major flares by sunspot active regions in the phase space of two whole-active-region magnetic quantities measured from 1897 SOHO/MDI magnetograms. These magnetograms track the evolution of 44 active regions across the central disk of radius 0.5 R {sub Sun}. The two quantities are {sup L}WL{sub SG}, a gauge of the total free energy in an active region's magnetic field, and {sup L}{phi}, a measure of the active region's total magnetic flux. From these data and each active region's history of production of CMEs, X flares, and M flares, we find (1) that CME/flare-productive active regions are concentrated in a straight-line 'main sequence' in (log {sup L}WL{sub SG}, log {sup L}{phi}) space, (2) that main-sequence active regions have nearly their maximum attainable free magnetic energy, and (3) evidence that this arrangement plausibly results from equilibrium between input of free energy to an explosive active region's magnetic field in the chromosphere and corona by contortion of the field via convection in and below the photosphere and loss of free energy via CMEs, flares, and coronal heating, an equilibrium between energy gain and loss that is analogous to that of the main sequence of hydrogen-burning stars in (mass, luminosity) space.

  16. THE 'MAIN SEQUENCE' OF EXPLOSIVE SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS: DISCOVERY AND INTERPRETATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falconer, David A.; Moore, Ronald L.; Adams, Mitzi; Gary, G. Allen

    2009-01-01

    We examine the location and distribution of the production of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and major flares by sunspot active regions in the phase space of two whole-active-region magnetic quantities measured from 1897 SOHO/MDI magnetograms. These magnetograms track the evolution of 44 active regions across the central disk of radius 0.5 R Sun . The two quantities are L WL SG , a gauge of the total free energy in an active region's magnetic field, and L Φ, a measure of the active region's total magnetic flux. From these data and each active region's history of production of CMEs, X flares, and M flares, we find (1) that CME/flare-productive active regions are concentrated in a straight-line 'main sequence' in (log L WL SG , log L Φ) space, (2) that main-sequence active regions have nearly their maximum attainable free magnetic energy, and (3) evidence that this arrangement plausibly results from equilibrium between input of free energy to an explosive active region's magnetic field in the chromosphere and corona by contortion of the field via convection in and below the photosphere and loss of free energy via CMEs, flares, and coronal heating, an equilibrium between energy gain and loss that is analogous to that of the main sequence of hydrogen-burning stars in (mass, luminosity) space.

  17. Discovery of three x-ray luminous pre-main-sequence stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feigelson, E.D.; Kriss, G.A.

    1981-01-01

    Three X-ray sources found serendipitously in Einstein images of the Taurus-Auriga cloud complex were observed at the McGraw-Hill Observatory and are found to be associated with approx.12 mag stars with weak Hα emission. The stars lie on the edges of dark clouds and are spectroscopically similar to the least active emission-line pre-main-sequence stars. Although they lie well above the ZAMS in the H-R diagram, they do not exhibit ultraviolet excess, strong optical variability, or evidence for mass outflow/inflow characteristics of the more active T Tauri stars. Their only unusual property is high X-ray luminosity (approx.10 30 ergs s1). It is suggested that the X-ray emission from pre-main-sequence stars is not closely linked to the conditions giving rise to their unusual spectroscopic properties. The emission may instead represent an enhanced form of the coronal activity producing X-rays observed in late-type main-sequence stars

  18. Elevation or Suppression? The Resolved Star Formation Main Sequence of Galaxies with Two Different Assembly Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing; Wang, Enci; Lin, Zesen; Gao, Yulong; Liu, Haiyang; Berhane Teklu, Berzaf; Kong, Xu

    2018-04-01

    We investigate the spatially resolved star formation main sequence in star-forming galaxies using Integral Field Spectroscopic observations from the Mapping Nearby Galaxies at the Apache Point Observatory survey. We demonstrate that the correlation between the stellar mass surface density (Σ*) and star formation rate surface density (ΣSFR) holds down to the sub-galactic scale, leading to the sub-galactic main sequence (SGMS). By dividing galaxies into two populations based on their recent mass assembly modes, we find the resolved main sequence in galaxies with the “outside-in” mode is steeper than that in galaxies with the “inside-out” mode. This is also confirmed on a galaxy-by-galaxy level, where we find the distributions of SGMS slopes for individual galaxies are clearly separated for the two populations. When normalizing and stacking the SGMS of individual galaxies on one panel for the two populations, we find that the inner regions of galaxies with the “inside-out” mode statistically exhibit a suppression in star formation, with a less significant trend in the outer regions of galaxies with the “outside-in” mode. In contrast, the inner regions of galaxies with “outside-in” mode and the outer regions of galaxies with “inside-out” mode follow a slightly sublinear scaling relation with a slope ∼0.9, which is in good agreement with previous findings, suggesting that they are experiencing a universal regulation without influences of additional physical processes.

  19. BVRI main-sequence photometry of the globular cluster M4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcaino, G.; Liller, W.

    1984-01-01

    We present BV and RI photographic photometry of 1421 and 189 stars, respectively, in the intermediate metallicity globular cluster M4 (NGC 6121). This investigation includes the first results of RI main-sequence photometry of a globular cluster. The use of longer wavelengths and longer color baselines provides the potential of improved isochrone fittings and underscores the urgent need for calculations of RI synthetic isochrones to be compared with observations. The Pickering-Racine wedge was used with the ESO 3.6 m telescope, the Las Campanas 2.5 m du Pont telescope, and the CTIO 1 m Yale telescope to extend the photoelectric limit from Vroughly-equal16.1 to Vroughly-equal19.1. We have determined the position of the main-sequence turnoff to lie at V = 16.6 +- 0.2 (m.e.) and B-V = 0.80 +- 0.03 (m.e.). A comparison of our BV observations with the CCD data of Richer and Fahlman shows excellent agreement: the two fifucial main sequences agree at all points to within 0.025 mag and, on average, to 0.013 mag. For the cluster we derive a distance modulus (m-M)/sub V/ = 12.52 +- 0.2 and reddening E(B-V) = 0.44 +- 0.03, results which confirm that at a distance of 2 kpc, M4 is the closest globular clusters to the Sun. Using the isochrones of VandenBerg, we deduce an age 13 +- 2 Gyr. As noted in several other investigations, there is a striking deficiency of stars in certain parts of the color-magnitude diagram; in M4 we find a pronounced gap over approx.0.6 mag at the base of the subgiant branch

  20. A consistency test of white dwarf and main sequence ages: NGC 6791

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Córsico A.H.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available NGC 6791 is an open cluster that it is so close to us that can be imaged down to very faint luminosities. The main sequence turn-off age (∼8 Gyr and the age derived from the cut-off of the white dwarf luminosity function (∼6 Gyr were found to be significantly different. Here we demonstrate that the origin of this age discrepancy lies in an incorrect evaluation of the white dwarf cooling ages, and we show that when the relevant physical separation processes are included in the calculation of white dwarf sequences both ages are coincident.

  1. Systematic main sequence photometry of globular cluster stars for age determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcaino, G.; Liller, W.

    1984-01-01

    The individual photometric study of the coeval stars in globular clusters presents one of the best observational tests of the stellar evolution theory. Our own globular cluster system provides fundamental clues to the dynamical and chemical evolutionary history of the galaxy, and the study of their ages give a lower limit to the age of the galaxy as well as to that of the universe. The authors have undertaken a systematic research program, and discuss the ages deduced by fitting main sequence photometry to theoretical isochrones of six galactic globular clusters: M4, M22, M30, NGC 288, NGC 3201 and NGC 6397. (Auth.)

  2. Spectroscopic and asteroseismic analysis of the remarkable main-sequence A star KIC 11145123

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takada-Hidai, Masahide; Kurtz, Donald W.; Shibahashi, Hiromoto

    2017-01-01

    A spectroscopic analysis was carried out to clarify the properties of KIC 11145123 - the first main-sequence star with a directly measured core-to-surface rotation profile - based on spectra observed with the High Dispersion Spectrograph (HDS) of the Subaru telescope. The atmospheric parameters (T......-eff = 7600 K, log g = 4.2, xi = 3.1 kms(-1) and [Fe/H] = -0.71 dex), the radial and rotation velocities, and elemental abundances were obtained by analysing line strengths and fitting line profiles, which were calculated with a 1D LTE model atmosphere. The main properties of KIC 11145123 are: (1) a low [Fe...

  3. Pre-main-sequence depletion of Li-6 and Li-7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proffitt, C.R.; Michaud, G.

    1989-01-01

    Depletion of Li-6 and Li-7 during premain-sequence contraction has been calculated for several evolutionary sequences. Slightly greater Li-7 depletion was found than by other recent workers. On the premain sequence, Li-6 is depleted by a factor of at least 10 in the present models for stars with T(eff) lower than 6800 K on the main sequence. Because of the shorter destruction time scale for Li-6 as compared to Li-7, the determination of the abundances of these two isotopes would place strict constraints on the structure of premain-sequence stars. 39 refs

  4. Maven for Eclipse

    CERN Document Server

    Shah, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    If you want to learn about Maven and use it from within Eclipse to develop Java projects, this is the book for you. Prior experience in developing Java projects and using the Eclipse IDE is presumed. Whether you are a beginner or an experienced developer, this book will get you up and running quickly, with a hands-on approach.

  5. Asteroseismic measurement of surface-to-core rotation in a main-sequence star*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurtz Donald W.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We have discovered rotationally split core g-mode triplets and surface p-mode triplets and quintuplets in a terminal age main-sequence A star, KIC 11145123, that shows both δ Sct p-mode pulsations and γ Dor g-mode pulsations. This gives the first robust determination of the rotation of the deep core and surface of a main-sequence star, essentially model-independently. We find its rotation to be nearly uniform with a period near 100 d, but we show with high confidence that the surface rotates slightly faster than the core. A strong angular momentum transfer mechanism must be operating to produce the nearly rigid rotation, and a mechanism other than viscosity must be operating to produce a more rapidly rotating surface than core. Our asteroseismic result, along with previous asteroseismic constraints on internal rotation in some B stars, and measurements of internal rotation in some subgiant, giant and white dwarf stars, has made angular momentum transport in stars throughout their lifetimes an observational science.

  6. Impacts of WIMP dark matter upon stellar evolution: main-sequence stars

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, Pat; Edsjo, Joakim

    2008-01-01

    The presence of large amounts of WIMP dark matter in stellar cores has been shown to have significant effects upon models of stellar evolution. We present a series of detailed grids of WIMP-influenced stellar models for main sequence stars, computed using the DarkStars code. We describe the changes in stellar structure and main sequence evolution which occur for masses ranging from 0.3 to 2.0 solar masses and metallicities from Z = 0.0003-0.02, as a function of the rate of energy injection by WIMPs. We then go on to show what rates of energy injection can be obtained using realistic orbital parameters for stars near supermassive black holes, including detailed considerations of dark matter halo velocity and density profiles. Capture and annihilation rates are strongly boosted when stars follow elliptical rather than circular orbits, causing WIMP annihilation to provide up to 100 times the energy of hydrogen fusion in stars at the Galactic centre.

  7. Characterizing Intermediate-Mass, Pre-Main-Sequence Stars via X-Ray Emision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haze Nunez, Evan; Povich, Matthew Samuel; Binder, Breanna Arlene; Broos, Patrick; Townsley, Leisa K.

    2018-01-01

    The X-ray emission from intermediate-mass, pre-main-sequence stars (IMPS) can provide useful constraints on the ages of very young (${getting power from the gravitational contraction of the star. Main-sequence late-B and A-type stars are not expected to be strong X-ray emitters, because they lack the both strong winds of more massive stars and the magneto-coronal activity of lower-mass stars. There is, however, mounting evidence that IMPS are powerful intrinsic x-ray emitters during their convection-dominated early evolution, before the development and rapid growth of a radiation zone. We present our prime candidates for intrinsic, coronal X-ray emission from IMPS identified in the Chandra Carina Complex Project. The Carina massive star-forming complex is of special interest due to the wide variation of star formation stages within the region. Candidate IMPS were identified using infrared spectral energy distribution (SED) models. X-ray properties, including thermal plasma temperatures and absorption-corrected fluxes, were derived from XSPEC fits performed using absorption ($N_{H}$) constrained by the extinction values returned by the infrared SED fits. We find that IMPS have systematically higher X-ray luminosities compared to their lower-mass cousins, the TTauri stars.This work is supported by the National Science Foundation under grant CAREER-1454334 and by NASA through Chandra Award 18200040.

  8. Effects of main-sequence mass loss on the turnoff ages of globular clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzik, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Willson, Bowen, and Struck-Marcell have proposed that globular cluster main-sequence turnoff ages can be reconciled with the lower ages of the Galaxy and universe deduced from other methods by incorporating an epoch of early main-sequence mass-loss by stars of spectral types A through early-F. The proposed mass loss is pulsation-driven, and facilitated by rapid rotation. This paper presents stellar evolution calculations of Pop. II (Z = 0.001) mass-losing stars of initial mass 0.8 to 1.6 M circle dot , with exponentially-decreasing mass loss rates of e-folding times 0.5 to 2.0 Gyr, evolving to a final mass of 0.7 M circle dot . The calculations indicate that a globular cluster with apparent turnoff age 18 Gyr could have an actual age as low as ∼12 Gyr. Observational implications that may help to verify the hypothesis, e.g. low C/N abundance ratios among red giants following first dredge-up, blue stragglers, red giant deficiencies, and signatures in cluster mass/luminosity functions, are also discussed.25 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  9. Discovery of Extended Main-sequence Turnoffs in Four Young Massive Clusters in the Magellanic Clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Chengyuan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); De Grijs, Richard [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics and Department of Astronomy, Peking University, Yi He Yuan Lu 5, Hai Dian District, Beijing 100871 (China); Deng, Licai [Key Laboratory for Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20A Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China); Milone, Antonino P. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Mt. Stromlo Observatory, Cotter Road, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia)

    2017-08-01

    An increasing number of young massive clusters (YMCs) in the Magellanic Clouds have been found to exhibit bimodal or extended main sequences (MSs) in their color–magnitude diagrams (CMDs). These features are usually interpreted in terms of a coeval stellar population with different stellar rotational rates, where the blue and red MS stars are populated by non- (or slowly) and rapidly rotating stellar populations, respectively. However, some studies have shown that an age spread of several million years is required to reproduce the observed wide turnoff regions in some YMCs. Here we present the ultraviolet–visual CMDs of four Large and Small Magellanic Cloud YMCs, NGC 330, NGC 1805, NGC 1818, and NGC 2164, based on high-precision Hubble Space Telescope photometry. We show that they all exhibit extended main-sequence turnoffs (MSTOs). The importance of age spreads and stellar rotation in reproducing the observations is investigated. The observed extended MSTOs cannot be explained by stellar rotation alone. Adopting an age spread of 35–50 Myr can alleviate this difficulty. We conclude that stars in these clusters are characterized by ranges in both their ages and rotation properties, but the origin of the age spread in these clusters remains unknown.

  10. A Population Study of Wide-Separation Brown Dwarf Companions to Main Sequence Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeffrey J.

    2005-01-01

    Increased interest in infrared astronomy has opened the frontier to study cooler objects that shed significant light on the formation of planetary systems. Brown dwarf research provides a wealth of information useful for sorting through a myriad of proposed formation theories. Our study combines observational data from 2MASS with rigorous computer simulations to estimate the true population of long-range (greater than 1000 AU) brown dwarf companions in the solar neighborhood (less than 25 pc from Earth). Expanding on Gizis et al. (2001), we have found the margin of error in previous estimates to be significantly underestimated after we included orbit eccentricity, longitude of pericenter, angle of inclination, field star density, and primary and secondary luminosities as parameters influencing the companion systems in observational studies. We apply our simulation results to current L- and T-dwarf catalogs to provide updated estimates on the frequency of wide-separation brown dwarf companions to main sequence stars.

  11. Effect of Generalized Uncertainty Principle on Main-Sequence Stars and White Dwarfs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Moussa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the effect of generalized uncertainty principle, emerged from different approaches of quantum gravity within Planck scale, on thermodynamic properties of photon, nonrelativistic ideal gases, and degenerate fermions. A modification in pressure, particle number, and energy density are calculated. Astrophysical objects such as main-sequence stars and white dwarfs are examined and discussed as an application. A modification in Lane-Emden equation due to a change in a polytropic relation caused by the presence of quantum gravity is investigated. The applicable range of quantum gravity parameters is estimated. The bounds in the perturbed parameters are relatively large but they may be considered reasonable values in the astrophysical regime.

  12. New radio detections of early-type pre-main-sequence stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Stephen L.; Brown, Alexander; Linsky, Jeffrey L.

    1990-01-01

    Results of VLA radio continuum observations of 13 early-type pre-main-sequence stars selected from the 1984 catalog of Finkenzeller and Mundt are presented. The stars HD 259431 and MWC 1080 were detected at 3.6 cm, while HD 200775 and TY CrA were detected at both 3.6 and 6 cm. The flux density of HD 200775 has a frequency dependence consistent with the behavior expected for free-free emission originating in a fully ionized wind. However, an observation in A configuration suggests that the source geometry may not be spherically symmetric. In contrast, the spectral index of TY CrA is negative with a flux behavior implying nonthermal emission. The physical mechanism responsible for the nonthermal emission has not yet been identified, although gyrosynchrotron and synchrotron processes cannot be ruled out.

  13. THE DISCOVERY OF SOLAR-LIKE ACTIVITY CYCLES BEYOND THE END OF THE MAIN SEQUENCE?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Route, Matthew, E-mail: mroute@purdue.edu [Research Computing, Information Technology at Purdue, Purdue University, 155 S. Grant Street, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2016-10-20

    The long-term magnetic behavior of objects near the cooler end of the stellar main sequence is poorly understood. Most theoretical work on the generation of magnetism in these ultracool dwarfs (spectral type ≥M7 stars and brown dwarfs) suggests that their magnetic fields should not change in strength and direction. Using polarized radio emission measurements of their magnetic field orientations, I demonstrate that these cool, low-mass, fully convective objects appear to undergo magnetic polarity reversals analogous to those that occur on the Sun. This powerful new technique potentially indicates that the patterns of magnetic activity displayed by the Sun continue to exist, despite the fully convective interiors of these objects, in contravention of several leading theories of the generation of magnetic fields by internal dynamos.

  14. New radio detections of early-type pre-main-sequence stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, S.L.; Brown, A.; Linsky, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    Results of VLA radio continuum observations of 13 early-type pre-main-sequence stars selected from the 1984 catalog of Finkenzeller and Mundt are presented. The stars HD 259431 and MWC 1080 were detected at 3.6 cm, while HD 200775 and TY CrA were detected at both 3.6 and 6 cm. The flux density of HD 200775 has a frequency dependence consistent with the behavior expected for free-free emission originating in a fully ionized wind. However, an observation in A configuration suggests that the source geometry may not be spherically symmetric. In contrast, the spectral index of TY CrA is negative with a flux behavior implying nonthermal emission. The physical mechanism responsible for the nonthermal emission has not yet been identified, although gyrosynchrotron and synchrotron processes cannot be ruled out. 32 refs

  15. Making Sense of Atmospheric Models and Fundamental Stellar Properties at the Bottom of the Main Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieterich, Sergio; Henry, Todd; Jao, W.-C.; Washington, Robert; Silverstein, Michele; Winters, J.; RECONS

    2018-01-01

    We present a detailed comparison of atmospheric model predictions and photometric observations for late M and L dwarfs. We discuss which wavelength regions are best for determining the fundamental properties of these cool stellar and substellar atmospheres and use this analysis to refine the HR diagram for the hydrogen burning limit first presented in 2014. We also add several new objects to the HR diagram and find little qualitative difference in the HR diagram's overall morphology when compared to our 2014 results. The L2 dwarf 2MASS 0523-1403 remains the smallest hydrogen burning star for which we calculated a radius, thus likely indicating the end of the stellar main sequence. This work is supported by the NSF Astronomy and Astrophysics Postdoctoral Fellowship program through grant AST-1400680.

  16. Globules, dark clouds, and low mass pre-main sequence stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyland, A.R.

    1981-01-01

    The current observational and theoretical literature on Bok globules and their relationship to star formation is reviewed. Recent observations of globules at optical, infrared, and far infrared wavelengths are shown to provide important constraints on their structure and evolutionary status, and the suggestion that many globules are gravitationally unstable is seriously questioned. Dark clouds associated with T associations are well-known sites of recent and continuing star formation. In recent years molecular observations and far infrared surveys have provided maps of such regions from which possible sites of star formation may be identified. Optical (Hα) and near infrared surveys have enabled a clear identification of pre-main sequence (PMS) objects within the clouds. Methods of distinguishing these from background objects and the nature of their infrared excesses are examined in the light of recent observations in the near and far infrared. The perennial question as to the existence of anomalous reddening within dark clouds is also investigated. (Auth.)

  17. Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project - VI. Identification of Pre-Main-Sequence Stars using Machine Learning techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksoll, Victor F.; Gouliermis, Dimitrios A.; Klessen, Ralf S.; Grebel, Eva K.; Sabbi, Elena; Anderson, Jay; Lennon, Daniel J.; Cignoni, Michele; de Marchi, Guido; Smith, Linda J.; Tosi, Monica; van der Marel, Roeland P.

    2018-05-01

    The Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project (HTTP) has provided an unprecedented photometric coverage of the entire star-burst region of 30 Doradus down to the half Solar mass limit. We use the deep stellar catalogue of HTTP to identify all the pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars of the region, i.e., stars that have not started their lives on the main-sequence yet. The photometric distinction of these stars from the more evolved populations is not a trivial task due to several factors that alter their colour-magnitude diagram positions. The identification of PMS stars requires, thus, sophisticated statistical methods. We employ Machine Learning Classification techniques on the HTTP survey of more than 800,000 sources to identify the PMS stellar content of the observed field. Our methodology consists of 1) carefully selecting the most probable low-mass PMS stellar population of the star-forming cluster NGC2070, 2) using this sample to train classification algorithms to build a predictive model for PMS stars, and 3) applying this model in order to identify the most probable PMS content across the entire Tarantula Nebula. We employ Decision Tree, Random Forest and Support Vector Machine classifiers to categorise the stars as PMS and Non-PMS. The Random Forest and Support Vector Machine provided the most accurate models, predicting about 20,000 sources with a candidateship probability higher than 50 percent, and almost 10,000 PMS candidates with a probability higher than 95 percent. This is the richest and most accurate photometric catalogue of extragalactic PMS candidates across the extent of a whole star-forming complex.

  18. The Physical Driver of the Optical Eigenvector 1 in Quasar Main Sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panda, Swayamtrupta; Czerny, Bożena [Center for Theoretical Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland); Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland); Wildy, Conor, E-mail: panda@cft.edu.pl [Center for Theoretical Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland)

    2017-11-07

    Quasars are complex sources, characterized by broad band spectra from radio through optical to X-ray band, with numerous emission and absorption features. This complexity leads to rich diagnostics. However, Boroson and Green (1992) used Principal Component Analysis (PCA), and with this analysis they were able to show significant correlations between the measured parameters. The leading component, related to Eigenvector 1 (EV1) was dominated by the anticorrelation between the FeII optical emission and [OIII] line and EV1 alone contained 30% of the total variance. It opened a way in defining a quasar main sequence, in close analogy to the stellar main sequence on the Hertzsprung-Russel (HR) diagram (Sulentic et al., 2001). The question still remains which of the basic theoretically motivated parameters of an active nucleus (Eddington ratio, black hole mass, accretion rate, spin, and viewing angle) is the main driver behind the EV1. Here we limit ourselves to the optical waveband, and concentrate on theoretical modeling the FeII to Hβ ratio, and we test the hypothesis that the physical driver of EV1 is the maximum of the accretion disk temperature, reflected in the shape of the spectral energy distribution (SED). We performed computations of the Hβ and optical FeII for a broad range of SED peak position using CLOUDY photoionisation code. We assumed that both Hβ and FeII emission come from the Broad Line Region represented as a constant density cloud in a plane-parallel geometry. We expected that a hotter disk continuum will lead to more efficient production of FeII but our computations show that the FeII to Hβ ratio actually drops with the rise of the disk temperature. Thus either hypothesis is incorrect, or approximations used in our paper for the description of the line emissivity is inadequate.

  19. Chemically Dissected Rotation Curves of the Galactic Bulge from Main-sequence Proper Motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson, William I.; Calamida, Annalisa; Sahu, Kailash C.; Brown, Thomas M.; Gennaro, Mario; Avila, Roberto J.; Valenti, Jeff; Debattista, Victor P.; Rich, R. Michael; Minniti, Dante; Zoccali, Manuela; Aufdemberge, Emily R.

    2018-05-01

    We report results from an exploratory study implementing a new probe of Galactic evolution using archival Hubble Space Telescope imaging observations. Precise proper motions are combined with photometric relative metallicity and temperature indices, to produce the proper-motion rotation curves of the Galactic bulge separately for metal-poor and metal-rich main-sequence samples. This provides a “pencil-beam” complement to large-scale wide-field surveys, which to date have focused on the more traditional bright giant branch tracers. We find strong evidence that the Galactic bulge rotation curves drawn from “metal-rich” and “metal-poor” samples are indeed discrepant. The “metal-rich” sample shows greater rotation amplitude and a steeper gradient against line-of-sight distance, as well as possibly a stronger central concentration along the line of sight. This may represent a new detection of differing orbital anisotropy between metal-rich and metal-poor bulge objects. We also investigate selection effects that would be implied for the longitudinal proper-motion cut often used to isolate a “pure-bulge” sample. Extensive investigation of synthetic stellar populations suggests that instrumental and observational artifacts are unlikely to account for the observed rotation curve differences. Thus, proper-motion-based rotation curves can be used to probe chemodynamical correlations for main-sequence tracer stars, which are orders of magnitude more numerous in the Galactic bulge than the bright giant branch tracers. We discuss briefly the prospect of using this new tool to constrain detailed models of Galactic formation and evolution. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope and obtained from the data archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute. STScI is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  20. The Physical Driver of the Optical Eigenvector 1 in Quasar Main Sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swayamtrupta Panda

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Quasars are complex sources, characterized by broad band spectra from radio through optical to X-ray band, with numerous emission and absorption features. This complexity leads to rich diagnostics. However, Boroson and Green (1992 used Principal Component Analysis (PCA, and with this analysis they were able to show significant correlations between the measured parameters. The leading component, related to Eigenvector 1 (EV1 was dominated by the anticorrelation between the FeII optical emission and [OIII] line and EV1 alone contained 30% of the total variance. It opened a way in defining a quasar main sequence, in close analogy to the stellar main sequence on the Hertzsprung-Russel (HR diagram (Sulentic et al., 2001. The question still remains which of the basic theoretically motivated parameters of an active nucleus (Eddington ratio, black hole mass, accretion rate, spin, and viewing angle is the main driver behind the EV1. Here we limit ourselves to the optical waveband, and concentrate on theoretical modeling the FeII to Hβ ratio, and we test the hypothesis that the physical driver of EV1 is the maximum of the accretion disk temperature, reflected in the shape of the spectral energy distribution (SED. We performed computations of the Hβ and optical FeII for a broad range of SED peak position using CLOUDY photoionisation code. We assumed that both Hβ and FeII emission come from the Broad Line Region represented as a constant density cloud in a plane-parallel geometry. We expected that a hotter disk continuum will lead to more efficient production of FeII but our computations show that the FeII to Hβ ratio actually drops with the rise of the disk temperature. Thus either hypothesis is incorrect, or approximations used in our paper for the description of the line emissivity is inadequate.

  1. Physical Nature and Orbital Behavior of the Eclipsing System UZ Leonis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Woo; Park, Jang-Ho

    2018-03-01

    New CCD photometric observations of UZ Leo were obtained between 2012 February and 2013 April, and on 2017 February. Its physical properties were derived from detailed analyses of our light curves and existing radial velocities. The results indicate that this system is a totally eclipsing A-subtype overcontact binary with both a high fill-out factor of 76% and a third light source contributing 12% light in the B bandpass, 10% in V, and 7% in R. The light residuals between observations and theoretical models are satisfactorily fitted by adopting a magnetic cool spot on the more massive primary star. Including our 12 measurements, a total of 172 eclipse times were used for ephemeris computations. We found that the orbital period of UZ Leo has varied due to a periodic oscillation superposed on an upward parabolic variation. The observed period increase at a rate of +3.49× {10}-7 day yr‑1 can be plausibly explained by some combination of non-conservative mass transfer from the secondary to the primary component and angular momentum loss due to magnetic braking. The period and semi-amplitude of the oscillation are about 139 years and 0.0225 days, respectively, which is interpreted as a light-time effect due to a third component with a mass of {M}3\\sin {i}3=0.30 {M}ȯ . Because the third lights of 7%–12% indicate that the circumbinary object is very overluminous for its mass, it would possibly match a white dwarf, rather than an M-type main sequence.

  2. Study of the eclipses of cataclysmic variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, E.H.

    1986-01-01

    The cataclysmic variables (CV's) are all close binary stars in which a secondary star fills its Roche lobe and transfers mass to its white dwarf companion. The transferred mass forms an accretion disk or ring, around the white dwarf. Reliable determinations of the masses of the two-component stars, the distributions of temperature and brightness across the disk, and other parameters, are necessary to understand both the CV's and the accretion processes, but they are extremely difficult to measure. The best way to obtain this data is to observe eclipsing CV's. The author developed a computer program to synthesize light curves of eclipsing CV's using the most realistic model built so far to analyze the eclipses of CV's. A statistical method was developed to perform a complete error analysis of the results of the numerical studies. High-speed, multi-color photometry of three eclipsing CV's - HT Cas, U Gem, and AC Cnc - was obtained. Using the program to analyze the observed light curves, the author derived, for each system, the orbital inclination, the sizes, masses and temperature of the two component stars, and the temperature distribution across the disk

  3. Lessons from ECLIPSE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faner, Rosa; Tal-Singer, Ruth; Riley, John H

    2014-01-01

    The Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate End-points (ECLIPSE) study was a large 3-year observational controlled multicentre international study aimed at defining clinically relevant subtypes of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and identifying novel biomar...

  4. WIYN Open Cluster Study: Tidal Interactions in Solar type Binaries

    OpenAIRE

    Meibom, S.; Mathieu, R. D.

    2003-01-01

    We present an ongoing study on tidal interactions in late-type close binary stars. New results on tidal circularization are combined with existing data to test and constrain theoretical predictions of tidal circularization in the pre-main-sequence (PMS) phase and throughout the main-sequence phase of stellar evolution. Current data suggest that tidal circularization during the PMS phase sets the tidal cutoff period for binary populations younger than ~1 Gyr. Binary populations older than ~1 G...

  5. AN EXTREME ANALOGUE OF ϵ AURIGAE: AN M-GIANT ECLIPSED EVERY 69 YEARS BY A LARGE OPAQUE DISK SURROUNDING A SMALL HOT SOURCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, Joseph E.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Lund, Michael B.; Conroy, Kyle E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, 6301 Stevenson Center, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Siverd, Robert J. [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, 6740 Cortona Drive, Suite 102, Santa Barbara, CA 93117 (United States); Pepper, Joshua [Department of Physics, Lehigh University, 16 Memorial Drive East, Bethlehem, PA 18015 (United States); Tang, Sumin [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kafka, Stella [American Association of Variable Star Observers, 49 Bay State Road, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Gaudi, B. Scott; Stevens, Daniel J.; Kochanek, Christopher S. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Beatty, Thomas G. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Shappee, Benjamin J. [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)

    2016-05-01

    We present TYC 2505-672-1 as a newly discovered and remarkable eclipsing system comprising an M-type red giant that undergoes a ∼3.45 year long, near-total eclipse (depth of ∼4.5 mag) with a very long period of ∼69.1 years. TYC 2505-672-1 is now the longest-period eclipsing binary system yet discovered, more than twice as long as that of the currently longest-period system, ϵ Aurigae. We show from analysis of the light curve including both our own data and historical data spanning more than 120 years and from modeling of the spectral energy distribution, both before and during eclipse, that the red giant primary is orbited by a moderately hot source ( T {sub eff} ≈ 8000 K) that is itself surrounded by an extended, opaque circumstellar disk. From the measured ratio of luminosities, the radius of the hot companion must be in the range of 0.1–0.5 R {sub ⊙} (depending on the assumed radius of the red giant primary), which is an order of magnitude smaller than that for a main sequence A star and 1–2 orders of magnitude larger than that for a white dwarf. The companion is therefore most likely a “stripped red giant” subdwarf-B type star destined to become a He white dwarf. It is, however, somewhat cooler than most sdB stars, implying a very low mass for this “pre-He-WD” star. The opaque disk surrounding this hot source may be a remnant of the stripping of its former hydrogen envelope. However, it is puzzling how this object became stripped, given that it is at present so distant (orbital semimajor axis of ∼24 au) from the current red giant primary star. Extrapolating from our calculated ephemeris, the next eclipse should begin in early UT 2080 April and end in mid UT 2083 September (eclipse center UT 2081 December 24). In the meantime, radial velocity observations would establish the masses of the components, and high-cadence UV observations could potentially reveal oscillations of the hot companion that would further constrain its evolutionary

  6. An extensive VLT/X-shooter library of photospheric templates of pre-main sequence stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manara, C. F.; Frasca, A.; Alcalá, J. M.; Natta, A.; Stelzer, B.; Testi, L.

    2017-09-01

    Context. Studies of the formation and evolution of young stars and their disks rely on knowledge of the stellar parameters of the young stars. The derivation of these parameters is commonly based on comparison with photospheric template spectra. Furthermore, chromospheric emission in young active stars impacts the measurement of mass accretion rates, a key quantity for studying disk evolution. Aims: Here we derive stellar properties of low-mass (M⋆≲ 2 M⊙) pre-main sequence stars without disks, which represent ideal photospheric templates for studies of young stars. We also use these spectra to constrain the impact of chromospheric emission on the measurements of mass accretion rates. The spectra are reduced, flux-calibrated, and corrected for telluric absorption, and are made available to the community. Methods: We derive the spectral type for our targets by analyzing the photospheric molecular features present in their VLT/X-shooter spectra by means of spectral indices and comparison of the relative strength of photospheric absorption features. We also measure effective temperature, gravity, projected rotational velocity, and radial velocity from our spectra by fitting them with synthetic spectra with the ROTFIT tool. The targets have negligible extinction (AVpresented in our previous publication. We perform synthetic photometry on the spectra to derive the typical colors of young stars in different filters. We measure the luminosity of the emission lines present in the spectra and estimate the noise due to chromospheric emission in the measurements of accretion luminosity in accreting stars. Results: We provide a calibration of the photospheric colors of young pre-main sequence stars as a function of their spectral type in a set of standard broad-band optical and near-infrared filters. The logarithm of the noise on the accretion luminosity normalized to the stellar luminosity is roughly constant and equal to -2.3 for targets with masses larger than 1 solar

  7. Galactic chemical evolution with main-sequence mass loss and the distribution of F and G dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzik, J.A.; Struck-Marcell, C.

    1988-01-01

    Simple closed galactic chemical-evolution models incorporating early main-sequence stellar mass loss have been developed for disk ages of 5, 10, and 15 Gyr. Relative to models without stellar mass loss, the models are shown to produce a 30-60 percent increase in the present mass ratio of dwarfs to dwarfs plus remnants, and a 200-250 percent increase in the total mass of late F dwarfs remaining on the main sequence at the current disk age. For present disk ages 5 and 10 Gyr, the total mass of mid-F dwarfs remaining on the main sequence is also shown to increase by 90-120 percent. It is concluded that models with main-sequence mass loss have a slightly reduced gas metallicity and slightly increased gas fraction midway through the evolution. 30 references

  8. Verifying reddening and extinction for Gaia DR1 TGAS main sequence stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gontcharov, George A.; Mosenkov, Aleksandr V.

    2017-12-01

    We compare eight sources of reddening and extinction estimates for approximately 60 000 Gaia DR1 Tycho-Gaia Astrometric Solution (TGAS) main sequence stars younger than 3 Gyr with a relative error of the Gaia parallax less than 0.1. For the majority of the stars, the best 2D dust emission-based reddening maps show considerable differences between the reddening to infinity and the one calculated to the stellar distance using the barometric law of the dust distribution. This proves that the majority of the TGAS stars are embedded in the Galactic dust layer and a proper 3D treatment of the reddening/extinction is required to calculate their dereddened colours and absolute magnitudes reliably. Sources with 3D estimates of reddening are tested in their ability to put the stars among the PARSEC and MIST theoretical isochrones in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram based on the precise Gaia, Tycho-2, 2MASS and WISE photometry. Only the reddening/extinction estimates by Arenou et al. and Gontcharov, being appropriate for nearby stars within 280 pc, provide both the minimal number of outliers bluer than any reasonable isochrone and the correct number of stars younger than 3 Gyr in agreement with the Besançon Galaxy model.

  9. MAGNETIC ACTIVITY ANALYSIS FOR A SAMPLE OF G-TYPE MAIN SEQUENCE KEPLER TARGETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehrabi, Ahmad [Department of Physics, Bu Ali Sina University, 65178, 016016, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); He, Han [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Khosroshahi, Habib, E-mail: mehrabi@basu.ac.ir [School of Astronomy, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-01-10

    The variation of a stellar light curve owing to rotational modulation by magnetic features (starspots and faculae) on the star’s surface can be used to investigate the magnetic properties of the host star. In this paper, we use the periodicity and magnitude of the light-curve variation as two proxies to study the stellar magnetic properties for a large sample of G-type main sequence Kepler targets, for which the rotation periods were recently determined. By analyzing the correlation between the two magnetic proxies, it is found that: (1) the two proxies are positively correlated for most of the stars in our sample, and the percentages of negative, zero, and positive correlations are 4.27%, 6.81%, and 88.91%, respectively; (2) negative correlation stars cannot have a large magnitude of light-curve variation; and (3) with the increase of rotation period, the relative number of positive correlation stars decreases and the negative correlation one increases. These results indicate that stars with shorter rotation period tend to have positive correlation between the two proxies, and a good portion of the positive correlation stars have a larger magnitude of light-curve variation (and hence more intense magnetic activities) than negative correlation stars.

  10. Main sequence of the metal-poor globular cluster M30 (NGC 7099)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcaino, G.; Liller, W.

    1980-01-01

    We present photographic photometry for 673 stars in the metal-poor globular cluster M30 (NGC 7099). The Racine wedge was used with the CTIO 1-m Yale telescope (Δm=3/sup m/.60), the CTIO 4-m telescope (Δm=6/sup m/.83), and the ESO 3.6-m telescope (Δm=4/sup m/.12) to extend the photoelectric limit from Vapprox. =16.3 to Vapprox. =20.4. For the main-sequence turn-off, we have determined its position to lie at V=18.4 +- 0.1 (m.e.) and B-V=0.49 +- 0.03 (m.e.). From these values, we calculate the intrinsic values M/sub v/ =3.87 and (B-V) 0 =0.47. For the cluster as a whole, we derive a distance modulus (m-M)/sub V/=14.53 +- 0.15 and reddening E(B-V)=0.02 +- 0.02. Using the models of Iben and Rood [Astrophys. J. 159, 605 (1970)] and the isochrones of Demarque and McClure [(1977), in Evolution of Galaxies and Stellar Populations, edited by B. Tinsley and R. B. Larson (Yale University Observatory, New Haven), p. 199], we deduce the cluster's age to be 14.5( +- 4.0) x 10 9 yr. The large uncertainty in this value emphasizes the dire need for more work on cluster evolution

  11. Phylogenetic reconstruction of Bantu kinship challenges Main Sequence Theory of human social evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opie, Christopher; Shultz, Susanne; Atkinson, Quentin D; Currie, Thomas; Mace, Ruth

    2014-12-09

    Kinship provides the fundamental structure of human society: descent determines the inheritance pattern between generations, whereas residence rules govern the location a couple moves to after they marry. In turn, descent and residence patterns determine other key relationships such as alliance, trade, and marriage partners. Hunter-gatherer kinship patterns are viewed as flexible, whereas agricultural societies are thought to have developed much more stable kinship patterns as they expanded during the Holocene. Among the Bantu farmers of sub-Saharan Africa, the ancestral kinship patterns present at the beginning of the expansion are hotly contested, with some arguing for matrilineal and matrilocal patterns, whereas others maintain that any kind of lineality or sex-biased dispersal only emerged much later. Here, we use Bayesian phylogenetic methods to uncover the history of Bantu kinship patterns and trace the interplay between descent and residence systems. The results suggest a number of switches in both descent and residence patterns as Bantu farming spread, but that the first Bantu populations were patrilocal with patrilineal descent. Across the phylogeny, a change in descent triggered a switch away from patrifocal kinship, whereas a change in residence triggered a switch back from matrifocal kinship. These results challenge "Main Sequence Theory," which maintains that changes in residence rules precede change in other social structures. We also indicate the trajectory of kinship change, shedding new light on how this fundamental structure of society developed as farming spread across the globe during the Neolithic.

  12. THE ORIGIN OF HVS17, AN UNBOUND MAIN SEQUENCE B STAR AT 50 kpc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Warren R.; Geller, Margaret J.; Kenyon, Scott J. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Cohen, Judith G., E-mail: wbrown@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: mgeller@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: skenyon@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: jlc@astro.caltech.edu [Palomar Observatory, Mail Stop 249-17, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2013-09-20

    We analyze Keck Echellette Spectrograph and Imager spectroscopy of HVS17, a B-type star traveling with a Galactic rest frame radial velocity of +445 km s{sup –1} in the outer halo of the Milky Way. HVS17 has the projected rotation of a main sequence B star and is chemically peculiar, with solar iron abundance and sub-solar alpha abundance. Comparing measured T{sub eff} and log g with stellar evolution tracks implies that HVS17 is a 3.91 ± 0.09 M{sub ☉}, 153 ± 9 Myr old star at a Galactocentric distance of r = 48.5 ± 4.6 kpc. The time between its formation and ejection significantly exceeds 10 Myr and thus is difficult to reconcile with any Galactic disk runaway scenario involving massive stars. The observations are consistent, on the other hand, with a hypervelocity star ejection from the Galactic center. We show that Gaia proper motion measurements will easily discriminate between a disk and Galactic center origin, thus allowing us to use HVS17 as a test particle to probe the shape of the Milky Way's dark matter halo.

  13. THE ORIGIN OF HVS17, AN UNBOUND MAIN SEQUENCE B STAR AT 50 kpc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Warren R.; Geller, Margaret J.; Kenyon, Scott J.; Cohen, Judith G.

    2013-01-01

    We analyze Keck Echellette Spectrograph and Imager spectroscopy of HVS17, a B-type star traveling with a Galactic rest frame radial velocity of +445 km s –1 in the outer halo of the Milky Way. HVS17 has the projected rotation of a main sequence B star and is chemically peculiar, with solar iron abundance and sub-solar alpha abundance. Comparing measured T eff and log g with stellar evolution tracks implies that HVS17 is a 3.91 ± 0.09 M ☉ , 153 ± 9 Myr old star at a Galactocentric distance of r = 48.5 ± 4.6 kpc. The time between its formation and ejection significantly exceeds 10 Myr and thus is difficult to reconcile with any Galactic disk runaway scenario involving massive stars. The observations are consistent, on the other hand, with a hypervelocity star ejection from the Galactic center. We show that Gaia proper motion measurements will easily discriminate between a disk and Galactic center origin, thus allowing us to use HVS17 as a test particle to probe the shape of the Milky Way's dark matter halo

  14. AN OBJECTIVE DEFINITION FOR THE MAIN SEQUENCE OF STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renzini, Alvio [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Peng, Ying-jie, E-mail: alvio.renzini@oapd.inaf.it, E-mail: y.peng@mrao.cam.ac.uk [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, 19 J. J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)

    2015-03-10

    The main sequence (MS) of star-forming (SF) galaxies plays a fundamental role in driving galaxy evolution and our efforts to understand it. However, different studies find significant differences in the normalization, slope, and shape of the MS. These discrepancies arise mainly from the different selection criteria adopted to isolate SF galaxies, which may include or exclude galaxies with a specific star formation rate (SFR) substantially below the MS value. To obviate this limitation of all current criteria, we propose an objective definition of the MS that does not rely at all on a pre-selection of SF galaxies. Constructing the 3D SFR–mass–number plot, the MS is then defined as the ridge line of the SF peak, as illustrated with various figures. The advantages of such a definition are manifold. If generally adopted, it will facilitate the inter-comparison of results from different groups using the same SFR and stellar mass diagnostics, or it will highlight the relative systematics of different diagnostics. All of this could help to understand MS galaxies as systems in a quasi-steady state equilibrium and would also provide a more objective criterion for identifying quenching galaxies.

  15. AN OBJECTIVE DEFINITION FOR THE MAIN SEQUENCE OF STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renzini, Alvio; Peng, Ying-jie

    2015-01-01

    The main sequence (MS) of star-forming (SF) galaxies plays a fundamental role in driving galaxy evolution and our efforts to understand it. However, different studies find significant differences in the normalization, slope, and shape of the MS. These discrepancies arise mainly from the different selection criteria adopted to isolate SF galaxies, which may include or exclude galaxies with a specific star formation rate (SFR) substantially below the MS value. To obviate this limitation of all current criteria, we propose an objective definition of the MS that does not rely at all on a pre-selection of SF galaxies. Constructing the 3D SFR–mass–number plot, the MS is then defined as the ridge line of the SF peak, as illustrated with various figures. The advantages of such a definition are manifold. If generally adopted, it will facilitate the inter-comparison of results from different groups using the same SFR and stellar mass diagnostics, or it will highlight the relative systematics of different diagnostics. All of this could help to understand MS galaxies as systems in a quasi-steady state equilibrium and would also provide a more objective criterion for identifying quenching galaxies

  16. ULTRAVIOLET-SELECTED FIELD AND PRE-MAIN-SEQUENCE STARS TOWARD TAURUS AND UPPER SCORPIUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Findeisen, K.; Hillenbrand, L.

    2010-01-01

    We have carried out a Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) Cycle 1 guest investigator program covering 56 deg 2 near the Taurus T association and 12 deg 2 along the northern edge of the Upper Scorpius OB association. We combined photometry in the GALEX far-ultraviolet and near-ultraviolet bands with data from the Two Micron All Sky Survey to identify candidate young (∼<100 Myr old) stars as those with an ultraviolet excess relative to older main-sequence stars. Follow-up spectroscopy of a partial sample of these candidates suggests five new members of Taurus, with 8-20 expected from additional observations, and five new members of Upper Scorpius, with three to six expected from additional observations. These candidate new members appear to represent a distributed, non-clustered population in either region, although our sample statistics are as of yet too poor to constrain the nature or extent of this population. Rather, our study demonstrates the ability of GALEX observations to identify young stellar populations distributed over a wide area of the sky. We also highlight the necessity of a better understanding of the Galactic ultraviolet source population to support similar investigations. In particular, we report a large population of stars with an ultraviolet excess but no optical indicators of stellar activity or accretion, and briefly argue against several interpretations of these sources.

  17. NEWS: Eclipse matters (still)!

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-05-01

    This collection of snippets has as its theme the 1999 Solar Eclipse, and covers items that might be of interest to eclipse watchers and their associates. Much information can be obtained from the national web site at http://www.eclipse.org.uk. Set up by the CLRC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, on behalf of the UK Eclipse Group, the site is intended to keep viewers abreast of developments during the countdown to the eclipse. The list of contents includes: about eclipses; eclipse pictures; eclipse science; safety advice; latest news; and local information. There is also a wealth of images and video footage, so the site has been organized with the visitor having a small PC and modem in mind, so that the key information can be accessed as quickly as possible. Free colour leaflets containing useful details for eclipse watchers can be obtained from the Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council. `The Sun - our local star' and `Neutrinos' are additions to PPARC's series introducing key areas of its science. They answer such questions as what the Sun is, what eclipses are, why the Sun is important and where neutrinos come from. They support the National Curriculum Key Stages 3 and 4 plus A-level physics. The A5 leaflets open out into an A2 sized double-sided wall chart and bulk quantitites are available for class sets, visitor centres, exhibitions, open days etc. A full list of PPARC materials can be found at the website http://www.pparc.ac.uk or by order from Mark Wells, PPARC, Polaris House, North Star Avenue, Swindon SN2 1SZ (fax: 01793 442002). A message has been received from George Care, Head of Physics in the Science Department at Mounts Bay School, Penzance, which we now pass on to our readers. During his application for electronic access to Physics Education via the Institute of Physics Affiliated Schools and Colleges scheme, George notes that his school is on the track of the eclipse this summer and he has invited us to pass on the details to anyone who

  18. Eclipses and the Olympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, K. D.; Yau, K. K.

    2000-12-01

    Like returns of Halley's comet the Olympic games occur periodically, though not as regularly in antiquity. Dates were also imprecise due to the chaotic calendars in use. Reported sightings of comets and eclipses can be used with game dates to help fix ancient events. However some reported darkening of the sun, e.g., after Julius Caesar's murder in 44 BC, was due to volcanic eruptions. A red comet, visible in daylight, first appeared during the games that year. It was also seen from China and Korea (Pang, Sciences 31, 30). Phlegon's ``Olympiads" (2nd century) says that Christ's crucifixion was in the 4th year of the 202nd Olympiad (AD 29-33), when a total solar eclipse occurred in the 6th hour. Only the Nov. 24, AD 29 eclipse over Asia Minor can match that, and Joel's prophecy (Acts 2, 14-21) that ``the sun will be turned to darkness and moon to blood." However it conflicts with ``the first day of Passover," as recorded by Mathew, Mark and Luke, i.e., full moon in early spring. Humphreys and Waddington (Nature 306, 743) have suggested meteorological darkening and the April 3, AD 33 lunar eclipse instead. Schaefer has questioned the eclipse's visibility from Jerusalem (31.46N, 35.14E). The six computations he cited gave dissimilar answers due to the imprecise rates of the secular lunar acceleration, and lengthening of the day used (Q.Jl.R.astr.Soc. 31, 53). Lunar laser ranging has since fixed the former at -26"/cen2. Analysis of ancient Chinese solar eclipse records, e.g., the April 21, 899 BC and April 4, AD 368 ``double dawns" over Zheng, has given us a delta T (in sec) = 30t2, where t is centuries before 1800 (Pang, Yau and Chou, in ``Dynamics of Ice Age Earth: A Modern Perspective," 1998). Our computations show that the moon rose over Jerusalem, with 1/3 still in the umbra and the rest in penumbra. Holdover meteorological darkening with long absorption air mass could have help reddened the moon also. Finally the first ``eclipse season" (the Aug. 21 lunar, and

  19. Spectral Eclipse Timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbs-Dixon, Ian; Agol, Eric; Deming, Drake

    2015-12-01

    We utilize multi-dimensional simulations of varying equatorial jet strength to predict wavelength-dependent variations in the eclipse times of gas-giant planets. A displaced hot spot introduces an asymmetry in the secondary eclipse light curve that manifests itself as a measured offset in the timing of the center of eclipse. A multi-wavelength observation of secondary eclipse, one probing the timing of barycentric eclipse at short wavelengths and another probing at longer wavelengths, will reveal the longitudinal displacement of the hot spot and break the degeneracy between this effect and that associated with the asymmetry due to an eccentric orbit. The effect of time offsets was first explored in the IRAC wavebands by Williams et al. Here we improve upon their methodology, extend to a broad range of wavelengths, and demonstrate our technique on a series of multi-dimensional radiative-hydrodynamical simulations of HD 209458b with varying equatorial jet strength and hot-spot displacement. Simulations with the largest hot-spot displacement result in timing offsets of up to 100 s in the infrared. Though we utilize a particular radiative hydrodynamical model to demonstrate this effect, the technique is model independent. This technique should allow a much larger survey of hot-spot displacements with the James Webb Space Telescope than currently accessible with time-intensive phase curves, hopefully shedding light on the physical mechanisms associated with thermal energy advection in irradiated gas giants.

  20. SPECTRAL ECLIPSE TIMING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobbs-Dixon, Ian; Agol, Eric; Deming, Drake

    2015-01-01

    We utilize multi-dimensional simulations of varying equatorial jet strength to predict wavelength-dependent variations in the eclipse times of gas-giant planets. A displaced hot spot introduces an asymmetry in the secondary eclipse light curve that manifests itself as a measured offset in the timing of the center of eclipse. A multi-wavelength observation of secondary eclipse, one probing the timing of barycentric eclipse at short wavelengths and another probing at longer wavelengths, will reveal the longitudinal displacement of the hot spot and break the degeneracy between this effect and that associated with the asymmetry due to an eccentric orbit. The effect of time offsets was first explored in the IRAC wavebands by Williams et al. Here we improve upon their methodology, extend to a broad range of wavelengths, and demonstrate our technique on a series of multi-dimensional radiative-hydrodynamical simulations of HD 209458b with varying equatorial jet strength and hot-spot displacement. Simulations with the largest hot-spot displacement result in timing offsets of up to 100 s in the infrared. Though we utilize a particular radiative hydrodynamical model to demonstrate this effect, the technique is model independent. This technique should allow a much larger survey of hot-spot displacements with the James Webb Space Telescope than currently accessible with time-intensive phase curves, hopefully shedding light on the physical mechanisms associated with thermal energy advection in irradiated gas giants

  1. SPECTRAL ECLIPSE TIMING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobbs-Dixon, Ian [Department of Physics, NYU Abu Dhabi P.O. Box 129188 Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Agol, Eric [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle WA 98195 (United States); Deming, Drake [NASA Astrobiology Institute Virtual Planet Laboratory (United States)

    2015-12-10

    We utilize multi-dimensional simulations of varying equatorial jet strength to predict wavelength-dependent variations in the eclipse times of gas-giant planets. A displaced hot spot introduces an asymmetry in the secondary eclipse light curve that manifests itself as a measured offset in the timing of the center of eclipse. A multi-wavelength observation of secondary eclipse, one probing the timing of barycentric eclipse at short wavelengths and another probing at longer wavelengths, will reveal the longitudinal displacement of the hot spot and break the degeneracy between this effect and that associated with the asymmetry due to an eccentric orbit. The effect of time offsets was first explored in the IRAC wavebands by Williams et al. Here we improve upon their methodology, extend to a broad range of wavelengths, and demonstrate our technique on a series of multi-dimensional radiative-hydrodynamical simulations of HD 209458b with varying equatorial jet strength and hot-spot displacement. Simulations with the largest hot-spot displacement result in timing offsets of up to 100 s in the infrared. Though we utilize a particular radiative hydrodynamical model to demonstrate this effect, the technique is model independent. This technique should allow a much larger survey of hot-spot displacements with the James Webb Space Telescope than currently accessible with time-intensive phase curves, hopefully shedding light on the physical mechanisms associated with thermal energy advection in irradiated gas giants.

  2. Variations of the ISM conditions accross the Main Sequence of star forming galaxies: observations and simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez Galarza, Juan R.; Smith, Howard Alan; Lanz, Lauranne; Hayward, Christopher C.; Zezas, Andreas; Hung, Chao-Ling; Rosenthal, Lee; Weiner, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    A significant amount of evidence has been gathered that leads to the existence of a main sequence (MS) of star formation in galaxies. This MS is expressed in terms of a correlation between the SFR and the stellar mass of the form SFR ∝ M* and spans a few orders of magnitude in both quantities. Several ideas have been suggested to explain fundamental properties of the MS, such as its slope, its dispersion, and its evolution with redshift, but no consensus has been reached regarding its true nature, and whether the membership or not of particular galaxies to this MS underlies the existence of two different modes of star formation. In order to advance in the understanding of the MS, here we use a statistically robust Bayesian SED analysis method (CHIBURST) to consistently analyze the star-forming properties of a set of hydro-dynamical simulations of mergers, as well as observations of real mergers, both local and at intermediate redshift. We find a remarkable, very tight correlation between the specific star formation rate (sSFR) of galaxies, and the typical ISM conditions near their inernal star-forming regions, parametrized via a novel quantity: the compactness parameter (C). The evolution of mergers along this correlation explains the spread of the MS, and implies that the physical conditions of the ISM smoothly evolve between on-MS (secular) conditions and off-MS (coalescence/starburst) conditions. Furthermore, we show that the slope of the correlation can be interpreted in terms of the efficiency in the conversion of gas into stars, and that this efficiency remains unchanged along and across the MS. Finally, we discuss differences in the normalization of the correlation as a function of merger mass and redshift, and conclude that these differences imply the existence of two different modes of star formation, unrelated to the smooth evolution across the MS: a disk-like, low pressure mode and a compact nuclear-starburst mode.

  3. HABITABLE ZONES AROUND MAIN-SEQUENCE STARS: DEPENDENCE ON PLANETARY MASS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopparapu, Ravi Kumar; Ramirez, Ramses M.; Kasting, James F.; SchottelKotte, James; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn; Eymet, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    The ongoing discoveries of extra-solar planets are unveiling a wide range of terrestrial mass (size) planets around their host stars. In this Letter, we present estimates of habitable zones (HZs) around stars with stellar effective temperatures in the range 2600 K-7200 K, for planetary masses between 0.1 M ⊕ and 5 M ⊕ . Assuming H 2 O-(inner HZ) and CO 2 -(outer HZ) dominated atmospheres, and scaling the background N 2 atmospheric pressure with the radius of the planet, our results indicate that larger planets have wider HZs than do smaller ones. Specifically, with the assumption that smaller planets will have less dense atmospheres, the inner edge of the HZ (runaway greenhouse limit) moves outward (∼10% lower than Earth flux) for low mass planets due to larger greenhouse effect arising from the increased H 2 O column depth. For larger planets, the H 2 O column depth is smaller, and higher temperatures are needed before water vapor completely dominates the outgoing longwave radiation. Hence the inner edge moves inward (∼7% higher than Earth's flux). The outer HZ changes little due to the competing effects of the greenhouse effect and an increase in albedo. New, three-dimensional climate model results from other groups are also summarized, and we argue that further, independent studies are needed to verify their predictions. Combined with our previous work, the results presented here provide refined estimates of HZs around main-sequence stars and provide a step toward a more comprehensive analysis of HZs

  4. Time Variability of the Dust Sublimation Zones in Pre-Main Sequence Disk Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitko, Michael L.; Carpenter, W. J.; Grady, C. A.; Russel, R. W.; Lynch, D. K.; Rudy, R. J.; Mazuk, S. M.; Venturini, C. C.; Kimes, R. L.; Beerman, L. C.; hide

    2007-01-01

    The dust sublimation zone (DSZ) is the region of pre-main sequence (PMS) disks where dust grains most easily anneal, sublime, and condense out of the gas. Because of this, it is a location where crystalline material may be enhanced and redistributed throughout the rest of the disk. A decade-long program to monitor the thermal emission of the grains located in this region demonstrates that large changes in emitted flux occur in many systems. Changes in the thermal emission between 3 and 13.5 microns were observed in HD 31648 (MWC 480), HD 163296 (MWC 275), and DG Tau. This emission is consistent with it being produced at the DSZ, where the transition from a disk of gas to one of gas+dust occurs. In the case of DG Tau, the outbursts were accompanied by increased emission on the 10 micron silicate band on one occasion, while on another occasion it went into absorption. This requires lofting of the material above the disk into the line of sight. Such changes will affect the determination of the inner disk structure obtained through interferometry measurements, and this has been confirmed in the case of HD 163296. Cyclic variations in the heating of the DSZ will lead to the annealing of large grains, the sublimation of smaller grains, possibly followed by re-condensation as the zone enters a cooling phase. Lofting of dust above the disk plane, and outward acceleration by stellar winds and radiation pressure, can re-distribute the processed material to cooler regions of the disk, where cometesimals form. This processing is consistent with the detection of the preferential concentration of large crystalline grains in the inner few AU of PMS disks using interferometric spectroscopy with the VLTI.

  5. Lithium abundances for 185 main-sequence stars: Galactic evolution and stellar depletion of lithium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y. Q.; Nissen, P. E.; Benoni, T.; Zhao, G.

    2001-06-01

    We present a survey of lithium abundances in 185 main-sequence field stars with 5600 interesting result from this study is the presence of a large gap in the log varepsilon (Li) - Teff plane, which distinguishes ``Li-dip'' stars like those first identified in the Hyades cluster by Boesgaard & Tripicco (\\cite{Boesgaard86}) from other stars with a much higher Li abundance. The Li-dip stars concentrate on a certain mass, which decreases with metallicity from about 1.4 Msun at solar metallicity to 1.1 Msun at [Fe/H] =~ -1.0. Excluding the Li-dip stars and a small group of lower mass stars with Teff rate of angular momentum loss. It cannot be excluded, however, that a cosmic scatter of the Li abundance in the Galaxy at a given metallicity contributes to the dispersion in Li abundance. These problems make it difficult to determine the Galactic evolution of Li from the data, but a comparison of the upper envelope of the distribution of stars in the log varepsilon (Li) - [Fe/H] plane with recent Galactic evolutionary models by Romano et al. (\\cite{Romano99}) suggests that novae are a major source for the Li production in the Galactic disk; their occurrence seems to be the explanation for the steep increase of Li abundance at [Fe/H] =~ -0.4. Based on observations carried out at Beijing Astronomical Observatory (Xinglong, PR China) and European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile. Table 1 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/371/943 and at http://www.edpsciences.org

  6. The Star Formation Main Sequence in the Hubble Space Telescope Frontier Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santini, Paola; Fontana, Adriano; Castellano, Marco; Di Criscienzo, Marcella; Merlin, Emiliano; Amorin, Ricardo; Cullen, Fergus; Daddi, Emanuele; Dickinson, Mark; Dunlop, James S.; Grazian, Andrea; Lamastra, Alessandra; McLure, Ross J.; Michałowski, Michał. J.; Pentericci, Laura; Shu, Xinwen

    2017-09-01

    We investigate the relation between star formation rate (SFR) and stellar mass (M), I.e., the main sequence (MS) relation of star-forming galaxies, at 1.3≤slant zFrontier Fields, on the basis of rest-frame UV observations. Gravitational lensing combined with deep HST observations allows us to extend the analysis of the MS down to {log} M/{M}⊙ ˜ 7.5 at z≲ 4 and {log} M/{M}⊙ ˜ 8 at higher redshifts, a factor of ˜10 below most previous results. We perform an accurate simulation to take into account the effect of observational uncertainties and correct for the Eddington bias. This step allows us to reliably measure the MS and in particular its slope. While the normalization increases with redshift, we fit an unevolving and approximately linear slope. We nicely extend to lower masses the results of brighter surveys. Thanks to the large dynamic range in mass and by making use of the simulation, we analyzed any possible mass dependence of the dispersion around the MS. We find tentative evidence that the scatter decreases with increasing mass, suggesting a larger variety of star formation histories in low-mass galaxies. This trend agrees with theoretical predictions and is explained as either a consequence of the smaller number of progenitors of low-mass galaxies in a hierarchical scenario and/or of the efficient but intermittent stellar feedback processes in low-mass halos. Finally, we observe an increase in the SFR per unit stellar mass with redshift milder than predicted by theoretical models, implying a still incomplete understanding of the processes responsible for galaxy growth.

  7. Habitable Zones Around Main-Sequence Stars: Dependence on Planetary Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopparapu, Ravi Kumar; Ramirez, Ramses M.; Kotte, James Schottel; Kasting, James F.; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn; Eymet, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    The ongoing discoveries of extra-solar planets are unveiling a wide range of terrestrial mass (size) planets around their host stars. In this Letter, we present estimates of habitable zones (HZs) around stars with stellar effective temperatures in the range 2600 K-7200 K, for planetary masses between 0.1M and 5M. Assuming H2O-(inner HZ) and CO2-(outer HZ) dominated atmospheres, and scaling the background N2 atmospheric pressure with the radius of the planet, our results indicate that larger planets have wider HZs than do smaller ones. Specifically, with the assumption that smaller planets will have less dense atmospheres, the inner edge of the HZ (runaway greenhouse limit) moves outward (approx.10% lower than Earth flux) for low mass planets due to larger greenhouse effect arising from the increased H2O column depth. For larger planets, the H2O column depth is smaller, and higher temperatures are needed before water vapor completely dominates the outgoing long-wave radiation. Hence the inner edge moves inward (approx.7% higher than Earth's flux). The outer HZ changes little due to the competing effects of the greenhouse effect and an increase in albedo. New, three-dimensional climate model results from other groups are also summarized, and we argue that further, independent studies are needed to verify their predictions. Combined with our previous work, the results presented here provide refined estimates of HZs around main-sequence stars and provide a step toward a more comprehensive analysis of HZs.

  8. On the Use of the Main-sequence Knee (Saddle) to Measure Globular Cluster Ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracino, S.; Dalessandro, E.; Ferraro, F. R.; Lanzoni, B.; Origlia, L.; Salaris, M.; Pietrinferni, A.; Geisler, D.; Kalirai, J. S.; Correnti, M.; Cohen, R. E.; Mauro, F.; Villanova, S.; Moni Bidin, C.

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, we review the operational definition of the so-called main-sequence knee (MS-knee), a feature in the color-magnitude diagram (CMD) occurring at the low-mass end of the MS. The magnitude of this feature is predicted to be independent of age at fixed chemical composition. For this reason, its difference in magnitude with respect to the MS turn-off (MS-TO) point has been suggested as a possible diagnostic to estimate absolute globular cluster (GC) ages. We first demonstrate that the operational definition of the MS-knee currently adopted in the literature refers to the inflection point of the MS (which we here more appropriately named MS-saddle), a feature that is well distinct from the knee and which cannot be used as its proxy. The MS-knee is only visible in near-infrared CMDs, while the MS-saddle can be also detected in optical–NIR CMDs. By using different sets of isochrones, we then demonstrate that the absolute magnitude of the MS-knee varies by a few tenths of a dex from one model to another, thus showing that at the moment stellar models may not capture the full systematic error in the method. We also demonstrate that while the absolute magnitude of the MS-saddle is almost coincident in different models, it has a systematic dependence on the adopted color combinations which is not predicted by stellar models. Hence, it cannot be used as a reliable reference for absolute age determination. Moreover, when statistical and systematic uncertainties are properly taken into account, the difference in magnitude between the MS-TO and the MS-saddle does not provide absolute ages with better accuracy than other methods like the MS-fitting.

  9. HABITABLE ZONES AROUND MAIN-SEQUENCE STARS: DEPENDENCE ON PLANETARY MASS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopparapu, Ravi Kumar; Ramirez, Ramses M.; Kasting, James F. [Department of Geosciences, Penn State University, 443 Deike Building, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); SchottelKotte, James [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Domagal-Goldman, Shawn [NASA Astrobiology Institute' s Virtual Planetary Laboratory, P.O. Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Eymet, Vincent, E-mail: ruk15@psu.edu [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Bordeaux, Universite de Bordeaux 1, UMR 5804, F-33270 Floirac (France)

    2014-06-01

    The ongoing discoveries of extra-solar planets are unveiling a wide range of terrestrial mass (size) planets around their host stars. In this Letter, we present estimates of habitable zones (HZs) around stars with stellar effective temperatures in the range 2600 K-7200 K, for planetary masses between 0.1 M {sub ⊕} and 5 M {sub ⊕}. Assuming H{sub 2}O-(inner HZ) and CO{sub 2}-(outer HZ) dominated atmospheres, and scaling the background N{sub 2} atmospheric pressure with the radius of the planet, our results indicate that larger planets have wider HZs than do smaller ones. Specifically, with the assumption that smaller planets will have less dense atmospheres, the inner edge of the HZ (runaway greenhouse limit) moves outward (∼10% lower than Earth flux) for low mass planets due to larger greenhouse effect arising from the increased H{sub 2}O column depth. For larger planets, the H{sub 2}O column depth is smaller, and higher temperatures are needed before water vapor completely dominates the outgoing longwave radiation. Hence the inner edge moves inward (∼7% higher than Earth's flux). The outer HZ changes little due to the competing effects of the greenhouse effect and an increase in albedo. New, three-dimensional climate model results from other groups are also summarized, and we argue that further, independent studies are needed to verify their predictions. Combined with our previous work, the results presented here provide refined estimates of HZs around main-sequence stars and provide a step toward a more comprehensive analysis of HZs.

  10. Raspberry Pi Eclipse Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizek Frouard, Malynda

    2018-01-01

    The 21 August 2017 solar eclipse was an excellent opportunity for electronics and science enthusiasts to collect data during a fascinating phenomenon. With my recent personal interest in Raspberry Pis, I thought measuring how much the temperature and illuminance changes during a total solar eclipse would be fun and informational.Previous observations of total solar eclipses have remarked on the temperature drop during totality. Illuminance (ambient light) varies over 7 orders of magnitude from day to night and is highly dependent on relative positions of Sun, Earth, and Moon. I wondered whether totality was really as dark as night.Using a Raspberry Pi Zero W, a Pimoroni Enviro pHAT, and a portable USB charger, I collected environmental temperature; CPU temperature (because the environmental temperature sensor sat very near the CPU on the Raspberry Pi); barometric pressure; ambient light; R, G, and B colors; and x, y, and z acceleration (for marking times when I moved the sensor) data at a ~15 second cadence starting at about 5 am until 1:30 pm from my eclipse observation site in Glendo, WY. Totality occurred from 11:45 to 11:47 am, lasting about 2 minutes and 30 seconds.The Raspberry Pi recorded a >20 degree F drop in temperature during the eclipse, and the illuminance during totality was equivalent to twilight measurements earlier in the day. A limitation in the ambient light sensor prevented accurate measurements of broad daylight and most of the partial phase of the eclipse, but an alternate ambient light sensor combined with the Raspberry Pi setup would make this a cost-efficient set-up for illuminance studies.I will present data from the ambient light sensor, temperature sensor, and color sensor, noting caveats from my experiments, lessons learned for next time, and suggestions for anyone who wants to perform similar experiments for themselves or with a classroom.

  11. Totality eclipses of the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Littmann, Mark; Willcox, Ken

    2008-01-01

    A total eclipse of the Sun is the most awesome sight in the heavens. Totality: Eclipses of the Sun takes you to eclipses of the past, present, and future, and lets you see - and feel - why people travel to the ends of the Earth to observe them. - ;A total eclipse of the Sun is the most awesome sight in the heavens. Totality: Eclipses of the Sun takes you to eclipses of the past, present, and future, and lets you see - and feel - why people travel to the ends of the Earth to observe them. Totality: Eclipses of the Sun is the best guide and reference book on solar eclipses ever written. It explains: how to observe them; how to photograph and videotape them; why they occur; their history and mythology; and future eclipses - when and where to see them. Totality also tells the remarkable story of how eclipses shocked scientists, revealed the workings of the Sun, and made Einstein famous. And the book shares the experiences and advice of many veteran eclipse observers. Totality: Eclipses of the Sun is profusely ill...

  12. INTRINSIC COLORS, TEMPERATURES, AND BOLOMETRIC CORRECTIONS OF PRE-MAIN-SEQUENCE STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pecaut, Mark J.; Mamajek, Eric E. [University of Rochester, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rochester, NY 14627-0171 (United States)

    2013-09-01

    We present an analysis of the intrinsic colors and temperatures of 5-30 Myr old pre-main-sequence (pre-MS) stars using the F0- through M9-type members of nearby, negligibly reddened groups: the η Cha cluster, the TW Hydra Association, the β Pic Moving Group, and the Tucana-Horologium Association. To check the consistency of spectral types from the literature, we estimate new spectral types for 52 nearby pre-MS stars with spectral types F3 through M4 using optical spectra taken with the SMARTS 1.5 m telescope. Combining these new types with published spectral types and photometry from the literature (Johnson-Cousins BVI{sub C} , 2MASS JHK{sub S} and WISE W1, W2, W3, and W4), we derive a new empirical spectral type-color sequence for 5-30 Myr old pre-MS stars. Colors for pre-MS stars match dwarf colors for some spectral types and colors, but for other spectral types and colors, deviations can exceed 0.3 mag. We estimate effective temperatures (T {sub eff}) and bolometric corrections (BCs) for our pre-MS star sample through comparing their photometry to synthetic photometry generated using the BT-Settl grid of model atmosphere spectra. We derive a new T {sub eff} and BC scale for pre-MS stars, which should be a more appropriate match for T Tauri stars than often-adopted dwarf star scales. While our new T {sub eff} scale for pre-MS stars is within ≅100 K of dwarfs at a given spectral type for stars

  13. POPULATION PARAMETERS OF INTERMEDIATE-AGE STAR CLUSTERS IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD. II. NEW INSIGHTS FROM EXTENDED MAIN-SEQUENCE TURNOFFS IN SEVEN STAR CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goudfrooij, Paul; Kozhurina-Platais, Vera; Puzia, Thomas H.; Chandar, Rupali

    2011-01-01

    We discuss new photometry from high-resolution images of seven intermediate-age (1-2 Gyr) star clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud taken with the Advanced Camera for Surveys on board the Hubble Space Telescope. We fit color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) with several different sets of theoretical isochrones and determine systematic uncertainties for population parameters when derived using any one set of isochrones. The cluster CMDs show several interesting features, including extended main-sequence turnoff (MSTO) regions, narrow red giant branches, and clear sequences of unresolved binary stars. We show that the extended MSTOs are not caused by photometric uncertainties, contamination by field stars, or the presence of binary stars. Enhanced helium abundances in a fraction of cluster stars are also ruled out as the reason for the extended MSTOs. Quantitative comparisons with simulations indicate that the MSTO regions are better described by a spread in ages than by a bimodal age distribution, although we cannot formally rule out the latter for the three lowest-mass clusters in our sample (which have masses lower than ∼3 x 10 4 M sun ). This conclusion differs from that of some previous works which suggested that the age distribution in massive clusters in our sample is bimodal. This suggests that any secondary star formation occurred in an extended fashion rather than through short bursts. We discuss these results in the context of the nature of multiple stellar populations in star clusters.

  14. After the Eclipse

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 2. Chief Editor's column - After the Eclipse. Rajaram Nityananda. Article-in-a-Box Volume 1 Issue 2 February 1996 pp 2-3. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/001/02/0002-0003 ...

  15. Transit detections of extrasolar planets around main-sequence stars. I. Sky maps for hot Jupiters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, R.; Mislis, D.; Antoniadis, J.

    2009-12-01

    Context: The findings of more than 350 extrasolar planets, most of them nontransiting Hot Jupiters, have revealed correlations between the metallicity of the main-sequence (MS) host stars and planetary incidence. This connection can be used to calculate the planet formation probability around other stars, not yet known to have planetary companions. Numerous wide-field surveys have recently been initiated, aiming at the transit detection of extrasolar planets in front of their host stars. Depending on instrumental properties and the planetary distribution probability, the promising transit locations on the celestial plane will differ among these surveys. Aims: We want to locate the promising spots for transit surveys on the celestial plane and strive for absolute values of the expected number of transits in general. Our study will also clarify the impact of instrumental properties such as pixel size, field of view (FOV), and magnitude range on the detection probability. Methods: We used data of the Tycho catalog for ≈1 million objects to locate all the stars with 0^m~≲~m_V~≲~11.5m on the celestial plane. We took several empirical relations between the parameters listed in the Tycho catalog, such as distance to Earth, m_V, and (B-V), and those parameters needed to account for the probability of a star to host an observable, transiting exoplanet. The empirical relations between stellar metallicity and planet occurrence combined with geometrical considerations were used to yield transit probabilities for the MS stars in the Tycho catalog. Magnitude variations in the FOV were simulated to test whether this fluctuations would be detected by BEST, XO, SuperWASP and HATNet. Results: We present a sky map of the expected number of Hot Jupiter transit events on the basis of the Tycho catalog. Conditioned by the accumulation of stars towards the galactic plane, the zone of the highest number of transits follows the same trace, interrupted by spots of very low and high

  16. The SFR-M∗ main sequence archetypal star-formation history and analytical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesla, L.; Elbaz, D.; Fensch, J.

    2017-12-01

    The star-formation history (SFH) of galaxies is a key assumption to derive their physical properties and can lead to strong biases. In this work, we derive the SFH of main sequence (MS) galaxies and show how the peak SFH of a galaxy depends on its seed mass at, for example, z = 5. This seed mass reflects the galaxy's underlying dark matter (DM) halo environment. We show that, following the MS, galaxies undergo a drastic slow down of their stellar mass growth after reaching the peak of their SFH. According to abundance matching, these masses correspond to hot and massive DM halos which state could result in less efficient gas inflows on the galaxies and thus could be the origin of limited stellar mass growth. As a result, we show that galaxies, still on the MS, can enter the passive region of the UVJ diagram while still forming stars. The best fit to the MS SFH is provided by a right skew peak function for which we provide parameters depending on the seed mass of the galaxy. The ability of the classical analytical SFHs to retrieve the star-formation rate (SFR) of galaxies from spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting is studied. Due to mathematical limitations, the exponentially declining and delayed SFH struggle to model high SFR, which starts to be problematic at z > 2. The exponentially rising and log-normal SFHs exhibit the opposite behavior with the ability to reach very high SFR, and thus model starburst galaxies, but they are not able to model low values such as those expected at low redshift for massive galaxies. By simulating galaxies SED from the MS SFH, we show that these four analytical forms recover the SFR of MS galaxies with an error dependent on the model and the redshift. They are, however, sensitive enough to probe small variations of SFR within the MS, with an error ranging from 5 to 40% depending on the SFH assumption and redshift; but all the four fail to recover the SFR of rapidly quenched galaxies. However, these SFHs lead to an artificial

  17. A search for planetary eclipses of white dwarfs in the Pan-STARRS1 medium-deep fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fulton, B. J.; Tonry, J. L.; Flewelling, H.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Hodapp, K. W.; Huber, M. E.; Kaiser, N.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Waters, C. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    We present a search for eclipses of ∼1700 white dwarfs (WDs) in the Pan-STARRS1 medium-deep fields. Candidate eclipse events are selected by identifying low outliers in over 4.3 million light curve measurements. We find no short-duration eclipses consistent with being caused by a planetary size companion. This large data set enables us to place strong constraints on the close-in planet occurrence rates around WDs for planets as small as 2 R {sub ⊕}. Our results indicate that gas giant planets orbiting just outside the Roche limit are rare, occurring around less than 0.5% of WDs. Habitable-zone super-Earths and hot super-Earths are less abundant than similar classes of planets around main-sequence stars. These constraints provide important insight into the ultimate fate of the large population of exoplanets orbiting main-sequence stars.

  18. Luminosity and Intrinsic Color Calibration of Main-Sequence Stars With 2Mass Photometry: All Sky Local Extinction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knude Jens

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a new color index vs. absolute magnitude calibration of 2MASS JHK photometry. For the A0 to ~G5 and M segments of the main sequence information on the amount of interstellar extinction and its location in space may be obtained.

  19. How Dusty Is Alpha Centauri? Excess or Non-excess over the Infrared Photospheres of Main-sequence Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegert, J.; Liseau, R.; Thebault, P.; Olofsson, G.; Mora, A.; Bryden, G.; Marshall, J. P.; Eiroa, C.; Montesinos, B.; Ardila, D.; hide

    2014-01-01

    Context. Debris discs around main-sequence stars indicate the presence of larger rocky bodies. The components of the nearby, solar-type binary Centauri have metallicities that are higher than solar, which is thought to promote giant planet formation. Aims. We aim to determine the level of emission from debris around the stars in the Cen system. This requires knowledge of their photospheres.Having already detected the temperature minimum, Tmin, of CenA at far-infrared wavelengths, we here attempt to do the same for the moreactive companion Cen B. Using the Cen stars as templates, we study the possible eects that Tmin may have on the detectability of unresolveddust discs around other stars. Methods.We used Herschel-PACS, Herschel-SPIRE, and APEX-LABOCA photometry to determine the stellar spectral energy distributions in thefar infrared and submillimetre. In addition, we used APEX-SHeFI observations for spectral line mapping to study the complex background around Cen seen in the photometric images. Models of stellar atmospheres and of particulate discs, based on particle simulations and in conjunctionwith radiative transfer calculations, were used to estimate the amount of debris around these stars. Results. For solar-type stars more distant than Cen, a fractional dust luminosity fd LdustLstar 2 107 could account for SEDs that do not exhibit the Tmin eect. This is comparable to estimates of fd for the Edgeworth-Kuiper belt of the solar system. In contrast to the far infrared,slight excesses at the 2:5 level are observed at 24 m for both CenA and B, which, if interpreted as due to zodiacal-type dust emission, wouldcorrespond to fd (13) 105, i.e. some 102 times that of the local zodiacal cloud. Assuming simple power-law size distributions of the dustgrains, dynamical disc modelling leads to rough mass estimates of the putative Zodi belts around the Cen stars, viz.4106 M$ of 4 to 1000 msize grains, distributed according to n(a) a3:5. Similarly, for filled-in Tmin

  20. OLD MAIN-SEQUENCE TURNOFF PHOTOMETRY IN THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD. II. STAR FORMATION HISTORY AND ITS SPATIAL GRADIENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, Noelia E. D.; Gallart, Carme; Hidalgo, Sebastian L.; Aparicio, Antonio; Costa, Edgardo; Mendez, Rene A.

    2009-01-01

    We present a quantitative analysis of the star formation history (SFH) of 12 fields in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) based on unprecedented deep [(B - R), R] color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs). Our fields reach down to the oldest main-sequence turnoff with a high photometric accuracy, which is vital for obtaining accurate SFHs, particularly at intermediate and old ages. We use the IAC-pop code to obtain the SFH, using synthetic CMDs generated with IAC-star. We obtain the SFH as a function ψ(t, z) of age and metallicity. We also consider several auxiliary functions: the initial mass function (IMF), φ(m), and a function accounting for the frequency and relative mass distribution of binary stars, β(f, q). We find that there are several main periods of enhancement of star formation: a young one peaked at ∼0.2-0.5 Gyr old, only present in the eastern and in the central-most fields; two at intermediate ages present in all fields: a conspicuous one peaked at ∼4-5 Gyr, and a less significant one peaked at ∼1.5-2.5; and an old one, peaked at ∼10 Gyr in all fields but the western ones. In the western fields, this old enhancement splits into two, one peaked at ∼8 Gyr old and another at ∼12 Gyr old. This 'two-enhancement' zone is unaffected by our choice of stellar evolutionary library but more data covering other fields of the SMC are necessary in order to ascertain its significancy. Correlation between star formation rate enhancements and SMC-Milky Way encounters is not clear. Some correlation could exist with encounters taken from the orbit determination of Kallivayalil et al. But our results would also fit in a first pericenter passage scenario like the one claimed by Besla et al. For SMC-Large Magellanic Cloud encounters, we find a correlation only for the most recent encounter ∼0.2 Gyr ago. This coincides with the youngest ψ(t) enhancement peaked at these ages in our eastern fields. The population younger than 1 Gyr represents ∼7%-12% of the total

  1. A Catalog of Spectroscopically Selected Close Binary Systems from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release Four

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Silvestri, Nicole M; Eisenstein, Daniel J; McGehee, Peregrine; Smith, J. A; Harris, Hugh C; Kleinman, Scot J; Krzesinski, Jurek; Neilsen, Jr., Eric H; Schneider, Donald P

    2006-01-01

    .... We have estimated the distances for each of the white dwarf main-sequence star binaries and used white dwarf evolutionary grids to establish the age of each binary system from the white dwarf cooling times...

  2. Total eclipses of the sun

    CERN Document Server

    Zirker, Jack B

    2014-01-01

    Eclipses have captured attention and sparked curiosity about the cosmos since the first appearance of humankind. Having been blamed for everything from natural disasters to the fall of kings, they are now invaluable tools for understanding many celestial as well as terrestrial phenomena. This clear, easy-to-understand guide explains what causes total eclipses and how they can be used in experiments to examine everything from the dust between the planets to general relativity. A new chapter has been added on the eclipse of July 11, 1991 (the great Hawaiian eclipse). Originally published in 19

  3. Testing Scaling Relations for Solar-like Oscillations from the Main Sequence to Red Giants Using Kepler Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, D.; Bedding, T.R.; Stello, D.

    2011-01-01

    ), and oscillation amplitudes. We show that the difference of the Δν-νmax relation for unevolved and evolved stars can be explained by different distributions in effective temperature and stellar mass, in agreement with what is expected from scaling relations. For oscillation amplitudes, we show that neither (L/M) s......We have analyzed solar-like oscillations in ~1700 stars observed by the Kepler Mission, spanning from the main sequence to the red clump. Using evolutionary models, we test asteroseismic scaling relations for the frequency of maximum power (νmax), the large frequency separation (Δν...... scaling nor the revised scaling relation by Kjeldsen & Bedding is accurate for red-giant stars, and demonstrate that a revised scaling relation with a separate luminosity-mass dependence can be used to calculate amplitudes from the main sequence to red giants to a precision of ~25%. The residuals show...

  4. On the determination of the He abundance distribution in globular clusters from the width of the main sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassisi, Santi; Salaris, Maurizio; Pietrinferni, Adriano; Hyder, David

    2017-01-01

    One crucial piece of information to study the origin of multiple stellar populations in globular clusters is the range of initial helium abundances ΔY amongst the sub-populations hosted by each cluster. These estimates are commonly obtained by measuring the width in colour of the unevolved main sequence in an optical colour-magnitude diagram (CMD). The measured colour spread is then compared with predictions from theoretical stellar isochrones with varying initial He abundances to determine ΔY. The availability of UV/optical magnitudes, thanks to the Hubble Space Telescope UV Legacy Survey of Galactic GCs project, will allow the homogeneous determination of ΔY for a large Galactic globular cluster sample. From a theoretical point of view, accurate UV CMDs can efficiently disentangle the various sub-populations, and main sequence colour differences in the ACS F606W - (F606W - F814W) diagram allow an estimate of ΔY. We demonstrate that from a theoretical perspective, the (F606W - F814W) colour is an extremely reliable He-abundance indicator. The derivative dY/d(F606W - F814W), computed at a fixed luminosity along the unevolved main sequence, is largely insensitive to the physical assumptions made in stellar model computations, being more sensitive to the choice of the bolometric correction scale, and is only slightly dependent on the adopted set of stellar models. From a theoretical point of view, the (F606W - F814W) colour width of the cluster main sequence is therefore a robust diagnostic of the ΔY range.

  5. STELLAR AGES AND CONVECTIVE CORES IN FIELD MAIN-SEQUENCE STARS: FIRST ASTEROSEISMIC APPLICATION TO TWO KEPLER TARGETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Aguirre, V.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Chaplin, W. J. [Stellar Astrophysics Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Basu, S.; Deheuvels, S. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States); Brandao, I. M.; Cunha, M. S.; Sousa, S. G. [Centro de Astrofisica and Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal); Dogan, G. [High Altitude Observatory, NCAR, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307 (United States); Metcalfe, T. S. [Space Science Institute, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Serenelli, A. M.; Garcia, R. A. [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Ballot, J. [Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie, CNRS, 14 avenue Edouard Belin, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Weiss, A. [Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Appourchaux, T. [Institut d' Astrophysique Spatiale, Universite Paris Sud-CNRS (UMR8617) Batiment 121, F-91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Casagrande, L. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Mount Stromlo Observatory, The Australian National University, ACT 2611 (Australia); Cassisi, S. [INAF-Astronomical Observatory of Teramo, Via M. Maggini sn, I-64100 Teramo (Italy); Creevey, O. L. [Laboratoire Lagrange, Universite de Nice Sophia-Antipolis, CNRS, I-06300 Nice, France. (France); Lebreton, Y. [Observatoire de Paris, GEPI, CNRS UMR 8111, F-92195 Meudon (France); Noels, A. [Institute of Astrophysics and Geophysics, University of Liege, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); and others

    2013-06-01

    Using asteroseismic data and stellar evolution models we obtain the first detection of a convective core in a Kepler field main-sequence star, putting a stringent constraint on the total size of the mixed zone and showing that extra mixing beyond the formal convective boundary exists. In a slightly less massive target the presence of a convective core cannot be conclusively discarded, and thus its remaining main-sequence lifetime is uncertain. Our results reveal that best-fit models found solely by matching individual frequencies of oscillations corrected for surface effects do not always properly reproduce frequency combinations. Moreover, slightly different criteria to define what the best-fit model is can lead to solutions with similar global properties but very different interior structures. We argue that the use of frequency ratios is a more reliable way to obtain accurate stellar parameters, and show that our analysis in field main-sequence stars can yield an overall precision of 1.5%, 4%, and 10% in radius, mass, and age, respectively. We compare our results with those obtained from global oscillation properties, and discuss the possible sources of uncertainties in asteroseismic stellar modeling where further studies are still needed.

  6. Origin of very-short orbital-period binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyaji, S.

    1983-01-01

    Recent observations of four close binaries have established that there is a group of very-short orbital-period (VSOP) binaries whose orbital periods are less than 60 minutes. The VSOP binaries consist of both X-ray close binaries and cataclysmic variables. Their orbital periods are too short to have a main-sequence companion. However, four binaries, none of which belongs to any globular cluster, are too abundant to be explained by the capturing mechanism of a white dwarf. Therefore it seemed to be worthwhile to present an evolutionary scenario from an original binary system which can be applied for all VSOP binaries. (Auth.)

  7. Close-In Substellar Companions and the Formation of sdB-Type Close Binary Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Y. Zhu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The sdB-type close binaries are believed to have experienced a common-envelope phase and may evolve into cataclysmic binaries (CVs. About 10% of all known sdB binaries are eclipsing binaries consisting of very hot subdwarf primaries and low-mass companions with short orbital periods. The eclipse profiles of these systems are very narrow and deep, which benefits the determination of high precise eclipsing times and makes the detection of small and close-in tertiary bodies possible. Since 2006 we have monitored some sdB-type eclipsing binaries to search for the close-in substellar companions by analyzing the light travel time effect. Here some progresses of the program are reviewed and the formation of sdB-type binary is discussed.

  8. Tapir: A web interface for transit/eclipse observability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Eric

    2013-06-01

    Tapir is a set of tools, written in Perl, that provides a web interface for showing the observability of periodic astronomical events, such as exoplanet transits or eclipsing binaries. The package provides tools for creating finding charts for each target and airmass plots for each event. The code can access target lists that are stored on-line in a Google spreadsheet or in a local text file.

  9. Predicting the α Comae Berenices Time of Eclipse: How 3 Ambiguous Measurements out of 609 Caused a 26 Year Binary’s Eclipse to be Missed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muterspaugh, M.W.; Wijngaarden, M.J.P.; Henrichs, H.F.; Lane, B.F.; Hartkopf, W.I.; Henry, G.W.; Schaefer, G.H.; Farrington, C.; Hummel, C.A.; Zavala, R.T.

    2015-01-01

    The dwarf stars in the 26 year period binary α Com were predicted to eclipse each other in early 2015. That prediction was based on an orbit model made with over 600 astrometric observations using micrometers, speckle interferometry, and long baseline optical interferometry. Unfortunately, it has

  10. Discovery of Eclipses from the Accreting Millisecond X-Ray Pulsar Swift J1749.4-2807

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markwardt, C. B.; Stromhmayer, T. E.

    2010-01-01

    We report the discovery of X-ray eclipses in the recently discovered accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar SWIFT J1749.4-2807. This is the first detection of X-ray eclipses in a system of this type and should enable a precise neutron star mass measurement once the companion star is identified and studied. We present a combined pulse and eclipse timing solution that enables tight constraints on the orbital parameters and inclination and shows that the companion mass is in the range 0.6-0.8 solar mass for a likely range of neutron star masses, and that it is larger than a main-sequence star of the same mass. We observed two individual eclipse egresses and a single ingress. Our timing model shows that the eclipse features are symmetric about the time of 90 longitude from the ascending node, as expected. Our eclipse timing solution gives an eclipse duration (from the mid-points of ingress to egress) of 2172+/-13 s. This represents 6.85% of the 8.82 hr orbital period. This system also presents a potential measurement of "Shapiro" delay due to general relativity; through this technique alone, we set an upper limit to the companion mass of 2.2 Solar mass .

  11. TESTING SCALING RELATIONS FOR SOLAR-LIKE OSCILLATIONS FROM THE MAIN SEQUENCE TO RED GIANTS USING KEPLER DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, D.; Bedding, T. R.; Stello, D. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy (SIfA), School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Hekker, S. [Astronomical Institute ' Anton Pannekoek' , University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Mathur, S. [High Altitude Observatory, NCAR, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307 (United States); Mosser, B. [LESIA, CNRS, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Universite Denis, Diderot, Observatoire de Paris, 92195 Meudon cedex (France); Verner, G. A.; Elsworth, Y. P.; Hale, S. J.; Chaplin, W. J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Bonanno, A. [INAF Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania (Italy); Buzasi, D. L. [Eureka Scientific, 2452 Delmer Street Suite 100, Oakland, CA 94602-3017 (United States); Campante, T. L. [Centro de Astrofisica da Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal); Kallinger, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada); Silva Aguirre, V. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); De Ridder, J. [Instituut voor Sterrenkunde, K.U.Leuven (Belgium); Garcia, R. A. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS, Universite Paris 7 Diderot, IRFU/SAp, Centre de Saclay, 91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Appourchaux, T. [Institut d' Astrophysique Spatiale, UMR 8617, Universite Paris Sud, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Frandsen, S. [Danish AsteroSeismology Centre (DASC), Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Houdek, G., E-mail: dhuber@physics.usyd.edu.au [Institute of Astronomy, University of Vienna, 1180 Vienna (Austria); and others

    2011-12-20

    We have analyzed solar-like oscillations in {approx}1700 stars observed by the Kepler Mission, spanning from the main sequence to the red clump. Using evolutionary models, we test asteroseismic scaling relations for the frequency of maximum power ({nu}{sub max}), the large frequency separation ({Delta}{nu}), and oscillation amplitudes. We show that the difference of the {Delta}{nu}-{nu}{sub max} relation for unevolved and evolved stars can be explained by different distributions in effective temperature and stellar mass, in agreement with what is expected from scaling relations. For oscillation amplitudes, we show that neither (L/M){sup s} scaling nor the revised scaling relation by Kjeldsen and Bedding is accurate for red-giant stars, and demonstrate that a revised scaling relation with a separate luminosity-mass dependence can be used to calculate amplitudes from the main sequence to red giants to a precision of {approx}25%. The residuals show an offset particularly for unevolved stars, suggesting that an additional physical dependency is necessary to fully reproduce the observed amplitudes. We investigate correlations between amplitudes and stellar activity, and find evidence that the effect of amplitude suppression is most pronounced for subgiant stars. Finally, we test the location of the cool edge of the instability strip in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram using solar-like oscillations and find the detections in the hottest stars compatible with a domain of hybrid stochastically excited and opacity driven pulsation.

  12. PRE-MAIN-SEQUENCE TURN-ON AS A CHRONOMETER FOR YOUNG CLUSTERS: NGC 346 AS A BENCHMARK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cignoni, M.; Tosi, M.; Sabbi, E.; Nota, A.; Degl'Innocenti, S.; Moroni, P. G. Prada; Gallagher, J. S.

    2010-01-01

    We present a novel approach to deriving the age of very young star clusters, by using the Turn-On (TOn). The TOn is the point in the color-magnitude diagram (CMD) where the pre-main sequence (PMS) joins the main sequence (MS). In the MS luminosity function (LF) of the cluster, the TOn is identified as a peak followed by a dip. We propose that by combining the CMD analysis with the monitoring of the spatial distribution of MS stars it is possible to reliably identify the TOn in extragalactic star-forming regions. Compared to alternative methods, this technique is complementary to the turnoff dating and avoids the systematic biases affecting the PMS phase. We describe the method and its uncertainties and apply it to the star-forming region NGC 346, which has been extensively imaged with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). This study extends the LF approach in crowded extragalactic regions and opens the way for future studies with HST/WFC3, the James Webb Space Telescope and from the ground with adaptive optics.

  13. Getting started with Eclipse Juno

    CERN Document Server

    Durelli, Vinicius H S; Teixeira, Rafael Medeiros

    2013-01-01

    Written as a concise yet practical guide that details the main features which are usually required by a programmer who makes use of the Eclipse platform, this book covers Eclipse 3.8 in a way that is accessible to the Java novice and expert alike. The reader is guided through a series of hands-on examples that introduce Eclipse and some of its plugins.The primary audience for this book are the Java programmers. This book has been written in a way that it is accessible both to beginners and advanced Java programmers alike. Also, if you are a seasoned Java developer who has been using another ID

  14. Hidden slow pulsars in binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavani, Marco; Brookshaw, Leigh

    1993-01-01

    The recent discovery of the binary containing the slow pulsar PSR 1718-19 orbiting around a low-mass companion star adds new light on the characteristics of binary pulsars. The properties of the radio eclipses of PSR 1718-19 are the most striking observational characteristics of this system. The surface of the companion star produces a mass outflow which leaves only a small 'window' in orbital phase for the detection of PSR 1718-19 around 400 MHz. At this observing frequency, PSR 1718-19 is clearly observable only for about 1 hr out of the total 6.2 hr orbital period. The aim of this Letter is twofold: (1) to model the hydrodynamical behavior of the eclipsing material from the companion star of PSR 1718-19 and (2) to argue that a population of binary slow pulsars might have escaped detection in pulsar surveys carried out at 400 MHz. The possible existence of a population of partially or totally hidden slow pulsars in binaries will have a strong impact on current theories of binary evolution of neutron stars.

  15. Contact Binaries on Their Way Towards Merging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazeas, K.

    2015-07-01

    Contact binaries are the most frequently observed type of eclipsing star system. They are small, cool, low-mass binaries belonging to a relatively old stellar population. They follow certain empirical relationships that closely connect a number of physical parameters with each other, largely because of constraints coming from the Roche geometry. As a result, contact binaries provide an excellent test of stellar evolution, specifically for stellar merger scenarios. Observing campaigns by many authors have led to the cataloging of thousands of contact binaries and enabled statistical studies of many of their properties. A large number of contact binaries have been found to exhibit extraordinary behavior, requiring follow-up observations to study their peculiarities in detail. For example, a doubly-eclipsing quadruple system consisting of a contact binary and a detached binary is a highly constrained system offering an excellent laboratory to test evolutionary theories for binaries. A new observing project was initiated at the University of Athens in 2012 in order to investigate the possible lower limit for the orbital period of binary systems before coalescence, prior to merging.

  16. Grain temperature, radiation pressure and electric potential in the vicinity of main sequence and white dwarf stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leiknes, J.; Havnes, O. (University of Tromso, Auroral Observatory (Norway))

    1984-08-01

    We present results of calculations of the grain physical parameters temperature, lifetime against evaporation, radiation pressure and electric potential for spherical grains near main sequence stars, hydrogen type (DA) white dwarfs and helium type (DB) white dwarfs. These parameters are essential in determining the behaviour of grains near such stars. The grain temperature as a function of stellar distance is calculated for grains of sizes 0.1 and 1 ..mu.. (micron) for grain materials of silicate (obsidian), iron and graphite. The lifetime due to thermal evaporation as a function of grain temperature of these materials is also given. The radiation pressure is given for grain sizes from 0.01 to 10 ..mu.. for the same three grain materials. Grain potentials have been calculated as functions of stellar distance for one photoelectron high yield material (silicate) and one low yield material (graphite) for grains of radius 0.1 ..mu.. embedded in a thermal plasma of temperature T = 10/sup 4/ K.

  17. Radio-emission of pre-main sequence stars of the Rho Ophiuchi cloud: observations and interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andre, P.

    1987-11-01

    Observations of the radio continuum emission of a young star population have been made at VLA on the whole molecular cloud Rho Ophiuchi, one of the closest site of star formation. A dozen of stellar sources have been detected. Radio emission of some identified objects seems to have a magnetic nature and be produced by gyrosynchrotron mechanism. In particular, one of the sources shows a radio radiation circularly polarized; two other stars have a radiation strongly variable probably due to magnetic eruptions more important than those detected in X radiation. More generally, radio observations select probably a specific population of young stars characterized by magnetic field presence extended on several stellar radii and by absence of dense circumstellar environment. Spatial distribution of these objects suggest, they are younger than most of the pre-main sequence stars [fr

  18. The Solar Neighborhood. XLI. A Study of the Wide Main Sequence for M Dwarfs—Long-term Photometric Variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clements, Tiffany D.; Jao, Wei-Chun; Silverstein, Michele L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Henry, Todd J.; Hosey, Altonio D. [RECONS Institute, Chambersburg, PA 17201 (United States); Winters, Jennifer G. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Dieterich, Sergio B. [Carnegie Institution for Science, Washington, DC 20015 (United States); Riedel, Adric R., E-mail: pewett@astro.gsu.edu, E-mail: jao@astro.gsu.edu, E-mail: silverstein@astro.gsu.edu, E-mail: toddhenry28@gmail.com, E-mail: altoniohosey@gmail.com, E-mail: jennifer.winters@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: sdieterich@carnegiescience.edu, E-mail: adric.riedel@gmail.com [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2017-09-01

    We report findings from a long-term photometric variability study of M dwarfs carried out at the SMARTS 0.9 m telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory. As part of a multi-faceted effort to investigate the range of luminosities of M dwarfs of a given color on the Hertzsprung–Russell Diagram, 76 M dwarfs have been observed for 3–17 years in the Johnson–Kron–Cousins V band. We find that stars elevated above the center of the main sequence distribution tend to have higher levels of variability, likely caused by magnetic activity, than their fainter counterparts below the center. This study provides insight into how the long-term magnetic activity of these stars may be affecting their sizes, luminosities, and thus positions on the H-R Diagram.

  19. Lithium abundances and metallicities in stars near the main-sequence turnoff and a giant in M67

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Lopez, R.J.; Rebolo, R.; Beckman, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    The iron abundance of seven stars near the main-sequence (MS) turnoff and a giant in M67 are spectroscopically derived, and the results are discussed. The resulting mean iron abundance of the turnoff stars is (Fe/H) = 0.04 + or - 0.04. Taken together with previous determinations for younger clusters, this shows that there has been relatively little change of the iron abundance in the solar neighborhood during the last 5 Gyr. Lithium was detected in one unevolved star and marginally in the giant, while in the other MS stars only upper limits were found. The considerable differences in Li abundances for stars with similar surface temperature imply that there is at least one parameter affecting Li depletion apart from stellar mass and metallicity. Nonsimultaneous star formation in the cluster cloud explain the scatter in lithium abundances. 50 references

  20. X-ray sources in regions of star formation. II. The pre-main-sequence G star HDE 283572

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, F.M.; Brown, A.; Linsky, J.L.; Rydgren, A.E.; Vrba, F.; Joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics, Boulder, CO; Computer Sciences Corp., El Segundo, CA; Naval Observatory, Flagstaff, AZ)

    1987-01-01

    This paper reports the detection of HDE 283572, a ninth-magnitude G star 8 arcmin south of RY Tau, as a bright X-ray source. The observations reveal this object to be a fairly massive (about 2 solar masses) pre-main-sequence star associated with the Taurus-Auriga star formation complex. It exhibits few of the characteristics of the classical T Tauri stars and is a good example of a naked T Tauri star. The star is a mid-G subgiant, of about three solar radii and rotates with a period of 1.5 d. The coronal and chromospheric surface fluxes are similar to those of the most active late type stars (excluding T Tauri stars). The X-ray and UV lines most likely arise in different atmospheric structures. Radiative losses are some 1000 times the quiet solar value and compare favorably with those of T Tauri stars. 49 references

  1. Stellar Variability at the Main-sequence Turnoff of the Intermediate-age LMC Cluster NGC 1846

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, R.; Pajkos, M. A.; Vivas, A. K.; Strader, J.; Contreras Ramos, R.

    2018-04-01

    Intermediate-age (IA) star clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) present extended main-sequence turn-offs (MSTO) that have been attributed to either multiple stellar populations or an effect of stellar rotation. Recently it has been proposed that these extended main sequences can also be produced by ill-characterized stellar variability. Here we present Gemini-S/Gemini Multi-Object Spectrometer (GMOS) time series observations of the IA cluster NGC 1846. Using differential image analysis, we identified 73 new variable stars, with 55 of those being of the Delta Scuti type, that is, pulsating variables close the MSTO for the cluster age. Considering completeness and background contamination effects, we estimate the number of δ Sct belonging to the cluster between 40 and 60 members, although this number is based on the detection of a single δ Sct within the cluster half-light radius. This amount of variable stars at the MSTO level will not produce significant broadening of the MSTO, albeit higher-resolution imaging will be needed to rule out variable stars as a major contributor to the extended MSTO phenomenon. Though modest, this amount of δ Sct makes NGC 1846 the star cluster with the highest number of these variables ever discovered. Lastly, our results present a cautionary tale about the adequacy of shallow variability surveys in the LMC (like OGLE) to derive properties of its δ Sct population. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina), and Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (Brazil).

  2. MASS LOSS IN PRE-MAIN-SEQUENCE STARS VIA CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR ANGULAR MOMENTUM LOSS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aarnio, Alicia N. [Astronomy Department, University of Michigan, 830 Dennison Building, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Matt, Sean P. [Laboratoire AIM Paris-Saclay, CEA/Irfu Universite Paris-Diderot CNRS/INSU, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Stassun, Keivan G., E-mail: aarnio@umich.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States)

    2012-11-20

    We develop an empirical model to estimate mass-loss rates via coronal mass ejections (CMEs) for solar-type pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars. Our method estimates the CME mass-loss rate from the observed energies of PMS X-ray flares, using our empirically determined relationship between solar X-ray flare energy and CME mass: log (M {sub CME}[g]) = 0.63 Multiplication-Sign log (E {sub flare}[erg]) - 2.57. Using masses determined for the largest flaring magnetic structures observed on PMS stars, we suggest that this solar-calibrated relationship may hold over 10 orders of magnitude in flare energy and 7 orders of magnitude in CME mass. The total CME mass-loss rate we calculate for typical solar-type PMS stars is in the range 10{sup -12}-10{sup -9} M {sub Sun} yr{sup -1}. We then use these CME mass-loss rate estimates to infer the attendant angular momentum loss leading up to the main sequence. Assuming that the CME outflow rate for a typical {approx}1 M {sub Sun} T Tauri star is <10{sup -10} M {sub Sun} yr{sup -1}, the resulting spin-down torque is too small during the first {approx}1 Myr to counteract the stellar spin-up due to contraction and accretion. However, if the CME mass-loss rate is {approx}> 10{sup -10} M {sub Sun} yr{sup -1}, as permitted by our calculations, then the CME spin-down torque may influence the stellar spin evolution after an age of a few Myr.

  3. NEW PRECISION ORBITS OF BRIGHT DOUBLE-LINED SPECTROSCOPIC BINARIES. IV. 66 ANDROMEDAE, HR 6979, AND HR 9059

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fekel, Francis C.; Williamson, Michael H.; Tomkin, Jocelyn

    2010-01-01

    We have determined improved spectroscopic orbits for three double-lined binaries, 66 And (F4 V), HR 6979 (Am), and HR 9059 (F5 IV) using radial velocities from the 2.1 m telescope at McDonald Observatory, the coude feed telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory, and 2 m telescope at Fairborn Observatory. The orbital periods range from 11.0 to 14.3 days, and all three systems have eccentric orbits. The new orbital dimensions (a 1 sin i and a 2 sin i) and minimum masses (m 1 sin 3 i and m 2 sin 3 i) have accuracies of 0.2% or better. All six components of the three binary systems are rotating more slowly than their predicted pseudosynchronous rotational velocities. Hipparcos photometry of HR 9059 shows that this system has partial eclipses. Its components are nearly identical in mass and are at the very end of their main-sequence lifetimes or perhaps have just begun to traverse the Hertsprung gap.

  4. A Search for Exoplanets in Short-Period Binary Star Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Kaitchuck

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the progress of a search for exoplanets with S-type orbits in short-period binary star systems. The selected targets have stellar orbital periods of just a few days. These systems are eclipsing binaries so that exoplanet transits, if planets exist, will be highly likely. We report the results for seven binary star systems.

  5. Eclipse takeoff and flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This 25-second clip shows the QF-106 'Delta Dart' tethered to the USAF C-141A during takeoff and in flight. NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, supported a Kelly Space and Technology, Inc. (KST)/U.S. Air Force project known as Eclipse, which demonstrated a reusable tow launch vehicle concept. The purpose of the project was to demonstrate a reusable tow launch vehicle concept that had been conceived and patented by KST. Kelly Space obtained a contract with the USAF Research Laboratory for the tow launch demonstration project under the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. The USAF SBIR contract included the modifications to turn the QF-106 into the Experimental Demonstrator #1 (EXD-01), and the C141A aircraft to incorporate the tow provisions to link the two aircraft, as well as conducting flight tests. The demonstration consisted of ground and flight tests. These tests included a Combined Systems Test of both airplanes joined by a tow rope, a towed taxi test, and six towed flights. The primary goal of the project was demonstrating the tow phase of the Eclipse concept using a scaled-down tow aircraft (C-141A) and a representative aerodynamically-shaped aircraft (QF-106A) as a launch vehicle. This was successfully accomplished. On December 20, 1997, NASA research pilot Mark Stucky flew a QF-106 on the first towed flight behind an Air Force C-141 in the joint Eclipse project with KST to demonstrate the reusable tow launch vehicle concept developed by KST. Kelly hoped to use the data from the tow tests to validate a tow-to-launch procedure for reusable space launch vehicles. Stucky flew six successful tow tests between December 1997 and February 6, 1998. On February 6, 1998, the sixth and final towed flight brought the project to a successful completion. Preliminary flight results determined that the handling qualities of the QF-106 on tow were very stable; actual flight measured values of tow rope tension were well within predictions

  6. David Levy's Guide to Eclipses, Transits, and Occultations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, David H.

    2010-08-01

    Introduction; Part I. The Magic and History of Eclipses: 1. Shakespeare, King Lear, and the Great Eclipse of 1605; 2. Three centuries later: Einstein, relativity, and the solar eclipse of 1919; 3. What causes solar and lunar eclipses; Part II. Observing Solar Eclipses: 4. Safety considerations; 5. What to expect during a partial eclipse; 6. Annular eclipses and what to see in them; 7. Total eclipse of the Sun: introduction to the magic; 8. The onset: temperature drop, Baily's Beads, Diamond Ring; 9. Totality: Corona, Prominences, Chromosphere, and surrounding area; 10. Photographing and imaging a solar eclipse; Part III. Observing Lunar Eclipses: 11. Don't forget the penumbral eclipses!; 12. Partial lunar eclipses; 13. Total lunar eclipses; 14. Photographing and imaging lunar eclipses; Part IV. Occultations: 15. When the Moon occults a star; Part V. Transits: 16. When planets cross the Sun; Part VI. My Favorite Eclipses: 17. A personal canon of eclipses, occultations, and transits I have seen; Appendices; Index.

  7. Detection of [O III] at z ∼ 3: A Galaxy Above the Main Sequence, Rapidly Assembling Its Stellar Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwas, Amit; Ferkinhoff, Carl; Nikola, Thomas; Parshley, Stephen C.; Schoenwald, Justin P.; Stacey, Gordon J.; Higdon, Sarah J. U.; Higdon, James L.; Weiss, Axel; Güsten, Rolf; Menten, Karl M.

    2018-04-01

    We detect bright emission in the far-infrared (far-IR) fine structure [O III] 88 μm line from a strong lensing candidate galaxy, H-ATLAS J113526.3-014605, hereafter G12v2.43, at z = 3.127, using the second-generation Redshift (z) and Early Universe Spectrometer (ZEUS-2) at the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment Telescope (APEX). This is only the fifth detection of this far-IR line from a submillimeter galaxy at the epoch of galaxy assembly. The observed [O III] luminosity of 7.1 × 109 ≤ft(\\tfrac{10}{μ }\\right) L ⊙ likely arises from H II regions around massive stars, and the amount of Lyman continuum photons required to support the ionization indicate the presence of (1.2–5.2) × 106 ≤ft(\\tfrac{10}{μ }\\right) equivalent O5.5 or higher stars, where μ would be the lensing magnification factor. The observed line luminosity also requires a minimum mass of ∼2 × 108 ≤ft(\\tfrac{10}{μ }\\right) M ⊙ in ionized gas, that is 0.33% of the estimated total molecular gas mass of 6 × 1010 ≤ft(\\tfrac{10}{μ }\\right) M ⊙. We compile multi-band photometry tracing rest-frame ultraviolet to millimeter continuum emission to further constrain the properties of this dusty high-redshift, star-forming galaxy. Via SED modeling we find G12v2.43 is forming stars at a rate of 916 ≤ft(\\tfrac{10}{μ }\\right) M ⊙ yr‑1 and already has a stellar mass of 8 × 1010 ≤ft(\\tfrac{10}{μ }\\right) M ⊙. We also constrain the age of the current starburst to be ≤slant 5 Myr, making G12v2.43 a gas-rich galaxy lying above the star-forming main sequence at z ∼ 3, undergoing a growth spurt, and it could be on the main sequence within the derived gas depletion timescale of ∼66 Myr.

  8. Mapping the 2017 Eclipse: Education, Navigation, Inspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiler, M.

    2015-12-01

    Eclipse maps are a unique vessel of knowledge. At a glance, they communicate the essential knowledge of where and when to successfully view a total eclipse of the sun. An eclipse map also provides detailed knowledge of eclipse circumstances superimposed on the highway system for optimal navigation, especially in the event that weather forces relocation. Eclipse maps are also a vital planning tool for solar physicists and astrophotographers capturing high-resolution imagery of the solar corona. Michael Zeiler will speak to the role of eclipse maps in educating the American public and inspiring people to make the effort to reach the path of totality for the sight of a lifetime. Michael will review the role of eclipse maps in astronomical research and discuss a project under development, the 2017 Eclipse Atlas for smartphones, tablets, and desktop computers.

  9. Interacting Winds in Eclipsing Symbiotic Systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... Interacting Winds in Eclipsing Symbiotic Systems – The Case Study of EG Andromedae ... to obtain the physical parameters of a quiescent eclipsing symbiotic system. ... Articles are also visible in Web of Science immediately.

  10. POST-MAIN SEQUENCE EVOLUTION OF ICY MINOR PLANETS: IMPLICATIONS FOR WATER RETENTION AND WHITE DWARF POLLUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malamud, Uri; Perets, Hagai B., E-mail: uri.mal@tx.technion.ac.il, E-mail: hperets@physics.technion.ac.il [Department of Physics, Technion (Israel)

    2016-12-01

    Most observations of polluted white dwarf atmospheres are consistent with accretion of water-depleted planetary material. Among tens of known cases, merely two involve accretion of objects that contain a considerable mass fraction of water. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relative scarcity of these detections. Based on a new and highly detailed model, we evaluate the retention of water inside icy minor planets during the high-luminosity stellar evolution that follows the main sequence. Our model fully considers the thermal, physical, and chemical evolution of icy bodies, following their internal differentiation as well as water depletion, from the moment of their birth and through all stellar evolution phases preceding the formation of the white dwarf. We also account for different initial compositions and formation times. Our results differ from previous studies, which have either underestimated or overestimated water retention. We show that water can survive in a variety of circumstances and in great quantities, and therefore other possibilities are discussed in order to explain the infrequency of water detection. We predict that the sequence of accretion is such that water accretes earlier, and more rapidly, than the rest of the silicate disk, considerably reducing the chance of its detection in H-dominated atmospheres. In He-dominated atmospheres, the scarcity of water detections could be observationally biased. It implies that the accreted material is typically intrinsically dry, which may be the result of the inside-out depopulation sequence of minor planets.

  11. Post-main-sequence Evolution of Icy Minor Planets. II. Water Retention and White Dwarf Pollution around Massive Progenitor Stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malamud, Uri; Perets, Hagai B., E-mail: uri.mal@tx.technion.ac.il, E-mail: hperets@physics.technion.ac.il [Department of Physics, Technion (Israel)

    2017-06-10

    Most studies suggest that the pollution of white dwarf (WD) atmospheres arises from the accretion of minor planets, but the exact properties of polluting material, and in particular the evidence for water in some cases, are not yet understood. Here we study the water retention of small icy bodies in exo-solar planetary systems, as their respective host stars evolve through and off the main sequence and eventually become WDs. We explore, for the first time, a wide range of star masses and metallicities. We find that the mass of the WD progenitor star is of crucial importance for the retention of water, while its metallicity is relatively unimportant. We predict that minor planets around lower-mass WD progenitors would generally retain more water and would do so at closer distances from the WD than compared with high-mass progenitors. The dependence of water retention on progenitor mass and other parameters has direct implications for the origin of observed WD pollution, and we discuss how our results and predictions might be tested in the future as more observations of WDs with long cooling ages become available.

  12. Rotation-induced YORP break-up of small bodies to produce post-main-sequence debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veras, D.; Jacobson, S. A.; Gänsicke, B. T.

    2017-09-01

    We hypothesize that the in situ break-up of small bodies such as asteroids spun to fission during the giant branch phases of stellar evolution provides an important contribution to the debris orbiting and ultimately polluting white dwarfs. The YORP (Yarkovsky-O'Keefe-Radviesvki-Paddock) effect, which arises from radiation pressure, accelerates the spin rate of asymmetric asteroids, which can eventually shear themselves apart. This pressure is maintained and enhanced around dying stars because the outward push of an asteroid due to stellar mass loss is insignificant compared to the resulting stellar luminosity increase. Consequently, giant star radiation will destroy nearly all bodies with radii in the range 100 m-10 km that survive their parent star's main-sequence lifetime within a distance of about 7 au; smaller bodies are spun apart to their strongest, competent components. This estimate is conservative and would increase for highly asymmetric shapes or incorporation of the inward drag due to giant star stellar wind. The resulting debris field, which could extend to thousands of au, may be perturbed by remnant planetary systems to reproduce the observed dusty and gaseous discs which accompany polluted white dwarfs.

  13. POST-MAIN SEQUENCE EVOLUTION OF ICY MINOR PLANETS: IMPLICATIONS FOR WATER RETENTION AND WHITE DWARF POLLUTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malamud, Uri; Perets, Hagai B.

    2016-01-01

    Most observations of polluted white dwarf atmospheres are consistent with accretion of water-depleted planetary material. Among tens of known cases, merely two involve accretion of objects that contain a considerable mass fraction of water. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relative scarcity of these detections. Based on a new and highly detailed model, we evaluate the retention of water inside icy minor planets during the high-luminosity stellar evolution that follows the main sequence. Our model fully considers the thermal, physical, and chemical evolution of icy bodies, following their internal differentiation as well as water depletion, from the moment of their birth and through all stellar evolution phases preceding the formation of the white dwarf. We also account for different initial compositions and formation times. Our results differ from previous studies, which have either underestimated or overestimated water retention. We show that water can survive in a variety of circumstances and in great quantities, and therefore other possibilities are discussed in order to explain the infrequency of water detection. We predict that the sequence of accretion is such that water accretes earlier, and more rapidly, than the rest of the silicate disk, considerably reducing the chance of its detection in H-dominated atmospheres. In He-dominated atmospheres, the scarcity of water detections could be observationally biased. It implies that the accreted material is typically intrinsically dry, which may be the result of the inside-out depopulation sequence of minor planets.

  14. THE EXTENDED MAIN-SEQUENCE TURNOFF CLUSTERS OF THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD-MISSING LINKS IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER EVOLUTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, Stefan C.; Mackey, A. Dougal; Da Costa, Gary S.

    2011-01-01

    Recent observations of intermediate-age (1-3 Gyr) massive star clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud have revealed that the majority possess bifurcated or extended main-sequence turnoff (EMSTO) morphologies. This effect can be understood to arise from subsequent star formation among the stellar population with age differences between constituent stars amounting to 50-300 Myr. Age spreads of this order are similarly invoked to explain the light-element abundance variations witnessed in ancient globular clusters (GCs). In this paper, we explore the proposition that the clusters exhibiting the EMSTO phenomenon are a general phase in the evolution of massive clusters, one that naturally leads to the particular chemical properties of the ancient GC population. We show that the isolation of EMSTO clusters to intermediate ages is the consequence of observational selection effects. In our proposed scenario, the EMSTO phenomenon is identical to that which establishes the light-element abundance variations that are ubiquitous in the ancient GC population. Our scenario makes a strong prediction: EMSTO clusters will exhibit abundance variations in the light-elements characteristic of the ancient GC population.

  15. SDSS-IV MaNGA: Spatially Resolved Star Formation Main Sequence and LI(N)ER Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, B. C.; Lin, Lihwai; Lin, J. H.; Pan, H. A.; Hsu, C. H.; Sánchez, S. F.; Cano-Díaz, M.; Zhang, K.; Yan, R.; Barrera-Ballesteros, J. K.; Boquien, M.; Riffel, R.; Brownstein, J.; Cruz-González, I.; Hagen, A.; Ibarra, H.; Pan, K.; Bizyaev, D.; Oravetz, D.; Simmons, A.

    2017-12-01

    We present our study on the spatially resolved Hα and M * relation for 536 star-forming and 424 quiescent galaxies taken from the MaNGA survey. We show that the star formation rate surface density ({{{Σ }}}{SFR}), derived based on the Hα emissions, is strongly correlated with the M * surface density ({{{Σ }}}* ) on kiloparsec scales for star-forming galaxies and can be directly connected to the global star-forming sequence. This suggests that the global main sequence may be a consequence of a more fundamental relation on small scales. On the other hand, our result suggests that ∼20% of quiescent galaxies in our sample still have star formation activities in the outer region with lower specific star formation rate (SSFR) than typical star-forming galaxies. Meanwhile, we also find a tight correlation between {{{Σ }}}{{H}α } and {{{Σ }}}* for LI(N)ER regions, named the resolved “LI(N)ER” sequence, in quiescent galaxies, which is consistent with the scenario that LI(N)ER emissions are primarily powered by the hot, evolved stars as suggested in the literature.

  16. 2D and 3D Models of Convective Turbulence and Oscillations in Intermediate-Mass Main-Sequence Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzik, Joyce Ann; Morgan, Taylor H.; Nelson, Nicholas J.; Lovekin, Catherine; Kitiashvili, Irina N.; Mansour, Nagi N.; Kosovichev, Alexander

    2015-08-01

    We present multidimensional modeling of convection and oscillations in main-sequence stars somewhat more massive than the sun, using three separate approaches: 1) Applying the spherical 3D MHD ASH (Anelastic Spherical Harmonics) code to simulate the core convection and radiative zone. Our goal is to determine whether core convection can excite low-frequency gravity modes, and thereby explain the presence of low frequencies for some hybrid gamma Dor/delta Sct variables for which the envelope convection zone is too shallow for the convective blocking mechanism to drive g modes; 2) Using the 3D planar ‘StellarBox’ radiation hydrodynamics code to model the envelope convection zone and part of the radiative zone. Our goals are to examine the interaction of stellar pulsations with turbulent convection in the envelope, excitation of acoustic modes, and the role of convective overshooting; 3) Applying the ROTORC 2D stellar evolution and dynamics code to calculate evolution with a variety of initial rotation rates and extents of core convective overshooting. The nonradial adiabatic pulsation frequencies of these nonspherical models will be calculated using the 2D pulsation code NRO of Clement. We will present new insights into gamma Dor and delta Sct pulsations gained by multidimensional modeling compared to 1D model expectations.

  17. Integration of BETA with Eclipse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Enevoldsen, Mads Brøgger

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents language interoperability issues appearing in order to implement support for the BETA language in the Java-based Eclipse integrated development environment. One of the challenges is to implement plug-ins in BETA and be able to load them in Eclipse. In order to do this, some fo...... it is possible to implement plug-ins in BETA and even inherit from Java classes. In the paper the two approaches are described together with part of the mapping from BETA to Java class files. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/15710661...

  18. The Young Visual Binary Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prato, Lisa; Avilez, Ian; Lindstrom, Kyle; Graham, Sean; Sullivan, Kendall; Biddle, Lauren; Skiff, Brian; Nofi, Larissa; Schaefer, Gail; Simon, Michal

    2018-01-01

    Differences in the stellar and circumstellar properties of the components of young binaries provide key information about star and disk formation and evolution processes. Because objects with separations of a few to a few hundred astronomical units share a common environment and composition, multiple systems allow us to control for some of the factors which play into star formation. We are completing analysis of a rich sample of about 100 pre-main sequence binaries and higher order multiples, primarily located in the Taurus and Ophiuchus star forming regions. This poster will highlight some of out recent, exciting results. All reduced spectra and the results of our analysis will be publicly available to the community at http://jumar.lowell.edu/BinaryStars/. Support for this research was provided in part by NSF award AST-1313399 and by NASA Keck KPDA funding.

  19. Spectrum of EY Orionis at the secondary eclipse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismailov, N.Z.

    1987-01-01

    The results of spectral observations of the binary system EY orions at the secondary eclipse are presented. Some peculiar properties in the linear spectrum of the star have been discovered. The spectrum of the second component is not observed. The rotational velocity of the visible component is equal to 150 ± 30 km/s. During the phases 0.52-0.58, during approximately 1 d the radial velocities deviate from the radial velocity curve. According to the character of its spectrum the system EY Orions is similar to typical Orion variables

  20. Interacting binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggleton, P.P.; Pringle, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    This volume contains 15 review articles in the field of binary stars. The subjects reviewed span considerably, from the shortest period of interacting binaries to the longest, symbiotic stars. Also included are articles on Algols, X-ray binaries and Wolf-Rayet stars (single and binary). Contents: Preface. List of Participants. Activity of Contact Binary Systems. Wolf-Rayet Stars and Binarity. Symbiotic Stars. Massive X-ray Binaries. Stars that go Hump in the Night: The SU UMa Stars. Interacting Binaries - Summing Up

  1. Evolutionary model of the subdwarf binary system LB3459

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paczynski, B.; Dearborn, D.S.

    1980-01-01

    An evolutionary model is proposed for the eclipsing binary system LB 3459 (=CPD-60 0 389 = HDE 269696). The two stars are hot subdwarfs with degenerate helium cores, hydrogen burning shell sources and low mass hydrogen rich envelopes. The system probably evolved through two common envelope phases. After the first such phase it might look like the semi-detached binary AS Eri. Soon after the second common envelope phase the system might look like UU Sge, an eclipsing binary nucleus of a planetary nebula. The present mass of the optical (spectroscopic) primary is probably close to 0.24 solar mass, and the predicted radial velocity amplitude of the primary is about 150 km/s. The optical secondary should be hotter and bolometrically brighter, with a mass of 0.32 solar mass. The primary eclipse is an occultation. (author)

  2. EXTENDED MAGNETOSPHERES IN PRE-MAIN-SEQUENCE EVOLUTION: FROM T TAURI STARS TO THE BROWN DWARF LIMIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez de Castro, Ana I.; Marcos-Arenal, Pablo [Grupo de Investigacion Complutense AEGORA, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-04-20

    Low-mass pre-main-sequence stars, i.e., T Tauri stars (TTSs), strongly radiate at high energies, from X-rays to the ultraviolet (UV). This excess radiation with respect to main-sequence cool stars (MSCSs) is associated with the accretion process, i.e., it is produced in the extended magnetospheres, in the accretion shocks on the stellar surface, and in the outflows. Although evidence of accretion shocks and outflow contribution to the high-energy excess have been recently addressed, there is not an updated revision of the magnetospheric contribution. This article addresses this issue. The UV observations of the TTSs in the well-known Taurus region have been analyzed together with the XMM-Newton observations compiled in the XEST survey. For the first time the high sensitivity of the Hubble Space Telescope UV instrumentation has allowed measurement of the UV line fluxes of TTSs to M8 type. UV- and X-ray-normalized fluxes have been determined to study the extent and properties of the TTS magnetospheres as a class. They have been compared with the atmospheres of the MSCSs. The main results from this analysis are (1) the normalized fluxes of all the tracers are correlated; this correlation is independent of the broad mass range and the hardness of the X-ray radiation field; (2) the TTS correlations are different than the MSCS correlations; (3) there is a very significant excess emission in O I in the TTSs compared with MSCSs that seems to be caused by recombination radiation from the disk atmosphere after photoionization by extreme UV radiation; the Fe II/Mg II recombination continuum has also been detected in several TTSs and most prominently in AA Tau; and (4) the normalized flux of the UV tracers anticorrelates with the strength of the X-ray flux, i.e., the stronger the X-ray surface flux is, the weaker the observed UV flux. This last behavior is counterintuitive within the framework of stellar dynamo theory and suggests that UV emission can be produced in the

  3. The Problem of Hipparcos Distances to Open Clusters. Report 1; Constraints from Multicolor a Main-Sequence Fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsonneault, Marc H.; Stauffer, John; Soderblom, David R.; King, Jeremy R.; Hanson, Robert B.

    1998-01-01

    Parallax data from the Hipparcos mission allow the direct distance to open clusters to be compared with the distance inferred from main-sequence (MS) fitting. There are surprising differences between the two distance measurements. indicating either the need for changes in the cluster compositions or reddening, underlying problems with the technique of MS fitting, or systematic errors in the Hipparcos parallaxes at the 1 mas level. We examine the different possibilities, focusing on MS fitting in both metallicity-sensitive B-V and metallicity-insensitive V-I for five well-studied systems (the Hyades, Pleiades, alpha Per, Praesepe, and Coma Ber). The Hipparcos distances to the Hyades and alpha Per are within 1 sigma of the MS-fitting distance in B-V and V-I, while the Hipparcos distances to Coma Ber and the Pleiades are in disagreement with the MS-fitting distance at more than the 3 sigma level. There are two Hipparcos measurements of the distance to Praesepe; one is in good agreement with the MS-fitting distance and the other disagrees at the 2 sigma level. The distance estimates from the different colors are in conflict with one another for Coma but in agreement for the Pleiades. Changes in the relative cluster metal abundances, age related effects, helium, and reddening are shown to be unlikely to explain the puzzling behavior of the Pleiades. We present evidence for spatially dependent systematic errors at the 1 mas level in the parallaxes of Pleiades stars. The implications of this result are discussed.

  4. ON THE RELIABILITY OF STELLAR AGES AND AGE SPREADS INFERRED FROM PRE-MAIN-SEQUENCE EVOLUTIONARY MODELS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosokawa, Takashi; Offner, Stella S. R.; Krumholz, Mark R.

    2011-01-01

    We revisit the problem of low-mass pre-main-sequence stellar evolution and its observational consequences for where stars fall on the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram (HRD). In contrast to most previous work, our models follow stars as they grow from small masses via accretion, and we perform a systematic study of how the stars' HRD evolution is influenced by their initial radius, by the radiative properties of the accretion flow, and by the accretion history, using both simple idealized accretion histories and histories taken from numerical simulations of star cluster formation. We compare our numerical results to both non-accreting isochrones and to the positions of observed stars in the HRD, with a goal of determining whether both the absolute ages and the age dispersions inferred from non-accreting isochrones are reliable. We show that non-accreting isochrones can sometimes overestimate stellar ages for more massive stars (those with effective temperatures above ∼3500 K), thereby explaining why non-accreting isochrones often suggest a systematic age difference between more and less massive stars in the same cluster. However, we also find the only way to produce a similar overestimate for the ages of cooler stars is if these stars grow from ∼0.01 M sun seed protostars that are an order of magnitude smaller than predicted by current theoretical models, and if the size of the seed protostar correlates systematically with the final stellar mass at the end of accretion. We therefore conclude that, unless both of these conditions are met, inferred ages and age spreads for cool stars are reliable, at least to the extent that the observed bolometric luminosities and temperatures are accurate. Finally, we note that the time dependence of the mass accretion rate has remarkably little effect on low-mass stars' evolution on the HRD, and that such time dependence may be neglected for all stars except those with effective temperatures above ∼4000 K.

  5. New Light Curves and Analysis of the Overcontact Binaries PP Lac and DK Sge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, S. J.; Hargis, J. R.; Bradstreet, D. H.

    2004-12-01

    As a by-product of the ongoing work with the Catalog and AtLas of Eclipsing Binaries database (CALEB; Bradstreet et al. 2004), several hundred eclipsing binary systems have been identified that have either unpublished or poor quality light curves. We present new V & Rc light curves for the overcontact systems PP Lac and DK Sge, both chosen because their deep eclipses (peak-to-peak amplitudes of nearly 0.7 mag) help constrain the light curve modelling. Data were obtained using the 41-cm telescope at the Eastern University Observatory equipped with an SBIG ST-10XME CCD. PP Lac (P= 0.40116 d) is a W-type contact binary with only one previously published light curve (Dumont & Maraziti 1990), but the data are sparse and almost non-existent at primary eclipse. Modelling of these data gave varying results; the published mass ratios differ by nearly 0.3. Our data confirms the noted differing eclipse depths but we find the primary eclipse to be total. We present a new light curve solution using Binary Maker 3 (Bradstreet & Steelman 2002) and Wilson-Devinney, finding the mass ratio to be well-constrained by the duration of total eclipse. A period study will be presented using previously existing and newly derived times of minimum light. DK Sge (P=0.62182 d) appears to be an A-type contact binary with no published light curve. The eclipses are partial, with the primary eclipse being deeper by about 0.08 mag. The maxima show evidence of a slight asymmetry, although the light curve appears to be repeatable over the 1 month of observations. We present the first light curve solution using Binary Maker 3 and Wilson-Devinney, but have limited mass ratio constraints due to the absence of radial velocity data. A period study will be presented using previously existing and newly derived times of minimum light.

  6. Eclipse plugin development by example beginner's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Blewitt, Alex

    2013-01-01

    A Beginner's Guide following the ""by Example"" approach. There will be 5-8 major examples that will be used in the book to develop advanced plugins with the Eclipse IDE.This book is for Java developers who are familiar with Eclipse as a Java IDE and are interested in learning how to develop plug-ins for Eclipse. No prior knowledge of Eclipse plug-in development or OSGi is necessary, although you are expected to know how to create, run, and debug Java programs in Eclipse.

  7. Android development tools for Eclipse

    CERN Document Server

    Shah, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    A standard tutorial aimed at developing Android applications in a practical manner.Android Development Tools for Eclipse is aimed at beginners and existing developers who want to learn more about Android development. It is assumed that you have experience in Java programming and that you have used IDE for development.

  8. THE ECLIPSING SYSTEM EP ANDROMEDAE AND ITS CIRCUMBINARY COMPANIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Woo; Hinse, Tobias Cornelius; Park, Jang-Ho, E-mail: jwlee@kasi.re.kr, E-mail: tchinse@gmail.com, E-mail: pooh107162@kasi.re.kr [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    We present new long-term CCD photometry for EP And acquired during the period 2007-2012. The light curves display total eclipses at primary minima and season-to-season light variability. Our synthesis for all available light curves indicates that the eclipsing pair is a W-type overcontact binary with parameters of q = 2.578, i = 83. Degree-Sign 3, {Delta}T = 27 K, f = 28%, and l{sub 3} = 2%-3%. The asymmetric light curves in 2007 were satisfactorily modeled by a cool spot on either of the eclipsing components from a magnetic dynamo. Including our 95 timing measurements, a total of 414 times of minimum light spanning about 82 yr was used for a period study. A detailed analysis of the eclipse timing diagram revealed that the orbital period of EP And has varied as a combination of an upward-opening parabola and two periodic variations, with cycle lengths of P{sub 3} = 44.6 yr and P{sub 4} = 1.834 yr and semi-amplitudes of K{sub 3} = 0.0100 days and K{sub 4} = 0.0039 days, respectively. The observed period increase at a fractional rate of +1.39 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -10} is in excellent agreement with that calculated from the W-D code and can be plausibly explained by some combination of mass transfer from the primary to the secondary star and angular momentum loss due to magnetic braking. The most reasonable explanation for both cycles is a pair of light-travel-time effects driven by the possible existence of a third and fourth component with projected masses of M{sub 3} = 0.25 M{sub Sun} and M{sub 4} = 0.90 M{sub Sun }. The more massive companion could be revealed using high-resolution spectroscopic data extending over the course of a few years and could also be a binary itself. It is possible that the circumbinary objects may have played an important role in the formation and evolution of the eclipsing pair, which would cause it to have a short initial orbital period and thus evolve into an overcontact configuration by angular momentum loss.

  9. WHITE-LIGHT FLARES ON CLOSE BINARIES OBSERVED WITH KEPLER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Qing; Xin, Yu; Liu, Ji-Feng; Zhang, Xiao-Bin; Gao, Shuang

    2016-01-01

    Based on Kepler data, we present the results of a search for white light flares on 1049 close binaries. We identify 234 flare binaries, of which 6818 flares are detected. We compare the flare-binary fraction in different binary morphologies (“detachedness”). The result shows that the fractions in over-contact and ellipsoidal binaries are approximately 10%–20% lower than those in detached and semi-detached systems. We calculate the binary flare activity level (AL) of all the flare binaries, and discuss its variations along the orbital period ( P orb ) and rotation period ( P rot , calculated for only detached binaries). We find that the AL increases with decreasing P orb or P rot , up to the critical values at P orb ∼ 3 days or P rot ∼ 1.5 days, and thereafter the AL starts decreasing no matter how fast the stars rotate. We examine the flaring rate as a function of orbital phase in two eclipsing binaries on which a large number of flares are detected. It appears that there is no correlation between flaring rate and orbital phase in these two binaries. In contrast, when we examine the function with 203 flares on 20 non-eclipse ellipsoidal binaries, bimodal distribution of amplitude-weighted flare numbers shows up at orbital phases 0.25 and 0.75. Such variation could be larger than what is expected from the cross section modification.

  10. Evolutionary changes in the eclipsing binary .beta. Lyrae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Harmanec, Petr

    1999-01-01

    Roč. 43, 6-7 (1999), s. 491-497 ISSN 1387-6473. [ General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union /23./. Kyoto, 18.08.1997-30.08.1997] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  11. Period changes in the eclipsing binary DX Vel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Volkov, I. M.; Chochol, D.; Grygar, Jiří; Jelínek, M.; Kubánek, Petr; Mašek, Martin; Prouza, Michael; Ribeiro, T.; Sebastian, D.; van Houten, C. J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 2013, Č. 6066 (2013), s. 6001 ISSN 0374-0676 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7E12064; GA MŠk(CZ) LA08016 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 283783 - GLORIA Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : photometry Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics http://www.konkoly.hu/cgi-bin/IBVS?6066

  12. Occultation/Eclipse Events in Binary Asteroid 1991 VH

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pravec, Petr; Wolf, M.; Kotková, Lenka

    1998-01-01

    Roč. 133, č. 1 (1998), s. 79-88 ISSN 0019-1035 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3003708; GA ČR GA205/95/1498 Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 2.215, year: 1998

  13. Light curve solutions and out-of-eclipse variability of KIC 10031409, KIC 11228612, KIC 11403216 and KIC 11913071

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjurkchieva D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We carried out light curve solutions of four detached binaries observed by Kepler. As a result, their orbital inclinations, temperatures and relative stellar radii were determined. KIC 10031409 and KIC 11228612 reveal partial eclipses while the components of KIC 11403216 and KIC 11913071 undergo total eclipses. The secondary component of KIC 11403216 is probably a very late M dwarf or brown dwarf. The out-of-eclipse brightness of KIC 10031409, KIC 11228612 and KIC 11913071 vary with the orbital period and might be explained by spots on synchronously-rotating star(s. The out-of-eclipse variability of KIC 11403216 is with a period that is a third of its orbital period and may be due to spot on asynchronous rotating component. The resonance 1:3 needs future study of KIC 11403216.

  14. Exoplanet Characterization With Spitzer Eclipses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Joseph

    We will analyze our existing Spitzer eclipse data for 11 exoplanets (GJ 436b, WASP-8b, WASP-29b, WASP-11b, TrES-1, WASP-34b, WASP-43b, HD 209458b, HAT-P-30b, HAT-P-13b, and WASP-12b) along with all other Spitzer eclipse and transit data for these systems (723 hours of total data). In combination with transit results, these measurements reveal the surface fluxes emitted by the planets' atmospheres in the six Spitzer bandpasses (3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8.0, 16, and 24 1-4m), as well as orbital eccentricity and in a few cases possibly even precession rate. The fluxes, in turn, can constrain atmospheric composition and thermal profiles. We propose here to analyze data for these planets using Monte Carlo-driven, radiative-transfer, model-fitting codes; to conduct aggregate analyses; and to develop and share statistical modeling tools. Secondary eclipses provide us with a unique way to characterize exoplanetary atmospheres. Since other techniques like spectroscopy divide the planetary signal into many channels, they require very high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) and are only possible for a few planets. Broadband eclipse photometry is thus the only technique that can measure dozens of atmospheres and identify the mechanisms that cause planets at a given irradiation level to behave so differently from one another. Until JWST becomes available, the broad variety of Spitzer data that we already have in hand, along with observations from the Hubble Space Telescope and possibly SOFIA, are our best way to understand the wide diversity of exoplanetary atmospheres. Since 2010, the team has produced six papers from a new, highly modular pipeline that implements optimal methods for analysis of Spitzer photometric time series, and our efficiency is increasing. The sensitivity needed for these measurements is up to 100 times better than Spitzer's design criteria, so careful treatment of systematic error is critically important and first-order approximations rarely work. The new pipeline

  15. Massive binaries in the vicinity of Sgr A*

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfuhl, O.; Gillessen, S.; Genzel, R.; Eisenhauer, F.; Fritz, T. K.; Ott, T. [Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Alexander, T. [Faculty of Physics, Weizmann Institute of Science, P.O. Box 26, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Martins, F., E-mail: pfuhl@mpe.mpg.de [LUPM, Université Montpelier 2, CNRS, Place Eugéne Bataillon, F-34095, Montpellier (France)

    2014-02-20

    A long-term spectroscopic and photometric survey of the most luminous and massive stars in the vicinity of the supermassive black hole Sgr A* revealed two new binaries: a long-period Ofpe/WN9 binary, IRS 16NE, with a modest eccentricity of 0.3 and a period of 224 days, and an eclipsing Wolf-Rayet binary with a period of 2.3 days. Together with the already identified binary IRS 16SW, there are now three confirmed OB/WR binaries in the inner 0.2 pc of the Galactic center. Using radial velocity change upper limits, we were able to constrain the spectroscopic binary fraction in the Galactic center to F{sub SB}=0.30{sub −0.21}{sup +0.34} at a confidence level of 95%, a massive binary fraction close to that observed in dense clusters. The fraction of eclipsing binaries with photometric amplitudes Δm > 0.4 is F{sub EB}{sup GC}=3%±2%, which is consistent with local OB star clusters (F {sub EB} = 1%). Overall, the Galactic center binary fraction seems to be similar to the binary fraction in comparable young clusters.

  16. Explaining the luminosity spread in young clusters: proto and pre-main sequence stellar evolution in a molecular cloud environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Sigurd S.; Haugbølle, Troels

    2018-02-01

    Hertzsprung-Russell diagrams of star-forming regions show a large luminosity spread. This is incompatible with well-defined isochrones based on classic non-accreting protostellar evolution models. Protostars do not evolve in isolation of their environment, but grow through accretion of gas. In addition, while an age can be defined for a star-forming region, the ages of individual stars in the region will vary. We show how the combined effect of a protostellar age spread, a consequence of sustained star formation in the molecular cloud, and time-varying protostellar accretion for individual protostars can explain the observed luminosity spread. We use a global magnetohydrodynamic simulation including a sub-scale sink particle model of a star-forming region to follow the accretion process of each star. The accretion profiles are used to compute stellar evolution models for each star, incorporating a model of how the accretion energy is distributed to the disc, radiated away at the accretion shock, or incorporated into the outer layers of the protostar. Using a modelled cluster age of 5 Myr, we naturally reproduce the luminosity spread and find good agreement with observations of the Collinder 69 cluster, and the Orion Nebular Cluster. It is shown how stars in binary and multiple systems can be externally forced creating recurrent episodic accretion events. We find that in a realistic global molecular cloud model massive stars build up mass over relatively long time-scales. This leads to an important conceptual change compared to the classic picture of non-accreting stellar evolution segmented into low-mass Hayashi tracks and high-mass Henyey tracks.

  17. Orbital Decay in Binaries with Evolved Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Meng; Arras, Phil; Weinberg, Nevin N.; Troup, Nicholas; Majewski, Steven R.

    2018-01-01

    Two mechanisms are often invoked to explain tidal friction in binary systems. The ``dynamical tide” is the resonant excitation of internal gravity waves by the tide, and their subsequent damping by nonlinear fluid processes or thermal diffusion. The ``equilibrium tide” refers to non-resonant excitation of fluid motion in the star’s convection zone, with damping by interaction with the turbulent eddies. There have been numerous studies of these processes in main sequence stars, but less so on the subgiant and red giant branches. Motivated by the newly discovered close binary systems in the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE-1), we have performed calculations of both the dynamical and equilibrium tide processes for stars over a range of mass as the star’s cease core hydrogen burning and evolve to shell burning. Even for stars which had a radiative core on the main sequence, the dynamical tide may have very large amplitude in the newly radiative core in post-main sequence, giving rise to wave breaking. The resulting large dynamical tide dissipation rate is compared to the equilibrium tide, and the range of secondary masses and orbital periods over which rapid orbital decay may occur will be discussed, as well as applications to close APOGEE binaries.

  18. Theoretical studies of binaries in astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dischler, Johann Sebastian

    This thesis introduces and summarizes four papers dealing with computer simulations of astrophysical processes involving binaries. The first part gives the rational and theoretical background to these papers. In paper I and II a statistical approach to studying eclipsing binaries is described. By using population synthesis models for binaries the probabilities for eclipses are calculated for different luminosity classes of binaries. These are compared with Hipparcos data and they agree well if one uses a standard input distribution for the orbit sizes. If one uses a random pairing model, where both companions are independently picked from an IMF, one finds too feclipsing binaries by an order of magnitude. In paper III we investigate a possible scenario for the origin of the stars observed close to the centre of our galaxy, called S stars. We propose that a cluster falls radially cowards the central black hole. The binaries within the cluster can then, if they have small impact parameters, be broken up by the black hole's tidal held and one of the components of the binary will be captured by the black hole. Paper IV investigates how the onset of mass transfer in eccentric binaries depends on the eccentricity. To do this we have developed a new two-phase SPH scheme where very light particles are at tire outer edge of our simulated star. This enables us to get a much better resolution of the very small mass that is transferred in close binaries. Our simulations show that the minimum required distance between the stars to have mass transfer decreases with the eccentricity.

  19. Resource Letter OSE-1: Observing Solar Eclipses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.; Fraknoi, Andrew

    2017-07-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the available literature, listing selected books, articles, and online resources about scientific, cultural, and practical issues related to observing solar eclipses. It is timely, given that a total solar eclipse will cross the continental United States on August 21, 2017. The next total solar eclipse path crossing the U.S. and Canada will be on April 8, 2024. In 2023, the path of annularity of an annular eclipse will cross Mexico, the United States, and Canada, with partial phases visible throughout those countries.

  20. EVOLUTION OF THE BINARY FRACTION IN DENSE STELLAR SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fregeau, John M.; Ivanova, Natalia; Rasio, Frederic A.

    2009-01-01

    Using our recently improved Monte Carlo evolution code, we study the evolution of the binary fraction in globular clusters. In agreement with previous N-body simulations, we find generally that the hard binary fraction in the core tends to increase with time over a range of initial cluster central densities for initial binary fractions ∼<90%. The dominant processes driving the evolution of the core binary fraction are mass segregation of binaries into the cluster core and preferential destruction of binaries there. On a global scale, these effects and the preferential tidal stripping of single stars tend to roughly balance, leading to overall cluster binary fractions that are roughly constant with time. Our findings suggest that the current hard binary fraction near the half-mass radius is a good indicator of the hard primordial binary fraction. However, the relationship between the true binary fraction and the fraction of main-sequence stars in binaries (which is typically what observers measure) is nonlinear and rather complicated. We also consider the importance of soft binaries, which not only modify the evolution of the binary fraction, but can also drastically change the evolution of the cluster as a whole. Finally, we briefly describe the recent addition of single and binary stellar evolution to our cluster evolution code.

  1. Survival of planets around shrinking stellar binaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Diego J; Lai, Dong

    2015-07-28

    The discovery of transiting circumbinary planets by the Kepler mission suggests that planets can form efficiently around binary stars. None of the stellar binaries currently known to host planets has a period shorter than 7 d, despite the large number of eclipsing binaries found in the Kepler target list with periods shorter than a few days. These compact binaries are believed to have evolved from wider orbits into their current configurations via the so-called Lidov-Kozai migration mechanism, in which gravitational perturbations from a distant tertiary companion induce large-amplitude eccentricity oscillations in the binary, followed by orbital decay and circularization due to tidal dissipation in the stars. Here we explore the orbital evolution of planets around binaries undergoing orbital decay by this mechanism. We show that planets may survive and become misaligned from their host binary, or may develop erratic behavior in eccentricity, resulting in their consumption by the stars or ejection from the system as the binary decays. Our results suggest that circumbinary planets around compact binaries could still exist, and we offer predictions as to what their orbital configurations should be like.

  2. KIC 7177553: A QUADRUPLE SYSTEM OF TWO CLOSE BINARIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmann, H. [Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, Sternwarte 5, D-07778 Tautenburg (Germany); Borkovits, T. [Baja Astronomical Observatory of Szeged University, H-6500 Baja, Szegedi út, Kt. 766 (Hungary); Rappaport, S. A. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Physics, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307 (United States); Ngo, H. [California Institute of Technology, Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, 1200 E. California Boulevard, MC 150-21, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Mawet, D. [California Institute of Technology, Astronomy Dept. MC 249-17, 1200 E. California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Csizmadia, Sz. [German Aerospace Center (DLR), Institut für Planeten-forschung, Rutherfordstraße 2, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Forgács-Dajka, E., E-mail: lehm@tls-tautenburg.de, E-mail: borko@electra.bajaobs.hu, E-mail: sar@mit.edu, E-mail: hngo@caltech.edu, E-mail: dmawet@astro.caltech.edu, E-mail: szilard.csizmadia@dlr.de, E-mail: e.forgacs-dajka@astro.elte.hu [Astronomical Department, Eötvös University, H-1118 Budapest, Pázmány Péter stny. 1/A (Hungary)

    2016-03-01

    KIC 7177553 was observed by the Kepler satellite to be an eclipsing eccentric binary star system with an 18-day orbital period. Recently, an eclipse timing study of the Kepler binaries has revealed eclipse timing variations (ETVs) in this object with an amplitude of ∼100 s and an outer period of 529 days. The implied mass of the third body is that of a super-Jupiter, but below the mass of a brown dwarf. We therefore embarked on a radial velocity (RV) study of this binary to determine its system configuration and to check the hypothesis that it hosts a giant planet. From the RV measurements, it became immediately obvious that the same Kepler target contains another eccentric binary, this one with a 16.5-day orbital period. Direct imaging using adaptive optics reveals that the two binaries are separated by 0.″4 (∼167 AU) and have nearly the same magnitude (to within 2%). The close angular proximity of the two binaries and very similar γ velocities strongly suggest that KIC 7177553 is one of the rare SB4 systems consisting of two eccentric binaries where at least one system is eclipsing. Both systems consist of slowly rotating, nonevolved, solar-like stars of comparable masses. From the orbital separation and the small difference in γ velocity, we infer that the period of the outer orbit most likely lies in the range of 1000–3000 yr. New images taken over the next few years, as well as the high-precision astrometry of the Gaia satellite mission, will allow us to set much narrower constraints on the system geometry. Finally, we note that the observed ETVs in the Kepler data cannot be produced by the second binary. Further spectroscopic observations on a longer timescale will be required to prove the existence of the massive planet.

  3. A visible and infrared study of the eclipsing dwarf nova OY Carinae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berriman, G.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents four visible light curves of the highly inclined, short-period cataclysmic binary star OY Carinae in quiescence. These light curves show that the red dwarf eclipses both its white dwarf companion and the accretion disc and hotspot, which originate from material transferred from the red dwarf to the white dwarf. The consequences of the findings are discussed in the light of current ideas about the evolution of cataclysmic variable stars. (author)

  4. Eclipse Soundscapes Project: Making the August 21, 2017 Total Solar Eclipse Accessible to Everyone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, H. D., III

    2017-12-01

    The Eclipse Soundscapes Project delivered a multisensory experience that allowed the blind and visually impaired to engage with the August 21, 2017 total solar eclipse along with their sighted peers in a way that would not have been possible otherwise. The project, from the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and NASA's Heliophysics Education Consortium, includes illustrative audio descriptions of the eclipse in real time, recordings of the changing environmental sounds during the eclipse, and an interactive "rumble map" app that allows users to experience the eclipse through touch and sound. The Eclipse Soundscapes Project is working with organizations such as the National Parks Service (NPS), Science Friday, and Brigham Young University and by WGBH's National Center for Accessible Media (NCAM) to bring the awe and wonder of the total solar eclipse and other astronomical phenomena to a segment of the population that has been excluded from and astronomy and astrophysics for far too long, while engaging all learners in new and exciting ways.

  5. COMPLEX VARIABILITY OF THE Hα EMISSION LINE PROFILE OF THE T TAURI BINARY SYSTEM KH 15D: THE INFLUENCE OF ORBITAL PHASE, OCCULTATION BY THE CIRCUMBINARY DISK, AND ACCRETION PHENOMENA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, Catrina M.; Johns-Krull, Christopher M.; Mundt, Reinhard; Herbst, William; Winn, Joshua N.

    2012-01-01

    We have obtained 48 high-resolution echelle spectra of the pre-main-sequence eclipsing binary system KH 15D (V582 Mon, P = 48.37 days, e ∼ 0.6, M A = 0.6 M ☉ , M B = 0.7 M ☉ ). The eclipses are caused by a circumbinary disk (CBD) seen nearly edge on, which at the epoch of these observations completely obscured the orbit of star B and a large portion of the orbit of star A. The spectra were obtained over five contiguous observing seasons from 2001/2002 to 2005/2006 while star A was fully visible, fully occulted, and during several ingress and egress events. The Hα line profile shows dramatic changes in these time series data over timescales ranging from days to years. A fraction of the variations are due to 'edge effects' and depend only on the height of star A above or below the razor sharp edge of the occulting disk. Other observed variations depend on the orbital phase: the Hα emission line profile changes from an inverse P-Cygni-type profile during ingress to an enhanced double-peaked profile, with both a blue and a red emission component, during egress. Each of these interpreted variations are complicated by the fact that there is also a chaotic, irregular component present in these profiles. We find that the complex data set can be largely understood in the context of accretion onto the stars from a CBD with gas flows as predicted by the models of eccentric T Tauri binaries put forward by Artymowicz and Lubow, Günther and Kley, and de Val-Borro et al. In particular, our data provide strong support for the pulsed accretion phenomenon, in which enhanced accretion occurs during and after perihelion passage.

  6. Evaluating the Eclipse: How good was it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel-Storr, Jacob; InsightSTEM Evaluation Team

    2018-01-01

    We present findings from the evaluation program carried out of education, public outreach, and communication activities around the "Great American Eclipse" of August 21, 2017. We include findings drawn from the experiences of 30 participants in planning activities prior to the eclipse and 31 recipients of mini-grants for eclipse activities supported by the American Astronomical Society through a grant from the National Science Foundation. We synthesize evaluations gathered by these and other volunteering organizations to provide a multi-site picture of experiences and learning outcomes at eclipse-related events - both in the path of totality and in partial eclipse settings. We make use of qualitative and quantitative responses representing over 30,000 individuals who observed (or tried to observe) the eclipse. We will share findings from across the range of programs included in our evaluation network along with specific highlights. We emphasize a reflection on the motivation and activity behind the 2017 eclipse, and how to leverage the lessons learned for future events on this scale (such as the eclipse of April 8, 2024) along with messages relevant to other events connected with astronomical phenomena, or in multi-site settings.This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 1564535 awarded to the American Astronomical Society. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation or the American Astronomical Society.

  7. Mastering Eclipse plug-in development

    CERN Document Server

    Blewitt, Alex

    2014-01-01

    If you are a Java developer who is familiar with the Eclipse plug-in environment, this book covers the advanced concepts that you need to know to achieve true expertise. Prior experience in creating Eclipse plug-ins is assumed for this book.

  8. Is an eclipse described in the Odyssey?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baikouzis, Constantino; Magnasco, Marcelo O

    2008-07-01

    Plutarch and Heraclitus believed a certain passage in the 20th book of the Odyssey ("Theoclymenus's prophecy") to be a poetic description of a total solar eclipse. In the late 1920s, Schoch and Neugebauer computed that the solar eclipse of 16 April 1178 B.C.E. was total over the Ionian Islands and was the only suitable eclipse in more than a century to agree with classical estimates of the decade-earlier sack of Troy around 1192-1184 B.C.E. However, much skepticism remains about whether the verses refer to this, or any, eclipse. To contribute to the issue independently of the disputed eclipse reference, we analyze other astronomical references in the Epic, without assuming the existence of an eclipse, and search for dates matching the astronomical phenomena we believe they describe. We use three overt astronomical references in the epic: to Boötes and the Pleiades, Venus, and the New Moon; we supplement them with a conjectural identification of Hermes's trip to Ogygia as relating to the motion of planet Mercury. Performing an exhaustive search of all possible dates in the span 1250-1115 B.C., we looked to match these phenomena in the order and manner that the text describes. In that period, a single date closely matches our references: 16 April 1178 B.C.E. We speculate that these references, plus the disputed eclipse reference, may refer to that specific eclipse.

  9. Unification of binary star ephemeris solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R. E.; Van Hamme, W.

    2014-01-01

    Time-related binary system characteristics such as orbital period, its rate of change, apsidal motion, and variable light-time delay due to a third body, are measured in two ways that can be mutually complementary. The older way is via eclipse timings, while ephemerides by simultaneous whole light and velocity curve analysis have appeared recently. Each has its advantages, for example, eclipse timings typically cover relatively long time spans while whole curves often have densely packed data within specific intervals and allow access to systemic properties that carry additional timing information. Synthesis of the two information sources can be realized in a one step process that combines several data types, with automated weighting based on their standard deviations. Simultaneous light-velocity-timing solutions treat parameters of apsidal motion and the light-time effect coherently with those of period and period change, allow the phenomena to interact iteratively, and produce parameter standard errors based on the quantity and precision of the curves and timings. The logic and mathematics of the unification algorithm are given, including computation of theoretical conjunction times as needed for generation of eclipse timing residuals. Automated determination of eclipse type, recovery from inaccurate starting ephemerides, and automated data weighting are also covered. Computational examples are given for three timing-related cases—steady period change (XY Bootis), apsidal motion (V526 Sagittarii), and the light-time effect due to a binary's reflex motion in a triple system (AR Aurigae). Solutions for all combinations of radial velocity, light curve, and eclipse timing input show consistent results, with a few minor exceptions.

  10. A search for pre-main-sequence stars in high-latitude molecular clouds. 3: A survey of the Einstein database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caillault, Jean-Pierre; Magnani, Loris; Fryer, Chris

    1995-01-01

    In order to discern whether the high-latitude molecular clouds are regions of ongoing star formation, we have used X-ray emission as a tracer of youthful stars. The entire Einstein database yields 18 images which overlap 10 of the clouds mapped partially or completely in the CO (1-0) transition, providing a total of approximately 6 deg squared of overlap. Five previously unidentified X-ray sources were detected: one has an optical counterpart which is a pre-main-sequence (PMS) star, and two have normal main-sequence stellar counterparts, while the other two are probably extragalactic sources. The PMS star is located in a high Galactic latitude Lynds dark cloud, so this result is not too suprising. The translucent clouds, though, have yet to reveal any evidence of star formation.

  11. Strategies for the public communication of eclipses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretones, P. S.

    2015-03-01

    Eclipses are among the celestial events that draw the attention of the public. This paper discusses strategies for using eclipses as public communication opportunities in the media. It discusses the impact of articles written by the author and analysis of published material for 25 observed eclipses over the last 30 years by mass media in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. On each occasion, a standard article was posted on the Internet and sent to newspapers, radio and TV with information, such as: date, time and local circumstances; type of the eclipse; area of visibility; explanation; diagram of the phenomenon, and the Moon's path through Earth's shadow; eclipses in history; techniques of observation; getting photographs; place and event for public observation. Over the years, direct contact was maintained with the media and jounralists by the press offices of the institutions.

  12. A search for pre-main sequence stars in the high-latitude molecular clouds. II - A survey of the Einstein database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caillault, Jean-Pierre; Magnani, Loris

    1990-01-01

    The preliminary results are reported of a survey of every EINSTEIN image which overlaps any high-latitude molecular cloud in a search for X-ray emitting pre-main sequence stars. This survey, together with complementary KPNO and IRAS data, will allow the determination of how prevalent low mass star formation is in these clouds in general and, particularly, in the translucent molecular clouds.

  13. Evolution models of helium white dwarf-main-sequence star merger remnants: the mass distribution of single low-mass white dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xianfei; Hall, Philip D.; Jeffery, C. Simon; Bi, Shaolan

    2018-02-01

    It is not known how single white dwarfs with masses less than 0.5Msolar -- low-mass white dwarfs -- are formed. One way in which such a white dwarf might be formed is after the merger of a helium-core white dwarf with a main-sequence star that produces a red giant branch star and fails to ignite helium. We use a stellar-evolution code to compute models of the remnants of these mergers and find a relation between the pre-merger masses and the final white dwarf mass. Combining our results with a model population, we predict that the mass distribution of single low-mass white dwarfs formed through this channel spans the range 0.37 to 0.5Msolar and peaks between 0.45 and 0.46Msolar. Helium white dwarf--main-sequence star mergers can also lead to the formation of single helium white dwarfs with masses up to 0.51Msolar. In our model the Galactic formation rate of single low-mass white dwarfs through this channel is about 8.7X10^-3yr^-1. Comparing our models with observations, we find that the majority of single low-mass white dwarfs (<0.5Msolar) are formed from helium white dwarf--main-sequence star mergers, at a rate which is about $2$ per cent of the total white dwarf formation rate.

  14. The environmental impacts on the star formation main sequence: An Hα study of the newly discovered rich cluster at z = 1.52

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyama, Yusei; Kodama, Tadayuki; Tadaki, Ken-ichi; Hayashi, Masao [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Tanaka, Ichi [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 650 North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Shimakawa, Rhythm, E-mail: koyama.yusei@nao.ac.jp [Department of Astronomical Science, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    We report the discovery of a strong over-density of galaxies in the field of a radio galaxy at z = 1.52 (4C 65.22) based on our broadband and narrow-band (Hα) photometry with the Subaru Telescope. We find that Hα emitters are located in the outskirts of the density peak (cluster core) dominated by passive red-sequence galaxies. This resembles the situation in lower-redshift clusters, suggesting that the newly discovered structure is a well-evolved rich galaxy cluster at z = 1.5. Our data suggest that the color-density and stellar mass-density relations are already in place at z ∼ 1.5, mostly driven by the passive red massive galaxies residing within r{sub c} ≲ 200 kpc from the cluster core. These environmental trends almost disappear when we consider only star-forming (SF) galaxies. We do not find SFR-density or SSFR-density relations amongst SF galaxies, and the location of the SF main sequence does not significantly change with environment. Nevertheless, we find a tentative hint that star-bursting galaxies (up-scattered objects from the main sequence) are preferentially located in a small group at ∼1 Mpc away from the main body of the cluster. We also argue that the scatter of the SF main sequence could be dependent on the distance to the nearest neighboring galaxy.

  15. STELLAR DIAMETERS AND TEMPERATURES. III. MAIN-SEQUENCE A, F, G, AND K STARS: ADDITIONAL HIGH-PRECISION MEASUREMENTS AND EMPIRICAL RELATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyajian, Tabetha S.; Jones, Jeremy; White, Russel; McAlister, Harold A.; Gies, Douglas; Von Braun, Kaspar; Van Belle, Gerard; Farrington, Chris; Schaefer, Gail; Ten Brummelaar, Theo A.; Sturmann, Laszlo; Sturmann, Judit; Turner, Nils H.; Goldfinger, P. J.; Vargas, Norm; Ridgway, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Based on CHARA Array measurements, we present the angular diameters of 23 nearby, main-sequence stars, ranging from spectral types A7 to K0, 5 of which are exoplanet host stars. We derive linear radii, effective temperatures, and absolute luminosities of the stars using Hipparcos parallaxes and measured bolometric fluxes. The new data are combined with previously published values to create an Angular Diameter Anthology of measured angular diameters to main-sequence stars (luminosity classes V and IV). This compilation consists of 125 stars with diameter uncertainties of less than 5%, ranging in spectral types from A to M. The large quantity of empirical data is used to derive color-temperature relations to an assortment of color indices in the Johnson (BVR J I J JHK), Cousins (R C I C ), Kron (R K I K ), Sloan (griz), and WISE (W 3 W 4 ) photometric systems. These relations have an average standard deviation of ∼3% and are valid for stars with spectral types A0-M4. To derive even more accurate relations for Sun-like stars, we also determined these temperature relations omitting early-type stars (T eff > 6750 K) that may have biased luminosity estimates because of rapid rotation; for this subset the dispersion is only ∼2.5%. We find effective temperatures in agreement within a couple of percent for the interferometrically characterized sample of main-sequence stars compared to those derived via the infrared flux method and spectroscopic analysis.

  16. Effect of solar eclipse on microbes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrita Shriyan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : A solar eclipse was observed in India on 15 th January, 2010. It was a total eclipse in some parts of the country, while it was a partial eclipse in other parts. Microorganisms play an important role in various phenomena on the earth. This study was undertaken to know the influence of solar eclipse on nature indirectly, by analyzing certain genotypic and phenotypic variations in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Since yeast have similar gene expression as that of humans, investigations were pursued on Candida albicans. Hence the study of the effect of solar eclipse on cultures of Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella species, Escherichia coli, and C. albicans was performed in the laboratory. The effect of the total or partial eclipse on the microorganism isolated from clinical isolates was investigated during the time period from 11.15 am to 3.15 pm. Materials and Methods : Cultures of S. aureus, Klebsiella species, and E. coli colonies on nutrient agar slants and broth and C. albicans on Sabouraud′s dextrose agar plates and broth. Slants were exposed to sunlight during eclipse and exposure to normal sunlight at Mangalore, Dakshina Kannada district, Karnataka state, India. Results : There was significant change observed during exposure to normal sunlight and eclipse phase. Bacterial colonies showed difference in morphology on smear examination and sensitivity pattern during this study. One fungal species and three bacterial isolates were studied and changes were recorded. Fungal species showed a definite change in their morphology on exposure to sunlight during eclipse observed by stained smear examination from broth, plate, and slant. Conclusion : Present study concludes that blocking of the sun rays during eclipse does not harm prokaryotes and eukaryotes, instead promoted the progeny of predators in the race of better acclimatization and survival in the natural and changing environmental conditions.

  17. Interacting binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Shore, S N; van den Heuvel, EPJ

    1994-01-01

    This volume contains lecture notes presented at the 22nd Advanced Course of the Swiss Society for Astrophysics and Astronomy. The contributors deal with symbiotic stars, cataclysmic variables, massive binaries and X-ray binaries, in an attempt to provide a better understanding of stellar evolution.

  18. The Kepler eclipsing system KIC 5621294 and its substellar companion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Woo; Hong, Kyeongsoo; Hinse, Tobias Cornelius, E-mail: jwlee@kasi.re.kr, E-mail: kshong@kasi.re.kr, E-mail: tchinse@gmail.com [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-01

    We present the physical properties of KIC 5621294, showing light and timing variations from the Kepler photometry. Its light curve displays partial eclipses and the O’Connell effect, with Max II fainter than Max I, which was fitted quite well by applying third-body and spot effects to the system. The results indicate that the eclipsing pair is a classical Algol-type system with parameters of q = 0.22, i = 76.°8, and Δ(T{sub 1}−T{sub 2}) = 4235 K, in which the detached primary component fills about 77% of its limiting lobe. Striking discrepancies exist between the primary and secondary eclipse times obtained with the method of Kwee and van Woerden. These are mainly caused by surface inhomogeneities due to spot activity detected in our light curve synthesis. The 1253 light curve timings from the Wilson–Devinney code were used for a period study. It was found that the orbital period of KIC 5621294 has varied due to periodic variation overlaid on a downward parabola. The sinusoidal variation with a period of 961 days and a semi-amplitude of 22.5 s most likely arises from a light-time effect due to a third component with a mass of M{sub 3}sini{sub 3} = 46.9 M{sub Jup}, which is in good agreement with that calculated from the light curve itself. If its orbital inclination is larger than about 40°, the mass of the circumbinary object would possibly match a brown dwarf. The parabolic variation could not be fully explained by either a mass transfer between the binary components or angular momentum via magnetic braking. It is possible that the parabola may be the only observed part of a period modulation caused by the presence of another companion in a wider orbit.

  19. A new study of the interacting binary star V356 Sgr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polidan, R. S.

    1988-01-01

    Results on V356 Sgr from IUE and Voyager ultraviolet (500 to 3200 A) observations obtained in 1986 and 1987, primarily during 2 total eclipses are presented. The eclipse of Aug. 15, 1986 was fully covered with IUE low dispersion images and 9 hr of Voyager UVS data. The eclipse of Mar. 25, 1987 was covered with IUE low dispersion images and 1 high dispersion SWP image. During both eclipses the total strength of the emission lines is found to be invariant. An uneclipsed UV continuum is detected at wavelengths shorter than 1500 A. The high dispersion SWP spectrum reveals that the emission lines are extremely broad, almost symmetrical emissions with weak, slightly blue shifted absorption components. No evidence of carbon, C I, C II, C III, or C IV, is seen in the emission or absorption spectrum of V356 Sgr in eclipse. Models for this binary system are presented.

  20. The eclipse period of Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Freiesleben, Ulrik; Krekling, Martin A.; Hansen, Flemming G.

    2000-01-01

    corresponds to the period of origin hemimethylation. The SeqA protein was absolutely required for the eclipse, and DnaA titration studies suggested that the SeqA protein prevented the binding of multiple DnaA molecules on oriC (initial complex formation). No correlation between the amount of SeqA and eclipse...... length was revealed, but increased SeqA levels affected chromosome partitioning and/or cell division. This was corroborated further by an aberrant nucleoid distribution in SeqA-deficient cells. We suggest that the SeqA protein's role in maintaining the eclipse is tied to a function in chromosome...

  1. The BANANA Survey: Spin-Orbit Alignment in Binary Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Simon; Winn, J. N.; Fabrycky, D. C.; Torres, G.; Setiawan, J.

    2012-04-01

    Binaries are not always neatly aligned. Previous observations of the DI Herculis system showed that the spin axes of both stars are highly inclined with respect to one another and the orbital axis. Here, we report on our ongoing survey to measure relative orientations of spin-axes in a number of eclipsing binary systems. These observations will hopefully lead to new insights into star and planet formation, as different formation scenarios predict different degrees of alignment and different dependencies on the system parameters. Measurements of spin-orbit angles in close binary systems will also create a basis for comparison for similar measurements involving close-in planets.

  2. TIDAL INTERACTIONS IN MERGING WHITE DWARF BINARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piro, Anthony L.

    2011-01-01

    The recently discovered system J0651 is the tightest known detached white dwarf (WD) binary. Since it has not yet initiated Roche-lobe overflow, it provides a relatively clean environment for testing our understanding of tidal interactions. I investigate the tidal heating of each WD, parameterized in terms of its tidal Q parameter. Assuming that the heating can be radiated efficiently, the current luminosities are consistent with Q 1 ∼ 7 x 10 10 and Q 2 ∼ 2 x 10 7 , for the He and C/O WDs, respectively. Conversely, if the observed luminosities are merely from the cooling of the WDs, these estimated values of Q represent the upper limits. A large Q 1 for the He WD means its spin velocity will be slower than that expected if it was tidally locked, which, since the binary is eclipsing, may be measurable via the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect. After one year, gravitational wave emission shifts the time of eclipses by 5.5 s, but tidal interactions cause the orbit to shrink more rapidly, changing the time by up to an additional 0.3 s after a year. Future eclipse timing measurements may therefore infer the degree of tidal locking.

  3. Effects of Interstellar Dust Scattering on the X-ray Eclipses of the LMXB AX J1745.6-2901 in the Galactic Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Chichuan; Ponti, Gabriele; Haberl, Frank; Smith, Randall; Valencic, Lynne

    2018-04-01

    AX J1745.6-2901 is an eclipsing low mass X-ray binary (LMXB) in the Galactic Centre (GC). It shows significant X-ray excess emission during the eclipse phase, and its eclipse light curve shows an asymmetric shape. We use archival XMM-Newton and Chandra observations to study the origin of these peculiar X-ray eclipsing phenomena. We find that the shape of the observed X-ray eclipse light curves depends on both photon energy and the shape of the source extraction region, and also shows differences between the two instruments. By performing detailed simulations for the time-dependent X-ray dust scattering halo, as well as directly modelling the observed eclipse and non-eclipse halo profiles of AX J1745.6-2901, we obtained solid evidence that its peculiar eclipse phenomena are indeed caused by the X-ray dust scattering in multiple foreground dust layers along the line-of-sight (LOS). The apparent dependence on the instruments is caused by different instrumental point-spread-functions. Our results can be used to assess the influence of dust scattering in other eclipsing X-ray sources, and raise the importance of considering the timing effects of dust scattering halo when studying the variability of other X-ray sources in the GC, such as Sgr A⋆. Moreover, our study of halo eclipse reinforces the existence of a dust layer local to AX J1745.6-2901 as reported by Jin et al. (2017), as well as identifying another dust layer within a few hundred parsecs to Earth, containing up to several tens of percent LOS dust, which is likely to be associated with the molecular clouds in the Solar neighbourhood. The remaining LOS dust is likely to be associated with the molecular clouds located in the Galactic disk in-between.

  4. STELLAR DIAMETERS AND TEMPERATURES. III. MAIN-SEQUENCE A, F, G, AND K STARS: ADDITIONAL HIGH-PRECISION MEASUREMENTS AND EMPIRICAL RELATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyajian, Tabetha S.; Jones, Jeremy; White, Russel; McAlister, Harold A.; Gies, Douglas [Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, P.O. Box 4106, Atlanta, GA 30302-4106 (United States); Von Braun, Kaspar [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, California Institute of Technology, MC 100-22, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Van Belle, Gerard [Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Farrington, Chris; Schaefer, Gail; Ten Brummelaar, Theo A.; Sturmann, Laszlo; Sturmann, Judit; Turner, Nils H.; Goldfinger, P. J.; Vargas, Norm [CHARA Array, Mount Wilson Observatory, Mount Wilson, CA 91023 (United States); Ridgway, Stephen [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 26732, Tucson, AZ 85726-6732 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Based on CHARA Array measurements, we present the angular diameters of 23 nearby, main-sequence stars, ranging from spectral types A7 to K0, 5 of which are exoplanet host stars. We derive linear radii, effective temperatures, and absolute luminosities of the stars using Hipparcos parallaxes and measured bolometric fluxes. The new data are combined with previously published values to create an Angular Diameter Anthology of measured angular diameters to main-sequence stars (luminosity classes V and IV). This compilation consists of 125 stars with diameter uncertainties of less than 5%, ranging in spectral types from A to M. The large quantity of empirical data is used to derive color-temperature relations to an assortment of color indices in the Johnson (BVR{sub J} I{sub J} JHK), Cousins (R{sub C} I{sub C}), Kron (R{sub K} I{sub K}), Sloan (griz), and WISE (W{sub 3} W{sub 4}) photometric systems. These relations have an average standard deviation of {approx}3% and are valid for stars with spectral types A0-M4. To derive even more accurate relations for Sun-like stars, we also determined these temperature relations omitting early-type stars (T{sub eff} > 6750 K) that may have biased luminosity estimates because of rapid rotation; for this subset the dispersion is only {approx}2.5%. We find effective temperatures in agreement within a couple of percent for the interferometrically characterized sample of main-sequence stars compared to those derived via the infrared flux method and spectroscopic analysis.

  5. Trojan Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, K. S.

    2017-12-01

    The Jupiter Trojans, in the context of giant planet migration models, can be thought of as an extension of the small body populations found beyond Neptune in the Kuiper Belt. Binaries are a distinctive feature of small body populations in the Kuiper Belt with an especially high fraction apparent among the brightest Cold Classicals. The binary fraction, relative sizes, and separations in the dynamically excited populations (Scattered, Resonant) reflects processes that may have eroded a more abundant initial population. This trend continues in the Centaurs and Trojans where few binaries have been found. We review new evidence including a third resolved Trojan binary and lightcurve studies to understand how the Trojans are related to the small body populations that originated in the outer protoplanetary disk.

  6. Evolution models of helium white dwarf--main-sequence star merger remnants: the mass distribution of single low-mass white dwarfs

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xianfei; Hall, Philip D.; Jeffery, C. Simon; Bi, Shaolan

    2017-01-01

    It is not known how single white dwarfs with masses less than 0.5Msolar -- low-mass white dwarfs -- are formed. One way in which such a white dwarf might be formed is after the merger of a helium-core white dwarf with a main-sequence star that produces a red giant branch star and fails to ignite helium. We use a stellar-evolution code to compute models of the remnants of these mergers and find a relation between the pre-merger masses and the final white dwarf mass. Combining our results with ...

  7. McDonald 2.1-m and CRTS Photometry of Eclipsing Polars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Natalie; Mason, Paul

    2018-01-01

    We present broadband optical photometry of five polars made using the 2.1-m telescope of McDonald Observatory. Four of the polars are eclipsing (EP Dra, FL Cet, V2301 Oph, and a Catalina Sky Survey (CSS) polar candidate). In addition, a pre-polar (MQ Dra) was observed. Typical integration times were 1-3 seconds with no dead time. At this time resolution, eclipse structure can be seen in both one- and two-pole accretors. McDonald 2.1-m data over several years is phased together with CSS photometry covering up to 7 years, in search of indications of period variation. Combining the high-resolution, high-speed photometry obtained using the ProEm camera on the McDonald 2.1-m with the sparse, but high-quality multi-year baseline photometry of the CSS places strong constraints on the time variability of the eclipse periods in these binary systems. In most cases, eclipse variations do not perfectly fit a linear ephemeris. We investigate the source of variations using standard O-C diagram techniques and period search algorithms.

  8. Photometric Analysis and Modeling of Five Mass-Transferring Binary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Emily; Beaky, Matthew; Jamison, Kate

    2018-01-01

    In overcontact eclipsing binary systems, both stellar components have overfilled their Roche lobes, resulting in a dumbbell-shaped shared envelope. Mass transfer is common in overcontact binaries, which can be observed as a slow change on the rotation period of the system.We studied five overcontact eclipsing binary systems with evidence of period change, and thus likely mass transfer between the components, identified by Nelson (2014): V0579 Lyr, KN Vul, V0406 Lyr, V2240 Cyg, and MS Her. We used the 31-inch NURO telescope at Lowell Observatory in Flagstaff, Arizona to obtain images in B,V,R, and I filters for V0579 Lyr, and the 16-inch Meade LX200GPS telescope with attached SBIG ST-8XME CCD camera at Juniata College in Huntingdon, Pennsylvania to image KN Vul, V0406 Lyr, V2240 Cyg, and MS Her, also in B,V,R, and I.After data reduction, we created light curves for each of the systems and modeled the eclipsing binaries using the BinaryMaker3 and PHOEBE programs to determine their fundamental physical parameters for the first time. Complete light curves and preliminary models for each of these neglected eclipsing binary systems will be presented.

  9. The 1995 total solar eclipse: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, J.

    A number of experiments were conducted during the total solar eclipse of October 24, 1995. First time efforts were made to photograph the solar corona using IAF jet aircrafts and transport planes ad hot air balloons.

  10. Spitzer secondary eclipses of Qatar-1b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garhart, Emily; Deming, Drake; Mandell, Avi; Knutson, Heather; Fortney, Jonathan J.

    2018-02-01

    Aims: Previous secondary eclipse observations of the hot Jupiter Qatar-1b in the Ks band suggest that it may have an unusually high day side temperature, indicative of minimal heat redistribution. There have also been indications that the orbit may be slightly eccentric, possibly forced by another planet in the system. We investigate the day side temperature and orbital eccentricity using secondary eclipse observations with Spitzer. Methods: We observed the secondary eclipse with Spitzer/IRAC in subarray mode, in both 3.6 and 4.5 μm wavelengths. We used pixel-level decorrelation to correct for Spitzer's intra-pixel sensitivity variations and thereby obtain accurate eclipse depths and central phases. Results: Our 3.6 μm eclipse depth is 0.149 ± 0.051% and the 4.5 μm depth is 0.273 ± 0.049%. Fitting a blackbody planet to our data and two recent Ks band eclipse depths indicates a brightness temperature of 1506 ± 71 K. Comparison to model atmospheres for the planet indicates that its degree of longitudinal heat redistribution is intermediate between fully uniform and day-side only. The day side temperature of the planet is unlikely to be as high (1885 K) as indicated by the ground-based eclipses in the Ks band, unless the planet's emergent spectrum deviates strongly from model atmosphere predictions. The average central phase for our Spitzer eclipses is 0.4984 ± 0.0017, yielding e cos ω = -0.0028 ± 0.0027. Our results are consistent with a circular orbit, and we constrain e cos ω much more strongly than has been possible with previous observations. Tables of the lightcurve data are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/610/A55

  11. Modelling secondary eclipses of Kepler exoplanets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hambálek Lubomír

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We have selected several Kepler objects with potentially the deepest secondary eclipses. By combination of many single phased light-curves (LCs we have produced a smooth LC with a larger SNR and made the secondary eclipses more distinct. This allowed us to measure the depth of primary and secondary minimum with greater accuracy and then to determine stellar and planetary radii by simplex modelling.

  12. Boise State's Idaho Eclipse Outreach Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Karan; Jackson, Brian

    2017-10-01

    The 2017 total solar eclipse is an unprecedented opportunity for astronomical education throughout the continental United States. With the path of totality passing through 14 states, from Oregon to South Carolina, the United States is expecting visitors from all around the world. Due to the likelihood of clear skies, Idaho was a popular destination for eclipse-chasers. In spite of considerable enthusiasm and interest by the general population, the resources for STEM outreach in the rural Pacific Northwest are very limited. In order to help prepare Idaho for the eclipse, we put together a crowdfunding campaign through the university and raised over $10,000. Donors received eclipse shades as well as information about the eclipse specific to Idaho. Idaho expects 500,000 visitors, which could present a problem for the many small, rural towns scattered across the path of totality. In order to help prepare and equip the public for the solar eclipse, we conducted a series of site visits to towns in and near the path of totality throughout Idaho. To maximize the impact of this effort, the program included several partnerships with local educational and community organizations and a focus on the sizable refugee and low-income populations in Idaho, with considerable attendance at most events.

  13. The (Almost) Unseen Total Eclipse of 1831

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartky, Ian R.

    2008-03-01

    The total eclipse of August 1831 began at sunrise in Australia, swept across the western South Pacific Ocean, and ended at sunset in the central South Pacific. As a result of the eclipse's path over mostly uninhabited ocean, the region's sparse European (British) population, and near-useless local predictions of the event at Hobart and Sydney in almanacs sold to the general public, almost no one witnessed its passage. In an attempt to document the eclipse, journals of naive observers - those having no access to a prediction - were examined. Thus far, the sole record is in the Pitcairn Island Register Book. Considering the Pitcairners' extreme isolation and the rather modest partial eclipse that occurred there, the entry is a surprising one; however, it can be explained in terms of events associated with their initial removal to Tahiti in March 1831 followed by their return home in June. Further, an authoritative means to identify any issues associated with eclipse predictions compiled for private-sector almanacs came in 1833 when sweeping changes in the British Nautical Almanac's section on eclipses were instituted.

  14. Updated O-C Diagrams for Several Bright HW Vir Binaries Observed with the Evryscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Kyle A.; Barlow, Brad; Corbett, Hank; Fors, Octavi; Howard, Ward S.; Law, Nicholas; Ratzloff, Jeff

    2018-01-01

    HW Vir systems are eclipsing, post-common-envelope binaries consisting of a hot subdwarf star and a cooler M dwarf or brown dwarf companion. They show a strong reflection effect and have characteristically short orbital periods of only a few hours, allowing observers to detect multiple eclipses per night. Observed minus calculated (O-C) studies allow one to measure miniscule variations in the orbital periods of these systems by comparing observed eclipse timings to a calculated ephemeris. This technique is useful for detecting period changes due to secular evolution of the binary, gravitational wave emission, or reflex motion from an orbiting circumbinary object. Numerous eclipse timings obtained over several years are vital to the proper interpretation and analysis of O-C diagrams. The Evryscope – an array of twenty-four individual telescopes built by UNC and deployed on Cerro Tololo – images the entire Southern sky once every two minutes, producing an insurmountable amount of data for objects brighter than 16th magnitude. The cadence with which Evryscope exposes makes it an unparalleled tool for O-C analyses of HW Vir binaries; it will catalogue thousands of eclipses over the next several years. Here we present updated O-C diagrams for several HW Vir binaries using recent measurements from the Evryscope. We also use observations of AA Dor, an incredibly stable astrophysical clock, to characterize the accuracy of the Evryscope’s timestamps.

  15. LINEAR RELATION FOR WIND-BLOWN BUBBLE SIZES OF MAIN-SEQUENCE OB STARS IN A MOLECULAR ENVIRONMENT AND IMPLICATION FOR SUPERNOVA PROGENITORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Yang; Zhou Ping [Department of Astronomy, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Chu Youhua [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1002 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2013-05-20

    We find a linear relationship between the size of a massive star's main-sequence bubble in a molecular environment and the star's initial mass: R{sub b} Almost-Equal-To 1.22 M/M{sub Sun} - 9.16 pc, assuming a constant interclump pressure. Since stars in the mass range of 8 to 25-30 M{sub Sun} will end their evolution in the red supergiant phase without launching a Wolf-Rayet wind, the main-sequence wind-blown bubbles are mainly responsible for the extent of molecular gas cavities, while the effect of the photoionization is comparatively small. This linear relation can thus be used to infer the masses of the massive star progenitors of supernova remnants (SNRs) that are discovered to evolve in molecular cavities, while few other means are available for inferring the properties of SNR progenitors. We have used this method to estimate the initial masses of the progenitors of eight SNRs: Kes 69, Kes 75, Kes 78, 3C 396, 3C 397, HC 40, Vela, and RX J1713-3946.

  16. IRAS 18153-1651: an H II region with a possible wind bubble blown by a young main-sequence B star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.; Mackey, J.; Kniazev, A. Y.; Langer, N.; Chené, A.-N.; Castro, N.; Haworth, T. J.; Grebel, E. K.

    2017-04-01

    We report the results of spectroscopic observations and numerical modelling of the H II region IRAS 18153-1651. Our study was motivated by the discovery of an optical arc and two main-sequence stars of spectral type B1 and B3 near the centre of IRAS 18153-1651. We interpret the arc as the edge of the wind bubble (blown by the B1 star), whose brightness is enhanced by the interaction with a photoevaporation flow from a nearby molecular cloud. This interpretation implies that we deal with a unique case of a young massive star (the most massive member of a recently formed low-mass star cluster) caught just tens of thousands of years after its stellar wind has begun to blow a bubble into the surrounding dense medium. Our 2D, radiation-hydrodynamics simulations of the wind bubble and the H II region around the B1 star provide a reasonable match to observations, both in terms of morphology and absolute brightness of the optical and mid-infrared emission, and verify the young age of IRAS 18153-1651. Taken together our results strongly suggest that we have revealed the first example of a wind bubble blown by a main-sequence B star.

  17. A visible and infrared study of the eclipsing dwarf nova Oy Carinae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berriman, G.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents three simultaneous visible (V) and infrared (J,H,K) light curves of the eclipsing dwarf nova binary system OY Carinae in quiescence. The infrared light curves show a secondary minimum, not seen in the visible, which is the ellipsoidal variations of the red dwarf and its eclipse by the accretion disc surrounding the white dwarf companion. The red star, an M dwarf, supplies between 30 and 60 per cent of the total light at J,H and K. This requires that the system is between 100 and 300 pc away. The infrared continuum of the accretion disc around the white dwarf companion comes largely from the optically thin gas giving rise to the emission lines seen in the visible and ultraviolet. (author)

  18. The fate of close encounters between binary stars and binary supermassive black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Han; Leigh, Nathan; Yuan, Ye-Fei; Perna, Rosalba

    2018-04-01

    The evolution of main-sequence binaries that reside in the Galactic Centre can be heavily influenced by the central supermassive black hole (SMBH). Due to these perturbative effects, the stellar binaries in dense environments are likely to experience mergers, collisions, or ejections through secular and/or non-secular interactions. More direct interactions with the central SMBH are thought to produce hypervelocity stars (HVSs) and tidal disruption events (TDEs). In this paper, we use N-body simulations to study the dynamics of stellar binaries orbiting a central SMBH primary with an outer SMBH secondary orbiting this inner triple. The effects of the secondary SMBH on the event rates of HVSs, TDEs, and stellar mergers are investigated, as a function of the SMBH-SMBH binary mass ratio. Our numerical experiments reveal that, relative to the isolated SMBH case, the TDE and HVS rates are enhanced for, respectively, the smallest and largest mass ratio SMBH-SMBH binaries. This suggests that the observed event rates of TDEs and HVSs have the potential to serve as a diagnostic of the mass ratio of a central SMBH-SMBH binary. The presence of a secondary SMBH also allows for the creation of hypervelocity binaries. Observations of these systems could thus constrain the presence of a secondary SMBH in the Galactic Centre.

  19. CALCULATING THE HABITABLE ZONE OF BINARY STAR SYSTEMS. I. S-TYPE BINARIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaltenegger, Lisa [MPIA, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Haghighipour, Nader, E-mail: kaltenegger@mpia.de [Institute for Astronomy and NASA Astrobiology Institute, University of Hawaii-Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2013-11-10

    We have developed a comprehensive methodology for calculating the boundaries of the habitable zone (HZ) of planet-hosting S-type binary star systems. Our approach is general and takes into account the contribution of both stars to the location and extent of the binary HZ with different stellar spectral types. We have studied how the binary eccentricity and stellar energy distribution affect the extent of the HZ. Results indicate that in binaries where the combination of mass-ratio and orbital eccentricity allows planet formation around a star of the system to proceed successfully, the effect of a less luminous secondary on the location of the primary's HZ is generally negligible. However, when the secondary is more luminous, it can influence the extent of the HZ. We present the details of the derivations of our methodology and discuss its application to the binary HZ around the primary and secondary main-sequence stars of an FF, MM, and FM binary, as well as two known planet-hosting binaries α Cen AB and HD 196886.

  20. CALCULATING THE HABITABLE ZONE OF BINARY STAR SYSTEMS. I. S-TYPE BINARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaltenegger, Lisa; Haghighipour, Nader

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a comprehensive methodology for calculating the boundaries of the habitable zone (HZ) of planet-hosting S-type binary star systems. Our approach is general and takes into account the contribution of both stars to the location and extent of the binary HZ with different stellar spectral types. We have studied how the binary eccentricity and stellar energy distribution affect the extent of the HZ. Results indicate that in binaries where the combination of mass-ratio and orbital eccentricity allows planet formation around a star of the system to proceed successfully, the effect of a less luminous secondary on the location of the primary's HZ is generally negligible. However, when the secondary is more luminous, it can influence the extent of the HZ. We present the details of the derivations of our methodology and discuss its application to the binary HZ around the primary and secondary main-sequence stars of an FF, MM, and FM binary, as well as two known planet-hosting binaries α Cen AB and HD 196886

  1. ECLIPSES DURING THE 2010 ERUPTION OF THE RECURRENT NOVA U SCORPII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, Bradley E.; Pagnotta, Ashley; LaCluyze, Aaron P.; Reichart, Daniel E.; Ivarsen, Kevin M.; Haislip, Joshua B.; Nysewander, Melissa C.; Moore, Justin P.; Oksanen, Arto; Worters, Hannah L.; Sefako, Ramotholo R.; Mentz, Jaco; Dvorak, Shawn; Gomez, Tomas; Harris, Barbara G.; Henden, Arne A.; Tan, Thiam Guan; Templeton, Matthew; Allen, W. H.; Monard, Berto

    2011-01-01

    The eruption of the recurrent nova U Scorpii on 2010 January 28 is now the all-time best observed nova event. We report 36,776 magnitudes throughout its 67 day eruption, for an average of one measure every 2.6 minutes. This unique and unprecedented coverage is the first time that a nova has had any substantial amount of fast photometry. With this, two new phenomena have been discovered: the fast flares in the early light curve seen from days 9-15 (which have no proposed explanation) and the optical dips seen out of eclipse from days 41-61 (likely caused by raised rims of the accretion disk occulting the bright inner regions of the disk as seen over specific orbital phases). The expanding shell and wind cleared enough from days 12-15 so that the inner binary system became visible, resulting in the sudden onset of eclipses and the turn-on of the supersoft X-ray source. On day 15, a strong asymmetry in the out-of-eclipse light points to the existence of the accretion stream. The normal optical flickering restarts on day 24.5. For days 15-26, eclipse mapping shows that the optical source is spherically symmetric with a radius of 4.1 R ☉ . For days 26-41, the optical light is coming from a rim-bright disk of radius 3.4 R ☉ . For days 41-67, the optical source is a center-bright disk of radius 2.2 R ☉ . Throughout the eruption, the colors remain essentially constant. We present 12 eclipse times during eruption plus five just after the eruption.

  2. ECLIPSES DURING THE 2010 ERUPTION OF THE RECURRENT NOVA U SCORPII

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, Bradley E.; Pagnotta, Ashley [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); LaCluyze, Aaron P.; Reichart, Daniel E.; Ivarsen, Kevin M.; Haislip, Joshua B.; Nysewander, Melissa C.; Moore, Justin P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Oksanen, Arto [Caisey Harlingten Observatory, Caracoles 166, San Pedro de Atacama (Chile); Worters, Hannah L.; Sefako, Ramotholo R. [South African Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 9, Observatory 7935, Cape Town (South Africa); Mentz, Jaco [Unit for Space Physics, North-West University, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa); Dvorak, Shawn; Gomez, Tomas; Harris, Barbara G.; Henden, Arne A.; Tan, Thiam Guan; Templeton, Matthew [American Association of Variable Star Observers, 49 Bay State Road, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Allen, W. H. [Center for Backyard Astrophysics, Vintage Lane Observatory, RD 3, Blenheim (New Zealand); Monard, Berto [Center for Backyard Astrophysics, 538 W. 120th St., New York, NY 10027 (United States); and others

    2011-12-01

    The eruption of the recurrent nova U Scorpii on 2010 January 28 is now the all-time best observed nova event. We report 36,776 magnitudes throughout its 67 day eruption, for an average of one measure every 2.6 minutes. This unique and unprecedented coverage is the first time that a nova has had any substantial amount of fast photometry. With this, two new phenomena have been discovered: the fast flares in the early light curve seen from days 9-15 (which have no proposed explanation) and the optical dips seen out of eclipse from days 41-61 (likely caused by raised rims of the accretion disk occulting the bright inner regions of the disk as seen over specific orbital phases). The expanding shell and wind cleared enough from days 12-15 so that the inner binary system became visible, resulting in the sudden onset of eclipses and the turn-on of the supersoft X-ray source. On day 15, a strong asymmetry in the out-of-eclipse light points to the existence of the accretion stream. The normal optical flickering restarts on day 24.5. For days 15-26, eclipse mapping shows that the optical source is spherically symmetric with a radius of 4.1 R{sub Sun }. For days 26-41, the optical light is coming from a rim-bright disk of radius 3.4 R{sub Sun }. For days 41-67, the optical source is a center-bright disk of radius 2.2 R{sub Sun }. Throughout the eruption, the colors remain essentially constant. We present 12 eclipse times during eruption plus five just after the eruption.

  3. Extended Main-sequence Turn-offs in Intermediate-age Star Clusters: Stellar Rotation Diminishes, but Does Not Eliminate, Age Spreads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goudfrooij, Paul; Correnti, Matteo [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Girardi, Léo, E-mail: goudfroo@stsci.edu [Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova—INAF, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy)

    2017-09-01

    Extended main-sequence turn-off (eMSTO) regions are a common feature in color–magnitude diagrams of young- and intermediate-age star clusters in the Magellanic Clouds. The nature of eMSTOs remains debated in the literature. The currently most popular scenarios are extended star formation activity and ranges of stellar rotation rates. Here we study details of differences in main-sequence turn-off (MSTO) morphology expected from spreads in age versus spreads in rotation rates, using Monte Carlo simulations with the Geneva syclist isochrone models that include the effects of stellar rotation. We confirm a recent finding of Niederhofer et al. that a distribution of stellar rotation velocities yields an MSTO extent that is proportional to the cluster age, as observed. However, we find that stellar rotation yields MSTO crosscut widths that are generally smaller than observed ones at a given age. We compare the simulations with high-quality Hubble Space Telescope data of NGC 1987 and NGC 2249, which are the two only relatively massive star clusters with an age of ∼1 Gyr for which such data is available. We find that the distribution of stars across the eMSTOs of these clusters cannot be explained solely by a distribution of stellar rotation velocities, unless the orientations of rapidly rotating stars are heavily biased toward an equator-on configuration. Under the assumption of random viewing angles, stellar rotation can account for ∼60% and ∼40% of the observed FWHM widths of the eMSTOs of NGC 1987 and NGC 2249, respectively. In contrast, a combination of distributions of stellar rotation velocities and stellar ages fits the observed eMSTO morphologies very well.

  4. A tale of two anomalies: Depletion, dispersion, and the connection between the stellar lithium spread and inflated radii on the pre-main sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somers, Garrett; Pinsonneault, Marc H., E-mail: somers@astronomy.ohio-state.edu, E-mail: pinsono@astronomy.ohio-state.edu [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43201 (United States)

    2014-07-20

    We investigate lithium depletion in standard stellar models (SSMs) and main sequence (MS) open clusters, and explore the origin of the Li dispersion in young, cool stars of equal mass, age, and composition. We first demonstrate that SSMs accurately predict the Li abundances of solar analogs at the zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) within theoretical uncertainties. We then measure the rate of MS Li depletion by removing the [Fe/H]-dependent ZAMS Li pattern from three well-studied clusters, and comparing the detrended data. MS depletion is found to be mass-dependent, in the sense of more depletion at low mass. A dispersion in Li abundance at fixed T{sub eff} is nearly universal, and sets in by ∼200 Myr. We discuss mass and age dispersion trends, and the pattern is mixed. We argue that metallicity impacts the ZAMS Li pattern, in agreement with theoretical expectations but contrary to the findings of some previous studies, and suggest Li as a test of cluster metallicity. Finally, we argue that a radius dispersion in stars of fixed mass and age, during the epoch of pre-MS Li destruction, is responsible for the spread in Li abundances and the correlation between rotation and Li in young cool stars, most well known in the Pleiades. We calculate stellar models, inflated to match observed radius anomalies in magnetically active systems, and the resulting range of Li abundances reproduces the observed patterns of young clusters. We discuss ramifications for pre-MS evolutionary tracks and age measurements of young clusters, and suggest an observational test.

  5. The evolution of surface magnetic fields in young solar-type stars II: the early main sequence (250-650 Myr)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folsom, C. P.; Bouvier, J.; Petit, P.; Lèbre, A.; Amard, L.; Palacios, A.; Morin, J.; Donati, J.-F.; Vidotto, A. A.

    2018-03-01

    There is a large change in surface rotation rates of sun-like stars on the pre-main sequence and early main sequence. Since these stars have dynamo-driven magnetic fields, this implies a strong evolution of their magnetic properties over this time period. The spin-down of these stars is controlled by interactions between stellar and magnetic fields, thus magnetic evolution in turn plays an important role in rotational evolution. We present here the second part of a study investigating the evolution of large-scale surface magnetic fields in this critical time period. We observed stars in open clusters and stellar associations with known ages between 120 and 650 Myr, and used spectropolarimetry and Zeeman Doppler Imaging to characterize their large-scale magnetic field strength and geometry. We report 15 stars with magnetic detections here. These stars have masses from 0.8 to 0.95 M⊙, rotation periods from 0.326 to 10.6 d, and we find large-scale magnetic field strengths from 8.5 to 195 G with a wide range of geometries. We find a clear trend towards decreasing magnetic field strength with age, and a power law decrease in magnetic field strength with Rossby number. There is some tentative evidence for saturation of the large-scale magnetic field strength at Rossby numbers below 0.1, although the saturation point is not yet well defined. Comparing to younger classical T Tauri stars, we support the hypothesis that differences in internal structure produce large differences in observed magnetic fields, however for weak-lined T Tauri stars this is less clear.

  6. A tale of two anomalies: Depletion, dispersion, and the connection between the stellar lithium spread and inflated radii on the pre-main sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somers, Garrett; Pinsonneault, Marc H.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate lithium depletion in standard stellar models (SSMs) and main sequence (MS) open clusters, and explore the origin of the Li dispersion in young, cool stars of equal mass, age, and composition. We first demonstrate that SSMs accurately predict the Li abundances of solar analogs at the zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) within theoretical uncertainties. We then measure the rate of MS Li depletion by removing the [Fe/H]-dependent ZAMS Li pattern from three well-studied clusters, and comparing the detrended data. MS depletion is found to be mass-dependent, in the sense of more depletion at low mass. A dispersion in Li abundance at fixed T eff is nearly universal, and sets in by ∼200 Myr. We discuss mass and age dispersion trends, and the pattern is mixed. We argue that metallicity impacts the ZAMS Li pattern, in agreement with theoretical expectations but contrary to the findings of some previous studies, and suggest Li as a test of cluster metallicity. Finally, we argue that a radius dispersion in stars of fixed mass and age, during the epoch of pre-MS Li destruction, is responsible for the spread in Li abundances and the correlation between rotation and Li in young cool stars, most well known in the Pleiades. We calculate stellar models, inflated to match observed radius anomalies in magnetically active systems, and the resulting range of Li abundances reproduces the observed patterns of young clusters. We discuss ramifications for pre-MS evolutionary tracks and age measurements of young clusters, and suggest an observational test.

  7. HD 144548: A young triply eclipsing system in the Upper Scorpius OB association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, R.; Deeg, H. J.; Hoyer, S.; Lodieu, N.; Palle, E.; Sanchis-Ojeda, R.

    2015-12-01

    The star HD 144548 (=HIP 78977; TYP 6212-1273-1) has been known as a detached eclipsing binary and a bona-fide member of the Upper Scorpius OB association. Continuous photometry from the K2 mission on Campaign Two has revealed the presence of additional eclipses due to the presence of a third star in the system. These are explained by a system composed of the two previously known members of the eclipsing system (Ba and Bb) with a period of 1.63 d, orbiting around an F7-F8V star with a period of 33.945 ± 0.002 d in an eccentric orbit (eA = 0.2652 ± 0.0003). The timing of the eclipses of Ba and Bb reveals the same 33.9 d periodicity, which we interpret as the combination of a light time effect combined with dynamical perturbations on the close system. Here we combine radial velocities and analytical approximations for the timing of the eclipses to derive masses and radii for the three components of the system. We obtain a mass of 1.44 ± 0.04 M⊙ and radius of 2.41 ± 0.03 R⊙ for the A component, and almost identical masses and radii of about 0.96 M⊙ and 1.33 R⊙ for each of the two components of the close binary. HD 144548 is the first triply eclipsing system for which radial velocities of all components could be measured. Partially based on observations made with the Italian Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) operated by the Fundación Galileo Galilei of the INAF, the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated by the Nordic Optical Telescope Scientific Association, and the William Herschel Telescope (programme DDT58 - PI Lodieu) operated by the Isaac Newton Group on the island of La Palma at the Spanish Observatorio Roque de los Muchachos of the IAC. This paper includes data collected by the Kepler mission. Funding for the Kepler mission is provided by the NASA Science Mission directorate.Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  8. ADDITIONAL MASSIVE BINARIES IN THE CYGNUS OB2 ASSOCIATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiminki, Daniel C.; Kobulnicky, Henry A.; Ewing, Ian; Lundquist, Michael; Alexander, Michael; Vargas-Alvarez, Carlos; Choi, Heather; Bagley Kiminki, Megan M.; Henderson, C. B.

    2012-01-01

    We report the discovery and orbital solutions for two new OB binaries in the Cygnus OB2 Association, MT311 (B2V + B3V) and MT605 (B0.5V + B2.5:V). We also identify the system MT429 as a probable triple system consisting of a tight eclipsing 2.97 day B3V+B6V pair and a B0V at a projected separation of 138 AU. We further provide the first spectroscopic orbital solutions to the eclipsing, double-lined, O-star binary MT696 (O9.5V + B1:V), the double-lined, early B binary MT720 (B0-1V + B1-2V), and the double-lined, O-star binary MT771 (O7V + O9V). These systems exhibit orbital periods between 1.5 days and 12.3 days, with the majority having P <6 days. The two new binary discoveries and six spectroscopic solutions bring the total number of known massive binaries in the central region of the Cygnus OB2 Association to 20, with all but two having full orbital solutions.

  9. ADDITIONAL MASSIVE BINARIES IN THE CYGNUS OB2 ASSOCIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiminki, Daniel C.; Kobulnicky, Henry A.; Ewing, Ian; Lundquist, Michael; Alexander, Michael; Vargas-Alvarez, Carlos; Choi, Heather [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82070 (United States); Bagley Kiminki, Megan M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Henderson, C. B. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2012-03-01

    We report the discovery and orbital solutions for two new OB binaries in the Cygnus OB2 Association, MT311 (B2V + B3V) and MT605 (B0.5V + B2.5:V). We also identify the system MT429 as a probable triple system consisting of a tight eclipsing 2.97 day B3V+B6V pair and a B0V at a projected separation of 138 AU. We further provide the first spectroscopic orbital solutions to the eclipsing, double-lined, O-star binary MT696 (O9.5V + B1:V), the double-lined, early B binary MT720 (B0-1V + B1-2V), and the double-lined, O-star binary MT771 (O7V + O9V). These systems exhibit orbital periods between 1.5 days and 12.3 days, with the majority having P <6 days. The two new binary discoveries and six spectroscopic solutions bring the total number of known massive binaries in the central region of the Cygnus OB2 Association to 20, with all but two having full orbital solutions.

  10. Celestial shadows eclipses, transits, and occultations

    CERN Document Server

    Westfall, John

    2015-01-01

    Much of what is known about the universe comes from the study of celestial shadows—eclipses, transits, and occultations.  The most dramatic are total eclipses of the Sun, which constitute one of the most dramatic and awe-inspiring events of nature.  Though once a source of consternation or dread, solar eclipses now lead thousands of amateur astronomers and eclipse-chasers to travel to remote points on the globe to savor their beauty and the adrenaline-rush of experiencing totality, and were long the only source of information about the hauntingly beautiful chromosphere and corona of the Sun.   Long before Columbus, the curved shadow of the Earth on the Moon during a lunar eclipse revealed that we inhabit a round world. The rare and wonderful transits of Venus, which occur as it passes between the Earth and the Sun, inspired eighteenth century expeditions to measure the distance from the Earth to the Sun, while the recent transits of 2004 and 2012 were the most widely observed ever--and still produced re...

  11. The Gaugamela Battle Eclipse: An Archaeoastronomical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polcaro, V. F.; Valsecchi, G. B.; Verderame, L.

    A total lunar eclipse occurred during the night preceding the decisive Battle of Gaugamela (20th September 331 BCE), when the Macedonian army, led by Alexander the Great, finally defeated the Persian king Darius and his army. This astronomical event, well known to historians, had a relevant role on the battle outcome. The eclipse was described in detail by Babylonian astronomers, though, unfortunately, the text of their report has only partially been preserved. We have reconstructed the evolution of the phenomenon as it appeared to the observer in Babylonia, by using the positional astronomy code "Planetario V2.0". On the base of this reconstruction we suggest a number of integrations to the lost part of the text, allowing a finer astrological interpretation of the eclipse and of its influence on the mood of the armies that set against each other on the following morning.

  12. Observations of eclipses of UU Sge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimansky, V. V.; Borisov, N. V.; Bikmaev, I. F.; Shimanskaya, N. N.

    2012-06-01

    We have performed spectroscopy and photometry of eclipses of the pre-cataclysmic variable UUSge using the 6-m telescope of the Special AstrophysicalObservatory and the 1.5-mRussian-Turkish telescope. Our analysis of variations of the B- V and V- R color indices during the eclipses indicates that the temperature of the secondary is T eff,2 = 6000-6300 K. A similar value, T eff,2 = 6200 ± 200 K, follows from our comparison of the observed spectrum of UU Sge at the total eclipse phase and theoretical spectra of late-type stars. We identify 27 absorption lines of 11 chemical elements in the secondary's spectrum. Their abnormal intensities indicate possible high-velocity turbulent motions (up to ξ turb = 10.0 km/s) in the atmosphere of the star and the presence of hot gas above its surface.

  13. Binary effectivity rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans; Peleg, Bezalel

    2006-01-01

    is binary if it is rationalized by an acyclic binary relation. The foregoing result motivates our definition of a binary effectivity rule as the effectivity rule of some binary SCR. A binary SCR is regular if it satisfies unanimity, monotonicity, and independence of infeasible alternatives. A binary...

  14. The Mystery and Beauty of Total Solar Eclipses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ARTICLE. The Mystery and Beauty of Total Solar Eclipses. T Chandrasekhar is with the Astronomy and ..... Specialized instruments called coronagraphs, lo- cated at mountaintop ... Scientific studies of the solar eclipses began with the eclipse of. 1842 which ... a method simultaneously evolved by English spectroscopist.

  15. Living matter: the "lunar eclipse" phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpan, Nikolai N

    2010-01-01

    The present investigations describe a unique phenomenon, namely the phenomenon of the "lunar eclipse", which has been observed and discovered by the author in living substance during the freeze-thawing processes in vivo using temperatures of various intensities and its cryosurgical response in animal experiment. Similar phenomena author has observed in nature, namely the total lunar eclipse and total solar eclipse. In this experimental study 76 animals (mongrel dogs) were investigated. A disc cryogenic probe was placed on the pancreas after the laparotomy. For cryosurgical exposure a temperature range of -40 degrees C, -80 degrees C, -120 degrees C and -180 degrees C was selected in contact with pancreas parenchyma. The freeze-thaw cycle was monitored by intraoperative ultrasound before, during and after cryosurgery. Each cryolesion was observed for one hour after thawing intraoperatively. Immediately after freezing, during the thawing process, the snow-white pancreas parenchyma, frozen hard to an ice block and resembling a full moon with a sharp demarcation line, gradually assumed a ruby-red shade and a hemispherical shape as it grew in size depend on reconstruction vascular circulation from the periphery to the center. This snow-white cryogenic lesion dissolved in the same manner in all animal tissues. The "lunar eclipse" phenomenon contributes to a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms of biological tissue damage during low temperature exposure in cryoscience and cryomedicine. Properties of the pancreas parenchyma response during the phenomenon of the "lunar eclipse" provide important insights into the mechanisms of damage and the formation of cryogenic lesion immediately after thawing in cryosurgery. Vascular changes and circulatory stagnation are commonly considered to be the main mechanism of biological tissue injury during low temperature exposure. The phenomenon of the "lunar eclipse" suggests that cryosurgery is the first surgical technique to use

  16. Star formation history: Modeling of visual binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebrehiwot, Y. M.; Tessema, S. B.; Malkov, O. Yu.; Kovaleva, D. A.; Sytov, A. Yu.; Tutukov, A. V.

    2018-05-01

    Most stars form in binary or multiple systems. Their evolution is defined by masses of components, orbital separation and eccentricity. In order to understand star formation and evolutionary processes, it is vital to find distributions of physical parameters of binaries. We have carried out Monte Carlo simulations in which we simulate different pairing scenarios: random pairing, primary-constrained pairing, split-core pairing, and total and primary pairing in order to get distributions of binaries over physical parameters at birth. Next, for comparison with observations, we account for stellar evolution and selection effects. Brightness, radius, temperature, and other parameters of components are assigned or calculated according to approximate relations for stars in different evolutionary stages (main-sequence stars, red giants, white dwarfs, relativistic objects). Evolutionary stage is defined as a function of system age and component masses. We compare our results with the observed IMF, binarity rate, and binary mass-ratio distributions for field visual binaries to find initial distributions and pairing scenarios that produce observed distributions.

  17. Observation of variable pre-eclipse dips and disk winds in the eclipsing LMXB XTE J1710-281

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Gayathri; Maitra, Chandreyee; Paul, Biswajit

    2018-04-01

    We report the first detection of highly ionized Fe species in the X-ray spectrum of the eclipsing and dipping Low Mass X-ray Binary XTE J1710-281. Using archival Chandra and Suzaku observations, we have carried out a spectro-timing analysis of the source during three different epochs. We compare the average orbital profile and obtain differences in pre-eclipse dip morphologies between different observation epochs. We observe an orbit to orbit evolution of the dips for the first time in this source in both the Chandra observations, reflecting changes in the structure of the accretion disc in timescales of hours. We further perform intensity resolved spectroscopy for both the Chandra and the Suzaku data to characterize the changes in the spectral parameters from the persistent to the dipping intervals. We find that the absorbers responsible for the dips, can be best described using a partially ionized partial covering absorber, with an ionization parameter, log(ξ) of ˜2. The photon index of the source remained at ˜2 during both the Chandra and the Suzaku observations. In the 0.6-9 keV Suzaku spectra, we detect a broad 0.72 keV Fe L-alpha emission line complex and two narrow absorption lines at ˜6.60 keV and ˜7.01 keV. The highly ionized Fe line signatures, being an indicator of accretion disc-winds, has been observed for the first time in XTE J1710-281.

  18. THE CLUSTERED NATURE OF STAR FORMATION. PRE-MAIN-SEQUENCE CLUSTERS IN THE STAR-FORMING REGION NGC 602/N90 IN THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouliermis, Dimitrios A.; Gennaro, Mario; Schmeja, Stefan; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Tognelli, Emanuele; Prada Moroni, Pier Giorgio

    2012-01-01

    Located at the tip of the wing of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), the star-forming region NGC 602/N90 is characterized by the H II nebular ring N90 and the young cluster of pre-main-sequence (PMS) and early-type main-sequence stars NGC 602, located in the central area of the ring. We present a thorough cluster analysis of the stellar sample identified with Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys in the region. We show that apart from the central cluster low-mass PMS stars are congregated in 13 additional small, compact sub-clusters at the periphery of NGC 602, identified in terms of their higher stellar density with respect to the average background density derived from star counts. We find that the spatial distribution of the PMS stars is bimodal, with an unusually large fraction (∼60%) of the total population being clustered, while the remaining is diffusely distributed in the intercluster area, covering the whole central part of the region. From the corresponding color-magnitude diagrams we disentangle an age difference of ∼2.5 Myr between NGC 602 and the compact sub-clusters, which appear younger, on the basis of comparison of the brighter PMS stars with evolutionary models, which we accurately calculated for the metal abundance of the SMC. The diffuse PMS population appears to host stars as old as those in NGC 602. Almost all detected PMS sub-clusters appear to be centrally concentrated. When the complete PMS stellar sample, including both clustered and diffused stars, is considered in our cluster analysis, it appears as a single centrally concentrated stellar agglomeration, covering the whole central area of the region. Considering also the hot massive stars of the system, we find evidence that this agglomeration is hierarchically structured. Based on our findings, we propose a scenario according to which the region NGC 602/N90 experiences an active clustered star formation for the last ∼5 Myr. The central cluster NGC 602 was formed first

  19. Chandra Sees Remarkable Eclipse of Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    A remarkable eclipse of a supermassive black hole and the hot gas disk around it has been observed with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. This eclipse has allowed two key predictions about the effects of supermassive black holes to be tested. Just as