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Sample records for magnetic field influences

  1. Magnetic field influence on the selfquenching streamer discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, G.D.; Korytov, A.V.

    1987-01-01

    The influence of the magnetic field on the selfquenching streamer discharge characteristics is investigated. In the field about 10 kGs streamer charge is decreased several per cent (change of charge is due to amplitude decreasing of signal). In the transition region from limited-proportional to streamer mode magnetic field results in increasing of probability of avalanche developing into a streamer

  2. Magnetic field and its influence on man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovin, N.I.; Kurik, M.V.

    2001-01-01

    Positive effects of the Earth magnetic field (MF) on bacteria and animals are demonstrated. The same beneficial effect was found for man: screening of MF leads to blood vessel contraction and violation of exchange processes in organism. Effects of MF are considered as similar to that of catalysts. A correlation between MF values and various human diseases was found. Different methods of magnetotherapy are proposed

  3. Optical Characterization of Oligonucleotide DNA Influenced by Magnetic Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Maryam Banihashemian

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available UV-VIS spectroscopic analysis of oligonucleotide DNA exposed to different magnetic fields was performed in order to investigate the relationship between DNA extinction coefficients and optical parameters according to magnetic-field strength. The results with the oligonucleotides adenine-thymine 100 mer (AT-100 DNA and cytosine-guanine 100 mer (CG-100 DNA indicate that the magnetic field influences DNA molar extinction coefficients and refractive indexes. The imaginary parts of the refractive index and molar extinction coefficients of the AT-100 and CG-100 DNA decreased after exposure to a magnetic field of 750 mT due to cleavage of the DNA oligonucleotides into smaller segments.

  4. The influence of the magnetic field on the performance of an active magnetic regenerator (AMR)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Rasmus; Engelbrecht, Kurt

    2011-01-01

    The influence of the time variation of the magnetic field, termed the magnetic field profile, on the performance of a magnetocaloric refrigeration device using the active magnetic regeneration (AMR) cycle is studied for a number of process parameters for both a parallel plate and packed bed...... temperature span and the maximum cooling capacity of 20–40% for both parallel plate and packed bed regenerators. The maximum cooling capacity is shown to depend very weakly on the ramp rate of the magnetic field. Reducing the temporal width of the high field portion of the magnetic field profile by 10% leads...

  5. Influence of Magnetic Field Decay on Electron Capture in Magnetars ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The de-excited energy of electron capture (EC) induced by magnetic field decay may be a new source for heating magnetar crust, so we do a quantitative calculation on EC process near the outer crust and analyse their influence on persistent X-ray radiation of magnetars, adopt- ing the experimental data or the ...

  6. The influence of magnetic fields on absorption and emission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Heshou; Yan, Huirong

    2016-10-01

    Spectroscopic observations play essential roles in astrophysics. They are crucial for determining important physical parameters, providing information about the composition of various objects in the universe, as well as depicting motions in the universe. However, spectroscopic studies often do not consider the influence of magnetic fields. In this paper, we explore the influence of magnetic fields on the spectroscopic observations arising from Ground State Alignment (GSA). Synthetic spectra are generated to show the measurable changes of the spectra due to GSA. The influences of atomic alignment on absorption from DLAs, emission from H II Regions, submillimeter fine-structure lines from star forming regions are presented as examples to illustrate the effect in diffuse gas. Furthermore, we demonstrate the influence of atomic alignment on physical parameters derived from spectral line ratios, such as the alpha-to-iron ratio([X/Fe]), interstellar temperature, and ionization rate. Results in our paper show that due to GSA, magnetic fields will affect the spectra of diffuse gas with high signal-to-noise(S/N) ratio under the condition that photon-excitation is much more efficient than thermal collision.

  7. Various aspects of magnetic field influence on forced convection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pleskacz Lukasz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Flows in the channels of various geometry can be found everywhere in industrial or daily life applications. They are used to deliver media to certain locations or they are the place where heat may be exchanged. For Authors both points of view are interesting. The enhancement methods for heat transfer during the forced convection are demanded due to a technological development and tendency to miniaturization. At the same time it is also worth to find mechanisms that would help to avoid negative effects like pressure losses or sedimentation in the channel flows. This paper shows and discuss various aspects of magnetic field influence on forced convection. A mathematical model consisted of the mass, momentum and energy conservation equations. In the momentum conservation equation magnetic force term was included. In order to calculate this magnetic force Biot-Savart’s law was utilized. Numerical analysis was performed with the usage of commonly applied software. However, userdefined functions were implemented. The results revealed that both temperature and velocity fields were influenced by the strong magnetic field.

  8. The influence of magnetic fields on crude oils viscosity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Jose L.; Bombard, Antonio J. F. [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), Itajuba, MG (Brazil). Instituto de Ciencias Exatas. Lab. de Reologia

    2009-07-01

    The crystallization of paraffin causes serious problems in the process of transportation of petroleum. This phenomenon increases the crude oil viscosity and implies an organic resin accumulation on pipeline wall, resulting in a reduced flux area or totally blocked pipes. One of the most challenging tasks for pipeline maintenance is solving this problem at low cost. Therefore, a method that inhibits the crystallization of paraffin and reduces the viscosity of crude oil could have many useful applications within the petroleum industry. Recent studies showed that magnetic fields reduce the Wax Appearance Temperature (WAT) and the viscosity of paraffin-based crude oil. For better understanding of this discovery, a series of tests was performed. This paper will show the influence of a DC magnetic field on rheological proprieties of three crude oils with different paraffin concentrations: a crude oil sample with 11 % p/p of paraffin concentration (sample 1); a crude oil sample with 6 % p/p of paraffin concentration (sample 2); a mixture of paraffin plus light crude oil with a total of 11 % p/p of paraffin concentration. These samples were placed in an electromagnet that generates a magnetic field of 1.3 Tesla. The samples' temperatures were conditioned around their Wax Appearance Temperature (WAT), and they were exposed to the field. As the viscosity of crude oil is very sensitive to the changes in temperature, it was ensured that the temperature has remained constant throughout the process. The sample 1 revealed a considerable reduction of viscosity: its original viscosity was 66 cP before magnetic field exposure, after that its viscosity was reduced to 39 cP. The other samples showed the same viscosity, before and after the magnetic field exposure. Since the samples 1 and 3 have the same paraffin concentrations, the viscosity reduction is not due only to the presence of paraffin; there must be other factors responsible for the interaction of sample 1 with the

  9. Influence of magnetic fields on structural martensitic transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lashley, J C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cooley, J C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Smith, J L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fisher, R A [NON LANL; Modic, K A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yang, X- D [TEMPLE UNIV; Riseborough, P S [TEMPLE UNIV.; Opeil, C P [BOSTON COLLEGE; Finlayson, T R [UNIV OF MELBOURNE; Goddard, P A [UNIV OF OXFORD; Silhanek, A V [INPAC

    2009-01-01

    We show evidence that a structural martensitic transition is related to significant changes in the electronic structure, as revealed in thermodynamic measurements made in high-magnetic fields. The magnetic field dependence is considered unusual as many influential investigations of martensitic transitions have emphasized that the structural transitions are primarily lattice dynamical and are driven by the entropy due to the phonons. We provide a theoretical framework which can be used to describe the effect of magnetic field on the lattice dynamics in which the field dependence originates from the dielectric constant.

  10. Oxygen consumption and mortality rate of mice after X radiation under the influence of magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rekbi, M.

    1984-01-01

    In this work it was studied whether an influence on the oxygen use was to be expected as a result of a magnetic pulsating field. This could not be determined. An increased effect of the magnetic field with respect to the reduction of the mortality rate was, however, to be observed. Thereby the influence of similar constant and pulsating fields was discussed from various perspectives. The question of the biological effect mechanism of the magnetic field (main issue of the influence of the magnetic field during or after the irradiation) can only be answered by further comprehensive investigations. (orig./MG) [de

  11. Influence of the magnetic field on tadpole metamorphosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimaldi, S.; Lisi, A.; Rieti, S.; Manni, V.; Ravagnan, G.; Eremenko, T.; Volpe, P.; Pozzi, D.; Giuliani, L.; Volpe, P.

    2000-01-01

    This investigation showed the effect of 2 mT magnetic field AC at 50 Hz on populations of Xenopus laevis tadpoles. In the course of 65-day exposure to this field, while their survival showed small but significant decrease (P<0.0002), striking parallel 6-day shift in their maturation frequency and heavy impairment of their metamorphosis were observed. The metamorphosis was successful for 85% of individuals in the unirradiated tadpole population and for 45% of individuals in the irradiated one

  12. Influences of extremely low frequency magnetic fields on mineral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-05

    Nov 5, 2008 ... African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 7 (21), pp. ... 1Department of Pediatrics Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Dicle. Diyarbakir ... the research community to define more precisely the physical ... clinical effects (Brown et al., 2004). ... group of rats was ELF Magnetic Field-or sham-exposed, i.e., the.

  13. Influence of a low-frequency magnetic field on the 133Xe clearance of the gastrocnemius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroehmann, F.; Strangfeld, D.; Conradi, E.

    1985-01-01

    In 14 patients with disturbances of the arterial blood supply the influence of a 50 Hz changing magnetic field of 24 mT on the microcirculation of the musculature was tested by means of 133 Xe clearance. An influence of the magnetic field could not be proved. (author)

  14. Influence of interdiffusion on the magnetic properties of Co/Si (100) films after high magnetic field annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yue; Wang, Kai; Wang, Qiang; Li, Guojian; Lou, Changsheng; Pang, Hongxuan; He, Jicheng

    2015-01-01

    The influence of interdiffusion on the magnetic properties of Co/Si (100) films after thermal annealing in the presence of a strong magnetic field was investigated. The interdiffusion coefficients of films that were annealed at temperatures of 380 °C and 420 °C in the presence of high magnetic fields were not affected. However, the interdiffusion coefficient of films annealed at 400 °C in the presence of a high magnetic field decreased significantly. The change in the interdiffusion coefficient, caused by high magnetic field annealing, increased the content of the magnetic phase. This increase in the magnetic phase improved the saturation magnetization. A new method of high magnetic field annealing is presented that can modulate the diffusion and magnetic properties of thin films. - Highlights: • Interdiffusion of Co/Si (100) films by high magnetic field annealing was studied. • Thickness of the diffusion layer was reduced by magnetic field annealing at 400 °C. • Interdiffusion coefficient decreased following magnetic field annealing at 400 °C. • Saturation magnetization increased after high magnetic field annealing at 400 °C

  15. Dynamics of colloidal systems of magnetic nanoparticles under influence of magnetic fields investigated by XPCS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schavkan, Alexander

    2017-05-01

    This thesis investigates structural properties and the underlying microscopic dynamics of suspensions of α-FeOOH goethite platelets in water under the influence of magnetic fields. Goethite particles show unusual physical properties and a rich phase diagram, which makes their suspensions an object of high interest for research in the area of ''smart nanoparticles''. Five nanoparticle concentrations were chosen such that different liquid crystal phases could be studied. The suspensions of platelets of these chosen concentrations were exposed to magnetic fields of varying strength. Small angle X-ray scattering and X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy data were taken and evaluated. The appearing phases and phase transitions were studied as a function of concentration and applied magnetic field. For this purpose, order parameters, ellipticity, radial and azimuthal peak positions and widths of scattering features were investigated to clarify the structural properties in detail. For the analysis of the underlying dynamics, the relaxation rates and the shape of measured time correlation functions were evaluated. The results show that with increasing magnetic field a partial realignment of the platelets occurs. This realignment is connected to the magnetic properties of the particles. The dynamics of the corresponding phases revealed a dependence on the concentration of nanoparticles in the suspension. At a concentration of c=20 vol% the transition from the nematic to the anti-nematic phase traverses a mixed state. The nematic and anti-nematic phases show ballistic motion and very similar properties, even though a realignment of the particles from an orientation with the long axis parallel to the applied magnetic field in the nematic phase to an orientation with the long axis perpendicular to the magnetic field in the anti-nematic phase occurs. The mixed state of 20 vol%-suspension exhibits a diffusive motion of the particles and different characteristics. A significant

  16. Dynamics of colloidal systems of magnetic nanoparticles under influence of magnetic fields investigated by XPCS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schavkan, Alexander

    2017-05-15

    This thesis investigates structural properties and the underlying microscopic dynamics of suspensions of α-FeOOH goethite platelets in water under the influence of magnetic fields. Goethite particles show unusual physical properties and a rich phase diagram, which makes their suspensions an object of high interest for research in the area of ''smart nanoparticles''. Five nanoparticle concentrations were chosen such that different liquid crystal phases could be studied. The suspensions of platelets of these chosen concentrations were exposed to magnetic fields of varying strength. Small angle X-ray scattering and X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy data were taken and evaluated. The appearing phases and phase transitions were studied as a function of concentration and applied magnetic field. For this purpose, order parameters, ellipticity, radial and azimuthal peak positions and widths of scattering features were investigated to clarify the structural properties in detail. For the analysis of the underlying dynamics, the relaxation rates and the shape of measured time correlation functions were evaluated. The results show that with increasing magnetic field a partial realignment of the platelets occurs. This realignment is connected to the magnetic properties of the particles. The dynamics of the corresponding phases revealed a dependence on the concentration of nanoparticles in the suspension. At a concentration of c=20 vol% the transition from the nematic to the anti-nematic phase traverses a mixed state. The nematic and anti-nematic phases show ballistic motion and very similar properties, even though a realignment of the particles from an orientation with the long axis parallel to the applied magnetic field in the nematic phase to an orientation with the long axis perpendicular to the magnetic field in the anti-nematic phase occurs. The mixed state of 20 vol%-suspension exhibits a diffusive motion of the particles and different

  17. Influence of magnetic field on the electrical breakdown characteristics in cylindrical diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shouzhe; Uhm, Han S.

    2004-01-01

    The influence of magnetic field on the electrical breakdown properties is investigated by applying a magnetic field along the longitudinal direction in a cylindrical diode for two electrical polarities. Breakdown characteristics in a crossed magnetic field are analyzed with the equivalentreduced-electric-field concept and Townsend criterion. The discharge experiment at reduced pressure is carried out in the moderate magnetic field. Experimental investigation is concentrated on the magnetic dependent behavior of the electrical breakdown in the lower pressure side of Paschen's minimum. It is found that the electrical breakdown characteristics with respect to the magnetic field depend on electrical polarity of the cylindrical diode, which is interpreted by taking the gyromotion of the individual electrons in the diode into accounts under the moderate magnetic field in the lower pressure side of Paschen's minimum

  18. The influence of low frequency magnetic field upon cultivable plant physiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochalska, M.

    2008-01-01

    The 16 Hz frequency and 5 mT magnetic flux density as well as alternating magnetic field influence the field germination physiological yield-forming features and the yield of sugar have been investigated. The profitable influence of the investigated factor at physiological yield-forming features, causing an increase in sugar beet root and leaf yield, was shown. The beneficial influence on the yield is especially clear in unfavourable weather conditions. (author)

  19. Influence of a magnetic field on the Taylor instability in magnetic fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vislovich, A.N.

    1986-01-01

    The influence of a magnetic field on the stability of Couette flow between rotating cylinders is investigated in the narrow gap approximation. The governing mechanism of the instability is the classical Taylor mechanism. It was shown that rotation of the outer cylinder in the same direction as the inner does not result in a qualitative change in the structure of the theshold perturbations. When the cylinders rotate in different directions in an ordinary fluid, the Taylor vortices develop in the domain of the gap between the inner cylinder and the fluid layer for which v 0 = 0

  20. Influence of static magnetic fields on S. cerevisae biomass growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João B. Muniz

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Biomass growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae DAUFPE-1012 was studied in eight batch fermentations exposed to steady magnetic fields (SMF running at 23ºC (± 1ºC, for 24 h in a double cylindrical tube reactor with synchronic agitation. For every batch, one tube was exposed to 220mT flow intensity SMF, produced by NdFeB rod magnets attached diametrically opposed (N to S magnets on one tube. In the other tube, without magnets, the fermentation occurred in the same conditions. The biomass growth in culture (yeast extract + glucose 2% was monitored by spectrometry to obtain the absorbance and later, the corresponding cell dry weight. The culture glucose concentration was monitored every two hours so as the pH, which was maintained between 4 and 5. As a result, the biomass (g/L increment was 2.5 times greater in magnetized cultures (n=8 as compared with SMF non-exposed cultures (n=8. The differential (SMF-control biomass growth rate (135% was slightly higher than the glucose consumption rate (130 % leading to increased biomass production of the magnetized cells.O crescimento da biomassa da Saccharomyces cerevisiae DAUFPE-1012 foi estudado em oito bateladas de fermentação, cada uma exposta aos campos magnéticos contínuos (CMC, à 23ºC (± 1ºC, durante um período de 24 horas em um reator duplo com agitação sincrônica. Em cada batelada,um tubo foi exposto ao CMC, com 220mT de intensidade de fluxo, produzidos por imãs de NdFeB fixados diametralmente opostos (N para S em um tubo do reator de fermentação. Em outro tubo, sem imãs, a fermentação ocorreu nas mesmas condições. O crescimento da biomassa nas culturas (extrato de fermento + glicose 2% foi monitorado através de espectrometria e correlacionado ao peso seco de levedura. A concentração de glicose nas culturas foi monitorada a cada duas horas e o pH foi mantido entre 4 e 5. Como resultado, a biomassa (g/L aumentou 2,5 vezes nas culturas magnetizadas (n=8 quando comparadas com as

  1. Influence of the maximum applied magnetic field on the angular dependence of Magnetic Barkhausen Noise in API5L steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez-Ortiz, P. [Laboratorio de Evaluación No Destructiva Electromagnética (LENDE), ESIME-SEPI, Edif. Z-4, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Zacatenco, México D.F. (Mexico); Pérez-Benítez, J.A., E-mail: japerezb@ipn.mx [Laboratorio de Evaluación No Destructiva Electromagnética (LENDE), ESIME-SEPI, Edif. Z-4, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Zacatenco, México D.F. (Mexico); Espina-Hernández, J.H. [Laboratorio de Evaluación No Destructiva Electromagnética (LENDE), ESIME-SEPI, Edif. Z-4, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Zacatenco, México D.F. (Mexico); Caleyo, F. [Departamento de Ingeniería Metalúrgica, ESIQIE, UPALM Edif. 7, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Zacatenco, C.P. 07738 México D.F. (Mexico); Mehboob, N.; Grössinger, R. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna A-1040 (Austria); Hallen, J.M. [Departamento de Ingeniería Metalúrgica, ESIQIE, UPALM Edif. 7, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Zacatenco, C.P. 07738 México D.F. (Mexico)

    2016-03-01

    This work studies the influence of the maximum applied magnetic field on the angular dependence of the energy of the Magnetic Barkhausen Noise signal in three different API5L pipeline steels. The results show that the shape of the angular dependence of the Magnetic Barkhausen Noise energy changes with the increase of the amplitude of the applied magnetic field. This phenomenon is a consequence of the presence of unlike magnetization processes at different magnitudes of the applied magnetic field. The outcomes reveal the importance of controlling the value of the maximum applied field as parameter for the improvement of the MBN angular dependence measurements. - Highlights: • Study the angular dependence of MBN with applied field in three pipeline steels. • Reveals the change of this angular dependence with the increase applied field. • Explains this dependence based on the domain wall dynamics theory.

  2. Influence of the maximum applied magnetic field on the angular dependence of Magnetic Barkhausen Noise in API5L steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez-Ortiz, P.; Pérez-Benítez, J.A.; Espina-Hernández, J.H.; Caleyo, F.; Mehboob, N.; Grössinger, R.; Hallen, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    This work studies the influence of the maximum applied magnetic field on the angular dependence of the energy of the Magnetic Barkhausen Noise signal in three different API5L pipeline steels. The results show that the shape of the angular dependence of the Magnetic Barkhausen Noise energy changes with the increase of the amplitude of the applied magnetic field. This phenomenon is a consequence of the presence of unlike magnetization processes at different magnitudes of the applied magnetic field. The outcomes reveal the importance of controlling the value of the maximum applied field as parameter for the improvement of the MBN angular dependence measurements. - Highlights: • Study the angular dependence of MBN with applied field in three pipeline steels. • Reveals the change of this angular dependence with the increase applied field. • Explains this dependence based on the domain wall dynamics theory.

  3. Magnetic structures in ultra-thin Holmium films: Influence of external magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, L.J. [Departamento de Física Teórica e Experimental, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal 59600-900, RN (Brazil); Departamento de Física, Universidade do Estado do Rio Grande do Norte, Mossoró 59625-620, RN (Brazil); Mello, V.D. [Departamento de Física, Universidade do Estado do Rio Grande do Norte, Mossoró 59625-620, RN (Brazil); Anselmo, D.H.A.L. [Departamento de Física Teórica e Experimental, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal 59600-900, RN (Brazil); Vasconcelos, M.S., E-mail: mvasconcelos@ect.ufrn.br [Escola de Ciência e Tecnologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970 Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2015-03-01

    We address the magnetic phases in very thin Ho films at the temperature interval between 20 K and 132 K. We show that slab size, surface effects and magnetic field due to spin ordering impact significantly the magnetic phase diagram. Also we report that there is a relevant reduction of the external field strength required to saturate the magnetization and for ultra-thin films the helical state does not form. We explore the specific heat and the susceptibility as auxiliary tools to discuss the nature of the phase transitions, when in the presence of an external magnetic field and temperature effects. The presence of an external field gives rise to the magnetic phase Fan and the spin-slip structures. - Highlights: • We analyze the magnetic phases of very thin Ho films in the temperature interval 20–132 K. • We show that slab size, etc. due to spin ordering may impact the magnetic phase diagram. • All magnetic phase transitions, for strong magnetic fields, are marked by the specific heat. • The presence of an external field gives rise to the magnetic phase Fan and the spin-slip one.

  4. Influence of the magnetic field profile on ITER conductor testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nijhuis, A; Ilyin, Y; Kate, H H J ten

    2006-01-01

    We performed simulations with the numerical CUDI-CICC code on a typical short ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) conductor test sample of dual leg configuration, as usually tested in the SULTAN test facility, and made a comparison with the new EFDA-Dipole test facility offering a larger applied DC field region. The new EFDA-Dipole test facility, designed for short sample testing of conductors for ITER, has a homogeneous high field region of 1.2 m, while in the SULTAN facility this region is three times shorter. The inevitable non-uniformity of the current distribution in the cable, introduced by the joints at both ends, has a degrading effect on voltage-current (VI) and voltage-temperature (VT) characteristics, particularly for these short samples. This can easily result in an underestimation or overestimation of the actual conductor performance. A longer applied DC high field region along a conductor suppresses the current non-uniformity by increasing the overall longitudinal cable electric field when reaching the current sharing mode. The numerical interpretation study presented here gives a quantitative analysis for a relevant practical case of a test of a short sample poloidal field coil insert (PFCI) conductor in SULTAN. The simulation includes the results of current distribution analysis from self-field measurements with Hall sensor arrays, current sharing measurements and inter-petal resistance measurements. The outcome of the simulations confirms that the current uniformity improves with a longer high field region but the 'measured' VI transition is barely affected, though the local peak voltages become somewhat suppressed. It appears that the location of the high field region and voltage taps has practically no influence on the VI curve as long as the transverse voltage components are adequately cancelled. In particular, for a thin conduit wall, the voltage taps should be connected to the conduit in the form of an (open) azimuthally

  5. Influence of External Magnetic Fields on Tunneling of Spin-1 Bose Condensate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Zhaoxian; Jiao Zhiyong; Sun Jinzuo

    2005-01-01

    In this letter, we have studied the influence of the external magnetic fields on tunneling of the spin-1 Bose condensate. We find that the population transfer between spin-0 and spin-±1 exhibits the step structure under the external cosinusoidal magnetic field and a combination of static and cosinusoidal one, respectively. Compared with the longitudinal component of the external magnetic field, the smaller the transverse component of the magnetic field is, the larger the time scale of exhibiting the step structure does. The tunneling current may exhibit periodically oscillation behavior when the ratio of the transverse component of the magnetic field is smaller than that of the longitudinal component, otherwise it exhibits a damply oscillating behavior. This means that the dynamical spin localization can be adjusted by the external magnetic fields.

  6. Magnetic field influence on substructure formed by electric spark treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reza Rahbari, G.; Ivanov, A.N.

    1996-01-01

    The substructure of surface layer (about 10 microns thick) has been studied by x-ray line broadening technique in the samples of plain carbon steel (0.45%C) after electric spark doping with and without magnetic field (MF). The applied spark pulse energy was 0.12 J and MF induction varied from 0 to 0.08 T. The electrode material was the same as that of the treated sample. It has been observed that the MF reduces the tensile residual surface stresses from 660 ± 15MPa (no MF) to 260 ± 15MPa (B=0.053 T). The analysis of x-ray line broadening has revealed only the existence of microstrains, which are dependent of the MF magnitude. The microstrains have been related to the randomly distributed dislocation with the density of about 3x10 sup 11 cm sup -2

  7. Positron creation in heavy ion collisions: The influence of the magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soff, G.; Reinhardt, J.

    1988-03-01

    We calculate the creation of positrons in heavy-ion collisions including the influence of the magnetic dipole field produced by the moving nuclei. Contrary to a recent claim we find no narrow structures in the positron energy spectrum. (orig.)

  8. Influence of Weak External Magnetic Field on Amorphous and Nanocrystalline Fe-based Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degmová, J.; Sitek, J.

    2010-07-01

    Nanoperm, Hitperm and Finamet amorphous and nanocrystalline alloys were measured by Mössbauer spectrometry in a weak external magnetic field of 0.5 T. It was shown that the most sensitive parameters of Mössbauer spectra are the intensities of the 2nd and the 5th lines. Rather small changes were observed also in the case of internal magnetic field values. The spectrum of nanocrystalline Nanoperm showed the increase in A23 parameter (ratio of line intensities) from 2.4 to 3.7 and decrease of internal magnetic field from 20 to 19 T for amorphous subspectrum under the influence of magnetic field. Spectrum of nanocrystalline Finemet shown decrease in A23 parameter from 3.5 to 2.6 almost without a change in the internal magnetic field value. In the case of amorphous Nanoperm and Finemet samples, the changes are almost negligible. Hitperm alloy showed the highest sensitivity to the weak magnetic field, when the A23 parameter increased from 0.4 to 2.5 in the external magnetic fields. The A23 parameter of crystalline subspectrum increased from 2.7 to 3.8 and the value of internal magnetic field corresponding to amorphous subspectrum increased from 22 to 24 T. The behavior of nanocrystalline alloys under weak external magnetic field was analyzed within the three-level relaxation model of magnetic dynamics in an assembly of single-domain particles.

  9. Magnetic Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils

    2015-01-01

    he Earth has a large and complicated magnetic field, the major part of which is produced by a self-sustaining dynamo operating in the fluid outer core. Magnetic field observations provide one of the few tools for remote sensing the Earth’s deep interior, especially regarding the dynamics...... of the fluid flow at the top of the core. However, what is measured at or near the surface of the Earth is the superposition of the core field and fields caused by magnetized rocks in the Earth’s crust, by electric currents flowing in the ionosphere, magnetosphere, and oceans, and by currents induced...... in the Earth by time-varying external fields. These sources have their specific characteristics in terms of spatial and temporal variations, and their proper separation, based on magnetic measurements, is a major challenge. Such a separation is a prerequisite for remote sensing by means of magnetic field...

  10. Magnetic bead micromixer: Influence of magnetic element geometry and field amplitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Olesen, Torsten; Buus, Bjarke B.; Howalt, Jakob

    2008-01-01

    A scheme for the silicon microfabrication of lab-on-a-chip systems with mixing based on dynamic plugs of magnetic beads is presented. The systems consist of a microfluidic channel integrated with a number of soft magnetic elements by the sides of the channel. The elements are magnetized by a homo......A scheme for the silicon microfabrication of lab-on-a-chip systems with mixing based on dynamic plugs of magnetic beads is presented. The systems consist of a microfluidic channel integrated with a number of soft magnetic elements by the sides of the channel. The elements are magnetized...... by a homogeneous external ac magnetic field. The systems are scalable with respect to the number of magnetic bead plugs and number of parallel channels, and thus they have high potential for use in biological separation using functionalized magnetic beads. The mixing efficiency is characterized for two different...

  11. Topological instability of a semi-bounded magnetic fluid drop under influence of magnetic and ultrasound fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bashtovoi, V., E-mail: bashv@rambler.ru [Belarussian National Technical University, 65 Nezavisimosti Ave., Minsk 220013 (Belarus); Reks, A. [Belarussian National Technical University, 65 Nezavisimosti Ave., Minsk 220013 (Belarus); Baev, A. [Institute of Applied Physics of NAS of Belarus, 16 Akademicheskaya str., Minsk 220072 (Belarus); Mansoor, Al-Jhaish Taha Malik [Belarussian National Technical University, 65 Nezavisimosti Ave., Minsk 220013 (Belarus)

    2017-06-01

    Theoretical and experimental results on deformation and disintegration on parts (topological instability) of semi-bounded magnetic fluid drop placed on horizontal plate in the presence of gravity and vertical external uniform magnetic field, and the influence of acoustic wave on these processes, as well as an experimental results of acoustic fountain on free surface of magnetic fluid are presented. The role of individual mechanisms leading to disintegration is analyzed, and analytical relationships and experimental dependences for critical parameters are established.

  12. Influence of continuous magnetic field on the separation of ephedrine enantiomers by molecularly imprinted polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerreiro, António R; Korkhov, Vadim; Mijangos, Irene; Piletska, Elena V; Rodins, Juris; Turner, Anthony P F; Piletsky, Sergey A

    2008-02-28

    A set of polymers was imprinted with (-)-ephedrine using UV initiation, under the influence of a constant external magnetic field with intensities ranging from 0 to 1.55 T. Synthesised materials were characterised by X-ray crystallography, infrared spectroscopy, swelling and surface area. Recognition properties were assessed by the ability to discriminate between (+) and (-)-ephedrine and by Scatchard analyses on chromatographic mode. It was shown that polymer morphology and recognition properties are affected by the magnetic field. This resulted in considerable improvements in the chromatographic resolution of ephedrine enantiomers by materials synthesised under the influence of magnetic field. Apparently the magnetic field improved the ordering of the polymer structure and facilitated the formation of more uniform imprinting sites.

  13. Three-dimensional numerical simulation of natural convection under the influence of magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moessner, R.

    1996-04-01

    This report deals with the influence of strong magnetic fields on three-dimensional natural convection. First the dimensionless basic equations are derived in cartesian coordinates. This equations are solved numerically in rectangular domains with a Finite-Difference-Method. The following calculations investigate the flow in an electrically insulated cube which is heated and cooled at side walls. It is possible to perform systematic computations for the variation of the direction of the magnetic field and thermal boundary conditions. (orig.)

  14. Influence of magnetic history on flux jump fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosnowski, J.

    1986-01-01

    A formalism describing the fields at which flux jumps occur in hard superconductors has been confirmed by the description of an experimentally observed shift of flux jump fields in the second hysteresis loop of a Nb 3 Al superconducting sample. By fitting the theoretical model to experimental data, values of the proportionality parameter between the stability limit and the flux jump field, the first stability limit, and the first penetration field have been estimated

  15. Influence of Magnetic Field on the Rectification Process of Binary Heterogeneous Azeotrope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Shaoyi; WU Songhai; LI Zhen; JIA Liang

    2005-01-01

    To improve separate effect of binary heterogeneous azeotrope in the magnetic field with different magnetic induction intensity, the influence of magnetic field on the rectification process of binary heterogeneous azeotrope was investigated with 1-butanol-water system. The results show that the composition of liquid-liquid phase equilibrium of 1-butanol-water system has definitely changed, the composition of 1-butanol in light phase (1-butanol layer) increases by 1.17%-1.63% and the composition of water in heavy phase (water layer) increases by 1.21%-1.58% under the influence of magnetic field. By separation of magnetization, the composition of 1-butanol increases by 0.8%-1.2% and the recovery ratio of 1-butanol increases by 1.6%-2.5%. Magnetic field has positive effect, however, the magnetized effect is not in proportion to magnetic induction intensity and has an optimum condition, in the range of 0.25 T-0.3 T.

  16. Influence of magnetic field configuration on magnetohydrodynamic waves in Earth's core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knezek, Nicholas; Buffett, Bruce

    2018-04-01

    We develop a numerical model to study magnetohydrodynamic waves in a thin layer of stratified fluid near the surface of Earth's core. Past studies have been limited to using simple background magnetic field configurations. However, the choice of field distribution can dramatically affect the structure and frequency of the waves. To permit a more general treatment of background magnetic field and layer stratification, we combine finite volume and Fourier methods to describe the wave motions. We validate our model by comparisons to previous studies and examine the influence of background magnetic field configuration on two types of magnetohydrodynamic waves. We show that the structure of zonal Magnetic-Archimedes-Coriolis (MAC) waves for a dipole background field is unstable to small perturbations of the field strength in the equatorial region. Modifications to the wave structures are computed for a range of field configurations. In addition, we show that non-zonal MAC waves are trapped near the equator for realistic magnetic field distributions, and that their latitudinal extent depends upon the distribution of magnetic field strength at the CMB.

  17. Image restoration from non-uniform magnetic field influence for direct Fourier NMR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekihara, K.; Kuroda, M.; Kohno, H.

    1984-01-01

    A new technique is proposed for NMR image restoration from the influence of main magnetic field non-uniformities. This technique is applicable to direct Fourier NMR imaging. The mathematical basis and details of this technique are fully described. Modification to include image restoration from non-linear field gradient influence is also presented. Computer simulation demonstrates the effectiveness of this technique for both Fourier zeugmatography and spin-warp imaging. (author)

  18. Static field influences on transcranial magnetic stimulation: considerations for TMS in the scanner environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Jeffrey M; Jalinous, Reza; Cantarero, Gabriela L; Desmond, John E

    2014-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can be combined with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to simultaneously manipulate and monitor human cortical responses. Although tremendous efforts have been directed at characterizing the impact of TMS on image acquisition, the influence of the scanner's static field on the TMS coil has received limited attention. The aim of this study was to characterize the influence of the scanner's static field on TMS. We hypothesized that spatial variations in the static field could account for TMS field variations in the scanner environment. Using an MRI-compatible TMS coil, we estimated TMS field strengths based on TMS-induced voltage changes measured in a search coil. We compared peak field strengths obtained with the TMS coil positioned at different locations (B0 field vs fringe field) and orientations in the static field. We also measured the scanner's static field to derive a field map to account for TMS field variations. TMS field strength scaled depending on coil location and orientation with respect to the static field. Larger TMS field variations were observed in fringe field regions near the gantry as compared to regions inside the bore or further removed from the bore. The scanner's static field also exhibited the greatest spatial variations in fringe field regions near the gantry. The scanner's static field influences TMS fields and spatial variations in the static field correlate with TMS field variations. Coil orientation changes in the B0 field did not result in substantial TMS field variations. TMS field variations can be minimized by delivering TMS in the bore or outside of the 0-70 cm region from the bore entrance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Solenoidal magnetic field influences the beam neutralization by a background plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaganovich, I.

    2004-01-01

    An analytical electron fluid model has been developed to describe the plasma response to a propagating ion beam. The model predicts very good charge neutralization during quasi-steady-state propagation, provided the beam pulse duration is much longer than the electron plasma period. In the opposite limit, the beam pulse excites large-amplitude plasma waves. Figure 1 shows the influence of a solenoidal magnetic field on charge and current neutralization. Analytical studies show that the solenoidal magnetic field begins to influence the radial electron motion when ω ce > βω pe . Here, ω ce is the electron gyrofrequency, ω pe is the electron plasma frequency, and β = V b /c is the ion beam velocity. If a solenoidal magnetic field is not applied, plasma waves do not propagate. In contrast, in the presence of a solenoidal magnetic field, whistler waves propagate ahead of the beam and can perturb the plasma ahead of the beam pulse. In the limit ω ce >> βω pe , the electron current completely neutralizes the ion beam current and the beam self magnetic field greatly diminishes. Application of an external solenoidal magnetic field clearly makes the collective processes of ion beam-plasma interactions rich in physics content. Many results of the PIC simulations remain to be explained by analytical theory. Four new papers have been published or submitted describing plasma neutralization of an intense ion beam pulse

  20. The influence of magnetic field on the inertial deposition of a particle on a rotating disk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsatsin, P O; Beskachko, V P

    2008-01-01

    The problem of inertial deposition attracts considerable attention in the connection with the separating of detrimental impurities and the refining of liquid metals. In the present investigation the deposition of particles suspended in a conducting melt on the rotating disk in the presence of axial uniform magnetic field is considered. The field of the fluid velocities is computed by means of the MHD-analogue of Karman reduction, which makes possible to reduce initial governing nonlinear partial differential equations to a two-point boundary value problem for the set of ordinary differential equations. The influence of magnetic field on dia-and paramagnetic particle deposition effect was estimated. The results reveal that magnetic field has significant effect on particle parameters, especially for magnetic particles

  1. The influence of continuous magnetic field on periodontal tissues under overdentures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brković-Popović Snežana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Last remained teeth with reduced alveolar support do not have long-term prognosis, which is the reason for prolonging the life and thus providing a stable support of overdenture. The data from literature point out that static magnetic field has certain possibilities in resolving such problems. Objective. Having in mind the pathogenetic factors which cause the reduction of the alveolar ridge and periodontal problems in our population, as well as osteoblastic and antiinflamatory activity, the aim of this investigation was to assess the effect of static magnetic field on periodontal tissue under the overdenture. Methods. The investigation involved 38 partially edentulous patients, of both sexes and similar oral status who were bearers of a lower complete overdenture and upper classic complete denture as antagonist restoration. In the base of the lower overdenture the micromagnets were installed in the region of the remained teeth, which had static concentrated field of 60-80 mT power. The evaluation was done after 3, 6 and 12 months using the method of light densitometry. Periodontologic analysis was performed by standard and modified periodontologic tests. Results. In patients with overdentures, after exposure to a magnetic field, the density of bone was not significantly changed, but the use of ANOVA disclosed changes in the observed interval. The tendency of increased density of the alveolar part of the observed region was noted. The region of the corresponding tooth of the contralateral side without magnetic influence showed decreased density of this region in the observed intervals. Plaque index and gingival index were improved under the influence of the magnetic field, while after 6 and 12 months following the magnet insertion statistically significant changes were confirmed. The magnetic devices did not show any influence on the level of the gingival margin and junction epithelium. Conclusion. Static magnetic field is to be

  2. [The influence of continuous magnetic field on periodontal tissues under overdentures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brković-Popović, Snezana; Stamenković, Dragoslav; Stanisić-Sinobad, Darinka; Rakocević, Zoran; Zelić, Obra

    2009-01-01

    Last remained teeth with reduced alveolar support do not have long-term prognosis, which is the reason for prolonging the life and thus providing a stable support of overdenture. The data from literature point out that static magnetic field has certain possibilities in resolving such problems. Having in mind the pathogenetic factors which cause the reduction of the alveolar ridge and periodontal problems in our population, as well as osteoblastic and antiinflamatory activity, the aim of this investigation was to assess the effect of static magnetic field on periodontal tissue under the overdenture. The investigation involved 38 partially edentulous patients, of both sexes and similar oral status who were bearers of a lower complete overdenture and upper classic complete denture as antagonist restoration. In the base of the lower overdenture the micromagnets were installed in the region of the remained teeth, which had static concentrated field of 60-80 mT power. The evaluation was done after 3, 6 and 12 months using the method of light densitometry. Periodontologic analysis was performed by standard and modified periodontologic tests. In patients with overdentures, after exposure to a magnetic field, the density of bone was not significantly changed, but the use of ANOVA disclosed changes in the observed interval. The tendency of increased density of the alveolar part of the observed region was noted. The region of the corresponding tooth of the contralateral side without magnetic influence showed decreased density of this region in the observed intervals. Plaque index and gingival index were improved underthe influence of the magnetic field, while after 6 and 12 months following the magnet insertion statistically significant changes were confirmed. The magnetic devices did not show any influence on the level of the gingival margin and junction epithelium. Static magnetic field is to be considered as a noninvasive procedure which is recommended to patients with

  3. The influence of hyperons and strong magnetic field in neutron star properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, L.L.; Menezes, D.P.

    2012-01-01

    Neutron stars are among the most exotic objects in the universe and constitute a unique laboratory to study nuclear matter above the nuclear saturation density. In this work, we study the equation of state (EoS) of the nuclear matter within a relativistic model subject to a strong magnetic field. We then apply this EoS to study and describe some of the physical characteristics of neutron stars, especially the massradius relation and chemical compositions. To study the influence of the magnetic field and the hyperons in the stellar interior, we consider altogether four solutions: two different magnetic fields to obtain a weak and a strong influence; and two configurations: a family of neutron stars formed only by protons, electrons, and neutrons and a family formed by protons, electrons, neutrons, muons, and hyperons. The limit and the validity of the results found are discussed with some care. In all cases, the particles that constitute the neutron star are in ,B equilibrium and zero total net charge. Our work indicates that the effect of a strong magnetic field has to be taken into account in the description of magnetars, mainly if we believe that there are hyperons in their interior, in which case the influence of the magnetic field can increase the mass by more than 10 %. We have also seen that although a magnetar can reach 2.48 M0, a natural explanation of why we do not know pulsars with masses above 2.0 Mo arises. We also discuss how the magnetic field affects the strangeness fraction in some standard neutron star masses, and to conclude our paper, we revisit the direct Urca process related to the cooling of the neutron stars and show how it is affected by the hyperons and the magnetic field. (author)

  4. Histological evaluation of the influence of magnetic field application in autogenous bone grafts in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponzoni Deise

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone grafts are widely used in oral and maxillofacial reconstruction. The influence of electromagnetic fields and magnets on the endogenous stimulation of target tissues has been investigated. This work aimed to assess the quality of bone healing in surgical cavities filled with autogenous bone grafts, under the influence of a permanent magnetic field produced by in vivo buried devices. Methods Metal devices consisting of commercially pure martensitic stainless steel washers and titanium screws were employed. Thirty male Wistar rats were divided into 3 experimental and 3 control groups. A surgical bone cavity was produced on the right femur, and a bone graft was collected and placed in each hole. Two metallic washers, magnetized in the experimental group but not in the control group, were attached on the borders of the cavity. Results The animals were sacrificed on postoperative days 15, 45 and 60. The histological analysis of control and experimental samples showed adequate integration of the bone grafts, with intense bone neoformation. On days 45 and 60, a continued influence of the magnetic field on the surgical cavity and on the bone graft was observed in samples from the experimental group. Conclusion The results showed intense bone neoformation in the experimental group as compared to control animals. The intense extra-cortical bone neoformation observed suggests that the osteoconductor condition of the graft may be more susceptible to stimulation, when submitted to a magnetic field.

  5. Research on the influence of driving harmonic on electromagnetic field and temperature field of permanent magnet synchronous motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu Hongbo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available At present, the drivers with different control methods are used in most of permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM. A current outputted by a driver contains a large number of harmonics that will cause the PMSM torque ripple, winding heating and rotor temperature rise too large and so on. In this paper, in order to determine the influence of the current harmonics on the motor performance, different harmonic currents were injected into the motor armature. Firstly, in order to study the influence of the current harmonic on the motor magnetic field, a novel decoupling method of the motor magnetic field was proposed. On this basis, the difference of harmonic content in an air gap magnetic field was studied, and the influence of a harmonic current on the air gap flux density was obtained. Secondly, by comparing the fluctuation of the motor torque in the fundamental and different harmonic currents, the influence of harmonic on a motor torque ripple was determined. Then, the influence of different current harmonics on the eddy current loss of the motor was compared and analyzed, and the influence of the drive harmonic on the eddy current loss was obtained. Finally, by using a finite element method (FEM, the motor temperature distribution with different harmonics was obtained.

  6. The changes of macroscopic features and microscopic structures of water under influence of magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang Xiaofeng; Deng Bo

    2008-01-01

    Influences of magnetic field on microscopic structures and macroscopic properties of water are studied by the spectrum techniques of infrared, Raman, visible, ultraviolet lights and X-ray. From these investigations, we know that the magnetic fields change the distribution of molecules and electrons, cause displacements and polarization of molecules and atoms, result in changes of dipole-moment transition and vibrational states of molecules and variation of transition probability of electrons, but does not alter the constitution of molecules and atoms. These are helpful in seeking the mechanism of magnetization of water. Meanwhile, we also measure the changed rules of the surface tension force, soaking effect or angle of contact, viscosity, rheology features, refraction index, dielectric constant and electric conductivity of magnetized water relative to that of pure water. The results show that the magnetic fields increase the soaking degree and hydrophobicity of water to materials, depress its surface-tension force, diminish the viscosity of war, enhance the feature of plastic flowing of water, and increase the refraction index, dielectric constant and electric conductivity of water after magnetization. These changes are caused by the above changes of microscopic structures under the action of magnetic field. Therefore, our studies are significant in science and has practical value of applications

  7. Influence Of The Switching field On The Magnetization Process Thin Film Magneto optic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atmono, Tri Mardji

    1996-01-01

    The investigation of influence of switching field on the magnetic reversal process of bilayer Fe Tb/FeTbCo has been done. Thin film has been produced by sputtering method using mosaic target placed as cathode. The experiment shows that the interface wall between two layers is created due to the shifting of the switching field from the coercive force of the single layer. At the temperature of 26 o C, the special magnetization process accurst because the two layers have the same value of switching field : For the range of the magnetic field -3.8 kg o C o C. This mean that the compensation point lies in this temperature range

  8. Ferrofluid aggregation in chains under the influence of a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Alexey O.; Kantorovich, Sofia S.; Mendelev, Valentin S.; Pyanzina, Elena S.

    2006-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the basic problem of chain aggregate formation in magnetic fluids under the influence of an external magnetic field. Chain distribution in dynamic equilibrium is obtained on the basis of free energy minimization method under the condition when the interparticle dipole-dipole interaction between the nearest neighboring ferroparticles in each chain is taken into account. The modified mean field approach is used for considering the dipole-dipole interaction between all particles in a ferrofluid. The model describes well the molecular dynamics simulations of magnetostatic properties for monodisperse ferrofluids containing chain aggregates

  9. Magnetic field influence on the spin-density wave of the organic conductor (TMTSF)2NO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomic, S.; Biskup, N.; Korin-Hamzic, B.; Basletic, M.; Hamzic, A.; Maki, K.; Fabre, J.M.; Bechgaard, K.

    1993-01-01

    We present the influence of a transverse magnetic field on the spin-density wave (SDW) ground state of the organic conductor (TMTSF) 2 NO 3 . Magnetic field increases the single-particle activation energy. A finite magnetic field (H C ) induces discontinuities in the magnetoresistance behaviour and its value is temperature dependent. The threshold electric field (E T ) for the SDW sliding increases in a magnetic field. All observed effects are strongly angle-dependent indicating that they are determined by the magnetic field component along the least-conduction (c * ) direction. We discuss these results in the framework of a theoretical model for the SDW with large imperfect nesting. (orig.)

  10. Influence of a magnetic field on microstructure formation in L1{sub 0}-type ferromagnetic intermetallics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farjami, Sahar; Fukuda, Takashi; Kakeshita, Tomoyuki [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)], E-mail: farjami@mat.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp

    2009-05-01

    The influence of a magnetic field on microstructure formation through a disorder-order transformation has been investigated in Co-Pt and Fe-Pd alloys. Single crystals of disordered Co-50Pt(at%) and Fe-55Pd(at%) were subjected to an ordering heat-treatment under a magnetic field. When the ordering heat-treatment is performed without applying a magnetic field, three equivalent variants are formed. On the other hand, when the ordering heat-treatment is performed under a magnetic field of 0.5 T (in CoPt) - 4 T (in Fe-55Pd) and higher as applied along the [001] direction of the disordered phase, a single variant with an easy axis along the field direction is obtained. The induced anisotropy energy of the ordered phase under a magnetic field of 1 T was 4.1 kJ|m{sup -3} at 773 K for CoPt and 45.3 kJ|m{sup -3} at 673 K for Fe-55Pd.

  11. [Influence of pulsating magnetic field used in magnet therapy and magnet stimulation on cortisol secretion in human].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woldańska-Okońska, Maria; Czernicki, Jan

    2003-01-01

    The aim of our study was to test the influence of magnetic fields during magnetotherapy and magnetostimulation over a longer period of time (like in physiotherapy) on cortisol secretion in humans. The study population was divided into two groups: magnetotherapy group (16 men) and magnetostimulation group (10 men). Magnetotherapy in the form of magnetic field induction (2.9 microT; frequency--40 Hz; square wave; bipolar; Magnetronic MF--10 apparatus) was applied for 20 min to the lumbar area in patients with chronic low back pain. Magnetostimulation (Viofor JPS system; M2P2 program; induction--25-80 microT; frequency--200 Hz, complex saw-like shape with a plateau halfway the height of the wave; bipolar) was applied every day for 12 min in patients with the same health problem. In both groups, the procedures were repeated 15 times (about 10:00 a.m.) with weekend breaks. Serum samples were collected at 6:00, 12:00, 16:00 and 24:00 and estimated by the micromethod of chemiluminescence (DPC Poland; Cat. No. LKC01). The circadian profile of cortisol was determined prior to the application, a day and a month after application. The data were analyzed statistically, using paired and unpaired Student's test. Magnetotherapy affects the cortisol secretion in the circadian profile by decreasing its level at 16:00 a day after 15 applications, whereas magnetostimulation by increasing its level at 12:00 a month after 15 applications, which may suggest its long-term effect on hypothalamic-pituitary axis. The comparison of the results indicated that a day after magnetotherapy and magnetostimulation, the circadian curves of cortisol secretion differed significantly by about 100%. All hormone oscillations did not exceed the physiological norms of the circadian cortisol level, not reaching the level so high as in an intense stress. This suggests rather their controlling effect on the cortisol level than their significant stressogenic nature.

  12. [The influence of variable and constant magnetic fields on biota and biological activity of ordinary chernozem soils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisova, T V; Kazeev, K Sh

    2007-01-01

    In model experiments on influence variable magnetic fields of industrial frequency (50 Hz) an induction of 1500 and of 6000 mkTl and the constant magnetic field an induction of 6000 mkTl and of 15000 mkTl during 5 days of exposure on biological properties of chernozem ordinary is shown, that the soil microflora is more sensitive to magnetic fields, than enzymes activity. Bacteria are more sensitive, than microscopic mushrooms. Dehydrogenase it is steady against influence of all variants. Constant magnetic field by the induction of 15000 mkTl rendered practically identical authentic overwhelming influence on catalase and saccharase activity - on 51 and 47% accordingly.

  13. Influence of Austenitic Steel Collar Dimensions on Magnetic Field Harmonics in the LHC Main Dipole

    CERN Document Server

    Bellesia, B; Todesco, Ezio

    2005-01-01

    The influence of the geometry of the collars in the main LHC dipole on the magnetic field harmonics is analyzed. The study aims at finding if the collar geometry is the driving mechanism of field quality for some harmonics and if the two different collar suppliers give a special signature on the magnetic field. Data of more than 700 magnets of the LHC series dipoles are analyzed and discussed. The main result of the analysis is that the collar shape is the driving mechanism of the magnetic field harmonics only for b2 and a3 in one of the three Cold Mass Assemblers (Firm3), where only collars of the supplier S2 are used. Two independent observations support this fact: firstly, strong correlations between apertures of the same magnet as expected from the assembly procedure have been found. Secondly, the expected values based on the measured dimensions of the collars and on a magneto-static model agree with magnetic measurements both for the average and for the standard deviation.

  14. The Influence of magnetic field on the separation of droplets from ferrofluid jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, M.; Burda, P.; Šviková, M.; Huňady, R.

    2017-06-01

    The influence of parallel and perpendicular homogenous magnetic field on the ferrofluid drop formation in dripping regime is studied experimentally. Experimental images are obtained using high-speed video camera with frame rate up to 25,000 fps. The detachment of a drop from the nozzle occurs via the formation of a neck which quickly narrows down until the drop pinches off. The formation of micro-thread from the primary neck is observed before the drop separation. Details of the shape and dynamics of the liquid neck are studied with regard to magnetic field. It is shown that near the detachment point scaled profiles exhibit self-similarity which is not affected by applied magnetic field.

  15. The Influence of the Axial Magnetic Field Upon-the Coaxial Plasma Gun Parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Aragi, G.M.; EL-Demrdash, A.

    2001-01-01

    This study concerns with the influence of an applied axial magnetic field upon the electrical parameters of a coaxial plasma gun device. The experimental results are investigated with 0.5 KJ plasma gun device operated with argon gas at a pressure of 3.5 Torr. An axial time independent magnetic field with intensity of 550 G is introduced along the plasma current sheath axial region, within the annular space between the two coaxial electrodes. From the measurements of the discharge current I(t) and the voltage V(t), the electrical discharge parameters of the plasma gun device and the plasma current sheath implosion velocity are estimated, in normal mode of plasma gun operation and in the mode of presence external axial magnetic field. A comparison between these two modes is studied

  16. Influence of calculation error of total field anomaly in strongly magnetic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiaoyu; Yao, Changli; Zheng, Yuanman; Li, Zelin

    2016-04-01

    An assumption made in many magnetic interpretation techniques is that ΔTact (total field anomaly - the measurement given by total field magnetometers, after we remove the main geomagnetic field, T0) can be approximated mathematically by ΔTpro (the projection of anomalous field vector in the direction of the earth's normal field). In order to meet the demand for high-precision processing of magnetic prospecting, the approximate error E between ΔTact and ΔTpro is studied in this research. Generally speaking, the error E is extremely small when anomalies not greater than about 0.2T0. However, the errorE may be large in highly magnetic environments. This leads to significant effects on subsequent quantitative inference. Therefore, we investigate the error E through numerical experiments of high-susceptibility bodies. A systematic error analysis was made by using a 2-D elliptic cylinder model. Error analysis show that the magnitude of ΔTact is usually larger than that of ΔTpro. This imply that a theoretical anomaly computed without accounting for the error E overestimate the anomaly associated with the body. It is demonstrated through numerical experiments that the error E is obvious and should not be ignored. It is also shown that the curves of ΔTpro and the error E had a certain symmetry when the directions of magnetization and geomagnetic field changed. To be more specific, the Emax (the maximum of the error E) appeared above the center of the magnetic body when the magnetic parameters are determined. Some other characteristics about the error Eare discovered. For instance, the curve of Emax with respect to the latitude was symmetrical on both sides of magnetic equator, and the extremum of the Emax can always be found in the mid-latitudes, and so on. It is also demonstrated that the error Ehas great influence on magnetic processing transformation and inversion results. It is conclude that when the bodies have highly magnetic susceptibilities, the error E can

  17. Influence of an ac magnetic field and induced magnetic anisotropy on the surface magnetoimpedance tensor in an amorphous wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, A P; Zhukova, V; Zhukov, A; Dominguez, L; Chizhik, A; Blanco, J M; Gonzalez, J

    2004-01-01

    The influence of an ac magnetic field and the induced magnetic anisotropy (by field annealing and torsion annealing) on the magnetoimpedance (MI) tensor in an amorphous wire has been analysed. The experimental measurements were carried out in an amorphous wire of composition (Co 0.94 Fe 0.06 ) 72.5 Si 12.5 B 15 , with a negative, nearly zero magnetostriction constant, excited either by an ac circular, h φ , or an axial, h z , magnetic field created by an ac electric current passing along the wire or through an exciting coil mounted on the wire, respectively. The ac current amplitude was changed from 7.5 to 40 mA and the current frequency f was varied from 1.5 to 20 MHz. The induced magnetic anisotropies modify the MI response drastically. The field annealed sample shows a unique peak of the MI effect, while the torsion annealed sample presents an asymmetric giant magnetoimpedance ratio associated with the induced magnetic anisotropy which provokes such thermal treatments

  18. Influence of mechanical vibrations on the field quality measurements of LHC interaction region quadrupole magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Di Marco, J; Schlabach, P; Sylvester, C D; Tompkins, J C; Krzywinski, J

    2000-01-01

    The high gradient quadrupole magnets being developed by the US-LHC Accelerator Project for the LHC Interaction Regions have stringent field quality requirements. The field quality of these magnets will be measured using a rotating coil system presently under development. Mechanical vibrations of the coil during field quality measurements are of concern because such vibrations can introduce systematic errors in measurement results. This paper presents calculations of the expected influence of vibrations on field quality measurements and a technique to measure vibrations present in data acquired with standard "tangential-style" probes. Measured vibrations are reported and compared to simulations. Limits on systematic errors in multipole measurements are discussed along with implications for probe and measurement system design. (3 refs).

  19. Influence of demagnetizing field on the permeability of soft magnetic composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, G.Q.; Li, Z.W.; Chen, Linfeng; Wu, Y.P.; Ong, C.K.

    2006-01-01

    The influence of demagnetizing field on the effective permeability of magnetic composites has been investigated. A theoretical expression of the effective permeability has been obtained and discussed according to four typical composites with spheres, needles, flakes, and aligned prolate ellipsoidal particles. The results indicate that the demagnetizing field within the particles can reduce the effective permeability significantly. In order to increase the effective permeability, it is necessary to decrease the demagnetizing field within the particles. A linear relationship between effective permeability and volume fraction is also observed for composites filled with spherical particles at low volume fraction

  20. Influence of Electric, Magnetic, and Electromagnetic Fields on the Circadian System: Current Stage of Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żak, Arkadiusz

    2014-01-01

    One of the side effects of each electrical device work is the electromagnetic field generated near its workplace. All organisms, including humans, are exposed daily to the influence of different types of this field, characterized by various physical parameters. Therefore, it is important to accurately determine the effects of an electromagnetic field on the physiological and pathological processes occurring in cells, tissues, and organs. Numerous epidemiological and experimental data suggest that the extremely low frequency magnetic field generated by electrical transmission lines and electrically powered devices and the high frequencies electromagnetic radiation emitted by electronic devices have a potentially negative impact on the circadian system. On the other hand, several studies have found no influence of these fields on chronobiological parameters. According to the current state of knowledge, some previously proposed hypotheses, including one concerning the key role of melatonin secretion disruption in pathogenesis of electromagnetic field induced diseases, need to be revised. This paper reviews the data on the effect of electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic fields on melatonin and cortisol rhythms—two major markers of the circadian system as well as on sleep. It also provides the basic information about the nature, classification, parameters, and sources of these fields. PMID:25136557

  1. The influence of an external magnetic axial field on the autocompression of a plasma column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoler, D.

    1979-01-01

    The results of theoretical research on the autocompression of a plasma column under the influence of its own azimuthal field, in the presence of an external magnetic axial field are presented in this paper. Focussed plasma installations are important both for the fundamental researches which can be undertaken on great density and high temperature plasma and for their possible applications since they can be used as sources of neutrons, Roentgen radiations and to obtain heavy ions. The important parameters of plasma have been studied comparatively in the presence or absence of the external magnetic axial field by means of a method of numerical simulation of phenomena from focussed plasma in a complex MHD system taking into account the dissipative and transport phenomena. The numerical data used in chapter 5 are in agreement with the parameters of the experimental installation produced at IFTAR-Bucharest, which have been indicated to us by the members of the focussed plasma staff. (author)

  2. Effect of a high-frequency magnetic field on the resonant behavior displayed by a spin-1/2 particle under the influence of a rotating magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casado-Pascual, Jesus

    2010-01-01

    Graphical abstract: In this paper, we investigate the role of a high-frequency magnetic field in the resonant behavior displayed by a spin-1/2 particle under the influence of a rotating magnetic field. We propose two alternative methods for analyzing the system dynamics, namely, the averaging method and the multiple scale method. - Abstract: In this paper, we investigate the role of a high-frequency magnetic field in the resonant behavior displayed by a spin-1/2 particle under the influence of a rotating magnetic field. We propose two alternative methods for analyzing the system dynamics, namely, the averaging method and the multiple scale method. The analytical results achieved by applying these two methods are compared with those obtained from the numerical solution of the Schroedinger equation. This comparison leads to the conclusion that the multiple scale method provides a better understanding of the system dynamics than the averaging method. In particular, the averaging method predicts the complete destruction of the resonant behavior by an appropriate choice of the parameter values of the high-frequency magnetic field. This conclusion is disproved both by the numerical results, and also by the results obtained from the multiple scale method.

  3. Dynamics of liquid metal droplets and jets influenced by a strong axial magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, D.; Karcher, Ch

    2017-07-01

    Non-contact electromagnetic control and shaping of liquid metal free surfaces is crucial in a number of high-temperature metallurgical processes like levitation melting and electromagnetic sealing, among others. Other examples are the electromagnetic bending or stabilization of liquid metal jets that frequently occur in casting or fusion applications. Within this context, we experimentally study the influence of strong axial magnetic fields on the dynamics of falling metal droplets and liquid metal jets. GaInSn in eutectic composition is used as test melt being liquid at room temperature. In the experiments, we use a cryogen-free superconducting magnet (CFM) providing steady homogeneous fields of up to 5 T and allowing a tilt angle between the falling melt and the magnet axis. We vary the magnetic flux density, the tilt angle, the liquid metal flow rate, and the diameter and material of the nozzle (electrically conducting/insulating). Hence, the experiments cover a parameter range of Hartmann numbers Ha, Reynolds numbers Re, and Weber numbers We within 0 rotation ceases and the droplets are stretched in the field direction. Moreover, we observe that the jet breakup into droplets (spheroidization) is suppressed, and in the case of electrically conducting nozzles and tilt, the jets are bent towards the field axis.

  4. Anisotropy, magnetic field and stress influences on the phase transitions on spin-flop-type antiferromagnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, S.F.; Espirito Santo Univ., Vitoria; Tsallis, C.

    1983-01-01

    Within a mean field approximation, the influences of anisotropy (in the spin space) and external uniaxial stress on the Heisenberg antiferromagnet in the presence of magnetic field are discussed. The phase diagram evolution (as function of anisotropy and stress) which is obtained, enables a satisfactory overall interpretation of recent experiments on Mn(Br sub(1-x) Cl sub(x)) 2 .4H 2 O, K 2 [FeCl 5 (H 2 O)], CoCl 2 .6H 2 O and (C 2 H 5 NH 3 ) 2 CuCl 4 . (Author) [pt

  5. Influence of static magnetic fields in phototaxis and osmotic stress in Gymnodinium catenatum (Dinophyceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Paulo

    2017-07-01

    Phototaxis response of the toxic microalgae Gymnodinium catenatum was studied in vitro. The percentage of cells remaining at mid-depth 20 min after stirring increased with solar radio, X-ray and solar flares output. It also increased with geomagnetic activity and temperature, and was dependent on culture time. Increase in the local static magnetic field with a permanent magnet did not influence the positive phototaxis response. However, survival and growth to a provoked hypo-osmotic shock in an altered static magnetic field was dependent on culture time and geomagnetic activity at a threshold below 22 nT. The results from phototaxis and hypo-osmotic shock experiments were in line with the previous hypothesis for the existence of two separate deleterious mechanisms conditioning the natural blooms of G. catenatum: one that is dependent on solar radiation and the other that is related to geomagnetic activity. Variations in electromagnetic fields caused by tectonic activity were also capable of influencing G. catenatum phototaxis and growth response in vitro.

  6. Influence of frequency of the excitation magnetic field and material's electric conductivity on domain wall dynamics in ferromagnetic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chávez-González, A.F.; Pérez-Benítez, J.A.; Espina-Hernández, J.H.; Grössinger, R.; Hallen, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    The present work analyzes the influence of electric conductivity on the Magnetic Barkhausen Noise (MBN) signal using a microscopic model which includes the influence of eddy currents. This model is also implemented to explain the dependence of MBN on the frequency of the applied magnetic field. The results presented in this work allow analyzing the influence of eddy currents on MBN signals for different values of the material's electric conductivity and for different frequencies of applied magnetic field. Additionally, the outcomes of this research can be used as a reference to differentiate the influence of eddy currents from that of second phase particles in the MBN signal, which has been reported in previous works. - Highlights: • Electromagnetic simulation of MBN with eddy currents and micro-magnetism. • Influence of applied field frequency on MBN is explained. • Influence of electric conductivity on MBN is analyzed. • Hysteresis losses in ferromagnetic materials is analyzed using the model.

  7. Influence of the terrestrial magnetic field geometry on the cutoff rigidity of cosmic ray particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbst, K.; Kopp, A.; Heber, B.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of the propagation of charged energetic particles in the Earth's magnetic field go back to Carl Stoermer. In the end, his investigations finally lead to the definition of the so-called cutoff rigidity RC; that is, the minimum momentum per charge a particle must have in order to reach a certain geographical location. Employing Monte Carlo simulations with the PLANETOCOSMICS code we investigate the correlation between the geomagnetic field structure and the cutoff rigidity. We show that the geometry of the magnetic field has a considerable influence on the resulting cutoff rigidity distribution. Furthermore, we will present a simple geometry-based parameter, δB, which is able to reflect the location-dependent cutoff rigidity. We show that this correlation is also visible in the temporal evolution of the Earth's magnetic field, at least over the last 100 yr. Using latitude scans with neutron monitors, changes of the relative counting rates at different positions are calculated, showing small variations for, e.g., Kiel and Moscow, while large ones occur at Mexico City as well as on the British Virgin Islands.

  8. Stud arc welding in a magnetic field – Investigation of the influences on the arc motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartz-Behrend, K; Forster, G; Schein, J; Marqués, J L; Jenicek, A; Müller, M; Cramer, H; Jilg, A; Soyer, H

    2014-01-01

    Stud arc welding is widely used in the construction industry. For welding of studs with a diameter larger than 14 mm a ceramic ferrule is usually necessary in order to protect the weld pool. Disadvantages of using such a ferrule are that more metal is molten than necessary for a high quality welded joint and that the ferrule is a consumable generally thrown away after the welding operation. Investigations show that the ferrule can be omitted when the welding is carried out in a radially symmetric magnetic field within a shielding gas atmosphere. Due to the Lorentz force the arc is laterally shifted so that a very uniform and controlled melting of the stud contact surface as well as of the work piece can be achieved. In this paper a simplified physical model is presented describing how the parameters welding current, flux density of the magnetic field, radius of the arc and mass density of the shielding gas influence the velocity of the arc motion. The resulting equation is subsequently verified by comparing it to optical measurements of the arc motion. The proposed model can be used to optimize the required field distribution for the magnetic field stud welding process

  9. Latitude dependence of the solar wind speed: Influence of the coronal magnetic field geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pneuman, G.W.

    1976-01-01

    The dependence of solar wind speed on latitude as influenced by the magnetic field configuration of the inner corona is studied. It is found that in general, a dipolelike field geometry characteristic of a minimum-type corona tends to produce a solar wind speed distribution which increases with heliographic latitude, in accordance with observations. At very high coronal base densities and temperatures, however, this effect is minimal or even inverted. Physically, the field affects the wind speed through its area divergence, a larger divergence resulting in correspondingly lower speeds. During solar minimum, eclipse photographs suggest that the field divergence increases from pole to equator, a characteristic not apparent during solar maximum. Hence we expect the latitudinal increase in speed to be most pronounced at the minimum phase of solar activity

  10. Influence of external magnetic field on parameters of surface two-focus spin-wave ferromagnetic lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reshetnyak, S.A.; Berezhinskij, A.S.

    2012-01-01

    The influence of external magnetic field on refraction of surface spin wave propagating through inhomogeneity created in the form of a lens, that is a biaxial ferromagnet placed into uniaxial ferromagnetic medium, is studied.

  11. Thermomagnetic convection of a magnetic nanofluid influenced by a magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouhrour Ali

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a numerical study of thermomagnetic convection in a differentially heated cavity. The magnetic nanofluid (ferrofluid is subjected to a uniform magnetic gradient oriented at an angle, φ, with respect to the thermal gradient. The motivation for this work stems largely from a desire to extent preexisting works focused on horizontal and vertical orientations φ = 0°, 90°, 180°, and 270°. Our main goal is to get data on the flow and heat transfer for any orientation in the entire range 0-360°. The generalized problem lends itself to the investigation of orientations that give maximum heat transfer. It is found that, (1 at a given magneto- gravitational coupling number, N, orientations 0°, 90°, and 270°, for which magnetization gradient is unstable, are not the optimum ones, (2 for 0 1, a second maximum occur between 0° and 90° owing to reverse flow phenomenon, (4 at strong magnetic gradients, the two heat transfer peaks take the same value, and (5 optimization parameter, ω, reflecting the strongest magnetic effect, grows with N. Unlike the gravity, magnetic gradient may supply various strengths and spatial configurations, which makes thermomagnetic convection more controllable. Also, the magnetic mechanism is a viable alternative for the gravity one in microgravity, where thermo-gravitational convection ceases to be efficient..

  12. The Influence of the Axial Magnetic Field Upon- the Coaxial Plasma Gun Parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Aragi, G.M.; El-Demardash, A.

    2001-01-01

    This study concerns with the influence of an applied axial magnetic field upon the electrical parameters and on the brightness (luminance) of argon plasma. The brightness was measured by with a photomultiplier type of IP28 RCA. The experimental results are investigated with plasma gun device operated with argon gas at a pressure of 3.5 Torr. An axial time independent magnetic field with intensity of 550 G is introduced along the plasma current sheath axial region, within the annular space between the two coaxial electrodes. From the measurements of the discharge current I(t) and the voltage V(t), the electrical discharge parameters of the plasma gun device and the plasma current sheath implosion velocity are estimated, in normal mode of plasma gun operation and in the mode of presence external axial magnetic field. A comparison between these two modes is studied. It was found that the thickness of skin-layer δ about 0.01 cm and the wavelength λ, of the perturbation about 1.3 cm i.e. the instability has been satisfied. The growth rate γ of the instability about 10 6 sec -1 . (author)

  13. On the influence of mechanical and magnetic characteristics on the field quality of superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramov, A.G.; Ershov, S.Yu.; Daikovsky, A.G.; Ryabov, A.D.; Tkachenko, N.P.

    1992-01-01

    The paper presents a numerical analysis of the effect of mechanical processes in a superconducting magnet, beginning with the coil assembly fabrication and ending with energizing it. The purpose of our work was to find the correlations between the harmonics and mechanical behaviour of the design and hence, to detect possible defects in the production technology and show the possible ways of solving the problems. The effects related to the saturation of the magnetic shield are analysed as well. (Author)

  14. Influence of Non-Uniform Magnetic Field on Quantum Teleportation in Heisenberg XY Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO Bin; YANG Tie-jian; ZHAO Yue-hong; ZOU Jian

    2007-01-01

    By considering the intrinsic decoherence, the validity of quantum teleportation of a two-qubit 1D Heisenberg XY chain in a non-uniform external magnetic field is studied. The fidelity as the measurement of a possible quantum teleportation is calculated and the effects of the non-uniform magnetic field and the intrinsic decoherence are discussed. It is found that anti-parallel magnetic field is more favorable for teleportation and the fidelity is suppressed by the intrinsic decoherence.

  15. STUDY OF THE INFLUENCE OF MAGNETIC FIELD ON SOME BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ZEA MAIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A ALADJADJIYAN

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the static magnetic field of 0,15 Т induction on the maize seeds was studied. The germinating energy and seed germination were detected. The fresh weight and the shoot length were measured. The absorption spectra and the specific electroconductivity of the water extract from seeds were registered. It was detected that the magnetic field stimulated the shoot development and led to the increase of the germinating energy, germination, fresh weight and shoot length. The extinction of the samples treated with a magnetic field increased by about 20 %. The highest values of the treated sample parameters were obtained after 10-min exposure in the magnetic field.

  16. Influence of the 1st, 2nd and 3rd harmonic magnetic field in mini-cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu xiangshun; Chen Maobai; Li Deming; Xu Senlin

    1996-01-01

    The influence of the 1st, 2nd and 3rd harmonic magnetic field on particle's movement in the mini-cyclotron has been studied. The permitted upper limits for each harmonic part are calculated. These data provide a theoretical reference for magnetic trimming

  17. Domain Wall Motion in Magnetic Nanostrips under the Influence of Rashba Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vito Puliafito

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Spin-orbit Rashba effect applies a torque on the magnetization of a ferromagnetic nanostrip in the case of structural inversion asymmetry, also affecting the steady domain wall motion induced by a spin-polarized current. This influence is here analytically studied in the framework of the extended Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation, including the Rashba effect as an additive term of the effective field. Results of previous micromagnetic simulations and experiments have shown that this field yields an increased value of the Walker breakdown current together with an enlargement of the domain wall width. In order to analytically describe these results, the standard travelling wave ansatz for the steady domain wall motion is here adopted. Results of our investigations reveal the impossibility to reproduce, at the same time, the previous features and suggest the need of a more sophisticated model whose development requires, in turn, additional information to be extracted from ad hoc micromagnetic simulations.

  18. Influence of AC external magnetic field on guidance force relaxation between HTS bulk and NdFeB guideway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Longcai [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, P.O. Box 152, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China)], E-mail: zhlcai2000@163.com; Wang Suyu; Wang Jiasu; Zheng Jun [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, P.O. Box 152, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China)

    2007-12-01

    Superconducting maglev vehicle is one of the most promising applications of HTS bulks. In such a system, the HTS bulks are always exposed to time-varying external magnetic field, which is generated by the inhomogeneous surface magnetic field of the NdFeB guideway. So it is required to study whether the guidance force of the bulks is influenced by the inhomogeneity. In this paper, we studied the characteristics of the guidance force relaxation between the HTS bulk and the NdFeB guideway by an experiment in which AC external magnetic field generated by an electromagnet was used to simulate the time-varying external magnetic field caused by the inhomogeneity of the guideway. From the experiment results, it was found that the guidance force was decreased with the application of the AC external magnetic field, and the decay increased with the amplitude and was almost independent of the frequency.

  19. Influence of external magnetic field on the etching of a steel ball in an aqueous solution of nitric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Ilchenko M.; Yu, Gorobets O.; Bondar, I.A.; Gaponov, A.M.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of change of shape of a steel ball was revealed as a result of its etching in an aqueous solution of nitric acid under influence of an external magnetic field. The elongation of a ferromagnetic ball was observed along the direction of an external magnetic field while etching took place uniformly in all the directions without magnetic field application. The steel ball etching in a magnetic field is characterized by formation of three cylindrically symmetric regions with different etching rates and surface structures, divided from each other by clear borders (namely, the pole, equator and transition regions are formed). The non-monotone dependences of etching rate, surface structure of a sample and sample shape after etching on an external magnetic field are observed.

  20. The influence of electron discharge and magnetic field on calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putro, Triswantoro, E-mail: tris@physics.its.ac.id; Endarko, E-mail: endarko@physics.its.ac.id [Physics Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember (ITS), Surabaya 60111 (Indonesia)

    2016-04-19

    The influences of electron discharge and magnetic field on calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) precipitation in water have been successfully investigated. The study used three pairs of magnetic field 0.1 T whilst the electron discharge was generated from television flyback transformer type BW00607 and stainless steel SUS 304 as an electrode. The water sample with an initial condition of 230 mg/L placed in the reactor with flow rate 375 mL/minutes, result showed that the electron discharge can be reduced contain of calcium carbonate the water sample around 17.39% within 2 hours. Meanwhile for the same long period of treatment and flow rate, around 56.69% from initial condition of 520 mg/L of calcium carbonate in the water sample can be achieved by three pairs of magnetic field 0.1 T. When the combination of three pairs of magnetic field 0.1 T and the electron discharge used for treatment, the result showed that the combination of electron discharge and magnetic field methods can be used to precipitate calcium carbonate in the water sample 300 mg/L around 76.66% for 2 hours of treatment. The study then investigated the influence of the polar position of the magnetic field on calcium carbonate precipitation. Two positions of magnetic field were tested namely the system with alternated polar magnetics and the system without inversion of the polar magnetics. The influence of the polar position showed that the percentage reduction in levels of calcium carbonate in the water sample (360 mg/L) is significant different. Result showed that the system without inversion of the polar magnetics is generally lower than the system with alternated polar magnetics, with reduction level at 30.55 and 57.69%, respectively.

  1. Influence of the Convection Electric Field Models on Predicted Plasmapause Positions During Magnetic Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierrard, V.; Khazanov, G.; Cabrera, J.; Lemaire, J.

    2007-01-01

    In the present work, we determine how three well documented models of the magnetospheric electric field, and two different mechanisms proposed for the formation of the plasmapause influence the radial distance, the shape and the evolution of the plasmapause during the geomagnetic storms of 28 October 2001 and of 17 April 2002. The convection electric field models considered are: Mcllwain's E51) electric field model, Volland-Stern's model and Weimer's statistical model compiled from low-Earth orbit satellite data. The mechanisms for the formation of the plasmapause to be tested are: (i) the MHD theory where the plasmapause should correspond to the last-closed- equipotential (LCE) or last-closed-streamline (LCS), if the E-field distribution is stationary or time-dependent respectively; (ii) the interchange mechanism where the plasmapause corresponds to streamlines tangent to a Zero-Parallel-Force surface where the field-aligned plasma distribution becomes convectively unstable during enhancements of the E-field intensity in the nightside local time sector. The results of the different time dependent simulations are compared with concomitant EUV observations when available. The plasmatails or plumes observed after both selected geomagnetic storms are predicted in all simulations and for all E-field models. However, their shapes are quite different depending on the E-field models and the mechanisms that are used. Despite the partial success of the simulations to reproduce plumes during magnetic storms and substorms, there remains a long way to go before the detailed structures observed in the EUV observations during periods of geomagnetic activity can be accounted for very precisely by the existing E-field models. Furthermore, it cannot be excluded that the mechanisms currently identified to explain the formation of "Carpenter's knee" during substorm events, will', have to be revised or complemented in the cases of geomagnetic storms.

  2. Magnetic Field Calculator

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Magnetic Field Calculator will calculate the total magnetic field, including components (declination, inclination, horizontal intensity, northerly intensity,...

  3. Influence of Magnetic Field on Electric Charge Transport in Holomiun Thin Films at Low Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Dudas

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Holmium thin films were prepared by evaporation in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV and high precision electrical resistance measurements were performed on them as well as on holomium bulk sample in the wide temperature range from 4,2 K up to the room temperature. Electric charge transport is profoundly influenced by the magnetic structure at low temperatures and a "knee-like" resistance anomaly was observed near the transportation from paramagnetic state to basal-plane spiral structure in bulk with the Neel temperature TN=128,9 K and below ~ 122 K in thin Ho films in a thickness range from 98 nm to 215 nm. Unexpected resistance minimum at ~ 9 K and a slope´s charge of the R vs. T curve near ~ 170 K was observed in 215 nm thin film. Application of magnetic field parallel to the substrate and thin film plane for temperatures below ~ 150 K caused the decrease of resistence value with increasing magnetic flux density. Increasing suppression of the TN value up to ~ 5 K with increasing flux density value up to 5 T was observed in Ho films. 

  4. Influences of magnetic field on the fractal morphology in copper electrodeposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudibyo; How, M. B.; Aziz, N.

    2018-01-01

    Copper magneto-electrodeposition (MED) is used decrease roughening in the copper electrodeposition process. This technology plays a vital role in electrodeposition process to synthesize metal alloy, thin film, multilayer, nanowires, multilayer nanowires, dot array and nano contacts. The effects of magnetic fields on copper electrodeposition are investigated in terms of variations in the magnetic field strength and the electrolyte concentration. Based on the experimental results, the mere presence of magnetic field would result in a compact deposit. As the magnetic field strength is increased, the deposit grows denser. The increment in concentration also leads to the increase the deposited size. The SEM image analysis showed that the magnetic field has a significant effect on the surface morphology of electrodeposits.

  5. Influence of nonuniform external magnetic fields and anode--cathode shaping on magnetic insulation in coaxial transmission lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostrom, M.A.

    1979-01-01

    Coaxial transmission lines, used to transfer the high voltage pulse into the diode region of a relativistic electron beam generator, have been studied using the two-dimensional time-dependent fully relativistic and electromagnetic particle simulation code CCUBE. A simple theory of magnetic insulation that agrees well with simulation results for a straight cylindrical coax in a uniform external magnetic field is used to interpret the effects of anode--cathode shaping and nonuniform external magnetic fields. Loss of magnetic insulation appears to be minimized by satisfying two conditions: (1) the cathode surface should follow a flux surface of the external magnetic field; (2) the anode should then be shaped to insure that the magnetic insulation impedance, including transients, is always greater than the effective load impedance wherever there is an electron flow in the anode--cathode gap

  6. Influence of external magnetic field, finite-size effects and chemical potential on the phase transition of a complex scalar field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalcanti, E.; Castro, E.; Malbouisson, A.P.C. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas/MCTI, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Linhares, C.A. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Fisica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-10-15

    A scalar model is built, as a quantum field theory defined on a toroidal topology, to describe a phase transition in films subjected to periodic boundary conditions and influenced by an external and constant magnetic field. Criticality is studied and the relations between the critical temperature, the film thickness, the magnetic field strength and the chemical potential are investigated. Since the model describes a second-order phase transition a comparison with the Ginzburg-Landau theory is made. (orig.)

  7. The observation of resistivity change on the ultrasonic treated Fe-Cr ODS sinter alloy under magnetic field influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silalahi, Marzuki; Purwanto, Setyo; Mujamilah; Dimyati, Arbi

    2018-03-01

    About the observation of resistivity change on the ultrasonic treated Fe-Cr ODS sinter alloy under magnetic field influence. This paper reported about the observation of the resistivity change in the ultrasonic pre-treated Fe-Cr ODS sinter alloy under the influence of magnetic field at the Center for Science and Technology of Advanced Material, Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia. Fe-Cr ODS alloy were sinthesized by vacuum sintering of Fe- and Cr-powder dispersed Y2O3. However, before sintering the powder mixture was subjected to the irradiation process by ultrasonic for 50 hours at 20 kHz and then isostatic pressed up to 50.91 MPa to form a coin of 10 mm in diameter. LCR meassurement revealed the decreasing of resistivity about 3 times by increasing of applied magnetic field from 0 to 70 mT. In addition, VSM meassurement was performed on both as powder material and as sintered sample. The results showed increasing the magnetization with increasing magnetic field and the curve exhibits almost exact symmetry S-form with small hysterese indicating fast changing magnetization and demagnetization capability without energy loss. This opens strong speculations about the existence of magnetoresistant property of the material which is important for many application in field of sensors or electro magnetic valves.

  8. Directional Solidification Microstructure of a Ni-Based Superalloy: Influence of a Weak Transverse Magnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Li

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A Ni-based superalloy CMSX-6 was directionally solidified at various drawing speeds (5–20 μm·s−1 and diameters (4 mm, 12 mm under a 0.5 T weak transverse magnetic field. The results show that the application of a weak transverse magnetic field significantly modified the solidification microstructure. It was found that if the drawing speed was lower than 10 μm·s−1, the magnetic field caused extensive macro-segregation in the mushy zone, and a change in the mushy zone length. The magnetic field significantly decreases the size of γ’ and the content of γ-γ’ eutectic. The formation of macro-segregation under a weak magnetic field was attributed to the interdendritic solute transport driven by the thermoelectric magnetic convection (TEMC. The γ’ phase refinement could be attributed to a decrease in nucleation activation energy owing to the magnetic field during solid phase transformation. The change of element segregation is responsible for the content decrease of γ-γ’ eutectic.

  9. The influence of magnetic field geometry on magnetars X-ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viganò, D; Pons, J A; Miralles, J A; Parkins, N; Zane, S; Turolla, R

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, the analysis of the X-ray spectra of magnetically powered neutron stars or magnetars is one of the most valuable tools to gain insight into the physical processes occurring in their interiors and magnetospheres. In particular, the magnetospheric plasma leaves a strong imprint on the observed X-ray spectrum by means of Compton up-scattering of the thermal radiation coming from the star surface. Motivated by the increased quality of the observational data, much theoretical work has been devoted to develop Monte Carlo (MC) codes that incorporate the effects of resonant Compton scattering (RCS) in the modeling of radiative transfer of photons through the magnetosphere. The two key ingredients in this simulations are the kinetic plasma properties and the magnetic field (MF) configuration. The MF geometry is expected to be complex, but up to now only mathematically simple solutions (self-similar solutions) have been employed. In this work, we discuss the effects of new, more realistic, MF geometries on synthetic spectra. We use new force-free solutions [14] in a previously developed MC code [9] to assess the influence of MF geometry on the emerging spectra. Our main result is that the shape of the final spectrum is mostly sensitive to uncertain parameters of the magnetospheric plasma, but the MF geometry plays an important role on the angle-dependence of the spectra.

  10. Influence of magnetic field on swap operation in Heisenberg XXZ model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Jia [Department of Physics, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhang Guofeng, E-mail: gf1978zhang@buaa.edu.c [Department of Physics, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100083 (China); Chen Ziyu [Department of Physics, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2009-05-01

    Swap operation based on a two-qubit Heisenberg XXZ model under a uniform magnetic field in arbitrary direction and magnitude is investigated. It is shown that swap gate can be implemented on some conditions and its feasibility is established.

  11. Influence of magnetic field on swap operation in Heisenberg XXZ model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jia; Zhang Guofeng; Chen Ziyu

    2009-01-01

    Swap operation based on a two-qubit Heisenberg XXZ model under a uniform magnetic field in arbitrary direction and magnitude is investigated. It is shown that swap gate can be implemented on some conditions and its feasibility is established.

  12. Influence of external resonant magnetic perturbation field on edge plasma of small tokamak HYBTOK-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Y., E-mail: hayashi-yuki13@ees.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603 (Japan); Suzuki, Y.; Ohno, N. [Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603 (Japan); Okamoto, M. [Ishikawa National College of Technology, Kitachujo, Tsubata-cho, Kahoku-gun, Ishikawa 929-0392 (Japan); Kikuchi, Y. [University of Hyogo, 2167 Shosha, Himeji, Hyogo 671-2280 (Japan); Sakakibara, S.; Watanabe, K.; Takemura, Y. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan)

    2015-08-15

    Radial profile of externally applied resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) field with mode numbers of m = 6 and n = 2 in a small tokamak device HYBTOK-II have been investigated using a magnetic probe array, which is able to measure the radial profile of magnetic field perturbation induced by applying RMP. Results of RMP penetration into the plasma show that the RMP decreased toward the plasma center, while they were amplified around the resonant surface with a safety factor q = 3 due to the formation of magnetic islands. This suggests that RMP fields for controlling edge plasmas may trigger some kind of MHD instabilities. In addition, simulation results, based on a linearized four-field model, which agrees with the experimental ones, indicates that the penetration and amplification process of RMP strongly depend on a Doppler-shifted frequency between the RMP and plasma rotation.

  13. Influence of magnetic-field inhomogeneity on nonlinear magneto-optical resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pustelny, S.; Jackson Kimball, D. F.; Rochester, S. M.; Yashchuk, V. V.; Budker, D.

    2006-01-01

    In this work, a sensitivity of the rate of relaxation of ground-state atomic coherences to magnetic-field inhomogeneities is studied. Such coherences give rise to many interesting phenomena in light-atom interactions, and their lifetimes are a limiting factor for achieving better sensitivity, resolution, or contrast in many applications. For atoms contained in a vapor cell, some of the coherence-relaxation mechanisms are related to magnetic-field inhomogeneities. We present a simple model describing relaxation due to such inhomogeneities in a buffer-gas-free antirelaxation-coated cell. A relation is given between relaxation rate and magnetic-field inhomogeneities including the dependence on cell size and atomic species. Experimental results, which confirm predictions of the model, are presented. Different regimes, in which the relaxation rate is equally sensitive to the gradients in any direction and in which it is insensitive to gradients transverse to the bias magnetic field, are predicted and demonstrated experimentally

  14. Influence of a magnetic field on the corrosion of austenitic and martensitic steels by semi-stagnant Pb17Li

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terlain, A.; Dufrenoy, T.

    1994-01-01

    The influence of a magnetic field on the compatibility of 316L austenitic and 1.4914 martensitic steels with Pb17Li has been studied in conditions simulating the special features of the water-cooled Pb17Li blanket (low Pb17Li velocity, significant radial thermal gradient and short distances between hot and cold zones). In the 420-475 C temperature range, the results show an increase of the corrosion rate in the presence of a magnetic field. This increase is about 50% for 316L steel and 30% for 1.4914 martensitic steel. Moreover the magnetic field induces a loss of symmetry in the deposition process: the amount of recovered deposit is greater in the direction parallel to the magnetic field than in the perpendicular one. ((orig.))

  15. Origin and Evolution of Magnetic Field in PMS Stars: Influence of Rotation and Structural Changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emeriau-Viard, Constance; Brun, Allan Sacha, E-mail: constance.emeriau@cea.fr, E-mail: sacha.brun@cea.fr [Laboratoire AIM Paris-Saclay CEA/DSM—CNRS—Université Paris Diderot, IRFU/DAp CEA Paris-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    2017-09-01

    During stellar evolution, especially in the pre-main-sequence phase, stellar structure and rotation evolve significantly, causing major changes in the dynamics and global flows of the star. We wish to assess the consequences of these changes on stellar dynamo, internal magnetic field topology, and activity level. To do so, we have performed a series of 3D HD and MHD simulations with the ASH code. We choose five different models characterized by the radius of their radiative zone following an evolutionary track computed by a 1D stellar evolution code. These models characterized stellar evolution from 1 to 50 Myr. By introducing a seed magnetic field in the fully convective model and spreading its evolved state through all four remaining cases, we observe systematic variations in the dynamical properties and magnetic field amplitude and topology of the models. The five MHD simulations develop a strong dynamo field that can reach an equipartition state between the kinetic and magnetic energies and even superequipartition levels in the faster-rotating cases. We find that the magnetic field amplitude increases as it evolves toward the zero-age main sequence. Moreover, the magnetic field topology becomes more complex, with a decreasing axisymmetric component and a nonaxisymmetric one becoming predominant. The dipolar components decrease as the rotation rate and the size of the radiative core increase. The magnetic fields possess a mixed poloidal-toroidal topology with no obvious dominant component. Moreover, the relaxation of the vestige dynamo magnetic field within the radiative core is found to satisfy MHD stability criteria. Hence, it does not experience a global reconfiguration but slowly relaxes by retaining its mixed stable poloidal-toroidal topology.

  16. Influence of the ac magnetic field frequency on the magnetoimpedance of amorphous wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, A P; Garcia, C; Zhukov, A; Dominguez, L; Blanco, J M; Gonzalez, J

    2006-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies on the influence of ac magnetic field frequency on the axial diagonal (ζ zz ) and off-diagonal (ζ Φz ) components of the magnetoimpedance (MI) tensor in (Co 0.94 Fe 0.06 ) 72.5 Si 12.5 B 15 amorphous wires have been performed. The frequency (f) of an ac current flowing along the wire was varied from 1 to 20 MHz with the current amplitude less than 15 mA. In order to enhance the ζ Φz component, the amorphous wire was submitted to torsion annealing for developing and preserving a helical magnetic anisotropy in the surface of the wire. The experimental measurements show that the value of the impedance is proportional to the square-root of the ac current frequency, √f, in the vicinity of H ex K and this increase is due to the contribution of the resistance (real part of the impedance). The measurements also indicate that the peaks of the MI curve shift slightly towards higher field values with increasing f. In a theoretical study the magnetoimpedance expressions ζ zz and ζ Φz have been deduced using the Faraday law in combination with the solutions of the Maxwell and Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equations. By analysing quantitatively the spectra of ζ zz and ζ Φz , the phenomenon of the shift in the peaks of the MI curve with f has been considered as a characteristic of the helical anisotropy in the domain structure of the wire surface

  17. Magnetic field line Hamiltonian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boozer, A.H.

    1985-02-01

    The basic properties of the Hamiltonian representation of magnetic fields in canonical form are reviewed. The theory of canonical magnetic perturbation theory is then developed and applied to the time evolution of a magnetic field embedded in a toroidal plasma. Finally, the extension of the energy principle to tearing modes, utilizing the magnetic field line Hamiltonian, is outlined

  18. The influence of magnetic field on ballistic performance of aramid fibre and ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Y.C.; Ruan, D.; Sesso, M.L.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Ballistic tests conducted on Kevlar and UHMWPE within a magnetic field. • Repulsion force created by opposing magnet poles reduced the impact momentum. • High speed camera images showed no perforation on Kevlar due to magnetic field. • Standoff distance between magnets has an effect on the repulsion force. - Abstract: An innovative method is introduced here whereby using two sets of arrays of rare earth magnets aligned opposite each other in order to create a repulsion force owing to the like poles when facing close to each other. Ballistic test samples of aramid fibre (Kevlar K29) and ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) were sandwiched by two sets of opposing magnets. Ballistic test was conducted using a gas gun with a 7.62 mm diameter projectile at a velocity ranging from 160 to 220 m/s. High speed camera was used to capture the ballistics testing and it shows that the magnetic repulsion force created by the opposing rare earth magnets managed to suppress the projectile from advancing into the front face of the aramid fibre. Similarly, when magnets were used, the UHMWPE sample shows the projectile perforated through the first few sheets and finally rested on the last sheet showing partial perforation

  19. Magnetization reversal in ultrashort magnetic field pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, M.; Lopusnik, R.; Fassbender, J.; Hillebrands, B.

    2000-01-01

    We report the switching properties of a thin magnetic film subject to an ultrashort, laterally localized magnetic field pulse, obtained by numerical investigations. The magnetization distribution in the film is calculated on a grid assuming Stoner-like coherent rotation within the grid square size. Perpendicularly and in-plane magnetized films exhibit a magnetization reversal due to a 4 ps magnetic field pulse. Outside the central region the pulse duration is short compared to the precession period. In this area the evolution of the magnetization during the field pulse does not depend strongly on magnetic damping and/or pulse shape. However, the final magnetization distribution is affected by the magnetic damping. Although the pulse duration is short compared to the precession period, the time needed for the relaxation of the magnetization to the equilibrium state is rather large. The influence of the different magnetic anisotropy contributions and the magnetic damping parameter enters into the magnetization reversal process. Comparing the case of perpendicular anisotropy with different kinds of in-plane anisotropies, a principal difference is found due to the symmetry of the shape anisotropy with respect to the anisotropy in question

  20. Transient flows in rectangular MHD ducts under the influence of suddenly changing applied magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Junichi

    1979-01-01

    The study on the transient flow characteristics in MHD ducts under orthogonal magnetic field is divided into handling two problems: the problem of changing pressure gradient in a uniform orthogonal magnetic field and the problem in which the orthogonal magnetic field itself changes with time. The former has been investigated by many persons, but the latter has not been investigated so often as the former because of its difficulty of handling. In addition, if it is intended to grasp properly the transient flow characteristics in actual MHD ducts, it will be also important that the effects of the electric conductivity of side walls and aspect ratio are clarified. In other words, this paper deals with the problem in which a uniform orthogonal magnetic field is suddenly applied in such manner as Heaviside's step function to or removed from the conductive fluids flowing in sufficiently long rectangular MHD ducts. First, the MHD fundamental equations are described, then they are normalized to give boundary conditions and initial conditions. Next, the transient flow and the derived magnetic field characteristics are numerically analyzed by the difference calculus, and thus the effects of conductor, insulated wall, aspect ratio, Hartmann number, magnetic Prandtl number and others on the above characteristics are clarified. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  1. Influence of 50 Hz magnetic field on growth of mushroom species: Shitake (Lentinus edodes) and Oyster (Pleurotus astreatus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bambang Anggoro; Pakpahan, P.M.; Fajar Dwi Kusnoaji; Sirait, K.T. [Bandung Institute of Technology (Indonesia). Faculty of Industrial Technology

    1999-07-01

    Investigation on effects of electromagnetic fields on different aspects of biological systems has been done by much research. Our present study, which has been carried out under the joint research between the laboratory of High voltage and High current Engineering and the Laboratory of Microbiology of Institut Teknologi Bandung, investigates the influence of 50 Hz magnetic field on the growth of several species of mushroom. In this study, we observed growth of mushroom, from spora up to fully ripped stages, under magnetic field exposure of different intensity from 0,1 mT to 1,7 mT. During exposure the room condition was held constant at a temperature of 20{sup o}C and 95% humidity. We noted that some parameters such as: mushroom growth velocity, shape, dimension, quantity, color and period of mushroom ovary are significantly influenced by magnetic energy absorbed. (author)

  2. The Galactic magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Jinlin

    2006-01-01

    A good progress has been made on studies of Galactic magnetic fields in last 10 years. I describe what we want to know about the Galactic magnetic fields, and then review we current knowledge about magnetic fields in the Galactic disk, the Galactic halo and the field strengths. I also listed many unsolved problems on this area

  3. Influence of the magnetic and laser fields on the director structures of a ferrocholesteric liquid crystal in homeotropic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrescu, Emil; Bena, Eleonora-Rodica

    2008-01-01

    We study the influence of the magnetic and laser fields on the director structures of a ferrocholesteric liquid crystal in homeotropic cells. Using the analytical method based on the Euler-Lagrange equations, we find a correlation between the fields intensities and the confinement ratio r=d/p, (d is the cell thickness and p is the cholesteric pitch) at the limit of the transition from the homeotropic alignment to the translationally invariant configuration (TIC) with uniform in plane twist. We discuss this correlation as a function of the sign of the magnetic and dielectric anisotropies. If both anisotropies are positive and the magnetic field and the laser beam are perpendicular to the cell walls, the magnetic field preserves the homeotropic alignment while the laser beam pushes the system towards the TIC. The control parameters of the transition are the laser beam intensity and the confinement ratio. If the magnetic anisotropy is negative and the dielectric one is positive both fields concur in driving the system towards the TIC. The spinodal surface separating the metastable homeotropic configuration from the instable TIC is an ellipsoid whose halfaxes are smaller that in the case of a pure liquid crystal by a factor depending on the material constants and the cell thickness. We find also the total twist angle across the sample witch can be varied between a lower and an upper limit by changing the light intensity or the magnetic field strength. Our results can be useful in designing magneto-optical devices

  4. Optical detection of nanoparticle agglomeration in a living system under the influence of a magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Müller, Robert, E-mail: robert.mueller@ipht-jena.de [Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology, Albert-Einstein-Str. 9, 07745 Jena (Germany); Stranik, Ondrej [Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology, Albert-Einstein-Str. 9, 07745 Jena (Germany); Schlenk, Florian; Werner, Sebastian [Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Institute of Pharmacy, Friedrich Schiller University, Otto-Schott-Str. 41, 07745 Jena (Germany); Malsch, Daniéll [Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology, Albert-Einstein-Str. 9, 07745 Jena (Germany); Fischer, Dagmar [Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Institute of Pharmacy, Friedrich Schiller University, Otto-Schott-Str. 41, 07745 Jena (Germany); Fritzsche, Wolfgang [Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology, Albert-Einstein-Str. 9, 07745 Jena (Germany)

    2015-04-15

    Nanoparticles are important in diagnosis and therapy. In order to apply their potential, an understanding of the behavior of particles in the body is crucial. However, in vitro experiments usually do not mimic the dynamic conditions of the in vivo situation. The aim of our work was an in vivo observation of particle transport in chicken egg vessels in the presence of a magnetic field by particle tracking. For that we demonstrate the spatial resolution of our observations in a vein and a temporal resolution by observation of the cardiac cycle in an artery. Microscopic images were recorded in dark field reflection and fluorescence mode. - Highlights: • Optically accessible blood circulation in hen's egg CAV model. • Observation of transport of magnetic particles in chicken egg vessels. • Irreversibility of agglomerates after removing the magnetic field.

  5. Influence of magnetic field on the morphology of the andrographolide crystal from supercritical carbon dioxide extraction crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kexun; Zhang, Xingyuan; Pan, Jian; Zhang, Wencheng; Yong, Ji; Yin, Wenhong

    2003-10-01

    In this paper, a supercritical fluid extraction-crystallization of andrographolide, a kind of Chinese traditional medicine, was investigated. We have studied the extraction-crystallization process with or without magnet in the extractor, respectively. It was found that the presence of magnetic field is an important factor influencing the quality of the products. SEM images showed that the crystal was slice-like in shape, and many slices reunited together in the absence of magnet. Further research showed that pressure had a certain effect on the morphology of the crystal.

  6. Influence of magnetic fields on the response of a uranium scintillator electromagnetic calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainusch, J.; Corriveau, F.; Klanner, R.

    1991-04-01

    The response of a uranium scintillator sampling calorimeter to incident electrons and to the uranium radioactivity was measured in transverse magnetic fields up to 1.4 Tesla. The signal from electrons rises by as much as 9% due to the expected increase in light output of plastic scintillators in magnetic fields. For fields below 0.3 Tesla the response to the uranium radioactivity tracks the electron signal to within about 0.5%. At higher fields it drops sharply, reaching -1.5% at 1.4 Tesla. The consequences for the calibration of the ZEUS uranium scintillator calorimeter are discussed. We found no evidence for a change in the electromagnetic sampling fraction for fields below 0.3 Tesla. (orig.)

  7. Magnetic Field Grid Calculator

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Magnetic Field Properties Calculator will computes the estimated values of Earth's magnetic field(declination, inclination, vertical component, northerly...

  8. [The influence of application of a low-frequency magnetic field on the serum corticosterone level (an experimental study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabovskiĭ, V V; Gotovskiĭ, M Iu; Vinokurov, A A; Maslov, O V

    2013-01-01

    The results of analysis of the literature publications suggest the necessity of experimental studies aimed at investigation of modulating effect of low-frequency magnetic fields on endocrine organs. The present study was carried out using 200 outbred white male rats (body weight 200-220 g). Corticosterone was measured in blood sera following the application of a low-frequency magnetic field (20 and 53 Hz with induction from 0.4 to 6 mT) generated by a Mini-Expert-T apparatus for induction magnetic therapy during 30 minutes. It was shown that the application of the alternating magnetic field to the adrenal region of the rats in the selected frequency and induction ranges caused a significant increase in the serum corticosterone levels. The results of the present study on the hormonal activity of rat adrenals give reason to consider the influence of the alternating magnetic fields as being modulatory. Analysis of the data thus obtained has demonstrated the non-linear dependence of glucocorticoid activity of the rat adrenal glands on the induction strength of the alternating magnetic field.

  9. Influence of frequent magnetic field on chlorophyll content in leaves of sugar beet plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochalska, M.

    2005-01-01

    Chlorophyll content in plant leaves is correlated with the yield and nitrogen content in plants. Non-destructive investigations of chlorophyll content in leaves of 3 varieties of sugar beet grown from seeds revealed that a low frequent magnetic field, acting independently or in combination with other methods of seed improvement, increased chlorophyll content in leaves of the investigated plants. The treatment with the magnetic field increased nitrogen content in the examined plants. The effect was not connected with environmental conditions during vegetation seasons. (author)

  10. Influence of nonuniform magnetic fields on orientation of plant seedlings in microgravity conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechitailo, G. S.; Mashinsky, A. L.; Kuznetsov, A. A.; Chikov, V. M.; Kuznetsov, O. A.

    2001-01-01

    Experiments on the spatial behavior of the flax ( Linum usitatissimum, L.) seedlings in a nonuniform magnetic field were conducted on the orbital space stations «Salutå and «Mirå. This field can displace sensory organelles (statoliths) inside receptor cells and such displacement should cause a physiological reaction of the plant - tropistic curvature. Experiments were conducted in the custom-built «Magnetogravistatå facility, where seeds were germinated and grown for 3-4 days in a magnetic field with the dynamic factor grad(H 2/2)≈ 10 7 Oe 2/cm, then fixed on orbit and returned to Earth for analysis. It was found, that 93% of the seedlings were oriented in the field consistently with curvature in response to displacement of statoliths along the field gradient by ponderomotive magnetic forces, while control seedlings grew in the direction of the initial orientation of the seed. This suggests, that gravity receptors of plants recognized magnetic forces on statoliths as gravity, and that gravity stimulus can be substituted for plants by a force of a different physical nature.

  11. Nanomagnetic behavior of fullerene thin films in Earth magnetic field in dark and under polarization light influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koruga, Djuro; Nikolić, Aleksandra; Mihajlović, Spomenko; Matija, Lidija

    2005-10-01

    In this paper magnetic fields intensity of C60 thin films of 60 nm and 100 nm thickness under the influence of polarization lights are presented. Two proton magnetometers were used for measurements. Significant change of magnetic field intensity in range from 2.5 nT to 12.3 nT is identified as a difference of dark and polarization lights of 60 nm and 100 nm thin films thickness, respectively. Specific power density of polarization light was 40 mW/cm2. Based on 200 measurement data average value of difference between magnetic intensity of C60 thin films, with 60 nm and 100 nm thickness, after influence of polarization light, were 3.9 nT and 9.9 nT respectively.

  12. Influence of radial magnetic field on the peristaltic flow of Williamson fluid in a curved complaint walls channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasawar Hayat

    Full Text Available Peristaltic transport of Williamson fluid in a curved geometry is modeled. Problem formulation is completed by complaint walls of channel. Radial magnetic field in the analysis is taken into account. Resulting problem formulation is simplified using long wavelength and low Reynolds number approximations. Series solution is obtained for small Weissenberg number. Influences of different embedded parameters on the axial velocity and stream function are examined. As expected the velocity in curved channel is not symmetric. Axial velocity is noticed decreasing for Hartman number. Trapped bolus increases for Hartman and curvature parameters. Keywords: Williamson fluid, Curved channel, Radial magnetic field, Complaint walls

  13. Omnigenous magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stupakov, G.V.

    1982-01-01

    In omnigenous magnetic fields particles' drift surfaces coincide with plasma magnetic surfaces. In this paper we formulate equations of omnigenous magnetic fields in natural curvilinear coordinates. An analysis of fields which are omnigenous only in the paraxial approximation is presented. (author)

  14. Influence of the interplanetary magnetic field on the occurrence and thickness of the plasma mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sckopke, N.; Paschmann, G.; Rosenbauer, H.; Fairfield, D. H.

    1976-01-01

    The response of the plasma mantle to the orientation of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) has been studied by correlating Heos 2 plasma and Imp 6 magnetic field data. The mantle is nearly always present when the IMF has a southward component and often also when the field has a weak northward component. In addition, the mantle appears increasingly thicker with greater southward components. On the other hand, the mantle is thin or missing (from the region where it is normally found) when the average IMF has a strong northward component. This result supports the idea that polar cap convection plays a dominant role in the formation of the plasma mantle: mantle plasma originates in the magnetosheath, enters the magnetosphere through the day side polar cusps, and is transported across the cusp to the night side by means of a convection electric field whose magnitude is controlled by the orientation of the IMF.

  15. The influence of primordial magnetic fields on the spherical collapse model in cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibusawa, Y.; Ichiki, K.; Kadota, K.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the ever growing observational evidence for the existence of the large scale magnetic fields, their origin and the evolution are not fully understood. If the magnetic fields are of primordial origin, they result in the generation of the secondary matter density perturbations and the previous studies show that such density perturbations enhance the number of dark matter halos. We extend the conventional spherical collapse model by including the Lorentz force which has not been implemented in the previous analysis to study the evolution of density perturbations produced by primordial magnetic fields. The critical over-density δ c characterizing the halo mass function turns out to be a bigger value, δ c ≅ 1.78, than the conventional one δ c ≅ 1.69 for the perturbations evolved only by the gravitational force. The difference in δ c between our model and the fully matter dominated cosmological model is small at a low redshift and, hence, only the high mass tail of the mass function is affected by the magnetic fields. At a high redshift, on the other hand, the difference in δ c becomes large enough to suppress the halo abundance over a wide range of mass scales. The halo abundance is reduced for instance by as large a factor as ∼10 5 at z=9

  16. Cosmic Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Almeida, J.; Martínez González, M. J.

    2018-05-01

    Magnetic fields play an important role in many astrophysical processes. They are difficult to detect and characterize since often their properties have to be inferred through interpreting the polarization of the light. Magnetic fields are also challenging to model and understand. Magnetized plasmas behave following highly non-linear differential equations having no general solution, so that every astrophysical problem represents a special case to be studied independently. Hence, magnetic fields are often an inconvenient subject which is overlooked or simply neglected (the elephant in the room, as they are dubbed in poster of the school). Such difficulty burdens the research on magnetic fields, which has evolved to become a very technical subject, with many small disconnected communities studying specific aspects and details. The school tried to amend the situation by providing a unifying view of the subject. The students had a chance to understand the behavior of magnetic fields in all astrophysical contexts, from cosmology to the Sun, and from starbursts to AGNs. The school was planed to present a balanced yet complete review of our knowledge, with excursions into the unknown to point out present and future lines of research. The subject of Cosmic Magnetic Fields was split into seven different topics: cosmic magnetic field essentials, solar magnetic fields, stellar magnetic fields, the role of magnetic fields on AGN feedback, magnetic fields in galaxies, magnetic fields in galaxy clusters and at larger scales, and primordial magnetic fields and magnetic fields in the early Universe. The corresponding lectures were delivered by seven well known and experienced scientists that have played key roles in the major advances of the field during the last years: F. Cattaneo, P. Judge, O. Kochukhov, R. Keppens, R. Beck, K. Dolag, and F. Finelli. Their lectures were recorded and are freely available at the IAC website: http://iactalks.iac.es/talks/serie/19.

  17. The influence of impurity concentration and magnetic fields on the superconducting transition of high-purity titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peruzzi, A.; Gottardi, E.; Peroni, I.; Ponti, G.; Ventura, G

    1999-08-01

    The influence of impurity concentration c and applied magnetic field H on the superconducting transition of high-purity commercial titanium samples was investigated. The superconductive transition temperature T{sub C} was found to be very sensitive to the impurity concentration (dT{sub C}/dc {approx} -0.6 mK/w.ppm) and to the applied magnetic field (dT{sub C}/dH {approx} -1.1 mK/G). A linear dependence of T{sub C} decrease on impurity concentration, as theoretically predicted by various authors, was observed. In the purest sample, a linear decrease of T{sub C} on the applied magnetic field was found. The run-to-run and sample-to-sample reproducibility of the transition of the same sample was evaluated, and its suitability as a thermometric reference point below 1 K was discussed.

  18. Influence of low frequency magnetic field used in magnetotherapy on interleukin 6 (IL-6 contents in rat heart and brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Ciejka

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The human population is exposed ever more frequently to magnetic fields (MF. This is due to both technological progress and development of the economy as well as to advances made in medical science. That is why the thorough understanding and systematized knowledge about mechanisms by which MF exerts its effects on living organisms play such an important role. In this context the health of MF-exposed people is the subject of particular concern. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of extremely low frequency magnetic field (ELFMF used in magnetotherapy on the concentration of interleukin 6 (IL-6 in rat heart and brain. Material and Methods: The male rats were randomly divided into 3 experimental groups: group I – control, without contact with magnetic field; group II − exposed to bipolar, rectangular magnetic field 40 Hz, induction “peak-to-peak” 7 mT 30 min/day for 2 weeks; and group III − exposed to bipolar, rectangular magnetic field 40 Hz, 7 mT 60 min/day for 2 weeks. Concentration of IL-6 in the heart and brain of animals was measured after MF exposure. Results: Exposure to ELFMF: 40 Hz, induction “peak-to-peak” 7 mT 30 min/day for 2 weeks caused a significant IL-6 increase in rat hearts compared to the control group (p < 0.05 and a non-significant IL-6 decrease in rat brain. The magnetic field applied for 60 min resulted in non-significant IL-6 increase in rat hearts compared to the control group and significant IL-6 decrease in rat brain (p < 0.05. Conclusions: The influence of magnetic field on inflammation in the body varies depending on the MF parameters and the affected tissues or cells. Med Pr 2017;68(4:517–523

  19. [Influence of low frequency magnetic field used in magnetotherapy on interleukin 6 (IL-6) contents in rat heart and brain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciejka, Elżbieta; Skibska, Beata; Gorąca, Anna

    2017-06-27

    The human population is exposed ever more frequently to magnetic fields (MF). This is due to both technological progress and development of the economy as well as to advances made in medical science. That is why the thorough understanding and systematized knowledge about mechanisms by which MF exerts its effects on living organisms play such an important role. In this context the health of MF-exposed people is the subject of particular concern. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of extremely low frequency magnetic field (ELFMF) used in magnetotherapy on the concentration of interleukin 6 (IL-6) in rat heart and brain. The male rats were randomly divided into 3 experimental groups: group I - control, without contact with magnetic field; group II - exposed to bipolar, rectangular magnetic field 40 Hz, induction "peak-to-peak" 7 mT 30 min/day for 2 weeks; and group III - exposed to bipolar, rectangular magnetic field 40 Hz, 7 mT 60 min/day for 2 weeks. Concentration of IL-6 in the heart and brain of animals was measured after MF exposure. Exposure to ELFMF: 40 Hz, induction "peak-to-peak" 7 mT 30 min/day for 2 weeks caused a significant IL-6 increase in rat hearts compared to the control group (p < 0.05) and a non-significant IL-6 decrease in rat brain. The magnetic field applied for 60 min resulted in non-significant IL-6 increase in rat hearts compared to the control group and significant IL-6 decrease in rat brain (p < 0.05). The influence of magnetic field on inflammation in the body varies depending on the MF parameters and the affected tissues or cells. Med Pr 2017;68(4):517-523. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  20. Temporal behaviour of self generated magnetic field and its influence on inhibition of thermal flux in ICF plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, L.N.

    1989-06-01

    The self generated magnetic field of megagauss order is reported to play a crucial role in ICF target designs because of its strong influence on the transport of energy from the critical density region to the ablation layer. The inhibition of the thermal flux due to such a field, thus, affects the whole of the other phenomenon of ICF. The knowledge of the proper variation of the magnetic field may help in assigning the existing controversial value of flux limit, f. Many papers dealing with the spatial variation of such a field exist and are well documented but the study on the variation of self generated field with time is rare. Here, the spatial variation of the megagauss field generated in the corona of a wire target irradiated by a laser as well as a model to study the temporal nature of the B-field at the peak have been obtained by solving the self inhibited diffusion which is regarded as the most dominant mechanism by which the thermal transport is influenced. The field exists for about ten nanoseconds even after the laser is switched off. The ratio of the two components of the thermal conductivity is also plotted against time and shows the inhibition. So, a track on the B-field variation both in space and time is necessary to keep for at least a few nanoseconds for computation of f. (author). 19 refs, 4 figs

  1. Influence of large-scale zonal flows on the evolution of stellar and planetary magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitdemange, Ludovic; Schrinner, Martin; Dormy, Emmanuel; ENS Collaboration

    2011-10-01

    Zonal flows and magnetic field are present in various objects as accretion discs, stars and planets. Observations show a huge variety of stellar and planetary magnetic fields. Of particular interest is the understanding of cyclic field variations, as known from the sun. They are often explained by an important Ω-effect, i.e., by the stretching of field lines because of strong differential rotation. We computed the dynamo coefficients for an oscillatory dynamo model with the help of the test-field method. We argue that this model is of α2 Ω -type and here the Ω-effect alone is not responsible for its cyclic time variation. More general conditions which lead to dynamo waves in global direct numerical simulations are presented. Zonal flows driven by convection in planetary interiors may lead to secondary instabilities. We showed that a simple, modified version of the MagnetoRotational Instability, i.e., the MS-MRI can develop in planteray interiors. The weak shear yields an instability by its constructive interaction with the much larger rotation rate of planets. We present results from 3D simulations and show that 3D MS-MRI modes can generate wave pattern at the surface of the spherical numerical domain. Zonal flows and magnetic field are present in various objects as accretion discs, stars and planets. Observations show a huge variety of stellar and planetary magnetic fields. Of particular interest is the understanding of cyclic field variations, as known from the sun. They are often explained by an important Ω-effect, i.e., by the stretching of field lines because of strong differential rotation. We computed the dynamo coefficients for an oscillatory dynamo model with the help of the test-field method. We argue that this model is of α2 Ω -type and here the Ω-effect alone is not responsible for its cyclic time variation. More general conditions which lead to dynamo waves in global direct numerical simulations are presented. Zonal flows driven by convection

  2. Influence of a transverse magnetic field on the dose deposited by a 6 MV linear accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richter Sebastian

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available An integrated system of a linear accelerator and a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI device may provide real-time imaging during radiotherapy treatments. This work investigated changes affecting the dose deposition caused by a magnetic field (B-field transverse to the beam direction by means of Monte Carlo simulations. Two different phantoms were used: A water phantom (Ph1 and a water-air phantom (Ph2 with a 4-2-4 cm water-air-water cross section. Dose depositions were scored for B-field values of 0 T, 0.35 T, 0.5 T, 1.5 T, 3 T and 5 T. Beams were based on a precalculated photon spectrum taken from an earlier simulated Elekta 6 MV FFF accelerator. All lateral profiles in Ph1 showed a Lorentz force driven shift w.r.t. the B-field strength, presenting a steeper penumbra in the shift's direction. Depositions were shifted up to 0.3 cm for 5 T, showing a constant central axis plateau-dose or an increase by 2.3 % for small fields. Depth-dose curves in Ph1 showed a shift of the dose maximum towards the beam entrance direction for increasing B-field of up to 1.1 cm; the maximum dose was increased by 6.9 %. In Ph2, an asymmetric dose increase by up to 36.9 % was observed for 1.5 T at the water-air boundary, resulting from the electron return effect (ERE. In our scenario, B-field dependent dose shifts and local build-ups were observed, which consequently affect the resulting dose distribution and need to be considered in magnetic resonance guided radiotherapy treatment planning.

  3. Influence of Induced Magnetic Field on Free Convection of Nanofluid Considering Koo-Kleinstreuer-Li (KKL Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sheikholeslami

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the influence of induced magnetic field on free convection of Al2O3-water nanofluid on permeable plate by means of Koo-Kleinstreuer-Li (KKL model is reported. Impact of Brownian motion, along with the properties of nanofluid, are also taken into account. The resulting equations are solved utilizing Runge-Kutta integration method. Obtained results are examined for innumerable energetic parameters, namely Al2O3 volume fraction, suction parameter, and Hartmann and magnetic Prandtl numbers. Results indicate that the velocity profile reduces with rise of the suction parameter and magnetic Prandtl and Hartmann numbers but it increases with addition of nanoparticles. Shear stress enhances with rise of suction parameter, magnetic Prandtl and Hartmann numbers. Temperature gradient improves with augment of suction parameter.

  4. Influence of an axial magnetic field on the density profile of capillary plasma channels

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanov, V V; Toma, E S; Bijkerk, F

    2003-01-01

    A narrow capillary plasma channel, with a sizeable depletion of the electron density on the channel axis, has been proposed to guide a laser pulse over a length of several to several tens of centimetres. We discuss the possibility to significantly improve the wave-guiding properties of such a channel by applying an axial magnetic field. Our analytical and numerical studies show that a pulsed axial magnetic field of 10 T in a hydrogen capillary plasma at a pressure of 50 Torr will reduce the on-axis plasma density by a factor of three, and the full width at half maximum of the density profile by a factor of two. The resulting parabolic plasma density profile is expected to be more efficient in guiding laser pulses.

  5. Studies on the influence of static magnetic fields on prenatal development of mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konermann, G.; Moenig, H.

    1986-10-01

    Developmental effects were studied in pregnant albino-mice after exposures to a static homogeneous magnetic field (1T) on days 7, 10 or 13 post conception. These days correspond approximately to the 16th, 28th or 42nd day p.c. in human development and represent stages of increased sensitivity. Intrauterine effects (after exposures on days 7 or 10 p.c.) were evaluated included lethality, external malformations, disoders in the fetal skeleton and fetal weights. The evaluation of postnatal effects (after exposure on day 13 p.c.) included body-weight, brain-weight, diameter of neocortex and commissures and the alignment of cortical neurons up to day 46 p.c. According to all these criteria, no developmental effects were observed after the exposures to the magnetic field. Transient effects, either being compensatable or biologically without relevance, cannot be excluded.

  6. Observation of disruptions in tokamak plasma under the influence of resonant helical magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, M.; Vannucci, A.; Caldas, I.

    1996-01-01

    Disruptive instabilities were investigated in the small tokamak TBR-1 during the application of resonant helical magnetic fields created by external helical windings. Indications were found that the main triggering mechanism of the disruptions was the rapid increase of the m=2/n=1 mode which, apparently after reaching a certain amplitude, interacts with other resistive modes: the internal 1/1 mode in the case of minor disruptions. After the coupling, the growth of the associated islands would create a chaotic field line distribution in the region between the corresponding rational magnetic surfaces which caused the gross particle transport and, finally, destroyed the confinement. In addition, investigations on higher Z eff discharges in which a mixture of helium and hydrogen was used resulted in much more unstable plasmas but apparently did not alter basic characteristics of the disruptions

  7. Influence of external magnetic field on laser-induced gold nanoparticles fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serkov, A. A.; Rakov, I. I.; Simakin, A. V.; Kuzmin, P. G.; Shafeev, G. A.; Mikhailova, G. N.; Antonova, L. Kh.; Troitskii, A. V.; Kuzmin, G. P.

    2016-01-01

    Laser-assisted fragmentation is an efficient method of the nanoparticles size and morphology control. However, its exact mechanisms are still under consideration. One of the remaining problems is the plasma formation, inevitably occurring upon the high intensity laser irradiation. In this Letter, the role of the laser-induced plasma is studied via introduction of high-intensity external magnetic field (up to 7.5 T). Its presence is found to cause the plasma emission to start earlier regarding to a laser pulse, also increasing the plume luminosity. Under these conditions, the acceleration of nanoparticles fragmentation down to a few nanometers is observed. Laser-induced plasma interaction with magnetic field and consequent energy transfer from plasma to nanoparticles are discussed.

  8. Strong Magnetic Field Characterisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    an advertised surface field of approximately 0.5 T were used to supply the static magnetic field source. The disc magnet had a diameter of 50 mm and... colour bar indicates the magnetic field strength set to an arbitrary 0.25 T. The white area has a field >0.25 T. The size of the arrow is proportional...9 shows the magnetic field strength along a slice in the XZ plane. The colours represent the total UNCLASSIFIED 10 UNCLASSIFIED DSTO-TR-2699

  9. Influence of disorder and magnetic field on conductance of “sandwich” type two dimensional system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long LIU

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to discuss the transport phenomena and the physical properties of the doping of the disorder system under magnetic field, the electron transport in a two-dimensional system is studied by using Green function and scattering matrix theory. Base on the two-dimensional lattice model, the phenomenon of quantized conductance of the "sandwich" type electronic system is analyzed. The contact between the lead and the scatterer reduce the system's conductance, and whittle down the quantum conductance stair-stepping phenomenon; when an external magnetic field acts on to the system, the conductance presents a periodicity oscillation with the magnetic field. The intensity of this oscillation is related to the energy of the electron;with the increase of the impurity concentration, the conductance decreases.In some special doping concentration, the conductance of the system can reach the ideal step value corresponding to some special electron energy. The result could provide reference for further study of the conductance of the "sandwich" type two dimensional system.

  10. The Juno Magnetic Field Investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connerney, J. E. P.; Benn, Mathias; Bjarnø, Jonas Bækby

    2017-01-01

    The Juno Magnetic Field investigation (MAG) characterizes Jupiter’s planetary magnetic field and magnetosphere, providing the first globally distributed and proximate measurements of the magnetic field of Jupiter. The magnetic field instrumentation consists of two independent magnetometer sensor ...

  11. Influence of initial velocity on trajectories of a charged particle in uniform crossed electric and magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khotimah, Siti Nurul; Viridi, Sparisoma; Widayani

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic and electric fields can cause a charged particle to form interesting trajectories. In general, each trajectory is discussed separately in university physics textbooks for undergraduate students. In this work, a solution of a charged particle moving in a uniform electric field at right angles to a uniform magnetic field (uniform crossed electric and magnetic fields) is reported; it is limited to particle motion in a plane. Specific solutions and their trajectories are obtained only by varying the initial particle velocity. The result shows five basic trajectory patterns, i.e., straight line, sinusoid-like, cycloid, cycloid-like with oscillation, and circle-like. The region of each trajectory is also mapped in the initial velocity space of the particle. This paper is intended for undergraduate students and describes further the trajectories of a charged particle through the regions of electric and magnetic fields influenced by initial condition of the particle, where electromagnetic radiation of an accelerated particle is not considered. (paper)

  12. Cosmological magnetic fields - V

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Magnetic fields seem to be everywhere that we can look in the universe, from our own ... The field tensor is observer-independent, while the electric and magnetic .... based on string theory [11], in which vacuum fluctuations of the field are ...

  13. Organic magnetic field sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCamey, Dane; Boehme, Christoph

    2017-01-24

    An organic, spin-dependent magnetic field sensor (10) includes an active stack (12) having an organic material with a spin-dependence. The sensor (10) also includes a back electrical contact (14) electrically coupled to a back of the active stack (12) and a front electrical contact (16) electrically coupled to a front of the active stack (12). A magnetic field generator (18) is oriented so as to provide an oscillating magnetic field which penetrates the active stack (12).

  14. The influence of sulcus width on simulated electric fields induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssen, A M; Rampersad, S M; Stegeman, D F; Oostendorp, T F; Lucka, F; Lanfer, B; Aydin, Ü; Wolters, C H; Lew, S

    2013-01-01

    Volume conduction models can help in acquiring knowledge about the distribution of the electric field induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation. One aspect of a detailed model is an accurate description of the cortical surface geometry. Since its estimation is difficult, it is important to know how accurate the geometry has to be represented. Previous studies only looked at the differences caused by neglecting the complete boundary between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and grey matter (Thielscher et al 2011 NeuroImage 54 234–43, Bijsterbosch et al 2012 Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 50 671–81), or by resizing the whole brain (Wagner et al 2008 Exp. Brain Res. 186 539–50). However, due to the high conductive properties of the CSF, it can be expected that alterations in sulcus width can already have a significant effect on the distribution of the electric field. To answer this question, the sulcus width of a highly realistic head model, based on T1-, T2- and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images, was altered systematically. This study shows that alterations in the sulcus width do not cause large differences in the majority of the electric field values. However, considerable overestimation of sulcus width produces an overestimation of the calculated field strength, also at locations distant from the target location. (paper)

  15. The influence of sulcus width on simulated electric fields induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, A. M.; Rampersad, S. M.; Lucka, F.; Lanfer, B.; Lew, S.; Aydin, Ü.; Wolters, C. H.; Stegeman, D. F.; Oostendorp, T. F.

    2013-07-01

    Volume conduction models can help in acquiring knowledge about the distribution of the electric field induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation. One aspect of a detailed model is an accurate description of the cortical surface geometry. Since its estimation is difficult, it is important to know how accurate the geometry has to be represented. Previous studies only looked at the differences caused by neglecting the complete boundary between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and grey matter (Thielscher et al 2011 NeuroImage 54 234-43, Bijsterbosch et al 2012 Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 50 671-81), or by resizing the whole brain (Wagner et al 2008 Exp. Brain Res. 186 539-50). However, due to the high conductive properties of the CSF, it can be expected that alterations in sulcus width can already have a significant effect on the distribution of the electric field. To answer this question, the sulcus width of a highly realistic head model, based on T1-, T2- and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images, was altered systematically. This study shows that alterations in the sulcus width do not cause large differences in the majority of the electric field values. However, considerable overestimation of sulcus width produces an overestimation of the calculated field strength, also at locations distant from the target location.

  16. HER Catalytic Activity of Electrodeposited Ni-P Nanowires under the Influence of Magnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Bin Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nickel alloy electrodes both in plane and nanowire morphologies were fabricated by electrodeposition in sulfamate bath. With the increasing concentration of phosphorous acid in the electrolyte, the P content in the deposition increased accordingly. In the meantime, the grain refined and even became amorphous in microstructure as the P content was raised. For the nanowire electrode, vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM measurement showed that its coercivity was anisotropic and decreased with P-content. In addition, the easy axis for magnetization of the electrode was parallel to the axial direction of nanowire. The electrocatalytic activity measurement of the electrode in 0.5 M H2SO4 electrolyte showed that the nanowire electrode had higher activity than the plane one, and the alloying of P in Ni electrode raised its hydrogen evolution reaction (HER performance. The enhanced performance of nanowire electrode was attributed to the smaller and more uniform hydrogen bubbles generated in HER reaction. Finally, the applied magnetic field (3.2 T improved significantly the HER activity of Ni but not Ni-P electrode. By using nanowire morphology and applying magnetic field, the current density at −0.75 V HER stability test of the Ni electrode increased fourfold more than its plane counterpart.

  17. Restoration of symmetry by temperature effect under influence of external electro magnetic field in gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquino, V.M. de.

    1987-01-01

    We have analysed, within a semi classical approach, the influence of external electromagnetic field on phase transitions in gauge theories. The critical temperature was calculated for an Abelian case, scalar electrodynamics, and for an non Abelian case, the Weinberg Salam model. (author)

  18. The influence of magnetic field on the cold neutral medium mass fraction and its alignment with density structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villagran, M. A.; Gazol, A.

    2018-06-01

    To contribute to the understanding of the magnetic field's influence on the segregation of cold neutral medium (CNM) in the solar neighbourhood we analyse magnetohydrodynamic simulations that include the main physical characteristics of the local neutral atomic interstellar medium. The simulations have a continuous solenoidal Fourier forcing in a periodic box of 100 pc per side and an initial uniform magnetic field (B_0) with intensities ranging between ˜0.4 and ˜8 μG. Our main results are as follows. (i) The CNM mass fraction diminishes with the increase in magnetic field intensity. (ii) There is a preferred alignment between CNM structures and B in all our B0 range but the preference weakens as B0 increases. It is worth noticing that this preference is also present in two-dimensional projections making an extreme angle (0 or π / 2) with respect to B_0 and it is only lost for the strongest magnetic field when the angle of projection is perpendicular to B_0. (iii) The aforementioned results are prevalent despite the inclusion of self-gravity in our continuously forced simulations with a mean density similar to the average value of the solar neighbourhood. (iv) Given a fixed B0 and slightly higher mean densities, up to double, the effects of self-gravity are still not qualitatively significant.

  19. The influence of concentration of Nd-Fe-B powder in composite coating of optical fiber to the sensibility to external magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radojević Vesna J.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi-mode optical fiber with magnetic composite coating was investigated as an optical fiber sensor element (OFMSE for magnetic field sensing The composite coating was formed with dispersions of permanent magnet powder of Nd-Fe-B in poly (ethylene-co-vinyl acetate-EVA solutions in toluene. The influence of the applied external magnetic field on the change of intensity of the light signal propagate trough developed optical fibers sensor element was investigated. In this paper the influence of the content of magnetic powder in the composite coating on the optical propagation characteristics of optical fiber were particularly investigated.

  20. Magnetic field reconnexion in a sheared field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugai, M.

    1981-01-01

    A nonlinear development of the Petschek mode in a sheared magnetic field where there is a field component Bsub(z) along an X line is numerically studied. It is found that finite-amplitude intermediate waves, adjacent to the slow shock, may eventually stand in the quasi-steady configuration; on the other hand, the fundamental characteristics of the Petschek-mode development are scarcely influenced, either qualitatively or quantitatively, by the Bsub(z) field. (author)

  1. Magnetic field on board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estevez Radio, H.; Fernandez Arenal, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    Here, the calculation of the magnetic field on board ships is performed, using matrix calculus, in a similar way as when the magnetic field in matter is studied. Thus the final formulas are written in a more compact form and they are obtained through a simpler way, more suitable for the university education. (Author)

  2. Magnetic field line Hamiltonian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boozer, A.H.

    1984-03-01

    The magnetic field line Hamiltonian and the associated canonical form for the magnetic field are important concepts both for understanding toroidal plasma physics and for practical calculations. A number of important properties of the canonical or Hamiltonian representation are derived and their importance is explained

  3. MAGNETIC FIELDS OF STARS

    OpenAIRE

    Bychkov, V. D.; Bychkova, L. V.; Madej, J.

    2008-01-01

    Now it is known about 1212 stars of the main sequence and giants (from them 610 stars - it is chemically peculiarity (CP) stars) for which direct measurements of magnetic fields were spent (Bychkov et al.,2008). Let's consider, what representations were generated about magnetic fields (MT) of stars on the basis of available observations data.

  4. CONTROLLING INFLUENCE OF MAGNETIC FIELD ON SOLAR WIND OUTFLOW: AN INVESTIGATION USING CURRENT SHEET SOURCE SURFACE MODEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poduval, B., E-mail: bpoduval@spacescience.org [Space Science Institute, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States)

    2016-08-10

    This Letter presents the results of an investigation into the controlling influence of large-scale magnetic field of the Sun in determining the solar wind outflow using two magnetostatic coronal models: current sheet source surface (CSSS) and potential field source surface. For this, we made use of the Wang and Sheeley inverse correlation between magnetic flux expansion rate (FTE) and observed solar wind speed (SWS) at 1 au. During the period of study, extended over solar cycle 23 and beginning of solar cycle 24, we found that the coefficients of the fitted quadratic equation representing the FTE–SWS inverse relation exhibited significant temporal variation, implying the changing pattern of the influence of FTE on SWS over time. A particularly noteworthy feature is an anomaly in the behavior of the fitted coefficients during the extended minimum, 2008–2010 (CRs 2073–2092), which is considered due to the particularly complex nature of the solar magnetic field during this period. However, this variation was significant only for the CSSS model, though not a systematic dependence on the phase of the solar cycle. Further, we noticed that the CSSS model demonstrated better solar wind prediction during the period of study, which we attribute to the treatment of volume and sheet currents throughout the corona and the more accurate tracing of footpoint locations resulting from the geometry of the model.

  5. Controlling magnetic field profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, J.R.

    1979-04-01

    A method for designing solenoid magnets with controlled field profiles is discussed. The method, originated by D.B. Montgomery, minimizes both the field errors and the power consumption. An NOS time-sharing computer program for the CDC-6600, entitled MAGCOR, was constructed to provide an interactive magnet design capability. Results obtained during the design of magnets for a radial line electron accelerator are presented. 9 figures

  6. Influence of frequency of the excitation magnetic field and material's electric conductivity on domain wall dynamics in ferromagnetic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chávez-González, A.F. [Laboratorio de Evaluación No Destructiva Electromagnética (LENDE), ESIME-SEPI, Edif. Z-4, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Zacatenco, México D.F., México (Mexico); Pérez-Benítez, J.A., E-mail: benitez_edl@yahoo.es [Laboratorio de Evaluación No Destructiva Electromagnética (LENDE), ESIME-SEPI, Edif. Z-4, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Zacatenco, México D.F., México (Mexico); Espina-Hernández, J.H. [Laboratorio de Evaluación No Destructiva Electromagnética (LENDE), ESIME-SEPI, Edif. Z-4, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Zacatenco, México D.F., México (Mexico); Grössinger, R. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna (Austria); Hallen, J.M. [Departamento de Ingeniería Metalúrgica, ESIQIE, UPALM Edif. 7, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Zacatenco, C.P. 07738, México D.F., México (Mexico)

    2016-03-01

    The present work analyzes the influence of electric conductivity on the Magnetic Barkhausen Noise (MBN) signal using a microscopic model which includes the influence of eddy currents. This model is also implemented to explain the dependence of MBN on the frequency of the applied magnetic field. The results presented in this work allow analyzing the influence of eddy currents on MBN signals for different values of the material's electric conductivity and for different frequencies of applied magnetic field. Additionally, the outcomes of this research can be used as a reference to differentiate the influence of eddy currents from that of second phase particles in the MBN signal, which has been reported in previous works. - Highlights: • Electromagnetic simulation of MBN with eddy currents and micro-magnetism. • Influence of applied field frequency on MBN is explained. • Influence of electric conductivity on MBN is analyzed. • Hysteresis losses in ferromagnetic materials is analyzed using the model.

  7. Detailed Jaramillo field reversals recorded in lake sediments from Armenia - Lower mantle influence on the magnetic field revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirscher, U.; Winklhofer, M.; Hackl, M.; Bachtadse, V.

    2018-02-01

    While it is well established that the Earth's magnetic field is generated by a self sustaining dynamo that reversed its polarity at irregular intervals in the geological past, the very mechanisms causing field reversals remain obscure. Paleomagnetic reconstructions of polarity transitions have been essential for physically constraining the underlying mechanisms in terms of time scale, but thus far remain ambiguous with regard to the transitional field geometry. Here we present new paleomagnetic records from a rapidly deposited lacustrine sediment sequence with extraordinarily stable paleomagnetic signals, which has captured in unprecedented detail the bottom (reverse to normal: R-N) and top (normal to reverse: N-R) transitions of the Jaramillo subchron (at 1.072 Ma and at 0.988 Ma). The obtained virtual geomagnetic pole (VGP) path indicates an oscillatory transitional field behavior with four abrupt transequatorial precursory jumps across the Pacific. The distribution of VGP positions indicates regions of preferred occurrence. Our results are in agreement with previously proposed bands of transitional VGP occurrence over the Americas and Australia/northwest Pacific. Additionally, our VGP positions seem to avoid large low shear velocity provinces (LLSVPs) above the core mantle boundary (CMB). Thus, our data supports the idea that the transitional field geometry is controlled by heat flux heterogeneities at the CMB linked to LLSVPs.

  8. Macroscopic kinematics of the Hall electric field under influence of carrier magnetic moments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Masamichi

    2016-01-01

    The relativistic effect on electromagnetic forces yields two types of forces which depend on the velocity of the relevant particles: (i) the usual Lorentz force exerted on a moving charged particle and (ii) the apparent Lorentz force exerted on a moving magnetic moment. In sharp contrast with type (i), the type (ii) force originates due to the transverse field induced by the Hall effect (HE). This study incorporates both forces into a Drude-type equation with a fully spin-polarized condition to investigate the effects of self-consistency of the source and the resultant fields on the HE. We also examine the self-consistency of the carrier kinematics and electromagnetic dynamics by simultaneously considering the Drude type equation and Maxwell equations at low frequencies. Thus, our approach can predict both the dc and ac characteristics of the HE, demonstrating that the dc current condition solely yields the ordinary HE, while the ac current condition yields generation of both fundamental and second harmonic modes of the HE field. When the magnetostatic field is absent, the simultaneous presence of dc and ac longitudinal currents generates the ac HE that has both fundamental frequency and second harmonic.

  9. Magnetic fields at Neptune

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ness, N.F.; Acuna, M.H.; Burlaga, L.F.; Connerney, J.E.P.; Lepping, R.P.; Neubauer, F.M.

    1989-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center-University of Delaware Bartol Research Institute magnetic field experiment on the Voyager 2 spacecraft discovered a strong and complex intrinsic magnetic field of Neptune and an associated magnetosphere and magnetic tail. A maximum magnetic field of nearly 10,000 nanoteslas (1 nanotesla = 10 -5 gauss) was observed near closest approach, at a distance of 1.18 R N . The planetary magnetic field between 4 and 15 R N can be well represented by an offset tilted magnetic dipole (OTD), displaced from the center of Neptune by the surprisingly large amount of 0.55 R N and inclined by 47 degrees with respect to the rotation axis. Within 4 R N , the magnetic field representation must include localized sources or higher order magnetic multipoles, or both, which are not yet well determined. As the spacecraft exited the magnetosphere, the magnetic tail appeared to be monopolar, and no crossings of an imbedded magnetic field reversal or plasma neutral sheet were observed. The auroral zones are most likely located far from the rotation poles and may have a complicated geometry. The rings and all the known moons of Neptune are imbedded deep inside the magnetosphere, except for Nereid, which is outside when sunward of the planet. The radiation belts will have a complex structure owing to the absorption of energetic particles by the moons and rings of Neptune and losses associated with the significant changes in the diurnally varying magnetosphere configuration. In an astrophysical context, the magnetic field of Neptune, like that of Uranus, may be described as that of an oblique rotator

  10. THE INFLUENCE OF MAGNETIC FIELD GEOMETRY ON THE FORMATION OF CLOSE-IN EXOPLANETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, Jacob B., E-mail: jbsimon.astro@gmail.com [Department of Space Studies, Southwest Research Institute, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States)

    2016-08-20

    Approximately half of Sun-like stars harbor exoplanets packed within a radius of ∼0.3 au, but the formation of these planets and why they form in only half of known systems are still not well understood. We employ a one-dimensional steady-state model to gain physical insight into the origin of these close-in exoplanets. We use Shakura and Sunyaev α values extracted from recent numerical simulations of protoplanetary disk accretion processes in which the magnitude of α , and thus the steady-state gas surface density, depend on the orientation of large-scale magnetic fields with respect to the disk’s rotation axis. Solving for the metallicity as a function of radius, we find that for fields anti-aligned with the rotation axis, the inner regions of our model disk often fall within a region of parameter space that is not suitable for planetesimal formation, whereas in the aligned case, the inner disk regions are likely to produce planetesimals through some combination of streaming instability and gravitational collapse, though the degree to which this is true depends on the assumed parameters of our model. More robustly, the aligned field case always produces higher concentrations of solids at small radii compared to the anti-aligned case. In the in situ formation model, this bimodal distribution of solid enhancement leads directly to the observed dichotomy in exoplanet orbital distances.

  11. Magnetic field structure influence on primary electron cusp losses for micro-scale discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dankongkakul, Ben; Araki, Samuel J.; Wirz, Richard E.

    2014-01-01

    An experimental effort was used to examine the primary electron loss behavior for micro-scale (≲3 cm diameter) discharges. The experiment uses an electron flood gun source and an axially aligned arrangement of ring-cusps to guide the electrons to a downstream point cusp. Measurements of the electron current collected at the point cusp show an unexpectedly complex loss pattern with azimuthally periodic structures. Additionally, in contrast to conventional theory for cusp losses, the overall radii of the measured collection areas are over an order of magnitude larger than the electron gyroradius. Comparing these results to Monte Carlo particle tracking simulations and a simplified analytical analysis shows that azimuthal asymmetries of the magnetic field far upstream of the collection surface can substantially affect the electron loss structure and overall loss area

  12. The influence of magnetic fields on protein crystal growth and quality; Zum Einfluss magnetischer Felder auf das Wachstum und die Qualitaet von Proteinkristallen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meents, Alke

    2005-08-01

    Magnetic fields can affect protein crystal growth in several ways. In homogeneous magnetic fields molecules and crystallites line up themselves along the magnetic field direction due to their magnetic anisotropy. Inhomogeneous magnetic fields exert a force on diamagnetic and paramagnetic compounds towards regions of lower or higher field strength. This effect can be used to create a microgravity-like environment for diamagnetic proteins and an environment comparable to hypergravity for paramagnetic proteins. Crystallization in homogeneous magnetic fields and a microgravity-like environment are reported to have a positive effect on crystal quality. The aim of this work was to systematically investigate the effect of protein crystallization in magnetic fields on the crystal quality by comparing a large number of crystals grown under identical conditions with- and without magnetic fields. Crystal quality was determined by means of high resolution rocking-curve measurements. Furthermore in certain cases complete diffraction datasets were collected. Any possible influence of magnetic fields on the mosaicity and the quality of the diffraction data was evaluated statistically by applying Wilcoxon-Ranksum tests. To investigate the effect of protein crystallization in homogeneous magnetic fields the diamagnetic proteins Thaumatin, Trypsin, and Lysozyme and paramagnetic Myoglobin were crystallized in magnetic fields of 5 T, 8.8 T, and 15.8 T. The analysis of crystal mosaicity and quality of the diffraction data of the diamagnetic proteins did not reveal a significant influence on the crystal quality. In contrast the crystals of paramagnetic Myoglobin grew up to 14 times larger than the ones in the control experiment. In addition they had a significant lower mosaicity, and diffracted to a higher resolution than ever reported before. Special pole pieces for an existing magnet were designed and build to grow protein crystals in an inhomogeneous magnetic field The experimental

  13. Influences on Distribution of Solute Atoms in Cu-8Fe Alloy Solidification Process Under Rotating Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jin; Zhai, Qi-Jie; Liu, Fang-Yu; Liu, Ke-Ming; Lu, De-Ping

    2018-05-01

    A rotating magnetic field (RMF) was applied in the solidification process of Cu-8Fe alloy. Focus on the mechanism of RMF on the solid solution Fe(Cu) atoms in Cu-8Fe alloy, the influences of RMF on solidification structure, solute distribution, and material properties were discussed. Results show that the solidification behavior of Cu-Fe alloy have influenced through the change of temperature and solute fields in the presence of an applied RMF. The Fe dendrites were refined and transformed to rosettes or spherical grains under forced convection. The solute distribution in Cu-rich phase and Fe-rich phase were changed because of the variation of the supercooling degree and the solidification rate. Further, the variation in solute distribution was impacted the strengthening mechanism and conductive mechanism of the material.

  14. Influence of magnetic field-aided filler orientation on structure and transport properties of ferrite filled composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goc, K., E-mail: Kamil.Goc@fis.agh.edu.pl [Department of Solid State Physics, AGH University of Science and Technology, 30 Mickiewicza Street, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Gaska, K.; Klimczyk, K.; Wujek, A.; Prendota, W.; Jarosinski, L. [Department of Solid State Physics, AGH University of Science and Technology, 30 Mickiewicza Street, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Rybak, A.; Kmita, G. [ABB Corporate Research Center, 13A Starowislna Street, 31-038 Krakow (Poland); Kapusta, Cz. [Department of Solid State Physics, AGH University of Science and Technology, 30 Mickiewicza Street, 30-059 Krakow (Poland)

    2016-12-01

    Epoxy resins are materials commonly used for insulations and encapsulations due to their easy processing process and mechanical strength. For their applications in power industry and electronics the effective heat dissipation is essential, thus their thermal conductivity is one of the most important properties. Introduction of appropriate dielectric powders, preferably in an ordered way, can increase the thermal conductivity of the polymer while keeping its good electrical insulation properties. In this work we used strontium ferrite as a filler to study the evolution of the filler particles distribution in the fluid before curing. Magnetic ferrite particles were dispersed in liquid epoxy resin and formation of chain-like or more complex structures under applied external magnetic field was observed and investigated. Computer simulations made show that with increasing magnetic field these structures are characterized by longer chains, higher speed of particles displacement and stronger structural anisotropy. However, for highly-filled systems, stronger inter-particle interactions make the alignment process less effective. The effective thermal conductivity simulated with FEM methods increases with increasing filler content and the percolation threshold in aligned systems is achieved at lower filler concentrations than for reference isotropic samples. The results are compared with the experimental data and a good qualitative agreement is obtained. - Highlights: • Influence of magnetic field on the particle chains in epoxy composites is analysed. • Strontium ferrite fillers with good thermal and low electrical conductivity. • Influence of interparticle interactions for agglomeration efficiency. • The impact of chains formed on the heat transfer by creating conductive paths. • Connection between structural anisotropy and transport properties anisotropy.

  15. Magnetic fields in cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    The possible role of a large-scale relic magnetic field in the history of the Universe is considered. The perturbation of the cosmic microwave back-ground radiation on large angular scales due to a homogeneous magnetic field is estimated in a simple relativistic model. This allows corresponding limits to be placed on the magnitude of any such large-scale relic magnetic field at the present time. These limits are essentially the strongest which can be set on the largest scales. A corresponding bound is obtained by use of the requirement that the field should not spoil the predictions of primordial nucleosynthesis. It is noted that the existence of large-scale cosmic magnetic fields would circumvent the limits previously set - also on the basis of nucleosynthesis considerations - on the large-scale anisotropy now present in the Universe. (author)

  16. Influence of the configuration of the magnetic filter field on the discharge structure in the RF driven negative ion source prototype for fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lishev, S.; Schiesko, L.; Wünderlich, D.; Fantz, U.

    2017-08-01

    The study provides results for the influence of the filter field topology on the plasma parameters in the RF prototype negative ion source for ITER NBI. A previously developed 2D fluid plasma model of the prototype source was extended towards accounting for the particles and energy losses along the magnetic field lines and the presence of a magnetic field in the driver which is the case at the BATMAN and ELISE test-beds. The effect of the magnetic field in the driver is shown for the magnetic field configuration of the prototype source (i.e. a magnetic field produced by an external magnet frame) by comparison of plasma parameters without and with the magnetic field in the driver and for different axial positions of the filter. Since the ELISE-like magnetic field (i.e. a magnetic field produced by a current flowing through the plasma grid) is a new feature planned to be installed at the BATMAN test-bed, its effect on the discharge structure was studied for different strengths of the magnetic field. The obtained results show for both configurations of the magnetic filter the same main features in the patterns of the plasma parameters in the expansion chamber: a strong axial drop of the electron temperature and the formation of a groove accompanied with accumulation of electrons in front of the plasma grid. The presence of a magnetic field in the driver has a local impact on the plasma parameters: the formation of a second groove of the electron temperature in the case of BATMAN (due to the reversed direction of the filter field in the driver) and a strong asymmetry of the electron density. Accounting for the additional losses in the third dimension suppresses the drifts across the magnetic field and, thus, the variations of the electron density in the expansion chamber are less pronounced.

  17. Influence of quantizing magnetic field and Rashba effect on indium arsenide metal-oxide-semiconductor structure accumulation capacitance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovchavtsev, A. P.; Aksenov, M. S.; Tsarenko, A. V.; Nastovjak, A. E.; Pogosov, A. G.; Pokhabov, D. A.; Tereshchenko, O. E.; Valisheva, N. A.

    2018-05-01

    The accumulation capacitance oscillations behavior in the n-InAs metal-oxide-semiconductor structures with different densities of the built-in charge (Dbc) and the interface traps (Dit) at temperature 4.2 K in the magnetic field (B) 2-10 T, directed perpendicular to the semiconductor-dielectric interface, is studied. A decrease in the oscillation frequency and an increase in the capacitance oscillation amplitude are observed with the increase in B. At the same time, for a certain surface accumulation band bending, the influence of the Rashba effect, which is expressed in the oscillations decay and breakdown, is traced. The experimental capacitance-voltage curves are in a good agreement with the numeric simulation results of the self-consistent solution of Schrödinger and Poisson equations in the magnetic field, taking into account the quantization, nonparabolicity of dispersion law, and Fermi-Dirac electron statistics, with the allowance for the Rashba effect. The Landau quantum level broadening in a two-dimensional electron gas (Lorentzian-shaped density of states), due to the electron scattering mechanism, linearly depends on the magnetic field. The correlation between the interface electronic properties and the characteristic scattering times was established.

  18. Magnetic field dosimeter development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemon, D.K.; Skorpik, J.R.; Eick, J.L.

    1980-09-01

    In recent years there has been increased concern over potential health hazards related to exposure of personnel to magnetic fields. If exposure standards are to be established, then a means for measuring magnetic field dose must be available. To meet this need, the Department of Energy has funded development of prototype dosimeters at the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory. This manual reviews the principle of operation of the dosimeter and also contains step-by-step instructions for its operation

  19. Influence of time dependent longitudinal magnetic fields on the cooling process, exchange bias and magnetization reversal mechanism in FM core/AFM shell nanoparticles: a Monte Carlo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksel, Yusuf; Akıncı, Ümit

    2016-12-07

    Using Monte Carlo simulations, we have investigated the dynamic phase transition properties of magnetic nanoparticles with ferromagnetic core coated by an antiferromagnetic shell structure. Effects of field amplitude and frequency on the thermal dependence of magnetizations, magnetization reversal mechanisms during hysteresis cycles, as well as on the exchange bias and coercive fields have been examined, and the feasibility of applying dynamic magnetic fields on the particle have been discussed for technological and biomedical purposes.

  20. Transient anisotropic magnetic field calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesenik, Marko; Gorican, Viktor; Trlep, Mladen; Hamler, Anton; Stumberger, Bojan

    2006-01-01

    For anisotropic magnetic material, nonlinear magnetic characteristics of the material are described with magnetization curves for different magnetization directions. The paper presents transient finite element calculation of the magnetic field in the anisotropic magnetic material based on the measured magnetization curves for different magnetization directions. For the verification of the calculation method some results of the calculation are compared with the measurement

  1. Magnetic Fields Versus Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Kerry

    2018-04-01

    Deep within giant molecular clouds, hidden by dense gas and dust, stars form. Unprecedented data from the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) reveal the intricate magnetic structureswoven throughout one of the most massive star-forming regions in the Milky Way.How Stars Are BornThe Horsehead Nebulasdense column of gas and dust is opaque to visible light, but this infrared image reveals the young stars hidden in the dust. [NASA/ESA/Hubble Heritage Team]Simple theory dictates that when a dense clump of molecular gas becomes massive enough that its self-gravity overwhelms the thermal pressure of the cloud, the gas collapses and forms a star. In reality, however, star formation is more complicated than a simple give and take between gravity and pressure. Thedusty molecular gas in stellar nurseries is permeated with magnetic fields, which are thought to impede the inward pull of gravity and slow the rate of star formation.How can we learn about the magnetic fields of distant objects? One way is by measuring dust polarization. An elongated dust grain will tend to align itself with its short axis parallel to the direction of the magnetic field. This systematic alignment of the dust grains along the magnetic field lines polarizes the dust grains emission perpendicular to the local magnetic field. This allows us to infer the direction of the magnetic field from the direction of polarization.Magnetic field orientations for protostars e2 and e8 derived from Submillimeter Array observations (panels a through c) and ALMA observations (panels d and e). Click to enlarge. [Adapted from Koch et al. 2018]Tracing Magnetic FieldsPatrick Koch (Academia Sinica, Taiwan) and collaborators used high-sensitivity ALMA observations of dust polarization to learn more about the magnetic field morphology of Milky Way star-forming region W51. W51 is one of the largest star-forming regions in our galaxy, home to high-mass protostars e2, e8, and North.The ALMA observations reveal

  2. Lasers plasmas and magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albertazzi, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    We studied the coupling between a laser produced plasmas and a magnetic field in two cases: 1) in the context of Inertial Fusion Confinement (ICF), we first studied how magnetic fields are self generated during the interaction between a target and a laser, then 2) to progress in the understanding of the large-scale shaping of astrophysical jets, we studied the influence of an externally applied magnetic field on the dynamics of a laser-produced plasma expanding into vacuum. The first part of this thesis is thus dedicated to a numerical and experimental study of the self generated magnetic fields that are produced following the irradiation of a solid target by a high power laser (having pulse duration in the nanosecond and picosecond regimes). These fields play an important role in the frame of ICF since they influence the dynamics of the electrons produced during the laser-matter interaction, and thus condition the success of ICF experiments. The second part of this thesis is a numerical and experimental study of the influence of an externally applied magnetic field on the morphology of a laser produced plasma freely otherwise expanding into vacuum. This work aims at better understanding the observed large-scale collimation of astrophysical jets which cannot be understood in the frame of existing models. We notably show that a purely axial magnetic field can force an initially isotropic laboratory flow, scaled to be representative of a flow emerging from a Young Star Object, in a re-collimation shock, from which emerges a narrow, well collimated jet. We also show that the plasma heating induced at the re-collimation point could explain the 'puzzling' observations of stationary X ray emission zones embedded within astrophysical jets. (author) [fr

  3. Magnetic field effects in proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alex R.

    2016-06-01

    Many animals can sense the geomagnetic field, which appears to aid in behaviours such as migration. The influence of man-made magnetic fields on biology, however, is potentially more sinister, with adverse health effects being claimed from exposure to fields from mobile phones or high voltage power lines. Do these phenomena have a common, biophysical origin, and is it even plausible that such weak fields can profoundly impact noisy biological systems? Radical pair intermediates are widespread in protein reaction mechanisms, and the radical pair mechanism has risen to prominence as perhaps the most plausible means by which even very weak fields might impact biology. In this New Views article, I will discuss the literature over the past 40 years that has investigated the topic of magnetic field effects in proteins. The lack of reproducible results has cast a shadow over the area. However, magnetic field and spin effects have proven to be useful mechanistic tools for radical mechanism in biology. Moreover, if a magnetic effect on a radical pair mechanism in a protein were to influence a biological system, the conditions necessary for it to do so appear increasing unlikely to have come about by chance.

  4. Influence of magnetic field on thermohydraulic and corrosion in the case of the water-cooled blanket concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flament, T.; Terlain, A.; Sannier, J.; Labbe, P.

    1990-01-01

    Two CELIMENE modules have been operated during 3000 hours at the same maximum temperature (450 deg C) but the first one without magnetic field and the second one in the presence of a 1.4 T magnetic field. Comparison of dissolution and deposition rates obtained in parallel and perpendicular directions evidences that the magnetic field induces a dissymmetry for these two phenomena. Moreover the results obtained in the two CELIMENE tests show that the corrosion rate appears to be increased by the magnetic field

  5. Study of the influence of the orientation of a 50-Hz magnetic field on fetal exposure using polynomial chaos decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liorni, Ilaria; Parazzini, Marta; Fiocchi, Serena; Ravazzani, Paolo

    2015-05-27

    Human exposure modelling is a complex topic, because in a realistic exposure scenario, several parameters (e.g., the source, the orientation of incident fields, the morphology of subjects) vary and influence the dose. Deterministic dosimetry, so far used to analyze human exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF), is highly time consuming if the previously-mentioned variations are considered. Stochastic dosimetry is an alternative method to build analytical approximations of exposure at a lower computational cost. In this study, it was used to assess the influence of magnetic flux density (B) orientation on fetal exposure at 50 Hz by polynomial chaos (PC). A PC expansion of induced electric field (E) in each fetal tissue at different gestational ages (GA) was built as a function of B orientation. Maximum E in each fetal tissue and at each GA was estimated for different exposure configurations and compared with the limits of the International Commission of Non-Ionising Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) Guidelines 2010. PC theory resulted in an efficient tool to build accurate approximations of E in each fetal tissue. B orientation strongly influenced E, with a variability across tissues from 10% to 43% with respect to the mean value. However, varying B orientation, maximum E in each fetal tissue was below the limits of ICNIRP 2010 at all GAs.

  6. Influence of a transport current on the local magnetic field distribution in sintered YBa2Cu3Ox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, P.; Keller, H.; Kuendig, W.; Puempin, B.; Savic, I.M.; Schneider, J.W.; Simmler, H.; Kaldis, E.; Rusiecki, S.

    1991-01-01

    The influence of a transport current on the magnetic flux-line distribution in sintered YBCO was studied by means of μSR. Pronounced differences between zero-field-cooled (ZFC) and field-cooled (FC) signals and irreversible behavior were observed. In the ZFC case even a small transport current (10 A/cm 2 ) tends to order irreversibly the inhomogeneous flux-line distribution considerably, suggesting a broad distribution of pinning barriers. However, for a FC sample no noticeable change in the flux distribution in the presence of a transport current (up to 40 A/cm 2 ) was detected, indicating that the FC state represents a stable flux-line configuration. (orig.)

  7. Spectroscopic (UV/VIS, Raman) and Electrophoresis Study of Cytosine-Guanine Oligonucleotide DNA Influenced by Magnetic Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banihashemian, Seyedeh Maryam; Periasamy, Vengadesh; Boon Tong, Goh; Abdul Rahman, Saadah

    2016-01-01

    Studying the effect of a magnetic field on oligonucleotide DNA can provide a novel DNA manipulation technique for potential application in bioengineering and medicine. In this work, the optical and electrochemical response of a 100 bases oligonucleotides DNA, cytosine-guanine (CG100), is investigated via exposure to different magnetic fields (250, 500, 750, and 1000 mT). As a result of the optical response of CG100 to the magnetic field, the ultra-violet-visible spectrum indicated a slight variation in the band gap of CG100 of about 0.3 eV. Raman spectroscopy showed a significant deviation in hydrogen and phosphate bonds' vibration after exposure to the magnetic field. Oligonucleotide DNA mobility was investigated in the external electric field using the gel electrophoresis technique, which revealed a small decrease in the migration of CG100 after exposure to the magnetic field.

  8. Spectroscopic (UV/VIS, Raman and Electrophoresis Study of Cytosine-Guanine Oligonucleotide DNA Influenced by Magnetic Field.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Maryam Banihashemian

    Full Text Available Studying the effect of a magnetic field on oligonucleotide DNA can provide a novel DNA manipulation technique for potential application in bioengineering and medicine. In this work, the optical and electrochemical response of a 100 bases oligonucleotides DNA, cytosine-guanine (CG100, is investigated via exposure to different magnetic fields (250, 500, 750, and 1000 mT. As a result of the optical response of CG100 to the magnetic field, the ultra-violet-visible spectrum indicated a slight variation in the band gap of CG100 of about 0.3 eV. Raman spectroscopy showed a significant deviation in hydrogen and phosphate bonds' vibration after exposure to the magnetic field. Oligonucleotide DNA mobility was investigated in the external electric field using the gel electrophoresis technique, which revealed a small decrease in the migration of CG100 after exposure to the magnetic field.

  9. ISR Radial Field Magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    There were 37 (normal) + 3 (special) Radial Field magnets in the ISR to adjust vertically the closed orbit. Gap heights and strengths were 200 mm and .12 Tm in the normal magnets, 220 mm and .18 Tm in the special ones. The core length was 430 mm in both types. Due to their small length as compared to the gap heights the end fringe field errors were very important and had to be compensated by suitably shaping the poles. In order to save on cables, as these magnets were located very far from their power supplies, the coils of the normal type magnets were formed by many turns of solid cpper conductor with some interleaved layers of hollow conductor directly cooled by circulating water

  10. Cosmic magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Kronberg, Philipp P

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic fields are important in the Universe and their effects contain the key to many astrophysical phenomena that are otherwise impossible to understand. This book presents an up-to-date overview of this fast-growing topic and its interconnections to plasma processes, astroparticle physics, high energy astrophysics, and cosmic evolution. The phenomenology and impact of magnetic fields are described in diverse astrophysical contexts within the Universe, from galaxies to the filaments and voids of the intergalactic medium, and out to the largest redshifts. The presentation of mathematical formulae is accessible and is designed to add insight into the broad range of topics discussed. Written for graduate students and researchers in astrophysics and related disciplines, this volume will inspire readers to devise new ways of thinking about magnetic fields in space on galaxy scales and beyond.

  11. On the influence of the magnetic topology on transport and radial electric fields in the TJ-II stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castejon, F.; Ochando, M.; Estrada, T.; Pedrosa, M.A.; Lopez-Bruna, D.; Ascasibar, E.; Cappa, A.; Eguilior, S.; Fernandez-Curto, A.; Herranz, J.; Hidalgo, C.; Lopez-Fraguas, A.; Melnikov, A.V.; McCarthy, K.J.; Medina, F.; Pastor, I.; Chmyga, A.A.; Dreval, N.B.; Khrebtov, S.M.; Komarov, A.D.; Kozachok, A.S.; Krupnik, L.; Eliseev, L.

    2005-01-01

    The influence of the magnetic topology on plasma profiles and turbulence has been investigated in ECH plasmas in the stellarator TJ-II, taking advantage of the flexibility of this almost shearless device. A wide range of edge rotational transform values can be attained, but the rotational transform profile can also be tailored by inducing currents using both ECCD and two sets of OH coils. In this way it is possible to introduce rational surfaces inside the plasma and to modify the magnetic shear to examine their effect on confinement. Kinetic effects and flux changes due to the presence of resonances and ECRH are responsible of the formation of barriers in the plasma core, while the shear flow is a key ingredient in the plasma edge. The results here shown offer wide and valuable information to assess multiple mechanisms based on neoclassical/turbulent bifurcations and kinetic effects as candidates to explain the impact of magnetic topology on radial electric fields and confinement. (author)

  12. The influence of the magnetic field on the crystallisation form of calcium carbonate and the testing of a magnetic water-treatment device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobe, S. E-mail: spomenka.kobe@ijs.si; Drazic, G.; McGuiness, P.J.; Strazisar, J

    2001-10-01

    By using X-ray analysis and a TEM equipped with a link AN-10000 EDXS analysing system and an ultra-thin-window Si(Li) detector, different crystal forms of CaCO{sub 3} crystals were characterised. These crystals were grown from tap water and model water both with and without a magnetic field. Separate aragonite crystals were formed in the treated water and clusters of calcite in the untreated water. We observed that under the influence of a magnetic field higher than 500 mT, the nucleation and subsequent growth of aragonite could be successfully used as a way of preventing scale. The prototype of a magnetic water-treatment device (MWTD) was constructed for testing in a pilot plant that treats tap water. It has been in use for more than 2 years and the results look very promising for reducing the need for chemically treated water. The weight gains of the heat exchangers, which were used in the three parallel pipelines equipped with three different devices against scaling, were followed. The MWTD designed and built in the IJS laboratory, showed only a slightly higher weight gain than that achieved with the use of chemicals.

  13. The influence of the magnetic field on the crystallisation form of calcium carbonate and the testing of a magnetic water-treatment device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobe, S.; Drazic, G.; McGuiness, P.J.; Strazisar, J.

    2001-01-01

    By using X-ray analysis and a TEM equipped with a link AN-10000 EDXS analysing system and an ultra-thin-window Si(Li) detector, different crystal forms of CaCO 3 crystals were characterised. These crystals were grown from tap water and model water both with and without a magnetic field. Separate aragonite crystals were formed in the treated water and clusters of calcite in the untreated water. We observed that under the influence of a magnetic field higher than 500 mT, the nucleation and subsequent growth of aragonite could be successfully used as a way of preventing scale. The prototype of a magnetic water-treatment device (MWTD) was constructed for testing in a pilot plant that treats tap water. It has been in use for more than 2 years and the results look very promising for reducing the need for chemically treated water. The weight gains of the heat exchangers, which were used in the three parallel pipelines equipped with three different devices against scaling, were followed. The MWTD designed and built in the IJS laboratory, showed only a slightly higher weight gain than that achieved with the use of chemicals

  14. Numerical simulation on the energy spectrum of the electron beam generated by low-impedance diode and the influence of external magnetic field on diode impedance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Guozhi

    2003-01-01

    The energy spectrum of the electron beam generated by low-impedance diode and the influence of external magnetic field on the impedance of diode are studied numerically in this paper. The results show that the beam generated by the diode has an energy spread, even with constant applied voltage. Additionally, external magnetic field has great but reverse influence on the impedance of low-impedance diode, which is, according to the author's analysis, the result of the change of the electron's track due to external magnetic field. If the beam current is less than the critical one for self-pinch, the impedance will be constant with the variation of external magnetic field

  15. Influence of the magnetic field orientation on the mixed state properties of high temperature superconductors: an ac shielding study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, B.

    1999-01-01

    This work deals with the influence of the orientation of an applied static magnetic field on the mixed state properties of high temperature superconducting cuprates. The mixed state is characterized by the presence of vortices (quanta of magnetic flux). Their properties have been tested via the dynamic approach of the shielding of an ac magnetic field. In pristine Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8 crystals the first order transition of the vortex system from an ordered to a disordered state has been studied. It has been found that in the material the transition is mainly determined by the component of the field perpendicular to the superconducting copper oxide layers. However, the value of this component at the transition diminishes with the increase of the field component parallel to the layers. This is explained by the decrease of the Josephson coupling between 2D vortices in neighbouring planes in the presence of a parallel component. In heavy ion irradiated Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8 the subject under investigation has been the pinning of the vortices by the irradiation tracks. These defects push the irreversibility line towards higher fields. In the field range that has become irreversible after irradiation pinning by columnar defects is anisotropic. This anisotropy in pinning indicates that a coupling exists between the 2D vortices that form a vortex line, in contrast to the behaviour in the pristine material in the same field range. HgBa 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O 8 with columnar defects shows essentially the same behaviour as Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8 , the differences being well explained by the lower anisotropy of HgBa 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O 8 which leads to a more linear character of the vortices. Finally, it has been shown that in pristine Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8 the concentration of the vortices in the center of the sample is explained by the surface barrier alone. (author)

  16. Influence of the magnetic field orientation on the mixed state properties of high temperature superconductors: an ac shielding study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, B

    1999-07-01

    This work deals with the influence of the orientation of an applied static magnetic field on the mixed state properties of high temperature superconducting cuprates. The mixed state is characterized by the presence of vortices (quanta of magnetic flux). Their properties have been tested via the dynamic approach of the shielding of an ac magnetic field. In pristine Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8} crystals the first order transition of the vortex system from an ordered to a disordered state has been studied. It has been found that in the material the transition is mainly determined by the component of the field perpendicular to the superconducting copper oxide layers. However, the value of this component at the transition diminishes with the increase of the field component parallel to the layers. This is explained by the decrease of the Josephson coupling between 2D vortices in neighbouring planes in the presence of a parallel component. In heavy ion irradiated Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8} the subject under investigation has been the pinning of the vortices by the irradiation tracks. These defects push the irreversibility line towards higher fields. In the field range that has become irreversible after irradiation pinning by columnar defects is anisotropic. This anisotropy in pinning indicates that a coupling exists between the 2D vortices that form a vortex line, in contrast to the behaviour in the pristine material in the same field range. HgBa{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 8} with columnar defects shows essentially the same behaviour as Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8}, the differences being well explained by the lower anisotropy of HgBa{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 8} which leads to a more linear character of the vortices. Finally, it has been shown that in pristine Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8} the concentration of the vortices in the center of the sample is explained by the surface barrier alone. (author)

  17. Influence of AC external magnetic field perturbation on the guidance force of HTS bulk over a NdFeB guideway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Longcai; Wang Jiasu; Wang Suyu; He Qingyong

    2007-01-01

    Superconducting maglev vehicle system requires that the surface magnetic field of the guideway is uniform along the forward direction. But in practice the surface magnetic field of the NdFeB permanent magnet guideway is not always immutable. So the HTS bulks in this case are exposed to AC external magnetic field, which may induce the energy loss in the bulk and influence the guidance force between the HTS bulks and the NdFeB guideway. In this paper, we experimentally studied the influence of the AC external magnetic field perturbation on the guidance force of a HTS bulk over the NdFeB guideway. The experimental results showed that the guidance force was influenced by the application of the AC external magnetic. The guidance fore hysteresis became more evident with the amplitude of the AC field and was independent of the frequency in the range 90-400 Hz. We attributed the reason to magnetic hysteresis loss in the superconductor

  18. Influence of AC external magnetic field perturbation on the guidance force of HTS bulk over a NdFeB guideway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Longcai [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, Southwest Jiaotong University, P.O. Box 152, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China)]. E-mail: zhlcai2000@163.com; Wang Jiasu [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, Southwest Jiaotong University, P.O. Box 152, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Wang Suyu [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, Southwest Jiaotong University, P.O. Box 152, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); He Qingyong [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, Southwest Jiaotong University, P.O. Box 152, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China)

    2007-08-01

    Superconducting maglev vehicle system requires that the surface magnetic field of the guideway is uniform along the forward direction. But in practice the surface magnetic field of the NdFeB permanent magnet guideway is not always immutable. So the HTS bulks in this case are exposed to AC external magnetic field, which may induce the energy loss in the bulk and influence the guidance force between the HTS bulks and the NdFeB guideway. In this paper, we experimentally studied the influence of the AC external magnetic field perturbation on the guidance force of a HTS bulk over the NdFeB guideway. The experimental results showed that the guidance force was influenced by the application of the AC external magnetic. The guidance fore hysteresis became more evident with the amplitude of the AC field and was independent of the frequency in the range 90-400 Hz. We attributed the reason to magnetic hysteresis loss in the superconductor.

  19. Is newborn melatonin production influenced by magnetic fields produced by incubators?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellieni, Carlo Valerio; Tei, Monica; Iacoponi, Francesca; Tataranno, Maria Luisa; Negro, Simona; Proietti, Fabrizio; Longini, Mariangela; Perrone, Serafina; Buonocore, Giuseppe

    2012-08-01

    During permanence in most incubators, newborns are very close to the electric engine, which represents a source of electromagnetic fields (EMF). Previous studies demonstrated a decrease in melatonin production in adults and animals exposed to EMF. To assess melatonin production in a group of newborns exposed to EMF, and to evaluate whether removing the babies from the source of MF can affect melatonin production. We have recruited 28 babies (study group), who had spent at least 48 h in incubator where we had previously assessed the presence of significant EMF. We have measured their mean 6-hydroxy-melatonin-sulfate (6OHMS) urine excretion at the end of their permanence in the incubators, and compared it with their mean 6OHMS excretion after having been put in cribs, where EMF are below the detectable limit (babies who were not exposed to EMF during both samples. Mean 6OHMS/cr values were respectively 5.34±4.6 and 7.68±5.1ng/mg (p=0.026) when babies were exposed to EMF in incubators, and after having been put in the crib. In the control group, mean 6OHMS/cr values in the first and in the second sample were respectively 5.91±5.41 vs 6.17±3.94ng/mg (p=0.679). The transitory increase in melatonin production soon after removing newborns from incubators demonstrates a possible influence of EMF on melatonin production in newborns. Further studies are needed to confirm these data. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The influence of electrical resistivity, magnetic field strength, boundary conditions, and injection conditions on the behavior of the magnetically injected plasma in the PBFA-II opening switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watrous, J.J.; Frese, M.H.

    1993-01-01

    The Plasma Opening Switch used on PBFA-II uses a source plasma which is injected into the inter-electrode gap along the field lines of a modest-strength applied poloidal magnetic field. The distribution of this plasma within the gap plays an important role in the behavior of the switch. Knowledge of this distribution is critical for performing relevant switch calculations and for interpreting experimental data. In the work reported here, the influence on that distribution of the plasma electrical resistivity, the applied magnetic field strength, and the boundary and injection conditions have been investigated with the 2 1/2-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics simulation code, MACH2. The injected plasma has density in the 10 14 cm -3 range and temperature in the several eV range. In this parameter regime, the classical collision time scale is on the order of 10 ns, which, when compared to the 100 ns time scale of the inflowing plasma, means that the plasma is classically collisionless. However, mechanisms other than classical collisions are likely to contribute to electrical resistivity. The authors have investigated the effect of an anomalous resistivity which scales with the plasma frequency, varying the scaling from the electron plasma frequency to the ion plasma frequency. They will compare these results with results based on the assumption of an ideal plasma, and discuss other anomalous resistivity models

  1. High field superconducting magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hait, Thomas P. (Inventor); Shirron, Peter J. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A superconducting magnet includes an insulating layer disposed about the surface of a mandrel; a superconducting wire wound in adjacent turns about the mandrel to form the superconducting magnet, wherein the superconducting wire is in thermal communication with the mandrel, and the superconducting magnet has a field-to-current ratio equal to or greater than 1.1 Tesla per Ampere; a thermally conductive potting material configured to fill interstices between the adjacent turns, wherein the thermally conductive potting material and the superconducting wire provide a path for dissipation of heat; and a voltage limiting device disposed across each end of the superconducting wire, wherein the voltage limiting device is configured to prevent a voltage excursion across the superconducting wire during quench of the superconducting magnet.

  2. Influence of deposition field on the magnetic anisotropy in epitaxial Co70Fe30 films on GaAs(001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindmarch, A.T.; Arena, D.; Dempsey, K.J.; Henini, M.; Marrows, C.H.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of the application of a magnetic field during deposition of epitaxial Co 70 Fe 30 onto GaAs(001) is shown; we find an initially counterintuitive result. For field applied along the interfacial uniaxial hard axis the relative effective uniaxial magnetic anisotropy is increased by a factor of two in comparison to both field along the uniaxial easy axis, or no field; usually, application of a deposition field results in a uniaxial easy axis parallel to this field direction. We show that the deposition field changes the maximal projection of the atomic orbital magnetic moments onto the easy axis, which corresponds to a deposition field induced shift in the Helmholtz free-energy landscape of the system.

  3. Nuclear magnetic resonance and earth magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance concerns nuclei whose spin is different from 0. These nuclei exposed to a magnetic field is comparable to a peg top spinning around its axis while being moved by a precession movement called Larmor precession. This article presents an experiment whose aim is to reveal nuclear magnetism of nuclei by observing Larmor precession phenomena due to the earth magnetic field. The earth magnetic field being too weak, it is necessary to increase the magnetization of the sample during a polarization phase. First the sample is submitted to a magnetic field B perpendicular to the earth magnetic field B 0 , then B is cut off and the nuclei move back to their equilibrium position by executing a precession movement due to B 0 field. (A.C.)

  4. Magnetic field of Mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D.J.; Beard, D.B.

    1977-01-01

    The geomagnetic field, suitably scaled down and parameterized, is shown to give a very good fit to the magnetic field measurements taken on the first and third passes of the Mariner 10 space probe past Mercury. The excellence of the fit to a reliable planetary magnetospheric model is good evidence that the Mercury magnetosphere is formed by a simple, permanent, intrinsic planetary magnetic field distorted by the effects of the solar wind. The parameters used for a best fit to all the data are (depending slightly on the choice of data) 2.44--2.55 for the ratio of Mercury's magnetic field strength at the subsolar point to that of the earth's subsolar point field (this results in a dipole moment of 170 γR/sub M/ 3 (R/sub M/ is Mercury Radius), i.e., 2.41 x 10 22 G cm 3 in the same direction as the earth's dipole), approx.-113 γR/sub M/ 4 for the planetary quadrupole moment parallel to the dipole moment, 10degree--17degree for the tilt of the planet dipole toward the sun, 4.5degree for the tilt of the dipole toward dawn, and 2.5degree--7.6degree aberration angle for the shift in the tail axis from the planet-sun direction because of the planet's orbital velocity. The rms deviation overall for the entire data set compared with the theoretical fitted model for the magnetic field strength was 17 γ (approx.4% of the maximum field measured). If the data from the first pass that show presumed strong time variations are excluded, the overall rms deviation for the field magnitude is only 10 γ

  5. Inhomogeneity of surface magnetic field over a NdFeB guideway and its influence on levitation force of the HTS bulk maglev system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Longcai; Wang Jiasu; He Qingyong; Zhang Jianghua; Wang Suyu

    2007-01-01

    Superconducting maglev vehicle system was one of the most promising applications of HTS bulks. The NdFeB guideway in this system was composed of many NdFeB permanent magnets and screws, so the air gaps (airgaps) between two permanent magnets and the screws would result in the inhomogeneity of the surface magnetic field. In this paper, we studied the magnetic inhomogeneity over the permanent magnet guideway (PMG) used in high-temperature superconducting (HTS) maglev vehicle system and its influence on the levitation force of the HTS bulk. Firstly, we measured the transverse magnetic field above the airgap, the screw and the place under where there was no airgap and screw. It was found that the magnetic field 10 mm above the guideway was roughly uniform. Secondly, we investigated the influence of the magnetic inhomogeneity of the PMG on levitation force of the bulk superconductor. From the experiment results, we found that the influence was very small, and would be ignored. Therefore, we could conclude that the PMG made by this method satisfied the requirements of the HTS maglev vehicle system in a quasi-static state

  6. Inhomogeneity of surface magnetic field over a NdFeB guideway and its influence on levitation force of the HTS bulk maglev system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Longcai [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, Southwest Jiaotong University, P.O. Box 152, Chengdu 610031 (China)]. E-mail: zhlcai2000@163.com; Wang Jiasu [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, Southwest Jiaotong University, P.O. Box 152, Chengdu 610031 (China); He Qingyong [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, Southwest Jiaotong University, P.O. Box 152, Chengdu 610031 (China); Zhang Jianghua [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, Southwest Jiaotong University, P.O. Box 152, Chengdu 610031 (China); Wang Suyu [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, Southwest Jiaotong University, P.O. Box 152, Chengdu 610031 (China)

    2007-08-01

    Superconducting maglev vehicle system was one of the most promising applications of HTS bulks. The NdFeB guideway in this system was composed of many NdFeB permanent magnets and screws, so the air gaps (airgaps) between two permanent magnets and the screws would result in the inhomogeneity of the surface magnetic field. In this paper, we studied the magnetic inhomogeneity over the permanent magnet guideway (PMG) used in high-temperature superconducting (HTS) maglev vehicle system and its influence on the levitation force of the HTS bulk. Firstly, we measured the transverse magnetic field above the airgap, the screw and the place under where there was no airgap and screw. It was found that the magnetic field 10 mm above the guideway was roughly uniform. Secondly, we investigated the influence of the magnetic inhomogeneity of the PMG on levitation force of the bulk superconductor. From the experiment results, we found that the influence was very small, and would be ignored. Therefore, we could conclude that the PMG made by this method satisfied the requirements of the HTS maglev vehicle system in a quasi-static state.

  7. Designing magnets with prescribed magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Liping

    2011-01-01

    We present a novel design method capable of finding the magnetization densities that generate prescribed magnetic fields. The method is based on the solution to a simple variational inequality and the resulting designs have simple piecewise-constant magnetization densities. By this method, we obtain new designs of magnets that generate commonly used magnetic fields: uniform magnetic fields, self-shielding fields, quadrupole fields and sextupole fields. Further, it is worth noting that this method is not limited to the presented examples, and in particular, three-dimensional designs can be constructed in a similar manner. In conclusion, this novel design method is anticipated to have broad applications where specific magnetic fields are important for the performance of the devices.

  8. High magnetic field MRI system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Hideaki; Urata, Masami; Satoh, Kozo

    1990-01-01

    A high field superconducting magnet, 4-5 T in central magnetic field, is required for magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) on 31 P, essential nuclei for energy metabolism of human body. This paper reviews superconducting magnets for high field MRSI systems. Examples of the cross-sectional image and the spectrum of living animals are shown in the paper. (author)

  9. Surface magnetic field measurement with magnetic shielding

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Perevertov, Oleksiy

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 7 (2010), 66-68 ISSN 1335-3632 Grant - others:AVČR(CZ) M100100906 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : magnetic hysteresis * magnetic field measurement * magnetic shielding * extrapolation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.270, year: 2010

  10. The earth's magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merrill, R.T.

    1983-01-01

    After a historical introduction in Chapter 1, the more traditional aspects of geomagnetism relating to the present field and historical observations are presented in Chapter 2. The various methods and techniques and theoretical background of palaeomagnetism are given in Chapter 3. Chapters 4, 5 and 6 present the results of palaeomagnetic and archaeomagnetic studies in three topics. Chapter 4 relates to studies of the geomagnetic field roughly back to about 50,000 years ago. Chapter 5 is about reversals of the geomagnetic field and Chapter 6 presents studies of the field for times older than 50,000 years and on the geological time scale of millions or hundreds of millions of years. Chapters 7, 8 and 9 provide insight into dynamo theory. Chapter 7 is essentially a non-mathematical attempt to explain the physical basis of dynamo theories to palaeomagnetists. This is followed in Chapter 8 by a more advanced theoretical treatment. Chapter 9 explains theoretical aspects of secular variation and the origin of reversals of the geomagnetic field. Chapter 10 is our attempt to relate theory to experiment and vice versa. The final two chapters consider the magnetic fields of the moon, sun, planets and meteorites, in an attempt to determine the necessary and sufficient conditions for magnetic field generation in large solar system bodies. (author)

  11. The influence of the low-frequency magnetic fields of different parameters on the secretion of cortisol in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woldańska-Okońska, Marta; Czernicki, Jan; Karasek, Michał

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to test the influence of long-term application of the low-frequency magnetic fields in magnetotherapy and magnetostimulation on cortisol secretion in men. Patients were divided into three groups: 16 men underwent magnetotherapy and 20 men (divided into two groups) underwent magnetostimulation. Magnetotherapy - 2 mT induction, 40 Hz, bipolar square wave, was applied for 20 min to lumbar area. Magnetostimulation (Viofor Jaroszyk, Paluszak, Sieroń (JPS) system, M2P2 program) was applied to 10 patients for 12 min each day. The third group (10 patients) underwent magnetostimulation (Viofor JPS system, M3P3) for 12 min each day using a different machine. All groups had 15 rounds of applications at approximately 10:00 a.m. with intermissions on the weekends. Blood serum was taken four times in a 24-hour period, before applications, the day after applications and a month later. Chemiluminescence micromethod was used to indicate hormone concentrations. Data was statistically analyzed with the analysis of variance (ANOVA) method. The statistically significant gains in the circadian cortisol profile at 4:00 p.m., be- fore and after application, were observed as a decrease in concentration during magnetotherapy. In magnetostimulation, with the M2P2 program, a significant increase in the cortisol concentration was observed in circadian profile at 12:00 p.m. one month after the last application. After magnetostimulation with the M3P3 program, a significant increase in concentration at 6:00 a.m. and a decrease in concentration at 12:00 p.m. were observed one month later. Statistically significant difference was demonstrated in the participants after the application of magnetotherapy and magnetostimulation with M3P3 program compared to the men submitted to magnetostimulation, with M2P2 program, at 4:00 p.m. after 15 applications. Biological hysteresis one month after magnetostimulation suggests long-term influence on the hypothalamo-hypophysial axis. The

  12. Finite element analysis on the influence of contact resistivity in an extraordinary magnetoresistance magnetic field micro sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Jian

    2011-08-06

    In this paper, an extraordinary magnetoresistance (EMR) device made of an InSb/Au hybrid structure was investigated. Those devices have a large potential in becoming a new generation of highly sensitive and cheap magnetic micro sensors. A crucial factor for the performance is the interface between the InSb and Au, which suffers from a certain contact resistivity. The Finite Element Method (FEM) was employed to simulate the current redistribution in the device, under an applied magnetic field. Specifically, the influence of the contact resistivity between the InSb bulk and Au shunt was studied. In a device with optimized geometry and without contact resistivity between the layers of InSb and Au, the EMR effect and the sensitivity show values of 1.89 × 104% and 0.02%/(10-4 T), respectively, at 1 Tesla. For values of contact resistivity up to 10-8cm2 the EMR effect is almost constant, while for higher values the EMR effect decreases exponentially. However, the sensitivity of the device does not decrease until 5 × 10-6 cm2 of contact resistivity. Only beyond this value the sensitivity, which in most cases is associated with the performance of the device, will deteriorate. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011.

  13. Magnetic field screens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansfield, P.; Turner, R.; Chapman, B.L.W.; Bowley, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    A screen for a magnetic coil, for producing, for example, a homogeneous, gradient or RF field in nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, is described. It is provided by surround the coil with a set of electrical conductors. The currents within the conductors are controlled in such a manner that the field is neutralised in a specific region of space. The current distribution within the conductors is determined by calculating the current within a hypothetical superconductive shield which would have the effect of neutralising the field, the current through the conductors thereby being a substitute for the superconductive shield. The conductors may be evenly spaced and connected in parallel, their resistances being determined by thickness or composition to provide the desired current, or they may carry equal currents but be differently spaced. A further set or sets of controlled conductors outside the first set may ensure that the first set does not upset the field from the NMR coil. The shield may selectively reflect certain fields while transmitting others and may prevent acoustic vibration e.g. when switching gradient fields. An RF coil arrangement may consist of two orthogonal coils, one coil within the other for use as a transmit/receive set or as a double resonance transmitter; a shield between the coils is in series with, and formed from the same winding as, the inner coil. (author)

  14. Magnetic fields in diffuse media

    CERN Document Server

    Pino, Elisabete; Melioli, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents the current knowledge of magnetic fields in diffuse astrophysical media. Starting with an overview of 21st century instrumentation to observe astrophysical magnetic fields, the chapters cover observational techniques, origin of magnetic fields, magnetic turbulence, basic processes in magnetized fluids, the role of magnetic fields for cosmic rays, in the interstellar medium and for star formation. Written by a group of leading experts the book represents an excellent overview of the field. Nonspecialists will find sufficient background to enter the field and be able to appreciate the state of the art.

  15. Trapped magnetic field measurements on HTS bulk by peak controlled pulsed field magnetization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ida, Tetsuya; Watasaki, Masahiro; Kimura, Yosuke; Miki, Motohiro; Izumi, Mitsuru

    2010-01-01

    For the past several years, we have studied the high-temperature superconducting (HTS) synchronous motor assembled with melt-textured Gd-Ba-Cu-O bulk magnets. If the single pulse field magnetizes a bulk effectively, size of electrical motor will become small for the strong magnetic field of the HTS magnets without reducing output power of motor. In the previous study, we showed that the HTS bulk was magnetized to excellent cone-shape magnetic field distribution by using the waveform control pulse magnetization (WCPM) method. The WCPM technique made possible the active control of the waveform on which magnetic flux motion depended. We generated the pulse waveform with controlled risetime for HTS bulk magnetization to suppress the magnetic flux motion which decreases magnetization efficiency. The pulsed maximum magnetic flux density with slow risetime is not beyond the maximum magnetic flux density which is trapped by the static field magnetization. But, as for applying the pulse which has fast risetime, the magnetic flux which exceed greatly the threshold penetrates the bulk and causes the disorder of the trapped magnetic distribution. This fact suggests the possibility that the threshold at pulsed magnetization influences the dynamic magnetic flux motion. In this study, Gd-Ba-Cu-O bulk is magnetized by the controlled arbitrary trapezoidal shape pulse, of which the maximum magnetic flux density is controlled not to exceed the threshold. We will present the trapped magnetic characteristics and the technique to generate the controlled pulsed field.

  16. The influence of a static magnetic field on the behavior of a quantum mechanical model of matter

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlachová Hutová, E.; Bartušek, Karel; Dohnal, P.; Fiala, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 96, JAN (2017), s. 18-23 ISSN 0263-2241 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-09086S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : magnetic field * external magnetic field * Maxwell equations * biological sample Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers OBOR OECD: Atomic, molecular and chemical physics (physics of atoms and molecules including collision, interaction with radiation, magnetic resonances, Mössbauer effect) Impact factor: 2.359, year: 2016

  17. Earth's Magnetic Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume provides a comprehensive view on the different sources of the geomagnetic field both in the Earth’s interior and from the field’s interaction with the terrestrial atmosphere and the solar wind. It combines expertise from various relevant areas of geomagnetic and near Earth space...... research with the aim to better characterise the state and dynamics of Earth’s magnetic field. Advances in the exploitation of geomagnetic observations hold a huge potential not only for an improved quantitative description of the field source but also for a better understanding of the underlying processes...... and space observations, and on state-of-the-art empirical models and physics-based simulations. Thus, it provides an in-depth overview over recent achievements, current limitations and challenges, and future opportunities in the field of geomagnetism and space sciences....

  18. Magnetic Field Topology in Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, T. A.; Frank, A.

    2000-01-01

    We present results on the magnetic field topology in a pulsed radiative. jet. For initially helical magnetic fields and periodic velocity variations, we find that the magnetic field alternates along the, length of the jet from toroidally dominated in the knots to possibly poloidally dominated in the intervening regions.

  19. Low field magnetic resonance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pines, Alexander; Sakellariou, Dimitrios; Meriles, Carlos A.; Trabesinger, Andreas H.

    2010-07-13

    A method and system of magnetic resonance imaging does not need a large homogenous field to truncate a gradient field. Spatial information is encoded into the spin magnetization by allowing the magnetization to evolve in a non-truncated gradient field and inducing a set of 180 degree rotations prior to signal acquisition.

  20. Influence of magnetic field on zebrafish activity and orientation in a plus maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipova, Elena A; Pavlova, Vera V; Nepomnyashchikh, Valentin A; Krylov, Viacheslav V

    2016-01-01

    We describe an impact of the geomagnetic field (GMF) and its modification on zebrafish's orientation and locomotor activity in a plus maze with four arms oriented to the north, east, south and west. Zebrafish's directional preferences were bimodal in GMF: they visited two arms oriented in opposed directions (east-west) most frequently. This bimodal preference remained stable for same individuals across experiments divided by several days. When the horizontal GMF component was turned 90° clockwise, the preference accordingly shifted by 90° to arms oriented to the north and south. Other modifications of GMF (reversal of both vertical and horizontal GMF components; reversal of vertical component only; and reversal of horizontal component only) did not exert any discernible effect on the orientation of zebrafish. The 90° turn of horizontal component also resulted in a significant increase of fish's locomotor activity in comparison with the natural GMF. This increase became even more pronounced when the horizontal component was repeatedly turned by 90° and back with 1min interval between turns. Our results show that GMF and its variations should be taken into account when interpreting zebrafish's directional preferences and locomotor activity in mazes and other experimental devices. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Influence of extremely low frequency magnetic field on total protein and –SH groups concentrations in liver homogenates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Ciejka

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Free radicals are atoms, molecules or their fragments, whose excess leads to the development of oxidative stress, the cause of many neoplastic, neurodegenerative and inflammatory diseases, as well as aging of organisms. Industrial pollution, tobacco smoke, ionizing radiation, ultrasound and magnetic fields are the major exogenous sources of free radicals. The low frequency magnetic field is commonly applied in physiotherapy. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of extremely low frequency magnetic field (ELF-MF on the concentration of sulfhydryl groups (–SH and proteins in liver tissues of experimental animals depending on the time of exposure to the field. Material and Methods: Twenty one Sprague-Dawley male rats, aged 3–4 months were randomly divided into 3 experimental groups (each containing 7 animals: controls (group I, the rats exposed to ELF-MF of 40 Hz, 7 mT (this kind of the ELF-MF is mostly used in magnetotherapy, 30 min/day for 2 weeks (group II and the rats exposed to 40 Hz, 7 mT for 60 min/day for 2 weeks (group III. The concentrations of proteins and sulfhydryl groups in the liver tissues were determined after exposure to magnetic fields. Results: Exposure to low magnetic field: 40 Hz, 7 mT for 30 min/day and 60 min/day for 2 weeks caused a significant increase in the concentration of –SH groups and total protein levels in the liver tissues. Conclusions: The study results suggest that exposure to magnetic fields leads to the development of adaptive mechanisms to maintain the balance in the body oxidation-reduction and in the case of the studied parameters does not depend on the time of exposure. Med Pr 2014;65(5:639–644

  2. The Capacitive Magnetic Field Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyatkov, D. O.; Yurchenko, A. V.; Balashov, V. B.; Yurchenko, V. I.

    2016-01-01

    The results of a study of sensitive element magnetic field sensor are represented in this paper. The sensor is based on the change of the capacitance with an active dielectric (ferrofluid) due to the magnitude of magnetic field. To prepare the ferrofluid magnetic particles are used, which have a followingdispersion equal to 50 brand 5BDSR. The dependence of the sensitivity of the capacitive element from the ferrofluid with different dispersion of magnetic particles is considered. The threshold of sensitivity and sensitivity of a measuring cell with ferrofluid by a magnetic field was determined. The experimental graphs of capacitance change of the magnitude of magnetic field are presented.

  3. New microstructural features occurring during transformation from austenite to ferrite under the kinetic influence of magnetic field in a medium carbon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yudong; He Changshu; Zhao Xiang; Zuo Liang; Esling, Claude; He, Jicheng

    2004-01-01

    The effects of magnetic field on nucleation barrier of the phase transformation from austenite to ferrite at different cooling rates in 42CrMo steel have been investigated. The microstructures of ferrite and pearlite aligned along the magnetic field direction (parallel to the hot-rolling direction) are obtained at a cooling rate of 10 deg. C/min, resulting from the kinetic effects of the applied magnetic field during cooling and the microstructural influences of an inhomogeneous deformation occurring during the previous hot rolling. In this case, the formation of ferrite grains at higher temperatures is attributed mainly to the preferential nucleation at austenite boundaries. However, a fairly uniform microstructure of randomly distributed ferrite and pearlite is formed at a high cooling rate of 46 deg. C/min in the magnetic field of 14 T, as a result of both intergranular and intragranular nucleation at relatively low temperatures. Probing into this issue is helpful to gain a better understanding of kinetic influences of magnetic field on the phase transformation from austenite to ferrite

  4. Global Solar Magnetic Field Organization in the Outer Corona: Influence on the Solar Wind Speed and Mass Flux Over the Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Réville, Victor; Brun, Allan Sacha

    2017-11-01

    The dynamics of the solar wind depends intrinsically on the structure of the global solar magnetic field, which undergoes fundamental changes over the 11-year solar cycle. For instance, the wind terminal velocity is thought to be anti-correlated with the expansion factor, a measure of how the magnetic field varies with height in the solar corona, usually computed at a fixed height (≈ 2.5 {R}⊙ , the source surface radius that approximates the distance at which all magnetic field lines become open). However, the magnetic field expansion affects the solar wind in a more detailed way, its influence on the solar wind properties remaining significant well beyond the source surface. We demonstrate this using 3D global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of the solar corona, constrained by surface magnetograms over half a solar cycle (1989-2001). A self-consistent expansion beyond the solar wind critical point (even up to 10 {R}⊙ ) makes our model comply with observed characteristics of the solar wind, namely, that the radial magnetic field intensity becomes latitude independent at some distance from the Sun, and that the mass flux is mostly independent of the terminal wind speed. We also show that near activity minimum, the expansion in the higher corona has more influence on the wind speed than the expansion below 2.5 {R}⊙ .

  5. submitter Influence of 3D Effects on Field Quality in the Straight Part of Accelerator Magnets for the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsson, Emelie; Todesco, Ezio; Enomoto, Shun; Farinon, Stefania; Fabbricatore, Pasquale; Nakamoto, Tatsushi; Sugano, Michinaka; Savary, Frederic

    2017-01-01

    A dedicated D1 beam separation dipole is currently being developed at KEK for the Large Hadron Collider Luminosity upgrade (HL-LHC). Four 150 mm aperture, 5.6 T magnetic field and 6.7 m long Nb-Ti magnets will replace resistive D1 dipoles. The development includes fabrication and testing of 2.2 m model magnets. The dipole has a single layer coil and thin spacers between coil and iron, giving a non-negligible impact of saturation on field quality at nominal field. The magnetic design of the straight section coil cross section is based on 2D optimization and a separate optimization concerns the coil ends. However, magnetic measurements of the short model showed a large difference (tens of units) between the sextupole harmonic in the straight part and the 2D calculation. This difference is correctly modelled only by a 3D analysis: 3D calculations show that the magnetic field quality in the straight part is influenced by the coil ends, even for the 6.7 m long magnets. The effect is even more remarkable in the sho...

  6. submitter Influence of 3D Effects on Field Quality in the Straight Part of Accelerator Magnets for the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsson, Emelie; Todesco, Ezio; Enomoto, Shun; Farinon, Stefania; Fabbricatore, Pasquale; Nakamoto, Tatsushi; Sugano, Michinaka; Savary, Frederic

    2018-01-01

    A dedicated D1 beam separation dipole is currently being developed at KEK for the Large Hadron Collider Luminosity upgrade (HL-LHC). Four 150 mm aperture, 5.6 T magnetic field and 6.7 m long Nb-Ti magnets will replace resistive D1 dipoles. The development includes fabrication and testing of 2.2 m model magnets. The dipole has a single layer coil and thin spacers between coil and iron, giving a non-negligible impact of saturation on field quality at nominal field. The magnetic design of the straight section coil cross section is based on 2D optimization and a separate optimization concerns the coil ends. However, magnetic measurements of the short model showed a large difference (tens of units) between the sextupole harmonic in the straight part and the 2D calculation. This difference is correctly modelled only by a 3D analysis: 3D calculations show that the magnetic field quality in the straight part is influenced by the coil ends, even for the 6.7 m long magnets. The effect is even more remarkable in the sho...

  7. Influence of the magnetic field in the time evolution of the solar explosion radiation in X-ray and microwaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, J.E.R.

    1983-01-01

    It has been made a theoretical development, sel-consistent with recent models for the explosive source, applied to time delays of peak emission at different microwave frequencies, and between microwaves and hard X-ray emission. A working hipothesis has been assumed with the adoption of a growing magnetic field during the solar flare explosion, and therefore contributing to a growth in microwave emission, differential in frequency, producing delays of maximum emission towards lower microwave frequencies, and delays of microwave maximum emission with respect to hard X-rays. It has been found that these delays are consistent with a growth in the magnetic field of about 14% by assuming both thermal and non-thermal models. This variation in magnetic field has been associated to movements of thermal sources downwards in the solar atmosphere, and it has been found that the estimated velocities of displacement were consistent compared to characteristic velocities of anomalous conduction fronts of thermal models. (Author) [pt

  8. Investigation of the stability of polysilicon layers in SOI-structures under irradiation by electrons and hard magnetic field influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoverko Yu. N.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The properties of recrystallized polysilicon on insulator layers of p-type conductive SOI-structures with different carrier concentration irradiated with high-energy electrons flow about 1017 сm–2 in temperature range 4,2—300 К and high magnetic fields were investigated. It was found that heavily doped laser recrystallized polysilicon on insulator layers show its radiation resistance under irradiation with high-energy electrons and magnetoresistance of such material remains quite low in magnetic field about 14 T does not exceed 1—2%. Such qulity can be applied in designing of microelectronic sensors of mechanical values operable in hard conditions of exploitation.

  9. Influence of a transverse magnetic field on arc root movements in a dc plasma torch: Diamagnetic effect of arc column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Keun Su

    2009-01-01

    The effect of a transverse magnetic field on the anodic arc root movement inside a dc plasma torch has been investigated. The arc voltage fluctuation, which represents the degree of the arc instability, was reduced to 28.6% of the original value and the high frequency components in the voltage signal also decreased in their magnitudes. The inherent arc instability in a dc thermal plasma torch seems to be suppressed by a diamagnetic effect of the arc column. Furthermore, the measured voltage wave forms indicated that the arc root attachment mode would be controllable by a transverse magnetic field

  10. [Influence of extremely low frequency magnetic field on total protein and -sh groups concentrations in liver homogenates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciejka, Elżbieta; Kowalczyk, Agata; Gorąca, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Free radicals are atoms, molecules or their fragments, whose excess leads to the development of oxidative stress, the cause of many neoplastic, neurodegenerative and inflammatory diseases, as well as aging of organisms. Industrial pollution, tobacco smoke, ionizing radiation, ultrasound and magnetic fields are the major exogenous sources of free radicals. The low frequency mag- netic field is commonly applied in physiotherapy. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of extremely low frequency magnetic field (1L.F-MF) on the concentration ofsullhydryl groups (-SH) and proteins in liver tissues of experimental animals de- pending on the time of exposure to the field. Twenty one Sprague-D)awley male rats, aged 3-4 months were randomly divided into 3 experimental groups (each containing 7 animals): controls (group I), the rats exposed to IEI.F-MF of 40 Hz, 7 mT (this kind of the ELF-MF is mostly used in magnetotherapy), 30 min/day for 2 weeks (group II) and the rats exposed to 40 Hz, 7 mT for 60 min/day for 2 weeks (group III). The concentrations of proteins and sulfhydryl groups in the liver tissues were determined after exposure to magnetic fields. Exposure to low magnetic field: 40 Hz, 7 mT for 30 min/day and 60 min/day for 2 weeks caused a significant increase in the concentration of-SH groups and total protein levels in the liver tissues. The study results suggest that exposure to magnetic fields leads to the development of adaptive mechanisms to maintain the balance in the body oxidation-reduction and in the case of the studied parameters does not depend on the time of exposure.

  11. Influence of an external magnetic field on damage by self-ion irradiation in Fe90Cr10 alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando José Sánchez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of an external magnetic field (B=0.5 T on Fe90Cr10 specimens during Fe ion irradiation, has been investigated by means of Conversion Electron Mössbauer Spectroscopy (CEMS. The analysis has revealed significant differences in the average hyperfine magnetic field (=0.3 T between non-irradiated and irradiated samples as well as between irradiations made with B (w/ B and without B (w/o B. It is considered that these variations can be due to changes in the local environment around the probe nuclei (57Fe; where vacancies and Cr distribution play a role. The results indicate that the Cr distribution in the neighbourhood of the iron atoms could be changed by the application of an external field. This would imply that an external magnetic field may be an important parameter to take into account in predictive models for Cr behaviour in Fe–Cr alloys, and especially in fusion conditions where intense magnetic fields are required for plasma confinement.

  12. Influence of light waves on the thermoelectric power under large magnetic field in III-V, ternary and quaternary materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghatak, K.P. [Department of Electronic Science, The University of Calcutta, 92, Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Kolkata 700 009 (India); Bhattacharya, S. [Post Graduate Department of Computer Science, St. Xavier' s College, 30 Park Street, Kolkata 700 016 (India); Pahari, S. [Department of Administration, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India); De, D. [Department of Computer Science and Engineering, West Bengal University of Technology, B. F. 142, Sector I, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700 064 (India); Ghosh, S.; Mitra, M. [Department of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Howrah 711 103 (India)

    2008-04-15

    We study theoretically the influence of light waves on the thermoelectric power under large magnetic field (TPM) for III-V, ternary and quaternary materials, whose unperturbed energy-band structures, are defined by the three-band model of Kane. The solution of the Boltzmann transport equation on the basis of this newly formulated electron dispersion law will introduce new physical ideas and experimental findings in the presence of external photoexcitation. It has been found by taking n-InAs, n-InSb, n-Hg{sub 1-x}Cd{sub x}Te and n-In{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}As{sub y}P{sub 1-y} lattice matched to InP as examples that the TPM decreases with increase in electron concentration, and increases with increase in intensity and wavelength, respectively in various manners. The strong dependence of the TPM on both light intensity and wavelength reflects the direct signature of light waves that is in direct contrast as compared with the corresponding bulk specimens of the said materials in the absence of external photoexcitation. The rate of change is totally band-structure dependent and is significantly influenced by the presence of the different energy-band constants. The well-known result for the TPM for nondegenerate wide-gap materials in the absence of light waves has been obtained as a special case of the present analysis under certain limiting conditions and this compatibility is the indirect test of our generalized formalism. Besides, we have also suggested the experimental methods of determining the Einstein relation for the diffusivity:mobility ratio, the Debye screening length and the electronic contribution to the elastic constants for materials having arbitrary dispersion laws. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  13. Hyperfine magnetic fields in substituted Finemet alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brzózka, K., E-mail: k.brzozka@uthrad.pl [University of Technology and Humanities in Radom, Department of Physics (Poland); Sovák, P. [P.J. Šafárik University, Institute of Physics (Slovakia); Szumiata, T.; Gawroński, M.; Górka, B. [University of Technology and Humanities in Radom, Department of Physics (Poland)

    2016-12-15

    Transmission Mössbauer spectroscopy was used to determine the hyperfine fields of Finemet-type alloys in form of ribbons, substituted alternatively by Mn, Ni, Co, Al, Zn, V or Ge of various concentration. The comparative analysis of magnetic hyperfine fields was carried out which enabled to understand the role of added elements in as-quenched as well as annealed samples. Moreover, the influence of the substitution on the mean direction of the local hyperfine magnetic field was examined.

  14. Magnetization reversal mechanisms under oblique magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ntallis, N.; Efthimiadis, K.G., E-mail: kge@auth.gr

    2017-03-01

    In this work finite element micromagnetic simulations were performed in order to study the reversal mechanisms of spherical ferromagnetic particles with uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy, when they are magnetized along an oblique direction with respect to the anisotropy axis. Magnetization loops are taken in different directions of external magnetic field, at different anisotropy constants and particle sizes. In the simulation results, the three reversal mechanisms (coherent, curling and domains) are observed and new phenomena arise due to the action of oblique magnetic fields. Moreover, the dependence of the critical fields with respect to the angle of the external field is presented. - Highlights: • Finite element micromagnetic simulation of the three different reversal mechanisms. • For the curling mechanism, the new phenomenon is the rotation of the vortex. • In the domain reversal mechanism, the formed domain wall is smaller than 180°. • In soft ferromagnetic particles a rearrangement of the magnetic domains is observed.

  15. TFTR magnetic field design analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, K.; Iwinski, E.; McWhirter, J.M.

    1975-11-01

    The three main magnetic field windings for the TFTR are the toroidal field (TF) windings, the ohmic heating (OH) winding, and the equilibrium field (EF) winding. The following information is provided for these windings: (1) descriptions, (2) functions, (3) magnetic designs, e.g., number and location of turns, (4) design methods, and (5) descriptions of resulting magnetic fields. This report does not deal with the thermal, mechanical support, or construction details of the windings

  16. Fast superconducting magnetic field switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goren, Yehuda; Mahale, Narayan K.

    1996-01-01

    The superconducting magnetic switch or fast kicker magnet is employed with electron stream or a bunch of electrons to rapidly change the direction of flow of the electron stream or bunch of electrons. The apparatus employs a beam tube which is coated with a film of superconducting material. The tube is cooled to a temperature below the superconducting transition temperature and is subjected to a constant magnetic field which is produced by an external dc magnet. The magnetic field produced by the dc magnet is less than the critical field for the superconducting material, thus, creating a Meissner Effect condition. A controllable fast electromagnet is used to provide a magnetic field which supplements that of the dc magnet so that when the fast magnet is energized the combined magnetic field is now greater that the critical field and the superconducting material returns to its normal state allowing the magnetic field to penetrate the tube. This produces an internal field which effects the direction of motion and of the electron stream or electron bunch. The switch can also operate as a switching mechanism for charged particles.

  17. Fast superconducting magnetic field switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goren, Y.; Mahale, N.K.

    1996-01-01

    The superconducting magnetic switch or fast kicker magnet is employed with electron stream or a bunch of electrons to rapidly change the direction of flow of the electron stream or bunch of electrons. The apparatus employs a beam tube which is coated with a film of superconducting material. The tube is cooled to a temperature below the superconducting transition temperature and is subjected to a constant magnetic field which is produced by an external dc magnet. The magnetic field produced by the dc magnet is less than the critical field for the superconducting material, thus, creating a Meissner Effect condition. A controllable fast electromagnet is used to provide a magnetic field which supplements that of the dc magnet so that when the fast magnet is energized the combined magnetic field is now greater that the critical field and the superconducting material returns to its normal state allowing the magnetic field to penetrate the tube. This produces an internal field which effects the direction of motion and of the electron stream or electron bunch. The switch can also operate as a switching mechanism for charged particles. 6 figs

  18. Magnetic field modification of optical magnetic dipoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armelles, Gaspar; Caballero, Blanca; Cebollada, Alfonso; Garcia-Martin, Antonio; Meneses-Rodríguez, David

    2015-03-11

    Acting on optical magnetic dipoles opens novel routes to govern light-matter interaction. We demonstrate magnetic field modification of the magnetic dipolar moment characteristic of resonant nanoholes in thin magnetoplasmonic films. This is experimentally shown through the demonstration of the magneto-optical analogue of Babinet's principle, where mirror imaged MO spectral dependencies are obtained for two complementary magnetoplasmonic systems: holes in a perforated metallic layer and a layer of disks on a substrate.

  19. Mechanics of magnetic fluid column in strong magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polunin, V.M.; Ryapolov, P.A., E-mail: r-piter@yandex.ru; Platonov, V.B.

    2017-06-01

    Elastic-and magnetic properties of magnetic fluid confined by ponderomotive force in a tube fixed in horizontal position are considered. The system is placed in a strong magnetic field under the influence of external static and dynamic perturbations. An experimental setup has been developed. A theoretical basis of the processes of magnetic colloid elastic deformation has been proposed. The values of the static ponderomotive elasticity coefficient and the elasticity coefficient under dynamic action are experimentally determined. The calculations of the saturation magnetization for two magnetic fluid samples, carried out according to the equation containing the dynamic elasticity coefficient, are in good agreement with the experimental magnetization curve. The described method is of interest when studying magnetophoresis and aggregation of nanoparticles in magnetic colloids.

  20. Influence of external 3D magnetic fields on helical equilibrium and plasma flow in RFX-mod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piovesan, P; Bonfiglio, D; Bonomo, F; Cappello, S; Carraro, L; Cavazzana, R; Gobbin, M; Marrelli, L; Martin, P; Martines, E; Momo, B; Piron, L; Puiatti, M E; Soppelsa, A; Valisa, M; Zanca, P; Zaniol, B

    2011-01-01

    A spontaneous transition to a helical equilibrium with an electron internal transport barrier is observed in RFX-mod as the plasma current is raised above 1 MA (Lorenzini R et al 2009 Nature Phys. 5 570). The helical magnetic equilibrium can be controlled with external three-dimensional (3D) magnetic fields applied by 192 active coils, providing proper helical boundary conditions either rotating or static. The persistence of the helical equilibrium is strongly increased in this way. A slight reduction in the energy confinement time of about 15% is observed, likely due to the increased plasma-wall interaction associated with the finite radial magnetic field imposed at the edge. A global helical flow develops in these states and is expected to play a role in the helical self-organization. In particular, its shear may contribute to the ITB formation and is observed to increase with the externally applied radial field. The possible origins of this flow, from nonlinear visco-resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and/or ambipolar electric fields, will be discussed.

  1. Mercury's magnetic field and interior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connerney, J.E.P.; Ness, N.F.

    1988-01-01

    The magnetic-field data collected on Mercury by the Mariner-10 spacecraft present substantial evidence for an intrinsic global magnetic field. However, studies of Mercury's thermal evolution show that it is most likely that the inner core region of Mercury solidified or froze early in the planet's history. Thus, the explanation of Mercury's magnetic field in the framework of the traditional planetary dynamo is less than certain

  2. Magnetically modified biocells in constant magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramov, E.G.; Panina, L.K. [Saint Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Kolikov, V.A., E-mail: kolikov1@yandex.ru [Institute for Electrophysics and Electric Power of the RAS, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Bogomolova, E.V. [Botanical Institute of the RAS after V.L.Komarov, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Snetov, V.N. [Institute for Electrophysics and Electric Power of the RAS, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Cherepkova, I.A. [Saint Petersburg State Institute of Technology, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Kiselev, A.A. [Institute for Electrophysics and Electric Power of the RAS, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2017-02-01

    Paper addresses the inverse problem in determining the area, where the external constant magnetic field captures the biological cells modified by the magnetic nanoparticles. Zero velocity isolines, in area where the modified cells are captured by the magnetic field were determined by numerical method for two locations of the magnet. The problem was solved taking into account the gravitational field, magnetic induction, density of medium, concentration and size of cells, and size and magnetization of nanoparticles attached to the cell. Increase in the number of the nanoparticles attached to the cell and decrease in the cell’ size, enlarges the area, where the modified cells are captured and concentrated by the magnet. Solution is confirmed by the visible pattern formation of the modified cells Saccharomyces cerevisiae. - Highlights: • The inverse problem was solved for finding zero velocity isolines of magnetically modified biological cells. • Solution of the inverse problem depends on the size of cells and the number of nanoparticles attached to the single cell. • The experimental data are in agreement with theoretical solution.

  3. Field simulations for large dipole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazzaro, A.; Cappuzzello, F.; Cunsolo, A.; Cavallaro, M.; Foti, A.; Khouaja, A.; Orrigo, S.E.A.; Winfield, J.S.

    2007-01-01

    The problem of the description of magnetic field for large bending magnets is addressed in relation to the requirements of modern techniques of trajectory reconstruction. The crucial question of the interpolation and extrapolation of fields known at a discrete number of points is analysed. For this purpose a realistic field model of the large dipole of the MAGNEX spectrometer, obtained with finite elements three dimensional simulations, is used. The influence of the uncertainties in the measured field to the quality of the trajectory reconstruction is treated in detail. General constraints for field measurements in terms of required resolutions, step sizes and precisions are thus extracted

  4. Magnetic response to applied electrostatic field in external magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adorno, T.C. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica, Caixa Postal 66318, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); University of Florida, Department of Physics, Gainesville, FL (United States); Gitman, D.M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica, Caixa Postal 66318, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Tomsk State University, Department of Physics, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Shabad, A.E. [P. N. Lebedev Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-04-15

    We show, within QED and other possible nonlinear theories, that a static charge localized in a finite domain of space becomes a magnetic dipole, if it is placed in an external (constant and homogeneous) magnetic field in the vacuum. The magnetic moment is quadratic in the charge, depends on its size and is parallel to the external field, provided the charge distribution is at least cylindrically symmetric. This magneto-electric effect is a nonlinear response of the magnetized vacuum to an applied electrostatic field. Referring to the simple example of a spherically symmetric applied field, the nonlinearly induced current and its magnetic field are found explicitly throughout the space; the pattern of the lines of force is depicted, both inside and outside the charge, which resembles that of a standard solenoid of classical magnetostatics. (orig.)

  5. The influence of inhomogeneous magnetic field over a NdFeB guideway on levitation force of the HTS bulk maglev system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lifeng; Deng, Jiangtao; Li, Linbo; Feng, Ning; Wei, Pu; Lei, Wei; Jiang, Jing; Wang, Xiqin; Zhang, Yong; Zhao, Yong

    2018-04-01

    Dynamic responses of high temperature superconducting bulk to inhomogeneous magnetic field distribution of permanent magnet guideway, as well as enlarged amplitude of magnetic field obtained by partially covering the permanent magnet guideway (PMG) with iron sheets in different thickness, are investigated. Experiments show that the instantaneous levitation force increases with the increase of the variation rate of magnetic field (dB/dt). Meanwhile, inhomogeneous magnetic field from PMG causes the decay of levitation force. The decay of levitation force almost increases linearly with the increase of alternating magnetic field amplitude. It should be very important for the application of high-speed maglev system.

  6. Magneto-optical absorption in semiconducting spherical quantum dots: Influence of the dot-size, confining potential, and magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manvir S. Kushwaha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Semiconducting quantum dots – more fancifully dubbed artificial atoms – are quasi-zero dimensional, tiny, man-made systems with charge carriers completely confined in all three dimensions. The scientific quest behind the synthesis of quantum dots is to create and control future electronic and optical nanostructures engineered through tailoring size, shape, and composition. The complete confinement – or the lack of any degree of freedom for the electrons (and/or holes – in quantum dots limits the exploration of spatially localized elementary excitations such as plasmons to direct rather than reciprocal space. Here we embark on a thorough investigation of the magneto-optical absorption in semiconducting spherical quantum dots characterized by a confining harmonic potential and an applied magnetic field in the symmetric gauge. This is done within the framework of Bohm-Pines’ random-phase approximation that enables us to derive and discuss the full Dyson equation that takes proper account of the Coulomb interactions. As an application of our theoretical strategy, we compute various single-particle and many-particle phenomena such as the Fock-Darwin spectrum; Fermi energy; magneto-optical transitions; probability distribution; and the magneto-optical absorption in the quantum dots. It is observed that the role of an applied magnetic field on the absorption spectrum is comparable to that of a confining potential. Increasing (decreasing the strength of the magnetic field or the confining potential is found to be analogous to shrinking (expanding the size of the quantum dots: resulting into a blue (red shift in the absorption spectrum. The Fermi energy diminishes with both increasing magnetic-field and dot-size; and exhibits saw-tooth-like oscillations at large values of field or dot-size. Unlike laterally confined quantum dots, both (upper and lower magneto-optical transitions survive even in the extreme instances. However, the intra

  7. Magneto-optical absorption in semiconducting spherical quantum dots: Influence of the dot-size, confining potential, and magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushwaha, Manvir S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, P.O. Box 1892, Houston, TX 77251 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Semiconducting quantum dots – more fancifully dubbed artificial atoms – are quasi-zero dimensional, tiny, man-made systems with charge carriers completely confined in all three dimensions. The scientific quest behind the synthesis of quantum dots is to create and control future electronic and optical nanostructures engineered through tailoring size, shape, and composition. The complete confinement – or the lack of any degree of freedom for the electrons (and/or holes) – in quantum dots limits the exploration of spatially localized elementary excitations such as plasmons to direct rather than reciprocal space. Here we embark on a thorough investigation of the magneto-optical absorption in semiconducting spherical quantum dots characterized by a confining harmonic potential and an applied magnetic field in the symmetric gauge. This is done within the framework of Bohm-Pines’ random-phase approximation that enables us to derive and discuss the full Dyson equation that takes proper account of the Coulomb interactions. As an application of our theoretical strategy, we compute various single-particle and many-particle phenomena such as the Fock-Darwin spectrum; Fermi energy; magneto-optical transitions; probability distribution; and the magneto-optical absorption in the quantum dots. It is observed that the role of an applied magnetic field on the absorption spectrum is comparable to that of a confining potential. Increasing (decreasing) the strength of the magnetic field or the confining potential is found to be analogous to shrinking (expanding) the size of the quantum dots: resulting into a blue (red) shift in the absorption spectrum. The Fermi energy diminishes with both increasing magnetic-field and dot-size; and exhibits saw-tooth-like oscillations at large values of field or dot-size. Unlike laterally confined quantum dots, both (upper and lower) magneto-optical transitions survive even in the extreme instances. However, the intra-Landau level

  8. Measurements of magnetic field alignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchnir, M.; Schmidt, E.E.

    1987-01-01

    The procedure for installing Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) dipoles in their respective cryostats involves aligning the average direction of their field with the vertical to an accuracy of 0.5 mrad. The equipment developed for carrying on these measurements is described and the measurements performed on the first few prototypes SSC magnets are presented. The field angle as a function of position in these 16.6 m long magnets is a characteristic of the individual magnet with possible feedback information to its manufacturing procedure. A comparison of this vertical alignment characteristic with a magnetic field intensity (by NMR) characteristic for one of the prototypes is also presented. 5 refs., 7 figs

  9. Low intensity magnetic field influences short-term memory: A study in a group of healthy students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Enrique A; Gomez-Perretta, Claudio; Montes, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzes if an external magnetic stimulus (2 kHz and approximately 0.1 μT applied near frontal cortex) influences working memory, perception, binary decision, motor execution, and sustained attention in humans. A magnetic stimulus and a sham stimulus were applied to both sides of the head (frontal cortex close to temporal-parietal area) in young and healthy male test subjects (n = 65) while performing Sternberg's memory scanning task. There was a significant change in reaction time. Times recorded for perception, sustained attention, and motor execution were lower in exposed subjects (P short-term working memory, as well as perception, binary decision, motor execution, and sustained attention. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Line formation in microturbulent magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domke, H.; Pavlov, G.G.

    1979-01-01

    The formation of Zeeman lines in Gaussian microturbulent magnetic fields is considered assuming LTE. General formulae are derived for the local mean values of the transfer matrix elements. The cases of one-dimensional (longitudinal), isotropic, and two-dimensional (transversal) magnetic microturbulence are studied in some detail. Asymptotic formulae are given for small mean as well as for small microturbulent magnetic fields. Characteristic effects of magnetic microturbulence on the transfer coefficients are: (i) the broadening of the frequency contours, although only for the case of longitudinal Zeeman effect and longitudinal magnetic microturbulence this effect can be described analogous to Doppler broadening, (ii) the appearance of a pseudo-Zeeman structure for nonlongitudinal magnetic microturbulence, (iii) the reduction of maximal values of circular polarization, and (iv) the appearance of characteristic linear polarization effects due to the anisotropy of the magnetic microturbulence. Line contours and polarization of Zeeman triplets are computed for Milne-Eddington atmospheres. It is shown that magnetic intensification due to microturbulent magnetic fields may be much more efficient than that due to regular fields. The gravity center of a Zeeman line observed in circularly polarized light remains a reasonable measure of the line of sight component of the mean magnetic field for a line strength eta 0 < approx. 2. For saturated lines, the gravity center distance depends significantly on the magnetic microturbulence and its anisotropy. The influence of magnetic microturbulence on the ratio of longitudinal field magnetographic signals shows that unique conclusions about the magnetic microstructure can be drawn from the line ratio measurements only in combination with further spectroscopic data or physical reasoning. (orig.)

  11. NMR in pulsed magnetic field

    KAUST Repository

    Abou-Hamad, Edy; Bontemps, P.; Rikken, Geert L J A

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments in pulsed magnetic fields up to 30.4 T focused on 1H and 93Nb nuclei are reported. Here we discuss the advantage and limitation of pulsed field NMR and why this technique is able to become a promising research tool. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved.

  12. NMR in pulsed magnetic field

    KAUST Repository

    Abou-Hamad, Edy

    2011-09-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments in pulsed magnetic fields up to 30.4 T focused on 1H and 93Nb nuclei are reported. Here we discuss the advantage and limitation of pulsed field NMR and why this technique is able to become a promising research tool. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Hypernuclear matter in strong magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, Monika [Institute for Theoretical Physics, J.W. Goethe-University, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Indian Institute of Technology Rajasthan, Old Residency Road, Ratanada, Jodhpur 342011 (India); Mukhopadhyay, Banibrata [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Sedrakian, Armen, E-mail: sedrakian@th.physik.uni-frankfurt.de [Institute for Theoretical Physics, J.W. Goethe-University, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2013-01-17

    Compact stars with strong magnetic fields (magnetars) have been observationally determined to have surface magnetic fields of order of 10{sup 14}–10{sup 15} G, the implied internal field strength being several orders larger. We study the equation of state and composition of dense hypernuclear matter in strong magnetic fields in a range expected in the interiors of magnetars. Within the non-linear Boguta–Bodmer–Walecka model we find that the magnetic field has sizable influence on the properties of matter for central magnetic field B⩾10{sup 17} G, in particular the matter properties become anisotropic. Moreover, for the central fields B⩾10{sup 18} G, the magnetized hypernuclear matter shows instability, which is signalled by the negative sign of the derivative of the pressure parallel to the field with respect to the density, and leads to vanishing parallel pressure at the critical value B{sub cr}≃10{sup 19} G. This limits the range of admissible homogeneously distributed fields in magnetars to fields below the critical value B{sub cr}.

  14. MR influence of different magnetic field and different scanner with same magnetic field on apparent diffusion coefficient of abdominal organs in healthy volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Jiayin; Yang Zhenghan; Chen Min; Zhou Cheng; Zhang Jiacheng; Li Jinning

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the reproducibility of ADC measurements at 1.5 vs 3.0 T and at 1.5 T of different scanners in liver, spleen and pancreas of healthy volunteers. Methods: Abdominal DWI were performed on 33 healthy volunteers by using GE 1.5 T, Siemens 1.5 T and Philips 3.0 T MR scanners. The mean ADC values of liver, spleen, pancreatic head, body, and tail were calculated. The ADC data were analyzed by using paired-sample t tests. Results: The mean ADC of liver at GE 1.5 T, Siemens 1.5 T and Philips 3.0 T were (1.56 ±0.10) × 10"-"3, (1.67 ±0.15) × 10"-"3 and (1.35 ±0.12) × 10"-"3 mm"2/s, spleen were (0.96±0.10) × 10"-"3, (0.98 ±0.11) × 10"-"3 and (0.81 ±0.14) × 10"-"3 mm"2/s, pancreatic head were (2.09 ± 0.27) × 10"-"3, (2.20 ± 0.21) × 10"-"3 and (2.05 ± 0.27) × 10"-"3 mm"2/s, pancreatic body were (2.03 ± 0.27) × 10"-"3, (2.09 ± 0.30) × 10"-"3 and (1.76 ± 0.25) × 10"-"3 mm"2/s, pancreatic tail were (1.88 ± 0.28) × 10"-"3, (1.88 ± 0.27) × 10"-"3 and (1.56 ± 0.27) × 10"-"3 mm"2/s, respectively. From the aspect of different field strength MR scanners, there were significant differences in mean ADC of liver (t = 11.073, P 0.05 in GE 1.5 T vs Philips 3.0 T; t = 1.349, P > 0.05 in Siemens 1.5 T vs Philips 3.0 T). From the aspect of different 1.5 T MR scanners, there were significant differences in mean ADC of liver (t = -4.563, P 0.05), pancreatic head (t = -0.879, P > 0.05), body (t = -1.020, P > 0.05) and tail (t = 0.054, P > 0.05). Conclusion: Between 1.5 T and 3.0 T MR scanners, there were significant differences in mean ADC of liver, spleen, pancreatic body and tail, but there were no significant differences in mean ADC of pancreatic head. At different 1.5 T MR scanners, there were significant differences in mean ADC of liver, but there were no significant differences in mean ADC of spleen, pancreatic head, body and tail. (authors)

  15. Magnetic Field Measurements in Beam Guiding Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Henrichsen, K N

    1998-01-01

    Electromagnets used as beam guiding elements in particle accelerators and colliders require very tight tole-rances on their magnetic fields and on their alignment along the particle path. This article describes the methods and equipment used for magnetic measurements in beam transport magnets. Descriptions are given of magnetic resonance techniques, various induction coil methods, Hall generator measurements, the fluxgate magnetometer as well as the recently developed method of beam based alignment. References of historical nature as well as citations of recent work are given. The present commercial availability of the different sensors and asso-ciated equipment is indicated. Finally we shall try to analyze possible future needs for developments in those fields.

  16. Magnetization of dense neutron matter in a strong magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaev, A.A.; Yang, J.

    2010-01-01

    Spin polarized states in neutron matter at a strong magnetic field up to 1018 G are considered in the model with the Skyrme effective interaction. Analyzing the self consistent equations at zero temperature, it is shown that a thermodynamically stable branch of solutions for the spin polarization parameter as a function of the density corresponds to the negative spin polarization when the majority of neutron spins are oriented oppositely to the direction of the magnetic field. In addition, beginning from some threshold density dependent on the magnetic field strength, the self-consistent equations have also two other branches of solutions for the spin polarization parameter with the positive spin polarization. The free energy corresponding to one of these branches turns out to be very close to the free energy corresponding to the thermodynamically preferable branch with the negative spin polarization. As a consequence, at a strong magnetic field, the state with the positive spin polarization can be realized as a metastable state at the high density region in neutron matter which changes into a thermodynamically stable state with the negative spin polarization with decrease in the density at some threshold value. The calculations of the neutron spin polarization parameter, energy per neutron, and chemical potentials of spin-up and spin-down neutrons as functions of the magnetic field strength show that the influence of the magnetic field remains small at the field strengths up to 1017 G.

  17. Possible influence of the polarity reversal of the solar magnetic field on the various types of arrhythmias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannaropoulou, E; Papailiou, M; Mavromichalaki, H; Preka-Papadema, P; Gigolashvili, M; Tvildiani, L; Janashia, K; Papadima, Th

    2013-01-01

    Over the last few years various researches have reached the conclusion that cosmic ray variations and geomagnetic disturbances are related to the condition of the human physiological state. In this study medical data concerning the number of incidents of different types of cardiac arrhythmias for the time period 1983 – 1992 which refer to 1902 patients in Tbilisi, Georgia were used. The smoothing method and the Pearson r-coefficients were used to examine the possible effect of different solar and geomagnetic activity parameters and cosmic ray intensity variations on the different types of arrhythmias. The time interval under examination was separated into two different time periods which coincided with the polarity reversal of the solar magnetic field that occurred in the years 1989-1990 and as a result a different behavior of all the above mentioned parameters as well as of the different types of arrhythmias was noticed during the two time intervals. In addition, changing of polarity sign of the solar magnetic field was found to affect the sign of correlation between the incidence of arrhythmias and the aforementioned parameters. The primary and secondary maxima observed in the solar parameters during the solar cycle 22, also appeared in several types of arrhythmias with a time lag of about five months.

  18. R.F. heating-influence of the magnetic field B0 on electron heating by ECRH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha Raposo, C. da; Aihara, S.; Sakanaka, P.H.

    The results obtained in a series of experiments in the mirror machine 'LISA' are reported. A sequence of pulses of 2.45 GHz, 600 watts at a rate of 60 pulses/sec is applied to the plasma. The sequence is controlled by a self-reset system. Plasma parameters are studied as a function of the external magnetic field, B 0 , in two different configurations, large and small resonance space regions. For each region the mapping of magnetic field B 0 was made B sub(z) (r,z) axial and B sub(r) (r,z) radial distributions. These data were submitted to spatial and orbital distribution of the particles as well as flight and energy. Applying the microwave at the electron cyclotron frequency, electron temperature and density (T sub(e), n sub(e)), floating potential (V sub(f)), collision time, conductivity and confiment time are measured. The diagnostic is made with electrostatic probe, diamagnetic coil spectrograph, Hall probe and magnetometer. (L.C.) [pt

  19. Magnetic fields and scintillator performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, D.; Ronzhin, A.; Hagopian, V.

    1995-06-01

    Experimental data have shown that the light output of a scintillator depends on the magnitude of the externally applied magnetic fields, and that this variation can affect the calorimeter calibration and possibly resolution. The goal of the measurements presented here is to study the light yield of scintillators in high magnetic fields in conditions that are similar to those anticipated for the LHC CMS detector. Two independent measurements were performed, the first at Fermilab and the second at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory at Florida State University

  20. Periodic permanent magnet focusing system with high peak field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hong; Liu Weiwei; Bai Shuxin; Chen Ke

    2008-01-01

    In this study, hybrid periodic permanent magnet (PPM) system is studied, which has high axial magnetic field and low magnetic leakage. By simulation computation, some laws of magnetic field distribution vs. structure dimensions were obtained. A hybrid PPM is designed and constructed whose peak field reaches 0.6 T. The factors inducing discrepancies between computational results and practical measurements are analyzed. The magnetic field distribution is very sensitive to the variations of constructional parameters. Construction accuracy greatly influences the magnetic field distribution. Research results obtained here are potentially valuable for future work

  1. Study of marine magnetic field

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhattacharya, G.C.

    magnetized in the direction of the Earth’s magnetic field at that time. As seafloor spreading pulls the new oceanic crust apart, stripes of approximately the same size gets carried away from the ridge on each side. The basaltic oceanic crust formed...

  2. Measuring Earth's Magnetic Field Simply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Gay B.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a method for measuring the earth's magnetic field using an empty toilet paper tube, copper wire, clear tape, a battery, a linear variable resistor, a small compass, cardboard, a protractor, and an ammeter. (WRM)

  3. ISR split-field magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1975-01-01

    The experimental apparatus used at intersection 4 around the Split-Field Magnet by the CERN-Bologna Collaboration (experiment R406). The plastic scintillator telescopes are used for precise pulse-height and time-of-flight measurements.

  4. The Juno Magnetic Field Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connerney, J. E. P.; Benn, M.; Bjarno, J. B.; Denver, T.; Espley, J.; Jorgensen, J. L.; Jorgensen, P. S.; Lawton, P.; Malinnikova, A.; Merayo, J. M.; Murphy, S.; Odom, J.; Oliversen, R.; Schnurr, R.; Sheppard, D.; Smith, E. J.

    2017-11-01

    The Juno Magnetic Field investigation (MAG) characterizes Jupiter's planetary magnetic field and magnetosphere, providing the first globally distributed and proximate measurements of the magnetic field of Jupiter. The magnetic field instrumentation consists of two independent magnetometer sensor suites, each consisting of a tri-axial Fluxgate Magnetometer (FGM) sensor and a pair of co-located imaging sensors mounted on an ultra-stable optical bench. The imaging system sensors are part of a subsystem that provides accurate attitude information (to ˜20 arcsec on a spinning spacecraft) near the point of measurement of the magnetic field. The two sensor suites are accommodated at 10 and 12 m from the body of the spacecraft on a 4 m long magnetometer boom affixed to the outer end of one of 's three solar array assemblies. The magnetometer sensors are controlled by independent and functionally identical electronics boards within the magnetometer electronics package mounted inside Juno's massive radiation shielded vault. The imaging sensors are controlled by a fully hardware redundant electronics package also mounted within the radiation vault. Each magnetometer sensor measures the vector magnetic field with 100 ppm absolute vector accuracy over a wide dynamic range (to 16 Gauss = 1.6 × 106 nT per axis) with a resolution of ˜0.05 nT in the most sensitive dynamic range (±1600 nT per axis). Both magnetometers sample the magnetic field simultaneously at an intrinsic sample rate of 64 vector samples per second. The magnetic field instrumentation may be reconfigured in flight to meet unanticipated needs and is fully hardware redundant. The attitude determination system compares images with an on-board star catalog to provide attitude solutions (quaternions) at a rate of up to 4 solutions per second, and may be configured to acquire images of selected targets for science and engineering analysis. The system tracks and catalogs objects that pass through the imager field of

  5. High-Field Accelerator Magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rijk, G de

    2014-01-01

    In this lecture an overview is given of the present technology for high field accelerator magnets. We indicate how to get high fields and what are the most important parameters. The available conductors and their limitations are presented followed by the most relevant types of coils and support structures. We conclude by showing a number of recent examples of development magnets which are either pure R&D objects or models for the LHC luminosity upgrade

  6. Theorem on magnet fringe field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Jie; Talman, R.

    1995-01-01

    Transverse particle motion in particle accelerators is governed almost totally by non-solenoidal magnets for which the body magnetic field can be expressed as a series expansion of the normal (b n ) and skew (a n ) multipoles, B y + iB x = summation(b n + ia n )(x + iy) n , where x, y, and z denote horizontal, vertical, and longitudinal (along the magnet) coordinates. Since the magnet length L is necessarily finite, deflections are actually proportional to ''field integrals'' such as bar BL ≡ ∫ B(x,y,z)dz where the integration range starts well before the magnet and ends well after it. For bar a n , bar b n , bar B x , and bar B y defined this way, the same expansion Eq. 1 is valid and the ''standard'' approximation is to neglect any deflections not described by this expansion, in spite of the fact that Maxwell's equations demand the presence of longitudinal field components at the magnet ends. The purpose of this note is to provide a semi-quantitative estimate of the importance of |Δp ∝ |, the transverse deflection produced by the ion-gitudinal component of the fringe field at one magnet end relative to |Δp 0 |, the total deflection produced by passage through the whole magnet. To emphasize the generality and simplicity of the result it is given in the form of a theorem. The essence of the proof is an evaluation of the contribution of the longitudinal field B x from the vicinity of one magnet end since, along a path parallel to the magnet axis such as path BC

  7. The influence of chronic exposure to low frequency pulsating magnetic fields on concentrations of FSH, LH, prolactin, testosterone and estradiol in men with back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woldanska-Okonska, Marta; Karasek, Michal; Czernicki, Jan

    2004-06-01

    There is widespread public concern that electromagnetic fields might be hazardous. However, studies on the biological effects of magnetic fields (MFs) have not always been consistent. Influence of extremely-low frequency MFs used in physiotherapy on endocrine system was rarely examined. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the concentrations of some pituitary (FSH, LH, prolactin) and sex (testosterone, estradiol) hormones in men with back pain exposed to magnetic fields applied during magnetotherapy or magnetostimulation over the period of three weeks. The study was performed on 20 men aged 28-62 years (mean+/-SEM: 46.4+/-2.0 years) suffering from chronic low back pain who underwent magnetotherapy (10 patients, mean age+/-SEM: 48.4 years, range: 28-62 years) or subjected to magnetostimulation (10 patients, mean age+/-SEM: 44.3 years, range: 34-52 years) for 15 days (daily at 10:00 h, with weekend breaks). Blood samples were collected at 08:00 before magnetic field application, one day and one month following the application. Concentrations of hormones were measured by micromethod of chemiluminescence. Both magnetotherapy and magnetostimulation lowered levels of prolactin. The levels of LH decreased significantly one month after magnetotherapy in comparison with the baseline whereas following magnetostimulation slight but insignificant increase was observed. Estradiol concentrations were significantly lower one day and one month following magnetosimulation in comparison to the baseline and did not change after magnetotherapy. No statistically significant changes were observed in levels of FSH and testosterone after either magnetotherapy or magnetosimulation at any time examined. Magnetic fields applied in physiotherapy exert no or very subtle effect on concentrations of FSH, LH, prolactin, testosterone, and estradiol in men.

  8. Influence of magnetic field strength and image registration strategy on voxel-based morphometry in a study of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchewka, Artur; Kherif, Ferath; Krueger, Gunnar; Grabowska, Anna; Frackowiak, Richard; Draganski, Bogdan

    2014-05-01

    Multi-centre data repositories like the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) offer a unique research platform, but pose questions concerning comparability of results when using a range of imaging protocols and data processing algorithms. The variability is mainly due to the non-quantitative character of the widely used structural T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images. Although the stability of the main effect of Alzheimer's disease (AD) on brain structure across platforms and field strength has been addressed in previous studies using multi-site MR images, there are only sparse empirically-based recommendations for processing and analysis of pooled multi-centre structural MR data acquired at different magnetic field strengths (MFS). Aiming to minimise potential systematic bias when using ADNI data we investigate the specific contributions of spatial registration strategies and the impact of MFS on voxel-based morphometry in AD. We perform a whole-brain analysis within the framework of Statistical Parametric Mapping, testing for main effects of various diffeomorphic spatial registration strategies, of MFS and their interaction with disease status. Beyond the confirmation of medial temporal lobe volume loss in AD, we detect a significant impact of spatial registration strategy on estimation of AD related atrophy. Additionally, we report a significant effect of MFS on the assessment of brain anatomy (i) in the cerebellum, (ii) the precentral gyrus and (iii) the thalamus bilaterally, showing no interaction with the disease status. We provide empirical evidence in support of pooling data in multi-centre VBM studies irrespective of disease status or MFS. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Magnetic field induced dynamical chaos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Somrita; Baura, Alendu; Bag, Bidhan Chandra

    2013-12-01

    In this article, we have studied the dynamics of a particle having charge in the presence of a magnetic field. The motion of the particle is confined in the x-y plane under a two dimensional nonlinear potential. We have shown that constant magnetic field induced dynamical chaos is possible even for a force which is derived from a simple potential. For a given strength of the magnetic field, initial position, and velocity of the particle, the dynamics may be regular, but it may become chaotic when the field is time dependent. Chaotic dynamics is very often if the field is time dependent. Origin of chaos has been explored using the Hamiltonian function of the dynamics in terms of action and angle variables. Applicability of the present study has been discussed with a few examples.

  10. Influence of pulsed magnetic field on soybean (Glycine max L.) seed germination, seedling growth and soil microbial population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam; Kumari, Bollipo Dyana Ranjitha

    2013-08-01

    The effects of pulsed magnetic field (PMF) treatment of soybean (Glycine max L. cv CO3) seeds were investigated on rate of seed germination, seedling growth, physico-chemical properties of seed leachates and soil microbial population under laboratory conditions. Seeds were exposed to PMF of 1500 nT at 0.1, 1.0 10.0 and 100.0 Hz for 5 h per day for 20 days, induced by enclosure coil systems. Non-treated seeds were considered as controls. All PMF treatments significantly increased the rate of seed germination, while 10 and 100 Hz PMFs showed the most effective response. The 1.0 and 10 Hz PMFs remarkably improved the fresh weight of shoots and roots, leaf area and plant height from seedlings from magnetically-exposed seeds compared to the control, while 10 Hz PMF increased the total soluble sugar, total protein and phenol contents. The leaf chlorophyll a, b and total chlorophyll were higher in PMF (10 and 100 Hz) pretreated plants, as compared to other treatments. In addition, activities of alpha-amylase, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, nitrate reductase, peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase were increased, while beta-amylase and protease activities were declined in PMF (10 Hz)-exposed soybean plants. Similarly, the capacity of absorbance of water by seeds and electrical conductivity of seed leachates were significantly enhanced by 10 Hz PMF exposure, whereas PMF (10 Hz) pretreated plants did not affect the microbial population in rhizosphere soil. The results suggested the potential of 10 Hz PMF treatment to enhance the germination and seedling growth of soybean.

  11. Magnetic fields of Jupiter and Saturn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ness, N.F.

    1981-01-01

    The magnetic fields of Jupiter and Saturn and the characteristics of their magnetospheres, formed by interaction with the solar wind, are discussed. The origins of both magnetic fields are associated with a dynamo process deep in the planetary interior. The Jovian magnetosphere is analogous to that of a pulsar magnetosphere: a massive central body with a rapid rotation and an associated intense magnetic field. Its most distinctive feature is its magnetodisk of concentrated plasma and particle flux, and reduced magnetic field intensity. The magnetopause near the subsolar point has been observed at radial distances ranging over 50 to 100 Jovian radii, implying a relatively compressible obstacle to solar wind flow. The composition of an embedded current sheet within the magnetic tail is believed to be influenced by volcanic eruptions and emissions from Io. Spectral troughs of the Jovian radiation belts have been interpreted as possible ring particles. The Saturnian magnetosphere appears to be more like the earth in its topology. It is mainly characterized by a dipole axis parallel to the rotational axis of the planet and a magnetic field intensity much less than expected

  12. MAGNETIC FIELD MEASUREMENTS FOR FAST-CHANGING MAGNETIC FIELDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Several recent applications for fast ramped magnets have been found that require rapid measurement of the field quality during the ramp. (In one instance, accelerator dipoles will be ramped at 1 T/sec, with measurements needed to the accuracy typically required for accelerators.) We have built and tested a new type of magnetic field measuring system to meet this need. The system consists of 16 stationary pickup windings mounted on a cylinder. The signals induced in the windings in a changing magnetic field are sampled and analyzed to obtain the field harmonics. To minimize costs, printed circuit boards were used for the pickup windings and a combination of amplifiers and ADPs used for the voltage readout system. New software was developed for the analysis. Magnetic field measurements of a model dipole developed for the SIS200 accelerator at GSI are presented. The measurements are needed to insure that eddy currents induced by the fast ramps do not impact the field quality needed for successful accelerator operation

  13. Reduction of a Ship's Magnetic Field Signatures

    CERN Document Server

    Holmes, John

    2008-01-01

    Decreasing the magnetic field signature of a naval vessel will reduce its susceptibility to detonating naval influence mines and the probability of a submarine being detected by underwater barriers and maritime patrol aircraft. Both passive and active techniques for reducing the magnetic signatures produced by a vessel's ferromagnetism, roll-induced eddy currents, corrosion-related sources, and stray fields are presented. Mathematical models of simple hull shapes are used to predict the levels of signature reduction that might be achieved through the use of alternate construction materials. Al

  14. 10 GHz R[sub s] measurements of YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub 7]. Influence of a magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deville, A. (Electronique des Milieux Condenses, Univ. de Provence, 13 Marseille (France)); Fawaz, H. (Electronique des Milieux Condenses, Univ. de Provence, 13 Marseille (France)); Gaillard, B. (Electronique des Milieux Condenses, Univ. de Provence, 13 Marseille (France)); Noel, H. (Chimie du Solide et Inorganique Moleculaire, Univ. de Rennes, 35 Rennes (France)); Potel, M. (Chimie du Solide et Inorganique Moleculaire, Univ. de Rennes, 35 Rennes (France)); Monnereau, O. (Chimie des Materiaux, Univ. de Provence, 13 Marseille (France))

    1994-02-01

    We examine the 10 GHz surface resistance of YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub 7] single crystals, without and with a continuous magnetic field up to 2T, in both cases without modulation of the magnetic field. We compare the results in a continuous field with those we obtain using a modulation. The results are briefly discussed. (orig.)

  15. Separation of magnetic field lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boozer, Allen H.

    2012-01-01

    The field lines of magnetic fields that depend on three spatial coordinates are shown to have a fundamentally different behavior from those that depend on two coordinates. Unlike two-coordinate cases, a flux tube in a magnetic field that depends on all three spatial coordinates that has a circular cross section at one location along the tube characteristically has a highly distorted cross section at other locations. In an ideal evolution of a magnetic field, the current densities typically increase. Crudely stated, if the current densities increase by a factor σ, the ratio of the long to the short distance across a cross section of a flux tube characteristically increases by e 2σ , and the ratio of the longer distance to the initial radius increases as e σ . Electron inertia prevents a plasma from isolating two magnetic field structures on a distance scale shorter than c/ω pe , which is about 10 cm in the solar corona, and reconnection must be triggered if σ becomes sufficiently large. The radius of the sun, R ⊙ =7×10 10 cm is about e 23 times larger, so when σ≳23, two lines separated by c/ω pe at one location can be separated by the full scale of any magnetic structures in the corona at another. The conditions for achieving a large exponentiation, σ, are derived, and the importance of exponentiation is discussed.

  16. On plasma stability under anisotropic random electric field influence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabich, L.N.; Sosenko, P.P.

    1987-01-01

    The influence of anisotropic random field on plasma stability is studied. The thresholds and instability increments are obtained. The stabilizing influence of frequency missmatch and external magnetic field is pointed out

  17. Trapped field recovery of bulk superconductor magnets by static field magnetization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Z., E-mail: zigang@kaiyodai.ac.jp [Laboratory of Applied Physics, Department of Marine Electronics and Mechanical Engineering, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, Tokyo 135-8533 (Japan); Tsuzuki, K.; Miki, M.; Felder, B.; Hara, S.; Izumi, M. [Laboratory of Applied Physics, Department of Marine Electronics and Mechanical Engineering, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, Tokyo 135-8533 (Japan)

    2011-11-15

    A series of initial trapped fields after ZFC or FC magnetization are used to simulate the attenuated trapped field. It is possible and easy to recover the lost trapped field and regain the best trapped field performance as before. In the re-magnetization process, the initial magnetic flux inside the bulk magnets will help to recover the trapped field. The optimum recovery field is recommended to be 2.5 times the saturation field of the bulk at LN2 temperature. Thanks to the trapped field of bulk high-temperature superconductors, they can be used as field-pole magnets in the high temperature superconducting (HTS) rotating machines. For example, an output power of 10 kW at 720 rpm was realized by an average trapped field of 0.56 T of eight melt-textured GdBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub y} (Gd-123) bulks at liquid nitrogen temperature in TUMSAT in 2004. Similarly to the HTS machines involving 1G or 2G wires, the trapped field of the bulk is possibly sensitive and even can be attenuated by the AC component field during the operation. Hence, it is necessary to recover the trapped field once being decreased to some extent in the practical application. From this point, we have investigated the trapped field recovery of HTS bulk magnets by static field magnetization in the paper. A series of different initial trapped fields after zero-field-cooling or field-cooling magnetization are used to simulate the attenuated trapped field. By comparing the trapped field peak and its distribution, the trapped field was found to be able to recover by the static field magnetization method with a stronger excitation field and the initial trapped flux inside the bulk also has an influence on the recovery process. The optimum recovery field was found to be about 2.5 times the saturated trapped field of the bulk at liquid nitrogen temperature, by which the bulk can regain the former best trapped field performance.

  18. Indoor localization using magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathapati Subbu, Kalyan Sasidhar

    Indoor localization consists of locating oneself inside new buildings. GPS does not work indoors due to multipath reflection and signal blockage. WiFi based systems assume ubiquitous availability and infrastructure based systems require expensive installations, hence making indoor localization an open problem. This dissertation consists of solving the problem of indoor localization by thoroughly exploiting the indoor ambient magnetic fields comprising mainly of disturbances termed as anomalies in the Earth's magnetic field caused by pillars, doors and elevators in hallways which are ferromagnetic in nature. By observing uniqueness in magnetic signatures collected from different campus buildings, the work presents the identification of landmarks and guideposts from these signatures and further develops magnetic maps of buildings - all of which can be used to locate and navigate people indoors. To understand the reason behind these anomalies, first a comparison between the measured and model generated Earth's magnetic field is made, verifying the presence of a constant field without any disturbances. Then by modeling the magnetic field behavior of different pillars such as steel reinforced concrete, solid steel, and other structures like doors and elevators, the interaction of the Earth's field with the ferromagnetic fields is described thereby explaining the causes of the uniqueness in the signatures that comprise these disturbances. Next, by employing the dynamic time warping algorithm to account for time differences in signatures obtained from users walking at different speeds, an indoor localization application capable of classifying locations using the magnetic signatures is developed solely on the smart phone. The application required users to walk short distances of 3-6 m anywhere in hallway to be located with accuracies of 80-99%. The classification framework was further validated with over 90% accuracies using model generated magnetic signatures representing

  19. Magnetic field of the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Aleksey

    2013-04-01

    The magnetic field of the Earth has global meaning for a life on the Earth. The world geophysical science explains: - occurrence of a magnetic field of the Earth it is transformation of kinetic energy of movements of the fused iron in the liquid core of Earth - into the magnetic energy; - the warming up of a kernel of the Earth occurs due to radioactive disintegration of elements, with excretion of thermal energy. The world science does not define the reasons: - drift of a magnetic dipole on 0,2 a year to the West; - drift of lithospheric slabs and continents. The author offers: an alternative variant existing in a world science the theories "Geodynamo" - it is the theory « the Magnetic field of the Earth », created on the basis of physical laws. Education of a magnetic field of the Earth occurs at moving the electric charge located in a liquid kernel, at rotation of the Earth. At calculation of a magnetic field is used law the Bio Savara for a ring electric current: dB = . Magnetic induction in a kernel of the Earth: B = 2,58 Gs. According to the law of electromagnetic induction the Faradey, rotation of a iron kernel of the Earth in magnetic field causes occurrence of an electric field Emf which moves electrons from the center of a kernel towards the mantle. So of arise the radial electric currents. The magnetic field amplifies the iron of mantle and a kernel of the Earth. As a result of action of a radial electric field the electrons will flow from the center of a kernel in a layer of an electric charge. The central part of a kernel represents the field with a positive electric charge, which creates inverse magnetic field Binv and Emfinv When ?mfinv = ?mf ; ?inv = B, there will be an inversion a magnetic field of the Earth. It is a fact: drift of a magnetic dipole of the Earth in the western direction approximately 0,2 longitude, into a year. Radial electric currents a actions with the basic magnetic field of a Earth - it turn a kernel. It coincides with laws

  20. Magnetic field line reconnection experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gekelman, W.; Stenzel, R.L.; Wild, N.

    1982-01-01

    A laboratory experiment concerned with the basic physics of magnetic field line reconnection is discussed. Stimulated by important processes in space plasmas and anomalous transport in fusion plasmas the work addresses the following topics: Dynamic magnetic fields in a high beta plasma, magnetic turbulence, plasma dynamics and energy transport. First, the formation of magnetic neutral sheets, tearing and island coalescence are shown. Nonstationary magnetic fluctuations are statistically evaluated displaying the correlation tensor in the #betta#-k domain for mode identification. Then, the plasma properties are analyzed with particular emphasis on transport processes. Although the classical fluid flow across the separatrix can be observed, the fluctuation processes strongly modify the plasma dynamics. Direct measurements of the fluid force density and ion acceleration indicate the presence of an anomalous scattering process characterized by an effective scattering tensor. Turbulence also enhances the plasma resistivity by one to two orders of magnitude. Measurements of the three-dimensional electron distribution function using a novel energy analyzer exhibit the formation of runaway electrons in the current sheet. Associated micro-instabilities are observed. Finally, a macroscopic disruptive instability of the current sheet is observed. Excess magnetic field energy is converted at a double layer into particle kinetic energy and randomized through beam-plasma instabilities. These laboratory results are compared with related observations in space and fusion plasmas. (Auth.)

  1. Isotope separation by magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    One of the isotopes of an element having several isotopes can be separated from the others in a dense, neutral plasma. Thus initially a neutral plasma is prepared including the element in question. This may consist of positive ions and negative electrons or alternatively of positive and negative ions, or else of a mixture of positive ions, negative ions and electrons. The plasma may then be injected into a magnetic field or may be generated in the field where more energy is imparted to a selected isotope than to the others. Finally, the isotopes are separated from each other on the basis of their differential energies. For example, the selected isotope may be given more energy than the others by stimulating it within the plasma at its resonant frequency which may be close to the cyclotron frequency, either by an electric field or by a magnetic field. In order to excite the other isotope, a different resonant frequency is required which depends on the plasma density, the relative concentration of electrons if the plasma contains electrons, the strength of the magnetic field, the ratio of charge to mass of the isotope, and possibly on the physical parameters of the plasma apparatus itself, such as the ratio of the length of the plasma column to its radius. The more energetic isotope may be separated by energy dependent chemical reactions, it may be collected by a positively biased probe or else the isotopes may be separated from each other by magnetic fields or in various other ways

  2. Photographing magnetic fields in superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, R.B.; Wright, L.S.

    Magneto-optic techniques coupled with high-speed photography are being used to study the destruction of superconductivity by a magnetic field. The phenomenon of superconductivity will be introduced with emphasis placed on the properties of type I and type II superconductors in a magnetic field. The Faraday effect and its application to the study of the penetration of magnetic fields into these superconductors will be described; the relative effectiveness of some types of paramagnetic glass will be demonstrated. A number of cinefilms will be shown to illustrate the versatility of the magneto-optic method for observing flux motion and patterns. The analysis of data obtained from a high speed film (10,200 fps) of a flux jump in Nb-Zr will be presented and discussed

  3. Satellite to study earth's magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The Magnetic Field Satellite (Magsat) designed to measure the near earth magnetic field and crustal anomalies is briefly described. A scalar magnetometer to measure the magnitude of the earth's crustal magnetic field and a vector magnetometer to measure magnetic field direction as well as magnitude are included. The mission and its objectives are summarized along with the data collection and processing system.

  4. Reconnection of magnetic field lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heyn, M.F.; Gratton, F.T.; Gnavi, G.; Heindler, M.

    1990-01-01

    Magnetic field line diffusion in a plasma is studied on the basis of the non-linear boundary layer equations of dissipative, incompressible magnetohydrodynamics. Non-linear steady state solutions for a class of plasma parameters have been obtained which are consistent with the boundary conditions appropriate for reconnection. The solutions are self-consistent in connecting a stagnation point flow of a plasma with reconnecting magnetic field lines. The range of the validity of the solutions, their relation to other fluid models of reconnection, and their possible applications to space plasma configurations are pointed out. (Author)

  5. Magnetic Field Response Measurement Acquisition System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Stanley E.; Taylor,Bryant D.; Shams, Qamar A.; Fox, Robert L.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a measurement acquisition method that alleviates many shortcomings of traditional measurement systems. The shortcomings are a finite number of measurement channels, weight penalty associated with measurements, electrical arcing, wire degradations due to wear or chemical decay and the logistics needed to add new sensors. Wire degradation has resulted in aircraft fatalities and critical space launches being delayed. The key to this method is the use of sensors designed as passive inductor-capacitor circuits that produce magnetic field responses. The response attributes correspond to states of physical properties for which the sensors measure. Power is wirelessly provided to the sensing element by using Faraday induction. A radio frequency antenna produces a time-varying magnetic field used to power the sensor and receive the magnetic field response of the sensor. An interrogation system for discerning changes in the sensor response frequency, resistance and amplitude has been developed and is presented herein. Multiple sensors can be interrogated using this method. The method eliminates the need for a data acquisition channel dedicated to each sensor. The method does not require the sensors to be near the acquisition hardware. Methods of developing magnetic field response sensors and the influence of key parameters on measurement acquisition are discussed. Examples of magnetic field response sensors and the respective measurement characterizations are presented. Implementation of this method on an aerospace system is discussed.

  6. Motions and solar magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krat, V A [AN SSSR, Leningrad. Glavnaya Astronomicheskaya Observatoriya

    1977-02-01

    Fine structure of magnetic fields in the Sun has been investigated. The data of the Soviet solar stratospheric observatory (SSO) with the telescope with a mirror first of 50 and then 100 cm in diameter obtained for the period of 1970-1973 served as material for research. The experiments give evidence of the presence of photospheric granulation with the characteristic dimension of granules below 150 km. The angular resolution of instruments does not make it possible to realize direct measurements of magnetic fields of such sizes. The indirect estimates indicate the fact that the magnetic fields of photosphere cannot be less than 10/sup 2/ Oe. A comparison of Hsub(..cap alpha..) lines with lines of metals and with the continuous spectrum shows that the least dimensions of chromosphere elements account for 500 km. Since in chromosphere density decreases drastically, than in order to suppress hydrodynamic flows fields should be of the order of 10/sup 3/ Oe. It has been concluded that the problem of the origin and evolution of the magnetic field of the Sun should be also solved by applying data on other stars.

  7. Magnetic field influences on the lateral dose response functions of photon-beam detectors: MC study of wall-less water-filled detectors with various densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looe, Hui Khee; Delfs, Björn; Poppinga, Daniela; Harder, Dietrich; Poppe, Björn

    2017-06-21

    The distortion of detector reading profiles across photon beams in the presence of magnetic fields is a developing subject of clinical photon-beam dosimetry. The underlying modification by the Lorentz force of a detector's lateral dose response function-the convolution kernel transforming the true cross-beam dose profile in water into the detector reading profile-is here studied for the first time. The three basic convolution kernels, the photon fluence response function, the dose deposition kernel, and the lateral dose response function, of wall-less cylindrical detectors filled with water of low, normal and enhanced density are shown by Monte Carlo simulation to be distorted in the prevailing direction of the Lorentz force. The asymmetric shape changes of these convolution kernels in a water medium and in magnetic fields of up to 1.5 T are confined to the lower millimetre range, and they depend on the photon beam quality, the magnetic flux density and the detector's density. The impact of this distortion on detector reading profiles is demonstrated using a narrow photon beam profile. For clinical applications it appears as favourable that the magnetic flux density dependent distortion of the lateral dose response function, as far as secondary electron transport is concerned, vanishes in the case of water-equivalent detectors of normal water density. By means of secondary electron history backtracing, the spatial distribution of the photon interactions giving rise either directly to secondary electrons or to scattered photons further downstream producing secondary electrons which contribute to the detector's signal, and their lateral shift due to the Lorentz force is elucidated. Electron history backtracing also serves to illustrate the correct treatment of the influences of the Lorentz force in the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code applied in this study.

  8. Structural alloys for high field superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, J.W. Jr.

    1985-08-01

    Research toward structural alloys for use in high field superconducting magnets is international in scope, and has three principal objectives: the selection or development of suitable structural alloys for the magnet support structure, the identification of mechanical phenomena and failure modes that may influence service behavior, and the design of suitable testing procedures to provide engineering design data. This paper reviews recent progress toward the first two of these objectives. The structural alloy needs depend on the magnet design and superconductor type and differ between magnets that use monolithic and those that employ force-cooled or ICCS conductors. In the former case the central requirement is for high strength, high toughness, weldable alloys that are used in thick sections for the magnet case. In the latter case the need is for high strength, high toughness alloys that are used in thin welded sections for the conductor conduit. There is productive current research on both alloy types. The service behavior of these alloys is influenced by mechanical phenomena that are peculiar to the magnet environment, including cryogenic fatigue, magnetic effects, and cryogenic creep. The design of appropriate mechanical tests is complicated by the need for testing at 4 0 K and by rate effects associated with adiabatic heating during the tests. 46 refs

  9. ATLAS cavern magnetic field calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorojtsov, S.B.; Vorozhtsov, A.S.; Butin, F.; Price, M.

    2000-01-01

    A new approach has been adopted in an attempt to produce a complete ATLAS cavern B-field map using a more precise methodological approach (variable magnetisation, depending on the external field) and the latest design taking into account of the structural elements. The basic idea was to produce a dedicated basic TOSCA model and then to insert a series of ferromagnetic structure elements to monitor the perturbative effect on the basic field map. Eventually, it was found: the bedplate field perturbation is an order of magnitude above the permissible level; manufacturing of the bedplates from nonmagnetic material or careful evaluation of their field contribution in the event reconstruction codes is required; the field value at the rack positions is higher than the permissible one; the final position of racks should be chosen taking into account the detailed magnetic field distribution

  10. Trapped field recovery of bulk superconductor magnets by static field magnetization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Z.; Tsuzuki, K.; Miki, M.; Felder, B.; Hara, S.; Izumi, M.

    2011-11-01

    Thanks to the trapped field of bulk high-temperature superconductors, they can be used as field-pole magnets in the high temperature superconducting (HTS) rotating machines. For example, an output power of 10 kW at 720 rpm was realized by an average trapped field of 0.56 T of eight melt-textured GdBa2Cu3Oy (Gd-123) bulks at liquid nitrogen temperature in TUMSAT in 2004. Similarly to the HTS machines involving 1G or 2G wires, the trapped field of the bulk is possibly sensitive and even can be attenuated by the AC component field during the operation. Hence, it is necessary to recover the trapped field once being decreased to some extent in the practical application. From this point, we have investigated the trapped field recovery of HTS bulk magnets by static field magnetization in the paper. A series of different initial trapped fields after zero-field-cooling or field-cooling magnetization are used to simulate the attenuated trapped field. By comparing the trapped field peak and its distribution, the trapped field was found to be able to recover by the static field magnetization method with a stronger excitation field and the initial trapped flux inside the bulk also has an influence on the recovery process. The optimum recovery field was found to be about 2.5 times the saturated trapped field of the bulk at liquid nitrogen temperature, by which the bulk can regain the former best trapped field performance.

  11. Doped spin ladders under magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roux, G.

    2007-07-01

    This thesis deals with the physics of doped two-leg ladders which are a quasi one-dimensional and unconventional superconductor. We particularly focus on the properties under magnetic field. Models for strongly correlated electrons on ladders are studied using exact diagonalization and density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG). Results are also enlightened by using the bosonization technique. Taking into account a ring exchange it highlights the relation between the pairing of holes and the spin gap. Its influence on the dynamics of the magnetic fluctuations is also tackled. Afterwards, these excitations are probed by the magnetic field by coupling it to the spin degree of freedom of the electrons through Zeeman effect. We show the existence of doping-dependent magnetization plateaus and also the presence of an inhomogeneous superconducting phase (FFLO phase) associated with an exceeding of the Pauli limit. When a flux passes through the ladder, the magnetic field couples to the charge degree of freedom of the electrons via orbital effect. The diamagnetic response of the doped ladder probes the commensurate phases of the t-J model at low J/t. Algebraic transverse current fluctuations are also found once the field is turned on. Lastly, we report numerical evidences of a molecular superfluid phase in the 3/2-spin attractive Hubbard model: at a density low enough, bound states of four fermions, called quartets, acquire dominant superfluid fluctuations. The observed competition between the superfluid and density fluctuations is connected to the physics of doped ladders. (author)

  12. Influence of weak magnetic field and tartrate on the oxidation and sequestration of Sb(III) by zerovalent iron: Batch and semi-continuous flow study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Peng; Sun, Yuankui; Qiao, Junlian; Lo, Irene M C; Guan, Xiaohong

    2018-02-05

    The influence of weak magnetic field (WMF) and tartrate on the oxidation and sequestration of Sb(III) by zerovalent iron (ZVI) was investigated with batch and semi-continuous reactors. The species analysis of antinomy in aqueous solution and solid precipitates implied that both Sb(III) adsorption preceding its conversion to Sb(V) in solid phase and Sb(III) oxidation to Sb(V) preceding its adsorption in aqueous phase occurred in the process of Sb(III) sequestration by ZVI. The application of WMF greatly increased the rate constants of Sb tot (total Sb) and Sb(III) disappearance during Sb(III)-tartrate and uncomplexed-Sb(III) sequestration by ZVI. The enhancing effect of WMF was primarily due to the accelerated ZVI corrosion in the presence of WMF, as evidenced by the influence of WMF on the change of solution and solid properties with reaction. However, tartrate greatly retarded Sb removal by ZVI. It was because tartrate inhibited ZVI corrosion, competed with Sb(III) and Sb(V) for the active surface sites, increased the negative surface charge of the generated iron (hydr)oxides due to its adsorption, and formed soluble complexes with Fe(III). The positive effect of WMF on Sb(III)-tartrate and uncomplexed-Sb(III) removal by ZVI was also verified with a magnetic semi-continuous reactor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Magnetic field induced incommensurate resonance in cuprate superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jingge; Cheng Li; Guo Huaiming; Feng Shiping

    2009-01-01

    The influence of a uniform external magnetic field on the dynamical spin response of cuprate superconductors in the superconducting state is studied based on the kinetic energy driven superconducting mechanism. It is shown that the magnetic scattering around low and intermediate energies is dramatically changed with a modest external magnetic field. With increasing the external magnetic field, although the incommensurate magnetic scattering from both low and high energies is rather robust, the commensurate magnetic resonance scattering peak is broadened. The part of the spin excitation dispersion seems to be an hourglass-like dispersion, which breaks down at the heavily low energy regime. The theory also predicts that the commensurate resonance scattering at zero external magnetic field is induced into the incommensurate resonance scattering by applying an external magnetic field large enough

  14. Magnetization reversal of Co-based amorphous wires induced by longitudinal AC magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perov, N.S.; Antonov, A.S.; Buznikov, N.A.; Granovsky, A.B. E-mail: granov@magn.ru; Iakubov, I.T.; Kartashov, M.A.; Rakhmanov, A.A

    2004-05-01

    The remagnetization process in CoFeSiB amorphous wires under influence of a high-amplitude AC longitudinal magnetic field is studied. The frequency spectra of the voltage at the wire ends are measured as a function of a longitudinal DC magnetic field and the AC field amplitude. A high sensitivity of the voltage harmonics to the DC magnetic field is demonstrated. The experimental results are interpreted within a simple rotational model.

  15. Magnetization reversal of Co-based amorphous wires induced by longitudinal AC magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perov, N.S.; Antonov, A.S.; Buznikov, N.A.; Granovsky, A.B.; Iakubov, I.T.; Kartashov, M.A.; Rakhmanov, A.A.

    2004-01-01

    The remagnetization process in CoFeSiB amorphous wires under influence of a high-amplitude AC longitudinal magnetic field is studied. The frequency spectra of the voltage at the wire ends are measured as a function of a longitudinal DC magnetic field and the AC field amplitude. A high sensitivity of the voltage harmonics to the DC magnetic field is demonstrated. The experimental results are interpreted within a simple rotational model

  16. Faraday diamagnetism under slowly oscillating magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Tsunehisa; Kimura, Fumiko; Kimura, Yosuke

    2018-04-01

    Diamagnetism is a universal phenomenon of materials arising from the orbital motion of electrons bound to atoms, which is commonly known as Langevin diamagnetism. The orbital motion also occurs according to the Faraday's law of induction when the applied magnetic field is oscillating. However, the influence of this dynamic effect on the magnetism of materials has seldom been studied. Here, we propose a new type diamagnetism coined Faraday diamagnetism. The magnitude of this diamagnetism evaluated by an atomic electric circuit model was as large as that of Langevin diamagnetism. The predicted scale of Faraday diamagnetism was supported by experiments.

  17. Galactic and intergalactic magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    This course-tested textbook conveys the fundamentals of magnetic fields and relativistic plasma in diffuse cosmic media, with a primary focus on phenomena that have been observed at different wavelengths. Theoretical concepts are addressed wherever necessary, with derivations presented in sufficient detail to be generally accessible.In the first few chapters the authors present an introduction to various astrophysical phenomena related to cosmic magnetism, with scales ranging from molecular clouds in star-forming regions and supernova remnants in the Milky Way, to clusters of galaxies. Later c

  18. Electron dynamics in inhomogeneous magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogaret, Alain, E-mail: A.R.Nogaret@bath.ac.u [Department of Physics, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-30

    This review explores the dynamics of two-dimensional electrons in magnetic potentials that vary on scales smaller than the mean free path. The physics of microscopically inhomogeneous magnetic fields relates to important fundamental problems in the fractional quantum Hall effect, superconductivity, spintronics and graphene physics and spins out promising applications which will be described here. After introducing the initial work done on electron localization in random magnetic fields, the experimental methods for fabricating magnetic potentials are presented. Drift-diffusion phenomena are then described, which include commensurability oscillations, magnetic channelling, resistance resonance effects and magnetic dots. We then review quantum phenomena in magnetic potentials including magnetic quantum wires, magnetic minibands in superlattices, rectification by snake states, quantum tunnelling and Klein tunnelling. The third part is devoted to spintronics in inhomogeneous magnetic fields. This covers spin filtering by magnetic field gradients and circular magnetic fields, electrically induced spin resonance, spin resonance fluorescence and coherent spin manipulation. (topical review)

  19. Magnetic field effect on flow parameters of blood along with magnetic particles in a cylindrical tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Shashi, E-mail: shashisharma1984@gmail.com; Singh, Uaday; Katiyar, V.K.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, the effect of external uniform magnetic field on flow parameters of both blood and magnetic particles is reported through a mathematical model using magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) approach. The fluid is acted upon by a varying pressure gradient and an external uniform magnetic field is applied perpendicular to the cylindrical tube. The governing nonlinear partial differential equations were solved numerically and found that flow parameters are affected by the influence of magnetic field. Further, artificial blood (75% water+25% Glycerol) along with iron oxide magnetic particles were prepared and transported into a glass tube with help of a peristaltic pump. The velocity of artificial blood along with magnetic particles was experimentally measured at different magnetic fields ranging from 100 to 600 mT. The model results show that the velocity of blood and magnetic particles is appreciably reduced under the influence of magnetic field, which is supported by our experimental results. - Highlights: • Effect of magnetic field on flow parameters of blood and magnetic particles is studied. • The velocity of blood and magnetic particles is appreciably reduced under a magnetic field. • Experimental results of the velocity of magnetic particles within blood support the mathematical model results.

  20. The influence of ligand field effects on the magnetic exchange of high-spin Co(II)-semiquinonate complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencini, Alessandro; Beni, Alessandra; Costantino, Ferdinando; Dei, Andrea; Gatteschi, Dante; Sorace, Lorenzo

    2006-02-07

    [Co(Me(4)cyclam)(tropolonate)](PF(6)) was synthesised and structurally characterised. Its electronic and W-band EPR spectra have been analysed by means of the angular overlap calculation of the Spin Hamiltonian parameters that provided also a satisfactory reproduction of the temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility. The present results can be interpreted assuming a pseudo-octahedral character for the Co(II) center. This prompted us to reconsider the model formerly used for the analysis of the magnetic coupling between hs-Co(II) and the paramagnetic o-semiquinonate ligand in the corresponding derivatives [Co(Me(4)cyclam)(PhenSQ)](PF(6)) and [Co(Me(4)cyclam)(DTBSQ)](PF(6)). These results indicate that the effect of the magnetic coupling is active only below 50 K and that a more refined model of exchange coupling between Co(II) and semiquinonato ligands is needed to quantitatively analyze the magnetic behaviour of this class of systems.

  1. RESICALC: Magnetic field modeling program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, J.M.

    1992-12-01

    RESICALC, Version 1.0, is a Microsoft Windows application that describes the magnetic field environment produced by user-defined arrays of transmission lines, distribution lines, and custom conductors. These arrays simulate specific situations that may be encountered in real-world community settings. RESICALC allows the user to define an area or ''world'' that contains the transmission and/or distribution lines, user-defined conductors, and locations of residences. The world contains a ''reference grid'' within which RESICALC analyzes the magnetic field environment due to all conductors within the world. Unique physical parameters (e.g., conductor height and spacing) and operating characteristics can be assigned to all electrical conductors. RESICALC's output is available for the x, y, z axis separately, the resultant (the three axes added in quadrature), and the major axis, each in three possible formats: a three-dimensional map of the magnetic field, two dimensional-contours, and as a table with statistical values. All formats may be printed, accompanied by a three-dimensional view of the world the user has drawn. The view of the world and the corresponding three-dimensional field map may be adjusted to the elevation and rotation angle of the user's preference

  2. Diagnostics of vector magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenflo, J. O.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown that the vector magnetic fields derived from observations with a filter magnetograph will be severely distorted if the spatially unresolved magnetic structure is not properly accounted for. Thus the apparent vector field will appear much more horizontal than it really is, but this distortion is strongly dependent on the area factor and the temperature line weakenings. As the available fluxtube models are not sufficiently well determined, it is not possible to correct the filter magnetograph observations for these effects in a reliable way, although a crude correction is of course much better than no correction at all. The solution to this diagnostic problem is to observe simultaneously in suitable combinations of spectral lines, and/or use Stokes line profiles recorded with very high spectral resolution. The diagnostic power of using a Fourier transform spectrometer for polarimetry is shown and some results from I and V spectra are illustrated. The line asymmetries caused by mass motions inside the fluxtubes adds an extra complication to the diagnostic problem, in particular as there are indications that the motions are nonstationary in nature. The temperature structure appears to be a function of fluxtube diameter, as a clear difference between plage and network fluxtubes was revealed. The divergence of the magnetic field with height plays an essential role in the explanation of the Stokes V asymmetries (in combination with the mass motions). A self consistent treatment of the subarcsec field geometry may be required to allow an accurate derivation of the spatially averaged vector magnetic field from spectrally resolved data.

  3. The influence of a static, homogenous magnetic field (B=320mT) on extracardiac pulsations of Tenebrio molitor pupae (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vácha, M

    1997-10-01

    While investigating and describing interactions among living organisms and magnetic fields (MFs) it is imperative to lay great emphasis on independent reproducibility of published experimental results. Mutual confrontation of existing theoretical models with reliable data obtained under comparable conditions can aid gradual mapping of this hitherto badly organized and understood discipline of biology. The objective of our experiment, based on analysing extracardiac pulsations of the pupae of Tenebrio molitor under the influence of a MF, was to verify published data on allegedly accelerated development induced by a MF employing a different procedure. The obtained data are in agreement with a hypothesis of increased pupal metabolism during the period of MF activity. Furthermore, some dependence on the age of the pupae cannot be ruled out.

  4. Generation of magnetic fields for accelerators with permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinander, T.

    1994-01-01

    Commercially available permanent magnet materials and their properties are reviewed. Advantages and disadvantages of using permanent magnets as compared to electromagnets for the generation of specific magnetic fields are discussed. Basic permanent magnet configurations in multipole magnets and insertion devices are presented. (orig.)

  5. Magnetic fluid bridge in a non-uniform magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelevina, D.A.; Naletova, V.A.; Turkov, V.A.

    2017-01-01

    The shape of a magnetic fluid bridge between a horizontal ferrite rod of circular cross-section and a horizontal plate above the rod in a vertical applied uniform magnetic field is studied. Various static shapes of the bridges are obtained theoretically and experimentally for the same magnetic field value. Abrupt changes and the hysteresis of the bridge shape in alternating magnetic fields are observed experimentally. - Highlights: • Magnetic fluid bridge between rod and horizontal plate in magnetic field is studied. • Magnetic field is created by a ferrite rod in a uniform vertical magnetic field. • Various static bridge shapes for fixed field are obtained in theory and experiment. • A good agreement of experimental and theoretical results is obtained. • Hysteresis of the bridge shape in alternating field is observed experimentally.

  6. Establishment of magnetic coordinates for a given magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boozer, A.H.

    1981-04-01

    A method is given for expressing the magnetic field strength in magnetic coordinates for a given field. This expression is central to the study of equilibrium, stability, and transport in asymmetric plasmas

  7. Magnetic fluid bridge in a non-uniform magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelevina, D.A., E-mail: pelevina.daria@gmail.com; Naletova, V.A.; Turkov, V.A.

    2017-06-01

    The shape of a magnetic fluid bridge between a horizontal ferrite rod of circular cross-section and a horizontal plate above the rod in a vertical applied uniform magnetic field is studied. Various static shapes of the bridges are obtained theoretically and experimentally for the same magnetic field value. Abrupt changes and the hysteresis of the bridge shape in alternating magnetic fields are observed experimentally. - Highlights: • Magnetic fluid bridge between rod and horizontal plate in magnetic field is studied. • Magnetic field is created by a ferrite rod in a uniform vertical magnetic field. • Various static bridge shapes for fixed field are obtained in theory and experiment. • A good agreement of experimental and theoretical results is obtained. • Hysteresis of the bridge shape in alternating field is observed experimentally.

  8. Field errors in superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, M.Q.

    1982-01-01

    The mission of this workshop is a discussion of the techniques for tracking particles through arbitrary accelerator field configurations to look for dynamical effects that are suggested by various theoretical models but are not amenable to detailed analysis. A major motivation for this type of study is that many of our accelerator projects are based on the use of superconducting magnets which have field imperfections that are larger and of a more complex nature than those of conventional magnets. Questions such as resonances, uncorrectable closed orbit effects, coupling between planes, and diffusion mechanisms all assume new importance. Since, simultaneously, we are trying to do sophisticated beam manipulations such as stacking, high current accelerator, long life storage, and low loss extraction, we clearly need efficient and accurate tracking programs to proceed with confidence

  9. Magnetic Fields of Neutron Stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sushan Konar

    2017-09-12

    Sep 12, 2017 ... the material properties of the region where currents supporting the .... 1The evolution of magnetic field in neutron stars, in particular, the question of .... −10, 10. −9, 10. −8. M⊙/yr respec- tively. See Konar & Bhattacharya (1997) for details. Peq ≃ 1.9 ms ..... ported by a grant (SR/WOS-A/PM-1038/2014) from.

  10. Spline techniques for magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspinall, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    This report is an overview of B-spline techniques, oriented toward magnetic field computation. These techniques form a powerful mathematical approximating method for many physics and engineering calculations. In section 1, the concept of a polynomial spline is introduced. Section 2 shows how a particular spline with well chosen properties, the B-spline, can be used to build any spline. In section 3, the description of how to solve a simple spline approximation problem is completed, and some practical examples of using splines are shown. All these sections deal exclusively in scalar functions of one variable for simplicity. Section 4 is partly digression. Techniques that are not B-spline techniques, but are closely related, are covered. These methods are not needed for what follows, until the last section on errors. Sections 5, 6, and 7 form a second group which work toward the final goal of using B-splines to approximate a magnetic field. Section 5 demonstrates how to approximate a scalar function of many variables. The necessary mathematics is completed in section 6, where the problems of approximating a vector function in general, and a magnetic field in particular, are examined. Finally some algorithms and data organization are shown in section 7. Section 8 deals with error analysis

  11. Behaviour of magnetic superconductors in a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzdin, A.I.

    1984-01-01

    The behaviour of magnetic superconductors with close ferromagnetic and superconducting transition temperatures in a magnetic field is considered. It is shown that on lowering of the temperature the superconducting transition changes from a second to first order transition. The respective critical fields and dependence of the magnetization on the magnetic field and temperature are found. The magnetization discontinuity in the vortex core in magnetic superconductors is noted. Due to this property and the relatively large scattering cross section, magnetic superconductors are convenient for studying the superconducting vortex lattice by neutron diffraction techniques

  12. Measurements of Solar Vector Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagyard, M. J. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    Various aspects of the measurement of solar magnetic fields are presented. The four major subdivisions of the study are: (1) theoretical understanding of solar vector magnetic fields; (3) techniques for interpretation of observational data; and (4) techniques for data display.

  13. Shaped superconductor cylinder retains intense magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, A. F.; Wahlquist, H.

    1964-01-01

    The curve of the inner walls of a superconducting cylinder is plotted from the flux lines of the magnetic field to be contained. This shaping reduces maximum flux densities and permits a stronger and more uniform magnetic field.

  14. Anisotropic magnetism in field-structured composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, James E.; Venturini, Eugene; Odinek, Judy; Anderson, Robert A.

    2000-01-01

    Magnetic field-structured composites (FSCs) are made by structuring magnetic particle suspensions in uniaxial or biaxial (e.g., rotating) magnetic fields, while polymerizing the suspending resin. A uniaxial field produces chainlike particle structures, and a biaxial field produces sheetlike particle structures. In either case, these anisotropic structures affect the measured magnetic hysteresis loops, with the magnetic remanence and susceptibility increased significantly along the axis of the structuring field, and decreased slightly orthogonal to the structuring field, relative to the unstructured particle composite. The coercivity is essentially unaffected by structuring. We present data for FSCs of magnetically soft particles, and demonstrate that the altered magnetism can be accounted for by considering the large local fields that occur in FSCs. FSCs of magnetically hard particles show unexpectedly large anisotropies in the remanence, and this is due to the local field effects in combination with the large crystalline anisotropy of this material. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  15. Measurements of Solar Vector Magnetic Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagyard, M.J.

    1985-05-01

    Various aspects of the measurement of solar magnetic fields are presented. The four major subdivisions of the study are: (1) theoretical understanding of solar vector magnetic fields; (3) techniques for interpretation of observational data; and (4) techniques for data display

  16. Application of the magnetic fluid as a detector for changing the magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyatkov, D.; Yurchenko, A.; Yurchenko, V.; Balashov, V.

    2018-05-01

    In article the possibility of use of magnetic fluid as a sensitive element for fixing of change of induction of magnetic field in space is considered. Importance of solvable tasks is connected with search of the perspective magnetic substances susceptible to weak magnetic field. The results of a study of the capacitive method for fixing the change in the magnetic field on the basis of a ferromagnetic liquid are presented. The formation of chain structures in the ferrofluid from magnetic particles under the influence of the applied magnetic field leads to a change in the capacitance of the plate condenser. This task has important practical value for development of a magnetosensitive sensor of change of magnetic field.

  17. TWO FERROMAGNETIC SPHERES IN HOMOGENEOUS MAGNETIC FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury A. Krasnitsky

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of two spherical conductors is studied quite in detail with bispherical coordinates usage and has numerous appendices in an electrostatics. The boundary-value problem about two ferromagnetic spheres enclosed on homogeneous and infinite environment in which the lack of spheres exists like homogeneous magnetic field is considered. The solution of Laplace's equation in the bispherical system of coordinates allows us to find the potential and field distribution in all spaces, including area between spheres. The boundary conditions in potential continuity and in ordinary density constituent of spheres surfaces induction flux are used. It is supposed that spheres are identical, and magnetic permeability of their material is expressed in  >> 0. The problem about falling of electromagnetic plane wave on the system of two spheres, which possesses electrically small sizes, can be considered as quasistationary. The scalar potentials received as a result of Laplace's equation solution are represented by the series containing Legendre polynomials. The concept of two spheres system effective permeability is introduced. It is equal to the advantage in magnitude of magnetic induction flux vector through a certain system’s section arising due to its magnetic properties. Necessary ratios for the effective permeability referred to the central system’s section are obtained. Particularly, the results can be used during the analysis of ferroxcube core clearance, which influences on the magnetic antenna properties. 

  18. Influence of grain size and upper critical magnetic field on global pinning force of bronze-processed Nb/sub 3/Sn compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochiai, S.; Osamura, K.

    1986-01-01

    In order to know the dependency of global pinning force of Nb/sub 3/Sn compound on grain size and upper critical magnetic field, the global pinning force was measured at 3-15 T using bronze-processed multifilamentary composites. The grain size and upper critical magnetic field were varied by two types of annealing treatment: one is the isothermal annealing at 873, 973 and 1073 K up to 1730 ks and another is the two-stage annealing (low temperature annealing to form fine grains at 873 K for 1730 ks + high temperature annealing to raise upper critical magnetic field at 1073 K up to 18 ks). In the case of isothermal annealing treatment, both of grain size and upper critical magnetic field increased with increasing annealing temperature and time except for the annealing treatments at high temperature for prolonged times. In the case of two-stage annealing, both of them increased with second stage annealing time. The increase in grain size led to decrease in the pinning force but the increase in upper critical magnetic field to increase in it. From the analysis of the present data based on the Suenaga's speculation concerning with the density of pinning site and the Kramer's equation, it was suggested that the pinning force is, to a first approximation, proportional to the product of inverse grain size and (1-h)/sup 2/h/sup 1/2/ where h is the reduced magnetic field

  19. Biotropic parameters of magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shishlo, M.A.

    The use of magnetic fields (MF) in biology and medicine to control biological systems has led to appearance of the term, biotropic parameters of MF. They include the physical characteristics of MF, which determine the primary biologically significant physicochemical mechanisms of field action causing formation of corresponding reactions on the level of the integral organism. These parameters include MF intensity, gradient, vector, pulse frequency and shape, and duration of exposure. Factors that elicit responses by the biological system include such parameter of MF interaction with the integral organism as localization of exposure and volume of tissues interacting with the field, as well as the initial state of the organism. In essence, the findings of experimental studies of biotropic parameters of MF make it possible to control physiological processes and will aid in optimizing methods of MF therapy.

  20. Method of regulating magnetic field of magnetic pole center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Masao; Yamada, Teruo; Kato, Norihiko; Toda, Yojiro; Kaneda, Yasumasa.

    1978-01-01

    Purpose: To provide the subject method comprising using a plurality of magnetic metal pieces having different thicknesses, regulating very easily symmetry of the field of the magnetic pole center depending upon the combination of said metal pieces, thereby obtaining a magnetic field of high precision. Method: The regulation of magnetic field at the central part of the magnetic field is not depending only upon processing of the center plug, axial movement of trim coil and ion source but by providing a magnetic metal piece such as an iron ring, primary higher harmonics of the field at the center of the magnetic field can be regulated simply while the position of the ion source slit is on the equipotential surface in the field. (Yoshihara, H.)

  1. Bats respond to very weak magnetic fields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan-Xiang Tian

    Full Text Available How animals, including mammals, can respond to and utilize the direction and intensity of the Earth's magnetic field for orientation and navigation is contentious. In this study, we experimentally tested whether the Chinese Noctule, Nyctalus plancyi (Vespertilionidae can sense magnetic field strengths that were even lower than those of the present-day geomagnetic field. Such field strengths occurred during geomagnetic excursions or polarity reversals and thus may have played an important role in the evolution of a magnetic sense. We found that in a present-day local geomagnetic field, the bats showed a clear preference for positioning themselves at the magnetic north. As the field intensity decreased to only 1/5th of the natural intensity (i.e., 10 μT; the lowest field strength tested here, the bats still responded by positioning themselves at the magnetic north. When the field polarity was artificially reversed, the bats still preferred the new magnetic north, even at the lowest field strength tested (10 μT, despite the fact that the artificial field orientation was opposite to the natural geomagnetic field (P<0.05. Hence, N. plancyi is able to detect the direction of a magnetic field even at 1/5th of the present-day field strength. This high sensitivity to magnetic fields may explain how magnetic orientation could have evolved in bats even as the Earth's magnetic field strength varied and the polarity reversed tens of times over the past fifty million years.

  2. The influence of the low-frequency magnetic fields of different parameters on the secretion of cortisol in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Woldańska-Okońska

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this paper is to test the infl uence of long-term application of the low-frequency magnetic fi elds in magnetotherapy and magnetostimulation on cortisol secretion in men. Materials and Methods: Patients were divided into three groups: 16 men underwent magnetotherapy and 20 men (divided into two groups underwent magnetostimulation. Magnetotherapy – 2 mT induction, 40 Hz, bipolar square wave, was applied for 20 min to lumbar area. Magnetostimulation (Viofor Jaroszyk, Paluszak, Sieroń (JPS system, M2P2 program was applied to 10 patients for 12 min each day. The third group (10 patients underwent magnetostimulation (Viofor JPS system, M3P3 for 12 min each day using a different machine. All groups had 15 rounds of applications at approximately 10:00 a.m. with intermissions on the weekends. Blood serum was taken four times in a 24-hour period, before applications, the day after applications and a month later. Chemiluminescence micromethod was used to indicate hormone concentrations. Data was statistically analyzed with the analysis of variance (ANOVA method. Results: The statistically signifi cant gains in the circadian cortisol profi le at 4:00 p.m., before and after application, were observed as a decrease in concentration during magnetotherapy. In magnetostimulation, with the M2P2 program, a signifi cant increase in the cortisol concentration was observed in circadian profi le at 12:00 p.m. one month after the last application. After magnetostimulation with the M3P3 program, a signifi cant increase in concentration at 6:00 a.m. and a decrease in concentration at 12:00 p.m. were observed one month later. Statistically signifi cant difference was demonstrated in the participants after the application of magnetotherapy and magnetostimulation with M3P3 program compared to the men submitted to magnetostimulation, with M2P2 program, at 4:00 p.m. after 15 applications. Conclusions: Biological hysteresis one month after

  3. Magnetic fields for transporting charged beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parzen, G.

    1976-01-01

    The transport of charged particle beams requires magnetic fields that must be shaped correctly and very accurately. During the last 20 years or so, many studies have been made, both analytically and through the use of computer programs, of various magnetic shapes that have proved to be useful. Many of the results for magnetic field shapes can be applied equally well to electric field shapes. A report is given which gathers together the results that have more general significance and would be useful in designing a configuration to produce a desired magnetic field shape. The field shapes studied include the fields in dipoles, quadrupoles, sextupoles, octupoles, septum magnets, combined-function magnets, and electrostatic septums. Where possible, empirical formulas are proposed, based on computer and analytical studies and on magnetic field measurements. These empirical formulas are often easier to use than analytical formulas and often include effects that are difficult to compute analytically. In addition, results given in the form of tables and graphs serve as illustrative examples. The field shapes studied include uniform fields produced by window-frame magnets, C-magnets, H-magnets, and cosine magnets; linear fields produced by various types of quadrupoles; quadratic and cubic fields produced by sextupoles and octupoles; combinations of uniform and linear fields; and septum fields with sharp boundaries

  4. Influence of High Magnetic Field and Zn Doping on Robust CO Phase of La0.5Ca0.5MnO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Z.; Xia, Z. C.; Wei, M.; Yang, F.; Huang, S.; Xiao, G. L.; Shang, C.; Cheng, H.; Wu, H.; Zhang, X. X.; Ouyang, Z. W.

    2017-08-01

    Magnetic and electrical transport properties of La0.5Ca0.5- x Zn x MnO3 ( x = 0, 0.1, 0.15) have been investigated in a wide magnetic field range from 0 T to 50 T. Experimental results show that doping of nonmagnetic Zn2+ ion at Ca site and application of high magnetic field had obvious tuning effects on the stability of the robust charge-order phase, inducing new magnetization and electrical transport behaviors. In particular, obvious temperature and field hysteresis was induced, leading to enhanced magnetoresistance at around room temperature. Based on the intricate interplay between the external magnetic field and chemical strain (lattice distortion) induced by the dopant, which changed the bond length and the angle of double exchange and partially destroyed the charge-order phase, a weak ferromagnetic phase formed. The hysteretic behavior and enhanced magnetoresistance can be understood based on the tuning effects of the high magnetic field and dopant on the stability of the charge-order phase.

  5. Particle magnetic moment conservation and resonance in a pure magnetohydrodynamic shock and field inclination influence on diffusive shock acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lieu, R.; Quenby, J.J.

    1990-01-01

    Computational and analytical methods have been used in a study of particle acceleration by MHD shocks. Numerical simulations of single-particle trajectories indicate that magnetic moment is conserved quite accurately for an encounter with a near-perpendicular shock, and for all pitch angles except the very small ones. Acceleration is most effective for particles which are reflected by the shock at small pitch angles. If future encounters with the shock are possible, large acceleration will be repeated only for relativistic plasma flow velocities. Results for the pure MHD shock are then considered within the context of a diffusion model (hence a diffusive MHD shock). The microscopic approach is employed whereby one follows the history of a test particle and explicitly takes into account the possibility of reflection by the shock. Exact analytical solutions are currently available to order V/c, where V is the plasma flow speed, and are found to be in complete agreement with diffusion theory. More specifically, the presence of electromagnetic effects leads to a shortening of acceleration time scale but does not change the steady state spectrum of energetic particles. 7 refs

  6. Experimental Investigation on the Influence of Axial Magnetic Field Distribution on Resisting the Constriction of a High-Current Vacuum Arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Zongqian; Liu Zhigang; Jia Shenli; Song Xiaochuan; Wang Lijun

    2009-01-01

    Effect of the axial magnetic field (AMF) on resisting the constriction of a high-current vacuum arc is studied in this paper. Two typical AMF distributions were investigated, i.e., the traditional bell-shaped AMF, and the saddle-shaped AMF. Experiments were conducted in a detachable vacuum chamber with a rms arc current in the range of 10 kA to 25 kA. The arc column was photographed by a high-speed digital camera with an exposure time of 2 microseconds. The constriction of the vacuum arc was compared by processing the images of the arc column under the two different field configurations and numerically determining the dimensions of the arc column near the electrodes. It was also confirmed that the AMF distribution had a significant influence on its effectiveness in resisting arc constriction. Furthermore, the AMF strength near the periphery of the arc is more influential than that at the centre of the electrodes in resisting arc constriction.

  7. Probing Black Hole Magnetic Fields with QED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Caiazzo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of vacuum birefringence is one of the first predictions of quantum electrodynamics (QED: the presence of a charged Dirac field makes the vacuum birefringent when threaded by magnetic fields. This effect, extremely weak for terrestrial magnetic fields, becomes important for highly magnetized astrophysical objects, such as accreting black holes. In the X-ray regime, the polarization of photons traveling in the magnetosphere of a black hole is not frozen at emission but is changed by the local magnetic field. We show that, for photons traveling along the plane of the disk, where the field is expected to be partially organized, this results in a depolarization of the X-ray radiation. Because the amount of depolarization depends on the strength of the magnetic field, this effect can provide a way to probe the magnetic field in black-hole accretion disks and to study the role of magnetic fields in astrophysical accretion in general.

  8. Effective magnetic moment of neutrinos in strong magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez M, A.; Perez R, H.; Masood, S.S.; Gaitan, R.; Rodriguez R, S.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we compute the effective magnetic moment of neutrinos propagating in dense high magnetized medium. Taking typical values of magnetic field and densities of astrophysical objects (such as the cores of supernovae and neutron stars) we obtain an effective type of dipole magnetic moment in agreement with astrophysical and cosmological bounds. (Author)

  9. Magnetic field measuring system for remapping the ORIC magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosko, S.W.; Hudson, E.D.; Lord, R.S.; Hensley, D.C.; Biggerstaff, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    The Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility will integrate a new 25 MV tandem electrostatic acccelerator into the existing cyclotron laboratory which includes the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron (ORIC). Computations of ion paths for beam injection from the new tandem into ORIC require field mapping in the regions traversed by the beam. Additional field data is also desired for the higher levels (approx.19 kG) now used for most heavy ion beams. The magnetic field measurement system uses 39 flip coil/current integrator sets with computer controlled data scanning. The coils are spaced radially at 1 inch intervals in an arm which can be rotated azimuthally in 2 degree increments. The entire flip coil assembly can be shifted to larger radii to measure fields beyond the pole boundary. Temperature stabilization of electronic circuitry permits a measurement resolution of +-1 gauss over a dynamic range of +-25,000 gauss. The system will process a scan of 8000 points in about one hour

  10. Self-generation of magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolan, T.J.

    2000-01-01

    The stars generate self-magnetic fields on large spatial scales and long time scales,and laser-produced plasmas generate intense self-magnetic fields on very short spatial and time scales. Two questions are posed : (1) Could a self-magnetic field be generated in a laboratory plasma with intermediate spatial and time scales? (2) If a self-magnetic field were generated,would it evolve towards a minimum energy state? If the answers turned out to be affirmative,then self-magnetic fields could possibly have interesting applications

  11. The measurement of solar magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenflo, J.O.

    1978-01-01

    Solar activity is basically caused by the interaction between magnetic fields, solar rotation and convective motions. Detailed mapping of the Sun's rapidly varying magnetic field helps in the understanding of the mechanisms of solar activity. Observations in recent years have revealed unexpected and intriguing properties of solar magnetic fields, the explanation of which has become a challenge to plasma physicists. This review deals primarily with how the Sun's magnetic field is measured, but it also includes a brief review of the present observational picture of the magnetic field, which is needed to understand the problems of how to properly interpret the observations. 215 references. (author)

  12. The origin, evolution and signatures of primordial magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Kandaswamy

    2016-07-01

    The universe is magnetized on all scales probed so far. On the largest scales, galaxies and galaxy clusters host magnetic fields at the micro Gauss level coherent on scales up to ten kpc. Recent observational evidence suggests that even the intergalactic medium in voids could host a weak  ∼  10(-16) Gauss magnetic field, coherent on Mpc scales. An intriguing possibility is that these observed magnetic fields are a relic from the early universe, albeit one which has been subsequently amplified and maintained by a dynamo in collapsed objects. We review here the origin, evolution and signatures of primordial magnetic fields. After a brief summary of magnetohydrodynamics in the expanding universe, we turn to magnetic field generation during inflation and phase transitions. We trace the linear and nonlinear evolution of the generated primordial fields through the radiation era, including viscous effects. Sensitive observational signatures of primordial magnetic fields on the cosmic microwave background, including current constraints from Planck, are discussed. After recombination, primordial magnetic fields could strongly influence structure formation, especially on dwarf galaxy scales. The resulting signatures on reionization, the redshifted 21 cm line, weak lensing and the Lyman-α forest are outlined. Constraints from radio and γ-ray astronomy are summarized. Astrophysical batteries and the role of dynamos in reshaping the primordial field are briefly considered. The review ends with some final thoughts on primordial magnetic fields.

  13. Influence of magnetic and ultrasonic fields on coefficient of reflectivity of GaAs, GaSb and InAs crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaveryukhin, B.N.; Zaveryukhina, N.N.; Zaveryukhina, E.V.; Volodarskiy, V.V.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Previously we demonstrated for the first time in the world that ultrasonic waves of the megahertz range can change the transport properties and a structure of semiconductors. In this work we have experimentally studied the influence of ultrasonic treatment on the spectral coefficients of reflection R in the magnetic fields of the samples of GaAs-, GaSb- and InAs-crystals. The reflectance spectra in the magnetic field of the samples before and after the ultrasonic treatment (UST) for a certain time were measured in a broad wavelength range including ultraviolet, visible, and infrared spectral regions. The semi-insulating GaAs-crystals had a thickness d=100 μm and a working area S of up to 3sm 2 . The p-GaSb- crystals had an area of S=0.25sm 2 and d =250 μm. The base p-GaSb-layers possessed the concentration N=2·10 17 sm 3 and n-GaSb-layers with a thickness of 0.5 m were created by diffusion doping with phosphorus. Besides, the experiments were performed also for of the n-InAs-crystals. The samples of the InAs-n crystals had a thickness of 100 μm an area S = 0.25 sm 2 . Some remains of sulfuric (S) were discovered in InAs-samples. As could was see from the experiments, all the initial IR spectra measured for the samples with various dopant concentrations NP exhibit maximums (peaks) for 0.2 μm and minimum (holes) for. The reflectance spectra measured after UST for time of t > l hour clearly reveal a shift of the R minima toward longer wavelengths and a general decrease in the reflectance of each sample. The shift of the R is unambiguous evidence of the acoustically stimulated diffusion of impurity (phosphorus) inward of the samples. Discovered peaks and holes slitted and changed their sizes in the magnetic fields. It should be emphasized that behavior of the R spectra of the GaAs-, In As- and GaSb- samples is determined by the same mechanisms. Changes of the R spectra after the UST are explained by acoustically stimulated diffusion of the dopant inward

  14. Measurements of magnetic field sources in schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, G.B.

    1992-01-01

    The Electrical Systems Division of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has initiated several research projects to investigate magnetic field levels, their characteristics, and their sources. This paper describes measurements of magnetic field sources in schools. Magnetic field measurements were made at four schools in the service areas of two utility companies. Magnetic field measurements included profiles of the magnetic field versus distance near power lines, around the perimeter of the school buildings, and at several locations within each school. Twenty-four hour measurements were also made to record the temporal variation of the magnetic field at several locations at each school. The instrumentation, measurement techniques, and magnetic field sources identified are discussed

  15. Magnetic field driven domain-wall propagation in magnetic nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.R.; Yan, P.; Lu, J.; He, C.

    2009-01-01

    The mechanism of magnetic field induced magnetic domain-wall (DW) propagation in a nanowire is revealed: A static DW cannot exist in a homogeneous magnetic nanowire when an external magnetic field is applied. Thus, a DW must vary with time under a static magnetic field. A moving DW must dissipate energy due to the Gilbert damping. As a result, the wire has to release its Zeeman energy through the DW propagation along the field direction. The DW propagation speed is proportional to the energy dissipation rate that is determined by the DW structure. The negative differential mobility in the intermediate field is due to the transition from high energy dissipation at low field to low energy dissipation at high field. For the field larger than the so-called Walker breakdown field, DW plane precesses around the wire, leading to the propagation speed oscillation.

  16. The influence of magnetic field on the spatial orientation in zebrafish Danio rerio (Hamilton and roach Rutilus rutilus (L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia A. Batrakova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Known, that some teleostei can perceive the geomagnetic field (GMF. However, the information about magnetosensitivity in Cyprinidae fish from artificial and natural habitats is obscure. We have registered preferred directions in Danio rerio (Hamilton from aquaria-cultivated line exposed to the natural GMF, 180 degrees reversal of horizontal GMF component, 180 degrees reversal of vertical GMF component, 180 degrees reversal of both vertical and horizontal GMF components and 90 degrees clockwise turn of horizontal GMF component. We also registered the preferred directions in Rutilus rutilus (L. from Rybinsk reservoir exposed to the natural GMF and 90 degrees clockwise turn of horizontal GMF component. It was found that zebrafish prefer two opposite directions towards east and west in the natural GMF. When the horizontal component of GMF was turned 90 degrees clockwise D. rerio prefer two opposite directions towards north and south. The possible reason of bimodality in zebrafish’s preferred directions distributions is discussed. The only direction towards east-north-east observed in roach under the natural GMF. This direction coincided with the way from the place of capture to the streamflow part of Rybinsk reservoir. And it was changed by south-south-east direction when turned the horizontal component of GMF 90 degrees clockwise. The possible reason of the choosing directions by fish with GMF is discussed.

  17. [Study of the influence of uniform transverse magnetic field on the dose distribution of high energy electron beam using Monte Carlo method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Shihu; Xu, Yun; Wu, Zhangwen; Hou, Qing; Guo, Chengjun

    2014-12-01

    In the present work, Monte Carlo simulations were employed to study the characteristics of the dose distribution of high energy electron beam in the presence of uniform transverse magnetic field. The simulations carried out the transport processes of the 30 MeV electron beam in the homogeneous water phantom with different magnetic field. It was found that the dose distribution of the 30 MeV electron beam had changed significantly because of the magnetic field. The result showed that the range of the electron beam was decreased obviously and it formed a very high dose peak at the end of the range, and the ratio of maximum dose to the dose of the surface was greatly increased. The results of this study demonstrated that we could change the depth dose distribution of electron beam which is analogous to the heavy ion by modulating the energy of the electron and magnetic field. It means that using magnetic fields in conjunction with electron radiation therapy has great application prospect, but it also has brought new challenges for the research of dose algorithm.

  18. The influence of magnetic field strength in ionization stage on ion transport between two stages of a double stage Hall thruster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Daren; Song Maojiang; Li Hong; Liu Hui; Han Ke

    2012-01-01

    It is futile for a double stage Hall thruster to design a special ionization stage if the ionized ions cannot enter the acceleration stage. Based on this viewpoint, the ion transport under different magnetic field strengths in the ionization stage is investigated, and the physical mechanisms affecting the ion transport are analyzed in this paper. With a combined experimental and particle-in-cell simulation study, it is found that the ion transport between two stages is chiefly affected by the potential well, the potential barrier, and the potential drop at the bottom of potential well. With the increase of magnetic field strength in the ionization stage, there is larger plasma density caused by larger potential well. Furthermore, the potential barrier near the intermediate electrode declines first and then rises up while the potential drop at the bottom of potential well rises up first and then declines as the magnetic field strength increases in the ionization stage. Consequently, both the ion current entering the acceleration stage and the total ion current ejected from the thruster rise up first and then decline as the magnetic field strength increases in the ionization stage. Therefore, there is an optimal magnetic field strength in the ionization stage to guide the ion transport between two stages.

  19. Fringing field measurement of dipole magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Hongyou; Jiang Weisheng; Mao Naifeng; Mao Xingwang

    1985-01-01

    The fringing field of a dipole magnet with a C-type circuit and homogeneous field in the gap has been measured including the distributions of fringing fields with and without magnetic shield. The measured data was analyzed by using the concept of virtual field boundary

  20. Generating the optimal magnetic field for magnetic refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Rasmus; Insinga, Andrea Roberto; Smith, Anders

    2016-01-01

    In a magnetic refrigeration device the magnet is the single most expensive component, and therefore it is crucially important to ensure that an effective magnetic field as possible is generated using the least amount of permanent magnets. Here we present a method for calculating the optimal...... remanence distribution for any desired magnetic field. The method is based on the reciprocity theorem, which through the use of virtual magnets can be used to calculate the optimal remanence distribution. Furthermore, we present a method for segmenting a given magnet design that always results...... in the optimal segmentation, for any number of segments specified. These two methods are used to determine the optimal magnet design of a 12-piece, two-pole concentric cylindrical magnet for use in a continuously rotating magnetic refrigeration device....

  1. Strong and superstrong pulsed magnetic fields generation

    CERN Document Server

    Shneerson, German A; Krivosheev, Sergey I

    2014-01-01

    Strong pulsed magnetic fields are important for several fields in physics and engineering, such as power generation and accelerator facilities. Basic aspects of the generation of strong and superstrong pulsed magnetic fields technique are given, including the physics and hydrodynamics of the conductors interacting with the field as well as an account of the significant progress in generation of strong magnetic fields using the magnetic accumulation technique. Results of computer simulations as well as a survey of available field technology are completing the volume.

  2. Dynamic rheological properties of viscoelastic magnetic fluids in uniform magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Niu Xiaodong; Ye Xiaojiang; Li Mingjun; Iwamoto, Yuhiro

    2012-01-01

    The dynamic rheological properties of viscoelastic magnetic fluids in externally applied uniform magnetic fields are investigated by a laboratory-made cone-plate rheometer in this study. In particular, the effects of the magnetic field on the viscoelastic properties (the complex dynamic modulus) of the viscoelastic magnetic fluids are studied. In the investigation, three viscoelastic magnetic fluids are made by mixing a magnetic fluid and a viscoelastic fluid with different mass ratios. As a supplementation to the experimental investigation, a theoretical analysis is also presented. The present study shows that the viscosity and elasticity of the viscoelastic magnetic fluids are significantly influenced by the magnetic field and the concentrations of the magnetic particles in the test fluids. Theoretical analysis qualitatively explains the present findings. - Highlights: ► The dynamic rheological properties of the viscoelastic magnetic fluids in uniform magnetic fields are investigated. ► Both the magnetic field strength and the concentration of the magnetic particles in the fluids have significant effects on the viscosity and elasticity of the viscoelastic magnetic fluids. ► Theoretical prediction and analysis qualitatively explains the present findings.

  3. A ferrofluid based artificial tactile sensor with magnetic field control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkova, T.I., E-mail: tatiana.volkova@tu-ilmenau.de [Technical Mechanics Group, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technische Universität Ilmenau, Ilmenau D-98684 (Germany); Böhm, V., E-mail: valter.boehm@tu-ilmenau.de [Technical Mechanics Group, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technische Universität Ilmenau, Ilmenau D-98684 (Germany); Naletova, V.A., E-mail: naletova@imec.msu.ru [Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Kaufhold, T., E-mail: tobias.kaufhold@tu-ilmenau.de [Technical Mechanics Group, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technische Universität Ilmenau, Ilmenau D-98684 (Germany); Becker, F., E-mail: felix.becker@tu-ilmenau.de [Technical Mechanics Group, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technische Universität Ilmenau, Ilmenau D-98684 (Germany); Zeidis, I., E-mail: igor.zeidis@tu-ilmenau.de [Technical Mechanics Group, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technische Universität Ilmenau, Ilmenau D-98684 (Germany); Zimmermann, K., E-mail: klaus.zimmermann@tu-ilmenau.de [Technical Mechanics Group, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technische Universität Ilmenau, Ilmenau D-98684 (Germany)

    2017-06-01

    The paper deals with a tactile sensor inspired by biological hairs of mammals. The working principle is based on the effect of the magnetic force exerted on a paramagnetic body submerged into a ferrofluid volume under the influence of a nonuniform magnetic field. The deflection of the sensor's rod caused by external mechanical stimuli may be unambiguously identified by the distortion of the magnetic field, which occurs due to the motion of the attached body in the ferrofluid. The magnetic force acting on the body is evaluated experimentally and theoretically for the nonuniform magnetic field of a permanent magnet. The controlled oscillations of the rod are realised by applying a nonuniform magnetic field of periodically altering direction. - Highlights: • A design approach of a tactile sensor inspired by special mammalian hairs is presented. • The working principle is based on magnetic properties of a ferrofluid in magnetic fields. • The magnetic force acting on a body submerged into a ferrofluid volume is evaluated. • External mechanical stimuli may be identified by the distortion of the magnetic field. • The controlled whisking-like oscillations of the sensor's rod are realised experimentally.

  4. A ferrofluid based artificial tactile sensor with magnetic field control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkova, T.I.; Böhm, V.; Naletova, V.A.; Kaufhold, T.; Becker, F.; Zeidis, I.; Zimmermann, K.

    2017-01-01

    The paper deals with a tactile sensor inspired by biological hairs of mammals. The working principle is based on the effect of the magnetic force exerted on a paramagnetic body submerged into a ferrofluid volume under the influence of a nonuniform magnetic field. The deflection of the sensor's rod caused by external mechanical stimuli may be unambiguously identified by the distortion of the magnetic field, which occurs due to the motion of the attached body in the ferrofluid. The magnetic force acting on the body is evaluated experimentally and theoretically for the nonuniform magnetic field of a permanent magnet. The controlled oscillations of the rod are realised by applying a nonuniform magnetic field of periodically altering direction. - Highlights: • A design approach of a tactile sensor inspired by special mammalian hairs is presented. • The working principle is based on magnetic properties of a ferrofluid in magnetic fields. • The magnetic force acting on a body submerged into a ferrofluid volume is evaluated. • External mechanical stimuli may be identified by the distortion of the magnetic field. • The controlled whisking-like oscillations of the sensor's rod are realised experimentally.

  5. Inertial fusion reactors and magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornwell, J.B.; Pendergrass, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    The application of magnetic fields of simple configurations and modest strengths to direct target debris ions out of cavities can alleviate recognized shortcomings of several classes of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactors. Complex fringes of the strong magnetic fields of heavy-ion fusion (HIF) focusing magnets may intrude into reactor cavities and significantly affect the trajectories of target debris ions. The results of an assessment of potential benefits from the use of magnetic fields in ICF reactors and of potential problems with focusing-magnet fields in HIF reactors conducted to set priorities for continuing studies are reported. Computational tools are described and some preliminary results are presented

  6. Accurate method of the magnetic field measurement of quadrupole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumada, M.; Sakai, I.; Someya, H.; Sasaki, H.

    1983-01-01

    We present an accurate method of the magnetic field measurement of the quadrupole magnet. The method of obtaining the information of the field gradient and the effective focussing length is given. A new scheme to obtain the information of the skew field components is also proposed. The relative accuracy of the measurement was 1 x 10 -4 or less. (author)

  7. Electrolytic tiltmeters inside magnetic fields: Some observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberdi, J.; Arce, P.; Barcala, J.M.; Calvo, E.; Ferrando, A.; Josa, M.I.; Luque, J.M.; Molinero, A.; Navarrete, J.; Oller, J.C.; Yuste, C.; Calderon, A.; Garcia-Moral, L.A.; Gomez, G.; Gonzalez-Sanchez, F.J.; Martinez-Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Rodrigo, T.; Ruiz-Arbol, P.; Scodellaro, L.; Sobron, M.; Vila, I.; Virto, A.L.

    2007-01-01

    We present observations of the electrolytic clinometers behaviour inside magnetic field environments introducing phenomenological expressions to account for the measured output voltage variations as functions of field gradients and field strengths

  8. Electrolytic tiltmeters inside magnetic fields: Some observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberdi, J. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Arce, P. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Barcala, J.M. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Calvo, E. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Ferrando, A. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: antonio.ferrando@ciemat.es; Josa, M.I. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Luque, J.M. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Molinero, A. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Navarrete, J. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Oller, J.C. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Yuste, C. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Calderon, A. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Garcia-Moral, L.A. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Gomez, G. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Gonzalez-Sanchez, F.J. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Martinez-Rivero, C. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Matorras, F. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Rodrigo, T. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Ruiz-Arbol, P. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Scodellaro, L. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Sobron, M. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Vila, I. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Virto, A.L. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain)

    2007-04-21

    We present observations of the electrolytic clinometers behaviour inside magnetic field environments introducing phenomenological expressions to account for the measured output voltage variations as functions of field gradients and field strengths.

  9. Heisenberg Model in a Rotating Magnetic Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Qiong-Gui

    2005-01-01

    We study the Heisenberg model under the influence of a rotating magnetic field. By using a time-dependent unitary transformation, the time evolution operator for the Schrodinger equation is obtained, which involves no chronological product. The spin vectors (mean values of the spin operators) are obtained as explicit functions of time in the most general case. A series of cyclic solutions are presented. The nonadiabatic geometric phases of these cyclic solutions are calculated, and are expressed in terms of the solid angle subtended by the closed trace of the total spin vector, as well as in terms of those of the individual spins.

  10. National survey of residential magnetic field exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karipidis, K.K.

    2002-01-01

    The release of the Doll report in the UK, and its reported association between prolonged exposures to higher levels of power frequency magnetic fields and a small risk of leukaemia in children, has heightened community concerns. This disquiet among the general public has prompted the possibility of a national survey of residential magnetic field exposures to be implemented. Measurement methodologies were reviewed by the author and long-term measurements made by a logger placed in the living room for a 24-hour period were chosen as a surrogate measurement for the evaluation of exposure. An international comparison of similar surveys is presented, showing great deficiency, with the exception of Schuz et al and the UKCCS, in the number of homes surveyed. Factors influencing the selection of residences in the survey sample are elucidated and a range of sample sizes is presented with varying precision and confidence levels. Finally a feasible sample of 1,000 homes is chosen and a cost estimate is calculated with extra options for the measurement of the child's bedroom, a schools' survey and child personal exposure measurements included in the outlay. The purpose of the proposed national survey is to determine the proportion of Australian homes that are exposed to fields greater than 0.4 μT and the influence of proximity to powerlines as a cause. The study would also enable an interstate and international comparison of exposures to be made. Copyright (2002) Australasian Radiation Protection Society Inc

  11. Investigations on magnetic field induced optical transparency in magnetic nanofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Dillip Kumar; Philip, John

    2018-02-01

    We study the magnetic field induced optical transparency and its origin in magnetic nanoemulsion of droplets of average size ∼200 nm containing superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. Beyond a certain volume fraction (Φ > 0.0021) of magnetic nanoemulsion and a critical magnetic field (Hc1), the transmitted light intensity increases drastically and reaches a maximum at another critical magnetic field (Hc2), beyond which the transmitted light intensity decreases and reaches a plateau. Interestingly, the transmitted light intensity at Hc2 is found to increase linearly with Φ and the critical magnetic fields Hc1 and Hc2 follow power law decay with Φ (i.e. Hc ∼ Φ-x), with exponents 0.48 and 0.27, respectively. The light intensity recovers to its initial value when the magnetic field is switched off, indicating the perfect reversibility of the field induced transparency process. The observed straight line scattered patterns above Hc2, on a screen placed perpendicular to the incident beam, confirms the formation of rod like anisotropic nanostructures perpendicular to the direction of light propagation. The magneto-optical measurements in the emulsion confirm that the observed field induced transparency in magnetic emulsions for Φ > 0.0021 is due to the optical birefringence caused by the rod like nanostructures. The reduced birefringence is found to be proportional to the square of the applied magnetic field. This finding offers several possibilities in using magnetic nanofluids in tunable optical devices.

  12. The dynamic behavior of magnetic fluid adsorbed to small permanent magnet in alternating magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudo, Seiichi, E-mail: sudo@akita-pu.ac.j [Faculty of Systems Science and Technology, Akita Prefectural University, Ebinokuchi 84-4, Yurihonjo 015-0055 (Japan); Asano, Daisaku [Faculty of Systems Science and Technology, Akita Prefectural University, Ebinokuchi 84-4, Yurihonjo 015-0055 (Japan); Takana, Hidemasa; Nishiyama, Hideya [Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University, Katahira 2-1-1, Aobaku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2011-05-15

    The dynamic behavior of a magnetic fluid adsorbed to a small NdFeB permanent magnet subjected to an alternating magnetic field was studied with a high speed video camera system. The directions of alternating magnetic field are parallel and opposite to that of the permanent magnet. It was found that the surface of magnetic fluid responds to the external alternating magnetic field in elongation and contraction with a lot of spikes. Generation of a capillary magnetic fluid jet was observed in the neighbourhood of a specific frequency of alternating field. The effect of gravitational force on surface phenomena of magnetic fluid adsorbed to the permanent magnet was revealed. - Research Highlights: Magnetic fluid of the system responds to alternating magnetic field with higher frequencies. Large-amplitude surface motions of magnetic fluid occur at the specific frequencies of the external field. Capillary jets of magnetic fluid are generated at the natural frequency of the system.

  13. The influence of magnetic field on the stability region of the bipolaron in high-Tc superconductors with the Van Hove scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouayad, M.; El Amrani, B.; Fliyou, M.; Chaouch, M.

    2006-01-01

    The properties of polarons and bipolarons are studied by the variational method taking into account the density of state for Van Hove singularity (V.H.S) in two-dimension (2D) in the presence of a perpendicular magnetic field. It should be noticed that the bipolaron stability region is relatively sensitive to the application of a magnetic field. In 2D, for ω c =0.8 the value of α c =1 is compared to α c =1.6 for ω c =0. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  14. Simulation of the influence high-frequency (2 MHz) capacitive gas discharge and magnetic field on the plasma sheath near a surface in hypersonic gas flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweigert, I. V.

    2012-01-01

    The plasma sheath near the surface of a hypersonic aircraft formed under associative ionization behind the shock front shields the transmission and reception of radio signals. Using two-dimensional kinetic particle-in-cell simulations, we consider the change in plasma-sheath parameters near a flat surface in a hypersonic flow under the action of electrical and magnetic fields. The combined action of a high-frequency 2-MHz capacitive discharge, a constant voltage, and a magnetic field on the plasma sheath allows the local electron density to be reduced manyfold.

  15. Dynamic shielding of the magnetic fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAU, M.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a comparative study of the methods used to control and compensate the direct and alternative magnetic fields. Two frequently used methods in the electromagnetic compatibility of the complex biomagnetism installations were analyzed. The two methods refer to the use of inductive magnetic field sensors (only for alternative fields and of fluxgate magnetometers as active transducers which measures both the direct and alternative components of the magnetic field. The applications of the dynamic control of the magnetic field are: control of the magnetic field of the military ships, control of parasite magnetic field produced by power transformers and the electrical networks, protection of the mass spectrometers, electronic microscopes, SQUID and optical pumping magnetometers for applications in biomagnetism.

  16. Tripolar electric field Structure in guide field magnetic reconnection

    OpenAIRE

    S. Fu; S. Huang; M. Zhou; B. Ni; X. Deng

    2018-01-01

    It has been shown that the guide field substantially modifies the structure of the reconnection layer. For instance, the Hall magnetic and electric fields are distorted in guide field reconnection compared to reconnection without guide fields (i.e., anti-parallel reconnection). In this paper, we performed 2.5-D electromagnetic full particle simulation to study the electric field structures in magnetic reconnection under different initial guide fields (Bg). Once the amplit...

  17. Magnetic field measurements of the superEBIS superconducting magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herschcovitch, A.; Kponou, A.; Clipperton, R.; Hensel, W.; Usack, F.

    1994-01-01

    SuperEBIS was designed to have a solenoidal magnetic field of a 5 Tesla strength with a 120 cm long bore. The field was specified to be straight within 1 part in 10000 within the bore, and uniform to within 1 part in 1000 within the central 90 cm. Magnetic field measurements were performed with a computerized magnetic field measuring setup that was borrowed from W. Sampson's group. A preliminary test was made of a scheme to determine if the magnetic and mechanical axes of the solenoid coincided, and, if not, by how much

  18. Exploiting BSA to Inhibit the Fibrous Aggregation of Magnetic Nanoparticles under an Alternating Magnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Gu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The alternating magnetic field was discovered to be capable of inducing the fibrous aggregation of magnetic nanoparticles. However, this anisotropic aggregation may be unfavorable for practical applications. Here, we reported that the adsorption of BSA (bovine serum albumin on the surfaces of magnetic nanoparticles can effectively make the fibrous aggregation of γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles turn into a more isotropic aggregation in the presence of the alternating magnetic field. Also, the heating curves with and without BSA adsorption under different pH conditions were measured to show the influence of the colloidal aggregation states on the collective calorific behavior of magnetic nanoparticles.

  19. Evolution of coronal and interplanetary magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    Numerous studies have provided the detailed information necessary for a substantive synthesis of the empirical relation between the magnetic field of the sun and the structure of the interplanetary field. The author points out the latest techniques and studies of the global solar magnetic field and its relation to the interplanetary field. The potential to overcome most of the limitations of present methods of analysis exists in techniques of modelling the coronal magnetic field using observed solar data. Such empirical models are, in principle, capable of establishing the connection between a given heliospheric point and its magnetically-connected photospheric point, as well as the physical basis for the connection. (Auth.)

  20. Cosmic Rays in Intermittent Magnetic Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukurov, Anvar; Seta, Amit; Bushby, Paul J.; Wood, Toby S.; Snodin, Andrew P.

    2017-01-01

    The propagation of cosmic rays in turbulent magnetic fields is a diffusive process driven by the scattering of the charged particles by random magnetic fluctuations. Such fields are usually highly intermittent, consisting of intense magnetic filaments and ribbons surrounded by weaker, unstructured fluctuations. Studies of cosmic-ray propagation have largely overlooked intermittency, instead adopting Gaussian random magnetic fields. Using test particle simulations, we calculate cosmic-ray diffusivity in intermittent, dynamo-generated magnetic fields. The results are compared with those obtained from non-intermittent magnetic fields having identical power spectra. The presence of magnetic intermittency significantly enhances cosmic-ray diffusion over a wide range of particle energies. We demonstrate that the results can be interpreted in terms of a correlated random walk.

  1. Cosmic Rays in Intermittent Magnetic Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shukurov, Anvar; Seta, Amit; Bushby, Paul J.; Wood, Toby S. [School of Mathematics and Statistics, Newcastle University, Newcastle Upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Snodin, Andrew P., E-mail: a.seta1@ncl.ac.uk, E-mail: amitseta90@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Applied Science, King Mongkut’s University of Technology North Bangkok, Bangkok 10800 (Thailand)

    2017-04-10

    The propagation of cosmic rays in turbulent magnetic fields is a diffusive process driven by the scattering of the charged particles by random magnetic fluctuations. Such fields are usually highly intermittent, consisting of intense magnetic filaments and ribbons surrounded by weaker, unstructured fluctuations. Studies of cosmic-ray propagation have largely overlooked intermittency, instead adopting Gaussian random magnetic fields. Using test particle simulations, we calculate cosmic-ray diffusivity in intermittent, dynamo-generated magnetic fields. The results are compared with those obtained from non-intermittent magnetic fields having identical power spectra. The presence of magnetic intermittency significantly enhances cosmic-ray diffusion over a wide range of particle energies. We demonstrate that the results can be interpreted in terms of a correlated random walk.

  2. Nonlinear physics of twisted magnetic field lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Zensho

    1998-01-01

    Twisted magnetic field lines appear commonly in many different plasma systems, such as magnetic ropes created through interactions between the magnetosphere and the solar wind, magnetic clouds in the solar wind, solar corona, galactic jets, accretion discs, as well as fusion plasma devices. In this paper, we study the topological characterization of twisted magnetic fields, nonlinear effect induced by the Lorentz back reaction, length-scale bounds, and statistical distributions. (author)

  3. Dilute Potts chain in a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaves, C.M.; Riera, R.

    1983-03-01

    The Potts lattice gas in presence of a uniform magnetic field is solved exactly in one dimension. For negative values of the exchange parameter, the magnetization curve exhibits two or three steps, depending on the concentration of vacancies. These steps arise as a result of the competition between the exchange interaction and the magnetic field, being associated to different structural distribution of vacancies and to the magnetic ordering of one or both sublattices. (Author) [pt

  4. Magnetic field dependent atomic tunneling in non-magnetic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, S.; Enss, C.; Hunklinger, S.

    2003-01-01

    The low-temperature properties of insulating glasses are governed by atomic tunneling systems (TSs). Recently, strong magnetic field effects in the dielectric susceptibility have been discovered in glasses at audio frequencies at very low temperatures. Moreover, it has been found that the amplitude of two-pulse polarization echoes generated in non-magnetic multi-component glasses at radio frequencies and at very low temperatures shows a surprising non-monotonic magnetic field dependence. The magnitude of the latter effect indicates that virtually all TSs are affected by the magnetic field, not only a small subset of systems. We have studied the variation of the magnetic field dependence of the echo amplitude as a function of the delay time between the two excitation pulses and at different frequencies. Our results indicate that the evolution of the phase of resonant TSs is changed by the magnetic field

  5. Magnetic field dependent atomic tunneling in non-magnetic glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, S.; Enss, C.; Hunklinger, S.

    2003-05-01

    The low-temperature properties of insulating glasses are governed by atomic tunneling systems (TSs). Recently, strong magnetic field effects in the dielectric susceptibility have been discovered in glasses at audio frequencies at very low temperatures. Moreover, it has been found that the amplitude of two-pulse polarization echoes generated in non-magnetic multi-component glasses at radio frequencies and at very low temperatures shows a surprising non-monotonic magnetic field dependence. The magnitude of the latter effect indicates that virtually all TSs are affected by the magnetic field, not only a small subset of systems. We have studied the variation of the magnetic field dependence of the echo amplitude as a function of the delay time between the two excitation pulses and at different frequencies. Our results indicate that the evolution of the phase of resonant TSs is changed by the magnetic field.

  6. Swarm: ESA's Magnetic Field Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plank, G.; Floberghagen, R.; Menard, Y.; Haagmans, R.

    2013-12-01

    Swarm is the fifth Earth Explorer mission in ESA's Living Planet Programme, and is scheduled for launch in fall 2013. The objective of the Swarm mission is to provide the best-ever survey of the geomagnetic field and its temporal evolution using a constellation of three identical satellites. The mission shall deliver data that allow access to new insights into the Earth system by improved scientific understanding of the Earth's interior and near-Earth electromagnetic environment. After launch and triple satellite release at an initial altitude of about 490 km, a pair of the satellites will fly side-by-side with slowly decaying altitude, while the third satellite will be lifted to 530 km to complete the Swarm constellation. High-precision and high-resolution measurements of the strength, direction and variation of the magnetic field, complemented by precise navigation, accelerometer and electric field measurements, will provide the observations required to separate and model various sources of the geomagnetic field and near-Earth current systems. The mission science goals are to provide a unique view into Earth's core dynamics, mantle conductivity, crustal magnetisation, ionospheric and magnetospheric current systems and upper atmosphere dynamics - ranging from understanding the geodynamo to contributing to space weather. The scientific objectives and results from recent scientific studies will be presented. In addition the current status of the project, which is presently in the final stage of the development phase, will be addressed. A consortium of European scientific institutes is developing a distributed processing system to produce geophysical (Level 2) data products for the Swarm user community. The setup of the Swarm ground segment and the contents of the data products will be addressed. In case the Swarm satellites are already in orbit, a summary of the on-going mission operations activities will be given. More information on Swarm can be found at www.esa.int/esaLP/LPswarm.html.

  7. Strongly interacting matter in magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Landsteiner, Karl; Schmitt, Andreas; Yee, Ho-Ung

    2013-01-01

    The physics of strongly interacting matter in an external magnetic field is presently emerging as a topic of great cross-disciplinary interest for particle, nuclear, astro- and condensed matter physicists. It is known that strong magnetic fields are created in heavy ion collisions, an insight that has made it possible to study a variety of surprising and intriguing phenomena that emerge from the interplay of quantum anomalies, the topology of non-Abelian gauge fields, and the magnetic field. In particular, the non-trivial topological configurations of the gluon field induce a non-dissipative electric current in the presence of a magnetic field. These phenomena have led to an extended formulation of relativistic hydrodynamics, called chiral magnetohydrodynamics. Hitherto unexpected applications in condensed matter physics include graphene and topological insulators. Other fields of application include astrophysics, where strong magnetic fields exist in magnetars and pulsars. Last but not least, an important ne...

  8. High magnetic fields science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Miura, Noboru

    2003-01-01

    This three-volume book provides a comprehensive review of experiments in very strong magnetic fields that can only be generated with very special magnets. The first volume is entirely devoted to the technology of laboratory magnets: permanent, superconducting, high-power water-cooled and hybrid; pulsed magnets, both nondestructive and destructive (megagauss fields). Volumes 2 and 3 contain reviews of the different areas of research where strong magnetic fields are an essential research tool. These volumes deal primarily with solid-state physics; other research areas covered are biological syst

  9. Fatigue life of metal treated by magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao-Long, Liu; Hai-Yun, Hu; Tian-You, Fan; Xiu-San, Xing

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates theoretically the influence of magnetization on fatigue life by using non-equilibrium statistical theory of fatigue fracture for metals. The fatigue microcrack growth rate is obtained from the dynamic equation of microcrack growth, where the influence of magnetization is described by an additional term in the potential energy of microcrack. The statistical value of fatigue life of metal under magnetic field is derived, which is expressed in terms of magnetic field and macrophysical as well as microphysical quantities. The fatigue life of AISI 4140 steel in static magnetic field from this theory is basically consistent with the experimental data. (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  10. Structure and magnetic field of periodic permanent magnetic focusing system with open magnetic rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Long; Li Lezhong; Yang Dingyu; Zhu Xinghua; Li Yuanxun

    2011-01-01

    The magnetic field along the central axis for an axially magnetized permanent magnetic ring was investigated by analytical and finite element methods. For open magnetic rings, both calculated and measured results show that the existence of the radial magnetic field creates a remarkable cosine distribution field along the central axis. A new structure of periodic permanent magnet focusing system with open magnetic rings is proposed. The structure provides a satisfactory magnetic field with a stable peak value of 120 mT for a traveling wave tube system. - Research highlights: → For open magnetic rings, both calculated and measured results show that the existence of the radial magnetic field creates a remarkable cosine distribution field along the central axis. → A new structure of periodic permanent magnet (PPM) focusing system with open magnetic rings is proposed. → The new PPM focusing system with open magnetic rings meets the requirements for TWT system.

  11. Synchrotron Applications of High Magnetic Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This workshop aims at discussing the scientific potential of X-ray diffraction and spectroscopy in magnetic fields above 30 T. Pulsed magnetic fields in the range of 30 to 40 T have recently become available at Spring-8 and the ESRF (European synchrotron radiation facility). This document gathers the transparencies of the 6 following presentations: 1) pulsed magnetic fields at ESRF: first results; 2) X-ray spectroscopy and diffraction experiments by using mini-coils: applications to valence state transition and frustrated magnet; 3) R{sub 5}(Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1-x}){sub 4}: an ideal system to be studied in X-ray under high magnetic field?; 4) high field studies at the Advanced Photon Source: present status and future plans; 5) synchrotron X-ray diffraction studies under extreme conditions; and 6) projects for pulsed and steady high magnetic fields at the ESRF.

  12. Demagnetizing fields in active magnetic regenerators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Bahl, Christian R.H.; Smith, Anders

    2014-01-01

    A magnetic material in an externally applied magnetic field will in general experience a spatially varying internal magnetic field due to demagnetizing effects. When the performance of active magnetic regenerators (AMRs) is evaluated using numerical models the internal field is often assumed...... is in general both a function of the overall shape of the regenerator and its morphology (packed particles, parallel plates etc.) as well as the magnetization of the material. Due to the pronounced temperature dependence of the magnetization near the Curie temperature, the demagnetization field is also...... temperature dependent. We propose a relatively straightforward method to correct sufficiently for the demagnetizing field in AMR models. We discuss how the demagnetizing field behaves in regenerators made of packed spheres under realistic operation conditions....

  13. Influence of Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction on measurement-induced disturbance in a mixed-spin Heisenberg XXZ model with an inhomogeneous magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Chao-Biao; Xiao, Shu-Yuan; Zhang, Cong; Wu, Gang; Ran, Yang-Qiang

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, by comparing with the thermal entanglement measured by negativity (N), we investigate the measurement-induced disturbance (MID) in a mixed-spin (1/2, 3/2) Heisenberg XXZ model with Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya (DM) interaction and an inhomogeneous external magnetic field. We make a comparison between MID and N, and find that their behaviors present obvious differences following the changes of the exchange constant J, DM interaction D, the uniform magnetic field B and the inhomogeneity of magnetic field b. It is found that J and D broaden the region of MID. At the same time, we notice that, for the case of small D, MID can detect the quantum phase transition near J=0, but not for N. It is also observed that DM interaction and the inhomogeneous external magnetic field play competing roles in enhancing the N and MID in our system. Moreover, we also note D is a more efficient parameter than B and b when adjusting MID under the higher temperature. In addition, we discover that, for the same parameters, the region of MID in our system is larger than the result in mixed-spin (1/2, 1) system.

  14. Interplanetary magnetic field Bx component influence on horizontal and field‐aligned currents in the ionosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laundal, K. M.; Reistad, J. P.; Finlay, C. C.

    2018-01-01

    a detailed investigation of three different sets of magnetic field measurements, from the CHAMP and Swarm low‐Earth‐Orbit satellites, from the AMPERE products derived from the Iridium satellite constellation, and from the SuperMAG ground magnetometer network, each analyzed using different techniques, to test...

  15. Effect of magnetic field on food freezing

    OpenAIRE

    村田, 圭治; 奥村, 太一; 荒賀, 浩一; 小堀, 康功

    2010-01-01

    [Abstract] This paper presents an experimental investigation on effects of magnetic field on food freezing process. Although purpose of food freezing is to suppress the deterioration of food, freezing breaks food tissue down, and some nutrient and delicious element flow out after thawing. Recently, a few of refrigeration equipments with electric and magnetic fields have attracted attention from food production companies and mass media. Water and tuna were freezed in magnetic field (100kH, 1.3...

  16. Magnetic field sensor for isotropically sensing an incident magnetic field in a sensor plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Bharat B. (Inventor); Wan, Hong (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A magnetic field sensor that isotropically senses an incident magnetic field. This is preferably accomplished by providing a magnetic field sensor device that has one or more circular shaped magnetoresistive sensor elements for sensing the incident magnetic field. The magnetoresistive material used is preferably isotropic, and may be a CMR material or some form of a GMR material. Because the sensor elements are circular in shape, shape anisotropy is eliminated. Thus, the resulting magnetic field sensor device provides an output that is relatively independent of the direction of the incident magnetic field in the sensor plane.

  17. Exposure of Postnatal Rats to a Static Magnetic Field of 0.14 T Influences Functional Laterality of the Hippocampal High-Affinity Choline Uptake System in Adulthood; In Vitro Test With Magnetic Nanoparticles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krištofíková, Z.; Čermák, M.; Benešová, O.; Klaschka, Jan; Zach, P.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 2 (2005), s. 253-262 ISSN 0364-3190 R&D Projects: GA MZd NF7576 Keywords : magnetic nanoparticles * choline transport * cholinergic * functional impairment * hippocampus * laterality * magnetoreception * static magnetic field Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 2.187, year: 2005

  18. Novel Electrochemical Phenomena in Magnetic Fields(Research in High Magnetic Fields)

    OpenAIRE

    Mogi, Iwao; Kamiko, Masao

    1996-01-01

    Recent two topics are given of electrochemical studies in steady magnetic fields at the High Field Laboratory of Tohoku University. One is the magnetic-field-induced diffusion-limited-aggregation in the pattern formation of silver electrodeposits . The other is the magnetic field effect on the learning effect in a dopant-exchange process of an organic conducting polymer polypyrrole.

  19. Magnetic field measurements and mapping techniques

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2003-01-01

    These lectures will present an overview of the most common techniques used for the measurement of magnetic field in accelerator magnets. The formalism for a harmonic description of the magnetic field will be presented, including a discussion of harmonics allowed under various types of symmetries in the magnet. The harmonic coil technique for measurement of field harmonics will be covered in depth. Using examples from recent projects, magnetic measurements will be shown to be a powerful tool for monitoring magnet production. Measurements of magnetic axis using extensions of the harmonic coil technique, as well as other techniques, such as the colloidal cell and stretched wire, will be covered. Topics of interest in superconducting magnets, such as time decay and snapback, requiring relatively fast measurements of the harmonics, will also be described.

  20. Minimizing magnetic fields for precision experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altarev, I.; Fierlinger, P.; Lins, T.; Marino, M. G.; Nießen, B.; Petzoldt, G.; Reisner, M.; Stuiber, S., E-mail: stefan.stuiber@ph.tum.de; Sturm, M.; Taggart Singh, J.; Taubenheim, B. [Physikdepartment, Technische Universität München, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Rohrer, H. K. [Rohrer GmbH, D-80667 München (Germany); Schläpfer, U. [IMEDCO AG, CH-4614 Hägendorf (Switzerland)

    2015-06-21

    An increasing number of measurements in fundamental and applied physics rely on magnetically shielded environments with sub nano-Tesla residual magnetic fields. State of the art magnetically shielded rooms (MSRs) consist of up to seven layers of high permeability materials in combination with highly conductive shields. Proper magnetic equilibration is crucial to obtain such low magnetic fields with small gradients in any MSR. Here, we report on a scheme to magnetically equilibrate MSRs with a 10 times reduced duration of the magnetic equilibration sequence and a significantly lower magnetic field with improved homogeneity. For the search of the neutron's electric dipole moment, our finding corresponds to a 40% improvement of the statistical reach of the measurement. However, this versatile procedure can improve the performance of any MSR for any application.

  1. Minimizing magnetic fields for precision experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altarev, I.; Fierlinger, P.; Lins, T.; Marino, M. G.; Nießen, B.; Petzoldt, G.; Reisner, M.; Stuiber, S.; Sturm, M.; Taggart Singh, J.; Taubenheim, B.; Rohrer, H. K.; Schläpfer, U.

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of measurements in fundamental and applied physics rely on magnetically shielded environments with sub nano-Tesla residual magnetic fields. State of the art magnetically shielded rooms (MSRs) consist of up to seven layers of high permeability materials in combination with highly conductive shields. Proper magnetic equilibration is crucial to obtain such low magnetic fields with small gradients in any MSR. Here, we report on a scheme to magnetically equilibrate MSRs with a 10 times reduced duration of the magnetic equilibration sequence and a significantly lower magnetic field with improved homogeneity. For the search of the neutron's electric dipole moment, our finding corresponds to a 40% improvement of the statistical reach of the measurement. However, this versatile procedure can improve the performance of any MSR for any application

  2. Magnetic field and magnetic isotope effects on photochemical reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakasa, Masanobu

    1999-01-01

    By at present exact experiments and the theoretical analysis, it was clear that the magnetic field less than 2 T affected a radical pair reaction and biradical reaction. The radical pair life and the dissipative radical yield showed the magnetic field effects on chemical reactions. The radical pair mechanism and the triplet mechanism were known as the mechanism of magnetic field effects. The radical pair mechanism consists of four mechanisms such as the homogeneous hyperfine interaction (HFC), the delta-g mechanism, the relaxation mechanism and the level cross mechanism. In order to observe the magnetic effects of the radical pair mechanism, two conditions need, namely, the recombination rate of singlet radical pair > the dissipation rate and the spin exchange rate > the dissipation rate. A nanosecond laser photo-decomposition equipment can observe the magnetic field effects. The inversion phenomena of magnetic field effect, isolation of the relaxation mechanism and the delta-g mechanism, the magnetic field effect of heavy metal radical reaction, the magnetic field effect in homogeneous solvent, saturation of delta-g mechanism are explained. The succeeded examples of isotope concentration by the magnetic isotope effect are 17 O, 19 Si, 33 S, 73 Ge and 235 U. (S.Y.)

  3. Magnetic vector field tag and seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Roger G.; Garcia, Anthony R.

    2004-08-31

    One or more magnets are placed in a container (preferably on objects inside the container) and the magnetic field strength and vector direction are measured with a magnetometer from at least one location near the container to provide the container with a magnetic vector field tag and seal. The location(s) of the magnetometer relative to the container are also noted. If the position of any magnet inside the container changes, then the measured vector fields at the these locations also change, indicating that the tag has been removed, the seal has broken, and therefore that the container and objects inside may have been tampered with. A hollow wheel with magnets inside may also provide a similar magnetic vector field tag and seal. As the wheel turns, the magnets tumble randomly inside, removing the tag and breaking the seal.

  4. Ferroelectric Cathodes in Transverse Magnetic Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander Dunaevsky; Yevgeny Raitses; Nathaniel J. Fisch

    2002-01-01

    Experimental investigations of a planar ferroelectric cathode in a transverse magnetic field up to 3 kGs are presented. It is shown that the transverse magnetic field affects differently the operation of ferroelectric plasma cathodes in ''bright'' and ''dark'' modes in vacuum. In the ''bright'' mode, when the surface plasma is formed, the application of the transverse magnetic field leads to an increase of the surface plasma density. In the ''dark'' mode, the magnetic field inhibits the development of electron avalanches along the surface, as it does similarly in other kinds of surface discharges in the pre-breakdown mode

  5. Five years of magnetic field management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durkin, C.J.; Fogarty, R.P.; Halleran, T.M.; Mark, Dr. D.A.; Mukhopadhyay, A.

    1995-01-01

    The extensive publicity of epidemiological studies inferring correlation between 60 Hz magnetic fields and childhood leukemia prompted world wide research programs that have as a goal to determine if low frequency magnetic fields represent any risk for the general population, children or utility workers. While supporting this research effort through EPRI, Con Edison embarked on a technical research program aimed to: characterize magnetic fields as to intensity and variation in time; and investigate practical means to manage these magnetic fields through currently known methods. The final goal of these research projects is to establish viable methods to reduce magnetic field intensity to desired values at reasonable distances from the sources. This goal was pursued step by step, starting with an inventory of the main sources of magnetic fields in substations, distribution and transmission facilities and generating plants. The characterization of the sources helped to identify typical cases and select specific cases, far practical applications. The next step was to analyze the specific cases and develop design criteria for managing the magnetic fields in new installations. These criteria included physical arrangement of equipment based oil calculation of magnetic fields, cancellation effect, desired maximum field intensity at specific points and shielding with high magnetic permeability metals (mu-metal and steel). This paper summarizes the authors' experiences and shows the results of the specific projects completed in recent years

  6. Effect of magnetic field on the physical properties of water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Youkai; Wei, Huinan; Li, Zhuangwen

    2018-03-01

    In this study, the effect of magnetic field (MF) on the partial physical properties of water are reported, tap water (TW) and 4 types of magnetized water (MW) were measured in the same condition. It was found that the properties of TW were changed following the MF treatment, shown as the increase of evaporation amount, the decrease of specific heat and boiling point after magnetization, the changes depend on the magnetization effect. In addition, magnetic field strength (MFS) has a marked influence on the magnetization effect, the optimal magnetizing condition was determined as the MFS of 300 mT. The findings of this study offered a facile approach to improve cooling and power generation efficiency in industrial.

  7. Numerical analysis of magnetic field in superconducting magnetic energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanamaru, Y.; Amemiya, Y.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) is more useful than the other systems of electric energy storage because of larger stored energy and higher efficiency. The other systems are the battery, the flywheel, the pumped-storage power station. Some models of solenoid type SMES are designed in U.S.A. and Japan. But a high magnetic field happens by the large scale SMES in the living environment, and makes the erroneous operations of the computer display, the pacemaker of the heart and the electronic equipments. We study some fit designs of magnetic shielding of the solenoidal type SMES for reduction of the magnetic field in living environment. When some superconducting shielding coils are over the main storage coil, magnetic field reduces remarkably than the case of non shielding coil. The calculated results of the magnetic field are obtained y the finite element method

  8. Influence of remanent magnetization on pitting corrosion in pipeline steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espina-Hernandez, J. H. [ESIME Zacatenco, SEPI Electronica Instituto Politecnico Nacional Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Caleyo, F.; Hallen, J. M. [DIM-ESIQIE, Instituto Politecnico Nacional Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Lopez-Montenegro, A.; Perez-Baruch, E. [Pemex Exploracion y Produccion, Region Sur Villahermosa, Tabasco (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    Statistical studies performed in Mexico indicate that leakage due to external pitting corrosion is the most likely cause of failure of buried pipelines. When pipelines are inspected with the magnetic flux leakage (MFL) technology, which is routinely used, the magnetization level of every part of the pipeline changes as the MFL tool travels through it. Remanent magnetization stays in the pipeline wall after inspection, at levels that may differ from a point to the next. This paper studies the influence of the magnetic field on pitting corrosion. Experiments were carried out on grade 52 steel under a level of remanent magnetization and other laboratory conditions that imitated the conditions of a pipeline after an MLF inspection. Non-magnetized control samples and magnetized samples were subjected to pitting by immersion in a solution containing chlorine and sulfide ions for seven days, and then inspected with optical microscopy. Results show that the magnetic field in the pipeline wall significantly increases pitting corrosion.

  9. The strongest magnetic fields in the universe

    CERN Document Server

    Balogh, A; Falanga, M; Lyutikov, M; Mereghetti, S; Piran, T; Treumann, RA

    2016-01-01

    This volume extends the ISSI series on magnetic fields in the Universe into the domain of what are by far the strongest fields in the Universe, and stronger than any field that could be produced on Earth. The chapters describe the magnetic fields in non-degenerate strongly magnetized stars, degenerate stars (such as white dwarfs and neutron stars), exotic members called magnetars, and in their environments, as well as magnetic fields in the environments of black holes. These strong fields have a profound effect on the behavior of matter, visible in particular in highly variable processes like radiation in all known wavelengths, including Gamma-Ray bursts. The generation and structure of such strong magnetic fields and effects on the environment are also described.

  10. Resonance double magnetic bremsstrahlung in a strong magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fomin, P.I.; Kholodov, R.I.

    2003-01-01

    The possibility of resonance double magnetic bremsstrahlung in the approximation of weakly excited electron states in a strong external magnetic field is analyzed. The differential probability of this process in the Breit-Wigner form is obtained. The probability of double magnetic bremsstrahlung (second-order process of perturbation theory) is compared with the probability of magnetic bremsstrahlung (first-order process of perturbation theory)

  11. Reducing Field Distortion in Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Byeong Ho; Penanen, Konstantin; Hahn, Inseob

    2010-01-01

    A concept for a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system that would utilize a relatively weak magnetic field provides for several design features that differ significantly from the corresponding features of conventional MRI systems. Notable among these features are a magnetic-field configuration that reduces (relative to the conventional configuration) distortion and blurring of the image, the use of a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer as the detector, and an imaging procedure suited for the unconventional field configuration and sensor. In a typical application of MRI, a radio-frequency pulse is used to excite precession of the magnetic moments of protons in an applied magnetic field, and the decaying precession is detected for a short time following the pulse. The precession occurs at a resonance frequency proportional to the strengths of the magnetic field and the proton magnetic moment. The magnetic field is configured to vary with position in a known way; hence, by virtue of the aforesaid proportionality, the resonance frequency varies with position in a known way. In other words, position is encoded as resonance frequency. MRI using magnetic fields weaker than those of conventional MRI offers several advantages, including cheaper and smaller equipment, greater compatibility with metallic objects, and higher image quality because of low susceptibility distortion and enhanced spin-lattice-relaxation- time contrast. SQUID MRI is being developed into a practical MRI method for applied magnetic flux densities of the order of only 100 T

  12. NMR magnetic field controller for pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheler, G.; Anacker, M.

    1975-01-01

    A nuclear magnetic resonance controller for magnetic fields, which can also be used for pulsed NMR investigations, is described. A longtime stability of 10 -7 is achieved. The control signal is generated by a modified time sharing circuit with resonance at the first side band of the 2 H signal. An exact calibration of the magnetic field is achieved by the variation of the H 1 - or of the time-sharing frequency. (author)

  13. High-field superferric MR magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huson, F.R.; Carcagno, R.; Colvin, J.

    1987-01-01

    Current large-bore (>20 cm), high-field (2-T) MR magnets have major implementation disadvantages, mostly related to the extensive stray field of traditional air-core superconducting magnets. To circumvent this problem, the authors designed, constructed, and tested a 30-cm prototype superconducting, self-shielded, high field magnet. This unshimmed superferric magnet can operate between 0.5 and 4 T with a field quality of about one part per million over one quarter of its aperture. The magnet can be ramped from one field strength to another in approximately 10 minutes. The 5-Gauss line extends less than 1 meter outside the magnet structure. Further details, including MR measurements and images, are demonstrated, as well as 1-meter bore scale-up projections

  14. Principles of power frequency magnetic field management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fugate, D.; Feero, W.

    1995-01-01

    At the most general level, magnetic field management is the creation, elimination, or modification of sources in order to alter the spatial distribution of magnetic fields over some region of space. The two main options for magnetic field management are source modification (elimination or modification of original sources) and cancellation (creation of new sources). Source modification includes any changes in the layout or location of field sources, elimination of ground paths, or any options that increase the distance between sources and regions of interest. Cancellation involves the creation of new magnetic field sources, passive and/or active that produce magnetic fields that are opposite to the original fields in the region of interest. Shielding using materials of high conductivity and/or high permeability falls under the cancellation option. Strategies for magnetic field management, whether they are source modification or cancellation, typically vary on a case to case basis depending on the regions of interest, the types of sources and resulting complexity of the field structure, the field levels, and the attenuation requirements. This paper gives an overview of magnetic field management based on fundamental concepts. Low field design principles are described, followed by a structured discussion of cancellation and shielding. The two basic material shielding mechanisms, induced current shielding, and flux-shunting are discussed

  15. SIMULATING MAGNETIC FIELDS IN THE ANTENNAE GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotarba, H.; Karl, S. J.; Naab, T.; Johansson, P. H.; Lesch, H.; Dolag, K.; Stasyszyn, F. A.

    2010-01-01

    We present self-consistent high-resolution simulations of NGC 4038/4039 (the A ntennae galaxies ) including star formation, supernova feedback, and magnetic fields performed with the N-body/smoothed particle hydrodynamic (SPH) code GADGET, in which magnetohydrodynamics are followed with the SPH method. We vary the initial magnetic field in the progenitor disks from 10 -9 to 10 -4 G. At the time of the best match with the central region of the Antennae system, the magnetic field has been amplified by compression and shear flows to an equilibrium field value of ∼10 μG, independent of the initial seed field. These simulations are a proof of the principle that galaxy mergers are efficient drivers for the cosmic evolution of magnetic fields. We present a detailed analysis of the magnetic field structure in the central overlap region. Simulated radio and polarization maps are in good morphological and quantitative agreement with the observations. In particular, the two cores with the highest synchrotron intensity and ridges of regular magnetic fields between the cores and at the root of the southern tidal arm develop naturally in our simulations. This indicates that the simulations are capable of realistically following the evolution of the magnetic fields in a highly nonlinear environment. We also discuss the relevance of the amplification effect for present-day magnetic fields in the context of hierarchical structure formation.

  16. Anchoring Polar Magnetic Field in a Stationary Thick Accretion Disk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samadi, Maryam; Abbassi, Shahram, E-mail: samadimojarad@um.ac.ir [Department of Physics, School of Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, 91775-1436 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-08-20

    We investigate the properties of a hot accretion flow bathed in a poloidal magnetic field. We consider an axisymmetric viscous-resistive flow in the steady-state configuration. We assume that the dominant mechanism of energy dissipation is due to turbulence viscosity and magnetic diffusivity. A certain fraction of that energy can be advected toward the central compact object. We employ the self-similar method in the radial direction to find a system of ODEs with just one varible, θ in the spherical coordinates. For the existence and maintenance of a purely poloidal magnetic field in a rotating thick disk, we find that the necessary condition is a constant value of angular velocity along a magnetic field line. We obtain an analytical solution for the poloidal magnetic flux. We explore possible changes in the vertical structure of the disk under the influences of symmetric and asymmetric magnetic fields. Our results reveal that a polar magnetic field with even symmetry about the equatorial plane makes the disk vertically thin. Moreover, the accretion rate decreases when we consider a strong magnetic field. Finally, we notice that hot magnetized accretion flows can be fully advected even in a slim shape.

  17. Biological interactions and human health effects of static magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenforde, T.S.

    1994-09-01

    Mechanisms through which static magnetic fields interact with living systems will be described and illustrated by selected experimental observations. These mechanisms include electrodynamic interactions with moving ionic charges (blood flow and nerve impulse conduction), magnetomechanical interactions (orientation and translation of molecular structures and magnetic particles), and interactions with electronic spin states in charge transfer reactions (photo-induced electron transfer in photosynthesis). A general summary will also be presented of the biological effects of static magnetic fields studied in the laboratory and in natural settings. One aspect of magnetic field effects that merits special concern is their influence on implanted medical electronic devices such as cardiac pacemakers. Several extensive studies have demonstrated closure of the reed switch in pacemakers exposed to relatively weak static magnetic fields, thereby causing them to revert to an asynchronous mode of operation that is potentially hazardous. Recommendations for human exposure limits are provided

  18. Plasma cluster acceleration by means of external magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kracik, J.; Maloch, J.; Sobra, K.

    1975-01-01

    The electromagnetic shock tubes are used not only for shock wave creation and study but also for pulse plasma acceleration. By applying the rail acceleration the external magnetic field perpendicular to the plasma cluster velocity can be increased. In the present work is theoretically and experimentally confirmed the external magnetic field influence on the plasma cluster acceleration when the 'snow plough' model is used. (Auth.)

  19. Structure of magnetic field in Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, M.V.A.P.; Caldas, I.L.

    1990-01-01

    Magnetic surfaces, necessary to plasma confinement, can be extinguished by resonant helical perturbations with small intensities due to plasma oscillations or external helical currents. The mapping of magnetic field is obtained intergrating numerically the differential equation of its lines. Criteria which evaluate the chaotic distribution of lines between resonant magnetic islands are presented. (M.C.K.) [pt

  20. A weak magnetic field inhibits hippocampal neurogenesis in SD rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, B.; Tian, L.; Cai, Y.; Pan, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Geomagnetic field is an important barrier that protects life forms on Earth from solar wind and radiation. Paleomagnetic data have well demonstrated that the strength of ancient geomagnetic field was dramatically weakened during a polarity transition. Accumulating evidence has shown that weak magnetic field exposures has serious adverse effects on the metabolism and behaviors in organisms. Hippocampal neurogenesis occurs throughout life in mammals' brains which plays a key role in brain function, and can be influenced by animals' age as well as environmental factors, but few studies have examined the response of hippocampal neurogenesis to it. In the present study, we have investigated the weak magnetic field effects on hippocampal neurogenesis of adult Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Two types of magnetic fields were used, a weak magnetic field (≤1.3 μT) and the geomagnetic fields (51 μT).The latter is treated as a control condition. SD rats were exposure to the weak magnetic field up to 6 weeks. We measured the changes of newborn nerve cells' proliferation and survival, immature neurons, neurons and apoptosis in the dentate gyrus (DG) of hippocampus in SD rats. Results showed that, the weak magnetic field (≤1.3 μT) inhibited their neural stem cells proliferation and significantly reduced the survival of newborn nerve cells, immature neurons and neurons after 2 or 4 weeks continuous treatment (i.e. exposure to weak magnetic field). Moreover, apoptosis tests indicated the weak magnetic field can promote apoptosis of nerve cells in the hippocampus after 4 weeks treatment. Together, our new data indicate that weak magnetic field decrease adult hippocampal neurogenesis through inhibiting neural stem cells proliferation and promoting apoptosis, which provides useful experimental constraints on better understanding the mechanism of linkage between life and geomagnetic field.

  1. Survey of residential magnetic field sources interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunlap, J.H.; Zaffanella, L.E.; Johnson, G.B.

    1993-01-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has conducted a nationwide survey to collect engineering data on the sources and the levels of power frequency magnetic fields that exist in residences. The survey involves measurements at approximately 1,000 residences randomly selected in the service area of 25 utilities. The information in this paper contains data from approximately 700 homes measured. The goals of the survey are to identify all significant sources of 60 Hz magnetic field in residences, estimate with sufficient accuracy the fraction of residences in which magnetic field exceeds any specified level, determine the relation between field and source parameters, and characterize spatial and temporal variations and harmonic content of the field. The data obtained relate to the level of the 60 Hz magnetic field and the source of the field, and not to personal exposure to magnetic fields, which is likely to be different due to the activity patterns of people. Magnetic fields from electrical appliances were measured intentionally away from the influence of appliance fields, which is limited to an area close to the appliance. Special measuring techniques were used to determine how the field varied within the living space of the house and over a twenty-four hour period. The field from each source is expressed in terms of how frequently a given field level is exceeded. The following sources of 60 Hz residential magnetic fields were identified: electrical appliances, grounding system of residences, overhead and underground power distribution lines, overhead power transmission lines, ground connections at electrical subpanels, and special wiring situations. Data from the appliance measurements is in a report published by EPRI, open-quotes Survey of Residential Magnetic Field Sources - Interim Reportclose quotes, TR-100194, which also provides much more detailed information on all subjects outlined in this paper

  2. Dirac equation in magnetic-solenoid field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavrilov, S.P. [Dept. Fisica e Quimica, UNESP, Campus de Guaratingueta (Brazil); Gitman, D.M.; Smirnov, A.A. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    We consider the Dirac equation in the magnetic-solenoid field (the field of a solenoid and a collinear uniform magnetic field). For the case of Aharonov-Bohm solenoid, we construct self-adjoint extensions of the Dirac Hamiltonian using von Neumann's theory of deficiency indices. We find self-adjoint extensions of the Dirac Hamiltonian and boundary conditions at the AB solenoid. Besides, for the first time, solutions of the Dirac equation in the magnetic-solenoid field with a finite radius solenoid were found. We study the structure of these solutions and their dependence on the behavior of the magnetic field inside the solenoid. Then we exploit the latter solutions to specify boundary conditions for the magnetic-solenoid field with Aharonov-Bohm solenoid. (orig.)

  3. Magnetic field decay in model SSC dipoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, W.S.; Althaus, R.F.; Barale, P.J.; Benjegerdes, R.W.; Green, M.A.; Green, M.I.; Scanlan, R.M.

    1988-08-01

    We have observed that some of our model SSC dipoles have long time constant decays of the magnetic field harmonics with amplitudes large enough to result in significant beam loss, if they are not corrected. The magnets were run at constant current at the SSC injection field level of 0.3 tesla for one to three hours and changes in the magnetic field were observed. One explanation for the observed field decay is time dependent superconductor magnetization. Another explanation involves flux creep or flux flow. Data are presented on how the decay changes with previous flux history. Similar magnets with different Nb-Ti filament spacings and matrix materials have different long time field decay. A theoretical model using proximity coupling and flux creep for the observed field decay is discussed. 10 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  4. The Evolution of the Earth's Magnetic Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloxham, Jeremy; Gubbins, David

    1989-01-01

    Describes the change of earth's magnetic field at the boundary between the outer core and the mantle. Measurement techniques used during the last 300 years are considered. Discusses the theories and research for explaining the field change. (YP)

  5. Destabilizing effect of time-dependent oblique magnetic field on magnetic fluids streaming in porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Dib, Yusry O; Ghaly, Ahmed Y

    2004-01-01

    The present work studies Kelvin-Helmholtz waves propagating between two magnetic fluids. The system is composed of two semi-infinite magnetic fluids streaming throughout porous media. The system is influenced by an oblique magnetic field. The solution of the linearized equations of motion under the boundary conditions leads to deriving the Mathieu equation governing the interfacial displacement and having complex coefficients. The stability criteria are discussed theoretically and numerically, from which stability diagrams are obtained. Regions of stability and instability are identified for the magnetic fields versus the wavenumber. It is found that the increase of the fluid density ratio, the fluid velocity ratio, the upper viscosity, and the lower porous permeability play a stabilizing role in the stability behavior in the presence of an oscillating vertical magnetic field or in the presence of an oscillating tangential magnetic field. The increase of the fluid viscosity plays a stabilizing role and can be used to retard the destabilizing influence for the vertical magnetic field. Dual roles are observed for the fluid velocity in the stability criteria. It is found that the field frequency plays against the constant part for the magnetic field.

  6. Tripolar electric field Structure in guide field magnetic reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Song; Huang, Shiyong; Zhou, Meng; Ni, Binbin; Deng, Xiaohua

    2018-03-01

    It has been shown that the guide field substantially modifies the structure of the reconnection layer. For instance, the Hall magnetic and electric fields are distorted in guide field reconnection compared to reconnection without guide fields (i.e., anti-parallel reconnection). In this paper, we performed 2.5-D electromagnetic full particle simulation to study the electric field structures in magnetic reconnection under different initial guide fields (Bg). Once the amplitude of a guide field exceeds 0.3 times the asymptotic magnetic field B0, the traditional bipolar Hall electric field is clearly replaced by a tripolar electric field, which consists of a newly emerged electric field and the bipolar Hall electric field. The newly emerged electric field is a convective electric field about one ion inertial length away from the neutral sheet. It arises from the disappearance of the Hall electric field due to the substantial modification of the magnetic field and electric current by the imposed guide field. The peak magnitude of this new electric field increases linearly with the increment of guide field strength. Possible applications of these results to space observations are also discussed.

  7. Tripolar electric field Structure in guide field magnetic reconnection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that the guide field substantially modifies the structure of the reconnection layer. For instance, the Hall magnetic and electric fields are distorted in guide field reconnection compared to reconnection without guide fields (i.e., anti-parallel reconnection. In this paper, we performed 2.5-D electromagnetic full particle simulation to study the electric field structures in magnetic reconnection under different initial guide fields (Bg. Once the amplitude of a guide field exceeds 0.3 times the asymptotic magnetic field B0, the traditional bipolar Hall electric field is clearly replaced by a tripolar electric field, which consists of a newly emerged electric field and the bipolar Hall electric field. The newly emerged electric field is a convective electric field about one ion inertial length away from the neutral sheet. It arises from the disappearance of the Hall electric field due to the substantial modification of the magnetic field and electric current by the imposed guide field. The peak magnitude of this new electric field increases linearly with the increment of guide field strength. Possible applications of these results to space observations are also discussed.

  8. Observing Interstellar and Intergalactic Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, J. L.

    2017-08-01

    Observational results of interstellar and intergalactic magnetic fields are reviewed, including the fields in supernova remnants and loops, interstellar filaments and clouds, Hii regions and bubbles, the Milky Way and nearby galaxies, galaxy clusters, and the cosmic web. A variety of approaches are used to investigate these fields. The orientations of magnetic fields in interstellar filaments and molecular clouds are traced by polarized thermal dust emission and starlight polarization. The field strengths and directions along the line of sight in dense clouds and cores are measured by Zeeman splitting of emission or absorption lines. The large-scale magnetic fields in the Milky Way have been best probed by Faraday rotation measures of a large number of pulsars and extragalactic radio sources. The coherent Galactic magnetic fields are found to follow the spiral arms and have their direction reversals in arms and interarm regions in the disk. The azimuthal fields in the halo reverse their directions below and above the Galactic plane. The orientations of organized magnetic fields in nearby galaxies have been observed through polarized synchrotron emission. Magnetic fields in the intracluster medium have been indicated by diffuse radio halos, polarized radio relics, and Faraday rotations of embedded radio galaxies and background sources. Sparse evidence for very weak magnetic fields in the cosmic web is the detection of the faint radio bridge between the Coma cluster and A1367. Future observations should aim at the 3D tomography of the large-scale coherent magnetic fields in our Galaxy and nearby galaxies, a better description of intracluster field properties, and firm detections of intergalactic magnetic fields in the cosmic web.

  9. [The influence of electromagnetic fields on flora and fauna].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochalska, Małgorzata

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the influence of natural and artificial electromagnetic fields (EMF) on fauna and flora. The mechanisms of Earth's magnetic field detection and the use of this skill by migratory animals to faultlessly reach the destination of their travel are discussed, as well as the positive effects of electric and magnetic fields on plants relative to their physiology, yielding and health. EMF influence on social insects and animal organisms, including possible DNA damages and DNA repair systems, is presented. The influence of high frequency electromagnetic fields on birds nesting is also discussed.

  10. Coulomb blockade induced by magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusmartsev, F.V.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the authors found that a Coulomb blockade can be induced by magnetic field. The authors illustrated this effect on the example of a ring consisting of two and many Josephson junctions. For the ring with two junctions we present an exact solution. The transition into Coulomb blockade state on a ring transforms into a linear array of Josephson junctions, although in latter case the effect of magnetic field disappears. In the state of Coulomb blockade the magnetization may be both diamagnetic and paramagnetic. The Coulomb blockade may also be removed by external magnetic field

  11. Magnetic field errors tolerances of Nuclotron booster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butenko, Andrey; Kazinova, Olha; Kostromin, Sergey; Mikhaylov, Vladimir; Tuzikov, Alexey; Khodzhibagiyan, Hamlet

    2018-04-01

    Generation of magnetic field in units of booster synchrotron for the NICA project is one of the most important conditions for getting the required parameters and qualitative accelerator operation. Research of linear and nonlinear dynamics of ion beam 197Au31+ in the booster have carried out with MADX program. Analytical estimation of magnetic field errors tolerance and numerical computation of dynamic aperture of booster DFO-magnetic lattice are presented. Closed orbit distortion with random errors of magnetic fields and errors in layout of booster units was evaluated.

  12. Influence of magnetic field, chemical pressure and hydrostatic pressure on the structural and magnetocaloric properties of the Mn-Ni-Ge system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubel, Andreas; Gottschall, Tino; Fries, Maximilian; Faske, Tom; Skokov, Konstantin P.; Gutfleisch, Oliver

    2017-11-01

    The magnetic, structural and thermomagnetic properties of the MM’X material system of MnNiGe are evaluated with respect to their utilization in magnetocaloric refrigeration. The effects of separate and simultaneous substitution of Fe for Mn and Si on the Ge site are analysed in detail to highlight the benefits of the isostructural alloying method. A large range of compounds with precisely tunable structural and magnetic properties and the tuning of the phase transition by chemical pressure are compared to the effect of hydrostatic pressure on the martensitic transition. We obtained very large isothermal entropy changes Δ S_iso of up to -37.8 J kg-1 K-1 based on magnetic measurements for (Mn,Fe)NiGe in moderate fields of 2 T. The enhanced magnetocaloric properties for transitions around room temperature are demonstrated for samples with reduced Ge, a resource critical element. An adiabatic temperature change of 1.3 K in a magnetic field change of 1.93 T is observed upon direct measurement for a sample with Fe and Si substitution. However, the high volume change of 2.8% results in an embrittlement of large particles into several smaller fragments and leads to a sensitivity of the magnetocaloric properties towards sample shape and size. On the other hand, this large volume change enables to induce the phase transition with a large shift of the transition temperature by application of hydrostatic pressure (72 K GPa-1 ). Thus, the effect of 1.88 GPa is equivalent to a substitution of 10% Fe for Mn and can act as an additional stimulus to induce the phase transition and support the low magnetic field dependence of the phase transition temperature for multicaloric applications.

  13. Programming the control of magnetic field measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, L.

    1998-01-01

    This paper gives a short review concerning the new NMR probe measurement control system. Then it presents the new program 'CYCLOCHAMP' attached to the magnetic field measurement which also allows to cycle the magnetic field inside the cyclotrons and to equilibrate it among the SSC sectors. (authors)

  14. Strong magnetic field generation in laser plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakarmi, J.J.; Jha, L.N.

    1996-12-01

    An attempt has been made to solve the magnetic field evolution equation by using Green function and taking convective, diffusion and nabla n x nabla T as a dominant source term. The maximum magnetic field is obtained to be an order of megagauss. (author). 14 refs, 1 fig

  15. Hydrogen atom moving across a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lozovik, Yu.E.; Volkov, S.Yu.

    2004-01-01

    A hydrogen atom moving across a magnetic field is considered in a wide region of magnitudes of magnetic field and atom momentum. We solve the Schroedinger equation of the system numerically using an imaginary time method and find wave functions of the lowest states of atom. We calculate the energy and the mean electron-nucleus separation as a function of atom momentum and magnetic field. All the results obtained could be summarized as a phase diagram on the 'atom-momentum - magnetic-field' plane. There are transformations of wave-function structure at critical values of atom momentum and magnetic field that result in a specific behavior of dependencies of energy and mean interparticle separation on the atom momentum P. We discuss a transition from the Zeeman regime to the high magnetic field regime. A qualitative analysis of the complicated behavior of wave functions vs P based on the effective potential examination is given. We analyze a sharp transition at the critical momentum from a Coulomb-type state polarized due to atom motion to a strongly decentered (Landau-type) state at low magnetic fields. A crossover occurring at intermediate magnetic fields is also studied

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging: effects of magnetic field strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crooks, L.E.; Arakawa, M.; Hoenninger, J.; McCarten, B.; Watts, J.; Kaufman, L.

    1984-01-01

    Magnetic resonance images of the head, abdomen, and pelvis of normal adult men were obtained using varying magnetic field strength, and measurements of T1 and T2 relaxations and of signal-to-noise (SN) ratios were determined. For any one spin echo sequence, gray/white matter contrast decreases and muscle/fat contrast increases with field. SN levels rise rapidly up to 3.0 kgauss and then change more slowly, actually dropping for muscle. The optimum field for magnetic resonance imaging depends on tissue type, body part, and imaging sequence, so that it does not have a unique value. Magnetic resonance systems that operate in the 3.0-5.0 kgauss range achieve most or all of the gains that can be achieved by higher magnetic fields

  17. Earth magnetism a guided tour through magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, Wallace H

    2001-01-01

    An introductory guide to global magnetic field properties, Earth Magnetism addresses, in non-technical prose, many of the frequently asked questions about Earth''s magnetic field. Magnetism surrounds and penetrates our Earth in ways basic science courses can rarely address. It affects navigation, communication, and even the growth of crystals. As we observe and experience an 11-year solar maximum, we may witness spectacular satellite-destroying solar storms as they interact with our magnetic field. Written by an acknowledged expert in the field, this book will enrich courses in earth science, atmospheric science, geology, meteorology, geomagnetism, and geophysics. Contains nearly 200 original illustrations and eight pages of full-color plates.* Largely mathematics-free and with a wide breadth of material suitable for general readers* Integrates material from geomagnetism, paleomagnetism, and solar-terrestrial space physics.* Features nearly 200 original illustrations and 4 pages of colour plates

  18. Parameterization and measurements of helical magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, W.; Okamura, M.

    1997-01-01

    Magnetic fields with helical symmetry can be parameterized using multipole coefficients (a n , b n ). We present a parameterization that gives the familiar multipole coefficients (a n , b n ) for straight magnets when the helical wavelength tends to infinity. To measure helical fields all methods used for straight magnets can be employed. We show how to convert the results of those measurements to obtain the desired helical multipole coefficients (a n , b n )

  19. Classical theory of electric and magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Good, Roland H

    1971-01-01

    Classical Theory of Electric and Magnetic Fields is a textbook on the principles of electricity and magnetism. This book discusses mathematical techniques, calculations, with examples of physical reasoning, that are generally applied in theoretical physics. This text reviews the classical theory of electric and magnetic fields, Maxwell's Equations, Lorentz Force, and Faraday's Law of Induction. The book also focuses on electrostatics and the general methods for solving electrostatic problems concerning images, inversion, complex variable, or separation of variables. The text also explains ma

  20. Numerical Investigation of Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer Inside a 2D Enclosure with Three Hot Obstacles on the Ramp under the Influence of a Magnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Keshtkar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on solving the fluid flow and heat transfer equations inside a two-dimensional square enclosure containing three hot obstacles affected by gravity and magnetic force placed on a ramp using Boltzmann method (LBM applying multiple relaxation times (MRT. Although, the Lattice Boltzmann with MRT is a complex technique, it is a relatively new, stable, fast and high-accurate one. The main objective of this research was to numerically model the fluid flow and ultimately obtaining the velocity field, flow and temperature contour lines inside a two-dimensional enclosure. The results and their comparisons for different types of heat transfer revealed that free or forced heat transfer has a considerable impact on the heat transfer and stream lines. This can be controlled by modifying the Richardson number. It is revealed that changing the intensity of the magnetic field (Hartman number has an appreciable effect on the heat transfer.

  1. Levitation of a magnet by an alternating magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gough, W; Hunt, M O; Summerskill, W S H

    2013-01-01

    An experiment is described in which a small strong cylindrical magnet is levitated by a vertical non-uniform alternating magnetic field. Surprisingly, no superimposed constant field is necessary, but the levitation can be explained when the vertical motion of the magnet is taken into account. The theoretical mean levitation force is (0.26 ± 0.06) N, which is in good agreement with the levitated weight of (0.239 ± 0.001) N. This experiment is suitable for an undergraduate laboratory, particularly as a final year project. Students have found it interesting, and it sharpens up knowledge of basic magnetism. (paper)

  2. CSEM-steel hybrid wiggler/undulator magnetic field studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbach, K.; Hoyer, E.; Marks, S.; Plate, D.; Shuman, D.

    1985-05-01

    Current design of permanent magnet wiggler/undulators use either pure charge sheet equivalent material (CSEM) or the CSEM-Steel hybrid configuration. Hybrid configurations offer higher field strength at small gaps, field distributions dominated by the pole surfaces and pole tuning. Nominal performance of the hybrid is generally predicted using a 2-D magnetic design code neglecting transverse geometry. Magnetic measurements are presented showing transverse configuration influence on performance, from a combination of models using CSEMs, REC (H/sub c/ = 9.2 kOe) and NdFe (H/sub c/ = 10.7 kOe), different pole widths and end configurations. Results show peak field improvement using NdFe in place of REC in identical models, gap peak field decrease with pole width decrease (all results less than computed 2-D fields), transverse gap field distributions, and importance of CSEM material overhanging the poles in the transverse direction for highest gap fields

  3. Magnetic Fields in the Solar Convection Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Yuhong

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies of the dynamic evolution of magnetic flux tubes in the solar convection zone are reviewed with focus on emerging flux tubes responsible for the formation of solar active regions. The current prevailing picture is that active regions on the solar surface originate from strong toroidal magnetic fields generated by the solar dynamo mechanism at the thin tachocline layer at the base of the solar convection zone. Thus the magnetic fields need to traverse the entire convection zone before they reach the photosphere to form the observed solar active regions. This review discusses results with regard to the following major topics: 1. the equilibrium properties of the toroidal magnetic fields stored in the stable overshoot region at the base of the convection zone, 2. the buoyancy instability associated with the toroidal magnetic fields and the formation of buoyant magnetic flux tubes, 3. the rise of emerging flux loops through the solar convective envelope as modeled by the thin flux tube calculations which infer that the field strength of the toroidal magnetic fields at the base of the solar convection zone is significantly higher than the value in equipartition with convection, 4. the minimum twist needed for maintaining cohesion of the rising flux tubes, 5. the rise of highly twisted kink unstable flux tubes as a possible origin of d -sunspots, 6. the evolution of buoyant magnetic flux tubes in 3D stratified convection, 7. turbulent pumping of magnetic flux by penetrative compressible convection, 8. an alternative mechanism for intensifying toroidal magnetic fields to significantly super-equipartition field strengths by conversion of the potential energy associated with the superadiabatic stratification of the solar convection zone, and finally 9. a brief overview of our current understanding of flux emergence at the surface and post-emergence evolution of the subsurface magnetic fields.

  4. Orienting Paramecium with intense static magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valles, James M., Jr.; Guevorkian, Karine; Quindel, Carl

    2004-03-01

    Recent experiments on cell division suggest the application of intense static magnetic fields as a novel tool for the manipulation of biological systems [1]. The magnetic field appears to couple to the intrinsic anisotropies in the diamagnetic components of the cells. Here, we present measurements of the intrinsic average diamagnetic anisotropy of the whole single celled ciliate, Paramecium Caudatum. Magnetic fields, 2.5 T Paramecium Caudatum that were suspended in a density matched medium. The organisms align with their long axis parallel to the applied magnetic field. Their intrinsic diamagnetic anisotropy is 3x10-11 in cgs units. We will discuss the implications of these results for employing magnetic fields to probe the behavior of swimming Paramecium. [1] J. M. Valles, Jr. et al., Expt. Cell Res.274, 112-118 (2002).

  5. Development of high field superconducting magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irie, Fujio; Takeo, Masakatsu.

    1986-01-01

    Recently, in connection with nuclear fusion research, the development of high field superconducting magnets showed rapid progress. The development of high field magnets of 15 T class by the techniques of winding after heat treatment has been continued in various places, as these techniques are suitable to make large magnets. In 1985, Kyushu University attained the record of 15.5 T. However in high field magnets, there are many problems peculiar to them, and the basic research related to those is demanded. In this report, these general problems, the experience of the design and manufacture in Kyushu University and the related problems are described. The superconducting magnet installed in the Superconducting Magnet Research Center of Kyushu University attained the record of 15.5 T for the first time in March, 1985. In superconducting magnets, very difficult problem must be solved since superconductivity, heat and mechanical force are inter related. The problems of the wire materials for high field, the scale of high field magnets, the condition limiting mean current density, and the development of high field magnets in Kyushu University are described. (Kako, I.)

  6. Magnetization reversal of a type-II superconductor thin disk under the action of a constant magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koval'chuk, D.G.; Chornomorets', M.P.

    2010-01-01

    The applicability of relations obtained by Clem and Sanchez for the ac magnetic susceptibility of type-II superconductor thin films to the case where an additional constant magnetic field is applied perpendicularly to the film has been analyzed in the framework of the critical state model. The issues concerning the sample 'memory' and the influence of the magnetic field change prehistory on the current sample state have been discussed. It has been shown that the ac component of the magnetic moment and, hence, the amplitudes of ac magnetic susceptibility harmonics are established within one period of the ac magnetic field irrespective of the field prehistory.

  7. The influence of laser scribing on magnetic domain formation in grain oriented electrical steel visualized by directional neutron dark-field imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, P.; Betz, B.; Hauptmann, J.; Wetzig, A.; Beyer, E.; Grünzweig, C.

    2016-12-01

    The performance and degree of efficiency of transformers are directly determined by the bulk magnetic properties of grain oriented electrical steel laminations. The core losses can be improved by post manufacturing methods, so-called domain refinement techniques. All these methods induce mechanical or thermal stress that refines the domain structure. The most commonly used technique is laser scribing due to the no-contact nature and the ease of integration in existing production systems. Here we show how directional neutron dark-field imaging allows visualizing the impact of laser scribing on the bulk and supplementary domain structure. In particular, we investigate the domain formation during magnetization of samples depending on laser treatment parameters such as laser energy and line distances. The directional dark-field imaging findings were quantitatively interpreted in the context with global magnetic hysteresis measurements. Especially we exploit the orientation sensitivity in the dark-field images to distinguish between different domain structures alignment and their relation to the laser scribing process.

  8. Bats Respond to Very Weak Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lan-Xiang; Pan, Yong-Xin; Metzner, Walter; Zhang, Jin-Shuo; Zhang, Bing-Fang

    2015-01-01

    How animals, including mammals, can respond to and utilize the direction and intensity of the Earth’s magnetic field for orientation and navigation is contentious. In this study, we experimentally tested whether the Chinese Noctule, Nyctalus plancyi (Vespertilionidae) can sense magnetic field strengths that were even lower than those of the present-day geomagnetic field. Such field strengths occurred during geomagnetic excursions or polarity reversals and thus may have played an important role in the evolution of a magnetic sense. We found that in a present-day local geomagnetic field, the bats showed a clear preference for positioning themselves at the magnetic north. As the field intensity decreased to only 1/5th of the natural intensity (i.e., 10 μT; the lowest field strength tested here), the bats still responded by positioning themselves at the magnetic north. When the field polarity was artificially reversed, the bats still preferred the new magnetic north, even at the lowest field strength tested (10 μT), despite the fact that the artificial field orientation was opposite to the natural geomagnetic field (Preversed tens of times over the past fifty million years. PMID:25922944

  9. Magnetic fields of HgMn stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubrig, S.; González, J. F.; Ilyin, I.

    2012-01-01

    Context. The frequent presence of weak magnetic fields on the surface of spotted late-B stars with HgMn peculiarity in binary systems has been controversial during the two last decades. Recent studies of magnetic fields in these stars using the least-squares deconvolution (LSD) technique have...... failed to detect magnetic fields, indicating an upper limit on the longitudinal field between 8 and 15G. In these LSD studies, assumptions were made that all spectral lines are identical in shape and can be described by a scaled mean profile. Aims. We re-analyse the available spectropolarimetric material...

  10. Superposition of DC magnetic fields by cascading multiple magnets in magnetic loops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Sun

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel method that can effectively collect the DC magnetic field produced by multiple separated magnets is proposed. With the proposed idea of a magnetic loop, the DC magnetic field produced by these separated magnets can be effectively superimposed together. The separated magnets can be cascaded in series or in parallel. A novel nested magnetic loop is also proposed to achieve a higher DC magnetic field in the common air region without increasing the DC magnetic field in each magnetic loop. The magnetic loop can be made by a magnetic hose, which is designed by transformation optics and can be realized by the combination of super-conductors and ferromagnetic materials.

  11. Magnetic fields in noninvasive brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-Dourado, Marcos; Conforto, Adriana Bastos; Caboclo, Luis Otávio Sales Ferreira; Scaff, Milberto; Guilhoto, Laura Maria de Figueiredo Ferreira; Yacubian, Elza Márcia Targas

    2014-04-01

    The idea that magnetic fields could be used therapeutically arose 2000 years ago. These therapeutic possibilities were expanded after the discovery of electromagnetic induction by the Englishman Michael Faraday and the American Joseph Henry. In 1896, Arsène d'Arsonval reported his experience with noninvasive brain magnetic stimulation to the scientific French community. In the second half of the 20th century, changing magnetic fields emerged as a noninvasive tool to study the nervous system and to modulate neural function. In 1985, Barker, Jalinous, and Freeston presented transcranial magnetic stimulation, a relatively focal and painless technique. Transcranial magnetic stimulation has been proposed as a clinical neurophysiology tool and as a potential adjuvant treatment for psychiatric and neurologic conditions. This article aims to contextualize the progress of use of magnetic fields in the history of neuroscience and medical sciences, until 1985.

  12. Field Mapping System for Solenoid Magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, K. H.; Jung, Y. K.; Kim, D. E.; Lee, H. G.; Park, S. J.; Chung, C. W.; Kang, B. K.

    2007-01-01

    A three-dimensional Hall probe mapping system for measuring the solenoid magnet of PLS photo-cathode RF e-gun has been developed. It can map the solenoid field either in Cartesian or in cylindrical coordinate system with a measurement reproducibility better than 5 × 10-5 T. The system has three axis motors: one for the azimuthal direction and the other two for the x and z direction. This architecture makes the measuring system simple in fabrication. The magnetic center was calculated using the measured axial component of magnetic field Bz in Cartesian coordinate system because the accuracy of magnetic axis measurement could be improved significantly by using Bz, instead of the radial component of magnetic field Br. This paper describes the measurement system and summarizes the measurement results for the solenoid magnetic of PLS photo-cathode RF e-gun.

  13. Critical current anisotropy in Ag/(Pb,Bi){sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 10+x} multifilamentary tapes: influence of self-magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majoros, M [IRC in Superconductivity, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Institute of Electrical Engineering, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava (Slovakia); Glowacki, B A [IRC in Superconductivity, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Campbell, A M [IRC in Superconductivity, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2001-06-01

    Two factors affect critical current anisotropy in multifilamentary Ag/(Pb,Bi){sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 10+x} tapes - the intrinsic material anisotropy and the geometry. Experimental results on the magnetic field dependence and anisotropy of the critical current in a multifilamentary Ag/(Pb,Bi){sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 10+x} tape after correction for self-magnetic field effects were found to fit the anisotropic Kim relation. Based on this relation a finite-element-method numerical code for solving the nonlinear Poisson equation for vector magnetic potential was adopted. It allowed the experimental data to be reproduced by back calculation and made possible the study of the interplay of self and external magnetic fields in different cases with well defined physical parameters of the material. The model was used to analyse the distribution of the critical current in individual filaments as well as to evaluate the influence of their geometrical arrangements on the critical current of the tape. The self-field critical current of an individual filament 'extracted' from the tape was compared with the critical current of the overall tape. The effect of the self-magnetic field on critical current distribution obtained by the cutting method was determined. The critical currents of the tapes with different cross sections were calculated and compared with experiments and the influence of the self-field was analysed. The anisotropic properties of a low anisotropy architecture of a multifilamentary Ag/(Pb,Bi){sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 10+x} conductor were studied. The dependence of critical currents (normalized to self-field critical currents) on external magnetic field corrected for the self-field was found to follow nearly the same curves as those for tapes with different critical current densities (in the range 20-70 kA cm{sup -2} in a self-field), which makes the numerical model applicable to different tapes. (author)

  14. INTERSTELLAR MAGNETIC FIELD SURROUNDING THE HELIOPAUSE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whang, Y. C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a three-dimensional analytical solution, in the limit of very low plasma β-ratio, for the distortion of the interstellar magnetic field surrounding the heliopause. The solution is obtained using a line dipole method that is the integration of point dipole along a semi-infinite line; it represents the magnetic field caused by the presence of the heliopause. The solution allows the variation of the undisturbed magnetic field at any inclination angle. The heliosphere is considered as having blunt-nosed geometry on the upwind side and it asymptotically approaches a cylindrical geometry having an open exit for the continuous outflow of the solar wind on the downwind side. The heliopause is treated as a magnetohydrodynamic tangential discontinuity; the interstellar magnetic field lines at the boundary are tangential to the heliopause. The interstellar magnetic field is substantially distorted due to the presence of the heliopause. The solution shows the draping of the field lines around the heliopause. The magnetic field strength varies substantially near the surface of the heliopause. The effect on the magnetic field due to the presence of the heliopause penetrates very deep into the interstellar space; the depth of penetration is of the same order of magnitude as the scale length of the heliosphere.

  15. Magnetic field compression using pinch-plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, K.; Tanimoto, M.; Matsumoto, Y.; Veno, I.

    1987-01-01

    In a previous report, the method for ultra-high magnetic field compression by using the pinchplasma was discussed. It is summarized as follows. The experiment is performed with the Mather-type plasma focus device tau/sub 1/4/ = 2 μs, I=880 kA at V=20 kV). An initial DC magnetic field is fed by an electromagnet embedded in the inner electrode. The axial component of the magnetic field diverges from the maximum field of 1 kG on the surface of the inner electrode. The density profile deduced from a Mach-Zehnder interferogram with a 2-ns N/sub 2/-laser shows a density dip lasting for 30 ns along the axes. Using the measured density of 8 x 10/sup 18/ cm/sup -3/, the temperature of 1.5 keV and the pressure balance relation, the magnitude of the trapped magnetic field is estimated to be 1.0 MG. The magnitude of the compressed magnetic field is also measured by Faraday rotation in a single-mode quartz fiber and a magnetic pickup soil. A protective polyethylene tube (3-mm o.d.) is used along the central axis through the inner electrode and the discharge chamber. The peak value of the compressed field range from 150 to 190 kG. No signal of the magnetic field appears up to the instance of the maximum pinch

  16. Magnetic Field Measurements In Magnetized Plasmas Using Zeeman Broadening Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Showera; Wallace, Matthew; Presura, Radu; Neill, Paul

    2017-10-01

    The Zeeman effect has been used to measure the magnetic field in high energy density plasmas. This method is limited when plasma conditions are such that the line broadening due to the high plasma density and temperature surpasses the Zeeman splitting. We have measured magnetic fields in magnetized laser plasmas under conditions where the Zeeman splitting was not spectrally resolved. The magnetic field strength was determined from the difference in widths of two doublet components, using an idea proposed by Tessarin et al. (2011). Time-gated spectra with one-dimensional space-resolution were obtained at the Nevada Terawatt Facility for laser plasmas created by 20 J, 1 ns Leopard laser pulses, and expanding in the azimuthal magnetic field produced by the 0.6 MA Zebra pulsed power generator. We explore the response of the Al III 4s 2S1/2 - 4p 2P1 / 2 , 3 / 2 doublet components to the external magnetic field spatially along the plasma. Radial magnetic field and electron density profiles were measured within the plasma plume. This work was supported by the DOE/OFES Grant DE-SC0008829 and DOE/NNSA contract DE-FC52-06NA27616.

  17. TRIANGULATION OF THE INTERSTELLAR MAGNETIC FIELD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwadron, N. A.; Moebius, E. [University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States); Richardson, J. D. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Burlaga, L. F. [Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); McComas, D. J. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX 78228 (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Determining the direction of the local interstellar magnetic field (LISMF) is important for understanding the heliosphere’s global structure, the properties of the interstellar medium, and the propagation of cosmic rays in the local galactic medium. Measurements of interstellar neutral atoms by Ulysses for He and by SOHO/SWAN for H provided some of the first observational insights into the LISMF direction. Because secondary neutral H is partially deflected by the interstellar flow in the outer heliosheath and this deflection is influenced by the LISMF, the relative deflection of H versus He provides a plane—the so-called B–V plane in which the LISMF direction should lie. Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) subsequently discovered a ribbon, the center of which is conjectured to be the LISMF direction. The most recent He velocity measurements from IBEX and those from Ulysses yield a B–V plane with uncertainty limits that contain the centers of the IBEX ribbon at 0.7–2.7 keV. The possibility that Voyager 1 has moved into the outer heliosheath now suggests that Voyager 1's direct observations provide another independent determination of the LISMF. We show that LISMF direction measured by Voyager 1 is >40° off from the IBEX ribbon center and the B–V plane. Taking into account the temporal gradient of the field direction measured by Voyager 1, we extrapolate to a field direction that passes directly through the IBEX ribbon center (0.7–2.7 keV) and the B–V plane, allowing us to triangulate the LISMF direction and estimate the gradient scale size of the magnetic field.

  18. Ohm's law for mean magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boozer, A.H.

    1986-05-01

    The magnetic fields associated with plasmas frequently exhibit small amplitude MHD fluctuations. It is useful to have equations for the magnetic field averaged over these fluctuations, the so-called mean field equations. Under very general assumptions it is shown that the effect of MHD fluctuations on a force-free plasma can be represented by one parameter in Ohm's law, which is effectively the coefficient of electric current viscosity

  19. Ohm's law for mean magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boozer, A.H.

    1986-01-01

    The magnetic fields associated with plasmas frequently exhibit small-amplitude MHD fluctuations. It is useful to have equations for the magnetic field averaged over these fluctuations, the so-called mean field equations. Under very general assumptions, it is shown that the effect of MHD fluctuations on a force-free plasma can be represented by one parameter in Ohm's law, which is effectively the coefficient of electric current viscosity. (author)

  20. Lightning magnetic field measuring system in Bogota

    OpenAIRE

    Escobar Alvarado, Oscar Fernardo

    2013-01-01

    This thesis presents the configuration and performance of a lightning radiated electromagnetic field measuring system in Bogotá Colombia. The system is composed by both magnetic and electric field measuring systems working as separated sensors. The aim of the thesis is the design and construction of a Magnetic Field Measuring System and the implementation of a whole lightning measuring system in Bogotá. The theoretical background, design process, construction and implementation of the system ...

  1. The evolution of magnetic fields in clusters of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoeckl, J.

    2011-01-01

    Although the observational knowledge base about the properties of magnetic fields in clusters of galaxies has significantly improved in recent years, our understanding of the evolution and influence of the magnetic fields is still limited. We present results from our study on the influence of cluster scale magnetic fields on the structure formation of clusters of galaxies and the evolution of the intra-cluster medium (ICM). The high-resolution simulations employ a self-consistent numerical setup, which includes gravity, cosmology, magnetohydrodynamics and radiative cooling. We find that during structure formation cosmological magnetic seed fields of the order of 10 -1 1 to 10 -9 G are amplified by up to six orders of magnitude, which is in good agreement with observations. Furthermore we find that merger shocks during the cluster formation can have a dispersive effect on the magnetic field in the cluster center, and the outgoing shock waves can lead to magnetic fields of the order of [mu]G even at distances of more than 1 Mpc from the center. We highlight this as a possible explanation for the faint or undetectable radio halos that can be observed together with strong radio relics. (author) [de

  2. Regulation of fields excited by permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savchenko, I.S.

    1989-01-01

    Two methods of fast regulation of fields excited by permanent magnets in salient-pole electron-optical lenses are described: 1)the hybrid method realized using the additional electromagnet introduced to a magnetic chain sequentially its field being composed or substracted with magnetosolid exciter field; 2)the method with saturation of a part of a magnetic circuit, with saturation being achievable at the begining or in the end of a regulation cycle. In the second method it is proposed to direct orthogonally the main flux excited by permanent magnets and the flux in the saturated part of the magnetic circuit excited using an electromagnet. It is shown that the second method allows one to reduce the required ampere-coils by more than an order as compared to the first method at one and the same regulation range and other equal conditions. The frequency of field regulation in the experimental mock-up was 10 kHz. 3 refs.; 2 figs

  3. Planetary nebulae and the interstellar magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiligman, G.M.

    1980-01-01

    Previous workers have found a statistical correlation between the projected directions of the interstellar magnetic field and the major axes of planetary nebulae. This result has been examined theoretically using a numerical hydromagnetic model of a cold plasma nebula expanding into a uniform vacuum magnetic field, with nebular gas accreting on the surface. It is found that magnetic pressure alone is probably not sufficient to shape most planetary nebulae to the observed degree. Phenomena are discussed which could amplify simple magnetic pressure, alter nebular morphology and account for the observed correlation. (author)

  4. Tuning permanent magnets with adjustable field clamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schermer, R.I.

    1987-01-01

    The effective length of a permanent-magnet assembly can be varied by adjusting the geometrical parameters of a field clamp. This paper presents measurements on a representative dipole and quadrupole as the field clamp is withdrawn axially or radially. The detailed behavior depends upon the magnet multipolarity and geometry. As a rule-of-thumb, a 3-mm-thick iron plate placed at one end plane of the magnet will shorten the length by one-third of the magnet bore radius

  5. Neutron stars velocities and magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paret, Daryel Manreza; Martinez, A. Perez; Ayala, Alejandro.; Piccinelli, G.; Sanchez, A.

    2018-01-01

    We study a model that explain neutron stars velocities due to the anisotropic emission of neutrinos. Strong magnetic fields present in neutron stars are the source of the anisotropy in the system. To compute the velocity of the neutron star we model its core as composed by strange quark matter and analice the properties of a magnetized quark gas at finite temperature and density. Specifically we have obtained the electron polarization and the specific heat of magnetized fermions as a functions of the temperature, chemical potential and magnetic field which allow us to study the velocity of the neutron star as a function of these parameters.

  6. Quantum well electronic states in a tilted magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trallero-Giner, C; Padilha, J X; Lopez-Richard, V; Marques, G E; Castelano, L K

    2017-08-16

    We report the energy spectrum and the eigenstates of conduction and uncoupled valence bands of a quantum well under the influence of a tilted magnetic field. In the framework of the envelope approximation, we implement two analytical approaches to obtain the nontrivial solutions of the tilted magnetic field: (a) the Bubnov-Galerkin spectral method and b) the perturbation theory. We discuss the validity of each method for a broad range of magnetic field intensity and orientation as well as quantum well thickness. By estimating the accuracy of the perturbation method, we provide explicit analytical solutions for quantum wells in a tilted magnetic field configuration that can be employed to study several quantitative phenomena.

  7. Properties of a Bound Polaron under a Perpendicular Magnetic Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jia; Chen Ziyu; Xiao Jinglin; Huo Shufen

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the influence of a perpendicular magnetic field on a bound polaron near the interface of a polar-polar semiconductor with Rashba effect. The external magnetic field strongly changes the ground state binding energy of the polaron and the Rashba spin-orbit (SO) interaction originating from the inversion asymmetry in the heterostructure splits the ground state binding energy of the bound polaron. In this paper, we have shown how the ground state binding energy will be with the change of the external magnetic field, the location of a single impurity, the wave vector of the electron and the electron areal density, taking into account the SO coupling. Due to the presence of the phonons, whose energy gives negative contribution to the polaron's, the spin-splitting states of the bound polaron are more stable, and we find that in the condition of week magnetic field, the Zeeaman effect can be neglected.

  8. Tuning bacterial hydrodynamics with magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, C. J.; Mumper, E.; Brown, E. E.; Brangham, J. T.; Lower, B. H.; Lower, S. K.; Yang, F. Y.; Sooryakumar, R.

    2017-06-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria are a group of motile prokaryotes that synthesize chains of lipid-bound, magnetic nanoparticles called magnetosomes. This study exploits their innate magnetism to investigate previously unexplored facets of bacterial hydrodynamics at surfaces. Through use of weak, uniform, external magnetic fields and local, micromagnetic surface patterns, the relative strength of hydrodynamic, magnetic, and flagellar force components is tuned through magnetic control of the bacteria's orientation. The resulting swimming behaviors provide a means to experimentally determine hydrodynamic parameters and offer a high degree of control over large numbers of living microscopic entities. The implications of this controlled motion for studies of bacterial motility near surfaces and for micro- and nanotechnology are discussed.

  9. Magnetic Fields in the Early Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Grasso, D; Grasso, D

    2001-01-01

    This review concerns the origin and the possible effects of magnetic fields in the early Universe. We start by providing to the reader with a short overview of the current state of art of observations of cosmic magnetic fields. We then illustrate the arguments in favour of a primordial origin of magnetic fields in the galaxies and in the clusters of galaxies. We argue that the most promising way to test this hypothesis is to look for possible imprints of magnetic fields on the temperature and polarization anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR). With this purpose in mind, we provide a review of the most relevant effects of magnetic fields on the CMBR. A long chapter of this review is dedicated to particle physics inspired models which predict the generation of magnetic fields during the early Universe evolution. Although it is still unclear if any of these models can really explain the origin of galactic and intergalactic magnetic fields, we show that interesting effects may arise any...

  10. The characterisation of magnetic pigment dispersions using pulsed magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackwell, J.J.; O'Grady, K.; Nelson, N.K.; Sharrock, M.P.

    2003-01-01

    In this work, we describe the application of pulsed field magnetometry techniques for the characterisation of magnetic pigment dispersions. Magnetic pigment dispersions are important technological materials as in one form they are the material which are used to coat base film in order to make magnetic recording tape. It is these materials that have been evaluated. In this work, we describe the use of two pulsed field magnetometers, one being a low-field instrument with a maximum field of 750 Oe and the other a high-field instrument with a maximum field of 4.1 kOe. Using inductive sensing, the magnetisation is monitored in real time as the pulse is applied. We find that using these techniques we can successfully monitor the progress of the dispersion process, the effects of different resin systems and the effect of different processing conditions. We find that our results are consistent with rheological and other measurements

  11. The characterisation of magnetic pigment dispersions using pulsed magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackwell, J.J.; O' Grady, K. E-mail: kog1@york.ac.uk; Nelson, N.K.; Sharrock, M.P

    2003-10-01

    In this work, we describe the application of pulsed field magnetometry techniques for the characterisation of magnetic pigment dispersions. Magnetic pigment dispersions are important technological materials as in one form they are the material which are used to coat base film in order to make magnetic recording tape. It is these materials that have been evaluated. In this work, we describe the use of two pulsed field magnetometers, one being a low-field instrument with a maximum field of 750 Oe and the other a high-field instrument with a maximum field of 4.1 kOe. Using inductive sensing, the magnetisation is monitored in real time as the pulse is applied. We find that using these techniques we can successfully monitor the progress of the dispersion process, the effects of different resin systems and the effect of different processing conditions. We find that our results are consistent with rheological and other measurements.

  12. Design of integral magnetic field sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Liang; Cheng Yinhui; Wu Wei; Li Baozhong; Zhou Hui; Li Jinxi; Zhu Meng

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic field is one of the important physical parameters in the measuring process of pulsed EMP. We researched on anti-interference and high-sensitivity measurement technique of magnetic field in this report. Semi rigid cables were to bent into ringed antenna so that the antenna was shielded from electric-field interference and had little inductance; In order to have high sensitivity, operational transconductance amplifier was used to produce an active integrator; We designed an optical-electronic transferring module to upgrade anti-interference capability of the magnetic-field measurement system. A measurement system of magnetic field was accomplished. The measurement system was composed of antenna, integrator, and optical-electric transferring module and so on. We calibrated the measurement system in coaxial TEM cell. It indicates that, the measurement system's respondence of rise time is up to 2.5 ns, and output width at 90%-maximum of the pulse is wider than 200 ns. (authors)

  13. Magnetic field aberration induced by cycle stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang En; Li Luming; Chen Xing

    2007-01-01

    Magneto-mechanical effect has been causing people's growing interest because of its relevance to several technology problems. One of them is the variation of surface magnetic field induced by stress concentration under the geomagnetic field. It can be used as an innovative, simple and convenient potential NDE method, called as magnetic memory method. However, whether and how this can be used as a quantitative measurement method, is still a virginal research field where nobody sets foot in. In this paper, circle tensile stress within the elastic region was applied to ferromagnetic sample under geomagnetic field. Experiment results on the relation between surface magnetic field and elastic stress were presented, and a simple model was derived. Simulation of the model was reconciled with the experimental results. This can be of great importance for it provides a brighter future for the promising Magnetic Memory NDE method-the potential possibility of quantitative measurement

  14. Magnetic filter field for ELISE––Concepts and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fröschle, M.; Fantz, U.; Franzen, P.; Kraus, W.; Nocentini, R.; Schiesko, L.; Wünderlich, D.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► ELISE is an important intermediate step toward the full size ITER injector ion source ► It is one of the first ion sources equipped with a magnetic filter field formed by a PG current. ► The magnetic filter field is responsible for the performance of the source ► It controls the currents of extracted negative ions and co-extracted electrons ► The ELISE magnetic filter field meets all actual scientific findings ► It has a vast variability for future investigations and optimizations. -- Abstract: Negative ion neutral beam injection heating systems as planned for ITER need efficient precautions in the plasma source to minimize the co-extraction of electrons and destruction of negative ions. One solution is to apply a magnetic filter field of several mT, which reduces the electron temperature and the amount of electrons in the extraction region in front of the plasma grid. For the small IPP prototype sources it has been found, that both, the absolute value of the magnetic flux density in the extraction region as well as its integral along the distance from plasma driver to plasma grid has an important influence on the performance of the source. In the ITER ion sources, a strong current of several kA driven through the plasma grid is used to create the transversal magnetic field. The test bed ELISE (Extraction from a Large Ion Source Experiment) at IPP Garching houses the first negative ion source with the full width of the ITER source, with a similar aperture arrangement of the extraction system and with a magnetic filter field formed by a plasma grid current. One issue of the research at this test facility will be to explore and optimize the magnetic filter field. The paper summarizes experiences and results of previous filter field test campaigns and presents the magnetic filter field design for ELISE

  15. Graphene spin capacitor for magnetic field sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Semenov, Y. G.; Zavada, J. M.; Kim, K. W.

    2010-01-01

    An analysis of a novel magnetic field sensor based on a graphene spin capacitor is presented. The proposed device consists of graphene nanoribbons on top of an insulator material connected to a ferromagnetic source/drain. The time evolution of spin polarized electrons injected into the capacitor can be used for an accurate determination at room temperature of external magnetic fields. Assuming a spin relaxation time of 100 ns, magnetic fields on the order of $\\sim 10$ mOe may be detected at r...

  16. Dissipative charged fluid in a magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasi, Navid; Davody, Ali, E-mail: davody.phy@gmail.com

    2016-05-10

    We study the collective excitations in a dissipative charged fluid at zero chemical potential when an external magnetic field is present. While in the absence of magnetic field, four collective excitations appear in the fluid, we find five hydrodynamic modes here. This implies that the magnetic field splits the degeneracy between the transverse shear modes. Using linear response theory, we then compute the retarded response functions. In particular, it turns out that the correlation between charge and the energy fluctuations will no longer vanish, even at zero chemical potential. By use of the response functions, we also derive the relevant Kubo formulas for the transport coefficients.

  17. Relativistic stars with purely toroidal magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiuchi, Kenta; Yoshida, Shijun

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the effects of the purely toroidal magnetic field on the equilibrium structures of the relativistic stars. The basic equations for obtaining equilibrium solutions of relativistic rotating stars containing purely toroidal magnetic fields are derived for the first time. To solve these basic equations numerically, we extend the Cook-Shapiro-Teukolsky scheme for calculating relativistic rotating stars containing no magnetic field to incorporate the effects of the purely toroidal magnetic fields. By using the numerical scheme, we then calculate a large number of the equilibrium configurations for a particular distribution of the magnetic field in order to explore the equilibrium properties. We also construct the equilibrium sequences of the constant baryon mass and/or the constant magnetic flux, which model the evolution of an isolated neutron star as it loses angular momentum via the gravitational waves. Important properties of the equilibrium configurations of the magnetized stars obtained in this study are summarized as follows: (1) For the nonrotating stars, the matter distribution of the stars is prolately distorted due to the toroidal magnetic fields. (2) For the rapidly rotating stars, the shape of the stellar surface becomes oblate because of the centrifugal force. But, the matter distribution deep inside the star is sufficiently prolate for the mean matter distribution of the star to be prolate. (3) The stronger toroidal magnetic fields lead to the mass shedding of the stars at the lower angular velocity. (4) For some equilibrium sequences of the constant baryon mass and magnetic flux, the stars can spin up as they lose angular momentum.

  18. Conductance of auroral magnetic field lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weimer, D.R.; Gurnett, D.A.; Goertz, C.K.

    1986-01-01

    DE-1 high-resolution double-probe electric-field data and simultaneous magnetic-field measurements are reported for two 1981 events with large electric fields which reversed over short distances. The data are presented graphically and analyzed in detail. A field-line conductance of about 1 nmho/sq m is determined for both upward and downward currents, and the ionospheric conductivity is shown, in the short-wavelength limit, to have little effect on the relationship between the (N-S) electric and (E-W) magnetic fields above the potential drop parallel to the magnetic-field lines. The results are found to be consistent with a linear relationship between the field-aligned current density and the parallel potential drop. 14 references

  19. Magnetic fields in the early solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strangway, D.W.

    1980-01-01

    Most of the terrestrial planets and the meteorites contain records of early magnetic fields. In the Allende meteorite some of the chondrules were magnetized in fields of about 10 Oe. When assembled into the meteorite, they remained randomly oriented but were partially remagnetized in a field of 1 Oe at temperatures of 200-300 0 C. They present dipole moment of Mercury and the weak dipole moment of Mars may be due to the cooling of a crust in the presence of early magnetic fields. The Earth on the other hand, has had an active dynamo for at least 3 Ga and probably longer, although there is no discernible record of earlier fields due to extensive reheating of the magnetic carriers. Venus has no dynamo field and its surface temperature is too high to carry a crustal remanence. The Moon has no dipole, but local islands of magnetization are believed to be the results of breccias cooling in the presence of an early field, possibly in itself a crustal memory. As we learn about the fields of the planets and the magnetic record contained in their samples we may be able to put sharp constraints on the earliest history of planet formation and evolution. (Auth.)

  20. Magnetic field decay in black widow pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Camile; de Avellar, Marcio G. B.; Horvath, J. E.; Souza, Rodrigo A. de; Benvenuto, O. G.; De Vito, M. A.

    2018-04-01

    We study in this work the evolution of the magnetic field in `redback-black widow' pulsars. Evolutionary calculations of these `spider' systems suggest that first the accretion operates in the redback stage, and later the companion star ablates matter due to winds from the recycled pulsar. It is generally believed that mass accretion by the pulsar results in a rapid decay of the magnetic field when compared to the rate of an isolated neutron star. We study the evolution of the magnetic field in black widow pulsars by solving numerically the induction equation using the modified Crank-Nicolson method with intermittent episodes of mass accretion on to the neutron star. Our results show that the magnetic field does not fall below a minimum value (`bottom field') in spite of the long evolution time of the black widow systems, extending the previous conclusions for much younger low-mass X-ray binary systems. We find that in this scenario, the magnetic field decay is dominated by the accretion rate, and that the existence of a bottom field is likely related to the fact that the surface temperature of the pulsar does not decay as predicted by the current cooling models. We also observe that the impurity of the pulsar crust is not a dominant factor in the decay of magnetic field for the long evolution time of black widow systems.

  1. Electromagnetic fields of rotating magnetized NUT stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmedov, B.J.; Khugaev, A.V.; Ahmedov, B.J.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Analytic general relativistic expressions for the electromagnetic fields external to a slowly-rotating magnetized NUT star with nonvanishing gravitomagnetic charge have been presented. Solutions for the electric and magnetic fields have been found after separating the Maxwell equations in the external background spacetime of a slowly rotating NUT star into angular and radial parts in the lowest order approximation. The star is considered isolated and in vacuum, with different models for stellar magnetic field: i) monopolar magnetic field and II) dipolar magnetic field aligned with the axis of rotation. We have shown that the general relativistic corrections due to the dragging of reference frames and gravitomagnetic charge are not present in the form of the magnetic fields but emerge only in the form of the electric fields. In particular, we have shown that the frame-dragging and gravitomagnetic charge provide an additional induced electric field which is analogous to the one introduced by the rotation of the star in the flat spacetime limit

  2. Generation of high magnetic fields using superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiyoshi, T.; Otsuka, A.; Kosuge, M.; Yuyama, M.; Nagai, H.; Matsumoto, F.

    2006-01-01

    High-field superconducting magnets have opened new frontiers for several kinds of applications, such as fusion reactors, particle accelerators, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometers. The present record for the highest field in a fully superconducting state is 23.4 T. It was achieved with a combination of NbTi, Nb 3 Sn, and Bi-2212 conductors in 1999. Since high T c (critical temperature) superconductors (HTS) have sufficiently high critical current density even in excess of 30 T, they are promising for use as high-field superconducting magnets. However, several problems still remain to be resolved for practical applications, and the use of HTS coils will be limited to the inner part of a high-field magnet system in the near future. The required technologies to develop a high-field superconducting magnet with a field of up to 28 T have already been established. Such a magnet is certain to provide information to all leading research areas

  3. Working in the magnetic field of ultrahigh field MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitgeb, N.; Gombotz, H.

    2013-01-01

    Development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) device technology continues to increase the static magnetic flux densities applied and consequently leads to considerably increased occupational exposure. This has already made it necessary to review limits of occupational exposure and to postpone European legal regulations for occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields. This raises the question whether and if so which adverse health effects and health risks might be associated with occupational exposure to MRI ultra-high static magnetic fields. Based on a survey on interaction mechanisms recommendations and safety rules are presented to help minimize adverse health effects of emerging ultra-high field MRI. (orig.) [de

  4. Relaxed plasmas in external magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spies, G.O.; Li, J.

    1991-08-01

    The well-known theory of relaxed plasmas (Taylor states) is extended to external magnetic fields whose field lines intersect the conducting toroidal boundary. Application to an axially symmetric, large-aspect-ratio torus with circular cross section shows that the maximum pinch ratio, and hence the phenomenon of current saturation, is independent of the external field. The relaxed state is explicitly given for an external octupole field. In this case, field reversal is inhibited near parts of the boundary if the octupole generates magnetic x-points within the plasma. (orig.)

  5. The CMS Magnetic Field Map Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Klyukhin, V.I.; Andreev, V.; Ball, A.; Cure, B.; Herve, A.; Gaddi, A.; Gerwig, H.; Karimaki, V.; Loveless, R.; Mulders, M.; Popescu, S.; Sarycheva, L.I.; Virdee, T.

    2010-04-05

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is a general-purpose detector designed to run at the highest luminosity at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Its distinctive featuresinclude a 4 T superconducting solenoid with 6 m diameter by 12.5 m long free bore, enclosed inside a 10000-ton return yoke made of construction steel. Accurate characterization of the magnetic field everywhere in the CMS detector is required. During two major tests of the CMS magnet the magnetic flux density was measured inside the coil in a cylinder of 3.448 m diameter and 7 m length with a specially designed field-mapping pneumatic machine as well as in 140 discrete regions of the CMS yoke with NMR probes, 3-D Hall sensors and flux-loops. A TOSCA 3-D model of the CMS magnet has been developed to describe the magnetic field everywhere outside the tracking volume measured with the field-mapping machine. A volume based representation of the magnetic field is used to provide the CMS simulation and reconstruction software with the magnetic field ...

  6. Field quality of LHC superconducting dipole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, R.K.

    2003-01-01

    The author reports here the main results of field measurements performed so far on the LHC superconducting dipoles at superfluid helium temperature. The main field strength at injection, collision conditions and higher order multipoles are discussed. Superconducting magnets exhibit additional field imperfections due to diamagnetic properties of superconducting cables, apart from geometric error, saturation of iron yoke and eddy currents error. Dynamic effects on field harmonics, such as field decay at injection and subsequent snap back are also discussed. (author)

  7. Open magnetic fields in active regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svestka, Z.; Solodyna, C.V.; Levine, R.H.

    1977-01-01

    Soft X-ray observations confirm that some of the dark gaps seen between interconnecting loops and inner cores of active regions may be loci of open fields, as it has been predicted by global potential extrapolation of photospheric magnetic fields. It seems that the field lines may open only in a later state of the active region development. (Auth.)

  8. Magnetic monopoles in field theory and cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajantie, Arttu

    2012-12-28

    The existence of magnetic monopoles is predicted by many theories of particle physics beyond the standard model. However, in spite of extensive searches, there is no experimental or observational sign of them. I review the role of magnetic monopoles in quantum field theory and discuss their implications for particle physics and cosmology. I also highlight their differences and similarities with monopoles found in frustrated magnetic systems.

  9. Calculation of magnetic fields for engineering devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colonias, J.S.

    1976-06-01

    The methodology of magnet technology and its application to various engineering devices are discussed. Magnet technology has experienced a rigid growth in the past few years as a result of the advances made in superconductivity, numerical methods and computational techniques. Included are discussions on: (1) mathematical models for solving magnetic field problems; (2) the applicability, usefulness, and limitations of computer programs that utilize these models; (3) examples of application in various engineering disciplines; and (4) areas where further contributions are needed

  10. Comparison of adjustable permanent magnetic field sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Rasmus; Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden; Smith, Anders

    2010-01-01

    be altered are analyzed using numerical simulations, and compared based on the generated magnetic flux density in a sample volume and the amount of magnet material used. The designs are the concentric Halbach cylinder, the two half Halbach cylinders, the two linear Halbach arrays and the four and six rod...... and the direction of the magnetic field are measured and compared with numerical simulation and a good agrement is found....

  11. Influence of error fields on the plasma confining field and the plasma confinement in tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Shinzaburo

    1977-05-01

    Influence of error fields on the plasma confining field and the plasma confinement is treated in the standpoint of design. In the initial breakdown phase before formation of the closed magnetic surfaces, the vertical field properly applied is the most important. Once the magnetic surfaces are formed, the non-axisymmetric error field is important. Effect of the shell gap associated with iron core and with pulsed vertical coils is thus studied. The formation of magnetic islands due to the external non-axisymmetric error field is studied with a simple model. A method of suppressing the islands by choosing the minor periodicity is proposed. (auth.)

  12. Magnetic field considerations in fusion power plant environs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liemohn, H.B.; Lessor, D.L.; Duane, B.H.

    1976-09-01

    A summary of magnetic field production mechanisms and effects is given. Discussions are included on the following areas: (1) stray magnetic and electric fields from tokamaks, (2) methods for reducing magnetic fields, (3) economics of magnetic field reductions, (4) forces on magnetizable objects near magnetic confinement fusion reactors, (5) electric field transients in tokamaks, (6) attenuation and decay of electromagnetic fields, and (7) magnetic field transients from tokamak malfunctions

  13. Pulsed magnetic field generation suited for low-field unilateral nuclear magnetic resonance systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaunkar, Neelam Prabhu; Selvaraj, Jayaprakash; Theh, Wei-Shen; Weber, Robert; Mina, Mani

    2018-05-01

    Pulsed magnetic fields can be used to provide instantaneous localized magnetic field variations. In presence of static fields, pulsed field variations are often used to apply torques and in-effect to measure behavior of magnetic moments in different states. In this work, the design and experimental performance of a pulsed magnetic field generator suited for low static field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) applications is presented. One of the challenges of low bias field NMR measurements is low signal to noise ratio due to the comparable nature of the bias field and the pulsed field. Therefore, a circuit is designed to apply pulsed currents through an inductive load, leading to generation of pulsed magnetic fields which can temporarily overpower the effect of the bias field on magnetic moments. The designed circuit will be tuned to operate at the precession frequency of 1H (protons) placed in a bias field produced by permanent magnets. The designed circuit parameters may be tuned to operate under different bias conditions. Therefore, low field NMR measurements can be performed for different bias fields. Circuit simulations were used to determine design parameters, corresponding experimental measurements will be presented in this work.

  14. On the helicity of open magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prior, C.; Yeates, A. R.

    2014-01-01

    We reconsider the topological interpretation of magnetic helicity for magnetic fields in open domains, and relate this to the relative helicity. Specifically, our domains stretch between two parallel planes, and each of these ends may be magnetically open. It is demonstrated that, while the magnetic helicity is gauge-dependent, its value in any gauge may be physically interpreted as the average winding number among all pairs of field lines with respect to some orthonormal frame field. In fact, the choice of gauge is equivalent to the choice of reference field in the relative helicity, meaning that the magnetic helicity is no less physically meaningful. We prove that a particular gauge always measures the winding with respect to a fixed frame, and propose that this is normally the best choice. For periodic fields, this choice is equivalent to measuring relative helicity with respect to a potential reference field. However, for aperiodic fields, we show that the potential field can be twisted. We prove by construction that there always exists a possible untwisted reference field.

  15. Magnetic islands modelled by a phase-field-crystal approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihi, Niloufar; Mkhonta, Simiso; Elder, Ken R.; Grant, Martin

    2018-03-01

    Using a minimal model based on the phase-field-crystal formalism, we study the coupling between the density and magnetization in ferromagnetic solids. Analytical calculations for the square phase in two dimensions are presented and the small deformation properties of the system are examined. Furthermore, numerical simulations are conducted to study the influence of an external magnetic field on various phase transitions, the anisotropic properties of the free energy functional, and the scaling behaviour of the growth of the magnetic domains in a crystalline solid. It is shown that the energy of the system can depend on the direction of the magnetic moments, with respect to the crystalline direction. Furthermore, the growth of the magnetic domains in a crystalline solid is studied and is shown that the growth of domains is in agreement with expected behaviour.

  16. High-field superconducting nested coil magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laverick, C.; Lobell, G. M.

    1970-01-01

    Superconducting magnet, employed in conjunction with five types of superconducting cables in a nested solenoid configuration, produces total, central magnetic field strengths approaching 70 kG. The multiple coils permit maximum information on cable characteristics to be gathered from one test.

  17. Deformable nematic droplets in a magnetic field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otten, R.H.J.; van der Schoot, P. P. A. M.

    2012-01-01

    We present a Frank-Oseen elasticity theory for the shape and structure of deformable nematic droplets with homeotropic surface anchoring in the presence of a magnetic field. Inspired by recent experimental observations, we focus on the case where the magnetic susceptibility is negative, and find

  18. Magnetic fields in laser heated plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiranoff, F.; Brackbill, J.; Colombant, D.; Grandjouan, N.

    1984-01-01

    With a fixed-ion code for the study of self-generated magentic fields in laser heated plasmas, the inhibition of thermal transport and the effect of the Nernst term are modeled for a KrF laser. For various values of the flux limiter, the response of a foil to a focused laser is calculated without a magnetic field and compared with the response calculated with a magnetic field. The results are: The Nernst term convects the magnetic field to densities above critical as found by Nishiguchi et al. (1984), but the field does not strongly inhibit transport into the foil. The field is also transported to sub-critical densities, where it inhibits thermal diffusion and enhance lateral transport by convection

  19. External magnetic field configurations for EXTRAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnevier, B.

    1982-08-01

    The strongly inhomogeneous magnetic field for stabilization of a pinch in an Extrap configuration can be created in various ways. Some possibilities both for the linear case and for the toroidal case are discussed. (author)

  20. Hydrogen atoms in a strong magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, R.R. dos.

    1975-07-01

    The energies and wave functions of the 14 lowest states of a Hydrogen atom in a strong magnetic field are calculated, using a variational scheme. The equivalence between the atomic problem and the problems related with excitons and impurities in semiconductors in the presence of a strong magnetic field are shown. The calculations of the energies and wave functions have been divided in two regions: the first, for the magnetic field ranging between zero and 10 9 G; in the second the magnetic field ranges between 10 9 and 10 11 G. The results have been compared with those obtained by previous authors. The computation time necessary for the calculations is small. Therefore this is a convenient scheme to obtain the energies and wave functions for the problem. Transition probabilities, wavelengths and oscillator strengths for some allowed transitions are also calculated. (Author) [pt

  1. The significance of vector magnetic field measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagyard, M. J.

    1990-01-01

    Observations of four flaring solar active regions, obtained during 1980-1986 with the NASA Marshall vector magnetograph (Hagyard et al., 1982 and 1985), are presented graphically and characterized in detail, with reference to nearly simultaneous Big Bear Solar Observatory and USAF ASW H-alpha images. It is shown that the flares occurred where local photospheric magnetic fields differed most from the potential field, with initial brightening on either side of a magnetic-neutral line near the point of maximum angular shear (rather than that of maximum magnetic-field strength, typically 1 kG or greater). Particular emphasis is placed on the fact that these significant nonpotential features were detected only by measuring all three components of the vector magnetic field.

  2. Magnetic Field Strength Evaluation Yu. S. Yefimov

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    physical task is to evaluate the strength and topology of magnetic field in blazars and related ... polarization, spectral index of radiation, ratio of apparent velocity of the motion of matter along .... A detailed analysis of the evaluation of physical.

  3. Compact muon solenoid magnet reaches full field

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Scientist of the U.S. Department of Energy in Fermilab and collaborators of the US/CMS project announced that the world's largest superconducting solenoid magnet has reached full field in tests at CERN. (1 apge)

  4. Split-Field Magnet facility upgraded

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1977-01-01

    The Split Field Magnet (SFM) was the largest spectrometer for particles from beam-beam collisions in the ISR. It could determine particle momenta in a large solid angle, but was designed mainly for the analysis of forward travelling particles.As the magnet was working on the ISR circulating beams, its magnetic field had to be such as to restore the correct proton orbit.The SFM, therefore, produced zero field at the crossing point and fields of opposite signs upstream and downstream of it and was completed by 2 large and 2 small compensator magnets. The gradient effects were corrected by magnetic channels equipped with movable flaps. The useful magnetic field volume was 28 m3, the induction in the median plane 1.14 T, the gap heigth 1.1 m, the length 10.5 m, the weight about 1000 ton. Concerning the detectors, the SFM was the first massive application of multiwire proportional chambers (about 70000 wires) which filled the main and the large compensator magnets. In 1976 an improved programme was started with tw...

  5. Mathematical modelling for trajectories of magnetic nanoparticles in a blood vessel under magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Shashi; Katiyar, V.K.; Singh, Uaday

    2015-01-01

    A mathematical model is developed to describe the trajectories of a cluster of magnetic nanoparticles in a blood vessel for the application of magnetic drug targeting (MDT). The magnetic nanoparticles are injected into a blood vessel upstream from a malignant tissue and are captured at the tumour site with help of an applied magnetic field. The applied field is produced by a rare earth cylindrical magnet positioned outside the body. All forces expected to significantly affect the transport of nanoparticles were incorporated, including magnetization force, drag force and buoyancy force. The results show that particles are slow down and captured under the influence of magnetic force, which is responsible to attract the magnetic particles towards the magnet. It is optimized that all particles are captured either before or at the centre of the magnet (z≤0) when blood vessel is very close proximity to the magnet (d=2.5 cm). However, as the distance between blood vessel and magnet (d) increases (above 4.5 cm), the magnetic nanoparticles particles become free and they flow away down the blood vessel. Further, the present model results are validated by the simulations performed using the finite element based COMSOL software. - Highlights: • A mathematical model is developed to describe the trajectories of magnetic nanoparticles. • The dominant magnetic, drag and buoyancy forces are considered. • All particles are captured when distance between blood vessel and magnet (d) is up to 4.5 cm. • Further increase in d value (above 4.5 cm) results the free movement of magnetic particles

  6. Ehrenfest force in inhomogeneous magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisakyan, A.N.; Shevchenko, O.Yu.; Samojlov, V.N.

    2000-01-01

    The Ehrenfest force in an inhomogeneous magnetic field is calculated. It is shown that there exist such (very rare) topologically nontrivial physical situations when the Gauss theorem in its classic formulation fails and, as a consequence, apart from the usual Lorentz force an additional, purely imaginary force acts on the charged particle. This force arises only in inhomogeneous magnetic fields of special configurations, has a purely quantum origin, and disappears in the classical limit

  7. Core Processes: Earth's eccentric magnetic field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finlay, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Earth’s magnetic field is characterized by a puzzling hemispheric asymmetry. Calculations of core dynamo processes suggest that lopsided growth of the planet’s inner core may be part of the cause.......Earth’s magnetic field is characterized by a puzzling hemispheric asymmetry. Calculations of core dynamo processes suggest that lopsided growth of the planet’s inner core may be part of the cause....

  8. Neutron oscillations and the primordial magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, S.

    1988-01-01

    It has been claimed that a primordial magnetic field must exist in order to suppress possible oscillations of neutrons into antineutrons which would otherwise affect the cosmological synthesis of helium. We demonstrate that such oscillations, even if they do occur, have a negligible effect on primordial nucleosynthesis, thus refuting the above claim. Hence the possible existence of a primordial magnetic field, relevant to current speculations concerning superconducting 'cosmic strings', remains an open question. (author)

  9. Wake field in matched kicker magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, Y.

    1979-01-01

    Coherent transverse instability observed in KEK booster proton synchrotron has been reported previously. This instability is induced by the interaction of the beam with kicker magnet for the fast beam extraction. To understand the mechanism completely, it is necessary to know the wake field in detail. Here, the wake field or induced current in the kicker magnet which is terminated with matched resistance is considered

  10. Magnetic fields and massive star formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qizhou; Keto, Eric; Ho, Paul T. P.; Ching, Tao-Chung; Chen, How-Huan [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Qiu, Keping [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, 22 Hankou Road, Nanjing 210093 (China); Girart, Josep M.; Juárez, Carmen [Institut de Ciències de l' Espai, (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB, Facultat de Ciències, C5p 2, E-08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Liu, Hauyu; Tang, Ya-Wen; Koch, Patrick M.; Rao, Ramprasad; Lai, Shih-Ping [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Li, Zhi-Yun [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Frau, Pau [Observatorio Astronómico Nacional, Alfonso XII, 3 E-28014 Madrid (Spain); Li, Hua-Bai [Department of Physics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Padovani, Marco [Laboratoire de Radioastronomie Millimétrique, UMR 8112 du CNRS, École Normale Supérieure et Observatoire de Paris, 24 rue Lhomond, F-75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Bontemps, Sylvain [OASU/LAB-UMR5804, CNRS, Université Bordeaux 1, F-33270 Floirac (France); Csengeri, Timea, E-mail: qzhang@cfa.harvard.edu [Max Planck Institute for Radioastronomy, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)

    2014-09-10

    Massive stars (M > 8 M {sub ☉}) typically form in parsec-scale molecular clumps that collapse and fragment, leading to the birth of a cluster of stellar objects. We investigate the role of magnetic fields in this process through dust polarization at 870 μm obtained with the Submillimeter Array (SMA). The SMA observations reveal polarization at scales of ≲0.1 pc. The polarization pattern in these objects ranges from ordered hour-glass configurations to more chaotic distributions. By comparing the SMA data with the single dish data at parsec scales, we found that magnetic fields at dense core scales are either aligned within 40° of or perpendicular to the parsec-scale magnetic fields. This finding indicates that magnetic fields play an important role during the collapse and fragmentation of massive molecular clumps and the formation of dense cores. We further compare magnetic fields in dense cores with the major axis of molecular outflows. Despite a limited number of outflows, we found that the outflow axis appears to be randomly oriented with respect to the magnetic field in the core. This result suggests that at the scale of accretion disks (≲ 10{sup 3} AU), angular momentum and dynamic interactions possibly due to close binary or multiple systems dominate over magnetic fields. With this unprecedentedly large sample of massive clumps, we argue on a statistical basis that magnetic fields play an important role during the formation of dense cores at spatial scales of 0.01-0.1 pc in the context of massive star and cluster star formation.

  11. Explosion of soliton in a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishinari, K.; Abe, K.; Satsuma, J.

    1994-01-01

    A dynamics of a solitary pulse of the electrostatic ion cyclotron wave that propagates perpendicular to an applied magnetic field is considered. It is shown that the solitary wave will be singular in some range of parameters in the system, such as the plasma density and the magnitude of an applied magnetic field. This fact shows that there is a possibility of controlling the place where explosion of the solitary wave occurs

  12. The influence of further-neighbor spin-spin interaction on a ground state of 2D coupled spin-electron model in a magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čenčariková, Hana; Strečka, Jozef; Gendiar, Andrej; Tomašovičová, Natália

    2018-05-01

    An exhaustive ground-state analysis of extended two-dimensional (2D) correlated spin-electron model consisting of the Ising spins localized on nodal lattice sites and mobile electrons delocalized over pairs of decorating sites is performed within the framework of rigorous analytical calculations. The investigated model, defined on an arbitrary 2D doubly decorated lattice, takes into account the kinetic energy of mobile electrons, the nearest-neighbor Ising coupling between the localized spins and mobile electrons, the further-neighbor Ising coupling between the localized spins and the Zeeman energy. The ground-state phase diagrams are examined for a wide range of model parameters for both ferromagnetic as well as antiferromagnetic interaction between the nodal Ising spins and non-zero value of external magnetic field. It is found that non-zero values of further-neighbor interaction leads to a formation of new quantum states as a consequence of competition between all considered interaction terms. Moreover, the new quantum states are accompanied with different magnetic features and thus, several kinds of field-driven phase transitions are observed.

  13. The Strongest Magnetic Field in Sunspots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, J.; Sakurai, T.

    2017-12-01

    Sunspots are concentrations of magnetic fields on the solar surface. Generally, the strongest magnetic field in each sunspot is located in the dark umbra in most cases. A typical field strength in sunspots is around 3,000 G. On the other hand, some exceptions also have been found in complex sunspots with bright regions such as light bridges that separate opposite polarity umbrae, for instance with a strength of 4,300 G. However, the formation mechanism of such strong fields outside umbrae is still puzzling. Here we report an extremely strong magnetic field in a sunspot, which was located in a bright region sandwiched by two opposite-polarity umbrae. The strength is 6,250 G, which is the largest ever observed since the discovery of magnetic field on the Sun in 1908 by Hale. We obtained 31 scanned maps of the active region observed by Hinode/SOT/SP with a cadence of 3 hours over 5 days (February 1-6, 2014). Considering the spatial and temporal evolution of the vector magnetic field and the Doppler velocity in the bright region, we suggested that this strong field region was generated as a result of compression of one umbra pushed by the outward flow from the other umbra (Evershed flow), like the subduction of the Earth's crust in plate tectonics.

  14. An evaluation of Tsyganenko magnetic field model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairfield, D.H.

    1991-01-01

    A long-standing goal of magnetospheric physics has been to produce a model of the Earth's magnetic field that can accurately predict the field vector at all locations within the magnetosphere for all dipole tilt angles and for various solar wind or magnetic activity conditions. A number of models make such predictions, but some only for limited spatial regions, some only for zero tilt angle, and some only for arbitrary conditions. No models depend explicitly on solar wind conditions. A data set of more than 22,000 vector averages of the magnetosphere magnetic field over 0.5 R E regions is used to evaluate Tsyganenko's 1982 and 1987 magnetospheric magnetic field models. The magnetic field predicted by the model in various regions is compared to observations to find systematic discrepancies which future models might address. While agreement is generally good, discrepancies are noted which include: (1) a lack of adequate field line stretching in the tail and ring current regions; (2) an inability to predict weak enough fields in the polar cusps; and (3) a deficiency of Kp as a predictor of the field configuration

  15. Magnetic field transfer device and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wipf, S.L.

    1990-02-13

    A magnetic field transfer device includes a pair of oppositely wound inner coils which each include at least one winding around an inner coil axis, and an outer coil which includes at least one winding around an outer coil axis. The windings may be formed of superconductors. The axes of the two inner coils are parallel and laterally spaced from each other so that the inner coils are positioned in side-by-side relation. The outer coil is outwardly positioned from the inner coils and rotatable relative to the inner coils about a rotational axis substantially perpendicular to the inner coil axes to generate a hypothetical surface which substantially encloses the inner coils. The outer coil rotates relative to the inner coils between a first position in which the outer coil axis is substantially parallel to the inner coil axes and the outer coil augments the magnetic field formed in one of the inner coils, and a second position 180[degree] from the first position, in which the augmented magnetic field is transferred into the other inner coil and reoriented 180[degree] from the original magnetic field. The magnetic field transfer device allows a magnetic field to be transferred between volumes with negligible work being required to rotate the outer coil with respect to the inner coils. 16 figs.

  16. Measurement of the magnetic field coefficients of particle accelerator magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera, J.; Ganetis, G.; Hogue, R.; Rogers, E.; Wanderer, P.; Willen, E.

    1989-01-01

    An important aspect in the development of magnets to be used in particle accelerators is the measurement of the magnetic field in the beam aperture. In general it is necessary to measure the harmonic multipoles in the dipole, quadrupole, and sextupole magnets for a series of stationary currents (plateaus). This is the case for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) which will be ramped to high field over a long period (/approximately/1000 sec.) and then remain on the flat top for the duration of the particle collision phase. In contrast to this mode of operation, the Booster ring being constructed for the Brookhaven AGS, will have a fast ramp rate of approximately 10 Hz. The multipole fields for these Booster magnets must therefore be determined ''on the ramp.'' In this way the effect of eddy currents will be taken into account. The measurement system which we will describe in this paper is an outgrowth of that used for the SSC dipoles. It has the capability of measuring the field multipoles on both a plateau or during a fast ramp. In addition, the same basic coil assembly is used to obtain the magnetic multipoles in dipole, quadrupole, and sextupole magnets. 2 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  17. Cooling Curve of Strange Star in Strong Magnetic Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-Qin; LUO Zhi-Quan

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, firstly, we investigate the neutrino emissivity from quark Urca process in strong magnetic field. Then, we discuss the heat capacity of strange stars in strong magnetic field. Finally, we give the cooling curve in strong magnetic field. In order to make a comparison, we also give the corresponding cooling curve in the case of null magnetic field. It turns out that strange stars cool faster in strong magnetic field than that without magnetic field.

  18. Nuclear resonance apparatus including means for rotating a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, H.

    1983-01-01

    A nuclear magnetic resonance apparatus including magnet apparatus for generating a homogeneous static magnetic field between its magnetic poles, shims of a magnetic substance mounted on the magnetic poles to apply a first gradient magnetic field intensity distribution in a direction orthogonal as to the direction of line of magnetic force of the static magnetic field, gradient magnetic field generating electromagnetic apparatus for generating a second gradient magnetic field having a gradient magnetic field intensity distribution in superimposition with the static magnetic field and for changing the magnetic field gradient of the first gradient magnetic field, an oscillator for generating an oscillating output having a frequency corresponding to the nuclear magnetic resonance condition of an atomic nucleus to be measured, a coil wound around a body to be examined for applying the output of said oscillator as electromagnetic waves upon the body, a receiver for detecting the nuclear magnetic resonance signals received by the coil, a gradient magnetic field controller making a magnetic field line equivalent to the combined gradient magnetic fields and for rotating the line along the section of the body to be examined by controlling said gradient magnetic field generating electromagnetic apparatus and devices for recording the nuclear magnetic resonance signals, for reconstructing the concentration distribution of the specific atomic nuclei in the section of the body, and a display unit for depicting the result of reconstruction

  19. High-magnetic field atomic physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter discusses both the traditional developments of Zeeman techniques at strong fields and the fundamental concepts of diamagnetism. Topics considered include historical aspects, the production of high fields, the atom in a magnetic field (Hamiltonian and symmetries, the various magnetic regimes in atomic spectra), applications of the Zeeman effect at strong B fields, the Landau regime for loosely bound particles, theoretical concepts of atomic diamagnetism, and the ultra-high-field regime and quantum electrodynamics. It is concluded that the wide implications of the problem of the strongly magnetized hydrogen atom in various domains of physics and its conceptual importance concerning theoretical methods of classical and quantum mechanics justify the experimental and theoretical efforts in atomic physics

  20. Superconductivity in Strong Magnetic Field (Greater Than Upper Critical Field)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tessema, G.X.; Gamble, B.K.; Skove, M.J.; Lacerda, A.H.; Mielke, C.H.

    1998-01-01

    The National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, funded by the National Science Foundation and other US federal Agencies, has in recent years built a wide range of magnetic fields, DC 25 to 35 Tesla, short pulse 50 - 60 Tesla, and quasi-continuous 60 Tesla. Future plans are to push the frontiers to 45 Tesla DC and 70 to 100 Tesla pulse. This user facility, is open for national and international users, and creates an excellent tool for materials research (metals, semiconductors, superconductors, biological systems ..., etc). Here we present results of a systematic study of the upper critical field of a novel superconducting material which is considered a promising candidate for the search for superconductivity beyond H c2 as proposed by several new theories. These theories predict that superconductors with low carrier density can reenter the superconducting phase beyond the conventional upper critical field H c2 . This negates the conventional thinking that superconductivity and magnetic fields are antagonistic

  1. TANGLED MAGNETIC FIELDS IN SOLAR PROMINENCES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Ballegooijen, A. A.; Cranmer, S. R.

    2010-01-01

    Solar prominences are an important tool for studying the structure and evolution of the coronal magnetic field. Here we consider so-called hedgerow prominences, which consist of thin vertical threads. We explore the possibility that such prominences are supported by tangled magnetic fields. A variety of different approaches are used. First, the dynamics of plasma within a tangled field is considered. We find that the contorted shape of the flux tubes significantly reduces the flow velocity compared to the supersonic free fall that would occur in a straight vertical tube. Second, linear force-free models of tangled fields are developed, and the elastic response of such fields to gravitational forces is considered. We demonstrate that the prominence plasma can be supported by the magnetic pressure of a tangled field that pervades not only the observed dense threads but also their local surroundings. Tangled fields with field strengths of about 10 G are able to support prominence threads with observed hydrogen density of the order of 10 11 cm -3 . Finally, we suggest that the observed vertical threads are the result of Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Simulations of the density distribution within a prominence thread indicate that the peak density is much larger than the average density. We conclude that tangled fields provide a viable mechanism for magnetic support of hedgerow prominences.

  2. Crystal field of Dy in non-magnetic metals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kikkert, Pieter Jan Willem

    1980-01-01

    Many investigations carried out during the last 15 years have demonstrated that the crystalline electric field (CEF) has a great influence on the low temperature magnetic behaviour of rare earth ions in metallic systems (see e.g. /1/) . It is therefore important to understand the origin of the CEF

  3. The Mathematical Formalism of a Particle in a Magnetic Field

    CERN Document Server

    Mantoiu, M

    2005-01-01

    In this review article we develop a basic part of the mathematical theory involved in the description of a particle (classical and quantal) placed in the Euclidean space $\\mathbb R^N$ under the influence of a magnetic field $B$, emphasising the structure of the family of observables.

  4. Interaction of a supersonic plasma jet with a coaxial dipole magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landes, K.

    1975-01-01

    A low pressure plasma jet of considerable conductivity can be influenced by a magnetic field. On the other hand the influencing magnetic field is changed by currents induced in the plasma jet. New astrophysical examples of suchlike interaction have been found in the investigation of the moon, where the partially not currentfree solar wind is influenced by locally confined magnetic fields. In the experiment reported, the interaction of a supersonic plasma jet with a coaxial, dipole-shaped magnetic field is investigated. A current is superimposed to the plasma jet. (Auth.)

  5. Neutrino oscillations in strong magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Likhachev, G.G.; Studenikin, A.I.

    1994-07-01

    Neutrino conversion processes between two neutrino species and the corresponding oscillations induced by strong magnetic fields are considered. The value of the critical strength of magnetic field B cr as a function of characteristics of neutrinos in vacuum (Δm 2 ν , mixing angle θ), effective particle density of matter n eff , neutrino (transition) magnetic moment μ-tilde and energy E is introduced. It is shown that the neutrino conversion and oscillations effects induced by magnetic fields B ≥ B cr are important and may result in the depletion of the initial type of ν's in the bunch. A possible increase of these effects in the case when neutrinos pass through a sudden decrease of density of matter (''cross-boundary effect'') and applications to neutrinos from neutron stars and supernova are discussed. (author). 25 refs

  6. On the absorbing force of magnetic fields acting on magnetic particle under magnetic particle examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, N.

    1988-01-01

    During the magnetic particle examination, magnetic particles near defects are deposited by an absorbing force of magnetic fields acting on the magnetic particles. Therefore, a quantitative determination of this absorbing force is a theoretical and experimental basis for solving various problems associated with magnetic particle examinations. The absorbing force is formulated based on a magnetic dipole model, and a measuring method of the absorbing force using magnetic fields formed around linear current is proposed. Measurements according to this method produced appropriate results, verifying the validation of the concept and the measuring method

  7. DC magnetic field sensing based on the nonlinear magnetoelectric effect in magnetic heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burdin, Dmitrii; Chashin, Dmitrii; Ekonomov, Nikolai; Fetisov, Leonid; Fetisov, Yuri; Shamonin, Mikhail

    2016-01-01

    Recently, highly sensitive magnetic field sensors using the magnetoelectric effect in composite ferromagnetic-piezoelectric layered structures have been demonstrated. However, most of the proposed concepts are not useful for measuring dc magnetic fields, because the conductivity of piezoelectric layers results in a strong decline of the sensor’s sensitivity at low frequencies. In this paper, a novel functional principle of magnetoelectric sensors for dc magnetic field measurements is described. The sensor employs the nonlinear effect of voltage harmonic generation in a composite magnetoelectric structure under the simultaneous influence of a strong imposed ac magnetic field and a weak dc magnetic field to be measured. This physical effect arises due to the nonlinear dependence of the magnetostriction in the ferromagnetic layer on the magnetic field. A sensor prototype comprising of a piezoelectric fibre transducer sandwiched between two layers of the amorphous ferromagnetic Metglas ® alloy was fabricated. The specifications regarding the magnetic field range, frequency characteristics, and noise level were studied experimentally. The prototype showed the responsivity of 2.5 V mT −1 and permitted the measurement of dc magnetic fields in the range of ∼10 nT to about 0.4 mT. Although sensor operation is based on the nonlinear effect, the sensor response can be made linear with respect to the measured magnetic field in a broad dynamic range extending over 5 orders of magnitude. The underlying physics is explained through a simplified theory for the proposed sensor. The functionality, differences and advantages of the magnetoelectric sensor compare well with fluxgate magnetometers. The ways to enhance the sensor performance are considered. (paper)

  8. Magnetic Field and Torque Output of Packaged Hydraulic Torque Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Yan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic torque motors are one key component in electro-hydraulic servo valves that convert the electrical signal into mechanical motions. The systematic characteristics analysis of the hydraulic torque motor has not been found in the previous research, including the distribution of the electromagnetic field and torque output, and particularly the relationship between them. In addition, conventional studies of hydraulic torque motors generally assume an evenly distributed magnetic flux field and ignore the influence of special mechanical geometry in the air gaps, which may compromise the accuracy of analyzing the result and the high-precision motion control performance. Therefore, the objective of this study is to conduct a detailed analysis of the distribution of the magnetic field and torque output; the influence of limiting holes in the air gaps is considered to improve the accuracy of both numerical computation and analytical modeling. The structure and working principle of the torque motor are presented first. The magnetic field distribution in the air gaps and the magnetic saturation in the iron blocks are analyzed by using a numerical approach. Subsequently, the torque generation with respect to the current input and assembly errors is analyzed in detail. This shows that the influence of limiting holes on the magnetic field is consistent with that on torque generation. Following this, a novel modified equivalent magnetic circuit is proposed to formulate the torque output of the hydraulic torque motor analytically. The comparison among the modified equivalent magnetic circuit, the conventional modeling approach and the numerical computation is conducted, and it is found that the proposed method helps to improve the modeling accuracy by taking into account the effect of special geometry inside the air gaps.

  9. Behaviour of a neutral particle with spin in an axial magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorokin, S.V.; Ehpp, V.Ya.

    1982-01-01

    Proceeding from the Tamm-Good equation taking into account the spin influence on motion trajectory, the neutral particle motion tracjectory and vector turn of spin polarizition in axial magnetic field have been found. The behaviour of a neutral particle possessing its own magnetic moment in an axially-symmetric stationary magnetic field is considered

  10. Neutron stars, magnetic fields, and gravitational waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamb, F.K.

    2001-01-01

    The r-modes of rapidly spinning young neutron stars have recently attracted attention as a promising source of detectable gravitational radiation. These neutron stars are expected to have magnetic fields ∼ 10 12 G. The r-mode velocity perturbation causes differential motion of the fluid in the star; this is a kinematic effect. In addition, the radiation-reaction associated with emission of gravitational radiation by r-waves drives additional differential fluid motions; this is a dynamic effect. These differential fluid motions distort the magnetic fields of neutron stars and may therefore play an important role in determining the structure of neutron star magnetic fields. If the stellar field is ∼ 10 16 (Ω/Ω B ) G or stronger, the usual r-modes are no longer normal modes of the star; here Ω and Ω B are the angular velocities of the star and at which mass shedding occurs. Much weaker magnetic fields can prevent gravitational radiation from amplifying the r-modes or damp existing r-mode oscillations on a relatively short timescale by extracting energy from the modes faster than gravitational wave emission can pump energy into them. The onset of proton superconductivity in the cores of newly formed magnetic neutron stars typically increases the effect on the r-modes of the magnetic field in the core by many orders of magnitude. Once the core has become superconducting, magnetic fields of the order of 10 12 G or greater are usually sufficient to damp r-modes that have been excited by emission of gravitational radiation and to suppress any further emission. A rapid drop in the strength of r-mode gravitational radiation from young neutron stars may therefore signal the onset of superconductivity in the core and provide a lower bound on the strength of the magnetic field there. Hence, measurements of r-mode gravitational waves from newly formed neutron stars may provide valuable diagnostic information about magnetic field strengths, cooling processes, and the

  11. Magnetization relaxation of single molecule magnets after field cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Julio F.; Alonso, Juan J.

    2004-03-01

    Magnetic clusters, such as Fe8 and Mn_12, behave at low temperatures as large single spins S. In crystals, anisotropy energies U allow magnetic relaxation only through tunneling at k_BTstackrelspins with dipolar interactions. To mimic tunneling effects, a spin on a lattice site where h is within some tunnel window -h_wmagnetic dipole field drift.

  12. Energy of magnetic moment of superconducting current in magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurtovoi, V.L.; Nikulov, A.V.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Quantization effects observed in superconducting loops are considered. • The energy of magnetic moment in magnetic field can not be deduced from Hamiltonian. • This energy is deduced from a history of the current state in the classical case. • It can not be deduced directly in the quantum case. • Taking this energy into account demolishes agreement between theory and experiment. - Abstract: The energy of magnetic moment of the persistent current circulating in superconducting loop in an externally produced magnetic field is not taken into account in the theory of quantization effects because of identification of the Hamiltonian with the energy. This identification misleads if, in accordance with the conservation law, the energy of a state is the energy expended for its creation. The energy of magnetic moment is deduced from a creation history of the current state in magnetic field both in the classical and quantum case. But taking this energy into account demolishes the agreement between theory and experiment. Impartial consideration of this problem discovers the contradiction both in theory and experiment

  13. Two dimensional magnetic field calculations for the SSC dipole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krefta, M.P.; Pavlik, D.

    1991-01-01

    In this work two-dimensional methods are used to calculate the magnetic fields throughout the cross section of a SSC dipole magnet. Analytic techniques, which are based on closed form solutions to the defining field equations, are used to calculate the multipole content for any specified conductor positioning. The method is extended to investigate the effects of radial slots or keyways in the iron yoke. The multipole components of field, directly attributable to the slots or keyways, are examined as a function of size and location. It is shown that locating the slots or keyways at the magnet pole centers has a large effect on the multipole components; whereas, locating the keyways between the magnet poles has little effect on any of the multipoles. The investigation of nonlinear effects such as ferromagnetic saturation or superconductor magnetization relies on the use of numerical methods such as the finite element method. The errors associated with these codes are explained in terms of numerical round-off, spatial discretization error and the representation of distant boundaries. A method for increasing the accuracy of the multipole calculation from finite element solutions is set forth. It is shown that calculated multipole coefficients are sensitive to boundary conditions external to the cold mass during conditions of magnetic saturation

  14. UNDERSTANDING THE GEOMETRY OF ASTROPHYSICAL MAGNETIC FIELDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broderick, Avery E [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, 60 St. George St., Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Blandford, Roger D., E-mail: aeb@cita.utoronto.c [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, 2575 Sand Hill Rd., Menlo Park, CA 94309 (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Faraday rotation measurements have provided an invaluable technique for probing the properties of astrophysical magnetized plasmas. Unfortunately, typical observations provide information only about the density-weighted average of the magnetic field component parallel to the line of sight. As a result, the magnetic field geometry along the line of sight, and in many cases even the location of the rotating material, is poorly constrained. Frequently, interpretations of Faraday rotation observations are dependent upon underlying models of the magnetic field being probed (e.g., uniform, turbulent, equipartition). However, we show that at sufficiently low frequencies, specifically below roughly 13(RM/1 rad m{sup -2}){sup 1/4}(B/1 G){sup 1/2} MHz, the character of Faraday rotation changes, entering what we term the 'super-adiabatic regime' in which the rotation measure (RM) is proportional to the integrated absolute value of the line-of-sight component of the field. As a consequence, comparing RMs at high frequencies with those in this new regime provides direct information about the geometry of the magnetic field along the line of sight. Furthermore, the frequency defining the transition to this new regime, {nu}{sub SA}, depends directly upon the local electron density and magnetic field strength where the magnetic field is perpendicular to the line of sight, allowing the unambiguous distinction between Faraday rotation within and in front of the emission region. Typical values of {nu}{sub SA} range from 10 kHz (below the ionospheric cutoff, but above the heliospheric cutoff) to 10 GHz, depending upon the details of the Faraday rotating environment. In particular, for resolved active galactic nuclei, including the black holes at the center of the Milky Way (Sgr A*) and M81, {nu}{sub SA} ranges from roughly 10 MHz to 10 GHz, and thus can be probed via existing and up-coming ground-based radio observatories.

  15. UNDERSTANDING THE GEOMETRY OF ASTROPHYSICAL MAGNETIC FIELDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broderick, Avery E.; Blandford, Roger D.

    2010-01-01

    Faraday rotation measurements have provided an invaluable technique for probing the properties of astrophysical magnetized plasmas. Unfortunately, typical observations provide information only about the density-weighted average of the magnetic field component parallel to the line of sight. As a result, the magnetic field geometry along the line of sight, and in many cases even the location of the rotating material, is poorly constrained. Frequently, interpretations of Faraday rotation observations are dependent upon underlying models of the magnetic field being probed (e.g., uniform, turbulent, equipartition). However, we show that at sufficiently low frequencies, specifically below roughly 13(RM/1 rad m -2 ) 1/4 (B/1 G) 1/2 MHz, the character of Faraday rotation changes, entering what we term the 'super-adiabatic regime' in which the rotation measure (RM) is proportional to the integrated absolute value of the line-of-sight component of the field. As a consequence, comparing RMs at high frequencies with those in this new regime provides direct information about the geometry of the magnetic field along the line of sight. Furthermore, the frequency defining the transition to this new regime, ν SA , depends directly upon the local electron density and magnetic field strength where the magnetic field is perpendicular to the line of sight, allowing the unambiguous distinction between Faraday rotation within and in front of the emission region. Typical values of ν SA range from 10 kHz (below the ionospheric cutoff, but above the heliospheric cutoff) to 10 GHz, depending upon the details of the Faraday rotating environment. In particular, for resolved active galactic nuclei, including the black holes at the center of the Milky Way (Sgr A*) and M81, ν SA ranges from roughly 10 MHz to 10 GHz, and thus can be probed via existing and up-coming ground-based radio observatories.

  16. Improved magnetic field line design for TMX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, B.G.; Baldwin, D.E.; Foote, J.H.; Chargin, A.K.; Hinkle, R.E.; Hussung, R.O.; Damm, C.C.

    1977-01-01

    Optimization of the currents in the TMX magnet set leads to a field line configuration which has a central solenoidal region uniform in parallel B parallel to within 10 percent over a 2m length. The field design has sufficient flexibility to meet all three physics objectives of the TMX experiment

  17. Surface Magnetic Fields on Giants and Supergiants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebre, Agnès

    2018-04-01

    After a short introduction to spectropolarimetry and the tecnics allowing for the detection of surface fields, I will review the numerous and various detections of magnetic fields at the surface of giant and supergiant stars. On Betelgeuse, the prototype of Red Supergiants, I will present recent results collected after a 10 years long spectropolarimetric survey.

  18. Tunable dynamic response of magnetic gels: Impact of structural properties and magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarama, Mitsusuke; Cremer, Peet; Borin, Dmitry Y.; Odenbach, Stefan; Löwen, Hartmut; Menzel, Andreas M.

    2014-10-01

    Ferrogels and magnetic elastomers feature mechanical properties that can be reversibly tuned from outside through magnetic fields. Here we concentrate on the question of how their dynamic response can be adjusted. The influence of three factors on the dynamic behavior is demonstrated using appropriate minimal models: first, the orientational memory imprinted into one class of the materials during their synthesis; second, the structural arrangement of the magnetic particles in the materials; and third, the strength of an external magnetic field. To illustrate the latter point, structural data are extracted from a real experimental sample and analyzed. Understanding how internal structural properties and external influences impact the dominant dynamical properties helps to design materials that optimize the requested behavior.

  19. Influence of inhomogeneous static magnetic field-exposure on patients with erosive gastritis: a randomized, self- and placebo-controlled, double-blind, single centre, pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhász, Márk; Nagy, Viktor L; Székely, Hajnal; Kocsis, Dorottya; Tulassay, Zsolt; László, János F

    2014-09-06

    This pilot study was devoted to the effect of static magnetic field (SMF)-exposure on erosive gastritis. The randomized, self- and placebo-controlled, double-blind, pilot study included 16 patients of the 2nd Department of Internal Medicine, Semmelweis University diagnosed with erosive gastritis. The instrumental analysis followed a qualitative (pre-intervention) assessment of the symptoms by the patient: lower heartburn (in the ventricle), upper heartburn (in the oesophagus), epigastric pain, regurgitation, bloating and dry cough. Medical diagnosis included a double-line upper panendoscopy followed by 30 min local inhomogeneous SMF-exposure intervention at the lower sternal region over the stomach with peak-to-peak magnetic induction of 3 mT and 30 mT m(-1) gradient at the target site. A qualitative (post-intervention) assessment of the same symptoms closed the examination. Sham- or SMF-exposure was used in a double-blind manner. The authors succeeded in justifying the clinically and statistically significant beneficial effect of the SMF- over sham-exposure on the symptoms of erosive gastritis, the average effect of inhibition was 56% by p = 0.001, n = 42 + 96. This pilot study was aimed to encourage gastroenterologists to test local, inhomogeneous SMF-exposure on erosive gastritis patients, so this intervention may become an evidence-based alternative or complementary method in the clinical use especially in cases when conventional therapy options are contraindicated. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  20. Opening the cusp. [using magnetic field topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooker, N. U.; Toffoletto, F. R.; Gussenhoven, M. S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the magnetic field topology (determined by the superposition of dipole, image, and uniform fields) for mapping the cusp to the ionosphere. The model results are compared to both new and published observations and are then used to map the footprint of a flux transfer event caused by a time variation in the merging rate. It is shown that the cusp geometry distorts the field lines mapped from the magnetopause to yield footprints with dawn and dusk protrusions into the region of closed magnetic flux.